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Sample records for children born premature

  1. Risk Factors for Retinopathy of Prematurity in Premature Born Children

    OpenAIRE

    Alajbegovic-Halimic, Jasmina; Zvizdic, Denisa; Alimanovic-Halilovic, Emina; Dodik, Irena; Duvnjak, Sanela

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Retinopathy of Prematurity (ROP) represent disease of the eye in premature born children which affects immature blood vessels of the retina during their development. The emergence of retinopathy of prematurity depends on the interaction of multiple factors, such as: gestational age, low birth weight, hypoxia, duration of oxygen supplementation, respiratory distress syndrome, twin pregnancy, anemia, blood transfusions, sepsis, intraventricular hemorrhage, hypotension, hypothermia...

  2. Behavioral and social development of children born extremely premature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjørn, Barbara Hoff; Hansen, Bo Mølholm; Munck, Hanne; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2004-01-01

    A cohort of extremely prematurely born children and matched term controls was assessed at 5 years of age. The parents completed a questionnaire on their behavioral and social development. The purpose was to illuminate whether the children's general intellectual ability and parental sensitivity were...

  3. Mental Health Outcomes in US Children and Adolescents Born Prematurely or with Low Birthweight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopal K. Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined the effects of prematurity (37 weeks of gestation and low birthweight (2500 g on mental health outcomes among US children aged 2–17 years. The 2011-2012 National Survey of Children’s Health ( = 95,677 was used to estimate prevalence of parent-reported mental health problems in children. Prevalence of mental disorders was 22.9% among children born prematurely, 28.7% among very-low-birth-weight (1500 g children, and 18.9% among moderately low-birth-weight (1500–2499 g children, compared with 15.5% in the general child population. Compared to those born full term, children born prematurely had 61% higher adjusted odds of serious emotional/behavioral problems, 33% higher odds of depression, and 58% higher odds of anxiety. Children born prematurely had 2.3 times higher odds of autism/ASD, 2.9 times higher odds of development delay, and 2.7 times higher odds of intellectual disability than term children. Very-low-birth-weight children had 3.2 times higher odds of autism/ASD, 1.7 times higher odds of ADD/ADHD, 5.4 times higher odds of development delay, and 4.4 times higher odds of intellectual disability than normal-birth-weight children. Social factors were significant predictors of mental disorders in both premature/low-birth-weight and term/normal-birth-weight children. Neurodevelopmental conditions accounted for the relationship between prematurity and depression/anxiety/conduct problems. Prematurity and low birthweight are significant risk factors for mental health problems among children.

  4. [Extremely prematurely born children's and their parents' need for support

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjorn, B.H.; Madsen, B.M.; Munck, H.;

    2008-01-01

    considered on the basis of a psychological understanding of loss and grief. RESULTS: During the first year of life, index children were more ill and were cared for in the home for a longer time than were reference children. From the 3rd year of life, differences in illness were minimal. Index parents...... children. After discharge, index parents had an increased need of support that could not be fulfilled by family/friends. An understanding hereof may be found in the vulnerability of the children and in a psychological understanding of loss and grief. The parents lacked contact and dialogue with other...

  5. Cerebral Damage May Be the Primary Risk Factor for Visual Impairment in Preschool Children Born Extremely Premature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slidsborg, Carina; Bangsgaard, Regitze; Fledelius, Hans Callø; Jensen, Hanne; Greisen, Gorm; la Cour, Morten

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To investigate the importance of cerebral damage and retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) for visual impairment in preschool children born extremely premature and to determine the primary risk factor of the two. METHODS A clinical follow-up study of a Danish national cohort of children born......, moderate to severe foveal abnormality, and ROP treatment were independently associated with visual impairment (P < .05, for better and worse eyes). A stepwise multiple logistic regression for better-eye logarithmic visual acuities of 0.3 or greater (Snellen scale, ≤0.5) yielded an odds ratio of 8.7 (95% CI......, 3.0-25.2; P < .001) for global developmental deficit and 6.3 (95% CI, 2.2-18.5; P < .001) for moderate to severe foveal sequelae. CONCLUSION Cerebral damage and ROP are independent risk factors for visual impairment in children born extremely premature, and cerebral damage may be the primary risk...

  6. Relations between brain volumes, neuropsychological assessment and parental questionnaire in prematurely born children

    OpenAIRE

    Lind, Annika; Haataja, Leena; Rautava, Liisi; Väliaho, Anniina; Lehtonen, Liisa; Lapinleimu, Helena; Parkkola, Riitta; Korkman, Marit

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The objective of this study is to assess the relationship between brain volumes at term equivalent age and neuropsychological functions at 5 years of age in very low birth weight (VLBW) children, and to compare the results from a neuropsychological assessment and a parental questionnaire at 5 years of age. The study group included a regional cohort of 97 VLBW children and a control group of 161 children born at term. At term equivalent age, brain magnetic resonance imaging...

  7. The Role of Parental Attitudes and the Quality of the Home Learning Environment in the Mental Development of Prematurely Born Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalmar, Magda; Boronkai, Judit

    Data are presented from a long-term follow-up study investigating the interplay of various factors contributing to the developmental outcome of prematurely born children. Fifty-eight low-risk pre-term Hungarian children are compared to 100 full-term children, from birth to age 6, on socioeconomic status, family climate, and intellectual…

  8. Parent-Child Interaction Therapy for Children Born Premature: A Case Study and Illustration of Vagal Tone as a Physiological Measure of Treatment Outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagner, Daniel M.; Sheinkopf, Stephen J.; Miller-Loncar, Cynthia L.; Vohr, Betty R.; Hinckley, Matthew; Eyberg, Sheila M.; Lester, Barry M.

    2009-01-01

    Evidence-based psychosocial interventions for externalizing behavior problems in children born premature have not been reported in the literature. This single-case study describes Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT) with a 23-month-old child born at 29 weeks gestation weighing 1,020 grams, who presented with significant externalizing behavior…

  9. An Initial Investigation of Baseline Respiratory Sinus Arrhythmia as a Moderator of Treatment Outcome for Young Children Born Premature with Externalizing Behavior Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Bagner, Daniel M.; Graziano, Paulo A.; JACCARD, James; Sheinkopf, Stephen J.; VOHR, BETTY R.; Lester, Barry M.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to examine the moderating effect of baseline respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) on Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT), a behavioral parent-training intervention, for young children born premature. In this pilot randomized controlled trial, 28 young children (mean age of 37.79 months), who were born < 37 weeks gestation and presented with elevated externalizing behavior problems, were randomly assigned to an immediate treatment or waitlist control group. R...

  10. Neurodevelopmental outcomes of infants born prematurely.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aylward, Glen P

    2014-01-01

    Long-term follow-up of infants born prematurely is necessary to determine neurodevelopmental outcomes, particularly with the expansion of interest from major disabilities to high prevalence/low severity dysfunctions. Models of pathogenesis include changes due to developmental disruptions and to injury, the magnitude and type of change influenced by the infant's age, and central nervous system recovery and reorganization. Alterations in neurogenesis, migration, myelination, cell death, and synaptogenesis occur even in the absence of insult. Despite increased knowledge regarding these processes, the functional significance of brain abnormalities is unclear. Because of methodologic problems in follow-up studies, it is difficult to characterize outcome definitively. Nonetheless, an acceptable degree of agreement across studies is found with regard to specific neurodevelopmental outcomes: motor/neurologic function, visuomotor integrative skills, IQ, academic achievement, language, executive function, and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder/behavioral issues. In general, children born prematurely have more problems in these areas than do their normal birth weight counterparts. Suggestions for improved analyses and clarification of outcomes include use of cluster analysis, structural equation modeling, growth curve analysis, developmental epidemiologic approaches, and better control of background variables using risk indexes and factor scores. Better assessment techniques measuring functions documented to be at higher risk of problems are discussed. PMID:25007063

  11. The Study of Lipid Profile, Diet and Other Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Children Born to Parents Having Premature Ischemic Heart Disease

    OpenAIRE

    M R Savitha; B Sandeep

    2011-01-01

    Background: Dyslipidemia is a marker for ischemic heart disease (IHD), which can be detected in early childhood and tracks to adulthood. Dyslipidemia, along with factors like diet, obesity and sedentary activity, increases the risk of a child developing IHD in adulthood. Early detection and modification of these risk factors can prevent IHD. Objectives: To study the lipid profile in children born to parents with history of premature IHD and also to study the effect of diet, lifestyle factors,...

  12. The study of lipid profile, diet and other cardiovascular risk factors in children born to parents having premature ischemic heart disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M R Savitha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dyslipidemia is a marker for ischemic heart disease (IHD, which can be detected in early childhood and tracks to adulthood. Dyslipidemia, along with factors like diet, obesity and sedentary activity, increases the risk of a child developing IHD in adulthood. Early detection and modification of these risk factors can prevent IHD. Objectives: To study the lipid profile in children born to parents with history of premature IHD and also to study the effect of diet, lifestyle factors, and obesity in the study group. Materials and Methods: Fifty children of parents with premature IHD and 50 control children without any family history of IHD were analyzed for cardiovascular risk factors such as lipid profile, body mass index (BMI and hypertension. The effects of modifiable risk factors like diet and physical activity on lipid profile were analyzed. The correlation between parent and child lipid profile was studied. Results: Mean total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides were significantly higher (P<0.05 in children with family history of IHD as compared to children without family history. There was a positive correlation between lipid levels of parents and their children. Children with elevated BMI, a sedentary lifestyle, and excess oily/junk diet intake showed increased incidence of dyslipidemia (P<0.05. Conclusions: Children of IHD patients have significant incidence of dyslipidemia. The risk factors like BMI, diet and physical activity increase the incidence of dyslipidemia. Therefore, all children of premature IHD patients should be screened for dyslipidemia.

  13. The Study of Lipid Profile, Diet and Other Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Children Born to Parents Having Premature Ischemic Heart Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savitha, MR; Sandeep, B

    2011-01-01

    Background: Dyslipidemia is a marker for ischemic heart disease (IHD), which can be detected in early childhood and tracks to adulthood. Dyslipidemia, along with factors like diet, obesity and sedentary activity, increases the risk of a child developing IHD in adulthood. Early detection and modification of these risk factors can prevent IHD. Objectives: To study the lipid profile in children born to parents with history of premature IHD and also to study the effect of diet, lifestyle factors, and obesity in the study group. Materials and Methods: Fifty children of parents with premature IHD and 50 control children without any family history of IHD were analyzed for cardiovascular risk factors such as lipid profile, body mass index (BMI) and hypertension. The effects of modifiable risk factors like diet and physical activity on lipid profile were analyzed. The correlation between parent and child lipid profile was studied. Results: Mean total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides were significantly higher (P<0.05) in children with family history of IHD as compared to children without family history. There was a positive correlation between lipid levels of parents and their children. Children with elevated BMI, a sedentary lifestyle, and excess oily/junk diet intake showed increased incidence of dyslipidemia (P<0.05). Conclusions: Children of IHD patients have significant incidence of dyslipidemia. The risk factors like BMI, diet and physical activity increase the incidence of dyslipidemia. Therefore, all children of premature IHD patients should be screened for dyslipidemia. PMID:22279260

  14. Parent behaviors moderate the relationship between neonatal pain and internalizing behaviors at 18 months corrected age in children born very prematurely

    OpenAIRE

    Vinall, Jillian; Miller, Steven P.; Synnes, Anne R; Grunau, Ruth E

    2013-01-01

    Children born very preterm (≤32 weeks gestation) show greater internalizing (anxious/depressed) behaviors compared to term-born peers as early as 2 years corrected age (CA), however, the role of early stress in the etiology of internalizing problems in preterm children remains unknown. Therefore, we examined the relationship between neonatal pain and internalizing behavior at 18 months CA in children born very preterm, and examined whether parent behavior and stress moderated this relationshi...

  15. Prevalence of dental caries in children born prematurely or at full term Prevalência de cárie dentária em crianças nascidas prematuramente e a termo

    OpenAIRE

    Danuze Batista Lamas Gravina; Vanessa Resende Nogueira Cruvinel; Tatiana Degani Paes Leme Azevedo; Orlando Ayrton de Toledo; Ana Cristina Barreto Bezerra

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of dental caries in 192 children, 96 born prematurely and 96 at full term, in a regional hospital in Brazil. Mean age at clinical examination was 40.72 months in the full-term group (G1) and 30.44 months in the premature group (G2). The children were divided in two age subgroups: 0 to 3 and 4 to 6 years. Statistical results (Student's t and Kruskal-Wallis tests) showed that dmft was 0.43 for G1 and 0.01 for G2 in the 0-3 age subgroup,...

  16. Adjusting to being a father to an infant born prematurely: experiences from Swedish fathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg, Birgitta; Axelsson, Karin; Ohrling, Kerstin

    2008-03-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the experiences of being a father to a prematurely born infant. Eight fathers of prematurely born children were interviewed using a narrative approach, and a thematic content analysis was used to analyse the interviews. The fathers described that the preterm birth gave them the chance to get to know their infant as they had to spend time at the intensive care unit. They also felt better educated by professionals who helped them take care of their infant. Their feelings and attachment for their infant increased over time and the fathers felt that they had a stronger bond with their child compared with friends who had babies born at term. As time passed, they became more confident as a father. In spite of the strain, the experience made them change as a person and they expressed having different values. The relationship with their partner was strengthened as they handled this situation together as a couple. However, the fathers felt fortunate despite everything and described having managed a prematurely born infant rather well. Although there are similarities between being a father to a child born at term and to one born preterm, it is significant to gain further knowledge about the specific experiences of fathers of prematurely born infants. The results of this study have implications for nurses working with families who have children born prematurely. PMID:18269426

  17. Computed tomography of the head of new born premature infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evaluation of the extracerebral space on CT resulted as follows: The existence of the etracerebral space in the parieto-occipital region (PO-ECS) was physiological findings characteristic to premature infants. Its incidence was higher and the width of the space was greater, in those of premature infants. Generally PO-ECS disappeared around 40 weeks of gestation, while it tended to remaine beyond 40 weeks in premature infants born after less than 30 weeks of pregnancy. The appearance and disappearance of the PO-ECS may present some approach to learning the development of the brain in premature infants. (Ueda, J.)

  18. Morbidity structure among prematurely born babies of the same gestational age from single and twin pregnancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragičević Marina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Premature infants, born before 37 completed weeks of gestation, belong to the category of at-risk children. They have a lower survival rate due to complex multifactorial diseases such as respiratory distress syndrome, nosocomial sepsis, necrotizing enterocolitis, intracranial pathologies (bleeding, ischemia, maldevelopment, retinopathy of prematurity, and bronchopulmonary dysplasia which threaten survival and optimal neurodevelopment. Multiple pregnancies are more often delivered before the due date. Our objective was to determine the morbidity structure among prematurely born twins compared to singletons of the same gestational age. Material and Methods. The analysis included 60 prematurely born children (30 preterm twins and 30 singletons who had been diagnosed with one or more diseases: respiratory distress syndrome, intraventricular hemorrhage, retinopathy, icterus, septicaemia, and other, with the exception of general infections. Results. The most common diagnosis of preterm twins and singletons was hyperbilirubinaemia (83.3% and respiratory distress syndrome (78.3%. Infections follow with 25% and intracranial hemorrhage with 21%. Conclusion. According to statistical analyses, there is no significant difference in incidence of morbidity among prematurely born singletons and preterm twins.

  19. Evolutional neurologic evaluation of seven year-old children born prematurely Avaliação neurológica evolutiva aos sete anos de idade de crianças nascidas prematuras

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    Lygia Ohiweiler

    1996-09-01

    Full Text Available A sample of 51 children aged 7 with a history of prematurity was compared to 44 age-matched children who were born at term at the HCPA. The premature children had had gestational ages up to 37 weeks and 6 days and were born weighing less than 2500g. The control group consisted of children born with gestational age between 38 and 42 weeks and weights above 2S00g. The evaluation criteria were clinical examination, neurological examination and the evolutional neurological evaluation (ENE. The results pointed out that impulsiveness, aggressiveness, disorganization and enuresis were prevalent symptoms of developmental disturbances in the sample of prematures. Alterations at neurological examination did not discriminate between the two groups, although cerebral palsy occurred only in the proup of prematures. The ENE functions which differentiated the two groups studied were dynamic balance, appendicular and trunk-limb coordination and motor persistence.Para estudar o desenvolvimento neuropsicomotor em amostra de prematuros aos 7 anos de idade, foram avaliadas 51 crianças prematuras e comparadas com 44 a termo. O grupo de prematuros tinha idade gestacional de até 37 semanas e 6 dias e peso de nascimento até 2500g. O grupo controle foi constituído de crianças com idade gestacional entre 38 e 42 semanas e acima de 2500g. Os instrumentos de avaliação utilizados foram os exames clinico, neurológico e neurológico evolutivo (ENE. Os resultados mostraram que impulsividade, agressividade, desorganização e enurese foram sintomas prevalentes nos prematuros. As alterações no exame neurológico não discriminaram os grupos, embora paralisia cerebral só tenha ocorrido nos prematuros. As funções do ENE que distinguiram os grupos foram equilíbrio dinâmico, coordenação tronco-membros e persistência motora, constituindo-se esta no comprometimento dominante nos prematuros e as alterações na coordenação tronco-membros em achado peculiar neste

  20. Radioimmunological determination of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate in premature, mature and deficient born children as a parameter in the determination of the functional condition of the fetal adrenal cortex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The starting point of this work was the question of a correlation between serum concentration of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DS) and gestation age. It was shown that after the sixth day of life, a negative correlation existed between the DS concentration in the serum of neonates and their gestation age. With non-stressed neonates DS can be used as a parameter of maturity. Vaginal birth and severe illness of premature, respectively newborn children cause a massive stimulation of DS secretion through the fetal zone of the adrenal cortex. Between the DS concentrations and the prolactin levels no correlation could be proven, so that there can be no discussion of prolactin as an alternative stimulator on the fetal zone of the adrenal cortex. The DS values presented in this work for premature and mature neonates of varying gestation age can be used as reference values by pediatric endocrinologists for the evaluation of a newborn with the suspect diagnosis of an adrenogenital syndrome or an adrenal insufficiency. The DS-radioimmunoassay is a practicable method for newborns because of its simplicity, quickness, and demand for only small amounts of serum and it is sufficiently specific and provides a good statement about the functional condition of the adrenal gland of newborns. (orig.)

  1. Early electrophysiological markers of atypical language processing in prematurely born infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paquette, Natacha; Vannasing, Phetsamone; Tremblay, Julie; Lefebvre, Francine; Roy, Marie-Sylvie; McKerral, Michelle; Lepore, Franco; Lassonde, Maryse; Gallagher, Anne

    2015-12-01

    Because nervous system development may be affected by prematurity, many prematurely born children present language or cognitive disorders at school age. The goal of this study is to investigate whether these impairments can be identified early in life using electrophysiological auditory event-related potentials (AERPs) and mismatch negativity (MMN). Brain responses to speech and non-speech stimuli were assessed in prematurely born children to identify early electrophysiological markers of language and cognitive impairments. Participants were 74 children (41 full-term, 33 preterm) aged 3, 12, and 36 months. Pre-attentional auditory responses (MMN and AERPs) were assessed using an oddball paradigm, with speech and non-speech stimuli presented in counterbalanced order between participants. Language and cognitive development were assessed using the Bayley Scale of Infant Development, Third Edition (BSID-III). Results show that preterms as young as 3 months old had delayed MMN response to speech stimuli compared to full-terms. A significant negative correlation was also found between MMN latency to speech sounds and the BSID-III expressive language subscale. However, no significant differences between full-terms and preterms were found for the MMN to non-speech stimuli, suggesting preserved pre-attentional auditory discrimination abilities in these children. Identification of early electrophysiological markers for delayed language development could facilitate timely interventions. PMID:26476371

  2. Educational Needs of School-Aged Children Born Very and Extremely Preterm: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornby, Garry; Woodward, Lianne J.

    2009-01-01

    Recent decades have witnessed dramatically improved survival rates for infants born prematurely, especially those born very and extremely preterm. Follow-up studies concerned with long-term neurodevelopmental outcomes for children born preterm indicate that these children are at high risk for a range of cognitive, learning, neuromotor, and…

  3. Atypical perceptual narrowing in prematurely born infants is associated with compromised language acquisition at 2 years of age

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    Suominen Kalervo

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Early auditory experiences are a prerequisite for speech and language acquisition. In healthy children, phoneme discrimination abilities improve for native and degrade for unfamiliar, socially irrelevant phoneme contrasts between 6 and 12 months of age as the brain tunes itself to, and specializes in the native spoken language. This process is known as perceptual narrowing, and has been found to predict normal native language acquisition. Prematurely born infants are known to be at an elevated risk for later language problems, but it remains unclear whether these problems relate to early perceptual narrowing. To address this question, we investigated early neurophysiological phoneme discrimination abilities and later language skills in prematurely born infants and in healthy, full-term infants. Results Our follow-up study shows for the first time that perceptual narrowing for non-native phoneme contrasts found in the healthy controls at 12 months was not observed in very prematurely born infants. An electric mismatch response of the brain indicated that whereas full-term infants gradually lost their ability to discriminate non-native phonemes from 6 to 12 months of age, prematurely born infants kept on this ability. Language performance tested at the age of 2 years showed a significant delay in the prematurely born group. Moreover, those infants who did not become specialized in native phonemes at the age of one year, performed worse in the communicative language test (MacArthur Communicative Development Inventories at the age of two years. Thus, decline in sensitivity to non-native phonemes served as a predictor for further language development. Conclusion Our data suggest that detrimental effects of prematurity on language skills are based on the low degree of specialization to native language early in development. Moreover, delayed or atypical perceptual narrowing was associated with slower language acquisition. The

  4. Prevalence of dental caries in children born prematurely or at full term Prevalência de cárie dentária em crianças nascidas prematuramente e a termo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danuze Batista Lamas Gravina

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of dental caries in 192 children, 96 born prematurely and 96 at full term, in a regional hospital in Brazil. Mean age at clinical examination was 40.72 months in the full-term group (G1 and 30.44 months in the premature group (G2. The children were divided in two age subgroups: 0 to 3 and 4 to 6 years. Statistical results (Student's t and Kruskal-Wallis tests showed that dmft was 0.43 for G1 and 0.01 for G2 in the 0-3 age subgroup, and 1.7 for G1 and 1.1 for G2 in the 4-6 age subgroup. Differences were significant between G1 and G2 only in the 0-3 age subgroup (p = 0.047. Caries evaluation showed that, of the 96 children in G1, 75 were caries free, while in G2, 84 did not have the disease. These differences were not significant (p = 0.088. The lower mean dmft found in the 0-3 age subgroup in G2 may be attributed to routines established by the hospital's neonatology staff, such as frequent dental visits and preventive instructions about oral habits, oral hygiene and diet. After this age, with the completion of the primary dentition, values increased and became similar between the G1 and G2 groups. Results also suggested a highly skewed distribution since most caries were found in only a small number of children.O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a prevalência da cárie dentária em 192 crianças, 96 nascidas prematuramente e 96 a termo, em um hospital regional no Brasil. A média de idade ao exame clínico foi de 40,72 meses e 30,44 meses para os grupos a termo (G1 e prematuro (G2, respectivamente. As crianças foram divididas em faixas etárias de 0 a 3 e 4 a 6 anos. Os resultados estatísticos (testes t de Student e Kruskal-Wallis mostraram que, entre 0 a 3 anos, o ceo-d foi 0,43 para o G1 e 0,01 para o G2. Entre 4 e 6 anos, o ceo-d foi 1,7 e 1,1 para G1 e G2, respectivamente. Os resultados foram significativos entre G1 e G2 apenas na faixa etária entre 0 e 3 anos (p = 0,047. A

  5. Prevalence of dental caries and caries-related risk factors in premature and term children

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    Vanessa Resende Nogueira Cruvinel

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the prevalence of enamel defects and dental caries and their risk factors on primary and permanent dentitions of prematurely-born children and term children. Eighty children were examined, 40 born prematurely (G1 and 40 born term (G2, in the age group between 5 and 10 years. The demographic variables, medical history and oral health behaviors were recorded on a questionnaire. The teeth were examined for presence of deficiencies of the enamel and caries that were registered. The caries were registered, focusing on the indices dmft (decayed, missing, and filled primary teeth and DMFT (decayed, missing, and filled permanent teeth. The results showed that 75% of the total sample had enamel defects. The logistic regression model showed that other risk factors such as per capita family income, educational level, dietary and hygiene habits, fluoride exposure, trauma, and diseases had no correlation with enamel defects and caries. A smaller value of total DMFT (0.95 was found in the group of premature children in comparison to the term children (2.07 p = 0.0164. There was no difference concerning the permanent dentition between the two groups (p = 0.9926. One concludes that prematurity can't be a predisposing factor for the presence of dental caries.

  6. The Impact of Premature Birth: A Correlational Study Assessing the Need for Children to Access Educational Support Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Laura M.; Miller, Rebecca

    2009-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests children born premature are at increased risk of lower cognitive abilities, poor academic performance, low social competence and behavioral problems, compared with individuals born full-term (e.g., Whitside-Mansell, Barrett, Bradley & Gargus, 2006; Litt, Taylor, Klein, & Hack, 2005). The goal of the current study was…

  7. Dietary behaviors of adults born prematurely may explain future risk for cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharafi, Mastaneh; Duffy, Valerie B; Miller, Robin J; Winchester, Suzy B; Huedo-Medina, Tania B; Sullivan, Mary C

    2016-04-01

    Being born prematurely associates with greater cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in adulthood. Less understood are the unique and joint associations of dietary patterns and behaviors to this elevated risk among adults who are born prematurely. We aimed to model the associations between term status, dietary and lifestyle behaviors with CVD risk factors while accounting for the longitudinal effects of family protection, and medical or environmental risks. In wave-VIII of a longitudinal study, 23-year olds born prematurely (PT-adults, n = 129) and full term (FT-adults, n = 38) survey-reported liking for foods/beverages and activities, constructed into indexes of dietary quality and sensation-seeking, dietary restraint and physical activity. Measured CVD risk factors included fasting serum lipids and glucose, blood pressure and adiposity. In bivariate relationships, PT-adults reported lower dietary quality (including less affinity for protein-rich foods and higher affinity for sweets), less liking for sensation-seeking foods/activities, and less restrained eating than did FT-adults. In comparison to nationally-representative values and the FT-adults, PT-adults showed greater level of CVD risk factors for blood pressure and serum lipids. In structural equation modeling, dietary quality completely mediated the association between term status and HDL-cholesterol (higher quality, lower HDL-cholesterol) yet joined term status to explain variability in systolic blood pressure (PT-adults with lowest dietary quality had highest blood pressures). Through lower dietary quality, being born prematurely was indirectly linked to higher cholesterol/HDL, higher LDL/HDL and elevated waist/hip ratios. The relationship between dietary quality and CVD risk was strongest for PT-adults who had developed greater cumulative medical risk. Protective environments failed to attenuate relationships between dietary quality and elevated CVD risk among PT-adults. In summary, less healthy dietary

  8. Literacy Skills of Children Born Preterm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Alison; Crosbie, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    Most children born preterm are considered neurologically normal and free of disability. However in follow-up studies at school age, preterm children, born without major impairment, have been shown to have lower cognitive abilities and associated academic, social and behavioural difficulties. This study investigated the literacy, phonological…

  9. Comparative study of visual functions in premature pre-school children with and without retinopathy of prematurity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lígia Beatriz Bonotto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Observe whether there are differences in visual functions among premature infants with treated retinopathy of prematurity (ROP in relation to preterm infants with ROP and spontaneous regression; and among these two groups with ROP and the control group without ROP. Methods: Crosssectional observational no blind study. Premature infants were born between 06/199206/2006 and were exam between 06/200912/2010; registered in data of Hospital de Olhos Sandalla Amin Ghanem; with gestational age less than or equal to 32 weeks and 1,599 g born weigh; without ROP and ROP stages II or III, in one of the eyes, with spontaneous regression or with treatment; at least three visits during the selection period at maximum 6 months in the first exam and minimum 4 years of age in reassessment (chronological age were include. Premature that did not respond or were not located for reassessment and those that did not have conditions to do the exams were exclude. Study's groups: G1 ROP posttreatment; G2ROP postspontaneous regression; G3 without ROP (control. Visual function evaluated with visual acuity (VA, contrast sensitivity test (CST, color test (CT, eye movement, stereopsis. Results: Overall, there were 24 premature infants and 48 eyes. Normal VA: 64.28% (G1, 87.5% (G2 and 100% (G3; Normal CST: 66.67% (G1, 100% (G2 and 55.56% (G3; Normal Ishihara CT: 100% (G1 and G2 and 86% (G3; Normal Farnsworth CT: 20% (G1, 75% (G2 and 50% (G3. Normal stereoacuity: 0.00% (G1; 25% (G2 and 3.5% (G3. Strabismus: 37% (G2, 0.00% (G1 and G3. The prevalent tendency for lower response in CST and CT between the premature children in group G3 and Farnsworth color test in G1 is a curious result of this work and more study is necessary about these visual functions in older premature children. Conclusion: The visual functions showed no statistically significant difference among the groups studied.

  10. Premature infants display increased noxious-evoked neuronal activity in the brain compared to healthy age-matched term-born infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Rebeccah; Fabrizi, Lorenzo; Worley, Alan; Meek, Judith; Boyd, Stewart; Fitzgerald, Maria

    2010-08-15

    This study demonstrates that infants who are born prematurely and who have experienced at least 40days of intensive or special care have increased brain neuronal responses to noxious stimuli compared to healthy newborns at the same postmenstrual age. We have measured evoked potentials generated by noxious clinically-essential heel lances in infants born at term (8 infants; born 37-40weeks) and in infants born prematurely (7 infants; born 24-32weeks) who had reached the same postmenstrual age (mean age at time of heel lance 39.2+/-1.2weeks). These noxious-evoked potentials are clearly distinguishable from shorter latency potentials evoked by non-noxious tactile sensory stimulation. While the shorter latency touch potentials are not dependent on the age of the infant at birth, the noxious-evoked potentials are significantly larger in prematurely-born infants. This enhancement is not associated with specific brain lesions but reflects a functional change in pain processing in the brain that is likely to underlie previously reported changes in pain sensitivity in older ex-preterm children. Our ability to quantify and measure experience-dependent changes in infant cortical pain processing will allow us to develop a more rational approach to pain management in neonatal intensive care. PMID:20438855

  11. Specific Language and Reading Skills in School-Aged Children and Adolescents are Associated with Prematurity after Controlling for IQ

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Eliana S.; Yeatman, Jason D.; Luna, Beatriz; FELDMAN, HEIDI M.

    2010-01-01

    Although studies of long-term outcomes of children born preterm consistently show low intelligence quotient (IQ) and visual-motor impairment, studies of their performance in language and reading have found inconsistent results. In this study, we examined which specific language and reading skills were associated with prematurity independent of the effects of gender, socioeconomic status (SES), and IQ. Participants from two study sites (N = 100) included 9–16 year old children born before 36 w...

  12. Incidence of Type-1 Retinopathy of Prematurity in Premature Babies Born Small for Gestational Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İmren Akkoyun

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To compare the incidence of type retinopathy of prematurity (ROP in patients small for gestational age (SGA and in patients appropriate for gestational age (AGA in a developing country. Material and Method: We included in this study infants (n=162 with gestational age (GA ≤34 weeks who were screened for ROP in a neonatal intensive care unit between June 2007 and December 2011 and were followed up until the retina was completely vascularized or ROP was regressed. Type 1 ROP was defined according to the ETROP study. To describe the incidence of type 1 ROP, data were analyzed in two main groups: (A SGA-group and (B AGA-group. SGA was defined as birth weight below the 10th percentile for gestational age. GA in weeks, birth weight (BW in grams (g, ROP at any stage, type 1 ROP, and post menstrual age (PMA at type 1 ROP were evaluated for the two groups. Retrospective review of records was performed. Results: BW (in mean±SD was 832.45±131.74 g in group A and 962.97±351.47 g in group B; GA (in mean±SD was 29.27±2.4 weeks in group A and 27.36±2.8 weeks in group B, with significant difference between the groups (p=0.001 vs. p<0.0001. Overall incidence of any-stage ROP was 41.2% in group A and 45.9% in group B, while type 1 ROP was 17.6% in group A and 15.3% in group B. PMA at type 1 ROP detection was 35±3.6 weeks in group A and 33.83±2.7 weeks in group B, without significant difference (p=0.57 vs. 0.44 vs. 0.23. In group A, the earliest diagnosis of type 1 ROP was 31 weeks PMA, the latest diagnosis was 43 weeks PMA. In group B, the earliest diagnosis of type 1 ROP was 32 weeks PMA, the latest diagnosis was 42 weeks PMA. Discussion: In groups A and B, larger infants may develop type 1 ROP and require treatment. Overall incidence of type 1 ROP in groups A and B is without significant difference. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2013; 43: 340-4

  13. Adiposity in children born small for gestational age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tappy, L

    2006-12-01

    Epidemiological studies indicate that children born small for gestational age (SGA) have an increased risk of metabolic and cardiovascular disorders as adults. This suggests that foetal undernutrition leads to permanent metabolic alterations, which predispose to metabolic abnormalities upon exposure to environmental factors such as low physical activity and/or high-energy intake in later life (thrifty phenotype hypothesis). However, this relationship is not restricted to foetal undernutrition or intrauterine growth retardation, but is also found for children born premature, or for high birth weight children. Furthermore, early post-natal nutrition, and more specifically catch-up growth, appear to modulate cardiovascular risk as well. Intrauterine growth retardation can be induced in animal models by energy/protein restriction, or ligation of uterine arteries. In such models, altered glucose homeostasis, including low beta-cell mass, low insulin secretion and insulin resistance is observed after a few weeks of age. In humans, several studies have confirmed that children born SGA have insulin resistance as adolescents and young adults. Alterations of glucose homeostasis and increased lipid oxidation can indeed be observed already in non-diabetic children born SGA at early pubertal stages. These children also have alterations of stature and changes in body composition (increased fat mass), which may contribute to the pathogenesis of insulin resistance. Permanent metabolic changes induced by foetal/early neonatal nutrition (metabolic inprinting) may involve modulation of gene expression through DNA methylation, or alterations of organ structure. It is also possible that events occurring during foetal/neonatal development lead to long-lasting alterations of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis or the hypothalamo-pituitary-insulin-like growth factor-1 axis. PMID:17133233

  14. Pathogenesis, Neuroimaging and Management in Children with Cerebral Palsy Born Preterm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoon, Alexander H., Jr.; Faria, Andreia Vasconcellos

    2010-01-01

    With advances in obstetric and perinatal management, the incidence of intraventricular hemorrhage in premature infants has declined, while periventricular leukomalacia remains a significant concern. It is now known that brain injury in children born preterm also involves neuronal-axonal disease in supratentorial and infratentorial structures. The…

  15. Comparative study of visual functions in premature pre-school children with and without retinopathy of prematurity

    OpenAIRE

    Lígia Beatriz Bonotto; Ana Tereza Ramos Moreira; Silvia Chuffi; Susana Maria Bittencourt Sckudlarek

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Observe whether there are differences in visual functions among premature infants with treated retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in relation to preterm infants with ROP and spontaneous regression; and among these two groups with ROP and the control group without ROP. Methods: Crosssectional observational no blind study. Premature infants were born between 06/199206/2006 and were exam between 06/200912/2010; registered in data of Hospital de Olhos Sandalla Amin Ghanem; with gestatio...

  16. Long-term outcomes in children born after assisted conception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Esther

    2012-04-01

    Millions of children have been born worldwide through assisted reproductive technology (ART), and access is increasing yearly. Our current knowledge and understanding of the long-term risks and/or benefits to the children conceived is incomplete. Investigations of the health, disease, cognitive, developmental, and behavioral outcomes are often confounded by other factors, including multiple gestations, prematurity, and low birthweight. Reports of the long-term health and psychosocial adjustment of children conceived with ART show generally good outcomes. Many of the major long-term problems observed in the children may be associated with multiple gestations, preterm delivery, and low birthweight or with subfertility of the parents. Evidence in the male infants conceived with the aid of intracytoplasmic sperm injection suggests an increased risk of reproductive tract anomalies such as hypospadias. Outcome data on health of children born after cryopreservation of cleavage stage embryos are reassuring. Measuring long-term outcomes is the first step to improving and optimizing health in the offspring conceived with medical and technological assistance. PMID:22549712

  17. Social Perception in Children Born at Very Low Birthweight and Its Relationship with Social/Behavioral Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Kathryn E.; Jakobson, Lorna S.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Research has shown that children born very prematurely are at substantially elevated risk for social and behavioral difficulties similar to those seen in full-term children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Methods: To gain insight into core deficits that may underlie these difficulties, in this study, we assessed the social…

  18. Motor Development of Premature Infants Born between 32 and 34 Weeks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Prins

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about motor development in late preterm born infants. Our objective was to determine long-term outcome of motor skills of infants born between 32 and 34 weeks. All infants were assessed at corrected ages of 3 and 9 months, using the Alberta Infant Motor Scale. At corrected ages of 4 years, the Movement Assessment Battery for Children was done. Seventy infants were seen at 4 years of age (median of 3 assessments per infant. Abnormal assessment at 3 or 9 months of age resulted in normal outcome in almost 80% at 4 years. On the other hand, a normal outcome in the first year of life resulted in an abnormal outcome at 4 years in 10% of the infants. Our results suggest that long-term followup of these late preterm born infants is necessary, as the assessments in the first year do not predict the long-term outcome.

  19. Job losses and accumulated number of broken partnerships increase risk of premature mortality in Danish men born in 1953

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kriegbaum, Margit; Christensen, Ulla; Lund, Rikke;

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate how accumulation of job losses and broken partnerships affect the risk of premature mortality, and to study joint exposure to both events. METHODS: Birth cohort study of 9789 Danish men born in 1953 with follow-up of events between the ages of 40 and 51. RESULTS: The...... adjusted hazard rates for premature mortality was 1.44 (95% CI = 1.15 to 1.80) for individuals with one job loss, 1.55 (1.13 to 2.13) for individuals with one broken partnership, and 2.15 (95% CI = 1.49 to 3.10) for individuals with two or more broken partnerships. CONCLUSIONS: Experience of at least one...... job loss increased the risk of premature mortality. The risk of premature mortality increased with the number of broken partnerships. There was no statistical interaction between job losses and broken partnerships....

  20. Radiation dose to premature new-borns in the belgian neonatal intensive care units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the neonatal intensive care units (NICU), premature new-borns may be exposed to important doses. Because of their increased radiosensitivity and longer life expectancy, dose optimisation is of importance. The present study aimed at evaluating the dose of the most common radiographs in the Belgian NICU. Entrance surface kerma (ESK) and kerma area product (KAP) were collected in 17 NICU (among 19 in Belgium). Median ESK ranged from 13 to 172 μGy and from 8 to 117 μGy for chest and combined chest-abdomen radiographs, respectively; median KAP ranged from 1.4 to 14.2 mGy cm2 and from 3.8 to 28.1 mGy cm2 for chest and combined chest-abdomen radiographs, respectively. Those differences were due to large variations in the examination settings. Diagnostic reference levels (DRL) were set for chest and combined chest-abdomen radiographs. Though the radiograph dose was usually low, the cumulative dose per stay could be high. The wide, intercentre differences indicate that there is scope for dose reduction. The use of DRL should contribute to achieve this object. (authors)

  1. Premature infant

    Science.gov (United States)

    A premature infant is a baby born before 37 completed weeks of gestation (more than 3 weeks before the ... baby is classified as one of the following: Premature (less than 37 weeks gestation) Full term (37 ...

  2. Follow-up of children born after intracytoplasmic sperm injection with epididymal and testicular spermatozoa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Yi-hong; DONG Rui-na; SU Ying-chun; LI Jing; ZHANG Ya-jie; SUN Ying-pu

    2013-01-01

    Background To evaluate the safety of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) with epididymal or testicular sperm,this study compared children born after ICSI treatment with epididymal or testicular sperm with children conceived after ICSI with ejaculated sperm.Methods This retrospective study included 317 children born after ICSI with percutaneous epididymal sperm aspiration (PESA),103 children born after ICSI with testicular sperm aspiration (TESA),and a control group of 1008 children born after ICSI with ejaculated sperm.All of the patients received their assisted reproductive treatment in the Reproductive Medicine Center of the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University from January 2004 to December 2011.Data,such as the rate of stillbirths,perinatal mortality,gestational age,birth weight,and the rate of congenital malformations of the three groups,were compared.Results PESA and TESA children were not different from ICSI children in the rate of stillbirths,perinatal mortality,infant mortality rate,gestational age,the rate of prematurity,and the rate of malformations (P>0.05).A slight increase in birth defects was reported in the TESA group compared with those in the control group,but there was no significant difference between the groups (P>0.05).Conclusion ICSI with epididymal or testicular sperm does not lead to more stillbirths or congenital malformations compared with ICSI using ejaculated sperm.

  3. Factors of the Dynamic Ileus Forming in Premature Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solodchuk O.N.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim of investigation is revealing of the ante- and intranatal anamnesis peculiarities and clinical manifestations of dynamic ileus in premature children. Materials and Methods. 60 children, being at hospital with a confirmed diagnosis of dynamic ileus, were examined. They were divided into 3 groups depending on the body mass values at birth (premature children with a low, very low and extremally low mass. The methods of diagnosis: clinicoanamnestic, standard laboratory and instrumental investigations. Results. A multitude of unfavorable anamnesis factors in children with dynamic ileus: a chronic antenatal hypoxia of different genesis, pathologic flow of labor, artificial feeding from the first days of life is revealed. No trustworthy differences on that or other pathology forming factor prevailing depending on gestation age and physical development parameters at birth were revealed. The symptoms of dynamic ileus were also frequently encountered in all the groups: an increase of the congestive contents volume in stomach, a bile presence in a gastric aspirate, persistent regurgitations including a bile mixture, inflation of abdomen, a lack of peristalsis.

  4. Premature infants' health at multiple induced pregnancy.

    OpenAIRE

    Chernenkov Yu.V.; Nechaev V.N.; Stasova Yu.V.; Tereshenko V.A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: to define the risk factors adversely influencing prenatal development at premature birth at use of methods of assisted reproductive technology (ART); to estimate premature' infants health from multiple induced pregnancy according to Perinatal Center of Saratov for last 3 years. Material and Methods. Under supervision there were 139 pregnant women with application ART. 202 children (51 twins were born and 5 triplet babies), from them 83 premature infants born from multiple induced p...

  5. Oral health of children born small for gestational age.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connell, A C

    2010-10-01

    We sought to evaluate the oral health status of children born small for gestational age (SGA). Children now aged 4-8 years who were born SGA (birth weight < -2 SDS) were examined using standardised criteria. The parents completed a structured oral health questionnaire. Twenty females and 25 males, mean age 72.1 months, and mean birth weight 2.1 kg, participated in the study. Poor appetite was a concern; 32 (71%) children snacked between meals and 14 (30%) used carbonated beverages more than 3 times daily. Erosion was present in 9 (20%) children. Dental decay occurred in 22 (47%) children with 92% being untreated. Eight children had more than 5 decayed teeth. It is essential that clinicians working with children born SGA include oral health within the general health surveillance and refer these children for a dental assessment within the first 2 years to support parents in establishing safe feeding patterns for their children.

  6. Stages of providing comprehensive eye care for premature children with premature retinopathy

    OpenAIRE

    A. V. Tereshchenko; Y.A. Belyy; I. G. Trifanenkova; M. S. Tereshchenkova

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose. Functional results analysis of eye care system for premature infants including a complete cycle of measures in an early detection, treatment and regular medical check-up activities for patients with retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in the Central Region of Russia. Material and methods. Visits of the clinical specialists were carried out to the Departments for Nursing of Premature Infants for screening examinations in groups of ROP development risk. Infants w...

  7. Premature aging and immune senescence in HIV-infected children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianesin, Ketty; Noguera-Julian, Antoni; Zanchetta, Marisa; Del Bianco, Paola; Petrara, Maria Raffaella; Freguja, Riccardo; Rampon, Osvalda; Fortuny, Clàudia; Camós, Mireia; Mozzo, Elena; Giaquinto, Carlo; De Rossi, Anita

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Several pieces of evidence indicate that HIV-infected adults undergo premature aging. The effect of HIV and antiretroviral therapy (ART) exposure on the aging process of HIV-infected children may be more deleterious since their immune system coevolves from birth with HIV. Design: Seventy-one HIV-infected (HIV+), 65 HIV-exposed-uninfected (HEU), and 56 HIV-unexposed-uninfected (HUU) children, all aged 0–5 years, were studied for biological aging and immune senescence. Methods: Telomere length and T-cell receptor rearrangement excision circle levels were quantified in peripheral blood cells by real-time PCR. CD4+ and CD8+ cells were analysed for differentiation, senescence, and activation/exhaustion markers by flow cytometry. Results: Telomere lengths were significantly shorter in HIV+ than in HEU and HUU children (overall, P < 0.001 adjusted for age); HIV+ ART-naive (42%) children had shorter telomere length compared with children on ART (P = 0.003 adjusted for age). T-cell receptor rearrangement excision circle levels and CD8+ recent thymic emigrant cells (CD45RA+CD31+) were significantly lower in the HIV+ than in control groups (overall, P = 0.025 and P = 0.005, respectively). Percentages of senescent (CD28−CD57+), activated (CD38+HLA-DR+), and exhausted (PD1+) CD8+ cells were significantly higher in HIV+ than in HEU and HUU children (P = 0.004, P < 0.001, and P < 0.001, respectively). Within the CD4+ cell subset, the percentage of senescent cells did not differ between HIV+ and controls, but programmed cell death receptor-1 expression was upregulated in the former. Conclusions: HIV-infected children exhibit premature biological aging with accelerated immune senescence, which particularly affects the CD8+ cell subset. HIV infection per se seems to influence the aging process, rather than exposure to ART for prophylaxis or treatment. PMID:26990630

  8. Developmental milestones in post-term born children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Annette Wind; Olsen, Jørn; Zhu, Jinliang

    DEVELOPMENTAL MILESTONES IN POST-TERM BORN CHILDREN Annette Wind Olesen (1), Jorn Olsen (2), Jinliang Zhu (2) (1)Institute of Regional Health Research, University of Southern Denmark, (2)The Danish Epidemiology Science Centre, Aarhus University Objective: To examine the timing of reaching...... developmental milestones in children born post-term. Design: Cohort study. Material: The Danish National Birth Cohort; children born between 1997 and 2003. Data was obtained from a cohort of 92,892 pregnancies participating in the first pregnancy interview. All singletons born in gestational week 39-45 were...... identified. The study was then restricted to children who participated in an interview at age of approximately 18 months and had information on at least one developmental milestone, e.g. sitting without support, using two word sentences. We excluded children of mothers with chronic diseases from the final...

  9. The Well-Being of Children Born to Teen Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Judith A.; Emery, Clifton R.; Pollack, Harold

    2007-01-01

    Children born to early child bearers are more likely than other children to display problem behaviors or poor academic performance, but it is unclear whether early childbearing plays a causal role in these outcomes. Using multiple techniques to control for background factors, we analyze 2,908 young children and 1,736 adolescents and young adults…

  10. Developmental delay at 12 months in children born extremely preterm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lando, Ane; Klamer, Anja; Jonsbo, Finn;

    2005-01-01

    for comparison. The interview was conducted by NICU staff. To validate the R-PDQ, parents of 22 children in the preterm group and parents of 19 children in the reference group conducted an Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ) when their children had reached the age of 3-3(1/2) y. RESULTS: The R-PDQ was......AIM: To evaluate the feasibility and validity of a structured telephone interview to assess the development of children born extremely preterm. METHODS: The parents of 88 children born with a gestational age below 28 wk admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) at Rigshospitalet......, Copenhagen, were interviewed by telephone when their child was 1 y of age, corrected for preterm birth. A fully structured questionnaire on psychomotor function was used (Revised Prescreening Developmental Questionnaire (R-PDQ)). The parents of 30 children born at term without complications were interviewed...

  11. Factors Affecting the IQ of Preterm Born Children of 4-6 Years Old

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shokofeh Radfar

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: This research was carry out with aim of study of factors affecting the IQ of children 4-6 years old born preterm. Materials and Methods: This analytical-cross sectional study was carried out on 102 premature children with age 4-6 years old during years 2004 to 2006. The tools used in this study were Wechsler intelligence scale for children and questioner including demographical characteristic. In this study we used t-test and spearman correlation and also SPSS-18 was used to analyze data. Results: In this study there was statistical relationship between normal child development and gestational age, birth weight, maternal education, multiple pregnancies, but there were not any statistical significant relationship between the history of preterm birth and child s gender, consanguinity parents, apgar, mother job. Conclusion: IQ in preterm babies who admitted in the NICU was lower than non-admitted preterm or term babies.

  12. Stages of providing comprehensive eye care for premature children with premature retinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Tereshchenko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose. Functional results analysis of eye care system for premature infants including a complete cycle of measures in an early detection, treatment and regular medical check-up activities for patients with retinopathy of prematurity (ROP in the Central Region of Russia. Material and methods. Visits of the clinical specialists were carried out to the Departments for Nursing of Premature Infants for screening examinations in groups of ROP development risk. Infants with the revealed ROP were referred to the Kaluga Branch of the S. Fyodorov Eye Microsurgery State Institution for a detailed diagnostic examination and a subsequent treatment and monitoring. Results. There were made 454 visits to Kaluga, Tula, Bryansk, and Orel regions in the period between 2003 and 2011 and 8861 infants were examined. ROP was found in 1834 infants (20.7%. There were performed 823 different interventions for infants with active ROP: 737 retinal laser coagulations, 3-port lens preserving vitrectomy — 72, lens vitrectomy — 14. The total efficacy of the treatment was 92.9%. Conclusion. The proposed eye care system for premature infants in the Central Region of Russia combines all trends: from a detailed precise diagnosis to a high-technologic treatment. It allows to reproduce it all over the Russian Federation territory.

  13. Influence of the blood glucose level on the development of retinopathy of prematurity in extremely premature children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina V. Nicolaeva

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTPurpose:To investigate the influence of the blood glucose level on the development of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP in extremely premature infants.Methods:Sixty-four premature infants with a gestational age of less than 30 weeks and a birth weight of less than 1500 g were included in the study. Children without ROP were allocated to Group 1 (n=14, gestational age 28.6 ± 1.4 weeks, birth weight 1162 ± 322 g, and children with spontaneous regression of ROP were allocated to Group 2 (n=32, gestational age 26.5 ± 1.2 weeks, birth weight 905 ± 224 g. Children with progressive ROP who underwent laser treatment were included in Group 3 (n=18, gestational age 25.4 ± 0.7 weeks, birth weight 763 ± 138 g. The glucose level in the capillary blood of the premature infants was monitored daily during the first 3 weeks of life. A complete ophthalmological screening was performed from the age of 1 month. The nonparametric signed-rank Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test was used for statistical analysis.Results:The mean blood glucose level was 7.43 ± 2.6 mmol/L in Group 1, 7.8 ± 2.7 mmol/L in Group 2, and 6.7 ± 2.6 mmol/L in Group 3. There were no significant differences in the blood glucose levels between children with and without ROP, and also between children with spontaneously regressing ROP and progressive ROP (p>0.05. Additionally, there were no significant differences in the blood glucose levels measured at the first, second, and third weeks of life (p>0.05.Conclusion:The blood glucose level is not related to the development of ROP nor with its progression or regression. The glycemic level cannot be considered as a risk factor for ROP, but reflects the severity of newborns’ somatic condition and morphofunctional immaturity.

  14. Visual impairment in premature children in school age

    OpenAIRE

    Liláková, Dana; Hejcmanová, Dagmar; Marešová, Jana

    2006-01-01

    Background: The developments in neonatology have resulted in an increasing number of deliveries of extremely immature infants that are associated with high morbidity. The main cause of eye disorders is retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) and neurological diseases. Eye disorders related to the retinopathy of premature infants may be presumed and examined very early after birth. Many of the eye disorders appear, however, later in life. The aim of this study was to document the quality of visual fu...

  15. Metabolic syndrome in children born small-for-gestational age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Isabel Hernández

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Being born small-for-gestational age and a rapid increase in weight during early childhood and infancy has been strongly linked with chronic diseases, including metabolic syndrome, which has been related to intrauterine life environment and linked to epigenetic fetal programming. Metabolic syndrome includes waist circumference > 90th percentile for age, sex and race, higher levels of blood pressure, triglycerides and fasting glucose, and low levels of HDL-cholesterol. Insulin resistance may be present as early as 1 year of age, and obesity and/or type 2 diabetes are more prevalent in those born SGA than those born AGA. The programming of adaptive responses in children born SGA includes an association with increased blood pressure, changes in endothelial function, arterial properties and coronary disease. Early interventions should be directed to appropriate maternal nutrition, before and during pregnancy, promotion of breast feeding, and prevention of rapid weight gain during infancy, and to promote a healthy lifestyle.

  16. Mothers' Retrospections of Premature Childbirth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalmar, Magda; And Others

    This study examined Hungarian mothers' recollections, 8 years after the birth of their premature baby, of their stress at the time of the baby's birth. Interviews were conducted with 30 mothers whose babies had been born between 30 and 37 weeks gestational age. At the time of the follow-up, all children had normal IQs and were attending normal…

  17. Characterization of blood borne microparticles as markers of premature coronary calcification in newly menopausal women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayachandran, Muthuvel; Litwiller, Robert D.; Owen, Whyte G.; Heit, John A.; Behrenbeck, Thomas; Mulvagh, Sharon L.; Araoz, Philip A.; Budoff, Matthew J.; Harman, S. Mitchell; Miller, Virginia M.

    2008-01-01

    While the risk for symptomatic atherosclerotic disease increases after menopause, currently recognized risk factors do not identify ongoing disease processes in low-risk women. This study tested the hypothesis that circulating cell-derived microparticles may reflect disease processes in women defined as low risk by the Framingham risk score. The concentration and phenotype of circulating microparticles were evaluated in a cross-sectional study of apparently healthy menopausal women, screened for enrollment into the Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study. Microparticles were evaluated by flow cytometry, and coronary artery calcification (CAC) was scored using 64-slice computed tomography scanners. The procoagulant activity of isolated microparticles was determined with a sensitive fluorescent thrombin generation assay. Chronological age, body mass index, serum lipids, systolic blood pressure (Framingham risk score 50; range, 93–315 Agatston units) CAC compared with women without calcification. The total concentration and percentage of microparticles derived from platelets and endothelial cells were greatest in women with high CAC scores. The thrombin-generating capacity of the isolated microparticles correlated with phosphatidylserine expression, which also was greatest in women with high CAC scores. The percentages of microparticles expressing granulocyte and monocyte markers were not significantly different among groups. Therefore, the characterization of platelet and endothelial microparticles may identify early menopausal women with premature CAC who would not otherwise be identified by the usual risk factor analysis. PMID:18621859

  18. Memory Processes in Learning Disability Subtypes of Children Born Preterm

    OpenAIRE

    McCoy, Thomasin E; Conrad, Amy L.; Richman, Lynn C.; Nopoulos, Peg C.; Bell, Edward F.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate immediate auditory and visual memory processes in learning disability subtypes of 40 children born preterm. Three subgroups of children were examined: (a) primary language disability group (n = 13), (b) perceptual-motor disability group (n = 14), and (c) no learning disability diagnosis group without identified language or perceptual-motor learning disability (n = 13). Between-group comparisons indicate no significant differences in immediate auditory...

  19. Young Adult Outcomes of Children Born to Teen Mothers: Effects of Being Born during Their Teen or Later Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipman, Ellen L.; Georgiades, Katholiki; Boyle, Michael H.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Children of teen mothers exhibit adverse outcomes through adolescence. It is unclear whether these adverse outcomes extend to adulthood and apply to all of her children, or only those born when she was a teen. We examine the associations between young adult functioning and being born to a teen mother aged less than or equal to 20 years…

  20. SPECTRA OF MOTHERS OF PREMATURE CHILDREN ABOUT THE EDUCATIVE CIRCLE OF CULTURE

    OpenAIRE

    Camila Santos do Couto; Milena Colares Tupinambá; Aldecira Uchôa Monteiro Rangel; Mirna Albuquerque Frota; Elis Mayre da Costa Silveira Martins; Caroline Soares Nobre; átima Luna Pinheiro Landim

    2014-01-01

    Abstract We sought to know the spectra of mothers of premature children regarding their experience with circle of culture of educational character and identifying the learning provided by the circle of culture about newborn care after hospital discharge. A descriptive study was performed in a hospital located in Fortaleza, Brazil. Three meetings of a circle of culture with 17 mothers of premature newborns were performed. The interpretation of the corpus was performed using thematic analysis. ...

  1. Cancer in children and young adults born after assisted reproductive technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundh, Karin Jerhamre; Henningsen, Anna-Karina A; Källen, Karin;

    2014-01-01

    children born after spontaneous conception (1.8/1000 children, 18.8/100 000 person-years). Leukaemia was the most common type of cancer (n = 278, 0.62/1000 children) but no significantly increased incidence was found among children born after ART. An increased risk was observed for 2 of 12 cancer groups......STUDY QUESTION: Do children and young adults born after assisted reproductive technology (ART) have an increased risk of cancer? SUMMARY ANSWER: Children born after ART showed no overall increase in the rate of cancer when compared with children born as a result of spontaneous conception. WHAT...... IS KNOWN ALREADY: Children born after ART have more adverse perinatal outcomes, i.e. preterm births, low birthweights and birth defects. Previous studies have shown divergent results regarding the risk of cancer among children born after ART. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: A retrospective Nordic population...

  2. Premature infants' health at multiple induced pregnancy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chernenkov Yu.V.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to define the risk factors adversely influencing prenatal development at premature birth at use of methods of assisted reproductive technology (ART; to estimate premature' infants health from multiple induced pregnancy according to Perinatal Center of Saratov for last 3 years. Material and Methods. Under supervision there were 139 pregnant women with application ART. 202 children (51 twins were born and 5 triplet babies, from them 83 premature infants born from multiple induced pregnancy have been analyzed. Results. The newborns examined by method ART, were distributed as follows: 22-28 weeks — 19 children; 29-32 weeks — 23; 33-36 weeks — 41. Asphyxia at birth was marked at all premature infants. Respiratory insufficiency at birth is revealed in 87,3% of cases. The most frequent pathologies in premature infants are revealed: neurologic infringements and bronchopulmonary pathology occured at all children, developmental anomaly — 33, 8%, retinopathies in premature infants — 26,5%. The mortality causes include: extreme immaturity, cerebral leukomalacia, IVN 3 degrees. Conclusion. The risk factors, premature birth at application of methods ART are revealed: aged primiparas, pharmacological influence, absence of physiological conditions of prenatal development; multifetation. The high percent of birth of children with ELBW and ULBW is revealed. RDCN with further BPD development, retinopathies in premature infants and CNS defeat is more often occured.

  3. Prevalence of enamel defects and associated risk factors in both dentitions in preterm and full term born children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Resende Nogueira Cruvinel

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of enamel defects and their risk factors on primary and permanent dentitions of prematurely born children and full-term born children born at Regional Hospital of Asa Sul, Brasília, DF, Brazil. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Eighty 5-10-year-old children of both genders were examined, being 40 born prematurely (G1 and 40 born full term (G2. The demographic variables, medical history and oral health behaviors were retrieved using a questionnaire and data obtained from clinical examination were recorded. The teeth were examined and the presence of enamel defects was diagnosed according to the DDE Index and registered in odontograms. Subsequently, the defects were categorized in four groups according to one of the criteria proposed in 1992 by the FDI Commission on Oral Health, Research and Epidemiology. Kruskal-Wallis, Chi-square, Kappa, Mann-Whitney tests and logistic regression were used for statistical analysis. RESULTS: 75% of total sample had enamel defects. There was a major prevalence of hypoplasia of the enamel in G1 (p<0.001. There was a significant relationship between low weight and presence of the imperfections on the enamel in G1 on the primary dentition. The logistic regression model showed that the other risk factors such as monthly per capita family income, educational level, dietary and hygiene habits, fluoride exposure, trauma, and diseases were not associated with enamel defects and caries. CONCLUSIONS: Pre-term labor can be a predisposing factor for the presence of the enamel hypoplasia in the primary dentition.

  4. Food-borne bacteremic illnesses in febrile neutropenic children

    OpenAIRE

    Anselm Chi-wai Lee; Nellie Dawn Siao-ping Ong

    2011-01-01

    Bacteremia following febrile neutropenia is a serious complication in children with malignancies. Preventive measures are currently targeted at antimicrobial prophylaxis, amelioration of drug-induced neutropenia, and nosocomial spread of pathogens, with little attention to community-acquired infections. A retrospective study was conducted at a pediatric oncology center during a 3-year period to identify probable cases of food-borne infections with bacteremia. Twenty-one bacteremic illnesses a...

  5. RISK FACTORS AND EARLY DEVELOPMENT OF CHILDREN BORN WITH AN ASSISTED FERTILIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena MILICHEVIKJ

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present a systematic literature review of the researches conducted in the area of risk factors and difficulties in the early development of children born after assisted conception, to systematize current knowledge in this field and allocate the factors of importance for the early intervention.In order to evaluate the published data on risk factors and early development of children born after assisted conception, an extensive literature search was conducted to identify the published papers related to the obstetric and neonatal outcome of pregnancies after assisted repro­duction technology, the incidence of multiple pregnancy and the risk of preterm delivery, the neonatal status, the mean gestational age, the average birth weight, the neuro-developmental outcomes and early cognitive and motor development. The research identified the following factors as the most important for the early intervention: increased rates of multiple gestations, prematurity, delivery by cesarean section, lower average gestational development and average birth weight, small fetal development for gestational age and low Apgar score, related to the an increased risk of developing neurological problems, such as the cerebral palsy.Accepting this research results, it can be concluded that all of these information should be available for couples seeking an Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART treatment.The success of the early intervention is directly related to the early detection and assessment that precedes this treatment, creating individual programs and evaluation of the effects of the treatment.

  6. Micafungin in Premature and Non-premature Infants

    OpenAIRE

    Manzoni, Paolo; Wu, Chunzhang; Tweddle, Lorraine; Roilides, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    Background: Invasive fungal infections cause excessive morbidity and mortality in premature neonates and severely ill infants. Methods: Safety and efficacy outcomes of micafungin were compared between prematurely and non-prematurely born infants

  7. Vision-related quality of life in children with retinopathy of prematurity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alcione Aparecida Messa

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTPurpose:To evaluate the effect of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP on vision-related quality of life in children.Methods:The Children's Visual Function Questionnaire (CVFQ, an instrument that evaluates vision-related quality of life in children, was used. It is divided into 6 subscales: General Health, Vision Health, Competence, Personality, Family Impact, and Treatment. The sample consisted of parents of premature children up to 3 years of age who had ROP and no neurological damage (ROP group and parents of premature children up to 3 years of age who had normal vision and absence of other diseases (control group.Results:There were 88 subjects in total, 43 in the ROP group and 45 in the control group. The ROP group had lower scores on the CVFQ than the control group. The Total Index and all CVFQ subscale scores and for were significant lower in the ROP group than in the control group. The ROP group was divided according to the severity of the disease. The Total Index, Vision Health, and Competence scores in children with more severe ROP were significantly lower than those in children with less severe ROP.Conclusion:ROP was shown to have a negative effect on vision-related quality of life in children.

  8. Ages and Stages Questionnaire used to measure cognitive deficit in children born extremely preterm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klamer, Anja; Lando, Ane; Pinborg, Anja;

    2005-01-01

    --Revised. In a second study, the ASQ was obtained in 22 children born extremely preterm and 19 term children at the age of 35-44 mo. RESULTS: The overall ASQ score correlated significantly with IQ (p=0.007). The children born extremely preterm had an ASQ score of -1.06 SD below the score of the term children...

  9. Bone age advancement in prepubertal children with obesity and premature adrenarche: possible potentiating factors

    OpenAIRE

    Sopher, Aviva B.; Jean, Amy M.; Zwany, Sarah K.; Winston, Diana M.; Pomeranz, Christy B.; Bell, Jennifer J.; McMahon, Donald J.; Hassoun, Abeer; Fennoy, Ilene; Oberfield, Sharon E.

    2011-01-01

    Obesity and premature adrenarche (PA) are both associated with bone age (BA) advancement of unclear etiology, which may lead to earlier puberty, suboptimal final height and obesity in adulthood. Our objective was to understand the hormonal and anthropometric characteristics of BA advancement in a spectrum of prepubertal children with and without obesity and PA.

  10. Dental and Maxillofacial Abnormalities in Children with Premature Loss of Primary Canines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amarelys Morera Pérez

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: since primary canines are among the last teeth to be replaced by permanent ones, they are critical to maintain the space in the dental arch and proper occlusion. Their premature loss has a greater impact on the anterior region, but it can also affect the posterior region. Objective: to describe dental and maxillofacial abnormalities in children who prematurely lost the primary canines. Methods: a cross-sectional study was conducted in children aged 5 to 9 years attending the Guerrillero Heroico Elementary School located within the health area number 2 of Cienfuegos municipality, from November 2014 through April 2015. Variables analyzed were: age, sex, cause of tooth loss, dental and maxillofacial abnormalities (linguoversion of lower or upper incisors, mesial occlusion, crowding, hyperocclusion, and increased or decreased overjet. Results: the premature loss of primary canines was more frequently observed in children aged 5 and 6 years and in most cases, it resulted from indicated extractions (66.7%. Linguoversion of lower incisors and increased overjet were the most common abnormalities. Conclusion: all children showed dental and maxillofacial abnormalities related to the premature loss of primary canines. This demonstrates the importance of avoiding their early loss whenever possible, as it is a key factor for the development of malocclusion.

  11. Food-borne bacteremic illnesses in febrile neutropenic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Anselm Chi-Wai; Siao-Ping Ong, Nellie Dawn

    2011-08-31

    Bacteremia following febrile neutropenia is a serious complication in children with malignancies. Preventive measures are currently targeted at antimicrobial prophylaxis, amelioration of drug-induced neutropenia, and nosocomial spread of pathogens, with little attention to community-acquired infections. A retrospective study was conducted at a pediatric oncology center during a 3-year period to identify probable cases of food-borne infections with bacteremia. Twenty-one bacteremic illnesses affecting 15 children receiving chemotherapy or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation were reviewed. Three (14%) episodes were highly suspected of a food-borne origin: a 17-year-old boy with osteosarcoma contracted Sphingomonas paucimobilis septicemia after consuming nasi lemak bought from a street hawker; a 2-year-old boy with acute lymphoblastic leukemia developed Chryseobacterium meningosepticum septicemia after a sushi dinner; a 2-year-old girl was diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukemia and Lactobacillus bacteremia suspected to be of probiotic origin. All of them were neutropenic at the time of the infections and the bacteremias were cleared with antibiotic treatment. Food-borne sepsis may be an important, but readily preventable, cause of bloodstream infections in pediatric oncology patients, especially in tropical countries with an abundance of culinary outlets. PMID:22184532

  12. Food-borne bacteremic illnesses in febrile neutropenic children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anselm Chi-wai Lee

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Bacteremia following febrile neutropenia is a serious complication in children with malignancies. Preventive measures are currently targeted at antimicrobial prophylaxis, amelioration of drug-induced neutropenia, and nosocomial spread of pathogens, with little attention to community-acquired infections. A retrospective study was conducted at a pediatric oncology center during a 3-year period to identify probable cases of food-borne infections with bacteremia. Twenty-one bacteremic illnesses affecting 15 children receiving chemotherapy or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation were reviewed. Three (14% episodes were highly suspected of a food-borne origin: a 17-year-old boy with osteosarcoma contracted Sphingomonas paucimobilis septicemia after consuming nasi lemak bought from a street hawker; a 2-year-old boy with acute lymphoblastic leukemia developed Chryseobacterium meningosepticum septicemia after a sushi dinner; a 2-year-old girl was diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukemia and Lactobacillus bacteremia suspected to be of probiotic origin. All of them were neutropenic at the time of the infections and the bacteremias were cleared with antibiotic treatment. Food-borne sepsis may be an important, but readily preventable, cause of bloodstream infections in pediatric oncology patients, especially in tropical countries with an abundance of culinary outlets.

  13. Neurobehavioral outcomes of school-age children born preterm: a preliminary study in the Arabic community

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    Mohammed M.J. Alqahtani

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Preterm survivors from the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU are considered as high risk group for some neurobehavioral impairments such as cognitive disabilities, developmental delays, social/emotional limitations, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, and academic difficulties. Objective: The current study aimed to investigate the neurobehavioral outcome of premature infants in Saudi Arabia at the school age.Methods: At the school age, preterm children (range 23-29 weeks or ≤ 1.52 kg born from April, 2006 through September, 2008, and who were admitted following birth to a NICU, were evaluated with several neurobehavioral tools. Results: This study includes 53 preterm children, who were followed up at the chronological age that ranged from 6.4-8.0 years. The results of the neurobehavioral assessments showed in general normal social adaptive levels and cognitive abilities, with mean total score of about 91.0 and 90.0, respectively. The prevalence of ADHD among preterm children was high, with result of 34.0% for the inattentive type and 11.3% for the hyperactive/impulsive type. None of the preterm children repeats a grade, but 22.6% utilize a form of special educational supports. Some of the preterm children showed poor school performance in reading skills, writing skills and mathematics skills, with percentages of 26.4%, 28.3% and 15.1%, respectively.Conclusions: The present results emphasize that preterm children are a group of high-risk children who need regular follow-up to track the developmental conditions and to provide the early developmental intervention for optimal outcome.

  14. Maternal experiences with premature children in a neonatal intensive care unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael Colares de Sá

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Understand the maternal experience with premature children in neonatal intensive care unit. Methods: This is a qualitative and descriptive study. A questionnaire was used with semi-structured interview type, analyzed by the technique of content analysis and discussed, using the theoretical framework. The sample consisted of 11 mothers who accompanied their babies every day in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. Results: After discourse analysis emerged the following categories: experiencing maternal feelings in relation to the baby at risk; the meaning of the neonatal unit for mothers of premature infants, maternal perceptions about prematurity and experiencing the formation of the maternal-filial bond. Conclusions:The mother of premature experiences difficult times in the face of risk and instability of the baby, causing ambivalent feelings in relation to prematurity. Nevertheless, it was found thatfeelings of happiness, love and desire to see your baby being discharged form hospital and live with his family, were significant in relation to feelings of sadness and fear of losing her child.

  15. The Developmental Outcome of Children Born to Heroin-Dependent Mothers, Raised at Home or Adopted.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ornoy, Asher; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Children born to heroin-dependent mothers (n=83) were compared to 76 children born to heroin-dependent fathers and to 3 control groups with and without environmental deprivation and health problems. Results found that developmental delays and behavioral disorders found among heroin-exposed children resulted primarily from severe environmental…

  16. Risk of Allergic Rhinitis, Allergic Conjunctivitis, and Eczema in Children Born to Mothers with Gum Inflammation during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Vivian Chia-Rong; Liu, Chin-Chen; Hsiao, Yu-Chen; Wu, Trong-Neng

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Despite links between maternal and child health status, evidence on the association between gum infection in pregnant mothers and childhood allergies is scarce. We aim to evaluate the risk of developing allergy in children born to periodontal mothers in a nationwide study. Methods We conducted a 9-year population-based, retrospective cohort study using Taiwan’s National Health Insurance database. A study cohort of 42,217 newborns born to mothers with periodontal disease during pregnancy was identified in 2001 and matched with 42,334 babies born to mothers without any infection (control) by mother’s age at delivery and baby sex. With a follow-up period from 2001 to 2010, we observed the incidence of allergic rhinitis (AR), allergic conjunctivitis (AC), and eczema in these children. Cox proportional hazards regression models were performed with premature deaths as competing risk for the estimation of allergic disease risks. Results Nine-year cumulative incidences were the highest among children born to periodontal mothers; they reached 46.8%, 24.2%, and 40.4% (vs. 39.5%, 18.3% and 34.8% in control) for AR, AC, and eczema, respectively. Our results showed moderately increased risks for the allergies in children born to periodontal mothers relative to their matched non-inflammatory control (adjusted HRs: 1.17, 95% CI: 1.15–1.20; 1.27, 1.24–1.31; 1.14, 1.12–1.17, respectively). Because the impact of food consumption and living environment cannot be considered using insurance data, we attempted to control it by adjusting for parental income and mother’s residential area. Conclusions Overall cumulative incidence and risks of children born to periodontal mothers for AR, AC, and eczema are significantly higher than those born to non-inflammatory mothers. Gum infection in women during pregnancy is an independent risk factor for allergic diseases in children, thus its intergenerational consequences should be considered in gestational care. PMID:27224053

  17. Neonatal pain-related stress predicts cortical thickness at age 7 years in children born very preterm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manon Ranger

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Altered brain development is evident in children born very preterm (24-32 weeks gestational age, including reduction in gray and white matter volumes, and thinner cortex, from infancy to adolescence compared to term-born peers. However, many questions remain regarding the etiology. Infants born very preterm are exposed to repeated procedural pain-related stress during a period of very rapid brain development. In this vulnerable population, we have previously found that neonatal pain-related stress is associated with atypical brain development from birth to term-equivalent age. Our present aim was to evaluate whether neonatal pain-related stress (adjusted for clinical confounders of prematurity is associated with altered cortical thickness in very preterm children at school age. METHODS: 42 right-handed children born very preterm (24-32 weeks gestational age followed longitudinally from birth underwent 3-D T1 MRI neuroimaging at mean age 7.9 yrs. Children with severe brain injury and major motor/sensory/cognitive impairment were excluded. Regional cortical thickness was calculated using custom developed software utilizing FreeSurfer segmentation data. The association between neonatal pain-related stress (defined as the number of skin-breaking procedures accounting for clinical confounders (gestational age, illness severity, infection, mechanical ventilation, surgeries, and morphine exposure, was examined in relation to cortical thickness using constrained principal component analysis followed by generalized linear modeling. RESULTS: After correcting for multiple comparisons and adjusting for neonatal clinical factors, greater neonatal pain-related stress was associated with significantly thinner cortex in 21/66 cerebral regions (p-values ranged from 0.00001 to 0.014, predominately in the frontal and parietal lobes. CONCLUSIONS: In very preterm children without major sensory, motor or cognitive impairments, neonatal pain-related stress

  18. The Perceived Needs of Maine Parents of Premature Children for Services and Supports: A Retrospective Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPhee, Karen Boulos

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the perceived needs and correlates of Maine parents of premature infants related to the chronological distance from the NICU. The study focused on identifying the perceived service needs of parents of premature children and how these needs changed over time, revealed the relationships between perceived…

  19. Maternal experiences with premature children in a neonatal intensive care unit

    OpenAIRE

    Raphael Colares de Sá; Lêda Maria da Frota Pinheiro Costa; Fabiane Elpídio de Sá

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Understand the maternal experience with premature children in neonatal intensive care unit. Methods: This is a qualitative and descriptive study. A questionnaire was used with semi-structured interview type, analyzed by the technique of content analysis and discussed, using the theoretical framework. The sample consisted of 11 mothers who accompanied their babies every day in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. Results: After discourse analysis emerged the following categories: exper...

  20. System of the ophthalmologic help premature children with retinopathy of prematurity in the Central region of Russia

    OpenAIRE

    A. V. Tereshchenko; Yu. A. Belyy; I. G. Trifanenkova; M. S. Tereshchenkova

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Functional results analysis of ophthalmologic help system for premature infants, which includes the full cycle of early revelation, treatment and regular medical check-up activities for patients with ROP in Central region of Russia.Methods: Fields for ROP screening were performed in premature infants medical care units by clinic specialists. Infants with re- vealed ROP were directed to Kaluga Branch of IRtC «Eye Microsurgery» for detailed diagnostic examination and subsequent treatme...

  1. Neurodevelopmental outcome at early school age of children born to mothers with gestational diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Ornoy, A; Wolf, A.; Ratzon, N; Greenbaum, C; Dulitzky, M

    1999-01-01

    AIMS—To study the metabolic derangements in the second half of pregnancy caused by gestational diabetes, on the long term development of children.
METHODS—The neuropsychological function of 32 school age children born to 32 mothers with well controlled gestational diabetes and 57 control children matched by age, birth order, and parental socioeconomic status was studied.
RESULTS—There were no differences in head circumference and height, but the children born to diabetic ...

  2. Health of children born to women after radiation and chemotherapy for Hodgkin's lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Danilenko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Presents data of the health of 411 children (I generation and 23 children (II generation born to 340 women received chemotherapy or radiotherapy due to Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Most children were born healthy. Congenital pathology were registered in 19 (14.6 % childrenof I generation and 1 (4.3 % – of II generation. In 3 children of I generation Hodgkin,s lymphoma was diagnosed.

  3. Health of children born to women after radiation and chemotherapy for Hodgkin's lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Danilenko

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Presents data of the health of 411 children (I generation and 23 children (II generation born to 340 women received chemotherapy or radiotherapy due to Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Most children were born healthy. Congenital pathology were registered in 19 (14.6 % childrenof I generation and 1 (4.3 % – of II generation. In 3 children of I generation Hodgkin,s lymphoma was diagnosed.

  4. Health of children born to women after radiation and chemotherapy for Hodgkin's lymphoma

    OpenAIRE

    Danilenko, A. A.; S. V. Shakhtarina; L. N. Shchelkonogova; Pavlov, V. V.

    2014-01-01

    Presents data of the health of 411 children (I generation) and 23 children (II generation) born to 340 women received chemotherapy or radiotherapy due to Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Most children were born healthy. Congenital pathology were registered in 19 (14.6 %) childrenof I generation and 1 (4.3 %) – of II generation. In 3 children of I generation Hodgkin,s lymphoma was diagnosed.

  5. Language functions in preterm-born children: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.L. Van Noort-van Der Spek (Inge); M-C. Franken (Marie-Christine); N. Weisglas-Kuperus (Nynke)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Preterm-born children (born children. It is unknown whether these problems decrease, deteriorate, or remain stable over time. The goal of this research was to determine the dev

  6. Behavioural skills in 7 year old children born post-term

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Annette Wind; Olsen, Jørn; Zhu, Jin Liang

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To study behavioural skills at the age of seven in a Danish population of children born post-term. Design: Cohort study. Setting: The Danish National Birth Cohort; children born from 1997 to 2003. Population: Data was obtained from a cohort of about 100,000 women and their...

  7. Doxapram and developmental delay at 12 months in children born extremely preterm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lando, Ane; Klamer, Anja; Jonsbo, Finn;

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To examine the relation of doxapram to a developmental score achieved by a structured telephone interview in a group of extremely-preterm-born children. METHODS: Parents of 88 children born extremely preterm were contacted by telephone and interviewed by a structured questionnaire (R-PDQ) wh...

  8. School-Aged Children Born Preterm: Review of Functioning across Multiple Domains and Guidelines for Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempsey, Allison G.; Keller-Margulis, Milena; Mire, Sarah; Abrahamson, Catherine; Dutt, Sonia; Llorens, Ashlie; Payan, Anita

    2015-01-01

    Children born preterm are at risk for developmental deficits across multiple functional domains. As the rate of survival for preterm infants increases due to medical advancements, a greater understanding is needed for how to meet the needs of this growing population in schools. Because approximately 50-70% of children born preterm require…

  9. The Impact of Early Intervention on the School Readiness of Children Born to Teenage Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Amber L.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effect of participation in the Home Instruction for Parents of Preschool Youngsters program on the school readiness of children born to teenage mothers versus children born to traditional-age mothers participating in the Home Instruction for Parents of Preschool Youngsters program. A 45-item survey was collected from the…

  10. Spectra of mothers of premature children about the educative circle of culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couto, Camila Santos do; Tupinambá, Milena Colares; Rangel, Aldecira Uchôa Monteiro; Frota, Mirna Albuquerque; Martins, Elis Mayre da Costa Silveira; Nobre, Caroline Soares; Landim, Átima Luna Pinheiro

    2014-12-01

    We sought to know the spectra of mothers of premature children regarding their experience with circle of culture of educational character and identifying the learning provided by the circle of culture about newborn care after hospital discharge. A descriptive study was performed in a hospital located in Fortaleza, Brazil. Three meetings of a circle of culture with 17 mothers of premature newborns were performed. The interpretation of the corpus was performed using thematic analysis. Emerged from the categories: Maternal experience in a circle of culture; Promoted social support among mothers through the circle of culture; and Learning provided by the circle of culture. It was concluded that teaching parents during the hospitalization of the child should be held in a way to involve parents in the care of the newborn, provide moments of health education, opportunities for support and dialogue between professionals and family. PMID:25830729

  11. SPECTRA OF MOTHERS OF PREMATURE CHILDREN ABOUT THE EDUCATIVE CIRCLE OF CULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Santos do Couto

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We sought to know the spectra of mothers of premature children regarding their experience with circle of culture of educational character and identifying the learning provided by the circle of culture about newborn care after hospital discharge. A descriptive study was performed in a hospital located in Fortaleza, Brazil. Three meetings of a circle of culture with 17 mothers of premature newborns were performed. The interpretation of the corpus was performed using thematic analysis. Emerged from the categories: Maternal experience in a circle of culture; Promoted social support among mothers through the circle of culture; and Learning provided by the circle of culture. It was concluded that teaching parents during the hospitalization of the child should be held in a way to involve parents in the care of the newborn, provide moments of health education, opportunities for support and dialogue between professionals and family.

  12. Season of birth in Danish children with language disorder born in the 1958-1976 period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauschild, Karen-Marie; Mouridsen, Svend Erik; Nielsen, Søren

    2005-01-01

    Two preliminary studies have indicated a variation in season of birth in severely language-disordered children. In the current study, the season of birth in 472 Danish children with language disorder born between 1958 and 1976 was compared with the season of birth of all Danish live-born children...... in the same period. For some part of the period (1964-1969), an excess of boys born in November was found. Particular attention was given to the inconsistent findings also found in language-related disorders like infantile autism and dyslexia and the choice of statistical method to determine...

  13. System of the ophthalmologic help premature children with retinopathy of prematurity in the Central region of Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Tereshchenko

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Functional results analysis of ophthalmologic help system for premature infants, which includes the full cycle of early revelation, treatment and regular medical check-up activities for patients with ROP in Central region of Russia.Methods: Fields for ROP screening were performed in premature infants medical care units by clinic specialists. Infants with re- vealed ROP were directed to Kaluga Branch of IRtC «Eye Microsurgery» for detailed diagnostic examination and subsequent treatment and monitoring.Results: In 2003-2011 454 fields in Kaluga, tula, Bryansk, and Orel regions were made. 8861 infants were examined. ROP was found in 1834 infants (20.7%. 823 different interventions for infants with active ROP were performed: 737 retinal lasercoagulations, 3-ports vitrectomy — 72, lensvitrectomy — 14. the total efficacy of the treatment was 92.9%.Conclusion: the ophthalmologic help system for premature infants in Central region of Russia combines all directions from de-tailed diagnostic to hich-technology treatment. It allows to reproduce one all over the Russian Federation territory.

  14. Children born after cryopreservation of embryos or oocytes: a systematic review of outcome data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wennerholm, U-B; Söderström-Anttila, V; Bergh, C;

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: An estimated 3.5 million children have been born to date using assisted reproduction technologies. We reviewed the data in order to evaluate current knowledge of medical outcome for IVF/ICSI children born after cryopreservation, slow freezing and vitrification of early cleavage stage...... indicated a better or at least as good obstetric outcome, measured as preterm birth and low birthweight for children born after cryopreservation, as compared with children born after fresh cycles. Most studies found comparable malformation rates between frozen and fresh IVF/ICSI. For slow freezing of...... blastocysts and for vitrification of early cleavage stage embryos, blastocysts and oocytes, limited neonatal data was reported. We found no long-term child follow-up data for any cryopreservation technique. CONCLUSION: Data concerning infant outcome after slow freezing of embryos was reassuring. Properly...

  15. Mental disorders in childhood and young adulthood among children born to women with fertility problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svahn, M.F.; Hargreave, M.; Nielsen, T.S.S.;

    2015-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: Is the risk of hospital admission or outpatient contact for mental disorders increased in children born to women with fertility problems compared with children born to women without fertility problems? SUMMARY ANSWER: We found an increased risk of hospital admission or outpatient...... contact for mental disorders in children born to women with fertility problems. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Few studies have investigated the risk of mental disorders in children born after fertility treatment and although some studies have pointed to an increased risk, others found no association. The...... inconsistent results may be due to methodological constraints in many previous studies, including small sample size and short follow-up, resulting in imprecise risk estimates and lack of information on risk patterns of mental disorders in adulthood. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: This nationwide retrospective...

  16. Clinical risk factors on survival among infected children born to HIV-positive mothers

    OpenAIRE

    S Chantutanon; S Phuntara; B Chaimay; Suwanna, K.; S Woradet

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate clinical risk factors on survival among infected children born to HIV-positive mothers in the southern region of Thailand. Methods: Data from routine prospective cohort studies from 1990–2010 were analyzed. In these studies, totally 1549 infected children born to HIV-positive mothers were enrolled at birth and followed longitudinally. Information on demographic, clinical manifestation, HIV infection status factors was collected. Survi...

  17. Health outcomes for children born to teen mothers in Cape Town, South Africa1

    OpenAIRE

    Branson, Nicola; Ardington, Cally; Leibbrandt, Murray

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyzes whether children born to teen mothers in Cape Town, South Africa are disadvantaged in terms of their health outcomes because their mother is a teen. Exploiting the longitudinal nature of the Cape Area Panel Study, we assess whether observable differences between teen mothers and slightly older mothers can explain why first-born children of teen mothers appear disadvantaged. Our balanced regressions indicate that observed characteristics cannot explain the full extent of di...

  18. Behavioural symptoms of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder in preterm and term children born small and appropriate for gestational age: A longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kajantie Eero

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It remains unclear whether it is more detrimental to be born too early or too small in relation to symptoms of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. Thus, we tested whether preterm birth and small body size at birth adjusted for gestational age are independently associated with symptoms of ADHD in children. Methods A longitudinal regional birth cohort study comprising 1535 live-born infants between 03/15/1985 and 03/14/1986 admitted to the neonatal wards and 658 randomly recruited non-admitted infants, in Finland. The present study sample comprised 828 children followed up to 56 months. The association between birth status and parent-rated ADHD symptoms of the child was analysed with multiple linear and logistic regression analyses. Results Neither prematurity (birth Conclusions Intrauterine growth restriction, reflected in SGA status and lower birth weight, rather than prematurity or lower gestational age per se, may increase risk for symptoms of ADHD in young children.

  19. Zinc and Copper status in children with high family risk of premature cardiovascular disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zinc and copper are beneficial to health, growth and development and also for the prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) with regards to improved dietary habits as a preliminary step in CVD prevention. This study was conducted among 2-18 year old children with high family risk of premature CVD in comparison to controls. One hundred randomly selected children whose parents had premature myocardial infarction were included in this study. The controls were 100 individuals randomly selected from the case group's neighbors and matched for age, sex and socioeconomic status. A four-day food record questionnaire was used to assess zinc and copper intakes and their serum levels were determined using Flame-Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry. The data were analyzed by SPSS/Windows V6 software, using the student's t and Mantel-Hanzel tests. Significance of differences was considered at P0.05). Zinc deficiency was more prevalent among the case in boys than their controls (58% vs. 18%, P=0.04). This difference was not significant in girls (44% vs. 40%). The daily intake and serum of level of copper were not significantly different between the case and control groups. No case of copper efficiency was found. The mean systolic blood pressure was not significantly different between the zinc-deficient and zinc-sufficient subjects. Although the mean diastolic blood pressure of the former was higher than the latter, there was no statistically significant difference. About 23.7% of all studied sample had mild-to-moderate degree of failure to thrive, with significantly lower daily intake and serum zinc level than other subjects (5.41+-1.06 mg, 82.09+-12.74 ug/dL vs. 6.89+-2.14 mg, 99.25+-27.15 ug/dL, respectively, P<0.05). It is recommended that emphasis be placed on the consumption of food rich in zinc by children, especially those with high family risk of premature CVD. (author)

  20. Critical issues with clinical research in children: The example of premature infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research in pediatrics has led to marked improvements in survival in pediatric patients. In no other age group have these improvements been more dramatic than in neonatology, where antenatal steroid administration to mothers and postnatal utilization of surfactant have led to marked improvements in survival so that infants born at 24 weeks gestation now have a greater than 50% chance of survival. Unfortunately, more than 50% of these patients develop significant complications of prematurity with potential long-term impact on the health of these infants. Therefore, additional research must be done in these patients to prevent these complications or reduce the impact of these complications. There are many practical and some ethical issues that could impede research in the area. Interventional studies have succeeded because literally decades of research defined unequivocally the pathophysiology of diseases such as surfactant deficiency in RDS. Unfortunately, the pathophysiology leading to the complications of prematurity has been extrapolated from old concepts without verification as the population has become smaller and more premature than the previous era. Thus, an extremely important practical issue in pediatric research is whether to design interventions to address the extrapolated pathophysiology risking misinterpretations of the results of such studies. Or should our efforts be focused on defining endpoints associated with the development of diseases and complications which may define pathophysiology more completely but delay the design of interventions to improve the outcomes of patients. Another crucial practical issue in pediatric research is how to power studies so that interventions can be studied adequately. In the US, large neonatal networks have been formed so that large databases can be created and large multi-center trials can be performed. The practical issues associated with these network studies is the center to center variability in patient care

  1. Magnetoencephalography study of brain dynamics in young children born extremely preterm

    OpenAIRE

    Cepeda, I.L.; Grunau, R.E.; Weinberg, H.; Herdman, A.T.; Cheung, T; Liotti, M.; Amir, A; Synnes, A.; Whitfield, M

    2007-01-01

    Magnetoencephalography (MEG) was recorded while 5–7 year-old children were performing a visual–spatial memory recognition task. Full-term children showed greater gamma-band (30–50 Hz) amplitude in the right temporal region during the task, than children who were born extremely preterm. These results may represent altered brain processing in extremely preterm children who escape major impairment.

  2. Children Born Preterm at the Turn of the Millennium Had Better Lung Function Than Children Born Similarly Preterm in the Early 1990s.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Vollsæter

    Full Text Available Compare respiratory health in children born extremely preterm (EP or with extremely low birthweight (ELBW nearly one decade apart, hypothesizing that better perinatal management has led to better outcome.Fifty-seven (93% of 61 eligible 11-year old children born in Western Norway in 1999-2000 with gestational age (GA <28 weeks or birthweight <1000 gram (EP1999-2000 and matched term-controls were assessed with comprehensive lung function tests and standardized questionnaires. Outcome was compared with data obtained at 10 years of age from all (n = 35 subjects born at GA <29 weeks or birthweight <1001 gram within a part of the same region in 1991-92 (EP1991-1992 and their matched term-controls.EP1999-2000 had significantly reduced forced expiratory flow in 1 second (FEV1, FEV1 to forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC and forced expiratory flow between 25-75% of FVC (FEF25-75, with z-scores respectively -0.34, -0.50 and -0.61 below those of the term-control group, and more bronchial hyperresponsiveness to methacholine (dose-response-slope 13.2 vs. 3.5; p<0.001, whereas other outcomes did not differ. Low birthweight z-scores, but not neonatal bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD or low GA, predicted poor outcome. For children with neonatal BPD, important lung-function variables were better in EP1999-2000 compared to EP1991-1992. In regression models, improvements were related to more use of antenatal corticosteroids and surfactant treatment in the EP1999-2000.Small airway obstruction and bronchial hyperresponsiveness were still present in children born preterm in 1999-2000, but outcome was better than for children born similarly preterm in 1991-92, particularly after neonatal BPD. The findings suggest that better neonatal management not only improves survival, but also long-term pulmonary outcome.

  3. Training with Differential Outcomes Enhances Discriminative Learning and Visuospatial Recognition Memory in Children Born Prematurely

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Lourdes; Mari-Beffa, Paloma; Roldan-Tapia, Dolores; Ramos-Lizana, Julio; Fuentes, Luis J.; Estevez, Angeles F.

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that discriminative learning is facilitated when a particular outcome is associated with each relation to be learned. When this training procedure is applied (the differential outcome procedure; DOP), learning is faster and more accurate than when the more common non-differential outcome procedure is used. This…

  4. Resting-state oscillatory activity in children born small for gestational age: a magnetoencephalographic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria eBoersma

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Growth restriction in utero during a period that is critical for normal growth of the brain, has previously been associated with deviations in cognitive abilities and brain anatomical and functional changes. We measured magnetoencephalography (MEG in 4-7 year old children to test if children born small for gestational age (SGA show deviations in resting-state brain oscillatory activity. Children born SGA children with postnatally spontaneous catch-up growth (SGA+; 6 boys, 7 girls; mean age 6.3 y (SD=0.9 and children born appropriate for gestational age (AGA; 7 boys, 3 girls; mean age 6.0 y (SD=1.2 participated in a resting-state MEG study. We calculated absolute and relative power spectra and used nonparametric statistics to test for group differences. SGA+ and AGA born children showed no significant differences in absolute and relative power except for reduced absolute gamma band power in SGA children. At time of MEG investigation, SGA+ children showed was significantly lower head circumference (HC and a trend toward lower IQ, however there was no association of HC or IQ with absolute or relative power. Except for reduced absolute gamma band power, our findings suggest normal brain activity patterns at school age in a group of children born SGA in which spontaneous catch-up growth of bodily length after birth occurred. Although previous findings suggest that being born SGA alters brain oscillatory activity early in neonatal life, we show that these neonatal alterations do not persist at early school age when spontaneous postnatal catch-up growth occurs after birth.

  5. An ultrasound protocol in premature infants with intracranial hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velisavljev-Filipović Gordana

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Prematurity is a great health problem in our country and in the world. There are more than 11% of premature births in America annually, and in Europe this rate is between 5-10%. In Vojvodina, 9% of babies are born prematurely. Intracranial hemorrhage takes a significant place in the morbidity of prematurely born children. Intracranial hemorrhage in premature newborn infants Incomplete CNS development of premature infants causes numerous complications, but it is also the factor which enables survival of extremely immature infants without sequelae. The management protocol depends on the level of hemorrhage. Early diagnosis of intracranial hemorrhage and determination of the level of hemorrhage are of utmost importance for disability prevention. Ultrasound in monitoring intracranial hemorrhage Brain monitoring of prematurely born babies is performed by ultrasound. This type of visualization has several advantages over other techniques: it is mobile, so called "bedside technique", it is relatively cheap, it may be repeated several times, it is possible to define the exact time of hemorrhage and monitor its absorption from day to day. Ultrasound is safe, and there is no ionized radiation. No sedation is required for ultrasound examination. The examination is not painful. Conclusion The frequency of ultrasound depends on the level of hemorrhage, presence or absence of ventriculomegally/ hydrocephalus, as well as on the surrounding cerebral parenchyma. .

  6. Impact of Maternal Drug Use and Life Experiences on Preadolescent Children Born to Teenage Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandel, Denise B.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Examined influence of maternal drug use and unconventional behavior on children's behavioral problems, cognitive functioning, and self-esteem for children aged eight and older born to teenage mothers. Findings from 581 mother-child dyads suggest that maternal attitudes and experiences as adolescent or young adult and current family structure had…

  7. Factors Related to Successful Outcomes among Preschool Children Born to Low-Income Adolescent Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luster, Tom; Bates, Laura; Fitzgerald, Hiram; Vandenbelt, Marcia; Key, Judith Peck

    2000-01-01

    This study describes how the experiences and circumstances of most successful children born to low-income adolescent mothers differ from less successful children over the first 54 months of their lives, as defined by scores on the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-Revised. The two groups differed markedly on measures of caregiving, home environment,…

  8. Cranial CT in high-risk and premature children: Its diagnostic value for prognoses of early infantile development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CT examinations were carried out in 75 high-risk and premature children: 40% of these were re-examined at a later stage in infancy. All children were also examined under the aspect of developmental neurology. The small number of cases made it impossible to make a reliable prognosis of the later development of perinatal high-risk patients, especially as the follow-up examinations were discontinued after infancy. Still, the findings have been validated by experience in the meantime. (orig.)

  9. Preclinical Models of Encephalopathy of Prematurity

    OpenAIRE

    Jantzie, Lauren L.; Robinson, Shenandoah

    2015-01-01

    Encephalopathy of prematurity (EoP) encompasses the central nervous system (CNS) abnormalities associated with injury from preterm birth. Although rapid progress is being made, limited understanding exists of how the cellular and molecular CNS injury from early birth manifests as the myriad of neurological deficits in children who are born preterm. More importantly, this lack of direct insight into the pathogenesis of these deficits hinders both our ability to diagnose those infants who are a...

  10. Retinopathy of prematurity: the need for prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Lois

    2016-01-01

    Raffael Liegl,1 Ann Hellström,2 Lois EH Smith1 1Department of Ophthalmology, Boston Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden Abstract: More than 450,000 babies are born prematurely in the USA every year. The improved survival of even the most vulnerable low body weight preterm infants has, despite improving health outc...

  11. Retinopathy of prematurity: the need for prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Liegl R; Hellström A; Smith LEH

    2016-01-01

    Raffael Liegl,1 Ann Hellström,2 Lois EH Smith1 1Department of Ophthalmology, Boston Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden Abstract: More than 450,000 babies are born prematurely in the USA every year. The improved survival of even the most vulnerable low body weight preterm infants has, despite improving health outcomes, le...

  12. Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior in Preterm-Born 7-Year Old Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, John; Watkins, W. John; Kotecha, Sarah J.; Kotecha, Sailesh

    2016-01-01

    Background Previous studies of preterm-born children (<37 weeks’ gestation) have demonstrated decrements in lung function, exercise capacity, and increased respiratory symptoms compared to their term-born peers. However, it is unclear if these children have decreased levels of physical activity (PA) and increased sedentary behavior as a consequence of this increased respiratory morbidity. We therefore compared objectively measured PA in 7-year old preterm-born children with those born at term. Methods Children in the Millennium Cohort Study underwent assessment of PA at 7 years of age using accelerometry. 6422/12781 (50%) provided valid accelerometry and had gestational age data. A series of general linear models adjusted for confounders investigated the association between gestational age and levels of Total PA (average accelerometer counts per minute over the period of the recording), Moderate-to-Vigorous PA (MVPA) and sedentary behavior. Mediation analysis was performed to specifically investigate whether the observed association of gestational age on PA was mediated by respiratory symptoms. Results PA data were available for 79, 119, 275 and 5949 children born at 25–32, 33–34, 35–36 and 37–43 weeks’ gestation respectively. Boys born at ≤32 weeks’ gestation had modest but statistically significant reductions in MVPA when compared to term controls. This equated to a reduction of 9 minutes per day. No differences were found for Total PA or sedentary behavior. The association between gestational age and MVPA was not mediated by respiratory symptoms. In females, there was no association between gestational age and any measure of PA or sedentary behavior. Conclusions Boys born at ≤32 weeks’ gestation took part in less MVPA than their term-born peers at 7 years of age. The differences were modest, but equated to a reduction of over 1 hour per week. Since PA levels have been shown to decline during childhood and adolescence, this vulnerable group

  13. Individual Differences In The School Performance of 2nd-Grade Children Born to Low-Income Adolescent Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apiwattanalunggarn, Kunlakarn Lekskul; Luster, Tom

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate factors that contribute to individual differences in the school performance of 2nd-grade children born to adolescent mothers. The sample of this study was 90 low-income adolescent mothers and their children. Data were collected from the adolescent mothers and their first-born children, now in 2nd grade,…

  14. The Children Should Lead Us: Diane Ehrensaft's "Gender Born, Gender Made--Raising Healthy Gender-Nonconforming Children"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beemyn, Genny

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews Diane Ehrensaft's "Gender Born, Gender Made: Raising Healthy Gender-Nonconforming Children", a thoughtful and practical guide that can help parents, other family members, and therapists better understand and support children and youth whom the author refers to as "gender creative." Ehrensaft's work is at the forefront of a…

  15. Physical Activity Disparities Between US-born and Immigrant Children by Maternal Region of Origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimbro, Rachel Tolbert; Kaul, Bhavika

    2016-04-01

    We examined and compared patterns in physical activity participation for children of US-born and immigrant mothers from seven world geographic regions, and tested whether the physical activity differences were attenuated by socioeconomic status or maternal language proficiency. Using the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten data (N = 18,850) we utilized logistic regression to predict adequate vigorous physical activity and participation in group and individual sports for kindergarten children. US-born children of US-born parents have significantly higher rates of physical activity compared to immigrant children. Children of Mexican, Southeast Asian, and Caribbean immigrants were especially unlikely to participate in sports. These disparities were not significantly attenuated by socioeconomic status, but accounting for language proficiency reduced some differences between the US-born and immigrant children, particularly for group sports participation. Researchers interested in improving the physical activity patterns of second-generation children should consider the relevance of language barriers in promoting healthy living. PMID:25750136

  16. Clinical risk factors on survival among infected children born to HIV-positive mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Chantutanon

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate clinical risk factors on survival among infected children born to HIV-positive mothers in the southern region of Thailand. Methods: Data from routine prospective cohort studies from 1990–2010 were analyzed. In these studies, totally 1549 infected children born to HIV-positive mothers were enrolled at birth and followed longitudinally. Information on demographic, clinical manifestation, HIV infection status factors was collected. Survival analysis was used to determine risk factors associated with mortality. Results: The main result found that one-quarter of infected children died (434, 28.02% during the follow-up period. A total of 135,295 person-months of follow up was available. The incident rate was 1.03 times per 100 person-months (95% CI: 0.97 to 1.08. The median survival time among infected children born to HIV-positive mothers from diagnosis to death was 87.34 months (95% CI: 87.32 to 87.36. Infected children born to HIV-infected mothers were diagnosed to confirm as AIDS (88.44% and symptomatic HIV positive (11.56%, respectively. Regarding the clinical risk factor on survival among infected children born to HIV-positive mothers were found. Infected children born to HIV-positive mothers were more likely to die, who infected with candidiasis (HR: 1.47, 95% CI: 1.07 to 2.00, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (HR: 1.51, 95% CI: 1.26 to 1.81 and Pneumocystis carinii (HR: 1.50, 95% CI: 1.27 to 1.76, those compared to infected children without clinical manifestation. Conclusion: Mortality among infected children born to HIV-positive mothers contributed to high levels in the southern region of Thailand. Consequently, health service system related to prevent mother-to-child HIV transmission is needed to improve child survival by lowering HIV infection and mortality in children born to HIV-positive mothers.

  17. Multivitamin supplementation improves haematologic status in children born to HIV-positive women in Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Enju Liu; Christopher Duggan; Manji, Karim P.; Roland Kupka; Said Aboud; Bosch, Ronald J; Rodrick R Kisenge; James Okuma; FAWZI, Wafaie W.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Anaemia is prevalent among children born to HIV-positive women, and it is associated with adverse effects on cognitive and motor development, growth, and increased risks of morbidity and mortality. Objective: To examine the effect of daily multivitamin supplementation on haematologic status and mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV through breastfeeding. Methods: A total of 2387 infants born to HIV-positive women from Dar es Salaam, Tanzania were enrolled in a randomized, d...

  18. Prematuridade entre recém-nascidos de mães com Amniorrexe Prematura Prematuridad entre recién nacidos de nadres com Amniorrexis Prematura Prematurity among new-borns of Mothers with Premature Amniorrexis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Lima Batista Santos

    2006-12-01

    ,5% 2-5 consultas y 27,1% refieren 6 o más, 16,2% de las madres presentaron Dolencia Hipertensiva del Estado Gestacional (DHEG, y 51,3% tuvieran parto normal. Se concluye que la prematuridad fué elevada, representando importante causa de la morbimortalidad neonatal, como también acarretar complicaciones clínicas y obstétricas para la madre. La DHEG aún representa um risco para la gestación. És necesário que nuevos estúdios sobre la temática sean realizados para se conocer la verdadera magnitud del problema.This is a descriptive study that took place in a public maternity in Fortaleza Ce, with objective to characterize the prematureness among newly born (RN interned in the Unidade Neonatal due to the premature amniorrexe. It was analyzed 37 newborns along with their mothers. From the newborns it was analyzed: prematureness degree, Apgar and reanimation need; and from their mothers: gestational age, pre natal care, birth and gestational pathologies. It was found that 35,1% of the babies are premature and 29,7% had a 0-6 Agar during the first minute of life, needing reanimation. As for the gestational age, 35,1% presented membrane ruptures before the 37th week of birth, 5,4% did not go through pre natal care, 67,5% attended from 2 to 5 appointments and 27,1% attended to 6 or more, 16,2% of the mothers presented Gestational Specific Highblood Pressure Disease (GSHPD and 51,3% of the mothers went through normal delivery. It was concluded that the prematureness was high, being a main cause of newborn morbid/mortality and that it also brings clinical and obstetric complications for the mothers. The GSHPD still represents a risk to pregnancy. More studies on the subject are needed in order to acknowledged the real magnitude of the problem.

  19. Hereditary dyslipidaemias and combined risk factors in children with a family history of premature coronary artery disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sveger, T; Flodmark, C; Nordborg, K; Nilsson-Ehle, P; Borgfors, N

    2000-01-01

    AIM—Schoolchildren aged 10-11 with a family history of premature coronary artery disease (CAD), were examined in order to identify children with genetically determined dyslipidaemias and a combination of risk factors.
METHODS—A total of 4000 questionnaires were distributed by the school; 55% of the families answered and returned the questionnaire. Blood lipids, apolipoprotein B, and Lp(a) lipoprotein were analysed in high risk children and their parents.
RESULTS—A family history of premature CAD in parents or grandparents was identified in 208 families; 175 agreed to take part in a clinical examination and laboratory tests. Normal blood lipid tests were found in 89 children. Another 48 had an isolated increase of Lp(a) lipoprotein of minor clinical importance. Of the remaining 38 children, 23 had non-hereditary abnormalities of low (LDL) or high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol or apolipoprotein B. Fifteen children were suspected to have genetically determined dyslipidaemias or a combination of risk factors: in four, possible familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH); in five, possible familial combined hyperlipidaemia; in three, hereditary low HDL cholesterol; and in three a combination of high LDL cholesterol and Lp(a) lipoprotein concentrations. In addition, possible FH was detected in eight of the parents.
CONCLUSION—It is worthwhile asking parents about the occurrence of premature CAD among their child's closest relatives.

 PMID:10735834

  20. Health outcomes of children born to mothers with chronic kidney disease: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indrani Banerjee

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to study the health of children born to mothers with chronic kidney disease. Twenty-four children born to mothers with chronic kidney disease were compared with 39 matched control children born to healthy mothers without kidney disease. The well-being of each child was individually assessed in terms of physical health, neurodevelopment and psychological health. Families participating with renal disease were more likely to be from lower socio-economic backgrounds. Significantly fewer vaginal deliveries were reported for mothers with renal disease and their infants were more likely to experience neonatal morbidity. Study and control children were comparable for growth parameters and neurodevelopment as assessed by the Griffiths scales. There was no evidence of more stress amongst mothers with renal disease or of impaired bonding between mother and child when compared to controls. However, there was evidence of greater externalizing behavioral problems in the group of children born to mothers with renal disease. Engaging families in such studies is challenging. Nonetheless, families who participated appreciated being asked. The children were apparently healthy but there was evidence in this small study of significant antenatal and perinatal morbidity compared to controls. Future larger multi-center studies are required to confirm these early findings.

  1. Children born of war (Niños nacidos de la guerra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mochmann, Ingvill C.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: Este artículo ofrece una visión introductoria desde el novedoso campo de investigación de 'Niños nacidos de la guerra'. Se trata de niños y niñas nacidos durante y después de conflictos y guerras habiendo sido su padre miembro del enemigo, fuerzas aliadas o fuerzas de paz y su madre una ciudadana local. A menudo, los niños y niñas nacidos de la guerra son estigmatizados y discriminados en su propio país y sus intereses y derechos particulares eludidos en situaciones de postconflicto. En este artículo se presenta una categorización de los niños nacidos de la guerra y algunos de los resultados del proyecto de investigación realizado sobre niños de la Segunda Guerra Mundial. Por último, se explora la situación internacional y judicial de estos niños así como las pautas posibles de ayuda dirigidas a éstos y sus madres.Abstract: This paper gives a short introduction into the rather new research field of 'Children born of war'. These are children who are born during and after conflicts and wars were the father has been a member of an enemy, allied or peacekeeping force and the mother a local citizen. 'Children born of war' are often stigmatised and discriminated in their home country and their particular interest and rights are overlooked in post-conflict situations. This paper presents different categories of children born of war and some results from research projects on children from Second World War are presented. Finally, the international and juridical situation of children born of war are discussed and possible guidelines to assist mothers and children introduced.

  2. [Vaccination of children born from HIV-infected mothers against Haemophilus influenzae type b infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostinov, M P; Pakhomov, D V; Snegova, N F; Nikitina, T N; Zinkina, T N

    2008-01-01

    Course of postvaccinal period after injection of vaccine against Haemophilus influenzae type b administered simultaneously with vaccines of Russian national immunization schedule was studied in children born from HIV-infected mothers. Good tolerability of the vaccine administered concomitantly with diphtheria-tetanus-whole cell pertussis and inactivated polio vaccines (Imovax Polio), which is comparable with tolerability in healthy children, was demonstrated. Prevaccination titers of antibodies and their dynamics during immunization process were described. Increase of levels of antibodies was detected both in the group of children with perinatal contact with HIV infection and in the group of HIV-infected children. PMID:18822498

  3. Cognitive and social development in preschool children born to women using substances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Irner, Tina Birk; Teasdale, Thomas William; Olofsson, May

    2012-01-01

    influence childhood development in addition to the teratological effect of prenatal substance exposure. This study explores the long-term developmental consequences in children from birth to age 7 born to women using substances and are in treatment. A series of t tests were performed to explore group...... effects on the cognitive and social dimensions of Griffiths Mental Development Scales compared with Swedish norms. The results showed significant effects on eye and hand coordination in children aged birth to 7 years and on hearing and speech, practical reasoning, and the general quotient in children aged......Prenatal substance exposure is associated with physical birth defects and increased risk of regulatory and neuropsychological difficulties of children born to mothers using substances while pregnant. Myriad factors, such as maternal psychopathology, stress, and poor living circumstances, may...

  4. Asthma at 8 years of age in children born by caesarean section.

    OpenAIRE

    Roduit, C.; Scholtens, S.; Jongste, de, J.C.; Wijga, A H; Gerritsen, J.; Postma, D. S.; Brunekreef, B; Hoekstra, M.O.; Aalberse, R; Smit, H. A.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Caesarean section might be a risk factor for asthma because of delayed microbial colonisation, but the association remains controversial. A study was undertaken to investigate prospectively whether children born by caesarean section are more at risk of having asthma in childhood and sensitisation at the age of 8 years, taking into account the allergic status of the parents. METHODS: 2917 children who participated in a birth cohort study were followed for 8 years. The definition of...

  5. Outcome of children born to epileptic mothers treated with carbamazepine during pregnancy.

    OpenAIRE

    Ornoy, A; Cohen, E.

    1996-01-01

    AIM: The purpose of the study was to assess whether there was an increased rate of congenital anomalies or significant developmental delay in infants of women with epilepsy who had been treated with carbamazepine during pregnancy. METHODS: 47 children were studied, aged 6 months-6 years, who were born to 37 epileptic mothers on carbamazepine monotherapy (group A). All children had a complete physical and neurodevelopmental assessment by a developmental paediatrician, and 41 a complete psychol...

  6. The human rights of children born of war : case analyses of past and present conflicts

    OpenAIRE

    Mochmann, Ingvill C.; Lee, Sabine

    2010-01-01

    "This paper addresses the human rights of 'children born of war' as measured against the standards formulated in the Convention of the Right of the Child. Taking five 20th century cases studies which cover different conflict and post-conflict situations in diverse geographical regions, the paper concludes despite greater awareness of children's rights as evident in their codification throughout the 20th century, there has been no noticeable improvement in the application of these rights to ch...

  7. Language Development of Children Born Following Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI) Combined with Assisted Oocyte Activation (AOA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'haeseleer, Evelien; Vanden Meerschaut, Frauke; Bettens, Kim; Luyten, Anke; Gysels, Hannelore; Thienpont, Ylenia; De Witte, Griet; Heindryckx, Björn; Oostra, Ann; Roeyers, Herbert; De Sutter, Petra; van Lierde, Kristiane

    2014-01-01

    Background: The effect of assisted reproduction technology (ART) on language development is still unclear. Moreover, different techniques are introduced at rapid pace and are not always accompanied by extensive follow-up programmes. Aims: To investigate the language development of 3-10-year-old children born following ART using intracytoplasmic…

  8. Adjustment of Children Born to Teenage Mothers: The Contribution of Risk and Protective Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubow, Eric F.; Luster, Tom

    1990-01-01

    Examined contribution of risk and protective factors in adjustment of 721 children, age 8-15, born to teenage mothers. Results showed that exposure to increasing number of risk factors (poverty, urban residence, mother's self-esteem) was associated with greater vulnerability to adjustment problems, while protective factors (intelligence,…

  9. Neuromotor, cognitive, language and behavioural outcome in children born following IVF or ICSI - a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middelburg, K. J.; Heineman, M. J.; Bos, A. F.; Hadders-Algra, M.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The effect of in vitro fertilization (IVF) or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) on the developing human brain is unclear. The objective of this study is to evaluate neurodevelopmental (ND) outcome of children born following these techniques. METHODS: This systematic review includes

  10. Predictors of Academic Motivation in First Grade among Children Born to Low-Income Adolescent Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luster, Tom; Lekskul, Kunlakarn; Oh, Su Min

    2004-01-01

    The central question addressed in this study was: What factors are associated with individual differences in academic motivation among first-grade students who were born to low-income adolescent mothers? Data from a 7-year longitudinal study were used to address the question. First-grade teachers assessed academic motivation for 89 children at the…

  11. Cortical morphometry and IQ in VLBW children without cerebral palsy born in 2003–2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Elisabeth Sølsnes

    2015-01-01

    We conclude that cortical deviations are evident in childhood even in VLBW children born in 2003–2007 who have received state of the art medical treatment in the perinatal period and who did not present with focal brain injuries on neonatal ultrasonography. The cortical deviations were associated with reduced cognitive functioning.

  12. Longitudinal body composition of children born to normal weight, overweight and obese mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective: The longitudinal trajectories of body composition of children born to normal weight, overweight and obese mothers have not been evaluated using precise body composition methods. This study investigated the relationship between maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and offspring body composition traj...

  13. Neuropsychological Impairment in School-Aged Children Born to Mothers With Gestational Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolaños, Lourdes; Matute, Esmeralda; Ramírez-Dueñas, María de Lourdes; Zarabozo, Daniel

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether school-aged children born to mothers with gestational diabetes show delays in their neuropsychological development. Several key neuropsychological characteristics of 32 children aged 7 to 9 years born to mothers with gestational diabetes were examined by comparing their performance on cognitive tasks to that of 28 children aged 8 to 10 years whose mothers had glucose levels within normal limits during pregnancy. The gestational diabetes group showed low performance on graphic, spatial, and bimanual skills and a higher presence of soft neurologic signs. Lower scores for general intellectual level and the working memory index were also evident. Our results suggest that gestational diabetes is associated with mild cognitive impairment. PMID:25814475

  14. Premature Contractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this more-forceful beat. Types of premature contractions Premature atrial contractions (PACs) start in the upper chambers of the ... and Privacy Policy Arrhythmia • ... Disorders Premature Contractions Tachycardia Ventricular Fibrillation Other Rhythm Disorders Types of ...

  15. Early language processing efficiency predicts later receptive vocabulary outcomes in children born preterm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchman, Virginia A; Adams, Katherine A; Loi, Elizabeth C; Fernald, Anne; Feldman, Heidi M

    2016-01-01

    As rates of prematurity continue to rise, identifying which preterm children are at increased risk for learning disabilities is a public health imperative. Identifying continuities between early and later skills in this vulnerable population can also illuminate fundamental neuropsychological processes that support learning in all children. At 18 months adjusted age, we used socioeconomic status (SES), medical variables, parent-reported vocabulary, scores on the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development (third edition) language composite, and children's lexical processing speed in the looking-while-listening (LWL) task as predictor variables in a sample of 30 preterm children. Receptive vocabulary as measured by the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (fourth edition) at 36 months was the outcome. Receptive vocabulary was correlated with SES, but uncorrelated with degree of prematurity or a composite of medical risk. Importantly, lexical processing speed was the strongest predictor of receptive vocabulary (r = -.81), accounting for 30% unique variance. Individual differences in lexical processing efficiency may be able to serve as a marker for information processing skills that are critical for language learning. PMID:26031342

  16. [[Streptococcus mutans Acquisition and Dental Caries Development in First-Born Children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noce, Erica; Rubira, Cassia Maria Fischer; da Silva Rosa, Odila Pereira; da Silva, Salete Moura Bonifácio; Bretz, Walter Antonio

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the moment of streptococcus mutans (SM) acquisition, caries development and their associate variables along 23 months, in first-born children of low socioeconomic status families, starting at 7 months of age. METHOD: The sample was chosen based on highly SM-colonized mothers, including all members of 14 families living in the same houses. The study included 14 mothers, 14 fathers and 14 first-borns and 8 relatives (mostly grandparents). Initial clinical examinations and radiographs determined the caries indices and periodontal conditions of the adults. SM count in all adults was made in the first 2 visits. The children were examined for SM count, number of teeth and number of carious lesions, in 4 visits. RESULTS: SM prevalence was high in the adults, being absent in only one of the parents. SM was found in 1, 2, 3 and 10 children in the first, second, third and fourth visits. Dental caries was detected in only 3 children in the last visit (at 30 months), who presented significantly higher SM scores than the children without caries in the same visit. CONCLUSION: A low income social condition and mothers highly colonized by SM do not mean necessarily early SM colonization and high caries activity in children with oral homecare. Caries development is significantly associated with high SM scores in the children. PMID:22022218

  17. [Influence of the technogenic environment on health new-borns infant children in Lugansk region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapranov, S V; Sapel'nikov, A Ia; Sapel'nikova, L Ia

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the work was to evaluate the health of new-borns born to mothers who lived constantly influenced of the technogenic environmentat on health infant children in Luhansk region. We exameded evaluation of the influence of the technogenic environmental factors on the health of 1119 children in Alchevsk city, Perevalsk town with mining towns and rural villages of Perevalsky area of Lugansk region and Zhovtnev district of Lugansk region. The children were measured in anthropometric studies conducted body length, body weight, chest circumference and the head. Evaluation of the physical development of the children carried tsentilnym method. Prior to discharge from the hospital new-borns divided into three main groups--healthy, risk group, pathology. Also we have done the analysis of the statistical information on the health status of all newborns administrative units Lugansk region. Found that the percentage of new-borns with normal anthropometric variables (from 3 to 97 centile), body length and head circumference was significantly higher in rural areas Perevalsky area with more favorable environmental conditions compared to the industrial city of Alchevsk. New-borns with abnormal significantly higher in women who are domiciled in the city of Alchevsk (19.01% ± 1.44%) under the impact of emissions components ferrous metallurgy and coke-chemical, compared with Perevalskiy and mining towns (13.82% ± 2.20%), as well as rural villages Perevalsky area (11.90% ± 2.89%). Over the period 2004-2011, the incidence of congenital anomalies of new-borns weighing 1000 g or more (per 1000 live births and stillbirths) were significantly higher in the industrial cities of Luhansk region--19.70 ± 0.61 compared with rural areas--15.51 ± 0.73. The incidence of this pathology is one of the highest in Alchevsk--31.88 ± 2.48, which was significantly higher than.in urban areas, as well as in the whole of Luhansk region--19.13 ± 0.55. Therefore, the health of new-born babies is

  18. Chromosomal abnormalities among children born with conotruncal cardiac defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammer, Edward J.; Chak, Jacqueline S.; Iovannisci, David M.; Schultz, Kathleen; Osoegawa, Kazutoyo; Yang, Wei; Carmichael, Suzan L.; Shaw, Gary M.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND Conotruncal heart defects comprise 25%-30% of non-syndromic congenital heart defects. This study describes the frequency of chromosome abnormalities and microdeletion 22q11 associated with conotruncal heart malformations. METHODS From a population base of 974,579 infants/fetuses delivered, 622 Californian infants/fetuses were ascertained with a defect of aortico-pulmonary septation. Infants whose primary cardiac defect was tetralogy of Fallot (n=296) or D-transposition of the great vessels (n=189) were screened for microdeletions of 22q11. RESULTS Fourteen (2.3%) of the 622 infants/fetuses had chromosomal abnormalities. Thirty infants, 10% of those whose primary defect was tetralogy of Fallot, had chromosome 22q11 microdeletions. Right aortic arch, abnormal branching patterns of the major arteries arising from the thoracic aorta, and pulmonary artery abnormalities were observed more frequently in these children. CONCLUSIONS We found an unusual number of infants with an extra sex chromosome and a conotruncal defect. Infants with tetralogy of Fallot due to 22q11 microdeletion showed more associated vascular anomalies than infants with tetralogy but no 22q11 microdeletion. Although these associated vascular anomalies provide clues as to which infants with tetralogy of Fallot are more likely to carry the microdeletion, the overall risk of 10% among all infants with tetralogy of Fallot warrants chromosome analysis and FISH testing routinely. PMID:19067405

  19. Assessing and Managing Medically Fragile Children: Tracheostomy and Ventilatory Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodnorth, Geralyn Harvey

    2004-01-01

    Over the past decade, there has been an increase in premature births. Children born prematurely often present with complex medical conditions; some require a tracheostomy. Although many children with tracheostomies require assistance to achieve effective communication, speech-language pathologists may have limited information with respect to the…

  20. Variations in the neurobiology of reading in children and adolescents born full term and preterm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travis, Katherine E.; Ben-Shachar, Michal; Myall, Nathaniel J.; Feldman, Heidi M.

    2016-01-01

    Diffusion properties of white matter tracts have been associated with individual differences in reading. Individuals born preterm are at risk of injury to white matter. In this study we compared the associations between diffusion properties of white matter and reading skills in children and adolescents born full term and preterm. 45 participants, aged 9–17 years, included 26 preterms (born < 36 weeks' gestation) and 19 full-terms. Tract fractional anisotropy (FA) profiles were generated for five bilateral white matter tracts previously associated with reading: anterior superior longitudinal fasciculus (aSLF), arcuate fasciculus (Arc), corticospinal tract (CST), uncinate fasciculus (UF) and inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF). Mean scores on reading for the two groups were in the normal range and were not statistically different. In both groups, FA was associated with measures of single word reading and comprehension in the aSLF, AF, CST, and UF. However, correlations were negative in the full term group and positive in the preterm group. These results demonstrate variations in the neurobiology of reading in children born full term and preterm despite comparable reading skills. Findings suggest that efficient information exchange required for strong reading abilities may be accomplished via a different balance of neurobiological mechanisms in different groups of readers. PMID:27158588

  1. Iatrogenic Blood-borne Viral Infections in Refugee Children from War and Transition Zones

    OpenAIRE

    Goldwater, Paul N.

    2013-01-01

    Pediatric infectious disease clinicians in industrialized countries may encounter iatrogenically transmitted HIV, hepatitis B virus, and hepatitis C virus infections in refugee children from Central Asia, Southeast Asia, and sub-Saharan Africa. The consequences of political collapse and/or civil war—work migration, prostitution, intravenous drug use, defective public health resources, and poor access to good medical care—all contribute to the spread of blood-borne viruses. Inadequate infectio...

  2. Multivitamin supplementation improves haematologic status in children born to HIV-positive women in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enju Liu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Anaemia is prevalent among children born to HIV-positive women, and it is associated with adverse effects on cognitive and motor development, growth, and increased risks of morbidity and mortality. Objective: To examine the effect of daily multivitamin supplementation on haematologic status and mother-to-child transmission (MTCT of HIV through breastfeeding. Methods: A total of 2387 infants born to HIV-positive women from Dar es Salaam, Tanzania were enrolled in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, and provided a daily oral supplement of multivitamins (vitamin B complex, C and E or placebo at age 6 weeks for 24 months. Among them, 2008 infants provided blood samples and had haemoglobin concentrations measured at baseline and during a follow-up period. Anaemia was defined as haemoglobin concentrations <11 g/dL and severe anaemia <8.5 g/dL. Results: Haemoglobin concentrations among children in the treatment group were significantly higher than those in the placebo group at 12 (9.77 vs. 9.64 g/dL, p=0.03, 18 (9.76 vs. 9.57 g/dL, p=0.004, and 24 months (9.93 vs. 9.75 g/dL, p=0.02 of follow-up. Compared to those in the placebo group, children in the treatment group had a 12% lower risk of anaemia (hazard ratio (HR: 0.88; 95% CI: 0.79–0.99; p=0.03. The treatment was associated with a 28% reduced risk of severe anaemia among children born to women without anaemia (HR: 0.72; 95% CI: 0.56–0.92; p=0.008, but not among those born to women with anaemia (HR: 1.10; 95% CI: 0.79–1.54; p=0.57; p for interaction=0.007. One thousand seven hundred fifty three infants who tested HIV-negative at baseline and had HIV testing during follow-up were included in the analysis for MTCT of HIV. No association was found between multivitamin supplements and MTCT of HIV. Conclusions: Multivitamin supplements improve haematologic status among children born to HIV-positive women. Further trials focusing on anaemia among HIV-exposed children

  3. Effortful control, positive emotional expression, and behavior problems in children born preterm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnson, Cynthia; Poehlmann, Julie; Schwichtenberg, A J

    2013-12-01

    The present study focused on the role of high effortful control in the expression of positive emotion and development of behavior problems in children born preterm (mean gestational age = 31.4 weeks). Using data from a prospective longitudinal study, the present study assessed effortful control and behavior problems at 24 and 36 months and positive emotional expression at 24 months in a sample of 173 children born preterm. Less positive emotional expression was associated with higher effortful control for boys but not girls. Higher effortful control was associated with fewer total behavior problems, but this relation was attenuated when socioeconomic assets were included in the model. More socioeconomic assets were associated with fewer behavior problems for both boys and girls and higher effortful control for girls. Socioeconomic assets appear to be an important factor in the development of effortful control and behavior problems in children born preterm regardless of gender, whereas positive emotional expression was important for boys. Future intervention research should examine fostering adaptive levels of effortful control in high-risk populations as a means to facilitate resilience processes. PMID:23810984

  4. Fatores prognósticos para o desenvolvimento cognitivo de prematuros de muito baixo peso Prognostic factors for cognitive development of very low birth weight premature children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Dalva Barbosa Baker Méio

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Crianças prematuras, de muito baixo peso, podem apresentar alterações em seu desenvolvimento cognitivo. No Brasil, pouco se conhece sobre a evolução dessas crianças na idade pré-escolar. O objetivo do estudo foi descrever o desenvolvimento cognitivo de uma população de recém-nascidos prematuros de muito baixo peso e verificar possíveis fatores prognósticos para desenvolvimento cognitivo anormal. MÉTODOS: Um estudo de coorte foi realizado com uma população de crianças pré-escolares, nascidas prematuras, de muito baixo peso, entre janeiro de 1991 e setembro de 1993. O desenvolvimento cognitivo foi avaliado por meio do teste WPPSI-R (Wechsler Preschool and Primary Intelligence Scales aplicado por psicólogas, utilizando dois pontos de corte para definição de anormalidade: escores abaixo de 1 e 2, desvios padrões da média (DP. RESULTADOS: Foram avaliadas 79 crianças de quatro a cinco anos de idade. A média do escore total do teste WIPPSI-R foi de 75,6 (±11,9. A incidência de escore total anormal foi de 77,2% e de 32,9% (1DP e 2 DP, respectivamente. Após o ajuste por "tipo de parto", ser pequeno para a idade gestacional (OR=6,19; IC95% 1,60-23,86, ultra-som transfontanela anormal (OR=5,90; IC95% 1,04-9,83 e ser do sexo masculino (OR=3,20; IC 95% 1,32-26,35 foram os fatores que predisseram escore total OBJECTIVE: Very low birth weight premature children often show cognitive development abnormalities. There is scarce information about the outcome of these children at preschool age in Brazil.The objective of the study is to describe the cognitive development of a population of premature newborns and to assess possible prognostic factors for abnormalities. METHODS: A cohort study was conducted in a preschool children population whose subjects were very low birth weight premature babies born between January 1991 and September 1993. WPPSI-R Test was used for cognitive evaluation and it was applied by psychologists. Two

  5. Increased risk of neuropsychological disorders in children born preterm without major disabilities: a neurodevelopmental model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipasquale Filippo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Over the past 30 years, preterm births have drastically increased and today represent 12.5% of total births. About 1.2% of preterm births characterize very preterm births (GA<32weeks that, with very low birth weight (BW<1500grams, are constantly found as risk factors of unfavourable neurological outcomes in longitudinal follow up studies. Actually, also “late preterm” children (preterm born from 33 to 36 weeks of gestational age, normally considered at low risk for neurodevelopmental disabilities, are supposed to represent a population of children to be monitored. Previous findings of a general cognitive impairment in children born preterm have gradually addressed the assessment of more specific neuropsychological skills and pointed out the importance to follow these children up to adolescent age. The neuroanatomical prerequisite of an abnormality in frontal lobe development and the correlation with various neuropsychological dysfunctions (fine and gross motor disabilities, executive function and working memory deficits, visual-constructional and attentional dysfunctions underline the interference of preterm birth with normal brain maturational phases. Though showing more demanding neurodevelopmental pathways than term peers, a large number of preterm children tend to functionally normalize in adolescence. The review supports the hypothesis of a neurodevelopmental model that can be at risk to influence dysfunctional neuropsychological outcome.

  6. Lung function in 6 years old children born very preterm and fed different diets post discharge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftlund, Line Hedegaard; Agertoft, Lone; Halken, Susanne; Zachariassen, Gitte

    ≤ 32 weeks. From hospital discharge to 4 month corrected age, the children received three different types of nutrition: A: Human milk (HM) B: HM enriched with fortifier (HMF) C: Preterm formula (PF). At the age of 6 years, the children performed an occlusion test (Rocc) and a lung resistance test...... airway resistance was within normal range for all children no mater post discharge nutrition. And there was a tendency towards a lower airway resistance among infants fed with formula or nutrient enriched human milk compared to infants fed exclusively human milk post discharge....... lung function and the possible risk of developing asthma among 6 year old children born very preterm. Method: A prospective, randomized, interventional multicentre study on nutrition of a preterm birth cohort has been established and described previously. The inclusion criteria were gestational age...

  7. Treatment for retinopathy of prematurity in Denmark in a ten-year period (1996-2005): Is the incidence increasing?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slidsborg, C.; Olesen, H.B.; Jensen, Peter Koch;

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. The objective of this study was to analyze the population incidence of retinopathy of prematurity treatment in Denmark in the 10-year period from 1996 to 2005. METHODS. Patient charts of infants treated for retinopathy of prematurity and the national birth registry provide information...... about neonatal parameters. These parameters, along with birth in the latter half of the period (2001-2005), were analyzed as risk factors for retinopathy of prematurity. The national registry for blind and visually impaired children was accessed to obtain information about visual impairment attributable...... to retinopathy of prematurity in both treated and untreated infants. RESULTS. The study population consisted of 5467 Danish preterm infants born in 1996 to 2005, with a gestational age of <32 weeks, who survived for >= 5 postnatal weeks; 2616 were born in 1996 to 2000, and 2851 were born in 2001 to...

  8. Motor learning and working memory in children born preterm: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongbloed-Pereboom, Marjolein; Janssen, Anjo J W M; Steenbergen, Bert; Nijhuis-van der Sanden, Maria W G

    2012-04-01

    Children born preterm have a higher risk for developing motor, cognitive, and behavioral problems. Motor problems can occur in combination with working memory problems, and working memory is important for explicit learning of motor skills. The relation between motor learning and working memory has never been reviewed. The goal of this review was to provide an overview of motor learning, visual working memory and the role of working memory on motor learning in preterm children. A systematic review conducted in four databases identified 38 relevant articles, which were evaluated for methodological quality. Only 4 of 38 articles discussed motor learning in preterm children. Thirty-four studies reported on visual working memory; preterm birth affected performance on visual working memory tests. Information regarding motor learning and the role of working memory on the different components of motor learning was not available. Future research should address this issue. Insight in the relation between motor learning and visual working memory may contribute to the development of evidence based intervention programs for children born preterm. PMID:22353425

  9. Surface displacement based shape analysis of central brain structures in preterm-born children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Amanmeet; Grunau, Ruth E.; Popuri, Karteek; Miller, Steven; Bjornson, Bruce; Poskitt, Kenneth J.; Beg, Mirza Faisal

    2016-03-01

    Many studies using T1 magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data have found associations between changes in global metrics (e.g. volume) of brain structures and preterm birth. In this work, we use the surface displacement feature extracted from the deformations of the surface models of the third ventricle, fourth ventricle and brainstem to capture the variation in shape in these structures at 8 years of age that may be due to differences in the trajectory of brain development as a result of very preterm birth (24-32 weeks gestation). Understanding the spatial patterns of shape alterations in these structures in children who were born very preterm as compared to those who were born at full term may lead to better insights into mechanisms of differing brain development between these two groups. The T1 MRI data for the brain was acquired from children born full term (FT, n=14, 8 males) and preterm (PT, n=51, 22 males) at age 8-years. Accurate segmentation labels for these structures were obtained via a multi-template fusion based segmentation method. A high dimensional non-rigid registration algorithm was utilized to register the target segmentation labels to a set of segmentation labels defined on an average-template. The surface displacement data for the brainstem and the third ventricle were found to be significantly different (p MRI data and reveal shape changes that may be due to preterm birth.

  10. Interaction with the Mother in Children Born as a Result of in Vitro Fertilization (IVF: Attachment and Parenting Style Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dueva A.A.,

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the social and emotional development of children. We tested and partially confirmed the hypothesis that children born as a result of reproductive technology, less often show reliable attachment type than the naturally born children. Such a pattern may emerge because of the behavior of IVF mothers. The present study involved 11 children aged from 5 years to 6 years 11 months, born as a result of IVF, and 10 control children conceived naturally, as well as their mothers. To collect anamnesis, we used: survey of parents with Child-parent emotional interaction questionnaire, and techniques Analysis of family education, projective drawing techniques Nest drawing and Drawing dialogue aimed at identifying the quality of the child's attachment to his mother and interaction in the dyad, as well as Kaplan method for determining the type of attachment.

  11. Response to immunization in children born to renal transplant recipients using immunosuppressive drugs during gestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinelli, Maria Isabel Saraiva; Ono, Erika; Viana, Patrícia Oliveira; Spina, Fernanda Garcia; Weckx, Lily Yin; dos Santos, Amélia Miyashiro Nunes; de Moraes-Pinto, Maria Isabel

    2016-01-20

    The use of immunosuppressive drugs can impair vaccination responses. When used during pregnancy, they may interfere with the development of the fetus's immune system. However, little is known regarding their influence on infant's response to vaccinations. Twenty-seven children born to renal transplant mothers (Tx) taking immunosuppressive drugs and 31 healthy children had the humoral immune response and reactogenicity to tetanus, Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) and 7 pneumococcal serotypes evaluated. The evolution of BCG vaccine scar was also registered. Antibodies were measured by ELISA. Lymphocyte immunophenotyping was performed on cord blood and at 7-8 months of age. Among Tx neonates, 82.4% had low B lymphocyte numbers at birth, and 29.4% had also low numbers of other lymphocyte subpopulations. Nevertheless, all children developed protective antibodies with similar antibody concentrations to the control group. Vaccine reactogenicity was similar in both groups and BCG healing was uneventful. PMID:26707214

  12. Premature ejaculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001524.htm Premature ejaculation To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Premature ejaculation is when a man has an orgasm sooner ...

  13. Different sex ratios of children born to Indian and Pakistani immigrants in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brekke Torkel

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A low female-to-male ratio has been observed in different Asian countries, but this phenomenon has not been well studied among immigrants living in Western societies. In this study, we investigated whether a low female-to-male ratio exists among Indian and Pakistani immigrants living in Norway. In particular, we investigated whether the determination of sex via ultrasound examination, a common obstetric procedure that has been used in Norway since the early 1980 s, has influenced the female-to-male ratio among children born to parents of Indian or Pakistani origin. Methods We performed a retrospective cohort study of live births in mothers of Indian (n = 1597 and Pakistani (n = 5617 origin. Data were obtained from "Statistics Norway" and the female-to-male (F/M sex ratio was evaluated among 21,325 children born, in increasing birth order, during three stratified periods (i.e., 1969-1986, 1987-1996, and 1997-2005. Results A significant low female-to-male sex ratio was observed among children in the third and fourth birth order (sex ratio 65; 95% CI 51-80 from mothers of Indian origin who gave birth after 1987. Sex ratios did not deviate from the expected natural variation in the Indian cohort from 1969 to 1986, and remained stable in the Pakistani cohort during the entire study period. However, the female-to-male sex ratio seemed less skewed in recent years (i.e., 1997-2005. Conclusion Significant differences were observed in the sex ratio of children born to mothers of Indian origin compared with children born to mothers of Pakistani origin. A skewed number of female births among higher birth orders (i.e., third or later may partly reflect an increase in sex-selective abortion among mothers of Indian origin, although the numbers are too small to draw firm conclusions. Further research is needed to explain the observed differences in the female-to-male ratio among members of these ethnic groups who reside in Norway.

  14. 建立早产儿脑损伤的随访与早期干预体系%Establishment of Follow-up and Early Intervention System in Premature Children With Brain Injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    昌爱慧

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨分析早产儿脑损伤随访体系的建立,并对其早期干预措施进行总结。方法选取93例早产儿采用婴幼儿智能发育量表(CDCC)对其智力指数进行评估,比较两组患者上述指标差异。结果出生3月时,两组患儿神经系统评分无差异(P>0.05);而在6月时,干预组患儿神经系统评分优于常规组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论对合并脑损伤的早产儿建立早期随访和干预体系有助于其神经系统功能的恢复。%Objective To investigate the analysis of brain injury in premature children to establish folow-up system,and summarized its early interventions. Methods 93 cases of premature children adopted CDCC scale(CDCC)to assess their inteligence index,comparison of the two groups of patients the index difference.ResultsBorn 3 months,the two groups of children with neurological scores no significant difference(P>0.05),while in June,the intervention group children with neurological scores were significantly better than the conventional group,the difference was statisticaly significant(P<0.05).Conclusion The combined brain injury in preterm children establish an early folow-up and intervention system to help restore its nervous system function.

  15. 早产对脑性瘫痪儿童乳牙釉质发育的影响%The developmental enamel defects in the primary dentition of cerebral palsied children with premature birth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林小波; 张笋; 吴卫红; 吴志文

    2011-01-01

    目的 研究早产因素对脑瘫儿童乳牙釉质发育缺陷的影响.方法 选择135名脑瘫患儿,与62名正常儿童对比,进行乳牙釉质发育缺陷状况的统计调查.同时比较脑瘫儿童中早产与乳牙釉质发育缺陷发生的关系.结果 脑瘫儿童组中早产儿童乳牙釉质发育缺陷的患病率明显高于足月组,有统计学差异(P<0.05).结论 早产的脑瘫儿童更容易发生乳牙釉质发育缺陷.%Objective To investigate the developmental enamel defects in the primary dentition of cerebral palsied children with premature birth. Methods One hundred and thirty-five children with cerebral palsy were examined for the clinical manifestation of the developmental enamel defects in the primary dentition. The relationship between the defects and cerebral palsied children's birth conditions were assessed. Results The prevalence of enamel defects in cerebral palsied children born premarurely was significantly higher than that in those with full term birth. Conclusion Enamel defects in the primary dentition are more likely to happen in cerebral palsied children with premature birth than those with full term birth.

  16. Outcomes for extremely premature infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Hannah C; Costarino, Andrew T; Stayer, Stephen A; Brett, Claire M; Cladis, Franklyn; Davis, Peter J

    2015-06-01

    Premature birth is a significant cause of infant and child morbidity and mortality. In the United States, the premature birth rate, which had steadily increased during the 1990s and early 2000s, has decreased annually for 7 years and is now approximately 11.39%. Human viability, defined as gestational age at which the chance of survival is 50%, is currently approximately 23 to 24 weeks in developed countries. Infant girls, on average, have better outcomes than infant boys. A relatively uncomplicated course in the intensive care nursery for an extremely premature infant results in a discharge date close to the prenatal estimated date of confinement. Despite technological advances and efforts of child health experts during the last generation, the extremely premature infant (less than 28 weeks gestation) and extremely low birth weight infant (premature labor improved neonatal mortality and morbidity in the late 1990s. The recognition that chronic postnatal administration of steroids to infants should be avoided may have improved outcomes in the early 2000s. Evidence from recent trials attempting to define the appropriate target for oxygen saturation in preterm infants suggests arterial oxygen saturation between 91% and 95% (compared with 85%-89%) avoids excess mortality; however, final analyses of data from these trials have not been published, so definitive recommendations are still pending. The development of neonatal neurocritical intensive care units may improve neurocognitive outcomes in this high-risk group. Long-term follow-up to detect and address developmental, learning, behavioral, and social problems is critical for children born at these early gestational ages.The striking similarities in response to extreme prematurity in the lung and brain imply that agents and techniques that benefit one organ are likely to also benefit the other. Finally, because therapy and supportive care continue to change, the outcomes of extremely low birth weight infants are

  17. Gestational age and birth weight in relation to school performance of 10-year-old children: a follow-up study of children born after 32 completed weeks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Ida; Obel, Carsten; Hedegaard, Morten;

    2006-01-01

    spelling and arithmetic disabilities, showed a graded relationship, with children who weighed <2500 g having the highest risks. Even children who weighed between 3000 and 3499 g had an increased risk of all 3 learning disabilities compared with children who weighed between 3500 and 4000 g. This association...... persisted after adjustment for potential cofounders and when the analyses were restricted to children born at term (39-40 weeks of gestation), suggesting that the association could not be explained by a low gestational age. Compared with children born at term, reading and spelling difficulties were more...... often found among children born at gestational age 33 to 36 weeks and 37 to 38 weeks, whereas there was no relation between gestational age and arithmetic difficulties. CONCLUSIONS: Gestational age and birth weight were associated with school performance in the 10-year-old child and the association...

  18. Ophthalmological aspects of prematurity

    OpenAIRE

    Holmström, Gerd

    2008-01-01

    In a prospective, population-based study of a weIl defined geographical area in Sweden, an ROP incidence of 40.4% was found among 260 prematurely born infants with a birth weight of 1500 grams or less. Cryotherapy was performed in 10.8% of the infants. Gestational age at birth and birth weight were significantly associated with ROP. A 3.5-year ophthalmological foIlow-up of the 260 prematurely bom infants was performed. In the refraction there was a reduction in the mean ...

  19. Social competence of 3 to 5-year-old children born with low birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Komariah

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Low birth weight (LBW has long been used as an indicator of public health. Low birth weight is not a proxy for any dimension of other maternal or perinatal health outcomes. Low birth weight infants require special care, and have more chronic conditions, learning delays, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorders compared to infants of normal birth weight (NBW. Social competence is viewed as a primary component of healthy function and development and is an important predictor of academic and financial success. Objective To examine social competence of children aged 3-5 years born with low birth weight. Methods This cross-sectional study was undertaken in Palembang in 2012. Subjects consisted of children aged 3-5 years attended a preschool in the Seberang Ulu I District, Palembang, and were divided into two groups: low birth weight (LBW and normal birth weight (NBW. Social competence was assessed by observation and Interaction Rating Scale (IRS and Parenting Style questionnaire (PSQ. Chi-square analysis was used to compare social competence between the two groups. Multivariate regression logistic analysis was used to assess for the dominant factors that may affect a child’s social competence. Results Low birth weight children aged 3 to 5 years had a 1.435 times higher risk of low social competence compared to normal birth weight children of similar age. (RP 1.435; 95%CI 1.372 to 13.507; P=0.019. Multivariate regression logistic analysis revealed that parenting style was a dominant factor affecting social competence. Conclusion Social competence in 3 to 5-year-old children born with low birth weight is lower compared to those with normal birth weight. [Paediatr Indones. 2015;55:158-63.].

  20. A predictive model for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV hospitalisation of premature infants born at 33–35 weeks of gestational age, based on data from the Spanish FLIP study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Figueras-Aloy Jose

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study, conducted in Europe, was to develop a validated risk factor based model to predict RSV-related hospitalisation in premature infants born 33–35 weeks' gestational age (GA. Methods The predictive model was developed using risk factors captured in the Spanish FLIP dataset, a case-control study of 183 premature infants born between 33–35 weeks' GA who were hospitalised with RSV, and 371 age-matched controls. The model was validated internally by 100-fold bootstrapping. Discriminant function analysis was used to analyse combinations of risk factors to predict RSV hospitalisation. Successive models were chosen that had the highest probability for discriminating between hospitalised and non-hospitalised infants. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC curves were plotted. Results An initial 15 variable model was produced with a discriminant function of 72% and an area under the ROC curve of 0.795. A step-wise reduction exercise, alongside recalculations of some variables, produced a final model consisting of 7 variables: birth ± 10 weeks of start of season, birth weight, breast feeding for ≤ 2 months, siblings ≥ 2 years, family members with atopy, family members with wheeze, and gender. The discrimination of this model was 71% and the area under the ROC curve was 0.791. At the 0.75 sensitivity intercept, the false positive fraction was 0.33. The 100-fold bootstrapping resulted in a mean discriminant function of 72% (standard deviation: 2.18 and a median area under the ROC curve of 0.785 (range: 0.768–0.790, indicating a good internal validation. The calculated NNT for intervention to treat all at risk patients with a 75% level of protection was 11.7 (95% confidence interval: 9.5–13.6. Conclusion A robust model based on seven risk factors was developed, which is able to predict which premature infants born between 33–35 weeks' GA are at highest risk of hospitalisation from RSV. The model could be

  1. Executive Functioning and Learning Skills of Adolescent Children Born at Fewer than 26 Weeks of Gestation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Farooqi

    Full Text Available To assess the cognitive and behavioral aspects of executive functioning (EF and learning skills in extremely preterm (EPT children compared with term control children aged 10 to 15 years.A total of 132 of 134 (98% of all eligible survivors EPT children born at the 2 Swedish regional tertiary care centers from 1992 to 1998 (mean age = 12 years, mean birth weight = 718 g, and mean gestational age = 24.4 weeks and 103 matched term controls were assessed. General intelligence was assessed using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-III-R, and cognitive aspects of EF were analyzed using EF-sensitive subscales of the WISC-III-R and Tower test of the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function Scale (D-KEFS. Behaviors related to EF and learning skills were assessed using the Five to Fifteen questionnaire, which is a validated parent and teacher instrument. Academic performance in school was assessed by teachers' responses on Achenbach's Teachers Report Form. Analyses performed included multivariate analyses of covariance (ANCOVA and MANCOVA and logistic regression analyses.The EPT children displayed significant deficits in cognitive aspects of EF compared with the controls, exhibiting decreases on the order of 0.9 SD to 1.2 SD for tasks of verbal conceptual reasoning, verbal and non-verbal working memory, processing speed and planning ability (P 70 and without major NSI revealed no interactions, but significant main effects were observed for the behavioral composite executive function score, group status (EPT vs control and FSIQ, for which all effect sizes were medium to large. The corresponding findings of MANCOVA of the parent-reported learning skills were very similar. According to the teachers' ratings, the EPT children were less well adjusted to the school environment.EPT children born in the 1990s who received active perinatal care are at an increased risk of executive dysfunction, even after excluding children with significant

  2. Population based external validation of a European predictive model for respiratory syncytial virus hospitalization of premature infants born 33 to 35 weeks of gestational age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stensballe, Lone G; Fullarton, John R; Carbonell-Estrany, Xavier;

    2010-01-01

    Prospectively collected population-based data on 2529 Danish infants born at 33 to 35 weeks of gestation were used to validate an European predictive model of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) hospitalization. The model was found to be robust with a diagnostic accuracy of 65.9% to distinguish bet...

  3. Early communicative gestures and play as predictors of language development in children born with and without family risk for dyslexia

    OpenAIRE

    Unhjem, Astrid; Eklund, Kenneth; Nergård-Nilssen, Trude

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigated early communicative gestures, play, and language skills in children born with family risk for dyslexia (FR) and a control group of children without this inheritable risk at ages 12, 15, 18, and 24 months. Participants were drawn from the Tromsø Longitudinal study of Dyslexia (TLD) which follows children's cognitive and language development from age 12 months through Grade 2 in order to identify early markers of developmental dyslexia. Results showed that symboli...

  4. Early Indications of Resilience and Their Relation to Experiences in the Home Environments of Low Birthweight, Premature Children Living in Poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Robert H.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Examined caregiving environments for 243 premature, low birthweight infants living in poverty to determine effects on health and development. Found that children's health and development benefited significantly from six protective caregiving factors: (1) increased parental responsiveness; (2) availability of toys and learning materials; (3)…

  5. Sensorimotor behavior in children born preterm and adolescents with Cerebral Palsy : Side preference, movement organization, and training

    OpenAIRE

    Johansson, Anna-Maria

    2012-01-01

    Preterm birth (< 37 complete gestation weeks, GWs) is the single most prominent risk factor for the development of cerebral palsy (CP). This is due to the immature physiological state of the preterm born infant which increases the risk of brain lesions. In CP, prominent sensorimotor, cognitive, and perceptual deviations are manifested with varying degrees of functional impairment. Although most children born preterm (PT) do not develop CP, sensorimotor and cognitive deficits are frequently...

  6. Premature Menopause

    OpenAIRE

    Okeke, TC; Anyaehie, UB; Ezenyeaku, CC

    2013-01-01

    Premature menopause affects 1% of women under the age of 40 years. The women are at risk of premature death, neurological diseases, psychosexual dysfunction, mood disorders, osteoporosis, ischemic heart disease and infertility. There is need to use simplified protocols and improved techniques in oocyte donation to achieve pregnancy and mother a baby in those women at risk. Review of the pertinent literature on premature menopause, selected references, internet services using the PubMed and Me...

  7. [Vitality as a criterion of the prognosis in the treatment of premature children?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinchmann, B S

    1999-08-30

    The aim of this study was to generate knowledge about the ethical decision-making processes nurses and physicians are faced with in a neonatal unit. What are the ethical assessments underlying decisions about whether to start, continue or stop medical treatment of very sick premature babies? The theoretical framework was deontological ethics, utilitarianism, Aristotelian virtue ethics theory and an ethics of proximity. A descriptive study design with 120 hours of field observations and 22 qualitative in-depth interviews was chosen. Strauss & Glaser's comparative method, grounded theory, was used to analyze the field observations and interviews. The findings seem to indicate that ethical decisions are somewhat ambivalent. Experience does not always make these decisions easier. There are indications that nurses and physicians use elements from all the different ethical positions. In situations of ambiguity, decisions are also based upon the vitality of the babies. PMID:10504846

  8. Factors influencing the level of physical development of premature newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vostrikova G.V.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to assess the factors having impact on physical development of prematurely born children at birth. Materials and Methods. 1099 case histories of newborns, the exchanged cards of pregnant women, birth case histories of women who gave birth in gestational age from 22 to 37 weeks. Results. It has been shown that there are significant indices effecting premature birth affect: chronic inflammatory diseases of the oropharynx, gastrointestinal tract, diabetes, thyroid disease, pathology of vision, infectious diseases, skin diseases; sexually transmitted infections, chronic pelvic inflammatory disease, cervical erosion, genital infantilism; preeclampsia of the first and second half of pregnancy, chronic fetoplacental insufficiency, anemia, inflammatory diseases during pregnancy, acute respiratory viral infections, obesity, gestational diabetes and pyelonephritis; prenatal pouring out of amniotic fluid, umbilical cord pathology, cho-rioamnionitis. Defined correlation between weight and height indicators of premature infants at birth and groups of medicines that women have during their pregnancy. Conclusions. Identification of factors affecting the level of physical development of premature children is important in determination of women with a higher probability of birth of children with intrauterine development and for assessing the further development of these children.

  9. Social care of children born to HIV-infected mothers in Europe. European Collaborative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, C; Newell, M L; Peckham, C

    1998-02-01

    Children of HIV-infected women are likely to be profoundly affected by their mothers' infection, regardless of their own infection status and their number will increase with the spread of infection among women in Europe. This article describes the family circumstances and social care of 1,123 children born to HIV-infected women enrolled in the European Collaborative Study and followed prospectively from birth. Most mothers were white, married or cohabiting, asymptomatic and had a history of drug use, with 45% currently using injecting drugs at the time of enrollment. Seventy percent of children were cared for by their mothers and/or fathers consistently in their first four years of life, but by age eight an estimated 60% will have lived away from their parents (i.e. with foster or adoptive parents, other relatives or in an institution). Whether or not a child was infected did not influence the likelihood of living in alternative care. Maternal injecting drug use, single parenthood and health status were the major reasons necessitating alternative care. The type of alternative care varied according to maternal characteristics, child's age and geographic location. The mothers of 98 children had died and average age at maternal death was four years. PMID:9536198

  10. Influence of post discharge nutrition on body composition at 6 years of age among children born very preterm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftlund, Line Hedegaard; Zachariassen, Gitte; Agertoft, Lone; Halken, Susanne

    .841 g), but no significant difference between the groups. Conclusion Human milk seems to result in a lower fat mass and higher muscle mass among very preterm born infants. The results are preliminary due to the small number of children. The remaining children in this cohort will be invited to similar...... type of nutrition in early life effects the body composition in later life among very preterm born children Method In 2004-08 a birth cohort of very preterm born infants with a gestational age ≤32+0 weeks. At time of hospital discharge, the infants were randomised into 3 different feeding groups. If...... possible to breastfeed, the infant was randomised to one of two groups • Breastfeeding solely (human milk) • Breastfeeding enriched with fortification (human milk fortifier) If breastfeeding was not possible the infant received • Preterm formula. They were all fed the specific nutrition from discharge to 4...

  11. Methylphenidate and the response to growth hormone treatment in short children born small for gestational age.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith S Renes

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Growth hormone (GH treatment has become a frequently applied growth promoting therapy in short children born small for gestational age (SGA. Children born SGA have a higher risk of developing attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. Treatment of ADHD with methylphenidate (MP has greatly increased in recent years, therefore more children are being treated with GH and MP simultaneously. Some studies have found an association between MP treatment and growth deceleration, but data are contradictory. OBJECTIVE: To explore the effects of MP treatment on growth in GH-treated short SGA children METHODS: Anthropometric measurements were performed in 78 GH-treated short SGA children (mean age 10.6 yr, 39 of whom were also treated with MP (SGA-GH/MP. The SGA-GH/MP group was compared to 39 SGA-GH treated subjects. They were matched for sex, age and height at start of GH, height SDS at start of MP treatment and target height SDS. Serum insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I and IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3 levels were yearly determined. Growth, serum IGF-I and IGFBP-3 levels during the first three years of treatment were analyzed using repeated measures regression analysis. RESULTS: The SGA-GH/MP group had a lower height gain during the first 3 years than the SGA-GH subjects, only significant between 6 and 12 months of MP treatment. After 3 years of MP treatment, the height gain was 0.2 SDS (± 0.1 SD lower in the SGA-GH/MP group (P = 0.17. Adult height was not significantly different between the SGA-GH/MP and SGA-GH group (-1.9 SDS and -1.9 SDS respectively, P = 0.46. Moreover, during the first 3 years of MP treatment IGF-I and IGFBP-3 measurements were similar in both groups. CONCLUSION: MP has some negative effect on growth during the first years in short SGA children treated with GH, but adult height is not affected.

  12. Calculation of organ doses in x-ray examinations of premature babies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lung disease represents one of the most life-threatening conditions in prematurely born children. In the evaluation of the neonatal chest, the primary and most important diagnostic study is the chest radiograph. Since prematurely born children are very sensitive to radiation, those radiographs may lead to a significant radiation detriment. Knowledge of the radiation dose is therefore necessary to justify the exposures. To calculate doses in the entire body and in specific organs, computational models of the human anatomy are needed. Using medical imaging techniques, voxel phantoms have been developed to achieve a representation as close as possible to the anatomical properties. In this study two voxel phantoms, representing prematurely born babies, were created from computed tomography- and magnetic resonance images: Phantom 1 (1910 g) and Phantom 2 (590 g). The two voxel phantoms were used in Monte Carlo calculations (MCNPX) to assess organ doses. The results were compared with the commercially available software package PCXMC in which the available mathematical phantoms can be downsized toward the prematurely born baby. The simple phantom-scaling method used in PCXMC seems to be sufficient to calculate doses for organs within the radiation field. However, one should be careful in specifying the irradiation geometry. Doses in organs that are wholly or partially outside the primary radiation field depend critically on the irradiation conditions and the phantom model

  13. Peculiarities of hypothalamic-pituitary thyroid function in children born from the Chornobyl NPP accident survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 168 children born to parents exposed after the Chernobyl accident were examined to study the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid system function in descendants of the Chernobyl survivors. Clinical, hormonal, ultrasound examinations and challenge test with tyroliberynum were conducted. Some abnormalities that might explain the functional strain of the hypothalamic-pituitary system were identified being of a great role in origination and progress of thyroid disease. The prolonged strain leads to decreased production of thyroid hormone, which causes an increased secretion of thyroid stimulating hormone. Under the influence of TSH the thyroid gland in the first stage becomes increased in its mass, which leads to the formation of endemic goiter. Stable and permanent thyroid gland enlargement often leads to formation of the nodular goiter and other proliferative processes, namely to carcinogenesis

  14. Short children born small for gestational age (SGA) : puberty, hormonal profiles, combined GnRHa and GH treatment and (epi)genetics of 2 IGFBP gene promotors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.C.M. van der Kaay (Danielle)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractIn the Netherlands, children who remain short after being born small for gestational age (SGA) are treated with growth hormone (GH). The clinical studies described in this thesis focused on treatment options in short children born SGA who came under medical attention around pubertal age.

  15. Korean-Immigrant Parents' Support of Their American-Born Children's Development and Maintenance of the Home Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hyun-Sook

    2013-01-01

    This study explores Korean-immigrant parents' language ideologies and practices with respect to their American-born children's language development. Participants were seven ethnic Korean families composed of immigrant parents and their American-born children, aged between five and seven, in Midwestern America. Interviews in the medium of…

  16. Incidence of Retinopathy of Prematurity in Extremely Premature Infants

    OpenAIRE

    Şahin, Alparslan; Şahin, Muhammed; Türkcü, Fatih Mehmet; Cingü, Abdullah Kürşat; Yüksel, Harun; Çınar, Yasin; Arı, Şeyhmus; Çaça, İhsan

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate the incidence and the severity of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in extremely preterm infants born before 28 weeks of gestation in southeastern Turkey. Methods. A retrospective chart review was performed for infants born before 28 weeks of gestation. The following data were reviewed: gender, gestational age (GA), birth weight (BW), zone and stage of ROP, presence of plus disease, and treatment for ROP if needed. Infants were divided into 2 groups according to GA as f...

  17. 32 CFR 584.5 - U.S. citizenship determinations on children born out of wedlock in a foreign country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... passport application with three signed pictures of the child. (2) The soldier may consult a legal... (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY PERSONNEL FAMILY SUPPORT, CHILD CUSTODY, AND PATERNITY § 584.5 U.S. citizenship determinations on children born out of wedlock in a foreign country. (a) General. (1) A child...

  18. Family Advocates' Perspectives on the Early Academic Success of Children Born to Low-Income Adolescent Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luster, Tom; Bates, Laura; Vandenbelt, Marcia; Nievar, M. Angela

    2004-01-01

    Qualitative analyses were conducted to examine family factors related to individual differences in the early school success of children born to low-income adolescent mothers from the perspective of paraprofessional family advocates. These families were participants in a 5-year family support program. Achievement test scores and teacher ratings…

  19. The Well-Being of Children Born to Teen Mothers: Multiple Approaches to Assessing the Causal Links. JCPR Working Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Judith A.; Pollack, Harold

    This study used linked maternal-child data from the 1997-1998 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to explore the wellbeing of children born to teenage mothers. Two econometric techniques explored the causal impact of early childbearing on subsequent child and adolescent outcomes. First, a fixed-effect, cousin-comparison analysis controlled for…

  20. Strengthening Families with First-Born Children: Exploratory Story of the Outcomes of a Home Visiting Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Rosa, Ivan A.; Perry, Joanne; Dalton, Lisa E.; Johnson, Victoria

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Using a theory of change framework, this study examines outcome measures of a home visitation program that provided services to first-born children and their parents living in southwestern New Mexico. Method: Home visitation workers conducted pretest and posttest assessments for prenatal and postpartum periods for 109 families receiving…

  1. Familial influences on poverty among young children in black immigrant, U.S.-born black, and nonblack immigrant families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Kevin J A

    2011-05-01

    This study examines how familial contexts affect poverty disparities between the children of immigrant and U.S.-born blacks, and among black and nonblack children of immigrants. Despite lower gross child poverty rates in immigrant than in U.S.-born black families, accounting for differences in family structure reveals that child poverty risks among blacks are highest in single-parent black immigrant families. In addition, within two-parent immigrant families, child poverty declines associated with increasing assimilation are greater than the respective declines in single-parent families. The heads of black immigrant households have more schooling than those of native-black households. However, increased schooling has a weaker negative association with child poverty among the former than among the latter. In terms of racial disparities among the children of immigrants, poverty rates are higher among black than nonblack children. This black disadvantage is, however, driven by the outcomes of first-generation children of African and Hispanic-black immigrants. The results also show that although children in refugee families face elevated poverty risks, these risks are higher among black than among nonblack children of refugees. In addition, the poverty-reducing impact associated with having an English-proficient household head is about three times lower among black children of immigrants than among non-Hispanic white children of immigrants. PMID:21491186

  2. Incidence and risk factors of retinopathy of prematurity

    OpenAIRE

    Rasyidah; Sujan Ali Fing

    2013-01-01

    Background Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is one of the main causes of visual impairment in premature infants. Objective To determine the incidence and risk factors for ROP in premature infants. Methods This retrospective study included premature infants born in Stella Mmaris Women’s and Children’s Hospital and admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) and Neonatology Department from November 2009 to May 2012. We included all premature infants with body weight (BW) < 1500 ...

  3. Does Embryo Culture Medium Influence the Health and Development of Children Born after In Vitro Fertilization?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Céline Bouillon

    Full Text Available In animal studies, extensive data revealed the influence of culture medium on embryonic development, foetal growth and the behaviour of offspring. However, this impact has never been investigated in humans. For the first time, we investigated in depth the effects of embryo culture media on health, growth and development of infants conceived by In Vitro Fertilization until the age of 5 years old. This single-centre cohort study was based on an earlier randomized study. During six months, in vitro fertilization attempts (No. 371 were randomized according to two media (Single Step Medium-SSM group or Global medium (Global group. This randomized study was stopped prematurely as significantly lower pregnancy and implantation rates were observed in the SSM group. Singletons (No. 73 conceived in the randomized study were included (42 for Global and 31 for SSM. The medical data for gestational, neonatal and early childhood periods were extracted from medical records and parental interviews (256 variables recorded. The developmental profiles of the children in eight domains (social, self-help, gross motor, fine motor, expressive language, language comprehension, letter knowledge and number knowledge - 270 items were compared in relation to the culture medium. The delivery rate was significantly lower in the SSM group than in the Global group (p<0.05. The culture medium had no significant effect on birthweight, risk of malformation (minor and major, growth and the frequency of medical concerns. However, the children of the Global group were less likely than those of the SSM group to show developmental problems (p = 0.002, irrespective of the different domains. In conclusion, our findings showed that the embryo culture medium may have an impact on further development.

  4. Does Embryo Culture Medium Influence the Health and Development of Children Born after In Vitro Fertilization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouillon, Céline; Léandri, Roger; Desch, Laurent; Ernst, Alexandra; Bruno, Céline; Cerf, Charline; Chiron, Alexandra; Souchay, Céline; Burguet, Antoine; Jimenez, Clément; Sagot, Paul; Fauque, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    In animal studies, extensive data revealed the influence of culture medium on embryonic development, foetal growth and the behaviour of offspring. However, this impact has never been investigated in humans. For the first time, we investigated in depth the effects of embryo culture media on health, growth and development of infants conceived by In Vitro Fertilization until the age of 5 years old. This single-centre cohort study was based on an earlier randomized study. During six months, in vitro fertilization attempts (No. 371) were randomized according to two media (Single Step Medium--SSM group) or Global medium (Global group). This randomized study was stopped prematurely as significantly lower pregnancy and implantation rates were observed in the SSM group. Singletons (No. 73) conceived in the randomized study were included (42 for Global and 31 for SSM). The medical data for gestational, neonatal and early childhood periods were extracted from medical records and parental interviews (256 variables recorded). The developmental profiles of the children in eight domains (social, self-help, gross motor, fine motor, expressive language, language comprehension, letter knowledge and number knowledge--270 items) were compared in relation to the culture medium. The delivery rate was significantly lower in the SSM group than in the Global group (peffect on birthweight, risk of malformation (minor and major), growth and the frequency of medical concerns. However, the children of the Global group were less likely than those of the SSM group to show developmental problems (p = 0.002), irrespective of the different domains. In conclusion, our findings showed that the embryo culture medium may have an impact on further development. PMID:27008092

  5. Premature infant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preterm infant; Preemie; Premie ... The infant may have trouble breathing and keeping a constant body temperature. ... A premature infant may have signs of the following problems: Anemia Bleeding into the brain or damage to the brain's white ...

  6. Neuro-ophthalmic manifestations of prematurity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preeti Patil Chhablani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing rates of preterm births coupled with better survival of these infants have resulted in higher prevalence of systemic and ocular complications associated with prematurity. In addition to retinopathy of prematurity, infants who are born preterm may suffer from severe visual impairment as a result of hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy, hypoglycemia, and other metabolic imbalances. The effect of these processes on the anterior visual pathway may result in optic atrophy, optic nerve hypoplasia or optic disc cupping and affection of the posterior visual pathway leads to cortical visual impairment (CVI. Other ocular associations include strabismus, nystagmus, and ocular motor abnormalities such as tonic down gaze and defective saccades and pursuits. Cortical and subcortical involvement also manifests as defects in functional vision and these have not yet been completely understood. Children with CVI may have visual field defects, photophobia, defective visual processing, and deficient color vision. Since most of these children also suffer from additional systemic disabilities, evaluation, and management remains a challenge. However, early diagnosis and initiation of rehabilitation therapy can prove to be of significant benefit in these children.

  7. Factors influencing left ventricular hypertrophy in children and adolescents with or without family history of premature myocardial infarction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Seyyed Mohsen; Kelishadi, Roya; Lotfi, Noushin; Sabri, Mohammad Reza; Mansouri, Samaneh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Cardiovascular diseases are the highest ranking cause of mortality. The prevalence of cardiovascular diseases is increasing among people in developed and developing countries. Since left ventricular hypertrophy is one of the risk factors leading to extremely dangerous heart diseases and even sudden death at early ages, investigating its contributing factors can be beneficial. The purpose of this study was to determine factors contributing to left ventricular hypertrophy in students aged 7-18 years in Isfahan. Statistical population of this case-control study was the 7-18 year old students in Isfahan, who were studied in two groups of children with premature myocardial infarction in their parents and the control group. Materials and Methods: After determining the sample size of 138 people, a two-part questionnaire was designed and demographic characteristics and anthropometric measures were recorded in students’ profiles. The obtained information was analyzed using SPSS15 software and logistic regression model and the results were reported at P < 0.05. Result: The results showed that among the studied variables, gender, age, body mass index, and blood pressure were associated with the left ventricular hypertrophy. Conclusion: Considering the results and previous studies in this field, it was observed that left ventricular hypertrophy exists at early ages, which is very dangerous and can lead to heart diseases at early ages. Factors such as being overweight, having high blood pressure, and being male cause left ventricular hypertrophy and lead to undiagnosable heart diseases. PMID:24627868

  8. Cytogenetic effects in children born to participants in the cleanup of the Chernobyl accident consequences - Acute radiation syndrome survivors and children evacuated from Pripyat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cytogenetic study of 87 children was held. Age of involved kids ranged from 5 to 14 years old. The I-st study group was presented with 17 kids born in 1987-1988 from the Chernobyl accident consequences cleaning up participants (CACCP) who survived the Acute radiation syndrome (ARS) of I-II severity degree in 1986. The II-nd study group was consisted from the 45 children born in 1983-1985 resident in town Pripyat with thyroid exposure doses from 65 to 616 sZv and total irradiation doses from 0.2 to 13.2 sZv. The 25 children born in 1983-1988 and resident in radiation situation - favourable region of Ukraine constituted the Control (III-rd) group. The aberrant cells number and chromosomal aberrations amount mainly due to chromatide type ones confidential increase compared to that in control was revealed among the children born from CACCP - ARS survivors. In children exposed to ionizing radiation during infant and early childhood age the aberrant cells number and chromosomal aberrations quantity was elevated also but due to both chromosomal (dicentrics and rings) and chromatide types. (author)

  9. Multivitamin Supplements Have No Effect on Growth of Tanzanian Children Born to HIV-Infected Mothers1234

    OpenAIRE

    Kupka, Roland; Manji, Karim P.; Bosch, Ronald J.; Aboud, Said; Kisenge, Rodrick; Okuma, James; Fawzi, Wafaie W.; Duggan, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Growth faltering and micronutrient deficiencies commonly coexist in HIV-exposed children in sub-Saharan Africa, and correcting deficiencies, such as those of vitamins B-complex, C, and E, may improve HIV-related endpoints and child growth. We therefore examined the effect of daily oral supplementation of vitamins B-complex, C, and E on growth among 2341 children born to HIV-infected mothers in Tanzania. HIV-infected women pregnant at ≤32 wk of gestation were enrolled in the study. Children we...

  10. Expression of chromosome instability in children with thyroid pathology born to parents suffered from Chernobyl accident factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under the usage of long-term human peripheral blood lymphocytes' cultures, the association between thyroid pathology in the children born to irradiated parents and the expression of the hidden cytogenetic effect in delayed cells' generations had been determined. The interindividual variability in the observed children as regard as the response of somatic cells' chromosomes to different terms of the lymphocytes cultivation had been revealed. The possible promotion of delayed chromosome instability on the realization of thyroid pathology in children with a hidden functional failure of the endocrine system has been assumed

  11. Assessing Child Maltreatment in Children Born to Mothers Who Used Methamphetamine during Pregnancy at Siriraj Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand: A Pilot Study

    OpenAIRE

    Patcharoros, Nontima; Chulakadabba, Sudsabuy; Na Manorom, Nattawadee; Boon-yasidhi, Vitharon

    2014-01-01

    Studies on maltreatment of children born to methamphetamine abusing mothers are lacking. This cross-sectional study examined child maltreatment among children born at Siriraj Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand, to mothers who used methamphetamines during pregnancy. During the study period between July 2011 and January 2012, 34 caretakers of these children were interviewed using the ISPCAN Child Abuse Screening Tool-Parent Version (ICAST-P) to assess their disciplinary actions. The associations betwe...

  12. Improvement in perinatal care for extremely premature infants in Denmark from 1994 to 2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasselager, Asbjørn Børch; Børch, Klaus; Pryds, Ole Axel

    2016-01-01

    gestational age and administration of surfactant. CONCLUSIONS: Centralisation of treatment of extremely premature infants has been implemented because more children are being born at highly specialised perinatal centres. Care improved as more infants received evidence-based treatment. IVH 3-4 rates declined......INTRODUCTION: Major advances in perinatal care over the latest decades have increased the survival rate of extremely premature infants. Centralisation of perinatal care was implemented in Denmark from 1995. This study evaluates the effect of organisational changes of perinatal care on survival and...

  13. Refugee children have fewer contacts to psychiatric healthcare services: an analysis of a subset of refugee children compared to Danish-born peers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barghadouch, Amina; Kristiansen, Maria; Jervelund, Signe Smith;

    2016-01-01

    Asia, The Middle East, Sub-Saharan Africa and former Yugoslavia, who obtained residency in Denmark between 1 January 1993 and 31 December 2010 with 146,562 Danish-born children, matched 1:6 on age and sex. The study looked at contacts with psychiatric hospitals as well as psychologists and...

  14. IMMUNOLOGICAL PARAMETRS OF UMBILICAL CORD BLOOD FROM CHILDREN BORN TO WOMEN WITH UROGENITAL INFECTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. I. Remizova

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available  Significant incidence of chronic urogenital diseases, both of viral and bacterial origin in women of reproductive age leads to an increase in the frequency of intrauterine infections. These disorders lead to disturbances of postnatal adaptation of newborns and increased numbers of infectious complications. In order to assess the state of immune system, we examined forty-eight children born to women with urogenital infection, including twenty-nine infants with complicated course of early adaptation period (study group and twenty children diagnosed as healthy upon discharge by the day 3 to 5 after birth (comparison group. By means of flow cytometry, the following subpopulations were assayed in cord blood: CD3+, CD3+CD4+, CD3+CD8+, CD19+, CD3CD16+CD56+ cells, expression levels of markers specific to activated monocytes CD14 (HLA-DR, and lymphocytes (CD25+, CD69+, like as markers of functionally mature cells (CD45R0, CD45RA, both in total lymphocyte pool and among T cell populations. Contents of IL-1β, TNFα, IFNγ, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 were assessed by ELISA technique. Our studies have shown that umbilical cord blood samples from the main group of newborns showed a statistically significant decrease in relative content of CD3+, CD4+, CD8+ and CD4+CD25+ cells, along with increase in the absolute numbers of leukocytes and lymphocytes, B-cells and NK cells, as well as expression of CD45RO+, CD45RA+ and CD3+CD45RO+ receptors, CD69+ and CD14+HLADR+ activation markers, accompanied by a significant increase of IL-8 production. Numerical determination of CD45RO+, CD3+CD45RO+, CD69+ and CD14+HLA-DR+ cells, and IL-8 contents in newborns, may serve as prognostic criteria for assignment of risk group for early adaptation disturbances and development of infectious diseases. 

  15. Copy Number Variants in Short Children Born Small for Gestational Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wit, Jan M.; van Duyvenvoorde, Hermine A.; van Klinken, Jan B.; Caliebe, Janina; Bosch, Cathy A.J.; Lui, Julian C.; Gijsbers, Antoinet C.J.; Bakker, Egbert; Breuning, Martijn H.; Oostdijk, Wilma; Losekoot, Monique; Baron, Jeffrey; Binder, Gerhard; Ranke, Michael B.; Ruivenkamp, Claudia A.L.

    2014-01-01

    Background/aims In addition to Genome-Wide Association studies (GWAS) height-associated genes may be uncovered by studying individuals with extreme short or tall stature. Methods Genome-wide analysis for copy number variants (CNVs), using Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) arrays, was performed in 49 index cases born small for gestational age (SGA) with persistent short stature. Segregation analysis was performed, and genes in CNVs were compared with information from GWAS, gene expression in rodents’ growth plates, and published information. Results CNVs were detected in 13 cases. In 5 children a known cause of short stature was found: UPD7, UPD14, a duplication of the SHOX enhancer region, an IGF1R deletion, and a 22q11.21 deletion. In the remaining 8 cases potential pathogenic CNVs were detected, either de novo (n=1), segregating (n=2), or not segregating with short stature (n=5). Bioinformatic analysis of the de novo and segregating CNVs suggested that HOXD4, AGPS, PDE11A, OSBPL6, PRKRA and PLEKHA3, and possibly DGKB and TNFRSF11B are potential candidate genes. A SERPINA7 or NRK defect may be associated with an X-linked form of short stature. Conclusion SNP arrays detected 5 known causes of short stature with prenatal onset and suggested several potential candidate genes. PMID:25300501

  16. HIV感染孕产妇所生儿童的死亡状况分析%An analysis of mortality situation of children born by HIV-infected mothers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方利文; 邢再玲; 王临虹; 王前; 张伟; 孙定勇; 黄越华; 张燕

    2009-01-01

    目的 了解我国艾滋病高流行地区艾滋病感染孕产妇所生儿童的死亡状况.方法 于2008年8~11月在我国艾滋病高发4省7县/区对2004年1月~2007年12月期间艾滋病感染孕产妇所生儿童的死亡状况进行回顾性调查,分析儿童死亡原因及死亡水平.结果 艾滋病感染孕产妇所生新生儿死亡率为33.71‰,婴儿死亡密度为110.78/1 000人年,5岁以下儿童死亡密度为59.83/1 000人年;艾滋病感染婴儿死亡率为352.94‰,艾滋病感染孕产妇所生非艾滋病感染婴儿死亡率为62.50‰;艾滋病感染孕产妇所生的5岁以下死亡儿童中,44.90%死于艾滋病,15.56%死于早产低出生体重.结论 我国艾滋病高流行地区艾滋病感染孕产妇所生儿童死亡率处于较高水平,艾滋病感染孕产妇所生儿童死亡的首要原因是艾滋病,其次是早产低出生体重.%Objective To investigate mortality rate of children born by HIV-infected mothers in some HIV highly prevalent areas in China. Methods The mortality situation of children born by HIV-positive mothers in 7 counties or prefectures of 4 provinces of HIV highly prevalent areas in China in a period from January, 2004~December, 2007 was investigated retrospectively for cause of death and mortality rate from August to November, 2008. Results The mortality rate of neonate born by HIV-infected mothers was 33.71‰, the infantile mortality density was 110.78 /1 000 infant-year, the mortality density of children under 5 years was 59.83 /1 000 child-year; the mortality rate in HIV-infected infants was 352.94‰; the mortality rate in HIV-uninfected infants born by HIV-infected mothers was 62.50‰. Among dead children under 5 years, 44.90% of them died from HIV/AIDS and 15.56% of them died from premature low birth weight. Conclusion The mortality rate of children born by HIV-infected mothers in HIV highly prevalent areas in China is high. The first cause of death of children born by HIV

  17. Health seeking behavior of the mothers for the special care new-born unit discharged children: A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gursimer Jeet

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Establishment of special care new-born units (SCNU in hospitals not only serves to provide the intensive care to sick neonates, but presents with opportunities to enhance knowledge and modify attitude and practices of their parents through behavior change communication (BCC. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Dibrugarh District, Assam from January to June, 2011 to assess differences in health-care seeking behavior of these mothers from mothers of newborns who were born at home and mothers who had normal uneventful institutional deliveries. Mothers of 29 SCNU discharged, 34 institutions delivered and 26 home delivered children were interviewed using a semi-structured interview schedule and a knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP survey tool. Mothers of children admitted to SCNU scored better in questions related to vaccination, contraception, protection of child from infections and cold and perceptions about traditional healers, but overall KAP scores in the three groups were not found significantly different.

  18. [Premature ejaculation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapetti, Adrián

    2013-01-01

    Premature ejaculation is the more frequent sexological consultation in men along with the Erectile Dysfunction. In this article a revision will become of its definitions, its clinical manifestations that allow to an effective diagnosis and its therapeutic boarding with Sexual Therapies and, in certain cases, with drugs like PDE-5 Inhibitors, tricyclic antidepressants, IRSS, or dapoxetine. PMID:24260751

  19. 20 CFR 416.924b - Age as a factor of evaluation in the sequential evaluation process for children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... infants. We generally use chronological age (that is, a child's age based on birth date) when we decide... chronological age. When we evaluate the development or linear growth of a child born prematurely, we may use a... children until the child's prematurity is no longer a relevant factor; generally no later than...

  20. Etiology and prevalence rate of bilateral sensorineural hearing impairment in children born in Kobe city over a 10 year period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study was carried out on children born over a 10 year period from 1997 to 2006 in Kobe city and referred to our center for specialist audiological assessment. A total of 107 cases had a bilateral sensorineural hearing impairment averaging 25 dB or over in the better hearing ear during the study period. To ascertain causes of sensorineural hearing impairment, full medical histories were obtained with detailed family history relevant to hearing impairment and perinatal course for adverse etiological factors. The children were investigated for possible congenital infection and chromosomal anomalies. Children with positive family history of deafness in parents or siblings constituted 11.2% of cases (genetic group). Other etiological groups showed the following distribution: syndromal group 5.6%; inner ear anomalies 5.6%; perinatal group 13.1%; congenital infection 11.2%; chromosomal anomalies 16.8%; multiple congenital anomalies 5.6%; causes unknown 30.9%. The high incidence of causes unknown indicates that steps should be taken to yield a diagnosis. The total number of children born in Kobe city was 117,896 during the period from 1997 to 2005, which gave a prevalence rate of hearing impairment of 0.87/1,000 births. Newborn hearing screening identified many children earlier and also provide the opportunity to finetune the evaluation. (author)

  1. Retinopathy of prematurity: the need for prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liegl R

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Raffael Liegl,1 Ann Hellström,2 Lois EH Smith1 1Department of Ophthalmology, Boston Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden Abstract: More than 450,000 babies are born prematurely in the USA every year. The improved survival of even the most vulnerable low body weight preterm infants has, despite improving health outcomes, led to the resurgence in preterm complications including one of the major causes for blindness in children, retinopathy of prematurity (ROP. The current mainstay in ROP therapy is laser photocoagulation and the injection of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF antibodies in the late stages of the disease after the onset of neovascularization. Both are proven options for ophthalmologists to treat the severe forms of late ROP. However, laser photocoagulation destroys major parts of the retina, and the injection of VEGF antibodies, although rather simple to administer, may cause a systemic suppression of normal vascularization, which has not been studied in sufficient depth. However, the use of neither VEGF antibody nor laser treatment prevents ROP, which should be the long-term goal. It should be possible to prevent ROP by more closely mimicking the intrauterine environment after preterm birth. Such preventive measures include preventing the toxic postbirth influences (eg, oxygen excess as well as providing the missing intrauterine factors (eg, insulin growth factor 1 and are likely to also reduce other complications of premature birth as well as ROP. This review is meant to summarize the current knowledge on the prevention of ROP with a particular emphasize on the use of insulin growth factor 1 supplementation. Keywords: ROP, IGF-1, insulin growth factor 1

  2. Prevalence and factors associated with thoracic alterations in infants born prematurely Prevalência e fatores associados às alterações torácicas em lactentes nascidos prematuros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josy Davidson

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of thoracic musculoskeletal alterations and associated factors in infants born prematurely. METHODS: This was a cross sectional study with infants in the first year of age, born prematurely with birth weight OBJETIVO: Determinar a prevalência e os fatores associados ��s alterações torácicas musculoesqueléticas em lactentes nascidos prematuros. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal com lactentes no primeiro ano de vida, nascidos prematuros com peso < 2000 g e acompanhados em um ambulatório de seguimento de prematuros, de fevereiro/2007 a dezembro/2008. Foram excluídas crianças com malformações maiores definidas pelo CDC ou com hemorragia peri-intraventricular grau III/IV ou leucomalácia periventricular. Duas fisioterapeutas realizaram o exame físico, avaliando, de modo independente, a elevação de ombros e as retracões da caixa torácica. O estudo foi aprovado pelo Comitê de Ética em Pesquisa da Instituição, sendo solicitada assinatura do Termo de Consentimento pelos pais. As variáveis numéricas foram comparadas pelo teste t ou Mann-Whitney. O grau de concordância entre as avaliações das fisioterapeutas foi obtido pelo coeficiente kappa e as variáveis associadas às alterações torácicas foram estudadas por regressão logística univariada e múltipla. Considerou-se significante p < 0,05. RESULTADOS: Foram estudados 121 lactentes com idade gestacional de 31,1 ± 2,8 semanas e peso ao nascer de 1400 ± 338 g. A fisioterapeuta 1 detectou alterações torácicas em 81 (66,9% lactentes e a fisioterapeuta 2 em 83 (68,6% (coeficiente kappa = 0,77. Os fatores associados às alterações musculoesqueléticas foram: síndrome do desconforto respiratório no período neonatal (OR=3,246; IC 95%: 1,237-8,732, ter apresentado displasia broncopulmonar (OR=11,138; IC 95%: 1,339-92,621 e relação comprimento para a idade alterada (OR=4,571; IC 95%: 1,371-15,242. CONCLUSÃO: A prevalência de altera

  3. Osteopenia - premature infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neonatal rickets; Brittle bones - premature infants; Weak bones - premature infants; Osteopenia of prematurity ... so that the baby's bones will grow. A premature infant may not receive the proper amount of ...

  4. Osteopenia - premature infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neonatal rickets; Brittle bones - premature infants; Weak bones - premature infants; Osteopenia of prematurity ... the baby. This helps the baby grow. A premature infant may not receive the proper amount of calcium ...

  5. Developmental neuropsychological assessment of 4- to 5-year-old children born following Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD): A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacks, Gilat Chaya; Altarescu, Gheona; Guedalia, Judith; Varshaver, Irit; Gilboa, Tal; Levy-Lahad, Ephrat; Eldar-Geva, Talia

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate developmental neuropsychological profiles of 4- to 5-year-old children born after Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD). Twenty-seven participants received a neurological examination and a battery of neuropsychological assessments including Wechsler Preschool & Primary Scale of Intelligence - Third Edition (WPPSI-III; cognitive development), Preschool Language Scale, Fourth Edition (PLS-4; language development), Wide Range Assessment of Visual Motor Abilities (visual motor abilities), Childhood Autism Rating Scales II (a screening test for autistic spectrum disorders), and the Miles ABC Test (ocular dominance). Parental questionnaires included the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function Preschool Version (BRIEF-P; executive function), Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and the Carey Temperament Scales Behavioral Style Questionnaire (socioemotional development and temperament), and the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, Interview Edition, Second Edition (general adaptive behavior). Subjects' tests results were compared to each test's norms. Children born after PGD demonstrated scores within the normal or above-normal ranges for all developmental outcomes (mean ± SD): WPPSI-III-VIQ 107.4 ± 14.4 (p = .013), PLS-4-Total 113.2 ± 12.4, p children had a significant difference between their VIQ and PIQ scores (compared to 27% in the general population). One subject was found to show possible signs of autistic spectrum disorder, although a family history of autism was noted. In conclusion, in this pilot study, children assessed at age 4-5 years and conceived after PGD displayed developmental neuropsychological outcomes within normal limits as compared to their chronologic peers. A larger study is needed to evaluate and follow the neuropsychological development of children born after PGD. PMID:25774437

  6. School-age outcomes of children born at the limit of viability : a Swedish national prospective follow-up study at 10 to 12 years

    OpenAIRE

    Farooqi, Aijaz

    2007-01-01

    Background/Aim: During the past two decades, major advances in maternal-fetal medicine, neonatology, and the development of regionalized perinatal care have resulted in dramatic increases in survival rates, by more than 60%, of extremely immature (EI) infants born at less than 26 completed weeks of gestation, creating a new infant population. Studies of school-age outcomes in children with an extremely low birth weight of < 1000 g, born in the1980s, indicated that these children had a subs...

  7. Early Arterial Ischemic Stroke in Premature Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Presentation, clinical course, and outcomes for 23 premature children with arterial ischemic stroke before 44 weeks gestational age are reported from Riley Hospital for Children, Indianapolis, IN.

  8. Premature adrenarche.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Alexander K C; Robson, Wm Lane M

    2008-01-01

    Premature adrenarche refers to the precocious secretion of adrenal androgens, which results in the isolated development of pubic hair (pubarche) before the age of eight years in girls and nine years in boys. The female to male ratio is approximately 10:1. Dark, coarse and curly hair is limited initially to the labia majora in girls and to the root of the penis in boys. The hair extends gradually into the pubic region. Axillary hair, increased body odor, and acne can also be present. Hirsutism, deepening of the voice, clitoral enlargement, breast development, and phallic or testicular enlargement are characteristically absent. A transient acceleration of growth is common but final height is usually not affected. The onset of puberty usually occurs at the normal age. Premature adrenarche can be a forerunner of polycystic ovary syndrome and/or syndrome X. Continued observation and periodic re-evaluation is necessary. PMID:18590867

  9. Ultrasound diagnosis of infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis: Determinants of pyloric length and the effect of prematurity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haider, Nadeem; Spicer, Richard; Grier, David

    2002-02-01

    AIM: To evaluate the determinants of sonographic measurements of pyloric length and muscle thickness in infants with hypertrophic pyloric stenosis (HPS) and to determine whether infants born prematurely have proportionately smaller measurements. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective review was carried out of 190 infants operated on for HPS at Bristol Children's Hospital over a 5-year period. Sonographic measurements of pyloric length and muscle thickness were related to age, history of prematurity, weight, sex and family history of HPS. RESULTS: Pyloric length in infants with HPS was significantly greater in those born at term compared to those born prematurely (18{center_dot}6 mm [SD 2{center_dot}2] vs 17{center_dot}3 mm [SD 3{center_dot}1], P 0{center_dot}043); this was explainable by body weight, with length increasing by 1{center_dot}13 mm (SE 0{center_dot}35) per kilogram (P 0{center_dot}002). There was no significant relationship with measured muscle thickness. CONCLUSION: Sonographic measurement of pyloric length is strongly correlated with the weight of the infant, irrespective of other factors. The relationship of length and weight may be useful in confirming the presence of HPS in small and premature infants. Haider, N. et al. (2002)

  10. Ultrasound diagnosis of infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis: Determinants of pyloric length and the effect of prematurity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AIM: To evaluate the determinants of sonographic measurements of pyloric length and muscle thickness in infants with hypertrophic pyloric stenosis (HPS) and to determine whether infants born prematurely have proportionately smaller measurements. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective review was carried out of 190 infants operated on for HPS at Bristol Children's Hospital over a 5-year period. Sonographic measurements of pyloric length and muscle thickness were related to age, history of prematurity, weight, sex and family history of HPS. RESULTS: Pyloric length in infants with HPS was significantly greater in those born at term compared to those born prematurely (18·6 mm [SD 2·2] vs 17·3 mm [SD 3·1], P 0·043); this was explainable by body weight, with length increasing by 1·13 mm (SE 0·35) per kilogram (P 0·002). There was no significant relationship with measured muscle thickness. CONCLUSION: Sonographic measurement of pyloric length is strongly correlated with the weight of the infant, irrespective of other factors. The relationship of length and weight may be useful in confirming the presence of HPS in small and premature infants. Haider, N. et al. (2002)

  11. Why do East Asian children perform so well in PISA? An investigation of Western-born children of East Asian descent

    OpenAIRE

    John Jerrim

    2014-01-01

    A small group of high-performing East Asian economies dominate the top of the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) rankings. This has caught the attention of Western policymakers, who want to know why East Asian children obtain such high PISA scores, and what can be done to replicate their success. In this paper I investigate whether children of East Asian descent, who were born and raised in a Western country (Australia), also score highly on the PISA test. I then explore wh...

  12. Calculation of organ doses in X-ray examinations of premature babies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As ionizing radiation has enabled great progress in the diagnostic and therapeutic aspects of medicine, its use is in most cases easily justifiable. General radiation protection principles require additionally that radiation doses of the patients should be as low as reasonably achievable within the medical purposes. In Europe this is stipulated in the directive 97/43/Euratom. This directive also requires that special attention should be given to the patient doses in pediatric examinations, of which premature babies constitute an important sub-group. All babies born before 37 weeks of gestation are defined as being prematurely born. Newborn and prematurely born babies are particularly sensitive to the detrimental effects of X-rays. Risk of cancer induction is believed to be 2 to 3 times higher than that of the average population and 6 to 9 times higher than the risk from an exposure at 60 years of age, for equal dose. A premature born child may be exposed to a large number of diagnostic X-ray examinations. Several of these infants may have underdeveloped lungs, which may lead directly to the respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) or to (lethal) lunghypoplasia/hypertension. Diagnosis and follow-up of the respiratory distress syndrome by means of chest radiography is justified. Risks associated with X-ray examinations are low compared to the other medical risks that these patients face, but even in this case the radiation dose should be kept as low as possible. Knowledge of the radiation dose is a first step in the optimization process. A recent study on 255 premature children in the University Hospital of Gasthuisberg found that they undergo 10 X-ray examinations, on the average. In this sample, the maximum was 78 X-ray examinations

  13. Premature ejaculation

    OpenAIRE

    Goodman, R E

    1981-01-01

    Premature ejaculation (PE) is a common male sexual disorder. Recent normative data suggests that men with an intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT) of less than 1 minute have “definite” PE, while men with IELTs between 1 and 1.5 minutes have “probable” PE. Although there is insufficient empirical evidence to identify the etiology of PE, there is limited correlational evidence to suggest that men with PE have high levels of sexual anxiety and inherited altered sensitivity of central 5-HT...

  14. Premature delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardita Donoso Bernales

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Preterm delivery is the single most important cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality. In Chile, preterm births have increased in the past decade, although neonatal morbidity and mortality attributable to it shows a downward trend, thanks to improvements in neonatal care of premature babies, rather than the success of obstetric preventive and therapeutic strategies. This article describes clinical entities, disease processes and conditions that constitute predisposing factors of preterm birth, as well as an outline for the prevention and clinical management of women at risk of preterm birth.

  15. STUDY REGARDING THE CORRELATION BETWEEN NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL TESTS AND WEIGHT IN NORMAL PSYCHOMOTOR DEVELOPING OF THE PREMATURE BABIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hodorca Raluca

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Premature is a newborn alive whose birth weight is equal to or less than 2500 grams, regardless of the duration of gestation. Prematurity have sometimes negative effects on child development by slowing the psychomotor development (child goes to talk later, you can recover delay until the age of 3-5 years. Some of these older children, will be clumsy. PURPOSE: To verify the importance of the adapted recovery program making a correlation between neuro-psychological assessment tests and weight of children born prematurely. HYPOTHESIS: Early systematic and continuous intervention, using adapted physical therapy methods lead to a improved neuromotor development of the premature by reaching the normal range. MATERIAL AND METHODS The study included 10 children, 6 boys and 4 girls, born prematurely. They were subjected to the test "assessment of neuro-psychological development in children 0-36 months" (it is a battery of tests that help to evaluate their development monthly and test weight. Applied therapeutic program included: exercise (performed by the game, massage, neuromotor rehabilitation methods (Bobath, Vojta, Kabat, hydrotherapy and music therapy. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: If neuro-psychological tests, we proceeded to calculate averages scores for the 3 test, which is further correlated with children's weight. Average scores range between 7 and 10. 333, with an overall average of 9.371. In all 3 tests averages ranging from 8,575 in the initial stage, in 9386, and 10,152 in the midway point in the final stage. CONCLUSIONS: Weight, explain in smaller proportions, and other parameters and results of neuro-psychological tests children (65.6%. ANOVA models indicate statistically significant relationships between parameters and neuro-psychological testing stages, showing progressive improvement of children's performance. Following statistical interpretation can confirm the effectiveness of the recovery program implemented so we suggest to the parents

  16. Premature aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The hypothesis that radiation may accelerate aging phenomenon has been studied extensively, using the population of A-bomb survivors. In this paper, non-specific radiation-induced premature aging is discussed with a review of the literature. Cardiac lipofuscin, papillary fibrosis, aortic extensibility, hexamine/collagen ratio in the skin and aorta, testicular changes, giant hepatic cell nucleus, and neurofibril changes have so far been studied pathologically in the context of A-bomb radiation. Only testicular sclerosis has been found to correlate with distance from the hypocenter. Suggestive correlation was found to exist between the hexamine/collagen ratio in the skin and aorta and A-bomb radiation. Grip strength and hearing ability were decreased in the group of 100 rad and the group of 50-99 rad, respectively. The other physiological data did not definitely correlate with A-bomb radiation. Laboratory data, including erythrocyte sedimentation rate, α and β globulin levels, phytohemagglutinin reaction, T cell counts, erythrocyte glycophorin-A, the incidence of cerebral stroke, ischemic heart disease, and cataract were age-dependent and correlated with A-bomb radiation. These findings indicated that the occurrence of arteriosclerosis-related diseases, changes in immunological competence, and some pathological and physiological findings altered with advancing age, suggesting the correlation with A-bomb radiation. In general, it cannot be concluded that there is a positive correlation between A-bomb radiation and the premature aging. (N.K.) 51 refs

  17. Prenatal Stress, Prematurity, and Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medsker, Brock; Forno, Erick; Simhan, Hyagriv; Celedón, Juan C

    2015-12-01

    Asthma is the most common chronic disease of childhood, affecting millions of children in the United States and worldwide. Prematurity is a risk factor for asthma, and certain ethnic or racial minorities such as Puerto Ricans and non-Hispanic blacks are disproportionately affected by both prematurity and asthma. In this review, we examine current evidence to support maternal psychosocial stress as a putative link between prematurity and asthma, while also focusing on disruption of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and immune responses as potential underlying mechanisms for stress-induced "premature asthma." Prenatal stress may cause not only abnormalities in the HPA axis but also epigenetic changes in the fetal glucocorticoid receptor gene (NR3C1), leading to impaired glucocorticoid metabolism. Moreover, maternal stress can alter fetal cytokine balance, favoring TH2 (allergic) immune responses characteristic of atopic asthma: interleukin 6 (IL-6), which has been associated with premature labor, can promote TH2 responses by stimulating production of IL-4 and IL-13. Given a link among stress, prematurity, and asthma, future research should include birth cohorts aimed at confirming and better characterizing "premature asthma." If confirmed, clinical trials of prenatal maternal stress reduction would be warranted to reduce the burden of these common comorbidities. While awaiting the results of such studies, sound policies to prevent domestic and community violence (eg, from firearms) are justified, not only by public safety but also by growing evidence of detrimental effects of violence-induced stress on psychiatric and somatic health. PMID:26676148

  18. Long-Term Health Outcomes in Children Born to Mothers with Diabetes: A Population-Based Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Chun S.; Nohr, Ellen A; Bech, Bodil H.; Vestergaard, Mogens; Olsen, Jørn

    2012-01-01

    Background To examine whether prenatal exposure to parental type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, or gestational diabetes is associated with an increased risk of malignant neoplasm or diseases of the circulatory system in the offspring. Methods/Principal Findings We conducted a population-based cohort study of 1,781,576 singletons born in Denmark from 1977 to 2008. Children were followed for up to 30 years from the day of birth until the onset of the outcomes under study, death, emigration, or De...

  19. Mental, psychomotor, neurologic, and behavioral outcomes of 2-year-old children born after preimplantation genetic screening: follow-up of a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.J. Middelburg; M. van der Heide; B. Houtzager; M. Jongbloed-Pereboom; V. Fidler; A.F. Bos; J. de Kok; M. Hadders-Algra

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of preimplantation genetic screening (PGS) on neurodevelopmental outcomes in children. Design: Prospective, assessor-blinded, follow-up study of children born to women randomly assigned to in vitro fertilization or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF/ICSI) with or

  20. Effect of salt supplementation of newborn premature infants on neurodevelopmental outcome at 10–13 years of age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Dahhan, J; Jannoun, L; Haycock, G

    2002-01-01

    Background: The nutritional requirements of prematurely born infants are different from those of babies born at term. Inadequate or inappropriate dietary intake in the neonatal period may have long term adverse consequences on neurodevelopmental function. The late effect of neonatal sodium deficiency or repletion in the premature human infant on neurological development and function has not been examined, despite evidence in animals of a serious adverse effect of salt deprivation on growth of the central nervous system. Methods: Thirty seven of 46 children who had been born prematurely (gestational age of 33 weeks or less) and allocated to diets containing 1–1.5 mmol sodium/day (unsupplemented) or 4–5 mmol sodium/day (supplemented) from the 4th to the 14th postnatal day were recalled at the age of 10–13 years. Detailed studies of neurodevelopmental performance were made, including motor function and assessment of intelligence (IQ), memory and learning, language and executive skills, and behaviour. Sixteen of the children were found to have been in the supplemented group and 21 in the unsupplemented group. Results: Children who had been in the supplemented group performed better in all modalities tested than those from the unsupplemented group. The differences were statistically significant (analysis of variance) for motor function, performance IQ, the general memory index, and behaviour as assessed by the children's parents. The supplemented children outperformed the unsupplemented controls by 10% in all three components of the memory and learning tests (difference not significant but p < 0.1 for each) and in language function (p < 0.05 for object naming) and educational attainment (p < 0.05 for arithmetic age). Conclusions: Infants born at or before 33 weeks gestation require a higher sodium intake in the first two weeks of postnatal life than those born at or near term, and failure to provide such an intake (4–5 mmol/day) may predispose to poor

  1. The next generation: poor compliance with risk factor guidelines in the children of parents with premature coronary heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langner, N R; Rowe, P C; Davies, R

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. The offspring of individuals with premature coronary heart disease are themselves at increased risk for myocardial infarction before the age of 55. Consensus panels have recommended that all such offspring undergo an evaluation of cardiovascular risk, including cholesterol testing. METHODS. To examine self-reported rates of cardiovascular risk factor assessment in this population, we conducted a telephone survey of 318 Canadian adults with premature coronary heart disease and of one offspring from 298 (94%) of the 318 families. RESULTS. The median age of the offspring was 20 years (range 2 to 39 y). Among the 219 late adolescent and young adult offspring, only 97 (44%) reported having had a blood cholesterol measurement during the preceding 3 years. Thirty-seven percent reported being current smokers, 31% were overweight, and 30% exercised fewer than three times per week. Men were less likely than women to report having had their blood pressure measured in the preceding year (57% vs 80%). CONCLUSION. These low rates of cardiac risk factor assessment families of patients with premature coronary heart disease represent missed opportunities for primary prevention. More effective strategies to prevent atherosclerosis in this population are needed. PMID:8279614

  2. The Development of Cognitive, Language, and Cultural Skills from Age 3 to 6: A Comparison between Children of Turkish Origin and Children of Native-Born German Parents and the Role of Immigrant Parents' Acculturation to the Receiving Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Birgit; Klein, Oliver; Biedinger, Nicole

    2013-01-01

    This article analyzes the longitudinal development of differences in academic skills between children of Turkish origin and children of native-born German parents from age 3 to 6 in Germany with a focus on the role of immigrant parents' acculturation to the receiving society. Growth curve models show that Turkish-origin children start with lower…

  3. Functioning of 7-Year-Old Children Born at 32 to 35 Weeks' Gestational Age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cserjesi, R.; Van Braeckel, K.N.J.A.; Butcher, P.R.; Kerstjens, J.M.; Reijneveld, S.A.; Bouma, A.; Geuze, R.H.; Bos, A.F.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare neuropsychological functions in moderately preterm (32-35 weeks' gestation) and full-term children at the age of 7 years and identify gender differences. METHODS: Community-based prospective cohort study of 248 moderately preterm children (138 boys) and 130 full-term children (

  4. The Effect of Age-Correction on IQ Scores among School-Aged Children Born Preterm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Rachel M.; George, Wing Man; Cole, Carolyn; Marshall, Peter; Ellison, Vanessa; Fabel, Helen

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effect of age-correction on IQ scores among preterm school-aged children. Data from the Flinders Medical Centre Neonatal Unit Follow-up Program for 81 children aged five years and assessed with the WPPSI-III, and 177 children aged eight years and assessed with the WISC-IV, were analysed. Corrected IQ scores were…

  5. The power of early interventions in families with preterm born children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landsem, Inger Pauline

    2016-05-01

    The Tromsø Intervention Study on Preterms (TISP) started in 1999 and we may now present results on children's socio-emotional and behavioural development, parental wellbeing and perceptions of the children's quality of life until children's age of nine. PMID:27214412

  6. Neurodevelopment of children born very preterm and free of severe disabilities: the Nord-Pas de Calais Epipage cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charkaluk, Marie-Laure; Truffert, Patrick; Fily, A.; Ancel, Pierre-Yves; Pierrat, Véronique

    2010-01-01

    Aim to describe the development of very preterm children free of cerebral palsy or severe sensory impairment in the domains of gross and fine motor functions, language and sociability at a corrected age of 2 years; to identify factors associated with performances in each domain. Methods 347 children born in 1997 before 33 weeks of gestation, part of the EPIPAGE population-based cohort study, had their psychomotor development assessed with the Brunet-Lezine scale. Results The study population had a mean gestational age of 30.1 ± 2.0 weeks. Lower developmental quotients (DQ) were observed in the study group compared to the reference sample (96 ±13 vs 104 ± 8, pdevelopment. The mechanisms by which neonatal factors played a role need further investigation. However socioeconomic status had a great impact on development and our results underline the need for improved support of socioeconomically disadvantaged parents after a preterm birth. PMID:20491713

  7. Season of birth in Danish children with language disorder born in the 1958-1976 period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauschild, Karen-Marie; Mouridsen, Svend Erik; Nielsen, Søren

    2005-01-01

    in the same period. For some part of the period (1964-1969), an excess of boys born in November was found. Particular attention was given to the inconsistent findings also found in language-related disorders like infantile autism and dyslexia and the choice of statistical method to determine...

  8. How do you think she feels? Vulnerability in empathy and the role of attention in school-aged children born extremely preterm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Catherine; Horlin, Chiara; Reid, Corinne; McMichael, Judy; Forrest, Laura; Brydges, Chris; French, Noel; Anderson, Mike

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to examine empathic competence in children born extremely preterm (EP, Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-IV), and Test of Everyday Attention for Children (TEA-Ch). Children born extremely preterm exhibited poorer performance on all measures. The mediating role of attention in empathy competence was not supported by mediation modelling when FSIQ was controlled. As predicted, the EP group showed weaker empathic development relative to typically developing children. They also showed poorer attentional abilities. However, the effect of preterm birth on empathy was not mediated by executive-level attention. The cognitive mechanisms underpinning poor empathy competence in EP children remain unclear. Future research needs to examine the role of inhibition, social-emotional recognition, and regulation. PMID:26061791

  9. Should short children born small for gestational age (SGA) with a distance to target height (DTH) <1 SDS be excluded from growth hormone (GH) treatment?

    OpenAIRE

    Lem, Annemieke; De Kort, Sandra W.K.; de Ridder, Maria A. J.; Hokken-Koelega, Anita C

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Context: The criteria for starting Growth Hormone (GH), an approved treatment for short children born small for gestational age (SGA), differ between Europe and the USA. One European requirement for starting GH, a distance to target height (DTH) of ?1 SDS, is controversial. Objective: To investigate the influence of DTH on growth during GH treatment in short SGA children, and to ascertain whether it is correct to exclude children with a DTH

  10. Birth defects, season of conception, and sex of children born to pesticide applicators living in the Red River Valley of Minnesota, USA.

    OpenAIRE

    Garry, Vincent F; Harkins, Mary E; Erickson, Leanna L; Long-Simpson, Leslie K; Holland, Seth E; Burroughs, Barbara L

    2002-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that the frequency of birth defects among children of residents of the Red River Valley (RRV), Minnesota, USA, was significantly higher than in other major agricultural regions of the state during the years 1989-1991, with children born to male pesticide applicators having the highest risk. The present, smaller cross-sectional study of 695 families and 1,532 children, conducted during 1997-1998, provides a more detailed examination of reproductive health outcomes in...

  11. Early Menopause (Premature Menopause)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Menopause > Early menopause (premature menopause) Menopause Early menopause (premature menopause) What is early menopause? How to know ... Return to top More information on Early menopause (premature menopause) Read more from womenshealth.gov Menopause and ...

  12. Serum insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-2 levels and metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors in young adults and children born small for gestational age

    OpenAIRE

    Kort, Sandra; Doorn, Jaap van; Sande, Ad; Leunissen, Ralph; Hokken-Koelega, Anita

    2010-01-01

    textabstractBackground: IGF binding protein (IGFBP)-2 might protect against cardiovascular disease. Small for gestational age (SGA) birth could be associated with a higher risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease in later life. No data are available on the relationship between serum IGFBP-2 levels and cardiovascular risk factors in young adults and children born SGA. Objective: The aim of the study was to determine circulating IGFBP-2 levels in subjects born SGA and to inv...

  13. Health outcomes of children born after IVF/ICSI: a review of current expert opinion and literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauser, B C J M; Devroey, P; Diedrich, K; Balaban, B; Bonduelle, M; Delemarre-van de Waal, H A; Estella, C; Ezcurra, D; Geraedts, J P M; Howles, C M; Lerner-Geva, L; Serna, J; Wells, D

    2014-02-01

    The Sixth Evian Annual Reproduction (EVAR) Workshop Group Meeting was held to evaluate the impact of IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection on the health of assisted-conception children. Epidemiologists, reproductive endocrinologists, embryologists and geneticists presented data from published literature and ongoing research on the incidence of genetic and epigenetic abnormalities and congenital malformations in assisted-conception versus naturally conceived children to reach a consensus on the reasons for potential differences in outcomes between these two groups. IVF-conceived children have lower birthweights and higher peripheral fat, blood pressure and fasting glucose concentrations than controls. Growth, development and cognitive function in assisted-conception children are similar to controls. The absolute risk of imprinting disorders after assisted reproduction is less than 1%. A direct link between assisted reproduction and health-related outcomes in assisted-conception children could not be established. Women undergoing assisted reproduction are often older, increasing the chances of obtaining abnormal gametes that may cause deviations in outcomes between assisted-conception and naturally conceived children. However, after taking into account these factors, it is not clear to what extent poorer outcomes are due to the assisted reproduction procedures themselves. Large-scale, multicentre, prospective epidemiological studies are needed to investigate this further and to confirm long-term health consequences in assisted-conception children. Assisted reproduction treatment is a general term used to describe methods of achieving pregnancy by artificial means and includes IVF and sperm implantation. The effect of assisted reproduction treatment on the health of children born using these artificial methods is not fully understood. In April 2011, fertility research experts met to give presentations based on research in this area and to look carefully at the evidence

  14. Functioning of 7-Year-Old Children Born at 32 to 35 Weeks' Gestational Age

    OpenAIRE

    Cserjesi, R.; Van Braeckel, K.N.J.A.; Butcher, P.R.; Kerstjens, J.M.; Reijneveld, S.A.; Bouma, A.; Geuze, R.H.; Bos, A.F

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare neuropsychological functions in moderately preterm (32-35 weeks' gestation) and full-term children at the age of 7 years and identify gender differences. METHODS: Community-based prospective cohort study of 248 moderately preterm children (138 boys) and 130 full-term children (58 boys). Neuropsychological tests included IQ, memory, attention, visual perception, motor skills, visuomotor skills, and parental report of executive functioning. RESULTS: The moderately preterm ...

  15. "You Are Not Born Being Racist, Are You?" Discussing Racism with Primary Aged-Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priest, Naomi; Walton, Jessica; White, Fiona; Kowal, Emma; Fox, Brandi; Paradies, Yin

    2016-01-01

    Ethnic-racial socialisation is broadly described as processes by which both minority and majority children and young people learn about and negotiate racial, ethnic and cultural diversity. This article extends the existing ethnic-racial socialisation literature in three significant ways: (1) it explores ways children make sense of their…

  16. Epilepsy and cerebral palsy: characteristics and trends in children born in 1976-1998

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sellier, Elodie; Uldall, Peter; Calado, Eulalia;

    2012-01-01

    Although epilepsy is common in children with cerebral palsy (CP), no data exists on prevalence rates of CP and epilepsy.......Although epilepsy is common in children with cerebral palsy (CP), no data exists on prevalence rates of CP and epilepsy....

  17. Ethnic Differences in Children's Intelligence Test Scores: Role of Economic Deprivation, Home Environment, and Maternal Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Examined differences in intelligence test scores of black and white five-year-olds born premature with low birth weight. Found that black children's IQ scores were 1 SD lower than those of white children. Adjustments for ethnic differences in poverty reduced the differential by half; adjustments for differences in home environment reduced it by…

  18. Prematurity, smallness-for-gestational age and later hospital admissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Á Rogvi, Rasmus; Forman, Julie Lyng; Greisen, Gorm

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Being born premature or small for gestational age (SGA) is known to be associated with diseases later in life, such as gestational diabetes, hypertension and pre-eclampsia. In this study we examined the association between being born premature or SGA and all diseases diagnosed during...... ratios for persons born premature or SGA using multivariate logistic regression. RESULTS: A total of 15,059 unique ICD-10 diagnosis codes were represented in the period. Only diagnoses used at least 100 times were included in the analysis (n=4175). Of these 838 showed an odds ratio that was statistically...... significantly different from unity for people born premature or SGA. After correcting for multiple testing, 250 remained significant. The diagnoses covered diseases in most organ systems, including cardiovascular, endocrinological, infectious, neurological/neurosurgical, obstetric, orthopedic, psychiatric, lung...

  19. Identification of an obese eating style in 4-year-old children born at high and low risk for obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkowitz, Robert I; Moore, Renee' H; Faith, Myles S; Stallings, Virginia A; Kral, Tanja V E; Stunkard, Albert J

    2010-03-01

    This study tested whether children's eating behavior and parental feeding prompts during a laboratory test meal differ among children born at high risk (HR) or low risk (LR) for obesity and are associated with excess child weight gain. At 4 years of age, 32 HR children (mean maternal prepregnancy BMI = 30.4 kg/m(2)) and 29 LR children (maternal BMI = 19.6 kg/m(2)) consumed a test meal in which their eating behavior was assessed, including rate of caloric consumption, mouthfuls/min, and requests for food. Parental prompts for the child to eat also were measured at year 4, and child body composition was measured at ages 4 and 6 years. T-tests, and logistic and multiple regression analyses tested study aims. Results indicated that HR and LR children did not differ in eating rate or parental feeding prompts. Greater maternal BMI, child mouthfuls of food/min, and total caloric intake/min during the test meal predicted an increased risk of being overweight or obese at age 6, whereas greater active mealtime was associated with a reduced risk of being overweight or obese. Regression analyses indicated that only mouthfuls of food/min predicted changes in BMI from 4 to 6 years, and mouthfuls of food/min and gender predicted 2-year changes in sum of skinfolds and total body fat. Thus, a rapid eating style, characterized by increased mouthfuls of food/min, may be a behavioral marker for the development of childhood obesity. PMID:19779474

  20. HBV carriage in children born from HIV-seropositive mothers in Senegal: The need of birth-dose HBV vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gueye, Sokhna Bousso; Diop-Ndiaye, Halimatou; Lo, Gora; Mintsa, Sandrine; Guindo, Ibrahima; Dia, Aminata; Sow-Sall, Amina; Gaye-Diallo, Aissatou; Mboup, Souleymane; Touré-Kane, Coumba

    2016-05-01

    Hepatitis B is a major public health problem in Senegal, a country with high prevalence and a transmission occurring mainly during infancy. Only, one 6-8 weeks vaccination campaign was initiated in 2005 and it was part of the expanded program of immunization. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of HBsAg in children born from HIV-seropositive mothers by using dried blood specimens. Specimens were collected between July 2007 and November 2012 from children aged 2-48 weeks in Dakar and decentralized sites working on HIV mother-to-child transmission prevention. HBsAg detection was performed using Architect HBsAg Qualitative II kit (Abbott Diagnostics, Ireland) and for all reactive samples confirmation was done using Architect HBsAg Qualitative II Confirmatory kit (Abbott Diagnostics, Ireland). Nine hundred thirty samples were collected throughout the country with 66% out of Dakar, the capital city. The median age was 20 weeks and 88% of children were less than 1 year of age with a sex ratio of 1.27 in favor of boys. HBsAg was detected in 28 cases giving a global prevalence of 3%. According to age, HBsAg prevalences were 5.1% for children less than 6 weeks, 4.1% and 4.6%, respectively, for those aged 12-18 weeks and 18-24 weeks of age. The HIV prevalence was 2.6% with no HIV/HBV co-infection. This study showed a high rate of HBV infection in children under 24 months, highlighting the need to promote birth-dose HBV vaccination as recommended by WHO. J. Med. Virol. 88:815-819, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26488892

  1. Decreased and Increased Anisotropy along Major Cerebral White Matter Tracts in Preterm Children and Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Travis, Katherine E.; Adams, Jenna N.; Ben-Shachar, Michal; FELDMAN, HEIDI M.

    2015-01-01

    Premature birth is highly prevalent and associated with neurodevelopmental delays and disorders. Adverse outcomes, particularly in children born before 32 weeks of gestation, have been attributed in large part to white matter injuries, often found in periventricular regions using conventional imaging. To date, tractography studies of white matter pathways in children and adolescents born preterm have evaluated only a limited number of tracts simultaneously. The current study compares diffusio...

  2. Effects of a preterm birth: : Kinematics, lateralization and cognitive function in school-aged children

    OpenAIRE

    Dahlström, Carolin; Nygård, Malin

    2014-01-01

    Premature birth is a well-known risk factor for deviations in neurodevelopment. The aim of this study was to investigate possible long-term effects of preterm birth. Associations was to be investigated between preterm birth and kinematics, lateralization and cognitive function among 40 children born preterm (PT) compared to 48 age-matched children born full-term (FT). Kinematics was registered by a goal-directed task (pressing buttons in sequences, uni- or bimanually). Cognitive function was ...

  3. Household poisoning exposure among children of Mexican-born mothers: an ethnographic study.

    OpenAIRE

    Mull, D S; Agran, P. F.; Winn, D. G.; Anderson, C.L.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To explore reasons for high rates of unintentional poisoning among Latino children under 5 years old. DESIGN: Ethnographic interviews were carried out using a sample of mothers identified via door-to-door canvassing in an area with documented high injury rates among Latino children. Interviews included many open-ended and follow-up questions to elicit a detailed family history and emphasized observation of conditions and behaviors in the homes. SETTING: Low-income neighborhoods of ...

  4. Moderately preterm children have more respiratory problems during their first 5 years of life than children born full term

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrijlandt, Elianne J L E; Kerstjens, Jorien M; Duiverman, Eric J; Bos, Arend F; Reijneveld, Sijmen A

    2013-01-01

    Rationale: Pulmonary outcomes of moderate-preterm children (MP) are unknown. Objectives: To investigate the prevalence of respiratory symptoms during infancy and at preschool age of MP compared with full-term (FT) and early preterm children (EP) and to determine factors associated with respiratory s

  5. The Effects of Fetal Surgery on Retinopathy of Prematurity Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudha Nallasamy

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fetal surgery is selectively offered for severe or life-threatening fetal malformations. These infants are often born prematurely and are thus at risk for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP. It is not known whether fetal surgery confers an increased risk of developing severe ROP relative to published rates in standard premature populations ≤37 weeks of age grouped by birth weight (

  6. Influence of postdischarge nutrition on body composition at 6 years of age among children born very preterm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftlund, Line Hedegaard; Agertoft, Lone; Halken, Susanne;

    Background: New research has shown that type of nutrition in early life may affect not only growth but also later body composition and risk of developing metabolic syndrome. Method: A prospective, randomized, interventional multicentre trial on nutrition of a preterm birth cohort has been...... established and described previously2. Inclusion criteria were gestational age ≤32+0 weeks. From hospital discharge to 4 month corrected aged, the infants received 3 different types of nutrition: A: human milk (HM) B: HM enriched with fortifier C: preterm formula. At 6 years of age, a dexa scan was performed......: It seems that HM is the preferable nutrition for preterm born children if a lower fat mass and higher muscle mass is regarded optimal. The results are not all significant, which might be due to the small sample size. Investigations of the remaining infants are awaited....

  7. New Perspectives on Premature Infants and Their Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Joy V.

    2003-01-01

    More than 485,000 low-birth-weight, premature babies are born in the U.S. each year. The increase in preterm births since 1990 may be due to assisted pregnancies and births to older mothers. Although their survival rates are improving, many premature infants experience long-lasting developmental and behavioral problems. The author describes recent…

  8. Poverty among Young Children in Black Immigrant, US-Born Black, and Non-Black Immigrant Families: The Role of Familial Contexts. Discussion Paper Series. DP 2010-02

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Kevin J. A.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines how familial contexts affect poverty disparities between the children of immigrant and US-born Blacks, and among Black and non-Black children of immigrants. Despite lower gross child poverty rates in immigrant than US-born Black families, accounting for differences in family structure reveals that child poverty risks among…

  9. Differential Effects of Early Weaning for HIV-Free Survival of Children Born to HIV-Infected Mothers by Severity of Maternal Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Kuhn, Louise; Grace M Aldrovandi; Sinkala, Moses; Kankasa, Chipepo; Semrau, Katherine; Kasonde, Prisca; Mwiya, Mwiya; Tsai, Wei-Yann; Thea, Donald M.; ,

    2009-01-01

    Background We previously reported no benefit of early weaning for HIV-free survival of children born to HIV-infected mothers in intent-to-treat analyses. Since early weaning was poorly accepted, we conducted a secondary analysis to investigate whether beneficial effects may have been hidden. Methods 958 HIV-infected women in Lusaka, Zambia, were randomized to abrupt weaning at 4 months (intervention) or to continued breastfeeding (control). Children were followed to 24 months with regular HIV...

  10. Prevalence of Wuchereria Bancrofti Antigenemia and Associated Factors Among Children of School Age Born After Initiation of Mass Drug Administration with ivermectin and albendazole in Rufiji district, Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Clarer, Jones

    2012-01-01

    The National Lymphatic Filariasis (LF) Elimination Programme use Ivermectin and Albendazole mass drug administration (MDA) for the control of LF. Screening children of school age has successfully been used for mapping geographical distribution of LF worldwide. The implementation of MDA for LF in Rufiji district started in 2002 and up to 2011, nine rounds had been administered. The prevalence of LF after MDA was not known, thus this study aimed to screen children born during the period of prog...

  11. Danish children born to parents with lower levels of education are more likely to become overweight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matthiessen, Jeppe; Stockmarr, Anders; Fagt, Sisse;

    2014-01-01

    accordance with the International Obesity Task Force. Frequency estimates of prevalence and logistic regression models were used to correlate childhood overweight/obesity with the mothers' and fathers' educational levels as the main outcome measures. RESULTS: Danish mothers tended to be more highly educated...... irrespective of the gender of the parent. CONCLUSION: Public health initiatives should target parents with low educational levels to prevent, and reduce, social inequality in overweight children.......AIM: Little is known about whether the socio-economic status of parents is linked to their children becoming overweight. This study examined the association between parents' educational level and overweight Danish children in a nationally representative sample. METHODS: Body mass index was...

  12. Children and young adults born small for gestational age (SGA) : GH-IGF-IGFBP axis, insulin sensitivity, adipocytokines and body composition during and after growth hormone treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. van Dijk (Marije)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractThis doctoral thesis gives a detailed account of various studies, performed in short children born small for gestational age (SGA) participating in the third Dutch GH trial (IUGR-3 study), and in young SGA adults previously treated with GH in the first Dutch GH trial (SGA follow-up study

  13. Metabolic Health in Short Children Born Small for Gestational Age Treated With Growth Hormone and Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Analog : Results of a Randomized, Dose-Response Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Steen, Manouk; Lem, Annemieke J.; van der Kaay, Danielle C. M.; Bakker-van Waarde, Willie M.; van der Hulst, Flip J. P. C. M.; Neijens, Floor S.; Noordam, Cees; Odink, Roelof J.; Oostdijk, Wilma; Schroor, Eelco J.; Westerlaken, Ciska; Hokken-Koelega, Anita C. S.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Previously we showed that pubertal children born small for gestational age (SGA) with a poor adult height (AH) expectation can benefit from treatment with GH1 mg/m(2) per day (similar to 0.033 mg/kg/d) in combination with 2 years of GnRH analog (GnRHa) and even more so with a double GH dose

  14. Children Born through Reproductive Donation: A Longitudinal Study of Psychological Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golombok, Susan; Blake, Lucy; Casey, Polly; Roman, Gabriela; Jadva, Vasanti

    2013-01-01

    Background: Parenting and children's adjustment were examined in 30 surrogacy families, 31 egg donation families, 35 donor insemination families, and 53 natural conception families. Methods: Parenting was assessed at age 3 by a standardized interview designed to assess quality of parenting and by questionnaire measures of anxiety, depression,…

  15. Functional impairments at school age of preterm born children with late-onset sepsis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Ree, Meike; Tanis, Jozien C.; Van Braeckel, Koenraad N. J. A.; Bos, Arend F.; Roze, Elise

    2011-01-01

    Background: Late-onset sepsis is a relatively common complication particularly of preterm birth that affects approximately a quarter of very low birth weight infants. Aim: We aimed to determine the motor, cognitive, and behavioural outcome at school age of preterm children with late-onset sepsis com

  16. Prenatal and Family Risks of Children Born to Mothers with Epilepsy: Effects on Cognitive Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titze, Karl; Koch, Sabine; Helge, Hans; Lehmkuhl, Ulrike; Rauh, Hellgard; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph

    2008-01-01

    The offspring of mothers with epilepsy are considered to be at developmental risk during pregnancy from: (1) generalized maternal seizures (hypoxia); (2) teratogenicity of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs); and (3) adverse socio-familial conditions associated with having a chronically sick mother. Sixty-seven children of mothers with epilepsy and 49…

  17. Adipokines in umbilical cord blood from children born large for gestational age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lausten-Thomsen, Ulrik; Christiansen, Michael; Hedley, Paula Louise; Holm, Jens-Christian; Schmiegelow, Kjeld

    2016-01-01

    ]). Children exposed to maternal diabetes, chronic disease and preeclampsia were excluded. RESULTS: The LGA group exhibited significantly elevated concentrations of leptin (p<0.001) and of free leptin index (p<0.001) and decreased sOB-R concentrations (p=0.005) when compared to the AGA group, which persisted...

  18. Assessment of developmental coordination disorder in children born with extremely low birth weights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewey, Deborah; Creighton, Dianne E; Heath, Jennifer A; Wilson, Brenda N; Anseeuw-Deeks, Debbie; Crawford, Susan G; Sauve, Reg

    2011-01-01

    There is no tool that is considered the "gold" standard for identifying children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) and various techniques have been reported in the research literature. The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of DCD in a cohort of extremely low birth weight (ELBW; birth weight ≤ 1,000g) children at age 5 years using various methods including standardized motor assessment measures, an established clinic protocol, and a parent report. We also examined the association between selected neonatal risk factors and severity of the motor impairment. Four methods were used to assess motor functioning: (1) the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (Movement ABC); (2) a motor assessment battery, which included the Movement ABC, the Beery-Buktenica Developmental Test of Visual Motor Integration, and the Developmental Test of Visual Perception-2; (3) a Perinatal Follow-up Clinic protocol, which included the Geometric Design and the Mazes subtests of the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Revised, the Fine and Gross Motor subscales of the Child Development Inventory, and a pediatric neuromotor exam; and (4) a parent completed questionnaire (i.e., Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnaire (DCDQ)). The prevalence of motor impairment in ELBW children was 64% on the Movement ABC, 67% on the motor assessment battery, 66% on the Perinatal Follow-up Clinic protocol, and 26% on the DCDQ. Sensitivity ranged from 36% to 100% and specificity from 65% to 92% using the Movement ABC as the reference standard. Neonatal risk factors associated with increased severity of motor impairment were bronchopulmonary dysplasia, postnatal steroids, and increasing gestational age. Children with birth weights ≤ 1,000 g are at considerable risk for motor impairment; therefore, developmental evaluations should include an assessment of motor functions. A standardized motor assessment test such as the Movement ABC appears to be the most

  19. Transfusion-free arterial switch operation in a 1.7-kg premature neonate using a new miniature cardiopulmonary bypass system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huebler, Michael; Redlin, Matthias; Boettcher, Wolfgang; Koster, Andreas; Berger, Felix; Peters, Björn; Hetzer, Roland

    2008-01-01

    In cardiac surgery, the potentially detrimental effects of transfusions on patient outcome are increasingly appreciated. Therefore, at our institution there are continuing efforts to modify our surgical, perfusion, and blood management strategies with the aim of transfusion-free cardiac surgery even in neonates and small children. Stringent improvement of these strategies, particularly the downsizing of the cardiopulmonary bypass system, have now enabled a transfusion-free arterial switch operation in a 1700-gram prematurely born neonate. PMID:18598328

  20. Differences in uptake of immunisations and health examinations among refugee children compared to Danish-born children: a cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moller, Sanne Pagh; Hjern, Anders; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo;

    2016-01-01

    diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis and polio (HR = 0.50; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.48-0.51). Participation in child health examinations was also lower among refugee children with the lowest at the last child health examination at age 5 (HR = 0.48; 95 % CI 0.47-0.50). Adjusting the analysis for parental...

  1. Mother-Child Interaction and Early Language Skills in Children Born to Mothers with Substance Abuse and Psychiatric Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    J Haabrekke, Kristin; Siqveland, Torill; Smith, Lars; Wentzel-Larsen, Tore; Walhovd, Kristine B; Moe, Vibeke

    2015-10-01

    This prospective, longitudinal study with data collected at four time points investigated how maternal psychiatric symptoms, substance abuse and maternal intrusiveness in interaction were related to early child language skills. Three groups of mothers were recruited during pregnancy: One from residential treatment institutions for substance abuse (n = 18), one from psychiatric outpatient treatment (n = 22) and one from well-baby clinics (n = 30). Maternal substance abuse and anti-social and borderline personality traits were assessed during pregnancy, postpartum depression at 3 months, maternal intrusiveness in interaction at 12 months, and child language skills at 2 years. Results showed that the mothers in the substance abuse group had the lowest level of education, they were younger and they were more likely to be single mothers than the mothers in the two other groups. There was a significant difference in expressive language between children born to mothers with substance abuse problems and those born to comparison mothers, however not when controlling for maternal age, education and single parenthood. No group differences in receptive language skills were detected. Results further showed that maternal intrusiveness observed in mother-child interaction at 12 months was significantly related to child expressive language at 2 years, also when controlling for socio-demographic risk factors. This suggests that in addition to addressing substance abuse and psychiatric problems, there is a need for applying treatment models promoting sensitive caregiving, in order to enhance child expressive language skills. PMID:25300194

  2. Premature rupture of membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... When the water breaks early, it is called premature rupture of membranes (PROM). Most women will go ... th week of pregnancy, it is called preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM). The earlier your water ...

  3. Retinopathy of Prematurity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinweg, Sue Byrd; Griffin, Harold C.; Griffin, Linda W.; Gingras, Happy

    2005-01-01

    The eyes of premature infants are especially vulnerable to injury after birth. A serious complication is called retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), which is abnormal growth of the blood vessels in an infant's eye. Retinopathy of prematurity develops when abnormal blood vessels grow and spread throughout the retina, which is the nerve tissue at the…

  4. Born In Bradford Mobile Application

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Stella; Walda, Martin; Vasiliki, Delimpasi

    2015-01-01

    The Born In Bradford mobile application is an Android mobile application and a working prototype that enables interaction with a sample cohort of the Born in Bradford study. It provides an interface and visualization for several surveys participated in by mothers and their children. This data is stored in the Born In Bradford database. A subset of this data is provided for mothers and children. The mobile application provides a way to engage the mothers and promote their consistency in partic...

  5. Ideal versus actual: the contradiction in number of children born to Nigerian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibisomi, Latifat; Gyimah, Stephen; Muindi, Kanyiva; Adjei, Jones

    2011-03-01

    Although desired family size is often different from actual family size, the dynamics of this difference are not well understood. This paper examines the patterns and determinants of the difference between desired and actual number of children (unmet fertility desires) among women aged 15-49 years using pooled data from the 1990, 1999 and 2003 Nigeria Demographic and Health Surveys (NDHSs). The results show that more than two-thirds of the sample have unmet fertility desires (18.1% have more while 52.4% have fewer than desired). It was found that early and late childbearing increased the odds of unmet fertility desires. Also, women with low levels of education, from poor households, rural residents as well as those who had experienced child death were at a higher risk of unmet fertility desires in the multivariate context. The study highlights the policy and programme implications of the findings. PMID:21205376

  6. Circulating TNF-alpha and IL-6 concentrations and TNF-alpha -308 G>A polymorphism in children with premature adrenarche

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauliina eUtriainen

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Premature adrenarche (PA, the early rise in adrenal androgen production leading to prepubertal signs of androgen action, has been connected with adverse metabolic features. The metabolic syndrome is characterized by low grade inflammation which in turn is associated with increases in circulating proinflammatory cytokines, like tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α and interleukin-6 (IL-6. We tested the hypothesis that serum concentrations of TNF-α and IL-6 are increased in PA by studing 73 children with PA and 98 age- and gender-matched controls. Serum TNF-α and IL-6 concentrations were measured using a multiplex bead array. The subjects were genotyped for the TNF-α gene -308 G>A polymorphism (known to affect TNF-α gene transcription, and genotype-phenotype associations were studied. The mean serum TNF-α concentration was higher in the PA than control children (20.4 vs. 18.4 pg/ml, P=0.048, whereas there was no significant difference in the mean serum IL-6 concentrations between the study groups. The difference in TNF-α was not explained by excess body weight in the PA subjects as the difference remained significant after BMI-adjustment (P=0.038. In the PA group, TNF-α concentration was not associated with metabolic-endocrine features, but high IL-6 was associated with lower birth weight. There was no difference in the genotype distribution of the TNF-α gene -308 G>A polymorphism between the PA and control groups. In conclusion, PA was associated with increased serum TNF-α concentrations which, unexpectedly, were not connected with BMI or insulin resistance. The TNF-α gene -308 G>A polymorphism does not seem to be associated with the development of PA.

  7. Increased risk of ALL among premature infants is not explained by increased prevalence of pre-leukemic cell clones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lausten-Thomsen, Ulrik; Madsen, Hans O.; Vestergaard, Therese Risom;

    2010-01-01

    prevalence and magnitude of preleukaemic t(12;21)-positive cells compared to previously published data from mature childrencould be demonstrated. This indirectly supports the theory that prevalence and quantity of preleukaemic t(12;21)-positive cells peaks at term or early childhood and that exogenous......The multi-hit hypothesis for paediatric leukemogenesis states that an initial genetic hit (often occurring prenataly) must be followed by one or more hit(s) before a cell become leukeamic. Studies have demonstrated the presence of pre-leukaemic t(12;21)-positive cells at levels 10(-3) to 10(-4) in...... quantity of pre-leukaemic t(12;21)-positive children born prematurely. Using a sensitive qRT-PCR assay, we screened messenger RNA from fresh umbilical cord-blood samples from 256 premature children. In none of the neonates, t(12;21)-positive cells could be demonstrated. Therefore, no increase in the...

  8. Premature dental eruption: report of case.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McNamara, C M

    2011-08-05

    This case report reviews the variability of dental eruption and the possible sequelae. Dental eruption of the permanent teeth in cleft palate children may be variable, with delayed eruption the most common phenomenon. A case of premature dental eruption of a maxillary left first premolar is demonstrated, however, in a five-year-old male. This localized premature dental eruption anomaly was attributed to early extraction of the primary dentition, due to caries.

  9. Temperament of premature infants with cerebral palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Ryu, Hyo Jeong; Don Kim, Kyoung

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the infant temperaments of children with cerebral palsy due to premature birth. [Subjects and Methods] Data were collected through questionnaires sent to 118 mothers of infants diagnosed with cerebral palsy due to premature birth. [Results] Different infant temperament scores were obtained according to the degrees of disability, type of palsy, birth weights, gestational age, and periods of hospitalization in an NICU; however, the differences ...

  10. Relationship between mortality and feeding modality among children born to HIV-infected mothers in a research setting : the Kesho Bora Study

    OpenAIRE

    Cournil, Amandine; de Vincenzi, I.; Gaillard, P.; Cames, Cécile; Fao, P.; Luchters, S; Rollins, N; Newell, M. L.; BORK, Kirsten; Read, J. S.; Kesho Bora Study Grp,

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To assess the relationship between infant feeding practices and mortality by 18 months of age among children born to HIV-infected mothers in the Kesho Bora trial (Burkina-Faso, Kenya and South Africa).Methods:Enrolled HIV-infected women were counseled to choose between breastfeeding up to 6 months or replacement feeding from delivery. Multivariable Cox models were used to compare the infant mortality risks according to feeding practices over time defined as never breastfed, weaned o...

  11. Using of magnetic resonance imaging for diagnosis of noncoronary pathology in children and adolescents with premature ventricular contractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bockeria L.A.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article was to assess by MRI cardiac output in young patients with ventricular arrhythmias and to identify with the use of contrast enhancement possible changes of the myocardium that may cause these ventricular arrhythmias. Material and methods. Survey data of 11 patients – 7 males and 4 females (mean age 15,6 ± 3,4 years – with ventricular arrhythmias were analyzed. MR-study was conducted on a CT-scanner with a field strength of 1.5 T and with the use of a special package for scanning. The data were processed on workstations using specialized programs for cardiac MR-images. We evaluated the ejection fraction (EF of both ventricles, enddiastolic volume (EDV, the size of outlet sections of both ventricles , pathological changes in the myocardium (localization and spread using a segmental model of the heart before and after intravenous administration of contrast medium (HF containing gadolinium dose 0.15-0.2 mg / kg. Results. According to previous studies, patients were divided into 2 groups based on the detected arrhythmia localization: 7 children with right ventricular arrhythmia localization and 4 with left ventricular. Surface mapping (PC was performed in 8 patients, and topical diagnosis of arrhythmia localization coincided with the localization of the accumulation of MR-contrast agent in 75% of cases. Expansion of outlet sections of right ventricle without signs of left ventricular enlargement (1.40 / 1 was significantly higher (p 0.05 in both groups. However, the thickness of epicardial fat (2 ± 1 mm on the localization of the LV in children with postinflammatory change was significantly higher (p <0.05 in both groups. Conclusion. In all cases, we were able to obtain important diagnostic MR-images of the heart with IV-contrast, to show a high accuracy of MRI in the detection of pathological changes in the diagnosis of myocardial contractility disorders not only of the left, but of the right ventricle. Violations of

  12. Speech and oromotor outcome in adolescents born preterm: relationship to motor tract integrity.

    OpenAIRE

    Northam, G. B.; Liégeois, F.; Chong, W.K.; Baker, K; Tournier, J. D.; Wyatt, J. S.; Baldeweg, T; Morgan, A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To assess speech abilities in adolescents born preterm and investigate whether there is an association between specific speech deficits and brain abnormalities. Study design Fifty adolescents born prematurely (

  13. Prematurity as a factor of damaged child development

    OpenAIRE

    Chukhutova G.L.

    2015-01-01

    At present time prematurity is the main reason for disability in children, which can be exemplified by the fact that 2/3 of educatees of children' homes for blind and deaf are preterm children. The most drastic consequences of prematurity is cerebral palsy with spastic diplegia; blindness or poor vision as a result of retina detachment; auditory inefficiency connected with the nerve deafness, decline in general cognitive and speech development; difficulties in coordination and planning serial...

  14. Description of Clean and Healthy Behavior of Food Borne Disease Among by School Children Age in Babat Jerawat I Elementary School, District Pakal Surabaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidayat Heny Sholikhah

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Incidence of food borne disease, such as diarrhea, typhoid and hookworm infection in school childrenwere still sufficient susceptible. Lack of clean and healthy behavior became primary cause, so that the agent can easilyenter to the body through the food consumed. The purpose of this study was to descript the clean and healthy behaviors by school children age at Babat Jerawat I Elementary School, District Pakal Surabaya. Methods: This study was a crosssectional study. The sample of this study were 112 of fifth grade students at Babat Jerawat I Elementary school, District Pakal Surabaya, selected by purposive sampling of 121 students who met the inclusion criteria. Data of clean and healthy behavior were collected by observation and interviews focused on a group of school children using questionnaires, checklists and interview guides. Data analysis was done by using descriptive analysis. Results: The results showed that the clean and healthy behaviors about food borne disease, the majority of school children in Elementary school Babat Jerawat I District Pakal Surabaya included in good criteria (51.8% and small portion of these included less category (48.2%. Conclusion:Clean and Healthy Behavior of food borne disease in school children age had good criteria, but still need attention formany factors that influence it, such as the availability of facilities, affordability snacks outside of school and examples ofunhealthy behaviors in family environment. Recommendation: Improve the cooperation between the school and localhealth officials to tighten rules on the management of snack vending around schools, and do continuous education both within the school and the child’s school community.

  15. The Effect of Russian Versus Hebrew Instructions on the Reaction to Social Pressure of Russian-Born Israeli Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kav-Venaki, Sophie; And Others

    1976-01-01

    An experiment on the role of the language of instruction in mediating responses to social pressure was conducted with a sample of 41 Russian-born adolescents who had recently immigrated to Israel. (Editor)

  16. Family Perspectives on Prematurity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zero to Three (J), 2003

    2003-01-01

    In this article, seven families describe their experiences giving birth to and raising a premature baby. Their perspectives vary, one from another, and shift over time, depending on each family's circumstances and the baby's developmental course. Experiences discussed include premature labor, medical interventions and the NICU, bringing the baby…

  17. [Treatment of premature ejaculation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Targoński, Aleksander; Prajsner, Andrzej

    2012-01-01

    Premature ejaculation is the most common sexual dysfunction in men. Its prevalence rate in Europe and in United States is estimated to be between 20% and 30%. The diagnosis of premature ejaculation is based on three main criteria: increased intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT), lack of control over ejaculation and interpersonal psychological disturbances. Premature ejaculation is classified as lifelong (primary) or acquired (secondary) and might be facilitated by chronic prostatitis, diabetes mellitus, hyperthyroidism, obesity. The exact etiology of the disease remains unclear, although 5-HT (5-hydroxytryptamine) receptors are known to have a significant role. The use of SSRIs (selective serotonine reuptake inhibitors) is old and efficient form of therapy for premature ejaculation. Other drugs like tramadol, clomipramine, local anaesthetics and PDE-5 (phosphodiesterase 5) inhibitors also have some efficacy in the treatment of premature ejaculation. To minimize adverse effects the "on demand" therapy is preferred to the daily treatment. Simple questionnaires for patients are used to assess treatment effects. PMID:22827115

  18. Description of the methodology used in an ongoing pediatric care interventional study of children born with cleft lip and palate in South America [NCT00097149

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariona Alejandra

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The contribution of birth defects, including cleft lip and palate, to neonatal and infant mortality and morbidity is substantial. As other mortality and morbidity causes including infections, hygiene, prematurity, and nutrition are eradicated in less developed countries, the burden of birth defects will increase proportionally. Methods/Design We are using cleft lip and palate as a sentinel birth defect to evaluate its burden on neonatal and infant health and to assess the effectiveness of systematic pediatric care during the first month and first two years of life in decreasing this burden. The neonatal intervention, consisting of weekly pediatric evaluation and referral to appropriate care, is delivered to about 696 infants born with cleft lip and/or palate in 47 hospitals in South America. Neonatal mortality in this group will be compared to that in a retrospective control group of about 464 infants born with cleft lip and/or palate in the same hospitals. The subgroup of infants with isolated clefts of both the lip and palate (about 264 is also randomized into two groups, intervened and non-intervened, and further followed up over 2 years. Intervened cases are evaluated by pediatricians every three months and referred for appropriate care. The intervened and non-intervened cases will be compared over study outcomes to evaluate the intervention effectiveness. Non-intervened cases are matched and compared to healthy controls to assess the burden of cleft lip and palate. Outcomes include child's neurological and physical development and family social and economic conditions. Discussion Large-scale clinical trials to improve infant health in developing countries are commonly suggested, making it important to share the methods used in ongoing studies with other investigators implementing similar research. We describe here the content of our ongoing pediatric care study in South America. We hope that this may help researchers

  19. Challenges facing effective implementation of co-trimoxazole prophylaxis in children born to HIV-infected mothers in the public health facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamuhabwa AAR

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Appolinary AR Kamuhabwa,1 Vicky Manyanga21Unit of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 2Department of Medicinal Chemistry, School of Pharmacy, Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences, Dar es Salaam, TanzaniaBackground: If children born to HIV-infected mothers are not identified early, approximately 30% of them will die within the first year of life due to opportunistic infections. In order to prevent morbidity and mortality due to opportunistic infections in children, the World Health Organization recommends the use of prophylaxis using co-trimoxazole. However, the challenges affecting effective implementation of this policy in Tanzania have not been documented.Aim: In this study, we assessed the challenges facing the provision of co-trimoxazole prophylaxis among children born to HIV-infected mothers in the public hospitals of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.Methodology: Four hundred and ninety-eight infants' PMTCT (Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV register books for the past 2 years were reviewed to obtain information regarding the provision of co-trimoxazole prophylaxis. One hundred and twenty-six health care workers were interviewed to identify success stories and challenges in the provision of co-trimoxazole prophylaxis in children. In addition, 321 parents and guardians of children born to HIV-infected mothers were interviewed in the health facilities.Results: Approximately 80% of children were initiated with co-trimoxazole prophylaxis within 2 months after birth. Two hundred and ninety-one (58.4% children started using co-trimoxazole within 4 weeks after birth. Majority (n=458, 91.8% of the children were prescribed 120 mg of co-trimoxazole per day, whereas 39 (7.8% received 240 mg per day. Only a small proportion (n=1, 0.2% of children received 480 mg/day. Dose determination was based on the child's age rather than body weight. Parents and guardians reported that 42 (13.1% children had missed one or more doses of co

  20. Psychological development of school-age children born preterm in comparison with children born full-term / Desenvolvimento psicológico na fase escolar de crianças nascidas pré-termo em comparação com crianças nascidas a termo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Beatriz Martins Linhares

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to assess psychological development in terms of behavioral, intellectual and emotional indicators of preterm and very low birthweight children at school age in comparison with full-term children. The sample in this study consisted of forty children aged from 8 to 10 years. They were divided into 2 groups: Preterm (PT consisting of 20 children born 2.500g birthweight. Raven's Special Scale, Draw-a-Person and Child Behavior Scale were used in the psychological assessment. PT group presented more behavioral problems and lower intellectual level when compared to the FT group. Enuresis, fear, tics, impatience and lack of focus on activities were significantly more frequent in the PT group than in the FT group. In the PT group the lower the intellectual level of the children the more behavior problems they presented.

  1. The Effects of Teaching Primary Caregivers to Conduct Formative Assessment on Caregiver-Child Social Interaction and Children's Developmental Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yaoying

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine the effects of teaching primary caregivers to conduct formative assessment procedures on the development of social interactions between themselves and their infants who were born prematurely and had low birth weight, and who were from economically disadvantaged families. Children's overall development…

  2. Sex differences in the effects of maternal vitamin supplements on mortality and morbidity among children born to HIV-infected women in Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Kawai, Kosuke; Msamanga, Gernard; Manji, Karim; Villamor, Eduardo; Bosch, Ronald J; Hertzmark, Ellen; FAWZI, Wafaie W.

    2010-01-01

    We examined whether there are sex differences in the effect of vitamin supplements on birth outcomes, mortality and morbidity by 2 years of age among children born to HIV-infected women in Tanzania. A randomised placebo-controlled trial was conducted among 959 mother-infant pairs. HIV-infected pregnant women were randomly assigned to receive a daily oral dose of one of four regimens: multivitamins (vitamins B-complex, C and E), vitamin A plus beta-carotene, multivitamins including vitamin A p...

  3. Sex Differences in The effects of Maternal Vitamin Supplements on Mortality and Morbidity among Children Born to HIV-Infected women in Tanzania.

    OpenAIRE

    Kawai, Kosuke; Msamanga, Gernard; Manji, Karim; Villamor, Eduardo; Bosch, Ronald J.; Hertzmark, Ellen; Fawzi, Wafaie W.

    2010-01-01

    We examined whether there are sex differences in the effect of vitamin supplements on birth outcomes, mortality and morbidity by 2 years of age among children born to HIV-infected women in Tanzania. A randomised placebo-controlled trial was conducted among 959 mother-infant pairs. HIV-infected pregnant women were randomly assigned to receive a daily oral dose of one of four regimens: multivitamins (vitamins B-complex, C and E), vitamin A plus beta-carotene, multivitamins including vitamin A p...

  4. Asthma and atopy in children born by caesarean section: effect modification by family history of allergies – a population based cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolokotroni Ourania

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies on the association of birth by caesarean section (C/S and allergies have produced conflicting findings. Furthermore, evidence on whether this association may differ in those at risk of atopy is limited. This study aims to investigate the association of mode of delivery with asthma and atopic sensitization and the extent to which any effect is modified by family history of allergies. Methods Asthma outcomes were assessed cross-sectionally in 2216 children at age 8 on the basis of parents’ responses to the ISAAC questionnaire whilst skin prick tests to eleven aeroallergens were also performed in a subgroup of 746 children. Adjusted odds ratios of asthma and atopy by mode of delivery were estimated in multivariable logistic models while evidence of effect modification was examined by introducing interaction terms in the models. Results After adjusting for potential confounders, children born by C/S appeared significantly more likely than those born vaginally to report ever wheezing (OR 1.36, 95% CI 1.07-1.71, asthma diagnosis (OR 1.41, 95% CI 1.09-1.83 and be atopic (OR 1.67, 95% CI 1.08-2.60. There was modest evidence that family history of allergies may modify the effect of C/S delivery on atopy (p for effect modification=0.06 but this was not the case for the asthma outcomes. Specifically, while more than a two-fold increase in the odds of being a topic was observed in children with a family history of allergies if born by C/S (OR 2.62, 95% CI 1.38-5.00, no association was observed in children without a family history of allergies (OR 1.16, 95% CI 0.64-2.11. Conclusions Birth by C/S is associated with asthma and atopic sensitization in childhood. The association of C/S and atopy appears more pronounced in children with family history of allergies.

  5. Achalasia cardia in a premature infant

    OpenAIRE

    Shettihalli, Naveen; Venugopalan, Vikranth; Ives, Nicholas Kevin; Lakhoo, Kokila

    2010-01-01

    Achalasia cardia is defined as a neuromuscular disorder of the oesophagus with abnormal motility and failure of relaxation of the distal oesophagus. It is an uncommon but well-recognised entity in infants and children. However, achalasia in a preterm baby has not been previously described. We report the condition in a premature infant with unusual presentation, treated successfully with Heller's oesophagomyotomy and fundoplication.

  6. Familial hypercholesterolaemia in children and adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiegman, Albert; Gidding, Samuel S; Watts, Gerald F;

    2015-01-01

    Familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH) is a common genetic cause of premature coronary heart disease (CHD). Globally, one baby is born with FH every minute. If diagnosed and treated early in childhood, individuals with FH can have normal life expectancy. This consensus paper aims to improve awarenes...... management, we call for further studies in the young. Increased awareness, early identification, and optimal treatment from childhood are critical to adding decades of healthy life for children and adolescents with FH....

  7. Premature birth: An Enigma for the Society?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sribas Goswami

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Infants born preterm are at greater risk than infants born at term for mortality and a variety of health and developmental problems. Complications include acute respiratory, gastrointestinal, immunologic, central nervous system, hearing, and vision problems, as well as longer-term motor, cognitive, visual, hearing, behavioral, social-emotional, health, and growth problems. The birth of a preterm infant can also bring considerable emotional and economic costs to families and have implications for public-sector services, such as health insurance, educational, and other social support systems. The greatest risk of mortality and morbidity is for those infants born at the earliest gestational ages. However, those infants born nearer to term represent the greatest number of infants born preterm and also experience more complications than infants born at term. Preterm birth is a complex cluster of problems with a set of overlapping factors of influence. Its causes may include individual-level behavioral and psychosocial factors, neighborhood characteristics, environmental exposures, medical conditions, infertility treatments, biological factors and genetics. Many of these factors occur in combination, particularly in those who are socioeconomically disadvantaged or who are members of racial and ethnic minority groups. The empirical investigation was carried out to draw correlation between preterm birth and eventuality. This paper deals with various issues related to the premature deliveries from socio-biological perspectives.

  8. Premature Ovarian Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premature ovarian failure (POF) is when a woman's ovaries stop working before she is 40. POF is different from ... There is no treatment that will restore normal ovarian function. However, many health care providers suggest taking ...

  9. [Comparative characteristic of some parameters of the surfactant pulmonary system in children-residents of radioactive contaminated territories and children born to participants of liquidation of Chernobyl accident consequences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkhomenko, V M; Kolpakov, I Ie; Briuzhina, T S; Shumeĭko, V M

    2008-01-01

    The study of lipid fat acid content in condensate of expired air with the help of the gas liquid chromatography revealed the increased sum of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in a large measure of increased content of arachidonic and linolic PUFA in children-residents of radioactive contaminated territories in comparison with children born by participants of liquidation of Chernobyl accident consequences. It is evidence of more active processes of lipid peroxidation and shift of the balance of fatty acids to the side of omega-6 family. PMID:19253733

  10. Roles of Perinatal Problems on Adolescent Antisocial Behaviors among Children Born after 33 Completed Weeks: A Prospective Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Yoko; Rajendran, Khushmand; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Newcorn, Jeffrey H.

    2008-01-01

    Background: There is uncertainty about the extent to which mildly sub-optimal perinatal characteristics among individuals born near-term (greater than 33 weeks of gestation) are associated with various subsequent childhood problems, including antisocial behavior. There is even more uncertainty about whether the pathway to antisocial behavior…

  11. Vitreous hemorrhage caused by scleral depression during laser treatment for aggressive posterior retinopathy of prematurity

    OpenAIRE

    Parag K Shah; V Narendran; Narendran, Kalpana

    2006-01-01

    Ablation for threshold retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a procedure with a high benefit-to-risk ratio. Vitreous hemorrhage is a rare complication which may occur during this procedure. We report a case which developed vitreous hemorrhage in both eyes while doing laser using a scleral depressor. A premature male child was born through normal delivery at gestational age of 32 weeks and birth weight of 1420 grams. A diagnosis of aggressive posterior retinopathy of prematurity (APROP) was made...

  12. Parental educational level and injury incidence and mortality among foreign-born children: a cohort study with 46 years follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Beiki

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Background: Injury risk during childhood and adolescence vary depending on socio-economic factors. The aim of this study was to study if the risk of fatal and non-fatal unintentional injuries among foreign-born children was similar across parental educational level or not. Methods: In this retrospective cohort study we followed 907,335 children between 1961 and 2007 in Sweden. We established the cohort by linkage between Swedish national registers including cause of death register and in-patient register, through unique Personal Identification Numbers. The main exposure variable was parental (maternal and paternal educational level. The cohorts was followed from start date of follow-up period, or date of birth whichever occurred last, until exit date from the cohort, which was date of hospitalization or death due to unintentional injury, first emigration, death due to other causes than injury or end of follow-up, whichever came first. We calculated hazard ratios (HR with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI by Cox proportional hazards regression models. Results: Overall, we found 705 and 78,182 cases of death and hospitalization due to unintentional injuries, respectively. Risk of death and hospitalization due to unintentional injuries was statistically significantly 1.48 (95% CI: 1.24-1.78 and 1.10 (95% CI: 1.08-1.12 times higher among children with lowest parental educational level (9 years and shorter years of study compared to children with highest parental educational level (+13 years of study. We found similar results when stratified our study group by sex of children, by maternal and paternal educational level separately, and injury type (traffic-related, fall, poisoning, burn and drowning. Conclusions: It seems injury prevention work against unintentional injuries is less effective among children with low parental education compared with those with higher parental education. We recommend designing specific preventive interventions

  13. Carbon monoxide production in ventilated premature infants weighing less than 1500 g.

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer, A F; Ochikubo, C G; Vreman, H. J.; Stevenson, D. K.

    1987-01-01

    Mean pulmonary excretion rate of carbon monoxide in 13 premature babies on ventilators was significantly higher (p less than 0.001) than that of 19 healthy infants born at full term. This correlated with carboxyhaemoglobin concentrations in blood, indicating that the premature infants on ventilators produced abnormally large amounts of bilirubin.

  14. Intrauterine skull depression and intracranial hemorrhage in a premature infant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors describe a case of a premature infant born with a parietal skull depression who suffered an intraventricular hemorrhage and an ipsilateral intracerebral injury. At 21 months of life the infant's gross motor milestones were delayed and he had moderate spastic hemiplegia. Although skull depressions at birth are usually benign, they may be associated with long-term neurologic sequelae. (orig.)

  15. The Auxological and Biochemical Continuum of Short Children Born Small for Gestational Age (SGA or with Normal Birth Size (Idiopathic Short Stature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan M. Wit

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Retrospective single-centre analysis of growth characteristics in 182 healthy short children born small for gestational age (SGA or appropriate for gestational age (idiopathic short stature, ISS. Methods. Birth size references from the USA and Sweden were compared, and for the classification as SGA or ISS the Swedish reference was chosen. Height, target height (TH, bone age (BA, predicted adult height (PAH, IGF-I and IGFBP-3 values were compared between SGA and ISS. Results. In the combined group, birth weight and length showed a symmetric Gaussian distribution. The American reference overestimates the percentage of short birth length and underestimates that of low birth weight. In childhood, SGA children were shorter than ISS (−3.1 versus −2.6 SDS, P<.001, also in comparison to TH (−2.6 versus −1.9 SDS, P<.001. TH, height SDS change over time, BA delay, and PAH were similar. IGF-I and IGFBP-3 were lower in ISS (P=.03 and .09. Conclusions. SGA children represent the left tail of the Gaussian distribution of birth size in short children. The distinction between SGA and ISS depends on birth size reference. Childhood height of SGA is lower than of ISS, but the other auxological features are similar.

  16. The Cumulative Burden Borne by Offspring Whose Mothers Were Sexually Abused as Children: Descriptive Results From a Multigenerational Study

    OpenAIRE

    Noll, Jennie G.; Trickett, Penelope K.; Harris, William W.; Putnam, Frank W.

    2008-01-01

    This multigenerational study empirically demonstrates the extent to which offspring whose parents experienced childhood abuse are at increased risk of being abused or neglected. Females with substantiated childhood sexual abuse and nonabused comparison females were assessed at six points spanning 18 years in a prospective, longitudinal study. Nonabusing parents or caregivers and offspring were also assessed. Descriptive results indicate that offspring born to mothers with histories of sexual ...

  17. Retinopathy of Prematurity in Triplets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Ali Şekeroğlu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To investigate the incidence, severity and risk factors of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP in triplets. Materials and Methods: The medical records of consecutive premature triplets who had been screened for ROP in a single maternity hospital were analyzed and presence and severity of ROP; birth weight, gender, gestational age of the infant; route of delivery and the mode of conception were recorded. Results: A total of 54 triplets (40 males, 14 females who were screened for ROP between March 2010 and February 2013 were recruited for the study. All triplets were delivered by Caesarean section and 36 (66.7% were born following an assisted conception. During follow-up, seven (13% of the infants developed ROP of any stage and two (3.7% required laser photocoagulation. The mean gestational age of triplets with ROP was 27.6±1.5 (27-31 weeks whereas it was 32.0±1.5 (30-34 weeks in those without ROP (p=0.002. The mean birth weights of triplets with and without ROP were 1290.0±295.2 (970-1600 g and 1667.5±222.2 (1130-1960 g, respectively (p<0.001. The presence of ROP was not associated with gender (p=0.358 or mode of conception (p=0.674. Conclusion: ROP in triplets seems to be mainly related to low gestational age and low birth weight. Further prospective randomized studies are necessary to demonstrate risk factors of ROP in triplets and to determine if and how gemelarity plays a role in the development of ROP.

  18. Influence of prematurity and birth weight on the concentration of ?-tocopherol in colostrum milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evellyn Câmara Grilo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess vitamin E levels in the breast milk, analyzing the prematurity and the birth weight influence in α-tocopherol concentration of colostrum milk. METHODS: Cross-sectional study, in which the colostrum was collected from 93 nursing mothers in a public maternity of Natal, Rio Grande do Norte, Northeast Brazil. The newborns were classified based on gestational age and birth weight. The analysis of α-tocopherol in the milk was carried out by high performance liquid chromatography. RESULTS: The α-tocopherol concentration in the colostrum of lactating women whose children were born at term was 1,093.6±532.4µg/dL; for preterm infants, the concentration was 1,321.6±708.5µg/dL (p=0.109. In the preterm group, the α-tocopherol concentration in the colostrum of lactating women whose children were born with low and normal birth weight was 1,316.0±790.7 and 1,327.2±655.0µg/dL, respectively (p=0.971. In the term group, the α-tocopherol levels were higher in mothers of children with birth weight >4000g, being 1,821.0±575.4µg/dL, compared to 869.5±532.1µg/dL and 1,039.6±477.5µg/dL with low and adequate birth weight, respectively (p>0.05. CONCLUSIONS: Prematurity did not influence α-tocopherol levels in the colostrum milk. Mothers who had macrossomic term neonates presented increased α-tocopherol levels. These results indicate that birth weight can influence α-tocopherol leves in the colostrum milk.

  19. Predicting Language and Social Outcomes at Age 5 for Later-Born Siblings of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malesa, Elizabeth; Foss-Feig, Jennifer; Yoder, Paul; Warren, Zachary; Walden, Tedra; Stone, Wendy L.

    2013-01-01

    The relation between early joint attention (in which a child coordinates attention between another person and an object or event) and later language and social outcomes was examined in younger siblings of children with autism spectrum disorder (Sibs-ASD) and younger siblings of children with typical development (Sibs-TD). Initial levels of joint…

  20. Dapoxetine for premature ejaculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    Premature ejaculation, also referred to as rapid or early ejaculation, is a poorly understood disorder with no single, widely-recognised, evidence-based definition. Studies based on patient self-reporting indicate that premature ejaculation is a common complaint with estimated prevalence ranging from 4%-39% of men in the general community.(1) However, a lack of an accurate validated definition has made comparison of the results of such studies difficult.(2) In addition, perception of normal ejaculatory latency varies by country and differs when assessed by the patient or their partner.(3) ▾Dapoxetine (Priligy-A. Menarini Farmaceutica Internazionale SRL), a short-acting selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) is the first drug to be licensed in the UK for on-demand management of diagnosed premature ejaculation.(4) In this article we review the evidence for dapoxetine and discuss some of the challenges associated with its introduction. PMID:24627135

  1. Premature ovarian failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Persani Luca

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Premature ovarian failure (POF is a primary ovarian defect characterized by absent menarche (primary amenorrhea or premature depletion of ovarian follicles before the age of 40 years (secondary amenorrhea. It is a heterogeneous disorder affecting approximately 1% of women e.g. Turner syndrome represent the major cause of primary amenorrhea associated with ovarian dysgenesis. Despite the description of several candidate genes, the cause of POF remains undetermined in the vast majority of the cases. Management includes substitution of the hormone defect by estrogen/progestin preparations. The only solution presently available for the fertility defect in women with absent follicular reserve is ovum donation.

  2. Tests of screening criteria for retinopathy of prematurity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olujić Maja

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Retinopathy of prematurity is a disease of the eye, i.e. the retinal blood vessels, which occurs exclusively in premature infants. The level of blindness in one country depends on the level of development of neonatal care and the opportunities to implement screening. The aim of this study was to examine the possibilities of changing screening criteria, provided that not a single child was left out from the survey. Material and Methods. A two-year prospective study, which was carried out in the period from January 1st 2007 to December 31st 2008, included 191 premature infants who were treated at the Institute for Child and Youth Healthcare of Vojvodina. Results. Different inclusion criteria regarding body mass and gestational age were applied for screening retinopathy of prematurity and we assessed the coverage of the sample if certain screening criteria were applied. According to the results of the research, when the applied screening criterion was 37/2000, there was not a single case of a blind, prematurely born baby. Discussion. Great migrations of population as well as big differences in characteristics of premature infants together with underlying multi-factor diseases besides retinopathy of prematurity send a warning signal to be very cautious. Conclusion. Although this study has given ground to shift the limits of screening, we will adhere to broad screening criteria.

  3. Predicting language and social outcomes at age 5 for later-born siblings of children with autism spectrum disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Malesa, Elizabeth; Foss-Feig, Jennifer; Yoder, Paul; Warren, Zachary; Walden, Tedra; Stone, Wendy L.

    2012-01-01

    The relation between early joint attention (in which a child coordinates attention between another person and an object or event) and later language and social outcomes was examined in younger siblings of children with autism spectrum disorder (Sibs-ASD) and younger siblings of children with typical development (Sibs-TD). Initial levels of joint attention (at a mean age of 15 months) as well as growth in levels of joint attention (between 15 months and 34 months) were used as potential predic...

  4. Development Status of 4-24 Months Children Born to Teenage Mothers Referred to Health Care Centers in Yasuj, 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afraz SF

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: A developmental delay in children is considered as one of the world's health problems in developing and developed countries. This has a massive impact on children’s health and eventually has broader scale effect on society. The purpose of this study was to assess the developmental status of children age 4-24 months to teenage mothers referred to health care centers related to Yasuj University of Medical Sciences, Yasuj, Iran, in 2013. Methods: The present cross-sectional study was conducted on 200 mothers less than 19 years of age with children of 4-24 months referred to health centers of Yasuj University of Medical Sciences which were selected by multistage sampling. Data collection was conducted using demographic, midwifery ages and stages questionnaire in children aged 24-4 months. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, t-test and chi-square test. Results: The results showed that the mean age of mothers during pregnancy were16.64±1.22 years with age range 12 to 18 years. Prevalence of delayed development in 4-24 month children was reported to be 7%. Most developmental delay was observed in gross motor area and the lowest was in the private personal and social domains. In this study, a significant difference was seen in birth weight between two groups of children, so that birth weight of children with developmental delay significantly lowers than children with normal development (P=0.027. Conclusion: the Pregnancy under the age of 19 years is considered as risk factors for children’s developmental disorder that by the implementation of appropriate education to reduce high-risk pregnancies in this age range can be prevented the developmental disorders and their adverse outcome.

  5. 75 FR 43535 - NIH Consensus Development Conference on Inhaled Nitric Oxide Therapy for Premature Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-26

    ... U.S. Food and Drug Administration in 2000 to treat term and near-term infants (born after the 33rd... the neonatal intensive care unit using a device that delivers the drug in constant concentrations. It... oxide therapy to treat premature babies born at less than 34 weeks' gestation. Studies to evaluate...

  6. Myopia in premature babies with and without retinopathy of prematurity.

    OpenAIRE

    Nissenkorn, I; YASSUR;, Y.; Mashkowski, D; Sherf, I; Ben-Sira, I

    1983-01-01

    One hundred and fifty-five premature infants weighing 600-2000 g were followed up during 1974-80 for the presence of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) and for the existence of myopia. 50% of the premature infants who had ROP were myopic, while only 16% myopic premature infants were found among those who did not have ROP. There was a positive correlation between the degree of myopia and the severity of cicatricial ROP. No difference existed in the frequency and degree of myopia between prematur...

  7. Retinopatia da prematuridade limiar em crianças submetidas à terapia com surfactante exógeno endotraqueal Threshold retinopathy of prematurity in children undergoing exogenous endotracheal surfactant therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário Martins dos Santos Motta

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estudar a freqüência da retinopatia da prematuridade (ROP em qualquer estadiamento e da retinopatia da prematuridade limiar em prematuros que usaram ou não surfactante endotraqueal, para tratamento da síndrome da membrana hialina e avaliar a resposta dos olhos que necessitaram tratamento de ablação da retina periférica. MÉTODOS: Cento e sessenta e oito prematuros, nascidos com 1.500 gramas ou menos e/ou idade gestacional de 32 semanas ou menos, foram triados para a ROP por avaliação oftalmoscópica. Foram comparados os achados de 40 crianças tratadas pelo surfactante endotraqueal com os de 128 que não precisaram desta terapia. A ablação da retina periférica, com laser ou crioterapia, foi realizada nos pacientes com ROP limiar. Para análise estatística foram usados os testes t de Student, qui-quadrado e Kruskal-Wallis, além do teste exato de Fisher com significância para pOBJECTIVE: To study the frequency of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP in any stage and its threshold form in premature infants, either treated or non-treated with exogenous surfactant to neonatal respiratory distress syndrome, and evaluate the response of eyes with threshold retinopathy to ablation treatment. METHODS: One hundred and sixty eight premature infants who weighed 1500 grams or less and/or who had a gestational age of 32 weeks or less, were screened for ROP by ophthalmoscopy. We compared findings in 40 patients treated with exogenous endotracheal surfactant, with those of 128 patients who did not require such therapy. Ablation of ischaemic peripheral retina, either with laser or cryotherapy, was applied in cases of threshold ROP. For statistical analysis Student's t, qui-square, Kruskal-Wallins and Fisher's exact tests were used, with p value of < 0.05 considered as significant. RESULTS: ROP, in any stage, occurred in 51,2% of children. Threshold ROP, requiring treatment, was found in 12 (7,4% of them and regressed in 9. There was no

  8. Aspectos neuropsicológico e neurológico de crianças nascidas prematuras e com peso inferior a 1.500 gramas Neurological and neuropsychological aspects of children born preterm and with weight lower than 1,500 grams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Ferreira Campos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Crianças nascidas prematuras, especialmente aquelas com peso Preterm children - especially those with birth weight <1,500g - often present neonatal complications and higher risk of suffering from developmental disorders. Twenty children aged seven, with average intelligence and normal neurological exams, born with gestational age <33 weeks and weight <1,500g, were enrolled in a study and compared with 20 children born at full term. Intelligence was measured by WISC-III and behavior by the Conners Questionnaire. Lefèvre Evolutive Neurological Examination was applied in the preterm children. Children born preterm had lower IQ than those born at full term. In the Conners, there was no difference between groups. Only 20% of preterm children performed all tests from the Evolutive Exam for their age. This study highlights the importance of specific cognitive evaluations in preterm children during school age, even if they have normal neurological exams.

  9. DISORDERS OF THE SOUND ARTICULATION IN PRETERM CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesela MILANKOV

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Speech and language development is a good indicator of child’s cognitive development. The risk factors influencing development and functioning of prematurely born children are multiple. In addition to articulation disorder, there are motoric, conginitive and social aspects of delayed development. Premature babies are born before they physically ready to leave the womb. However, most babies born after about 26 weeks of gestational age have chances for survival, but they are at a greater risk of medical complications, since the earlier children are born, the less developed their organs are. Aim: To demonstrate basic parameters, establish differences, determine characteristics of disorder of sound articulation in fullterm and preterm children. Methodology: Research was conducted at the Clinics of Child’s Habilitation and Rehabilitation in Novi Sad. The prospective research study was carried out comprising 61 children with mean age of 4 years. The study inclusion criteria were gestational age and birth weight. Regarding these parameters, the children without major neurlologic or system disabilities were included, and they were Serbian speaking. The sample comprised 31 children with GS≥38 weeks and body weight of ≥3000 g, while the preterm group comprised 30 children with GS≤32 weeks and body weight of ≤1500 g. Results of the study indicate to a difference between fullterm children and preterm children with regard to articulation disorders, of which the statistically significant was a sound distortion. The overall sample showed that the substitution with distortion was most frequent disorder, while the interdental sigmatism was the most represented one. Conclusion: The obtained results lead to conclusion that preterm children, being a high-risk group, need to be followed up by age two, and provided timely proffesional help at pre-school age, since numerous adverse factors affect their overall development.

  10. Prematurity as a factor of damaged child development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chukhutova G.L.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available At present time prematurity is the main reason for disability in children, which can be exemplified by the fact that 2/3 of educatees of children' homes for blind and deaf are preterm children. The most drastic consequences of prematurity is cerebral palsy with spastic diplegia; blindness or poor vision as a result of retina detachment; auditory inefficiency connected with the nerve deafness, decline in general cognitive and speech development; difficulties in coordination and planning serial operations; psycho-emotional impairments like autism. The distinctive features of appearance (failure to thrive, microcephalism with deformation of the shape of the head and behavior (stereotyped movements, lack in initiative purposeful activity make these children recognizable and let us talk about naturally determined set of impairments connected with the main reason — prematurity. The article regards the influence of preterm birth on child's nervous system and it's remote effect on his/her psychic development.

  11. Retinopathy of prematurity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Retinopathy of prematurity has been the leading cause of childhood blindness. Early and effective screening has helped to diagnose the visual target of an infant by the difference between growing up with a disability or not. A joint effort between ophthalmologists and neonatologists is proposed to control this disease, ensuring success. An appropriate, early, effective and timely treatment has been the laser and cryotherapy like good choices for the neonate to prevent disease progression. Evaluation of screening program, to determine the incidence, compare statistics variables have been measures as other medical pathologies should be encouraged as research topics. A decrease in the incidence of retinopathy of prematurity is expected, controlling the risk factors during the child's stay in intrahospital neonatal unit

  12. Low birthweight and prematurity in relation to paternal factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basso, Olga; Olsen, Jørn; Christensen, Kaare

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The importance of paternal determinants in the occurrence of low birthweight and prematurity is not well known. We investigated these outcomes in siblings and paternal half siblings as a function of changes in putative external determinants between two births in fathers who had...... experienced the birth of a premature and/or low birthweight (PTB/LBW) infant. METHODS: All fathers who, between 1980 and 1992, had an infant born before 37 completed weeks' gestation or weighing <2500 g and a following child were studied. We identified 14 147 pairs of siblings from Danish national registers...

  13. Necrotizing Enterocolitis: A dreadful condition of premature babies

    OpenAIRE

    Deepak Kumar sharma

    2014-01-01

    NEC is inflammatory necrosis of intestine with most common site being terminal ileum and ascending colon in preterm babies (1). The condition is typically seen in premature infants, and the timing of its onset is generally inversely proportional to the gestational age of the baby at birth, i.e. The earlier a baby is born, longer is the time of risk for NEC in premature babies. The incidence of NEC is inversely proportional to the gestational age and birth weight (2). Baby have initial symptom...

  14. Retinoblastoma in patients with regressed retinopathy of prematurity

    OpenAIRE

    Usha Vasu; Suneetha Nithyanandam; Sharon D′Souza; Sripathi Kamath

    2011-01-01

    Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a well-known clinical entity in premature babies. We report two patients (1 and 2) with regressed ROP who later presented with retinoblastoma (RB). To the best of our knowledge, there is only one such report in the literature so far. Two unrelated patients 1 and 2, born at 32 weeks gestation were screened for ROP at 34 weeks gestation. This showed Zone II Stage II ROP which regressed by 38 weeks of gestation on follow-up. Both patients were lost to follow-u...

  15. A randomised controlled trial evaluating IGF1 titration in contrast to current GH dosing strategies in children born small for gestational age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rikke Beck; Thankamony, Ajay; O'Connell, Susan M;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Short children born small for gestational age (SGA) are treated with a GH dose based on body size, but treatment may lead to high levels of IGF1. The objective was to evaluate IGF1 titration of GH dose in contrast to current dosing strategies. METHODS: In the North European Small.......17 SDS, s.d. 0.18) during the second year of the randomised trial compared with the high-dose group (0.46 SDS, s.d. 0.25), but not significantly lower than the low-dose group (0.23 SDS, s.d. 0.15; P=0.17). The IGF1 titration group had lower IGF1 levels after 2 years of the trial (mean 1.16, s.d. 1.......24) compared with both the low-dose (mean 1.76, s.d. 1.48) and the high-dose (mean 2.97, s.d. 1.63) groups. CONCLUSION: IGF1 titration of GH dose in SGA children proved less effective than current dosing strategies. IGF1 titration resulted in physiological IGF1 levels with a wide range of GH dose and a poorer...

  16. Low Birth Weight in Children Born to Mothers with Hyperthyroidism and High Birth Weight in Hypothyroidism, whereas Preterm Birth Is Common in Both Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Stine Linding; Olsen, Jørn; Wu, Chun Sen; Laurberg, Peter

    2013-01-01

    hypothyroidism registered in the Danish National Hospital Register before January 1, 2007. RESULTS: Maternal first-time diagnosis of thyroid dysfunction before, during or after pregnancy was registered in 32,809 (2.0%) of the singleton live births (n = 1,638,338). Maternal diagnosis of hyperthyroidism (adjusted...... OR 1.22, 95% CI 1.15-1.30) and hypothyroidism (adjusted OR 1.17, 95% CI 1.08-1.27) were associated with increased risk of preterm birth. Moreover, birth weight in children born to mothers with a diagnosis of hyperthyroidism was lower (adjusted difference -51 g, 95% CI -58 to -43 g) and higher in...... relation to maternal hypothyroidism (adjusted difference 20 g, 95% CI 10-30 g). Hyperthyroidism was associated with small-for-gestational-age (adjusted OR 1.15, 95% CI 1.10-1.20) and hypothyroidism with large-for-gestational-age children (adjusted OR 1.24, 95% CI 1.17-1.31). CONCLUSIONS: Based on Danish...

  17. JNIH-ABCC life span study of children born to atomic bomb survivors. Report 1. Influence of concomitant variables upon mortality rate comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Hiroo; Ueda, Shoichi

    1963-04-18

    The study of mortality rates among children born to atomic bomb survivors is being conducted according to the protocol, and at present, data for those whose parents are included in the Life Span Study sample are ready for analysis. Using this portion, the influence of various concomitant factors on the infant mortality rate was investigated. The distribution of year of birth, maternal age, and birth order differs between comparison groups. The differences introduce fairly large biases into mortality rate comparisons. For example, the infant mortality rate in children, both of whose parents were atomic bomb survivors would be overestimated by 10% or more. As far as such concomitant factors are observable, the bias can be reduced to negligible magnitude. Other factors are equally important but difficult to observe. For example, environmental factors influence mortality a great deal but adequate methods for treating such factors have not yet been found. If such bias is not eliminated, conclusions to be derived from this study suffer serious limitation, namely, unless drastic radiation effects exist, neither existence nor absence of radiation effects will be demonstrable. Investigation is continuing, especially concerning: how to measure environmental factors; regression analysis on radiation dose or distance from the hypocenter; and examination of specific causes of death. 7 references, 4 figures, 9 tables.

  18. Premature ejaculation: A review

    OpenAIRE

    Sukumar Reddy Gajjala; Azheel Khalidi

    2014-01-01

    Premature ejaculation (PE) is a common male sexual disorder. It is defined by the Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders as "ejaculation occurring, without control, on or shortly after penetration and before the person wishes it, causing marked distress or interpersonal difficulty. [1] Although the timing of intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT) (i.e., time from penetration to ejaculation) is not included in this definition, an IELT of

  19. Retinopathy of prematurity

    OpenAIRE

    Hellström, Ann; Smith, Lois E. H.; Dammann, Olaf

    1991-01-01

    The immature retinas of preterm newborns are susceptible to insults that disrupt neurovascular growth, which leads to retinopathy of prematurity. Suppression of growth factors due to hyperoxia and loss of the maternal-fetal interaction result in an arrest of retinal vascularisation (phase 1). Subsequently, the increasingly metabolically active, yet poorly vascularised, retina becomes hypoxic, stimulating growth factor-induced vasoproliferation (phase 2), which can cause retinal detachment. In...

  20. Retinopathy of prematurity

    OpenAIRE

    Hellström, Ann; Smith, Lois E. H.; Dammann, Olaf

    2013-01-01

    The immature retinas of preterm neonates are susceptible to insults that disrupt neurovascular growth, leading to retinopathy of prematurity. Suppression of growth factors due to hyperoxia and loss of the maternal–fetal interaction result in an arrest of retinal vascularisation (phase 1). Subsequently, the increasingly metabolically active, yet poorly vascularised, retina becomes hypoxic, stimulating growth factor-induced vasoproliferation (phase 2), which can cause retinal detachment. In ver...

  1. Premature graying of hair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepika Pandhi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Premature graying is an important cause of low self-esteem, often interfering with socio-cultural adjustment. The onset and progression of graying or canities correlate very closely with chronological aging, and occur in varying degrees in all individuals eventually, regardless of gender or race. Premature canities may occur alone as an autosomal dominant condition or in association with various autoimmune or premature aging syndromes. It needs to be differentiated from various genetic hypomelanotic hair disorders. Reduction in melanogenically active melanocytes in the hair bulb of gray anagen hair follicles with resultant pigment loss is central to the pathogenesis of graying. Defective melanosomal transfers to cortical keratinocytes and melanin incontinence due to melanocyte degeneration are also believed to contribute to this. The white color of canities is an optical effect; the reflection of incident light masks the intrinsic pale yellow color of hair keratin. Full range of color from normal to white can be seen both along individual hair and from hair to hair, and admixture of pigmented and white hair is believed to give the appearance of gray. Graying of hair is usually progressive and permanent, but there are occasional reports of spontaneous repigmentation of gray hair. Studies evaluating the association of canities with osteopenia and cardiovascular disease have revealed mixed results. Despite the extensive molecular research being carried out to understand the pathogenesis of canities, there is paucity of effective evidence-based treatment options. Reports of repigmentation of previously white hair following certain inflammatory processes and use of drugs have suggested the possibility of cytokine-induced recruitment of outer sheath melanocytes to the hair bulb and rekindled the hope for finding an effective drug for treatment of premature canities. In the end, camouflage techniques using hair colorants are outlined.

  2. Immunisation of premature infants

    OpenAIRE

    Bonhoeffer, J; Siegrist, C‐A; Heath, P T

    2006-01-01

    Premature infants are at increased risk of vaccine preventable infections, but audits have shown that their vaccinations are often delayed. Early protection is desirable. While the evidence base for immunisation of preterm infants is limited, the available data support early immunisation without correction for gestational age. For a number of antigens the antibody response to initial doses may be lower than that of term infants, but protective concentrations are often achieved and memory succ...

  3. Questions never asked. Positive family outcomes of extremely premature childbirth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lou, Hanne; Pedersen, Birthe D; Hedegaard, Morten

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To explore positive aspects of family life after extremely premature childbirth, thereby supplementing current literature on long-term family outcome. DESIGN: Semi-structured, qualitative research interviews were analysed according to the editing strategy described by Miller and Crabtree...... they may lend to future research on family outcome, as well as the balance they may offer in the information provided to parents of premature children....

  4. Social identity and self-esteem among Mainland Chinese, Hong Kong Chinese, British born Chinese and white Scottish children

    OpenAIRE

    Dai, Qian

    2013-01-01

    The Chinese community is the fastest growing non-European ethnic group in the UK, with 11.2% annual growth between 2001 and 2007. According to the National Statistics office (2005), there are over a quarter of a million Chinese in Britain. Compared to other ethnic minority groups, the Chinese group is socio-economically widespread, characterized by high academic achievements and high household income. It is estimated that there are about 30,000 Chinese immigrant children stu...

  5. Clinical sonography in premature infant: Sonographic analysis of incidence and grade of germinal metrixhemorrhage according to gestational age,risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors reviewed 63 premature infants who was born from January 1986 to August 1988 at College of Medicine Seoul National University, to analyze grade of germinal metrixhemorrhage to gestational age, risk.

  6. Altered microstructural connectivity of the superior and middle cerebellar peduncles are related to motor dysfunction in children with diffuse periventricular leucomalacia born preterm: A DTI tractography study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Shanshan, E-mail: jelly_66@126.com; Fan, Guo Guang, E-mail: cjr.fanguoguang@vip.163.com; Xu, Ke, E-mail: cjr.xuke@vip.163.com; Wang, Ci, E-mail: xiangxuehai19850224@yahoo.cn

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate the microstructural integrity of superior cerebellar peduncles (SCP) and middle cerebellar peduncles (MCP) by using DTI tractography method, and further to detect whether the microstructural integrity of these major cerebellar pathways is related to motor function in children with diffuse periventricular leucomalacia (PVL) born preterm. Materials and methods: 46 children with diffuse PVL (30 males and 16 females; age range 3–48 months; mean age 22.4 ± 6.7 months; mean gestational age 30.5 ± 2.2 weeks) and 40 healthy controls (27 males and 13 females; age range 3.5–48 months; mean age 22.1 ± 5.8 months) were enrolled in this study. DTI outcome measurements, fractional anisotropy (FA), for the SCP, MCP and cortical spinal tract (CST) were calculated. The gross motor function classification system (GMFCS) was used for assessing motor functions. Results: Compared to the controls, patients with diffuse PVL had a significantly lower FA in bilateral SCP, MCP and CST. There was a significant negative correlation between GMFCS levels and FA in bilateral SCP, MCP and CST in the patients group. In addition, significant inverse correlation of FA value was found between not only the contralateral but also the ipsilateral CST and SCP/MCP. Conclusions: These findings suggest that the injury of SCP and MCP may contribute to the motor dysfunction of diffuse PVL. Moreover, the correlations we found between supratentorial and subtentorial injured white matter extend our knowledge about the cerebro-cerebellar white matter interaction in children with diffuse PVL.

  7. Altered microstructural connectivity of the superior and middle cerebellar peduncles are related to motor dysfunction in children with diffuse periventricular leucomalacia born preterm: A DTI tractography study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To investigate the microstructural integrity of superior cerebellar peduncles (SCP) and middle cerebellar peduncles (MCP) by using DTI tractography method, and further to detect whether the microstructural integrity of these major cerebellar pathways is related to motor function in children with diffuse periventricular leucomalacia (PVL) born preterm. Materials and methods: 46 children with diffuse PVL (30 males and 16 females; age range 3–48 months; mean age 22.4 ± 6.7 months; mean gestational age 30.5 ± 2.2 weeks) and 40 healthy controls (27 males and 13 females; age range 3.5–48 months; mean age 22.1 ± 5.8 months) were enrolled in this study. DTI outcome measurements, fractional anisotropy (FA), for the SCP, MCP and cortical spinal tract (CST) were calculated. The gross motor function classification system (GMFCS) was used for assessing motor functions. Results: Compared to the controls, patients with diffuse PVL had a significantly lower FA in bilateral SCP, MCP and CST. There was a significant negative correlation between GMFCS levels and FA in bilateral SCP, MCP and CST in the patients group. In addition, significant inverse correlation of FA value was found between not only the contralateral but also the ipsilateral CST and SCP/MCP. Conclusions: These findings suggest that the injury of SCP and MCP may contribute to the motor dysfunction of diffuse PVL. Moreover, the correlations we found between supratentorial and subtentorial injured white matter extend our knowledge about the cerebro-cerebellar white matter interaction in children with diffuse PVL

  8. The state of thyroid system in children born form the parents irradiated in the result of Chornobyl accident as a factor of dysmetabolic changes in the period of sexual development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the work was to reveal functional and structural changes in the thyroid gland in children of puberty age with clinical manifestations of metabolic syndrome born from the parents irradiated in the result of Chornobyl accident. The study involved 108 patients aged 12-17. The investigated parameters characterizing TG function and the state and the of lipid and carbohydrate metabolism became the diagnostic criteria of dyshormonal disorders revealed in children with puberty dyshormonal disorders revealed in children with puberty dispituitarism. The pathological changes in the TG can be a risk factor of metabolic syndrome development.

  9. Association of Maternal Age to Development and Progression of Retinopathy of Prematurity in Infants of Gestational Age under 33 Weeks

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Aim. To find predictive and indicative markers of risk for development of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) and its progression to the stage requiring laser treatment, in premature infants whose gestational age (GA) was under 33 weeks. Methods. We retrospectively reviewed medical records of 197 premature infants born in 2005–2010 whose GA < 33 weeks and underwent eye screening at Keio University Hospital. The association between candidate risk factors and development or progression of ROP was ...

  10. Special Premie Oxygen Targeting (SPOT): a program to decrease the incidence of blindness in infants with retinopathy of prematurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coe, Kristi; Butler, Mandy; Reavis, Nicole; Klinepeter, Mary Ellen; Purkey, Connie; Oliver, Tonya; Starbuck, Alisa; Griffin, Jennifer; Wilmoth, Cathy; Block, Steven

    2006-01-01

    Infants born prematurely have a plethora of medical problems. Some have cerebral palsy, resulting in limited mobility, while others require oxygen, hearing aids, and/or glasses for medical problems. Most of these could have been prevented if preterm birth was avoided, but efforts to curb this have been slow. This article discusses how blindness can be prevented in infants born prematurely by accepting lower oxygen saturations when on oxygen in the intensive care nursery. PMID:16816603

  11. Potential of diffusion tensor MR imaging in the assessment of cognitive impairments in children with periventricular leukomalacia born preterm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To investigate MR diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and fiber tractography (FT) in the assessment of altered major white matter fibers correlated with cognitive functions in preterm infants with periventricular leukomalacia (PVL), to explore the neural foundation for PVL children's cognitive impairments. Materials and methods: Forty six preterm infants (16 ± 4.7 months) suffered from PVL and 16 age-matched normal controls were recruited. Developmental quotient (DQ) was recorded to evaluate PVL children's cognitive functions. According to the DQ scores, patients were divided into three groups: mild, moderate and severe cognitive impairment groups. DTI scan was performed. Fractional anisotropy (FA) values of major white matter fibers were measured and their correlation with cognitive levels was evaluated. Results: Compared with the control group, the PVL group showed a significant mean FA reduction in bilateral corticospinal tract (CST), anterior/posterior limb of internal capsule (ICAL/ICPL), arcuate fasciculus (AF), corona radiate (CR), superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF), splenium of corpus callosum (SCC) (p < 0.05) and bilateral posterior thalamic radiation (PTR) (p < 0.01). The FA values of left CST, bilateral AF, anterior cingulum (ACG), SLF, ICAL, ICPL, PTR, CR, genu of corpus callosum (GCC), SCC and middle cerebellar peduncle showed significant negative correlations with the cognitive levels. Conclusions: DTI can provide more information for understanding the pathophysiology of cognitive impairment in preterm infants with PVL

  12. Potential of diffusion tensor MR imaging in the assessment of cognitive impairments in children with periventricular leukomalacia born preterm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Shanshan, E-mail: jelly_66@126.com [Department of Radiology, The First Hospital, China Medical University, #155, Nanjing North St., Heping Dist., Shenyang, Liaoning 110001 (China); Fan, Guoguang, E-mail: cjr.fanguoguang@vip.163.com [Department of Radiology, The First Hospital, China Medical University, #155, Nanjing North St., Heping Dist., Shenyang, Liaoning 110001 (China); Xu, Ke, E-mail: cjr.xuke@vip.163.com [Department of Radiology, The First Hospital, China Medical University, #155, Nanjing North St., Heping Dist., Shenyang, Liaoning 110001 (China); Wang, Ci, E-mail: xiangxuehai19850224@yahoo.cn [Department of Radiology, The First Hospital, China Medical University, #155, Nanjing North St., Heping Dist., Shenyang, Liaoning 110001 (China)

    2013-01-15

    Purpose: To investigate MR diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and fiber tractography (FT) in the assessment of altered major white matter fibers correlated with cognitive functions in preterm infants with periventricular leukomalacia (PVL), to explore the neural foundation for PVL children's cognitive impairments. Materials and methods: Forty six preterm infants (16 ± 4.7 months) suffered from PVL and 16 age-matched normal controls were recruited. Developmental quotient (DQ) was recorded to evaluate PVL children's cognitive functions. According to the DQ scores, patients were divided into three groups: mild, moderate and severe cognitive impairment groups. DTI scan was performed. Fractional anisotropy (FA) values of major white matter fibers were measured and their correlation with cognitive levels was evaluated. Results: Compared with the control group, the PVL group showed a significant mean FA reduction in bilateral corticospinal tract (CST), anterior/posterior limb of internal capsule (ICAL/ICPL), arcuate fasciculus (AF), corona radiate (CR), superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF), splenium of corpus callosum (SCC) (p < 0.05) and bilateral posterior thalamic radiation (PTR) (p < 0.01). The FA values of left CST, bilateral AF, anterior cingulum (ACG), SLF, ICAL, ICPL, PTR, CR, genu of corpus callosum (GCC), SCC and middle cerebellar peduncle showed significant negative correlations with the cognitive levels. Conclusions: DTI can provide more information for understanding the pathophysiology of cognitive impairment in preterm infants with PVL.

  13. Potential impact of infant feeding recommendations on mortality and HIV-infection in children born to HIV-infected mothers in Africa: a simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seksaria Vidyunmala

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although breast-feeding accounts for 15–20% of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT of HIV, it is not prohibited in some developing countries because of the higher mortality associated with not breast-feeding. We assessed the potential impact, on HIV infection and infant mortality, of a recommendation for shorter durations of exclusive breast-feeding (EBF and poor compliance to these recommendations. Methods We developed a deterministic mathematical model using primarily parameters from published studies conducted in Uganda or Kenya and took into account non-compliance resulting in mixed-feeding practices. Outcomes included the number of children HIV-infected and/or dead (cumulative mortality at 2 years following each of 6 scenarios of infant-feeding recommendations in children born to HIV-infected women: Exclusive replacement-feeding (ERF with 100% compliance, EBF for 6 months with 100% compliance, EBF for 4 months with 100% compliance, ERF with 70% compliance, EBF for 6 months with 85% compliance, EBF for 4 months with 85% compliance Results In the base model, reducing the duration of EBF from 6 to 4 months reduced HIV infection by 11.8% while increasing mortality by 0.4%. Mixed-feeding in 15% of the infants increased HIV infection and mortality respectively by 2.1% and 0.5% when EBF for 6 months was recommended; and by 1.7% and 0.3% when EBF for 4 months was recommended. In sensitivity analysis, recommending EBF resulted in the least cumulative mortality when the a mortality in replacement-fed infants was greater than 50 per 1000 person-years, b rate of infection in exclusively breast-fed infants was less than 2 per 1000 breast-fed infants per week, c rate of progression from HIV to AIDS was less than 15 per 1000 infected infants per week, or d mortality due to HIV/AIDS was less than 200 per 1000 infants with HIV/AIDS per year. Conclusion Recommending shorter durations of breast-feeding in infants born to HIV

  14. Ventricular premature complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bockeria O.L.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Ventricular premature complexes are fairly common heart rhythm disturbances. They occur in patients of all age groups. Sometimes the registration of electrocardiogram is ample for the diagnosis.The difficulty lies in determining the causes of ventricular arrhythmia. The detailed examination is needed for verification of the diagnosis and risk stratification: a Holter monitoring, laboratory tests, a heart magnetic resonance imaging, an electrophysiological study. This results can significantly change further tactics of patient management.It is necessary to make a deliberate decision in favor of one or another treatment after revealing the causes.

  15. Differential effects of early weaning for HIV-free survival of children born to HIV-infected mothers by severity of maternal disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Kuhn

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We previously reported no benefit of early weaning for HIV-free survival of children born to HIV-infected mothers in intent-to-treat analyses. Since early weaning was poorly accepted, we conducted a secondary analysis to investigate whether beneficial effects may have been hidden. METHODS: 958 HIV-infected women in Lusaka, Zambia, were randomized to abrupt weaning at 4 months (intervention or to continued breastfeeding (control. Children were followed to 24 months with regular HIV PCR tests and examinations to determine HIV infection or death. Detailed behavioral data were collected on when all breastfeeding ended. Most participants were recruited before antiretroviral treatment (ART became available. We compared outcomes among mother-child pairs who weaned earlier or later than intended by study design adjusting for potential confounders. RESULTS: Of infants alive, uninfected and still breastfeeding at 4 months in the intervention group, 16.1% who weaned as instructed acquired HIV or died by 24 months compared to 16.0% who did not comply (p = 0.98. Children of women with less severe disease during pregnancy (not eligible for ART had worse outcomes if their mothers weaned as instructed (RH = 2.60 95% CI: 1.06-6.36 compared to those who continued breastfeeding. Conversely, children of mothers with more severe disease (eligible for ART but did not receive it who weaned early had better outcomes (p-value interaction = 0.002. In the control group, weaning before 15 months was associated with 3.94-fold (95% CI: 1.65-9.39 increase in HIV infection or death among infants of mothers with less severe disease. CONCLUSION: Incomplete adherence did not mask a benefit of early weaning. On the contrary, for women with less severe disease, early weaning was harmful and continued breastfeeding resulted in better outcomes. For women with more advanced disease, ART should be given during pregnancy for maternal health and to reduce transmission

  16. Gambaran Retinopathy of Prematurity pada Neonatus yang Dirawat di Unit Perinatologi RSUP H. Adam Malik Tahun 2011-2013

    OpenAIRE

    Putra, Hendriawan

    2015-01-01

    Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a disorder of retinal vascular development in preterm infants. ROP is a condition that can cause blindness in premature infants. Impaired vision in the first years of life can lead to long-term impact on psychosocial aspects, education, and economics. Children who are blind also have a higher mortality rate in the future. Incidence of premature infants are still high in Indonesia, so that ROP’s screening should be carried out among premature infants. The ai...

  17. Vaccination technique, PPD reaction and BCG scarring in a cohort of children born in Guinea-Bissau 2000-2002

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roth, Adam Anders Edvin; Sodemann, Morten; Jensen, Henrik; Poulsen, Anja; Gustafson, Per; Gomes, Justino; Djana, Queba; Jakobsen, Marianne; Garly, May-Lill; Rodrigues, Amabelia; Aaby, Peter

    2005-01-01

    The rates of positive tuberculin skin test (TST) reactions and BCG scarring after BCG vaccination vary between studies and populations. Tuberculin reactivity and BCG scarring may be related to better child survival in low-income countries. We therefore studied determinants for TST reaction and......=2225) of age. In a subgroup of the children the vaccination technique was monitored by direct observation of post-vaccination wheal and route of administration. Three different types of BCG vaccine supplied by the local Extended Programme on Immunization were used. At 6 months of age the rate of PPD...... reactors (>1mm) after BCG vaccination was 25% and the rate of scarring was 89%. One BCG strain was associated with fewer PPD reactors (OR=0.54 (0.31-0.91)) and BCG scars (OR=0.13 (0.05-0.37)) and larger post-vaccination wheals produced more PPD reactions (OR 1.21 (95% CI 1.02-1.43)) and BCG scars (OR 1...

  18. fMRI Evidence for Dorsal Stream Processing Abnormality in Adults Born Preterm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaminade, Thierry; Leutcher, Russia Ha-Vinh; Millet, Veronique; Deruelle, Christine

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the consequences of premature birth on the functional neuroanatomy of the dorsal stream of visual processing. fMRI was recorded while sixteen healthy participants, 8 (two men) adults (19 years 6 months old, SD 10 months) born premature (mean gestational age 30 weeks), referred to as Premas, and 8 (two men) matched controls (20…

  19. Patients particularly exposed: first results of two studies on the premature babies and the children/adolescents suffering of cystic fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report two studies that have explored a particular health situation among children. These studies were concerned for one of preterm infants admitted to a neonatal intensive care unit, and for other patients with cystic fibrosis. These studies were limited to a dosimetry evaluation of a existing practice. It is worth noting that such studies are exceptional in literature. They aim to provide a missing information for radiation protection of populations not in good health, but suffering from diseases. (N.C.)

  20. Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 in preterm infants with retinopathy of prematurity

    OpenAIRE

    Manizheh Mostafa Gharehbaghi; Ali Peirovifar; Karim Sadeghi; Haleh Mostafidi

    2012-01-01

    Background: Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is the main cause of visual impairment in preterm newborn infants. Objective: This study was conducted to determine whether insulin-like growth factor binding protein -3 (IGFBP-3) is associated with proliferative ROP and has a role in pathogenesis of the disease in premature infants. Materials and Methods: A total of 71 preterm infants born at or before 32 weeks of gestation participated in this study. Studied patients consisted of 41 neonates with...

  1. Retinopathy of prematurity in a controlled trial of prophylactic surfactant treatment.

    OpenAIRE

    Pennefather, P M; Tin, W.; Clarke, M P; Fritz, S.; Strong, N P

    1996-01-01

    AIMS: To investigate the incidence of acute and cicatricial retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in a cohort of premature neonates entered into a randomised, multicentre trial of prophylactic exogenous surfactant for respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) compared with controls receiving surfactant only if severe RDS developed. METHODS: The incidence of acute and cicatricial ROP was assessed in 304 neonates born at less than 30 weeks' gestation in a geographically defined population of approximately...

  2. HIV-free survival among nine- to 24-month-old children born to HIV-positive mothers in the Rwandan national PMTCT programme: a community-based household survey

    OpenAIRE

    Ruton Hinda; Mugwaneza Placidie; Shema Nadine; Lyambabaje Alexandre; Bizimana Jean de Dieu; Tsague Landry; Nyankesha Elevanie; Wagner Claire M; Mutabazi Vincent; Nyemazi Jean Pierre; Nsanzimana Sabin; Karema Corine; Binagwaho Agnes

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Operational effectiveness of large-scale national programmes for the prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV in sub-Saharan Africa remains limited. We report on HIV-free survival among nine- to 24-month-old children born to HIV-positive mothers in the national PMTCT programme in Rwanda. Methods We conducted a national representative household survey between February and May 2009. Participants were mothers who had attended antenatal care at least once duri...

  3. Occipital cortical thickness in very low birth weight born adolescents predicts altered neural specialization of visual semantic category related neural networks

    OpenAIRE

    Klaver, Peter; Latal, Beatrice; Martin, Ernst

    2015-01-01

    Very low birth weight (VLBW) premature born infants have a high risk to develop visual perceptual and learning deficits as well as widespread functional and structural brain abnormalities during infancy and childhood. Whether and how prematurity alters neural specialization within visual neural networks is still unknown. We used functional and structural brain imaging to examine the visual semantic system of VLBW born (

  4. Premature ejaculation: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajjala, Sukumar Reddy; Khalidi, Azheel

    2014-01-01

    Premature ejaculation (PE) is a common male sexual disorder. It is defined by the Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders as "ejaculation occurring, without control, on or shortly after penetration and before the person wishes it, causing marked distress or interpersonal difficulty.([1]) Although the timing of intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT) (i.e., time from penetration to ejaculation) is not included in this definition, an IELT of ejaculation occurring before penetration, has been considered consistent with PE.([2]) Management involves both the patient and his partner. Therapeutic options should suit both partners and be appropriate to their habit in planning and frequency of intercourse. Follow-up at appropriate intervals to judge efficacy, titrate dosage of pharmacological treatments and ascertain side effects is mandatory. PMID:26396440

  5. Premature ejaculation: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukumar Reddy Gajjala

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Premature ejaculation (PE is a common male sexual disorder. It is defined by the Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders as "ejaculation occurring, without control, on or shortly after penetration and before the person wishes it, causing marked distress or interpersonal difficulty. [1] Although the timing of intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT (i.e., time from penetration to ejaculation is not included in this definition, an IELT of <2 min, or ejaculation occurring before penetration, has been considered consistent with PE. [2] Management involves both the patient and his partner. Therapeutic options should suit both partners and be appropriate to their habit in planning and frequency of intercourse. Follow-up at appropriate intervals to judge efficacy, titrate dosage of pharmacological treatments and ascertain side effects is mandatory.

  6. Apnea of prematurity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piermichele Paolillo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Apnea of prematurity (AOP is one of the most frequent pathologies in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, with an incidence inversely related to gestational age. Its etiology is often multi factorial and diagnosis of idiopathic forms requires exclusion of other underlying diseases. Despite being a self-limiting condition which regresses with the maturation of the newborn, possible long-term effects of recurring apneas and the degree of desaturation and bradycardia who may lead to abnormal neurological outcome are not yet clarified. Therefore AOP needs careful evaluation of its etiology and adequate therapy that can be both pharmacological and non-pharmacological. Proceedings of the 9th International Workshop on Neonatology · Cagliari (Italy · October 23rd-26th, 2013 · Learned lessons, changing practice and cutting-edge research

  7. Effect of antenatal growth and prematurity on brain white matter: diffusion tensor study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White matter maturation is characterised by increasing fractional anisotropy (FA) and decreasing mean diffusivity (MD). Contradictory results have been published on the effect of premature birth on white matter maturation at term-equivalent age. To assess the association of gestational age and low birth-weight-for-gestational-age (z-score) with white matter maturation. Infants (n = 76, 53 males) born at different gestational ages were imaged at term-equivalent age. Gestational age and birth weight z-score were used as continuous variables and the effect on diffusion parameters was assessed. Brain maturation was studied using regions-of-interest analysis in several white matter areas. Gestational age showed no significant effect on white matter maturation at term-equivalent age. Children with low birth weight z-score had lower FA in the genu and splenium of the corpus callosum (regression, P = 0.012 and P = 0.032; correlation, P = 0.009 and P = 0.006, respectively), and higher MD in the splenium of the corpus callosum (regression, P = 0.002; correlation, P = 0.0004) compared to children whose birth weight was appropriate for gestational age. Children with low birth weight relative to gestational age show delay and/or anomaly in white matter maturation at term-equivalent age. (orig.)

  8. Effect of antenatal growth and prematurity on brain white matter: diffusion tensor study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lepomaeki, V. [Turku University Central Hospital, Medical Imaging Centre of Southwest Finland, Turku (Finland); Turku University Central Hospital, Turku PET-Centre, PO Box 52, Turku (Finland); Paavilainen, T.; Komu, M. [Turku University Central Hospital, Medical Imaging Centre of Southwest Finland, Turku (Finland); Matomaeki, J.; Lapinleimu, H.; Liisa Lehtonen, L. [Turku University Central Hospital and University of Turku, Department of Pediatrics, Turku (Finland); Hurme, S. [University of Turku, Department of Biostatistics, Turku (Finland); Haataja, L. [Turku University Central Hospital and University of Turku, Department of Pediatric Neurology, Turku (Finland); Parkkola, R. [Turku University Central Hospital, Medical Imaging Centre of Southwest Finland, Turku (Finland); Turku University Central Hospital, Turku PET-Centre, PO Box 52, Turku (Finland); University of Turku, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Turku (Finland)

    2012-06-15

    White matter maturation is characterised by increasing fractional anisotropy (FA) and decreasing mean diffusivity (MD). Contradictory results have been published on the effect of premature birth on white matter maturation at term-equivalent age. To assess the association of gestational age and low birth-weight-for-gestational-age (z-score) with white matter maturation. Infants (n = 76, 53 males) born at different gestational ages were imaged at term-equivalent age. Gestational age and birth weight z-score were used as continuous variables and the effect on diffusion parameters was assessed. Brain maturation was studied using regions-of-interest analysis in several white matter areas. Gestational age showed no significant effect on white matter maturation at term-equivalent age. Children with low birth weight z-score had lower FA in the genu and splenium of the corpus callosum (regression, P = 0.012 and P = 0.032; correlation, P = 0.009 and P = 0.006, respectively), and higher MD in the splenium of the corpus callosum (regression, P = 0.002; correlation, P = 0.0004) compared to children whose birth weight was appropriate for gestational age. Children with low birth weight relative to gestational age show delay and/or anomaly in white matter maturation at term-equivalent age. (orig.)

  9. Pathophysiology of Retinopathy of Prematurity

    OpenAIRE

    İmren Akkoyun

    2012-01-01

    Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), an ocular disease characterized by onset of vascular abnormalities in the developing retina, is the major cause of visual impairment and blindness in premature neonates. ROP is a complex multifactorial disease that occurs with microvascular degeneration followed by neovascularization which passing through different stages can progress to retinal detachment. Currently used ablative therapies like cryocoagulation and laser photocoagulation for prolifer...

  10. Rahnella aquatilis Sepsis in a Premature Newborn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canan Kuzdan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rahnella aquatilis is an infrequently isolated Gram-negative rod within the Enterobacteriaceae family. The organism’s natural habitat is water. The organism is rarely isolated from clinical specimens and it seldom causes infection in immunocompetent individuals. Here we present a one-month-old boy who was born prematurely at 27th week of gestation by cesarean section with a birth weight of 730 g. He developed sepsis caused by Rahnella aquatilis during the treatment for ventilator associated pneumonia due to Stenotrophomonas maltophilia with ciprofloxacin. He was successfully treated with a combination of amikacin plus meropenem. Although R. aquatilis is one of the saprophyticus organisms, it may cause life-threatening infection in newborn.

  11. Rahnella aquatilis Sepsis in a Premature Newborn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzdan, Canan; Soysal, Ahmet; Özdemir, Hülya; Coşkun, Şenay; Akman, İpek; Bilgen, Hülya; Özek, Eren; Bakır, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    Rahnella aquatilis is an infrequently isolated Gram-negative rod within the Enterobacteriaceae family. The organism's natural habitat is water. The organism is rarely isolated from clinical specimens and it seldom causes infection in immunocompetent individuals. Here we present a one-month-old boy who was born prematurely at 27th week of gestation by cesarean section with a birth weight of 730 g. He developed sepsis caused by Rahnella aquatilis during the treatment for ventilator associated pneumonia due to Stenotrophomonas maltophilia with ciprofloxacin. He was successfully treated with a combination of amikacin plus meropenem. Although R. aquatilis is one of the saprophyticus organisms, it may cause life-threatening infection in newborn. PMID:26090257

  12. Rahnella aquatilis Sepsis in a Premature Newborn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzdan, Canan; Soysal, Ahmet; Özdemir, Hülya; Coşkun, Şenay; Akman, İpek; Bilgen, Hülya; Özek, Eren; Bakır, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    Rahnella aquatilis is an infrequently isolated Gram-negative rod within the Enterobacteriaceae family. The organism's natural habitat is water. The organism is rarely isolated from clinical specimens and it seldom causes infection in immunocompetent individuals. Here we present a one-month-old boy who was born prematurely at 27th week of gestation by cesarean section with a birth weight of 730 g. He developed sepsis caused by Rahnella aquatilis during the treatment for ventilator associated pneumonia due to Stenotrophomonas maltophilia with ciprofloxacin. He was successfully treated with a combination of amikacin plus meropenem. Although R. aquatilis is one of the saprophyticus organisms, it may cause life-threatening infection in newborn. PMID:26090257

  13. Victimization: a newly recognized outcome of prematurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeau, Line; Tessier, Réjean; Lefebvre, Francine; Robaey, Philippe

    2004-08-01

    Victimization by peers affects 10 to 20% of school children under the age of 12 years. Physical, verbal, and psychological victimization (being pushed, hit, called names, teased, being the target of rumours, theft, extortion) is associated with short- and long-term adjustment problems, such as peer rejection, social withdrawal, low self-esteem, anxiety, loneliness, and depression, as well as academic problems and school drop-out. Research on populations of school children (primary and secondary) has associated victimization with personal risk factors (the victim's characteristics and behaviour) and interpersonal risk factors (social relationships between peers). Studies on the social adjustment of preterm children at school age show that, even in the absence of a major motor or cognitive disability, this population has several personal risk factors associated with victimization. The objective of this study was to compare the level of victimization experienced by a group of 96 seven-year-old children born extremely preterm (EP, born EP had a mean gestational age of 27.3 weeks (SD 1.2) and a mean birthweight of 1001.1g (SD 223) and normal birthweight children had a mean gestational age of 39.5 weeks (SD 1.5) and a mean birthweight of 3468.7g (SD 431). Physical and verbal victimization were assessed in a school setting by peers with individual sociometric interviews (Modified Peer Nomination Inventory). After controlling for physical growth (height and weight) at the age of 7 years, the data indicate two independent effects: males were more victimized than females, and children born preterm experienced more verbal victimization by their peers than their term classmates, even when participants with a visible motor, intellectual, or sensory disability were excluded. Several hypotheses are presented to account for the higher incidence of verbal victimization of preterm children. PMID:15287240

  14. Thinking about Pregnancy After Premature Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... between pregnancies > Thinking about pregnancy after premature birth Thinking about pregnancy after premature birth E-mail to ... talk to other women like me who are thinking about pregnancy after having a premature baby? Visit ...

  15. Advances in treating premature ejaculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cayan, Selahittin; Serefoğlu, Ege Can

    2014-01-01

    In spite of its high prevalence and long history, the ambiguity regarding the definition, epidemiology and management of premature ejaculation continues. Topical anesthetic creams and daily or on-demand selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) treatment forms the basis of pharmacotherapy for premature ejaculation today, in spite of low adherence by patients. Psychotherapy may improve the outcomes when combined with these treatment modalities. Tramadol and phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors have a limited role in the management of premature ejaculation. Further research is required to develop better options for the treatment of this common sexual disorder. PMID:25184045

  16. Homocysteine level in Iranian patients with premature acute myocardial infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammad Shojaie; Farzan Naghshvar; Hamid Reza Izadi; Ahad Eshraghian; Morteza Pourahmad

    2009-01-01

    @@ Homocysteine may impair vascular endothelial cell function.Besides,it may also induce cell damage,smooth muscle cell proliferation,thrombogenesis and oxidation of low-density lipoproteins.1 The possible role of elevated blood concentrations of homocysteine in cardiovascular disease was firstly hypothesized after the observation of high incidence of premature occlusive vascular disease in children with homozygous homocystinuria.2

  17. Born Too Soon: Care for the preterm baby

    OpenAIRE

    Joy E Lawn; Davidge, Ruth; Paul, Vinod K; Xylander, Severin von; de Graft Johnson, Joseph; Costello, Anthony; Mary V Kinney; Segre, Joel; Molyneux, Liz

    2013-01-01

    As part of a supplement entitled "Born Too Soon", this paper focuses on care of the preterm newborn. An estimated 15 million babies are born preterm, and the survival gap between those born in high and low income countries is widening, with one million deaths a year due to direct complications of preterm birth, and around one million more where preterm birth is a risk factor, especially amongst those who are also growth restricted. Most premature babies (>80%) are between 32 and 37 weeks of g...

  18. Cystic fibrosis in premature infants

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, KD; Engmann, C.; Moya, F. (Francina); Muhlebach, M

    2011-01-01

    There are few reports of cystic fibrosis (CF) diagnosed in premature infants. We describe the clinical course of three patients, from our neonatal intensive care units, who were diagnosed with CF, and discuss the existing literature and treatment considerations.

  19. Advances in treating premature ejaculation

    OpenAIRE

    Çayan, Selahittin; Şerefoğlu, Ege Can

    2014-01-01

    In spite of its high prevalence and long history, the ambiguity regarding the definition, epidemiology and management of premature ejaculation continues. Topical anesthetic creams and daily or on-demand selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) treatment forms the basis of pharmacotherapy for premature ejaculation today, in spite of low adherence by patients. Psychotherapy may improve the outcomes when combined with these treatment modalities. Tramadol and phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibit...

  20. Oesophageal perforation in extreme prematurity

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Katherine Elizabeth; Wagener, Silke; Willetts, Ian Edward; Lakhoo, Kokila

    2012-01-01

    Management of oesophageal perforation in extremely premature babies is a challenge and carries a high morbidity. The authors report their experience of three separate cases of oesophageal perforation they encountered over the last 18 months in extremely premature neonates. In the first case, the diagnosis of oesophageal perforation was known in an otherwise stable baby who was treated conservatively with a good outcome. In the second and third cases, the patients proceeded to thoracotomy befo...

  1. Prevention of retinopathy of prematurity

    OpenAIRE

    João Borges Fortes Filho; Gabriela Unchalo Eckert; Marcia Beatriz Tartarella; Renato Soibelmann Procianoy

    2011-01-01

    Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is related to oxygen-regulated vascular endothelial growth factor and to insulin-like growth factor-I. After premature birth, supplemental oxygen induces a retinal hyperoxic condition with vasoconstriction and to a definitive interruption of retinal vasculogenesis. Peripheral ischemia may stimulate retinal neovascularization and the onset of additional ROP-related complications. The natural course of the disease may result in irreversible blindness if not prom...

  2. Outcomes for Extremely Premature Infants

    OpenAIRE

    Glass, HC; Costarino, AT; Stayer, SA; Brett, CM; Cladis, F; Davis, PJ

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 International Anesthesia Research Society. Premature birth is a significant cause of infant and child morbidity and mortality. In the United States, the premature birth rate, which had steadily increased during the 1990s and early 2000s, has decreased annually for 7 years and is now approximately 11.39%. Human viability, defined as gestational age at which the chance of survival is 50%, is currently approximately 23 to 24 weeks in developed countries. Infant girls, on average, have bet...

  3. Incidence and risk factors of retinopathy of prematurity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasyidah

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP is one of the main causes of visual impairment in premature infants. Objective To determine the incidence and risk factors for ROP in premature infants. Methods This retrospective study included premature infants born in Stella Mmaris Women’s and Children’s Hospital and admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU and Neonatology Department from November 2009 to May 2012. We included all premature infants with body weight (BW 32 weeks with unstable clinical courses who had been screened for ROroP. Data was analyzed with Fisher’s exact test and independent t test. Results Of the 48 premature infants in the study, ROroP was detected in 6 (12.5% of the subjects. Stages of ROP were classified according to the International Classification of of Prematurity. Stage 1 ROP was detected in 1 (2.1% subject; stage 2 ROP was detected in 3 (6.25% subjects; and stage 3 ROP was found in 2 (4.2% subjects. The 2 infants with stage 3 ROroP required surgery. No was detected in infants with GA > 30 weeks or BW > 1250 g. Respiratory distress syndrome (RrDS, sepsis, blood transfusion, and apnea were found to be associated with development of ROP. Duration of oxygen therapy was found to be a significant risk factor for ROP in a comparison of the no ROP group to the ROP group: 14.0 (SD 9.508 days vs. 3.81 (SD 5.218 days, respectively (P<0.05. In addition, the duration of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP usage was also a significant risk factor for ROP, with 1.83 (SD 1.329 days in the ROP group vs. 0.76 (SD 1.122 days in the no ROP group (P<0.05. Conclusions The incidence of ROP in the premature infants in our study is 12.5%. Retinopathy of prematurity is associated with lower BbW, lower GA, lower Apgar score at the 5th minute, RrDS,6,7sepsis, apnea, blood transfusion, aminophylline usage, as well as longer duration of oxygen therapy and CPAP usages. [Paediatr Indones. 2013;53:76-82.].

  4. Incidence and risk factors of retinopathy of prematurity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasyidah

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP is one of the main causes of visual impairment in premature infants.Objective To determine the incidence and risk factors for ROP in premature infants.Methods This retrospective study included premature infants born in Stella Mmaris Women’s and Children’s Hospital and admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU and Neonatology Department from November 2009 to May 2012. We included all premature infants with body weight (BW 32 weeks with unstable clinical courses who had been screened for ROroP. Data was analyzed with Fisher’s exact test and independent t test.Results Of the 48 premature infants in the study, ROroP was detected in 6 (12.5% of the subjects. Stages of ROP were classified according to the International Classification of of Prematurity. Stage 1 ROP was detected in 1 (2.1% subject; stage 2 ROP was detected in 3 (6.25% subjects; and stage 3 ROP was found in 2 (4.2% subjects. The 2 infants with stage 3 ROroP required surgery. No was detected in infants with GA > 30 weeks or BW > 1250 g. Respiratory distress syndrome (RrDS, sepsis, blood transfusion, and apnea were found to be associated with development of ROP. Duration of oxygen therapy was found to be a significant risk factor for ROP in a comparison of the no ROP group to the ROP group: 14.0 (SD 9.508 days vs. 3.81 (SD 5.218 days, respectively (P<0.05. In addition, the duration of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP usage was also a significant risk factor for ROP, with 1.83 (SD 1.329 days in the ROP group vs. 0.76 (SD 1.122 days in the no ROP group (P<0.05.Conclusions The incidence of ROP in the premature infants in our study is 12.5%. Retinopathy of prematurity is associated with lower BbW, lower GA, lower Apgar score at the 5th minute, RrDS,6,7sepsis, apnea, blood transfusion, aminophylline usage, as well as longer duration of oxygen therapy and CPAP usages.

  5. Refractive Status of Chinese with Laser-Treated Retinopathy of Prematurity

    OpenAIRE

    Ruan, Lu; Shan, Hai-Dong; Liu, Xing-Zong; Huang, Xin

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose To analyze changes in myopia, astigmatism, and anisometropia after laser treatment of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), including aggressive posterior retinopathy of prematurity (APROP), in Mainland Chinese children. Methods This was a retrospective study of children who had laser treatment for threshold or type 1 prethreshold ROP between January 2004 and October 2012 and age-matched control subjects with spontaneously regressed type 2 prethreshold ROP. One hundred fifteen ey...

  6. [Development of executive functions in preterm children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borradori Tolsa, C; Barisnikov, K; Lejeune, F; Hüppi, P

    2014-09-01

    The rate of children born prematurely has increased considerably in the last few decades, and their developmental outcome remains of great concern. The literature on the impact of prematurity has reported a wide range of cognitive and behavioral problems that may be related to deficits in executive function (EF) skills. EF refers to a series of high-level processes (selective attention, inhibition, set shifting, working memory, planning, goal setting) that develop throughout childhood and adolescence and play an important role in cognitive and social development as well as in school achievement. EF skills have been linked to the prefrontal cortex, as well as to other neural networks and brain regions including the basal ganglia and cerebellum. This paper focuses on studies related to the development of EF and social behavior in children born preterm. The preschool period is a critical time to perform neuropsychological assessment in addition to IQ testing, and to detect the child's specific needs in order to adapt effective intervention to enhance the development of executive processes in these high-risk children. PMID:25089045

  7. Efficacy study of pulmonary surfactant combine with NCPAP in treatment of respiratory distress syndrome in premature children%肺表面活性物质与NCPAP联合治疗早产儿呼吸窘迫综合征的疗效研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊丽

    2015-01-01

    目的:研究早产儿呼吸窘迫综合征采取肺表面活性物质联合NCPAP治疗的临床应用价值。方法:选取收治的30例呼吸窘迫综合征的早产儿,随机分为两组,每组15例。对照组采取NCPAP治疗,治疗组加用肺表面活性物质治疗,对比分析两组临床表现及各项观察指标。结果:治疗组早产儿临床反应改善情况、早产儿NCPAP参数变化及病理变化改善情况明显优于对照组( P<0.05);治疗组转为机械通气辅助治疗的早产儿少于对照组(P<0.05)。结论:肺表面活性物质联合NCPAP治疗早产儿呼吸窘迫综合征疗效显著,是目前治疗早产儿呼吸窘迫综合征的首选方法,值得临床推广应用。%Objective To study the clinical value of pulmonary surfactant combine with NCPAP in treatment of respiratory distress syn-drome in premature children. Method 30 cases of premature children with respiratory distress syndrome were selected,they were randomly di-vided into two groups,15 cases of each group. The control group was treated with NCPAP,the treatment group were treated with pulmonary sur-factant,the clinical manifestations and the observed indicators were compared in two groups. Results The clinical response improvement of preterm children ,NCPAP parameter changes in preterm children and the improve situation of pathological changes in the treatment group was better than that of the control group( P<0. 05);The Preterm children into mechanical ventilation adjuvant therapy in the treatment group was less than that of the control group( P<0. 05). Conclusion Pulmonary surfactant combine with NCPAP in treatment of respiratory distress syn-drome in premature children has a significant effect,is the preferred method for treatment of premature infants with respiratory distress syn-drome,worthy of clinical promotion and application.

  8. 73例败血症早产儿的阴沟肠杆菌培养与药敏试验结果分析%Analysis on Enterobacter cloacae culture and susceptibility testing in 73 sepsis premature children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张有龙

    2013-01-01

    目的 了解导致早产儿医院感染阴沟肠杆菌败血症的危险因素与阴沟肠杆菌的耐药现状,为阴沟肠杆菌败血症的治疗制定合理有效的用药方案,为控制医院感染提供研究数据.方法 对73例阴沟肠杆菌败血症早产儿的病例资料进行回顾性调查分析,包括患儿的性别、胎龄、出生体重、临床表现及实验室检查结果等内容.结果 早产儿阴沟肠杆菌败血症的临床表现呈现多样化特点,其主要临床表现包括:发热、消化道症状、黄疸、脐部红肿、颅内感染与心肌损害等.实验室检查表明,71.2%患儿中血小板减少,16.4%患儿出现白细胞总计数减少,74.0%患儿出现白细胞总计数升高,64.4%患儿Hs-CRP水平升高.73例患儿共检出阴沟肠杆菌80株,阴沟肠杆菌对亚胺培南、左氧氟沙星、阿米卡星敏感率均达到100%,敏感率较高的抗菌药物还有环丙沙星、头孢吡肟、庆大霉素、妥布霉素和哌拉西林他唑巴坦,而阴沟肠杆菌对大多数β-内酰胺类、磺胺类、氨基糖甙类抗菌药物耐药.结论 早产儿阴沟肠杆菌败血症的临床治疗中必须做药敏试验,根据药敏试验结果合理选择抗菌药物.治疗中可首选喹诺酮类药物,尽量避免使用青霉素类、一代、二代头孢菌素,对于重症患儿可首选碳青霉烯类抗菌药物.%[Objective] To find out the risk factors that lead to premature children hospital infections Enterobacter cloacae sepsis and the status quo of Enterobacter cloacae resistant,to develop reasonable and effective regimen for Enterobacter cloacae sepsis treatment,and to provides research data for controlling hospital infections.[Methods] The clinical data of 73 cases of Enterobacter cloacae sepsis preterm children were investigated and analyzed,including children's gender,gestational age,birth-weight,clinical manifestations,laboratory examination results and other content.[Results] The clinical

  9. Creatine, Glutamine plus Glutamate, and Macromolecules Are Decreased in the Central White Matter of Premature Neonates around Term.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koob, Meriam; Viola, Angèle; Le Fur, Yann; Viout, Patrick; Ratiney, Hélène; Confort-Gouny, Sylviane; Cozzone, Patrick J; Girard, Nadine

    2016-01-01

    Preterm birth represents a high risk of neurodevelopmental disabilities when associated with white-matter damage. Recent studies have reported cognitive deficits in children born preterm without brain injury on MRI at term-equivalent age. Understanding the microstructural and metabolic underpinnings of these deficits is essential for their early detection. Here, we used diffusion-weighted imaging and single-voxel 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) to compare brain maturation at term-equivalent age in premature neonates with no evidence of white matter injury on conventional MRI except diffuse excessive high-signal intensity, and normal term neonates. Thirty-two infants, 16 term neonates (mean post-conceptional age at scan: 39.8±1 weeks) and 16 premature neonates (mean gestational age at birth: 29.1±2 weeks, mean post-conceptional age at scan: 39.2±1 weeks) were investigated. The MRI/MRS protocol performed at 1.5T involved diffusion-weighted MRI and localized 1H-MRS with the Point RESolved Spectroscopy (PRESS) sequence. Preterm neonates showed significantly higher ADC values in the temporal white matter (Pglutamine+glutamate)/H2O ratios (Pglutamine plus glutamate, and macromolecules in the centrum semiovale, a finding suggesting altered energy metabolism and protein synthesis. PMID:27547969

  10. The participation of parents in the care of premature children in a neonatal unit: meanings attributed by the health team Participación de madres/padres en el cuidado del niño prematuro en la unidad neonatal: significados atribuidos por el equipo de salud Participação das mães/pais no cuidado ao filho prematuro em unidade neonatal: significados atribuídos pela equipe de saúde

    OpenAIRE

    Josefina Gallegos Martínez; Luciana Mara Monti Fonseca; Carmen Gracinda Silvan Scochi

    2007-01-01

    This qualitative study aims to identify and analyze the meanings the health team attributes to the parents' participation in the care of premature children hospitalized at a public hospital. Data were recorded and collected through semi-structured interviews performed with 23 professionals. The results show that parents' participation in the care of these children is still in an initial stage at the hospital's neonatal unit. However, there is interest from the health team to implement it beca...

  11. Neonatal Risk Factors for Treatment-Demanding Retinopathy of Prematurity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slidsborg, Carina; Jensen, Aksel; Forman, Julie Lyng;

    2016-01-01

    multiple logistic regression model. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Treatment-demanding ROP and its associations to candidate risk factors. RESULTS: Mechanical ventilation (odds ratio [OR], 2.84; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.99-4.08; P < 0.01) and blood transfusion (OR, 1.97; 95% CI, 1.20-3.14; P = 0.01) were......PURPOSE: One goal of the study was to identify "new" statistically independent risk factors for treatment-demanding retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). Another goal was to evaluate whether any new risk factors could explain the increase in the incidence of treatment-demanding ROP over time in Denmark....... DESIGN: A retrospective, register-based cohort study. PARTICIPANTS: The study included premature infants (n = 6490) born in Denmark from 1997 to 2008. METHODS: The study sample and the 31 candidate risk factors were identified in 3 national registers. Data were linked through a unique civil registration...

  12. Successful Management of an Extremely Premature Infant with Congenital Candidiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sota Iwatani

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Congenital candidiasis, which presents with a variety of clinical symptoms, is very rare in both term and preterm infants, and less than 100 neonatal cases have been reported in the medical literature. We describe the case of an extremely premature infant with congenital candidiasis, who was successfully treated and survived without major sequelae. A male infant was born at 25 weeks' gestation (weight, 834 g. He exhibited diffuse erythematous papules. Samples of his skin, pharyngeal mucus, gastric fluid, and tracheal aspirate were found to be Candida albicans—positive while blood cultures were negative. Further histopathological examinations revealed that Candida albicans mycelia had invaded the umbilical cord. After prompt antifungal therapy, the patient's skin lesions improved markedly, and he was discharged from hospital without any major complications. This report highlights the importance of characteristic skin lesions for the early diagnosis of Candida infections, especially in extremely premature infants.

  13. Risk factors of intracranial hemorrhage in premature neonates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrin Khalessi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH is an important cause of brain injury in premature neonates. Current study tries to define associated risk factors of IVH in preterm neonates in Aliasghar Children Hospital during 2008 to 2011. In this study, the risk factors have been evaluated in premature neonates with IVH, who had at least one brain sonography since their admission in NICU. A total of 63 premature neonates with IVH were assessed. Mean gestational age was 29.81 (24-34 weeks and mean birth weight was 1290.83±382.96 gr. Other risk factors such as sex, mode of delivery, history of using infertility drugs, maternal disease, maternal hypertension and preeclampsia, lumbar puncture, ventilator therapy and pneumothorax were considered. Because no absolute treatment for IVH is available, identifying risk factors is important in prevention and management of IVH.

  14. Adult height after long-term, continuous growth hormone (GH) treatment in short children born small for gestational age: results of a randomized, double-blind, dose-response GH trial

    OpenAIRE

    Pareren, Y.; Houdijk, M.; Jansen, Maarten; Reeser, M.; Mulder, Paul; Hokken-Koelega, Anita

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThe GH dose-response effect of long-term continuous GH treatment on adult height (AH) was evaluated in 54 short children born small for gestational age (SGA) who were participating in a randomized, double-blind, dose-response trial. Patients were randomly and blindly assigned to treatment with either 3 IU (group A) or 6 IU (group B) GH/m(2).d ( approximately 0.033 or 0.067 mg/kg.d, respectively). The mean (+/-SD) birth length was -3.6 (1.4), the age at the start of the study was 8...

  15. HIV-free survival among nine- to 24-month-old children born to HIV-positive mothers in the Rwandan national PMTCT programme: a community-based household survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruton Hinda

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Operational effectiveness of large-scale national programmes for the prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT of HIV in sub-Saharan Africa remains limited. We report on HIV-free survival among nine- to 24-month-old children born to HIV-positive mothers in the national PMTCT programme in Rwanda. Methods We conducted a national representative household survey between February and May 2009. Participants were mothers who had attended antenatal care at least once during their most recent pregnancy, and whose children were aged nine to 24 months. A two-stage stratified (geographic location of PMTCT site, maternal HIV status during pregnancy cluster sampling was used to select mother-infant pairs to be interviewed during household visits. Alive children born from HIV-positive mothers (HIV-exposed children were tested for HIV according to routine HIV testing protocol. We calculated HIV-free survival at nine to 24 months. We subsequently determined factors associated with mother to child transmission of HIV, child death and HIV-free survival using logistic regression. Results Out of 1448 HIV-exposed children surveyed, 44 (3.0% were reported dead by nine months of age. Of the 1340 children alive, 53 (4.0% tested HIV positive. HIV-free survival was estimated at 91.9% (95% confidence interval: 90.4-93.3% at nine to 24 months. Adjusting for maternal, child and health system factors, being a member of an association of people living with HIV (adjusted odds ratio: 0.7, 95% CI: 0.1-0.995 improved by 30% HIV-free survival among children, whereas the maternal use of a highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART regimen for PMTCT (aOR: 0.6, 95% CI: 0.3-1.07 had a borderline effect. Conclusions HIV-free survival among HIV-exposed children aged nine to 24 months is estimated at 91.9% in Rwanda. The national PMTCT programme could achieve greater impact on child survival by ensuring access to HAART for all HIV-positive pregnant women in

  16. Estudo longitudinal das crianças nascidas em 1982 em Pelotas, RS, Brasil: metodologia e resultados preliminares Study in length of children born in Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, in 1982: metodology and preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Gomes Victora

    1985-02-01

    Full Text Available Tentou-se acompanhar a morbi-mortalidade e o crescimento de uma coorte de 6.011 crianças urbanas nascidas em 1982 nos hospitais de Pelotas, RS, através de visitas domiciliares aos 12 meses (para uma amostra de 30% das crianças e aos 20 meses (para toda a população. Estas crianças representaram mais de 99% de todos os nascimentos urbanos naquele ano. Foi possível localizar 81% das crianças aos 12 meses e 86% aos 20 meses, devido a uma mudança na estratégia de trabalho de campo. A metodologia empregada e as principais dificuldades encontradas são descritas e as características ao nascer das crianças localizadas no acompanhamento são comparadas com as características das crianças não localizadas. A potencialidade de uso dos dados coletados é exemplificada através de alguns resultados preliminares mostrando as associações entre o peso ao nascer, a renda familiar e o estado nutricional aos 12 meses. O estudo mostra que é possível acompanhar, com uma perda relativamente pequena, uma coorte de crianças com base populacional em uma cidade brasileira de tamanho médio.A cohort of 6,011 urban children born in 1982 in the hospitals of Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, was followed up so that their morbidity, mortality and growth could be assessed. These children accounted for over 99% of all births in the city. A 30% sample of the children were visited at home when approximately 12 months old, and the whole population was visited at about 20 months of age. It was possible to locate 81% of the children at 12 months. This proportion increased to 86% at 24 months, due to a change in the logistics of the field work which then included visiting all 69,000 households in the city to locate children whose families had moved within the urban area. The methodology and main difficulties encountered are discussed, and the characteristics at birth of children who were located at the first follow-up visit was compared to those of children lost to

  17. Long-term neurological outcome of term-born children treated with two or more anti-epileptic drugs during the neonatal period

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heide, Mariska J.; Roze, Elise; van der Veere, Christa N.; ter Horst, Hendrik J.; Brouwer, Oebele F.; Bos, Arend F.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Neonatal seizures may persist despite treatment with multiple anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs). Objective: To determine in term-born infants with seizures that required two or more AEDs, whether treatment efficacy and/or the underlying disorder were related to neurological outcome. Design/met

  18. The Impact of War and Economic Sanction on the Incidence of Retinopathy of Prematurity in Serbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mladenovich, Derek; Langeggen, Irene

    2009-01-01

    This study compared the distribution of various types of visual impairments among Serbian children who were born prior to the imposed economic sanctions and wars of the 1990s in the former Yugoslavia to that of children who were born during the years of economic sanctions and active war. (Contains 2 tables.)

  19. Parents’ views on care of their very premature babies in neonatal intensive care units: a qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    Russell, G. M.; Sawyer, A.; Rabe, H.; Abbott, J; Gyte, G; Duley, L; Ayers, S; Very Preterm Birth Qualitative Collaborative Group, .

    2014-01-01

    Background The admission of a very premature infant to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) is often a difficult time for parents. This paper explores parents’ views and experiences of the care for their very premature baby on NICU. Methods Parents were eligible if they had a baby born before 32 weeks gestation and cared for in a NICU, and spoke English well. 32 mothers and 7 fathers were interviewed to explore their experiences of preterm birth. Although parents’ evaluation of c...

  20. Assessment of atropine-sufentanil-atracurium anaesthesia for endotracheal intubation: an observational study in very premature infants.

    OpenAIRE

    Durrmeyer, Xavier; Dahan, Sonia; Delorme, Pierre; Blary, Sabine; Dassieu, Gilles; Caeymaex, Laurence; Carbajal, Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Premedication before neonatal intubation is heterogeneous and contentious. The combination of a short acting, rapid onset opioid with a muscle relaxant is considered suitable by many experts. The purpose of this study was to describe the tolerance and conditions of intubation following anaesthesia with atropine, sufentanil and atracurium in very premature infants. METHODS: Monocentric, prospective observational study in premature infants born before 32 weeks of gestational age, ho...

  1. [Visuospatial functions and prematurity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda-Herrero, M C; Pascual-Pascual, S I; Barredo-Valderrama, E; Vazquez-Lopez, M; de Castro-De Castro, P

    2014-11-01

    Visuospatial functions are very important in learning process and development of abstract thought during childhood. Several studies show that preterm and low birth weight infants obtain lower scores in test that assess cognitive functions, specially in the first year of life. These differences are attenuated over time, but a developmental delay that affects working memory and visuospatial process still persists. It is unclear what factors are involved in development of these functions, and pre- or perinatal factors may interfere with the proper conduct of the same, but have been described anatomical and physiological differences between the preterm and term brain that could explain somewhere in these alterations. The different selective vulnerability to hypoxia between immature brain in which preoligodendrocytes and subplate neurons predominate, and mature brain, determine differences in the pattern of injury from hypoxia with greater involvement of the periventricular white matter in preterm children. This lesional pattern leaves to a dysfunction in attentional and visuospatial process, due to the increased vulnerability of the regions involved in the dorsal pathway of visual processing. PMID:25342055

  2. "Assessment of retinopathy of prematurity among 150 premature neonates in Farabi eye hospital "

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    "Riazi Esfahani M

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to estimate the incidence of retinopathy of permaturity (ROP and to evaluate possible neonatal risk factors for ROP. The main study was a cross-sectional study including 150 high-risk neonates born at teaching hospitals of Tehran universities referring to to Farabi Eye Hospital. The chossing critertia were birth weight less than 2500 g or gestational age younger than 37 weeks. ROP was present in 9(6% newborns, all of whom aged less than 32 weeks a birth. There was also strong association between ROP and birth weight, oxygen administration, respiratory distress syndrome and intraventricular hemorrhage. There also seems to be a higher risk for developing ROP in female neoates, those who were born by multiple gestaional pregnancies or were treated by phototherapy or transfusion and those who had suffered from bronchopulmonary dysplasia or seiss.Prematurity per se remains the strongest risk factof for ROP. Suitable criteria for screening of ROP seems to be gestational age younger than 32 weeks or birth weight less than 1500 g

  3. Music Therapy with Premature Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standley, Jayne

    2003-01-01

    Over 20 years of research and clinical practice in music therapy with premature infants has been compiled into this text designed for Board Certified Music Therapists specializing in Neonatal Intensive Care clinical services, for NICU medical staff incorporating research-based music therapy into developmental care plans, and for parents of…

  4. Ultrasound Diagnostics of Premature Birth

    OpenAIRE

    Chekhonatskaya M.L.; Vasilevich L.K.; Petrosyan N.O.; Kolesnikova E.A.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the article is to analyze the data of native and foreign literature and to consider the modern aspects of ultrasound diagnostics of premature birth, and new additional criteria for early diagnostics and prediction of preterm delivery. Hemodynamic characteristics in the second and third trimesters of the pregnancy have been covered.

  5. Retinopathy of prematurity: Past, present and future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Parag K; Prabhu, Vishma; Karandikar, Smita S; Ranjan, Ratnesh; Narendran, Venkatapathy; Kalpana, Narendran

    2016-01-01

    Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a vasoproliferative disorder of the retina occurring principally in new born preterm infants. It is an avoidable cause of childhood blindness. With the increase in the survival of preterm babies, ROP has become the leading cause of preventable childhood blindness throughout the world. A simple screening test done within a few weeks after birth by an ophthalmologist can avoid this preventable blindness. Although screening guidelines and protocols are strictly followed in the developed nations, it lacks in developing economies like India and China, which have the highest number of preterm deliveries in the world. The burden of this blindness in these countries is set to increase tremendously in the future, if corrective steps are not taken immediately. ROP first emerged in 1940s and 1950s, when it was called retrolental fibroplasia. Several epidemics of this disease were and are still occurring in different regions of the world and since then a lot of research has been done on this disease. However, till date very few comprehensive review articles covering all the aspects of ROP are published. This review highlights the past, present and future strategies in managing this disease. It would help the pediatricians to update their current knowledge on ROP. PMID:26862500

  6. Baseline IGF-I Levels Determine Insulin Secretion and Insulin Sensitivity during the First Year on Growth Hormone Therapy in Children Born Small for Gestational Age. Results from a North European Multicentre Study (NESGAS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rikke Beck; Thankamony, Ajay; O'Connell, Susan M; Salgin, Burak; Kirk, Jeremy; Donaldson, Malcolm; Ivarsson, Sten-A; Söder, Olle; Roche, Edna; Hoey, Hilary; Dunger, David B; Holm, Kirsten; Juul, Anders

    2013-01-01

    ), 110 short SGA children received GH at 67 µg/kg/day for 1 year. Insulin secretion was assessed by acute insulin response (AIR), insulin sensitivity (IS) by HOMA and disposition index (DI) by insulin secretion adjusted for IS. Results: First-year GH therapy led to increases in height and IGF-I standard......Objective: Developmental programming alters growth and metabolic outcome in children born small for gestational age (SGA). We explored insulin and glucose metabolism in SGA children treated with a fixed GH dose over 1 year. Methods: In the North European Small for Gestational Age Study (NESGAS...... deviation score (SDS), and reductions in IS (p <0.0001). Compensatory increases in AIR (p <0.0001) were insufficient and resulted in reduced DI (p = 0.032). Children in the highest IGF-I SDS tertile at baseline were the least insulin sensitive at baseline (p = 0.024) and 1 year (p = 0.006). IGF-I responses...

  7. Cerebral palsy in children with prematurity and its comorbidities%早产脑性瘫痪儿的共患病及其相关因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙殿荣; 侯梅; 李文妍; 窦坦凤; 于荣; 王珂

    2010-01-01

    Objective To analyze the comorbidities and gross motor function classifications (GMFCs) of premature children with cerebral palsy (CP) in terms of neurological subtype and gestational age in search of some relationship. Methods Children with cerebral palsy treated at the Qingdao Children's Hospital from 2006 to mid2009 received intelligence capacity tests, ophthalmological consultations, language/speech tests, brainstem auditory evoked potential measurements, electroencephalograms and GMFC evaluations. All of the children were stratified according to neurological subtype, gestational age, comorbidities and gross motor function classification. Results Of all 258 children, spastic diplegic cerebral palsy predominated (183 case, 70.9% ). 124 cases (48.1% ) had visual disorders, 121 (46.9%) had language or speech disorders and 103 (39.9%) showed mental retardation. The frequencies of individual comorbidities were distributed disproportionately between the different neurologic subtypes.GMFC levels also differed with the different CP types. The GMFC levels of diplegics were significantly better than those of the other types. The distribution of comorbidities such as visual disorders, language or speech disorders, and mental retardation was not related to gestational age or type of CP. Conclusions There is some correlation between the neurological subtype, comorbidities and the GMFC levels. But there is no significant correlation between gestation age and the severity of CP.%目的 探讨早产脑性瘫痪(脑瘫)儿的脑瘫类型、胎龄、粗大运动功能水平、共患疾病之间的相关性.方法 对2006年1月至2009年6月在我院脑瘫康复中心住院治疗的早产脑瘫儿进行智力评测、眼科检查、语言-言语功能检查、听觉诱发电位检查、脑电图检测及粗大运动功能分级评估等,分析早产脑瘫儿共患病、粗大运动功能分级水平、出生胎龄和脑瘫类型之间的关联性.结果 258例早

  8. A cumulative risk factor model for early identification of academic difficulties in premature and low birth weight infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roberts, G.; Bellinger, D.; McCormick, Marie C.

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: Premature and low birth weight children have a high prevalence of academic difficulties. This study examines a model comprised of cumulative risk factors that allows early identification of these difficulties. Methods: This is a secondary analysis of data from a large cohort of premature

  9. Prevention of retinopathy of prematurity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Borges Fortes Filho

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP is related to oxygen-regulated vascular endothelial growth factor and to insulin-like growth factor-I. After premature birth, supplemental oxygen induces a retinal hyperoxic condition with vasoconstriction and to a definitive interruption of retinal vasculogenesis. Peripheral ischemia may stimulate retinal neovascularization and the onset of additional ROP-related complications. The natural course of the disease may result in irreversible blindness if not promptly diagnosed and attended. Recently, a significant increase in the prevalence of ROP has been observed in survival rates of preterm infants, especially in emerging-economy countries in Latin America, Asia, and Eastern Europe. This article addresses the main preventive measures in ROP.

  10. Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Young Adults Who Were Born Preterm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipola-Leppänen, Marika; Vääräsmäki, Marja; Tikanmäki, Marjaana; Matinolli, Hanna-Maria; Miettola, Satu; Hovi, Petteri; Wehkalampi, Karoliina; Ruokonen, Aimo; Sundvall, Jouko; Pouta, Anneli; Eriksson, Johan G.; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Kajantie, Eero

    2015-01-01

    Adults who were born preterm with a very low birth weight have higher blood pressure and impaired glucose regulation later in life compared with those born at term. We investigated cardiometabolic risk factors in young adults who were born at any degree of prematurity in the Preterm Birth and Early Life Programming of Adult Health and Disease (ESTER) Study, a population-based cohort study of individuals born in 1985–1989 in Northern Finland. In 2009–2011, 3 groups underwent clinical examination: 134 participants born at less than 34 gestational weeks (early preterm), 242 born at 34–36 weeks (late preterm), and 344 born at 37 weeks or later (controls). Compared with controls, adults who were born preterm had higher body fat percentages (after adjustment for sex, age, and cohort (1985–1986 or 1987–1989), for those born early preterm, difference = 6.2%, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.4, 13.2; for those born late preterm, difference = 8.0%, 95% CI: 2.4, 13.8), waist circumferences, blood pressure (for those born early preterm, difference = 3.0 mm Hg, 95% CI: 0.9, 5.1; for those born late preterm, difference = 1.7, 95% CI: −0.1, 3.4), plasma uric acid levels (for those born early preterm, difference = 20.1%, 95% CI: 7.9, 32.3; for those born late preterm, difference = 20.2%, 95% CI: 10.7, 30.5), alanine aminotransferase levels, and aspartate transaminase levels. They were also more likely to have metabolic syndrome (for those born early preterm, odds ratio = 3.7, 95% CI: 1.6, 8.2; for those born late preterm, odds ratio = 2.5, 95% CI: 1.2, 5.3). Elevated levels of conventional and emerging risk factors suggest a higher risk of cardiometabolic disease later in life. These risk factors are also present in the large group of adults born late preterm. PMID:25947956

  11. Medical therapy for premature ejaculation

    OpenAIRE

    Mohee, Amar; Eardley, Ian

    2011-01-01

    Premature ejaculation (PE) is a common male sexual dysfunction. Advances in PE research have been hampered owing to a nonstandardized definition of PE, until the definition by the International Society of Sexual Medicine (ISSM) in 2009. Once the diagnosis of PE is established through a thorough history, a variety of medical therapies is available, including tricyclic antidepressants, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), centrally acting opiates, phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors and ...

  12. PSYCHOMOTOR DEVELOPMENT IN PREMATURE INFANTS UNTIL THE END OF THEIR THIRD YEAR OF LIFE

    OpenAIRE

    Valentina DUKOVSKA; JUZEVSKI Zhivko

    2015-01-01

    Psychomotor development in premature infants has specific characteristics with increased tendency towards neuro-developmental difficulties, such as the fact that certain percent of the developmentally challenged people belongs in this category of children.Many factors contribute to the neuro-developmental difficulties in premature infants. A large number of studies have shown that the birth weight (BW) and gestational age (GA) have strong correlation with the neuro-developmental outcome.In or...

  13. The Effect of Human Recombinant Erythropoietin on Prevention of Anemia of Prematurity

    OpenAIRE

    K Hajian; Y Zahedpasha; M Ahmadpour Kacho; Sh. Moradi

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Premature infants often develop significant anemia that requires blood transfusion, this carries significant risks. This study was carried out to determine the effect of recombinant human erythropoietin (r-HuEPO) on prevention of anemia of prematurity. Material & Methods: From April 2001 to March 2002, 24 neonates in  newborn services at Amirkola childrens hospital randomly were assigned to erythropoietin group and control (no treatment) group. Inclusion criteria were birth weight ...

  14. Prevailing clinical practices regarding screening for retinopathy of prematurity among pediatricians in India: A pilot survey

    OpenAIRE

    Saurabh Dileep Patwardhan; Rajvardhan Azad; Varun Gogia; Parijat Chandra; Shikha Gupta

    2011-01-01

    Aims: To evaluate the prevailing practices for proper screening and referral scheme among Indian pediatricians for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). Materials and Methods: Pediatricians registered with Indian Academy of Pediatrics from six states of India were selected randomly and were telephonically interviewed in accordance with a preformed questionnaire which comprised of questions regarding demographic factors, number of premature children seen per month, awareness and referral scheme to...

  15. Factors given by birth and oxygenotherapy in relation to development of retinopathy of prematurity

    OpenAIRE

    Olujić Maja; Oros Ana; Bregun-Doronjski Alekandra; Velisavljev-Filipović Gordana

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. Retinopathy of prematurity is a disease of the eye which affects the blood vessels of the retina and represents the most important cause of blindness and low vision in children worldwide. There are many risk factors given by birth and parameters of general health status that may influence this disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the significance of the factors given by birth and use of oxygen in relation to the development of premature retinopathy. Material a...

  16. Estudo longitudinal do desenvolvimento de crianças nascidas pré-termo no primeiro ano pós-natal Longitudinal study of the development of children born preterm in the first year of post-natal age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabíola Dantas Andréz Nobre

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar indicadores de desenvolvimento de crianças nascidas pré-termo e comparar o desempenho nas faixas de 5 a 7 e 10 a 14 meses de idade corrigida. Foram relacionados indicadores do desenvolvimento com variáveis neonatais e do ambiente familiar e sexo. Trinta crianças foram avaliadas pelo Denver-II. As cuidadoras responderam à entrevista e o prontuário médico foi analisado. Na faixa de 5 a 7 meses, 20 % das crianças apresentaram risco para problemas de desenvolvimento e 27% de 10 a 14 meses. Houve diferença significativa entre as fases com mais risco na linguagem na faixa de 10 a 14 meses. As crianças nascidas com menor peso e idade gestacional, que permaneceram mais tempo hospitalizadas e com situações familiares adversas apresentaram mais problemas de desenvolvimento.The aim of the study was to assess the development of children born preterm and to compare the performance in the ranges of 5-7 and 10-14 months of corrected age. The children's development indicators and the variables of neonatal period and familial environment were correlated. Thirty children were assessed by Denver-II. The caregivers were interviewed and the medical chart was examined. Twenty per cent of children presented risk for developmental problems at 5-7 months, and 27% at 10-14 months. There was statistical significant difference between ages in language, with high risk at 10-14. The children with lower birthweight, lower gestational age, longer time stay in the hospital, and with adverse family situations showed higher risk for developmental problems.

  17. Tick-borne protozoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tick-borne protozoa impose a significant health burden on humans and animals throughout the world. The virulence of tick-borne protozoa, and the geographic distribution of their tick vectors and vertebrate hosts remain in flux as they adapt to changing environmental and climatic conditions. Babesios...

  18. Food-borne Zoonoses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: The awareness of food borne illness has shifted over the years as international agribusiness and transportation have steadily increased. At least 30 food borne agents have been identified, with one-third emerging in the last 3 decades. Despite an increased emphasis on control measures, t...

  19. An audit of patient inclusion in retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) screening and whether discharge summaries contained ROP information with suggestions for improvement

    OpenAIRE

    Harding,

    2013-01-01

    Samantha A Harding,1 Mohamad Abdullah,1,2 Gillian Adams1,21Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, 2Moorfields Eye Hospital, London, UKAbstract: In a busy neonatal unit with a number of very sick children it can be difficult to highlight those children requiring retinopathy of prematurity screening and to include this in the patient's discharge summary to ensure continuity of care. This audit looks at how efficiently children are included in the retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) scr...

  20. Stem cell experiments moves into clinic: new hope for children with bronchopulmonary dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawelec, K; Gładysz, D; Demkow, U; Boruczkowski, D

    2015-01-01

    Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is a chronic lung disease with long-term complications that affects mainly preterm born children with low birth weights, especially those treated with mechanical ventilation and oxygen therapy. Successful treatment of BPD could reduce the incidence of other diseases of prematurity such as periventricular leukomalacia and retinopathy. The effects of current therapies are unsatisfactory; thus, searching for novel therapeutic is underway. One promising approach seems administration of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC). Preclinical data strongly support the role of progenitor cells in the preservation of lung structure. MSC can be found more often in pre-term than term umbilical cord and its isolation from Wharton's jelly carries a potential in treating diseases of prematurity. Several questions concerning the use of MSC in BPD remain to be answered, including the amount of transferred cells, intervals between infusions, the best route for administration and the timing. MSC can be administered as a treatment or prophylaxis. However, having in mind that not all prematurely born children are at risk of developing bronchopulmonary dysplasia, a search for laboratory markers identifying potential patients should be conducted. This review summarizes the latest achievements in MSC therapy in the context of BPD. PMID:25252892

  1. The case for addressing primary resistance mutations to non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors to treat children born from mothers living with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khady Kébé

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV drug resistance mutations (DRMs was estimated in 25 untreated infants who were living with HIV-1, younger than 13 months and living in Senegal. Antiretroviral DRMs were detected in 8 of 25 (32% children. Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI DRMs were present in all (100% children whose viruses harboured DRMs: K103N in 43%; Y181C, K101E and V106M each in 29%; and Y188L in 14%. The D67N thymidine-analogue mutation was observed in only two children whose mothers had received chemoprophylaxis of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT. The proportion of children whose viruses harboured DRMs was then 6.5-fold higher in children whose mother–child couples had received nevirapine (NVP-based chemoprophylaxis than in other couples without prophylaxis [7 of 13 (53.8% vs. 1 of 12 (8.3%]. These findings point to the absolute need to address primary resistance mutations in case of virological failure in young children treated by antiretroviral drugs, and to make more effective treatment regimens available to NVP-exposed infants living with HIV-1 in Senegal.

  2. Children’s E-books are Born: How E-books for Children are Leading E-book Development and Redefining the Reading Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Schreurs

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Children’s e-books waited to emerge until technology could support their advanced requirements. Recent technologies such as colour e-readers and tablets like Apple’s iPad provide support for heavy visual content and opportunities for interactivity. E-books for children have grown in availability and popularity and now include puzzles, games, music, video, and audio features that boost narratives and create a unique reading experience that is further from print than ever before. This article positions e-books for children as leaders in e-book development. It reviews concepts, practices, and scholarship in the area of e-books for children and highlights issues with definitions and research caused by the rapid growth of enhanced and interactive e-books. There is little argument among scholars and practitioners that the reading experience is changing, and the new generation of readers may have different opinions, assumptions, and preferences for the meanings of ‘book’ and ‘reading’. Managing these shifts in the reading experience, which is still strongly tied to notions from print culture, is an important role for LIS scholars, librarians, educators, and parents. Recent research on e-books for children focuses largely on literacy and education. Little attention has been paid to if and why children enjoy the e-reading experience. Additionally, the majority of current research examines children’s e-reading from an adult perspective with most surveys and interviews consulting parent participants and not children. An examination of relevant research as well as literature on the history and conceptualization of e-books and reading as an evolving experience reveals that, from new technologies to new experiences and new definitions, e-books for children are pushing toward the future of reading.

  3. 河南省农村HIV阳性产妇分娩婴儿营养状况评价%Nutritional assessment of children born to HIV infected mothers in Henan province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王奇; 韩萍; 孙定勇; 王玲; 王旗

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the nutrition status of children born to human immunodeficiency virus ( HIV) -infected mothers in rural area of Henan province. Methods Totally 160 children were included in the research. Z scores of weight for age,height for age,and weight for height were calculated using WHO Anthro 2010 at birth and 1,3,6,9, 12,and 18 months of age. Z scores based on WHO standard were used to evaluate nutrition status of the children. Results Among the children, 128 were HIV negative and 32 HIV positive. The incidence of underweight in the HIV-negative children was lower than in HIV-positive children except for the children at the age of 3 months (P <0. 05). The incidence of stunning in HIV-negative children was lower than in HIV-positive children at 6,12, and 18 months of age( P < 0. 05). The growth trend of Z values for age-related weight (WAZ) in HIV-negative children was better than in HIV-positive children (P <0. 05) and the WAZ ranged from - 0. 59 to 0. 79 for HIV-negative children and - 1. 41 to - 0. 04 for HIV-positive children. There were significant differences in Z values for age-related height (HAZ) at 9 and 18 months of age between two groups and HAZ ranged from - 1. 22 to - 0. 17 for HIV-negative children and - 1. 89 to - 0. 14 for HIV-positive children. The length and weight of the children at different months of age were lower than the normal standards significantly. Conclusion The incidence of malnutrition in the children born to HIV infected mothers in rural area of Henan province is high, especially in the HIV-positive children.%目的 了解河南省农村地区艾滋病病毒(HIV)感染母亲分娩婴幼儿的营养状况.方法 使用WHO的Anthro 2010软件,分别计算160名婴幼儿在满1、3、6、9、12、18月龄的年龄别体重、年龄别身高、身高别体重Z值评分,以WHO参考人群为标准评估婴幼儿的营养状况.结果 共调查满18月龄存活婴幼儿160人,其中HIV阳性婴幼儿32

  4. Hepatitis B virus (HBV status of children born to HIV/HBV co-infected women in a French hospital: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Sellier

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV Mother-To-Child-Transmission (MTCT and prevention by combined antiretroviral therapy (cART have been extensively studied. Hepatitis B Virus (HBV MTCT from HIV/HBV co-infected women and prevention by antiretroviral therapy with dual activity have been poorly studied. The aim of the study was to assess HBV MTCT from HIV/HBV co-infected women in a developed country with a large access to cART. Materials and Methods: HIV/HBV co-infected pregnant women attending the Obstetrics Department from 1st January 2000 to 1st January 2012 could be included in the study (NCT02044068. Antiretroviral therapy during pregnancy, injection of immunoglobulin and/or vaccine to newborns was retrospectively recorded. We assessed HBV status of children at least as old as two years. Results: Forty nine (9.2% from 530 HIV-infected women followed in the hospital were HIV/HBV co-infected. 34 (69.4% had given birth to 57 children in the hospital. 13 of these women (22 children were lost-to-follow-up, 21 women (35 children could be studied. Twenty six children (74.3% had HBs Ab at a protective level, 22 of them had received immunoglobulin at birth; 24 had received a complete vaccine schedule during the first six months of life (with immunoglobulin in 21 cases. The women had been given lamivudine or tenofovir/emtricitabine during eight and nine pregnancies respectively. Eight children (22.8% were tested negative for HBs Ag, HBs Ab and HBc Ab: 4 (11.4% had received immunoglobulin and a complete vaccine schedule; in two children, immunoglobulin was uncertain; in one child, the vaccine schedule was incomplete; in the last one, data about immunoglobulin and the vaccine schedule were lacking. The women had been given lamivudine or tenofovir/emtricitabine during five and two pregnancies respectively. One child had HBc Ab and HBs Ab, immunoglobulin was uncertain and the vaccine schedule was incomplete. The woman had been given lamivudine

  5. Comparison of response to 2-years’ growth hormone treatment in children with isolated growth hormone deficiency, born small for gestational age, idiopathic short stature, or multiple pituitary hormone deficiency: combined results from two large observational studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Peter A

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies have compared the response to growth hormone (GH treatment between indications such as isolated growth hormone deficiency (IGHD, born small for gestational age (SGA, idiopathic short stature (ISS, and multiple pituitary hormone deficiency (MPHD. The aim of this analysis of data, collected from two large ongoing observational outcome studies, was to evaluate growth and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I response data for children of short stature with IGHD, MPHD, SGA, or ISS following two years of treatment with the recombinant GH product Norditropin® (Novo Nordisk A/S, Bagsværd, Denmark. Methods Analysis of auxologic data from two ongoing prospective observational studies, NordiNet® International Outcomes Study (NordiNet® IOS and NovoNet®/American Norditropin® Studies: Web-enabled Research (ANSWER Program®. Results 4,582 children aged p = 0.047; p  0.001 vs. IGHD, respectively. Height gain was comparable between IGHD and MPHD. In pre-pubertal children vs. total population, height SDS change after two years was: IGHD, +1.24 vs. +0.97; SGA, +1.17 vs. +1.03; ISS, +1.04 vs. +0.84; and MPHD, +1.16 vs. +0.99 (all p  Conclusions After two years’ GH treatment, change in height SDS was greater in SGA and less in ISS, compared with IGHD; the discrepancy in responses may be due to the disease nature or confounders (i.e. age. Height SDS increase was greatest in pre-pubertal children, supporting early treatment initiation to optimize growth outcomes.

  6. Determining pathogenetic connection between disorders of lipid and carbohydrate metabolism and non-malignant pathology of thyroid gland in children , born from parents, Chernobyl accident survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 92 children aged 12-17 years were examined with the purpose to study the links between carbohydrate and lipid metabolic abnormalities and non-malignant thyroid disorders in descendants of the Chernobyl accident survivors. Clinical, anthropometrical studies and hormonal assays were applied. Carbohydrate and lipid metabolic abnormalities were revealed in every third case of thyroid disease. It confirms our supposition of such a possibility being due to the fact that radiation impact even in low doses can result in pronounced metabolic disorders lading to entire endocrine disregulation. It is relevant in children of the puberty age

  7. Current therapies for premature ejaculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gur, Serap; Kadowitz, Philip J; Sikka, Suresh C

    2016-07-01

    Premature ejaculation (PE) subjectively affects 20-30% of men globally. Until recently, understanding of PE was hampered by the absence of a widely accepted definition, paucity of evidence-based clinical studies, and the absence of an appropriate animal model. Here, we elaborate on the current definition of PE, its pathogenesis, currently available therapies, and future treatment prospects. Most treatments for PE are 'off-label' and include selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), topical anesthetics, tramadol, and phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitors. Such knowledge of the benefit and limitations of each treatment will help to direct future drug design and formulations. PMID:27179987

  8. Morphine glucuronidation in premature neonates.

    OpenAIRE

    Hartley, R.; Quinn, M; Green, M; Levene, M I

    1993-01-01

    The glucuronidation of morphine was investigated in 10 premature neonates (postnatal age < 24 h at initiation of treatment) following 24 h of therapy (2 h loading infusion, followed by a constant rate infusion). Morphine, morphine-3-glucuronide (M3G) and morphine-6-glucuronide (M6G) were measured in plasma obtained at 24 h in all babies. Plasma concentrations of M3G and M6G correlated significantly with morphine concentration (P < 0.01 in both cases), and with each other (P < 0.001), suggesti...

  9. Advanced sleep phase in adolescents born preterm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibbs, Anna Maria; Storfer-Isser, Amy; Rosen, Carol; Ievers-Landis, Carolyn E; Taveras, Elsie M; Redline, Susan

    2014-09-01

    The objective of this article is to evaluate whether sleep patterns and quality differed between adolescents born preterm and term, and to further explore whether differences in sleep patterns were explained by differences in mediating factors such as mood, behavior, or socioeconomic status. Five hundred and one 16- to 19-year-old children in the longitudinal Cleveland Children's Sleep and Health Study cohort underwent overnight polysomnography (PSG), wore wrist actigraphs, and completed sleep logs for 1 week. The modified Epworth Sleepiness Scale, the Adolescent Sleep Hygiene Scale, and the Adolescent Sleep-Wake Scale were used to further assess sleep. Adolescents born preterm demonstrated significantly (p parenting styles on children's sleep. PMID:24283662

  10. Handwriting performance of preterm children at school age: a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Souza de Medeiros Rocha

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: At school age, handwriting is on of the most important tasks among the fine motor activities. Good handwriting performance contributes to the child´s school performance. As prematurity impacts on motor development, it may influence handwriting. Objective: To review the specific literature and investigate whether there are differences in handwriting performance at school age between children born preterm and full term. Method: A search was performed in the Capes electronic database, in English and Portuguese, comprising the time period between January 2000 and June 2012. Articles were selected according to the inclusion criteria; the sample, objectives, instruments utilized and outcomes were analyzed. Results: Six articles were included in the study. Data analysis indicates that children born prematurely present poorer handwriting performance and a handicap in the underlying handwriting mechanisms when compared with full term infants. Conclusion: Preterm children without obvious neurological impairment are at increased risk for problems in handwriting development at school age. The small number of recent studies on this topic indicates a need for further research, as well as the development of standardized resources for the motor and handwriting assessment of Brazilian children.

  11. The preterm pig as a model of premature infant gait ataxia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergström, A.; Ryom, K.; Vanden Hole, C.;

    Aims/background Compromised gait, balance and motor coordination (ataxia) as observed in cases of cerebral palsy is a serious complication to premature birth. The cerebellum is a central region with regards to these brain functions and its development shows high sensitivity to premature birth. Our...... aim of this study was to compare gait patterns and cerebellar neurodevelopmental gene expression of preterm and term piglets. Methods We compared gait patterns and T-maze performance of caesarean born preterm (3 litters, 90% gestation) and term born pigs (1 litter, 100% gestation) recorded at five...... distinct postnatal days. MatLab was used to determine a list of spatiotemporal gait characteristics e.g. stride length/ frequency, ”duty factor” and asymmetry indices. These data were paralleled by qPCR of >60 selected neurodevelopmental genes of isolated cerebellar tissue. Results While most genes did not...

  12. Premature ejaculation: is there an efficient therapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francischi, Fábio Barros de; Ayres, Daniel Cernach; Itao, Ricardo Eidi; Spessoto, Luis Cesar Fava; Arruda, Jose Germano Ferraz Del; Facio Junior, Fernando Nestor

    2011-12-01

    Premature ejaculation is the most frequent male sexual dysfunction, estimated to affect 20 to 30% of men at some time in their life. A Pubmed search from the year 2000 to the present was performed to retrieve publications related to management or treatment of premature ejaculation. Behavioral techniques have been the mainstay of premature ejaculation management for many years, although evidence of their short-term efficacy is limited. Topical therapies for premature ejaculation act by desensitizing the penis and do not alter the sensation of ejaculation. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), commonly used in the treatment of depression, are often used to treat premature ejaculation, based on the observation that delayed ejaculation is a frequent side effect of this drug class. Dapoxetine is a short-acting SSRI formulated to treat premature ejaculation, and results seem very promising. PMID:26761263

  13. Depression, Somatization, and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Children Born of Occupation After World War II in Comparison With a General Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Marie; Kuwert, Philipp; Braehler, Elmar; Glaesmer, Heide

    2015-10-01

    At the end of World War II and during the first decade after the war, roughly 200,000 children were fathered in intimate contacts between German women and foreign soldiers. The experiences of these German occupation children (GOC) have been so far described in case reports and from historical perspective only. Research on psychosocial consequences of growing up as a GOC has been missing so far. This study examined traumatic experiences, posttraumatic stress disorder, somatization, and depression in GOC (N = 146) using self-report instruments: Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale and Patient Health Questionnaire. Findings have then been compared with a representative birth cohort-matched sample from the German general population (N = 977). German occupation children showed significantly higher prevalence rates of most traumatic experiences, higher point prevalence rates of full and partial posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, and somatization than the control group. In summary, GOC often grew up under difficult conditions (e.g., poverty, single mothers, and stigmatization). Even decades later, they showed higher rates of different mental disorders and higher comorbidity. These findings underline the complex and long-term impact of their burdened social, financial, and familial conditions. The results underpin the importance of conceptualizing occupation children as a vulnerable group in postconflict settings. PMID:26348585

  14. Tick-borne encephalitis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Růžek, Daniel; Bilski, B.; Günther, G.

    Florida : CRC Press, 2013, s. 211-237. ISBN 9781466567207 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : tick-borne encephalitis * neuroviral Infections * viruses Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine

  15. Advances in understanding and treating premature ejaculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saitz, Theodore R; Serefoglu, Ege Can

    2015-11-01

    Over the past several years, many advances have been made in our understanding of the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and management of premature ejaculation. Newly developed definitions of premature ejaculation are now available, and our perception of the classification, prevalence, aetiological factors, and treatment options for premature ejaculation have evolved. Despite ongoing research, there remains much to be learned about all aspects of this common sexual disorder, in particular effective clinical diagnosis and treatment options. PMID:26502991

  16. xidative Stress and Retinopathy of Prematurity

    OpenAIRE

    Ümeyye Taka Aydın; Hatip Aydın; Osman Çekiç

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative stress plays an important role in the etiology of retinopathy of prematurity. Insufficient antioxidant system and increased oxidative stress in premature infants lead to the development of the disease. Understanding the mechanism of oxidative stress and antioxidant system and the related signaling pathways contribute to the development of novel options for diagnosis and treatment of retinopathy of prematurity. The current review aimed to evaluate the relationship between ox...

  17. Optimal oxygen saturation in premature infants

    OpenAIRE

    Meayoung Chang

    2011-01-01

    There is a delicate balance between too little and too much supplemental oxygen exposure in premature infants. Since underuse and overuse of supplemental oxygen can harm premature infants, oxygen saturation levels must be monitored and kept at less than 95% to prevent reactive oxygen species-related diseases, such as retinopathy of prematurity and bronchopulmonary dysplasia. At the same time, desaturation below 80 to 85% must be avoided to prevent adverse consequences, such as cerebra...

  18. Human milk for the premature infant

    OpenAIRE

    Underwood, Mark A.

    2012-01-01

    Premature infants are a heterogeneous group with widely differing needs for nutrition and immune protection with risk of growth failure, developmental delays, necrotizing enterocolitis, and late-onset sepsis increasing with decreasing gestational age and birth weight. Human milk from women delivering prematurely has more protein and higher levels of many bioactive molecules compared to milk from women delivering at term. Human milk must be fortified for small premature infants to achieve adeq...

  19. Maintaining Optimal Oxygen Saturation in Premature Infants

    OpenAIRE

    Lau, Yoke Yen; Tay, Yih Yann; Shah, Varsha Atul; Chang, Pisun; Loh, Khuan Tai

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Advances in technology have resulted in increasing survival rates for premature infants. Oxygen therapy is commonly used in neonatal units as part of respiratory support. The number of premature infants in our institution surviving with severe (stage ≥3) retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) prompted a review of oxygen therapy as a contributing factor. Prolonged exposure to high concentrations of oxygen may cause irreversible damage to the eyes of very-low-birth-weight preterm infant...

  20. Pathophysiology of Retinopathy of Prematurity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İmren Akkoyun

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP, an ocular disease characterized by onset of vascular abnormalities in the developing retina, is the major cause of visual impairment and blindness in premature neonates. ROP is a complex multifactorial disease that occurs with microvascular degeneration followed by neovascularization which passing through different stages can progress to retinal detachment. Currently used ablative therapies like cryocoagulation and laser photocoagulation for proliferative ROP have limitations, and patients can still have long-term complications despite a successful treatment. Based on the knowledge regarding ROP pathophysiology, new treatment modalities are being developed. First results of intravitreal anti-VEGF therapy using bevacizumab are promising. Furthermore, besides intravitreal anti-VEGF therapy, systemic therapy with mediators like insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1 and/or ω3-fatty acids outlines the pharmacological approach to treatment of ROP. One of the most destructive manifestations of ROP is preretinal neovascularization. As we continue to decipher the underlying pathophysiological cellular mechanisms governing proliferative retinopathy, fostering normal retinal revascularization will open new therapeutic possibilities. All efforts should be focused on developing preventive strategies for ROP in order to avoid the need for nondestructive therapy modalities. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2012; 42: Supplement 63-7

  1. xidative Stress and Retinopathy of Prematurity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ümeyye Taka Aydın

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress plays an important role in the etiology of retinopathy of prematurity. Insufficient antioxidant system and increased oxidative stress in premature infants lead to the development of the disease. Understanding the mechanism of oxidative stress and antioxidant system and the related signaling pathways contribute to the development of novel options for diagnosis and treatment of retinopathy of prematurity. The current review aimed to evaluate the relationship between oxidative stress and retinopathy of prematurity and to create a current notion regarding this issue. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2014; 44: 223-7

  2. Terminal Pregnancy Complicated by Measles and Premature Labor:a Case Report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-chen Zhang; Li Liu; Xiao-li Yang

    2013-01-01

    Measles infection in pregnant women is a very dangerous clinical condition. Patients usually had complicated pneumonia, and virus could pass through the placenta to the fetus and lead to premature delivery, stillbirth, miscarriage and neonatal measles. In this report, one such case, which was diagnosed by clinical signs and symptoms, clinical and laboratory examination was described. After proper therapeutic treatment, the infection was well-controlled and a baby was born by nature labor.

  3. Tough Decisions for Premature Triplets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Ashley; Vergales, Brooke D; Paget-Brown, Alix; Mercurio, Mark; Lantos, John D

    2016-02-01

    When infants are born at the borderline of viability, doctors and parents have to make tough decisions about whether to institute intensive care or provide only palliative care. Often, these decisions are made in moments of profound emotional turmoil, and parents receive different information from different health professionals. Communication can become garbled. It may be difficult to tell when and whether the patient's clinical condition has changed enough so that certain choices that had once been permissible become impermissible. In this "Ethics Rounds," we present a case of triplets born at the borderline of viability. We sought comments from the triplets' parents, the doctors and ethicist who were caring for the infants, and a bioethicist/neonatologist from another hospital. PMID:26738882

  4. Infant Motor Assessment, Long-Term Clinical Outcome, Quantitative Cerebral MRI and Cognitive Training in Children Born Preterm with Very Low Birth Weight

    OpenAIRE

    Grunewaldt, Kristine Hermansen

    2014-01-01

    The preterm birth incidence and survival rates have been increasing over the last few decades due to advances in obstetric care and neonatal treatment. Despite this, the number of preterm children that develop severe neuroimpairments or more subtle difficulties within cognition, attention, behavioral and every day skills are still high. Perinatal brain injury, including diffuse and focal white matter necrosis and grey matter injury is the most common cause of the neuroimpairments in preterm c...

  5. SUPER EARLY PREMATURE BIRTH IN TERMS OF THE NEW STANDARD OF LIVE BIRTH IN THE REPUBLIC OF SAKHA (YAKUTIA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baisheva, N S; Duglas, N I; Pavlova, T Yu; Yakovleva, E B; Rad, Ya G

    2015-01-01

    Premature birth is a serious problem of public health around the world owing to the high frequency of complications and perinatal losses. According to the WHO recommendations by gestation terms the premature birth divides into: super early premature birth (SEPB) in the term of 22-27 weeks, early PB in the term of 28-33 weeks and PB in the term of 34-37 weeks. Preterm born infants make 85%, and in the neonatal mortality structure make more than 55%. It is necessary to consider that in recent years the number of women in the premature birth development risk group has increased, to which patients with a uterus scar, extragenital pathology, supporting reproductive technology treatment pregnancy are related. PMID:26887126

  6. Neurobiology of premature brain injury

    OpenAIRE

    Salmaso, Natalina; Jablonska, Beata; Scafidi, Joseph; Vaccarino, Flora M.; Gallo, Vittorio

    2014-01-01

    Every year in the United States, an estimated 500,000 babies are born preterm (before 37 completed weeks of gestation), and this number is rising, along with the recognition of brain injuries due to preterm delivery. A common underlying pathogenesis appears to be perinatal hypoxia induced by immature lung development, which causes injury to vulnerable neurons and glia. Abnormal growth and maturation of susceptible cell types, particularly neurons and oligodendrocytes, in preterm babies with v...

  7. Why are children born to teen mothers at risk for adverse outcomes in young adulthood? Results from a 20-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffee, S; Caspi, A; Moffitt, T E; Belsky, J; Silva, P

    2001-01-01

    This 20-year longitudinal study showed that the young adult offspring of teen mothers are at risk for a range of adverse outcomes including early school leaving, unemployment, early parenthood, and violent offending. We tested how much the effect of teen childbearing on offspring outcomes could be accounted for by social selection (in which a woman's characteristics that make her an inadequate parent also make her likely to bear children in her teens) versus social influence (in which the consequences of becoming a teen mother also bring harm to her children, apart from any characteristics of her own). The results provided support for both mechanisms. Across outcomes, maternal characteristics and family circumstances together accounted for approximately 39% of the effect of teen childbearing on offspring outcomes. Consistent with a social-selection hypothesis, maternal characteristics accounted for approximately 18% of the effect of teen childbearing on offspring outcomes; consistent with a social-influence hypothesis, family circumstances accounted for 21% of the teen childbearing effect after controlling for maternal characteristics. These results suggest that public policy initiatives should be targeted not only at delaying childbearing in the population but at supporting individual at-risk mothers and their children. PMID:11393652

  8. Higher weight status of only and last-born children. Maternal feeding and child eating behaviors as underlying processes among 4-8 year olds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosli, Rana H; Lumeng, Julie C; Kaciroti, Niko; Peterson, Karen E; Rosenblum, Katherine; Baylin, Ana; Miller, Alison L

    2015-09-01

    Birth order has been associated with childhood obesity. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to examine maternal feeding and child eating behaviors as underlying processes for increased weight status of only children and youngest siblings. Participants included 274 low-income 4-8 year old children and their mothers. The dyads completed a videotaped laboratory mealtime observation. Mothers completed the Caregiver's Feeding Styles Questionnaire and the Children's Eating Behavior Questionnaire. Child weight and height were measured using standardized procedures. Path analysis was used to examine associations of birth order, maternal feeding behavior, child eating behavior, and child overweight/obese status. The association between only child status and greater likelihood of overweight/obesity was fully mediated by higher maternal Verbal Discouragement to eat and lower maternal Praise (all p values youngest sibling status and greater likelihood of overweight/obesity was partially mediated by lower maternal Praise and lower child Food Fussiness (all p values < 0.05). Results provide support for our hypothesis that maternal control and support and child food acceptance are underlying pathways for the association between birth order and weight status. Future findings can help inform family-based programs by guiding family counseling and tailoring of recommendations for family mealtime interactions. PMID:26009204

  9. Evaluation of risk factors of infantile cerebral paralysis development in disabled children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alekseeva G.Yu.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Research object: to detect the influence of qualitative and quantitative factors involved into ICP formation. Material: the research is based on the clinical observation, instrumental diagnostics and 147 disabled children with ICP aged under 4 rehabilitation campaign results analysis. Comparison group was composed from 39 children of similar age who were registered for observation by pediatric polyclinics neurologists and were rehabilitated. Results: 2 algorithms formed as decision trees, that were built using multivariate analysis methods were suggested and can be used in pediatric polyclinics for children with ICP formation threatening detection. Conclusion: the ICP formation can be forecasted in 93% of cases wrt prematurely born children with convulsive and hypertensive-hydrocephalic syndromes in aggregate with periventricular leukomalacia

  10. Certain Cancers Seem Less Likely for Kids of Hispanic Moms Born Outside U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Likely for Kids of Hispanic Moms Born Outside U.S. Analyzing immigrant population can help identify tumor causes, ... 2012. The analysis was limited to children of U.S.-born white, U.S.-born Hispanic, or non-U.S.- ...

  11. Reducing hospital expenditures with the COPE (Creating Opportunities for Parent Empowerment) program for parents and premature infants: an analysis of direct healthcare neonatal intensive care unit costs and savings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnyk, Bernadette Mazurek; Feinstein, Nancy Fischbeck

    2009-01-01

    More than 500,000 premature infants are born in the United States every year. Preterm birth results in a multitude of negative adverse outcomes for children, including extended stays in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), developmental delays, physical and mental health/behavioral problems, increased medical utilization, and poor academic performance. In addition, parents of preterms experience a higher incidence of depression and anxiety disorders along with altered parent-infant interactions and overprotective parenting, which negatively impact their children. The costs associated with preterm birth are exorbitant. In 2005, it is estimated that preterm birth cost the United States $26.2 billion. The purpose of this study was to perform a cost analysis of the Creating Opportunities for Parent Empowerment (COPE) program for parents of premature infants, a manualized educational-behavioral intervention program comprising audiotaped information and an activity workbook that is administered to parents in 4 phases, the first phase commencing 2 to 4 days after admission to the NICU. Findings indicated that the COPE program resulted in cost savings of at least $4864 per infant. In addition to improving parent and child outcomes, routine implementation of COPE in NICUs across the United States could save the healthcare system more than $2 billion per year. PMID:19092521

  12. Anti-VEGF therapy in the management of retinopathy of prematurity: what we learn from representative animal models of oxygen-induced retinopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Wang H

    2016-01-01

    Haibo Wang Department of Ophthalmology, John A Moran Eye Center, The University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USA Abstract: Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) remains a leading cause of childhood blindness, affecting infants born prematurely. ROP is characterized by the onset of delayed physiological retinal vascular development (PRVD) and followed by pathologic neovascularization into the vitreous instead of the retina, called intravitreal neovascularization (IVNV). Therefore, the therapeutic ...

  13. Vesicostomy and Colostomy in a Premature Neonate With Posterior Urethral Valves, Bilateral Dysplastic Kidneys, and High Imperforate Anus: The Challenge of Stoma Placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Melissa; Alnaqi, Amar A A; Braga, Luis H

    2016-07-01

    Although anorectal malformations are often associated with urinary tract abnormalities, the association with posterior urethral valves is exceptionally rare. We report a unique case of a premature (35 gestational weeks) male neonate born with posterior urethral valves, bilateral dysplastic kidneys, and imperforate anus, successfully treated by Blocksom vesicostomy and left upper quadrant loop colostomy. The challenges involving placement of both stomas in a small abdominal wall of a 2200 g premature neonate are discussed. PMID:27015939

  14. Music therapy for improving premature infants' well-being and communication skills and enhancing mother-infant bonding : a case study

    OpenAIRE

    Antonakopoulou, Stefania

    2016-01-01

    Over the last few decades, mother-child attachment has received increasing attention in early intervention with prematurely born infants. In these early years, physical interactions constitute a crucial arena for early learning and brain development, and together with the strong emotional bonding between the mother and her infant, they build the foundation for later interaction relationships. Premature birth is a challenging experience for the mother-infant relationship and is always a risk f...

  15. Study of Congenital Malformation in Neonates Born at Tertiary Care Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaishali J Prajapati, Asruti R Kacha, Khyati M Kakkad, Panchsila B Damor, Abhishek M Nandaniya

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Incidence of congenital malformations was significantly high in still born babies. Factors like prematurity, low birth weight, birth order four or more, liquor abnormalities and maternal age more than 35 years were found to carry higher risk for congenital malformations. Musculoskeletal system was most commonly affected. Congenital talipes equino varus was the commonest malformation."

  16. Nuclear renaissance or premature try

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the economic failure of the 70's and not having been able to solve for decades its multiple problems, the nuclear industry was suffering a slow but inescapable agony. However, the need to reduce CO2 emissions and the likely arrival of the worldwide peak of oil production have infused new life to the nuclear option, and it has again become one of the main topics of discussion in the worldwide energy debate. But in this debate we tend to forget that the causes of the abrupt end of the first nuclear era have not disappeared, and that for this reason it may well be that we are lead to a repetition of the events that induced its first demise. The much talked nuclear renaissance is thus likely to end up as a premature miscarriage. (Author)

  17. 7 CFR 29.2290 - Premature primings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Premature primings. 29.2290 Section 29.2290 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... 21) § 29.2290 Premature primings. Ground leaves harvested before reaching complete growth...

  18. 28 CFR 51.22 - Premature submissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Premature submissions. 51.22 Section 51.22 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PROCEDURES FOR THE ADMINISTRATION OF... § 51.22 Premature submissions. The Attorney General will not consider on the merits: (a) Any...

  19. [Communicating with premature newborns through touch].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berne-Audéoud, Frédérique; Marcus, Leila; Lejeune, Fleur; Gentaz, Edouard; Debillon, Thierry

    2010-01-01

    How does the premature newborn perceive the outside world? The first sense developed by the foetus is touch. Through the physiology of sensoriality and brain maturation, touch can constitute an essential vector in communicating with and caring for the premature child. PMID:20925301

  20. Feeding premature infants after hospital discharge

    OpenAIRE

    Yuen, Doris E

    1998-01-01

    Supplying adequate nutrition to premature infants is an ongoing challenge. Common medical conditions that premature infants develop and therapies given to them can increase their nutritional requirements or interfere with the delivery of nutrients. This article outlines factors to consider when prescribing appropriate diet and nutritional supplements at hospital discharge.

  1. Children’s E-books are Born: How E-books for Children are Leading E-book Development and Redefining the Reading Experience

    OpenAIRE

    Kathleen Schreurs

    2013-01-01

    Children’s e-books waited to emerge until technology could support their advanced requirements. Recent technologies such as colour e-readers and tablets like Apple’s iPad provide support for heavy visual content and opportunities for interactivity. E-books for children have grown in availability and popularity and now include puzzles, games, music, video, and audio features that boost narratives and create a unique reading experience that is further from print than ever before. This article p...

  2. Skewed birth sex ratio and premature mortality in elephants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saragusty, Joseph; Hermes, Robert; Göritz, Frank; Schmitt, Dennis L; Hildebrandt, Thomas B

    2009-10-01

    Sex allocation theories predict equal offspring number of both sexes unless differential investment is required or some competition exists. Left undisturbed, elephants reproduce well and in approximately even numbers in the wild. We report an excess of males are born and substantial juvenile mortality occurs, perinatally, in captivity. Studbook data on captive births (CB, n=487) and premature deaths (PD, 6 months with maternal insufficient milk production, natural hazards and accidents being the main causes. European Asian and Myanmar elephants PD was biased towards males (0.71, P=0.024 and 0.56, P<0.001, respectively). The skewed birth sex ratio and high juvenile mortality hinder efforts to help captive populations become self-sustaining. Efforts should be invested to identify the mechanism behind these trends and seek solutions for them. PMID:19058933

  3. Neuromodulation of Limb Proprioceptive Afferents Decreases Apnea of Prematurity and Accompanying Intermittent Hypoxia and Bradycardia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesavan, Kalpashri; Frank, Paul; Cordero, Daniella M.; Benharash, Peyman; Harper, Ronald M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Apnea of Prematurity (AOP) is common, affecting the majority of infants born at prematurity (ROP), injury to sympathetic ganglia regulating cardiovascular action, impaired pancreatic islet cell and bone development, cerebellar injury, and neurodevelopmental disabilities. Current standard of care for AOP/IH includes prone positioning, positive pressure ventilation, and methylxanthine therapy; these interventions are inadequate, and not optimal for early development. Objective The objective is to support breathing in premature infants by using a simple, non-invasive vibratory device placed over limb proprioceptor fibers, an intervention using the principle that limb movements trigger reflexive facilitation of breathing. Methods Premature infants (23–34 wks gestational age), with clinical evidence of AOP/IH episodes were enrolled 1 week after birth. Caffeine treatment was not a reason for exclusion. Small vibration devices were placed on one hand and one foot and activated in 6 hour ON/OFF sequences for a total of 24 hours. Heart rate, respiratory rate, oxygen saturation (SpO2), and breathing pauses were continuously collected. Results Fewer respiratory pauses occurred during vibration periods, relative to baseline (ppremature neonates, limb proprioceptive stimulation, simulating limb movement, reduces breathing pauses and IH episodes, and lowers the number of bradycardic events that accompany aberrant breathing episodes. This low-cost neuromodulatory procedure has the potential to provide a non-invasive intervention to reduce apnea, bradycardia and intermittent hypoxia in premature neonates. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02641249 PMID:27304988

  4. Abortion, premature delivery, stillborn, and malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since A-bomb disaster in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, genetic effects of A-bomb radiation have been investigated in the offspring of A-bomb survivors. This paper outlines the results of the previous studies in the context of the historical backgrounds. An earlier survey using a cohort of 71,280 children of Hiroshima and Nagasaki A-bomb survivors and a suitable control population of non-exposed 55,870 persons have dealt with the stillborn, neonate death, 9-month-old infant death, malformations at birth and 9 months after birth, and sex ratio in F1 offspring; it was found that there was no significant difference in these items between the exposed and non-exposed groups. The other survey using fetal and neonatal autopsy cases has revealed that the incidence of malformations was significantly higher in children born to A-bomb survivors than those of the control population (18.5% vs 11.0%); however, there was no evidence of genetic abnormalities specific to the group of A-bomb survivors. Until now, no definitive conclusions of the sex ratio at birth have been drawn. Regarding height in F1 offspring, no significant difference existed between the exposed and non-exposed groups. Nor was there significant difference in malformations in F1 and F2 offspring between the group of A-bomb survivors and the suitable control group. (N.K.)

  5. Major Congenital Metabolic Disorders in the First 12 years of Life in 79,100 Consecutively Born Children in Qazvin Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolfazl Movafagh

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveDeficient enzyme activity may cause congenital metabolic defects. These defectsare inherited in an autosomal recessive, autosomal dominant, and X-linkedpatterns. This study was aimed at investigating the occurrence of metabolicdiseases in Qazvin Province.Materials & MethodsThis cross-sectional study was performed on 79,100 children aged 12 years orless between 2000 and 2010. Clinical manifestations, laboratory findings, and allother essential information were assessed to precisely diagnose the metabolicdiseases. The sorted information on congenital metabolic defects of the patients,information included in a checklist, and data were analyzed usnig SPSS.ResultsA total of 57 metabolic disorders were recorded. The difference in the prevalenceof metabolic disorders between male (29 cases and female (28 cases wasnot statistically significant. The most frequent congenital metabolic disorderamong our patients was phenylketonuria (PKU; 5 per 1,000 cases, and the leastcommon disorder was galactosemia (3 per 1,000 cases.ConclusionTimely detection and management of congenital metabolic disorders canhelp save the affected children. Prenatal screening programs, molecular genetherapy, and counseling for consanguineous marriage can play important rolesin reducing the rate of metabolic disorders in this province.

  6. Major Congenital Metabolic Disorders in the First 12 years of Life in 79,100 Consecutively Born Children in Qazvin Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolfazl Movafagh

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveDeficient enzyme activity may cause congenital metabolic defects. These defectsare inherited in an autosomal recessive, autosomal dominant, and X-linkedpatterns. This study was aimed at investigating the occurrence of metabolicdiseases in Qazvin Province.Materials & MethodsThis cross-sectional study was performed on 79,100 children aged 12 years orless between 2000 and 2010. Clinical manifestations, laboratory findings, and allother essential information were assessed to precisely diagnose the metabolicdiseases. The sorted information on congenital metabolic defects of the patients,information included in a checklist, and data were analyzed usnig SPSS.ResultsA total of 57 metabolic disorders were recorded. The difference in the prevalenceof metabolic disorders between male (29 cases and female (28 cases wasnot statistically significant. The most frequent congenital metabolic disorderamong our patients was phenylketonuria (PKU; 5 per 1,000 cases, and the leastcommon disorder was galactosemia (3 per 1,000 cases.ConclusionTimely detection and management of congenital metabolic disorders canhelp save the affected children. Prenatal screening programs, molecular genetherapy, and counseling for consanguineous marriage can play important rolesin reducing the rate of metabolic disorders in this province.Keywords: Congenital metabolic disorders; prevalence; population; Qazvin

  7. Adverse childhood experiences and premature all-cause mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly-Irving, Michelle; Lepage, Benoit; Dedieu, Dominique; Bartley, Mel; Blane, David; Grosclaude, Pascale; Lang, Thierry; Delpierre, Cyrille

    2013-09-01

    Events causing stress responses during sensitive periods of rapid neurological development in childhood may be early determinants of all-cause premature mortality. Using a British birth cohort study of individuals born in 1958, the relationship between adverse childhood experiences (ACE) and mortality≤50 year was examined for men (n=7,816) and women (n=7,405) separately. ACE were measured using prospectively collected reports from parents and the school: no adversities (70%); one adversity (22%), two or more adversities (8%). A Cox regression model was carried out controlling for early life variables and for characteristics at 23 years. In men the risk of death was 57% higher among those who had experienced 2+ ACE compared to those with none (HR 1.57, 95% CI 1.13, 2.18, p=0.007). In women, a graded relationship was observed between ACE and mortality, the risk increasing as ACE accumulated. Women with one ACE had a 66% increased risk of death (HR 1.66, 95% CI 1.19, 2.33, p=0.003) and those with ≥2 ACE had an 80% increased risk (HR 1.80, 95% CI 1.10, 2.95, p=0.020) versus those with no ACE. Given the small impact of adult life style factors on the association between ACE and premature mortality, biological embedding during sensitive periods in early development is a plausible explanatory mechanism. PMID:23887883

  8. Necrotizing Enterocolitis: A dreadful condition of premature babies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Kumar sharma

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available NEC is inflammatory necrosis of intestine with most common site being terminal ileum and ascending colon in preterm babies (1. The condition is typically seen in premature infants, and the timing of its onset is generally inversely proportional to the gestational age of the baby at birth, i.e. The earlier a baby is born, longer is the time of risk for NEC in premature babies. The incidence of NEC is inversely proportional to the gestational age and birth weight (2. Baby have initial symptoms which include feeding intolerance, increased gastric residuals, abdominal distension and bloody stools (3. The laboratory triad includes metabolic acidosis, hyponatremia and thrombocytopenia. Pneumatosis intestinalis is the pathognomonic radiological finding in the NEC. Modified Bell’s staging is used to stage the NEC. Treatment involves Nil per Oral, supportive care, antibiotics, surgery in advanced stages and parenteral nutrition (4,5. Complication of NEC includes mortality, prolonged NICU stay, intestinal strictures, enterocutaneous fistula, intra-abdominal abscess, cholestasis, and short-bowel syndrome (6,7, neurodevelopmental, motor, sensory, and cognitive problems (8,9.

  9. Necrotizing Enterocolitis: A dreadful condition of premature babies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak sharma

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available NEC is inflammatory necrosis of intestine with most common site being terminal ileum and ascending colon in preterm babies (1. The condition is typically seen in premature infants, and the timing of its onset is generally inversely proportional to the gestational age of the baby at birth, i.e. The earlier a baby is born, longer is the time of risk for NEC in premature babies. The incidence of NEC is inversely proportional to the gestational age and birth weight (2. Baby have initial symptoms which include feeding intolerance, increased gastric residuals, abdominal distension and bloody stools (3. The laboratory triad includes metabolic acidosis, hyponatremia and thrombocytopenia. Pneumatosis intestinalis is the pathognomonic radiological finding in the NEC. Modified Bell’s staging is used to stage the NEC. Treatment involves Nil per Oral, supportive care, antibiotics, surgery in advanced stages and parenteral nutrition (4,5. Complication of NEC includes mortality, prolonged NICU stay, intestinal strictures, enterocutaneous fistula, intra-abdominal abscess, cholestasis, and short-bowel syndrome (6,7, neurodevelopmental, motor, sensory, and cognitive problems (8,9.

  10. [Understand the neurodevelopment of language: a necessity to prevent learning disabilities in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charollais, A; Marret, S; Stumpf, M-H; Lemarchand, M; Delaporte, B; Philip, E; Monom-Diverre; Guillois, B; Datin-Dorriere, V; Debillon, T; Simon, M-J; De Barace, C; Pasquet, F; Saliba, E; Zebhib, R

    2013-09-01

    Clinical and radiological knowledge of language development in the former premature infant compared to the newborn allows us to argue for exploration of the sensorimotor co-factors required for proper language development. There are early representations of the maternal language in the infant's visual, auditory, and sensorimotor areas, activated or stabilized by orofacial and articulatory movements. The functional architecture of language is different for vulnerable children such as premature infants. We have already mentioned the impact of early dysfunction of the facial praxis fine motor skills in this population presenting comprehension disorders. A recent meta-analysis confirms the increasing difficulty of understanding between 3 and 12 years, questioning the quality of the initial linguistic processes. A precise analysis of language, referenced from 3 years of age, should be completed by sensorimotor tests to assess possible constraints in automating neurolinguistic foundations. The usual assessment at this age can exclude sensory disturbances and communication and offers guidance and socialization. However, a recent study shows the ineffectiveness of "language-reinforced immersion" at 2 and 3 years in a population of vulnerable children. The LAMOPRESCO study of language and motor skills in the premature infant (National PHRC 2010) has assessed language and sensorimotor skills of preterm-born (speech perception." Early and accurate assessment of language and the patient's constraints should differentiate and specify management strategies for all children, whatever their background and pathologies. PMID:23876442

  11. Medical, nutritional, and dental considerations in children with low birth weight.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connell, Susan

    2009-11-01

    It is estimated that 8 to 26 percent of infants are born with low birth weight (LBW) worldwide. These children are at risk for medical problems in childhood and adulthood and often have poor oral health. The influence of fetal growth on birth weight and its relevance to childhood growth and future adult health is controversial. Evidence now indicates that the postnatal period is a critical time when nutrition may predispose the child to lifelong metabolic disturbance and obesity. Given the lack of consensus on optimum infant nutrition for LBW, premature, and small-for-gestational-age infants, many such infants may be suboptimally managed. This may result in rapid postnatal weight gain and ongoing health problems. The purpose of this review was to summarize medical terminology and issues related to fetal growth, morbidity associated with being born low birth weight, premature, or small for gestational age, and the importance of appropriate nutrition in such infants. Pediatric dentists can play an important role in supporting healthy feeding practices and improving long-term health in these children. Early integrated medical and dental care should be encouraged for all children with low birth weight.

  12. Adiposity in Children Born Small for Gestational Age Is Associated With β-Cell Function, Genetic Variants for Insulin Resistance, and Response to Growth Hormone Treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thankamony, Ajay; Jensen, Rikke Beck; O'Connell, Susan M;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Genetic susceptibility to insulin resistance is associated with lower adiposity in adults. Insulin resistance, and therefore adiposity, may alter sensitivity to GH. We aimed to determine the relationship between adiposity, genetic susceptibility to insulin resistance or insulin...... scores for insulin resistance [GS-InRes]) and insulin secretion (gene scores for insulin secretion [GS-InSec]) were analyzed for their relationships with adiposity. RESULTS: Mean percentage body fat at baseline was low compared to normative data (P = .045) and decreased even further on GH treatment......). CONCLUSIONS: Adiposity in SGA children has favorable effects on GH sensitivity and glucose metabolism. The associations with multiallele scores support a causal role of insulin resistance in linking lesser body fat to reduced sensitivity to exogenous GH....

  13. Health Issues of Premature Babies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prenatal Baby Bathing & Skin Care Breastfeeding Crying & Colic Diapers & Clothing Feeding & Nutrition Preemie Sleep Teething & Tooth Care Toddler Preschool Gradeschool Teen Young Adult Healthy Children > Ages & Stages > Baby > Preemie > Health Issues ...

  14. Patients particularly exposed: first results of two studies on the premature babies and the children/adolescents suffering of cystic fibrosis;Des patients particulierement exposes: premiers resultats de deux etudes sur les prematures et les enfants/adolescents atteints de mucoviscidose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donadieu, J.; Roudier, C.; Pirard, Ph. [Institut de veille sanitaire, Saint-Maurice (France); Jarreau, P.H. [Hopital Cochin, Assistance publique, 75 - Paris (France); Chiron, R. [Centre de Ressources et de Competences de la Mucoviscidose, 34 - Montpellier (France); Maccia, C. [Centre d' Assurance de Qualite des Applications Technologiques dans le Domaine de la Sante, 92 - Bourg-la-Reine (France)

    2006-04-15

    We report two studies that have explored a particular health situation among children. These studies were concerned for one of preterm infants admitted to a neonatal intensive care unit, and for other patients with cystic fibrosis. These studies were limited to a dosimetry evaluation of a existing practice. It is worth noting that such studies are exceptional in literature. They aim to provide a missing information for radiation protection of populations not in good health, but suffering from diseases. (N.C.)

  15. The Foreign-Born Parent Network, 1996-1997.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreign Born Network, 1997

    1997-01-01

    These six issues of a bimonthly newsletter for foreign-born parents of children in United States schools, contain articles on the following topics: the organization's activities; helping children become both bilingual and biliterate; the experience of bilingual parents; fostering links between home and school; the language of discipline; bilingual…

  16. LONG TERM NEURODEVELOPMENTAL OUTCOME IN A COHORT OF PRETERM INFANTS BORN AT GESTATIONAL AGE <32 WEEKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.G. Gatti

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Advances in perinatal care have led to an increase in survival of preterm children but have also increased the risk of long-term sequelae, like neurodevelopmental impairment and behavioral or emotional disturbance. To investigate neurodevelopmental patterns of preterm infants born at S. Maria alle Scotte Hospital, Siena, Italy. 128 babies with gestational age (GA ≤32 weeks were admitted in 2006-2008 to Siena Hospital; 105 infants survived and were followed until three years of age, corrected for prematurity. Neurodevelopmental follow up was performed using Bayley scale of Infant and Toddler Development IIIed that consisted of five scales: Cognitive (CS, Language (LS, Motor (MS, Social-Emotional (SES and Adaptive Behavior Scale (ABS. Intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH was associated with lower motor score (P<0,001. Babies with retinopathy of prematurity (ROP showed a lower score in CS, LS, MS and SES Bayley’s items (respectively p≤0,01; p≤0,05; p≤0,01; p≤0,05. Multiple regression analysis indicated as predictors of neurological outcome: gestational age (GA for poor cognitive (p=0,016, language (p=0,004 and social-emotional development (p<0,0001, IVH for poor motor (p<0,0001 and adaptive behavior development (p<0,0001, twinship for better language (p=0,001 and social-emotional development (p=0,003. Bronchopulmoanry dyspasia (BPD and patent ductus arteriosus (PDA had a negative effect on respectively cognitive development (p=0,049 and social-emotional development (p=0,023. ROP, BPD, IVH, PDA, and GA significantly contributes to poor neurological outcome in preterm infants. BPD and IVH are the best predictors being associated with the lowest scores at Bayley scales. Surprisingly, twinship appeared to be a protective factor.

  17. STUDY REGARDING THE INFLUENCE OF PHYSICAL THERAPY IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE PREMATURE BABY IN IASI - CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hodorcă R. M.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Assessment of the influence of the physical therapy treatment in premature children. Material and methods: The study included 10 preemies born in the city of Iasi, 6 boys and 4 girls who have participated in at least six months of rehabilitation treatment. The method used is a correlative method called "physical development diagnostic " to estimate the relationship between height and weight of a preemie from the age of 1 month. Results and Discussion: Media of the batch comprising boys in the study in terms of height and weight was 2345g and 44.2 cm and they are diagnosed as disharmonic with + weight. Average of the girls lot represented with weight at 2528g and height 45.5 cm resulting harmonic diagnosis with small indices. Average weight of the boys batch was 6988g, while the girls was 8187g. Average height of boys was 59.71 cm and 60.47cm of the girls. Thus the results of the tests from the age of 6 months for both girls and boys have diagnosed the as disharmonic with extra weight. Conclusions: The results of the tests confirmed that infants have a delayed physical development in terms of weight and height even after 6 months of recovery sessions.

  18. Vector-borne Infections

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-04-18

    This podcast discusses emerging vector-borne pathogens, their role as prominent contributors to emerging infectious diseases, how they're spread, and the ineffectiveness of mosquito control methods.  Created: 4/18/2011 by National Center for Emerging Zoonotic and Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 4/27/2011.

  19. Vector-borne diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubler, D J

    2009-08-01

    Vector-borne diseases have been the scourge of man and animals since the beginning of time. Historically, these are the diseases that caused the great plagues such as the 'Black Death' in Europe in the 14th Century and the epidemics of yellow fever that plagued the development of the New World. Others, such as Nagana, contributed to the lack of development in Africa for many years. At the turn of the 20th Century, vector-borne diseases were among the most serious public and animal health problems in the world. For the most part, these diseases were controlled by the middle of the 20th Century through the application of knowledge about their natural history along with the judicious use of DDT (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane) and other residual insecticides to interrupt the transmission cycle between arthropod and vertebrate host. However, this success initiated a period of complacency in the 1960s and 1970s, which resulted in the redirection of resources away from prevention and control of vector-borne diseases. The 1970s was also a time in which there were major changes to public health policy. Global trends, combined with changes in animal husbandry, urbanisation, modern transportation and globalisation, have resulted in a global re-emergence of epidemic vector-borne diseases affecting both humans and animals over the past 30 years. PMID:20128467

  20. Vector-borne Infections

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenberg, Ronald; Ben Beard, C.

    2011-01-01

    Infections with vector-borne pathogens are a major source of emerging diseases. The ability of vectors to bridge spatial and ecologic gaps between animals and humans increases opportunities for emergence. Small adaptations of a pathogen to a vector can have profound effects on the rate of transmission to humans.

  1. Environmental noise exposure, early biological risk and mental health in nine to ten year old children: a cross-sectional field study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stansfeld Stephen A

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous research suggests that children born prematurely or with a low birth weight are more vulnerable to the mental health effects of ambient neighbourhood noise; predominantly road and rail noise, at home. This study used data from the Road Traffic and Aircraft Noise Exposure and Children's Cognition and Health (RANCH study to see if this finding extends to aircraft and road traffic noise at school. Methods Children and their parents from schools around three European airports were selected to represent a range of aircraft and road traffic noise exposure levels. Birth weight and gestation period were merged to create a dichotomous variable assessing 'early biological risk'. Mental health was assessed using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ. Complete data were available for 1900 primary school children. Results Children who were 'at risk' (i.e. low birth weight or premature birth were rated as having more conduct problems and emotional symptoms and poorer overall mental health than children not at risk. However, there was no interaction between aircraft or road traffic noise exposure at school and early biological risk. Conclusions Data from the RANCH study suggests that children with early biological risk are not more vulnerable to the effects of aircraft or road traffic noise at school on mental health than children without this risk; however they are more likely to have mental ill-health.

  2. PSYCHOMOTOR DEVELOPMENT IN PREMATURE INFANTS UNTIL THE END OF THEIR THIRD YEAR OF LIFE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina DUKOVSKA

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Psychomotor development in premature infants has specific characteristics with increased tendency towards neuro-developmental difficulties, such as the fact that certain percent of the developmentally challenged people belongs in this category of children.Many factors contribute to the neuro-developmental difficulties in premature infants. A large number of studies have shown that the birth weight (BW and gestational age (GA have strong correlation with the neuro-developmental outcome.In order to establish the general developmental outcome and the developmental outcome in specific areas of early development, that is the first three years of life in preemies, we have conducted a research on our own population. We conducted a longitudinal study on 20 premature newborns with very low birth weight (VLBW, with a follow-up period from 4 weeks CGA until 36 weeks GA.The research results showed that the largest difference in developmental areas between the group of premature infants with VLBW and the control group is present at the end of the 36th month of life and the general development quotient (GDQ in the premature group was significantly lower during the whole follow-up period, except at the end of month 4 - in different developmental areas. We also concluded that 20% of the premature infants with VLBW have developmental difficulties and severe difficulties in their motor development.

  3. Ernæring til premature barn

    OpenAIRE

    Von Køppen, Karin Helene

    2013-01-01

    Studien konkluderer med at ernæring er et område som er av stor betydning for premature barn. Metoder som NIDCAP har en positiv innvirkning på ernæringsstatusen til premature barn fordi overgangen fra sondeernæring til oral ernæring går lettere. Behovet for norske anbefalinger er nødvendig for å kunne tilby premature barn den optimale omsorgen som gjør at de har det beste utgangspunktet for å overleve utenfor mors liv.

  4. Acute appendicitis in a premature baby

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beluffi, Giampiero; Alberici, Elisa [Department of Radiodiagnosis, Section of Paediatric Radiology, IRCCS Policlinico S. Matteo, Piazzale Golgi 2, 27100 Pavia PV (Italy)

    2002-07-01

    A case of acute appendicitis in a premature baby in whom diagnosis was suggested on plain films of the abdomen is presented. In this baby air in a hollow viscus suspected of being an enlarged appendix was the clue to diagnosis. The diagnostic dilemma of this rare and life-threatening condition in premature babies and newborns is underlined. The relevance of different imaging modalities and of different findings in this age group is discussed. Awareness of this rare condition and possible differential diagnosis in newborns and premature babies is stressed. (orig.)

  5. Acute appendicitis in a premature baby

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A case of acute appendicitis in a premature baby in whom diagnosis was suggested on plain films of the abdomen is presented. In this baby air in a hollow viscus suspected of being an enlarged appendix was the clue to diagnosis. The diagnostic dilemma of this rare and life-threatening condition in premature babies and newborns is underlined. The relevance of different imaging modalities and of different findings in this age group is discussed. Awareness of this rare condition and possible differential diagnosis in newborns and premature babies is stressed. (orig.)

  6. Special Start: A Collaborative Project Designed to Support Premature Babies and Their Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwald, Susan

    2003-01-01

    This article describes how in Alameda County, California, the Children's Hospital Oakland (CHAO) Neonatal Follow-up Program and the County Public Health Department have collaboratively addressed gaps in services for premature infants and their families through the Special Start initiative. Mental health specialists, health specialists, and…

  7. Childhood Nocturnal Enuresis: The Prediction of Premature Withdrawal from Behavioral Conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, William G.; Johnson, J. T.

    1988-01-01

    Predictors of premature withdrawal from a 12-week program of behavioral conditioning for childhood nocturnal enuresis were examined for 47 children (ages 5-14). The function containing number of previous techniques used, presence of child behavior problems, and parent tolerance of enuresis was a significant predictor of early termination of…

  8. Impact of Tactile Stimulation on Neurobehavioral Development of Premature Infants in Assiut City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayed, Atyat Mohammed Hassan; Youssef, Magda Mohamed E.; Hassanein, Farouk El-Sayed; Mobarak, Amal Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To assess impact of tactile stimulation on neurobehavioral development of premature infants in Assiut City. Design: Quasi-experimental research design. Setting: The study was conducted in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit at Assiut University Children Hospital, Assiut General Hospital, Health Insurance Hospital (ElMabarah Hospital) and…

  9. [Premature newborn: a case presentation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor Rodríguez, Jesús David; Pastor Bravo, María Del Mar; López García, Visitación; Cotes Teruel, María Isabel; Mellado, Jesús Eulogio; Cárceles, José Jara

    2010-01-01

    A case is presented of a premature newborn of 27 weeks gestation and weighing 420 grams who was delivered as a result of a maternal pre-eclampsia and retarded intra-uterine growth. During the 125 days of hospitalisation, an individual care plan based on the Virginia Henderson model was devised and applied to both the child and her parents using NANDA diagnostics, interventions according to the NIC classification, and the expected results according to the NOC classification. The Marjory Gordon functional patterns were used for the initial assessment. By applying the pre-term newborn (PTNB) plan, all their needs were provided and were modified throughout the hospital stay, with new needs that were added to the established ones. These required a continuous assessment with the subsequent adapting of the care plan. Likewise, the care required by the parents varied from the initial grief due to the possible loss of their child to learning the alarm signs and the home care that their child would need. The child was finally discharged weighing 2900 grams and with normal neurological and psychomotor development, although with a lower weight appropriate to her age. Currently, at 2 years old, the child has a normal neurological and psychomotor development, but with weight and size lower than the P(3) percentile. She requires speech therapy treatment due to paralysis of the right vocal cord. PMID:20605104

  10. Premature Children Late-onset Metabolic Acidosis Analysis of 89 Cases%早产儿晚发性代谢性酸中毒89例分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝宝生; 王艳

    2013-01-01

    Objective To study the incidence of late metabolic acidosis among premature infant. Method: Summary of clinical data of 89 cases of LMA patients from Mar 2005 to June 2008 and analysis of the gestational age, birth weight and feeding, timing of occurrence, blood gas analysis and treatment result. Results ① The gestational age 2.5kg accounting for 14.49%; ② breastfeeding 8 cases (11.5%), occurred in 2 ~ 3w 36 cases (52.17%); ③blood gas analysis showed that lower pH, BE negative increase, PCO2 normal or slightly lower, PO2 normal; ④short SB oral treatment I excel ent outcomes. Conclusion:The incidence of late metabolic acidosis among premature infant is higher. The smal er the gestational age at birth, lower birth weight, the higher incidence of LMA;Artificial feeding showed higher incidence; clinical symptoms is not typical, Timely blood gas analysis would be helpful for early diagnosis. Treatment is simple and with early intervention, prognosis is good.%目的了解早产儿晚发性代谢性酸中毒的情况。方法总结2005年3月~2008年6月共89例LMA患儿的资料,对LMA发生的出生胎龄、出生体重、喂养方式、发生时间及血气分析及治疗结果进行分析。结果①出生胎龄2.5kg占14.49%;②母乳喂养8例(11.5%),发生时间在2~3w36例(52.17%);③血气分析结果表明,pH值降低,BE负值增大,PCO2正常或稍低,PO2正常;④治疗予短期SB口服,疗效良好。结论早产儿晚发性代谢性酸中毒发生率较高。出生胎龄越小,出生体重越低,发生率越高;人工喂养发生率高;临床表现不典型,及时进行血气分析以早期明确诊断;本病治疗简单,早期积极干预,预后良好。

  11. Therapeutic Efficacy of Recombinant Human Erythropoietin Combined with Oron in the Treatment of Anemia in Premature Children%重组人类促红细胞生成素结合铁剂在早产儿贫血中的防治疗效

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李俊燕

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the therapeutic efficacy of Recombinant Human Erythropoietin combined with Oron in the treatment of anemia in premature children.Method:According to different treatment methods 68 cases of premature infants were randomly selected from January 2014 to January 2015,and were divided into study group and control group,34 cases in each group.The control group was given routine prevention of anemia treatment,the study group was given recombinant human erythropoietin combined with iron therapy,the effects of two groups were compared.Result:PLT,WBC of the study group had no significant differences compared with the control group (P>0.05).RBC,HCT and Hb of the study group compared with the control group,there were statistical difference(P0.05);研究组红细胞(RBC)、红细胞压积(HCT)、血红蛋白(Hb)与对照组比对比,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05);研究组不良反应发生率为17.6%,对照组为50.0%,两组比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论:在临床防治早产儿贫血中,应用重组人类促红细胞生成素结合铁剂治疗,可以降低早产儿贫血发生率,对改善早产儿贫血指标,降低不良反应发生情况,治疗安全性高,防治早产儿贫血发挥积极作用。

  12. Long term refractive and structural outcome following laser treatment for zone 1 aggressive posterior retinopathy of prematurity

    OpenAIRE

    Parag K Shah; Ramakrishnan, Minu; Sadat, Bani; Bachu, Sandeep; V Narendran; Kalpana, N.

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To report the long term refractive, visual and structural outcome post-laser for zone 1 aggressive posterior retinopathy of prematurity (AP-ROP). Materials and Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed of refractive status of premature infants with zone 1 AP-ROP who underwent laser photocoagulation from 2002 to 2007 and followed up till 2013. Once the disease regressed, children were followed up six monthly with detailed examination regarding fixation pattern, ocular motility, nyst...

  13. Long term refractive and structural outcome following laser treatment for zone 1 aggressive posterior retinopathy of prematurity

    OpenAIRE

    Parag K Shah; Minu Ramakrishnan; Bani Sadat; Sandeep Bachu; V Narendran; Kalpana, N.

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To report the long term refractive, visual and structural outcome post-laser for zone 1 aggressive posterior retinopathy of prematurity (AP-ROP). Materials and Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed of refractive status of premature infants with zone 1 AP-ROP who underwent laser photocoagulation from 2002 to 2007 and followed up till 2013. Once the disease regressed, children were followed up six monthly with detailed examination regarding fixation pattern, ocular motility, ...

  14. Clinical and epidemiological study of Retinopathy of Prematurity in Sancti Spíritus. 2005-2010.

    OpenAIRE

    Miriam Rodríguez Rodríguez; Esther Caridad Díaz Guzmán; José Alejandro Concepción Pacheco

    2014-01-01

    A descriptive correlational study with a longitudinal projection was made in the Intensive Perinatal Cares Unit in “Camilo Cienfuegos” Hospital in Sancti Spíritus, including 524 premature children as population, according to the inclusion criteria, from January 2005 to December 2010. The objective was a clinical and epidemiological characterization of retinopathy of prematurity as a preventable cause of blindness in the province. The behavior of the illness was described taking into account s...

  15. Atopic diseases in twins born after assisted reproduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jäderberg, Ida; Thomsen, Simon F; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm; Skytthe, Axel; Backer, Vibeke

    2012-01-01

    Jäderberg I, Thomsen SF, Kyvik KO, Skytthe A, Backer V. Atopic diseases in twins born after assisted reproduction. Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology 2012; 26: 140-145. We examined the risk of atopic diseases in twins born after assisted reproduction. Data on atopic diseases and assisted...... reproduction in 9694 twin pairs, 3-20 years of age, from the Danish Twin Registry were collected via multidisciplinary questionnaires. The risk of atopic diseases in twins born after assisted reproduction was compared with the risk in twins born after spontaneous conception using logistic regression and...... variance components analysis. Children born after assisted reproduction did not have a different risk of atopic outcomes (adjusted odds ratios [95% confidence intervals] for asthma: 0.95 [0.85, 1.07], P = 0.403; hay fever: 1.01 [0.86, 1.18], P = 0.918; and atopic dermatitis: 1.02 [0.81, 1.11], P = 0...

  16. Breastfeeding your ill or premature baby

    OpenAIRE

    Public Health Agency

    2010-01-01

    This booklet provides information about the benefits of breastfeeding for ill or premature babies in intensive care, as well as advice on how to express milk, maintain a good supply of milk and correct storage of breast milk.

  17. Tick-Borne Encephalitis (TBE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Tick-borne Encephalitis (TBE) Note: Javascript is disabled or ... CDC.gov . Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Tick-borne encephalitis, or TBE, is a human viral ...

  18. The Born Rule Dies

    CERN Document Server

    Page, Don N

    2009-01-01

    The Born rule may be stated mathematically as the rule that probabilities in quantum theory are expectation values of a complete orthogonal set of projection operators. This rule works for single laboratory settings in which the observer can distinguish all the different possible outcomes corresponding to the projection operators. However, theories of inflation suggest that the universe may be so large that any laboratory, no matter how precisely it is defined by its internal state, may exist in a large number of very distantly separated copies throughout the vast universe. In this case, no observer within the universe can distinguish all possible outcomes for all copies of the laboratory. Then normalized probabilities for the local outcomes that can be locally distinguished cannot be given by the expectation values of any projection operators. Thus the Born rule dies and must be replaced by another rule for observational probabilities in cosmology. The freedom of what this new rule is to be is the measure pr...

  19. Apnea of prematurity: from cause to treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Jing; Gonzalez, Fernando; Mu, Dezhi

    2011-01-01

    Apnea of prematurity (AOP) is a common problem affecting premature infants, likely secondary to a “physiologic” immaturity of respiratory control that may be exacerbated by neonatal disease. These include altered ventilatory responses to hypoxia, hypercapnia, and altered sleep states, while the roles of gastroesophageal reflux and anemia remain controversial. Standard clinical management of the obstructive subtype of AOP includes prone positioning and continuous positive or nasal intermittent...

  20. An Ecological Model for Premature Infant Feeding

    OpenAIRE

    White-Traut, Rosemary; Norr, Kathleen

    2009-01-01

    Premature infants are at increased risk for poor health, feeding difficulties, and impaired mother-infant interaction leading to developmental delay. Social-environmental risks, such as poverty or minority status, compound these biologic risks, placing premature infants in double jeopardy. Guided by an ecological model, the Hospital-Home Transition: Optimizing Prematures’ Environment (H-HOPE) intervention combines the Auditory, Tactile, Visual, and Vestibular intervention with participatory g...

  1. Intracranial haemorrhage after transport of premature newborns

    OpenAIRE

    Spasojević Slobodan; Stojanović Vesna; Savić Radojica; Doronjski Aleksandra

    2010-01-01

    Intracranial hemorrhage remains an important factor of premature newborns’ morbidity. Its incidence is significantly influenced by adequate perinatal care and safe neonatal transport. Risk factors for the development of intracranial hemorrhage in premature newborns after neonatal transport were analyzed in the retrospective transversal clinical study. Out of 150 study subjects, 60% (n=90/150) had intracranial hemorrhage with a statistically significant difference in relation to Apgar sc...

  2. Retinopathy of Prematurity and Blood Transfusion Protocols

    OpenAIRE

    P Mohagheghi; Khosravi, N.; H Samaii

    2003-01-01

    To determine the role of blood transfusion protocols on retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), a prospective cohort study on 57 premature infants under 1501 grams birth weight was performed. Fourteen day-old infants were divided into two groups randomly. Infants in group 1 (n=27) received packed red blood cell transfusion only if specific medical signs were met and their hematocrit level was under 30%. Infants in group 2 (n=30) received blood transfusion to maintain their hematocrit level > 40%...

  3. Aggressive posterior retinopathy of prematurity classification

    OpenAIRE

    A.V. Tereshchenko,; Yu. A. Belyy; M. S. Tereshchenkova; I. G. Trifanenkova

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Based on dynamic monitoring of 133 premature infants (266 eyes) with aggressive posterior retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), digital retinoscopy and computer morphometry the disease clinical and morphometric features were revealed and systematized, and their consecutive replacement was fixed. As a result the separate classification of aggressive posterior disease was worked up. In aggressive posterior ROP course the next consecutive stages were marked out: subclinical, early ...

  4. Premature infants and neurodevelopmental morbidity Invited Author

    OpenAIRE

    Uysal, Serap

    2010-01-01

    Brain injury in some surviving premature infants increases the risk of nbsp; neurodevelopmental disability including major cognitive and motor deficits Periventricular leukomalacia PVL is the main type of brain injury The cerebral white matter thalamus basal ganglia cerebral cortex brain stem and cerebellum may be nbsp; affected Infants with low birth weight are also in high risk It is difficult to shout a clear clinico pathologic correlations in premature infants has been difficult The neuro...

  5. Hypothermia: Novel Approaches for Premature Infants

    OpenAIRE

    Higgins, Rosemary D.; Shankaran, Seetha

    2011-01-01

    Hypothermia for hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy has recently permeated clinical practice for term infants. Speculation regarding a neuroprotective benefit of hypothermia for premature infants with HIE has been raised as a need for further research. Hypothermia for other indications including necrotizing enterocolitis with the hope of tissue preservation following injury is less well studied. A summary of evidence for hypothermia and premature infants is presented in this brief report.

  6. Protection against hepatitis B by the Butang® recombinant vaccine in newborn children in South Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Paula Isolani

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available The prevention of hepatitis B by vaccination is one of the most efficient tools to avoid the transmission of the virus. This study evaluated the immunogenicity of the national vaccine Butang® in children born in Campo Mourão City, state of Paraná, Brazil, aged 7 to 12 months, by determining the anti-HBsAg antibodies levels after completion of the National Immunization Program Protocol for hepatitis B. All 70 children evaluated by the MEIA method (immune-enzymatic micro particles showed seroconversion to the Butang® vaccine. Nine children (12.9% presented a low response, with anti-HBs titers between 11 and 100 mUI/ml; 39 children (55.7% showed a good response to the vaccine, with titers between 101 and 1000 mUI/ml; and 22 children (31.4% showed antibodies titers higher than 1000 mUI/ml. The mean titer of the anti-HBs antibody titers was 1408.1 ± 2870.26 mUI/ml (15.7 to 19560.0 mUI/ml. The levels of antibodies produced by the prematurely-born children were not statistically different from those found in the newborns. Fifty-five children were also evaluated through the ELFA method (ELISA with a final detection in fluorescence, which presented similar results. The results obtained in our study corroborated the effectiveness of the national vaccine Butang® in newborn children of Campo Mourão City, Paraná, even if they were premature.

  7. Inflammatory and oxidative stress airway markers in premature newborns of hypertensive mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.J. Madoglio

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Although oxidative stress and inflammation are important mechanisms in the pathophysiology of preeclampsia and preterm diseases, their contribution to the respiratory prognosis of premature infants of hypertensive mothers is not known. Our objective was to determine the levels of oxidative stress and inflammation markers in the airways of premature infants born to hypertensive and normotensive mothers, in the first 72 h of life, and to investigate whether they are predictors of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD/death. This was a prospective study with premature infants less than 34 weeks’ gestation on respiratory support who were stratified into 2 groups: 32 premature infants of hypertensive mothers and 41 of normotensive women, with a mean gestational age of 29 weeks. Exclusion criteria were as follows: diabetes mellitus, chorioamnionitis, malformation, congenital infection, and death within 24 h after birth. The outcome of interest was BPD/death. Malondialdehyde (MDA, nitric oxide (NO, and interleukin 8 (IL-8 were measured in airway aspirates from the first and third days of life and did not differ between the groups. Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses were performed. The concentrations of MDA, NO, and IL-8 were not predictors of BPD/death. Premature infants who developed BPD/death had higher levels of IL-8 in the first days of life. The gestational age, mechanical ventilation, and a small size for gestational age were risk factors for BPD/death. In conclusion, the biomarkers evaluated were not increased in premature infants of hypertensive mothers and were not predictors of BPD/death.

  8. Where was Joseph Babinski born?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H A G Teive

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available There is controversy in the neurological literature about where Joseph Babinski was born, including a myth propounded by various important authors that he was born in Lima, Peru. However, according to the most consistent biographical data, he was in fact born in Paris, France, and became a medical celebrity there and in Poland as well as around the world.

  9. Long-term outcomes in children conceived with assisted reproductive technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, E

    2014-10-01

    Over five million children have been born worldwide through assisted reproductive technology (ART) and access to ART treatment is increasing yearly. Investigations of the health, disease, cognitive, developmental and behavioral outcomes in the children conceived with ART are often confounded by parental and other social, environmental and medical factors, including multiplicity, prematurity and low birth weight. Reports of the long-term health and psychosocial adjustment of children conceived with ART show generally good outcomes. Many of the major long-term conditions observed in the children may be associated with multiple gestations, preterm delivery and low birth weight, or with subfertility of the parents. Evidence in the male infants conceived with the aid of intracytoplasmic injection (ICSI) suggests an increased risk of reproductive tract anomalies such as hypospadias. Health-related outcomes of children born after cryopreservation of cleavage stage embryos are reassuring. Currently, our knowledge and understanding of the long-term health risks and/or benefits to the children conceived is incomplete. Measuring long-term outcomes is the first step to improving and optimizing health in the offspring conceived with medical and technological assistance. PMID:25245993

  10. 极低出生体重儿童学龄期的行为适应分析%Analysis of behavioral adjustment in school-aged children born with very low birth weight

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾小璐; 钟敏泉; 岑超群; 邹小兵; 杨杰; 钟向明

    2013-01-01

    [Objective] To evaluate behavioral adjustment and its influential factors among school-aged children born with very low birth weight(VLBW). [Method] The BASICS Behavioral Adjustment Scale was used to investigate 235 very low birth weight children and 396 normal birth weight(NBW) children who studied in mainstream schools, parents of the children completed the questionaire. [Results] A total of 570 out of 631 questionaires were completed, with a response rate of 90. 3%. Scores for VLBW group in dimension of achievement, self-relations, internal state and total scores were significantly higher than those of the NBW group (respectively 3. 06±0. 93,3. 62 ± 0. 88,4. 11 ± 1. 18 and 3. 19 ± 0. 71 vs 2. 29 ± 0. 85,2. 27 ± 0. 78,2. 45 ± 0. 86 and 2. 31 ± 0. 75,P all<0. 05). Multiple regression analysis showed that higer family economics status and main caregiver education level were predictors of better behavioral adjustment among the VLBW group. While those with neonatal intracranial hemorrhage and higer doses of corticosteroid had worse behavioral adjustment.[conclusion] VLBW children have increased behavior problems, early evaluation and intervention is recommended.%[目的]评估极低出生体重(very low birth weight,VLBW)儿童学龄期行为适应状况并探讨相关的影响因素. [方法]采用BASICS行为适应量表对235名就读主流学校的极低出生体重儿童和396名正常出生体重儿童的家长进行问卷调查. [结果]调查的631个家庭中570个家庭完成问卷,应答率90.3%.极低出生体重儿童组成就[(3.06±0.93)分]、自我关系[(3.62±0.88)分]、内在状态[(4.11±1.18)分]得分及行为适应总分[(3.19±0.71)分]高于正常出生体重儿童组,分别为[(2.29±0.85)分],[(2.27±0.78)分],[(2.45±0.86)分]和[(2.31±0.75)分],差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).多元线性回归分析结果显示,家庭收入高、主要管教者受教育程度高的VLBW儿童行为适应较好,新生儿期患颅内出血

  11. O efeito da prematuridade em habilidades locomotoras e de controle de objetos de crianças de primeira infância The effect of prematurity on locomotors and object control skills of toddlers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Maria Coelho Campos

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Prematuridade é um fator de risco biológico para o desenvolvimento motor infantil, mas não tem sido investigada a interação deste risco com o sexo e a especificidade da tarefa. Objetivou-se verificar o efeito da prematuridade no desempenho locomotor e de controle de objetos em crianças de primeira infância. Vinte meninos e quarenta meninas pré-escolares com idade média de 4,5 anos (DP=0,7 formaram os grupos: Prematuro (n = 30; média da idade gestacional = 31,7 semanas, DP = 2,8 e Controle (n = 30; idade gestacional > 37 semanas; as habilidades motoras foram avaliadas pelo TGMD-2. De maneira geral, as crianças prematuras foram capazes de atingir o mesmo nível de desempenho motor grosso quando comparadas com aquelas nascidas a termo. Quando as análises levaram em consideração sexo e especificidade da tarefa, os achados sugeriram que ser uma menina prematura afeta negativamente o desenvolvimento em habilidades motoras de controle de objetos.Prematurity is a biological risk factor for infant motor development and the interaction among this risk with sex and task specificity hasn't been investigated yet. The aim was to verify the effect of prematurity in gross motor performance of children in locomotors and object control skills. Twenty boys and forty girls from preschools, with mean age of 4.5 years (SD = 0.7, were separated into premature group (n = 30, mean gestational age = 31.7 weeks SD = 2.8 and control group (n = 30, gestational age> 37 weeks and their gross motor development was assessed by TGMD-2. In general, premature children were able to achieve the same level of gross motor performance when compared with children born at term. When the analysis took into account sex and task specificity, the findings suggested that being a girl can to affect the early development of the object control motor skills.

  12. The shape of things to come? Obesity prevalence among foreign-born vs. US-born Mexican youth in California

    OpenAIRE

    Buttenheim, Alison M; Pebley, Anne R.; Hsih, Katie; Chung, Chang Y.; Goldman, Noreen

    2012-01-01

    Obesity among the Mexican-origin adult population in the US has been associated with longer stays in the US and with being US- vs. Mexican-born, two proxies for acculturation. This pattern is less clear for Mexican-origin children and young adults: recent evidence suggests that it may be reversed, with foreign-born Mexican youth in the US at higher risk of obesity than their US-born Mexican–American counterparts. The objective of this study is to evaluate the hypothesis that the immigrant adv...

  13. An Evaluation of the Pea Pod System for Assessing Body Composition of Moderately Premature Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsum, Elisabet; Olhager, Elisabeth; Törnqvist, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    (1) BACKGROUND: Assessing the quality of growth in premature infants is important in order to be able to provide them with optimal nutrition. The Pea Pod device, based on air displacement plethysmography, is able to assess body composition of infants. However, this method has not been sufficiently evaluated in premature infants; (2) METHODS: In 14 infants in an age range of 3-7 days, born after 32-35 completed weeks of gestation, body weight, body volume, fat-free mass density (predicted by the Pea Pod software), and total body water (isotope dilution) were assessed. Reference estimates of fat-free mass density and body composition were obtained using a three-component model; (3) RESULTS: Fat-free mass density values, predicted using Pea Pod, were biased but not significantly (p > 0.05) different from reference estimates. Body fat (%), assessed using Pea Pod, was not significantly different from reference estimates. The biological variability of fat-free mass density was 0.55% of the average value (1.0627 g/mL); (4) CONCLUSION: The results indicate that the Pea Pod system is accurate for groups of newborn, moderately premature infants. However, more studies where this system is used for premature infants are needed, and we provide suggestions regarding how to develop this area. PMID:27110820

  14. An Evaluation of the Pea Pod System for Assessing Body Composition of Moderately Premature Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabet Forsum

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available (1 Background: Assessing the quality of growth in premature infants is important in order to be able to provide them with optimal nutrition. The Pea Pod device, based on air displacement plethysmography, is able to assess body composition of infants. However, this method has not been sufficiently evaluated in premature infants; (2 Methods: In 14 infants in an age range of 3–7 days, born after 32–35 completed weeks of gestation, body weight, body volume, fat-free mass density (predicted by the Pea Pod software, and total body water (isotope dilution were assessed. Reference estimates of fat-free mass density and body composition were obtained using a three-component model; (3 Results: Fat-free mass density values, predicted using Pea Pod, were biased but not significantly (p > 0.05 different from reference estimates. Body fat (%, assessed using Pea Pod, was not significantly different from reference estimates. The biological variability of fat-free mass density was 0.55% of the average value (1.0627 g/mL; (4 Conclusion: The results indicate that the Pea Pod system is accurate for groups of newborn, moderately premature infants. However, more studies where this system is used for premature infants are needed, and we provide suggestions regarding how to develop this area.

  15. First-born siblings show better second language skills than later born siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Karin; Troesch, Larissa M; Grob, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    We examined the extent to which three sibling structure variables number of siblings, birth order, and presence of an older sibling at school age are linked to the second language skills of bilingual children. The research questions were tested using an ethnically heterogeneous sample of 1209 bilingual children with German as a second language. Controlling for children's age, sex, nationality, number of children's books at home, family language and parental German language skills, hierarchical regression analyses showed an inverse relationship between the number of siblings and second language skills: the more siblings a child had, the lower was his/her second language proficiency. This relationship was mediated by attendance in early education institutions. Moreover, first-born siblings showed better second language skills than later born siblings. The current study revealed that the resource dilution model, i.e., the decrease in resources for every additional sibling, holds for second language acquisition. Moreover, the results indicate that bilingual children from families with several children benefit from access to early education institutions. PMID:26089806

  16. Birth order and its relationship to depression, anxiety, and self-concept test scores in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, L; Lineberger, M R; Crockett, J; Hubbard, J

    1988-03-01

    Children (N = 404), 7 to 12 years old, were given the Children's Depression Inventory, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children, and the Piers-Harris Self-Concept Scale. First-born children scored significantly lower on depression than second-, third-, fourth-born, and youngest children. First borns showed significantly less trait anxiety than third-born children. First-born children also showed significantly higher levels of self-esteem than second-born and youngest children. Girls in this study showed significantly more trait anxiety than boys. PMID:3373186

  17. Prematures with and without Regressed Retinopathy of Prematurity: Comparison of Long-Term (6-10 Years) Ophthalmological Morbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cats, Bernard P.; Tan, Karel E. W. P.

    Reporting long-term ophthalmologic sequelae among ex-prematures at 6 to 10 years of age, this study compares 42 ex-premature infants who had had regressed forms of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) during the neonatal period with 42 matched non-ROP ex-premature controls at 6 to 10 years of age. Subjects were subdivided into four groups: (1) ROP…

  18. The Impact of Maternal Characteristics on the Moderately Premature Infant: An Antenatal Maternal Transport Clinical Prediction Rule

    OpenAIRE

    Dukhovny, Dmitry; Dukhovny, Stephanie; Pursley, DeWayne; Escobar, Gabriel J.; McCormick, Marie C.; Mao, Wenyang; Zupancic, John AF

    2012-01-01

    Background: Moderately premature infants, defined here as those born between 30 \\(\\frac{0}{7}\\) and 34 \\(\\frac{6}{7}\\) weeks gestation, comprise 3.9% of all births in the United States and 32% of all preterm births. While long-term outcomes for these infants are better than for less mature infants, morbidity and mortality are still substantially increased in comparison to infants born at term. There is an added survival benefit resulting from birth at a tertiary neonatal care center, and alth...

  19. Born-Infeld Cosmologies

    CERN Document Server

    García-Salcedo, R; Garcia-Salcedo, Ricardo; Breton, Nora

    2000-01-01

    We present a model for an inhomogeneous and anisotropic early universe filled with a nonlinear electromagnetic field of Born-Infeld (BI) type. The effects of the BI field are compared with the linear case (Maxwell). Since the curvature invaria nts are well behaved then we conjecture that our model does not present an initial big bang singularity. The existence of the BI field modifies the curvature invariants at t=0 as well as sets bounds on the amplitude of the conformal metric function

  20. Perinatal outcomes in 6,338 singletons born after intrauterine insemination in Denmark, 2007 to 2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malchau, Sara Sofia; Loft, Anne; Henningsen, Anna-Karina Aaris;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study perinatal outcomes in singletons born after intrauterine insemination (IUI) compared with children born after in vitro fertilization (IVF), intracytoplasmic sperm injection, and spontaneous conception (SC), and to assess predictors of poor outcome in singletons born after IUI......, exploring the effect of ovarian stimulation. DESIGN: National cohort study, 2007-2012. SETTING: Danish national registries. PATIENT(S): Four thousand two hundred twenty-eight singletons born after insemination with partner semen (IUI-H) and 1,881 singletons born after insemination with donor semen...