WorldWideScience

Sample records for children born preterm

  1. Literacy Skills of Children Born Preterm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Alison; Crosbie, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    Most children born preterm are considered neurologically normal and free of disability. However in follow-up studies at school age, preterm children, born without major impairment, have been shown to have lower cognitive abilities and associated academic, social and behavioural difficulties. This study investigated the literacy, phonological…

  2. Postural Behavior in Children Born Preterm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjørg Fallang

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper presents clinical and neurophysiological data of postural behavior in preterm children without CP. Clinical followup studies of preterm infants until toddler and school age have reported that low-risk preterm infants may have atypical postural behavior in terms of reduced amount of rotation during crawling, delayed dynamic balance, delayed onset of and a poor quality of early walking behavior. At school age, dysfunctions such as problems in standing on one leg and poor hopping are reported. Neurophysiological data of postural control at early age indicated the presence of a dysfunction in the capacity to modulate postural activity, and the postural activity has been characterized by temporal disorganization of EMG responses. Postural responses to goal-directed reaching in supine lying have been recorded and analyzed in terms of the total body center of pressure. In this study, preterm infants show less mobile postural behavior compared with full-term infants. In infancy, the less mobile postural behavior seemed to be adequate as it was related to better goal-directed reaching quality, but the results indicated that the relatively immobile postural behavior during reaching in early age was related to less favorable neuromotor behavior in school-age.

  3. Postural behavior in children born preterm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallang, Bjørg; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    2005-01-01

    The present paper presents clinical and neurophysiological data of postural behavior in preterm children without CP. Clinical follow-up studies of preterm infants until toddler and school age have reported that low-risk preterm infants may have atypical postural behavior in terms of reduced amount of rotation during crawling, delayed dynamic balance, delayed onset of and a poor quality of early walking behavior. At school age, dysfunctions such as problems in standing on one leg and poor hopping are reported. Neurophysiological data of postural control at early age indicated the presence of a dysfunction in the capacity to modulate postural activity, and the postural activity has been characterized by temporal disorganization of EMG responses. Postural responses to goal-directed reaching in supine lying have been recorded and analyzed in terms of the total body center of pressure. In this study, preterm infants show less mobile postural behavior compared with full-term infants. In infancy, the less mobile postural behavior seemed to be adequate as it was related to better goal-directed reaching quality, but the results indicated that the relatively immobile postural behavior during reaching in early age was related to less favorable neuromotor behavior in school-age.

  4. Developmental delay at 12 months in children born extremely preterm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lando, Ane; Klamer, Anja; Jonsbo, Finn

    2005-01-01

    , Copenhagen, were interviewed by telephone when their child was 1 y of age, corrected for preterm birth. A fully structured questionnaire on psychomotor function was used (Revised Prescreening Developmental Questionnaire (R-PDQ)). The parents of 30 children born at term without complications were interviewed...... to use by staff and well accepted by parents. The mean score in the preterm group was 14.9+/-3.9 vs 17.7+/-2.7 in the term group (pdevelopmental scores below-2 SD. The R-PDQ score was associated with the ASQ score 2 y later. CONCLUSION: A structured questionnaire administrated...... by telephone is an alternative and usable tool for assessing neurodevelopmental deficit in children born extremely preterm. The mean developmental delay in the preterm group compared to the term group (about-1 SD) was close to expectations....

  5. Stability of Developmental Problems after School Entry of Moderately-Late Preterm and Early Preterm-Born Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hornman, Jorijn; de Winter, Andrea F; Kerstjens, Jorien M; Bos, Arend F; Reijneveld, Sijmen A

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the stability of developmental problems in moderately-late preterm-born children compared with early preterm and full term-born children before school entry at age 4 years and 1 year after school entry at age 5 years. STUDY DESIGN: We included 376 early preterm, 688 born

  6. Stability of Developmental Problems after School Entry of Moderately-Late Preterm and Early Preterm-Born Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hornman, Jorijn; de Winter, Andrea F.; Kerstjens, Jorien M.; Bos, Arend F.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    Objective To assess the stability of developmental problems in moderately-late preterm-born children compared with early preterm and full term-born children before school entry at age 4 years and 1 year after school entry at age 5 years. Study design We included 376 early preterm, 688 born

  7. The Development of Effortful Control in Children Born Preterm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poehlmann, Julie; Schwichtenberg, A. J. Miller; Shah, Prachi E.; Shlafer, Rebecca J.; Hahn, Emily; Maleck, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    This prospective longitudinal study examined emerging effortful control skills at 24- and 36-months postterm in 172 children born preterm (less than 36 weeks gestation). Infant (neonatal health risks), family (sociodemographic risks), and maternal risk factors (depressive symptoms, anger expressions during play interactions) were assessed at six…

  8. Parental mental health and early social-emotional development of children born very preterm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treyvaud, Karli; Anderson, Vicki A; Lee, Katherine J; Woodward, Lianne J; Newnham, Carol; Inder, Terrie E; Doyle, Lex W; Anderson, Peter J

    2010-08-01

    The aims of this study were to describe the mental health of parents of children born very preterm and examine relations between parental mental health and early social-emotional development in very preterm and term born children. Participants were 177 children born very preterm and 69 children term born and their parents. At 2 year's corrected age for the children, parental mental health was assessed using the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28), and child social-emotional development assessed using the Infant-Toddler Social-Emotional Assessment (ITSEA) and a structured parent-child interaction paradigm. Twenty-six per cent of parents of children born very preterm and 12% of parents of term born children reported clinically significant mental health problems. Parental mental health problems were associated with increased risk for dysregulation in very preterm and term children. Findings highlight the need to identify and support parents of children born very preterm with mental health difficulties.

  9. RSV infection among children born moderately preterm in a community-based cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gijtenbeek, Rolof G P; Kerstjens, Jorien M; Reijneveld, Sijmen A; Duiverman, Eric J; Bos, Arend F; Vrijlandt, Elianne J L E

    We aimed to determine the rates of proven respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) hospitalization and disease severity among children born moderately preterm (MP, gestational age [GA] 32-36 weeks, n = 964), children born full-term (FT, GA 38-42 weeks, n = 572), and children born early preterm (EP, GA <32

  10. Linguistic features in children born very preterm at preschool age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarini, Annalisa; Marini, Andrea; Savini, Silvia; Alessandroni, Rosina; Faldella, Giacomo; Sansavini, Alessandra

    2016-09-01

    This cross-sectional study focused on the effect of very preterm (VPT) birth on language development by analysing phonological, lexical, grammatical, and pragmatic skills and assessing the role of cognitive and memory skills. Sixty children (29 males, 31 females) born VPT (linguistic assessment was performed by administering a battery of Italian tests for the evaluation of language; cognitive and memory skills were assessed by Raven's coloured progressive matrices and digit span subtest (Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children [WISC-III]). Children born VPT showed delays in lexical (comprehension: z-score difference -1.18; 95% confidence interval [CI] -1.60 to -0.77; naming: -0.88; 95% CI -1.19 to -0.58) and pragmatic skills (comprehension: -0.76; 95% CI -1.02 to -0.49; narrative production: -0.47; 95% CI -0.72 to -0.23). Delays in phonology and grammar were less diffuse, involving productive skills (-1.09; 95% CI -1.64 to -0.54; -0.48; 95% CI -0.85 to -0.12, respectively), and were dependent by cognitive and memory skills. Lexical delays were more specific. The linguistic profile of children born preterm is characterized by some abilities more impaired than others. This highlights the need of a linguistic assessment at the end of preschool age in order to plan a focused intervention aimed at improving lexical and pragmatic skills. © 2016 Mac Keith Press.

  11. Development of preschool and academic skills in children born very preterm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarnoudse-Moens, C.S.H.; Oosterlaan, J.; Duivenvoorden, H.J.; van Goudoever, J.B.; Weisglas-Kuperus, N.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine performance in preschool and academic skills in very preterm (gestational age ≤30 weeks) and term-born comparison children aged 4 to 12 years. Study design: Very preterm children (n = 200; mean age, 8.2 ± 2.5 years) born between 1996 and 2004 were compared with 230 term-born

  12. Development of Emotional and Behavioral Regulation in Children Born Extremely Preterm and Very Preterm: Biological and Social Influences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Caron A. C.; Woodward, Lianne J.; Horwood, L. John; Moor, Stephanie

    2008-01-01

    This study describes the development of emotional and behavioral regulation in a regional cohort of children born extremely preterm (less than 28 weeks gestational age, n = 39), very preterm (less than 34 weeks gestational age, n = 56), and full term (n = 103). At 2 and 4 years, children born at younger gestational ages demonstrated poorer…

  13. Ventilatory Efficiency in Children and Adolescents Born Extremely Preterm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hestnes, Julie; Hoel, Hedda; Risa, Ole J.; Romstøl, Hanna O.; Røksund, Ola; Frisk, Bente; Thorsen, Einar; Halvorsen, Thomas; Clemm, Hege H.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Children and adolescents born extremely preterm (EP) have lower dynamic lung volumes and gas transfer capacity than subjects born at term. Most studies also report lower aerobic capacity. We hypothesized that ventilatory efficiency was poorer and that breathing patterns differed in EP−born compared to term−born individuals. Methods: Two area−based cohorts of participants born with gestational age ≤28 weeks or birth weight ≤1000 g in 1982−85 (n = 46) and 1991–92 (n = 35) were compared with individually matched controls born at term. Mean ages were 18 and 10 years, respectively. The participants performed an incremental treadmill exercise test to peak oxygen uptake with data averaged over 20 s intervals. For each participant, the relationship between exhaled minute ventilation (V˙E) and carbon dioxide output (V˙CO2) was described by a linear model, and the relationship between tidal volume (VT) and V˙E by a quadratic model. Multivariate regression analyses were done with curve parameters as dependent variables, and the categories EP vs. term−born, sex, age, height, weight and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) as independent variables. Results: In adjusted analyses, the slope of the V˙E−V˙CO2 relationship was significantly steeper in the EP than the term-born group, whereas no group difference was observed for the breathing pattern, which was related to FEV1 only. Conclusion: EP-born participants breathed with higher V˙E for any given CO2 output, indicating lower ventilatory efficiency, possibly contributing to lower aerobic capacity. The breathing patterns did not differ between the EP and term−born groups when adjusted for FEV1. PMID:28751866

  14. Ventilatory Efficiency in Children and Adolescents Born Extremely Preterm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Hestnes

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Children and adolescents born extremely preterm (EP have lower dynamic lung volumes and gas transfer capacity than subjects born at term. Most studies also report lower aerobic capacity. We hypothesized that ventilatory efficiency was poorer and that breathing patterns differed in EP−born compared to term−born individuals.Methods: Two area−based cohorts of participants born with gestational age ≤28 weeks or birth weight ≤1000 g in 1982−85 (n = 46 and 1991–92 (n = 35 were compared with individually matched controls born at term. Mean ages were 18 and 10 years, respectively. The participants performed an incremental treadmill exercise test to peak oxygen uptake with data averaged over 20 s intervals. For each participant, the relationship between exhaled minute ventilation (V˙E and carbon dioxide output (V˙CO2 was described by a linear model, and the relationship between tidal volume (VT and V˙E by a quadratic model. Multivariate regression analyses were done with curve parameters as dependent variables, and the categories EP vs. term−born, sex, age, height, weight and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1 as independent variables.Results: In adjusted analyses, the slope of the V˙E−V˙CO2 relationship was significantly steeper in the EP than the term-born group, whereas no group difference was observed for the breathing pattern, which was related to FEV1 only.Conclusion: EP-born participants breathed with higher V˙E for any given CO2 output, indicating lower ventilatory efficiency, possibly contributing to lower aerobic capacity. The breathing patterns did not differ between the EP and term−born groups when adjusted for FEV1.

  15. Doxapram and developmental delay at 12 months in children born extremely preterm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lando, Ane; Klamer, Anja; Jonsbo, Finn

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To examine the relation of doxapram to a developmental score achieved by a structured telephone interview in a group of extremely-preterm-born children. METHODS: Parents of 88 children born extremely preterm were contacted by telephone and interviewed by a structured questionnaire (R-PDQ) when...

  16. Memory processes in learning disability subtypes of children born preterm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Thomasin E; Conrad, Amy L; Richman, Lynn C; Nopoulos, Peg C; Bell, Edward F

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate immediate auditory and visual memory processes in learning disability subtypes of 40 children born preterm. Three subgroups of children were examined: (a) primary language disability group (n = 13), (b) perceptual-motor disability group (n = 14), and (c) no learning disability diagnosis group without identified language or perceptual-motor learning disability (n = 13). Between-group comparisons indicate no significant differences in immediate auditory or visual memory performances between language and perceptual-motor learning disability groups. Within-group comparisons revealed that both learning disability groups performed significantly lower on a task of immediate memory when the mode of stimulus presentation and mode of response were visual.

  17. Characterizing early detection of language difficulties in children born preterm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Julie; Flamant, Cyril; Boussicault, Gerald; Berlie, Isabelle; Gascoin, Géraldine; Branger, Bernard; N'Guyen The Tich, Sylvie; Rozé, Jean-Christophe

    2014-06-01

    The optimal age for assessing language difficulties in premature children remains unclear. To determine the most predictive and earliest screening tool for later language difficulties on children born preterm. A prospective population-based study in the Loire Infant Follow-up Team LIFT SUBJECTS: All children born Lezine test at 24months, and the "Epreuves de Repérage des Troubles du Langage" (ERTL) at 4years. After 5years, the kindergarten teacher evaluated the vocabulary, grammar and pronunciation capacities of the child in comparison with the classroom performances. Among 1957 infants enrolled at discharge, 947 were assessed by their teacher with 12.2% (n=116) of language difficulties. Full data at all time points were available for 426 infants. The area under curve of the receiver operator characteristic curve obtained for the ASQ communication scale at 18months was significantly lower (0.65±0.09) than that obtained at 24months (0.77±0.08) and the languages items of Brunet Lezine test at 24months (0.77±0.08), and the ERTL at 4years (0.76±0.09). The optimal cut-off value for ASQ communication at 24months is ≤45 [sensitivity of 0.79 (95%CI: 0.70-0.86); specificity of 0.63 (95%CI: 0.59-0.66)]. The Ages & Stages Questionnaire communication scale at 24 corrected months appears as an acceptable test at an early time point to identify preterm children at risk of later language difficulties. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Ages and Stages Questionnaire used to measure cognitive deficit in children born extremely preterm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klamer, Anja; Lando, Ane; Pinborg, Anja

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To validate the Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ) and to measure average cognitive deficit in children born extremely preterm. METHODS: Parents of 30 term children aged 36-42 mo completed the ASQ and the children underwent the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scales of Intelligence--Revised.......AIM: To validate the Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ) and to measure average cognitive deficit in children born extremely preterm. METHODS: Parents of 30 term children aged 36-42 mo completed the ASQ and the children underwent the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scales of Intelligence......--Revised. In a second study, the ASQ was obtained in 22 children born extremely preterm and 19 term children at the age of 35-44 mo. RESULTS: The overall ASQ score correlated significantly with IQ (p=0.007). The children born extremely preterm had an ASQ score of -1.06 SD below the score of the term children (p=0...

  19. Delayed development of neural language organization in very preterm born children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mürner-Lavanchy, Ines; Steinlin, Maja; Kiefer, Claus; Weisstanner, Christian; Ritter, Barbara Catherine; Perrig, Walter; Everts, Regula

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates neural language organization in very preterm born children compared to control children and examines the relationship between language organization, age, and language performance. Fifty-six preterms and 38 controls (7-12 y) completed a functional magnetic resonance imaging language task. Lateralization and signal change were computed for language-relevant brain regions. Younger preterms showed a bilateral language network whereas older preterms revealed left-sided language organization. No age-related differences in language organization were observed in controls. Results indicate that preterms maintain atypical bilateral language organization longer than term born controls. This might reflect a delay of neural language organization due to very premature birth.

  20. Maternal and pregnancy-related factors associated with developmental delay in moderately preterm-born children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerstjens, Jorien M; de Winter, Andrea F; Sollie, Krystyna M; Bocca-Tjeertes, Inger F; Potijk, Marieke R; Reijneveld, Sijmen A; Bos, Arend F

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the association between preexisting maternal and pregnancy-related factors and developmental delay in early childhood in moderately preterm-born children. METHODS: We measured development with the Ages and Stages Questionnaire at age 43-49 months in 834 moderately preterm-born

  1. The effect of task complexity on planning in preterm-born children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, John C; Kerns, Kimberly A; Müller, Ulrich

    2017-02-01

    Planning is an important executive function (EF) skill that is fundamental to the capacity to achieve everyday goals that require a series of intermediate steps. This study examined the effect of preterm birth on planning skills in early and middle childhood using Tower problems that made different cognitive workload demands. We administered a novel touchscreen Tower of Hanoi task (Monkey Tree Task; MTT) in three age cohorts (3, 6, and 9 years) to 485 children born between 2000 and 2010 (105 extremely low birth weight [ELBW], 248 late preterm [LP], and 132 term-born [Term]). Children born with ELBW completed significantly fewer Tower problems with higher cognitive demands than children born at Term or LP. Likewise, Term- and LP-born children completed more Tower problems than children born with ELBW. In the youngest cohort, Term-born children solved Tower problems more efficiently than either preterm group, and LP-born children solved problems more efficiently than those born with ELBW. However, there were no group differences in efficiency in the older age cohorts. Significant correlations between our MTT measures and performance on other EF tasks were found. The MTT captured significant performance differences in planning skills between children born term vs. preterm. This study provides important information on the impact that cognitive workload, as a function of Tower problem complexity, has on planning skills in preterm children. This study adds to a growing body of research that distinguishes LP birth as having subtle, but distinguishable, adverse neuropsychological outcomes at earlier ages.

  2. Language functions in preterm-born children: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Noort-van der Spek, Inge L; Franken, Marie-Christine J P; Weisglas-Kuperus, Nynke

    2012-04-01

    Preterm-born children (language function problems compared with term-born children. It is unknown whether these problems decrease, deteriorate, or remain stable over time. The goal of this research was to determine the developmental course of language functions in preterm-born children from 3 to 12 years of age. Computerized databases Embase, PubMed, Web of Knowledge, and PsycInfo were searched for studies published between January 1995 and March 2011 reporting language functions in preterm-born children. Outcome measures were simple language function assessed by using the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test and complex language function assessed by using the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals. Pooled effect sizes (in terms of Cohen's d) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for simple and complex language functions were calculated by using random-effects models. Meta-regression was conducted with mean difference of effect size as the outcome variable and assessment age as the explanatory variable. Preterm-born children scored significantly lower compared with term-born children on simple (d = -0.45 [95% CI: -0.59 to -0.30]; P language function tests, even in the absence of major disabilities and independent of social economic status. For complex language function (but not for simple language function), group differences between preterm- and term-born children increased significantly from 3 to 12 years of age (slope = -0.05; P = .03). While growing up, preterm-born children have increasing difficulties with complex language function.

  3. Visuospatial working memory in very preterm and term born children--impact of age and performance.

    OpenAIRE

    Mürner-Lavanchy I; Ritter B C; Spencer-Smith M M; Perrig W J; Schroth G.; Steinlin M; Everts R

    2014-01-01

    Working memory is crucial for meeting the challenges of daily life and performing academic tasks such as reading or arithmetic. Very preterm born children are at risk of low working memory capacity. The aim of this study was to examine the visuospatial working memory network of school aged preterm children and to determine the effect of age and performance on the neural working memory network. Working memory was assessed in 41 very preterm born children and 36 term born controls (aged 7 12 ye...

  4. Visuospatial working memory in very preterm and term born children--impact of age and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mürner-Lavanchy, I; Ritter, B C; Spencer-Smith, M M; Perrig, W J; Schroth, G; Steinlin, M; Everts, R

    2014-07-01

    Working memory is crucial for meeting the challenges of daily life and performing academic tasks, such as reading or arithmetic. Very preterm born children are at risk of low working memory capacity. The aim of this study was to examine the visuospatial working memory network of school-aged preterm children and to determine the effect of age and performance on the neural working memory network. Working memory was assessed in 41 very preterm born children and 36 term born controls (aged 7-12 years) using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and neuropsychological assessment. While preterm children and controls showed equal working memory performance, preterm children showed less involvement of the right middle frontal gyrus, but higher fMRI activation in superior frontal regions than controls. The younger and low-performing preterm children presented an atypical working memory network whereas the older high-performing preterm children recruited a working memory network similar to the controls. Results suggest that younger and low-performing preterm children show signs of less neural efficiency in frontal brain areas. With increasing age and performance, compensational mechanisms seem to occur, so that in preterm children, the typical visuospatial working memory network is established by the age of 12 years. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Clinical Implications of Diffuse Excessive High Signal Intensity (DEHSI) on Neonatal MRI in School Age Children Born Extremely Preterm

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Broström, Lina; Bolk, Jenny; Padilla, Nelly; Skiöld, Béatrice; Eklöf, Eva; Mårtensson, Gustaf; Vollmer, Brigitte; Ådén, Ulrika

    2016-01-01

    ... of 6.5 years in children born extremely preterm with and without DEHSI. This was a prospective cohort study of 83 children who were born in Stockholm, Sweden, between 2004 and 2007, born at gestational age of < 27 weeks...

  6. Parental mental health and early social-emotional development of children born very preterm

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Treyvaud, Karli; Anderson, Vicki A; Lee, Katherine J; Woodward, Lianne J; Newnham, Carol; Inder, Terrie E; Doyle, Lex W; Anderson, Peter J

    2010-01-01

    The aims of this study were to describe the mental health of parents of children born very preterm and examine relations between parental mental health and early social-emotional development in very...

  7. Academic performance of children born preterm: a meta-analysis and meta-regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twilhaar, E Sabrina; de Kieviet, Jorrit F; Aarnoudse-Moens, Cornelieke Sh; van Elburg, Ruurd M; Oosterlaan, Jaap

    2017-08-28

    Advances in neonatal healthcare have resulted in decreased mortality after preterm birth but have not led to parallel decreases in morbidity. Academic performance provides insight in the outcomes and specific difficulties and needs of preterm children. To study academic performance in preterm children born in the antenatal steroids and surfactant era and possible moderating effects of perinatal and demographic factors. PubMed, Web of Science and PsycINFO were searched for peer-reviewed articles. Cohort studies with a full-term control group reporting standardised academic performance scores of preterm children (Academic test scores and special educational needs of preterm and full-term children were analysed using random effects meta-analysis. Random effects meta-regressions were performed to explore the predictive role of perinatal and demographic factors for between-study variance in effect sizes. The 17 eligible studies included 2390 preterm children and 1549 controls. Preterm children scored 0.71 SD below full-term peers on arithmetic (pacademic performance (p=0.006). Preterm children born in the antenatal steroids and surfactant era show considerable academic difficulties. Preterm children with bronchopulmonarydysplasia are at particular risk for poor academic outcome. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  8. Mathematics difficulties in children born very preterm: current research and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simms, Victoria; Cragg, Lucy; Gilmore, Camilla; Marlow, Neil; Johnson, Samantha

    2013-09-01

    Children born very preterm have poorer attainment in all school subjects, and a markedly greater reliance on special educational support than their term-born peers. In particular, difficulties with mathematics are especially common and account for the vast majority of learning difficulties in this population. In this paper, we review research relating to the causes of mathematics learning difficulties in typically developing children, and the impact of very preterm birth on attainment in mathematics. Research is needed to understand the specific nature and origins of mathematics difficulties in very preterm children to target the development of effective intervention strategies.

  9. Developmental Delay in Moderately Preterm-Born Children with Low Socioeconomic Status : Risks Multiply

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Potijk, Marieke R; Kerstjens, Jorien M; Bos, Arend F; Reijneveld, Sijmen A; de Winter, Andrea F

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess separate and joint effects of low socioeconomic status (SES) and moderate prematurity on preschool developmental delay. Study design Prospective cohort study with a community-based sample of preterm-and term-born children (Longitudinal Preterm Outcome Project). We assessed SES on

  10. Triadic interactions in families with preterm children: a comparative study with children born at term.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatta, Michela; Miscioscia, Marina; Svanellini, Lorenza; Brianda, Maria Elena; Guerra, Giada; Battistella, Pier Antonio; Simonelli, Alessandra

    2017-01-01

    The relationship between parents and infants born preterm is multifaceted and could present some relational patterns which are believed to predict psychological risk more than others. For example, insensitive parenting behavior has been shown to place very preterm children at greater risk of emotional and behavioral dysregulation. The main objective of this study was to compare the quality of family interactions in a sample of families with preterm children with one of the families with at-term children, exploring possible differences and similarities. The second aim of this research was to consider the associations among family interactions and parental empowerment, the child's temperament, parenting stress, and perceived social support. The sample consisted of 52 children and their families: 25 families, one with two preterm brothers with preterm children (mean 22.3 months, SD 12.17), and 26 families with children born at term (mean 22.2 months, SD 14.97). The Lausanne Trilogue Play procedure was administered to the two groups to assess the quality of their family interactions. The preterm group was also administered the Questionari Italiani del Temperamento, the Family Empowerment Scale, the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, and the Parenting Stress Index - Short Form. Differences in the quality of family interactions emerged between the preterm and at-term groups. The preterm group showed significantly lower quality of family interactions than the at-term group. The parenting stress of both parents related to their parental empowerment, and maternal stress was also related to the partner's parental empowerment. Social support had a positive influence on parenting stress, with maternal stress also related to perceived social support from the partner, which underscores the protective role of the father on the dyad.

  11. Language functions in preterm-born children: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.L. van Noort - Van der Spek (Inge); M-C. Franken (Marie-Christine); N. Weisglas-Kuperus (Nynke)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Preterm-born children (born children. It is unknown whether these problems decrease, deteriorate, or remain stable over time. The goal of this research was to determine the

  12. Neonatal Cerebral Morphometry and Later Risk of Persistent Inattention/Hyperactivity in Children Born Very Preterm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bora, Samudragupta; Pritchard, Verena E.; Chen, Zhe; Inder, Terrie E.; Woodward, Lianne J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Attention problems are among the most prevalent neurobehavioral morbidities affecting very preterm (VPT) born children. The first study aim was to document rates of persistent attention/hyperactivity problems from ages 4 to 9 years in a regional cohort of VPT born children. The second aim was to examine the extent to which persistent…

  13. Higher rates of behavioural and emotional problems at preschool age in children born moderately preterm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Potijk, Marieke R.; de Winter, Andrea F.; Bos, Arend F.; Kerstjens, Jorien M.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    Objective To compare preschool children born moderately preterm (MP; 32-35 weeks' gestation) and children born at term (38-41 weeks' gestation) regarding the occurrence of behavioural and emotional problems, overall, for separate types of problems and by gender. Design Prospective cohort study

  14. Cortical morphometry and cognition in very preterm and term-born children at early school age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mürner-Lavanchy, Ines; Rummel, Christian; Steinlin, Maja; Everts, Regula

    2018-01-01

    Very preterm birth influences brain development and may result in alterations of cortical morphometry. These structural alterations may interact with cognitive development. The aim of the present study was to investigate the structure-function relationship in school-aged very preterm and term-born control children. A comprehensive neuropsychological test battery was administered to 41 very preterm (preterm children>controls). No group differences occurred for cortical surface area. The relationship between cortical morphometry and cognition differed between very preterm and control children. In very preterm children, some cognitive domains correlated positively and others negatively with regional cortical thickness and cortical surface area. Our findings contribute to the understanding of the structure-function relationship in very preterm children and their term-born peers. They add to the notion that this relationship varies depending on the brain region and the cognitive function in question and suggest developmental differences between very preterm and term-born children. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Quality of life in preschool children born preterm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theunissen, N.C.M.; Veen, S.; Fekkes, M.; Koopman, H.M.; Zwinderman, K.A.H.; Brugman, E.; Wit, J.M.

    2001-01-01

    The relationship of preterm birth to health-related quality of life (HRQoL) was examined for children aged 1 to 4 years. Three gestational age groups with a NICU history were selected, <32 weeks (n=65), 32 to 36 weeks (n=41),≥37 weeks (n=54), and a reference group from the open population (n=50).

  16. Symmetrical and asymmetrical growth restriction in preterm-born children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bocca-Tjeertes, Inger; Bos, Arend; Kerstjens, Jorien; de Winter, Andrea; Reijneveld, Sijmen

    OBJECTIVE: To determine how symmetric (proportionate; SGR) and asymmetric (disproportionate; AGR) growth restriction influence growth and development in preterms from birth to 4 years. METHODS: This community-based cohort study of 810 children comprised 86 SGR, 61 AGR, and 663 non-growth restricted

  17. Neonatal brain abnormalities and memory and learning outcomes at 7 years in children born very preterm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omizzolo, Cristina; Scratch, Shannon E; Stargatt, Robyn; Kidokoro, Hiroyuki; Thompson, Deanne K; Lee, Katherine J; Cheong, Jeanie; Neil, Jeffrey; Inder, Terrie E; Doyle, Lex W; Anderson, Peter J

    2014-01-01

    Using prospective longitudinal data from 198 very preterm and 70 full term children, this study characterised the memory and learning abilities of very preterm children at 7 years of age in both verbal and visual domains. The relationship between the extent of brain abnormalities on neonatal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and memory and learning outcomes at 7 years of age in very preterm children was also investigated. Neonatal MRI scans were qualitatively assessed for global, white-matter, cortical grey-matter, deep grey-matter, and cerebellar abnormalities. Very preterm children performed less well on measures of immediate memory, working memory, long-term memory, and learning compared with term-born controls. Neonatal brain abnormalities, and in particular deep grey-matter abnormality, were associated with poorer memory and learning performance at 7 years in very preterm children. Findings support the importance of cerebral neonatal pathology for predicting later memory and learning function.

  18. Triadic interactions in families with preterm children: a comparative study with children born at term

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gatta M

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Michela Gatta,1,2 Marina Miscioscia,2,3 Lorenza Svanellini,2 Maria Elena Brianda,3 Giada Guerra,3 Pier Antonio Battistella,2 Alessandra Simonelli3 1Childhood Adolescence Family Unit AULSS 6 Veneto, 2Department of Women’s and Children’s Health, 3Department of Developmental Psychology and Socialization, University of Padova, Padova, Italy Abstract: The relationship between parents and infants born preterm is multifaceted and could present some relational patterns which are believed to predict psychological risk more than others. For example, insensitive parenting behavior has been shown to place very preterm children at greater risk of emotional and behavioral dysregulation. The main objective of this study was to compare the quality of family interactions in a sample of families with preterm children with one of the families with at-term children, exploring possible differences and similarities. The second aim of this research was to consider the associations among family interactions and parental empowerment, the child’s temperament, parenting stress, and perceived social support. The sample consisted of 52 children and their families: 25 families, one with two preterm brothers with preterm children (mean 22.3 months, SD 12.17, and 26 families with children born at term (mean 22.2 months, SD 14.97. The Lausanne Trilogue Play procedure was administered to the two groups to assess the quality of their family interactions. The preterm group was also administered the Questionari Italiani del Temperamento, the Family Empowerment Scale, the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, and the Parenting Stress Index – Short Form. Differences in the quality of family interactions emerged between the preterm and at-term groups. The preterm group showed significantly lower quality of family interactions than the at-term group. The parenting stress of both parents related to their parental empowerment, and maternal stress was also related

  19. Increased risk of neuropsychological disorders in children born preterm without major disabilities: a neurodevelopmental model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipasquale Filippo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Over the past 30 years, preterm births have drastically increased and today represent 12.5% of total births. About 1.2% of preterm births characterize very preterm births (GA<32weeks that, with very low birth weight (BW<1500grams, are constantly found as risk factors of unfavourable neurological outcomes in longitudinal follow up studies. Actually, also “late preterm” children (preterm born from 33 to 36 weeks of gestational age, normally considered at low risk for neurodevelopmental disabilities, are supposed to represent a population of children to be monitored. Previous findings of a general cognitive impairment in children born preterm have gradually addressed the assessment of more specific neuropsychological skills and pointed out the importance to follow these children up to adolescent age. The neuroanatomical prerequisite of an abnormality in frontal lobe development and the correlation with various neuropsychological dysfunctions (fine and gross motor disabilities, executive function and working memory deficits, visual-constructional and attentional dysfunctions underline the interference of preterm birth with normal brain maturational phases. Though showing more demanding neurodevelopmental pathways than term peers, a large number of preterm children tend to functionally normalize in adolescence. The review supports the hypothesis of a neurodevelopmental model that can be at risk to influence dysfunctional neuropsychological outcome.

  20. Neurodevelopment and the effects of a neurobehavioral intervention in very preterm-born children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hus, J.W.P.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to expand the knowledge on neurodevelopment of very preterm-born children and on an early intervention program , that provides optimal neurodevelopmental care and support for these children and their parents. The effects of the Infant Behavioral Assessment and Intervention

  1. Children Born Preterm at the Turn of the Millennium Had Better Lung Function Than Children Born Similarly Preterm in the Early 1990s.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Vollsæter

    Full Text Available Compare respiratory health in children born extremely preterm (EP or with extremely low birthweight (ELBW nearly one decade apart, hypothesizing that better perinatal management has led to better outcome.Fifty-seven (93% of 61 eligible 11-year old children born in Western Norway in 1999-2000 with gestational age (GA <28 weeks or birthweight <1000 gram (EP1999-2000 and matched term-controls were assessed with comprehensive lung function tests and standardized questionnaires. Outcome was compared with data obtained at 10 years of age from all (n = 35 subjects born at GA <29 weeks or birthweight <1001 gram within a part of the same region in 1991-92 (EP1991-1992 and their matched term-controls.EP1999-2000 had significantly reduced forced expiratory flow in 1 second (FEV1, FEV1 to forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC and forced expiratory flow between 25-75% of FVC (FEF25-75, with z-scores respectively -0.34, -0.50 and -0.61 below those of the term-control group, and more bronchial hyperresponsiveness to methacholine (dose-response-slope 13.2 vs. 3.5; p<0.001, whereas other outcomes did not differ. Low birthweight z-scores, but not neonatal bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD or low GA, predicted poor outcome. For children with neonatal BPD, important lung-function variables were better in EP1999-2000 compared to EP1991-1992. In regression models, improvements were related to more use of antenatal corticosteroids and surfactant treatment in the EP1999-2000.Small airway obstruction and bronchial hyperresponsiveness were still present in children born preterm in 1999-2000, but outcome was better than for children born similarly preterm in 1991-92, particularly after neonatal BPD. The findings suggest that better neonatal management not only improves survival, but also long-term pulmonary outcome.

  2. Hippocampal volume and memory and learning outcomes at 7 years in children born very preterm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omizzolo, Cristina; Thompson, Deanne K; Scratch, Shannon E; Stargatt, Robyn; Lee, Katherine J; Cheong, Jeanie; Roberts, Gehan; Doyle, Lex W; Anderson, Peter J

    2013-11-01

    Using magnetic resonance imaging, this study compared hippocampal volume between 145 very preterm children and 34 children born full-term at 7 years of age. The relationship between hippocampal volume and memory and learning impairments at 7 years was also investigated. Manual hippocampal segmentation and subsequent three-dimensional volumetric analysis revealed reduced hippocampal volumes in very preterm children compared with term peers. However, this relationship did not remain after correcting for whole brain volume and neonatal brain abnormality. Contrary to expectations, hippocampal volume in the very preterm cohort was not related to memory and learning outcomes. Further research investigating the effects of very preterm birth on more extensive networks in the brain that support memory and learning in middle childhood is needed.

  3. Reduced corticomotor excitability and motor skills development in children born preterm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitcher, Julia B; Schneider, Luke A; Burns, Nicholas R; Drysdale, John L; Higgins, Ryan D; Ridding, Michael C; Nettelbeck, Theodore J; Haslam, Ross R; Robinson, Jeffrey S

    2012-11-15

    The mechanisms underlying the altered neurodevelopment commonly experienced by children born preterm, but without brain lesions, remain unknown. While individuals born the earliest are at most risk, late preterm children also experience significant motor, cognitive and behavioural dysfunction from school age, and reduced income and educational attainment in adulthood. We used transcranial magnetic stimulation and functional assessments to examine corticomotor development in 151 children without cerebral palsy, aged 10-13 years and born after gestations of 25-41 completed weeks. We hypothesized that motor cortex and corticospinal development are altered in preterm children, which underpins at least some of their motor dysfunction. We report for the first time that every week of reduced gestation is associated with a reduction in corticomotor excitability that remains evident in late childhood. This reduced excitability was associated with poorer motor skill development, particularly manual dexterity. However, child adiposity, sex and socio-economic factors regarding the child's home environment soon after birth were also powerful influences on development of motor skills. Preterm birth was also associated with reduced left hemisphere lateralization, but without increasing the likelihood of being left handed per se. These corticomotor findings have implications for normal motor development, but also raise questions regarding possible longer term consequences of preterm birth on motor function.

  4. Pathogenesis, Neuroimaging and Management in Children with Cerebral Palsy Born Preterm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoon, Alexander H., Jr.; Faria, Andreia Vasconcellos

    2010-01-01

    With advances in obstetric and perinatal management, the incidence of intraventricular hemorrhage in premature infants has declined, while periventricular leukomalacia remains a significant concern. It is now known that brain injury in children born preterm also involves neuronal-axonal disease in supratentorial and infratentorial structures. The…

  5. Motor learning and working memory in children born preterm: A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongbloed-Pereboom, M.; Janssen, A.J.W.M.; Steenbergen, B.; Nijhuis-Van der Sanden, M.W.G.

    2012-01-01

    Children born preterm have a higher risk for developing motor, cognitive, and behavioral problems. Motor problems can occur in combination with working memory problems, and working memory is important for explicit learning of motor skills. The relation between motor learning and working memory has

  6. Motor learning and working memory in children born preterm: a systematic review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongbloed-Pereboom, M.; Janssen, A.J.W.M.; Steenbergen, B.; Nijhuis-Van der Sanden, M.W.G.

    2012-01-01

    Children born preterm have a higher risk for developing motor, cognitive, and behavioral problems. Motor problems can occur in combination with working memory problems, and working memory is important for explicit learning of motor skills. The relation between motor learning and working memory has

  7. Functional outcome at school age of preterm-born children treated with high-dose dexamethasone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hitzert, Marrit M.; Van Braeckel, Koenraad N. A.; de Bok, Marijn; Maathuis, Carel G. B.; Roze, Elise; Bos, Arend F.

    Background: Postnatal dexamethasone (DXM) treatment is associated with adverse motor outcome. It is largely unknown as to what extent functional outcome at school age is affected. Aims: Our first aim was to determine motor, cognitive, and behavioural outcome at school age of preterm-born children

  8. Surface displacement based shape analysis of central brain structures in preterm-born children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Amanmeet; Grunau, Ruth E.; Popuri, Karteek; Miller, Steven; Bjornson, Bruce; Poskitt, Kenneth J.; Beg, Mirza Faisal

    2016-03-01

    Many studies using T1 magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data have found associations between changes in global metrics (e.g. volume) of brain structures and preterm birth. In this work, we use the surface displacement feature extracted from the deformations of the surface models of the third ventricle, fourth ventricle and brainstem to capture the variation in shape in these structures at 8 years of age that may be due to differences in the trajectory of brain development as a result of very preterm birth (24-32 weeks gestation). Understanding the spatial patterns of shape alterations in these structures in children who were born very preterm as compared to those who were born at full term may lead to better insights into mechanisms of differing brain development between these two groups. The T1 MRI data for the brain was acquired from children born full term (FT, n=14, 8 males) and preterm (PT, n=51, 22 males) at age 8-years. Accurate segmentation labels for these structures were obtained via a multi-template fusion based segmentation method. A high dimensional non-rigid registration algorithm was utilized to register the target segmentation labels to a set of segmentation labels defined on an average-template. The surface displacement data for the brainstem and the third ventricle were found to be significantly different (p MRI data and reveal shape changes that may be due to preterm birth.

  9. MANAGEMENT OF ENDOCRINE DISEASE: Growth and growth hormone therapy in short children born preterm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boguszewski, Margaret Cristina da Silva; Cardoso-Demartini, Adriane de Andre

    2017-03-01

    Approximately 15 million babies are born preterm across the world every year, with less than 37 completed weeks of gestation. Survival rates increased during the last decades with the improvement of neonatal care. With premature birth, babies are deprived of the intense intrauterine growth phase, and postnatal growth failure might occur. Some children born prematurely will remain short at later ages and adult life. The risk of short stature increases if the child is also born small for gestational age. In this review, the effects of being born preterm on childhood growth and adult height and the hormonal abnormalities possibly associated with growth restriction are discussed, followed by a review of current information on growth hormone treatment for those who remain with short stature during infancy and childhood. © 2017 European Society of Endocrinology.

  10. Sensorimotor behavior in children born preterm and adolescents with Cerebral Palsy : Side preference, movement organization, and training

    OpenAIRE

    Johansson, Anna-Maria

    2012-01-01

    Preterm birth (< 37 complete gestation weeks, GWs) is the single most prominent risk factor for the development of cerebral palsy (CP). This is due to the immature physiological state of the preterm born infant which increases the risk of brain lesions. In CP, prominent sensorimotor, cognitive, and perceptual deviations are manifested with varying degrees of functional impairment. Although most children born preterm (PT) do not develop CP, sensorimotor and cognitive deficits are frequently...

  11. A Comparison of Spastic Diplegia in Term and Preterm-Born Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauhari, Prashant; Singhi, Pratibha; Sankhyan, Naveen; Malhi, Prahbhjot; Vyas, Sameer; Khandelwal, Niranjan

    2018-01-01

    This study compared the risk factors and clinical and radiologic profile of children with spastic diplegic cerebral palsy born at term (≥37 weeks) with those born preterm. Children (2-14 years) with cerebral palsy meeting the study criteria for spastic diplegia were enrolled. Antecedent risk factors, clinical profile, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings were recorded. Spasticity, functional ability, intellectual ability, and social quotient were assessed using standard scales. Ninety-three children met the study inclusion criteria (45 term, 48 preterm). Moderate to severe intellectual disability (53% vs 21%, P = .001) and epilepsy (51% vs 33%) were significantly more common in term-born children, whereas periventricular white matter injury was less common in term-born children (64%vs 89.4%, P = .004). Term spastic diplegia was associated with cortical/subcortical involvement in (11/42 (26%) vs 3/47(6.4%); P = .01). We conclude that term-spastic-diplegia is clinicopathologically different from preterm-spastic-diplegia. Their neuroradiologic pattern also differs with more frequent involvement of cortical/subcortical areas.

  12. Altered breathing mechanics and ventilatory response during exercise in children born extremely preterm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLean, J E; DeHaan, K; Fuhr, D; Hariharan, S; Kamstra, B; Hendson, L; Adatia, I; Majaesic, C; Lovering, A T; Thompson, R B; Nicholas, D; Thebaud, B; Stickland, M K

    2016-11-01

    Extreme preterm birth confers risk of long-term impairments in lung function and exercise capacity. There are limited data on the factors contributing to exercise limitation following extreme preterm birth. This study examined respiratory mechanics and ventilatory response during exercise in a large cohort of children born extremely preterm (EP). This cohort study included children 8-12 years of age who were born EP (≤28 weeks gestation) between 1997 and 2004 and treated in a large regionalised neonatal intensive care unit in western Canada. EP children were divided into no/mild bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) (ie, supplementary oxygen or ventilation ceased before 36 weeks gestational age; n=53) and moderate/severe BPD (ie, continued supplementary oxygen or ventilation at 36 weeks gestational age; n=50). Age-matched control children (n=65) were born at full term. All children attempted lung function and cardiopulmonary exercise testing measurements. Compared with control children, EP children had lower airway flows and diffusion capacity but preserved total lung capacity. Children with moderate/severe BPD had evidence of gas trapping relative to other groups. The mean difference in exercise capacity (as measured by oxygen uptake (VO2)% predicted) in children with moderate/severe BPD was -18±5% and -14±5.0% below children with no/mild BPD and control children, respectively. Children with moderate/severe BPD demonstrated a potentiated ventilatory response and greater prevalence of expiratory flow limitation during exercise compared with other groups. Resting lung function did not correlate with exercise capacity. Expiratory flow limitation and an exaggerated ventilatory response contribute to respiratory limitation to exercise in children born EP with moderate/severe BPD. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  13. Neurobehavioral outcomes of school-age children born preterm: a preliminary study in the Arabic community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed M.J. Alqahtani

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Preterm survivors from the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU are considered as high risk group for some neurobehavioral impairments such as cognitive disabilities, developmental delays, social/emotional limitations, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, and academic difficulties. Objective: The current study aimed to investigate the neurobehavioral outcome of premature infants in Saudi Arabia at the school age.Methods: At the school age, preterm children (range 23-29 weeks or ≤ 1.52 kg born from April, 2006 through September, 2008, and who were admitted following birth to a NICU, were evaluated with several neurobehavioral tools. Results: This study includes 53 preterm children, who were followed up at the chronological age that ranged from 6.4-8.0 years. The results of the neurobehavioral assessments showed in general normal social adaptive levels and cognitive abilities, with mean total score of about 91.0 and 90.0, respectively. The prevalence of ADHD among preterm children was high, with result of 34.0% for the inattentive type and 11.3% for the hyperactive/impulsive type. None of the preterm children repeats a grade, but 22.6% utilize a form of special educational supports. Some of the preterm children showed poor school performance in reading skills, writing skills and mathematics skills, with percentages of 26.4%, 28.3% and 15.1%, respectively.Conclusions: The present results emphasize that preterm children are a group of high-risk children who need regular follow-up to track the developmental conditions and to provide the early developmental intervention for optimal outcome.

  14. Language and Reading Skills in School-Aged Children and Adolescents Born Preterm Are Associated with White Matter Properties on Diffusion Tensor Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Heidi M.; Lee, Eliana S.; Yeatman, Jason D.; Yeom, Kristen W.

    2012-01-01

    Children born preterm are at risk for deficits in language and reading. They are also at risk for injury to the white matter of the brain. The goal of this study was to determine whether performance in language and reading skills would be associated with white matter properties in children born preterm and full-term. Children born before 36 weeks…

  15. Influence of post discharge nutrition on body composition at 6 years of age among children born very preterm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftlund, Line Hedegaard; Zachariassen, Gitte; Agertoft, Lone

    Background Very preterm born infants receive nutrition that ensures optimal growth during the neonatal period. New research has shown that the type of nutrition in early life may affect not only growth but also later body composition and risk of developing metabolic syndrome. Aim • To evaluate...... if type of nutrition in early life effects the body composition in later life among very preterm born children Method In 2004-08 a birth cohort of very preterm born infants with a gestational age ≤32+0 weeks. At time of hospital discharge, the infants were randomised into 3 different feeding groups...

  16. Effects of gestational age on brain volume and cognitive functions in generally healthy very preterm born children during school-age: A voxel-based morphometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemola, Sakari; Oser, Nadine; Urfer-Maurer, Natalie; Brand, Serge; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Bechtel, Nina; Grob, Alexander; Weber, Peter; Datta, Alexandre N

    2017-01-01

    To determine whether the relationship of gestational age (GA) with brain volumes and cognitive functions is linear or whether it follows a threshold model in preterm and term born children during school-age. We studied 106 children (M = 10 years 1 month, SD = 16 months; 40 females) enrolled in primary school: 57 were healthy very preterm children (10 children born 24-27 completed weeks' gestation (extremely preterm), 14 children born 28-29 completed weeks' gestation, 19 children born 30-31 completed weeks' gestation (very preterm), and 14 born 32 completed weeks' gestation (moderately preterm)) all born appropriate for GA (AGA) and 49 term-born children. Neuroimaging involved voxel-based morphometry with the statistical parametric mapping software. Cognitive functions were assessed with the WISC-IV. General Linear Models and multiple regressions were conducted controlling age, sex, and maternal education. Compared to groups of children born 30 completed weeks' gestation and later, children born functions including decreased full scale IQ, and processing speed. Differences in GMV partially mediated the relationship between GA and full scale IQ in preterm born children. In preterm children who are born AGA and without major complications GA is associated with brain volume and cognitive functions. In particular, decreased brain volume becomes evident in the extremely preterm group (born brain volume and cognitive functions may be less strong as previously thought.

  17. Early Parenting, Represented Family Relationships, and Externalizing Behavior Problems in Children Born Preterm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poehlmann, Julie; Burnson, Cynthia; Weymouth, Lindsay A.

    2015-01-01

    Through assessment of 173 preterm infants and their mothers at hospital discharge and at 9, 16, 24, 36, and 72 months, the study examined early parenting, attachment security, effortful control, and children’s representations of family relationships in relation to subsequent externalizing behavior problems. Less intrusive early parenting predicted more secure attachment, better effortful control skills, and fewer early behavior problems, although it did not directly relate to the structural or content characteristics of children’s represented family relationships. Children with higher effortful control scores at 24 months had more coherent family representations at 36 months. Moreover, children who exhibited less avoidance in their family representations at 36 months had fewer mother-reported externalizing behavior problems at 72 months. The study suggests that early parenting quality and avoidance in children’s represented relationships are important for the development of externalizing behavior problems in children born preterm. PMID:24580068

  18. Higher rates of behavioural and emotional problems at preschool age in children born moderately preterm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potijk, Marieke R; de Winter, Andrea F; Bos, Arend F; Kerstjens, Jorien M; Reijneveld, Sijmen A

    2012-02-01

    To compare preschool children born moderately preterm (MP; 32-35 weeks' gestation) and children born at term (38-41 weeks' gestation) regarding the occurrence of behavioural and emotional problems, overall, for separate types of problems and by gender. Prospective cohort study consisting of a community-based sample of MP and a random sample of term-born children in 13 Preventive Child Healthcare centres throughout the Netherlands. 995 MP and 577 term-born children just under age 4 were included. Behavioural and emotional problems were measured using the Child Behavior Checklist 1.5-5 years. Seven syndrome scales, internalising, externalising and total problems were determined. Higher scores indicate worse outcomes. MP children had higher scores on all syndrome scales, internalising, externalising and total problems than term-born controls. The mean difference on total problems was 4.04 (95% CI 2.08 to 6.00). Prevalence rates of elevated externalising problem scores were highest in boys (10.5%) and internalising problems were highest in girls (9.9%). MP children were at greater risk for somatic complaints (OR 1.92, 95% CI 1.09 to 3.38), internalising (OR 2.40, 95% CI 1.48 to 3.87), externalising (OR 1.69, 95% CI 1.07 to 2.67) and total problems (OR 1.84, 95% CI 1.12 to 3.00). Moderate preterm birth affects all domains of behavioural and emotional problems, particularly for girls. MP children should be targeted for the prevention of mental health problems as they have a great impact on developmental and social competencies at school and in the community.

  19. Functional Outcomes at Age 7 Years of Moderate Preterm and Full Term Children Born Small for Gestational Age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tanis, Jozien C; van Braeckel, Koenraad N J A; Kerstjens, Jorien M; Bocca-Tjeertes, Inger F A; Reijneveld, Sijmen A; Bos, Arend F

    OBJECTIVE: To compare functional outcomes of 7-year-old (school-age) children born small for gestational age (SGA; ie, a birth weight z score ≤ -1 SD), with appropriate for gestational age (AGA) peers, born moderately preterm or full term. STUDY DESIGN: Data were collected as part of the

  20. Asthma and atopic dermatitis in children born moderately and late preterm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haataja, Paula; Korhonen, Päivi; Ojala, Riitta; Hirvonen, Mikko; Paassilta, Marita; Gissler, Mika; Luukkaala, Tiina; Tammela, Outi

    2016-06-01

    This national register study aimed to evaluate the need of asthma medication reimbursement and hospitalization due to asthma and atopic dermatitis up to 7 years of age in moderately preterm (MP) (32-33 weeks) and late preterm (LP) (34-36 weeks) children compared to very preterm (VP) (children. Altogether, 1,018,302 children born in Finland between 1991 and 2008 were assessed. The MP and LP groups received asthma medication reimbursement more frequently than term controls (8.0 and 5.7 vs. 3.8 %), but less frequently than VP children (15.4 %). Hospitalization due to asthma was more common among MP (10.6 %) and LP (7.3 %) children than term children (4.8 %) but less common than in VP children (20.1 %). Hospitalization due to atopic dermatitis was more frequent among term (5.2 %) compared to MP (4.2 %) and LP (4.7 %) children. Male sex, maternal smoking, maternal diabetes, and ventilator therapy predicted asthma medication in the MP and/or LP children. MP and LP children seem to need medication and hospitalization for asthma more often than term controls but less frequently than VP children followed by 7 years of age. Hospitalization due to atopic dermatitis becomes more common with increasing gestational age. • MP and LP infants have an increased risk for early respiratory morbidity and to asthma. • Less is known on the occurrence of atopic dermatitis in this patient group. What is New: • Medication and hospital care due to asthma were more frequent in school-aged MP and LP than in term infants. Male sex, maternal smoking, maternal diabetes and ventilator therapy predicted asthma. • Hospitalization due to atopic dermatitis became more common with increasing gestational age.

  1. Altered gray matter volume and school age anxiety in children born late preterm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Cynthia E; Barch, Deanna M; Sylvester, Chad M; Pagliaccio, David; Harms, Michael P; Botteron, Kelly N; Luby, Joan L

    2014-11-01

    To determine if late preterm (LP) children differ from full term (FT) children in volumes of the cortex, hippocampus, corpus callosum, or amygdala and whether these differences are associated with anxiety symptoms at school-age. LP children born between 34 and 36 weeks gestation and FT children born between 39 and 41 weeks gestation from a larger longitudinal cohort had magnetic resonance imaging scans at school-age. Brain volumes, cortical surface area, and thickness measures were obtained. Anxiety symptoms were assessed using a structured diagnostic interview annually beginning at preschool-age and following the magnetic resonance imaging. LP children (n = 21) had a smaller percentage of total, right parietal, and right temporal lobe gray matter volume than FT children (n = 87). There were no differences in hippocampal, callosal, or amygdala volumes or cortical thickness. LP children also had a relative decrease in right parietal lobe cortical surface area. LP children had greater anxiety symptoms over all assessments. The relationship between late prematurity and school-age anxiety symptoms was mediated by the relative decrease in right temporal lobe volume. LP children, comprising 70% of preterm children, are also at increased risk for altered brain development particularly in the right temporal and parietal cortices. Alterations in the right temporal lobe cortical volume may underlie the increased rate of anxiety symptoms among these LP children. These findings suggest that LP delivery may disrupt temporal and parietal cortical development that persists until school-age with the right temporal lobe conferring risk for elevated anxiety symptoms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Spastic diplegia in preterm-born children: Executive function impairment and neuroanatomical correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Lieto, Maria Chiara; Brovedani, Paola; Pecini, Chiara; Chilosi, Anna Maria; Belmonti, Vittorio; Fabbro, Franco; Urgesi, Cosimo; Fiori, Simona; Guzzetta, Andrea; Perazza, Silvia; Sicola, Elisa; Cioni, Giovanni

    2017-02-01

    The neuropsychological literature on preterm-born children with spastic diplegia due to periventricular leukomalacia is convergent in reporting deficits in non-verbal intelligence and in visuo-spatial abilities. Nevertheless, other cognitive functions have found to be impaired, but data are scant and not correlated with neuroimaging findings. This study analyzes the neuropsychological strengths and weaknesses in preterm-born children with spastic diplegia (pSD) and their relationships with neuroanatomical findings, investigated by a novel scale for MRI classification. Nineteen children with pSD, mild to moderate upper limb impairment and Verbal IQ>80, and 38 normal controls were evaluated with a comprehensive neuropsychological battery (NEPSY-II), assessing Attention/Executive Functioning, Language, Memory, Sensorimotor, Social Perception and Visuospatial Processing domains. The MRIs were quantitatively scored for lesion severity. The results showed that, beyond core visuo-spatial and sensory-motor deficits, impairments in attention and executive functions were present in more than half of the sample, particularly in children with damage to the anterior corpus callosum. The findings are discussed in terms of clinical and rehabilitative implications tailored for pSD subgroups diversified for neuropsychological and neuroanatomical characteristics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Prenatal low-dose aspirin and neurobehavioral outcomes of children born very preterm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marret, Stéphane; Marchand, Laetitia; Kaminski, Monique; Larroque, Béatrice; Arnaud, Catherine; Truffert, Patrick; Thirez, Gérard; Fresson, Jeanne; Rozé, Jean-Christophe; Ancel, Pierre-Yves

    2010-01-01

    Low-dose aspirin (LDA) given during pregnancy may alter brain development in very preterm infants. We report the short- and long-term outcomes of very preterm infants according to LDA treatment. Data were from the Etude Epidemiologique des Petites Ages Gestationnels (EPIPAGE) cohort study, which included all infants born before 33 weeks of gestation in 9 French regions in 1997. This study was restricted to 656 children who were born to 584 women with an obstetric history of placental vascular disease or with chronic hypertension or renal or autoimmune diseases. The main outcome measures were mortality, cerebral lesions, and outcome at 5 years of age, which were measured by a diagnosis of cerebral palsy; behavioral difficulties, which were assessed with the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire; and cognitive impairment, which was measured by the mental processing composite scale of the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children (an IQ-equivalent measure of cognitive ability in 2 dimensions: sequential and simultaneous processing scores). LDA treatment was administered to 125 of 584 (21%) mothers and was not significantly associated with mortality, cerebral lesions, cerebral palsy, or global cognitive impairment of the children at 5 years of age. The proportion of low simultaneous processing scores (aspirin alone or combined with other neuroprotective agents.

  4. Effects of passive smoking on lung function tests in preschool children born late-preterm: a preventable health priority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunlemez, Ayla; Er, İlkay; Baydemir, Canan; Arisoy, Ayse

    2018-02-01

    Late-preterm delivery is known to be associated with potential adverse effects on lung development. Passive smoking may result in alterations of pulmonary function in infants born late-preterm. Impulse oscillometry (IOS) is a noninvasive, rapid, and practicable technique that can assess lung function. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of passive smoking on lung function tests in preschool children born late-preterm using IOS. The study population consisted of a total of 139 children between 3 and 7 years of age born late-preterm who were being followed-up at our outpatient unit at the time of study period. Late-preterms were subcategorized according to presence or absence of exposure to passive smoking (PS). Those with and without exposure to passive smoking were referred to as PS group (56.1%, n = 78) and non-PS group (43.9%, n = 61), respectively. Resistance (R5-R20), reactance (X5-X20), and resonant frequency were measured by impulse oscillometry (IOS) at 5-20 Hz. Median R5-R20 and Z5 were significantly higher and median X10 was significantly lower in PS group compared to non-PS group (p passive smoking significantly increases peripheral airway resistance and seems to adversely affect lung function in children born late-preterm.

  5. Visual-motor and executive functions in children born preterm: the Bender Visual Motor Gestalt Test revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhm, Birgitta; Lundequist, Aiko; Smedler, Ann-Charlotte

    2010-10-01

    Visual-motor development and executive functions were investigated with the Bender Test at age 5½ years in 175 children born preterm and 125 full-term controls, within the longitudinal Stockholm Neonatal Project. Assessment also included WPPSI-R and NEPSY neuropsychological battery for ages 4-7 (Korkman, 1990). Bender protocols were scored according to Brannigan & Decker (2003), Koppitz (1963) and a complementary neuropsychological scoring system (ABC), aimed at executive functions and developed for this study. Bender results by all three scoring systems were strongly related to overall cognitive level (Performance IQ), in both groups. The preterm group displayed inferior visual-motor skills compared to controls also when controlling for IQ. The largest group differences were found on the ABC scoring, which shared unique variance with NEPSY tests of executive function. Multiple regression analyses showed that hyperactive behavior and inattention increased the risk for visual-motor deficits in children born preterm, whereas no added risk was seen among hyperactive term children. Gender differences favoring girls were strongest within the preterm group, presumably reflecting the specific vulnerability of preterm boys. The results indicate that preterm children develop a different neurobehavioral organization from children born at term, and that the Bender test with a neuropsychological scoring is a useful tool in developmental screening around school start. © 2010 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology © 2010 The Scandinavian Psychological Associations.

  6. Academic Achievement Deficits and Their Neuropsychological Correlates in Children Born Extremely Preterm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akshoomoff, Natacha; Joseph, Robert M; Taylor, H Gerry; Allred, Elizabeth N; Heeren, Timothy; OʼShea, Thomas M; Kuban, Karl C K

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the risks associated with learning disabilities (LDs) in a large sample of children born extremely preterm. We predicted higher than expected rates of LD, particularly in math, and children with LD in math, reading, or both would have lower intelligence quotients (IQs) and specific patterns of neuropsychological deficits. We evaluated academic achievement, rates of LD, and their neuropsychological correlates in the Extremely Low Gestational Age Newborns (ELGANs) Study cohort of 10-year-old children born at 23 to 27 weeks gestational age. Primary analyses focused on children without intellectual disability (verbal IQ > 70 and nonverbal IQ > 70; N = 668). Low achievement was defined as a standard score ≤85 on the reading or math measures. The risk of low math achievement scores (27%) was 1.5 times higher than the risk of low reading achievement scores (17%). Children were classified as having LD based on low achievement criteria in reading only (RD, 6.4% of sample), math only (MD, 16.2%), both reading and math (RD/MD, 8.3%), or no reading or math disabilities (No LD, 69.1%). Although all 3 LD groups had multiple neuropsychological weaknesses compared with the No LD group, the RD and MD groups had different patterns of neuropsychological impairment. These children from the ELGAN cohort had higher than expected rates of LD, particularly in mathematics, even after taking socioeconomic status into consideration. These results indicate specific cognitive weaknesses that differ between extremely preterm children with RD and MD.

  7. Can the Home Environment Promote Resilience for Children Born Very Preterm in the Context of Social and Medical Risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treyvaud, Karli; Inder, Terrie E.; Lee, Katherine J.; Northam, Elisabeth A.; Doyle, Lex W.; Anderson, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    Relationships between the home environment and early developmental outcomes were examined in 166 children born very preterm in one tertiary maternity hospital to explore whether a more optimal home environment could promote resilience. In particular, we explored whether this effect was apparent over and above social risk and children's biological…

  8. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and autism spectrum disorder symptoms in school-age children born very preterm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bröring, Tinka; Oostrom, Kim J.; van Dijk-Lokkart, Elisabeth M.; Lafeber, Harrie N.; Brugman, Anniek; Oosterlaan, Jaap

    2018-01-01

    Very preterm (VP) children face a broad range of neurodevelopmental sequelae, including behavioral problems. To investigate prevalence, pervasiveness and co-occurrence of symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in school-age children born very

  9. Transactional processes in children born preterm: Influences of mother-child interactions and parenting stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerstein, Emily D; Poehlmann-Tynan, Julie

    2015-10-01

    This prospective, longitudinal study examined the transactional relations among perceived maternal parenting stress, maternal insensitivity, and child behavior across toddlerhood through age 6 within families of a child born preterm. A sample of 173 mother-child dyads were followed from just before the infant was discharged from the neonatal intensive care unit to 6 years of age, with observational measurements of maternal insensitivity and child noncompliance (24 and 36 months), maternal self-reports of perceived parenting stress (24 months, 36 months, 6 years), and maternal reports of child externalizing behavior at 6 years. Results indicated that maternal insensitivity at 36 months significantly mediated the relation between parenting stress at 24 months and externalizing behaviors at 6 years. Parenting stress was also directly associated with child noncompliance at 36 months and with child externalizing behavior at 6 years. Neonatal risk was associated with increased maternal insensitivity at 24 months, but also decreased parenting stress at 24 months. No significant "child effects" from child behavior to either maternal insensitivity or parenting stress were found. Parenting stress appears to play a critical role for children born preterm, and it is associated with children's behavior both directly and through its influence on parenting. The role of neonatal risk needs continued investigation, as families traditionally considered to be at lower risk may still face significant challenges. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Effect of socioeconomic status on psychosocial problems in 5- to 6-year-old preterm- and term-born children: the ABCD study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Laat, Sanne A. A.; Essink-Bot, Marie-Louise; van Wassenaer-Leemhuis, Aleid G.; Vrijkotte, Tanja G.

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed at analysing the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and psychosocial problems in preterm- and term-born children. Scores of mothers and teachers on the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) regarding 217 preterm-born children ( <37 weeks' gestation, mean 34

  11. Academic performance of children born preterm: a meta-analysis and meta-regression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Twilhaar, E. Sabrina; de Kieviet, Jorrit F.; Aarnoudse-Moens, Cornelieke S. H.; van Elburg, Ruurd M.; Oosterlaan, Jaap

    2017-01-01

    Advances in neonatal healthcare have resulted in decreased mortality after preterm birth but have not led to parallel decreases in morbidity. Academic performance provides insight in the outcomes and specific difficulties and needs of preterm children. To study academic performance in preterm

  12. Children born extremely preterm had different sleeping habits at 11 years of age and more childhood sleep problems than term-born children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stangenes, Kristine Marie; Fevang, Silje Kathrine; Grundt, Jacob; Donkor, Hilde Mjell; Markestad, Trond; Hysing, Mari; Elgen, Irene Bircow; Bjorvatn, Bjørn

    2017-07-17

    This study explored whether extremely preterm (EPT) children had different sleep characteristics in childhood than children born at term and how neurodevelopmental disabilities (NDD) affected sleep in children born EPT. A Norwegian national cohort of 231 children born EPT from 1999 to 2000 and separate study data on 556 children born at term in 2001 were compared. Parental questionnaires mapped the children's current sleep habits at 11 years of age, namely the prevalence of sleep problems throughout childhood until this age and five categories of sleep problems. In addition, the EPT children were clinically assessed at five years of age. The EPT children had different sleep habits than the controls, for example they went to bed earlier. EPT children had a higher prevalence of sleep problems than the controls throughout childhood (26% versus 14%, p sleep habits to term-born controls at 11 years of age, including those with no NDD. The prevalence of sleep problems increased with increasing NDD. ©2017 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Changing Neurodevelopment at 8 Years in Children Born Extremely Preterm Since the 1990s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Jeanie L Y; Anderson, Peter J; Burnett, Alice C; Roberts, Gehan; Davis, Noni; Hickey, Leah; Carse, Elizabeth; Doyle, Lex W

    2017-06-01

    Survival of extremely preterm (EP; children born EP (22-27 completed weeks' gestation) over the past 2 decades. Population-based cohorts of all EP survivors born in the state of Victoria, Australia in 1991-1992, 1997, and 2005 were recruited at birth. At 8 years of age, general intelligence (IQ), academic achievement, and neurosensory status were assessed. Major neurosensory disability was defined as any of moderate or severe cerebral palsy, IQ blindness, or deafness. Rates of major neurosensory disability were similar in all eras (1991-1992, 18%; 1997, 15%; 2005, 18%), as were rates of IQ blindness, and deafness. Mean z scores for IQ were similar across eras, but there was some evidence that scores for academic achievement were lower in 2005 than in 1997, and the odds of having academic problems were higher in 2005 than in both earlier eras. These outcomes were not explained by differences in known perinatal care or sociodemographic variables between eras. Contrary to expectations, rates of major neurosensory disability have not improved, and academic performance is poorer at early school age in 2005 than in earlier eras for EP children born in the state of Victoria, Australia. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  14. Neural change following different memory training approaches in very preterm born children - A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everts, Regula; Mürner-Lavanchy, Ines; Schroth, Gerhard; Steinlin, Maja

    2017-01-01

    There is mixed evidence regarding neural change following cognitive training. Brain activation increase, decrease, or a combination of both may occur. We investigated training-induced neural change using two different memory training approaches. Very preterm born children (aged 7-12 years) were randomly allocated to a memory strategy training, an intensive working memory practice or a waiting control group. Before and immediately after the trainings and the waiting period, brain activation during a visual working memory task was measured using fMRI and cognitive performance was assessed. Following both memory trainings, there was a significant decrease of fronto-parietal brain activation and a significant increase of memory performance. In the control group, no neural or performance change occurred after the waiting period. These pilot data point towards a training-related decrease of brain activation, independent of the training approach. Our data highlight the high training-induced plasticity of the child's brain during development.

  15. Early Indications of Delayed Cognitive Development in Preschool Children Born Very Preterm: Evidence from Domain-General and Domain-Specific Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitchford, Nicola; Johnson, Samantha; Scerif, Gaia; Marlow, Neil

    2011-01-01

    Cognitive impairment often follows preterm birth but its early underlying nature is not well understood. We used a novel approach by investigating the development of colour cognition in 54 very preterm children born less than or equal to 30 weeks gestational age without severe neurosensory impairment and 37 age-matched term-born controls, aged 2-5…

  16. Sensory processing difficulties in school-age children born very preterm: An exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bröring, Tinka; Königs, Marsh; Oostrom, Kim J; Lafeber, Harrie N; Brugman, Anniek; Oosterlaan, Jaap

    2017-12-08

    Very preterm birth has a detrimental impact on the developing brain, including widespread white matter brain abnormalities that threaten efficient sensory processing. Yet, sensory processing difficulties in very preterm children are scarcely studied, especially at school age. To investigate somatosensory registration, multisensory integration and sensory modulation. 57 very preterm school-age children (mean age=9.2years) were compared to 56 gender and age matched full-term children. Group differences on somatosensory registration tasks (Registration of Light Touch, Sensory Discrimination of Touch, Position Sense, Graphestesia), a computerized multisensory integration task, and the parent-reported Sensory Profile were investigated using t-tests and Mann-Whitney U tests. In comparison to full-term children, very preterm children are less accurate on somatosensory registration tasks, including Registration of Light Touch (d=0.34), Position Sense (d=0.31) and Graphestesia (d=0.42) and show more sensory modulation difficulties (d=0.41), including both behavioral hyporesponsivity (d=0.52) and hyperresponsivity (d=0.56) to sensory stimuli. Tactile discrimination and multisensory integration efficiency were not affected in very preterm children. Aspects of sensory processing were only modestly related. Very preterm children show sensory processing difficulties regarding somatosensory registration and sensory modulation, and preserved multisensory (audio-visual) integration. Follow-up care for very preterm children should involve screening of sensory processing difficulties at least up to school age. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Cognitive, motor, behavioural and academic performances of children born preterm: a meta-analysis and systematic review involving 64 061 children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allotey, J; Zamora, J; Cheong-See, F; Kalidindi, M; Arroyo-Manzano, D; Asztalos, E; van der Post, Jam; Mol, B W; Moore, D; Birtles, D; Khan, K S; Thangaratinam, S

    2017-10-11

    Preterm birth may leave the brain vulnerable to dysfunction. Knowledge of future neurodevelopmental delay in children born with various degrees of prematurity is needed to inform practice and policy. To quantify the long-term cognitive, motor, behavioural and academic performance of children born with different degrees of prematurity compared with term-born children. PubMed and Embase were searched from January 1980 to December 2016 without language restrictions. Observational studies that reported neurodevelopmental outcomes from 2 years of age in children born preterm compared with a term-born cohort. We pooled individual estimates of standardised mean differences (SMD) and odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals using a random effects model. We included 74 studies (64 061 children). Preterm children had lower cognitive scores for FSIQ (SMD: -0.70; 95% CI: -0.73 to -0.66), PIQ (SMD: -0.67; 95% CI: -0.73 to -0.60) and VIQ (SMD: -0.53; 95% CI: -0.60 to -0.47). Lower scores for preterm children in motor skills, behaviour, reading, mathematics and spelling were observed at primary school age, and this persisted to secondary school age, except for mathematics. Gestational age at birth accounted for 38-48% of the observed IQ variance. ADHD was diagnosed twice as often in preterm children (OR: 1.6; 95% CI: 1.3-1.8), with a differential effect observed according to the severity of prematurity (I(2) = 49.4%, P = 0.03). Prematurity of any degree affects the cognitive performance of children born preterm. The poor neurodevelopment persists at various ages of follow up. Parents, educators, healthcare professionals and policy makers need to take into account the additional academic, emotional and behavioural needs of these children. Adverse effect of preterm birth on a child's neurodevelopment persists up to adulthood. © 2017 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  18. Functional impairments at school age of preterm born children with late-onset sepsis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Ree, Meike; Tanis, Jozien C.; Van Braeckel, Koenraad N. J. A.; Bos, Arend F.; Roze, Elise

    2011-01-01

    Background: Late-onset sepsis is a relatively common complication particularly of preterm birth that affects approximately a quarter of very low birth weight infants. Aim: We aimed to determine the motor, cognitive, and behavioural outcome at school age of preterm children with late-onset sepsis

  19. The Early Motor Repertoire of Children Born Preterm Is Associated With Intelligence at School Age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruggink, Janneke L. M.; Van Braeckel, Koenraad N.; Bos, Arend F.

    OBJECTIVE: The goal was to determine whether the quality of general movements (GMs) for preterm children had predictive value for cognitive development at school age. METHODS: In this prospective cohort study, 60 preterm infants (gestational age, median: 30.0 weeks [range: 25-33 weeks]; birth

  20. Academic performance of children born preterm: a meta-analysis and meta-regression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Twilhaar, E.S.; de Kieviet, J.F.; Aarnoudse-Moens, C.S.H.; van Elburg, R.M.; Oosterlaan, J.

    2017-01-01

    Background Advances in neonatal healthcare have resulted in decreased mortality after preterm birth but have not led to parallel decreases in morbidity. Academic performance provides insight in the outcomes and specific difficulties and needs of preterm children. Objective  To study academic

  1. Neonatal pain-related stress predicts cortical thickness at age 7 years in children born very preterm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manon Ranger

    Full Text Available Altered brain development is evident in children born very preterm (24-32 weeks gestational age, including reduction in gray and white matter volumes, and thinner cortex, from infancy to adolescence compared to term-born peers. However, many questions remain regarding the etiology. Infants born very preterm are exposed to repeated procedural pain-related stress during a period of very rapid brain development. In this vulnerable population, we have previously found that neonatal pain-related stress is associated with atypical brain development from birth to term-equivalent age. Our present aim was to evaluate whether neonatal pain-related stress (adjusted for clinical confounders of prematurity is associated with altered cortical thickness in very preterm children at school age.42 right-handed children born very preterm (24-32 weeks gestational age followed longitudinally from birth underwent 3-D T1 MRI neuroimaging at mean age 7.9 yrs. Children with severe brain injury and major motor/sensory/cognitive impairment were excluded. Regional cortical thickness was calculated using custom developed software utilizing FreeSurfer segmentation data. The association between neonatal pain-related stress (defined as the number of skin-breaking procedures accounting for clinical confounders (gestational age, illness severity, infection, mechanical ventilation, surgeries, and morphine exposure, was examined in relation to cortical thickness using constrained principal component analysis followed by generalized linear modeling.After correcting for multiple comparisons and adjusting for neonatal clinical factors, greater neonatal pain-related stress was associated with significantly thinner cortex in 21/66 cerebral regions (p-values ranged from 0.00001 to 0.014, predominately in the frontal and parietal lobes.In very preterm children without major sensory, motor or cognitive impairments, neonatal pain-related stress appears to be associated with thinner cortex

  2. Individual neuropsychological profiles at age 5½ years in children born preterm in relation to medical risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundequist, Aiko; Böhm, Birgitta; Smedler, Ann-Charlotte

    2013-01-01

    Follow-up studies of preterm children have reported a range of cognitive deficits, particularly in executive functions, visuospatial abilities, and learning. However, few researchers have adopted a person-oriented approach, exploring individual neuropsychological profiles. The aim of this study was to identify typical neuropsychological profiles among preterm children and control children, respectively. A second aim was to investigate if neuropsychological profiles at age 5½ might be associated with perinatal medical risk factors. As part of the longitudinal Stockholm Neonatal Project, NEPSY for 4- to 7-year-old children ( Korkman, 1990 ), WPPSI-R, and Movement ABC were administered at age 5½ years to 145 preterm (mean gestational age 28 weeks) and 117 control children born at term. For the present study, the NEPSY results of each child were transformed into summary z scores for each of 5 neuropsychological domains: attention, memory, sensory-motor, verbal, and visuospatial functions. Subsequently, Ward's cluster analysis was performed for the preterm and control groups separately, identifying 5 neuropsychological profiles in both groups explaining around 56% and 57% of the variance, respectively. Overall, preterm children had lower neuropsychological results but also more diverging profiles compared to controls. The variability in outcome could not be sufficiently explained by birth weight, gestational age, or medical risks. The results suggest that prematurity interacts dynamically with genetic, medical, and environmental factors in neuropsychological development.

  3. Neurodevelopmental Outcomes and Neural Mechanisms Associated with Non-right Handedness in Children Born Very Preterm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascoe, Leona; Scratch, Shannon E; Burnett, Alice C; Thompson, Deanne K; Lee, Katherine J; Doyle, Lex W; Cheong, Jeanie L Y; Inder, Terrie E; Anderson, Peter J

    2015-09-01

    Non-right handedness (NRH) is reportedly more common in very preterm (VPT; children compared with term-born peers, but it is unclear whether neonatal brain injury or altered brain morphology and microstructure underpins NRH in this population. Given that NRH has been inconsistently reported to be associated with cognitive and motor difficulties, this study aimed to examine associations between handedness and neurodevelopmental outcomes in VPT 7-year-olds. Furthermore, the relationship between neonatal brain injury and integrity of motor tracts (corpus callosum and corticospinal tract) with handedness at age 7 years in VPT children was explored. One hundred seventy-five VPT and 69 term-born children completed neuropsychological and motor assessments and a measure of handedness at 7 years' corrected age. At term-equivalent age, brain injury on MRI was assessed and diffusion tensor measures were obtained for the corpus callosum and posterior limb of the internal capsule. There was little evidence of stronger NRH in the VPT group compared with term controls (regression coefficient [b] -1.95, 95% confidence interval [-5.67, 1.77]). Poorer academic and working memory outcomes were associated with stronger NRH in the VPT group. While there was little evidence that neonatal unilateral brain injury was associated with stronger NRH, increased area and fractional anisotropy of the corpus callosum splenium were predictive of stronger NRH in the VPT group. VPT birth may alter the relationship between handedness and academic outcomes, and neonatal corpus callosum integrity predicts hand preference in VPT children at school age. (JINS, 2015, 21, 610-621).

  4. Prediction of neurodevelopmental and sensory outcome at 5 years in Norwegian children born extremely preterm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leversen, Katrine Tyborg; Sommerfelt, Kristian; Rønnestad, Arild; Kaaresen, Per Ivar; Farstad, Theresa; Skranes, Janne; Støen, Ragnhild; Bircow Elgen, Irene; Rettedal, Siren; Egil Eide, Geir; Irgens, Lorentz M; Markestad, Trond

    2011-03-01

    To examine the prevalence of neurodevelopmental disability and the predictive value of pre-, peri-, and postnatal data on neurologic, sensory, cognitive, and motor function in children born extremely preterm. This was a prospective observational study of all infants born in Norway between 1999 and 2000 with gestational ages between 22 and 27 weeks or birth weights between 500 and 999 g. Cognitive function was assessed with the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Revised, motor function with the Movement Assessment Battery for Children, and severity of cerebral palsy with the Gross Motor Function Classification for Cerebral Palsy. Disabilities were described as mild, moderate, or severe. Of 371 eligible children, 306 (82%) were examined at a mean (SD) age of 5 years and 10 (4) months. For gestational age less than 28 weeks (n = 239), 26 (11%) children had cerebral palsy alone (n = 21) or in combination with blindness (n = 3) or deafness (n = 2); 1 was blind and 1 was deaf. Of the remaining children, the mean full-scale IQ was 94 ± 15, and significant predictors were (values given as the difference in IQ points [95% confidence intervals]) high maternal education (9.6 [5.7-13.4]), preeclampsia (-7.7 [-12.7 to -2.7]), and retinopathy of prematurity higher than grade 2 (-17.5 [-27.1 to -8.0]). Movement Assessment Battery for Children scores were positively associated with gestational age and prenatal steroids and negatively associated with being small for gestational age, male gender, and having retinopathy of prematurity. Moderate to severe neurodevelopmental disability was more common for gestational ages 25 weeks or less (28 of 87 children) than for 26 to 27 weeks (12 of 152 children; P children; P = .001). The outcome was poorer for children with gestational ages of 25 weeks or less compared with those with gestational ages between 26 and 27 weeks. For those without cerebral palsy, blindness, or deafness, however, gestational age had a limited

  5. Lung function in 6 years old children born very preterm and fed different diets post discharge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftlund, Line Hedegaard; Agertoft, Lone; Halken, Susanne

    Background: Research has shown that being born preterm may affect lung capacity later in childhood. It is though unknown if type of early nutrition influences lung capacity and the risk of developing asthma in childhood. Aim: The aim was to investigate if type of early nutrition has an impact...

  6. Impaired language abilities and white matter abnormalities in children born very preterm and/or very low birth weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reidy, Natalie; Morgan, Angela; Thompson, Deanne K; Inder, Terrie E.; Doyle, Lex W; Anderson, Peter J

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To investigate language abilities in children born very preterm (VPT; pragmatics. A mediation effect was tested between birth group, white matter abnormality, and language sub-domains. Results The VPT/VLBW group performed significantly worse than controls on all language sub-domains (all p pragmatics (p = .13). Conclusions Language is an important area of concern in children born VPT/VLBW. Neonatal white matter abnormality is an important predictor of outcome; however, different language abilities are differentially associated with neonatal white matter abnormality. PMID:23158026

  7. Region-specific slowing of alpha oscillations associated with visual-perceptual abilities in children born very preterm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam McLeod Doesburg

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Children born very preterm (≤32 weeks GA without major intellectual or neurological impairments often express selective deficits in visual-perceptual abilities. The alterations in neurophysiological development underlying these problems, however, remain poorly understood. Recent research has indicated that spontaneous alpha oscillations are slowed in children born very preterm, and that atypical alpha-mediated functional network connectivity may underlie selective developmental difficulties in visual-perceptual ability in this group. The present study provides the first source-resolved analysis of slowing of spontaneous alpha oscillations in very preterm children, indicating alterations in a distributed set of brain regions concentrated in areas of posterior parietal and inferior temporal regions associated with visual-perception, as well as prefrontal cortical regions and thalamus. We also uniquely demonstrate that slowing of alpha oscillations is associated with selective difficulties in visual-perceptual ability in very preterm children. These results indicate that region-specific slowing of alpha oscillations contribute to selective developmental difficulties prevalent in this population.

  8. The Effect of Age-Correction on IQ Scores among School-Aged Children Born Preterm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Rachel M.; George, Wing Man; Cole, Carolyn; Marshall, Peter; Ellison, Vanessa; Fabel, Helen

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effect of age-correction on IQ scores among preterm school-aged children. Data from the Flinders Medical Centre Neonatal Unit Follow-up Program for 81 children aged five years and assessed with the WPPSI-III, and 177 children aged eight years and assessed with the WISC-IV, were analysed. Corrected IQ scores were…

  9. School performance of adolescents born preterm: neuropsychological and background correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saavalainen, Pia M; Luoma, Laila; Laukkanen, Eila; M Bowler, Dermot; Määttä, Sara; Kiviniemi, Vesa; Herrgård, Eila

    2008-05-01

    In this longitudinal study the development of preterm and control children was followed from infancy until adolescence. School performance at the age of 16 in subjects born very preterm with a gestational age (GA) of foreign language and the native language (Finnish). Subjects in the preterm group achieved significantly higher grade points in the first foreign language than control subjects. In particular, the difference was evident between the preterm and control boys. The extremely preterm group with a GA importance in predicting school success in adolescence. The results suggest a good outcome, measured by school grade scores at 16 years of age, of the subjects born very preterm.

  10. Evaluation of early childhood social-communication difficulties in children born preterm using the Quantitative Checklist for Autism in Toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Hilary S; Huertas-Ceballos, Angela; Cowan, Frances M; Modi, Neena

    2014-01-01

    To characterize early childhood social-communication skills and autistic traits in children born very preterm using the Quantitative Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (Q-CHAT) and explore neonatal and sociodemographic factors associated with Q-CHAT scores. Parents of children born before 30 weeks gestation and enrolled in a study evaluating routinely collected neurodevelopmental data between the post-menstrual ages of 20 and 28 months were invited to complete the Q-CHAT questionnaire. Children with severe neurosensory disabilities and cerebral palsy were excluded. Participants received neurodevelopmental assessments using the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, 3rd edition (Bayley-III). Q-CHAT scores of this preterm cohort were compared with published general population scores. The association between Bayley-III cognitive and language scores and neonatal and sociodemographic factors with Q-CHAT scores were examined. Q-CHAT questionnaires were completed from 141 participants. At a mean post-menstrual age of 24 months, the Q-CHAT scores of the preterm cohort (mean 33.7, SD 8.3) were significantly higher than published general population scores (mean 26.7; SD 7.8), indicating greater social-communication difficulty and autistic behavior. Preterm children received higher scores, particularly in the categories of restricted, repetitive, stereotyped behavior, communication, and sensory abnormalities. Lower Bayley-III language scores and non-white ethnicity were associated with higher Q-CHAT scores. Preterm children display greater social-communication difficulty and autistic behavior than the general population in early childhood as assessed by the Q-CHAT. The implications for longer-term outcome will be important to assess. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Catch-up growth up to ten years of age in children born very preterm or with very low birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wit Jan-Maarten

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Improved survival due to advances in neonatal care has brought issues such as postnatal growth and development more to the focus of our attention. Most studies report stunting in children born very preterm and/or small for gestational age. In this article we study the growth pattern of these children and aim to identify factors associated with postnatal catch-up growth. Methods 1338 children born with a gestational age Results At 10 years the AGA children had attained normal height, whereas the SGA group demonstrated stunting, even after correction for target height (AGA: 0.0 SDS; SGA Conclusion At 10 years of age, children born very preterm AGA show no stunting. However, many children born SGA, especially the very preterm, show persistent stunting. Early weight gain seems an important prognostic factor in predicting childhood growth.

  12. Social Cognition in Children Born Preterm: A Perspective on Future Research Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norbert Zmyj

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Preterm birth is a major risk factor for children’s development. It affects children’s cognitive and intellectual development and is related to impairments in IQ, executive functions, and well-being, with these problems persisting into adulthood. While preterm children’s intellectual and cognitive development has been studied in detail, their social development and social-cognitive competencies have received less attention. Namely, preterm children show problems in interactions with others. These interaction problems are present in relationships with parents, teachers, and peers. Parents’ behavior has been identified as a possible mediator of children’s social behavior. Maternal sensitivity and responsiveness as well as absence of mental disorders foster children’s social development. In this article, we will report on the social side of impairments that preterm children face. The review of the literature revealed that preterm infants’ joint attention abilities are impaired: They are less likely to initiate joint attention with others and to respond to others’ efforts to engage in joint attention. These deficits in joint attention might contribute to later impairments in social cognition, which in turn might affect social interaction skills. Based on these three domains (i.e., problems in social interaction, parental behavior, and impairments in joint attention, we suggest that preterm children’s social cognitive abilities should be investigated more intensively.

  13. The association of children's mathematic abilities with both adults' cognitive abilities and intrinsic fronto-parietal networks is altered in preterm-born individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bäuml, J G; Meng, C; Daamen, M; Baumann, N; Busch, B; Bartmann, P; Wolke, D; Boecker, H; Wohlschläger, A; Sorg, C; Jaekel, Julia

    2017-03-01

    Mathematic abilities in childhood are highly predictive for long-term neurocognitive outcomes. Preterm-born individuals have an increased risk for both persistent cognitive impairments and long-term changes in macroscopic brain organization. We hypothesized that the association of childhood mathematic abilities with both adulthood general cognitive abilities and associated fronto-parietal intrinsic networks is altered after preterm delivery. 72 preterm- and 71 term-born individuals underwent standardized mathematic and IQ testing at 8 years and resting-state fMRI and full-scale IQ testing at 26 years of age. Outcome measure for intrinsic networks was intrinsic functional connectivity (iFC). Controlling for IQ at age eight, mathematic abilities in childhood were significantly stronger positively associated with adults' IQ in preterm compared with term-born individuals. In preterm-born individuals, the association of children's mathematic abilities and adults' fronto-parietal iFC was altered. Likewise, fronto-parietal iFC was distinctively linked with preterm- and term-born adults' IQ. Results provide evidence that preterm birth alters the link of mathematic abilities in childhood and general cognitive abilities and fronto-parietal intrinsic networks in adulthood. Data suggest a distinct functional role of intrinsic fronto-parietal networks for preterm individuals with respect to mathematic abilities and that these networks together with associated children's mathematic abilities may represent potential neurocognitive targets for early intervention.

  14. Moderately preterm children have more respiratory problems during their first 5 years of life than children born full term

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrijlandt, Elianne J L E; Kerstjens, Jorien M; Duiverman, Eric J; Bos, Arend F; Reijneveld, Sijmen A

    2013-01-01

    Rationale: Pulmonary outcomes of moderate-preterm children (MP) are unknown. Objectives: To investigate the prevalence of respiratory symptoms during infancy and at preschool age of MP compared with full-term (FT) and early preterm children (EP) and to determine factors associated with respiratory

  15. Stress in parents of children born very preterm is predicted by child externalising behaviour and parent coping at age 7 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linden, Mark A; Cepeda, Ivan L; Synnes, Anne; Grunau, Ruth E

    2015-06-01

    To examine factors which predict parenting stress in a longitudinal cohort of children born very preterm, and seen at age 7 years. We recruited 100 very preterm (≤32 weeks gestational age) child-parent dyads and a control group of 50 term-born dyads born between 2001 and 2004 with follow-up at 7 years. Parents completed the Parenting Stress Index, Ways of Coping Questionnaire, Child Behavior Check List, Beck Depression Inventory and the State Trait Anxiety Inventory questionnaires. Child IQ was assessed using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale-IV. After controlling for maternal education, parents of preterm children (95% CI 111.1 to 121.4) scored higher (p=0.027) on the Parenting Stress Index than term-born controls (95% CI 97.8 to 113.2). Regression analyses showed that child externalising behaviour, sex and parent escape/avoidance coping style, predicted higher parenting stress in the preterm group. Parents of preterm girls expressed higher levels of stress than those of boys. Maladaptive coping strategies contribute to greater stress in parents of very preterm children. Our findings suggest that these parents need support for many years after birth of a very preterm infant. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  16. Follow-up of a randomized trial on postdischarge nutrition in preterm-born children at age 8 y.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruys, Charlotte A; van de Lagemaat, Monique; Finken, Martijn Jj; Lafeber, Harrie N

    2017-08-01

    Background: Early nutritional interventions may modulate health risks in preterm-born infants. Previously, we showed that preterm-born infants fed an isocaloric protein- and mineral-enriched postdischarge formula (PDF) from term age to 6-mo corrected age (CA) gained more lean mass than did those fed term formula (TF). Long-term follow-up of randomized nutritional trials is important to test the hypothesis that short-term positive effects on health are sustainable. Objective: The aim of this follow-up study was to compare body size, body composition, and metabolic health at age 8 y in preterm-born children who were randomly assigned to receive either PDF or TF from term age until 6-mo CA. Design: A total of 79 of 152 children (52%) from the original randomized controlled trial were enrolled for follow-up at age 8 y. Weight, height, and head circumference were measured by using standard methods. Body composition, including fat mass, lean mass, bone mineral content, and bone mineral density, was determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Blood pressure was measured in the supine position by using an automatic device. Metabolic variables, including glucose, insulin, insulin-like growth factor I, triglycerides, cholesterol, cortisol, and leptin, were measured after an overnight fast. Nutritional habits at age 8 y were assessed by using a 3-d nutritional diary. Results: At age 8 y, no differences were found in body size, body composition, bone variables, and metabolic health variables when comparing children fed PDF with those fed TF. Adjustment for known and possible confounders did not change these results. Conclusions: In this follow-up study in preterm-born children, we showed that the favorable effects of PDF at 6-mo CA either were not maintained or could not be confirmed because of attrition at the age of 8 y. We suggest that future research should focus on nutritional interventions in the pre- and postdischarge period as a continuum rather than as separate

  17. Neurodevelopment of children born very preterm and free of severe disabilities: the Nord-Pas de Calais Epipage cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charkaluk, M L; Truffert, P; Fily, A; Ancel, P Y; Pierrat, V

    2010-05-01

    To describe the development of very preterm children free of cerebral palsy or severe sensory impairment in the domains of gross and fine motor functions, language and sociability at a corrected age of 2 years; to identify factors associated with performances in each domain. A total of 347 children born in 1997 before 33 weeks of gestation, part of the EPIPAGE population-based cohort study, had their psychomotor development assessed with the Brunet-Lezine scale. The study population had a mean gestational age of 30.1 +/- 2.0 weeks. Lower developmental quotients (DQ) were observed in the study group compared to the reference sample (96 +/- 13 vs 104 +/- 8, p < 0.01). Fine motor function, language and sociability were all affected with a p value <0.01. Multivariate analysis showed that duration of intubation and parents' educational and occupational levels were the only variables significantly related to each developmental domain (p < 0.01). Children very preterm and free of severe disabilities had mild delays in multiple areas of development. The mechanisms by which neonatal factors played a role need further investigation. However socioeconomic status had a great impact on development and our results underline the need for improved support of socioeconomically disadvantaged parents after a preterm birth.

  18. Early language processing efficiency predicts later receptive vocabulary outcomes in children born preterm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchman, Virginia A; Adams, Katherine A; Loi, Elizabeth C; Fernald, Anne; Feldman, Heidi M

    2016-01-01

    As rates of prematurity continue to rise, identifying which preterm children are at increased risk for learning disabilities is a public health imperative. Identifying continuities between early and later skills in this vulnerable population can also illuminate fundamental neuropsychological processes that support learning in all children. At 18 months adjusted age, we used socioeconomic status (SES), medical variables, parent-reported vocabulary, scores on the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development (third edition) language composite, and children's lexical processing speed in the looking-while-listening (LWL) task as predictor variables in a sample of 30 preterm children. Receptive vocabulary as measured by the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (fourth edition) at 36 months was the outcome. Receptive vocabulary was correlated with SES, but uncorrelated with degree of prematurity or a composite of medical risk. Importantly, lexical processing speed was the strongest predictor of receptive vocabulary (r = -.81), accounting for 30% unique variance. Individual differences in lexical processing efficiency may be able to serve as a marker for information processing skills that are critical for language learning.

  19. The Relationship of Maternal Prepregnancy Body Mass Index and Pregnancy Weight Gain to Neurocognitive Function at Age 10 Years among Children Born Extremely Preterm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jensen, Elizabeth T; van der Burg, Jelske W; O'Shea, Thomas M; Joseph, Robert M; Allred, Elizabeth N; Heeren, Tim; Leviton, Alan; Kuban, Karl C K

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the association between maternal prepregnancy body mass index and adequacy of pregnancy weight gain in relation to neurocognitive function in school-aged children born extremely preterm. STUDY DESIGN: Study participants were 535 ten-year-old children enrolled previously in the

  20. Maternal educational status at birth, maternal educational advancement, and neurocognitive outcomes at age 10 years among children born extremely preterm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Robert M; O'Shea, Thomas M; Allred, Elizabeth N; Heeren, Tim; Kuban, Karl K

    2017-11-22

    BackgroundTo determine if a key marker of socioeconomic status, maternal education, is associated with later neurocognitive and academic outcomes among children born extremely preterm (EP).MethodEight hundred and seventy-three children born at 23 to 27 weeks of gestation were assessed for cognitive and academic ability at age 10 years. With adjustments for gestational age (GA) and potential confounders, outcomes of children whose mothers had fewer years of education at the time of delivery and children whose mother advanced in education between birth and 10 years were examined.ResultsChildren of mothers in the lowest education stratum at birth were significantly more likely to score ≥2 SDs below normative expectation on 17 of 18 tests administered. Children of mothers who advanced in education (n=199) were at reduced risk for scoring ≥2 SDs on 15 of 18 measures, but this reduction was statistically significant on only 2 of 18 measures.ConclusionAmong EP children, socioeconomic disadvantage at birth, indexed by maternal education, is associated with significantly poorer neurocognitive and academic outcomes at 10 years of age, independently of GA. Maternal educational advancement during the child's first 10 years of life is associated with modestly improved neurocognitive outcomes.Pediatric Research advance online publication, 22 November 2017; doi:10.1038/pr.2017.267.

  1. Effect of socioeconomic status on psychosocial problems in 5- to 6-year-old preterm- and term-born children: the ABCD study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Laat, Sanne A A; Essink-Bot, Marie-Louise; van Wassenaer-Leemhuis, Aleid G; Vrijkotte, Tanja G

    2016-07-01

    This study aimed at analysing the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and psychosocial problems in preterm- and term-born children. Scores of mothers and teachers on the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) regarding 217 preterm-born children (ABCD) cohort at age 5-6 years. Associations between SDQ scores and SES (maternal education and perceived income adequacy) were examined with multivariate linear regression analysis. The mean mother-reported total difficulties score was significantly higher for preterm children (6.1 ± 4.7) than for term children (5.2 ± 4.1). After covariate adjustment, this difference was 0.5 (95 % CI 0.0-1.0). For preterm children 16.1 % of the mothers reported psychosocial problems compared with 10.1 % for term children. Lower maternal education and lower income adequacy were significantly related to higher SDQ scores of mothers and teachers. Differences in mothers' SDQ score between preterm and term children were larger in the high-education (Δ0.9, 95 % CI 0.2-1.5) and high-income group (Δ0.9, 95 % CI 0.3-1.6). No significant differences were found between preterm and term children in the SDQ scores reported by teachers. Low level of maternal education and inadequate income showed a much stronger association with psychosocial problems than preterm birth. No combined effect of low SES and preterm birth was found. This study corroborates the evidence for the strength of the disadvantageous effects of low SES on early psychosocial development.

  2. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and autism spectrum disorder symptoms in school-age children born very preterm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bröring, Tinka; Oostrom, Kim J; van Dijk-Lokkart, Elisabeth M; Lafeber, Harrie N; Brugman, Anniek; Oosterlaan, Jaap

    2018-02-02

    Very preterm (VP) children face a broad range of neurodevelopmental sequelae, including behavioral problems. To investigate prevalence, pervasiveness and co-occurrence of symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in school-age children born very preterm. Using questionnaire and diagnostic interview data, parent and teacher reported symptoms of ADHD and ASD of 57 VP-children (mean age = 9.2 years) were compared with 57 gender and age matched full-term children using t-tests. Intra-class correlation coefficients quantified parent-teacher agreement. Correlation analysis investigated co-occurrence of ADHD/ASD symptoms. ADHD/ASD measures were aggregated using principal component analysis. Regression analyses investigated the contribution of perinatal risk factors, sex and SES to ADHD/ASD symptoms. VP-children showed higher levels of parent and teacher reported attention problems, social impairment and compromised communication skills. Fair to strong agreement was found between parent and teacher reported ADHD and ASD symptoms, indicating pervasiveness of observed difficulties. Co-occurrence of ADHD and ASD symptoms in VP-children was found. Lower gestational age was associated with higher ADHD and ASD symptom levels, male sex with higher ADHD symptom levels and lower SES with higher ASD symptom levels. School-age VP-children show higher levels of ADHD and ASD symptoms, and attention, socialization and communication difficulties in particular. Routinely screening for these problems is recommended in follow-up care. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Growth in small-for-gestational-age preterm-born children from 0 to 4 years: the role of both prematurity and SGA status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocca-Tjeertes, Inger F A; Reijneveld, Sijmen A; Kerstjens, Jorien M; de Winter, Andrea F; Bos, Arend F

    2013-01-01

    Fullterm small-for-gestational-age children (SGAs) are known for their ability to catch up on growth. Nevertheless, increased risk of growth restriction remains. Evidence on preterm SGA children's growth is lacking. To determine absolute gains in height and weight, relative growth, and growth restriction in preterm SGAs from 0 to 4 years and how prematurity and SGA status affect these measures. Community-based cohort study, n = 1,648 preterm-born (gestational age SGA) and 605 term-born (12 SGA). We defined SGA as a birth weight less than -2 SD (P 2.3) compared to counterparts matched for gestational age. Height, weight, and head circumference were obtained from medical records and translated to z-scores. We defined growth restriction as height or weight less than -2 SD compared to fullterm appropriate-for-gestational-age children (AGAs). Absolute height and weight gains were similar, but the relative growth of preterms and fullterms differed. Preterm AGAs and fullterm SGAs, although not reaching it, caught up towards the fullterm AGA median (z-scores at 4 years: -0.3 to -1.0). By contrast, preterm SGA children's z-scores were still -1.4 to -1.7. Head circumference growth was less affected by prematurity and SGA birth (z-scores at 1 year: 0.1 to -0.7). Catch-up growth mainly took place during infancy. 30-39% of all preterm SGAs showed growth restriction at 4 years. Growth in preterm SGAs is affected considerably by the joint effects of preterm birth and SGA status, resulting in a high proportion of growth restriction. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Catch-up growth up to ten years of age in children born very preterm or with very low birth weight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knops, N.B.B.; Sneeuw, K.C.A.; Brand, R.; Hille, E.T.M.; Ouden, A.L. den; Wit, J.M.; Verloove-Vanhorick, S.P.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Improved survival due to advances in neonatal care has brought issues such as postnatal growth and development more to the focus of our attention. Most studies report stunting in children born very preterm and/or small for gestational age. In this article we study the growth pattern of

  5. Prognostic Factors for Poor Cognitive Development in Children Born Very Preterm or With Very Low Birth Weight: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linsell, Louise; Malouf, Reem; Morris, Joan; Kurinczuk, Jennifer J; Marlow, Neil

    2015-12-01

    Cognitive delay is the most common form of impairment among children born very preterm (VPT) at 32 weeks or less or with very low birth weight (VLBW) of 1250 g or less. It is important to identify factors that are robust predictors of long-term outcome because the ability to predict future prognosis will assist in health care and educational service planning and provision. To identify prognostic factors for poor cognitive development in children born VPT or with VLBW. A systematic review was conducted using MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PyscINFO databases to identify studies published between January 1, 1990, and June 1, 2014, reporting multivariable prediction models for neurodevelopment in VPT or VLBW children. Thirty-one studies comprising 98 risk factor models for cognitive outcome were identified. Two independent reviewers extracted key information on study design, outcome definition, risk factor selection, model development, and reporting and conducted a risk-of-bias assessment. There was evidence that male sex, nonwhite race/ethnicity, lower level of parental education, and lower birth weight were predictive of global cognitive impairment in children younger than 5 years. In older children, only the influence of parental education was sustained. Male sex was also predictive of language impairment in early infancy, but not in middle childhood. Gestational age was a poor predictor of cognitive outcome, probably because of a reduced discriminatory power in cohorts restricted to a narrow gestational age range. The prognostic value of neonatal brain injury was unclear; however, studies adopted mixed strategies for managing children with physical or neurosensory disability. The influence of perinatal risk factors on cognitive development of VPT or VLBW children appears to diminish over time as environmental factors become more important. It is difficult to isolate cognitive outcomes from motor and neurosensory impairment, and the strategy for dealing with untestable

  6. Advanced sleep phase in adolescents born preterm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibbs, Anna Maria; Storfer-Isser, Amy; Rosen, Carol; Ievers-Landis, Carolyn E; Taveras, Elsie M; Redline, Susan

    2014-09-03

    The objective of this article is to evaluate whether sleep patterns and quality differed between adolescents born preterm and term, and to further explore whether differences in sleep patterns were explained by differences in mediating factors such as mood, behavior, or socioeconomic status. Five hundred and one 16- to 19-year-old children in the longitudinal Cleveland Children's Sleep and Health Study cohort underwent overnight polysomnography (PSG), wore wrist actigraphs, and completed sleep logs for 1 week. The modified Epworth Sleepiness Scale, the Adolescent Sleep Hygiene Scale, and the Adolescent Sleep-Wake Scale were used to further assess sleep. Adolescents born preterm demonstrated significantly (p sleep midpoints (approximately 22 min after adjusting for demographic and psychosocial factors) by actigraphy. They also had significantly fewer arousals (by PSG), and reported being more rested and alert in the morning, as well as less sleepiness and fatigue. These findings support a growing body of evidence that perinatal factors may influence sleep phenotypes later in life. These factors may reflect developmental influences, as well as the influence of parenting styles on children's sleep.

  7. In school-age children who were born very preterm sleep efficiency is associated with cognitive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagmann-von Arx, Priska; Perkinson-Gloor, Nadine; Brand, Serge; Albert, Djana; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Grob, Alexander; Weber, Peter; Lemola, Sakari

    2014-01-01

    This study examined whether the association between sleep duration, as well as sleep continuity, and cognitive function differs between normally developing preterm children compared to full-term children during middle childhood. A total of 58 early preterm (sleep duration, sleep continuity and cognitive function. We used in-home polysomnographic recordings of total sleep time, sleep efficiency and nocturnal awakenings. Cognitive tests included intelligence, arithmetic, selective attention, verbal memory, and visuospatial memory. Preterm children showed poorer performance in intelligence, arithmetic, selective attention, and visuospatial memory (d = 0.38-0.79, p sleep efficiency and cognitive functions (intelligence, arithmetic, selective attention, visuospatial memory) were positive and stronger for preterm children (β = 0.17-0.31, p sleep efficiency may aggravate cognitive deficits, particularly in children who are more vulnerable due to premature birth. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel

  8. Pointing to the Future : New insights into elementary visuomotor processes in typically developing and preterm born children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Braeckel, Koenraad Noëlla Josephine Antoon

    2008-01-01

    As a result of improved care in the last few decades, up to 3000 children survive preterm birth in the Netherlands. The minority of this group of children develops cerebral palsy. Although the majority survives without serious neonatal medical complications, follow-up studies show subtle cognitive

  9. Thermal detection thresholds in 5-year-old preterm born children; IQ does matter.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaf, J. de; Valkenburg, A.J.; Tibboel, D.; Dijk, M.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Experiencing pain at newborn age may have consequences on one's somatosensory perception later in life. Children's perception for cold and warm stimuli may be determined with the Thermal Sensory Analyzer (TSA) device by two different methods. AIM: This pilot study in 5-year-old children

  10. Health, nutrition, and development of children born preterm and low birth weight in rural Rwanda: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Catherine M; Uwamungu, Jean Claude; Wilson, Kim; Hedt-Gauthier, Bethany L; Tapela, Neo; Niyigena, Peter; Rusangwa, Christian; Nyishime, Merab; Nahimana, Evrard; Nkikabahizi, Fulgence; Mutaganzwa, Christine; Ngabireyimana, Eric; Mutabazi, Francis; Magge, Hema

    2017-11-15

    As care for preterm and low birth weight (LBW) infants improves in resource-limited settings, more infants are surviving the neonatal period. Preterm and (LBW) infants are at high-risk of nutritional and medical comorbidities, yet little is known about their developmental outcomes in low-income countries. This study evaluated the health, nutritional, and developmental status of preterm/LBW children at ages 1-3 years in Rwanda. Cross-sectional study of preterm/LBW infants discharged between October 2011 and October 2013 from a hospital neonatal unit in rural Rwanda. Gestational age and birth weight were gathered from hospital records to classify small for gestational age (SGA) at birth and prematurity. Children were located in the community for household assessments in November-December 2014. Caregivers reported demographics, health status, and child development using locally-adapted Ages and Stages Questionnaires (ASQ-3). Anthropometrics were measured. Bivariate associations with continuous ASQ-3 scores were conducted using Wilcoxon Rank Sum and Kruskal Wallis tests. Of 158 eligible preterm/LBW children discharged from the neonatal unit, 86 (54.4%) were alive and located for follow-up. Median birth weight was 1650 grams, median gestational age was 33 weeks, and 50.5% were SGA at birth. At the time of household interviews, median age was 22.5 months, 46.5% of children had feeding difficulties and 39.5% reported signs of anemia. 78.3% of children were stunted and 8.8% wasted. 67.4% had abnormal developmental screening. Feeding difficulties (p = 0.008), anemia symptoms (p = 0.040), microcephaly (p = 0.004), stunting (p = 0.034), SGA (p = 0.023), very LBW (p = 0.043), lower caregiver education (p = 0.001), and more children in the household (p = 0.016) were associated with lower ASQ-3 scores. High levels of health, growth, and developmental abnormalities were seen in preterm/LBW children at age 1-3 years. As we achieve necessary

  11. Long-Term Cognitive Outcomes of Infants Born Moderately and Late Preterm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odd, David Edward; Emond, Alan; Whitelaw, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To investigate whether infants born late preterm have poorer cognitive outcomes than term-born infants. Method: A cohort study based on the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Cognitive measures were assessed between the ages of 8 and 11 years. Exposure groups were defined as moderate/late preterm (32-36 weeks' gestation) or term…

  12. Brain network characterization of high-risk preterm-born school-age children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elda Fischi-Gomez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Higher risk for long-term cognitive and behavioral impairments is one of the hallmarks of extreme prematurity (EP and pregnancy-associated fetal adverse conditions such as intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR. While neurodevelopmental delay and abnormal brain function occur in the absence of overt brain lesions, these conditions have been recently associated with changes in microstructural brain development. Recent imaging studies indicate changes in brain connectivity, in particular involving the white matter fibers belonging to the cortico-basal ganglia-thalamic loop. Furthermore, EP and IUGR have been related to altered brain network architecture in childhood, with reduced network global capacity, global efficiency and average nodal strength. In this study, we used a connectome analysis to characterize the structural brain networks of these children, with a special focus on their topological organization. On one hand, we confirm the reduced averaged network node degree and strength due to EP and IUGR. On the other, the decomposition of the brain networks in an optimal set of clusters remained substantially different among groups, talking in favor of a different network community structure. However, and despite the different community structure, the brain networks of these high-risk school-age children maintained the typical small-world, rich-club and modularity characteristics in all cases. Thus, our results suggest that brain reorganizes after EP and IUGR, prioritizing a tight modular structure, to maintain the small-world, rich-club and modularity characteristics. By themselves, both extreme prematurity and IUGR bear a similar risk for neurocognitive and behavioral impairment, and the here defined modular network alterations confirm similar structural changes both by IUGR and EP at school age compared to control. Interestingly, the combination of both conditions (IUGR + EP does not result in a worse outcome. In such cases, the alteration

  13. Brain network characterization of high-risk preterm-born school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischi-Gomez, Elda; Muñoz-Moreno, Emma; Vasung, Lana; Griffa, Alessandra; Borradori-Tolsa, Cristina; Monnier, Maryline; Lazeyras, François; Thiran, Jean-Philippe; Hüppi, Petra S

    2016-01-01

    Higher risk for long-term cognitive and behavioral impairments is one of the hallmarks of extreme prematurity (EP) and pregnancy-associated fetal adverse conditions such as intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). While neurodevelopmental delay and abnormal brain function occur in the absence of overt brain lesions, these conditions have been recently associated with changes in microstructural brain development. Recent imaging studies indicate changes in brain connectivity, in particular involving the white matter fibers belonging to the cortico-basal ganglia-thalamic loop. Furthermore, EP and IUGR have been related to altered brain network architecture in childhood, with reduced network global capacity, global efficiency and average nodal strength. In this study, we used a connectome analysis to characterize the structural brain networks of these children, with a special focus on their topological organization. On one hand, we confirm the reduced averaged network node degree and strength due to EP and IUGR. On the other, the decomposition of the brain networks in an optimal set of clusters remained substantially different among groups, talking in favor of a different network community structure. However, and despite the different community structure, the brain networks of these high-risk school-age children maintained the typical small-world, rich-club and modularity characteristics in all cases. Thus, our results suggest that brain reorganizes after EP and IUGR, prioritizing a tight modular structure, to maintain the small-world, rich-club and modularity characteristics. By themselves, both extreme prematurity and IUGR bear a similar risk for neurocognitive and behavioral impairment, and the here defined modular network alterations confirm similar structural changes both by IUGR and EP at school age compared to control. Interestingly, the combination of both conditions (IUGR + EP) does not result in a worse outcome. In such cases, the alteration in network

  14. Potential of diffusion tensor MR imaging in the assessment of cognitive impairments in children with periventricular leukomalacia born preterm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Shanshan, E-mail: jelly_66@126.com [Department of Radiology, The First Hospital, China Medical University, #155, Nanjing North St., Heping Dist., Shenyang, Liaoning 110001 (China); Fan, Guoguang, E-mail: cjr.fanguoguang@vip.163.com [Department of Radiology, The First Hospital, China Medical University, #155, Nanjing North St., Heping Dist., Shenyang, Liaoning 110001 (China); Xu, Ke, E-mail: cjr.xuke@vip.163.com [Department of Radiology, The First Hospital, China Medical University, #155, Nanjing North St., Heping Dist., Shenyang, Liaoning 110001 (China); Wang, Ci, E-mail: xiangxuehai19850224@yahoo.cn [Department of Radiology, The First Hospital, China Medical University, #155, Nanjing North St., Heping Dist., Shenyang, Liaoning 110001 (China)

    2013-01-15

    Purpose: To investigate MR diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and fiber tractography (FT) in the assessment of altered major white matter fibers correlated with cognitive functions in preterm infants with periventricular leukomalacia (PVL), to explore the neural foundation for PVL children's cognitive impairments. Materials and methods: Forty six preterm infants (16 ± 4.7 months) suffered from PVL and 16 age-matched normal controls were recruited. Developmental quotient (DQ) was recorded to evaluate PVL children's cognitive functions. According to the DQ scores, patients were divided into three groups: mild, moderate and severe cognitive impairment groups. DTI scan was performed. Fractional anisotropy (FA) values of major white matter fibers were measured and their correlation with cognitive levels was evaluated. Results: Compared with the control group, the PVL group showed a significant mean FA reduction in bilateral corticospinal tract (CST), anterior/posterior limb of internal capsule (ICAL/ICPL), arcuate fasciculus (AF), corona radiate (CR), superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF), splenium of corpus callosum (SCC) (p < 0.05) and bilateral posterior thalamic radiation (PTR) (p < 0.01). The FA values of left CST, bilateral AF, anterior cingulum (ACG), SLF, ICAL, ICPL, PTR, CR, genu of corpus callosum (GCC), SCC and middle cerebellar peduncle showed significant negative correlations with the cognitive levels. Conclusions: DTI can provide more information for understanding the pathophysiology of cognitive impairment in preterm infants with PVL.

  15. Visuospatial working memory in very preterm and term born children—Impact of age and performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Mürner-Lavanchy

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Working memory is crucial for meeting the challenges of daily life and performing academic tasks, such as reading or arithmetic. Very preterm born children are at risk of low working memory capacity. The aim of this study was to examine the visuospatial working memory network of school-aged preterm children and to determine the effect of age and performance on the neural working memory network. Working memory was assessed in 41 very preterm born children and 36 term born controls (aged 7–12 years using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI and neuropsychological assessment. While preterm children and controls showed equal working memory performance, preterm children showed less involvement of the right middle frontal gyrus, but higher fMRI activation in superior frontal regions than controls. The younger and low-performing preterm children presented an atypical working memory network whereas the older high-performing preterm children recruited a working memory network similar to the controls. Results suggest that younger and low-performing preterm children show signs of less neural efficiency in frontal brain areas. With increasing age and performance, compensational mechanisms seem to occur, so that in preterm children, the typical visuospatial working memory network is established by the age of 12 years.

  16. Birth weight and postnatal growth in preterm born children are associated with cortisol in early infancy, but not at age 8 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruys, Charlotte A; van der Voorn, Bibian; Lafeber, Harrie N; van de Lagemaat, Monique; Rotteveel, Joost; Finken, Martijn J J

    2017-08-01

    Preterm birth has been associated with altered hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA-) axis activity as well as cardiometabolic diseases and neurodevelopmental impairments later in life. We assessed cortisol from term age to age 8 y in children born preterm, to explore the development of HPA-axis activity in association with intrauterine and early-postnatal growth until 6 mo. corrected age. In 152 children born at a gestational age ≤32 wks. and/or with a birth weight ≤1,500g, random serum cortisol was assessed at term age (n=150), 3 mo. (n=145) and 6 mo. corrected age (n=144), and age 8 y (n=59). Salivary cortisol was assessed at age 8 y (n=75): prior to bedtime, at awakening, 15min after awakening, and before lunch. Cortisol was analyzed in association with birth weight-standard deviation score (SDS), being born small for gestational age (SGA), and combinations of intrauterine and postnatal growth: appropriate for gestational age (AGA) with or without growth restriction (AGA GR+ or AGA GR-) at 6 mo. corrected age, and SGA with or without catch-up growth (SGA CUG+ or SGA CUG-) at 6 mo. corrected age. Cross-sectional associations at all time points were analyzed using linear regression, and longitudinal associations were analyzed using generalized estimating equations. Longitudinally, birth weight-SDS was associated with cortisol (β [95%CI]): lower cortisol over time was seen in infants with a birth weight ≤-2 SDS (-50.69 [-94.27; -7.11], p=0.02), infants born SGA (-29.70 [-60.58; 1.19], p=0.06), AGA GR+ infants (-55.10 [-106.02; -4.17], p=0.03) and SGA CUG- infants (-61.91 [-104.73; -19.10], p=0.01). In cross-sectional analyses at age 8 y, no associations were found between either serum or salivary cortisol and birth weight-SDS, SGA-status, or growth from birth to 6 mo. corrected age. In children born preterm, poor intrauterine and postnatal growth were associated with lower cortisol in early infancy, but not at age 8 y. Even though HPA-axis activity no longer

  17. Using Eye Movements to Assess Language Comprehension in Toddlers Born Preterm and Full Term.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loi, Elizabeth C; Marchman, Virginia A; Fernald, Anne; Feldman, Heidi M

    2017-01-01

    To assess language skills in children born preterm and full term by the use of a standardized language test and eye-tracking methods. Children born ≤32 weeks' gestation (n = 44) were matched on sex and socioeconomic status to children born full term (n = 44) and studied longitudinally. The Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition (BSID-III) were administered at 18 months (corrected for prematurity as applicable). The Looking-While-Listening Task (LWL) simultaneously presents 2 pictures and an auditory stimulus that directs the child's attention to one image. The pattern of eye movements reflects visual processing and the efficiency of language comprehension. Children born preterm were evaluated on LWL 3 times between 18 and 24 months. Children born full term were evaluated at ages corresponding to chronological and corrected ages of their preterm match. Results were compared between groups for the BSID-III and 2 LWL measures: accuracy (proportion of time looking at target) and reaction time (latency to shift gaze from distracter to target). Children born preterm had lower BSID-III scores than children born full term. Children born preterm had poorer performance than children born full term on LWL measures for chronological age but similar performance for corrected age. Accuracy and reaction time at 18 months' corrected age displaced preterm-full term group membership as significant predictors of BSID-III scores. Performance and rate of change on language comprehension measures were similar in children born preterm and full term compared at corrected age. Individual variation in language comprehension efficiency was a robust predictor of scores on a standardized language assessment in both groups. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Cognitive and Neuropsychological Outcomes at 5 Years of Age in Preterm Children Born in the 2000s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Annika; Korkman, Marit; Lehtonen, Liisa; Lapinleimu, Helena; Parkkola, Riitta; Matomaki, Jaakko; Haataja, Leena

    2011-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the cognitive level and neuropsychological performance at 5 years of age in children with a very low birthweight (VLBW; birthweight less than 1501g) born in 2001 to 2003. Method: A regional cohort of 97 children with a VLBW (mean gestational age 28wks [SD 3wks]; mean birthweight 1054g [SD 259g]; 50 male; 47…

  19. Mathematics ability and related skills in preschoolers born very preterm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasler, Holly M; Akshoomoff, Natacha

    2017-12-12

    Children born very preterm (VPT) are at risk for academic, behavioral, and/or emotional problems. Mathematics is a particular weakness and better understanding of the relationship between preterm birth and early mathematics ability is needed, particularly as early as possible to aid in early intervention. Preschoolers born VPT (n = 58) and those born full term (FT; n = 29) were administered a large battery of measures within 6 months of beginning kindergarten. A multiple-mediation model was utilized to characterize the difference in skills underlying mathematics ability between groups. Children born VPT performed significantly worse than FT-born children on a measure of mathematics ability as well as full-scale IQ, verbal skills, visual-motor integration, phonological awareness, phonological working memory, motor skills, and executive functioning. Mathematics was significantly correlated with verbal skills, visual-motor integration, phonological processing, and motor skills across both groups. When entered into the mediation model, verbal skills, visual-motor integration, and phonological awareness were significant mediators of the group differences. This analysis provides insights into the pre-academic skills that are weak in preschoolers born VPT and their relationship to mathematics. It is important to identify children who will have difficulties as early as possible, particularly for VPT children who are at higher risk for academic difficulties. Therefore, this model may be used in evaluating VPT children for emerging difficulties as well as an indicator that if other weaknesses are found, an assessment of mathematics should be conducted.

  20. Differential associations between maternal scaffolding and toddler emotion regulation in toddlers born preterm and full term.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Sarah J; Duvall, Susanne W; Fuller, Janell; Schrader, Ron; MacLean, Peggy; Lowe, Jean R

    2013-09-01

    Parental "scaffolding" behavior has been associated with developmental outcomes in at-risk children. Because there are limited empirical data regarding how scaffolding is associated with emotion-based developmental skills, the purpose of this study was to compare associations between maternal verbal scaffolding and toddler emotion regulation, including fewer displays of negative affect and increased contentment and enjoyment during play, in toddlers born preterm and full term. This study was a cross-sectional cohort design. Maternal and toddler behavior was assessed during 5 min of videotaped free play with standardized toys. 131 toddlers (18-22 months) and their mothers were included (77 born preterm; 54 born full term). Toddler emotion regulation, negative affect, and dyadic mutual enjoyment were coded from videotaped play. The association between maternal scaffolding and emotion regulation was different for dyads with a toddler born preterm versus full term, wherein the association was positive for toddlers born preterm and non-significant for toddlers born full term. Similarly, the association between maternal scaffolding and negative affect was different for the two groups: negative for toddlers born preterm and non-significant for toddlers born full term. Finally, the association between maternal scaffolding and mutual enjoyment was positive for toddlers born preterm and non-significant for toddlers born full term. Our findings highlight early differences in mother-child interactive style correlates of children born preterm compared to those born full term. Maternal scaffolding behavior may be uniquely associated with emotion regulation and a positive dyadic encounter for toddlers born preterm. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Difference in mother–child interaction between preterm- and term-born preschoolers with and without disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Potharst, E.S.; Schuengel, C.; Last, B.F.; van Wassenaer, A.G.; Kok, J.H.; Houtzager, B.A.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To investigate differences in the quality of mother-child interaction between preterm- and term-born children at age 5, and to study the association of mother-child interaction with sociodemographic characteristics and child disability. Methods: Preterm children (n = 94), born at <30 weeks'

  2. Developmental trajectories of attention and executive functioning in infants born preterm: The influence of perinatal risk factors and maternal interactive styles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Weijer-Bergsma, E.

    2009-01-01

    Infants born preterm (born before 37 weeks of gestation) are at a heightened risk for developmental delay and learning disabilities. Even children born preterm who have intellectual abilities within the normal range at school age often require special educational services. The preterm population is

  3. Association of maternal scaffolding to maternal education and cognition in toddlers born preterm and full term.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Jean R; Erickson, Sarah J; Maclean, Peggy; Schrader, Ron; Fuller, Janell

    2013-01-01

    Parental behaviour described as 'scaffolding' has been shown to influence outcomes in at-risk children. The purpose of this study was to compare maternal verbal scaffolding in toddlers born preterm and full term. The scaffolding behaviour of mothers of toddlers born preterm and healthy full term was compared during a 5-min videotaped free play session with standardized toys. We compared two types of scaffolding and their associations with socio-demographic, neonatal medical factors and cognition. The mothers of toddlers born full term used more complex scaffolding. Maternal education was associated with complex scaffolding scores for the preterm children only. Specifically, the preterm children who were sicker in the neonatal period, and whose mothers had higher education, used more complex scaffolding. In addition, children born preterm, who had less days of ventilation, had higher cognitive scores when their mothers used more complex scaffolding. Similarly, cognitive and scaffolding scores were higher for children born full term. Our findings highlight early differences in mother-child interactive styles of toddlers born preterm compared with full term. Teaching parents play methods that support early problem-solving skills may support a child's method of exploration and simultaneously their language development. ©2012 The Author(s)/Acta Paediatrica ©2012 Foundation Acta Paediatrica.

  4. Born too soon: care for the preterm baby

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lawn, Joy E; Davidge, Ruth; Paul, Vinod K; von Xylander, Severin; de Graft Johnson, Joseph; Costello, Anthony; Kinney, Mary V; Segre, Joel; Molyneux, Liz

    2013-01-01

    .... An estimated 15 million babies are born preterm, and the survival gap between those born in high and low income countries is widening, with one million deaths a year due to direct complications...

  5. Difference rather than delay in development of elementary visuomotor processes in children born preterm without Celebral Palsy : A quasi-longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Braeckel, K.N.J.A.; Butcher, P.R.; Geuze, R.H.; van Duijn, M.A.J.; Bos, Arie; Bouma, Anke

    Follow-up studies of preterm children without serious neonatal medical complications have consistently found poor visuomotor and visuospatial skills. In the first round of current follow-up study, we found a deficit in elementary visuomotor processes in preterm children without Cerebral Palsy (CP).

  6. Behavioural symptoms of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder in preterm and term children born small and appropriate for gestational age: A longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kajantie Eero

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It remains unclear whether it is more detrimental to be born too early or too small in relation to symptoms of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. Thus, we tested whether preterm birth and small body size at birth adjusted for gestational age are independently associated with symptoms of ADHD in children. Methods A longitudinal regional birth cohort study comprising 1535 live-born infants between 03/15/1985 and 03/14/1986 admitted to the neonatal wards and 658 randomly recruited non-admitted infants, in Finland. The present study sample comprised 828 children followed up to 56 months. The association between birth status and parent-rated ADHD symptoms of the child was analysed with multiple linear and logistic regression analyses. Results Neither prematurity (birth Conclusions Intrauterine growth restriction, reflected in SGA status and lower birth weight, rather than prematurity or lower gestational age per se, may increase risk for symptoms of ADHD in young children.

  7. Correlation between white matter microstructure and executive functions suggests early developmental influence on long fibre tracts in preterm born adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmer, Brigitte; Lundequist, Aiko; Mårtensson, Gustaf; Nagy, Zoltan; Lagercrantz, Hugo; Smedler, Ann-Charlotte; Forssberg, Hans

    2017-01-01

    Executive functions are frequently a weakness in children born preterm. We examined associations of executive functions and general cognitive abilities with brain structure in preterm born adolescents who were born with appropriate weight for gestational age and who have no radiological signs of preterm brain injury on neuroimaging. The Stockholm Neonatal Project (SNP) is a longitudinal, population-based study of children born preterm (adolescents, but not in the term born adolescents. In persons born preterm, in the absence of perinatal brain injury on visual inspection of MRI, widespread alterations in regional brain tissue volumes and microstructure are present in adolescence/young adulthood. Importantly, these alterations in WM tracts are correlated with measures of executive function and general cognitive abilities. Our findings suggest that disturbance of neural pathways, rather than changes in regional brain volumes, are involved in the impaired cognitive functions.

  8. Risk Factor Models for Neurodevelopmental Outcomes in Children Born Very Preterm or With Very Low Birth Weight: A Systematic Review of Methodology and Reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linsell, Louise; Malouf, Reem; Morris, Joan; Kurinczuk, Jennifer J; Marlow, Neil

    2017-04-01

    The prediction of long-term outcomes in surviving infants born very preterm (VPT) or with very low birth weight (VLBW) is necessary to guide clinical management, provide information to parents, and help target and evaluate interventions. There is a large body of literature describing risk factor models for neurodevelopmental outcomes in VPT/VLBW children, yet few, if any, have been developed for use in routine clinical practice or adopted for use in research studies or policy evaluation. We sought to systematically review the methods and reporting of studies that have developed a multivariable risk factor model for neurodevelopment in surviving VPT/VLBW children. We searched the MEDLINE, Embase, and PsycINFO databases from January 1, 1990, to June 1, 2014, and identified 78 studies reporting 222 risk factor models. Most studies presented risk factor analyses that were not intended to be used for prediction, confirming that there is a dearth of specifically designed prognostic modeling studies for long-term outcomes in surviving VPT/VLBW children. We highlight the strengths and weaknesses of the research methodology and reporting to date, and provide recommendations for the design and analysis of future studies seeking to analyze risk prediction or develop prognostic models for VPT/VLBW children. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Quality of life of individuals born preterm: a systematic review of assessment approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Martina Estevam Brom; Linhares, Maria Beatriz Martins

    2016-09-01

    To review the existing literature regarding factors associated with quality of life (QoL) of individuals who were born preterm. The review focuses on assessment approaches and information sources. A systematic review of empirical studies published in PubMed, PsycARTICLES, PsycINFO, LILACS, and SciELO databases between 2007 and 2015. Search terms were chosen that relate preterm birth to QoL. Twenty-two articles were included. Of these, ten investigated QoL in children, six investigated adolescents, and six investigated adults. All studies used generic instruments to assess QoL. There was a high rate of parental report to assess QoL in studies of children. Adolescent and adult studies most often assessed QoL through self-report. Parents of children who were born preterm reported worse QoL for their children compared with parents of children born full term. Teenagers and adults who were born preterm self-reported more positive outcomes in their QoL. The main risk factors associated with worse QoL in children who were born preterm were congenital malformations, mechanical ventilation during the neonatal phase, cognitive impairments, behavioral problems, physical disabilities, low family income, and black race. Agreement between parents and children about QoL in preterm individuals was lower in younger age groups compared with older age groups. The differences in QoL throughout the different age groups may have arisen because of developmental changes or differences in the source of information used (i.e., parent report or self-report). We recommend that QoL assessments in children born preterm should consider both parent report and self-report.

  10. Intellectual Disability in Children Aged Less than Seven Years Born Moderately and Late Preterm Compared with Very Preterm and Term-Born Children--A Nationwide Birth Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirvonen, M.; Ojala, R.; Korhonen, P.; Haataja, P.; Eriksson, K.; Rantanen, K.; Gissler, M.; Luukkaala, T.; Tammela, O.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Prematurity has been shown to be associated with an increased risk of intellectual disability (ID). Method: The aim was to establish whether the prevalence of ID, defined as significant limitations in both intellectual (intelligence quotient below 70) and adaptive functioning among moderately preterm (MP; 32[superscript + 0]-33…

  11. [Nutritional status of adolescents from a cohort of preterm children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Stäger, M Angélica; Rodríguez Fernández, Alejandra; Muñoz Valenzuela, Carolina; Ojeda Sáez, Alejandra; San Martín Navarrete, Ana

    2016-01-01

    Catch-up growth in preterm-born children occurs in the first months of life, but in some cases, growth recovery takes place in adolescence. The objective of this study was to study the growth and development of preterm-born adolescents from a cohort of preterm infants born between 1995 and 1996, who resided in the cities of Chillán and San Carlos in the Biobío Region, Chile. The results were then compared with term-born adolescents. A sample of 91 children from the cohort was studied and compared with 91 term-born adolescents matched for gender, age, and attendance at the same educational institution. The nutritional status was assessed by BMI-for-age, height-for-age, body composition by skinfold, cardiovascular risk due to blood pressure, and waist circumference. There was 23.0% and 24.1% overweight and obesity in preterm-born and term-born adolescents, respectively, with 25.5% of preterm-born and small for gestational age adolescents vs. 14.5% of those born adequate for gestational age were overweight. Lower height was observed in 16.5% and 5.5% of the preterm-born and term-born adolescents, respectively, and with a higher proportion of girls (P<.04). Preterm-born adolescents had a more fat mass than the controls, particularly in the suprailiac skinfold. No significant differences were found in blood pressure and waist circumference. The results indicate that there is a group of preterm-born children who do not recover height during adolescence, especially girls. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Moderately preterm children need attention! : Behavior and development of moderately preterm children at toddler age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, M.

    2016-01-01

    Every year, more than 10.000 children in the Netherlands are born moderately preterm after 32 to 36+6 weeks of gestation, which is 6.1% of all births. These children are at risk for difficulties on the short and long term. Previous studies especially found academic problems and difficulties in

  13. Visual function at 11 years of age in preterm-born children with and without fetal brain sparing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, Joke H.; Prick, Liesbeth; Merckel, Elly; Everhard, Yolande; Verkerk, Gijs J. Q.; Scherjon, Sicco A.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We have demonstrated earlier an accelerated maturation of the visual evoked potential in the first year of life in preterm infants with antenatal brain sparing. We have now assessed visual functioning at 11 years of age in the same cohort and compared the groups with and without brain

  14. Influence of postdischarge nutrition on body composition at 6 years of age among children born very preterm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftlund, Line Hedegaard; Agertoft, Lone; Halken, Susanne

    Background: New research has shown that type of nutrition in early life may affect not only growth but also later body composition and risk of developing metabolic syndrome. Method: A prospective, randomized, interventional multicentre trial on nutrition of a preterm birth cohort has been...

  15. Psychological development of school-age children born preterm in comparison with children born full-term / Desenvolvimento psicológico na fase escolar de crianças nascidas pré-termo em comparação com crianças nascidas a termo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Beatriz Martins Linhares

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to assess psychological development in terms of behavioral, intellectual and emotional indicators of preterm and very low birthweight children at school age in comparison with full-term children. The sample in this study consisted of forty children aged from 8 to 10 years. They were divided into 2 groups: Preterm (PT consisting of 20 children born 2.500g birthweight. Raven's Special Scale, Draw-a-Person and Child Behavior Scale were used in the psychological assessment. PT group presented more behavioral problems and lower intellectual level when compared to the FT group. Enuresis, fear, tics, impatience and lack of focus on activities were significantly more frequent in the PT group than in the FT group. In the PT group the lower the intellectual level of the children the more behavior problems they presented.

  16. Body image and eating behavior in young adults born preterm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matinolli, Hanna-Maria; Männistö, Satu; Sipola-Leppänen, Marika; Tikanmäki, Marjaana; Heinonen, Kati; Lahti, Jari; Lahti, Marius; Wehkalampi, Karoliina; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Andersson, Sture; Lano, Aulikki; Vartia, Timo; Wolke, Dieter; Eriksson, Johan G; Vääräsmäki, Marja; Räikkönen, Katri; Kajantie, Eero

    2016-06-01

    Previous studies have suggested that people born preterm have increased rates of eating disorders (ED). However, a recent study suggested lower levels of ED-related symptoms in the extreme group of adults born preterm with very low birth weight (Body Dissatisfaction (BD), and Bulimia (B). Group differences were examined by linear regression. Young women born early preterm scored 4.1 points (95% CI -8.0, -0.2, P =.04) lower in summed EDI subscale scores than women born at term, when adjusted for age and cohort. This difference was observed also in DT and BD but not for B subscales. The differences persisted after adjustments for current, pre- and neonatal characteristics. We did not observe differences in EDI scores among men or women born late preterm when compared to controls. Women born early preterm have significantly fewer symptoms related to EDs in early adulthood when compared to their peers born at term, which may protect from developing an ED. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. (Int J Eat Disord 2016; 49:572-580). © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Altered microstructural connectivity of the superior and middle cerebellar peduncles are related to motor dysfunction in children with diffuse periventricular leucomalacia born preterm: A DTI tractography study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Shanshan, E-mail: jelly_66@126.com; Fan, Guo Guang, E-mail: cjr.fanguoguang@vip.163.com; Xu, Ke, E-mail: cjr.xuke@vip.163.com; Wang, Ci, E-mail: xiangxuehai19850224@yahoo.cn

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate the microstructural integrity of superior cerebellar peduncles (SCP) and middle cerebellar peduncles (MCP) by using DTI tractography method, and further to detect whether the microstructural integrity of these major cerebellar pathways is related to motor function in children with diffuse periventricular leucomalacia (PVL) born preterm. Materials and methods: 46 children with diffuse PVL (30 males and 16 females; age range 3–48 months; mean age 22.4 ± 6.7 months; mean gestational age 30.5 ± 2.2 weeks) and 40 healthy controls (27 males and 13 females; age range 3.5–48 months; mean age 22.1 ± 5.8 months) were enrolled in this study. DTI outcome measurements, fractional anisotropy (FA), for the SCP, MCP and cortical spinal tract (CST) were calculated. The gross motor function classification system (GMFCS) was used for assessing motor functions. Results: Compared to the controls, patients with diffuse PVL had a significantly lower FA in bilateral SCP, MCP and CST. There was a significant negative correlation between GMFCS levels and FA in bilateral SCP, MCP and CST in the patients group. In addition, significant inverse correlation of FA value was found between not only the contralateral but also the ipsilateral CST and SCP/MCP. Conclusions: These findings suggest that the injury of SCP and MCP may contribute to the motor dysfunction of diffuse PVL. Moreover, the correlations we found between supratentorial and subtentorial injured white matter extend our knowledge about the cerebro-cerebellar white matter interaction in children with diffuse PVL.

  18. Altered microstructural connectivity of the superior and middle cerebellar peduncles are related to motor dysfunction in children with diffuse periventricular leucomalacia born preterm: a DTI tractography study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shanshan; Fan, Guo Guang; Xu, Ke; Wang, Ci

    2014-06-01

    To investigate the microstructural integrity of superior cerebellar peduncles (SCP) and middle cerebellar peduncles (MCP) by using DTI tractography method, and further to detect whether the microstructural integrity of these major cerebellar pathways is related to motor function in children with diffuse periventricular leucomalacia (PVL) born preterm. 46 children with diffuse PVL (30 males and 16 females; age range 3-48 months; mean age 22.4 ± 6.7 months; mean gestational age 30.5 ± 2.2 weeks) and 40 healthy controls (27 males and 13 females; age range 3.5-48 months; mean age 22.1 ± 5.8 months) were enrolled in this study. DTI outcome measurements, fractional anisotropy (FA), for the SCP, MCP and cortical spinal tract (CST) were calculated. The gross motor function classification system (GMFCS) was used for assessing motor functions. Compared to the controls, patients with diffuse PVL had a significantly lower FA in bilateral SCP, MCP and CST. There was a significant negative correlation between GMFCS levels and FA in bilateral SCP, MCP and CST in the patients group. In addition, significant inverse correlation of FA value was found between not only the contralateral but also the ipsilateral CST and SCP/MCP. These findings suggest that the injury of SCP and MCP may contribute to the motor dysfunction of diffuse PVL. Moreover, the correlations we found between supratentorial and subtentorial injured white matter extend our knowledge about the cerebro-cerebellar white matter interaction in children with diffuse PVL. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  19. VISUAL OUTCOME IN PRETERM INFANTS ANALYSIS OF PRETERM INFANTS BORN IN LJUBLJANA 1990–1999

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branka Stirn-Kranjc

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Improved perinatal care has increased the survival rate of prematurely born infants. An epidemiological fact that 6–18% and more visually impaired children were prematurely born, emphasises the effect of premature birth on both visual function and development. Despite better knowledge on retinopathy of prematurity (ROP it is stressed not to underestimate refractive errors, strabismus and visual impairment after brain lesions, being more common in preterm babies.Methods. Over 1300 preterm infants with a birth weight of 1500 g or less and gestational age of 30 weeks or less, born in Maternity Hospital of Ljubljana, Slovenia in the period 1990– 1999 were examined according to contemporary paediatricophthalmologic recommendations. At least one year ophthalmologic follow-up (average 3.5 years of 594 prematurely born infants with high neonatal risk factors for ROP and with general health problems, was performed. Sex, gestational age, birth weight, artificial ventilation, exchange blood transfusion, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, respiratory distress syndrome, apnoea, septicaemia, intraventricular haemorrhage, hyperbilirubinemia were analysed for correlation with ROP and visual impairment.Results. The survival rate of the studied preterm infants was 65–87% (mean 77.3%. ROP stage 1, 2 has developed in 33 children with a birth weight under 900 g and in 10 with a birth weight 900–1200 g (altogether in 8%. ROP stage 3–5 has been registered (with or without plus disease in 7 children (below 6%. In 6 children cryo or argon laser photocoagulation has been performed and vitreoretinal surgery in 1 child (without functional results. In the studied group altogether 4 children (below 1% became blind (visual acuity < 0.05, all of them have had septicaemia. Squint has been registered in 6.9% of children, and has correlated with higher refractive error, mostly myopia. Severe optic nerve atrophy has been noticed already in the first year of follow

  20. Impact of neonatal risk and temperament on behavioral problems in toddlers born preterm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilherme Monte Cassiano, Rafaela; Gaspardo, Claudia Maria; Cordaro Bucker Furini, Guilherme; Martinez, Francisco Eulogio; Martins Linhares, Maria Beatriz

    2016-12-01

    Children born preterm are at risk for later developmental disorders. The present study examined the predictive effects of neonatal, sociodemographic, and temperament characteristics on behavioral outcomes at toddlerhood, in children born preterm. The sample included 100 toddlers born preterm and with very-low-birth-weight, and their mothers. Neonatal characteristics were evaluated using medical records. The mothers were interviewed using the Early Childhood Behavior Questionnaire for temperament assessment, and the Child Behavior Checklist for behavioral assessment. Multiple linear regression analyses were performed. Predictors of 39% of the variability of the total behavioral problems in toddlers born prematurely were: temperament with more Negative Affectivity and less Effortful Control, lower family socioeconomic status, and younger mothers at childbirth. Temperament with more Negative Affectivity and less Effortful Control and lower family socioeconomic status were predictors of 23% of the variability of internalizing behavioral problems. Additionally, 37% of the variability of externalizing behavioral problems was explained by temperament with more Negative Affectivity and less Effortful Control, and younger mothers at childbirth. The neonatal characteristics and stressful events in the neonatal intensive care unit did not predict behavioral problems at toddlerhood. However, temperament was a consistent predictor of behavioral problems in toddlers born preterm. Preventive follow-up programs could assess dispositional traits of temperament to provide early identification of preterm infants at high-risk for behavioral problems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Outcome at Two Years of Very Preterm Infants Born after Rupture of Membranes before Viability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelie Kieffer

    Full Text Available To compare the respiratory and neurological outcomes at two years of age of preterm children born before 33 weeks of gestation (WG after early preterm premature rupture of membranes (EPPROM between 14 and 24 WG with preterm children without EPPROM.This single-center case-control retrospective study was conducted at Rouen University Hospital between 1st January 2000 and 31st December 2010. All the cases with EPPROM born from 26WG to 32WG were included. Each newborn was matched by sex, gestational age (GA and year of birth to two very preterm children, born without EPPROM. At two years of corrected age, motor and cognitive abilities were assessed by routine score based on the Amiel-Tison and Denver developmental scales.Ninety-four cases with EPPROM before 24WG have been included. The 31 children born from 26WG to 32WG were matched with 62 controls. The EPPROM group had poorer clinical evaluation at one year for motor (p = 0.003 and cognitive developmental scores (p = 0.016. Neuromotor rehabilitation was performed more often (p = 0.013. However, there was no difference at 2 years of age. Children born after EPPROM were hospitalized more often for bronchiolitis (p<0.001 during their first 2 years, which correlates with increased incidence of pneumothorax (p = 0.017, pulmonary hypoplasia (p = 0.004 and bronchopulmonary dysplasia (p = 0.005 during neonatal period.At two years, despite an increase in severe bronchiolitis and the need for more neuromotor rehabilitation during the first month of the life after discharge, there was no difference in neurological outcomes in the very preterm children of the EPPROM group compared to those born at a similar GA without EPPROM.

  2. Moderately preterm children need attention! : Behavior and development of moderately preterm children at toddler age

    OpenAIRE

    De Jong, M

    2016-01-01

    Every year, more than 10.000 children in the Netherlands are born moderately preterm after 32 to 36+6 weeks of gestation, which is 6.1% of all births. These children are at risk for difficulties on the short and long term. Previous studies especially found academic problems and difficulties in attention. Although there was increasing interest in the development of moderately preterm children during the last decade, still little was known about the early development and functioning of these ch...

  3. Sex of the first-born and risk of preterm birth in the subsequent pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Laust H; Nielsen, Henriette Svarre; Cnattingius, Sven

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recent data suggest that the chance of successfully maintaining a pregnancy may be influenced by the sex of previously born children. We explored a possible relation between sex of the first-born infant and the risk of preterm birth in the second pregnancy. METHODS: Using data from...... regression analysis was used to estimate the hazard ratio of preterm birth in the second pregnancy according to the sex of the first-born infant. RESULTS: Compared with women whose first baby was a girl, women with boys had an increased risk of preterm birth in a second pregnancy (hazard ratio = 1.10 [95......% confidence interval = 1.07-1.13]). This result was consistent in the 2 populations. The association was not confounded by maternal age, interpregnancy interval, or sex of the second infant or by maternal characteristics that do not vary from one pregnancy to the next. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to a male fetus...

  4. Pain tolerance and pain perception in adolescents born extremely preterm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vederhus, Bente Johanne; Eide, Geir Egil; Natvig, Gerd Karin; Markestad, Trond; Graue, Marit; Halvorsen, Thomas

    2012-10-01

    Neonatal pain experiences have been associated with altered processing and perception of pain in later life, but findings tend to vary among studies. We have compared experimental pain tolerance and subjective health complaints in a population-based cohort of adolescents born extremely preterm to that of matched term controls. Subjects performed a standardized cold pressor task (hand in ice water) and completed validated questionnaires regarding current subjective health complaints, including pain issues. Thirty-one (89%) of 35 eligible preterm subjects (mean gestational age 26.8 weeks) and 28 (80%) term controls participated in this follow-up study at mean age 17.8 years. Ten (32%) subjects born preterm versus 17 (61%) born at term reached the ceiling time of 180 seconds immersion time in the ice water, a hazard ratio for early withdrawal of 2.05 (95% confidence interval, 1.72 to 2.44), with males explaining most of the difference. For subjects born preterm, the risk of early withdrawal decreased significantly with more days of mechanical ventilation, more pain events, and more doses of morphine during the newborn period. Subjective pain ratings during the cold pressor task as well as health-related complaints and pain issues reported in the questionnaires were similar in the preterm and term groups. Despite reduced tolerance to experimental pain, subjects born preterm scored their pain experiences similarly to those of term controls. Surprisingly, preterm subjects exposed to most painful and invasive neonatal experiences and also to most doses of morphine had a pain response at follow-up most closely resembling that of the control group. Copyright © 2012 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Auditory brainstem maturation in normal-hearing infants born preterm : a meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stipdonk, Lottie W; Weisglas-Kuperus, Nynke; Franken, Marie-Christine Jp; Nasserinejad, Kazem; Dudink, Jeroen; Goedegebure, André

    2016-01-01

    AIM: Children born preterm often have neurodevelopmental problems later in life. Abnormal maturation of the auditory brainstem in the presence of normal hearing might be a marker for these problems. We conducted a meta-analysis of auditory brainstem response (ABR) latencies at term age to describe

  6. Anxiety in adolescents born preterm or with very low birthweight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sømhovd, Mikael Julius; Hansen, Bo Mølholm; Brok, Jesper Sune

    2012-01-01

    Aim To determine if adolescents who are born very preterm (anxiety problems. Method We used a systematic review and meta-analysis. We searched the databases ISI Web...... of identified articles. We selected casecontrol studies of adolescents 11 to 20 years old who were very preterm/VLBW and had a matched reference group born at term with normal birthweight that reported a validated anxiety outcome measure. For data extraction, two authors independently reviewed titles, abstracts......, and full articles identified through the searches. Subsequently two authors independently extracted data. Results We included six studies with 1519 adolescents (787 very preterm/VLBW, 732 comparisons). The general risk of developing clinically significant anxiety problems was nearly doubled (p

  7. Brain imaging and neurodevelopmental outcome at school age in preterm-born infants: Effects of neonatal hydrocortisone treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rademaker, K.J.

    2006-01-01

    A 2-year cohort of 236 preterm-born infants (gestational age < 32 weeks and/or birth weight < 1500 grams), born between March 1, 1991 and March 1, 1993 and admitted to the NICU of the Wilhelmina Children's Hospital, was evaluated at school age. This cohort represented 83.4% of the surviving

  8. Sensory modulation in preterm children: Theoretical perspective and systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bröring, Tinka; Oostrom, Kim J; Lafeber, Harrie N; Jansma, Elise P; Oosterlaan, Jaap

    2017-01-01

    Neurodevelopmental sequelae in preterm born children are generally considered to result from cerebral white matter damage and noxious effects of environmental factors in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Cerebral white matter damage is associated with sensory processing problems in terms of registration, integration and modulation. However, research into sensory processing problems and, in particular, sensory modulation problems, is scarce in preterm children. This review aims to integrate available evidence on sensory modulation problems in preterm infants and children (children (children. Although prematurity may distort various aspects of sensory modulation, the nature and severity of sensory modulation problems differ widely between studies. Sensory modulation problems may play a key role in understanding neurocognitive and behavioral sequelae in preterm children. Some support is found for a dose-response relationship between both white matter brain injury and length of NICU stay and sensory modulation problems.

  9. Cognitive Development Trajectories of Very Preterm and Typically Developing Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangin, Kathryn S.; Horwood, L. J.; Woodward, Lianne J.

    2017-01-01

    Cognitive impairment is common among children born very preterm (VPT), yet little is known about how this risk changes over time. To examine this issue, a regional cohort of 110 VPT (= 32 weeks gestation) and 113 full-term (FT) born children was prospectively assessed at ages 4, 6, 9, and 12 years using the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of…

  10. Sensory modulation in preterm children: Theoretical perspective and systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tinka Bröring

    Full Text Available Neurodevelopmental sequelae in preterm born children are generally considered to result from cerebral white matter damage and noxious effects of environmental factors in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU. Cerebral white matter damage is associated with sensory processing problems in terms of registration, integration and modulation. However, research into sensory processing problems and, in particular, sensory modulation problems, is scarce in preterm children.This review aims to integrate available evidence on sensory modulation problems in preterm infants and children (<37 weeks of gestation and their association with neurocognitive and behavioral problems.Relevant studies were extracted from PubMed, EMBASE.com and PsycINFO following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA guidelines. Selection criteria included assessment of sensory modulation in preterm born children (<37 weeks of gestation or with prematurity as a risk factor.Eighteen studies were included. Results of this review support the presence of sensory modulation problems in preterm children. Although prematurity may distort various aspects of sensory modulation, the nature and severity of sensory modulation problems differ widely between studies.Sensory modulation problems may play a key role in understanding neurocognitive and behavioral sequelae in preterm children. Some support is found for a dose-response relationship between both white matter brain injury and length of NICU stay and sensory modulation problems.

  11. Nature and origins of mathematics difficulties in very preterm children: a different etiology than developmental dyscalculia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simms, Victoria; Gilmore, Camilla; Cragg, Lucy; Clayton, Sarah; Marlow, Neil; Johnson, Samantha

    2015-02-01

    Children born very preterm (mathematics learning difficulties that are out of proportion to other academic and cognitive deficits. However, the etiology of mathematics difficulties in very preterm children is unknown. We sought to identify the nature and origins of preterm children's mathematics difficulties. One hundred and fifteen very preterm children aged 8-10 y were assessed in school with a control group of 77 term-born classmates. Achievement in mathematics, working memory, visuospatial processing, inhibition, and processing speed were assessed using standardized tests. Numerical representations and specific mathematics skills were assessed using experimental tests. Very preterm children had significantly poorer mathematics achievement, working memory, and visuospatial skills than term-born controls. Although preterm children had poorer performance in specific mathematics skills, there was no evidence of imprecise numerical representations. Difficulties in mathematics were associated with deficits in visuospatial processing and working memory. Mathematics difficulties in very preterm children are associated with deficits in working memory and visuospatial processing not numerical representations. Thus, very preterm children's mathematics difficulties are different in nature from those of children with developmental dyscalculia. Interventions targeting general cognitive problems, rather than numerical representations, may improve very preterm children's mathematics achievement.

  12. Phenotypic Differences in Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder Born Preterm and at Term Gestation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, Katherine; Wink, Logan K.; Pottenger, Amy; McDougle, Christopher J.; Erickson, Craig

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the study was to characterize the phenotype of males and females with autism spectrum disorder born preterm versus those born at term. Descriptive statistical analyses identified differences between male and female autism spectrum disorder subjects born preterm compared to term for several phenotypic characteristics and…

  13. Low Birth Weight in Children Born to Mothers with Hyperthyroidism and High Birth Weight in Hypothyroidism, whereas Preterm Birth Is Common in Both Conditions: A Danish National Hospital Register Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Stine Linding; Olsen, Jørn; Wu, Chun Sen; Laurberg, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Maternal hyper- and hypothyroidism have been associated with increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes, but studies have led to inconsistent results. We aimed to identify children born to mothers with a hospital-recorded diagnosis of thyroid dysfunction in Denmark and to study the association with gestational age at delivery and birth weight of the child. Study Design Population-based cohort study using Danish nationwide registers. All singleton live births in Denmark between January 1, 1978 and December 31, 2006 were identified and stratified by maternal diagnosis of hyper- or hypothyroidism registered in the Danish National Hospital Register before January 1, 2007. Results Maternal first-time diagnosis of thyroid dysfunction before, during or after pregnancy was registered in 32,809 (2.0%) of the singleton live births (n = 1,638,338). Maternal diagnosis of hyperthyroidism (adjusted OR 1.22, 95% CI 1.15-1.30) and hypothyroidism (adjusted OR 1.17, 95% CI 1.08-1.27) were associated with increased risk of preterm birth. Moreover, birth weight in children born to mothers with a diagnosis of hyperthyroidism was lower (adjusted difference −51 g, 95% CI −58 to −43 g) and higher in relation to maternal hypothyroidism (adjusted difference 20 g, 95% CI 10-30 g). Hyperthyroidism was associated with small-for-gestational-age (adjusted OR 1.15, 95% CI 1.10-1.20) and hypothyroidism with large-for-gestational-age children (adjusted OR 1.24, 95% CI 1.17-1.31). Conclusions Based on Danish nationwide registers, both maternal hyper- and hypothyroidism were associated with increased risk of preterm birth. Actual birth weight of the child and birth weight for gestational age were low if the mother had a diagnosis of hyperthyroidism and high if the diagnosis was hypothyroidism. PMID:24783052

  14. Sensory modulation in preterm children: Theoretical perspective and systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bröring, Tinka; Oostrom, Kim J.; Lafeber, Harrie N.; Jansma, Elise P.; Oosterlaan, Jaap

    2017-01-01

    Background Neurodevelopmental sequelae in preterm born children are generally considered to result from cerebral white matter damage and noxious effects of environmental factors in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Cerebral white matter damage is associated with sensory processing problems in

  15. Cognitive Visual Dysfunctions in Preterm Children with Periventricular Leukomalacia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazzi, Elisa; Bova, Stefania; Giovenzana, Alessia; Signorini, Sabrina; Uggetti, Carla; Bianchi, Paolo

    2009-01-01

    Aim: Cognitive visual dysfunctions (CVDs) reflect an impairment of the capacity to process visual information. The question of whether CVDs might be classifiable according to the nature and distribution of the underlying brain damage is an intriguing one in child neuropsychology. Method: We studied 22 children born preterm (12 males, 10 females;…

  16. Neonatal White Matter Abnormality Predicts Childhood Motor Impairment in Very Preterm Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spittle, Alicia J.; Cheong, Jeanie; Doyle, Lex W.; Roberts, Gehan; Lee, Katherine J.; Lim, Jeremy; Hunt, Rod W.; Inder, Terrie E.; Anderson, Peter J.

    2011-01-01

    Aim: Children born very preterm are at risk for impaired motor performance ranging from cerebral palsy (CP) to milder abnormalities, such as developmental coordination disorder. White matter abnormalities (WMA) at term have been associated with CP in very preterm children; however, little is known about the impact of WMA on the range of motor…

  17. Born early and born poor: An eco-bio-developmental model for poverty and preterm birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumberg, H L; Shah, S I

    2015-01-01

    Poverty is associated with adverse long-term cognitive outcomes in children. Poverty is also linked with preterm delivery which, in turn, is associated with adverse cognitive outcomes. However, the extent of the effect of poverty on preterm delivery, as well as proposed mechanisms by which they occur, have not been well described. Further, the impact of poverty on preterm school readiness has not been reviewed. As the childhood poverty level continues to increase in the U.S., we examine the evidence around physiological, neurological, cognitive and learning outcomes associated with prematurity in the context of poverty. We use the evidence gathered to suggest an Eco-Bio-Developmental model, emphasizing poverty as a toxic stress which predisposes preterm birth and which, via epigenetic forces, can continue into the next generation. Continued postnatal social disadvantage for these developmentally high-risk preterm infants is strongly linked with poor neurodevelopmental outcomes, decreased school readiness, and decreased educational attainment which can perpetuate the poverty cycle. We suggest social remedies aimed at decreasing the impact of poverty on mothers, fathers, and children which may be effective in reducing the burden of preterm birth.

  18. Child and environmental factors associated with leisure participation in adolescents born extremely preterm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahan-Oliel, Noémi; Mazer, Barbara; Maltais, Désirée B; Riley, Patricia; Nadeau, Line; Majnemer, Annette

    2014-10-01

    Developmental impairments persist among adolescents born extremely preterm, and these individuals are at an increased risk for chronic disease later in life. Participating in active and positive leisure activities may act as a buffer against negative outcomes, but involvement in active-physical and skill-based activities is low in youth born preterm. To explore the child and environmental determinants of leisure participation among adolescents born extremely preterm. Cross-sectional study. Participants were recruited from the hospital's Neonatal Follow-Up Program and included 128 adolescents born preterm (mean gestational age: 26.5 weeks). Leisure participation was assessed using the Children's Assessment of Participation and Enjoyment. Potential determinants were assessed using standardized tests and questionnaires. Selected factors were entered into five separate multivariable regression models. Child and environmental factors contributed between 21% (skill-based) and 52% (active physical) of the adjusted variance for participation intensity. Lower gestational age was associated with greater participation in recreational activities. Male sex, higher maternal education and better motor competence were associated with involvement in active-physical activities. Being older and feeling socially accepted were associated with participation in social activities. Families oriented to hobbies and higher maternal education were associated with participation in skill-based activities. Preference was the strongest determinant of participation in all five leisure activities. Activities should be adapted to individual skill level, include family and peers, foster social acceptance and be driven by the adolescent's preferences. Although certain factors cannot be modified, they can be used to identify adolescents at risk for low participation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Variations in Early Attachment Mechanisms Contribute to Attachment Quality: Case Studies Including Babies Born Preterm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witting, Andrea; Ruiz, Nina; Ahnert, Lieselotte

    2016-01-01

    Three boys (an extremely preterm, a moderate preterm twin and a full-term toddler; all 12 to 15 months old) were selected from a large sample to investigate mechanisms of parent-child attachments, specifically of babies born preterm. Attachments were observed at home with the Attachment-Q-Sort (AQS) as well as in the lab with the Strange Situation…

  20. DISORDERS OF THE SOUND ARTICULATION IN PRETERM CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesela MILANKOV

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Speech and language development is a good indicator of child’s cognitive development. The risk factors influencing development and functioning of prematurely born children are multiple. In addition to articulation disorder, there are motoric, conginitive and social aspects of delayed development. Premature babies are born before they physically ready to leave the womb. However, most babies born after about 26 weeks of gestational age have chances for survival, but they are at a greater risk of medical complications, since the earlier children are born, the less developed their organs are. Aim: To demonstrate basic parameters, establish differences, determine characteristics of disorder of sound articulation in fullterm and preterm children. Methodology: Research was conducted at the Clinics of Child’s Habilitation and Rehabilitation in Novi Sad. The prospective research study was carried out comprising 61 children with mean age of 4 years. The study inclusion criteria were gestational age and birth weight. Regarding these parameters, the children without major neurlologic or system disabilities were included, and they were Serbian speaking. The sample comprised 31 children with GS≥38 weeks and body weight of ≥3000 g, while the preterm group comprised 30 children with GS≤32 weeks and body weight of ≤1500 g. Results of the study indicate to a difference between fullterm children and preterm children with regard to articulation disorders, of which the statistically significant was a sound distortion. The overall sample showed that the substitution with distortion was most frequent disorder, while the interdental sigmatism was the most represented one. Conclusion: The obtained results lead to conclusion that preterm children, being a high-risk group, need to be followed up by age two, and provided timely proffesional help at pre-school age, since numerous adverse factors affect their overall development.

  1. Influence of Socioeconomic Context on the Rehospitalization Rates of Infants Born Preterm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laugier, Olivia; Garcia, Patricia; Boucékine, Mohamed; Daguzan, Alexandre; Tardieu, Sophie; Sambuc, Roland; Boubred, Farid

    2017-11-01

    To investigate the impact of social inequalities on the risk of rehospitalization in the first year after discharge from the neonatal unit in a population of preterm-born children. Preterm infants were included if they were born between 2006 and 2013 at ≤32 + 6 weeks of gestation and who received follow-up in a French regional medical network with a high level of healthcare. Socioeconomic context was estimated using a neighborhood-based socioeconomic deprivation index. Univariate and logistic regression analyses were used to identify risk factors associated with rehospitalization. For the 2325 children, the mean gestational age was 29 ± 2 weeks and the mean birth weight was 1315 ± 395 g. In the first year, 22% were rehospitalized (n = 589); respiratory diseases were the primary cause (44%). The multiple rehospitalization rate was 18%. Multivariable analysis showed that living in the most deprived neighborhoods (socioeconomic deprivation index of 5) was associated with overall rehospitalization (OR, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.5-3.6; P <.001), and multiple rehospitalizations (OR, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.2-4.9; P <.01); with socioeconomic deprivation index of 1 (least deprived) as reference. Deprivation was associated with all causes of hospitalization. Female sex (P <.001) and living in an urban area (P = .001) were protective factors. Despite regional routine follow-up for all children, rehospitalization after very preterm birth was higher for children living in deprived neighborhoods. Families' social circumstances need to be considered when evaluating the health consequences of very preterm birth. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. HORMONAL AND ULTRASOUND PARAMETERS OF THE UTERUS AND APPENDAGES IN ADOLESCENT GIRLS BORN PRETERM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Светлана Ивановна Елгина

    2017-11-01

    Conclusion. The ovarian reserve in adolescent girls born preterm compared to full-term girls was estimated. Miscarriage makes a change in the formation of the reproductive system in postnatal period. The differences specified in the parameters of ovarian reserve in adolescent girls born preterm show the immaturity and hypofunction of the reproductive system.

  3. Coronary Heart Disease and Stroke in Adults Born Preterm - The Helsinki Birth Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajantie, Eero; Osmond, Clive; Eriksson, Johan G

    2015-11-01

    Adults born preterm have increased risk factors for cardiovascular disease. We studied the cumulative incidence of manifest coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke in adults born preterm. We studied 19 015 people born in Helsinki, Finland, during 1924-44. Of them, 137 (0.7%) were born early (preterm (34 to preterm. For stroke, they were 0.84 (0.50, 1.39) and 0.86 (0.71, 1.06). HRs were little changed when adjusted for childhood and adult socio-economic position and birthweight for gestation standard deviation score. They were similar for first-ever events before or after 65 years, for haemorrhagic and thrombotic stroke, and for men and women, except that the HR for CHD for women born early preterm was 1.98 (1.18, 3.30). We found no increased risk of CHD or stroke up to old age in people born preterm, although women born early preterm had a higher rate of CHD. There is a discrepancy between increased risk factors in younger generations born preterm and little or no increase in manifest disease in older age. Uncovering reasons underlying this discrepancy may give important insights into the prevention of cardiovascular disease. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Long-term neurodevelopmental outcomes of infants born late preterm: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tripathi T

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Tanya Tripathi,1 Stacey C Dusing2,3 1Rehabilitation and Movement Science Program, Department of Physical Therapy, 2Department of Physical Therapy, 3Department of Pediatrics, Children's Hospital of Richmond, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA, USA Purpose: Late preterm (LPT births constitute a large proportion of the preterm births in the USA. Over the last few decades, there has been an increase in research focusing on the neurodevelopment of infants born LPT. The purpose of this research was to systematically review the long-term neurodevelopmental outcomes in LPT infants. Materials and methods: We identified studies by using PubMed, ERIC, CINAHL, and PsycINFO databases. The references of included papers were reviewed for additional papers that met the inclusion criteria. Included papers compared motor, cognitive, language development, or academic performance outcomes between individuals born LPT and a term control group assessed between 12 months and 18 years of age. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses standards for systematic reviews were utilized including a two-step, two-investigator review process. Results: Of the 4,720 studies found in the initial search, 20 studies met the inclusion criteria. Approximately 75% of the 16 studies that assessed cognitive outcomes reported cognitive delay in the LPT group when compared to their full-term counterparts. More than 50% of the seven studies that assessed motor outcomes suggested a delay in motor development in the LPT group in comparison to full-term. Fewer papers assessed academic performance and language in children born LPT; however, the majority identified borderline differences when LPT infants were compared to those born full-term. Conclusion: Evidence suggests that infants born LPT are at an increased risk of neurodevelopmental delay between 1 and 18 years of life when compared to those born at term. The delay is most evident in the cognitive

  5. Do Healthy Preterm Children Need Neuropsychological Follow-Up? Preschool Outcomes Compared with Term Peers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dall'Oglio, Anna M.; Rossiello, Barbara; Coletti, Maria F.; Bultrini, Massimiliano; De Marchis, Chiara; Rava, Lucilla; Caselli, Cristina; Paris, Silvana; Cuttini, Marina

    2010-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to determine neuropsychological performance (possibly predictive of academic difficulties) and its relationship with cognitive development and maternal education in healthy preterm children of preschool age and age-matched comparison children born at term. Method : A total of 35 infants who were born at less than 33…

  6. Born Too Soon: Care during pregnancy and childbirth to reduce preterm deliveries and improve health outcomes of the preterm baby

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    implemented in conjunction with antenatal care models that promote women's empowerment as a strategy for reducing preterm delivery. The global community needs to support more discovery research on normal and abnormal pregnancies to facilitate the development of preventive interventions for universal application. As new evidence is generated, resources need to be allocated to its translation into new and better screening and diagnostic tools, and other interventions aimed at saving maternal and newborn lives that can be brought to scale in all countries. Declaration This article is part of a supplement jointly funded by Save the Children's Saving Newborn Lives programme through a grant from The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation and March of Dimes Foundation and published in collaboration with the Partnership for Maternal, Newborn and Child Health and the World Health Organization (WHO). The original article was published in PDF format in the WHO Report "Born Too Soon: the global action report on preterm birth" (ISBN 978 92 4 150343 30), which involved collaboration from more than 50 organizations. The article has been reformatted for journal publication and has undergone peer review according to Reproductive Health's standard process for supplements and may feature some variations in content when compared to the original report. This co-publication makes the article available to the community in a full-text format. PMID:24625215

  7. A Psychological Perspective on Preterm Children: The Influence of Contextual Factors on Quality of Family Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatta, Michela; Miscioscia, Marina; Svanellini, Lorenza; Peraro, Chiara; Simonelli, Alessandra

    2017-01-01

    Preterm birth has a critical influence on interactive, communicative, and expressive child behaviour, particularly during the first years of life. Few studies have stressed the assessment of mother-father-child interaction in families with preterm children, generating contradictory results. The present study wished to develop these fields: (i) comparing the quality of family interactions between families with preterm children and families with children born at full term; (ii) observing the development of family interactions after six months in the families with children born preterm; (iii) assessing family and contextual factors, as parental stress and social support, in parents of preterm children in order to observe their influence on the quality of family interactions. 78 families are recruited: 39 families with preterm children (M = 19,8 months, SD = 11,05) and 39 families with full-term children (M = 19,66 months; SD = 13,10). Results show that families with preterm children display a low quality of mother-father-child interactions. After six months, family interactions result is generally stable, except for some LTP-scales reflecting a hard adjustment of parenting style to the evolution of the child. In families with preterm children, the parenting stress seemed to be correlated with the quality of mother-father-child interactions.

  8. A Psychological Perspective on Preterm Children: The Influence of Contextual Factors on Quality of Family Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michela Gatta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Preterm birth has a critical influence on interactive, communicative, and expressive child behaviour, particularly during the first years of life. Few studies have stressed the assessment of mother-father-child interaction in families with preterm children, generating contradictory results. The present study wished to develop these fields: (i comparing the quality of family interactions between families with preterm children and families with children born at full term; (ii observing the development of family interactions after six months in the families with children born preterm; (iii assessing family and contextual factors, as parental stress and social support, in parents of preterm children in order to observe their influence on the quality of family interactions. 78 families are recruited: 39 families with preterm children (M = 19,8 months, SD = 11,05 and 39 families with full-term children (M = 19,66 months; SD = 13,10. Results show that families with preterm children display a low quality of mother-father-child interactions. After six months, family interactions result is generally stable, except for some LTP-scales reflecting a hard adjustment of parenting style to the evolution of the child. In families with preterm children, the parenting stress seemed to be correlated with the quality of mother-father-child interactions.

  9. Eosinophilia in Preterm Born Infants Infected with Chlamydia trachomatis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Hurtado, Marcela; Arteaga-Troncoso, Gabriel; Sosa-González, Irma E; de Haro-Cruz, Maria de Jesus; Flores-Salazar, Veronica R; Guerra-Infante, Fernando Martín

    2016-01-01

    A higher than 350 eosinophils/mm(3) is strongly associated with Chlamydia trachomatis in term born babies coursing with respiratory distress. However, in preterm newborns infected with this pathogen, the levels of eosinophils are unknown. Forty newborn infants with clinical data of respiratory problems and/or sepsis were analyzed. DNA of leukocytes from peripheral blood was used to identify C. trachomatis. Detection of chlamydial infection was performed by amplifying the ompA gene by an in-house PCR, and eosinophil levels were evaluated in an XT-2000-hematology analyzer. Eighteen infants showed chlamydial infection and 14 of them showed pneumonia (RR = 2.6; CI95% 1.03-6.5; p =.027). Their eosinophil levels were 719 ± 614 cells/mm(3). A significant association between eosinophilia ≥1250 cells/mm(3) and gestational age of less than 29 weeks (RR = 5.8; 1.35; CI95% [1.4-24.5], p <.008) was observed. The preterm infants with chlamydial infection did not show higher eosinophil levels than uninfected infants.

  10. Estudo longitudinal do desenvolvimento de crianças nascidas pré-termo no primeiro ano pós-natal Longitudinal study of the development of children born preterm in the first year of post-natal age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabíola Dantas Andréz Nobre

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar indicadores de desenvolvimento de crianças nascidas pré-termo e comparar o desempenho nas faixas de 5 a 7 e 10 a 14 meses de idade corrigida. Foram relacionados indicadores do desenvolvimento com variáveis neonatais e do ambiente familiar e sexo. Trinta crianças foram avaliadas pelo Denver-II. As cuidadoras responderam à entrevista e o prontuário médico foi analisado. Na faixa de 5 a 7 meses, 20 % das crianças apresentaram risco para problemas de desenvolvimento e 27% de 10 a 14 meses. Houve diferença significativa entre as fases com mais risco na linguagem na faixa de 10 a 14 meses. As crianças nascidas com menor peso e idade gestacional, que permaneceram mais tempo hospitalizadas e com situações familiares adversas apresentaram mais problemas de desenvolvimento.The aim of the study was to assess the development of children born preterm and to compare the performance in the ranges of 5-7 and 10-14 months of corrected age. The children's development indicators and the variables of neonatal period and familial environment were correlated. Thirty children were assessed by Denver-II. The caregivers were interviewed and the medical chart was examined. Twenty per cent of children presented risk for developmental problems at 5-7 months, and 27% at 10-14 months. There was statistical significant difference between ages in language, with high risk at 10-14. The children with lower birthweight, lower gestational age, longer time stay in the hospital, and with adverse family situations showed higher risk for developmental problems.

  11. White matter and cognition in adults who were born preterm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew P G Allin

    Full Text Available Individuals born very preterm (before 33 weeks of gestation, VPT are at risk of damage to developing white matter, which may affect later cognition and behaviour.We used diffusion tensor MRI (DT-MRI to assess white matter microstructure (fractional anisotropy; FA in 80 VPT and 41 term-born individuals (mean age 19.1 years, range 17-22, and 18.5 years, range 17-22 years, respectively. VPT individuals were part of a 1982-1984 birth cohort which had been followed up since birth; term individuals were recruited by local press advertisement. General intellectual function, executive function and memory were assessed.The VPT group had reduced FA in four clusters, and increased FA in four clusters relative to the Term group, involving several association tracts of both hemispheres. Clusters of increased FA were associated with more severe neonatal brain injury in the VPT group. Clusters of reduced FA were associated with lower birth weight and perinatal hypoxia, and with reduced adult cognitive performance in the VPT group only.Alterations of white matter microstructure persist into adulthood in VPT individuals and are associated with cognitive function.

  12. Social representations of premature birth from the perspective of individuals born preterm in the 1990s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavy, Pía; Violeta Prina, Martina; Martínez Cáceres, María José; Bauer, Gabriela

    2015-01-01

    Prematurity is a public health problem that calls to focus on its causes and consequences through a trans disciplinary approach. There are no studies analyzing premature birth from the perspective of individuals born preterm. To identify social representations associated with premature birth of individuals born preterm in the 1990s in Argentina. Twelve focus groups were conducted with individuals born preterm with a birth weightPrematurity is a significant element, especially in those who suffered major sequelae. Adolescents and youth give a warning on the negative effects caused by overprotective parents and reveal the possibility of redefining the challenges associated with their history of premature birth.

  13. Desenvolvimento psicológico na fase escolar de crianças nascidas pré-termo em comparação com crianças nascidas a termo Psychological development of school-age children born preterm in comparison with children born full-term

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Beatriz Martins Linhares

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo objetivou avaliar indicadores do desenvolvimento psicológico na fase escolar de crianças nascidas pré-termo com muito baixo peso e compará-los aos de crianças nascidas a termo, quanto às áreas intelectual, emocional e comportamental. A amostra foi composta por 40 crianças de 8 a 10 anos, subdivididas em 2 grupos: Pré-termo (PT, 20 crianças nascidas 2.500g. Foram utilizados o Raven, o Desenho da Figura Humana e a Escala Comportamental Infantil. As crianças PT apresentaram mais freqüentemente nível intelectual inferior à média e problemas comportamentais em comparação às AT. Não houve diferença entre os grupos quanto aos aspectos emocionais. Os problemas de enurese, medo, tiques, impaciência e dificuldade de permanência nas atividades foram significativamente mais freqüentes no PT do que no AT. Verificou-se que, no grupo PT, quanto menor o nível intelectual das crianças, mais problemas de comportamento elas apresentavam.The present study aims to assess psychological development in terms of behavioral, intellectual and emotional indicators of preterm and very low birthweight children at school age in comparison with full-term children. The sample in this study consisted of forty children aged from 8 to 10 years. They were divided into 2 groups: Preterm (PT consisting of 20 children born 2.500g birthweight. Raven's Special Scale, Draw-a-Person and Child Behavior Scale were used in the psychological assessment. PT group presented more behavioral problems and lower intellectual level when compared to the FT group. Enuresis, fear, tics, impatience and lack of focus on activities were significantly more frequent in the PT group than in the FT group. In the PT group the lower the intellectual level of the children the more behavior problems they presented.

  14. Delivery room management of term and preterm newly born infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saugstad, Ola Didrik

    2015-01-01

    Delivery room management, especially in the first 'golden' minute, is of the utmost importance. An exact and universal definition of when a baby is born is needed to obtain agreement on what is meant by the first minute of life. Education of young girls is a basic requirement to optimize the health of the mother and baby. Interventions in pregnancy should as far as possible be evidence based. Antenatal care, the selection of birth mode and antenatal steroid therapy when indicated also contribute to obtaining the best outcome. Delayed cord clamping is recommended for both preterm and term infants. However, more data are needed regarding the most immature infants. Routine suctioning of the mouth and airways is not required. Thermal control is important - keep the temperature in the delivery room at 26°C and wrap infants plastic. However, this procedure does not reduce mortality. Since delayed cord clamping increases mean birth weight by approximately 30 g/kg, the present birth weight charts based on early clamping need to be corrected. Preterm infants in need of ventilatory support should start with CPAP from the first breath. A T-piece device seems to have some advantages compared to self-inflating bags. Surfactant instillation is often not needed prophylactically provided the mother has received antenatal steroids. Less invasive methods for administering surfactant may be useful. If ventilatory support is needed, start with air in term and near-term infants. For babies of 29-33 weeks of gestation start with 21-30% oxygen and for infants <29 weeks start with 30% oxygen and adjust according to the response obtained. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Reading abilities in school-aged preterm children: a review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovachy, Vanessa N; Adams, Jenna N; Tamaresis, John S; Feldman, Heidi M

    2015-05-01

    Children born preterm (at ≤32wks) are at risk of developing deficits in reading ability. This meta-analysis aims to determine whether or not school-aged preterm children perform worse than those born at term in single-word reading (decoding) and reading comprehension. Electronic databases were searched for studies published between 2000 and 2013, which assessed decoding or reading comprehension performance in English-speaking preterm and term-born children aged between 6 years and 13 years, and born after 1990. Standardized mean differences in decoding and reading comprehension scores were calculated. Nine studies were suitable for analysis of decoding, and five for analysis of reading comprehension. Random-effects meta-analyses showed that children born preterm had significantly lower scores (reported as Cohen's d values [d] with 95% confidence intervals [CIs]) than those born at term for decoding (d=-0.42, 95% CI -0.57 to -0.27, preading comprehension (d=-0.57, 95% CI -0.68 to -0.46, preading comprehension (Q[1]=4.69, p=0.03) between preterm and term groups. Differences between groups increased with age for reading comprehension (Q[1]=5.10, p=0.02) and, although not significant, there was also a trend for increased group differences for decoding (Q[1]=3.44, p=0.06). Preterm children perform worse than peers born at term on decoding and reading comprehension. These findings suggest that preterm children should receive more ongoing monitoring for reading difficulties throughout their education. © 2014 Mac Keith Press.

  16. Declining cognitive development from 8 to 18 months in preterm children predicts persisting higher parenting stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brummelte, Susanne; Grunau, Ruth E; Synnes, Anne R; Whitfield, Michael F; Petrie-Thomas, Julianne

    2011-04-01

    Higher parenting stress in mothers of children born very preterm may be in part a response to poorer neurobehavioral development, reflecting realistic concerns in addition to adaptation to the trauma of preterm delivery. To our knowledge, there are few longitudinal studies of parenting stress that have addressed child cognitive competence. To examine parenting stress in preterm and full-term children at 8 and 18 months corrected chronological age (CCA), in relation to child cognitive development and behavior. Participants were N=152 children (98 preterm born ≤32 weeks gestation, and 54 full-term) seen at 8 and 18 months CCA, and the primary caregiver parent. STUDY DESIGN/OUTCOME MEASURES: The Parenting Stress Index questionnaire was completed by a parent, child interactive behavior was videotaped, and the Bayley Scales of Infant Development (BSID II, Mental Development Index; MDI) were administered at both ages. Total Parenting Stress was higher in preterm than full-term children at 8 and 18 months CCA (pparenting stress for preterm children. For full-term children, number of children in the home and child interactive behavior predicted parental stress at 18 months. Higher parenting stress persisting to 18 months CCA in preterm children may partly reflect realistic parental concerns with their child's development. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Dysphonia in extremely preterm children: A longitudinal observation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Victoria; Meldrum, Suzanne; Simmer, Karen; Vijayasekaran, Shyan; French, Noel

    2016-12-01

    Dysphonia is a potential long-term complication of preterm birth. Childhood voice disorders caused by vocal hyperfunction resolve with pubertal changes to the vocal mechanism in many cases. In extremely preterm children, whose voice quality is affected by supraglottic hyperfunction adapted secondary to underlying structural laryngeal pathology sustained during neonatal intubation, the prognosis is unknown. A pilot study was conducted to assess the incidence and severity of dysphonia in children born at dysphonia severity scores were significantly lower on repeat assessment, but no differences were observed in objective or quality of life scores. Individual variation was observed: the difference in CAPE-V scores ranged from -36 to + 1. No participant presented with normal voice quality on repeat assessment. Analysis of group data masked individual variability in this series. Mechanisms underlying such individual variation are currently unknown. These data suggest that dysphonia is persistent in extremely preterm children. Further investigation is warranted to elucidate the progression of voice disorders in extremely preterm children, to inform prognostic predictors and treatment decisions.

  18. Feeding behaivour problems in infants born preterm: a psychological perspective. Preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kmita, Grażyna; Urmańska, Wanda; Kiepura, Eliza; Polak, Krystyna

    2011-01-01

    The study was aimed at exploring feeding behaviour problems reported by parents of premature infants during the first 12 months corrected age. A subsample of families enrolled in a larger, prospective project on psychological and biological predictors of self-regulation in preterm children participated in the study. The material consisted of data collected from 40 families of preterm infants in the first and fourth and then at six and twelve months corrected age. The children were divided into two groups according to their gestational age: group 1 - 22 children born before 29th week (mean gestational age 26 Hbd and mean birth weight 905 g) and group 2 - 18 children born between 29th and 34th week (mean gestational age 31 Hbd and mean birth weight 1531 g). Semi-structured interviews and daily activity diaries were used. Qualitative, exploratory analysis of parental descriptions of child's feeding behaviour was performed. No feeding behaviour problems were reported in 31.8% infants in group 1 and 44.4% in group 2, whereas chronic feeding behaviour problems - in the case of 5 infants in group 1 (22.7%) and just in one child in group 2 (5.6%). There was a significant association between "gastrointestinal complications of prematurity" and parental reports of feeding behaviour problems at two and more evaluation times. No relationship was found with such variables as: group, child's gender, method of feeding, mother's postnatal depression, or other complications of prematurity. Six major categories of feeding problems were identified: 1) early regulatory problems, 2) pain and/ or excessive spitting, 3) insufficient weight gain, 4) poor eater, 5) difficulties introducing new taste or consistency, and 6) difficulties with introducing self-feeding. These categories occurred with varying frequencies depending on the child's gestational age and the assessment time. The results point to an interesting diversity and dynamics of feeding behaviour difficulties in babies born

  19. Born too soon: the continuing challenge of preterm labor and birth in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reedy, Nancy Jo

    2007-01-01

    Prematurity is the single greatest cause of morbidity and mortality in obstetrics. Families, health care services, and education systems experience the impact of prematurity for the lifetime of the preterm-born child. Health care providers have tried to lower the preterm birth rate with prevention both before and during pregnancy and intervention for symptomatic women. The inability of the health care system to significantly decrease the incidence of preterm birth continues to be a challenge. To further complicate the situation, new data shows that infants born between 34 and 37 weeks' gestation who were thought to have minimal long-term effects of preterm birth may be more at risk than previously appreciated. This article reviews evidence-based risk identification, prevention, and management of women experiencing preterm labor and birth.

  20. The Longitudinal Effects of Persistent Apnea on Cerebral Oxygenation in Infants Born Preterm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horne, Rosemary S C; Fung, Annie C H; NcNeil, Scott; Fyfe, Karinna L; Odoi, Alexsandria; Wong, Flora Y

    2017-03-01

    To assess the incidence and impact of persistent apnea on heart rate (HR), oxygen saturation (SpO 2 ), and brain tissue oxygenation index (TOI) over the first 6 months after term equivalent age in ex-preterm infants. Twenty-four preterm infants born between 27 and 36 weeks of gestational age were studied with daytime polysomnography at 2-4 weeks, 2-3 months, and 5-6 months post-term corrected age. Apneas lasting ≥3 seconds were included and maximal percentage changes (nadir) in HR, SpO 2, and tissue oxygenation index (TOI, NIRO-200 Hamamatsu) from baseline were analyzed. A total of 253 apneas were recorded at 2-4 weeks, 203 at 2-3 months, and 148 at 5-6 months. There was no effect of gestational age at birth, sleep state, or sleep position on apnea duration, nadir HR, SpO 2 , or TOI. At 2-4 weeks, the nadirs in HR (-11.1 ± 1.2 bpm) and TOI (-4.4 ± 1.0%) were significantly less than at 2-3 months (HR: -13.5 ± 1.2 bpm, P preterm infants, apneas were frequent and associated with decreases in heart rate and cerebral oxygenation, which were more marked at 2-3 months and 5-6 months than at 2-4 weeks. Although events were short, they may contribute to the adverse neurocognitive outcomes that are common in ex-preterm children. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Risk factors for executive function difficulties in preschool and early school-age preterm children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Meagher, Sari; Kemp, Nenagh; Norris, Kimberley; Anderson, Peter; Skilbeck, Clive

    2017-09-01

    To investigate the relationship between executive functioning and social and perinatal risk factors in four- to five-year-old preterm children. Using standardised measures of general intelligence and performance-based executive function (EF) tests prior to starting kindergarten, 141 children born preterm (preterm and the term comparison groups were compared on measures of intelligence and EFs using independent-groups t-tests, and multivariate regression analyses were performed to identify factors predictive of intelligence and executive functioning in the preterm group. The preterm group performed significantly more poorly than the comparison group on all intelligence and EF tests. The parental reports of the preterm and term comparison children's EF did not differ significantly, but the teachers reported elevated EF difficulties for the preterm group. Higher social risk, in particular lower educational level of the main caregiver, was the strongest predictor for the preterm children's intelligence and EF results. Social risk factors are strongly associated with impaired early EF outcomes in preterm children. ©2017 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Evidence for catch-up in cognition and receptive vocabulary among adolescents born very preterm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luu, Thuy Mai; Vohr, Betty R; Allan, Walter; Schneider, Karen C; Ment, Laura R

    2011-08-01

    Very preterm adolescents display persistent deficits in neuropsychological functions. To compare cognitive and language outcomes at 16 years and cognitive and receptive vocabulary trajectories throughout school years between very preterm and term children and to determine child and family factors associated with better developmental trajectories. At 8, 12, and 16 years, 322 very preterm children with birth weights of 1250 g or less and 41 term children had cognitive and language testing. Hierarchical growth-curve modeling was used to delineate the differences in cognitive and receptive vocabulary development between participants. Cluster analyses allowed for the characterization of very preterm children with different patterns of cognitive and receptive vocabulary development. At 16 years, very preterm adolescents had deficits in general cognition and higher-order language skills (phonological awareness and phonemic decoding) compared with term peers. Although the between-group difference in cognitive scores remained stable from 8 to 16 years, very preterm children demonstrated catch-up gains in receptive vocabulary during the same period. Moreover, subgroups of very preterm children displayed developmental trajectories in cognition similar to term children (55% on the vocabulary and 46% on the block-design subtests). These children had lower rates of neurosensory impairment and mothers with higher education and were from an ethnic nonminority. Significant catch-up in receptive vocabulary is observed by the age of 16 years among very preterm children compared to term peers. The absence of neurosensory impairment and residing in a favorable socioeconomic milieu are associated with the most optimal developmental trajectories.

  3. Disparities in mortality rates among US infants born late preterm or early term, 2003-2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Jennifer P; Gazmararian, Julie A; Shapiro-Mendoza, Carrie K

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify disparities in neonatal, post-neonatal, and overall infant mortality rates among infants born late preterm (34-36 weeks gestation) and early term (37-38 weeks gestation) by race/ethnicity, maternal age, and plurality. In analyses of 2003-2005 data from US period linked birth/infant death datasets, we compared infant mortality rates by race/ethnicity, maternal age, and plurality among infants born late preterm or early term and also determined the leading causes of death among these infants. Among infants born late preterm, infants born to American Indian/Alaskan Native, non-Hispanic black, or teenage mothers had the highest infant mortality rates per 1,000 live births (14.85, 9.90, and 11.88 respectively). Among infants born early term, corresponding mortality rates were 5.69, 4.49, and 4.82, respectively. Among infants born late preterm, singletons had a higher infant mortality rate than twins (8.59 vs. 5.62), whereas among infants born early term, the rate was higher among twins (3.67 vs. 3.15). Congenital malformations and sudden infant death syndrome were the leading causes of death among both late preterm and early term infants. Infant mortality rates among infants born late preterm or early term varied substantially by maternal race/ethnicity, maternal age, and plurality. Information about these disparities may help in the development of clinical practice and prevention strategies targeting infants at highest risk.

  4. Disparities in Mortality Rates Among US Infants Born Late Preterm or Early Term, 2003–2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazmararian, Julie A.; Shapiro-Mendoza, Carrie K.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify disparities in neonatal, post-neonatal, and overall infant mortality rates among infants born late preterm (34–36 weeks gestation) and early term (37–38 weeks gestation) by race/ethnicity, maternal age, and plurality. In analyses of 2003–2005 data from US period linked birth/infant death datasets, we compared infant mortality rates by race/ethnicity, maternal age, and plurality among infants born late preterm or early term and also determined the leading causes of death among these infants. Among infants born late preterm, infants born to American Indian/Alaskan Native, non-Hispanic black, or teenage mothers had the highest infant mortality rates per 1,000 live births (14.85,9.90, and 11.88 respectively). Among infants born early term, corresponding mortality rates were 5.69, 4.49, and 4.82, respectively. Among infants born late preterm, singletons had a higher infant mortality rate than twins (8.59 vs. 5.62), whereas among infants born early term, the rate was higher among twins (3.67 vs. 3.15). Congenital malformations and sudden infant death syndrome were the leading causes of death among both late preterm and early term infants. Infant mortality rates among infants born late preterm or early term varied substantially by maternal race/ ethnicity, maternal age, and plurality. Information about these disparities may help in the development of clinical practice and prevention strategies targeting infants at highest risk. PMID:23519825

  5. Are preterm-born survivors at risk of long-term respiratory disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczmarczyk, Katarzyna; Wiszomirska, Ida; Szturmowicz, Magdalena; Magiera, Andrzej; Błażkiewicz, Michalina

    2017-07-01

    To evaluate the long-term impact of preterm birth on respiratory function in female patients born preterm, we undertook spirometric examinations twice, as they reached the age of puberty, then follow-up examinations of part of the same cohort in adulthood. We sought evidence that preterm birth is correlated with poorer spirometric results into adulthood. A total of 70 girls (aged 12.2 ± 1.5 years in 1997) who had been born preterm (at 34.7 ± 1.86 weeks, none having experienced bronchopulmonary dysplasia) took part in spriometric examinations in 1997 and again in 1998. Of those, after a gap of 17 years, a group of 12 were successfully recontacted and participated in the 2015 examination as adults (then aged 27.6 ± 2.6 years, born at 34.5 ± 1.92 weeks). We compared spirometric results across the adolescent and adult examinations, and compared the adult results with an adult reference group. The percentage values of FEV1 (forced expiratory volume in 1 s), FVC (forced vital capacity) and MVV (maximal voluntary ventilation) showed significant improvement between the two examinations in the early adolescent period. In adulthood, FEV1%pred (percentage predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 s) showed no statistically significant difference. The mean values of both FVC and FVC%pred (percentage predicted forced vital capacity) for the preterm-born group were lower than for the reference group, but this was not statistically significant. The preterm-born group showed lower values of such parameters as forced expiratory flow at 25-75% of FVC, MEF25 (maximal expiratory flow at 25% of forced vital capacity) and FEV1/FVC as compared with the reference group, but again without statistical significance. (1) A somewhat below-norm level of respiratory parameters among preterm-born girls entering pubescence may attest to continued negative impact on their respiratory system. (2) A significant improvement in their spirometric results 1 year later may indicate that pubescence helps

  6. Neonatal MRI is associated with future cognition and academic achievement in preterm children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullman, Henrik; Spencer-Smith, Megan; Thompson, Deanne K; Doyle, Lex W; Inder, Terrie E; Anderson, Peter J; Klingberg, Torkel

    2015-11-01

    School-age children born preterm are particularly at risk for low mathematical achievement, associated with reduced working memory and number skills. Early identification of preterm children at risk for future impairments using brain markers might assist in referral for early intervention. This study aimed to examine the use of neonatal magnetic resonance imaging measures derived from automated methods (Jacobian maps from deformation-based morphometry; fractional anisotropy maps from diffusion tensor images) to predict skills important for mathematical achievement (working memory, early mathematical skills) at 5 and 7 years in a cohort of preterm children using both univariable (general linear model) and multivariable models (support vector regression). Participants were preterm children born children born ≥37 weeks' gestational age at the Royal Women's Hospital in Melbourne, Australia between July 2001 and December 2003 and recruited into a prospective longitudinal cohort study. At term-equivalent age ( ±2 weeks) 224 preterm and 46 control infants were recruited for magnetic resonance imaging. Working memory and early mathematics skills were assessed at 5 years (n = 195 preterm; n = 40 controls) and 7 years (n = 197 preterm; n = 43 controls). In the preterm group, results identified localized regions around the insula and putamen in the neonatal Jacobian map that were positively associated with early mathematics at 5 and 7 years (both P memory at 7 years (models ranging from P = 0.07 to P = 0.05). Neonatal fractional anisotropy was positively associated with working memory and early mathematics at 5 years (both P childhood mathematical achievement. Results contribute to the growing evidence for the clinical utility of neonatal magnetic resonance imaging for early identification of preterm infants at risk for childhood cognitive and academic impairment. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights

  7. Eating Problems at Age 6 Years in a Whole Population Sample of Extremely Preterm Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samara, Muthanna; Johnson, Samantha; Lamberts, Koen; Marlow, Neil; Wolke, Dieter

    2010-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of eating problems and their association with neurological and behavioural disabilities and growth among children born extremely preterm (EPC) at age 6 years. Method: A standard questionnaire about eating was completed by parents of 223 children (125 males [56.1%], 98 females [43.9%])…

  8. The role of social risk in an early preventative care programme for infants born very preterm: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spittle, Alicia J; Treyvaud, Karli; Lee, Katherine J; Anderson, Peter J; Doyle, Lex W

    2018-01-01

    To examine the differential effects of an early intervention programme for infants born preterm on neurodevelopment and parental mental health according to family social risk. One hundred and twenty infants born earlier than 30 weeks' gestation were randomized to early intervention (n=61) or control groups (n=59). Cognitive, language, and motor outcomes were assessed by blinded assessors at 2 years, 4 years, and 8 years, and primary caregivers completed questionnaires on their anxiety and depression. Outcomes at each time point were compared between groups using linear regression with an interaction term for social risk (higher/lower). There was evidence of interactions between intervention group and social risk for cognition at 2 years and 4 years, motor function at 4 years, and language at 8 years, with a greater intervention effect in children from higher social risk environments. In contrast, the impact of early intervention on parental depressive symptoms was greater for parents of lower social risk than for those of higher social risk. Effects of early intervention on outcomes for children born preterm and their caregivers varied according to family social risk. Family social risk should be considered when implementing early intervention programmes for children born preterm and their families. Intervention is associated with better early cognitive functioning for children in higher social risk families. Positive effects of intervention for the high risk group were not sustained at school-age. Intervention has a greater effect on primary caregiver mental health in the lower social risk group compared with higher social risk. © 2017 Mac Keith Press.

  9. Dysphonia in preterm children: assessing incidence and response to treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Victoria; Meldrum, Suzanne; Simmer, Karen; Vijayasekaran, Shyan; French, Noel P

    2014-03-01

    Mild dysphonia in childhood is surprisingly common, yet moderate to severe dysphonia is rare. The latter has been associated with complex medical conditions and congenital abnormalities. Intubation injury has also been documented as a cause of childhood dysphonia. Children born very preterm may be intubated as part of the intensive care administered in the perinatal and neonatal periods, yet there are few studies investigating dysphonia in this population. This study will be the first to: use an objective acoustic voice assessment in a paediatric study, document the incidence of dysphonia in very preterm children at school age, and conduct a controlled trial of behavioural voice therapy in this population. This study will consist of three phases: assessment of voice quality and its impact on quality of life in up to 200 children born at less than 32 weeks' gestation: assessment of the nature and extent of laryngeal pathology in children with moderate to severe dysphonia; and a non-blinded, randomised controlled trial of behavioural voice therapy in children with moderate to severe dysphonia. This study will be the first to use clinical assessment to examine the voice quality of very preterm children, and to use fibre optic endoscopic evaluation of laryngeal function to determine the nature and extent of any laryngeal pathology in such children. Those participants with significant voice difficulties will be randomised to receive treatment immediately or after the eight week assessment. This study is registered on the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ACTRN12613001015730/ACTRN12613001012763). Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. [Children born with ambiguous genitalia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diseth, Trond H

    2008-02-28

    For 10 - 12 children born with ambiguous genitalia in Norway annually, the sex cannot be decided directly after birth. The condition is now termed "Disorders of Sex Development" (DSD). Severely undervirilised chromosomal and gonadal boys (46,XY DSD) represent the greatest challenge; the sex assignment has traditionally been female. This review focuses on challenges within diagnostics and treatment and provides an update on the scientific basis for sex assignment in 46,XY DSD children. The article is based on articles retrieved from Pub Med and own clinical experience. During the last decade the scientific basis for sex assignment in children born with ambiguous genitalia has been increasingly questioned. The traditional DSD management has been dominated by the belief that DSD children will develop into the assigned sex regardless of the underlying cause as long as the external genitalia are "normalised" before two years of age. The most severely undervirilised 46,XY DSD children were surgically assigned as females, based on an emphasis of the size and functionality of the phallus being important for later psychosexual development into men. New guidelines for DSD management are now being developed based on recent knowledge about prenatal cerebral exposure to critical sex chromosome genes and hormones that influence foetal brain predisposition for later psychosexual development. Assignment of a sex should be based on a precise diagnosis of the condition's underlying cause and thereby a best possible prediction of future gender identity.

  11. Orientation and motion-specific visual cortex responses in infants born preterm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birtles, Deirdre B; Braddick, Oliver J; Wattam-Bell, John; Wilkinson, Andrew R; Atkinson, Janette

    2007-12-03

    Orientation-specific cortical responses develop earlier in infancy than motion-specific responses. The maturation of orientation-reversal and direction-reversal visual evoked potentials was evaluated in 17 healthy, low risk, preterm infants (born delayed maturation of motion processing. Reasons for the vulnerability of motion processing are discussed; the results may reflect anomalies of white matter development in preterm infants that are undetected by ultrasonography.

  12. Decreased and Increased Anisotropy along Major Cerebral White Matter Tracts in Preterm Children and Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Travis, Katherine E.; Adams, Jenna N.; Ben-Shachar, Michal; Feldman, Heidi M.

    2015-01-01

    Premature birth is highly prevalent and associated with neurodevelopmental delays and disorders. Adverse outcomes, particularly in children born before 32 weeks of gestation, have been attributed in large part to white matter injuries, often found in periventricular regions using conventional imaging. To date, tractography studies of white matter pathways in children and adolescents born preterm have evaluated only a limited number of tracts simultaneously. The current study compares diffusio...

  13. Small at Birth: cardiovascular and metabolic health of subjects born SGA and/or preterm and effects of growth hormone treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.H. Willemsen (Ruben)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThis doctoral thesis describes cardiovascular and metabolic risk factors in children and young adults with a small size at birth, either due to preterm or SGA birth. For those born SGA with persistent short stature, the effects of GH treatment on these risk factors were studied. This

  14. Differences in outcome between twins and singletons born very preterm: results from a population-based European cohort.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papiernik, E.; Zeitlin, J.; Delmas, D.; Blondel, B.; Kunzel, W.; Cuttini, M.; Weber, T.; Petrou, S.; Gortner, L.; Kollee, L.A.A.; Draper, E.S.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: About 10% of twins are born before 32 weeks of gestation and very preterm birth rates are increasing. Preterm twins tend to have more favourable outcomes than singletons of the same gestational age, but fewer data are available for very preterm infants. This study aims to determine

  15. Differences in outcome between twins and singletons born very preterm: results from a population-based European cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papiernik, Emile; Zeitlin, Jennifer; Delmas, Dominique

    2010-01-01

    About 10% of twins are born before 32 weeks of gestation and very preterm birth rates are increasing. Preterm twins tend to have more favourable outcomes than singletons of the same gestational age, but fewer data are available for very preterm infants. This study aims to determine whether outcom...

  16. Differences in outcome between twins and singletons born very preterm: results from a population-based European cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papiernik, Emile; Zeitlin, Jennifer; Delmas, Dominique

    2010-01-01

    About 10% of twins are born before 32 weeks of gestation and very preterm birth rates are increasing. Preterm twins tend to have more favourable outcomes than singletons of the same gestational age, but fewer data are available for very preterm infants. This study aims to determine whether outcomes...

  17. Differential effects of parenting in preterm and full-term children on developmental outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maupin, Angela N; Fine, Jodene Goldenring

    2014-12-01

    To examine the relations between preterm birth, parenting behavior during early childhood, cognitive development, and social-emotional outcomes at Kindergarten entry, and to determine whether parenting behavior differentially influences this developing system in children born preterm compared to children born full-term. The nationally representative sample comprised 3600 full-term and 1300 preterm children born in the US in the year 2001. All children who entered Kindergarten and who participated in data collection at 9 months, 24 months, and Kindergarten entry were included in the study. Measures of parenting behavior were collected at 9 and 24 months and cognitive development at 24 months via home visits. Social-emotional outcomes were assessed at Kindergarten entry via parent and teacher report. Multiple-sample Structural Equation Modeling was used to analyze group differences in a model whereby early childhood parenting behavior predicted cognitive outcomes, and social-emotional outcomes at Kindergarten entry, and indirectly predicted social-emotional outcomes via early cognitive processes. The full sample developmental model indicated excellent fit to the data. Preterm birth status indirectly influenced social-emotional outcomes at Kindergarten entry via its effect on early childhood parenting behavior and cognitive development. The multi-sample model revealed significant differences in the way in which early parenting behavior exerted its influence on outcomes at Kindergarten entry in preterm children compared to full-term children. For preterm children, parenting indirectly influenced social-emotional outcomes via early cognitive functioning. Findings highlight the importance of early identification and targeted parenting programs to support early cognitive development in preterm children. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The Special Needs of Preterm Children - An Oral Health Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Annetta Kit Lam

    2016-07-01

    Preterm births are defined as those before 37 weeks of gestation. With advances in fertility medicine and neonatal medicine, the numbers of preterm children in the community have significantly increased. Developmental delays and complications among preterm children are well recognized. Much less consideration is given to the dental complications of preterm children. Manifestations include palatal deformations, enamel defects, tooth size variations and tooth shape deformities, malocclusions, and increased risks of early childhood caries and tooth wear. This article explores orodental risks and orodental needs of preterm children and suggests preventive and management strategies for optimizing the oral health of special needs children. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. A dimensional approach to assessing psychiatric risk in adults born very preterm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroll, Jasmin; Froudist-Walsh, Sean; Brittain, Philip J; Tseng, Chieh-En J; Karolis, Vyacheslav; Murray, Robin M; Nosarti, Chiara

    2018-01-19

    Individuals who were born very preterm have higher rates of psychiatric diagnoses compared with term-born controls; however, it remains unclear whether they also display increased sub-clinical psychiatric symptomatology. Hence, our objective was to utilize a dimensional approach to assess psychiatric symptomatology in adult life following very preterm birth. We studied 152 adults who were born very preterm (before 33 weeks' gestation; gestational range 24-32 weeks) and 96 term-born controls. Participants' clinical profile was examined using the Comprehensive Assessment of At-Risk Mental States (CAARMS), a measure of sub-clinical symptomatology that yields seven subscales including general psychopathology, positive, negative, cognitive, behavioural, motor and emotional symptoms, in addition to a total psychopathology score. Intellectual abilities were examined using the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence. Between-group differences on the CAARMS showed elevated symptomatology in very preterm participants compared with controls in positive, negative, cognitive and behavioural symptoms. Total psychopathology scores were significantly correlated with IQ in the very preterm group only. In order to examine the characteristics of participants' clinical profile, a principal component analysis was conducted. This revealed two components, one reflecting a non-specific psychopathology dimension, and the other indicating a variance in symptomatology along a positive-to-negative symptom axis. K-means (k = 4) were used to further separate the study sample into clusters. Very preterm adults were more likely to belong to a high non-specific psychopathology cluster compared with controls. Conclusion and Relevance Very preterm individuals demonstrated elevated psychopathology compared with full-term controls. Their psychiatric risk was characterized by a non-specific clinical profile and was associated with lower IQ.

  20. Postnatal growth of preterm born children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claas, M. J.; de Vries, L. S.; Koopman, C.; Venema, M. M. A. Uniken; Eijsermans, M. J. C.; Bruinse, H. W.; Stuart, A. A. Verrijn

    Background: Extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants are at risk of impaired postnatal growth. Impaired postnatal growth has been reported to be associated with delayed cognitive and motor development. Aims: To describe postnatal growth patterns of appropriate and small for gestational age (AGA and

  1. Sleep EEG maps the functional neuroanatomy of executive processes in adolescents born very preterm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehrle, Flavia M; Latal, Beatrice; O'Gorman, Ruth L; Hagmann, Cornelia F; Huber, Reto

    2017-01-01

    Executive function deficits are among the most frequent sequela of very preterm birth but the underlying neuronal mechanisms are not fully understood. We used high-density electroencephalography (EEG) recordings during sleep to assess alterations in the functional neuroanatomy of executive processes in adolescents born very preterm. The topographical distribution of sleep slow wave activity (SWA; 1-4.5 Hz EEG power) has previously been used to map cognitive abilities and is known to reflect the intensity of the prior use of the respective neuronal networks. We assessed 38 adolescents born before 32 weeks of gestation [age at assessment: 12.9 (SD: 1.7), range: 10.6-16.7 years] and 43 term-born peers [13.1 (2.0), 10.0-16.9]. Executive function abilities were quantified with a composite score derived from a comprehensive task battery. All-night high-density EEG (128 electrodes) was recorded and SWA of the first hour of sleep was calculated. Abilities were significantly poorer in the very preterm compared to the term-group, particularly, if the tasks demands were high (p sleep SWA in a cluster of 15 electrodes over frontal and negatively in a cluster of 14 electrodes over central brain regions after controlling for age at assessment and correcting for multiple comparisons. Within the frontal cluster, sleep SWA was higher in very preterm compared to term-born participants when controlling for executive function performance and age at assessment (p = .02). No difference in SWA between very preterm and term-born participants was found for the central cluster (p = .29). Our results demonstrate a local increase of sleep SWA over brain regions associated with executive processes in adolescents born very preterm compared to similarly performing term-born peers. Thus, sleep SWA seems to map the higher effort needed for executive function tasks in adolescents born very preterm. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Dysconnectivity of neurocognitive networks at rest in very-preterm born adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas P. White

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Advances in neonatal medicine have resulted in a larger proportion of preterm-born individuals reaching adulthood. Their increased liability to psychiatric illness and impairments of cognition and behaviour intimate lasting cerebral consequences; however, the central physiological disturbances remain unclear. Of fundamental importance to efficient brain function is the coordination and contextually-relevant recruitment of neural networks. Large-scale distributed networks emerge perinatally and increase in hierarchical complexity through development. Preterm-born individuals exhibit systematic reductions in correlation strength within these networks during infancy. Here, we investigate resting-state functional connectivity in functional magnetic resonance imaging data from 29 very-preterm (VPT-born adults and 23 term-born controls. Neurocognitive networks were identified with spatial independent component analysis conducted using the Infomax algorithm and employing Icasso procedures to enhance component robustness. Network spatial focus and spectral power were not generally significantly affected by preterm birth. By contrast, Granger-causality analysis of the time courses of network activity revealed widespread reductions in between-network connectivity in the preterm group, particularly along paths including salience-network features. The potential clinical relevance of these Granger-causal measurements was suggested by linear discriminant analysis of topological representations of connection strength, which classified individuals by group with a maximal accuracy of 86%. Functional connections from the striatal salience network to the posterior default mode network informed this classification most powerfully. In the VPT-born group it was additionally found that perinatal factors significantly moderated the relationship between executive function (which was reduced in the VPT-born as compared with the term-born group and generalised partial

  3. Hot and cool executive functions in very and extremely preterm preschool children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Zofia Walczak

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background In most countries, premature deliveries constitute 5% to 18% of births. Some preterm children, especially those born before 32 weeks of pregnancy, experience serious medical complications, which can affect their subsequent development and functioning. Even those who have an IQ within the normal range can be at risk of worse functioning. This study aimed to investigate the differences in development of hot and cool aspects of executive functions in children born prematurely in comparison to those born on time. It is also focused on evaluating relationships between executive functions in premature children and their socio-emotional competences. Participants and procedure All children participating in the study were preschoolers. The sample consisted of 20 children born before 32 weeks of gestation and 28 term controls (children born on time. Hot and cool aspects of executive functions were examined in both groups using tasks extracted from the Preschool Self-Regulation Assessment (PSRA. Parents of children born prematurely also completed the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ, which is a brief behavioral screening questionnaire that consists of five scales: emotional symptoms, conduct problems, hyperactivity/inattention, peer relationship problems and prosocial behavior. Results Premature children scored lower for both hot and cool executive functions in comparison to the children born at term in two of the five tasks. In addition, an association between worse executive functioning and more severe problems was found in the preterm group. This link applies to both general and specific problems, such as hyperactivity/inattention and behavioral problems. Conclusions Prematurely born children may have larger deficits both in hot and cool aspects of executive functions compared to their peers born at term. Deficits in hot aspect may be reflected in hyperactivity/inattention symptoms and conduct problems, whereas difficulties in

  4. Pain threshold, tolerance and intensity in adolescents born very preterm or with low birth weight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ganzewinkel, C.J. van; Been, J.V.; Verbeek, I.; Boelen-van der Loo, T.; Pal, S.M. van der; Kramer, P.W.; Andriessena, P.

    2017-01-01

    Background. Data on long-term consequences of neonatal pain is limited. Aim. To assess whether perinatal factors, later pain experience and pain coping strategies are associated with altered pain threshold, pain tolerance and pain intensity in adolescents born preterm. Study design. Observational,

  5. Subregional Hippocampal Morphology and Psychiatric Outcome in Adolescents Who Were Born Very Preterm and at Term.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James H Cole

    Full Text Available The hippocampus has been reported to be structurally and functionally altered as a sequel of very preterm birth (<33 weeks gestation, possibly due its vulnerability to hypoxic-ischemic damage in the neonatal period. We examined hippocampal volumes and subregional morphology in very preterm born individuals in mid- and late adolescence and their association with psychiatric outcome.Structural brain magnetic resonance images were acquired at two time points (baseline and follow-up from 65 ex-preterm adolescents (mean age = 15.5 and 19.6 years and 36 term-born controls (mean age=15.0 and 19.0 years. Hippocampal volumes and subregional morphometric differences were measured from manual tracings and with three-dimensional shape analysis. Psychiatric outcome was assessed with the Rutter Parents' Scale at baseline, the General Health Questionnaire at follow-up and the Peters Delusional Inventory at both time points.In contrast to previous studies we did not find significant difference in the cross-sectional or longitudinal hippocampal volumes between individuals born preterm and controls, despite preterm individual having significantly smaller whole brain volumes. Shape analysis at baseline revealed subregional deformations in 28% of total bilateral hippocampal surface, reflecting atrophy, in ex-preterm individuals compared to controls, and in 22% at follow-up. In ex-preterm individuals, longitudinal changes in hippocampal shape accounted for 11% of the total surface, while in controls they reached 20%. In the whole sample (both groups larger right hippocampal volume and bilateral anterior surface deformations at baseline were associated with delusional ideation scores at follow-up.This study suggests a dynamic association between cross-sectional hippocampal volumes, longitudinal changes and surface deformations and psychosis proneness.

  6. Preterm and postterm birth in immigrant- and Swedish-born parents: a population register-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanolkar, Amal R; Wedrén, Sara; Essén, Birgitta; Sparén, Pär; Koupil, Ilona

    2015-05-01

    Ethnic minorities/immigrant groups tend to have increased risk for preterm birth. Less is known about this risk in diverse immigrant groups, couples of mixed ethnic-origin and in relation to duration of residence. Data from the Swedish Medical Birth Register on 1,028,303 mothers who gave birth to 1,766,026 singleton live born infants (1982-2002), was linked to the Education and Total Population Registers. Immigrant parents were identified by country of birth. Risk of early preterm, late preterm and postterm birth was analyzed using multinomial logistic regression. Polish, Yugoslavian, Iranian, South Asian, East Asian and Sub-Saharan African parents, Swedish mothers who had children with non-Swedish fathers, and parents from two different immigrant groups had higher risk of early preterm birth [adjusted relative risk (RR) (95% CI) 1.76 (1.24-2.50), 1.57 (1.31-1.87), 1.67 (1.30-2.14), 1.52 (1.07-2.16), 1.51 (1.08-2.10), 2.03 (1.32-3.12), 1.56 (1.45-1.67), and 1.55 (1.35-1.77) respectively] compared to Swedish-born parents. South Asian, Sub-Saharan African, and East Asian immigrants had a higher risk of late preterm birth compared to Swedish-born parents. North African and Middle Eastern, Somali, and Ethiopian/Eritrean groups had increased risk of postterm birth [adjusted RR 1.31 (1.16-1.47), 2.57 (2.31-2.86), 1.85 (1.67-2.04) respectively]. Adjustment for covariates did not substantially change associations. Immigrant mothers resident postterm birth compared to residents >10 years [adjusted RR 1.46 (1.24-1.71) and 1.16 (1.11-1.23) respectively]. In addition to higher risk of preterm birth in select immigrant groups, some immigrant groups are also at higher risk of postterm birth. Shorter duration of residence is associated with higher risk of non-term deliveries.

  7. The Effects of Massage Therapy to Induce Sleep in Infants Born Preterm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Charlotte C.; Mitchell, Anita J.; Booth, Melissa Y.; Williams, D. Keith; Lowe, Leah M.; Hall, Richard Whit

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to determine if massage therapy can be used as an adjunct intervention to induce sleep in infants born preterm. Methods Thirty infants born at a minimum of 28 weeks gestational age (GA), who were at the time of the study between 32-48 weeks adjusted GA, were randomly assigned to receive massage therapy on 1 day and not receive massage on an alternate day. The Motionlogger® Micro Sleep Watch® Actigraph recorded lower extremity activity on the morning of each day. Results No significant difference was found between groups for sleep efficiency (P=.13) for the time period evaluated. Groups differed significantly during the time period after the massage ended with more infants sleeping on the non-massage day (Χ2= 4.9802, P=.026). Conclusions Massage is well tolerated in infants born preterm and infants do not fall asleep faster after massage than without massage. PMID:25251794

  8. Normal visual evoked potentials in preschool children born small for gestational age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Josefin; Dahlgren, Jovanna; Karlsson, Ann-Katrine; Grönlund, Marita Andersson

    2011-08-01

    Previous studies have shown visual evoked potential (VEP) abnormalities in infants and animals born small for gestational age (SGA) compared with controls. The current exploratory study aims to investigate whether VEP abnormalities persist in older ages. Pattern VEP latencies were obtained in 21 children (11 girls, 10 boys), born SGA and moderately preterm, at an average age of 5 years and 8 months. Fifty-one children (24 girls, 27 boys, mean age of 5 years and 7 months), also born moderately preterm but with normal height and weight at birth, served as controls Visual evoked potential results showed no significant differences in latency between children born SGA and controls born appropriate for gestational age (AGA) for either binocular stimulation, right eye or left eye stimulation. Our findings do not indicate any differences in VEP latency at preschool age for children born SGA compared with children born AGA. The results may support previous studies, suggesting that children born SGA show accelerated neurophysiologic maturation during their first year of life and that previously delayed VEP latencies after catch-up stay unchanged compared with controls. © 2011 The Author(s)/Acta Paediatrica © 2011 Foundation Acta Paediatrica.

  9. Altered EEG spectral power during rest and cognitive performance: a comparison of preterm-born adolescents to adolescents with ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rommel, Anna-Sophie; James, Sarah-Naomi; McLoughlin, Gráinne; Brandeis, Daniel; Banaschewski, Tobias; Asherson, Philip; Kuntsi, Jonna

    2017-12-01

    Preterm birth has been associated with an increased risk for ADHD-like behavioural symptoms and cognitive impairments. However, direct comparisons across ADHD and preterm-born samples on neurophysiological measures are limited. The aim of this analysis was to test whether quantitative EEG (QEEG) measures identify differences or similarities in preterm-born adolescents, compared to term-born adolescents with and without ADHD, during resting-state and cognitive task conditions. We directly compared QEEG activity between 186 preterm-born adolescents, 69 term-born adolescents with ADHD and 135 term-born control adolescents during an eyes-open resting-state condition (EO), which previously discriminated between the adolescents with ADHD and controls, and during a cued continuous performance task (CPT-OX). Absolute delta power was the only frequency range to demonstrate a significant group-by-condition interaction. The preterm group, like the ADHD group, displayed significantly higher delta power during EO, compared to the control group. In line with these findings, parent-rated ADHD symptoms in the preterm group were significantly correlated with delta power during rest. While the preterm and control groups did not differ with regard to absolute delta power during CPT-OX, the ADHD group showed significantly higher absolute delta power compared to both groups. Our results provide evidence for overlapping excess in the absolute delta range in preterm-born adolescents and term-born adolescents with ADHD during rest. During CPT-OX, preterm-born adolescents resembled controls. Increased delta power during rest may be a potential general marker of brain trauma, pathology or neurotransmitter disturbances.

  10. Mortality, neonatal morbidity and two year follow-up of extremely preterm infants born in The Netherlands in 2007.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia G de Waal

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Extremely preterm infants are at high risk of neonatal mortality and adverse outcome. Survival rates are slowly improving, but increased survival may come at the expense of more handicaps. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Prospective population-based cohort study of all infants born at 23 to 27 weeks of gestation in The Netherlands in 2007. 276 of 345 (80% infants were born alive. Early neonatal death occurred in 96 (34.8% live born infants, including 61 cases of delivery room death. 29 (10.5% infants died during the late neonatal period. Survival rates for live born infants at 23, 24, 25 and 26 weeks of gestation were 0%, 6.7%, 57.9% and 71% respectively. 43.1% of 144 surviving infants developed severe neonatal morbidity (retinopathy of prematurity grade ≥3, bronchopulmonary dysplasia and/or severe brain injury. At two years of age 70.6% of the children had no disability, 17.6% was mild disabled and 11.8% had a moderate-to-severe disability. Severe brain injury (p = 0.028, retinopathy of prematurity grade ≥3 (p = 0.024, low gestational age (p = 0.019 and non-Dutch nationality of the mother (p = 0.004 increased the risk of disability. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: 52% of extremely preterm infants born in The Netherlands in 2007 survived. Surviving infants had less severe neonatal morbidity compared to previous studies. At two years of age less than 30% of the infants were disabled. Disability was associated with gestational age and neonatal morbidity.

  11. Impaired prospective memory but intact episodic memory in intellectually average 7- to 9-year-olds born very preterm\\ud and/or very low birth weight

    OpenAIRE

    Ford, Ruth M.; Griffiths, Sarah; Neulinger, Kerryn; Andrews, Glenda; Shum, David H. K.; Gray, Peter H.

    2016-01-01

    Relatively little is known about episodic memory (EM: memory for personally-experienced events) and prospective memory (PM: memory for intended actions) in children born very preterm (VP)or with very low birth weight (VLBW). This study evaluates EM and PM in mainstream-schooled 7- to 9-year-olds born VP (≤ 32 weeks)and/or VLBW (< 1500 g) and matches full-term children for comparison(n = 35 and n = 37, respectively). Additionally, participants were assessed for verbal and non-verbal ability, e...

  12. Heart rate variability and salivary cortisol in very preterm children during school age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urfer-Maurer, Natalie; Ludyga, Sebastian; Stalder, Tobias; Brand, Serge; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Gerber, Markus; Grob, Alexander; Weber, Peter; Lemola, Sakari

    2018-01-01

    The autonomic nervous system (ANS) plays a major role in the human stress response and reflects physical and psychological adaptability to a changing environment. Long-term exposure to early life stressors may alter the function of the ANS. The present study examines differences in the ANS between children born very preterm and full-term as well as the association between the ANS and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, the other main branch of the human stress system. Fifty-four healthy children born very preterm (position at rest (wake) and during different sleep stages (stage 2 sleep, slow wave sleep, rapid-eye-movement sleep). Autonomic function was assessed by use of heart rate variability, specifically low frequency power (LF), high frequency power (HF), total spectral power (Tot Pow), and the LF/HF ratio. HPA axis activity was measured using salivary cortisol the next morning at awakening, 10, 20, and 30min later. Children born very preterm had lower LF/HF ratio during wake and stage 2 sleep compared to full-term children. Moreover, higher LF, Tot Pow, and LF/HF ratio during wake, stage 2 sleep, and REM sleep were related to more post-awakening cortisol secretion. The present study provides evidence on long-term ANS alterations after very preterm birth. Moreover, findings suggest a relation between the ANS and the HPA axis and therefore support the notion of mutual feedback between the two human stress systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Regional brain volume reduction and cognitive outcomes in preterm children at low risk at 9 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arhan, Ebru; Gücüyener, Kıvılcım; Soysal, Şebnem; Şalvarlı, Şafak; Gürses, M Ali; Serdaroğlu, Ayşe; Demir, Ercan; Ergenekon, Ebru; Türkyılmaz, Canan; Önal, Esra; Koç, Esin; Atalay, Yıldız

    2017-08-01

    More information is needed on "low-risk" preterm infants' neurological outcome so that they can be included in follow-up programs. A prospective study was performed to examine the regional brain volume changes compared to term children and to assess the relationship between the regional brain volumes to cognitive outcome of the low-risk preterm children at 9 years of age. Subjects comprised 22 preterm children who were determined to be at low risk for neurodevelopmental deficits with a gestational age between 28 and 33 weeks without a major neonatal morbidity in the neonatal period and 24 age-matched term control children term and matched for age, sex, and parental educational and occupational status. Regional volumetric analysis was performed for cerebellum, hippocampus, and corpus callosum area. Cognitive outcomes of both preterm and control subjects were assessed by Weschler Intelligence Scale for Children Revised (Turkish version), and attention and executive functions were assessed by Wisconsin Card Sorting Test and Stroop Test TBAG version. Low-risk preterm children showed regional brain volume reduction in cerebellum, hippocampus, and corpus callosum area and achieved statistical significance when compared with term control. When the groups were compared for all WISC-R subscale scores, preterm children at low risk had significantly lower scores on information, vocabulary, similarities, arithmetics, picture completion, block design, object assembly, and coding compared to children born at term. Preterm and term groups were compared on the Stroop Test for mistakes and corrections made on each card, the time spent for completing each card, and total mistakes and corrections. In the preterm group, we found a positive correlation between regional volumes with IQ, attention, and executive function scores. Additionally, a significant correlation was found between cerebellar volume and attention and executive function scores in the preterm group. Low-risk preterm

  14. Pulmonary outcome in former preterm, very low birth weight children with bronchopulmonary dysplasia: a case-control follow-up at school age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vom Hove, Maike; Prenzel, Freerk; Uhlig, Holm H; Robel-Tillig, Eva

    2014-01-01

    To assess and compare long-term pulmonary outcomes in former preterm-born, very low birth weight (VLBW) children with and without bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) born in the surfactant era. Pulmonary function tests (ie, spirometry, body plethysmography, and gas transfer testing) were performed in children with a history of VLBW and BPD (n = 28) and compared with a matched preterm-born VLBW control group (n = 28). Medical history was evaluated by questionnaire. At time of follow-up (mean age, 9.5 years), respiratory symptoms (36% vs 8%) and receipt of asthma medication (21% vs 0%) were significantly more frequent in the preterm-born children with previous BPD than in those with no history of BPD. The children with a history of BPD had significantly lower values for forced expiratory volume in 1 second (z-score -1.27 vs -0.4; P = .008), forced vital capacity (z-score -1.39 vs -0.71 z-score; P = .022), and forced expiratory flow rate at 50% of forced vital capacity (z-score -2.21 vs -1.04; P = .048) compared with the preterm control group. Preterm-born children with a history of BPD are significantly more likely to have lung function abnormalities, such as airway obstruction and respiratory symptoms, at school age compared with preterm-born children without BPD. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Trunk position in supine of infants born preterm and at term: an assessment using a computerized pressure mat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusing, Stacey; Mercer, Vicki; Yu, Bing; Reilly, Marie; Thorpe, Deborah

    2005-01-01

    Trunk position may influence motor, cognitive, and social development during infancy and early childhood and has not been quantitatively assessed. The purpose of this study was to assess the trunk positions of infants born at term and preterm in supine using a computerized pressure mat. Trunk position was represented as a ratio of head and pelvis to trunk pressure. Eighteen healthy infants born preterm with a mean gestational age of 31.9 weeks (25.0-34.6) and fifteen healthy infants born at term with a mean gestational age of 38.9 weeks (37.3-40.6) were assessed at 38 to 43 weeks gestational age. Infants born at term spent more than two-thirds of the time in either flexed or neutral trunk positions. No significant differences were found between infants born preterm and those born at term in total duration of flexion or extension or in flexion event duration. This study provides evidence that infants born preterm may not exhibit greater trunk extension tendencies in supine than infants born at term. Results should be interpreted with caution, however, because of the small sample size and large variability observed within the subject groups. Infants born at less than 30 weeks of gestation may demonstrate greater extension tendencies than those born at more than 30 weeks of gestation.

  16. Visual Perception and Visual-Motor Integration in Very Preterm and/or Very Low Birth Weight Children: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geldof, C. J. A.; van Wassenaer, A. G.; de Kieviet, J. F.; Kok, J. H.; Oosterlaan, J.

    2012-01-01

    A range of neurobehavioral impairments, including impaired visual perception and visual-motor integration, are found in very preterm born children, but reported findings show great variability. We aimed to aggregate the existing literature using meta-analysis, in order to provide robust estimates of the effect of very preterm birth on visual…

  17. Prem Baby Triple P a new parenting intervention for parents of infants born very preterm: acceptability and barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Alize J; Whittingham, Koa; Boyd, Roslyn; Sanders, Matthew; Colditz, Paul

    2011-12-01

    Over 10% of preterm infants develop major disabilities, 50% develop behavioural problems and 40% need special education (Huddy et al., 2001; Webster, 2003). Prem Baby Triple P is a new variant of the Positive Parenting Program (Triple P) adapted specifically for parents of very preterm infants. The aim of this study is to assess the acceptability of Prem Baby Triple P to parents of infants born preterm and to test whether parental attributions and parental perception of infant health/developmental status are barriers to intervention acceptability. One hundred and twenty-three parents of preterm infants participated, 83 parents of very preterm infants and 40 parents of preterm infants. In addition, 32 parents of term infants participated as a comparison group. The acceptability of Prem Baby Triple P was moderately high and did not differ significantly across the three groups. Parental attributions were not found to be barriers to intervention acceptability and parental perceptions that their infant is less healthy/developmentally delayed facilitated Prem Baby Triple P acceptance in parents of infants born very preterm. This suggests that the planned Prem Baby Triple P content is acceptable to parents of infants born very preterm and sensitised to medical and developmental issues. These findings, as social validation data, will contribute towards the further development of Prem Baby Triple P and a future randomised controlled trial. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Body Posture Asymmetry in Prematurely Born Children at Six Years of Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Walicka-Cupryś

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. The purpose of the study was to assess body posture asymmetries in the standing and sitting position in prematurely born children at six years of age. Study Design and Subjects. We measured trunk symmetry in coronal plane. The study was carried out in a group of 101 children, aged 6-7 years, mean age of 6.63, including 50 preterm children born at gestational age <32 weeks (preterm group and 51 full-term children (control group. Outcome Measures. Trunk symmetry in coronal plane was measured using photogrammetric technique with Mora 4G CQ Elektronik. The subjects were examined in standing and sitting position. Statistical analyses were carried out using Shapiro-Wilk W-test, Student’s t-test, Mann–Whitney U test, and Pearson’s chi-squared test. Statistical significance was assumed at p<0.05. Results. No significant differences were found between the groups in the asymmetries identified in the relevant anthropometric points, relative to the position assumed during the examination or to the subjects’ sex. Conclusions. There are no significant differences in body posture in the coronal plane, between preterm children and full-term children. Premature birth does not have adverse effects related to body posture asymmetry in preterm children at the age of six.

  19. Modifications of recognition memory processes in preterm children: an event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipp, Kerstin H; Mecklinger, Axel; Brunnemann, Nicole; Shamdeen, Mohammed G; Meng-Hentschel, Juliane; Gortner, Ludwig

    2015-01-01

    Prematurity may cause hippocampal compromise. Therefore, hippocampus-dependent memory processes (recollection-based retrieval) may be more impaired than hippocampus-independent processes (familiarity-based retrieval). The memory of 18 children born preterm with reduced hippocampal volumes, without neonatal complications (weeks of gestation < 34, weight < 1,600 g), and 15 controls (8-10 years) was tested using an item recognition task. While groups were equal in memory performance, dissociation was found: The event-related potential (ERP) correlate of familiarity was intact in the preterm group, whereas the correlate of recollection was attenuated. A follow-up experiment ruled out that this was due to general cognitive deficits. Furthermore, gestational age correlated with the ERP index of recollection. Thus, recognition memory in preterm children may be characterized by a compensation of attenuated recollection by familiarity. © 2014 The Authors. Child Development © 2014 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  20. Ophthalmological outcome and visuospatial ability in very preterm children measured at 2.5 years corrected age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hreinsdottir, J; Ewald, U; Strand Brodd, K; Örnkloo, H; von Hofsten, C; Holmström, G

    2013-12-01

    To investigate the ophthalmological outcome of very preterm children at 2.5 years corrected age (CA) and perform a test of visuospatial and cognitive abilities. A population-based, prospective study (LOVIS study) in Uppsala County, Sweden, comprised 111 very preterm children (children (89.9%) alive at 2.5 years. Spatial cognition was investigated with a test of five alternative blocks in 48 preterm and 25 term-born children. Visual impairment, strabismus or refractive errors, were found in 12% of the children. None of the children were blind in both eyes. Logistic regression analyses revealed significant associations between strabismus and periventricular leucomalacia/intraventricular haemorrhage (OR 9.6, p = 0.025) and between refractive errors and severe retinopathy of prematurity (OR 9.8, p = 0.011) and GA (OR 0.763, p = 0.034). Oval and rectangular blocks were significantly more difficult to insert into a box for preterm than full-term children (p = 0.048 and 0.013, respectively). There was a significant correlation between total scores for the five blocks and GA at birth (p = 0.035). Eye and visual problems were found in 12% of the preterm children at 30 months CA. Preterm children had difficulties with blocks of complex shapes. ©2013 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Preterm birth, early growth and adult metabolic health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Finken, M.J.J.

    2007-01-01

    Children born small-for-gestational-age (SGA) are at risk for short stature, and cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes in later life. There is some preliminary evidence for a similar phenotype in survivors of preterm birth. In contrast to children born SGA, preterm infants born

  2. Does the Native Language Influence Lexical Composition in Very Preterm Children at the Age of Two Years? A Cross-Linguistic Comparison Study of Italian and Finnish Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolt, Suvi; Savini, Silvia; Guarini, Annalisa; Caselli, Maria Cristina; Matomäki, Jaakko; Lapinleimu, Helena; Haataja, Leena; Lehtonen, Liisa; Alessandroni, Rosina; Faldella, Giacomo; Sansavini, Alessandra

    2017-01-01

    This cross-linguistic study investigated whether the native language has any influence on lexical composition among Italian (N = 125) and Finnish (N = 116) very preterm (born at <32 gestational weeks) children at 24 months (controls: 125 Italian and 146 Finnish full-term children). The investigation also covered the effect of maternal education…

  3. Emerging self-regulation in toddlers born preterm or low birth weight: Differential susceptibility to parenting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    POEHLMANN, JULIE; SCHWICHTENBERG, A. J. M.; SHLAFER, REBECCA J.; HAHN, EMILY; BIANCHI, JON-PAUL; WARNER, RACHAEL

    2012-01-01

    The differential susceptibility to parenting model was examined in relation to toddler self-regulation in a prospective longitudinal study of infants born preterm or low birth weight. We followed 153 mother–infant dyads across five time points between the infant’s Neonatal Intensive Care Unit stay and 24 months postterm. Assessments of infant temperament, quality of early parenting interactions, contextual variables, and toddler effortful control and behavior problems were conducted. Results supported differential susceptibility and dual risk models in addition to documenting main effects of early parenting on children’s emerging self-regulation. Our data suggested that preterm or low birth weight infants who were prone to distress or rated by mothers as more difficult were particularly susceptible to the effects of early negative parenting. PMID:21262047

  4. Early vocabulary in full term and preterm Estonian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schults, Astra; Tulviste, Tiia; Haan, Elis

    2013-09-01

    Preterm birth is considered to be a high risk factor for child development and early vocabulary can be used as an indicator for later development. The aim of the present study is to compare the size of early vocabulary, proportional use of different word categories, and mean length of utterance (henceforth MLU) of preterm and full term children. The sample consisted of 40 preterm (corrected ages 16-25 months) and two matched groups of full term children. First full term group consisted of 120 children who were matched by age and gender. Second full term group consisted of 109 children who were matched by age, gender and size of productive vocabulary. The data for this study were gathered using the Estonian adaptation of MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory: Words and Sentences. Full term children who were matched by age and gender had larger vocabulary as compared to the preterm children's vocabulary (U = 1758.5, p = 0.01). Poisson regression yielded that age, gender, and preterm birth explained significantly the variance in the vocabulary size. Poisson regressions showed that all three variables explained significantly variance in proportional use of social terms and predicates. Age had significant effect for proportional use of common nouns. Age and preterm birth had a significant effect on the proportional use of function words. MLU was shorter in preterm than in full term children (U = 1125.0, p = 0.002). Estonian preterm children's vocabulary is slightly smaller than full term children's vocabulary. There is a difference in the proportions of word categories used, as preterm children use more social terms, and less predicates, and function words. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Cortisol levels in former preterm children at school age are predicted by neonatal procedural pain-related stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brummelte, Susanne; Chau, Cecil MY; Cepeda, Ivan L.; Degenhardt, Amanda; Weinberg, Joanne; Synnes, Anne R.; Grunau, Ruth E.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Early life stress can alter hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis function. Differences in cortisol levels have been found in preterm infants exposed to substantial procedural stress during neonatal intensive care, compared to infants born full-term, but only a few studies investigated whether altered programming of the HPA axis persists past toddler age. Further, there is a dearth of knowledge of what may contribute to these changes in cortisol. This prospective cohort study examined the cortisol profiles in response to the stress of cognitive assessment, as well as the diurnal rhythm of cortisol, in children (n=129) born at varying levels of prematurity (24–32 weeks gestation) and at full-term (38–41 weeks gestation), at age 7 years. Further, we investigated the relationships among cortisol levels and neonatal procedural pain-related stress (controlling for multiple medical confounders), concurrent maternal factors (parenting stress, depressive and anxiety symptoms) and children’s behavioral problems. For each aim we investigate acute cortisol response profiles to a cognitive challenge as well as diurnal cortisol patterns at home. We hypothesized that children born very preterm will differ in their pattern of cortisol secretion from children born full-term, possibly depended on concurrent child and maternal factors, and that exposure to neonatal pain-related stress would be associated with altered cortisol secretion in children born very preterm, possibly in a sex-dependent way. Saliva samples were collected from 7-year old children three times during a laboratory visit for assessment of cognitive and executive functions (pretest, mid-test, end - study day acute stress profile) and at four times over two consecutive non-school days at home (i.e. morning, mid-morning, afternoon and bedtime - diurnal rhythm profile). We found that cortisol profiles were similar in preterm and full-term children, albeit preterms had slightly higher cortisol at

  6. Survival, morbidity, growth and developmental delay for babies born preterm in low and middle income countries - a systematic review of outcomes measured.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Gladstone

    Full Text Available Premature birth is the leading cause of neonatal death and second leading in children under 5. Information on outcomes of preterm babies surviving the early neonatal period is sparse although it is considered a major determinant of immediate and long-term morbidity.Systematic review of studies reporting outcomes for preterm babies in low and middle income settings was conducted using electronic databases, citation tracking, expert recommendations and "grey literature". Reviewers screened titles, abstracts and articles. Data was extracted using inclusion and exclusion criteria, study site and facilities, assessment methods and outcomes of mortality, morbidity, growth and development. The Child Health Epidemiology Reference Group criteria (CHERG were used to assess quality.Of 197 eligible publications, few (10.7% were high quality (CHERG. The majority (83.3% report on the outcome of a sample of preterm babies at time of birth or admission. Only 16.0% studies report population-based data using standardised mortality definitions. In 50.5% of studies, gestational age assessment method was unclear. Only 15.8% followed-up infants for 2 years or more. Growth was reported using standardised definitions but recommended morbidity definitions were rarely used. The criteria for assessment of neurodevelopmental outcomes was variable with few standardised tools - Bayley II was used in approximately 33% of studies, few studies undertook sensory assessments.To determine the relative contribution of preterm birth to the burden of disease in children and to inform the planning of healthcare interventions to address this burden, a renewed understanding of the assessment and documentation of outcomes for babies born preterm is needed. More studies assessing outcomes for preterm babies who survive the immediate newborn period are needed. More consistent use of data is vital with clear and aligned definitions of health outcomes in newborn (preterm or term and

  7. Decreased and Increased Anisotropy along Major Cerebral White Matter Tracts in Preterm Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travis, Katherine E; Adams, Jenna N; Ben-Shachar, Michal; Feldman, Heidi M

    2015-01-01

    Premature birth is highly prevalent and associated with neurodevelopmental delays and disorders. Adverse outcomes, particularly in children born before 32 weeks of gestation, have been attributed in large part to white matter injuries, often found in periventricular regions using conventional imaging. To date, tractography studies of white matter pathways in children and adolescents born preterm have evaluated only a limited number of tracts simultaneously. The current study compares diffusion properties along 18 major cerebral white matter pathways in children and adolescents born preterm (n = 27) and full term (n = 19), using diffusion magnetic resonance imaging and tractography. We found that compared to the full term group, the preterm group had significantly decreased FA in segments of the bilateral uncinate fasciculus and anterior segments of the right inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus. Additionally, the preterm group had significantly increased FA in segments of the right and left anterior thalamic radiations, posterior segments of the right inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, and the right and left inferior longitudinal fasciculus. Increased FA in the preterm group was generally associated with decreased radial diffusivity. These findings indicate that prematurity-related white matter differences in later childhood and adolescence do not affect all tracts in the periventricular zone and can involve both decreased and increased FA. Differences in the patterns of radial diffusivity and axial diffusivity suggest that the tissue properties underlying group FA differences may vary within and across white matter tracts. Distinctive diffusion properties may relate to variations in the timing of injury in the neonatal period, extent of white matter dysmaturity and/or compensatory processes in childhood.

  8. Decreased and Increased Anisotropy along Major Cerebral White Matter Tracts in Preterm Children and Adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine E Travis

    Full Text Available Premature birth is highly prevalent and associated with neurodevelopmental delays and disorders. Adverse outcomes, particularly in children born before 32 weeks of gestation, have been attributed in large part to white matter injuries, often found in periventricular regions using conventional imaging. To date, tractography studies of white matter pathways in children and adolescents born preterm have evaluated only a limited number of tracts simultaneously. The current study compares diffusion properties along 18 major cerebral white matter pathways in children and adolescents born preterm (n = 27 and full term (n = 19, using diffusion magnetic resonance imaging and tractography. We found that compared to the full term group, the preterm group had significantly decreased FA in segments of the bilateral uncinate fasciculus and anterior segments of the right inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus. Additionally, the preterm group had significantly increased FA in segments of the right and left anterior thalamic radiations, posterior segments of the right inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, and the right and left inferior longitudinal fasciculus. Increased FA in the preterm group was generally associated with decreased radial diffusivity. These findings indicate that prematurity-related white matter differences in later childhood and adolescence do not affect all tracts in the periventricular zone and can involve both decreased and increased FA. Differences in the patterns of radial diffusivity and axial diffusivity suggest that the tissue properties underlying group FA differences may vary within and across white matter tracts. Distinctive diffusion properties may relate to variations in the timing of injury in the neonatal period, extent of white matter dysmaturity and/or compensatory processes in childhood.

  9. Lung function at term in extremely preterm-born infants: a regional prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentsen, Mariann Haavik; Markestad, Trond; Øymar, Knut; Halvorsen, Thomas

    2017-10-25

    To compare lung function of extremely preterm (EP)-born infants with and without bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) with that of healthy term-born infants, and to determine which perinatal characteristics were associated with lung function at term and how predictive these measurements were for later respiratory health in EP-born infants. Perinatal variables were recorded prospectively, and tidal breathing parameters were measured at term-equivalent age using electromagnetic inductance plethysmography. Respiratory morbidity was defined by hospital readmissions and/or treatment with asthma medications during the first year of life. Fifty-two EP-born infants (mean gestational age 261, range 226-276 weeks) and 45 term-born infants were included. There was evidence of significant airway obstruction, higher tidal volumes and increased minute ventilation in the EP-born infants with and without BPD, although generally more pronounced for those with BPD. Male gender, antenatal steroids and number of days on continuous positive airway pressure were associated with lung function outcomes at term. A prediction model incorporating two unrelated tidal breathing parameters, BPD, birth weight z-score and gender, predicted respiratory morbidity in the first year of life with good accuracy (area under the curve 0.818, sensitivity and specificity 81.8% and 75.0%, respectively). Lung function measured at term-equivalent age was strikingly abnormal in EP-born infants, irrespective of BPD. Tidal breathing parameters may be of value in predicting future pulmonary health in infants born premature. NCT01150396; Results. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  10. Attention problems in very preterm children from childhood to adulthood: the Bavarian Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breeman, Linda D; Jaekel, Julia; Baumann, Nicole; Bartmann, Peter; Wolke, Dieter

    2016-02-01

    Very preterm (VP; gestational age attention problems in childhood and adulthood. The stability of these problems into adulthood is not known. The Bavarian Longitudinal Study is a prospective cohort study that followed 260 VP/VLBW and 229 term-born individuals from birth to adulthood. Data on attention were collected at 6, 8, and 26 years of age, using parent reports, expert behavior observations, and clinical ADHD diagnoses. At each assessment, VP/VLBW individuals had significantly more attention problems, shorter attention span, and were more frequently diagnosed with ADHD than term-born comparisons. In both VP/VLBW and term-born individuals, overall, attention span increased and attention problems decreased from childhood to adulthood. Attention problems and attention span were more stable over time for VP/VLBW than term-born individuals. Similarly, ADHD diagnoses showed moderate stability from childhood to adulthood in VP/VLBW, but not in term-born individuals. However, when those with severe disabilities were excluded, differences between VP/VLBW and term-born individuals reduced. Despite improvement in attention regulation from childhood to adulthood, children born very preterm remained at increased risk for attention problems in adulthood. In contrast, term-born children with clinical attention problems outgrew these by adulthood. As inattentive behavior of VP/VLBW children may be overlooked by teachers, it may be necessary to raise awareness for school intervention programs that reduce attention problems in VP/VLBW children. © 2015 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  11. Health of children born after ovulation induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemetti, Reija; Sevón, Tiina; Gissler, Mika; Hemminki, Elina

    2010-03-01

    To study the health of children born after ovulation induction (OI). Nationwide register-based study. The OI children were followed up to the age of 4 years and compared with other children. The OI children (N = 4,467). Two control groups: all other children (excluding children born after IVF, N = 190,398) and a random sample of those children (n = 26,877). Ovulation induction treatment in ordinary practice. Mortality rates and adjusted odds ratios for perinatal outcomes, hospitalizations, health-related benefits, and long-term medication use. A total of 12% of OI and 2% of control children were multiples. Even after stratifying for multiplicity and adjusting for the available confounding factors (region, smoking, maternal age, socioeconomic position, and parity for perinatal health and mother's socioeconomic position for other indicators), most indicators showed worse health among OI children compared with control children. The OI children had poorer perinatal health and more episodes of long hospitalization than the control children. Singleton OI children had more long-term illnesses in childhood, as measured by child disability allowance, long-term medication use, and hospital care episodes. Either OI treatment or the reasons for the treatment increase the risk of health problems in early childhood. Copyright 2010 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Risk Factors for Intraventricular Hemorrhage in Preterm Infants Born at 34 Weeks of Gestation or Less Following Preterm Premature Rupture of Membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hongyan; Wang, Qiuxia; Lu, Junyin; Zhang, Qiang; Kumar, Pravesh

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study is to identify possible perinatal risk factors related to intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) in preterm infants born at 34 weeks of gestation or less following preterm premature rupture of membranes (pPROM). A total of 292 preterm infants born at 34 weeks of gestation or less following pPROM were enrolled in the study, while 155 newborns with incomplete data, especially those that lack histological examination of the placenta, maternal details, and neonatal characteristics, have been further excluded. Finally, data of 137 preterm infants were included in the analysis. All infants underwent ultrasonographic screening for IVH. Thirty-three infants with IVH were considered as cases and 104 infants without IVH were considered as controls. The association between risk factors and IVH was evaluated by univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses. The incidence of IVH in preterm infants born at 34 weeks of gestation or less following pPROM was 24.1%, while the incidence of maternal chorioamnionitis was 43.8%. By univariate analysis, gestational age, birth weight, asphyxia resuscitation, maternal chorioamnionitis, fetal distress, amniotic fluid index, and latency of the rupture of membranes to birth were found to be significantly different between the 2 groups. By logistic regression analysis, lower gestational age, low birth weight, asphyxia resuscitation, and maternal chorioamnionitis were found to be independent risk factors for IVH. Lower gestational age, low birth weight, asphyxia resuscitation, and maternal chorioamnionitis are independent risk factors for IVH in preterm infants born at 34 weeks of gestation or less following pPROM. Copyright © 2016 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Parenting behavior is associated with the early neurobehavioral development of very preterm children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treyvaud, Karli; Anderson, Vicki A; Howard, Kelly; Bear, Merilyn; Hunt, Rod W; Doyle, Lex W; Inder, Terrie E; Woodward, Lianne; Anderson, Peter J

    2009-02-01

    There is an increasing focus on social and environmental factors that promote and support the early development of highly vulnerable children such as those born very preterm. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between parenting behavior, parent-child synchrony, and neurobehavioral development in very preterm children at 24 months of age. Participants were 152 very preterm children (behavior (positive affect, negative affect, sensitivity, facilitation, and intrusiveness). Cognitive and motor development was assessed by using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development II, and the Infant Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment was used to assess socioemotional development (social-emotional competence and internalizing and externalizing behavior). fter controlling for social risk, most parenting domains were associated with cognitive development, with parent-child synchrony emerging as the most predictive. Greater parent-child synchrony was also associated with greater social-emotional competence, as was parenting that was positive, warm, and sensitive. Parents who displayed higher levels of negative affect were more likely to rate their children as withdrawn, anxious, and inhibited, but, unexpectedly, higher negative affect was also associated with more optimal psychomotor development. Parenting was not associated with externalizing behaviors at this age. Specific parenting behaviors, particularly parent-child synchrony, were associated with neurobehavioral development. These findings have implications for the development of targeted parent-based interventions to promote positive outcomes across different developmental domains during the first 2 years of life for very preterm children.

  14. Omega-3 and -6 fatty acid supplementation and sensory processing in toddlers with ASD symptomology born preterm: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boone, Kelly M; Gracious, Barbara; Klebanoff, Mark A; Rogers, Lynette K; Rausch, Joseph; Coury, Daniel L; Keim, Sarah A

    2017-12-01

    Despite advances in the health and long-term survival of infants born preterm, they continue to face developmental challenges including higher risk for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and atypical sensory processing patterns. This secondary analysis aimed to describe sensory profiles and explore effects of combined dietary docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) supplementation on parent-reported sensory processing in toddlers born preterm who were exhibiting ASD symptoms. 90-day randomized, double blinded, placebo-controlled trial. 31 children aged 18-38months who were born at ≤29weeks' gestation. Mixed effects regression analyses followed intent to treat and explored effects on parent-reported sensory processing measured by the Infant/Toddler Sensory Profile (ITSP). Baseline ITSP scores reflected atypical sensory processing, with the majority of atypical scores falling below the mean. Sensory processing sections: auditory (above=0%, below=65%), vestibular (above=13%, below=48%), tactile (above=3%, below=35%), oral sensory (above=10%; below=26%), visual (above=10%, below=16%); sensory processing quadrants: low registration (above=3%; below=71%), sensation avoiding (above=3%; below=39%), sensory sensitivity (above=3%; below=35%), and sensation seeking (above=10%; below=19%). Twenty-eight of 31 children randomized had complete outcome data. Although not statistically significant (p=0.13), the magnitude of the effect for reduction in behaviors associated with sensory sensitivity was medium to large (effect size=0.57). No other scales reflected a similar magnitude of effect size (range: 0.10 to 0.32). The findings provide support for larger randomized trials of omega fatty acid supplementation for children at risk of sensory processing difficulties, especially those born preterm. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Working to improve survival and health for babies born very preterm: the WISH project protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowther, Caroline A; Middleton, Philippa F; Bain, Emily; Ashwood, Pat; Bubner, Tanya; Flenady, Vicki; Morris, Jonathan; McIntyre, Sarah

    2013-12-19

    Babies born very preterm (before 30 weeks gestation) are at high risk of dying in their first weeks of life, and those who survive are at risk of developing cerebral palsy in childhood. Recent high-quality evidence has shown that giving women magnesium sulphate immediately prior to very early birth can significantly increase the chances of their babies surviving free of cerebral palsy. In 2010 Australian and New Zealand clinical practice guidelines recommended this therapy. The WISH (Working to Improve Survival and Health for babies born very preterm) Project aims to bi-nationally improve and monitor the use of this therapy to reduce the risk of very preterm babies dying or having cerebral palsy. The WISH Project is a prospective cohort study. The 25 Australian and New Zealand tertiary level maternity hospitals will be provided with a package of active implementation strategies to guide the introduction and local adaptation of guideline recommendations. Surveys will be conducted at individual hospitals to evaluate outcomes related to local implementation progress and the use and value of the WISH implementation strategies. For the hospitals participating in the 'WISH audit of uptake and health outcomes data collection', the primary health outcomes (assessed through case note review, and 24 month corrected age questionnaires) will be: the proportion of eligible women receiving antenatal magnesium sulphate; and rates of death prior to primary hospital discharge and cerebral palsy at two years corrected age in infants born to eligible mothers. For hospitals wishing to assess factors influencing translation locally, barriers and facilitators will be measured through interviews with health care professionals, to further guide implementation strategies. Study outcomes for the early phase of the project (Year 1) will be compared with the later intervention phase (Years 2 and 3). The WISH Project will offer insight into the effectiveness of a multifaceted implementation

  16. Inflammatory Response in Preterm Newborns Born after Prolonged Premature Rupture of Membranes: Is There a Correlation with Placental Histological Findings?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Neri; Schreiber, Letizia; Oron, Anat; Halachmi, Sarel; Kohelet, David

    2017-10-01

    Preterm birth is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality among neonates in the United States. Early recognition of sepsis in this population is a challenging task since overt clinical signs can be difficult to determine. C-reactive protein (CRP), one of the most frequently non-specific used laboratory test, can indirectly aid the diagnosis of neonatal sepsis. To evaluate the relationship between histological findings in the placenta of preterm newborns born after prolonged rupture of membranes, CRP levels, and blood cultures. Medical records were reviewed of all preterm newborns born after prolonged premature rupture of membranes at a medical center in Israel between 2011 and 2014. Of 128 newborns with prolonged rupture of membranes, 64 had evidence of histological chorioamnionitis (HCA). Gestational age, birth weight, and Apgar scores were significantly lower, while CRP levels (on admission and 10-12 hours post-delivery) were significantly higher in preterm newborns born to mothers with histological evidence of chorioamnionitis, but values were within normal ranges. Duration of the rupture of membranes and white blood cell counts did not differ between groups. CRP levels taken on admission and 10-12 hours after delivery were higher when HCA was present, but since there was a substantial overlap between those with and without HCA and the values for most were within normal range, the differences were not enough to serve as a tool to diagnose placental histological chorioamnionitis in preterm infants born after prolonged premature rupture of membranes and exposed to intrapartum antibiotics.

  17. Alterations in neural connectivity in preterm children at school age

    OpenAIRE

    Gozzo, Yeisid; Vohr, Betty; Lacadie, Cheryl; Hampson, Michelle; Katz, Karol H.; Maller-Kesselman, Jill; Schneider, Karen C.; Peterson, Bradley S.; Rajeevan, Nallakkandi; Makuch, Robert W.; Constable, R. Todd; Ment, Laura R.

    2009-01-01

    Converging data suggest recovery from injury in the preterm brain. We used functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) to test the hypothesis that cerebral connectivity involving Wernicke’s area and other important cortical language regions would differ between preterm (PT) and term (T) control school age children during performance of an auditory language task. Fifty-four PT children (600 – 1250 g birth weight) and 24 T controls were evaluated using an fMRI passive language task and neurode...

  18. [Evaluation of coordination and balance in preterm children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Fernández, Cristina; Mata Zubillaga, Daniel; Rodríguez Fernández, Luis Miguel; Regueras Santos, Laura; Reguera García, Maria Mercedes; de Paz Fernández, José Antonio; Lapeña López de Armentia, Santiago

    2016-08-01

    Recent studies show that many preterm children without apparent neurological sequelae present some difficulties in different areas, such as coordination or balance during their school years. The Movement Assessment Battery for Children-2 (MABC-2) has demonstrated to be a useful tool to validate the coordination, while the stabilometric platform was the reference standard test for validating the balance. Case-control study carried out on preterm children from 7 to 10 years old and healthy term infant controls of the same ages. The same age band of MABC-2 was applied and the static balance by the stabilometric platform was analysed. A total of 89 subjects were included, 30 preterm children≤1,500g birthweight, 29 preterm children>1,500g birthweight, and 30 controls. Preterm children obtained the lowest scores on an overall basis in hand dexterity and balance tests in MABC-2, regardless of their birthweight. Lower gestational age was associated with poorer outcomes in hand dexterity and total scores in MABC-2. Balance results were similar using the stabilometric platform, regardless of prematurity. A little more than 10% preterm and term children could have coordination disorders or be at risk of developing them using the MABC-2. Despite the visual-motor coordination being similar, preterm children could face greater difficulties in hand dexterity while, in the absence of neurological comorbidity, preterm and term children balance could be comparable. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Infants born preterm, stress, and neurodevelopment in the neonatal intensive care unit: might music have an impact?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Dane E; Patel, Aniruddh D

    2018-01-24

    The neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) provides life-saving medical care for an increasing number of newborn infants each year. NICU care, while lifesaving, does have attendant consequences which can include repeated activation of the stress response and reduced maternal interaction, with possible negative long-term impacts on brain development. Here we present a neuroscientific framework for considering the impact of music on neurodevelopment in the NICU of infants born preterm and evaluate current literature on the use of music with this population to determine what is most reliably known of the physiological effects of music interventions. Using online academic databases we collected relevant, experimental studies aimed at determining effects of music listening in infants in the NICU. These articles were evaluated for methodological rigor, ranking the 10 most experimentally stringent as a representative sample. The selected literature seems to indicate that effects are present on the cardio-pulmonary system and behavior of neonates, although the relative effect size remains unclear. These findings indicate a need for more standardized longitudinal studies aimed at determining not only whether NICU music exposure has beneficial effects on the cardio-pulmonary system, but also on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, brain structures, and cognitive behavioral status of these children as well. Provides a neuroscience framework for considering how music might attenuate stress in neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) infants. Considers how repeated stress may cause negative neurodevelopmental impacts in infants born preterm. Posits epigenetics can serve as a mechanistic pathway for music moderating the stress response. © 2018 Mac Keith Press.

  20. Parenting Behavior at 2 Years Predicts School-age Performance at 7 Years in Very Preterm Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treyvaud, Karli; Doyle, Lex W.; Lee, Katherine J.; Ure, Alexandra; Inder, Terrie E.; Hunt, Rod W.; Anderson, Peter J.

    2016-01-01

    Parenting influences child development, but it is unclear whether early parenting behavior can influence school-age outcomes in very preterm (VPT) children, and/or if certain groups of VPT children may be more affected by early parenting behavior. These research questions were examined. Participants were 147 children born <30 weeks' gestation…

  1. Laterality in Prematurely-Born Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segalwitz, Sidney J.; Chapman, Jacqueline S.

    The study examined the relationship between perinatal stress and decreased right handedness and decreased left cerebral dominance for speech with 215 children born prematurely, followed from birth, and tested at age 5. Results indicated that neither hand preference nor hand performance correlated with degree of perinatal stress and that eye…

  2. Executive function skills are associated with reading and parent-rated child function in children born prematurely.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loe, Irene M; Lee, Eliana S; Luna, Beatriz; Feldman, Heidi M

    2012-02-01

    Preterm children are at risk for executive function (EF) problems, which have been linked to behavior and learning problems in full term children. In this study, we examine the relationship between EF and functional outcomes in preterm children. To evaluate (1) EF skills of 9- to 16-year-old children born across the spectrum of gestational age (GA), (2) relationship of degree of prematurity to EF skills, and (3) contributions of EF skills to two functional outcomes - reading scores and parent-rated child function. Preterm children reading, and parent-ratings of child function. Multiple regression models evaluated contributions to EF skills and functional outcomes. Compared to full term controls, preterm children had poorer EF performance on a complex planning and organization task and did not increase planning time as task difficulty increased. Their spatial memory capacity was not different. GA contributed to EF skills, but was mediated by IQ. EF contributed to the variance in reading skills but did not add to the variance in reading when IQ was considered. EF skills significantly contributed to the variance in parent-rated child function, but IQ did not. EF skills contribute to measures of functional outcome in this high-risk population. The use of EF skills as an early marker for learning and functional problems and as a target for intervention in children born preterm warrants future study. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Neonatal pain and COMT Val158Met genotype in relation to serotonin transporter (SLC6A4) promoter methylation in very preterm children at school age

    OpenAIRE

    Chau, Cecil M. Y.; Ranger, Manon; Sulistyoningrum, Dian; Devlin, Angela M.; Oberlander, Tim F.; Grunau, Ruth E.

    2014-01-01

    Children born very preterm are exposed to repeated neonatal procedures that induce pain and stress during hospitalization in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). The COMT Val158Met genotype is involved with pain sensitivity, and early life stress is implicated in altered expression of methylation of the serotonin transporter. We examined: (1) whether methylation of the serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4) promoter differs between very preterm children and full-term controls at school age, ...

  4. Delay of gratification and time comprehension is impaired in very preterm children at the age of 4years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hüning, B M; Assing, B; Weishaupt, E; Dransfeld, F; Felderhoff-Müser, U; Zmyj, N

    2017-12-01

    Very preterm infants more likely exhibit deficient executive functions than term born controls. Delay of gratification, as part of the executive functions, allows for rejecting an immediate in favor of a greater future reward. Time comprehension might help to delay gratification. We hypothesized that delay of gratification and time comprehension is less developed in preterm children and that time comprehension is associated with the ability to wait for a greater reward. Very preterm children (preterm subjects (12 female; median: gestational age (GA) 28.3weeks, corrected age 4years, 22days) and 26 controls (16 female, median GA: 40.0weeks, age 4years, 25days) participated. Correct answers in the time comprehension and receptive language task, waiting time in the delay-of-gratification task were measured. Preterm subjects had less time comprehension than controls (43% vs. 53%, p=0.017, one-tailed) but receptive language skills were similar. Waiting time in the delay-of-gratification task was 3:42min in preterm subjects, versus 10:09min in controls (p=0.043, one-tailed). Even after controlling for language skills, waiting time correlated positively with time comprehension in both groups (r=0.399, p=0.004, two-tailed). Preterm children's time comprehension and delay of gratification ability is impaired. Future research is warranted to investigate whether training in time comprehension increases the ability to delay gratification. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Body Composition Trajectories From Infancy to Preschool in Children Born Premature Versus Full-term.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheurer, Johannah M; Zhang, Lei; Gray, Heather L; Weir, Katherine; Demerath, Ellen W; Ramel, Sara E

    2017-06-01

    The aim of the study was to longitudinally characterize infancy to preschool body composition trajectories and the association of early fat and fat-free mass gains with preschool age body composition in children born premature versus full-term. A cohort of appropriate-for-gestational age preterm (n = 20) and term (n = 51) infants were followed at 3 visits: "neonatal" visit 1 at 2 weeks of age for term and near term corrected age for preterm; "infancy" visit 2 at 3 to 4 months (preterm corrected age); "preschool" visit 3 at 4 years. Body composition via air displacement plethysmography and anthropometrics were measured at all visits. Tracking of infancy weight and body composition with preschool measurements was tested using Pearson partial correlation coefficients. Associations between serial body composition measurements were assessed using multiple linear regression. Early differences in body composition between premature (mean gestational age 31.9 weeks, mean birth weight 1843 g) and full-term (mean gestational age 39.8 weeks) infants were not present at preschool age. Visit 1 body composition was not correlated with preschool measurements in the preterm infants. Visit 2 measurements were correlated with preschool measures. Fat-free mass accretion from visit 1 to visit 2 was positively associated with preschool lean mass (β = 0.038, P = 0.049) in preterm children, whereas fat accretion was not associated with preschool body composition. Children born prematurely and full-term have similar body composition at preschool age. For preterms infancy fat-free mass gains, and not adiposity gains, are positively associated with preschool fat-free mass; this may be associated with lower risk of later obesity and adverse metabolic outcomes.

  6. Health-related quality of life of preterm children and their caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donohue, Pamela K

    2002-01-01

    As advances in medical science have extended the limit of viability downward to 23 or 24 weeks gestation, interest has turned from long-term health outcomes to quality of life for survivors. During the last decade, the first studies of the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of children and young adults who were born extremely preterm were published. Taken from the fields of anthropology, economics, sociology, and psychology, the foundation of HRQOL is formed by theories of functionalism, positive well-being, and utility. HRQOL can be defined as the physical, psychological, and social domains of health, which can be influenced by an individual's experiences and perception. HRQOL instruments are generally composed of multiple domains and measure physical functioning, mental health, and social role functioning in some form. Utilities, or preferences for health outcomes under conditions of uncertainty, are also used. Studies of HRQOL to-date indicate that preterm children have, on average, poorer health than their normal birthweight peers, but the majority do not perceive their quality of life as significantly different than others of their own age. Measures of HRQOL should not replace the traditional measures of morbidity, but should become part of the standard battery of tools used to assess a preterm child's health and well-being. Ultimately, studies of the HRQOL of preterm children should identify aspects of life, physical, psychological, or social, that could be improved with intervention. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Anxiety in Adolescents Born Preterm or with Very Low Birthweight: A Meta-Analysis of Case-Control Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somhovd, Mikael J.; Hansen, Bo M.; Brok, Jesper; Esbjorn, Barbara H.; Greisen, Gorm

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To determine if adolescents who are born very preterm (less than 32wks; of gestation) and/or with very low birthweight (VLBW; less than 1500g) have a higher risk of experiencing clinically significant anxiety problems. Method: We used a systematic review and meta-analysis. We searched the databases ISI Web of Knowledge, PubMed, PsycNET,…

  8. Social Lifestyle, Risk-taking Behavior, and Psychopathology in Young Adults Born Very Preterm or with a Very Low Birthweight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hille, E.T.M.; Dorrepaal, C.; Perenboom, R.; Gravenhorst, J.B.; Brand, R.; Verloove-Vanhorick, S.P.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To assess social lifestyle, risk-taking behavior, and psychopathology in young adults born very preterm or with a very low birthweight. Study design: This study was part of the 19-year follow-up in a large ongoing collaborative study in the Netherlands (the POPS study) on the long-term

  9. Early neuromotor development of high risk infants - Gross motor function in preterm and full-term born infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Haastert, I.C.

    2011-01-01

    This thesis is the result of 20 years follow-up of preterm and full-term born ‘graduates’ of the neonatal intensive care unit of the Wilhelmina Children’s Hospital, Utrecht. The aim was to answer questions that arose during admission and follow-up assessments. Typical gross motor development of

  10. Chronic Hypertension in Women after Perinatal Exposure to Preeclampsia, Being Born Small for Gestational Age or Preterm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindström, Linda; Skjaerven, Rolv; Bergman, Eva; Lundgren, Maria; Klungsøyr, Kari; Cnattingius, Sven; Wikström, Anna-Karin

    2017-03-01

    There is an established association between adverse events during perinatal life and chronic hypertension in adult life. However, disadvantageous conditions often co-exist in the same pregnancy. We investigated single and joint perinatal exposure to preeclampsia, being born small for gestational age (SGA) or preterm and subsequent risk of chronic hypertension. The study population consisted of 731 008 primiparous women from Norway and Sweden registered in the Medical Birth Registers, both as infants and as first time mothers between 1967-2009 (Norway) and 1973-2010 (Sweden). Risk of chronic hypertension in early pregnancy was calculated in women with perinatal exposures to preeclampsia, born SGA or preterm by log-binominal regression analysis, and adjusted for maternal age and level of education in the first generation. The rate of chronic hypertension was 0.4%. Risk of chronic hypertension was associated with single perinatal exposure to preeclampsia, being born SGA or preterm with adjusted relative risk (95% confidence interval, CI) of 2.2 (95% CI 1.8, 2.7), 1.1 (95% CI 1.0, 1.3), and 1.3 (95% CI 1.0, 1.5) respectively. The risks increased after joint exposures, with an almost fourfold risk increase after perinatal exposure to preeclampsia and preterm birth. Additional adjustment for BMI and smoking in the second generation in a subset of the cohort only had a minor impact on the results. Perinatal exposure to preeclampsia, being born SGA or preterm is independently associated with increased risk of chronic hypertension. The highest risk was seen after exposure to preeclampsia, especially if combined with SGA or preterm birth. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Motor fMRI and cortical grey matter volume in adults born very preterm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.J. Lawrence

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The primary aim of this study was to investigate the functional neuroanatomy of motor planning, initiation and execution in a cohort of young adults (mean age 20 years who were born very preterm (VPT; <33 weeks of gestation, as these individuals are at increased risk of experiencing neuromotor difficulties compared to controls. A cued motor task was presented to 20 right-handed VPT individuals and 20 controls within a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI paradigm. Whole-brain grey matter volume was also quantified and associations with functional data were examined. Despite comparable task performance, fMRI results showed that the VPT group displayed greater brain activation compared to controls in a region comprising the right cerebellum and the lingual, parahippocampal and middle temporal gyri. The VPT group also displayed decreased grey matter volume in the right superior frontal/premotor cortex and left middle temporal gyri. Grey matter volume in the premotor and middle temporal clusters was significantly negatively correlated with BOLD activation in the cerebellum. Overall, these data suggest that preterm birth is associated with functional neuronal differences that persist into adulthood, which are likely to reflect neural reorganisation following early brain injury.

  12. Delayed finger tapping and cognitive responses in preterm-born male teenagers with mild spastic diplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Fei; Mei, Xi; Chen, Andrew C N

    2015-02-01

    Information on fine motor and basic cognitive functions in spastic diplegia is sparse in the literature. The aim of this study was to investigate index finger's tapping speed and cognitive functions in categorization and old/new recognition of pictures in patients with mild spastic diplegia. Fifteen preterm-born male teenagers with mild spastic diplegia and 15 healthy male teenagers participated in this study. Finger-tapping tests and cognitive tests were performed on all participants. Outcomes were compared between the two groups. In the finger-tapping tests, the tapping speed was significantly slower in patients than in controls. In the tests of tapping one key persistently and tapping two keys alternately, the reaction time gaps between the left and right digits were larger in patients than in controls. In the categorization tests, the accuracies and reaction times for animal/plant and girl face pictures, but not for boy face pictures, were significantly worse in patients than in controls. In the recognition tests, the accuracies for old/new, animal/plant, and boy/girl face pictures were significantly lower in patients than in controls. The reaction times for old/new, animal/plant, and new face pictures, but not for old face pictures, were significantly longer in patients compared with controls. Our results demonstrate delayed finger tapping and cognitive responses in preterm-born male teenagers with mild spastic diplegia. Our experimental paradigm is sensitive for the study of fine motor and cognitive functions between patients and healthy controls. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Patched Skin Bilirubin Assay to Monitor Neonates Born Extremely Preterm Undergoing Phototherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luca, Daniele; Dell'Orto, Valentina

    2017-09-01

    To verify the reliability and safety of transcutaneous bilirubin (TcB) measurements in patched skin areas in neonates born extremely preterm under phototherapy. Sixty neonates (bilirubinometer in patched skin areas (of at least 2.5 cm diameter). Total serum bilirubin (TSB), lactate, pH, hemoglobin, and skin temperature were measured within 10 minutes of the TcB assay. Clinicians were blinded to TcB values, and clinical decisions about phototherapy were made with the TSB measurement only. TcB and TSB significantly were correlated (r = 0.84; P <.001), even after adjustment for hemoglobin, pH, lactate, gestational and postnatal age (standardized β = 0.8; P <.001; adjusted R2 = 0.75), or treatment duration (standardized β = 0.8; P <.001; adjusted R2 = 0.7). When the Bland-Altman analysis was used, TcB overestimated TSB at high values (mean difference TSB - TcB: -2.8 [2.4] mg/dL). If clinicians used the TcB only, no neonate would have had phototherapy stopped prematurely, and 21 (35%) would have continued phototherapy when it could have been stopped. The correlation between TSB and TcB (measured in patched skin areas) was comparable with that obtained in more mature neonates, and it was not influenced by clinical variables or factors affecting skin bilirubin passage. TcB overestimated TSB, and this may expose infants born preterm to unnecessary phototherapy, although it could spare approximately 65% of TSB assays. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Functional neuroanatomy of executive function after neonatal brain injury in adults who were born very preterm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia K Kalpakidou

    Full Text Available Individuals who were born very preterm (VPT; <33 gestational weeks are at risk of experiencing deficits in tasks involving executive function in childhood and beyond. In addition, the type and severity of neonatal brain injury associated with very preterm birth may exert differential effects on executive functioning by altering its neuroanatomical substrates. Here we addressed this question by investigating with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI the haemodynamic response during executive-type processing using a phonological verbal fluency and a working memory task in VPT-born young adults who had experienced differing degrees of neonatal brain injury. 12 VPT individuals with a history of periventricular haemorrhage and ventricular dilatation (PVH+VD, 17 VPT individuals with a history of uncomplicated periventricular haemorrhage (UPVH, 13 VPT individuals with no history of neonatal brain injury and 17 controls received an MRI scan whilst completing a verbal fluency task with two cognitive loads ('easy' and 'hard' letters. Two groups of VPT individuals (PVH+VD; n = 10, UPVH; n = 8 performed an n-back task with three cognitive loads (1-, 2-, 3-back. Results demonstrated that VPT individuals displayed hyperactivation in frontal, temporal, and parietal cortices and in caudate nucleus, insula and thalamus compared to controls, as demands of the verbal fluency task increased, regardless of type of neonatal brain injury. On the other hand, during the n-back task and as working memory load increased, the PVH+VD group showed less engagement of the frontal cortex than the UPVH group. In conclusion, this study suggests that the functional neuroanatomy of different executive-type processes is altered following VPT birth and that neural activation associated with specific aspects of executive function (i.e., working memory may be particularly sensitive to the extent of neonatal brain injury.

  15. Invasive Procedures in Preterm Children: Brain and Cognitive Development at School Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinall, Jillian; Miller, Steven P.; Bjornson, Bruce H.; Fitzpatrick, Kevin P.V.; Poskitt, Kenneth J.; Brant, Rollin; Synnes, Anne R.; Cepeda, Ivan L.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Very preterm infants (born 24–32 weeks’ gestation) undergo numerous invasive procedures during neonatal care. Repeated skin-breaking procedures in rodents cause neuronal cell death, and in human preterm neonates higher numbers of invasive procedures from birth to term-equivalent age are associated with abnormal brain development, even after controlling for other clinical risk factors. It is unknown whether higher numbers of invasive procedures are associated with long-term alterations in brain microstructure and cognitive outcome at school age in children born very preterm. METHODS: Fifty children born very preterm underwent MRI and cognitive testing at median age 7.6 years (interquartile range, 7.5–7.7). T1- and T2-weighted images were assessed for the severity of brain injury. Magnetic resonance diffusion tensor sequences were used to measure fractional anisotropy (FA), an index of white matter (WM) maturation, from 7 anatomically defined WM regions. Child cognition was assessed using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children–IV. Multivariate modeling was used to examine relationships between invasive procedures, brain microstructure, and cognition, adjusting for clinical confounders (eg, infection, ventilation, brain injury). RESULTS: Greater numbers of invasive procedures were associated with lower FA values of the WM at age 7 years (P = .01). The interaction between the number of procedures and FA was associated with IQ (P = .02), such that greater numbers of invasive procedures and lower FA of the superior WM were related to lower IQ. CONCLUSIONS: Invasive procedures during neonatal care contribute to long-term abnormalities in WM microstructure and lower IQ. PMID:24534406

  16. DIGESTIVE DISORDERS IN PREMATURELY BORN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Belyaeva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The article contains data on functional digestive disorders in newborns, mainly on the problem of lactase (disaccharidase insufficiency. The information on the prevalence of this condition, modern classification of hypolactasia, diagnostic techniques and dietary as well as medicinal correction is given. Treatment of lactase insufficiency has an increased significance in prematurely born children due to their excess demands in energy and plastic substances. The appropriateness of lactase for the treatment of this disorder is proved.

  17. Road work on memory lane--functional and structural alterations to the learning and memory circuit in adults born very preterm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvan, Piergiorgio; Froudist Walsh, Seán; Allin, Matthew P G; Walshe, Muriel; Murray, Robin M; Bhattacharyya, Sagnik; McGuire, Philip K; Williams, Steven C R; Nosarti, Chiara

    2014-11-15

    Very preterm (VPT) birth is considered a risk factor not only for neurological impairment, but also for reduced function in several cognitive domains in childhood and later in life. Individuals who were born VPT are more likely to demonstrate learning and memory difficulties compared to term-born controls. These problems contribute to more VPT-born children repeating grades and underachieving in school. This, in turn, affects their prospects in adult life. Here we aimed to 1) study how the VPT-born adult brain functionally recruited specific areas during learning, i.e. encoding and recall across four repeated blocks of verbal stimuli, and to investigate how these patterns of activation differed from term-born subjects; and 2) probe the microstructural differences of white-matter tracts connecting these areas to other parts of the learning and memory network. To investigate these functional-structural relationships we analyzed functional and diffusion-weighted MRI. Functional-MRI and a verbal paired associate learning (VPAL) task were used to extract Blood Oxygenation Level Dependent (BOLD) activity in 21 VPT-born adults (memory network, including anterior cingulate and caudate body during encoding and thalamus/parahippocampal gyrus during cued recall. Altered activation in thalamus/parahippocampal gyrus may be explained by reduced connections between these areas and the hippocampus, which may be a direct consequence of neonatal hypoxic/ischemic injury. These results could reflect the effect of adaptive plastic processes associated with high-order cognitive functions, at least when the cognitive load remains relatively low, as ex-preterm young adults displayed unimpaired performance in completing the verbal paired associate learning task. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The contribution of visual processing to academic achievement in adolescents born extremely preterm or extremely low birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molloy, Carly S; Di Battista, Ashley M; Anderson, Vicki A; Burnett, Alice; Lee, Katherine J; Roberts, Gehan; Cheong, Jeanie Ly; Anderson, Peter J; Doyle, Lex W

    2017-04-01

    Children born extremely preterm (EP, memory. A geographically determined cohort of 228 surviving EP/ELBW adolescents (mean age 17 years) was studied. The relationships between measures of visual processing (visual acuity, binocular stereopsis, eye convergence, and visual perception) and academic achievement were explored within the EP/ELBW group. Analyses were repeated controlling for perinatal and social risk, and measures of attention and working memory. It was found that visual acuity, convergence and visual perception are related to scores for academic achievement on univariable regression analyses. After controlling for potential confounds (perinatal and social risk, working memory and attention), visual acuity, convergence and visual perception remained associated with reading and math computation, but only convergence and visual perception are related to spelling. The additional variance explained by visual processing is up to 6.6% for reading, 2.7% for spelling, and 2.2% for math computation. None of the visual processing variables or visual motor integration are associated with handwriting on multivariable analysis. Working memory is generally a stronger predictor of reading, spelling, and math computation than visual processing. It was concluded that visual processing difficulties are significantly related to academic outcomes in EP/ELBW adolescents; therefore, specific attention should be paid to academic remediation strategies incorporating the management of working memory and visual processing in EP/ELBW children.

  19. Infant born preterm have delayed development of adaptive postural control in the first 5 months of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusing, Stacey C; Thacker, Leroy R; Galloway, James C

    2016-08-01

    Infants born preterm are at increased risk of developmental disabilities, that may be attributed to their early experiences and ability to learn. The purpose of this paper was to evaluate the ability of infants born preterm to adapt their postural control to changing task demands. This study included 18 infants born at 32 weeks of gestation or less whose posture was compared in supine under 2 conditions, with and without a visual stimulus presented. The postural variability, measured with root mean squared displacement of the center of pressure, and postural complexity, measured with the approximate entropy of the center of pressure displacement were measured longitudinally from 2.5 to 5 months of age. The infants looked at the toys in midline for several months prior to adapting their postural variability in a manner similar to full term infants. Only after postural variability was reduced in both the caudal cephalic and medial lateral direction in the toy condition did the infants learn to reach for the toy. Postural complexity did not vary between conditions. These findings suggest that infants used a variety of strategies to control their posture. In contrast to research with infants born full term, the infants born preterm in this study did not identify the successful strategy of reducing movement of the center of pressure until months after showing interest in the toy. This delayed adaptation may impact the infants ability to learn over time. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Children born small for gestational age (SGA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jancevska, A; Tasic, V; Damcevski, N; Danilovski, D; Jovanovska, V; Gucev, Z

    2012-01-01

    SGA (small for gestational age) is a child born with birth weight and/or length (BW/BL) under two standard deviations (2 SDS) for the gestational age and sex of the population. ~5% of all newborn children are SGA. A broad spectrum of factors are found to be causative: maternal, placental, foetal, metabolic, and genetic. In the newborn period the SGA children are at greater risk of life-threatening conditions: hypoglycaemia, hypercoagulability, necrotic enterocolitis, direct hyperbilirubinemia, hypotension, etc. Approximately 10 percent of SGA children do not achieve catch-up growth and remain short (≥-2 SDS) into adulthood. SGA people have an increased incidence of metabolic syndrome, coronary artery disease, stroke, low bone density and osteoporosis. SGA children aged more than 4 years with no evidence of spontaneous catch-up and with a height≥2.5 SD are considered for growth hormone (GH) treatment.

  1. Mental Health in Low-to-Moderate Risk Preterm, Low Birth Weight, and Small for Gestational Age Children at 4 to 5 Years: The Role of Early Maternal Parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westrupp, Elizabeth M.; Mensah, Fiona K.; Giallo, Rebecca; Cooklin, Amanda; Nicholson, Jan M.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The majority of children born preterm, with low birth weight, or small for gestational age are born with low-to-moderate risk (LTM), yet most research focuses on the high-risk group. Little is known about whether children with LTM perinatal risk are at greater risk for mental health problems, or what the role of early maternal…

  2. Development skills of children born premature with low and very low birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Camila da Costa; Pachelli, Mariane Regina de Oliveira; Amaral, Natalie Camillo de Oliveira; Lamônica, Dionísia Aparecida Cusin

    2017-01-30

    To compare the performance of children born premature with low birth weight (LBW) and very low birth-weight (VLBW) with that of children born at term, within the age range of one to three years, regarding child development in the gross motor, fine motor-adaptive, personal-social and language domains. This is a cross-sectional study in a cohort of 150 infants born premature (experimental group) and at term (control group) divided into eight groups with respect to weight (low birth weight: social and language domains. In this study, the preterm groups presented different performances, i.e., normative, average, and below average performances were observed within the same group.

  3. Depressive symptoms among immigrant and Canadian born mothers of preterm infants at neonatal intensive care discharge: a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ballantyne Marilyn

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mothers of preterm infants are considered at higher risk for depressive symptoms, higher than for mothers of healthy term infants. Predictors of depressive symptoms in mothers of preterm infants are not yet well established. Immigrant mothers of term infants have higher prevalence of depressive symptoms than Canadian born mothers but the relative prevalence for immigrant mothers of preterm infants is unknown. This study had two aims: (i to investigate the prevalence of depressive symptoms in immigrant as compared to Canadian born mothers of preterm infants, and (ii to determine what factors are associated with depressive symptoms in mothers of preterm infants. Methods This is a multi-site, cross sectional study of mothers whose preterm infants required hospitalization in neonatal intensive care unit (NICU. Consecutive eligible mothers (N = 291 were recruited during the week prior to their infant’s NICU discharge. Mothers completed a self-administered questionnaire booklet of validated psychosocial/cultural measures including the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D, Parental Stressor Scale:NICU, General Functioning Subscale of the McMaster Family Assessment Device, Social Support Index, and Vancouver Index of Acculturation; and demographic characteristics questions. Infant characteristics included gestational age, birth weight, sex, singleton/multiple birth, and Score for Neonatal Acute Physiology-II. Results Immigrant mothers (N = 107, when compared to Canadian born mothers (N = 184, reported more depressive symptoms, poorer family functioning, less social support, and less mainstream acculturation. Hierarchical regression for a subsample of 271 mothers indicated that single parent status, high stress, poorer family functioning, and less social support were associated with increased depressive symptoms and accounted for 39% of the variance on the CES-D. Immigrant status did not contribute

  4. Predictive Validity of the Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (M-CHAT) Born Very Preterm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, So Hyun; Joseph, Robert M; Frazier, Jean A; O'Shea, Thomas M; Chawarska, Katarzyna; Allred, Elizabeth N; Leviton, Alan; Kuban, Karl K

    2016-11-01

    To examine the predictive validity of the Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (M-CHAT) administered at age 24 months for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) diagnosed at 10 years of age in a US cohort of 827 extremely low gestational age newborns (ELGANs) followed from birth. We examined the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of the M-CHAT in predicting an ASD diagnosis at age 10 years based on gold standard diagnostic instruments. We then assessed how these predictive parameters were affected by sensorimotor and cognitive impairments, socioeconomic status (SES), and emotional/behavioral dysregulation at age 2 years. Using standard criteria, the M-CHAT had a sensitivity of 52%, a specificity of 84%, a PPV of 20%, and an NPV of 96%. False-positive and false-negative rates were high among children with hearing and vision impairments. High false-positive rates also were associated with lower SES, motor and cognitive impairments, and emotional/behavioral dysregulation at age 2 years. Among extremely preterm children with ASD, almost one-half were not correctly screened by the M-CHAT at age 2 years. Sensorimotor and cognitive impairments, SES, and emotional/behavioral dysregulation contributed significantly to M-CHAT misclassifications. Clinicians are advised to consider these factors when screening very preterm toddlers for ASD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Neonatal factors associated with alteration of palatal morphology in very preterm children: the EPIPAGE cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germa, Alice; Marret, Stéphane; Thiriez, Gérard; Rousseau, Sylvaine; Hascoët, Jean-Michel; Paulsson-Björnsson, Liselotte; Söderfeldt, Björn; Ancel, Pierre-Yves; Larroque, Béatrice; Kaminski, Monique; Nabet, Cathy

    2012-06-01

    Altered palatal morphology has been observed among some preterm children, with possible consequences on chewing, speaking and esthetics, but determinants remain unknown. To explore the role of neonatal characteristics and neuromotor dysfunction in alteration of palatal morphology at 5 years of age in very preterm children. Prospective population-based cohort study. 1711 children born between 22 and 32 weeks of gestation in 1997 or born between 22 and 26 weeks of gestation in 1998 were included in the study. They all had a medical examination at 5 years of age. Alteration of palatal morphology. The prevalence of altered palatal morphology was 3.7% in the overall sample, 5.1% among boys and 2.2% among girls (adj OR: 2.52; 95%CI: 1.44-4.42). The risk for altered palatal morphology was higher for lower gestational age (adj OR: 0.85; 95%CI: 0.74-0.97 per week), small-for-gestational age children (adj OR: 2.11; 95%CI: 1.20-3.72) or children intubated for more than 28 days (adj OR: 3.16; 95%CI: 1.11-8.98). Altered palatal morphology was more common in case of cerebral palsy or moderate neuromotor dysfunction assessed at 5 years. Results were basically the same when neuromotor dysfunction was taken into account, except for intubation. Male sex, low gestational age, small-for-gestational age and long intubation have been identified as probable neonatal risk factors for alteration of palatal morphology at 5 years of age in very preterm children. Further studies are needed to confirm these results. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Handwriting performance of preterm children at school age: a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Souza de Medeiros Rocha

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: At school age, handwriting is on of the most important tasks among the fine motor activities. Good handwriting performance contributes to the child´s school performance. As prematurity impacts on motor development, it may influence handwriting. Objective: To review the specific literature and investigate whether there are differences in handwriting performance at school age between children born preterm and full term. Method: A search was performed in the Capes electronic database, in English and Portuguese, comprising the time period between January 2000 and June 2012. Articles were selected according to the inclusion criteria; the sample, objectives, instruments utilized and outcomes were analyzed. Results: Six articles were included in the study. Data analysis indicates that children born prematurely present poorer handwriting performance and a handicap in the underlying handwriting mechanisms when compared with full term infants. Conclusion: Preterm children without obvious neurological impairment are at increased risk for problems in handwriting development at school age. The small number of recent studies on this topic indicates a need for further research, as well as the development of standardized resources for the motor and handwriting assessment of Brazilian children.

  7. Children born at 32 to 35 weeks with birth asphyxia and later cerebral palsy are different from those born after 35 weeks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garfinkle, J; Wintermark, P; Shevell, M I; Oskoui, M

    2017-08-01

    The objectives of this study were to (1) establish the proportion of cerebral palsy (CP) that occurs with a history suggestive of birth asphyxia in children born at 32 to 35 weeks and (2) evaluate their characteristics in comparison with children with CP born at ⩾36 weeks with such a history. Using the Canadian CP Registry, children born at 32 to 35 weeks of gestation with CP with a history suggestive of birth asphyxia were compared with corresponding ⩾36 weeks of gestation children. Of the 163 children with CP born at 32 to 35 weeks and 738 born at ⩾36 weeks, 26 (16%) and 105 (14%) had a history suggestive of birth asphyxia, respectively. The children born at 32 to 35 weeks had more frequent abruptio placenta (35% vs 12%; odds ratio (OR) 4.1, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.5 to 11.2), less frequent neonatal seizures (35% vs 72%; OR 0.20, 95% CI 0.08 to 0.52), more frequent white matter injury (47% vs 17%; OR 4.3, 95% CI 1.3 to 14.0), more frequent intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) (40% vs 6%; OR 11.2, 95% CI 3.4 to 37.4) and more frequent spastic diplegia (24% vs 8%; OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.2 to 12.2) than the corresponding ⩾36 weeks of gestation children. Approximately 1 in 7 children with CP born at 32 to 35 weeks had a history suggestive of birth asphyxia. They had different magnetic resonance imaging patterns of injury from those born at ⩾36 weeks and a higher frequency of IVH. Importantly, when considering hypothermia in preterm neonates with suspected birth asphyxia, prospective surveillance for IVH will be essential.

  8. Investigating the use of support vector machine classification on structural brain images of preterm-born teenagers as a biological marker

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chu, Carlton; Lagercrantz, Hugo; Forssberg, Hans; Nagy, Zoltan

    2015-01-01

    .... With the aid support vector machine (SVM) classification methods we aimed to investigate whether MRI data, collected in adolescence, could be used to predict whether an individual had been born preterm or at term...

  9. A systematic review of severe morbidity in infants born late preterm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teune, Margreet J.; Bakhuizen, Sabine; Gyamfi Bannerman, Cynthia; Opmeer, Brent C.; van Kaam, Anton H.; van Wassenaer, Aleid G.; Morris, Jonathan M.; Mol, Ben Willen J.

    2011-01-01

    Late-preterm infants (34 weeks 0/7 days-36 weeks 6/7 days' gestation) represent the largest proportion of singleton preterm births. A systematic review was performed to access the short- and/or long-term morbidity of late-preterm infants. An electronic search was conducted for cohort studies

  10. Postural control during reaching in preterm children with cerebral palsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heide, JC; Begeer, C; Fock, JM; Otten, Bert; Stremmelaar, E; van Eykern, LA; Hadders-Algra, M

    Postural control during reaching with the dominant arm was assessed in 58 preterm children with cerebral palsy (CP) aged 2 to 11 years, comprising 34 with spastic hemiplegia (17 males, 17 females) and 24 with bilateral spastic CP (bilateral CP; 15 male, 9 females). Assessments were made by multiple

  11. Neurodevelopmental pathways to preterm children's specific and general mathematic abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaekel, Julia; Bartmann, Peter; Schneider, Wolfgang; Wolke, Dieter

    2014-10-01

    Preterm children have problems with mathematics but knowledge about the predictors of specific mathematic abilities in preterm populations is scarce. This study investigated neurodevelopmental pathways to children's general and specific mathematic abilities across the full gestational age range. Prospective geographically defined longitudinal investigation in Germany. 947 children across the full gestational age range (23-41 weeks). Outcome measures. At 8 years, children's cognitive and mathematic abilities were measured and residuals of a regression predicting mathematic scores by IQ were used to identify specific mathematic abilities. Neurodevelopmental cascade models revealed that adverse effects of preterm birth on mathematic abilities were mediated by neonatal risk. Specific mathematic abilities were uniquely predicted by the duration of hospitalization and ventilation. Prolonged neonatal medical treatment and, in particular, mechanical ventilation may lead to specific impairments in mathematic tasks. These findings have implications for the mode of respiratory support in neonates, routine follow-up and intervention planning as well as research about brain reorganization after preterm birth. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  12. Emotional and effortful control abilities in 42-month-old very preterm and full-term children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, Arnaud; Theurel, Anne; Tolsa, Cristina Borradori; Lejeune, Fleur; Fernandes, Lisa; de Jonge, Laurence van Hanswijck; Monnier, Maryline; Bickle Graz, Myriam; Barisnikov, Koviljka; Gentaz, Edouard; Hüppi, Petra S

    2014-10-01

    Very preterm (VP) infants are at greater risk for cognitive difficulties that may persist during school-age, adolescence and adulthood. Behavioral assessments report either effortful control (part of executive functions) or emotional reactivity/regulation impairments. The aim of this study is to examine whether emotional recognition, reactivity, and regulation, as well as effortful control abilities are impaired in very preterm children at 42 months of age, compared with their full-term peers, and to what extent emotional and effortful control difficulties are linked. Children born very preterm (VP; children (n=47) participated in a series of specific neuropsychological tests assessing their level of emotional understanding, reactivity and regulation, as well as their attentional and effortful control abilities. VP children exhibited higher scores of frustration and fear, and were less accurate in naming facial expressions of emotions than their aged-matched peers. However, VP children and FT children equally performed when asked to choose emotional facial expression in social context, and when we assessed their selective attention skills. VP performed significantly lower than full terms on two tasks of inhibition when correcting for verbal skills. Moreover, significant correlations between cognitive capacities (effortful control) and emotional abilities were evidenced. Compared to their FT peers, 42 month-olds who were born very preterm are at higher risk of exhibiting specific emotional and effortful control difficulties. The results suggest that these difficulties are linked. Ongoing behavioral and emotional impairments starting at an early age in preterms highlight the need for early interventions based on a better understanding of the relationship between emotional and cognitive difficulties. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Eye growth in term- and preterm-born eyes modeled from magnetic resonance images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munro, Robert J; Fulton, Anne B; Chui, Toco Y P; Moskowitz, Anne; Ramamirtham, Ramkumar; Hansen, Ronald M; Prabhu, Sanjay P; Akula, James D

    2015-05-01

    We generated a model of eye growth and tested it against an eye known to develop abnormally, one with a history of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). We reviewed extant magnetic resonance images (MRIs) from term and preterm-born patients for suitable images (n = 129). We binned subjects for analysis based upon postmenstrual age at birth (in weeks) and ROP history ("Term" ≥ 37, "Premature" ≤ 32 with no ROP, "ROP" ≤ 32 with ROP). We measured the axial positions and curvatures of the cornea, anterior and posterior lens, and inner retinal surface. We fit anterior chamber depth (ACD), posterior segment depth (PSD), axial length (AL), and corneal and lenticular curvatures with logistic growth curves that we then evaluated for significant differences. We also measured the length of rays from the centroid to the surface of the eye at 5° intervals, and described the length versus age relationship of each ray, L(ray)(x), using the same logistic growth curve. We determined the rate of ray elongation, E(ray)(x), from L(ray)dy/dx. Then, we estimated the scleral growth that accounted for E(ray)(x), G(x), at every age and position. Relative to Term, development of ACD, PSD, AL, and corneal and lenticular curvatures was delayed in ROP eyes, but not Premature eyes. In Term infants, G(x) was fast and predominantly equatorial; in age-matched ROP eyes, maximal G(x) was offset by approximately 90°. We produced a model of normal eye growth in term-born subjects. Relative to normal, the ROP eye is characterized by delayed, abnormal growth.

  14. Effects of Chronologic Age and Young Child Exposure on Respiratory Syncytial Virus Disease among US Preterm Infants Born at 32 to 35 Weeks Gestation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric A F Simões

    Full Text Available To estimate the incidence of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV disease as a function of chronologic age and exposure to young children in US preterm infants.In the RSV Respiratory Events among Preterm Infants Outcomes and Risk Tracking (REPORT study, preterm infants born at 32-35 weeks gestational age (wGA were enrolled from 188 US clinics and followed September-May of 2009-2010 or 2010-2011. Infants with medically-attended acute respiratory illness had nasal/pharyngeal swabs collected for viral testing. Results of RSV tests conducted during routine clinical care were also collected. Event rates during November-March were modeled as a function of chronologic age and birth month using Poisson regression and adjusting for other covariates. Rates were calculated overall and for infants with and without exposure to young siblings or daycare attendance. Of 3317 infants screened, 1646 were enrolled as a consecutive sample. Infants with chronic lung disease of prematurity, hemodynamically significant congenital heart disease, life expectancy <6 months, or receiving or being considered for RSV immunoprophylaxis were excluded. 84% of patients completed the study. Demographics of the enrolled cohort were generally similar to those of US infants born at 32-35 wGA; infants 32-34 wGA, Hispanic infants, and infants of less-educated mothers were under-represented.Among 1642 evaluable infants, outpatient RSV lower respiratory illness incidence was highest at older ages, whereas RSV hospitalization and intensive care unit (ICU admission were highest at younger ages. In all instances, young child exposure was associated with higher RSV incidence. The highest RSV hospitalization and ICU rates occurred among February-born infants with young child exposure, at 19.0 (95% CI, 13.5-27.0 and 6.5 (95% CI, 5.6-7.6 per 100 infant-seasons, respectively.Preterm infants have a substantially elevated risk of RSV disease. Young age and exposure to other young children identify

  15. Effect of Early Physical Activity Programs on Motor Performance and Neuromuscular Development in Infants Born Preterm: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valizadeh, Leila; Sanaeefar, Mahnaz; Hosseini, Mohammad Bager; Asgari Jafarabadi, Mohammad; Shamili, Aryan

    2017-03-01

    Introduction: Although the survival rate of infants born preterm has increased, the prevalence of developmental problems and motor disorders among this population of infants remains the same. This study investigated the effect of physical activity programs in and out of water on motor performance and neuromuscular development of infants born preterm and had induced immobility by mechanical ventilation. Methods: This study was carried out in Al-Zahra hospital, Tabriz. 76 premature infants were randomly assigned into four groups. One group received daily passive range of motion to all extremities based on the Moyer-Mileur protocol. Hydrotherapy group received exercises for shoulders and pelvic area in water every other day. A combination group received physical activity programs in and out of water on alternating days. Infants in a containment group were held in a fetal position. Duration of study was two weeks 'from 32 through 33 weeks post menstrual age (PMA). Motor outcomes were measured by the Test of Infant Motor Performance. Neuromuscular developmental was assessed by New Ballard scale and leg recoil and Ankle dorsiflexion items from Dubowitz scale. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 13. Results: TIMP and neuromuscular scores improved in all groups. Motor performance did not differ between groups at 34 weeks PMA. Postural tone of leg recoil was significantly higher in physical activity groups post intervention. Conclusion: Physical activities and containment didn't have different effects on motor performance in infants born preterm. Leg recoil of neuromuscular development items was affected by physical activity programs.

  16. Change-point analysis data of neonatal diffusion tensor MRI in preterm and term-born infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Wu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The data presented in this article are related to the research article entitled “Mapping the Critical Gestational Age at Birth that Alters Brain Development in Preterm-born Infants using Multi-Modal MRI” (Wu et al., 2017 [1]. Brain immaturity at birth poses critical neurological risks in the preterm-born infants. We used a novel change-point model to analyze the critical gestational age at birth (GAB that could affect postnatal development, based on diffusion tensor MRI (DTI acquired from 43 preterm and 43 term-born infants in 126 brain regions. In the corresponding research article, we presented change-point analysis of fractional anisotropy (FA and mean diffusivities (MD measurements in these infants. In this article, we offered the relative changes of axonal and radial diffusivities (AD and RD in relation to the change of FA and FA-based change-points, and we also provided the AD- and RD-based change-point results.

  17. Functional neuroanatomy of executive function after neonatal brain injury in adults who were born very preterm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalpakidou, Anastasia K; Allin, Matthew P G; Walshe, Muriel; Giampietro, Vincent; McGuire, Philip K; Rifkin, Larry; Murray, Robin M; Nosarti, Chiara

    2014-01-01

    Individuals who were born very preterm (VPT; history of periventricular haemorrhage and ventricular dilatation (PVH+VD), 17 VPT individuals with a history of uncomplicated periventricular haemorrhage (UPVH), 13 VPT individuals with no history of neonatal brain injury and 17 controls received an MRI scan whilst completing a verbal fluency task with two cognitive loads ('easy' and 'hard' letters). Two groups of VPT individuals (PVH+VD; n = 10, UPVH; n = 8) performed an n-back task with three cognitive loads (1-, 2-, 3-back). Results demonstrated that VPT individuals displayed hyperactivation in frontal, temporal, and parietal cortices and in caudate nucleus, insula and thalamus compared to controls, as demands of the verbal fluency task increased, regardless of type of neonatal brain injury. On the other hand, during the n-back task and as working memory load increased, the PVH+VD group showed less engagement of the frontal cortex than the UPVH group. In conclusion, this study suggests that the functional neuroanatomy of different executive-type processes is altered following VPT birth and that neural activation associated with specific aspects of executive function (i.e., working memory) may be particularly sensitive to the extent of neonatal brain injury.

  18. Postnatal dexamethasone, respiratory and neurodevelopmental outcomes at two years in babies born extremely preterm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Gordon; Lo, Jessica W; Marlow, Neil; Calvert, Sandy A; Greenough, Anne; Peacock, Janet L

    2017-01-01

    Postnatal dexamethasone is associated with reduction in bronchopulmonary dysplasia. There remains, however, concern that its short-term benefits are accompanied by long-term adverse effects e.g. poorer neurodevelopmental outcomes. Our aim was to determine the effects of administration of postnatal dexamethasone on respiratory and neurodevelopmental outcome at two years of age after adjusting for neonatal and infant risk factors. The study included 412 infants born at 23-28 weeks of gestation, 29% had received postnatal dexamethasone. Two outcomes were examined, respiratory hospital admissions in the past 12 months and neurodevelopmental impairment. Logistic regression, adjusted for sex, birthweight z-score, gestation, maternal smoking, oxygen dependency at 36 weeks, airleak, patent ductus arteriosus, pulmonary haemorrhage, major ultrasound abnormality, mode of ventilation and age at assessment, was undertaken. After adjustment, postnatal dexamethasone was associated with significantly increased proportions of both respiratory hospital readmission: (0.35 vs 0.15, difference = 0.20; 95% CI: 0.08, 0.31) and neurodevelopmental impairment (0.59 vs 0.45, difference = 0.14; 95% CI: 0.02, 0.26). Postnatal dexamethasone use in extremely preterm infants is associated with increased risks of respiratory hospital admissions and neurodevelopmental impairment. These associations were not explained by excess neonatal morbidities.

  19. Factors Associated With Moderate to Vigorous Physical Activity in Adolescents Born Preterm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proulx, Ketsia; Majnemer, Annette; Dahan-Oliel, Noémi; Mazer, Barbara; Nadeau, Line; Vanier, Kathleen; Maltais, Désirée B

    2017-05-01

    Little is known about the physical activity of adolescents born prematurely. This study aimed to: 1) describe relationships between moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in adolescents born prematurely and various factors and, 2) compare their MVPA level to guidelines. A secondary analysis was performed using data from 64 adolescents (16.1 ± 2.5 years old, born £29 weeks gestation; 57.8% girls). Time spent in MVPA was based on accelerometry data. Sociodemographic, prematurity and comorbidity variables were based on questionnaire data or, for movement difficulty, from the results of the Movement Assessment Battery for Children-Second Edition. Multiple regression analysis showed that participants who were older (b = -4.52, p < .001), female (b = 14.18, p = .014), with movement difficulty (b = 18.64, p = .014), with health problems (b = 11.78, p = .036) and without hyperactive behavior (trend, b = 2.04, p = .099) spent less time in MVPA. Together these variables explained 44.4% of the variance in MVPA. Most participants (79.7%) did not meet Canadian MVPA guidelines. Study results suggest that physical activity interventions should especially target adolescents born prematurely who are older, female, with health problems, and with marked movement difficulties.

  20. Impaired prospective memory but intact episodic memory in intellectually average 7- to 9-year-olds born very preterm and/or very low birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Ruth M; Griffiths, Sarah; Neulinger, Kerryn; Andrews, Glenda; Shum, David H K; Gray, Peter H

    2017-11-01

    Relatively little is known about episodic memory (EM: memory for personally-experienced events) and prospective memory (PM: memory for intended actions) in children born very preterm (VP) or with very low birth weight (VLBW). This study evaluates EM and PM in mainstream-schooled 7- to 9-year-olds born VP (≤ 32 weeks) and/or VLBW (children for comparison (n = 35 and n = 37, respectively). Additionally, participants were assessed for verbal and non-verbal ability, executive function (EF), and theory of mind (ToM). The results show that the VP/VLBW children were outperformed by the full-term children on the memory tests overall, with a significant univariate group difference in PM. Moreover, within the VP/VLBW group, the measures of PM, verbal ability and working memory all displayed reliable negative correlations with severity of neonatal illness. PM was found to be independent of EM and cognitive functioning, suggesting that this form of memory might constitute a domain of specific vulnerability for VP/VLBW children.

  1. National and regional estimates of term and preterm babies born small for gestational age in 138 low-income and middle-income countries in 2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Anne C C; Katz, Joanne; Blencowe, Hannah

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: National estimates for the numbers of babies born small for gestational age and the comorbidity with preterm birth are unavailable. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of term and preterm babies born small for gestational age (term-SGA and preterm-SGA), and the relation to low birthwe...... to increase survival and reduce disability, stunting, and non-communicable diseases. FUNDING: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation by a grant to the US Fund for UNICEF to support the activities of the Child Health Epidemiology Reference Group (CHERG)....

  2. National Perspective of Health Outcomes of 8- to 11-Year-Old Children Born Prematurely and Their Full-Term Peers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Michelle M

    2016-01-01

    The specific aim of this study was to evaluate the health sequelae of preterm birth on children 8 to 11years of age as compared to same age children born at term; selected variables include special health care needs, chronic conditions, and caregiver perception of health. A secondary data analysis was conducted to evaluate the health outcomes of children 8 to 11years of age who were born prematurely compared to a sample of children born at term. The 2011/2012 National Survey of Children's Health (NSCH) is a nationally representative telephone interview survey of parents/caregivers of children 0 to 17years of age. Preterm birth was determined by parent report of birth more than 3weeks early. Utilizing the Children with Special Health Care Needs (CSHCN) Screener, 35% of children born prematurely, compared to 24% of children born at term were identified as having a special health care need. The 5 most prevalent conditions were the same in both groups of 8 to 11year old children and in the larger total sample of children 2 to 17years of age. However 82% of children born prematurely were described by parents as having excellent or very good health. Premature birth places children at increased risk for conditions that impede the crucial activities of childhood (education, psychosocial development and play). These conditions may require both medications and increased health care services. Understanding the relationship between preterm birth and ongoing health risks has the potential to inform the health care providers' ability to provide care that maximizes the potential of children born prematurely. Health care providers need to be cognizant of this risk, utilizing early screening and encouraging intervention and family supports. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Social Trust and Children Born of War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voicu Bogdan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers two assumptions commonly used in analyzing the formation of social trust. They stress the importance of early socialization, on one hand, and of life events, on the other. We consider birth as a major life event for anyone and focus on the situation of Children Born of War. This group, even if lesser visible in some societies, has the peculiar characteristic to be born and socialized in very specific conditions. Typically, these people are the offspring of foreign soldiers, and local women. They may bear stigma, might be marginalized in family, school and society, and might develop a low level of generalized trust even if they may have lived all life in a culture rich in social trust. We explore at theoretical level their case, bring in a few statistics, and suggest a research direction that may be fruitful in learning about both such hidden populations and about social trust. In the end, we argue upon the importance of the topic for post-conflict societies.

  4. Inattention and development of toddlers born in preterm and with low birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    June-Hui Huang

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to examine the impact of low birth weight and preterm birth on a toddler's inattention and development, including cognitive, language, motor, social–emotional and adaptive behaviors. A total of 105 toddlers enrolled for the study; they were divided into four groups: 40 full-term and normal birth weight (NBW, birth weight greater than 2500 g toddlers, 24 moderate birth weight (MLBW, birth weight between 2499 and 1500 g toddlers, 20 very to extremely low birth weight (V-ELBW, 12 between 1000 and 1499 g and 8 lower than 1000 g toddlers, and 21 term toddlers who were recruited from a clinic of developmental delay as the developmental delay at risk (DDR group. The Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development—Third Edition (BSID-III and Disruptive Behavior Rating Scale—Toddler were used. The findings were as follows: (1 DDR group performed worst in BSID-III; (2 although there were no statistical differences among the NBW, MLBW, and V-ELBW groups in BSID-III, the lower the birth weight, the lower the average performance, especially in language, adaptive social behavior, and adaptive practical behavior; and (3 comparing the inattention score, the DDR group was the poorest, normal and V-ELBW groups were the best, and MLBW group was in the middle. In conclusion, low birth weight and preterm delivery affected children's inattention and development of language, adaptive social behavior, and adaptive practical behavior.

  5. Perinatal outcomes in 375 children born after oocyte donation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malchau, Sara S; Loft, Anne; Larsen, Elisabeth C

    2013-01-01

    To describe perinatal outcomes in children born after oocyte donation (OD) compared with in vitro fertilization (IVF), intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), and spontaneous conception (SC).......To describe perinatal outcomes in children born after oocyte donation (OD) compared with in vitro fertilization (IVF), intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), and spontaneous conception (SC)....

  6. Clinical assessment of language development in children at age 3 years that were born preterm Avaliação da evolução dos aspectos linguísticos em crianças que nasceram prematuras aos 3 anos de idade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Rizzotto Schirmer

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the influence of gestational age and birth weight on language development and neurodevelopmental outcome at age 3 years in children born preterm. METHOD: Cross sectional study including 69 children followed in our developmental outpatient clinic. Patients were consecutively included at the time of the 3 years of age appointment and stratified for birth weight (OBJETIVO: Avaliar influência da idade gestacional (IG e peso ao nascimento na aquisição da linguagem e neurodesenvolvimento em crianças de 3 anos que nasceram prematuras. MÉTODO: Estudo transversal incluindo 69 crianças acompanhadas no Ambulatório de Seguimento Neonatal. Pacientes incluídos tinham 3 anos e foram estratificados por peso ao nascimento (>1500 gramas e entre 1500-2500 gramas. Todos foram avaliados com relação ao neurodesenvolvimento incluindo avaliação neurológica clínica, Denver II, Bayley II e avaliação da linguagem. Para a analise dividimos em dois grupos com e sem alteração na aquisição de linguagem. RESULTADOS: Crianças com DAL apresentam melhores índices nos escores de desenvolvimento no Bayley II (p=1500 gramas tiveram escores menores no Bayley II na idade de 36 m (p=0.002, p=0.007 e p<0.001. Análise multivariada sugere uma associação da IG (p=0,032 e alteração comportamental (p=0,001 com atraso na aquisição da linguagem. Denver II alterado tanto aos 12 m quanto aos 24 m, correlaciona-se com significância estatística a atraso na aquisição de linguagem receptiva e expressiva aos 3 anos de idade (p=<0.01 e p=<0.01. CONCLUSÃO: Crianças nascidas prematuras e com baixo peso ao nascimento, apresentam maior risco de ter um atraso no desenvolvimento da linguagem. Sendo que as crianças que tem atraso no desenvolvimento de linguagem apresentaram um desempenho cognitivo e psicomotor inferior ao das com desenvolvimento normal.

  7. Socio-economic achievements of individuals born very preterm at the age of 27 to 29 years: a nationwide cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiasen, René; Hansen, Bo M; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To describe the socio economic achievement of individuals born very preterm (VPT) at the age of 27 to 29 years. METHOD: Demographic and social data were extracted from national registers for all individuals born between 1974 and 1976 in Denmark (n=208 656). Of these, 203 283 individuals were...

  8. Retinal structure assessed by OCT as a biomarker of brain development in children born small for gestational age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pueyo, Victoria; Pérez, Teresa; González, Inmaculada; Altemir, Irene; Gimenez, Galadriel; Prieto, Esther; Paules, Cristina; Oros, Daniel; Lopez-Pison, Javier; Fayed, Nicolás; Garcia-Martí, Gracián; Sanz-Requena, Roberto; Marin, Miguel Angel

    2017-09-01

    To identify differences in neuronal tissue from retinal and brain structures in children born small for gestational age (SGA) with no abnormality in neonatal brain ultrasonography and no previous neurological impairment, and to evaluate the relationship between retinal structure and brain changes in school-age children born SGA. Two cohorts of children were recruited: 25 children born SGA and 25 children born with an appropriate birth weight according to gestational age. All the children underwent an ophthalmic examination, which included retinal imaging using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography, and a brain MRI. MRI images were automatically segmented and global and regional brain volumes were obtained. Although visual function did not differ between both groups, the complex ganglion cell and inner plexiform layers (GCL-IPL) was thinner in SGA children. Total intracranial volume, and global grey and white matter volumes in brain and cerebellum were correlated with birthweight centile, as were certain regional volumes (temporal and parietal lobes, hippocampus and putamen). Abnormal GCL-IPL measurements accurately identified SGA children with the most severe grey and white matter changes in the brain. SGA children, both preterm and term born, showed evidence of structural abnormalities in the retina, which may be an accurate and non-invasive biomarker of neuronal damage in brain tissue. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  9. The effects of preterm birth on visual development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Myra Ps; Thompson, Benjamin; Black, Joanna; Dai, Shuan; Alsweiler, Jane M

    2018-01-01

    Children born very preterm are at a greater risk of abnormal visual and neurological development when compared to children born at full term. Preterm birth is associated with retinopathy of prematurity (a proliferative retinal vascular disease) and can also affect the development of brain structures associated with post-retinal processing of visual information. Visual deficits common in children born preterm, such as reduced visual acuity, strabismus, abnormal stereopsis and refractive error, are likely to be detected through childhood vision screening programs, ophthalmological follow-up or optometric care. However, routine screening may not detect other vision problems, such as reduced visual fields, impaired contrast sensitivity and deficits in cortical visual processing, that may occur in children born preterm. For example, visual functions associated with the dorsal visual processing stream, such as global motion perception and visuomotor integration, may be impaired by preterm birth. These impairments can continue into adolescence and adulthood and may contribute to the difficulties in learning (particularly reading and mathematics), attention, behaviour and cognition that some children born preterm experience. Improvements in understanding the mechanisms by which preterm birth affects vision will inform future screening and interventions for children born preterm. © 2017 Optometry Australia.

  10. Comparison in outcomes at two-years of age of very preterm infants born in 2000, 2005 and 2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lénaïg Abily-Donval

    Full Text Available To investigate alteration in 2-year neurological/behavioral outcomes of very preterm infants born in a French level three neonatal intensive care unit.We conducted a prospective, comparative study of very preterm infants born before 33 weeks' gestation at 5-year intervals in 2000, 2005 and 2010 at Rouen University Hospital. Neonatal mortality/morbidities, ante- and neonatal treatments, and at age 2 years motor, cognitive and behavioral data were collected by standardized questionnaires.We included 536 very preterm infants. Follow-up rates at two years old were 78% in 2000, 93% in 2005 and 92% in 2010 respectively. No difference in gestational age, birthweight, neonatal mortality/morbidities was observed except a decrease in low grade subependymal/intraventricular hemorrhages. Care modifications concerned use of antenatal magnesium sulfate, breast-feeding and post-natal corticosteroid therapy. Significant improvement in motor outcome and dramatic decrease in cerebral palsy rates (12% in 2000, 6% in 2005, 1% in 2010, p<0.001 were observed, as were improvements in feeding behavior. Although a non significant difference to better psychosocial behavior was reported, there was no difference in cognitive outcome.Improvement in neuromotor outcome and behavior was reported. This could be due to multiple modifications in care: including administration of magnesium sulfate to women at risk of preterm birth, increase in breast-feeding, decrease in low grade subependymal/intraventricular hemorrhages, and decrease in post-natal corticosteroid therapy, all of which require further investigation in other studies. Extended follow-up until school age is mandatory for better detection of cognitive, learning and behavioral disorders.

  11. Late Preterm Birth, Maternal Depression, and Risk of Preschool Psychiatric Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Cynthia E.; Lenze, Shannon N.; Luby, Joan L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Preterm children are at greater risk for psychiatric disorders, including anxiety disorders and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), than their term-born peers. Prior research has focused primarily on children born at early gestational ages. Less is known about the rate of psychiatric disorders among late preterm or early…

  12. [Early physical growth and disease analysis among children born delivered by HBsAg-positive mothers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X H; Wang, Q; Zheng, W; Li, X H; Jiang, Q Q; Zhou, C F; Qiu, L Q

    2017-06-06

    Objective: To estimate the early physical growth and disease in children born to HBsAg-positive mothers. Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study. Three areas as Xihu in Hangzhou, Lanxi in Jinhua, and Haiyan in Jiaxing in Zhejiang province were selected by cluster sampling. The growth outcomes of children born to HBsAg-positive mothers (exposure group) and matched 1∶1 women uninfected with HBV (control group) in 2014 were investigated and compared at birth, 6, 9, 12, and 18 months, respectively. There were totally 342 children in each group. Results: The incidences of low birth weight (LBW) for children born to exposure and control group were 1.8% (6/342), and 2.6% (9/342), respectively (P=0.433); and, rates of preterm birth were 2.3% (8/342), and 2.0% (7/342), respectively (P=0.794). The mean birth weight of children born to mothers without HBV infection (3.4±0.4) kg was dramatically higher than children in exposure group (3.3±0.4) kg (P=0.019). At 18 months, the average head circumference was significantly greater among children in control group (47.3±1.3) cm than children in exposure group (47.0±2.0) cm (P=0.038). Additional, mean birth weeks, height, weight, increases in height/weight/head circumference each month, weight/height/head circumference for age Z scores, proportion of growth retardation and low weight, disease prevalence were not observed statistically differences between two groups (P>0.05). All children born to HBsAg-positive mothers were received three-dose HBV vaccination. The rate of hepatitis B immunoglobulin for births born to HBsAg-positive was 98.8% (338/342). Mother to children transmission of HBV at 18 months was 1.0% (1/97). Conclusion: No significant differences in growth development and disease prevalence were found among children born to HBsAg-positive women and women without HBV infection.

  13. Oral health of children born small for gestational age.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connell, A C

    2010-10-01

    We sought to evaluate the oral health status of children born small for gestational age (SGA). Children now aged 4-8 years who were born SGA (birth weight < -2 SDS) were examined using standardised criteria. The parents completed a structured oral health questionnaire. Twenty females and 25 males, mean age 72.1 months, and mean birth weight 2.1 kg, participated in the study. Poor appetite was a concern; 32 (71%) children snacked between meals and 14 (30%) used carbonated beverages more than 3 times daily. Erosion was present in 9 (20%) children. Dental decay occurred in 22 (47%) children with 92% being untreated. Eight children had more than 5 decayed teeth. It is essential that clinicians working with children born SGA include oral health within the general health surveillance and refer these children for a dental assessment within the first 2 years to support parents in establishing safe feeding patterns for their children.

  14. Neurodevelopmental outcome of extremely preterm infants born to rural and urban residents' mothers in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Andrea N; Bajuk, Barbara; Oei, Julee; Lui, Kei; Abdel-Latif, Mohamed E

    2015-08-01

    Rural and remote residents in Australia have long experienced unfavourable health outcomes compared to their urban counterparts. To study neurodevelopmental outcome at 2-3 years of age, corrected for prematurity of extremely preterm infants admitted to a regional neonatal Australian network from rural and urban regions (based on usual location of maternal residence). A multicenter population-based cohort study in which surviving urban and rural infants functional disability was defined as developmental delay (GQ or MDI>2 SD below the mean), cerebral palsy (aided for walking), sensorineural or conductive deafness (requiring amplification), and bilateral blindness (visual acuity urban infants were evaluated. Infants lost to follow-up were of slightly higher gestational age and birth weight. Both rural and urban assessed groups were comparable in gestation and birth weight percentile. In comparison to their urban counterparts, the rural group had more outborn infants (19.8% vs. 4.6%, pfunctional disability (OR 0.77, 95% CI 0.52-1.23, p=0.176). This finding was not significantly altered by limiting the analysis to different gestational ages. Extremely premature surviving young children from rural areas of residence do not seem to have an increased risk for moderate/severe functional disability. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. [Association between neontal morbidity, gestational age and developmental delays in moderate to late preterm children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schonhaut, Luisa; Pérez, Marcela; Muñoz, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    There is evidence that children born moderate-to-late preterm (MLP) have a higher risk of hospitalisation, neonatal morbidity, and developmental delay (DD). To determine the association between DD, gestational age, and neonatal morbidity in MLP children. A case control study design nested in a cohort of MLP children born between 2006 and 2009 at a private hospital located in the Metropolitan area of Santiago. The children were assessed with the Bayley-III Scales of Infant Development at 8 or 18 months corrected age, or at 30 months of chronological age. Neonatal records were retrospectively reviewed. A multivariate analysis was performed to determine the effect of neonatal morbidity on development. A total of 130 MLP children, 25 cases and 105 controls, were studied. Most of them (83.8%) were hospitalised during the neonatal period. Significant differences between cases and controls regarding maternal age and symptomatic hypoglycaemia were observed (crude OR 3.5, adjusted OR 8.18). It was concluded that the variables that negatively affect the rate of development are male gender, being a twin, and gestational age. Symptomatic hypoglycaemia is the main risk factor for DD, while being a twin, male gender, and gestational age influenced the total development rate obtained. It is essential to develop strategies for prevention, screening, and early management of this metabolic disorder to prevent future DD. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of Early Physical Activity Programs on Motor Performance and Neuromuscular Development in Infants Born Preterm: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Valizadeh

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Although the survival rate of infants born preterm has increased, the prevalence of developmental problems and motor disorders among this population of infants remains the same. This study investigated the effect of physical activity programs in and out of water on motor performance and neuromuscular development of infants born preterm and had induced immobility by mechanical ventilation.Methods: This study was carried out in Al-Zahra hospital, Tabriz. 76 premature infants were randomly assigned into four groups. One group received daily passive range of motion to all extremities based on the Moyer-Mileur protocol. Hydrotherapy group received exercises for shoulders and pelvic area in water every other day. A combination group received physical activity programs in and out of water on alternating days. Infants in a containment group were held in a fetal position. Duration of study was two weeks ‘from 32 through 33 weeks post menstrual age (PMA. Motor outcomes were measured by the Test of Infant Motor Performance. Neuromuscular developmental was assessed by New Ballard scale and leg recoil and Ankle dorsiflexion items from Dubowitz scale. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 13.Results: TIMP and neuromuscular scores improved in all groups. Motor performance did not differ between groups at 34 weeks PMA. Postural tone of leg recoil was significantly higher in physical activity groups post intervention.Conclusion: Physical activities and containment didn’t have different effects on motor performance in infants born preterm. Leg recoil of neuromuscular development items was affected by physical activity programs.

  17. Psychological findings in preterm children related to neurologic status and magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsén, P; Vainionpää, L; Pääkkö, E; Korkman, M; Pyhtinen, J; Järvelin, M R

    1998-08-01

    Preterm children experience learning disabilities more often than full-term children, but detailed information on their neuropsychological and neurologic determinants is lacking. We therefore examined these problems more closely and also studied if clinical neurologic examination and/or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can be used as tools to screen the preterm children at risk for these problems. In a population-based study, the psychological performance of 42 preterm children with a birth weight <1750 g and of their matched controls was assessed at 8 years of age and the findings were then related to clinical neurologic examination and MRI. Learning disabilities of these children, reported by the teachers, were also studied. The cognitive ability of the preterm children, although in the normal range, was significantly lower than that of the control children. They performed particularly poorly in tasks requiring spatial and visuoperceptual abilities, which were associated with the finding of periventricular leukomalacia in MRI, especially with posterior ventricular enlargement. The preterm children with minor neurodevelopmental dysfunction (MND) had the most problems in neuropsychological tests, whereas the clinically healthy preterm children and those with cerebral palsy had fewer problems. The problems of MND children emerged in the domain of attention. They also experienced the most problems at school. Visuospatial problems were associated with periventricular leukomalacia in MRI, but learning disabilities were most frequent among the preterm children with minor neurologic abnormalities. We recommend closer follow-up of preterm children with MND.

  18. Diurnal Cortisol Patterns and Dexamethasone Suppression Test Responses in Healthy Young Adults Born Preterm at Very Low Birth Weight.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Kaseva

    Full Text Available Early life stress, such as painful and stressful procedures during neonatal intensive care after preterm birth, can permanently affect physiological, hormonal and neurobiological systems. This may contribute to altered programming of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPAA and provoke changes in HPAA function with long-term health impacts. Previous studies suggest a lower HPAA response to stress in young adults born preterm compared with controls born at term. We assessed whether these differences in HPAA stress responsiveness are reflected in everyday life HPAA functioning, i.e. in diurnal salivary cortisol patterns, and reactivity to a low-dose dexamethasone suppression test (DST, in unimpaired young adults born preterm at very low birth weight (VLBW; <1500 g.The participants were recruited from the Helsinki Study of Very Low Birth Weight Adults cohort study. At mean age 23.3 years (2.1 SD, 49 VLBW and 36 controls born at term participated in the study. For cortisol analyzes, saliva samples were collected on two consecutive days at 0, 15, 30 and 60 min after wake-up, at 12:00 h, 17:00 h and 22:00 h. After the last salivary sample of the first study day the participants were instructed to take a 0.5 mg dexamethasone tablet.With mixed-effects model no difference was seen in overall diurnal salivary cortisol between VLBW and control groups [13.9% (95% CI: -11.6, 47.0, P = 0.31]. Salivary cortisol increased similarly after awakening in both VLBW and control participants [mean difference -2.9% (29.2, 33.0, P = 0.85]. Also reactivity to the low-dose DST (awakening cortisol ratio day2/day1 was similar between VLBW and control groups [-1.1% (-53.5, 103.8, P = 0.97].Diurnal cortisol patterns and reactivity to a low-dose DST in young adulthood were not associated with preterm birth.

  19. Sensory processing disorder in children ages birth-3 years born prematurely: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Anita Witt; Moore, Elizabeth M; Roberts, Emily J; Hachtel, Kristen W; Brown, Melissa S

    2015-01-01

    This systematic review of multidisciplinary literature synthesizes evidence of the prevalence and patterns of sensory processing disorder (SPD) in children ages birth-3 yr born preterm. Forty-five articles including physiological, behavioral, temperament, and SPD research met the inclusion criteria and provided 295 findings related to SPD-130 (44%) positive (evidence of SPD) and 165 (56%) negative (no evidence of SPD). The majority of findings related to sensory modulation disorder (SMD; 43% positive). The most prevalent subcategory of SMD was sensory overresponsivity (82% of findings positive). Evidence of sensory underresponsivity and sensory-seeking SMD, sensory discrimination disorder, and sensory-based motor disorder was limited. This study supports the education of neonatologists, pediatricians, and caregivers about the symptoms and potential consequences of SPD and helps justify the need for follow-up screening for SPD in children ages birth-3 yr born preterm. Research using measures based on sensory processing theory is needed. Copyright © 2015 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  20. Developmental milestones in post-term born children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Annette Wind; Olsen, Jørn; Zhu, Jinliang

    DEVELOPMENTAL MILESTONES IN POST-TERM BORN CHILDREN Annette Wind Olesen (1), Jorn Olsen (2), Jinliang Zhu (2) (1)Institute of Regional Health Research, University of Southern Denmark, (2)The Danish Epidemiology Science Centre, Aarhus University Objective: To examine the timing of reaching...... developmental milestones in children born post-term. Design: Cohort study. Material: The Danish National Birth Cohort; children born between 1997 and 2003. Data was obtained from a cohort of 92,892 pregnancies participating in the first pregnancy interview. All singletons born in gestational week 39-45 were...... identified. The study was then restricted to children who participated in an interview at age of approximately 18 months and had information on at least one developmental milestone, e.g. sitting without support, using two word sentences. We excluded children of mothers with chronic diseases from the final...

  1. Individualized Approaches Have Profitable Clinical Value for Strengthening Fathers' Confidence in the Care of Preterm Infants. Commentary on: "Variations in Early Attachment Mechanisms Contribute to Attachment Quality: Case Studies Including Babies Born Preterm"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchheim, Anna

    2016-01-01

    In this commentary, Buchheim states that she recognizes that infant-parent relationship has been shown to be of particular significance to preterm infants' socioemotional development, and that preterm children have been reported to be at higher risk of developing attachment insecurity and disorganized attachment. In the feature paper on attachment…

  2. Identifying very preterm children at educational risk using a school readiness framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, Verena E; Bora, Samudragupta; Austin, Nicola C; Levin, Karelia J; Woodward, Lianne J

    2014-09-01

    Children born very preterm (VPT) are at high risk of educational delay, yet few guidelines exist for the early identification of those at greatest risk. Using a school readiness framework, this study examined relations between preschool neurodevelopmental functioning and educational outcomes to age 9 years. The sample consisted of a regional cohort of 110 VPT (≤ 32 weeks' gestation) and 113 full-term children born during 1998-2000. At corrected age 4 years, children completed a multidisciplinary assessment of their health/motor development, socioemotional adjustment, core learning skills, language, and general cognition. At ages 6 and 9, children's literacy and numeracy skills were assessed using the Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Achievement. Across all readiness domains, VPT children were at high risk of delay/impairment (odds ratios 2.5-3.5). Multiple problems were also more common (47% vs 16%). At follow-up, almost two-thirds of VPT children were subject to significant educational delay in either literacy, numeracy or both compared with 29% to 31% of full-term children (odds ratios 3.4-4.4). The number of readiness domains affected at age 4 strongly predicted later educational risk, especially when multiple problems were present. Receiver operating characteristic analysis confirmed ≥ 2 readiness problems as the optimal threshold for identifying VPT children at educational risk. School readiness offers a promising framework for the early identification of VPT children at high educational risk. Findings support the utility of ≥ 2 affected readiness domains as an effective criterion for referral for educational surveillance and/or additional support during the transition to school. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  3. Racial Disparities in Blood Pressure Trajectories of Preterm Children: The Role of Family and Neighborhood Socioeconomic Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller-Rowell, Thomas E; Curtis, David S; Klebanov, Pamela K; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Evans, Gary W

    2017-05-15

    Racial disparities in cardiovascular disease mortality in the United States remain substantial. However, the childhood roots of these disparities are not well understood. In the current study, we examined racial differences in blood pressure trajectories across early childhood in a sample of African-American and European-American low-birth-weight preterm infants. Family and neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES), measured at baseline, were also examined as explanations for subsequent group disparities. Analyses focused on 407 African-American and 264 European-American children who participated in the Infant Health and Development Program, a US longitudinal study of preterm children born in 1985. Blood pressure was assessed on 6 occasions between the ages of 24 and 78 months, in 1987-1992. Across this age range, the average rate of change in both systolic and diastolic blood pressure was greater among African-American children than among European-American children. Neighborhood SES explained 29% and 24% of the racial difference in the average rate of change in systolic and diastolic blood pressure, respectively, whereas family SES did not account for group differences. The findings show that racial differences in blood pressure among preterm children emerge in early childhood and that neighborhood SES accounts for a portion of racial disparities. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Balance in children born prematurely currently aged 6–7

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dziuba Ewa

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Study aim: Premature birth is one of the major problems of obstetrics, leading to numerous complications that are associated with prematurity, for instance balance disorders. The aim of the study was to assess the impact of premature birth on the ability to maintain balance in children commencing their school education. Material and methods: The study included children aged 6-7 years. The study group consisted of 59 children (31 girls and 28 boys, mean age 6.38 ± SD 0.73 born prematurely between 24 and 35 weeks of gestation. The control group consisted of 61 children (28 girls and 33 boys, mean age 6.42 ± 0.58 born at term. The research utilized standardized test tools - one-leg open-eyed and closed-eyed standing test, one-leg jumping test - and an original questionnaire survey. Results: The children born at term achieved better results in the majority of tests. The comparison of girls and boys born pre­maturely and at term showed no statistically significant difference between them in terms of dynamic balance, static balance or total balance control. The comparison of the tests performed on the right and left lower limb in prematurely born children showed no statistically significant differences. Conclusion: Premature birth affects the ability to maintain body balance. The results of the study indicate the need to develop coordination skills that shape body balance in prematurely born children.

  5. Puberty in children born small for gestational age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkauskiene, Rasa; Petraitiene, Indre; Albertsson Wikland, Kerstin

    2013-01-01

    Small for gestational age (SGA) children are more prone to have precocious pubarche and exaggerated precocious adrenarche, an earlier onset of pubertal development and menarche, and faster progression of puberty than children born of appropriate for gestational age (AGA) size. The majority of studies investigating the onset of puberty in children born SGA and AGA established that, although puberty begins at an appropriate time (based on chronological age and actual height) in SGA children, onset is earlier relative to AGA children. Evaluating pubertal growth in SGA children, a more modest bone age delay from chronological age at the onset of puberty and more rapid bone maturation during puberty compared to AGA children were reported. Peak height velocity in adolescence is reached at an earlier pubertal stage and lasts for a shorter period in children born SGA than in those born AGA. These differences lead to an earlier fusion of the growth plates and a shorter adult height. The pathophysiological mechanism underlying the unique pubertal growth pattern of children born SGA remains unclear. However, it seems that this is not only related to birth weight, gestational age, adiposity or obesity, but that there may also be an influence of rapid weight gain in early childhood on pubertal onset: excess weight gain in childhood may be related to central adiposity, decreased insulin sensitivity, and increased IGF-I levels and might thus predispose to precocious pubarche. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Reliability of Neurobehavioral Assessments from Birth to Term Equivalent Age in Preterm and Term Born Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eeles, Abbey L; Olsen, Joy E; Walsh, Jennifer M; McInnes, Emma K; Molesworth, Charlotte M L; Cheong, Jeanie L Y; Doyle, Lex W; Spittle, Alicia J

    2017-02-01

    Neurobehavioral assessments provide insight into the functional integrity of the developing brain and help guide early intervention for preterm (term equivalent age. Few neurobehavioral assessments used in the preterm period have established interrater reliability. To evaluate the interrater reliability of the Hammersmith Neonatal Neurological Examination (HNNE) and the NICU Network Neurobehavioral Scale (NNNS), when used both preterm and at term (>36 weeks). Thirty-five preterm infants and 11 term controls were recruited. Five assessors double-scored the HNNE and NNNS administered either preterm or at term. A one-way random effects, absolute, single-measures interclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was calculated to determine interrater reliability. Interrater reliability for the HNNE was excellent (ICC > 0.74) for optimality scores, and good (ICC 0.60-0.74) to excellent for subtotal scores, except for 'Tone Patterns' (ICC 0.54). On the NNNS, interrater reliability was predominantly excellent for all items. Interrater agreement was generally excellent at both time points. Overall, the HNNE and NNNS neurobehavioral assessments demonstrated mostly excellent interrater reliability when used prior to term and at term.

  7. Magic moment? Maternal marriage for children born out of wedlock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson-Davis, Christina

    2014-08-01

    To test the existence of the "magic moment" for parental marriage immediately post-birth and to inform policies that preferentially encourage biological over step parent marriage, this study estimates the incidence and stability of maternal marriage for children born out of wedlock. Data came from the National Survey of Family Growth on 5,255 children born non maritally. By age 15, 29 % of children born non maritally experienced a biological-father marriage, and 36 % experienced a stepfather marriage. Stepfather marriages occurred much later in a child's life-one-half occurred after the child turned age 7-and had one-third higher odds of dissolution. Children born to black mothers had qualitatively different maternal marriage experiences than children born to white or Hispanic mothers, with less biological-parent marriage and higher incidences of divorce. Findings support the existence of the magic moment and demonstrate that biological marriages were more enduring than stepfather marriages. Yet relatively few children born out of wedlock experienced stable, biological-parent marriages as envisioned by marriage promotion programs.

  8. Executive Function and IQ Predict Mathematical and Attention Problems in Very Preterm Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.S.H. Aarnoudse-Moens (Cornelieke); N. Weisglas-Kuperus (Nynke); H.J. Duivenvoorden (Hugo); J.B. van Goudoever (Hans); J. Oosterlaan (Jaap)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractObjective of this study was to examine the impact of executive function (EF) on mathematical and attention problems in very preterm (gestational age ≤ 30 weeks) children. Participants were 200 very preterm (mean age 8.2 ± 2.5 years) and 230 term children (mean age 8.3 ± 2.3 years)

  9. The profile of executive function in very preterm children at 4 to 12 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarnoudse-Moens, Cornelieke S. H.; Duivenvoorden, Hugo J.; Weisglas-Kuperus, Nynke; van Goudoever, Johannes B.; Oosterlaan, Jaap

    2012-01-01

    Aim To examine executive functioning in very preterm (gestational age =30wks) children at 4 to 12 years of age. METHOD Two-hundred very preterm (106 males, 94 females; mean gestational age 28.1 wks, SD 1.4; mean age 8y 2mo, SD 2y 6mo) and 230 term children (106 males, 124 females; mean gestational

  10. Preterm birth and unintentional injuries: risks to children, adolescents and young adults show no consistent pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calling, Susanna; Palmér, Karolina; Jönsson, Lena; Sundquist, Jan; Winkleby, Marilyn; Sundquist, Kristina

    2013-03-01

    Preterm birth is associated with a number of physical and mental health issues. The aim of this study was to find out whether there was also any association between individuals born preterm in Sweden between 1984 and 2006 and the risk of unintentional injuries during childhood, adolescence and young adulthood. The study followed 2 297 134 individuals, including 5.9% born preterm, from 1985 to 2007 for unintentional injuries leading to hospitalization or death (n = 244 021). The males and females were divided into four age groups: 1-5 years, 6-12 years, 13-18 years and 19-23 years. Hazard ratios were calculated for falls, transport injuries and other injuries. After adjusting for a comprehensive set of covariates, some of the preterm subgroups demonstrated slightly increased risks of unintentional injuries, while others showed slightly decreased risks. However, most of the estimates were borderline or non-significant in both males and females. In addition, the absolute risk differences between individuals born preterm and full term were small. Despite the association between preterm birth and a variety of physical and mental health consequences, this study shows that there is no consistent risk pattern between preterm birth and unintentional injuries in childhood, adolescence and young adulthood. ©2012 The Author(s)/Acta Paediatrica ©2012 Foundation Acta Paediatrica.

  11. Parent behaviors moderate the relationship between neonatal pain and internalizing behaviors at 18 months corrected age in children born very prematurely.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinall, Jillian; Miller, Steven P; Synnes, Anne R; Grunau, Ruth E

    2013-09-01

    Children born very preterm (≤ 32 weeks gestation) exhibit greater internalizing (anxious/depressed) behaviors compared to term-born peers as early as 2 years corrected age (CA); however, the role of early stress in the etiology of internalizing problems in preterm children remains unknown. Therefore, we examined the relationship between neonatal pain and internalizing behavior at 18 months CA in children born very preterm and examined whether parent behavior and stress moderated this relationship. Participants were 145 children (96 very preterm, 49 full term) assessed at 18 months CA. Neonatal data were obtained from medical and nursing chart review. Neonatal pain was defined as the number of skin-breaking procedures. Cognitive ability was measured with the Bayley Scales of Infant Development II. Parents completed the Parenting Stress Index III, Child Behavior Checklist 1.5-5, and participated in a videotaped play session with their child, which was coded using the Emotional Availability Scale IV. Very preterm children displayed greater Internalizing behaviors compared to full-term control children (P=.02). Parent Sensitivity and Nonhostility moderated the relationship between neonatal pain and Internalizing behavior (all Pparent education (PParenting Stress (P=.001), and fewer children in the home (Pchild cognitive ability (all P>.05). Parent Emotional Availability and stress were not associated with Internalizing behaviors in full-term control children. Positive parent interaction and lower stress appears to ameliorate negative effects of neonatal pain on stress-sensitive behaviors in this vulnerable population. Copyright © 2013 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Peak Bone Mass and Bone Microarchitecture in Adults Born With Low Birth Weight Preterm or at Term: A Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasuriya, Chandima N D; Evensen, Kari Anne I; Mosti, Mats P; Brubakk, Ann-Mari; Jacobsen, Geir W; Indredavik, Marit S; Schei, Berit; Stunes, Astrid Kamilla; Syversen, Unni

    2017-07-01

    Peak bone mass (PBM) is regarded as the most important determinant of osteoporosis. Growing evidence suggests a role of intrauterine programming in skeletal development. We examined PBM and trabecular bone score (TBS) in adults born preterm with very low birth weight (VLBW) or small for gestational age (SGA) at term compared with term-born controls. This follow-up cohort study included 186 men and women (25 to 28 years); 52 preterm VLBW (≤1500 g), 59 term-born SGA (10th percentile). Main outcome was bone mineral density (BMD) by dual x-ray absorptiometry. Secondary outcomes were bone mineral content (BMC), TBS, and serum bone markers. VLBW adults had lower BMC and BMD vs controls, also when adjusted for height, weight, and potential confounders, with the following BMD Z-score differences: femoral neck, 0.6 standard deviation (SD) (P = 0.003); total hip, 0.4 SD (P = 0.01); whole body, 0.5 SD (P = 0.007); and lumbar spine, 0.3 SD (P = 0.213). The SGA group displayed lower spine BMC and whole-body BMD Z-scores, but not after adjustment. Adjusted odds ratios for osteopenia/osteoporosis were 2.4 and 2.0 in VLBW and SGA adults, respectively. TBS did not differ between groups, but it was lower in men than in women. Serum Dickkopf-1 was higher in VLBW subjects vs controls; however, it was not significant after adjustment for multiple comparisons. Both low-birth-weight groups displayed lower PBM and higher frequency of osteopenia/osteoporosis, implying increased future fracture risk. The most pronounced bone deficit was seen in VLBW adults.

  13. Brain injury in very preterm children and neurosensory and cognitive disabilities during childhood: the EPIPAGE cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane Marret

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association of motor and cognitive/learning deficiencies and overall disabilities in very preterm (VPT children and their relations to gestational age (GA and brain lesions. DESIGN SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: EPIPAGE is a longitudinal population-based cohort study of children born before 33 weeks' gestation (WG in 9 French regions in 1997-1998. Cumulating data from all follow up stages, neurodevelopmental outcomes were available for 90% of the 2480 VPT survivors at 8 years. Main outcomes were association of motor and cognitive deficiencies and existence of at least one deficiency (motor, cognitive, behavioral/psychiatric, epileptic, visual, and/or hearing deficiencies in three GA groups (24-26, 27-28, and 29-32WG and four groups of brain lesions (none, minor, moderate, or severe. RESULTS: VPT had high rates of motor (14% and cognitive (31% deficiencies. Only 6% had an isolated motor deficiency, 23% an isolated cognitive one and 8% both types. This rate reached 20% among extremely preterm. Psychiatric disorders and epilepsy were observed in 6% and 2% of children, respectively. The risks of at least one severe or moderate deficiency were 11 and 29%. These risks increased as GA decreased; only 36% of children born extremely preterm had no reported deficiency. Among children with major white matter injury (WMI, deficiency rates reached 71% at 24-26WG, 88% at 27-28WG, and 80% at 29-32WG; more than 40% had associated motor and cognitive deficiencies. By contrast, isolated cognitive deficiency was the most frequent problem among children without major lesions. CONCLUSIONS: In VPT, the lower the GA, the higher the neurodisability rate. Cerebral palsy is common. Impaired cognitive development is more frequent. Its occurrence in case without WMI or early motor disorders makes long-term follow up necessary. The strong association between motor impairments, when they exist, and later cognitive dysfunction supports the hypothesis

  14. Functioning of 7-Year-Old Children Born at 32 to 35 Weeks' Gestational Age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cserjesi, R.; Van Braeckel, K.N.J.A.; Butcher, P.R.; Kerstjens, J.M.; Reijneveld, S.A.; Bouma, A.; Geuze, R.H.; Bos, A.F.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare neuropsychological functions in moderately preterm (32-35 weeks' gestation) and full-term children at the age of 7 years and identify gender differences. METHODS: Community-based prospective cohort study of 248 moderately preterm children (138 boys) and 130 full-term children

  15. Alterations in neural connectivity in preterm children at school age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gozzo, Yeisid; Vohr, Betty; Lacadie, Cheryl; Hampson, Michelle; Katz, Karol H; Maller-Kesselman, Jill; Schneider, Karen C; Peterson, Bradley S; Rajeevan, Nallakkandi; Makuch, Robert W; Constable, R Todd; Ment, Laura R

    2009-11-01

    Converging data suggest recovery from injury in the preterm brain. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to test the hypothesis that cerebral connectivity involving Wernicke's area and other important cortical language regions would differ between preterm (PT) and term (T) control school age children during performance of an auditory language task. Fifty-four PT children (600-1250 g birth weight) and 24 T controls were evaluated using an fMRI passive language task and neurodevelopmental assessments including: the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children - III (WISC-III), the Peabody Individual Achievement Test - Revised (PIAT-R) and the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test - Revised (PPVT-R) at 8 years of age. Neural activity was assessed for language processing and the data were evaluated for connectivity and correlations to cognitive outcomes. We found that PT subjects scored significantly lower on all components of the WISC-III (planguage function at school age differently than T controls; these alterations may represent a delay in maturation of neural networks or the engagement of alternate circuits for language processing.

  16. Attention and Regional Gray Matter Development in Very Preterm Children at Age 12 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lean, Rachel E; Melzer, Tracy R; Bora, Samudragupta; Watts, Richard; Woodward, Lianne J

    2017-08-01

    This study examines the selective, sustained, and executive attention abilities of very preterm (VPT) born children in relation to concurrent structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measures of regional gray matter development at age 12 years. A regional cohort of 110 VPT (≤32 weeks gestation) and 113 full term (FT) born children were assessed at corrected age 12 years on the Test of Everyday Attention-Children. They also had a structural MRI scan that was subsequently analyzed using voxel-based morphometry to quantify regional between-group differences in cerebral gray matter development, which were then related to attention measures using multivariate methods. VPT children obtained similar selective (p=.85), but poorer sustained (p=.02) and executive attention (p=.01) scores than FT children. VPT children were also characterized by reduced gray matter in the bilateral parietal, temporal, prefrontal and posterior cingulate cortices, bilateral thalami, and left hippocampus; and increased gray matter in the occipital and anterior cingulate cortices (family-wise error-corrected pmatter in the anterior cingulate cortex (p=.04). Poor executive shifting attention was associated with reduced gray matter in the right superior temporal cortex (p=.04) and bilateral thalami (p=.05). Poorer executive divided attention was associated with reduced gray matter in the occipital (p=.001), posterior cingulate (p=.02), and left temporal (p=.01) cortices; and increased gray matter in the anterior cingulate cortex (p=.001). Disturbances in regional gray matter development appear to contribute, at least in part, to the poorer attentional performance of VPT children at school age. (JINS, 2017, 23, 539-550).

  17. Neonatal Predictors of Cognitive Ability in Adults Born Very Preterm : A Prospective Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breeman, L.D.; Jaekel, Julia; Baumann, Nicole; Bartmann, Peter; Wolke, Dieter

    Aim To identify neonatal predictors to allow a developmental prognosis of very preterm / very-low birthweight (VP/VLBW) survivors' cognitive abilities into adult life. Method The Bavarian Longitudinal Study is a prospective whole population study that followed 260 VP/VLBW infants from birth to

  18. Fetal growth and preterm birth in children exposed to maternal or paternal rheumatoid arthritis. A nationwide cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rom, Ane L; Wu, Chunsen; Olsen, Jørn

    2014-01-01

    of 13,556 children were exposed to maternal RA or maternal preclinical RA. Children exposed to maternal RA (n = 2,101) had approximately similar length, head circumference, and abdominal circumference at birth compared with children of mothers without RA. Birth weight was 87 gm lower (mean difference...... -87.04 gm [95% CI -111.23, -62.84]) and placenta weight was 14 gm lower (-13.45 gm [95% CI -21.46, -5.43]) than those in children of mothers without RA. Rather similar results were found in children exposed to maternal preclinical RA (n = 11,455). Compared with unexposed children, a higher risk...... of preterm birth was found in children exposed to maternal RA (OR 1.48 [95% CI 1.20, 1.84]) and preclinical RA (OR 1.32 [95% CI 1.07, 1.64]). No associations were found with paternal RA. CONCLUSION: Children exposed to either maternal RA or maternal preclinical RA are more often born preterm. However...

  19. Growth and development in children born very low birthweight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharf, Rebecca J; Stroustrup, Annemarie; Conaway, Mark R; DeBoer, Mark D

    2016-09-01

    To examine the relationships between growth (birth to age 2 years) and developmental outcomes in children born with very low birthweight (VLBW). Motor and mental development in children born with VLBW were regressed on anthropometric measurements at birth, 9 months and 2 years using multivariable regression. The Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort, a longitudinal cohort, community sample, designed to be representative of children born across the USA. 950 children born with VLBW (growth, with length-for-age z-scores -2, children with growth shortfalls in head circumference, length and weight had a higher adjusted OR (aOR) of low Bayley motor scores at 9 months and 2 years (aOR ranging from 1.8 to 3.3, all pgrowth were linked to current and future neurodevelopmental outcomes in children born with VLBW. While careful length measures may be a particularly useful marker, deficits in all anthropometric measures were risk factors for developmental delays. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  20. Cerebral palsy in children: Movements and postures during early infancy, dependent on preterm vs. full term birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hong; Einspieler, Christa; Shi, Wei; Marschik, Peter B.; Wang, Yi; Cao, Yun; Li, Hui; Liao, Yuan-Gui; Shao, Xiao-Mei

    2012-01-01

    Background A deviant motor behaviour at age 3 to 5 months is predictive of cerebral palsy (CP). Particular features of the early motor repertoire even proved predictive of the degree of functional limitations as classified on the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) in children with CP, born preterm. Aims We aimed to determine whether an association between the early motor repertoire and the GMFCS also holds true for children born at term. Study design Longitudinal study. Subjects 79 infants (60 boys and 19 girls; 47 infants born at term; video recorded for the assessment of movements and posture at age 9 to 20 weeks postterm age) who developed CP. Outcome measures The GMFCS was applied at age 2 to 5 years. Results Motor optimality at age 3 to 5 months showed a significant correlation with functional mobility and activity limitation as classified on the GMFCS at age 2 to 5 years in both children born at term (Spearman rho = − 0.66, p postterm age (irrespective of the gestational age) improves our ability to predict later functional limitations in children with CP. PMID:22795821

  1. Reproductive outcomes of women and men born very preterm and/or with a very low birth weight in 1983 : a longitudinal cohort study in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gendt, A.W. van; Pal, S.M. van der; Hermes, W.; Walther, F.J.; Pal-de Bruin, K.M. van der; Groot, C.J.M. de

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study were to analyze reproductive outcomes of women and men born very preterm (gestational age <32 weeks) or with a very low birth weight (<1500 g) in 1983 in the Netherlands and to compare their reproductive outcomes with the total population at a similar age of 28 years. Young

  2. A nationwide survey of incidence rates and risk factors of inguinal hernia in preterm children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yu-Wei; Pan, Mei-Lien; Hsu, Yao-Jen; Chin, Tai-Wai

    2018-01-01

    Clinical observations showed a higher incidence rate of inguinal hernia (IH) in preterm infants. In this study, we calculated the incidence rate of preterm IH from the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) of Taiwan. From NHIRD, 92,308 subjects born in the year of 1997-2005 were randomly selected as the study cohort. The medical claims of these subjects from birth to 6th year of age were analyzed. Preterm births were defined using ICD code 765.1*. Risk factors such as birth weight, lung disorders, and ventilator supports before IH repairs were investigated. The risk of incarceration and bowel resection were also evaluated. From 92,308 subjects, 2560 preterm births were identified. IH was repaired in 231 preterm (9.02%) and 3650 term subjects (4.07%). Male (preterm 13.3% and non-preterm 6.3%) had more hernia repairs than female (preterm 3.8% and non-preterm 1.6%). The incidence rate of IH is 13.7% for those under 1500 g, 8.2% for those 1500-1999 g, 7.7% for those 2000-2499 g, and 6.3% for those above 2500 g. The incidence rate of IH in preterms with past history of lung disorders and ventilation supports is 8.7 and 13.6%, respectively. There was no significant difference in the incidences of incarceration and bowel resection between preterms and non-preterms. Birth weight under 2500 g is a significant risk factor for IH repairs. Other risk factors are male gender, past history of lung diseases, and ventilator supports.

  3. MRC ORACLE Children Study. Long term outcomes following prescription of antibiotics to pregnant women with either spontaneous preterm labour or preterm rupture of the membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Sara; Brocklehurst, Peter; Jones, David; Marlow, Neil; Salt, Alison; Taylor, David

    2008-04-24

    The Medical Research Council (MRC) ORACLE trial evaluated the use of co-amoxiclav 375 mg and/or erythromycin 250 mg in women presenting with preterm rupture of membranes (PROM) ORACLE I or in spontaneous preterm labour (SPL) ORACLE II using a factorial design. The results showed that for women with a singleton baby with PROM the prescription of erythromycin is associated with improvements in short term neonatal outcomes, although co-amoxiclav is associated with prolongation of pregnancy, a significantly higher rate of neonatal necrotising enterocolitis was found in these babies. Prescription of erythromycin is now established practice for women with PROM. For women with SPL antibiotics demonstrated no improvements in short term neonatal outcomes and are not recommended treatment. There is evidence that both these conditions are associated with subclinical infection so perinatal antibiotic administration may reduce the risk of later disabilities, including cerebral palsy, although the risk may be increased through exposure to inflammatory cytokines, so assessment of longer term functional and educational outcomes is appropriate. The MRC ORACLE Children's Study will follow up UK children at age 7 years born to 4809 women with PROM and the 4266 women with SPL enrolled in the earlier ORACLE trials. We will use a parental questionnaire including validated tools to assess disability and behaviour. We will collect the frequency of specific medical conditions: cerebral palsy, epilepsy, respiratory illness including asthma, diabetes, admission to hospital in last year and other diseases, as reported by parents. National standard test results will be collected to assess educational attainment at Key Stage 1 for children in England. This study is designed to investigate whether or not peripartum antibiotics improve health and disability for children at 7 years of age. The ORACLE Trial and Children Study is registered in the Current Controlled Trials registry. ISCRTN 52995660.

  4. Peculiarities of rickets of children who were born prematurely and suffered bronchopulmonary dysplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yablon О.S.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to establish the clinical and metabolic peculiarities of rickets of children who were born prematurely and suffered bronchopulmonary dysplasia and to evaluate the effectiveness of specific and nonspecific prevention of rickets of these children. Materials and methods. 15 infants with clinical manifestations of rickets who were born preterm (gestational age 28,87 0,56 weeks, weight 1214,0077 ,91 g and transferred to the neonatal bronchopulmonary dysplasia (first group investigated serum total calcium, the level of ionized calcium, inorganic phosphorus in serum, activity of alkaline phosphatase in serum. The results were compared with those of 25 premature babies of the same age and severity of rickets without bronchopulmonary dysplasia (second group and 10 term infants of the same age and severity of rickets (group. Results. Children with rickets and osteomalacia bronchopulmonary dysplasia symptoms prevailed, particularly kraniotabes (60.00% and availability Harissonovoyi grooves (33.33% (p<0.05, deformity of the sternum (93.33% and expanding the lower aperture (100.00% (p<0.01. The data indicate that the depth of metabolic disorders in premature babies with rickets and bronchopulmonary dysplasia fairly similar as prevailing without bronchopulmonary dysplasia of premature babies and of children who were born full-term. The children of the first group all indicators biochemistry blood were significantly lower than similar indicators in children with group comparison, the level of total calcium — 1.84±0.04 mmol/l and inorganic phosphorus — 1.44±0.02 mmol/l (p<0.01, and ionized calcium — 1.06±0.03 mmol/l. The activity of alkaline phosphatase (663.53±55.10 U/L significantly prevailing rate of term infants (p<0,05. In premature infants antenatal and postnatal prevention of rickets was broken. Conclusion. It has been established that rickets in premature infants in the background bronchopulmonary dysplasia began earlier, had mostly

  5. Long-term development of low-risk low birth weight preterm born infants: neurodevelopmental aspects from childhood to late adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuner, Gitta; Hassenpflug, Anne; Pietz, Joachim; Philippi, Heike

    2009-07-01

    Most studies on clinical outcome of preterm born infants focus on high-risk infants, whereas little is known about the long-term prognosis of low-risk low birth weight preterm born infants (LBW). To examine physical growth, school outcome, behavioural aspects, quality of life, and intervention impact on LBW in late adolescence compared to term born controls and to analyse developmental pathways from childhood to adolescence for these groups. In late adolescence 65 LBW and 41 matched term born controls were assessed with a structured telephone interview and standardized questionnaires with regard to physical growth, school career, therapeutic interventions, behavioural aspects, and quality of life. Longitudinal analysis comprised data from birth, infancy, school age, and adolescence. Growth in height of LBW was highly variable, but correlated significantly with birth parameters and was below those of controls with regard to percentiles. School enrollment of LBW was more often delayed, and there was a trend toward lower school graduation in LBW. The groups did not differ with regard to general or health-related quality of life and behavioural aspects, but LBW received significantly more therapeutical interventions. In general, LBW showed no major deficits in late adolescence. However, a prolonged school career and a higher demand for therapeutic interventions indicate subtle neurodevelopmental deficits in LBW. This underscores the need for professional follow-up programmes for this majority of preterm born infants.

  6. Bilingualism as a potential strategy to improve executive function in preterm infants: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, Lauren M; Baralt, Melissa; Darcy Mahoney, Ashley E

    2015-01-01

    Preterm birth is associated with long-term deficits in executive functioning and cognitive performance. Using the model of brain plasticity as a theoretical framework, it is possible that preterm infants' neurodevelopmental sequelae can be altered. Evidence suggests that bilingualism confers cognitive advantages on executive functioning, so it is possible that bilingualism may improve preterm infants' neurodevelopment. However, bilingualism has only been studied in term children. This review examined literature that compared the performance of preterm-born children to term children and bilingual children to monolingual children on executive function tasks. To address cognitive disparities in preterm-born children, studies investigating the effect of bilingualism on preterm infants' executive functioning is warranted. Copyright © 2015 National Association of Pediatric Nurse Practitioners. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Neonatal pain and COMT Val158Met genotype in relation to serotonin transporter (SLC6A4) promoter methylation in very preterm children at school age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chau, Cecil M Y; Ranger, Manon; Sulistyoningrum, Dian; Devlin, Angela M; Oberlander, Tim F; Grunau, Ruth E

    2014-01-01

    Children born very preterm are exposed to repeated neonatal procedures that induce pain and stress during hospitalization in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). The COMT Val158Met genotype is involved with pain sensitivity, and early life stress is implicated in altered expression of methylation of the serotonin transporter. We examined: (1) whether methylation of the serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4) promoter differs between very preterm children and full-term controls at school age, (2) relationships with child behavior problems, and (3) whether the extent of neonatal pain exposure interacts with the COMT Val158Met genotype to predict SLC6A4 methylation at 7 years in the very preterm children. We examined the associations between the COMT genotypes, neonatal pain exposure (adjusted for neonatal clinical confounders), SLC6A4 methylation and behavior problems. Very preterm children had significantly higher methylation at 7/10 CpG sites in the SLC6A4 promoter compared to full-term controls at 7 years. Neonatal pain (adjusted for clinical confounders) was significantly associated with total child behavior problems on the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) questionnaire (adjusted for concurrent stressors and 5HTTLPR genotype) (p = 0.035). CBCL Total Problems was significantly associated with greater SLC6A4 methylation in very preterm children (p = 0.01). Neonatal pain (adjusted for clinical confounders) and COMT Met/Met genotype were associated with SLC6A4 promoter methylation in very preterm children at 7 years (p = 0.001). These findings provide evidence that both genetic predisposition and early environment need to be considered in understanding susceptibility for developing behavioral problems in this vulnerable population.

  8. Neonatal pain and COMT Val158Met genotype in relation to serotonin transporter (SLC6A4 promoter methylation in very preterm children at school age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecil Ming Yeung Chau

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Children born very preterm are exposed to repeated neonatal procedures that induce pain and stress during hospitalization in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU. The COMT Val158Met genotype is involved with pain sensitivity, and early life stress is implicated in altered expression of methylation of the serotonin transporter. We examined: (1 whether methylation of the serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4 promoter differs between very preterm children and full-term controls at school age, (2 relationships with child behavior problems, and (3 whether the extent of neonatal pain exposure interacts with the COMT Val158Met genotype to predict SLC6A4 methylation at 7 years in the very preterm children. We examined the associations between the COMT genotypes, neonatal pain exposure (adjusted for neonatal clinical confounders, SLC6A4 methylation and behavior problems. Very preterm children had significantly higher methylation at 7/10 CpG sites in the SLC6A4 promoter compared to full-term controls at 7 years. Neonatal pain (adjusted for clinical confounders was significantly associated with total child behaviour problems on the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL questionnaire (adjusted for concurrent stressors and 5HTTLPR genotype (p = 0.035. CBCL total problems was significantly associated with greater SLC6A4 methylation in very preterm children (p = 0.01. Neonatal pain (adjusted for clinical confounders and COMT Met/Met genotype were associated with SLC6A4 promoter methylation in very preterm children at 7 years (p = 0.001. These findings provide evidence that both genetic predisposition and early environment need to be considered in understanding susceptibility for developing behavioral problems in this vulnerable population.

  9. Should we definitively abandon prophylaxis for patent ductus arteriosus in preterm new-borns?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vassilios Fanos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the prophylactic administration of indomethacin in extremely low-birth weight infants reduces the frequency of patent ductus arteriosus and severe intraventricular hemorrhage, it does not appear to provide any long-term benefit in terms of survival without neurosensory and cognitive outcomes. Considering the increased drug-induced reduction in renal, intestinal, and cerebral blood flow, the use of prophylaxis cannot be routinely recommended in preterm neonates. However, a better understanding of the genetic background of each infant may allow for individualized prophylaxis using NSAIDs and metabolomics.

  10. Does perinatal asphyxia contribute to neurological dysfunction in preterm infants?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Iersel, Patricia A. M.; Bakker, Saskia C. M.; Jonker, Arnold J. H.; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    Background: Children born preterm are known to be at risk for neurodevelopmental disorders. The role of perinatal asphyxia in this increased risk is still a matter of debate. Aim: To analyze the contribution of perinatal asphyxia in a population of preterm infants admitted to a secondary paediatric

  11. Muscle power development during the first year of life predicts neuromotor behaviour at 7 years in preterm born high-risk infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samsom, Janny F; de Groot, Laila; Bezemer, P Dick; Lafeber, Harry N; Fetter, Willem P F

    2002-07-01

    The aim of the study was to find if neurological function during the first year of life could predict neuromotor behaviour at 7 years of age in children born preterm with a high risk. A follow-up study of neuromotor behaviour in 52 children at a mean age of 3, 6, 12 months (corrected age) and 7 years was performed. All children were born with a gestational age less than 32 weeks and/or a birthweight under 1500 g and the infants were categorised according to their medical history in the three highest categories of the 'Neonatal Medical Index' (NMI, from category I to V, from few to serious complications). In addition, neonatal cerebral ultrasound abnormalities were used to divide the infants further into the different NMI categories. At 3 and 6 months, the relationship between active and passive muscle power was measured in shoulders, trunk and legs and (a)symmetry between right and left was noted. The results at 3 and 6 months were ranged from 1 for optimal to 5 for poor muscle power regulation. At 12 months of age, a neurological examination was done with special emphasis on the assessment of postural control, spontaneous motility, hand function and elicited infantile reactions with special attention to (a)symmetry. Outcome at 12 months was expressed as percentage of the optimal score on each subcategory. At 7 years, the motor behaviour study based on Touwen's examination for minor neurological dysfunction was performed. This investigation focuses on different functions, such as hand function, quality of walking, posture, passive muscle tone, coordination and diadochokinesis. The outcome was expressed as percentage of the optimal score on the combined subcategories. The best prediction of neuromotor behaviour at 7 years was assessed with stepwise linear multiple regression, using as potential predictors perinatal factors and outcome of motor behaviour at the corrected age of 3, 6 and 12 months. At 7 years none of the children scored 100% on the combined

  12. Regional vulnerability of longitudinal cortical association connectivity: Associated with structural network topology alterations in preterm children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceschin, Rafael; Lee, Vince K; Schmithorst, Vince; Panigrahy, Ashok

    2015-01-01

    Preterm born children with spastic diplegia type of cerebral palsy and white matter injury or periventricular leukomalacia (PVL), are known to have motor, visual and cognitive impairments. Most diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies performed in this group have demonstrated widespread abnormalities using averaged deterministic tractography and voxel-based DTI measurements. Little is known about structural network correlates of white matter topography and reorganization in preterm cerebral palsy, despite the availability of new therapies and the need for brain imaging biomarkers. Here, we combined novel post-processing methodology of probabilistic tractography data in this preterm cohort to improve spatial and regional delineation of longitudinal cortical association tract abnormalities using an along-tract approach, and compared these data to structural DTI cortical network topology analysis. DTI images were acquired on 16 preterm children with cerebral palsy (mean age 5.6 ± 4) and 75 healthy controls (mean age 5.7 ± 3.4). Despite mean tract analysis, Tract-Based Spatial Statistics (TBSS) and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) demonstrating diffusely reduced fractional anisotropy (FA) reduction in all white matter tracts, the along-tract analysis improved the detection of regional tract vulnerability. The along-tract map-structural network topology correlates revealed two associations: (1) reduced regional posterior-anterior gradient in FA of the longitudinal visual cortical association tracts (inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, inferior longitudinal fasciculus, optic radiation, posterior thalamic radiation) correlated with reduced posterior-anterior gradient of intra-regional (nodal efficiency) metrics with relative sparing of frontal and temporal regions; and (2) reduced regional FA within frontal-thalamic-striatal white matter pathways (anterior limb/anterior thalamic radiation, superior longitudinal fasciculus and cortical spinal tract) correlated with

  13. Impaired visual short-term memory capacity is distinctively associated with structural connectivity of the posterior thalamic radiation and the splenium of the corpus callosum in preterm-born adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menegaux, Aurore; Meng, Chun; Neitzel, Julia; Bäuml, Josef G; Müller, Hermann J; Bartmann, Peter; Wolke, Dieter; Wohlschläger, Afra M; Finke, Kathrin; Sorg, Christian

    2017-04-15

    Preterm birth is associated with an increased risk for lasting changes in both the cortico-thalamic system and attention; however, the link between cortico-thalamic and attention changes is as yet little understood. In preterm newborns, cortico-cortical and cortico-thalamic structural connectivity are distinctively altered, with increased local clustering for cortico-cortical and decreased integrity for cortico-thalamic connectivity. In preterm-born adults, among the various attention functions, visual short-term memory (vSTM) capacity is selectively impaired. We hypothesized distinct associations between vSTM capacity and the structural integrity of cortico-thalamic and cortico-cortical connections, respectively, in preterm-born adults. A whole-report paradigm of briefly presented letter arrays based on the computationally formalized Theory of Visual Attention (TVA) was used to quantify parameter vSTM capacity in 26 preterm- and 21 full-term-born adults. Fractional anisotropy (FA) of posterior thalamic radiations and the splenium of the corpus callosum obtained by diffusion tensor imaging were analyzed by tract-based spatial statistics and used as proxies for cortico-thalamic and cortico-cortical structural connectivity. The relationship between vSTM capacity and cortico-thalamic and cortico-cortical connectivity, respectively, was significantly modified by prematurity. In full-term-born adults, the higher FA in the right posterior thalamic radiation the higher vSTM capacity; in preterm-born adults this FA-vSTM-relationship was inversed. In the splenium, higher FA was correlated with higher vSTM capacity in preterm-born adults, whereas no significant relationship was evident in full-term-born adults. These results indicate distinct associations between cortico-thalamic and cortico-cortical integrity and vSTM capacity in preterm-and full-term-born adults. Data suggest compensatory cortico-cortical fiber re-organization for attention deficits after preterm delivery

  14. Gender differences in respiratory symptoms in 19-year-old adults born preterm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrijlandt, Elianne J.L.E.; Gerritsen, J; Boezen, HM; Duiverman, EJ

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the prevalence of respiratory and atopic symptoms in (young) adults born prematurely, differences between those who did and did not develop Bronchopulmonary Disease (BPD) at neonatal age and differences in respiratory health between males and females. METHODS: DESIGN: Prospective

  15. fMRI Evidence for Dorsal Stream Processing Abnormality in Adults Born Preterm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaminade, Thierry; Leutcher, Russia Ha-Vinh; Millet, Veronique; Deruelle, Christine

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the consequences of premature birth on the functional neuroanatomy of the dorsal stream of visual processing. fMRI was recorded while sixteen healthy participants, 8 (two men) adults (19 years 6 months old, SD 10 months) born premature (mean gestational age 30 weeks), referred to as Premas, and 8 (two men) matched controls (20…

  16. Health profile of young adults born preterm: Negative effects of rapid weight gain in early life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.F. Kerkhof (Gerthe); R.H. Willemsen (Ruben); R.W.J. Leunissen (Ralph); P.E. Breukhoven (Petra); A.C.S. Hokken-Koelega (Anita)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction: Early postnatal weight gain is associated with determinants of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) in adults born term. We aimed to investigate the association of weight gain during different periods, and weight trajectories in early life after

  17. Preventing academic difficulties in preterm children: a randomised controlled trial of an adaptive working memory training intervention - IMPRINT study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascoe, Leona; Roberts, Gehan; Doyle, Lex W; Lee, Katherine J; Thompson, Deanne K; Seal, Marc L; Josev, Elisha K; Nosarti, Chiara; Gathercole, Susan; Anderson, Peter J

    2013-09-16

    Very preterm children exhibit difficulties in working memory, a key cognitive ability vital to learning information and the development of academic skills. Previous research suggests that an adaptive working memory training intervention (Cogmed) may improve working memory and other cognitive and behavioural domains, although further randomised controlled trials employing long-term outcomes are needed, and with populations at risk for working memory deficits, such as children born preterm.In a cohort of extremely preterm (memory and attention 2 weeks', 12 months' and 24 months' post-intervention, and to investigate training related neuroplasticity in working memory neural networks 2 weeks' post-intervention. This double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised controlled trial aims to recruit 126 extremely preterm/extremely low birthweight 7-year-old children. Children attending mainstream school without major intellectual, sensory or physical impairments will be eligible. Participating children will undergo an extensive baseline cognitive assessment before being randomised to either an adaptive or placebo (non-adaptive) version of Cogmed. Cogmed is a computerised working memory training program consisting of 25 sessions completed over a 5 to 7 week period. Each training session takes approximately 35 minutes and will be completed in the child's home. Structural, diffusion and functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging, which is optional for participants, will be completed prior to and 2 weeks following the training period. Follow-up assessments focusing on academic skills (primary outcome), working memory and attention (secondary outcomes) will be conducted at 2 weeks', 12 months' and 24 months' post-intervention. To our knowledge, this study will be the first randomised controlled trial to (a) assess the effectiveness of Cogmed in school-aged extremely preterm/extremely low birthweight children, while incorporating advanced imaging techniques to investigate neural changes

  18. RISK FACTORS AND EARLY DEVELOPMENT OF CHILDREN BORN WITH AN ASSISTED FERTILIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena MILICHEVIKJ

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present a systematic literature review of the researches conducted in the area of risk factors and difficulties in the early development of children born after assisted conception, to systematize current knowledge in this field and allocate the factors of importance for the early intervention.In order to evaluate the published data on risk factors and early development of children born after assisted conception, an extensive literature search was conducted to identify the published papers related to the obstetric and neonatal outcome of pregnancies after assisted repro­duction technology, the incidence of multiple pregnancy and the risk of preterm delivery, the neonatal status, the mean gestational age, the average birth weight, the neuro-developmental outcomes and early cognitive and motor development. The research identified the following factors as the most important for the early intervention: increased rates of multiple gestations, prematurity, delivery by cesarean section, lower average gestational development and average birth weight, small fetal development for gestational age and low Apgar score, related to the an increased risk of developing neurological problems, such as the cerebral palsy.Accepting this research results, it can be concluded that all of these information should be available for couples seeking an Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART treatment.The success of the early intervention is directly related to the early detection and assessment that precedes this treatment, creating individual programs and evaluation of the effects of the treatment.

  19. The present challenges of parenteral nutrition in preterm infants and children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Goudoever, Johannes B.; Vlaardingerbroek, Hester

    2013-01-01

    The goal of pediatricians involved in the nutritional management of preterm infants is to mimic intrauterine growth and to obtain a functional outcome comparable to that for infants born at term. Appropriate administration of nutrients in the first few days to weeks of life will reduce the growth

  20. Diffuse periventricular leukomalacia in preterm children: assessment of grey matter changes by MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tzarouchi, L.C.; Xydis, V.; Zikou, A.K.; Papastefanaki, M.; Argyropoulou, Maria I. [University of Ioannina, Department of Radiology, Medical School, Ioannina (Greece); Drougia, A.; Andronikou, S. [University of Ioannina, Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, Child Health Department, Medical School, Ioannina (Greece); Astrakas, L.G. [University of Ioannina, Department of Medical Physics, Medical School, Ioannina (Greece)

    2011-12-15

    Preterm children may have cognitive deficits and behavioural disorders suggestive of grey matter (GM) injury. The prevalence is higher in preterm children with diffuse periventricular leukomalacia (dPVL). Evaluate changes in the volume of 116 GM areas in preterm children with dPVL. Eleven preterm children with dPVL, gestational age 32.8 {+-} 2.6 weeks, examined at corrected age 22.0 {+-} 18.2 months and 33 matched preterm controls with normal brain MRI were studied. Volumes of 116 individual GM areas, and white matter/cerebrospinal fluid (WM/CSF) ratio were calculated on T1-weighted high-resolution images after segmentation. Relative to controls, children with dPVL had decreased GM volume of the hippocampus, amygdala, and frontal lobes and temporal middle gyrus (P < 0.05); increased GM volume of the putamen, thalamus, globus pallidum, superior temporal gyrus and of the parietal and occipital lobes (P < 0.05) and lower WM volume/higher CSF volume (P < 0.05). WM/CSF ratios also differed (P < 0.05). Preterm children with dPVL have increased regional GM volume in some areas probably related with a process of brain plasticity-regeneration and reduced GM volume in areas associated with cognition and memory. (orig.)

  1. Original article The effects of kangaroo mother care in a sample of preterm, preschool aged children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Chrzan-Dętkoś

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background The research has shown that kangaroo mother care has a protective impact both on health and future cognitive skills of prematurely born babies. The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between the early skin-to-skin contact and the cognitive and emotional-social functioning of preschool aged preterm babies. Participants and procedure The study group included 99 preterm babies. The children participated in a psychological examination conducted using the Columbia Mental Maturity Scale and the Terman-Merrill Test. The data concerning the skin-to-skin contact during the child’s hospitalisation were acquired during interviews with mothers. The emotional development was assessed on the basis of interviews with mothers, conducted using the Rescorla DSM-IV Orientation Scale (2005. Results The study showed no relation between kangaroo mother care and cognitive development. Nevertheless the early skin-to-skin contact turned out to be connected with the emotional functioning of the subjects. Preterm babies who used to experience kangaroo mother care experienced fewer anxiety and depressive disorders than those who did not. In addition it was revealed that the children who suffered from early damage to the brain in the forms of intraventricular and periventricular haemorrhages and experienced kangaroo mother care demonstrated less intense depressive symptoms than those who did not. Conclusions The obtained results, combined with the review of the foreign literature of the subject, indicate the usefulness of introducing kangaroo mother care to neonatal wards and encouraging parents to care about their prematurely born babies in such a way.

  2. Preterm children have unfavorable motor, cognitive, and functional performance when compared to term children of preschool age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggi, Eliane F; Magalhães, Lívia C; Campos, Alexandre F; Bouzada, Maria Cândida F

    2014-01-01

    to compare the motor coordination, cognitive, and functional development of preterm and term children at the age of 4 years. this was a cross-sectional study of 124 four-year-old children, distributed in two different groups, according to gestational age and birth weight, paired by gender, age, and socioeconomic level. All children were evaluated by the Movement Assessment Battery for Children - second edition (MABC-2), the Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI), and the Columbia Mental Maturity Scale (CMMS). preterm children had worse performance in all tests, and 29.1% of the preterm and 6.5% of term groups had scores on the MABC-2 indicative of motor coordination disorder (p=0.002). In the CMMS (p=0.034), the median of the standardized score for the preterm group was 99.0 (± 13.75) and 103.0 (± 12.25) for the term group; on the PEDI, preterm children showed more limited skill repertoire (p=0.001) and required more assistance from the caregiver (p=0.010) than term children. this study reinforced the evidence that preterm children from different socioeconomic backgrounds are more likely to have motor, cognitive, and functional development impairment, detectable before school age, than their term peers. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  3. Preterm children have unfavorable motor, cognitive, and functional performance when compared to term children of preschool age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane F. Maggi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to compare the motor coordination, cognitive, and functional development of preterm and term children at the age of 4 years. METHODS: this was a cross-sectional study of 124 four-year-old children, distributed in two different groups, according to gestational age and birth weight, paired by gender, age, and socioeconomic level. All children were evaluated by the Movement Assessment Battery for Children - second edition (MABC-2, the Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI, and the Columbia Mental Maturity Scale (CMMS. RESULTS: preterm children had worse performance in all tests, and 29.1% of the preterm and 6.5% of term groups had scores on the MABC-2 indicative of motor coordination disorder (p = 0.002. In the CMMS (p = 0.034, the median of the standardized score for the preterm group was 99.0 (± 13.75 and 103.0 (± 12.25 for the term group; on the PEDI, preterm children showed more limited skill repertoire (p = 0.001 and required more assistance from the caregiver (p = 0.010 than term children. CONCLUSION: this study reinforced the evidence that preterm children from different socioeconomic backgrounds are more likely to have motor, cognitive, and functional development impairment, detectable before school age, than their term peers.

  4. Residential segregation, political representation, and preterm birth among U.S.- and foreign-born Black women in the U.S. 2008-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margerison-Zilko, Claire; Perez-Patron, Maria; Cubbin, Catherine

    2017-07-01

    Although racial residential segregation is associated with preterm birth (PTB) among non-Hispanic black (NHB) women in the U.S., prior work suggests that increased black political power arising from segregation may be protective for infant health. We examined associations between residential segregation, black political representation, and preterm birth (PTB) among U.S- and foreign-born NHB women in major U.S. cities using birth certificate data from 2008 to 2010 (n=861,450). Each 10-unit increase in segregation was associated with 3-6% increases in odds of PTB for both U.S.- and foreign-born NHB women. Black political representation was not associated with PTB and did not moderate the association between residential segregation and PTB. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Low Apgar score and mortality in extremely preterm neonates born in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Henry Chong; Subeh, Mohammad; Gould, Jeffrey B

    2010-12-01

    To investigate the relationship between low Apgar score and neonatal mortality in preterm neonates. Infant birth and death certificate data from the US National Center for Health Statistics for 2001-2002 were analysed. Primary outcome was 28-day mortality for 690, 933 neonates at gestational ages 24-36 weeks. Mortality rates were calculated for each combination of gestational age and 5-min Apgar score. Relative risks of mortality, by high vs. low Apgar score, were calculated for each age. Distribution of Apgar scores depended on gestational age, the youngest gestational ages having higher proportions of low Apgar scores. Median Apgar score ranged from 6 at 24 weeks, to 9 at 30-36 weeks gestation. The relative risk of death was significantly higher at Apgar scores 0-3 vs. 7-10, including at the youngest gestational ages, ranging from 3.1 (95% confidence interval 2.9, 3.4) at 24 weeks to 18.5 (95% confidence interval 15.7, 21.8) at 28 weeks.   Low Apgar score was associated with increased mortality in premature neonates, including those at 24-28 weeks gestational age, and may be a useful tool for clinicians in assessing prognosis and for researchers as a risk prediction variable. © 2010 The Author(s)/Journal Compilation © 2010 Foundation Acta Paediatrica.

  6. Pubertal development and sexuality in female adolescents born preterm: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Alexandra; Deans, Rebecca; Viner, Russell; Creighton, Sarah M

    2011-01-01

    Premature infants, especially very low birth weight infants, and fetal growth restriction are a challenge for healthcare professionals alike owing to the consequences of these conditions. To provide information for gynecologists, pediatricians and neonatologists to identify correct outcome expectations to help them plan their preventive and therapeutic actions. Searches were made on the MEDLINE database. According to several follow-up studies, there is an increasing evidence for a link between early life exposures (prenatal and postnatal) and long-term outcomes. An adverse in utero environment will induce fetal reprogramming of neuroendocrine axes with permanent alterations of the physiology and metabolism of various body structures and functioning of neuroendocrine axes in later life, leading to a variety of different conditions, such as persistence of neurodevelopmental disability, changes in growth pattern, in body metabolism, in pubertal development, lower educational achievement and even psychological disturbances with possible alterations of sexual behavior in female adolescents and young adults. In addition, short-term transitory consequences can be also present, such as anomalies in genital appearance. Outcome studies on the impact that prematurity, low birth weight and intrauterine growth restriction have on pubertal development, sexuality and fertility are still scarce. Long-term outcomes of small for gestational age or preterm adolescents are complex and multifactorial, with interactions between genetic and environmental influences involving different pathways of adaptive responses during crucial phases of prenatal growth.

  7. Early diet and peak bone mass: 20 year follow-up of a randomized trial of early diet in infants born preterm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fewtrell, Mary S; Williams, Jane E; Singhal, Atul; Murgatroyd, Peter R; Fuller, Nigel; Lucas, Alan

    2009-07-01

    Preterm infants are at risk of metabolic bone disease due to inadequate mineral intake with unknown consequences for later bone health. To test the hypotheses that (1) early diet programs peak bone mass and bone turnover; (2) human milk has a beneficial effect on these outcomes; (3) preterm subjects have reduced peak bone mass compared to population reference data. 20 year follow-up of 202 subjects (43% male; 24% of survivors) who were born preterm and randomized to: (i) preterm formula versus banked breast milk or (ii) preterm versus term formula; as sole diet or supplement to maternal milk. Outcome measures were (i) anthropometry; (ii) hip, lumbar spine (LS) and whole body (WB) bone mineral content (BMC) and bone area (BA) measured using DXA; (iii) bone turnover markers. Infant dietary randomization group did not influence peak bone mass or turnover. The proportion of human milk in the diet was significantly positively associated with WBBA and BMC. Subjects receiving >90% human milk had significantly higher WBBA (by 3.5%, p=0.01) and BMC (by 4.8%, p=0.03) than those receiving milk intake, despite its low nutrient content, may reflect non-nutritive factors in breast milk. These findings may have implications for later osteoporosis risk and require further investigation.

  8. Preterm Birth and Adult Wealth: Mathematics Skills Count.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basten, Maartje; Jaekel, Julia; Johnson, Samantha; Gilmore, Camilla; Wolke, Dieter

    2015-10-01

    Each year, 15 million babies worldwide are born preterm. Preterm birth is associated with adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes across the life span. Recent registry-based studies suggest that preterm birth is associated with decreased wealth in adulthood, but the mediating mechanisms are unknown. This study investigated whether the relationship between preterm birth and low adult wealth is mediated by poor academic abilities and educational qualifications. Participants were members of two British population-based birth cohorts born in 1958 and 1970, respectively. Results showed that preterm birth was associated with decreased wealth at 42 years of age. This association was mediated by decreased intelligence, reading, and, in particular, mathematics attainment in middle childhood, as well as decreased educational qualifications in young adulthood. Findings were similar in both cohorts, which suggests that these mechanisms may be time invariant. Special educational support in childhood may prevent preterm children from becoming less wealthy as adults. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. Atypical neuronal activation during a spatial working memory task in 13-year-old very preterm children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthursson, Pia-Maria S H; Thompson, Deanne K; Spencer-Smith, Megan; Chen, Jian; Silk, Tim; Doyle, Lex W; Anderson, Peter J

    2017-12-01

    Children born very preterm (VP; memory (WM). The underlying neural basis of these cognitive impairments is poorly understood. We investigated differences in neuronal activation during spatial WM using a backward span (BS) task relative to a control (C) task in 45 VP children and 19 term-born controls aged 13 years. VP children showed significantly more activation in the bilateral superior frontal gyrus and significantly less activation in the left parahippocampal gyrus compared with controls. We further explored the distinct contributions of maintenance and manipulation processes of WM using forward span (FS)>C and BS > FS, respectively. There were no significant group differences in neuronal activation for FS > C. However, BS > FS revealed that VP children had significantly greater activation in the left middle frontal gyrus, in the left superior parietal gyrus and right cerebellar tonsil, and significantly less activation in the right precentral and postcentral gyrus and left insula compared with controls. Taken together these results suggest that VP children at 13 years of age show an atypical neuronal activation during spatial WM, specifically related to manipulation of spatial information in WM. It is unclear whether these findings reflect delayed maturation and/or recruitment of alternative neuronal networks as a result of neuroplasticity. Hum Brain Mapp 38:6172-6184, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Hyper-responsiveness to acute stress, emotional problems and poorer memory in former preterm children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quesada, Andrea A; Tristão, Rosana M; Pratesi, Riccardo; Wolf, Oliver T

    2014-09-01

    The prevalence of preterm birth (PTB) is high worldwide, especially in developing countries like Brazil. PTB is marked by a stressful environment in intra- as well as extrauterine life, which can affect neurodevelopment and hormonal and physiological systems and lead to long-term negative outcomes. Nevertheless, little is known about PTB and related outcomes later on in childhood. Thus, the goals of the current study were threefold: (1) comparing cortisol and alpha-amylase (sAA) profiles, including cortisol awakening response (CAR), between preterm and full-term children; (2) evaluating whether preterm children are more responsive to acute stress and (3) assessing their memory skills and emotional and behavioral profiles. Basal cortisol and sAA profiles, including CAR of 30 preterm children, aged 6 to 10 years, were evaluated. Further, we assessed memory functions using the Wide Range Assessment of Memory and Learning, and we screened behavior/emotion using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. The results of preterm children were compared to an age- and sex-matched control group. One week later, participants were exposed to a standardized laboratory stressor [Trier Social Stress Test for Children (TSST-C)], in which cortisol and sAA were measured at baseline, 1, 10 and 25 min after stressor exposure. Preterm children had higher cortisol concentrations at awakening, a flattened CAR and an exaggerated response to TSST-C compared to full-term children. These alterations were more pronounced in girls. In addition, preterm children were characterized by more emotional problems and poorer memory performance. Our findings illustrate the long-lasting and in part sex-dependent effects of PTB on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, internalizing behavior and memory. The findings are in line with the idea that early adversity alters the set-point of the HPA axis, thereby creating a more vulnerable phenotype.

  11. Cancer risk in children born after donor ART.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, C L; Bunch, K J; Murphy, M F G; Stiller, C A; Botting, B J; Wallace, W H; Davies, M C; Sutcliffe, A G

    2018-01-01

    Do children born after donor ART have an increased risk of developing childhood cancer in comparison to the general population? This study showed no overall increased risk of childhood cancer in individuals born after donor ART. Most large population-based studies have shown no increase in overall childhood cancer incidence after non-donor ART; however, other studies have suggested small increased risks in specific cancer types, including haematological cancers. Cancer risk specifically in children born after donor ART has not been investigated to date. This retrospective cohort study utilized record linkage to determine the outcome status of all children born in Great Britain (1992-2008) after donor ART. The cohort included 12 137 members who contributed 95 389 person-years of follow-up (average follow-up 7.86 years). Records of all children born in Great Britain (England, Wales, Scotland) after all forms of donor ART (1992-2008) were linked to the UK National Registry of Childhood Tumours (NRCT) to determine the number who subsequently developed cancer by 15 years of age, by the end of 2008. Rates of overall and type specific cancer (selected a priori) were compared with age, sex and calendar year standardized population-based rates, stratifying for potential mediating/moderating factors including sex, age at diagnosis, birth weight, multiple births, maternal previous live births, assisted conception type and fresh/ cryopreserved cycles. In our cohort of 12 137 children born after donor ART (52% male, 55% singleton births), no overall increased risk of cancer was identified. There were 12 cancers detected compared to 14.4 expected (standardized incidence ratio (SIR) 0.83; 95% CI 0.43-1.45; P = 0.50). A small, significant increased risk of hepatoblastoma was found, but the numbers and absolute risks were small (study includes a large number of children born after donor ART, the rarity of specific diagnostic subgroups of childhood cancer results in few cases and

  12. Neonatal Nutrition Predicts Energy Balance in Young Adults Born Preterm at Very Low Birth Weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matinolli, Hanna-Maria; Hovi, Petteri; Levälahti, Esko; Kaserva, Nina; Silveira, Patricia P; Hemiö, Katri; Järvenpää, Anna-Liisa; Eriksson, Johan G; Andersson, Sture; Lindström, Jaana; Männisto, Satu; Kajantie, Eero

    2017-11-24

    Epidemiological studies and animal models suggest that early postnatal nutrition and growth can influence adult health. However, few human studies have objective recordings of early nutrient intake. We studied whether nutrient intake and growth during the first 9 weeks after preterm birth with very low birth weight (VLBW, energy intake, resting energy expenditure (REE), physical activity and food preferences in young adulthood. We collected daily nutritional intakes and weights during the initial hospital stay from hospital records for 127 unimpaired VLBW participants. At an average age 22.5 years, they completed a three-day food record and a physical activity questionnaire and underwent measurements of body composition (dual X-ray absorptiometry; n = 115 with adequate data) and REE (n = 92 with adequate data). We used linear regression and path analysis to investigate associations between neonatal nutrient intake and adult outcomes. Higher energy, protein and fat intakes during the first three weeks of life predicted lower relative (=per unit lean body mass) energy intake and relative REE in adulthood, independent of other pre- and neonatal factors. In path analysis, total effects of early nutrition and growth on relative energy intake were mostly explained by direct effects of early life nutrition. A path mediated by early growth reached statistical significance only for protein intake. There were no associations of neonatal intakes with physical activity or food preferences in adulthood. As a conclusion, higher intake of energy and nutrients during first three weeks of life of VLBW infants predicts energy balance after 20 years. This association is partly mediated through postnatal growth.

  13. Educational and rehabilitation service utilization in adolescents born preterm or with a congenital heart defect and at high risk for disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majnemer, Annette; Dahan-Oliel, Noemi; Rohlicek, Charles; Hatzigeorgiou, Sean; Mazer, Barbara; Maltais, Desiree B; Schmitz, Norbert

    2017-10-01

    This historical cohort study describes the use of educational and rehabilitation services in adolescents born preterm or with a congenital heart defect (CHD). Parents of 76 young people (mean age 15y 8mo [SD 1y 8mo]) with CHD and 125 born ≤29 weeks gestational age (mean age 16y [SD 2y 5mo]) completed a demographics questionnaire including educational and rehabilitation resource utilization within the previous 6 months. Rehabilitation services included occupational therapy, physical therapy, speech language pathology, psychology. Developmental (Leiter Brief IQ, Movement-ABC, Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire) and functional (Vineland) status of the young people was assessed. Pearson χ(2) tests were used to perform simple pairwise comparisons of categorical outcomes across the two groups (CHD, preterm). Univariate logistic regression was used to examine predictors of service utilization. Developmental profiles of the two groups (CHD/preterm) were similar (29.9%/30% IQeducational supports or attended segregated schools. Only 16% (preterm) and 26.7% (CHD) were receiving rehabilitation services. Services were provided predominantly in the school setting, typically weekly. Few received occupational therapy or physical therapy (1.3-7.6%) despite functional limitations. Leiter Brief IQeducational supports (CHD: OR 5.53, 95% CI 1.29-23.68; preterm: OR 14.63, 3.10-69.08) and rehabilitation services (CHD: OR 4.46, 1.06-18.88; preterm: OR 5.11, 1.41-18.49). Young people with motor deficits were more likely to require educational (CHD: OR 5.72, 1.99-16.42; preterm: OR 3.11, 1.43-6.77) and rehabilitation services (preterm: OR 3.97, 1.21-13.03). Although young people with impairments were more likely to receive educational and rehabilitation services, many may not be adequately supported, particularly by rehabilitation specialists. Rehabilitation services at this important transition phase could be beneficial in optimizing adaptive functioning in the home, school, and

  14. Preterm delivery risk factors in singletons born after in vitro fertilization procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ban Frangez, Helena; Korosec, Sara; Verdenik, Ivan; Kotar, Vanja; Kladnik, Urska; Vrtacnik Bokal, Eda

    2014-05-01

    Women delivering singletons after in vitro fertilization (IVF) procedures have a greater risk of preterm delivery (PD). The aim of our study was to analyze PD risk factors and to identify those that could possibly be prevented. In our matched controlled study we analyzed 1127 singleton deliveries after IVF and transfer of fresh embryos performed at the University Medical Center Ljubljana between 1 January 2002 and 31 December 2010. For every delivery included in the study group we chose three consecutive controls matched by maternal age, parity and maternity hospital. The main outcome measure was PD (anomaly, operation on the uterus, chronic renal disease, maternal age and parity, and body mass index (BMI). Variables investigated within the IVF group were: stimulation protocol, laboratory procedure, number of retrieved oocytes and number and quality of transferred embryos. The PD rate after IVF was 1.5 times higher than after natural conception (11.5% in the IVF group and 7.7% in the control group, p30 was an important risk factor only in the IVF group (OR 1.86 (1.06-3.27) vs. 1.10 (0.67-1.80)) and PPD only in the controls (OR 1.83 (0.78-4.28) vs. 3.22 (1.55-6.67)). Among the investigated PD risk factors, an IVF procedure was shown to be the fifth most important one. On analyzing parameters of the ovarian stimulation and IVF procedure, no PD risk factor was identified. IVF was shown to be a significant risk factor for PD. In the IVF population, BMI plays a far more important role in PD than in the fertile population. In our research PD reoccurrence in IVF group was less than expected, which could perhaps be explained by the surgical correction of gynecological pathology and, where necessary, its being combined with cerclage. The investigation of parameters related to the IVF procedure did not identify any risk factors for PD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Differentiating the Preterm Phenotype: Distinct Profiles of Cognitive and Behavioral Development Following Late and Moderately Preterm Birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Samantha; Waheed, Ghazala; Manktelow, Bradley N; Field, David J; Marlow, Neil; Draper, Elizabeth S; Boyle, Elaine M

    2018-02-01

    To explore patterns of comorbidity in cognitive and behavioral outcomes at 2 years' corrected age among children born late or moderately preterm (LMPT) and to identify predictors of different patterns of comorbidity. Geographical, prospective population-based cohort study of 1139 infants born LMPT (32 0/7 to 36 6/7 weeks' gestation) and 1255 infants born at term (37 0/7 to 42 6/7 weeks' gestation). Parent questionnaires were obtained to identify impaired cognitive and language development, behavioral problems, delayed social-emotional competence, autistic features, and clinically significant eating difficulties at 24 months corrected age for 638 (57%) children born LMPT and 765 (62%) children born at term. Latent class analysis revealed 2 profiles of development among the term group: optimal (84%) and a profile of social, emotional, and behavioral impairments termed "nonoptimal" (16%). These 2 profiles were also identified among the LMPT group (optimal: 67%; nonoptimal: 26%). In the LMPT group, a third profile was identified (7%) that was similar to the phenotype previously identified in infants born very preterm. Nonwhite ethnicity, socioeconomic risk, and not receiving breast milk at hospital discharge were risk factors for nonoptimal outcomes in both groups. Male sex, greater gestational age, and pre-eclampsia were only associated with the preterm phenotype. Among children born LMPT with parent-reported cognitive or behavioral impairments, most had problems similar to the profile of difficulties observed in children born at term. A smaller proportion of children born LMPT had impairments consistent with the "very preterm phenotype" which are likely to have arisen through a preterm pathway. These results suggest that prematurity may affect development through several etiologic pathways in the late and moderately preterm population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. [Breast feeding rates and factors influencing breast feeding practice in late preterm infants: comparison with preterm born at less than 34 weeks of gestational age].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Gun Ja; Lee, Sang Lak; Kim, Hyeon Mi

    2012-04-01

    This study was done to compare breast feeding rates and factors influencing feeding practice between late preterm (34 ≤ GA intensive care units (NICU) of 4 university hospitals in D city. Data were collected from July 2009 to June 2010 from 324 medical records in the NICU. Breast-feeding at home was checked either by telephone survey or questioning during hospital visits. Rate of breast feeding for late preterm infants was significantly lower than for preterm infants. There was no significant difference in breast-feeding at home. We found differences in factors influencing breast feeding between the two groups. Factors influencing feeding for late preterm infants were type of delivery, mothers' occupation, feeding type during hospitalization, time elapse from hospital discharge, total admission days, infant's body weight at first feeding and length of NPO (nothing by mouth). Factors influencing feeding for preterm infants were birth order, maternal disease and obstetric complications, and one-minute Apgar score. Results of the study show low rates of breast-feeding for late preterm infants indicating a need for breast-feeding education for mothers of these infants.

  17. Executive Functioning and Learning Skills of Adolescent Children Born at Fewer than 26 Weeks of Gestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooqi, A; Adamsson, M; Serenius, F; Hägglöf, B

    2016-01-01

    To assess the cognitive and behavioral aspects of executive functioning (EF) and learning skills in extremely preterm (EPT) children compared with term control children aged 10 to 15 years. A total of 132 of 134 (98% of all eligible survivors) EPT children born at the 2 Swedish regional tertiary care centers from 1992 to 1998 (mean age = 12 years, mean birth weight = 718 g, and mean gestational age = 24.4 weeks) and 103 matched term controls were assessed. General intelligence was assessed using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-III-R), and cognitive aspects of EF were analyzed using EF-sensitive subscales of the WISC-III-R and Tower test of the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function Scale (D-KEFS). Behaviors related to EF and learning skills were assessed using the Five to Fifteen questionnaire, which is a validated parent and teacher instrument. Academic performance in school was assessed by teachers' responses on Achenbach's Teachers Report Form. Analyses performed included multivariate analyses of covariance (ANCOVA and MANCOVA) and logistic regression analyses. The EPT children displayed significant deficits in cognitive aspects of EF compared with the controls, exhibiting decreases on the order of 0.9 SD to 1.2 SD for tasks of verbal conceptual reasoning, verbal and non-verbal working memory, processing speed and planning ability (P MANCOVA of teacher-reported learning skills in children with FSIQ >70 and without major NSI revealed no interactions, but significant main effects were observed for the behavioral composite executive function score, group status (EPT vs control) and FSIQ, for which all effect sizes were medium to large. The corresponding findings of MANCOVA of the parent-reported learning skills were very similar. According to the teachers' ratings, the EPT children were less well adjusted to the school environment. EPT children born in the 1990s who received active perinatal care are at an increased risk of executive dysfunction, even

  18. [Extremely prematurely born children's and their parents' need for support

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjorn, B.H.; Madsen, B.M.; Munck, H.

    2008-01-01

    . After discharge, index parents had an increased need of support that could not be fulfilled by family/friends. An understanding hereof may be found in the vulnerability of the children and in a psychological understanding of loss and grief. The parents lacked contact and dialogue with other parents...... support from professionals than did reference parents. Differences in family structure or social network did not explain this. Despite this, 28% of index vs. 4% of reference parents felt that they did not receive enough support. CONCLUSION: Index children were more vulnerable than reference children...... and professionals with knowledge of their situation. We therefore need to consider the appropriateness of today's follow-up procedures for prematurely born children and their parents Udgivelsesdato: 2008/10/13...

  19. A comparison of the incidence of undiagnosed congenital heart disease in hospital born and home born children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, J D; Haight, D; Reich, Z S

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the incidence of otherwise undiagnosed congenital heart disease (CHD) in a population of children born in a hospital with routine pulse oximetry (RPO) screening compared to children born at home. We reviewed 15 years of births at 2 hospitals for incidence of undiagnosed CHD with RPO. The Health Department reviewed the same data for out of hospital births. A total of 50,545 hospital births were screened and 1,274 children were born outside the hospital. There were 28 hospital-born babies diagnosed with cyanotic CHD prior to nursery discharge. Only one of these babies would not have been diagnosed without RPO. Three children were missed and there were 3 false positives. Sensitivity and positive predictive value of RPO was 25%, specificity and negative predictive value of RPO exceed 99%. The incidence of CHD requiring RPO diagnosis was roughly one birth per 50,000. Two children born at home with undiagnosed CHD were missed. One of these children presented with neonatal demise. RPO screening is still valuable in diagnosing CHD only diagnosable with RPO. However, the incidence of CHD requiring RPO to diagnose is similar to other congenital diseases which are not mandated national screening tests. In our limited experience a patient is roughly 25 times more likely to have undiagnosed CHD if they are born outside of a hospital.

  20. Long term follow-up of health-related quality of life in young adults born very preterm or with a very low birth weight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verrips, Gijsbert; Brouwer, Leonoor; Vogels, Ton; Taal, Erik; Drossaert, Constance H.C.; Feeny, David; Verheijden, Marieke; Verloove-Vanhorick, Pauline

    2012-01-01

    Background The purpose was, first, to evaluate changes in health-related quality of life (HRQL) in a cohort of very low birth weight (VLBW; <1500 g.) or very preterm (< 32 weeks of gestation) children between ages 14 and 19, and second, to identify correlates of HRQL at age 19. Methods HRQL was

  1. Food-borne bacteremic illnesses in febrile neutropenic children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anselm Chi-wai Lee

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Bacteremia following febrile neutropenia is a serious complication in children with malignancies. Preventive measures are currently targeted at antimicrobial prophylaxis, amelioration of drug-induced neutropenia, and nosocomial spread of pathogens, with little attention to community-acquired infections. A retrospective study was conducted at a pediatric oncology center during a 3-year period to identify probable cases of food-borne infections with bacteremia. Twenty-one bacteremic illnesses affecting 15 children receiving chemotherapy or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation were reviewed. Three (14% episodes were highly suspected of a food-borne origin: a 17-year-old boy with osteosarcoma contracted Sphingomonas paucimobilis septicemia after consuming nasi lemak bought from a street hawker; a 2-year-old boy with acute lymphoblastic leukemia developed Chryseobacterium meningosepticum septicemia after a sushi dinner; a 2-year-old girl was diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukemia and Lactobacillus bacteremia suspected to be of probiotic origin. All of them were neutropenic at the time of the infections and the bacteremias were cleared with antibiotic treatment. Food-borne sepsis may be an important, but readily preventable, cause of bloodstream infections in pediatric oncology patients, especially in tropical countries with an abundance of culinary outlets.

  2. Executive Functioning and Learning Skills of Adolescent Children Born at Fewer than 26 Weeks of Gestation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Farooqi

    Full Text Available To assess the cognitive and behavioral aspects of executive functioning (EF and learning skills in extremely preterm (EPT children compared with term control children aged 10 to 15 years.A total of 132 of 134 (98% of all eligible survivors EPT children born at the 2 Swedish regional tertiary care centers from 1992 to 1998 (mean age = 12 years, mean birth weight = 718 g, and mean gestational age = 24.4 weeks and 103 matched term controls were assessed. General intelligence was assessed using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-III-R, and cognitive aspects of EF were analyzed using EF-sensitive subscales of the WISC-III-R and Tower test of the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function Scale (D-KEFS. Behaviors related to EF and learning skills were assessed using the Five to Fifteen questionnaire, which is a validated parent and teacher instrument. Academic performance in school was assessed by teachers' responses on Achenbach's Teachers Report Form. Analyses performed included multivariate analyses of covariance (ANCOVA and MANCOVA and logistic regression analyses.The EPT children displayed significant deficits in cognitive aspects of EF compared with the controls, exhibiting decreases on the order of 0.9 SD to 1.2 SD for tasks of verbal conceptual reasoning, verbal and non-verbal working memory, processing speed and planning ability (P 70 and without major NSI revealed no interactions, but significant main effects were observed for the behavioral composite executive function score, group status (EPT vs control and FSIQ, for which all effect sizes were medium to large. The corresponding findings of MANCOVA of the parent-reported learning skills were very similar. According to the teachers' ratings, the EPT children were less well adjusted to the school environment.EPT children born in the 1990s who received active perinatal care are at an increased risk of executive dysfunction, even after excluding children with significant

  3. Bone and fat mass in relation to postnatal levels of insulin-like growth factors in prematurely born children at 4 y of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stigson, Lennart; Kistner, Anna; Sigurdsson, Jon; Engström, Eva; Magnusson, Per; Hellström, Ann; Swolin-Eide, Diana

    2014-04-01

    Children born prematurely may be at risk of developing osteopenia. This study investigated whether insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) in the early postnatal period influence bone mass and body composition in prematurely born children. A total of 74 control (gestational age >36 wk; n = 37) and preterm (gestational age Bone mineral density, body composition, and markers of bone and mineral metabolism were investigated in relation to postnatal IGF levels. After adjusting for confounders, we found no differences in bone mass, but significantly less lean mass, increased fat mass, and increased osteocalcin levels in ex-preterm infants. Forward stepwise multiple analysis revealed that higher late postnatal IGF-II levels predict lumbar spine bone mineral content (P bone mineral density and bone mineral content (P fat mass at 4-y follow-up. Ex-preterm children have normal bone mass but different body composition compared with full-term controls. Higher early IGF-I and late postnatal IGF-II concentrations are positive predictors of lumbar spine bone mass.

  4. Regional Cerebral Development at Term Relates to School-Age Social-Emotional Development in Very Preterm Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Cynthia E.; Anderson, Peter J.; Thompson, Deanne K.; Kidokoro, Hiroyuki; Wallendorf, Michael; Treyvaud, Karli; Roberts, Gehan; Doyle, Lex W.; Neil, Jeffrey J.; Inder, Terrie E.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Preterm children are at risk for social-emotional difficulties, including autism and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. We assessed the relationship of regional brain development in preterm children, evaluated via magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at term-equivalent postmenstrual age (TEA), to later social-emotional difficulties.…

  5. Behavioural skills in 7 year old children born post-term

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Annette Wind; Olsen, Jørn; Zhu, Jin Liang

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To study behavioural skills at the age of seven in a Danish population of children born post-term. Design: Cohort study. Setting: The Danish National Birth Cohort; children born from 1997 to 2003. Population: Data was obtained from a cohort of about 100,000 women...... and their children. All singletons born in gestational week 39-45 were identified, and then restricted to children whose mothers filled out a Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (STQ) when they were seven years of age. The study population constituted 33842 singletons (21249 born at term and 12593 born post......-term). Methods: Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios of abnormal SDQ scores adjusted for confounding factors. Main outcome measures: Abnormal SDQ scores. Results: There was no overall difference between abnormal SDQ scores for post-term born children compared to children born at term...

  6. Preschool self regulation predicts later mental health and educational achievement in very preterm and typically developing children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, Lianne J; Lu, Zhigang; Morris, Alyssa R; Healey, Dione M

    2017-02-01

    To examine the extent to which preschool emotional and behavioral regulatory difficulties were associated with an increased risk of later mental health and educational problems. Of particular interest was whether early regulatory abilities contributed to later risk once baseline child behavioral adjustment and cognitive function were taken into account. Data were drawn from a prospective longitudinal study of 223 children born very preterm (VPT; educational achievement were assessed using the Development and Well-being Assessment interview and the Woodcock Johnson-III Tests of Achievement. VPT-born children had poorer emotional and behavioral regulation across all measures and time points. They also had higher rates of DSM-IV mental health disorder and educational delay at age 9. Across both study groups, poorer self regulation was associated with an increased risk of ADHD, conduct disorder, anxiety disorders and any disorder net of preschool child behavior problems and social risk. In contrast, only associations between early regulation and later language and any educational delay remained significant after adjustment for preschool cognitive functioning and family social risk. Early assessment of regulation in addition to behavioral screening may improve the early identification of preschool children at mental health risk.

  7. The predictive validity of neonatal MRI for neurodevelopmental outcome in very preterm children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Peter J; Cheong, Jeanie L Y; Thompson, Deanne K

    2015-03-01

    Very preterm children are at a high risk for neurodevelopmental impairments, but there is variability in the pattern and severity of outcome. Neonatal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) enhances the capacity to detect brain injury and altered brain development and assists in the prediction of high-risk children who warrant surveillance and early intervention. This review describes the application of conventional and advanced MRI with very preterm neonates, specifically focusing on the relationship between neonatal MRI findings and later neurodevelopmental outcome. Research demonstrates that conventional MRI is strongly associated with neurodevelopmental outcome in childhood. Further studies are needed to examine the role of advanced MRI techniques in predicting outcome in very preterm children, but early research findings are promising. In conclusion, neonatal MRI is predictive of later neurodevelopment but is dependent on appropriately trained specialists and should be interpreted in conjunction with other clinical and social information. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The Impact of Special Health Care Needs on Academic Achievement in Children Born Prematurely.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litt, Jonathan S; McCormick, Marie C

    2016-01-01

    Preterm, low-birth-weight (LBW) children are at increased risk for poor academic achievement and special health care needs (SHCN) compared to term-born peers. It is not known how having SHCN during childhood modifies the relationship between LBW and achievement over time. We used data from the Infant Health and Development Program, a multisite randomized trial of an intervention for preterm, LBW infants with longitudinal follow-up. Primary outcome measures were Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Academic Achievement math and reading scores at age 8 and 18 years. Primary predictor was having a SHCN, defined by prescription medication and medical services use, receipt of special therapies, or any functional limitation. We used repeated measures multivariate analysis of covariance to test the effect of SHCN on achievement at 8 and 18 years and effect modification by IQ. The 576 participants had a mean body weight of 1798.1 ± 455.0 g and a median gestational age of 33 weeks (range, 26-37 weeks). Mean achievement scores were as follows: math (age 8) 97.5 ± 21.6, math (age 18) 90.1 ± 18.3, reading (age 8) 99.0 ± 20.1, and reading (age 18) 96.8 ± 23.5. Mean full scale IQ at age 8 was 92.3 ± 18.2. Eighty percent had a SHCN. Mean achievement scores were significantly different between those with and without SHCN in both math and reading. There was no evidence of effect modification by IQ. SHCNs are associated with poor academic achievement. Targeted interventions for improving performance outcomes by reducing the burden of chronic health problems may be accomplished through prevention strategies or efforts to limit the frequency and severity of symptoms. Copyright © 2016 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Community-based screening to detect school readiness problems in very preterm children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajput, Nitin; McKinlay, Chris; Purdie, Gordon; Filipovska, Julia; Battin, Malcolm; Patel, Harshad; Tuohy, Pat

    2017-09-20

    Very preterm (VPT) children (≤32 weeks) have school readiness difficulties across multiple domains, but routine follow-up is often limited. We assessed the performance of VPT children on the Before School Check (B4SC), a community-based screening programme of school readiness at 4 years of age. VPT children discharged from Wellington and Auckland Neonatal Intensive Care Units (2005-2009) were compared to a national control cohort born during the same period. Outcome measures included Parental Evaluation of Developmental Status (PEDS), parent and teacher versions of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ-P and SDQ-T) and vision and hearing screening, and were related to perinatal and demographic characteristics obtained from the Australia and New Zealand Neonatal Network database. Of 1105 VPT children, 920 were matched to the B4SC database, of whom 814 (88%) had one or more B4SC screening outcomes recorded. Compared with controls, VPT children were more likely to have abnormal PEDS (odds ratio (OR) = 1.79, 1.53-2.10), SDQ-P (OR = 1.82, 1.49-2.23), SDQ-T (OR = 1.51, 1.10-2.06), vision (OR = 2.00, 1.54-2.60) and hearing (OR = 1.95, 1.65-2.31) screen outcomes. While VPT children with an abnormal screen were more likely to be referred for further assessment, only 34%, 22%, 94% and 51% with abnormal PEDS, SDQ or vision and hearing screen, respectively, had evidence of appropriate referral. School readiness difficulties were significantly associated with birthweight z-score ≤ -1, vaginal delivery, significant cranial ultrasound abnormalities, younger maternal age, higher deprivation neighbourhood and ventilation ≥72 h. Community-based screening may be useful for identifying VPT children with school readiness difficulties, but low referral rates may limit the effectiveness of such programmes. © 2017 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (The Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  10. Outcomes of intraventricular hemorrhage and posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus in a population-based cohort of very preterm infants born to residents of Nova Scotia from 1993 to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radic, Julia A E; Vincer, Michael; McNeely, P Daniel

    2015-06-01

    OBJECT Intraventicular hemorrhage (IVH) is a common complication of preterm birth, and the prognosis of IVH is incompletely characterized. The objective of this study was to describe the outcomes of IVH in a population-based cohort with minimal selection bias. METHODS All very preterm (≥ 30 completed weeks) patients born in the province of Nova Scotia were included in a comprehensive database. This database was screened for infants born to residents of Nova Scotia from January 1, 1993, to December 31, 2010. Among very preterm infants successfully resuscitated at birth, the numbers of infants who died, were disabled, developed cerebral palsy, developed hydrocephalus, were blind, were deaf, or had cognitive/language scores assessed were analyzed by IVH grade. The relative risk of each outcome was calculated (relative to the risk for infants without IVH). RESULTS Grades 2, 3, and 4 IVH were significantly associated with an increased overall mortality, primarily in the neonatal period, and the risk increased with increasing grade of IVH. Grade 4 IVH was significantly associated with an increased risk of disability (RR 2.00, p < 0.001), and the disability appeared to be primarily due to cerebral palsy (RR 6.07, p < 0.001) and cognitive impairment (difference in mean MDI scores between Grade 4 IVH and no IVH: -19.7, p < 0.001). No infants with Grade 1 or 2 IVH developed hydrocephalus, and hydrocephalus and CSF shunting were not associated with poorer outcomes when controlling for IVH grade. CONCLUSIONS Grades 1 and 2 IVH have much better outcomes than Grades 3 or 4, including a 0% risk of hydrocephalus in the Grade 1 and 2 IVH cohort. Given the low risk of selection bias, the results of this study may be helpful in discussing prognosis with families of very preterm infants diagnosed with IVH.

  11. Neonatal outcome and congenital malformations in children born after ICSI with testicular or epididymal sperm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fedder, J; Loft, A; Parner, Erik Thorlund

    2013-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: Does neonatal outcome including congenital malformations in children born after ICSI with epididymal and testicular sperm [testicular sperm extraction (TESE)/percutaneous epididymal sperm aspiration (PESA)/testicular sperm aspiration (TESA) (TPT)] differ from neonatal outcome...... in children born after ICSI with ejaculated sperm, IVF and natural conception (NC)? SUMMARY ANSWER: Children born after TPT have similar neonatal outcome, including total malformation rates, as have children born after ICSI and IVF with ejaculated sperm. Testing for variance over the four groups may indicate...... groups. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: Population-based cohort study including all Danish children born after TPT and fresh embryo transfer in Denmark from 1995 to 2009. Children born after transfer of frozen-thawed embryos were excluded. Control groups of children conceived by ICSI with ejaculated sperm...

  12. Adult height of preterm infants: a longitudinal cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, E C; Wright, N P; Gibson, A T; Carney, S; Wright, A; Wales, J K

    2017-06-01

    Many infants born prematurely experience growth failure following delivery, with subsequent catch-up growth. Traditionally catch-up was thought to be complete in the first few years of life. Most studies have focused on groups of infants defined by birth weight, for example <1500 g, resulting in disproportionate numbers of small for gestational age infants. This study aimed to determine whether appropriate weight for gestation (AGA) preterm born children reach their expected adult height when compared with term controls. This UK based prospective longitudinal cohort study recruited 204 preterm children born at a tertiary neonatal unit during 1994 and 50 matched controls. Growth parameters have been assessed annually until the completion of growth. There was no significant difference in the final height SD score (SDS) of children born at term (n=30) and those born prematurely and AGA (n=70) (0.45 term vs 0.22 preterm). Catch-up growth however, continued throughout the whole of childhood. When the difference between final height SDS and mid-parental height SDS were compared, there were again no significant differences (0.13 term vs 0.03 preterm). Those born prematurely with an AGA achieve a comparable adult height to children born at term, however, catch-up growth continues for much longer than traditionally thought. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  13. Diagnostic accuracy of early magnetic resonance imaging to determine motor outcomes in infants born preterm: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Joanne M; Pannek, Kerstin; Rose, Stephen E; Ware, Robert S; Colditz, Paul B; Boyd, Roslyn N

    2017-11-29

    To examine the diagnostic ability of early magnetic resonance imaging (MRI; <36wks postmenstrual age) to detect later adverse motor outcomes or cerebral palsy (CP) in infants born preterm. Studies of infants born preterm with MRI earlier than 36 weeks postmenstrual age and quantitative motor data or a diagnosis of CP at or beyond 1 year corrected age were identified. Study details were extracted and meta-analyses performed where possible. Quality of included studies was evaluated with the QUADAS-2 (a revised tool for the quality assessment of diagnostic accuracy studies). Thirty-one articles met the inclusion criteria, five of which reported diagnostic accuracy and five reported data sufficient for calculation of diagnostic accuracy. Early structural MRI global scores detected a later diagnosis of CP with a pooled sensitivity of 100% (95% confidence interval [CI] 86-100) and a specificity of 93% (95% CI 59-100). Global structural MRI scores determined adverse motor outcomes with a pooled sensitivity of 89% (95% CI 44-100) and a specificity of 98% (95% CI 90-100). White matter scores determined adverse motor outcomes with a pooled sensitivity of 33% (95% CI 20-48) and a specificity of 83% (95% CI 78-88). Early structural MRI has reasonable sensitivity and specificity to determine adverse motor outcomes and CP in infants born preterm. Greater reporting of diagnostic accuracy in studies examining relationships with motor outcomes and CP is required to facilitate clinical utility of early MRI. Early magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has reasonable sensitivity and specificity to determine later adverse motor outcomes and cerebral palsy (CP). Detection of infants who progressed to CP was stronger than motor outcomes. Global MRI scores determined adverse motor outcomes more accurately than white matter scores. Few studies report diagnostic accuracy of early MRI findings. Diagnostic accuracy is required to draw clinically meaningful conclusions from early MRI studies.

  14. Ambiguous loss and post-traumatic growth: Experiences of mothers whose school-aged children were born extremely prematurely.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Caroline; Cook, Catherine

    2018-03-01

    To develop insight into the experiences of mothers whose school-aged children were born extremely prematurely. Extreme prematurity, where infants are born at 28 weeks or earlier, has significant initial maternal impact in terms of distress, uncertainty and disruption to maternal identity. However, little is known about the experiences of these mothers beyond their child's infancy. A qualitative study was undertaken using thematic analysis, drawing on a cluster of social constructionist theories that have been applied to studies investigating mothers' early pre-term or childhood disability experiences. The study involved face-to-face interviews with nine mothers whose children were born prior to 28 weeks and were now aged between four-to-six years old. Participants described a prolonged period of anxiety, and relative isolation due to infection fears and complex care regimes. Although they grieved their different mothering trajectory, they celebrated their children's successes and noted their own resilience. The following themes were identified: Traumatic beginnings; dialectics and the horror-miracle contradiction; labour-intensive parenting and managing the multi-disciplinary team; stigma and storying the meaning of premature birth; and impact on relationships. Women's vulnerability and resilience are evident long after the birth of an extremely prematurely born infant. Women value connection with similar mothers, and yet finding community is often daunting due to their children's early complex needs. Generalist healthcare providers may be unaware of the experiences these mothers have endured, and need to enquire about their wellbeing. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  15. Preterm children quality of life evaluation: a qualitative study to approach physicians’ perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Einaudi Marie-Ange

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While data for preterm children health-related quality of life are available, there are little data on the perception of health-related quality of life evaluation by physicians who manage preterm children, or its use in real life and decision making. The aim of this qualitative study is to highlight among physicians, themes of reflection about health-related quality of life in extremely preterm children (less than 28 weeks’ gestation. Methods Focus groups at a French University Hospital with physicians who manage extremely preterm children: obstetricians, intensive care physicians, neonatal physicians and paediatric neurologists. The focus groups allowed the participants to discuss (drawing on their personal experience, three principal topics regarding the health-related quality of life of preterm children: representation, expectations in daily practice and evaluation method. Results We included fourteen participants in the three focus groups. Many themes emerged from the focus groups: approaches for defining health-related quality of life and difficulties of utilization, the role that health-related quality of life should have in the system of care, the problem of standards and evidence-based decision making. Physicians had difficulties with taking positions regarding this concept. There were no differences by gender, age or seniority, but points of view varied by specialty and type of practice. Physicians who had longer specialized care for extremely preterm children were more sensitive to the impact of preterm complications on health-related quality of life. Conclusions This study provides preliminary results about physicians’ perspective on the health-related quality of life of extremely preterm children. The themes emerged from the focus groups are classically described in other domains but not all in so clear a way (definition, interests and limits, ethical reflection. This approach was never developed in the field

  16. Avaliação de alguns aspectos da aquisição e desenvolvimento da linguagem de crianças nascidas pré-termo Evaluation of some aspects of the acquisition and development of language in pre-term born children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Rita Pereira

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available A correção da idade para avaliação motora de nascidos pré-termo tem sido consenso, o que não ocorre em outros domínios do desenvolvimento. Este estudo comparou indicadores da aquisição e desenvolvimento da linguagem, considerando-se as idades cronológica e corrigida. Foram acompanhadas por 1 a 15 meses 20 crianças hígidas nascidas entre 28 e 36 semanas (mediana 32s, com 800g a 2380g (mediana 1590g, sendo 9 adequado para a idade gestacional (AIG e 11 pequenas para a idade gestacional (PIG. A referência de normalidade foi o roteiro de Costa et al. (1992, que contém cinco níveis de linguagem. Quanto aos comportamentos receptivos, já considerando-se a idade cronológica, houve desempenho normal em todos os níveis, exceto no nível I (0-3 meses. Em relação à linguagem expressiva, considerando-se a idade cronológica, das 50 avaliações, 6 (12% foram normais. Com a correção da idade, em 16 avaliações (40% as crianças adequaram-se ao nível esperado, sendo mais freqüente a adequação aos 6 e 12 meses. Considerando-se a idade cronológica, houve maior número de AIG com desempenho normal (pThe correction of the age of pre-term infants for the motor evaluation has been the accepted practice but it has not been clear in other areas. This study compared indicators of the acquisition and development of language, considering corrected and chronological ages. Twenty healthy infants born between the 28th and 36th week of gestation (median 32 weeks, weighing 800g to 2380g (median 1590g, 9 AGA and 11 SGA, were followed up to 15 months age. As a reference for normality, evaluation of Costa et al. (1992 was used, which groups predictable behavior in 5 levels. For receptive language, considering the chronological age, normal performance occurred at all levels except for Level I (0-3 months. For expressive language, considering the chronological age, 6 (12% of the 50 evaluations showed normal performance. With their age corrected, in 16

  17. Reading Performance Correlates with White-Matter Properties in Preterm and Term Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, James S.; Ben-Shachar, Michal; Yeatman, Jason D.; Flom, Lynda L.; Luna, Beatriz; Feldman, Heidi M.

    2010-01-01

    Aim: We used diffusion tensor imaging to investigate the association between white-matter integrity and reading ability in a cohort of 28 children. Nineteen preterm children (14 males, five females; mean age 11y 11mo [SD 1y 10mo], mean gestational age 30.5wks (SD 3.2), mean birthweight was 1455g [SD 625]); and nine term children (five males, four…

  18. Growth and development are similar in VLBW children born appropriate and small for gestational age: an interim report on 97 preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranke, Michael B; Vollmer, Brigitte; Traunecker, Richard; Wollmann, Hartmut A; Goelz, Rangmar R; Seibold-Weiger, Karin; Speer, Christian P; Krägeloh-Mann, Ingeborg

    2007-09-01

    To investigate growth and development in a cohort of children born with very low birth weight (VLBW) treated at a single tertiary neonatal unit. We studied 97 children born between January 1995 and July 1997 with BW height children were short, had a smaller head circumference (-1.9 vs -0.8 SDS), were lighter at birth (BW -1.3 vs -0.7 SDS), and had a higher rate of broncho-pulmonary dysplasia (BPD) (28 vs 12); no differences in neonatal characteristics or neurological status were evident. A higher frequency of motor delay occurred in the 'short' group. Short children also had a smaller head circumference (HC) (-1.6 vs -0.7). Short SGA children had a higher frequency of BPD, smaller HC (-2.1 vs -1.0), and a slightly higher proportion of suspicious neurological findings, motor delay, and speech and language delay (n.s.). Preterm VLBW infants, whether AGA or SGA at birth, face the risk of being short at preschool age. Height outcome is probably influenced by postnatal factors. Our data also suggest that short stature is associated with developmental difficulties in this population.

  19. Improved Cognitive Development in Preterm Infants with Shared Book Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braid, Susan; Bernstein, Jenny

    2015-01-01

    To examine the effect of shared book reading on the cognitive development of children born preterm and to determine what factors influence shared book reading in this population. Secondary analysis using the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort, a large, nationally representative survey of children born in the United States in 2001. One thousand four hundred singleton preterm infants (22-36 weeks gestation). Cognitive development measured using the Bayley Mental Scale score from the Bayley Scales of Infant Development Research Edition. Adjusting for neonatal, maternal, and socioeconomic characteristics, reading aloud more than two times a week is associated with higher cognitive development scores in two-year-old children born preterm (p book reading holds potential as an early developmental intervention for this population.

  20. Cancer in children and young adults born after assisted reproductive technology: a Nordic cohort study from the Committee of Nordic ART and Safety (CoNARTaS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundh, Karin Jerhamre; Henningsen, Anna-Karina A; Källen, Karin; Bergh, Christina; Romundstad, Liv Bente; Gissler, Mika; Pinborg, Anja; Skjaerven, Rolv; Tiitinen, Aila; Vassard, Ditte; Lannering, Birgitta; Wennerholm, Ulla-Britt

    2014-09-01

    Do children and young adults born after assisted reproductive technology (ART) have an increased risk of cancer? Children born after ART showed no overall increase in the rate of cancer when compared with children born as a result of spontaneous conception. Children born after ART have more adverse perinatal outcomes, i.e. preterm births, low birthweights and birth defects. Previous studies have shown divergent results regarding the risk of cancer among children born after ART. A retrospective Nordic population-based cohort study was performed, comprising all children born after ART in Sweden, Denmark, Finland and Norway between 1982 and 2007. The mean (±standard deviation) follow-up time was 9.5 (4.8) years. Children born after ART (n = 91 796) were compared with a control group of children born after spontaneous conception. This control group was almost 4-fold the size of the ART group (n = 358 419) and matched for parity, year of birth and country. Data on perinatal outcomes and cancer were obtained from the National Medical Birth Registries, the Cancer Registries, the Patient Registries and the Cause of Death Registries. The cancer diagnoses were divided into 12 main groups. Hazard ratios (HRs) and adjusted HR were calculated. Adjustments were carried out for country, maternal age, parity, sex, gestational age and birth defects. There was no significant increase in overall cancer rates among children born after ART when compared with children born after spontaneous conception (adjusted HR 1.08; 95% CI 0.91-1.27). Cancer, of any form, was found among 181 children born after ART (2.0/1000 children, 21.0/100 000 person-years) compared with 638 children born after spontaneous conception (1.8/1000 children, 18.8/100 000 person-years). Leukaemia was the most common type of cancer (n = 278, 0.62/1000 children) but no significantly increased incidence was found among children born after ART. An increased risk was observed for 2 of 12 cancer groups. They were central

  1. Genetic polymorphisms and spontaneous preterm birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Catherine S; MacLennan, Alastair H; Dekker, Gustaaf A; Goldwater, Paul N; Dambrosia, James M; Munroe, David J; Tsang, Shirley; Stewart, Claudia; Nelson, Karin B

    2007-02-01

    To examine whether selected genetic polymorphisms in the infant are associated with spontaneous preterm birth (less than 37 weeks) among children with or without later-diagnosed cerebral palsy. Exploratory case-control study investigating the relationship of gestational age at delivery to 31 single nucleotide polymorphisms measured in newborn screening bloodspots. Among all 443 children with later-diagnosed cerebral palsy born to white women in South Australia in 1986-1999, 234 were born after spontaneous onset of labor, and 108 of these were preterm (gestational age less than 37 weeks). The comparison group was 549 infants born after spontaneous onset of labor, of whom 147 were preterm. Distributions of genotypic frequencies were examined in preterm compared with term infants with and without cerebral palsy. Genotyping was performed using a Taqman assay. In children without cerebral palsy, preterm birth after spontaneous onset of labor was more frequent in association with a variant of the beta2 adrenergic receptor gene (ADRB2 Q27E, P=.003), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS or NOS2A, P=.042), or thrombomodulin (G127A, P=.006). Among children with cerebral palsy, preterm birth was associated with polymorphisms in genes for endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS -922, P=.012), plasminogen activator inhibitor-2 (P=.015 and .019), and alpha adducin (ADD1, P=.047). We confirm previous observations that variants of the beta adrenergic receptor and of nitric oxide synthase are associated with prematurity, and suggest that genetic variants of the placental antifibrinolytic plasminogen activator inhibitor-2, and thrombomodulin and alpha adducin may be contributors to risk of spontaneous preterm birth. II.

  2. A Longitudinal Study of Vocabulary Size and Composition in Low Risk Preterm Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Pereira, Miguel; Cruz, Raquel

    2018-01-01

    The vocabulary size and composition of one group of full-term and three groups of low risk preterm children with different gestational ages (GA) were longitudinally compared at 10, 22 and 30 months of age. Expressive vocabulary development was assessed through the CDI. Cognitive development was also assessed at 22 months (Batelle Developmental…

  3. Kinematic characteristics of postural control during reaching in preterm children with cerebral palsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Der Heide, JC; Folk, JM; Otten, Bert; Stremmelaar, E; Hadders-Algra, M

    The relationships between kinematic characteristics of sitting posture during reaching movements of the dominant arm and I) the kinematics of the reaching movement itself and 2) functional performance during daily life activities (PEDI) were assessed in 51 sitting preterm children with cerebral

  4. Screening for autism in preterm children with extremely low and very low birth weight

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dudová, I.; Kašparová, M.; Marková, D.; Zemánková, J.; Beranová, Š.; Urbánek, Tomáš; Hrdlička, M.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 10, Feb (2014), s. 277-282 ISSN 1176-6328 Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : autism spectrum disorder * preterm children * screening Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor: 2.154, year: 2013 http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/NDT.S57057

  5. Visuospatial and visuomotor deficits in preterm children : The involvement of cerebellar dysfunctioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Braeckel, Koenraad N. J. A.; Taylor, H. Gerry

    2013-01-01

    One of the more consistent findings in follow-up studies of preterm children is a deficit in visuospatial and visuomotor skills. Impairment of the dorsal visual stream and basal ganglia damage have been hypothesized to underlie this deficit. However, given recent findings of impaired cerebellar

  6. Attention problems and language development in preterm low-birth-weight children: Cross-lagged relations from 18 to 36 months

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohrer-Baumgartner Nina

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research has highlighted a series of persistent deficits in cognitive ability in preterm low-birth-weight children. Language and attention problems are among these deficits, although the nature of the relation between attention and language in early development is not well known. This study represents a preliminary attempt to shed light on the relations between attention problems and language development in preterm low-birth-weight children. Methods The aim of this study was to analyse reciprocal influences between language and attention problems from 18 to 36 months. We used maternal reports on attention problems and language ability referring to a sample of 1288 premature low-birth-weight infants, collected as part of the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa. A sample of children born full-term was used as the control group (N = 37010. Cross-lagged panel analyses were carried out to study reciprocal influences between attention problems and language. Results Language ability at 18 months did not significantly predict attention problems at 36 months, adjusting for attention problems at 18 months. Attention problems at 18 months significantly predicted changes in language ability from 18 to 36 months, pointing to a precursor role of attention in relation to language in children born preterm. Gender, age corrected for prematurity, and mother's education emerged as important covariates. Conclusions Preliminary evidence was found for a precursor role of early attention problems in relation to language in prematurity. This finding can contribute to a better understanding of the developmental pathways of attention and language and lead to better management of unfavourable outcomes associated with co-morbid attention and language difficulties.

  7. Antenatal glucocorticoid treatment and polymorphisms of the glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid receptors are associated with IQ and behavior in young adults born very preterm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Voorn, Bibian; Wit, Jan M; van der Pal, Sylvia M; Rotteveel, Joost; Finken, Martijn J J

    2015-02-01

    Preterm survivors exhibit neurodevelopmental impairments. Whether this association is influenced by antenatal glucocorticoid treatment and glucocorticoid sensitivity is unknown. This study aimed to study the effects of antenatal glucocorticoid treatment and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) polymorphisms on behavior and intelligence quotient (IQ). This study was part of the 19-year follow-up of the Project On Preterm and Small-for-gestational-age birth cohort. Multicenter study. Three hundred forty-four 19-year-olds born very preterm (gestational age Behavior (Young Adult Self Report and Young Adult Behavior Checklist for parents) and IQ (digital Multicultural Capacity Test-intermediate level). Data were analyzed by linear regression and presented as regression coefficient (95% confidence interval [CI]). Sex ratio, GR (R23K; N363S) and MR (-2G/C; I180V) genotypes were equally distributed between treated and nontreated subjects. Independent of treatment, R23K carriers had improved IQ scores (β 9.3; 95% CI, 3.4 to 15.1) and a tendency toward more favorable total problem behavior scores (β -8.5; 95% CI, -17.3 to 0.2) ; -2G/C CC carriers had poorer IQ scores (β -6.2; 95% CI, -10.5 to -1.9); I180V carriers had more favorable internalizing behavior scores (β -2.0; 95% CI, -3.9 to -0.1). Antenatal glucocorticoid treatment was associated with more unfavorable behavior scores, especially internalizing behavior (β 2.4; 95% CI, 0.3 to 4.5). Interaction between GR and MR polymorphisms and antenatal glucocorticoid treatment was observed, with poorer IQ scores for exposed N363S carriers; poorer intellectual subdomain scores for exposed I180V-carriers; more favorable total problem behavior scores for exposed R23K carriers. Genetic variations in glucocorticoid sensitivity and antenatal glucocorticoid treatment are associated with IQ and behavior in young adult preterm survivors.

  8. Differences in neural activation between preterm and full term born adolescents on a sentence comprehension task: implications for educational accommodations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barde, Laura H F; Yeatman, Jason D; Lee, Eliana S; Glover, Gary; Feldman, Heidi M

    2012-02-15

    Adolescent survivors of preterm birth experience persistent functional problems that negatively impact academic outcomes, even when standardized measures of cognition and language suggest normal ability. In this fMRI study, we compared the neural activation supporting auditory sentence comprehension in two groups of adolescents (ages 9-16 years); sentences varied in length and syntactic difficulty. Preterms (n=18, mean gestational age 28.8 weeks) and full terms (n=14) had scores on verbal IQ, receptive vocabulary, and receptive language tests that were within or above normal limits and similar between groups. In early and late phases of the trial, we found interactions by group and length; in the late phase, we also found a group by syntactic difficulty interaction. Post hoc tests revealed that preterms demonstrated significant activation in the left and right middle frontal gyri as syntactic difficulty increased. ANCOVA showed that the interactions could not be attributed to differences in age, receptive language skill, or reaction time. Results are consistent with the hypothesis that preterm birth modulates brain-behavior relations in sentence comprehension as task demands increase. We suggest preterms' differences in neural processing may indicate a need for educational accommodations, even when formal test scores indicate normal academic achievement. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Adoption, Foreign-Born Status, and Children's Progress in School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Kevin J

    2016-02-01

    Using recent data from the American Community Survey, the author investigated how the dynamics of immigration influence our understanding of the adoption-schooling relationship. The results suggest that implications of immigrant and adoption statuses could be understood within specific familial contexts. Thus, no statistical differences were found in the outcomes of foreign-born adoptees in U.S. native families and their peers with immigrant parents. Instead, the most favorable patterns of schooling progress were found among U.S.-born adoptees living in immigrant families. Among immigrants, the analysis indicated similar patterns of achievement among Hispanic and White adoptees that are inconsistent with the predictions of segmented assimilation theory. However, there was a Hispanic disadvantage relative to Whites among immigrant children living with biological and stepparents. The article concludes with a discussion of the implications of these findings for kinship selection and assimilation processes and the contention that alternative theoretical frameworks should be used to understand the implications of adoption status.

  10. Brain lesions in preterms: origin, consequences and compensation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krageloh-Mann, I; Toft, P; Lunding, J

    1999-01-01

    Twenty-nine high-risk preterm born children, from a cohort with cerebral blood flow (CBF) measurements in the first 2 d of life, were examined prospectively at the age of 5.5-7 y neurologically, neuropsychologically and by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). They were compared to 57 control children...

  11. Kindergarten classroom functioning of extremely preterm/extremely low birth weight children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Taylor; Taylor, H Gerry; Klein, Nancy; Espy, Kimberly A; Anselmo, Marcia G; Minich, Nori; Hack, Maureen

    2014-12-01

    Cognitive, behavioral, and learning problems are evident in extremely preterm/extremely low birth weight (EPT/ELBW, learning progress, and classroom characteristics. EPT/ELBW children require more teacher support and are less able to engage in instructional activities than their NBW classmates. Associations of classroom functioning with developmental history and cognitive and behavioral traits suggest that these factors may be useful in identifying the children most in need of special educational interventions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Academic attainment and special educational needs in extremely preterm children at 11 years of age: the EPICure study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, S; Hennessy, E; Smith, R; Trikic, R; Wolke, D; Marlow, N

    2009-07-01

    To assess academic attainment and special educational needs (SEN) in extremely preterm children in middle childhood. Of 307 extremely preterm (special school. In mainstream schools, 105 (57%) extremely preterm children had SEN (OR 10; 6 to 18) and 103 (55%) required SEN resource provision (OR 10; 6 to 18). Teachers rated 50% of extremely preterm children as having below average attainment compared with 5% of classmates (OR 18; 8 to 41). Extremely preterm children who entered compulsory education an academic year early due to preterm birth had similar academic attainment but required more SEN support (OR 2; 1.0 to 3.6). Extremely preterm survivors remain at high risk for learning impairments and poor academic attainment in middle childhood. A significant proportion require full-time specialist education and over half of those attending mainstream schools require additional health or educational resources to access the national curriculum. The prevalence and impact of SEN are likely to increase as these children approach the transition to secondary school.

  13. Respiratory Phenotypes for Preterm Infants, Children, and Adults: Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia and More.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collaco, Joseph M; McGrath-Morrow, Sharon A

    2018-01-12

    Ongoing advancements in neonatal care since the late 1980's have led to increased numbers of premature infants surviving well beyond the neonatal period. As a result of increased survival, many individuals born preterm manifest chronic respiratory symptoms throughout infancy, childhood and adult life. The archetypical respiratory disease of prematurity, bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), is the second most common chronic pediatric respiratory disease after asthma. However, there are several commonly held misconceptions. These misconceptions include that BPD is rare, that BPD resolves within the first few years of life, and that BPD does not impact respiratory health in adult life. This focused review article describes a spectrum of respiratory conditions that individuals born prematurely may experience throughout their lifespan. Specifically, this review provides quantitative estimates of the number of individuals with alveolar, airway, and vascular phenotypes associated with BPD as well as non-BPD respiratory phenotypes such as airway malacia, obstructive sleep apnea, and control of breathing issues. Furthermore, this review illustrates what is known about the potential for progression and/or lack of resolution of these respiratory phenotypes in childhood and adult life. Recognizing the spectrum of respiratory phenotypes associated with individuals born preterm and providing comprehensive and personalized care to these individuals may help to modulate adverse respiratory outcomes in later life.  .

  14. Premenstrual symptoms in young adults born preterm at very low birth weight - from the Helsinki Study of Very Low Birth Weight Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pesonen Anu-Katriina

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clinically significant premenstrual symptoms are common among young women. Premenstrual syndrome (PMS is characterized by emotional, behavioural and physical symptoms that consistently occur during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. Premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD is a severe form of PMS. Individual variation in stress responsiveness may be involved in the pathophysiology of premenstrual symptoms. Preterm birth at very low birth weight (VLBW, Methods In this cohort study, we compared 75 VLBW women with 95 women born at term (mean age 22.5. We used a standardized retrospective questionnaire assessing the presence and severity of a variety of symptoms before and after menses. The symptom scores were used both as continuous and as dichotomized variables, with cutoffs based on DSM-IV criteria for PMDD and ACOG criteria for PMS, except prospective daily ratings could not be used. We used multiple linear and logistic regression to adjust for confounders. Results There was no difference in the continuous symptom score before menses (mean difference VLBW-term -18.3%, 95% confidence interval -37.9 to 7.5% or after menses. The prevalence of premenstrual symptoms causing severe impairment to daily life was 13.3% for VLBW women and 14.7% for control women. For PMDD, it was 8.0% and 4.2%, and for PMS, 12.0% and 11.6%, respectively. These differences were not statistically significant (p > 0.1. Conclusion Our findings suggest that the severity of premenstrual symptoms and the prevalence of PMDD and PMS among young women born preterm at VLBW is not higher than among those born at term.

  15. The Impact of Early Intervention on the School Readiness of Children Born to Teenage Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Amber L.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effect of participation in the Home Instruction for Parents of Preschool Youngsters program on the school readiness of children born to teenage mothers versus children born to traditional-age mothers participating in the Home Instruction for Parents of Preschool Youngsters program. A 45-item survey was collected from the…

  16. 77 FR 60746 - Proposed Information Collection (Award Attachment for Certain Children With Disabilities Born of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-04

    ... Attachment for Certain Children with Disabilities Born of Vietnam and Certain Korea Service Veterans, VA Form... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Award Attachment for Certain Children With Disabilities Born of Vietnam and Certain Korea Service Veterans) Activity: Comment Request AGENCY: Veterans Benefits...

  17. Are children born through Intra-Cytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI having a lower intelligence quotient?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahbobeh Faramarzi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is still concern about delayed mental development for children born through Intra-Cytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI. In the present study, the intelligence quotient (IQ of ICSI children at the age of 5–6 years was compared with that of the control group of naturally born (NB children. Outcome measure: Full-scale IQ of the mental development in children born through ICSI in 5–6 years. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Fatemehzahra Infertility and Reproductive Health Research Center of Babol – Iran. Participants: 28 live-birth singleton children 5–6 years of the first generation born after ICSI treatment. Methods: The mental development of 28 born through ICSI children at 5–6 years compared with 32 naturally born children as control using intelligence quotient (IQ test obtained from the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence (WPPSI (Iranian version. Results: The mean full-scale IQ was 105.9 ± 14 for ICSI and 107.2 ± 12.9 for NB children which showed no significant difference. The only significant possible predictors of slightly lower full-scale IQ in ICSI children were lower parental education level and longer childcare in day center. Conclusion: Our finding provides some reassurance for parents of children born through ICSI regarding the child’s preschool IQ.

  18. Expressive language skills in Finnish two-year-old extremely- and very-low-birth-weight preterm children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunnari, Sari; Yliherva, Anneli; Paavola, Leila; Peltoniemi, Outi M

    2012-01-01

    Preterm children with low birth weight are at greater risk of experiencing speech and language difficulties than full-term children. The aim of the current study was to investigate expressive language skills of Finnish-speaking preterm children with low birth weight [extremely-low-birth-weight (ELBW) children: n = 8; very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) children: n = 10] at 2 years of corrected age and to compare their language results with full-term controls (n = 18), using spontaneous speech samples. The children were video recorded in semistructured free-play sessions with their mothers. From these video samples, expressive vocabulary size and maximum sentence length (MSL) were analyzed. In addition, the possible effect of children's gender on language measures as well as associations between different language measures were examined. The results showed that there was no statistically significant difference between the preterm and full-term groups in the size of expressive vocabulary. In contrast, the MSL, which measures morphosyntactic skills, was significantly shorter in preterm children. A positive correlation was found between MSL and expressive vocabulary. Children's gender was not associated with language skills measured. The findings indicate that Finnish-speaking preterm children, especially ELBW children, experience difficulties in morphosyntactic skills. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Mortality, neonatal morbidity and two year follow-up of extremely preterm infants born in the netherlands in 2007

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.G. de Waal (Cornelia); N. Weisglas-Kuperus (Nynke); J.B. van Goudoever (Hans); F.J. Walther (Frans)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Extremely preterm infants are at high risk of neonatal mortality and adverse outcome. Survival rates are slowly improving, but increased survival may come at the expense of more handicaps. Methodology/Principal Findings: Prospective population-based cohort study of all

  20. Profiling the preterm or VLBW born adolescent; implications of the Dutch POPS cohort follow-up studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pal-de Bruin, K.M. van der; Pal, S.M. van der; Verloove-Vanhoricka, S.P.; Walther, F.J.

    2015-01-01

    In 1983, data of a unique nationwide cohort of 1338 very preterm (< 32 weeks of gestation) or VLBW (birth weight < 1500 g) infants in the Netherlands was collected and followed at several ages until they reached the age of 19 years. At 19 years of age a more extensive follow-up study was done,

  1. The Effects of the Severity of Periventricular Leukomalacia on the Neuropsychological Outcomes of Preterm Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ja Young; Rha, Dong-wook; Park, Eun Sook

    2016-04-01

    This study investigates the developmental outcomes of preterm children according to severity of periventricular leukomalacia. One hundred preterm children with periventricular leukomalacia evident on brain magnetic resonance imaging and who had undergone neuropsychologic evaluation were selected. Intellectual disability was noted in 27.8% of the children with mild periventricular leukomalacia, 53.2% with moderate periventricular leukomalacia, and 77.1% with severe periventricular leukomalacia. The rates of major neurodevelopmental impairments such as cerebral palsy or intellectual disability were related to the severity of periventricular leukomalacia but not to gestational age or epilepsy. There were significant differences in the intelligence quotient (IQ) and social maturity quotient between 3 groups of periventricular leukomalacia. The performance IQ was significantly lower than the verbal IQ. Behavioral problems were noted in about one-third of the children but the rate was not related with the severity of periventricular leukomalacia. Our study revealed the significant associations between severity of periventricular leukomalacia and cognitive and social adaptive functions in the preterm children. © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. Comparison of three screening tests for autism in preterm children with birth weights less than 1,500 grams

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dudová, I.; Marková, D.; Kašparová, M.; Zemánková, J.; Beranová, Š.; Urbánek, Tomáš; Hrdlička, M.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 11 (2014), s. 2201-2208 ISSN 1176-6328 Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : autism spectrum disorders * preterm children * screening Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor: 2.154, year: 2013

  3. Type 1 diabetes risk in children born to women with fertility problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hargreave, Marie; Kjaer, Susanne K; Jørgensen, Marit E

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: While some studies have indicated that children born following fertility treatment are at an increased risk for insulin resistance and higher blood glucose levels, no study to date has investigated the risk of type 1 diabetes. In this large population-based cohort study we aim...... to assess the association between maternal fertility problems and the risk of type 1 diabetes in children. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Information on all children, born in Denmark from 1987 to 2010, was extracted from the Civil Registration System and linked with the Danish Infertility Cohort to identify maternal......%) were born to women with fertility problems. In all, 313 children born to women with fertility problems (0.36%) and 5176 children born to women without fertility problems (0.28%) were diagnosed with type 1 diabetes. The risk of type 1 diabetes was not affected by maternal fertility status (hazard ratio...

  4. Tick-borne encephalitis in children: an update on epidemiology and diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnez, Maja; Avsic-Zupanc, Tatjana

    2009-12-01

    Tick-borne encephalitis is an infection of the CNS caused by a tick-borne encephalitis virus transmitted by ticks. It is more common in adults than in children. During the last 30 years, the incidence of the disease increased continuously in almost all endemic European countries except Austria. Many factors are responsible for the increased incidence. However, in Austria, the incidence of tick-borne encephalitis decreased dramatically since the introduction of a well-organized vaccination campaign against tick-borne encephalitis. The diagnosis of tick-borne encephalitis is based on clinical criteria and laboratory confirmation of infection. Other tick-borne diseases, such as Lyme borreliosis and human granulocytic anaplasmosis, should be considered in children with tick-borne encephalitis since endemic areas for all three diseases overlap.

  5. Physical Activity Disparities Between US-born and Immigrant Children by Maternal Region of Origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimbro, Rachel Tolbert; Kaul, Bhavika

    2016-04-01

    We examined and compared patterns in physical activity participation for children of US-born and immigrant mothers from seven world geographic regions, and tested whether the physical activity differences were attenuated by socioeconomic status or maternal language proficiency. Using the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten data (N = 18,850) we utilized logistic regression to predict adequate vigorous physical activity and participation in group and individual sports for kindergarten children. US-born children of US-born parents have significantly higher rates of physical activity compared to immigrant children. Children of Mexican, Southeast Asian, and Caribbean immigrants were especially unlikely to participate in sports. These disparities were not significantly attenuated by socioeconomic status, but accounting for language proficiency reduced some differences between the US-born and immigrant children, particularly for group sports participation. Researchers interested in improving the physical activity patterns of second-generation children should consider the relevance of language barriers in promoting healthy living.

  6. Brain Development of Very Preterm and Very Low-Birthweight Children in Childhood and Adolescence: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Kieviet, Jorrit F.; Zoetebier, Lydia; van Elburg, Ruurd M.; Vermeulen, R. Jeroen; Oosterlaan, Jaap

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this article was to clarify the impact and consequences of very preterm birth (born less than 32wks of gestation) and/or very low birthweight ([VLBW], weighing less than 1500g) on brain volume development throughout childhood and adolescence. Method: The computerized databases PubMed, Web of Knowledge, and EMBASE were searched for…

  7. Threatened preterm labor is a risk factor for impaired cognitive development in early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paules, Cristina; Pueyo, Victoria; Martí, Elena; de Vilchez, Susana; Burd, Irina; Calvo, Pilar; Oros, Daniel

    2017-02-01

    Threatened preterm labor is a leading cause of hospital admission during pregnancy. Patients with an episode of threatened preterm labor who deliver at term are considered to have false preterm labor. However, threatened preterm labor has been proposed as a pathologic insult that is not always sufficient to induce irreversible spontaneous preterm birth but that could alter the normal course of pregnancy. The aim of this study was to evaluate threatened preterm labor during pregnancy as a risk factor of neurodevelopmental deficits of children at 2 years of age. Two-year-old children who were born late preterm (n=22) or at term after threatened preterm labor (n=23) were compared with at-term control children (n=42). Neurodevelopment was evaluated at a corrected age of 24-29 months with the use of the Merrill-Palmer-Revised Scales of Development. Children who were born at term after threatened preterm labor had lower scores than control children on global cognitive index (95.4 vs 104.2; P=.011), cognition (95.1 vs 103.1; P=.021), fine motor (95.2 vs 103.4; P=.003), gross motor (84.7 vs 99.8; P=.001), memory (92.9 vs 100.4; P=.015), receptive language (93.9 vs 102.9; P=.03), speed of processing (105.7 vs 113.3; P=.011), and visual motor coordination (98.8 vs 106.7; P=.003) subtests. Children born at term after threatened preterm labor had an increased risk of mild neurodevelopmental delay compared with control children (odds ratio for global cognitive index, 2.06; 95% confidence interval, 1.09-3.88; P=.033). There were no significant differences in any cognitive domain between children who were born late preterm and children who were born at term after threatened preterm labor. Threatened preterm labor is a risk factor for impaired cognitive development at 2 years of age, even if birth occurred at term. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Trends in All-Cause Mortality across Gestational Age in Days for Children Born at Term

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Chunsen; Sun, Yuelian; Nohr, Ellen Aagaard

    2015-01-01

    children born at term in Denmark from 1997 to 2004 to estimate differences in mortality across gestational ages in days among singletons born at term. We studied early-neonatal mortality, neonatal mortality, infant mortality, and five-year mortality. Children were followed from birth up to the last day...... pattern was observed when analyses were restricted to children born to by mothers without pregnancy complications. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates heterogeneity in mortality rates even among singletons born at term. The highest mortality was observed among children born 37 weeks of gestation, which......BACKGROUND: Term birth is a gestational age from 259 days to 293 days. However trends in mortality according to gestational ages in days have not yet been described in this time period. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Based on nation-wide registries, we conducted a population-based cohort study among all...

  9. Maternal intelligence quotient (IQ) predicts IQ and language in very preterm children at age 5 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lean, Rachel E; Paul, Rachel A; Smyser, Christopher D; Rogers, Cynthia E

    2018-02-01

    Sociodemographic factors are linked to cognitive outcomes in children born very preterm (VPT; ≤30 weeks gestation). The influence of maternal intellectual ability, a heritable trait, is unknown. Also undetermined is the extent to which associations between maternal and child intellectual ability vary according to parenting behaviors that target cognitive stimulation in the home. At age 5 years, 84 VPT and 38 demographically matched full-term (FT) children underwent neurodevelopmental assessment. Children's intellectual ability was assessed using The Wechsler Preschool Primary Scale of Intelligence-III, and language was assessed with the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals Preschool-2. The Wechsler Test of Adult Reading estimated maternal intellectual ability. The StimQ-Preschool questionnaire provided a measure of cognitive stimulation in the home. Linear mixed-effects models examined independent effects and interactions between maternal intellectual ability and cognitive stimulation on children's outcomes. After covariate adjustment, maternal intellectual ability was associated with child intellectual (p language (p = .002) abilities. Stronger associations were observed in FT mother-child dyads (B = .63, p = .04) than VPT dyads (B = .42, p = .01). Mothers of VPT children reported lower levels of Parental Involvement in Developmental Advance (p = .007) and Parental Verbal Responsiveness (p = .04). Group differences in Parental Involvement in Developmental Advance, but not Parental Verbal Responsivity, persisted after adjusting for social background (p = .03). There was no evidence of an interaction between maternal intellectual ability and Parental Involvement in Developmental Advance (p = .34). Instead, maternal intellectual ability (p language outcomes. Prematurity increases variation in the heritability of intellectual ability and shifts children from the expected range based on maternal ability. Parental involvement in

  10. Maturation of Corpus Callosum Anterior Midbody Is Associated with Neonatal Motor Function in Eight Preterm-Born Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Preethi; Pannek, Kerstin; D'Acunto, M. Giulia; Guzzetta, Andrea; Rose, Stephen E.; Colditz, Paul B.; Finnigan, Simon

    2013-01-01

    Background. The etiology of motor impairments in preterm infants is multifactorial and incompletely understood. Whether corpus callosum development is related to impaired motor function is unclear. Potential associations between motor-related measures and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) of the corpus callosum in preterm infants were explored. Methods. Eight very preterm infants (gestational age of 28–32 weeks) underwent the Hammersmith neonatal neurological examination and DTI assessments at gestational age of 42 weeks. The total Hammersmith score and a motor-specific score (sum of Hammersmith motor subcategories) were calculated. Six corpus callosum regions of interest were defined on the mid-sagittal DTI slice—genu, rostral body, anterior midbody, posterior midbody, isthmus, and splenium. The fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) of these regions were computed, and correlations between these and Hammersmith measures were sought. Results. Anterior midbody FA measures correlated positively with total Hammersmith (rho = 0.929, P = 0.001) and motor-specific scores (rho = 0.857, P = 0.007). Total Hammersmith scores also negatively correlated with anterior midbody MD measures (rho = −0.714, P = 0.047). Discussion. These results suggest the integrity of corpus callosum axons, particularly anterior midbody axons, is important in mediating neurological functions. Greater callosal maturation was associated with greater motor function. Corpus callosum DTI may prove to be a valuable screening or prognostic marker. PMID:23509639

  11. Maturation of Corpus Callosum Anterior Midbody Is Associated with Neonatal Motor Function in Eight Preterm-Born Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preethi Mathew

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The etiology of motor impairments in preterm infants is multifactorial and incompletely understood. Whether corpus callosum development is related to impaired motor function is unclear. Potential associations between motor-related measures and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI of the corpus callosum in preterm infants were explored. Methods. Eight very preterm infants (gestational age of 28–32 weeks underwent the Hammersmith neonatal neurological examination and DTI assessments at gestational age of 42 weeks. The total Hammersmith score and a motor-specific score (sum of Hammersmith motor subcategories were calculated. Six corpus callosum regions of interest were defined on the mid-sagittal DTI slice—genu, rostral body, anterior midbody, posterior midbody, isthmus, and splenium. The fractional anisotropy (FA and mean diffusivity (MD of these regions were computed, and correlations between these and Hammersmith measures were sought. Results. Anterior midbody FA measures correlated positively with total Hammersmith (rho =0.929, P=0.001 and motor-specific scores (rho =0.857, P=0.007. Total Hammersmith scores also negatively correlated with anterior midbody MD measures (rho =−0.714, P=0.047. Discussion. These results suggest the integrity of corpus callosum axons, particularly anterior midbody axons, is important in mediating neurological functions. Greater callosal maturation was associated with greater motor function. Corpus callosum DTI may prove to be a valuable screening or prognostic marker.

  12. Cognitive status, language attainment, and prereading skills of 6-year-old very preterm children and their peers: the Bavarian Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolke, D; Meyer, R

    1999-02-01

    The prevalence of intellectual-, language-, and prereading-skill deficits was investigated in a geographically defined whole-population sample of very preterm children at 6 years of age in southern Germany. The sample consisted of the following: 264 very preterm children (75.6% of German-speaking survivors); 264 term controls (matched for sex, socioeconomic status [SES], marital status and age of mother); and a representative normative sample for Bavaria (N=311). Compared with term peers, very preterm children scored significantly lower (approximately -1SD) on the measures of cognitive and language skills and had major cognitive deficits (skills (preterm children. More than 18% of very preterm children had cognitive deficits in more than five areas of functioning, compared with no control children. The differences between very preterm children and controls remained highly significant when only very preterm children (N= 229) and controls (N= 261) without major neurosensory impairment were considered. Little evidence for specific cognitive deficits was found once mental processing measured in the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children (K-ABC) was controlled for. The effect of preterm birth on cognitive abilities was found to be larger than the influence of SES. In conclusion, there was a high prevalence of long-term multiple cognitive problems in very preterm children. These persistent cognitive problems appear to be of pre- or neonatal (treatment) rather than postnatal social origin.

  13. Health related quality of life after extremely preterm birth: a matched controlled cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eide Geir E

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The majority of infants born before the last trimester now grow up. However, knowledge on subsequent health related quality of life (HRQoL is scarce. We therefore aimed to compare HRQoL in children born extremely preterm with control children born at term. Furthermore, we assessed HRQoL in relation to perinatal and neonatal morbidity and to current clinical and sociodemographic characteristics. Method The Child Health Questionnaire (CHQ-PF50 and a general questionnaire were applied in a population based cohort of 10 year old children born at gestational age ≤ 28 weeks or with birth weight ≤ 1000 grams in Western Norway in 1991-92 and in term-born controls, individually matched for gender and time of birth. The McNemar test and paired t-tests were used to explore group differences between preterms and matched controls. Paired regression models and analyses of interaction (SPSS mixed linear model were used to explore potential effects of sociodemographic and clinical characteristics on HRQoL in the two groups. Results All 35 eligible preterm children participated. None had major impairments. Learning and/or attention problems were present in 71% of preterms and 20% of controls (odds ratio (OR: 7.0; 95% confidence interval (CI: 2.2 to 27.6. Insufficient professional support was described by 36% of preterm vs. 3% of control parents (OR: infinite; CI: 2.7 to infinite. Preterms scored lower on eight CHQ-PF50 sub-scales and the two summary scores, boys accounting for most of the deficits in areas of behavior, psychosocial functioning and parental burden. HRQoL was associated with learning and/or attention problems in both preterm and control children, significantly more so in preterms in areas related to health and parental burden. Within the preterm group, HRQoL was mostly unrelated to perinatal and neonatal morbidity. Conclusions HRQoL for children born extremely preterm, and particularly for boys, was described by parents to

  14. Health related quality of life after extremely preterm birth: a matched controlled cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vederhus, Bente J; Markestad, Trond; Eide, Geir E; Graue, Marit; Halvorsen, Thomas

    2010-05-23

    The majority of infants born before the last trimester now grow up. However, knowledge on subsequent health related quality of life (HRQoL) is scarce. We therefore aimed to compare HRQoL in children born extremely preterm with control children born at term. Furthermore, we assessed HRQoL in relation to perinatal and neonatal morbidity and to current clinical and sociodemographic characteristics. The Child Health Questionnaire (CHQ-PF50) and a general questionnaire were applied in a population based cohort of 10 year old children born at gestational age < or = 28 weeks or with birth weight < or = 1000 grams in Western Norway in 1991-92 and in term-born controls, individually matched for gender and time of birth. The McNemar test and paired t-tests were used to explore group differences between preterms and matched controls. Paired regression models and analyses of interaction (SPSS mixed linear model) were used to explore potential effects of sociodemographic and clinical characteristics on HRQoL in the two groups. All 35 eligible preterm children participated. None had major impairments. Learning and/or attention problems were present in 71% of preterms and 20% of controls (odds ratio (OR): 7.0; 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.2 to 27.6). Insufficient professional support was described by 36% of preterm vs. 3% of control parents (OR: infinite; CI: 2.7 to infinite). Preterms scored lower on eight CHQ-PF50 sub-scales and the two summary scores, boys accounting for most of the deficits in areas of behavior, psychosocial functioning and parental burden. HRQoL was associated with learning and/or attention problems in both preterm and control children, significantly more so in preterms in areas related to health and parental burden. Within the preterm group, HRQoL was mostly unrelated to perinatal and neonatal morbidity. HRQoL for children born extremely preterm, and particularly for boys, was described by parents to be inferior to that of children born at term, and

  15. Effects of glutamine on brain development in very preterm children at school age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Kieviet, Jorrit F; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Vermeulen, R Jeroen; Pouwels, Petra J W; Lafeber, Harrie N; van Elburg, Ruurd M

    2012-11-01

    The amino acid glutamine has been shown to reduce the number of serious neonatal infections in very preterm children, which may benefit long-term brain development. The aims of the current follow-up study were to (1) determine the long-term effects of glutamine-enriched feeding in the first month after birth in very preterm children on measures of brain development at school age, and (2) elucidate a potential mediating role of serious neonatal infections. Fifty-two very preterm children who originally took part in a randomized controlled trial on enteral glutamine supplementation between day 3 and 30 after birth participated at a mean (SD) age of 8.6 (0.3) years. Measures of brain development included volumetric outcomes of major brain structures, as well as fractional anisotropy (FA) values of major white matter tracts. Glutamine supplementation in the first month was associated with medium-sized increases in white matter (d = 0.54, P = .03), hippocampus (d = 0.47, P = .02), and brain stem (d = 0.54, P = .04) volumes at school age. Exploratory analyses using an uncorrected P value indicated higher FA values of the bilateral cingulum hippocampal tract in the glutamine group. All differences were either strongly associated (hippocampus volume, brain stem volume, and FA values of cingulum hippocampal tract) or completely mediated (white matter volume) by the lower number of serious neonatal infections in the glutamine group. Short-term glutamine supplementation after birth increases white matter, hippocampus, and brain stem volumes in very preterm children at school age, mediated by a decrease in serious neonatal infections.

  16. Using fMRI to Investigate Memory in Young Children Born Small for Gestational Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bie, Henrica M A; de Ruiter, Michiel B; Ouwendijk, Mieke; Oostrom, Kim J; Wilke, Marko; Boersma, Maria; Veltman, Dick J; Delemarre-van de Waal, Henriette A

    2015-01-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) can lead to infants being born small for gestational age (SGA). SGA is associated with differences in brain anatomy and impaired cognition. We investigated learning and memory in children born SGA using neuropsychological testing and functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI). 18 children born appropriate for gestational age (AGA) and 34 SGA born children (18 with and 16 without postnatal catch-up growth) participated in this study. All children were between 4 and 7 years old. Cognitive functioning was assessed by IQ and memory testing (Digit/Word Span and Location Learning). A newly developed fMRI picture encoding task was completed by all children in order to assess brain regions involved in memory processes. Neuropsychological testing demonstrated that SGA children had IQ's within the normal range but lower than in AGA and poorer performances across measures of memory. Using fMRI, we observed memory related activity in posterior parahippocampal gyrus as well as the hippocampus proper. Additionally, activation was seen bilaterally in the prefrontal gyrus. Children born SGA showed less activation in the left parahippocampal region compared to AGA. This is the first fMRI study demonstrating different brain activation patterns in 4-7 year old children born SGA, suggesting that intrauterine growth restriction continues to affect neural functioning in children later-on.

  17. Ophthalmological examination and VEPs in preterm children with perinatal CNS involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuba, Miroslav; Liláková, Dana; Hejcmanová, Dagmar; Kremlácek, Jan; Langrová, Jana; Kubová, Zuzana

    2008-09-01

    Five children with a history of preterm birth (mean gestational age of 27 weeks; birth weight 870-1,380 g) and perinatal post-hemorrhagic hydrocephalus were examined ophthalmologically at ages ranging from 4-11 years. An extended visual evoked potentials (VEPs) examination was simultaneously performed, using pattern-reversal, motion-onset, and cognitive visual stimuli. Although 3 of the 10 eyes displayed about normal visual acuity (> or =0.9), all of the examined eyes were abnormal for at least one variant of the tested VEPs. Pathological changes in VEPs (missing responses, shape abnormalities due to delayed VEPs maturation, prolonged peak latencies, and reduced amplitudes) were roughly proportional to both gestational age and reduction in visual acuity. A more severe pathology was found in the motion-onset VEPs (in all five subjects - nine eyes) when compared to the pattern-reversal VEPs (in four subjects - eight eyes). These observations suggest that the magnocellular system/dorsal stream of the visual pathway (which is particularly activated in response to motion stimuli) may be more frequently affected in preterm children than the parvocellular system/ventral stream (tested mostly by the standard pattern-reversal VEPs). This pilot study may encourage further testing of the combined pattern and motion-related VEPs examinations in preterm children as a way of detecting hidden cortical/cerebral visual impairment (CVI).

  18. Early term and late preterm birth are associated with poorer school performance at age 5 years: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quigley, Maria A; Poulsen, Gry; Boyle, Elaine; Wolke, Dieter; Field, David; Alfirevic, Zarko; Kurinczuk, Jennifer J

    2012-05-01

    To compare school performance at age 5 years in children born at full term (39-41 weeks gestation) with those born at early term (37-38 weeks gestation), late preterm (34-36 weeks gestation), moderately preterm (32-33 weeks gestation) and very preterm (term children had not reached a good level of overall achievement; this proportion increased with prematurity (55% in early term, 59% in late preterm, 63% in moderately preterm and 66% in very preterm children). Compared with full term children, an elevated risk remained after adjustment, even in early term (adjusted RR 1.05, 95% 1.00 to 1.11) and late preterm children (adjusted RR 1.12, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.22). Similar effects were noted for 'not working securely' in mathematical development, physical development and creative development. The effects of late preterm and early term birth were small in comparison with other risk factors. Late preterm and early term birth are associated with an increased risk of poorer educational achievement at age 5 years.

  19. Cancer in children and young adults born after assisted reproductive technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundh, Karin Jerhamre; Henningsen, Anna-Karina A; Källen, Karin

    2014-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: Do children and young adults born after assisted reproductive technology (ART) have an increased risk of cancer? SUMMARY ANSWER: Children born after ART showed no overall increase in the rate of cancer when compared with children born as a result of spontaneous conception. WHAT...... with ART. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTERESTS: No conflict of interest was reported. The study was supported by grants from The European Society for Human Reproduction and Embryology (ESHRE), Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden, the University of Copenhagen, Denmark, the Danish Agency...

  20. Season of birth in Danish children with language disorder born in the 1958-1976 period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauschild, Karen-Marie; Mouridsen, Svend Erik; Nielsen, Søren

    2005-01-01

    Two preliminary studies have indicated a variation in season of birth in severely language-disordered children. In the current study, the season of birth in 472 Danish children with language disorder born between 1958 and 1976 was compared with the season of birth of all Danish live-born children...... in the same period. For some part of the period (1964-1969), an excess of boys born in November was found. Particular attention was given to the inconsistent findings also found in language-related disorders like infantile autism and dyslexia and the choice of statistical method to determine seasonality....

  1. Comparison of vaccination status of children born i

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    Background: The Expanded Programme of Immunisation schedule starts at birth, yet a significant number of child births in Uganda occur at home, where there are no vaccines. A child born at home may therefore have less chances of being vaccinated than a child born in a health unit. Objectives: To investigate vaccination ...

  2. Using fMRI to Investigate Memory in Young Children Born Small for Gestational Age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bie, H.M.A.; de Ruiter, M.B.; Ouwendijk, M.; Oostrom, K.J.; Wilke, M.; Boersma, M.; Veltman, D.J.; Delemarre-van de Waal, H.A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) can lead to infants being born small for gestational age (SGA). SGA is associated with differences in brain anatomy and impaired cognition. We investigated learning and memory in children born SGA using neuropsychological testing and functional

  3. Very preterm birth influences parental mental health and family outcomes seven years after birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treyvaud, Karli; Lee, Katherine J; Doyle, Lex W; Anderson, Peter J

    2014-03-01

    To evaluate the long-term influence of very preterm birth on parental mental health, family functioning, and parenting stress at age 2 and 7 years. Participants were 183 children born very preterm (parents were assessed based on the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the Family Assessment Device, the Parenting Stress Index, and the Social Support Questionnaire. Similar measures were evaluated at age 2 years. When the children were age 7 years, parents of the very preterm-born children were more likely to report moderate to severe anxiety symptoms (P = .03), higher levels of depression symptoms (P = .03), poorer family functioning (P parenting stress (P parents of the children born at term. Group differences in parenting stress and family functioning persisted after adjustment for social risk and child neurodevelopmental disability. There was strong evidence of a relationship between family functioning and parent-related stress at age 2 and 7 years (P parental mental health problems at 2 years were predictive of anxiety (P = .15) or depression (P = .28) at 7 years for parents of very preterm children. These findings demonstrate that very preterm birth has a negative influence on parent and family functioning at 7 years after birth, which for some families is consistent with their functioning at 2 years. These results have implications for the support required by parents of very preterm children. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Motor trajectories from birth to 5 years of children born at less than 30 weeks' gestation: early predictors and functional implications. Protocol for a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spittle, Alicia J; McGinley, Jennifer L; Thompson, Deanne; Clark, Ross; FitzGerald, Tara L; Mentiplay, Benjamin F; Lee, Katherine J; Olsen, Joy E; Burnett, Alice; Treyvaud, Karli; Josev, Elisha; Alexander, Bonnie; Kelly, Claire E; Doyle, Lex W; Anderson, Peter J; Cheong, Jeanie Ly

    2016-10-01

    Motor impairments are one of the most frequently reported adverse neurodevelopmental consequences in children born compare the prevalence of motor impairment from birth to 5 years of age between children born at structural or functional biomarkers that can predict motor impairments at 5 years are detectable in the neonatal period; 2) to investigate the association between motor impairments and concurrent deficits in body structure and function at 5 years of age; and 3) to explore how motor impairments at 5 years (including abnormalities of gait, postural control and strength) are associated with concurrent functional outcomes, including physical activity, cognitive ability, learning ability, and behavioural and emotional problems. Prospective longitudinal cohort study. 150 preterm children (born at 36 completed weeks' gestation and weighing > 2499g) admitted to the Royal Women's Hospital, Melbourne, were recruited at birth and will be invited to participate in a 5-year follow-up study. This study will examine previously collected data (from birth to 2 years) that comprise detailed motor assessments, and structural and functional brain MRI images. At 5 years, preterm and term, children will be examined using comprehensive motor assessments, including: the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (2nd edition) and measures of gait function through spatiotemporal (assessed with the GAITRite® Walkway) and dynamic postural control (assessed with Microsoft Kinect) variables; and hand grip strength (assessed with a dynamometer); and measures of physical activity (assessed using accelerometry), cognitive development (assessed with Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence), and emotional and behavioural status (assessed with the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire and the Developmental and Wellbeing Assessment). At the 5-year assessment, parents/caregivers will be asked to complete questionnaires on demographics, physical activity, activities of daily

  5. Trends in All-Cause Mortality across Gestational Age in Days for Children Born at Term

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chun Sen; Sun, Yuelian; Nohr, Ellen Aagaard; Olsen, Jørn

    2015-01-01

    Background Term birth is a gestational age from 259 days to 293 days. However trends in mortality according to gestational ages in days have not yet been described in this time period. Methods and Findings Based on nation-wide registries, we conducted a population-based cohort study among all children born at term in Denmark from 1997 to 2004 to estimate differences in mortality across gestational ages in days among singletons born at term. We studied early-neonatal mortality, neonatal mortality, infant mortality, and five-year mortality. Children were followed from birth up to the last day of the defined mortality period or December 31, 2009. A total of 360,375 singletons born between 259 and 293 days of gestation were included in the study. Mortality decreased with increasing gestational age in days and the highest mortality was observed among children born at 37 week of gestation. A similar pattern was observed when analyses were restricted to children born to by mothers without pregnancy complications. Conclusions This study demonstrates heterogeneity in mortality rates even among singletons born at term. The highest mortality was observed among children born 37 weeks of gestation, which call for cautions when inducing labor in term pregnancies just reaching 37 weeks of gestation. The findings support that 37 weeks of gestation should be defined as early term. PMID:26656842

  6. Trends in All-Cause Mortality across Gestational Age in Days for Children Born at Term.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun Sen Wu

    Full Text Available Term birth is a gestational age from 259 days to 293 days. However trends in mortality according to gestational ages in days have not yet been described in this time period.Based on nation-wide registries, we conducted a population-based cohort study among all children born at term in Denmark from 1997 to 2004 to estimate differences in mortality across gestational ages in days among singletons born at term. We studied early-neonatal mortality, neonatal mortality, infant mortality, and five-year mortality. Children were followed from birth up to the last day of the defined mortality period or December 31, 2009. A total of 360,375 singletons born between 259 and 293 days of gestation were included in the study. Mortality decreased with increasing gestational age in days and the highest mortality was observed among children born at 37 week of gestation. A similar pattern was observed when analyses were restricted to children born to by mothers without pregnancy complications.This study demonstrates heterogeneity in mortality rates even among singletons born at term. The highest mortality was observed among children born 37 weeks of gestation, which call for cautions when inducing labor in term pregnancies just reaching 37 weeks of gestation. The findings support that 37 weeks of gestation should be defined as early term.

  7. Follow-up of children born after ICSI with epididymal spermatozoa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woldringh, G.H.; Horvers, M.; Janssen, A.J.W.M.; Reuser, J.J.C.M.; Groot, S.A. de; Steiner, K.; Hauwers, K.W.M. d'; Wetzels, A.M.M.; Kremer, J.A.M.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To evaluate the safety of ICSI with epididymal sperm, this study compared children born after ICSI treatment with epididymal sperm and children conceived after IVF and ICSI with ejaculated sperm. Additionally, the results of a multidisciplinary, multicentre follow-up of the children

  8. Preterm Birth and Leisure Participation: A Synthesis of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahan-Oliel, Noemi; Mazer, Barbara; Majnemer, Annette

    2012-01-01

    Leisure participation has been associated with happiness and well-being in children. Individuals born preterm are at greater risk for motor, cognitive and behavioral difficulties which may contribute to difficulties participating in leisure activities. This systematic review examined the current knowledge on participation in leisure activities in…

  9. Using fMRI to Investigate Memory in Young Children Born Small for Gestational Age

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    de Bie, Henrica M. A; de Ruiter, Michiel B; Ouwendijk, Mieke; Oostrom, Kim J; Wilke, Marko; Boersma, Maria; Veltman, Dick J; Delemarre-van de Waal, Henriette A

    2015-01-01

    ...). SGA is associated with differences in brain anatomy and impaired cognition. We investigated learning and memory in children born SGA using neuropsychological testing and functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI...

  10. Cognitive and social development in preschool children born to women using substances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Irner, Tina Birk; Teasdale, Thomas William; Olofsson, May

    2012-01-01

    Prenatal substance exposure is associated with physical birth defects and increased risk of regulatory and neuropsychological difficulties of children born to mothers using substances while pregnant. Myriad factors, such as maternal psychopathology, stress, and poor living circumstances, may infl...

  11. CURRENT STATE OF TICK-BORNE BORRELIOSIS (LYME DISEASE) IN CHILDREN

    OpenAIRE

    N. N. Zvereva; K. Shakaryan; R. F. Sayfullin; A. L. Rossina; Yu. Rtishchev; Kh. Belyaletdinovа

    2017-01-01

    Literature review describes the problem of Tick-borne Borreliosis (Lyme Disease). The review analyzes modern date on etiology, epidemiology,  clinical course, treatment and prognosis of disease in children. The modern capabilities of diagnosis are discussed.

  12. Post-term growth and cognitive development at 5 years of age in preterm children: Evidence from a prospective population-based cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Laure; Nusinovici, Simon; Flamant, Cyril; Cariou, Bertrand; Rouger, Valérie; Gascoin, Géraldine; Darmaun, Dominique; Rozé, Jean-Christophe; Hanf, Matthieu

    2017-01-01

    While the effects of growth from birth to expected term on the subsequent development of preterm children has attracted plentiful attention, less is known about the effects of post-term growth. We aimed to delineate distinct patterns of post-term growth and to determine their association with the cognitive development of preterm children. Data from a prospective population-based cohort of 3,850 surviving infants born at less than 35 weeks of gestational age were used. Growth was assessed as the Body Mass Index (BMI) Z-scores at 3, 9, 18, 24, 36, 48, and 60 months. Cognitive development at five years of age was evaluated by the Global School Adaptation score (GSA). Latent class analysis was implemented to identify distinct growth patterns and logistic regressions based on propensity matching were used to evaluate the relationship between identified growth trajectories and cognitive development. Four patterns of post-term growth were identified: a normal group with a Z-score consistently around zero during childhood (n = 2,469; 64%); a group with an early rapid rise in the BMI Z-score, but only up to 2 years of age (n = 195; 5%); a group with a slow yet steady rise in the BMI Z-score during childhood (n = 510; 13%); and a group with a negative Z-score growth until 3 years of age (n = 676; 18%). The group with a slow yet steady rise in the BMI Z-score was significantly associated with low GSA scores. Our findings indicate heterogeneous post-term growth of preterm children, with potential for association with their cognitive development.

  13. Risk of Allergic Conditions in Children Born to Women with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couture, Julie; Ben-Shoshan, Moshe; Pineau, Christian A; Scott, Susan; Clarke, Ann E; Bernatsky, Sasha; Vinet, Evelyne

    2017-04-06

    Limited evidence suggests a potentially increased risk of allergic conditions in offspring born to women with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). In a large population-based study, we aimed to determine if children born to SLE mothers have an increased risk of allergic conditions compared to children born to mothers without SLE. Using the "Offspring of SLE mothers Registry (OSLER)", we identified children born live to SLE mothers and their matched controls, and ascertained allergic conditions (including asthma, allergic rhinitis, eczema, urticaria, angioedema, and anaphylaxis) based on ≥1 hospitalization or ≥1 or 2 physician(s) visit(s) with a relevant diagnostic code. We adjusted for maternal age, education, race/ethnicity, obstetrical complications, calendar year of birth, sex of the child, and maternal medication. 509 women with SLE had 719 children, while 5824 matched controls had 8493 children. Mean follow-up was 9.1 (SD 5.8) years. As opposed to controls, more children born to mothers with SLE had evidence of allergic conditions [43.9% (95% CI 40.4, 47.6) versus 38.1% (95% CI 37.0, 39.1]. In multivariate analysis (n=9212), children born to SLE mothers had an increased risk of allergic conditions versus control children (OR 1.35, 95% CI 1.13, 1.61). Compared to children from the general population, children born to women with SLE may have an increased risk of allergic conditions. Genetics, shared environmental exposures, as well as in utero exposure to maternal autoantibodies and cytokines may mediate this increased risk. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2017, American College of Rheumatology.

  14. Adipokines in umbilical cord blood from children born large for gestational age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lausten-Thomsen, Ulrik; Christiansen, Michael; Hedley, Paula Louise

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The etiology of childhood obesity and the associated morbidity is multifactorial. Recently, data suggesting a prenatal programming towards later childhood obesity and metabolic deregulation through the intrauterine environment has emerged. This study explored the concentrations...... of adipokines and their mutual relationship at birth in children born to non-diabetic mothers. METHODS: Adiponectin, leptin and sOB-R were measured using ELISA-based commercial kits in umbilical cord blood from 60 neonates (30 born large for gestational age [LGA] and 30 born appropriate for gestational age [AGA......]). Children exposed to maternal diabetes, chronic disease and preeclampsia were excluded. RESULTS: The LGA group exhibited significantly elevated concentrations of leptin (p

  15. A comparative study of south Indian children with Tamil children born in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malenfant, Chantal

    2009-11-01

    A comparative database with Tamil children [( 0 to 6 yr old, south Indian (n=13) and Sri Lanka (n=69)] born in France (Paris and its suburbs, first generation) and those living in south India [(Tamil Nadu (n=43) and Kerala (n=66)] was created with the ultimate purpose of preventing deficiencies in children's health. Two main methods were used for collection of socio-demographic data as parents and body mass index of children. In France, Tamil boys (n=42) and girls (n=40) had almost the same percentage for obesity (about 5%), adiposity rebound was more for girls (7%) than for boys (2%). But thinness (between the 3(rd) and 10(th) percentile) was more in boys (22%) and girls (24%). In India (boys n=48, girls n=61), obesity was more in girls than those born in France; as also adiposity rebound, and underweight was noticed in a third of both girls and boys. In France, cultural impact of immigration is very important and can explain the stress of immigrant families. This may account for the thinness of the children.

  16. Psychiatric disorders and MND in non-handicapped preterm children - Prevalence and stability from school age into adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoihorst, P. F.; Swaab-Barneveld, H.; van Engeland, H.

    2007-01-01

    In preterm children (N = 66) without major physical and/or mental handicaps the prevalence of psychiatric disorders and minor neurological dysfunction (MND) was assessed at school age (8-10 years). In adolescence (15-17 years) 43 children were reassessed. The study sample was drawn from a cohort of

  17. Processing speed mediates executive function difficulties in very preterm children in middle childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulder, Hanna; Pitchford, Nicola J; Marlow, Neil

    2011-05-01

    Executive function and attention difficulties are reported in very preterm (VPT) children at school entry, but it is unclear if these remain at later ages and/or if these difficulties are mediated by more basic functions, such as processing speed. Processing speed has been shown to underlie academic and behavioral problems in VPT children in middle childhood (Mulder, Pitchford, & Marlow, 2010, 2011), so may also underpin executive function and attention difficulties. We investigated this by comparing VPT (gestational age Korkman, Kirk, & Kemp, 1998). Selective and sustained attention, inhibition, working memory, shifting, verbal fluency, planning, and processing speed were examined. Group differences favoring term children were shown on most executive function tasks (i.e., inhibition, working memory, verbal fluency, and shifting), all of which were mediated by slow processing speed in the VPT group, except response inhibition. Seemingly, processing speed is an important determinant underpinning many neuropsychological deficits seen in VPT children in middle childhood.

  18. Preterm birth, infant weight gain, and childhood asthma risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonnenschein-van der Voort, Agnes M M; Arends, Lidia R; de Jongste, Johan C

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Preterm birth, low birth weight, and infant catch-up growth seem associated with an increased risk of respiratory diseases in later life, but individual studies showed conflicting results. OBJECTIVES: We performed an individual participant data meta-analysis for 147,252 children of 31...... of gestational age, birth weight, and infant weight gain with childhood asthma. Second, we performed an adjusted 2-stage random-effect meta-analysis to assess the associations of preterm birth (gestational age ... infant weight gain, we observed the highest risks of school-age asthma in children born preterm with high infant weight gain (odds ratio [OR], 4.47; 95% CI, 2.58-7.76). Preterm birth was positively associated with an increased risk of preschool wheezing (pooled odds ratio [pOR], 1.34; 95% CI, 1...

  19. Early intervention influences positively quality of life as reported by prematurely born children at age nine and their parents; a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landsem, Inger Pauline; Handegård, Bjørn Helge; Ulvund, Stein Erik; Kaaresen, Per Ivar; Rønning, John A

    2015-02-22

    The Tromsø Intervention Study on Preterms evaluates an early, sensitizing intervention given to parents of prematurely born children (birth-weight intervention on children's self-reported and parental proxy-reported quality of life (QoL) at children's age of nine. Participants were randomized to either intervention (PI, n = 72) or preterm control (PC, n = 74) in the neonatal care unit, while healthy term-born infants were recruited to a term reference group (TR, n = 75). The intervention was a modified version of the Mother-Infant Transaction Program, and comprised eight one-hour sessions during the last week before discharge and four home visits at 1, 2, 4 and 12 weeks post-discharge. The two control groups received care in accordance with written guidelines drawn up at the hospital. Participants and parents reported QoL independently on the Kinder Lebensqualität Fragebogen (KINDL) questionnaire. Differences between groups were analyzed by SPSS; Linear Mixed Models and parent-child agreement were analyzed and compared by intra-class correlations within each group. On average, children in all groups reported high levels of well-being. The PI children reported better physical well-being than the PC children (p = 0.002). In all other aspects of QoL both the PI and the PC children reported at similar levels as the term reference group. PI parents reported better emotional wellbeing (p = 0.05) and a higher level of contentment in school (p = 0.003) compared with PC parents. Parent-child agreement was significantly weaker in the PI group than in the PC group on dimensions such as emotional well-being and relationships with friends (p parents reported QoL similar to parents of terms on all aspects except the subscale self-esteem, while PC parents generally reported moderately lower QoL than TR parents. This early intervention appears to have generated long-lasting positive effects, improving perceived physical well-being among prematurely

  20. Mental health in women experiencing preterm birth

    OpenAIRE

    Misund, Aud R; Nerdrum, Per; Diseth, Trond H

    2014-01-01

    Background: The aim of the study was to explore the degree of psychological distress, anxiety, and trauma related stress reactions in mothers who experience preterm birth. Secondarily, we wanted to identify possible predictors of maternal mental health problems. Methods: Twenty-nine mothers of 35 premature children born before 33rd week of pregnancy were assessed within two weeks after given birth. The standardized psychometric methods; Impact of Event Scale (IES), General Health Q...

  1. Neonatal Exposure to Hepatitis C Virus Antigens in Uninfected Children Born to Infected Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psaros Einberg, Afrodite; Brenndörfer, Erwin Daniel; Frelin, Lars; Hallberg, Lena; Sällberg, Matti; Fischler, Björn

    2017-09-26

    Vertical transmission of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is uncommon and occurs in around 5% of births from HCV infected mothers. The reason for the low transmission rate is unclear. We aimed to investigate if there is evidence of HCV exposure also in the non-infected children born to HCV infected mothers by the presence of a detectable immune response. Serum and peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 9 HCV vertically infected children, 32 uninfected children born to HCV infected mothers, and 15 HCV chronically infected mothers, were analyzed. HCV-RNA negative adults and children were used as controls. HCV specific T cell responses were analyzed by interferon gamma (IFN-γ) using an enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISpot) assay and 3H-thymidine incorporation assay. HCV antibodies were also analyzed. An HCV specific T cell response was detected in 73% (11/15) of the HCV infected mothers, 67% (6/9) of the vertically infected children, 56% (18/32) of the exposed but uninfected children and in 10% and 20% of the control groups, respectively. The two groups of HCV exposed children both had a significantly higher proportion of HCV specific T cell responders compared to pediatric controls (p = 0.01 and p = 0.02). HCV specific immune responses were more common in children born to HCV infected mothers, regardless of the presence of HCV RNA. We conclude that non-infected children born to HCV infected mothers may have been exposed to HCV antigens.

  2. Cognition, behavior and social competence of preterm low birth weight children at school age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Gick Fan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the cognitive and behavioral development of preterm and low birth weight newborns living in a disadvantageous socioeconomic environment at school age. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included children aged 6-7 from a historical birth cohort of preterm (gestational age <37 weeks and low birth weight (<2,500 g infants. The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children III (WISC-III was administered by a psychologist while the parents completed the Child Behavior Checklist. The results were compared to the test's reference. The perinatal information and follow-up data were collected from the hospital files. The demographic data were collected from the parents. The current performance was compared with the results from the Denver II and Bayley II tests, which were administered during the first years of life. RESULTS: The total intelligence quotient varied from 70 to 140 (mean 98.7±15.8. The borderline intelligence quotient was observed in 9.3% of the children. The Child Behavior Checklist indicated a predominance of social competence problems (27.8%, CI 19.2 to 37.9 compared with behavioral problems (15.5%, CI 8.9 to 24.2. Both the Child Behavior Checklist domains, such as schooling, social and attention problems, and the cognitive scores were significantly associated with maternal education and family income. The results of the Denver and Bayley tests were associated with the cognitive performance (p<0.001 and the Child Behavior Checklist social profile, including aggressive and externalizing behavior (p<0.001. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that even low-risk preterm newborns are at risk for developing disturbances in early school age, such as mild cognitive deficits and behavioral disorders. This risk might increase under unfavorable socioeconomic conditions.

  3. Evaluation of lipid and glucose metabolism and cortisol and thyroid hormone levels in obese appropriate for gestational age (AGA) born and non-obese small for gestational age (SGA) born prepubertal Slovak children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blusková, Zuzana; Koštálová, Ludmila; Celec, Peter; Vitáriušová, Eva; Pribilincová, Zuzana; Maršálková, Marianna; Šemberová, Jana; Kyselová, Tatiana; Hlavatá, Anna; Kovács, László

    2014-07-01

    Obesity is the major determinant of metabolic syndrome. Being born small for gestational age (SGA) may be co-responsible. We aimed at evaluating the association between 1. obesity and 2. being born SGA and the presence of endocrine-metabolic abnormalities in prepubertal Slovak children. The study included 98 children, aged 3-10.9 years: 36 AGA-born obese children (OB), 31 SGA-born children (SGA) and 31 appropriate for gestational age born non-obese children (AGA). Fasting serum levels of glucose, total cholesterol, LDL, HDL, triglycerides, fT4, TSH, cortisol and insulin were determined. HOMA-IR was calculated. Personal data about birth weight and length and family history were collected. Actual anthropometric measurement was done. In every group, high prevalence of positive family history of metabolic disorder was found. In comparison with AGA children, OB children were taller (pSGA-born children were shorter (pSGA-born children in comparison with AGA-born children. SGA-born children are more prone to developing endocrine-metabolic abnormalities than non-obese children born AGA, but they are at less risk than obese AGA-born children. We should provide specialized care for obese children already in prepubertal age and pay attention to SGA-born children.

  4. Could cord blood cell therapy reduce preterm brain injury?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingang eLi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Major advances in neonatal care have led to significant improvements in survival rates for preterm infants, but this occurs at a cost, with a strong causal link between preterm birth and neurological deficits, including cerebral palsy (CP. Indeed, in high-income countries, up to 50% of children with CP were born preterm. The pathways that link preterm birth and brain injury are complex and multifactorial, but it is clear that preterm birth is strongly associated with damage to the white matter of the developing brain. Nearly 90% of preterm infants who later develop spastic CP have evidence of periventricular white matter injury. There are currently no treatments targeted at protecting the immature preterm brain. Umbilical cord blood (UCB contains a diverse mix of stem and progenitor cells, and is a particularly promising source of cells for clinical applications, due to ethical and practical advantages over other potential therapeutic cell types. Recent studies have documented the potential benefits of UCB cells in reducing brain injury, particularly in rodent models of term neonatal hypoxia-ischemia. These studies indicate that UCB cells act via anti-inflammatory and immuno-modulatory effects, and release neurotrophic growth factors to support the damaged and surrounding brain tissue. The etiology of brain injury in preterm-born infants is less well understood than in term infants, but likely results from episodes of hypoperfusion, hypoxia-ischemia, and/or inflammation over a developmental period of white matter vulnerability. This review will explore current knowledge about the neuroprotective actions of UCB cells and their potential to ameliorate preterm brain injury through neonatal cell administration. We will also discuss the characteristics of UCB derived from preterm and term infants for use in clinical applications.

  5. Resting-state oscillatory activity in children born small for gestational age: a magnetoencephalographic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria eBoersma

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Growth restriction in utero during a period that is critical for normal growth of the brain, has previously been associated with deviations in cognitive abilities and brain anatomical and functional changes. We measured magnetoencephalography (MEG in 4-7 year old children to test if children born small for gestational age (SGA show deviations in resting-state brain oscillatory activity. Children born SGA children with postnatally spontaneous catch-up growth (SGA+; 6 boys, 7 girls; mean age 6.3 y (SD=0.9 and children born appropriate for gestational age (AGA; 7 boys, 3 girls; mean age 6.0 y (SD=1.2 participated in a resting-state MEG study. We calculated absolute and relative power spectra and used nonparametric statistics to test for group differences. SGA+ and AGA born children showed no significant differences in absolute and relative power except for reduced absolute gamma band power in SGA children. At time of MEG investigation, SGA+ children showed was significantly lower head circumference (HC and a trend toward lower IQ, however there was no association of HC or IQ with absolute or relative power. Except for reduced absolute gamma band power, our findings suggest normal brain activity patterns at school age in a group of children born SGA in which spontaneous catch-up growth of bodily length after birth occurred. Although previous findings suggest that being born SGA alters brain oscillatory activity early in neonatal life, we show that these neonatal alterations do not persist at early school age when spontaneous postnatal catch-up growth occurs after birth.

  6. Periventricular leucomalacia and preterm birth have different detrimental effects on postural adjustments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hadders-Algra, M; Brogren, E; Katz-Salamon, M; Forssberg, H

    Postural adjustments during sitting on a moveable platform were assessed by means of multiple surface EMGs of neck, trunk and leg muscles and kinematics in three groups of children, aged 1 1/2-4 1/2 years. The first group consisted of 13 preterm children (born at a gestational age of 25-34 weeks),

  7. What Is Preterm Labor and Birth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... infants are born during the late-preterm time frame. 3 Preterm birth is the most common cause ... facebook twitter pinterest youtube flickr NEWSROOM NICHD News Videos OUTREACH Safe to Sleep® National Child & Maternal Health ...

  8. Ontogenic Changes of Villus Growth, Lactase Activity, and Intestinal Glucose Transporters in Preterm and Term Born Calves with or without Prolonged Colostrum Feeding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Steinhoff-Wagner

    Full Text Available Oral glucose supply is important for neonatal calves to stabilize postnatal plasma glucose concentration. The objective of this study was to investigate ontogenic development of small intestinal growth, lactase activity, and glucose transporter in calves (n = 7 per group that were born either preterm (PT; delivered by section 9 d before term or at term (T; spontaneous vaginal delivery or spontaneously born and fed colostrum for 4 days (TC. Tissue samples from duodenum and proximal, mid, and distal jejunum were taken to measure villus size and crypt depth, protein concentration of mucosa and brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV, total DNA and RNA concentration of mucosa, mRNA expression and activity of lactase, and mRNA expression of sodium-dependent glucose co-transporter-1 (SGLT1 and facilitative glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2 in mucosal tissue. Additionally, protein expression of SGLT1 in BBMV and GLUT2 in crude mucosal membranes and immunochemical localization of GLUT2 in the enterocytes were determined. Villus height in distal jejunum was lower in TC than in T. Crypt depth in all segments was largest and the villus height/crypt depth ratio in jejunum was smallest in TC calves. Concentration of RNA was highest in duodenal mucosa of TC calves, but neither lactase mRNA and activity nor SGLT1 and GLUT2 mRNA and protein expression differed among groups. Localization of GLUT2 in the apical membrane was greater, whereas in the basolateral membrane was lower in TC than in T and PT calves. Our study indicates maturation processes after birth for mucosal growth and trafficking of GLUT2 from the basolateral to the apical membrane. Minor differences of mucosal growth, lactase activity, and intestinal glucose transporters were seen between PT and T calves, pointing at the importance of postnatal maturation and feeding for mucosal growth and GLUT2 trafficking.

  9. METABOLIC MEDICATIONS FOR THE REHABILITATION OF CHILDREN BORN TO DRUG ADDICTED WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Dzhumagaziev

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors presented the study results of the physical and neuro psychic growth of children, who were born to drug addicted women. they studied the active state of the dehydrogenase peripheral blood lymphocytes, reflecting the metabolic disorder at the tissue level and body level in general, as well as the ways to correct them with metabolic therapy assisted by glycine and biotredin. They also analyzed the results of the complex therapy and rehabilitation of the children, who were born to drug addicted women.Key words: drug embryopathy, metabolic therapy, children, rehabilitation.

  10. Trends in Prevalence and Characteristics of Cerebral Palsy among Icelandic Children Born 1990 to 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigurdardottir, Solveig; Thorkelsson, Thordur; Halldorsdottir, Margret; Thorarensen, OLafur; Vik, Torstein

    2009-01-01

    Aim: To describe trends in cerebral palsy (CP) prevalence, severity, and associated impairments among 139 Icelandic children (65 males, 74 females) born from 1990 to 1996 (period one) and 1997 to 2003 (period two). Method: A population-based study using systematically collected data on motor functioning and associated impairments of children with…

  11. Long-term effect of high-dose supplementation with DHA on visual function at school age in children born at <33 wk gestational age: results from a follow-up of a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molloy, Carly S; Stokes, Sacha; Makrides, Maria; Collins, Carmel T; Anderson, Peter J; Doyle, Lex W

    2016-01-01

    Children born preterm are at risk of visual-processing impairments. Several lines of evidence have contributed to the rationale that docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplementation of preterm infants may improve outcomes in visual processing. The aim was to determine whether at 7 y of age children who were born very preterm and who received a high-DHA diet have better visual-processing outcomes than do infants fed a standard-DHA diet. This was a follow-up study in a subgroup of children from a randomized controlled trial. Infants were randomly assigned to milk containing a higher concentration of DHA (1% of total fatty acids; high-DHA group) or a standard amount of DHA (0.2-0.3% of total fatty acids as DHA; control group). The randomization schedule was stratified by sex and birth weights of DHA group and 55 in the standard-DHA group) children aged 7 y were assessed on a range of visual-processing measures, including visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, vernier acuity, binocular stereopsis, and visual perception. There was no evidence of differences between the high-DHA and standard-DHA groups in any of the visual-processing measures. In the majority (12 of 13) of variables assessed, the direction of effect favored the control group. The study was large enough to detect a moderate treatment effect, if one truly existed. Supplementing human milk with DHA at a dose of ∼1% of total fatty acids given in the first months of life to very preterm infants does not appear to confer any long-term benefit for visual processing at school age. This trial was registered at anzctr.org/au as ACTRN12606000327583. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  12. A Critical Appraisal of the Right of Inheritance of Children Born Out of Wedlock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Akpa Ajanwachuku

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The phenomenon of the so-called bastard children has growth astronomically worldwide. In Nigeria, the rights of children born out of wedlock to inherit their biological fathers who died intestate was wholly dependent on the acknowledgement of paternity. This paper attempts to unravel the recent development in the law of inheritance in Nigeria with respect to children born out of wedlock. It concludes from the review of case laws in Nigeria that there is a significant progressive development of the law in Nigeria. Absent acknowledgement of paternity, children born out of wedlock may now inherit their biological fathers if they can provide other evidence of paternity, including the use of DNA technology.

  13. Growth hormone treatment for short stature in children born small for gestational age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Heike; Rosilio, Myriam; Blum, Werner F; Drop, Stenvert L S

    2008-10-01

    Children born small for gestational age (SGA) who do not show catch-up in the first 2 years generally remain short for life. Although the majority of children born SGA are not growth hormone (GH) deficient, GH treatment is known to improve average growth in these children.Early studies using GH in children born SGA demonstrated increased height velocity, but these effects tended to be short-term with effects decreasing when GH treatment stopped. With refined GH regimens, significant effects on height have been shown, with gains of approximately 1 standard deviation score after 2 years. Studies have also shown that long-term continuous GH therapy can significantly increase final height to within the normal range. GH treatment of children born SGA does not appear to unduly affect bone age or pubertal development. Growth prediction models have been used to identify various factors involved in the response to GH therapy with age at start, treatment duration, and GH dose showing strong effects. Genetic factors such as the exon 3 deletion of the GH receptor may contribute to short stature of children born SGA and may also be involved in the responsiveness to GH treatment, but there remain other unknown genetic and/or environmental factors. No unexpected safety concerns have arisen in GH therapy trials. In particular, no long-term adverse effects have been seen for glucose metabolism, and positive effects have been shown for lipid profiles and blood pressure.GH treatment in short children born SGA has shown a beneficial, growth-promoting effect in both the short-and long-term, and has become a recognized indication in both the US and Europe. Further studies on individualized treatment regimens and long-term safety are ongoing.

  14. Comparison of primary dentition caries experience in pre-term low birth-weight and full-term normal birth-weight children aged one to six years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sowmya Anaberu Rajshekar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aims of the study were to determine and compare the primary dentition caries experience and the variables that may influence the occurrence of caries, in preterm low birth weight and full term normal birth weight children aged one to six years. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional comparative study was conducted among 250 full term normal birth weight (FTNBW and 250 preterm low birth weight (PTLBW children one to six years, born in the two hospitals in Davangere: Bapuji Hospital and Chigatere Hospital. A purposive sampling was used to select the study group. Materials and Methods: Required and relevant information regarding demographic characteristics, feeding practices and oral hygiene practices were obtained. Dentition status and treatment need index (World Health Organization 1997 was used to record dental caries. Statistical analysis used: Chi-square test, Student′s t-test and ANalysis Of VAriance (ANOVA test were used for statistical analysis. Results: Statistically significant difference was observed in caries prevalence between PTLBW and FTNBW groups (P<0.05, however, the difference in mean Decayed, missing and filled teeth index (dmft was not statistically significant (P=0.30. Statistically significant differences were observed in caries experience between the two groups in relation to exclusive breast feeding for longer duration, i.e 7-12 months (P<0.05, bottle feeding habits (P<0.05 and sticky food consumption (P<0.01. Conclusions: A significant relationship was found between caries and PTLBW status though the difference in caries experience between the groups was not statistically significant, thus illustrating the higher caries risk in PTLBW children compared to FTNBW children.

  15. Relations between brain volumes, neuropsychological assessment and parental questionnaire in prematurely born children

    OpenAIRE

    Lind, Annika; Haataja, Leena; Rautava, Liisi; Väliaho, Anniina; Lehtonen, Liisa; Lapinleimu, Helena; Parkkola, Riitta; Korkman, Marit

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The objective of this study is to assess the relationship between brain volumes at term equivalent age and neuropsychological functions at 5 years of age in very low birth weight (VLBW) children, and to compare the results from a neuropsychological assessment and a parental questionnaire at 5 years of age. The study group included a regional cohort of 97 VLBW children and a control group of 161 children born at term. At term equivalent age, brain magnetic resonance imaging...

  16. Mental Health Outcomes in US Children and Adolescents Born Prematurely or with Low Birthweight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopal K. Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined the effects of prematurity (37 weeks of gestation and low birthweight (2500 g on mental health outcomes among US children aged 2–17 years. The 2011-2012 National Survey of Children’s Health ( = 95,677 was used to estimate prevalence of parent-reported mental health problems in children. Prevalence of mental disorders was 22.9% among children born prematurely, 28.7% among very-low-birth-weight (1500 g children, and 18.9% among moderately low-birth-weight (1500–2499 g children, compared with 15.5% in the general child population. Compared to those born full term, children born prematurely had 61% higher adjusted odds of serious emotional/behavioral problems, 33% higher odds of depression, and 58% higher odds of anxiety. Children born prematurely had 2.3 times higher odds of autism/ASD, 2.9 times higher odds of development delay, and 2.7 times higher odds of intellectual disability than term children. Very-low-birth-weight children had 3.2 times higher odds of autism/ASD, 1.7 times higher odds of ADD/ADHD, 5.4 times higher odds of development delay, and 4.4 times higher odds of intellectual disability than normal-birth-weight children. Social factors were significant predictors of mental disorders in both premature/low-birth-weight and term/normal-birth-weight children. Neurodevelopmental conditions accounted for the relationship between prematurity and depression/anxiety/conduct problems. Prematurity and low birthweight are significant risk factors for mental health problems among children.

  17. Parental characteristics and the schooling progress of the children of immigrant and U.S.-born blacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Kevin J A

    2009-08-01

    In this study, I examine disparities in schooling progress among children born to immigrant and U.S.-born blacks. I find that in one- and two-parent families, children born to black immigrants are less likely to fall behind in school than those born to U.S.-born blacks. In two-parent immigrant families, children born to two immigrant parents have a significant schooling advantage over children born to one immigrant parent. While children born to two immigrant parents in the wealthiest black immigrant families do better in the second generation than in the first, the reverse is observed among children in less wealthy families. These findings contribute in two ways to our understanding of the assimilation processes of children born to black immigrant parents. First, they show that there is a positive association between the number of immigrant parents in a family and children's schooling performance. Second, they suggest that disparities in the assimilation patterns of the children of black immigrants are a likely product of the interaction between their parental characteristics and the socioeconomic circumstances of their families.

  18. Adverse birth outcomes among native-born and foreign-born mothers in Taiwan: A population-based birth cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiao Laura

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The number of children born to foreign-born mothers in Taiwan has significantly increased since the 1990s. These foreign-born mothers are mainly from China and Southeast Asia. Children born to foreign-born mothers, according to media reports, are subject to inferior health. This study sought to determine whether socioeconomic disparities in birth outcomes exist between native and foreign-born mothers in Taiwan. Methods Analysis data were obtained from the Taiwan Birth Cohort Study of 20,090 nationally representative 6-month-old babies, born in 2005. The data on the babies were divided into two groups, those of foreign-born mothers and those of Taiwanese mothers. The health outcome variables that were examined included two adverse birth outcomes: low birth weight and preterm birth. Multiple logistic regression was used to examine the association between income and foreign-born status, as well as birth outcomes among both groups. Results Children of native Taiwanese mothers had a higher prevalence of low birth weight (6.9% than did children of China-born (4.7% and Southeast Asia-born mothers (5.2%. The prevalence of preterm birth was also higher among children of native Taiwanese mothers (8.4% than among children of Southeast Asia-born (7.2% and China-born mothers (6.3%. Foreign-born status was associated with lower odds of low birth weight among families with a monthly family income p p p p p Conclusion Foreign-born mothers from China and Southeast Asia did not experience worse birth outcomes than native Taiwanese mothers did, regardless of the disadvantaged socioeconomic position of their families.

  19. Behavioral and social development of children born extremely premature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjørn, Barbara Hoff; Hansen, Bo Mølholm; Munck, Hanne

    2004-01-01

    associated with behavioral and social development. The index children exhibited more hyperactive behavior and had poorer social skills than the controls. Lower Full Scale IQ (FSIQ) was associated with outward reacting and hyperactive behavior and poorer social skills. Sensitive parenting was associated...... with less outward reacting and less hyperactive behavior. When controlling for differences in FSIQ and parental sensitivity, the index children persisted to have an increased risk of exhibiting hyperactive behavior but not poorer social skills. The index children with normal intellectual development......, however, did not exhibit more behavioral problems or poorer social skills than the control children did....

  20. CHILDREN BORN BY HIV POSITIVE MOTHERS. WAYS OF IMPROVEMENT OF MEDICAL AND SOCIAL AID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.N. Sadovnikova

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Results of complex research aimed at the study of dynamics of incidence and mortality caused by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV among children, their medical and social characteristics, problems of social adaptation of rejected children, are presented. It is shown that in the dynamics of HIV incidence among children a steady growth trend is observed, mostly due to children born by HIV positive mothers. The number of HIV positive children due to perinatal transmission, increased by 9 times in 2000–2006. 43,6 per cent of children born by HIV positive mothers had significant deviations in the health status, 21,6 percent of infants were transferred to the 2nd stage of nursing. High level of stillbirths, perinatal and early neonatal mortality of infants born by HIV positive mothers, was observed. Though there is a certain trend of decreasing the number of rejected children both in the general population and among HIV positive mothers, the absolute number of such cases is increasing in the latter group. Children abandoned by their parents in most cases are isolated and do not receive the necessary social and psychological aid.Key words: HIV infection, children, perinatal mortality, social adaptation.

  1. The Children Should Lead Us: Diane Ehrensaft's "Gender Born, Gender Made--Raising Healthy Gender-Nonconforming Children"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beemyn, Genny

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews Diane Ehrensaft's "Gender Born, Gender Made: Raising Healthy Gender-Nonconforming Children", a thoughtful and practical guide that can help parents, other family members, and therapists better understand and support children and youth whom the author refers to as "gender creative." Ehrensaft's work is at the forefront of a…

  2. Does temperament influence language development? Evidence from preterm and full-term children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Pereira, Miguel; Fernández, Pilar; Resches, Mariela; Gómez-Taibo, María Luisa

    2016-02-01

    The aims of this study are: (1) to describe language and temperament characteristics of one group of low risk preterm (PR) children and a group of full-term (FT) children and (2) to identify those factors which can predict language outcomes at 30 months of age, with special attention on temperament. There is evidence of differences between very or extremely PR and FT children in relation to characteristics of temperament and language development. However, not many studies have been carried out with healthy PR children. The participants were 142 low risk PR children (mean gestational age (GA): 32.60 weeks) and 49 FT children (mean GA 39.84 weeks). The temperament of the children was assessed at 10 months of age through the Infant Behavior Questionnaire-Revised (IBQ-R). At 22 months of age the cognitive development of the children was assessed through the Spanish adaptation of the Batelle Developmental Inventory (BDI). In order to assess the children's language development the Galician adaptation of the MacArthur-Bates CDI was applied at 30 months of age. In addition, socio-demographic information about the children and their families was gathered at birth. The results indicate that there were no significant differences in the language measures of interest (word production, MLU3, and sentence complexity) between groups. The only differences found between the PR and the FT children in the IBQ-R were restricted to the smiling and laughter and the fear subscales. Hierarchical regression analyses performed indicate that GA did not have any predictive effect on language measures taken at 30 months. Cognitive scores were an important predictor of language measures, although certain temperament subscales contributed in a significant way to the variance of language measures, particularly low intensity pleasure, approach, high intensity pleasure, sadness, and vocal reactivity. Therefore, extroverted (positive affectivity) temperament seems to be beneficial for language

  3. Health outcomes of children born to mothers with chronic kidney disease: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indrani Banerjee

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to study the health of children born to mothers with chronic kidney disease. Twenty-four children born to mothers with chronic kidney disease were compared with 39 matched control children born to healthy mothers without kidney disease. The well-being of each child was individually assessed in terms of physical health, neurodevelopment and psychological health. Families participating with renal disease were more likely to be from lower socio-economic backgrounds. Significantly fewer vaginal deliveries were reported for mothers with renal disease and their infants were more likely to experience neonatal morbidity. Study and control children were comparable for growth parameters and neurodevelopment as assessed by the Griffiths scales. There was no evidence of more stress amongst mothers with renal disease or of impaired bonding between mother and child when compared to controls. However, there was evidence of greater externalizing behavioral problems in the group of children born to mothers with renal disease. Engaging families in such studies is challenging. Nonetheless, families who participated appreciated being asked. The children were apparently healthy but there was evidence in this small study of significant antenatal and perinatal morbidity compared to controls. Future larger multi-center studies are required to confirm these early findings.

  4. Meta-analysis of neurobehavioral outcomes in very preterm and/or very low birth weight children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.S.H. Aarnoudse-Moens (Cornelieke); N. Weisglas-Kuperus (Nynke); J.B. van Goudoever (Hans); J. Oosterlaan (Jaap)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE: Sequelae of academic underachievement, behavioral problems, and poor executive function (EF) have been extensively reported for very preterm (≤33 weeks' gestation) and/or very low birth weight (VLBW) (≤1500 g) children. Great variability in the published results, however,

  5. Efficacy and safety of growth hormone treatment for children born small for gestational age

    OpenAIRE

    Hwang, Il Tae

    2014-01-01

    Recombinant growth hormone (GH) is an effective treatment for short children who are born small for gestational age (SGA). Short children born SGA who fail to demonstrate catch-up growth by 2-4 years of age are candidates for GH treatment initiated to achieve catch-up growth to a normal height in early childhood, maintain a normal height gain throughout childhood, and achieve an adult height within the normal target range. GH treatment at a dose of 35-70 µg/kg/day should be considered for tho...

  6. Outcome of children born out of pregnancies complicated by unexplained polyhydramnios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touboul, C; Boileau, P; Picone, O; Foix-l'Hélias, L; Frydman, R; Senat, M V

    2007-04-01

    Our aim was to assess the long-term outcomes of infants born out of a pregnancy complicated by unexplained polyhydramnios. We retrospectively analysed a cohort of 173 singleton pregnancies with polyhydramnios. There were 24 singletons with unexplained polyhydramnios, defined as polyhydramnios where prenatal testing was negative. Infants were examined by a paediatrician at a median age of 12 months (range 12-64 months). Of the 24 infants, 19 (79%) had a normal outcome. West syndrome, polyuria and pulmonary stenosis were diagnosed in three children during follow up, while there were two perinatal deaths. Paediatric follow up of children born out of pregnancies complicated by unexplained polyhydramnios should be carried out systematically.

  7. Developmental milestones in children born post-term in the Danish National Birth Cohort: a main research article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olesen, A W; Olsen, J; Zhu, J L

    2015-09-01

    To examine the timing of reaching developmental milestones in children born post-term. Cohort study. The Danish National Birth Cohort: children born between 1997 and 2003. Data were obtained from a cohort of 92 892 pregnancies participating in the first pregnancy interview. All singletons born in gestational weeks 39-45 were identified. The study was then restricted to children who participated in an interview at the age of approximately 18 months and had information on at least one developmental milestone. We excluded children of mothers with chronic diseases from the final analysis. The remaining study population constituted of 43 915 singletons (27 503 born at term; 16 412 born post-term). Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios of late achievement of these developmental milestones, adjusted for potential confounding factors. Achieving devel