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Sample records for children born premature

  1. Neurosensory outcome of prematurely born children following intracranial hemorrhage

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    Velisavljev-Filipović Gordana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. More and more survival of newborns with small or extremely small body mass at birth, as well as increasing percent of prematurely born babies, have emphasized the significance of intracranial haemorrhage problem. Prematurely born infants are under increased risk for strabismus, amblyopia, blinding and hearing loss. Objective. Establishing the frequency of sensory damages (damage of sight and hearing in prematurely born infants with various degrees of intracranial haemorrhage. Methods. The study is prospective, controlled and included 120 prematurely born infants with diagnosed four different grade intracranial haemorrhage on ultrasonic examination of the central nervous system. The study excluded prematurely born children from twin pregnancies with congenital malformations and stoppage of intrauterine growth. Ophthalmological examination was done at 9, 12, and 36 months of postnatal age. Audilogical examination was done after delivery, at 2 months of age. Results. There are statistically significant differences (p<0.01 related to the presence of strabismus among groups of examinees with vairious hemorrhage degrees. Strabismus was present only in one premature infant with 1st and in 10 children (33.3% with the 4th degree. Amblyopia occurred only among examinees with 4th degree hemorrhage. There were statistically significant differences (p<0.01 related to the finding of transitory otoacoustic emission of the left ear and the right ear among the groups. The finding of the right ear was not usual in 7 examinees from the 4th degree hemorrhage. The finding of the left ear was not usual in 1 examinee from the third and in 7 examinees from the fourth group. Conclusion. Prematurely born children with a higher degree intracranial hemorrhage have a greater risk for the loss of hearing and development of visual handicap.

  2. Behaviour Difficulties and Cognitive Function in Children Born Very Prematurely

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    Bayless, Sarah; Pit-ten Cate, Ineke M.; Stevenson, Jim

    2008-01-01

    Children born very prematurely are at risk of low average IQ and behaviour difficulties throughout childhood and adolescence. Associations among preterm birth, IQ and behaviour have been reported; however, the nature of the relationship among these outcomes is not fully understood. Some studies have proposed that the consequences of preterm birth,…

  3. Behavioral and social development of children born extremely premature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjørn, Barbara Hoff; Hansen, Bo Mølholm; Munck, Hanne

    2004-01-01

    A cohort of extremely prematurely born children and matched term controls was assessed at 5 years of age. The parents completed a questionnaire on their behavioral and social development. The purpose was to illuminate whether the children's general intellectual ability and parental sensitivity were...... associated with behavioral and social development. The index children exhibited more hyperactive behavior and had poorer social skills than the controls. Lower Full Scale IQ (FSIQ) was associated with outward reacting and hyperactive behavior and poorer social skills. Sensitive parenting was associated...... with less outward reacting and less hyperactive behavior. When controlling for differences in FSIQ and parental sensitivity, the index children persisted to have an increased risk of exhibiting hyperactive behavior but not poorer social skills. The index children with normal intellectual development...

  4. Visual and visuocognitive development in children born very prematurely.

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    Atkinson, Janette; Braddick, Oliver

    2007-01-01

    Preterm birth is a risk factor for deficits of neurological and cognitive development. Four cohort studies are reported investigating the effects of very premature birth (development correlated with the severity of brain abnormality observed on structural MRI at and before term, and were sensitive predictors of neurodevelopmental outcome at 2 years. The second study compared VERP measures for orientation-reversal and direction-reversal (DR) stimuli, from 2 to 5 months post-term age, in healthy very premature infants compared to infants born at term. The groups did not differ on the development of OR-VERP responses, but the development of the DR-VERP motion responses was delayed in the premature group despite the absence of any brain damage visible on ultrasound, consistent with the developmental vulnerability we have identified in the dorsal cortical stream. The third study used the Atkinson Battery of Child Development for Examining Functional Vision (ABCDEFV) to assess sensory, perceptual, cognitive and spatial visual functions, together with preschool tests of attention and executive function. The premature group showed delays on these tests in line with severity of observed perinatal brain damage on structural MRI at term age. Deficits on certain spatial tasks (e.g. block-construction copying) and executive function tests (e.g. the detour box task) were apparent even in children with minimal damage apparent on MRI. The fourth study tested a large cohort of 6- to 7-year old children born before 32 weeks gestation, across a wide range of cognitive domains, including new tests of spatial cognition and memory. The premature group as a whole showed significant deficits on both auditory and visual tests of attention and attentional control from the TEA-Ch battery, on tests of location memory, block construction and on many visuocognitive and visuomotor tests. Development was generally relatively normal on language tests and on WPPSI scores. Factor analysis showed

  5. Subjective visual vertical and postural capability in children born prematurely.

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    Maria Pia Bucci

    Full Text Available We compared postural stability and subjective visual vertical performance in a group of very preterm-born children aged 3-4 years and in a group of age-matched full-term children.A platform (from TechnoConcept was used to measure postural control in children. Perception of subjective visual vertical was also recorded with posture while the child had to adjust the vertical in the dark or with visual perturbation. Two other conditions (control conditions were also recorded while the child was on the platform: for a fixation of the vertical bar, and in eyes closed condition.Postural performance was poor in preterm-born children compared to that of age-matched full-term children: the surface area, the length in medio-lateral direction and the mean speed of the center of pressure (CoP were significantly larger in the preterm-born children group (p < 0.04, p < 0.01, and p < 0.04, respectively. Dual task in both groups of children significantly affected postural control. The subjective visual vertical (SVV values were more variable and less precise in preterm-born children.We suggest that poor postural control as well as perception of verticality observed in preterm-born children could be due to immaturity of the cortical processes involved in the motor control and in the treatment of perception and orientation of verticality.

  6. [Extremely prematurely born children's and their parents' need for support

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjorn, B.H.; Madsen, B.M.; Munck, H.

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: During the 1990s, knowledge on the psychosocial consequences of extremely preterm birth was requested. The Danish Paediatric Society therefore launched a prospective longitudinal study of all children born in Denmark in 1994-95 with a gestational age of ... of children and a group of children born at term were assessed at 5 years of age and the parents filled in a questionnaire. Quantitative data were analysed, qualitative data and impressions received through conversations with the parents were considered...... on the basis of a psychological understanding of loss and grief. RESULTS: During the first year of life, index children were more ill and were cared for in the home for a longer time than were reference children. From the 3rd year of life, differences in illness were minimal. Index parents received more...

  7. Cortical Recruitment Patterns in Children Born Prematurely Compared with Control Subjects During a Passive Listening Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Task

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    Ment, Laura R.; Peterson, Bradley S.; Vohr, Betty; Allan, Walter; Schneider, Karen C.; Lacadie, Cheryl; Katz, Karol H.; Maller-Kesselman, Jill; Pugh, Kenneth; Duncan, Charles C.; Makuch, Robert W.; Constable, R. Todd

    2008-01-01

    Objectives To use functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to test the hypothesis that subjects who were born prematurely develop alternative systems for processing language. Study design Subjects who were born prematurely (n = 14; 600-1250 g birthweight) without neonatal brain injury and 10 matched term control subjects were examined with a fMRI passive listening task of language, the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals (CELF) and portions of the Comprehensive Test of Phonological Processing (CTOPP). The fMRI task was evaluated for both phonologic and semantic processing. Results Although there were differences in CELF scores between the subjects born prematurely and control subjects, there were no significant differences in the CTOPP measures in the 2 groups. fMRI studies demonstrated that the groups differentially engaged neural systems known to process language. Children born at term were significantly more likely to activate systems for the semantic processing of language, whereas subjects born prematurely preferentially engaged regions that subserve phonology. Conclusions At 12 years of age, children born prematurely and children born at term activate neural systems for the auditory processing of language differently. Subjects born prematurely engage different networks for phonologic processing; this strategy is associated with phonologic language scores that are similar to those of control subjects. These biologically based developmental strategies may provide the substrate for the improving language skills noted in children who are born prematurely. PMID:17011320

  8. Cerebral Damage May Be the Primary Risk Factor for Visual Impairment in Preschool Children Born Extremely Premature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slidsborg, Carina; Bangsgaard, Regitze; Fledelius, Hans Callø;

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To investigate the importance of cerebral damage and retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) for visual impairment in preschool children born extremely premature and to determine the primary risk factor of the two. METHODS A clinical follow-up study of a Danish national cohort of children bor...

  9. Factors influencing the motor development of prematurely born school-aged children in Brazil.

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    Moreira, Rafaela S; Magalhães, Lívia C; Dourado, Jordana S; Lemos, Stela M A; Alves, Claudia R L

    2014-09-01

    Despite technological advances in neonatology, premature children are still susceptible to disruptions in neurological development. The current study aimed to analyze the factors that influence motor development in prematurely born school-aged children in Brazil. This cross-sectional study involved 100 "apparently normal" children, aged 8-10 years, born at less than 35 weeks of gestation or with birth weightmotor development was assessed using the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (MABC-2). The children's neuropsychological and academic performance was assessed with the Token Test (TT) and Teste de Desempenho Escolar (TDE), respectively. Parents answered questions regarding the child's clinical history and behavior using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) and family environment resources (RAF). Hierarchical multivariate analyses revealed that 39% of the children scored lower on the MABC-2, as compared to that expected for their age (manual dexterity: 49%; balance: 35%; throwing/catching a ball: 26%). Multivariate analysis indicated that the lower the birth weight, the maternal age at childbirth, and the RAF score, the greater was the chance of impairment on the MABC-2 scores. The probability of having an impairment MABC-2 scores was four times higher when the mother was not employed. We also found associations between MABC-2 scores and the tasks of tying shoes and opening/closing zippers and buttons. Factors related to children's home environments and birth weight are associated with deficient motor performance in prematurely born Brazilian school-aged children. Deficient motor skills were also associated with difficulty in performing functional tasks requiring greater manual dexterity.

  10. Processing of intentional and automatic number magnitudes in children born prematurely: evidence from fMRI.

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    Klein, Elise; Moeller, Korbinian; Kiechl-Kohlendorfer, Ursula; Kremser, Christian; Starke, Marc; Cohen Kadosh, Roi; Pupp-Peglow, Ulrike; Schocke, Michael; Kaufmann, Liane

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the neural correlates of intentional and automatic number processing (indexed by number comparison and physical Stroop task, respectively) in 6- and 7-year-old children born prematurely. Behavioral results revealed significant numerical distance and size congruity effects. Imaging results disclosed (1) largely overlapping fronto-parietal activation for intentional and automatic number processing, (2) a frontal to parietal shift of activation upon considering the risk factors gestational age and birth weight, and (3) a task-specific link between math proficiency and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) signal within distinct regions of the parietal lobes-indicating commonalities but also specificities of intentional and automatic number processing.

  11. Parent-Child Interaction Therapy for Children Born Premature: A Case Study and Illustration of Vagal Tone as a Physiological Measure of Treatment Outcome

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    Bagner, Daniel M.; Sheinkopf, Stephen J.; Miller-Loncar, Cynthia L.; Vohr, Betty R.; Hinckley, Matthew; Eyberg, Sheila M.; Lester, Barry M.

    2009-01-01

    Evidence-based psychosocial interventions for externalizing behavior problems in children born premature have not been reported in the literature. This single-case study describes Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT) with a 23-month-old child born at 29 weeks gestation weighing 1,020 grams, who presented with significant externalizing behavior…

  12. Size and Composition of the Lexicon in Prematurely Born Very-Low-Birth-Weight and Full-Term Finnish Children at Two Years of Age

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    Stolt, Suvi; Klippi, Anu; Launonen, Kaisa; Munck, Petriina; Lehtonen, Liisa; Lapinleimu, Helena; Haataja, Leena

    2007-01-01

    This paper focuses on the aspects of the lexicon in 66 prematurely born very-low-birth-weight and 87 full-term Finnish children at 2;0, studied using the Finnish version of the "MacArthur Communicative Developmental Inventory". The groups did not differ in vocabulary size. Furthermore, the female advantage in vocabulary size was not seen…

  13. Determinants and Predictors of School Adaptation and Academic Achievement in Prematurely Born Children.

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    Kalmar, Magda; Varga, Magdolna Estefan

    The study followed up 30 premature Hungarian infants of low birthweight (less than 2500 grams) but no other major perinatal complications. Subjects were tested at age 6 on the Budapest-Binet IQ test, the Goodenough's "Draw a Person" test, the Bender Gestalt test, and a school entry test battery. Test performances at age 6 found that the…

  14. The Social Competence of Children Born Prematurely: Effects of Medical Complications and Parent Behaviors.

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    Landry, Susan H.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Findings suggest that social difficulties that are present as late as three years of age in some low-birthweight children are related to the type and severity of early medical complications. In spite of severe neonatal medical risk, high-risk and low-birthweight children showed many similarities in their social development to low-risk and…

  15. Linguistic Production Abilities of 3-Year-Old Children Born Premature with Low Birth Weight.

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    Craig, Holly K.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Of 30 children with low birth weight, only 4 demonstrated clinically significant language problems at age 3. Language problems were characterized by circumscribed expressive syntax difficulties but were not related systematically to birth weight, gestational age, length of neonatal hospitalization, severity of respiratory illness, socioeconomic…

  16. The study of lipid profile, diet and other cardiovascular risk factors in children born to parents having premature ischemic heart disease

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    M R Savitha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dyslipidemia is a marker for ischemic heart disease (IHD, which can be detected in early childhood and tracks to adulthood. Dyslipidemia, along with factors like diet, obesity and sedentary activity, increases the risk of a child developing IHD in adulthood. Early detection and modification of these risk factors can prevent IHD. Objectives: To study the lipid profile in children born to parents with history of premature IHD and also to study the effect of diet, lifestyle factors, and obesity in the study group. Materials and Methods: Fifty children of parents with premature IHD and 50 control children without any family history of IHD were analyzed for cardiovascular risk factors such as lipid profile, body mass index (BMI and hypertension. The effects of modifiable risk factors like diet and physical activity on lipid profile were analyzed. The correlation between parent and child lipid profile was studied. Results: Mean total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides were significantly higher (P<0.05 in children with family history of IHD as compared to children without family history. There was a positive correlation between lipid levels of parents and their children. Children with elevated BMI, a sedentary lifestyle, and excess oily/junk diet intake showed increased incidence of dyslipidemia (P<0.05. Conclusions: Children of IHD patients have significant incidence of dyslipidemia. The risk factors like BMI, diet and physical activity increase the incidence of dyslipidemia. Therefore, all children of premature IHD patients should be screened for dyslipidemia.

  17. Ultrasound in Detection of Developmental Hip Dysplasia in Premature Born Children

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    Misanovic, Verica; Jonuzi, Fedzat; Maksic-Kovacevic, Hajra; Rahmanovic, Selma

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Developmental hip dysplasia represents the most common deformation of locomotor system in children. Developmental modulation of the hip is expressed during first year of life which is important for early diagnosis and treatment. Therefore, in the practice, it is very important to set a diagnosis early with application of simple and convenient methods (ultrasound) in order to achieve fast and efficient therapeutical effect and avoid permanent disability. Aim: The aim of this pape...

  18. Respostas cardiopulmonares durante o esforço em crianças e adolescentes nascidas prematuras Cardiopulmonary outcomes during stress in children and adolescents born prematurely

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    Josy Davidson

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever as respostas cardiopulmonares durante o esforço em crianças e adolescentes nascidos prematuros. FONTES DE DADOS: Busca nas bases científicas em saúde SciELO, Lilacs e PubMed, utilizando-se os descritores: "pressão arterial", "capacidade física", "cardiovascular", "prematuro", "criança", adolescente", "função pulmonar", nos idiomas inglês e português. Foram selecionados artigos publicados nos últimos 20 anos. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: Crianças e adolescentes com histórico de prematuridade apresentam sinais de obstrução das vias aéreas, menores valores de função pulmonar e de capacidade ao exercício, maior incidência de hipertensão arterial e/ou valores mais elevados da pressão arterial sistólica do que os nascidos a termo. Além disso, há indícios de que as alterações na resistência vascular sistêmica desde os primeiros dias de vida comprometam o desenvolvimento cardiovascular até a idade adulta, predispondo a maiores riscos cardiovasculares. CONCLUSÕES: O esforço físico nos indivíduos nascidos prematuros acarreta respostas cardiopulmonares diferentes dos nascidos a termo, atribuídas a particularidades no desenvolvimento desses sistemas inerentes ao prematuro.OBJECTIVE: To describe cardiopulmonary outcomes during physical stress in prematurely born children and adolescents. DATA SOURCES: Studies were obtained from PubMed, SciELO and Lilacs in Portuguese and in English from the last 20 years. The following key-words were searched: "arterial pressure", "physical capacity", "cardiovascular", "premature", "children", "adolescent" and "pulmonary function". DATA SYNTHESIS: Prematurely born children and adolescents have airway obstruction, worse lung function and exercise capacity, more frequency of hypertension and/or higher systolic arterial pressure than those born at term. Furthermore, studies suggest that these infants have cardiovascular resistance alterations since their first days of life that

  19. A Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study of the Long-term Influences of Early Indomethacin Exposure on Language Processing in the Brains of Prematurely Born Children

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    Ment, Laura R.; Peterson, Bradley S.; Meltzer, Jed A.; Vohr, Betty; Allan, Walter; Katz, Karol H.; Lacadie, Cheryl; Schneider, Karen C.; Duncan, Charles C.; Makuch, Robert W.; Constable, R. Todd

    2008-01-01

    Background Previous studies have demonstrated that indomethacin lowers the incidence and decreases the severity of intraventricular hemorrhage, as well as improves the cognitive outcome, in prematurely born male infants. Objective The purpose of this work was to use functional magnetic resonance imaging to test the hypothesis that neonatal indomethacin treatment would differentially affect brain activation across genders in school-aged, prematurely born children during performance of a language task. Methods Forty-seven prematurely born children (600–1250-g birth weight) and 24 matched term control subjects were evaluated using a functional magnetic resonance imaging passive language task and neurodevelopmental assessments that included the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-III and the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-Revised. Neural activity was assessed during both phonologic and semantic processing in the functional magnetic resonance imaging protocol. Results Neurodevelopmental assessments demonstrated significant differences in full-scale, verbal, and performance intelligence quotient, as well as Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test scores, between the preterm and term control subjects. Rates of perinatal complications did not differ significantly across preterm treatment groups, but male preterm subjects randomly assigned to saline tended to have lower Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-Revised scores than did all of the other preterm groups. During phonological processing, a significant treatment-by-gender effect was demonstrated in 3 brain regions: the left inferior parietal lobule, the left inferior frontal gyrus (Broca's area), and the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Conclusions These data demonstrate a differential effect of indomethacin administration early in postnatal life on the subsequent development of neural systems that subserve language functioning in these male and female preterm infants. PMID:16950986

  20. Alterations in Functional Connectivity for Language in Prematurely Born Adolescents

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    Schafer, Robin J.; Lacadie, Cheryl; Vohr, Betty; Kesler, Shelli R.; Katz, Karol H.; Schneider, Karen C.; Pugh, Kenneth R.; Makuch, Robert W.; Reiss, Allan L.; Constable, R. Todd; Ment, Laura R.

    2009-01-01

    Recent data suggest recovery of language systems but persistent structural abnormalities in the prematurely born. We tested the hypothesis that subjects who were born prematurely develop alternative networks for processing language. Subjects who were born prematurely (n = 22; 600-1250 g birth weight), without neonatal brain injury on neonatal…

  1. Parent behaviors moderate the relationship between neonatal pain and internalizing behaviors at 18 months corrected age in children born very prematurely.

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    Vinall, Jillian; Miller, Steven P; Synnes, Anne R; Grunau, Ruth E

    2013-09-01

    Children born very preterm (≤ 32 weeks gestation) exhibit greater internalizing (anxious/depressed) behaviors compared to term-born peers as early as 2 years corrected age (CA); however, the role of early stress in the etiology of internalizing problems in preterm children remains unknown. Therefore, we examined the relationship between neonatal pain and internalizing behavior at 18 months CA in children born very preterm and examined whether parent behavior and stress moderated this relationship. Participants were 145 children (96 very preterm, 49 full term) assessed at 18 months CA. Neonatal data were obtained from medical and nursing chart review. Neonatal pain was defined as the number of skin-breaking procedures. Cognitive ability was measured with the Bayley Scales of Infant Development II. Parents completed the Parenting Stress Index III, Child Behavior Checklist 1.5-5, and participated in a videotaped play session with their child, which was coded using the Emotional Availability Scale IV. Very preterm children displayed greater Internalizing behaviors compared to full-term control children (P=.02). Parent Sensitivity and Nonhostility moderated the relationship between neonatal pain and Internalizing behavior (all Pneonatal medical confounders, gender, and child cognitive ability (all P>.05). Parent Emotional Availability and stress were not associated with Internalizing behaviors in full-term control children. Positive parent interaction and lower stress appears to ameliorate negative effects of neonatal pain on stress-sensitive behaviors in this vulnerable population.

  2. Evolutional neurologic evaluation of seven year-old children born prematurely Avaliação neurológica evolutiva aos sete anos de idade de crianças nascidas prematuras

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    Lygia Ohiweiler

    1996-09-01

    Full Text Available A sample of 51 children aged 7 with a history of prematurity was compared to 44 age-matched children who were born at term at the HCPA. The premature children had had gestational ages up to 37 weeks and 6 days and were born weighing less than 2500g. The control group consisted of children born with gestational age between 38 and 42 weeks and weights above 2S00g. The evaluation criteria were clinical examination, neurological examination and the evolutional neurological evaluation (ENE. The results pointed out that impulsiveness, aggressiveness, disorganization and enuresis were prevalent symptoms of developmental disturbances in the sample of prematures. Alterations at neurological examination did not discriminate between the two groups, although cerebral palsy occurred only in the proup of prematures. The ENE functions which differentiated the two groups studied were dynamic balance, appendicular and trunk-limb coordination and motor persistence.Para estudar o desenvolvimento neuropsicomotor em amostra de prematuros aos 7 anos de idade, foram avaliadas 51 crianças prematuras e comparadas com 44 a termo. O grupo de prematuros tinha idade gestacional de até 37 semanas e 6 dias e peso de nascimento até 2500g. O grupo controle foi constituído de crianças com idade gestacional entre 38 e 42 semanas e acima de 2500g. Os instrumentos de avaliação utilizados foram os exames clinico, neurológico e neurológico evolutivo (ENE. Os resultados mostraram que impulsividade, agressividade, desorganização e enurese foram sintomas prevalentes nos prematuros. As alterações no exame neurológico não discriminaram os grupos, embora paralisia cerebral só tenha ocorrido nos prematuros. As funções do ENE que distinguiram os grupos foram equilíbrio dinâmico, coordenação tronco-membros e persistência motora, constituindo-se esta no comprometimento dominante nos prematuros e as alterações na coordenação tronco-membros em achado peculiar neste

  3. A possible role of the Infant/Toddler Sensory Profile in screening for autism: a proof-of-concept study in the specific sample of prematurely born children with birth weights <1,500 g

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beranova, Stepanka; Stoklasa, Jan; Dudova, Iva; Markova, Daniela; Kasparova, Martina; Zemankova, Jana; Urbanek, Tomas; Talasek, Tomas; Luukka, Pasi; Hrdlicka, Michal

    2017-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to explore the potential of the Infant/Toddler Sensory Profile (ITSP) as a screening tool for autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in prematurely born children. Methods Parents of 157 children with birth weights tools subsequently underwent clinical examination including the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule. Results We used classification trees to answer the question whether ITSP (or some of its subscales) could be combined with the M-CHAT and/or the CSBS-DP-ITC or its subscales into an effective ASD screening tool. Using the CSBS-DP-ITC, overall score, and the Sensation Seeking subscale of the ITSP, we obtained a screening tool that was able to identify all of the ASD children in our sample (confirmed by cross-validation). The proposed screening tool is scored as follows: 1) if the overall CSBS-DP-ITC value is <45.5, then the screening is positive; 2) if the overall CSBS-DP-ITC value is ≥45.5 and the z-score of the Sensation Seeking subscale of ITSP is ≥1.54, then the screening is positive; 3) otherwise, the screening is negative. Conclusion The use of CSBS-DP-ITC in combination with the Sensation Seeking subscale of the ITSP improved the accuracy of autism screening in preterm children. PMID:28182143

  4. Atypical perceptual narrowing in prematurely born infants is associated with compromised language acquisition at 2 years of age

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    Suominen Kalervo

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Early auditory experiences are a prerequisite for speech and language acquisition. In healthy children, phoneme discrimination abilities improve for native and degrade for unfamiliar, socially irrelevant phoneme contrasts between 6 and 12 months of age as the brain tunes itself to, and specializes in the native spoken language. This process is known as perceptual narrowing, and has been found to predict normal native language acquisition. Prematurely born infants are known to be at an elevated risk for later language problems, but it remains unclear whether these problems relate to early perceptual narrowing. To address this question, we investigated early neurophysiological phoneme discrimination abilities and later language skills in prematurely born infants and in healthy, full-term infants. Results Our follow-up study shows for the first time that perceptual narrowing for non-native phoneme contrasts found in the healthy controls at 12 months was not observed in very prematurely born infants. An electric mismatch response of the brain indicated that whereas full-term infants gradually lost their ability to discriminate non-native phonemes from 6 to 12 months of age, prematurely born infants kept on this ability. Language performance tested at the age of 2 years showed a significant delay in the prematurely born group. Moreover, those infants who did not become specialized in native phonemes at the age of one year, performed worse in the communicative language test (MacArthur Communicative Development Inventories at the age of two years. Thus, decline in sensitivity to non-native phonemes served as a predictor for further language development. Conclusion Our data suggest that detrimental effects of prematurity on language skills are based on the low degree of specialization to native language early in development. Moreover, delayed or atypical perceptual narrowing was associated with slower language acquisition. The

  5. Growth in Small-for-Gestational-Age Preterm-Born Children from 0 to 4 Years : The Role of both Prematurity and SGA Status

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bocca-Tjeertes, Inger F. A.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.; Kerstjens, Jorien M.; de Winter, Andrea F.; Bos, Arend F.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Fullterm small-for-gestational-age children (SGAs) are known for their ability to catch up on growth. Nevertheless, increased risk of growth restriction remains. Evidence on preterm SGA children's growth is lacking. Objective: To determine absolute gains in height and weight, relative gr

  6. 早产低出生体质量儿乳牙萌出和相关影响因素的调查研究%Deciduous tooth eruption time in low birth-weight prematurely born children

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    张锋; 卢东旭; 邓文娇; 李海飞; 江文; 刘寿桃

    2012-01-01

    目的:研究早产低出生体质量儿乳牙初萌时间,并追踪观察早产低出生体质量儿多个时间点乳牙萌出的数目,探索影响乳牙萌出的相关因素.方法:选择早产低出生体质量儿35例和足月出生婴儿71例为对象,定期进行口腔检查并记录牙齿初萌时间、萌出牙位、萌出数目,统计分析孕周、出生体质量、性别、分娩方式、胎数、喂养方式等因素对乳牙萌出有无影响.结果:①两组最早萌出的牙均为下颌乳前牙,足月儿乳牙初萌明显早于早产低出生体质量儿(P<0.05),其中早产低出生体质量儿乳牙初萌年龄平均为出生后8.9个月,足月儿为出生后7个月;②按照牙齿初萌的生理年龄计算,早产低出生体质量儿牙齿初萌为70.4周,而足月儿为67.3周,两组婴儿间无统计学差异(P>0.05);③早产低出生体质量儿在出生后9个月、12个月时牙齿萌出数目明显低于足月儿(P<0.05);④在影响牙齿萌出的相关因素中,孕周、出生体质量与牙齿初萌年龄呈明显负相关,与牙齿萌出数目明显正相关;而喂养方式、性别、分娩方式以及胎数对乳牙萌出时间没有影响.结论:早产低出生体质量儿乳牙初萌明显较足月儿推迟,但以生理年龄计算,两组婴儿牙齿初萌时间无统计学差异.出生体质量与孕周是影响牙齿初萌时间和牙齿萌出数目的相关因素.%AIM: To compare the eruption time of first deciduous tooth in low birth-weight prematurely bom children with normal birth weight full-term born children so as to find out whether the eruption of first deciduous tooth is affected by the birth status. METHODS: Thirty-five low birth weight prematurely born infants and 71 normal birth weight full-term born children were included in this study. Dental examination was performed at 6, 9 and 12 months and all the eruption teeth were recorded. Birth status data was obtained from the medical history of hospital. RESULTS

  7. Prevalence of dental caries in children born prematurely or at full term Prevalência de cárie dentária em crianças nascidas prematuramente e a termo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danuze Batista Lamas Gravina

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of dental caries in 192 children, 96 born prematurely and 96 at full term, in a regional hospital in Brazil. Mean age at clinical examination was 40.72 months in the full-term group (G1 and 30.44 months in the premature group (G2. The children were divided in two age subgroups: 0 to 3 and 4 to 6 years. Statistical results (Student's t and Kruskal-Wallis tests showed that dmft was 0.43 for G1 and 0.01 for G2 in the 0-3 age subgroup, and 1.7 for G1 and 1.1 for G2 in the 4-6 age subgroup. Differences were significant between G1 and G2 only in the 0-3 age subgroup (p = 0.047. Caries evaluation showed that, of the 96 children in G1, 75 were caries free, while in G2, 84 did not have the disease. These differences were not significant (p = 0.088. The lower mean dmft found in the 0-3 age subgroup in G2 may be attributed to routines established by the hospital's neonatology staff, such as frequent dental visits and preventive instructions about oral habits, oral hygiene and diet. After this age, with the completion of the primary dentition, values increased and became similar between the G1 and G2 groups. Results also suggested a highly skewed distribution since most caries were found in only a small number of children.O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a prevalência da cárie dentária em 192 crianças, 96 nascidas prematuramente e 96 a termo, em um hospital regional no Brasil. A média de idade ao exame clínico foi de 40,72 meses e 30,44 meses para os grupos a termo (G1 e prematuro (G2, respectivamente. As crianças foram divididas em faixas etárias de 0 a 3 e 4 a 6 anos. Os resultados estatísticos (testes t de Student e Kruskal-Wallis mostraram que, entre 0 a 3 anos, o ceo-d foi 0,43 para o G1 e 0,01 para o G2. Entre 4 e 6 anos, o ceo-d foi 1,7 e 1,1 para G1 e G2, respectivamente. Os resultados foram significativos entre G1 e G2 apenas na faixa etária entre 0 e 3 anos (p = 0,047. A

  8. Functional and genetic predisposition to rhinovirus lower respiratory tract infections in prematurely born infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drysdale, Simon B.; Alcazar, Mireia; Wilson, Theresa; Smith, Melvyn; Zuckerman, Mark; Hodemaekers, Hennie M.; Janssen, Riny; Bont, Louis; Johnston, Sebastian L.; Greenough, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Term born infants are predisposed to human rhinovirus (HRV) lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) by reduced neonatal lung function and genetic susceptibility. Our aim was to investigate whether prematurely born infants were similarly predisposed to HRV LRTIs or any other viral LRTIs. Infants bo

  9. A Program of Stimulation for Infants Born Prematurely.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, Kathryn

    Examined was the effect of low frequency auditory and kinesthetic stimulation on the sleep behavior of seven premature normal infants. Stimulation consisted of positioning in a rockerbed and exposure to a recorded heartbeat for 15 minutes an hour. Measured were Ss's sleep wakefulness, weight change, and gestational development. Analysis of the…

  10. Respiratory Failure in Premature Babies Born from Multiple Pregnancy

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    S. A. Perepelitsa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to reveal the factors that are responsible for the development of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS and the specific features of its course in preterm twin neonates. Subjects and methods. Twenty-three patients who had had twin pregnancy, including 9 (39.1% and 14 (60% with monochorial and bichorial biamniotic twin pregnancies, respectively, were examined. Their mean age was 28.5±5.4 years. Obstetric and gynecologic histories, conditions at conception, the course of pregnancy, the type of pla-centation, and fetal presentation were considered. The placentas were morphologically examined. In all the patients, pregnancy ended in birth of 46 premature neonates, of them there were 19 (41.3% boys and 27 (58.7% girls. The gestational age of the neonates averaged 31.7±2.3 weeks. The evaluation of the efficiency of performed therapy used clinical assessment of the status of the premature neonates; measurement of partial oxygen tension (pO2 and calculation of alveolar-arterial oxygen gradient (A-a DO2, respiratory index (RI, and oxygenation index (OI; death rates were analyzed. Results. The main cause of respiratory failure (RF was RDS in premature twins. Neonatal blood aspiration-caused pneumonia occurred in one case. The course of RDS was variable. Most neonatal infants needed exogenous surfactant replacement therapy and mechanical ventilation (MV. No signs of RF were present in 7 (15.2% premature neonates. Conclusion. Premature twins are a high RDS risk group. The unfavorable factors that contribute to the development of the disease are multiple pregnancy, a past maternal obstetric history, in-vitro fertilization-induced pregnancy, severe gestosis in the second half of pregnancy, and preterm delivery. The type of placentation affects the fetal status after birth. Fatal outcome occurred in infants from the monochorial bioamniotic twins. In multiple pregnancies, there are pathological changes in the placenta, its membranes, and umbilical

  11. Functional connectivity to a right hemisphere language center in prematurely born adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Eliza H; Hampson, Michelle; Vohr, Betty; Lacadie, Cheryl; Frost, Stephen J; Pugh, Kenneth R; Katz, Karol H; Schneider, Karen C; Makuch, Robert W; Constable, R Todd; Ment, Laura R

    2010-07-15

    Prematurely born children are at increased risk for language deficits at school age and beyond, but the neurobiological basis of these findings remains poorly understood. Thirty-one PT adolescents (600-1250g birth weight) and 36 T controls were evaluated using an fMRI passive language task and neurodevelopmental assessments including: the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-III (WISC-III), the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-Revised (PPVT-R), the Comprehensive Test of Phonological Processing (CTOPP) and the Test of Word Reading Efficiency (TOWRE) at 16years of age. Neural activity was assessed for language processing and the data were evaluated for connectivity and correlations to cognitive outcomes. PT subjects scored significantly lower on all components of the WISC-III (p<0.05) compared to term subjects, but there was no significant difference in PPVT-R scores between the groups. Functional connectivity (fcMRI) between Wernicke's area (left BA 22) and the right supramarginal gyrus (BA 40) was increased in preterm subjects relative to term controls (p=0.03), and the strength of this connection was inversely related to performance on both the PPVT-R (R(2)=0.553, p=0.002), and the verbal comprehension index (R(2)=0.439, p=0.019). Preterm adolescents engage a dorsal right hemisphere region for language at age 16years. Those with the greatest cognitive deficits demonstrate increasing reliance on this alternate pathway.

  12. Prevalence of dental caries and caries-related risk factors in premature and term children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruvinel, Vanessa Resende Nogueira; Gravina, Danuze Batista Lamas; Azevedo, Tatiana Degani Paes Leme; Bezerra, Ana Cristina Barreto; Toledo, Orlando Ayrton de

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated the prevalence of enamel defects and dental caries and their risk factors on primary and permanent dentitions of prematurely-born children and term children. Eighty children were examined, 40 born prematurely (G1) and 40 born term (G2), in the age group between 5 and 10 years. The demographic variables, medical history and oral health behaviors were recorded on a questionnaire. The teeth were examined for presence of deficiencies of the enamel and caries that were registered. The caries were registered, focusing on the indices dmft (decayed, missing, and filled primary teeth) and DMFT (decayed, missing, and filled permanent teeth). The results showed that 75% of the total sample had enamel defects. The logistic regression model showed that other risk factors such as per capita family income, educational level, dietary and hygiene habits, fluoride exposure, trauma, and diseases had no correlation with enamel defects and caries. A smaller value of total DMFT (0.95) was found in the group of premature children in comparison to the term children (2.07) p = 0.0164. There was no difference concerning the permanent dentition between the two groups (p = 0.9926). One concludes that prematurity can't be a predisposing factor for the presence of dental caries.

  13. Prevalence of dental caries and caries-related risk factors in premature and term children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Resende Nogueira Cruvinel

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the prevalence of enamel defects and dental caries and their risk factors on primary and permanent dentitions of prematurely-born children and term children. Eighty children were examined, 40 born prematurely (G1 and 40 born term (G2, in the age group between 5 and 10 years. The demographic variables, medical history and oral health behaviors were recorded on a questionnaire. The teeth were examined for presence of deficiencies of the enamel and caries that were registered. The caries were registered, focusing on the indices dmft (decayed, missing, and filled primary teeth and DMFT (decayed, missing, and filled permanent teeth. The results showed that 75% of the total sample had enamel defects. The logistic regression model showed that other risk factors such as per capita family income, educational level, dietary and hygiene habits, fluoride exposure, trauma, and diseases had no correlation with enamel defects and caries. A smaller value of total DMFT (0.95 was found in the group of premature children in comparison to the term children (2.07 p = 0.0164. There was no difference concerning the permanent dentition between the two groups (p = 0.9926. One concludes that prematurity can't be a predisposing factor for the presence of dental caries.

  14. Literacy Skills of Children Born Preterm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Alison; Crosbie, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    Most children born preterm are considered neurologically normal and free of disability. However in follow-up studies at school age, preterm children, born without major impairment, have been shown to have lower cognitive abilities and associated academic, social and behavioural difficulties. This study investigated the literacy, phonological…

  15. Premature Delivery of Children Born after Assisted Reproductive Technology and Spontaneous Conceptions:A Meta-Analysis of Cohort Study%辅助生殖技术后新生儿早产状况研究的 Meta 分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柏宏伟; 任春娥; 韩海艳; 乔鹏云; 姜俊怡

    2013-01-01

    Objective To compare premature delivery of children who were born after assisted reproductive technology and after natural pregnancy.Methods Searched PubMed,EBSCO,Cochrane Library,China Academic Journal Network Publishing Database ,VIP Data-base for Chinese Technical Periodicals ,and references of the involved studies ,which included premature delivery of infants born after assisted reproductive technology and spontaneous conceptions .Cochrane Collaborations RevMan 5.0 software was used to do data analyses .Results Ninteen studies including 2 453 288 children were involved.Studies showed that the rate of preterm births in ART group was obviously higher than that in the natural pregnancy group (P<0.05).Conclusion Children born after ART may have higher risk of preterm births .There-fore,the pregnant women after assisted reproductive technology should make good antenatal care work and try to avoid premature delivery .%  目的评价辅助生殖技术后新生儿的早产状况。方法计算机检索中国学术期刊网络出版总库,维普中文科技期刊全文数据库,PubMed,EBSCO全文数据库和Cochrane Library等,并辅以手工检索等方式,纳入辅助生殖技术后妊娠和自然妊娠的新生儿早产状况比较的队列研究文献,并用RevMan 5.0软件进行Meta分析。结果共有19个研究文献纳入,新生儿共2453288例。 Meta分析结果表明:辅助生殖技术后新生儿早产发生率高于自然妊娠儿(P<0.05),其OR为2.47,95%CI为(1.87,3.27)。结论辅助生殖技术后新生儿发生早产的风险比自然妊娠儿高。因此,经辅助生殖技术后妊娠的孕妇,应积极做好产前保健工作,尽量避免早产发生。

  16. Comparative study of visual functions in premature pre-school children with and without retinopathy of prematurity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lígia Beatriz Bonotto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Observe whether there are differences in visual functions among premature infants with treated retinopathy of prematurity (ROP in relation to preterm infants with ROP and spontaneous regression; and among these two groups with ROP and the control group without ROP. Methods: Crosssectional observational no blind study. Premature infants were born between 06/199206/2006 and were exam between 06/200912/2010; registered in data of Hospital de Olhos Sandalla Amin Ghanem; with gestational age less than or equal to 32 weeks and 1,599 g born weigh; without ROP and ROP stages II or III, in one of the eyes, with spontaneous regression or with treatment; at least three visits during the selection period at maximum 6 months in the first exam and minimum 4 years of age in reassessment (chronological age were include. Premature that did not respond or were not located for reassessment and those that did not have conditions to do the exams were exclude. Study's groups: G1 ROP posttreatment; G2ROP postspontaneous regression; G3 without ROP (control. Visual function evaluated with visual acuity (VA, contrast sensitivity test (CST, color test (CT, eye movement, stereopsis. Results: Overall, there were 24 premature infants and 48 eyes. Normal VA: 64.28% (G1, 87.5% (G2 and 100% (G3; Normal CST: 66.67% (G1, 100% (G2 and 55.56% (G3; Normal Ishihara CT: 100% (G1 and G2 and 86% (G3; Normal Farnsworth CT: 20% (G1, 75% (G2 and 50% (G3. Normal stereoacuity: 0.00% (G1; 25% (G2 and 3.5% (G3. Strabismus: 37% (G2, 0.00% (G1 and G3. The prevalent tendency for lower response in CST and CT between the premature children in group G3 and Farnsworth color test in G1 is a curious result of this work and more study is necessary about these visual functions in older premature children. Conclusion: The visual functions showed no statistically significant difference among the groups studied.

  17. Communication with parents of a prematurely born infant in the intensive care and therapy unit

    OpenAIRE

    Urbančič, Klaudia

    2015-01-01

    Tri article describes communication in the frames of nursing care between a nurse and parents of a prematurely born infant in the frames of nursing care and health education counseling. Communication is presented as a skill of interpersonal relations which forms a part of certain environments and can be learned through experience. Communication takes place on three levels: professional communication, communication with a client and communication within the organizational unit. In interaction ...

  18. Pathogenesis, Neuroimaging and Management in Children with Cerebral Palsy Born Preterm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoon, Alexander H., Jr.; Faria, Andreia Vasconcellos

    2010-01-01

    With advances in obstetric and perinatal management, the incidence of intraventricular hemorrhage in premature infants has declined, while periventricular leukomalacia remains a significant concern. It is now known that brain injury in children born preterm also involves neuronal-axonal disease in supratentorial and infratentorial structures. The…

  19. Developmental Delay in Moderately Preterm-Born Children with Low Socioeconomic Status : Risks Multiply

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Potijk, Marieke R; Kerstjens, Jorien M; Bos, Arend F; Reijneveld, Sijmen A; de Winter, Andrea F

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess separate and joint effects of low socioeconomic status (SES) and moderate prematurity on preschool developmental delay. Study design Prospective cohort study with a community-based sample of preterm-and term-born children (Longitudinal Preterm Outcome Project). We assessed SES on

  20. MANAGEMENT OF ENDOCRINE DISEASE: Growth and growth hormone therapy in short children born preterm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boguszewski, Margaret Cristina da Silva; Cardoso-Demartini, Adriane de Andre

    2017-03-01

    Approximately 15 million babies are born preterm across the world every year, with less than 37 completed weeks of gestation. Survival rates increased during the last decades with the improvement of neonatal care. With premature birth, babies are deprived of the intense intrauterine growth phase, and postnatal growth failure might occur. Some children born prematurely will remain short at later ages and adult life. The risk of short stature increases if the child is also born small for gestational age. In this review, the effects of being born preterm on childhood growth and adult height and the hormonal abnormalities possibly associated with growth restriction are discussed, followed by a review of current information on growth hormone treatment for those who remain with short stature during infancy and childhood.

  1. Social Perception in Children Born at Very Low Birthweight and Its Relationship with Social/Behavioral Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Kathryn E.; Jakobson, Lorna S.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Research has shown that children born very prematurely are at substantially elevated risk for social and behavioral difficulties similar to those seen in full-term children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Methods: To gain insight into core deficits that may underlie these difficulties, in this study, we assessed the social…

  2. Motor Development of Premature Infants Born between 32 and 34 Weeks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Prins

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about motor development in late preterm born infants. Our objective was to determine long-term outcome of motor skills of infants born between 32 and 34 weeks. All infants were assessed at corrected ages of 3 and 9 months, using the Alberta Infant Motor Scale. At corrected ages of 4 years, the Movement Assessment Battery for Children was done. Seventy infants were seen at 4 years of age (median of 3 assessments per infant. Abnormal assessment at 3 or 9 months of age resulted in normal outcome in almost 80% at 4 years. On the other hand, a normal outcome in the first year of life resulted in an abnormal outcome at 4 years in 10% of the infants. Our results suggest that long-term followup of these late preterm born infants is necessary, as the assessments in the first year do not predict the long-term outcome.

  3. Delayed development of neural language organization in very preterm born children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mürner-Lavanchy, Ines; Steinlin, Maja; Kiefer, Claus; Weisstanner, Christian; Ritter, Barbara Catherine; Perrig, Walter; Everts, Regula

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates neural language organization in very preterm born children compared to control children and examines the relationship between language organization, age, and language performance. Fifty-six preterms and 38 controls (7-12 y) completed a functional magnetic resonance imaging language task. Lateralization and signal change were computed for language-relevant brain regions. Younger preterms showed a bilateral language network whereas older preterms revealed left-sided language organization. No age-related differences in language organization were observed in controls. Results indicate that preterms maintain atypical bilateral language organization longer than term born controls. This might reflect a delay of neural language organization due to very premature birth.

  4. [Dutch Preventive Youth Health Care Service guideline on children born too early and/or too small for gestational age].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Pal, Sylvia M; Heerdink, Nen; Kamphuis, Mascha; Pols, Margreet A

    2014-01-01

    In children who are born prematurely or whose birth weight is too low for gestational age (small for gestational age (SGA)) intensive care and follow up are desirable.However, obstacles include the shared care of children born very preterm (care service (and other professionals) and the identification of possible late onset health problems in children born late preterm (32-37 weeks of gestation). This guideline is multidisciplinary and evidence based and is relevant to all professionals involved in the care of this group of children. The main recommendations are: (a) timely and complete transfer of information after discharge from hospital; (b) structured exchange of information in aftercare; (c) assigning a case manager to each child; (d) monitoring growth and development by adjusting age for preterm birth, and (e) using special growth charts for children born preterm to evaluate growth and development.

  5. Follow-up of children born after intracytoplasmic sperm injection with epididymal and testicular spermatozoa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Yi-hong; DONG Rui-na; SU Ying-chun; LI Jing; ZHANG Ya-jie; SUN Ying-pu

    2013-01-01

    Background To evaluate the safety of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) with epididymal or testicular sperm,this study compared children born after ICSI treatment with epididymal or testicular sperm with children conceived after ICSI with ejaculated sperm.Methods This retrospective study included 317 children born after ICSI with percutaneous epididymal sperm aspiration (PESA),103 children born after ICSI with testicular sperm aspiration (TESA),and a control group of 1008 children born after ICSI with ejaculated sperm.All of the patients received their assisted reproductive treatment in the Reproductive Medicine Center of the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University from January 2004 to December 2011.Data,such as the rate of stillbirths,perinatal mortality,gestational age,birth weight,and the rate of congenital malformations of the three groups,were compared.Results PESA and TESA children were not different from ICSI children in the rate of stillbirths,perinatal mortality,infant mortality rate,gestational age,the rate of prematurity,and the rate of malformations (P>0.05).A slight increase in birth defects was reported in the TESA group compared with those in the control group,but there was no significant difference between the groups (P>0.05).Conclusion ICSI with epididymal or testicular sperm does not lead to more stillbirths or congenital malformations compared with ICSI using ejaculated sperm.

  6. An Influence of Birth Weight, Gestational Age, and Apgar Score on Pattern Visual Evoked Potentials in Children with History of Prematurity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Michalczuk

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The objective of our study was to examine a possible influence of gestational age, birth weight, and Apgar score on amplitudes and latencies of P100 wave in preterm born school-age children. Materials and Methods. We examined the following group of school-age children: 28 with history of prematurity (mean age 10.56 ± 1.66 years and 25 born at term (mean age 11.2 ± 1.94 years. The monocular PVEP was performed in all children. Results. The P100 wave amplitudes and latencies significantly differ between preterm born school-age children and those born at term. There was an essential positive linear correlation of the P100 wave amplitudes with birth weight, gestational age, and Apgar score. There were the negative linear correlations of P100 latencies in 15-minute stimulation from O1 and Oz electrode with Apgar score and O1 and O2 electrode with gestational age. Conclusions. PVEP responses vary in preterm born children in comparison to term. Low birth weight, early gestational age, and poor baseline output seem to be the predicting factors for the developmental rate of a brain function in children with history of prematurity. Further investigations are necessary to determine perinatal factors that can affect the modified visual system function in preterm born children.

  7. Perinatal outcomes in 375 children born after oocyte donation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malchau, Sara S; Loft, Anne; Larsen, Elisabeth C;

    2013-01-01

    To describe perinatal outcomes in children born after oocyte donation (OD) compared with in vitro fertilization (IVF), intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), and spontaneous conception (SC).......To describe perinatal outcomes in children born after oocyte donation (OD) compared with in vitro fertilization (IVF), intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), and spontaneous conception (SC)....

  8. Oral health of children born small for gestational age.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connell, A C

    2010-10-01

    We sought to evaluate the oral health status of children born small for gestational age (SGA). Children now aged 4-8 years who were born SGA (birth weight < -2 SDS) were examined using standardised criteria. The parents completed a structured oral health questionnaire. Twenty females and 25 males, mean age 72.1 months, and mean birth weight 2.1 kg, participated in the study. Poor appetite was a concern; 32 (71%) children snacked between meals and 14 (30%) used carbonated beverages more than 3 times daily. Erosion was present in 9 (20%) children. Dental decay occurred in 22 (47%) children with 92% being untreated. Eight children had more than 5 decayed teeth. It is essential that clinicians working with children born SGA include oral health within the general health surveillance and refer these children for a dental assessment within the first 2 years to support parents in establishing safe feeding patterns for their children.

  9. Gestational age and birth weight in relation to school performance of 10-year-old children: a follow-up study of children born after 32 completed weeks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Ida; Obel, Carsten; Hedegaard, Morten

    2006-01-01

    the children were between 9 and 11 years of age, we gathered information about their school performance (reading, spelling, and arithmetic) from questionnaires completed by the parents and the children's primary school teachers. RESULTS: The association between birth weight and reading, as well as spelling......BACKGROUND: Children born extremely premature (birth weight (children born at term with a normal birth weight. Much less is known about children of higher gestational ages and birth weights. We studied gestational age...... after 32 completed weeks and birth weight in relation to the child's school performance at the age of 10 years. METHODS: We performed a follow-up study of 5319 children born between January 1990 and June 1992. We got the information on birth weight and gestational age from birth registration forms; when...

  10. Linking Assessment and Intervention for Developmental/Functional Outcomes of Premature, Low-Birth-Weight Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yaoying; Filler, John W.

    2005-01-01

    Prematurity and low birth weight (LBW) are two major biological factors that put infants and young children at high risk for developmental delays or disabilities. While survival rates for premature and LBW children have improved, incidence figures have changed little over the past 20 years; in fact, the incidence of LBW has increased. Although the…

  11. Developmental delay at 12 months in children born extremely preterm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lando, Ane; Klamer, Anja; Jonsbo, Finn

    2005-01-01

    , Copenhagen, were interviewed by telephone when their child was 1 y of age, corrected for preterm birth. A fully structured questionnaire on psychomotor function was used (Revised Prescreening Developmental Questionnaire (R-PDQ)). The parents of 30 children born at term without complications were interviewed......AIM: To evaluate the feasibility and validity of a structured telephone interview to assess the development of children born extremely preterm. METHODS: The parents of 88 children born with a gestational age below 28 wk admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) at Rigshospitalet...... for comparison. The interview was conducted by NICU staff. To validate the R-PDQ, parents of 22 children in the preterm group and parents of 19 children in the reference group conducted an Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ) when their children had reached the age of 3-3(1/2) y. RESULTS: The R-PDQ was easy...

  12. Magic moment? Maternal marriage for children born out of wedlock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson-Davis, Christina

    2014-08-01

    To test the existence of the "magic moment" for parental marriage immediately post-birth and to inform policies that preferentially encourage biological over step parent marriage, this study estimates the incidence and stability of maternal marriage for children born out of wedlock. Data came from the National Survey of Family Growth on 5,255 children born non maritally. By age 15, 29 % of children born non maritally experienced a biological-father marriage, and 36 % experienced a stepfather marriage. Stepfather marriages occurred much later in a child's life-one-half occurred after the child turned age 7-and had one-third higher odds of dissolution. Children born to black mothers had qualitatively different maternal marriage experiences than children born to white or Hispanic mothers, with less biological-parent marriage and higher incidences of divorce. Findings support the existence of the magic moment and demonstrate that biological marriages were more enduring than stepfather marriages. Yet relatively few children born out of wedlock experienced stable, biological-parent marriages as envisioned by marriage promotion programs.

  13. Osteopenia - premature infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neonatal rickets; Brittle bones - premature infants; Weak bones - premature infants; Osteopenia of prematurity ... that are born full-term. A lack of vitamin D may also lead to osteopenia in infants. ...

  14. The agreement between two screening tests for language evaluation in premature and low weight children

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    Paulo Roberto Bezerra de Mello

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives: to evaluate the agreement of the results in two screening tests on children's development - Denver II and Early Language Milestone Scale (ELM aged two to three years old, born prematurely and with low weight. Methods: two screening instruments: Denver II and ELM were applied for the development in an observational cross-sectional descriptive study. The agreement between Denver II Test and its language sector and ELM were assessed by Kappa coefficient. Results: 77 children evaluated, 36.3% had an overall loss of the development performed by Denver II and 32.5% loss of the language by ELM. The agreement between the results of Denver II test considering all sectors versus ELM showed Kappa coefficient of 0.856 (p<0.001 and considering only the language sector of Denver II versus ELM, the Kappa coefficient was 0.886 (p<0.001. Conclusions: the developmental impairment observed in the children studied by assessing Denver II and through its language sector showed agreement with changes in the language abilities observed in ELM.

  15. Mode of delivery and neurosonographic findings in premature infants

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    Velisavljev-Filipović Gordana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Fetal and preterm infant brain is especially vulnerable to hemorrhagic and ischemic damage at the end of the second and at the beginning of the third trimester. This is due to vascular, cellular and anatomic characteristics of the brain during development. In premature babies, there is a physiological instability and limited autoregulation of cerebral circulation. Hemorrhagic and ischemic damages often occur together, though pathophysiological processes leading to lesions are different. Material and methods The paper deals with a detailed analysis of 860 ultrasound brain scans of prematurely born children. The examinations were performed at the Ultrasound Department of the Institute of Child and Youth Health Care in Novi Sad. 707 vaginally born premature infants and 153 premature infants born by Cesarean section were examined. The bleeding was graded according to the Papile classification. Results and Discussion Out of 384 children with diagnosed grade I hemorrhage, 75 premature infants (19.5% were born by Cesarean section. In the group of children with grade II hemorrhage, operative deliveries account for 14.7%. From the total of 85 children with grade III hemorrhage, (intraventricular bleeding with chamber dilatation, only 6 premature infants were born by Cesarean section (7%. Intra-parenchymal bleeding was diagnosed in a very small number of premature infants; 0.32% of all diagnosed hemorrhages were grade IV hemorrhages. In this group there were no children born by Cesarean section. The increase of hemorrhage grade is accompanied by a greater rate of pelvic presentation and manual assistance by Bracht. There were 240 prematurely born children with no echosonographically diagnosed hemorrhage, 38% of all examined premature infants. From this number, 13.3% of neonates were born by Cesarean section. Conclusion In the etiology of neonatal intracranial hemorrhage, especially prematurely born ones, apart from the trauma, which plays a

  16. Factors Affecting the IQ of Preterm Born Children of 4-6 Years Old

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    Shokofeh Radfar

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: This research was carry out with aim of study of factors affecting the IQ of children 4-6 years old born preterm. Materials and Methods: This analytical-cross sectional study was carried out on 102 premature children with age 4-6 years old during years 2004 to 2006. The tools used in this study were Wechsler intelligence scale for children and questioner including demographical characteristic. In this study we used t-test and spearman correlation and also SPSS-18 was used to analyze data. Results: In this study there was statistical relationship between normal child development and gestational age, birth weight, maternal education, multiple pregnancies, but there were not any statistical significant relationship between the history of preterm birth and child s gender, consanguinity parents, apgar, mother job. Conclusion: IQ in preterm babies who admitted in the NICU was lower than non-admitted preterm or term babies.

  17. Estimation of health indicators of children born by means of application of reproductive technologies

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    Chernenkov Yu.V.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To examine health of children born by means of ART according to Perinatal Center of Saratov region for the last 2 years. Material and Methods: 70 pregnant women and 96 newborns with the use of ART were under examination. The causes of premature birth by women with ART, high degree of disease incidence among newborns and mortinatality are considered (рассматриваются in the article. Results: The important factors of amnionic membranes breaking are distinguished: maternal age, multifetation, genital and extragenital pathology, antenatal infections and fetation anomaly. Highly premature babies cause not only high neonatal disease rate and disability, but also are key element in procreational loses. Women with congelated embryo transfer less often experience premature birth, also disease rate and neurologic abnormalities are less frequent. Two and more embryo transfer more often leads to habitual miscarriage. Conclusion: Mothers-to-children health indicators after using ART demonstrate the necessity of prenatal diagnostics improvement and taking measures in monitoring such women and newborns. High quality preimplantation preparation plays a major role in fetus pathology reduction. Prescriptions and counter indications to this procedure should be thoroughly evaluated; no more than 1-2 ova should be transferred.

  18. Altered Gray Matter Volume and School Age Anxiety in Children Born Late Preterm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Cynthia E; Barch, Deanna M; Sylvester, Chad M; Pagliaccio, David; Harms, Michael P; Botteron, Kelly N; Luby, Joan L

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To determine if late preterm (LP) children differ from full term (FT) children in volumes of the cortex, hippocampus, corpus callosum, or amygdala and whether these differences are associated with anxiety symptoms at school-age. Study design LP children born between 34 and 36 weeks gestation and FT children born between 39 and 41 weeks gestation from a larger longitudinal cohort had MRI scans at school-age. Brain volumes, cortical surface area and thickness measures were obtained. Anxiety symptoms were assessed using a structured diagnostic interview annually beginning at preschool-age and following the MRI. Results LP children (n=21) had a smaller percentage of total, right parietal, and right temporal lobe gray matter volume than FT children (n=87). There were no differences in hippocampal, callosal, or amygdala volumes or cortical thickness. LP children also had a relative decrease in right parietal lobe cortical surface area. LP children had greater anxiety symptoms over all assessments. The relationship between late prematurity and school-age anxiety symptoms was mediated by the relative decrease in right temporal lobe volume. Conclusion LP children, comprising 70% of preterm children, are also at increased risk for altered brain development particularly in the right temporal and parietal cortices. Alterations in the right temporal lobe cortical volume may underlie the increased rate of anxiety symptoms among these LP children. These findings suggest that LP delivery may disrupt temporal and parietal cortical development that persists until school-age with the right temporal lobe conferring risk for elevated anxiety symptoms. PMID:25108541

  19. The Development of Effortful Control in Children Born Preterm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poehlmann, Julie; Schwichtenberg, A. J. Miller; Shah, Prachi E.; Shlafer, Rebecca J.; Hahn, Emily; Maleck, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    This prospective longitudinal study examined emerging effortful control skills at 24- and 36-months postterm in 172 children born preterm (less than 36 weeks gestation). Infant (neonatal health risks), family (sociodemographic risks), and maternal risk factors (depressive symptoms, anger expressions during play interactions) were assessed at six…

  20. Maternal and Paternal Perception of Child Vulnerability and Behaviour Problems in Very Preterm Born Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Potharst, E.S.; Houtzager, B.A.; Wassenaar-Leemhuis, A.G.; Kok, J.H.; Koot, H.M.; Last, B.F.

    2015-01-01

    Preterm born children have more behaviour problems than term born children. Perinatal risks, current child functioning, sociodemographic characteristics, parental psychological distress and parental perceptions of child vulnerability (PCV) have been shown to be risk factors for behaviour problems. H

  1. Neonatal outcome and congenital malformations in children born after ICSI with testicular or epididymal sperm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fedder, Jens; Loft, A; Parner, Erik Thorlund;

    2013-01-01

    Does neonatal outcome including congenital malformations in children born after ICSI with epididymal and testicular sperm [testicular sperm extraction (TESE)/percutaneous epididymal sperm aspiration (PESA)/testicular sperm aspiration (TESA) (TPT)] differ from neonatal outcome in children born after...

  2. Reading, Mathematics and Fine Motor Skills at 5 Years of Age in US Children who were Extremely Premature at Birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Miryoung; Pascoe, John M; McNicholas, Caroline I

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The prevalence of extreme prematurity at birth has increased, but little research has examined its impact on developmental outcomes in large representative samples within the United States. This study examined the association of extreme prematurity with kindergarteners' reading skills, mathematics skills and fine motor skills. Methods The early childhood longitudinal study-birth cohort, a representative sample of the US children born in 2001 was analyzed for this study. Early reading and mathematics skills and fine motor skills were compared among 200 extremely premature children (EPC) (gestational age sampling weights, children's age, race, sex, and general health status, and parental marital status and education among singleton children. Results At age 5 years, EPC were 2.6(95 % CI 1.7-3.8) times more likely to fail build a gate and were 3.1(95 % CI 1.6-5.8) times more likely to fail all four drawing tasks compared to TC (p values gate, 1.3[95 % CI 1.0-1.7]; failed to draw all four shapes, 1.1[95 % CI 0.8-1.6]) was not significantly different from TC. Mean early reading scale score (36.8[SE:1.3]) of EPC was 4.0 points lower than TC (p value sample of infants, the biological risk of extreme prematurity persists after adjusting for other factors related to development.

  3. Local and global aspects of biological motion perception in children born at very low birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, K E; Jakobson, L S; Saunders, D R; Troje, N F

    2015-01-01

    Biological motion perception can be assessed using a variety of tasks. In the present study, 8- to 11-year-old children born prematurely at very low birth weight (body structure, and the ability to carry out higher order processes required for action recognition and person identification. Preterm children exhibited difficulties in all 4 aspects of biological motion perception. However, intercorrelations between test scores were weak in both full-term and preterm children--a finding that supports the view that these processes are relatively independent. Preterm children also displayed more autistic-like traits than full-term peers. In preterm (but not full-term) children, these traits were negatively correlated with performance in the task requiring structure-from-motion processing, r(30) = -.36, p children and suggest that a core deficit in social perception/cognition may contribute to the development of the social and behavioral difficulties even in members of this population who are functioning within the normal range intellectually. The results could inform the development of screening, diagnostic, and intervention tools.

  4. School functioning in 8- to 18-year-old children born after in vitro fertilization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagenaar, Karin; Ceelen, Manon; Weissenbruch, van Mirjam; Knol, Dirk; Delemarre-van de Waal, Henriette; Huisman, Jaap

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the school functioning of 8- to 18-year-old children born after in vitro fertilization (IVF). We compared 233 children born after IVF to 233 matched control children born spontaneously from parents with fertility problems on measures of education level, general c

  5. Premature infants' health at multiple induced pregnancy.

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    Chernenkov Yu.V.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to define the risk factors adversely influencing prenatal development at premature birth at use of methods of assisted reproductive technology (ART; to estimate premature' infants health from multiple induced pregnancy according to Perinatal Center of Saratov for last 3 years. Material and Methods. Under supervision there were 139 pregnant women with application ART. 202 children (51 twins were born and 5 triplet babies, from them 83 premature infants born from multiple induced pregnancy have been analyzed. Results. The newborns examined by method ART, were distributed as follows: 22-28 weeks — 19 children; 29-32 weeks — 23; 33-36 weeks — 41. Asphyxia at birth was marked at all premature infants. Respiratory insufficiency at birth is revealed in 87,3% of cases. The most frequent pathologies in premature infants are revealed: neurologic infringements and bronchopulmonary pathology occured at all children, developmental anomaly — 33, 8%, retinopathies in premature infants — 26,5%. The mortality causes include: extreme immaturity, cerebral leukomalacia, IVN 3 degrees. Conclusion. The risk factors, premature birth at application of methods ART are revealed: aged primiparas, pharmacological influence, absence of physiological conditions of prenatal development; multifetation. The high percent of birth of children with ELBW and ULBW is revealed. RDCN with further BPD development, retinopathies in premature infants and CNS defeat is more often occured.

  6. Prevalence of enamel defects and associated risk factors in both dentitions in preterm and full term born children

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    Vanessa Resende Nogueira Cruvinel

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of enamel defects and their risk factors on primary and permanent dentitions of prematurely born children and full-term born children born at Regional Hospital of Asa Sul, Brasília, DF, Brazil. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Eighty 5-10-year-old children of both genders were examined, being 40 born prematurely (G1 and 40 born full term (G2. The demographic variables, medical history and oral health behaviors were retrieved using a questionnaire and data obtained from clinical examination were recorded. The teeth were examined and the presence of enamel defects was diagnosed according to the DDE Index and registered in odontograms. Subsequently, the defects were categorized in four groups according to one of the criteria proposed in 1992 by the FDI Commission on Oral Health, Research and Epidemiology. Kruskal-Wallis, Chi-square, Kappa, Mann-Whitney tests and logistic regression were used for statistical analysis. RESULTS: 75% of total sample had enamel defects. There was a major prevalence of hypoplasia of the enamel in G1 (p<0.001. There was a significant relationship between low weight and presence of the imperfections on the enamel in G1 on the primary dentition. The logistic regression model showed that the other risk factors such as monthly per capita family income, educational level, dietary and hygiene habits, fluoride exposure, trauma, and diseases were not associated with enamel defects and caries. CONCLUSIONS: Pre-term labor can be a predisposing factor for the presence of the enamel hypoplasia in the primary dentition.

  7. Latin American Consensus: Children Born Small for Gestational Age

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    Blanco Armando

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Children born small for gestational age (SGA experience higher rates of morbidity and mortality than those born appropriate for gestational age. In Latin America, identification and optimal management of children born SGA is a critical issue. Leading experts in pediatric endocrinology throughout Latin America established working groups in order to discuss key challenges regarding the evaluation and management of children born SGA and ultimately develop a consensus statement. Discussion SGA is defined as a birth weight and/or birth length greater than 2 standard deviations (SD below the population reference mean for gestational age. SGA refers to body size and implies length-weight reference data in a geographical population whose ethnicity is known and specific to this group. Ideally, each country/region within Latin America should establish its own standards and make relevant updates. SGA children should be evaluated with standardized measures by trained personnel every 3 months during year 1 and every 6 months during year 2. Those without catch-up growth within the first 6 months of life need further evaluation, as do children whose weight is ≤ -2 SD at age 2 years. Growth hormone treatment can begin in SGA children > 2 years with short stature ( 14 years for girls and > 16 years for boys is reached. Blood glucose, thyroid function, HbA1c, and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1 should be monitored once a year. Monitoring insulin changes from baseline and surrogates of insulin sensitivity is essential. Reduced fetal growth followed by excessive postnatal catch-up in height, and particularly in weight, should be closely monitored. In both sexes, gonadal function should be monitored especially during puberty. Summary Children born SGA should be carefully followed by a multidisciplinary group that includes perinatologists, pediatricians, nutritionists, and pediatric endocrinologists since 10% to 15% will continue to have

  8. Medical problems of foreign-born adopted children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenista, J A; Chapman, D

    1987-03-01

    Over 8000 foreign-born children, almost all from third-world countries, are adopted by citizens of the United States each year. Most primary care practitioners do not have enough experience to evaluate and manage their problems efficiently. We reviewed the medical care of the foreign-born adoptees followed up in a single pediatric group practice. The 128 children arrived from one of eight countries in Asia or Latin America at ages ranging from 1 month to 10 years; 57% were female. The median duration of follow-up was 20 months. The most common problems identified included deficient immunizations (37%), intestinal parasites (29%), emotional or behavioral problems (22%), skin diseases (16%), estimated age (12%), scabies and/or lice (10%), and congenital anomales (10%). Twenty-one other classes of problems were identified, including developmental delay, lactose intolerance, vision and hearing deficits, and chronic hepatitis B carrier status. At arrival or within one month, 49% of the children had acute infectious diseases, including upper respiratory tract infection, otitis media, rubeola, varicella, and mumps. Nineteen percent of the children underwent surgical procedures ranging from circumcision to cleft lip-palate repair; 46% of these children were never screened for hepatitis B. Fourteen percent were hospitalized at least once, 5% within the first month after arrival. We developed a simple protocol to screen foreign-born adopted children, allowing rapid identification of treatable problems at the least cost and inconvenience to the family. Thirty-six percent of the families made at least one preadoption visit, permitting an explanation of the protocol and potential problems before the child's arrival.

  9. Cancer in children and young adults born after assisted reproductive technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundh, Karin Jerhamre; Henningsen, Anna-Karina A; Källen, Karin

    2014-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: Do children and young adults born after assisted reproductive technology (ART) have an increased risk of cancer? SUMMARY ANSWER: Children born after ART showed no overall increase in the rate of cancer when compared with children born as a result of spontaneous conception. WHAT...... IS KNOWN ALREADY: Children born after ART have more adverse perinatal outcomes, i.e. preterm births, low birthweights and birth defects. Previous studies have shown divergent results regarding the risk of cancer among children born after ART. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: A retrospective Nordic population......-based cohort study was performed, comprising all children born after ART in Sweden, Denmark, Finland and Norway between 1982 and 2007. The mean (±standard deviation) follow-up time was 9.5 (4.8) years. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS: Children born after ART (n = 91 796) were compared with a control...

  10. (Unreceptiveness in interactions with professionals: experiences of parents of children with retinopathy of prematurity

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    Beatriz Castanheira Facio

    Full Text Available Abstract OBJECTIVE To analyze the influence of health professionals' receptiveness on parental care of children with retinopathy of prematurity (ROP. METHOD A qualitative study developed under the theoretical framework of Symbolic Interactionism and using a narrative research methodology. Six women and three men, being parents of children with retinopathy of prematurity were individually interviewed in depth. RESULTS From the scope of information, emotions and their rights, the parents experienced receptiveness from some professionals and unreceptiveness from others. The predominance of unreceptive attitudes in the parental narratives originated the following analysis themes: Informational (unreceptiveness, Emotional (unreceptiveness, and (Unreceptiveness of rights. CONCLUSION The study supports human and comprehensive healthcare in the context of retinopathy of prematurity by pointing out the interactive process with health professionals as a potential stressor of parental care. The results signal a nuclear of attitudinal changes and reinforce challenges to the child and family-centered approach.

  11. Food-borne bacteremic illnesses in febrile neutropenic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Anselm Chi-Wai; Siao-Ping Ong, Nellie Dawn

    2011-08-31

    Bacteremia following febrile neutropenia is a serious complication in children with malignancies. Preventive measures are currently targeted at antimicrobial prophylaxis, amelioration of drug-induced neutropenia, and nosocomial spread of pathogens, with little attention to community-acquired infections. A retrospective study was conducted at a pediatric oncology center during a 3-year period to identify probable cases of food-borne infections with bacteremia. Twenty-one bacteremic illnesses affecting 15 children receiving chemotherapy or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation were reviewed. Three (14%) episodes were highly suspected of a food-borne origin: a 17-year-old boy with osteosarcoma contracted Sphingomonas paucimobilis septicemia after consuming nasi lemak bought from a street hawker; a 2-year-old boy with acute lymphoblastic leukemia developed Chryseobacterium meningosepticum septicemia after a sushi dinner; a 2-year-old girl was diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukemia and Lactobacillus bacteremia suspected to be of probiotic origin. All of them were neutropenic at the time of the infections and the bacteremias were cleared with antibiotic treatment. Food-borne sepsis may be an important, but readily preventable, cause of bloodstream infections in pediatric oncology patients, especially in tropical countries with an abundance of culinary outlets.

  12. Food-borne bacteremic illnesses in febrile neutropenic children

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    Anselm Chi-wai Lee

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Bacteremia following febrile neutropenia is a serious complication in children with malignancies. Preventive measures are currently targeted at antimicrobial prophylaxis, amelioration of drug-induced neutropenia, and nosocomial spread of pathogens, with little attention to community-acquired infections. A retrospective study was conducted at a pediatric oncology center during a 3-year period to identify probable cases of food-borne infections with bacteremia. Twenty-one bacteremic illnesses affecting 15 children receiving chemotherapy or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation were reviewed. Three (14% episodes were highly suspected of a food-borne origin: a 17-year-old boy with osteosarcoma contracted Sphingomonas paucimobilis septicemia after consuming nasi lemak bought from a street hawker; a 2-year-old boy with acute lymphoblastic leukemia developed Chryseobacterium meningosepticum septicemia after a sushi dinner; a 2-year-old girl was diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukemia and Lactobacillus bacteremia suspected to be of probiotic origin. All of them were neutropenic at the time of the infections and the bacteremias were cleared with antibiotic treatment. Food-borne sepsis may be an important, but readily preventable, cause of bloodstream infections in pediatric oncology patients, especially in tropical countries with an abundance of culinary outlets.

  13. Dental and Maxillofacial Abnormalities in Children with Premature Loss of Primary Canines

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    Amarelys Morera Pérez

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: since primary canines are among the last teeth to be replaced by permanent ones, they are critical to maintain the space in the dental arch and proper occlusion. Their premature loss has a greater impact on the anterior region, but it can also affect the posterior region. Objective: to describe dental and maxillofacial abnormalities in children who prematurely lost the primary canines. Methods: a cross-sectional study was conducted in children aged 5 to 9 years attending the Guerrillero Heroico Elementary School located within the health area number 2 of Cienfuegos municipality, from November 2014 through April 2015. Variables analyzed were: age, sex, cause of tooth loss, dental and maxillofacial abnormalities (linguoversion of lower or upper incisors, mesial occlusion, crowding, hyperocclusion, and increased or decreased overjet. Results: the premature loss of primary canines was more frequently observed in children aged 5 and 6 years and in most cases, it resulted from indicated extractions (66.7%. Linguoversion of lower incisors and increased overjet were the most common abnormalities. Conclusion: all children showed dental and maxillofacial abnormalities related to the premature loss of primary canines. This demonstrates the importance of avoiding their early loss whenever possible, as it is a key factor for the development of malocclusion.

  14. Neurobehavioral outcomes of school-age children born preterm: a preliminary study in the Arabic community

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    Mohammed M.J. Alqahtani

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Preterm survivors from the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU are considered as high risk group for some neurobehavioral impairments such as cognitive disabilities, developmental delays, social/emotional limitations, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, and academic difficulties. Objective: The current study aimed to investigate the neurobehavioral outcome of premature infants in Saudi Arabia at the school age.Methods: At the school age, preterm children (range 23-29 weeks or ≤ 1.52 kg born from April, 2006 through September, 2008, and who were admitted following birth to a NICU, were evaluated with several neurobehavioral tools. Results: This study includes 53 preterm children, who were followed up at the chronological age that ranged from 6.4-8.0 years. The results of the neurobehavioral assessments showed in general normal social adaptive levels and cognitive abilities, with mean total score of about 91.0 and 90.0, respectively. The prevalence of ADHD among preterm children was high, with result of 34.0% for the inattentive type and 11.3% for the hyperactive/impulsive type. None of the preterm children repeats a grade, but 22.6% utilize a form of special educational supports. Some of the preterm children showed poor school performance in reading skills, writing skills and mathematics skills, with percentages of 26.4%, 28.3% and 15.1%, respectively.Conclusions: The present results emphasize that preterm children are a group of high-risk children who need regular follow-up to track the developmental conditions and to provide the early developmental intervention for optimal outcome.

  15. Children born with very low birth weight show difficulties with sustained attention but not response inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Katherine A; Healy, Elaine; Dooley, Barbara; Kelly, Simon P; McNicholas, Fiona

    2015-01-01

    Children born with very low birth weight perform poorly on executive function and attention measures. Any difficulties with sustained attention may underpin impairments in performance on tasks measuring higher order cognitive control. Previous sustained attention research in very low birth weight cohorts has used tasks that involve arousing stimuli, potentially spoiling the measure of sustained attention. The aim of this study was to compare the performance of very low birth weight and normal birth weight children on a well-controlled task of sustained attention. The Fixed and Random versions of the Sustained Attention to Response Task were given to 17 very low birth weight and 18 normal birth weight children. The very low birth weight group performed the Fixed and Random Sustained Attention to Response Tasks in a similar manner as the normal birth weight group on all measures except for the omission error and Slow Frequency Area under the Spectra variables on the Fixed Sustained Attention to Response Task. These measures index lapses in sustained attention that may be underpinned by declining arousal. The very low birth weight group showed no response inhibition deficits. Omission errors and slow-timescale response-time variability on predictable tasks may thus present sensitive indices of difficulties with sustained attention and arousal associated with premature birth and low birth weight.

  16. A striking and frequent cause of premature thelarche in children: Foeniculum vulgare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türkyilmaz, Zafer; Karabulut, Ramazan; Sönmez, Kaan; Can Başaklar, Abdullah

    2008-11-01

    Isolated premature thelarche is a common disorder characterized by breast development, usually younger than 2 years, with no other signs of puberty. Although it is usually associated with adrenal or ovarian disorders, hypothyroidism, and use of exogenous hormones or drugs, it may also be associated with long-term use of herbal medicine. Thus, long-term use of preparations such as Foeniculum vulgare, which is used to eliminate gas and regulate intestinal function in children, may cause premature thelarche, and thus, the use of such preparations should be limited.

  17. Cholesterol in preteen children of parents with premature coronary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, H; Caplan, C

    1978-03-01

    A pediatric population at high risk for the development of coronary artery disease has been identified. Using a simple and inexpensive protocol, serum cholesterol determinations were performed on 50 children 12 years old and younger. These children were taken from 28 families in which one parent had suffered a myocardial infarction before the age of 50. Eight of the 50 children were found to have significant elevation of serum cholesterol. This was an incidence of 16%--twice that of the general pediatric population. Subjects with both adverse genetic and metabolic backgrounds need to be identified in this simple way. Preventive and therapeutic measures in such children may alter in the future the serious morbidity and mortality of coronary artery disease.

  18. Memory processes in learning disability subtypes of children born preterm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Thomasin E; Conrad, Amy L; Richman, Lynn C; Nopoulos, Peg C; Bell, Edward F

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate immediate auditory and visual memory processes in learning disability subtypes of 40 children born preterm. Three subgroups of children were examined: (a) primary language disability group (n = 13), (b) perceptual-motor disability group (n = 14), and (c) no learning disability diagnosis group without identified language or perceptual-motor learning disability (n = 13). Between-group comparisons indicate no significant differences in immediate auditory or visual memory performances between language and perceptual-motor learning disability groups. Within-group comparisons revealed that both learning disability groups performed significantly lower on a task of immediate memory when the mode of stimulus presentation and mode of response were visual.

  19. Neonatal pain-related stress predicts cortical thickness at age 7 years in children born very preterm.

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    Manon Ranger

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Altered brain development is evident in children born very preterm (24-32 weeks gestational age, including reduction in gray and white matter volumes, and thinner cortex, from infancy to adolescence compared to term-born peers. However, many questions remain regarding the etiology. Infants born very preterm are exposed to repeated procedural pain-related stress during a period of very rapid brain development. In this vulnerable population, we have previously found that neonatal pain-related stress is associated with atypical brain development from birth to term-equivalent age. Our present aim was to evaluate whether neonatal pain-related stress (adjusted for clinical confounders of prematurity is associated with altered cortical thickness in very preterm children at school age. METHODS: 42 right-handed children born very preterm (24-32 weeks gestational age followed longitudinally from birth underwent 3-D T1 MRI neuroimaging at mean age 7.9 yrs. Children with severe brain injury and major motor/sensory/cognitive impairment were excluded. Regional cortical thickness was calculated using custom developed software utilizing FreeSurfer segmentation data. The association between neonatal pain-related stress (defined as the number of skin-breaking procedures accounting for clinical confounders (gestational age, illness severity, infection, mechanical ventilation, surgeries, and morphine exposure, was examined in relation to cortical thickness using constrained principal component analysis followed by generalized linear modeling. RESULTS: After correcting for multiple comparisons and adjusting for neonatal clinical factors, greater neonatal pain-related stress was associated with significantly thinner cortex in 21/66 cerebral regions (p-values ranged from 0.00001 to 0.014, predominately in the frontal and parietal lobes. CONCLUSIONS: In very preterm children without major sensory, motor or cognitive impairments, neonatal pain-related stress

  20. Health outcomes for children born to teen mothers in Cape Town, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branson, Nicola; Ardington, Cally; Leibbrandt, Murray

    2015-04-01

    This paper analyzes whether children born to teen mothers in Cape Town, South Africa are disadvantaged in terms of their health outcomes because their mother is a teen. Exploiting the longitudinal nature of the Cape Area Panel Study, we assess whether observable differences between teen mothers and slightly older mothers can explain why first-born children of teen mothers appear disadvantaged. Our balanced regressions indicate that observed characteristics cannot explain the full extent of disadvantage of being born to a teen mother, with children born to teen mothers continuing to have significantly worse child health outcomes, especially among coloured children. In particular, children born to teens are more likely to be underweight at birth and to be stunted with the disadvantage for coloured children four times the size for African children.

  1. Diagnosis and treatment of 1 110 cases of premature children%早产儿1100例临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹华; 卜雷; 孙瑞君; 袁安香

    2011-01-01

    Objective To aralyze The prevalence of premature children, mortality and complications to related factors, discussed measures to reduce the premature children mortality. Methods From January 2003 to December 2006 and January 2007 January 2010 12 after 8 years in our hospital obstetric preterm children born in 1110 into the first 4 years of group and group 4 years after the two groups. Each group of children on the incidence of premature causes of death, complications were retrospectively analyzed. Results Preterm birth rate of first 4 years 2.85% to 3.67% after 4 years,the difference was statistically significant( P <0.05 ). Between the two groups the proportion of different age groups and the main types of diseases,no significant difference(P> 0.05). By comparison,the mortality of premature children dropped from the 12.06% to 2.36%, a significant difference before and after ( P < 0.01 ).Conclusion The prevention and treatment of premature children was still very trduous task, particularly in preventing complications of preterm children was very important to prevent the occurrence of lung disease.%目的 通过对早产儿患病率、病死率的相关因素分析,探讨降低早产儿病死率的措施。方法 对1 100例早产儿按时间前后分为两组(A组,B组)。对两组早产发生率、死亡原因、并发症发生情况进行回顾性对比分析。结果 早产发生率A组2.85%,B组3.67%,两组差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。早产儿病死率A组12.06%,B组2.36%,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01)。结论 加强围生儿的监测和保健护理,可以降低早产儿的患病率和病死率。

  2. Adipokines in umbilical cord blood from children born large for gestational age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lausten-Thomsen, Ulrik; Christiansen, Michael; Hedley, Paula Louise;

    2016-01-01

    of adipokines and their mutual relationship at birth in children born to non-diabetic mothers. METHODS: Adiponectin, leptin and sOB-R were measured using ELISA-based commercial kits in umbilical cord blood from 60 neonates (30 born large for gestational age [LGA] and 30 born appropriate for gestational age [AGA......]). Children exposed to maternal diabetes, chronic disease and preeclampsia were excluded. RESULTS: The LGA group exhibited significantly elevated concentrations of leptin (p

  3. Academic Outcomes for Children Born Preterm: A Summary and Call for Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller-Margulis, Milena; Dempsey, Allison; Llorens, Ashlie

    2011-01-01

    The developmental outcomes for children born preterm have been examined by many, with results unequivocally indicating that children born preterm tend to have poorer cognitive outcomes and more developmental difficulties. Less attention has been paid to academic outcomes. The purpose of this paper is to review the academic skills assessment of…

  4. Mental disorders in childhood and young adulthood among children born to women with fertility problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svahn, M.F.; Hargreave, M.; Nielsen, T.S.S.;

    2015-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: Is the risk of hospital admission or outpatient contact for mental disorders increased in children born to women with fertility problems compared with children born to women without fertility problems? SUMMARY ANSWER: We found an increased risk of hospital admission or outpatient ...

  5. Doxapram and developmental delay at 12 months in children born extremely preterm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lando, Ane; Klamer, Anja; Jonsbo, Finn

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To examine the relation of doxapram to a developmental score achieved by a structured telephone interview in a group of extremely-preterm-born children. METHODS: Parents of 88 children born extremely preterm were contacted by telephone and interviewed by a structured questionnaire (R-PDQ) when...

  6. Higher rates of behavioural and emotional problems at preschool age in children born moderately preterm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Potijk, Marieke R.; de Winter, Andrea F.; Bos, Arend F.; Kerstjens, Jorien M.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To compare preschool children born moderately preterm (MP; 32-35 weeks' gestation) and children born at term (38-41 weeks' gestation) regarding the occurrence of behavioural and emotional problems, overall, for separate types of problems and by gender. Design Prospective cohort study consi

  7. Neonatal Cerebral Morphometry and Later Risk of Persistent Inattention/Hyperactivity in Children Born Very Preterm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bora, Samudragupta; Pritchard, Verena E.; Chen, Zhe; Inder, Terrie E.; Woodward, Lianne J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Attention problems are among the most prevalent neurobehavioral morbidities affecting very preterm (VPT) born children. The first study aim was to document rates of persistent attention/hyperactivity problems from ages 4 to 9 years in a regional cohort of VPT born children. The second aim was to examine the extent to which persistent…

  8. Behavioural skills in 7 year old children born post-term

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Annette Wind; Olsen, Jørn; Zhu, Jin Liang

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To study behavioural skills at the age of seven in a Danish population of children born post-term. Design: Cohort study. Setting: The Danish National Birth Cohort; children born from 1997 to 2003. Population: Data was obtained from a cohort of about 100,000 women and their chi...

  9. School-Aged Children Born Preterm: Review of Functioning across Multiple Domains and Guidelines for Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempsey, Allison G.; Keller-Margulis, Milena; Mire, Sarah; Abrahamson, Catherine; Dutt, Sonia; Llorens, Ashlie; Payan, Anita

    2015-01-01

    Children born preterm are at risk for developmental deficits across multiple functional domains. As the rate of survival for preterm infants increases due to medical advancements, a greater understanding is needed for how to meet the needs of this growing population in schools. Because approximately 50-70% of children born preterm require…

  10. School functioning in 8- to 18-year-old children born after in vitro fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagenaar, Karin; Ceelen, Manon; van Weissenbruch, Mirjam M; Knol, Dirk L; Delemarre-van de Waal, Henriette A; Huisman, Jaap

    2008-11-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the school functioning of 8- to 18-year-old children born after in vitro fertilization (IVF). We compared 233 children born after IVF to 233 matched control children born spontaneously from parents with fertility problems on measures of education level, general cognitive ability, school performance (need for extra help, repeating a grade, special education), and rates of learning and developmental disorders. No differences were found between IVF and control children on these measures of school functioning. More than 60% of adolescents at secondary school attended high academic levels (with access to high school or university). We conclude that children and adolescents born after IVF show good academic achievement and general cognitive ability. They do not experience any more educational limitations than the naturally conceived children and adolescents of the control group. The tendency of reassuring school functioning already found in younger IVF children has been shown to continue at secondary school age.

  11. Language Abilities Following Prematurity, Periventricular Brain Injury, and Cerebral Palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Heidi M.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    This study compared language abilities in three groups of preschool children (total n=18) who were born prematurely: children with bilateral spastic cerebral palsy associated with perinatal brain injury, with similar brain injury but no motor impairment, and with no brain injuries. No significant differences were observed among the groups on any…

  12. Development of premature children: caregivers' understanding according to the Bioecological Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rayla Amaral Lemos

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract OBJECTIVE Understanding the conceptions of premature children caregivers on child development and associated factors. METHOD An exploratory-descriptive qualitative study of 12 families with children under three years of age. Interviews were submitted to thematic content analysis, systematized into the categories of Bioecological Theory of Human Development: Process, Person, Context and Time, and in the Functional Development category. RESULTS There are concerns about impairment in the current and future development of a Person/child defined as fragile as a result of premature birth (Time dimension, minimized by the scope of observable competencies such as motor skills. The Context, especially family and health services, and Proximal Processes, described as one-way caregiver interactions, are considered determinants of development. Functional Development is considered a natural consequence and result of education. The support network is crucial, supporting or limiting care. CONCLUSION Concerns about the development mobilize caregivers to stimulate the premature child/person and requests family and healthcare assistance.

  13. SPECTRA OF MOTHERS OF PREMATURE CHILDREN ABOUT THE EDUCATIVE CIRCLE OF CULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Santos do Couto

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We sought to know the spectra of mothers of premature children regarding their experience with circle of culture of educational character and identifying the learning provided by the circle of culture about newborn care after hospital discharge. A descriptive study was performed in a hospital located in Fortaleza, Brazil. Three meetings of a circle of culture with 17 mothers of premature newborns were performed. The interpretation of the corpus was performed using thematic analysis. Emerged from the categories: Maternal experience in a circle of culture; Promoted social support among mothers through the circle of culture; and Learning provided by the circle of culture. It was concluded that teaching parents during the hospitalization of the child should be held in a way to involve parents in the care of the newborn, provide moments of health education, opportunities for support and dialogue between professionals and family.

  14. Self-Regulation: A New Perspective on Learning Problems Experienced by Children Born Extremely Preterm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Lisa N.; Cuskelly, Monica; O'Callaghan, Michael J.; Gray, Peter H.

    2011-01-01

    Survival rates are increasing for children born extremely preterm, yet despite the majority of these children having IQ scores within the average range, 50-70% of these children have later school difficulties. This paper reviews factors associated with academic difficulties in these children, emphasizing the contributions of executive functions…

  15. Ages and Stages Questionnaire used to measure cognitive deficit in children born extremely preterm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klamer, Anja; Lando, Ane; Pinborg, Anja;

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To validate the Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ) and to measure average cognitive deficit in children born extremely preterm. METHODS: Parents of 30 term children aged 36-42 mo completed the ASQ and the children underwent the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scales of Intelligence--Revised.......AIM: To validate the Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ) and to measure average cognitive deficit in children born extremely preterm. METHODS: Parents of 30 term children aged 36-42 mo completed the ASQ and the children underwent the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scales of Intelligence...

  16. Impact of rotavirus vaccine on premature infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roué, Jean-Michel; Nowak, Emmanuel; Le Gal, Grégoire; Lemaitre, Thomas; Oger, Emmanuel; Poulhazan, Elise; Giroux, Jean-Dominique; Garenne, Armelle; Gagneur, Arnaud

    2014-10-01

    Infants born preterm are at a higher risk of complications and hospitalization in cases of rotavirus diarrhea than children born at term. We evaluated the impact of a rotavirus vaccination campaign (May 2007 to May 2010) on hospitalizations for rotavirus gastroenteritis in a population of children under 3 years old born prematurely (before 37 weeks of gestation) in the Brest University Hospital birth zone. Active surveillance from 2002 to 2006 and a prospective collection of hospitalizations for rotavirus diarrhea were initiated in the pediatric units of Brest University Hospital until May 2010. Numbers of hospitalizations for rotavirus diarrhea among the population of children born prematurely, before and after the start of the vaccination program, were compared using a Poisson regression model controlling for epidemic-to-epidemic variation. A total of 217 premature infants were vaccinated from 2007 to 2010. Vaccine coverage for a complete course of three doses was 41.9%. The vaccine safety in premature infants was similar to that in term infants. The vaccination program led to a division by a factor of 2.6 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.3 to 5.2) in the number of hospitalizations for rotavirus diarrhea during the first two epidemic seasons following vaccine introduction and by a factor of 11 (95% CI, 3.5 to 34.8) during the third season. We observed significant effectiveness of the pentavalent rotavirus vaccine on the number of hospitalizations in a population of prematurely born infants younger than 3 years of age. A multicenter national study would provide better assessment of this impact. (This study [Impact of Systematic Infants Vaccination Against Rotavirus on Gastroenteritis Hospitalization: a Prospective Study in Brest District, France (IVANHOE)] has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT00740935.).

  17. Exploring the Musical Interests and Abilities of Blind and Partially Sighted Children and Young People with Retinopathy of Prematurity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matawa, Christina

    2009-01-01

    This study explores the musical interests and talents of children and young people who are blind or partially sighted as a result of retinopathy of prematurity (RoP). The results from questionnaires completed by 37 parents were analysed using methods drawn from Ockelford et al.'s (2006) study of the musical interests and abilities of children with…

  18. Trends in All-Cause Mortality across Gestational Age in Days for Children Born at Term

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Chunsen; Sun, Yuelian; Nohr, Ellen Aagaard

    2015-01-01

    pattern was observed when analyses were restricted to children born to by mothers without pregnancy complications. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates heterogeneity in mortality rates even among singletons born at term. The highest mortality was observed among children born 37 weeks of gestation, which...... of the defined mortality period or December 31, 2009. A total of 360,375 singletons born between 259 and 293 days of gestation were included in the study. Mortality decreased with increasing gestational age in days and the highest mortality was observed among children born at 37 week of gestation. A similar...... call for cautions when inducing labor in term pregnancies just reaching 37 weeks of gestation. The findings support that 37 weeks of gestation should be defined as early term....

  19. System of the ophthalmologic help premature children with retinopathy of prematurity in the Central region of Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Tereshchenko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Functional results analysis of ophthalmologic help system for premature infants, which includes the full cycle of early revelation, treatment and regular medical check-up activities for patients with ROP in Central region of Russia.Methods: Fields for ROP screening were performed in premature infants medical care units by clinic specialists. Infants with re- vealed ROP were directed to Kaluga Branch of IRtC «Eye Microsurgery» for detailed diagnostic examination and subsequent treatment and monitoring.Results: In 2003-2011 454 fields in Kaluga, tula, Bryansk, and Orel regions were made. 8861 infants were examined. ROP was found in 1834 infants (20.7%. 823 different interventions for infants with active ROP were performed: 737 retinal lasercoagulations, 3-ports vitrectomy — 72, lensvitrectomy — 14. the total efficacy of the treatment was 92.9%.Conclusion: the ophthalmologic help system for premature infants in Central region of Russia combines all directions from de-tailed diagnostic to hich-technology treatment. It allows to reproduce one all over the Russian Federation territory.

  20. System of the ophthalmologic help premature children with retinopathy of prematurity in the Central region of Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Tereshchenko

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Functional results analysis of ophthalmologic help system for premature infants, which includes the full cycle of early revelation, treatment and regular medical check-up activities for patients with ROP in Central region of Russia.Methods: Fields for ROP screening were performed in premature infants medical care units by clinic specialists. Infants with re- vealed ROP were directed to Kaluga Branch of IRtC «Eye Microsurgery» for detailed diagnostic examination and subsequent treatment and monitoring.Results: In 2003-2011 454 fields in Kaluga, tula, Bryansk, and Orel regions were made. 8861 infants were examined. ROP was found in 1834 infants (20.7%. 823 different interventions for infants with active ROP were performed: 737 retinal lasercoagulations, 3-ports vitrectomy — 72, lensvitrectomy — 14. the total efficacy of the treatment was 92.9%.Conclusion: the ophthalmologic help system for premature infants in Central region of Russia combines all directions from de-tailed diagnostic to hich-technology treatment. It allows to reproduce one all over the Russian Federation territory.

  1. Factors Affecting Vocabulary Acquisition at Age 2 in Children Born between 23 and 28 Weeks' Gestation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marston, Louise; Peacock, Janet L.; Calvert, Sandra A.; Greenough, Anne; Marlow, Neil

    2007-01-01

    Language development is often slower in preterm children compared with their term peers. We investigated factors associated with vocabulary acquisition at 2 years in a cohort of children born at 28 weeks' gestation or less. For children entered into the United Kingdom Oscillation Study, language development was evaluated by using the…

  2. Interhemispheric Temporal Lobe Connectivity Predicts Language Impairment in Adolescents Born Preterm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northam, Gemma B.; Liegeois, Frederique; Tournier, Jacques-Donald; Croft, Louise J.; Johns, Paul N.; Chong, Wui K.; Wyatt, John S.; Baldeweg, Torsten

    2012-01-01

    Although language difficulties are common in children born prematurely, robust neuroanatomical correlates of these impairments remain to be established. This study investigated whether the greater prevalence of language problems in preterm (versus term-born) children might reflect injury to major intra- or interhemispheric white matter pathways…

  3. Trends in All-Cause Mortality across Gestational Age in Days for Children Born at Term.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun Sen Wu

    Full Text Available Term birth is a gestational age from 259 days to 293 days. However trends in mortality according to gestational ages in days have not yet been described in this time period.Based on nation-wide registries, we conducted a population-based cohort study among all children born at term in Denmark from 1997 to 2004 to estimate differences in mortality across gestational ages in days among singletons born at term. We studied early-neonatal mortality, neonatal mortality, infant mortality, and five-year mortality. Children were followed from birth up to the last day of the defined mortality period or December 31, 2009. A total of 360,375 singletons born between 259 and 293 days of gestation were included in the study. Mortality decreased with increasing gestational age in days and the highest mortality was observed among children born at 37 week of gestation. A similar pattern was observed when analyses were restricted to children born to by mothers without pregnancy complications.This study demonstrates heterogeneity in mortality rates even among singletons born at term. The highest mortality was observed among children born 37 weeks of gestation, which call for cautions when inducing labor in term pregnancies just reaching 37 weeks of gestation. The findings support that 37 weeks of gestation should be defined as early term.

  4. Behavioural symptoms of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder in preterm and term children born small and appropriate for gestational age: A longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kajantie Eero

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It remains unclear whether it is more detrimental to be born too early or too small in relation to symptoms of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. Thus, we tested whether preterm birth and small body size at birth adjusted for gestational age are independently associated with symptoms of ADHD in children. Methods A longitudinal regional birth cohort study comprising 1535 live-born infants between 03/15/1985 and 03/14/1986 admitted to the neonatal wards and 658 randomly recruited non-admitted infants, in Finland. The present study sample comprised 828 children followed up to 56 months. The association between birth status and parent-rated ADHD symptoms of the child was analysed with multiple linear and logistic regression analyses. Results Neither prematurity (birth Conclusions Intrauterine growth restriction, reflected in SGA status and lower birth weight, rather than prematurity or lower gestational age per se, may increase risk for symptoms of ADHD in young children.

  5. The effect of different feeding patterns on the weight gain in premature children%不同喂养方式对早产儿增重的影响分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡玉美; 常清娟; 张立萍

    2012-01-01

    Objective To discuss the impact of different feeding patterns on the index of weight gain in premature children.Methods A total of 92 premature children born in our hospital were followed up for statistical analysis when they were three and six months old respectively.They were observed the situation of weight gain with different feeding patterns and analyzed statistically. Results It showed that there were obvious differences in the weight gain of three groups of premature children with different feeding patterns:the weight growth of premature children with breast feeding surpassed the other two groups with mixed feeding and artificial feeding.Conclusions Breast feeding has a positive impact on the weight growth of premature children,can reduce the occurrence of lienteric diarrhea and other infection diseases and enhance the immunity.%目的 探讨不同喂养方式对早产儿增重指标的影响.方法 分别对在我院出生的92名早产儿在3、6个月时进行跟踪随访,观察其用不同的喂养方式喂养时早产儿体重增长情况,并进行统计学分析.结果 3组喂养方式对早产儿体重增长存在明显差异,母乳喂养的早产儿体重增长优于混合喂养和人工喂养的早产儿.结论 母乳喂养对早产儿体重增长有良好的促进作用,减少了早产儿发生消化不良性腹泻及其他感染疾病的机会,能提高免疫力.

  6. Resting-state oscillatory activity in children born small for gestational age: a magnetoencephalographic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria eBoersma

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Growth restriction in utero during a period that is critical for normal growth of the brain, has previously been associated with deviations in cognitive abilities and brain anatomical and functional changes. We measured magnetoencephalography (MEG in 4-7 year old children to test if children born small for gestational age (SGA show deviations in resting-state brain oscillatory activity. Children born SGA children with postnatally spontaneous catch-up growth (SGA+; 6 boys, 7 girls; mean age 6.3 y (SD=0.9 and children born appropriate for gestational age (AGA; 7 boys, 3 girls; mean age 6.0 y (SD=1.2 participated in a resting-state MEG study. We calculated absolute and relative power spectra and used nonparametric statistics to test for group differences. SGA+ and AGA born children showed no significant differences in absolute and relative power except for reduced absolute gamma band power in SGA children. At time of MEG investigation, SGA+ children showed was significantly lower head circumference (HC and a trend toward lower IQ, however there was no association of HC or IQ with absolute or relative power. Except for reduced absolute gamma band power, our findings suggest normal brain activity patterns at school age in a group of children born SGA in which spontaneous catch-up growth of bodily length after birth occurred. Although previous findings suggest that being born SGA alters brain oscillatory activity early in neonatal life, we show that these neonatal alterations do not persist at early school age when spontaneous postnatal catch-up growth occurs after birth.

  7. Neonatal pain-related stress, functional cortical activity and visual-perceptual abilities in school-age children born at extremely low gestational age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doesburg, Sam M; Chau, Cecil M; Cheung, Teresa P L; Moiseev, Alexander; Ribary, Urs; Herdman, Anthony T; Miller, Steven P; Cepeda, Ivan L; Synnes, Anne; Grunau, Ruth E

    2013-10-01

    Children born very prematurely (neonatal experience and neurodevelopment, remain poorly understood. Repeated procedural pain-related stress during neonatal intensive care has been proposed to contribute to altered neurocognitive development in these children. Due to critical periods in the development of thalamocortical systems, the immature brain of infants born at extremely low gestational age (ELGA; neonatal pain. In a cohort of school-age children followed since birth we assessed relations between functional brain activity measured using magnetoencephalogragy (MEG), visual-perceptual abilities and cumulative neonatal pain. We demonstrated alterations in the spectral structure of spontaneous cortical oscillatory activity in ELGA children at school-age. Cumulative neonatal pain-related stress was associated with changes in background cortical rhythmicity in these children, and these alterations in spontaneous brain oscillations were negatively correlated with visual-perceptual abilities at school-age, and were not driven by potentially confounding neonatal variables. These findings provide the first evidence linking neonatal pain-related stress, the development of functional brain activity, and school-age cognitive outcome in these vulnerable children.

  8. The Living Conditions of U.S.-Born Children of Mexican Immigrants in Unmarried Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, Yolanda C.; Radey, Melissa Dalton; Hummer, Robert A.; Kim, Eunjeong

    2006-01-01

    Recent research has brought attention to the hardship faced by children of immigrants in the United States, particularly in the Mexican-origin population. In this study, the authors are concerned with the extent to which U.S.-born children of Mexican immigrants who live in unmarried families may face exceptional risks. Using data from the Fragile…

  9. Mathematics difficulties in children born very preterm: current research and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simms, Victoria; Cragg, Lucy; Gilmore, Camilla; Marlow, Neil; Johnson, Samantha

    2013-09-01

    Children born very preterm have poorer attainment in all school subjects, and a markedly greater reliance on special educational support than their term-born peers. In particular, difficulties with mathematics are especially common and account for the vast majority of learning difficulties in this population. In this paper, we review research relating to the causes of mathematics learning difficulties in typically developing children, and the impact of very preterm birth on attainment in mathematics. Research is needed to understand the specific nature and origins of mathematics difficulties in very preterm children to target the development of effective intervention strategies.

  10. Prematuridade entre recém-nascidos de mães com Amniorrexe Prematura Prematuridad entre recién nacidos de nadres com Amniorrexis Prematura Prematurity among new-borns of Mothers with Premature Amniorrexis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Lima Batista Santos

    2006-12-01

    ,5% 2-5 consultas y 27,1% refieren 6 o más, 16,2% de las madres presentaron Dolencia Hipertensiva del Estado Gestacional (DHEG, y 51,3% tuvieran parto normal. Se concluye que la prematuridad fué elevada, representando importante causa de la morbimortalidad neonatal, como también acarretar complicaciones clínicas y obstétricas para la madre. La DHEG aún representa um risco para la gestación. És necesário que nuevos estúdios sobre la temática sean realizados para se conocer la verdadera magnitud del problema.This is a descriptive study that took place in a public maternity in Fortaleza Ce, with objective to characterize the prematureness among newly born (RN interned in the Unidade Neonatal due to the premature amniorrexe. It was analyzed 37 newborns along with their mothers. From the newborns it was analyzed: prematureness degree, Apgar and reanimation need; and from their mothers: gestational age, pre natal care, birth and gestational pathologies. It was found that 35,1% of the babies are premature and 29,7% had a 0-6 Agar during the first minute of life, needing reanimation. As for the gestational age, 35,1% presented membrane ruptures before the 37th week of birth, 5,4% did not go through pre natal care, 67,5% attended from 2 to 5 appointments and 27,1% attended to 6 or more, 16,2% of the mothers presented Gestational Specific Highblood Pressure Disease (GSHPD and 51,3% of the mothers went through normal delivery. It was concluded that the prematureness was high, being a main cause of newborn morbid/mortality and that it also brings clinical and obstetric complications for the mothers. The GSHPD still represents a risk to pregnancy. More studies on the subject are needed in order to acknowledged the real magnitude of the problem.

  11. The Children Should Lead Us: Diane Ehrensaft's "Gender Born, Gender Made--Raising Healthy Gender-Nonconforming Children"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beemyn, Genny

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews Diane Ehrensaft's "Gender Born, Gender Made: Raising Healthy Gender-Nonconforming Children", a thoughtful and practical guide that can help parents, other family members, and therapists better understand and support children and youth whom the author refers to as "gender creative." Ehrensaft's work is at the forefront of a…

  12. Premature Contractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Premature Contractions - PACs and PVCs Updated:Dec 15,2016 Premature ... felt this more-forceful beat. Types of premature contractions Premature atrial contractions (PACs) start in the upper ...

  13. Small Birth Size : Cardiovascular and metabolic profile of young adults born SGA who have been treated with growth hormone and young adults born preterm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.E. Breukhoven (Petra)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThis doctoral thesis describes cardiovascular and metabolic risk factors in children en young adults with a small birth size, either due to being born small for gestational age (SGA) or due to prematurity. For those born SGA with persistent short stature, the short and long-term effects

  14. Health outcomes of children born to mothers with chronic kidney disease: a pilot study

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    Indrani Banerjee

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to study the health of children born to mothers with chronic kidney disease. Twenty-four children born to mothers with chronic kidney disease were compared with 39 matched control children born to healthy mothers without kidney disease. The well-being of each child was individually assessed in terms of physical health, neurodevelopment and psychological health. Families participating with renal disease were more likely to be from lower socio-economic backgrounds. Significantly fewer vaginal deliveries were reported for mothers with renal disease and their infants were more likely to experience neonatal morbidity. Study and control children were comparable for growth parameters and neurodevelopment as assessed by the Griffiths scales. There was no evidence of more stress amongst mothers with renal disease or of impaired bonding between mother and child when compared to controls. However, there was evidence of greater externalizing behavioral problems in the group of children born to mothers with renal disease. Engaging families in such studies is challenging. Nonetheless, families who participated appreciated being asked. The children were apparently healthy but there was evidence in this small study of significant antenatal and perinatal morbidity compared to controls. Future larger multi-center studies are required to confirm these early findings.

  15. 32 CFR 584.5 - U.S. citizenship determinations on children born out of wedlock in a foreign country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... certified English translation of all needed legal documents that are in a foreign language. (ix) An executed.... citizenship determinations on children born out of wedlock in a foreign country. (a) General. (1) A child born... laws of the nation in which she is a citizen. (2) A child born out of wedlock in a foreign country...

  16. Efficacy and safety of growth hormone treatment for children born small for gestational age

    OpenAIRE

    Hwang, Il Tae

    2014-01-01

    Recombinant growth hormone (GH) is an effective treatment for short children who are born small for gestational age (SGA). Short children born SGA who fail to demonstrate catch-up growth by 2-4 years of age are candidates for GH treatment initiated to achieve catch-up growth to a normal height in early childhood, maintain a normal height gain throughout childhood, and achieve an adult height within the normal target range. GH treatment at a dose of 35-70 µg/kg/day should be considered for tho...

  17. Children born of war (Niños nacidos de la guerra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mochmann, Ingvill C.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: Este artículo ofrece una visión introductoria desde el novedoso campo de investigación de 'Niños nacidos de la guerra'. Se trata de niños y niñas nacidos durante y después de conflictos y guerras habiendo sido su padre miembro del enemigo, fuerzas aliadas o fuerzas de paz y su madre una ciudadana local. A menudo, los niños y niñas nacidos de la guerra son estigmatizados y discriminados en su propio país y sus intereses y derechos particulares eludidos en situaciones de postconflicto. En este artículo se presenta una categorización de los niños nacidos de la guerra y algunos de los resultados del proyecto de investigación realizado sobre niños de la Segunda Guerra Mundial. Por último, se explora la situación internacional y judicial de estos niños así como las pautas posibles de ayuda dirigidas a éstos y sus madres.Abstract: This paper gives a short introduction into the rather new research field of 'Children born of war'. These are children who are born during and after conflicts and wars were the father has been a member of an enemy, allied or peacekeeping force and the mother a local citizen. 'Children born of war' are often stigmatised and discriminated in their home country and their particular interest and rights are overlooked in post-conflict situations. This paper presents different categories of children born of war and some results from research projects on children from Second World War are presented. Finally, the international and juridical situation of children born of war are discussed and possible guidelines to assist mothers and children introduced.

  18. [Neurodevelopmental follow-up of premature children in Lausanne and Geneva].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickle Graz, M; Cevey-Macherel, M; Forcada-Guex, M; Truttmann, A; Ha-Vinh Leuchter, R; Sizonenko, S; Huppi, P S; Borradori Tolsa, C

    2011-02-23

    Preterm children born before 32 weeks of gestation represent 1% of the annual births in Switzerland, and are the most at risk of neurodevelopmental disabilities. A neurological surveillance is thus implemented in the neonatal units, and multidisciplinary neurodevelopmental follow-up is offered to all our preterm patients. The follow-up clinics of the University hospitals in Lausanne and Geneva follow the Swiss guidelines for follow-up. An extended history and neurological examination is taken at each appointment, and a standardized test of development is performed. These examinations, which take place between the ages of 3 months and 9 years old, allow the early identification and treatment of developmental disorders frequent in this population, such as motor, cognitive or behavioral disorders, as well as the monitoring of the quality of neonatal care.

  19. Early stimulation results in children with Retinopathy of Prematurity in Sancti Spíritus. 2007-2012.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Rodríguez Rodríguez

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A descriptive retrospective study with a longitudinal projection was made, since January 2007 until December 2010, in Retinopathy of prematurity and early stimulation consultations inside of Low vision´s department in Camilo Cienfuegos´ Hospital, with the objective to describe the result of laser treatment for retinopathy of prematurity, in order to avoid blindness in children who developed this illness. The data base used was the one of the provincial program of retinopathy. The population of the study was conformed by 36 children who developed retinopathy in the studied period, 11 children were taken as a sample, the one that received laser treatment because they have suffer stage III of the illness. Males prevailed, coming from five different municipalities of the province, must of them were rehabilitated with glasses for their residual ametropia after the treatment was employed. All of these made possible an adequate visual development and an economical saving of 58800 pesos for all the cases who didn´t develop a visual disability because of Retinopathy from the prematurity, and did not register in the Blind and low visual children´s School.

  20. Korean-Immigrant Parents' Support of Their American-Born Children's Development and Maintenance of the Home Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hyun-Sook

    2013-01-01

    This study explores Korean-immigrant parents' language ideologies and practices with respect to their American-born children's language development. Participants were seven ethnic Korean families composed of immigrant parents and their American-born children, aged between five and seven, in Midwestern America. Interviews in the medium of Korean…

  1. Improved neurosensory outcome at 8 years of age of extremely low birthweight children born in Victoria over three distinct eras

    OpenAIRE

    Doyle, L; Anderson, P.; t and,

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To determine neurosensory outcome at 8 years of age of extremely low birthweight (ELBW) children born in the 1990s, how it varies with birth weight, and how it compares with ELBW children born in the 1980s and 1970s.

  2. Cognitive and behavioral aspects of executive functions in children born very preterm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Barbara Catherine; Perrig, Walter; Steinlin, Maja; Everts, Regula

    2014-03-01

    This study investigated whether children aged between 8 and 12 years born very preterm (VPT) and/or at very low birth weight (VLBW) performed lower than same-aged term-born controls in cognitive and behavioral aspects of three executive functions: inhibition, working memory, and shifting. Special attention was given to sex differences. Fifty-two VPT/VLBW children (26 girls, 50%) born in the cohort of 1998-2003 and 36 same-aged term-born children (18 girls, 50%) were recruited. As cognitive measures, children completed tasks of inhibition (Color-Word Interference Test, D-KEFS; Delis, Kaplan, & Kramer, 2001), working memory (digit span backwards, HAWIK-IV; Petermann & Petermann, 2008), and shifting (Trail Making Test, number-letter-switching, D-KEFS; Delis et al., 2001). As behavioral measures, mothers completed the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF; Gioia, Isquith, Guy, & Kenworthy, 2000). Scales of interest were inhibit, working memory, and shift. Analyses of the cognitive aspects of executive functions revealed that VPT/VLBW children performed significantly lower than controls in the shifting task but not in the working memory and inhibition tasks. Analyses of behavioral aspects of executive functions revealed that VPT/VLBW children displayed more problems than the controls in working memory in everyday life but not in inhibition and shifting. No sex differences could be detected either in cognitive or behavioral aspects of executive functions. To conclude, cognitive and behavioral measures of executive functions were not congruent in VPT/VLBW children. In clinical practice, the combination of cognitive and behavioral instruments is required to disclose children's executive difficulties.

  3. Bloom syndrome in short children born small for gestational age: A challenging diagnosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.S. Renes (Judith); R.H. Willemsen (Ruben); A. Wagner (Anja); M.J. Finken (Martijn); A.C.S. Hokken-Koelega (Anita)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBackground: GH treatment has become a frequently applied growth-promoting therapy in short children born small for gestational age (SGA). In some disorders GH treatment is contraindicated, eg, chromosomal breakage syndromes. Bloom syndrome is a rare chromosomal breakage syndrome characte

  4. Asthma at 8 years of age in children born by caesarean section

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roduit, C.; Scholtens, S.; de Jongste, J.C.; Wijga, A.H.; Gerritsen, J.; Postma, D.S.; Brunekreef, B.; Hoekstra, M.O.; Aalberse, R.; Smit, H.A.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Caesarean section might be a risk factor for asthma because of delayed microbial colonisation, but the association remains controversial. A study was undertaken to investigate prospectively whether children born by caesarean section are more at risk of having asthma in childhood and sens

  5. Asthma at 8 years of age in children born by caesarean section.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roduit, C.; Scholtens, S.; de Jongste, J.C.; Wijga, A.H.; Gerritsen, J.; Postma, D.S.; Brunekreef, B.; Hoekstra, M.O.; Aalberse, R.C.; Smit, H.A.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Caesarean section might be a risk factor for asthma because of delayed microbial colonisation, but the association remains controversial. A study was undertaken to investigate prospectively whether children born by caesarean section are more at risk of having asthma in childhood and sens

  6. Degree of Perceived Accent in Finnish as a Second Language for Turkish Children Born in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzal, Melike; Peltonen, Teemu; Huotilainen, Minna; Aaltonen, Olli

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated whether children born in a second language (L2) environment pronounce their L2 with foreign accents and, if so, when foreign accents first emerge. This study also examined the latest age of onset (AO) of extensive L2 experience at which native L2 pronunciation is possible and explored several factors that affect the degree…

  7. The Life Course of Children Born to Unmarried Mothers: Childhood Living Arrangements and Young Adult Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquilino, William S.

    1996-01-01

    Explored living arrangements among children born to unmarried mothers and the impact of childhood living arrangements on the young adult's life course. Analyses showed that living arrangement patterns after birth to a single mother influenced the likelihood of high school completion, post secondary education, and other conditions. (RJM)

  8. Visuospatial Perception in Children Born Preterm With No Major Neurological Disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Butcher, Phillipa R.; Bouma, Anke; Stremmelaar, Elisabeth F.; Bos, Arend F.; Smithson, Michael; Van Braeckel, Koenraad N. J. A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Many investigations have found deficits in visuospatial perception in children born preterm, however, it is not clear whether the deficits are specific to visuospatial perception or the consequences of deficits in other functional areas, which often accompany preterm birth. This study inv

  9. Theoretical Factors Affecting Parental Roles in Children's Mathematical Learning in American and Chinese-Born Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Jessica H.; Hu, Bi Ying

    2011-01-01

    This introductory qualitative study sought to explain American and Chinese-born mothers' personal beliefs and experiences with mathematics, views of U.S. mathematics curriculum, and how these factors influenced motivation regarding roles played in their children's mathematical learning through expectancy-value and attribution theories. The…

  10. Psychological outcome and quality of life in children born with congenital diaphragmatic hernia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peetsold, M.; Huisman, J.; Hofman, V.E.; Heij, H.A.; Raat, H.; Gemke, R.J.B.J.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess psychological and social functioning as well as health-related quality of life and its early determinants in children born with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH). DESIGN: Cross-sectional follow-up study. SETTING: Outpatient clinic of a tertiary care hospital. PARTICIPANTS: T

  11. Motor learning and working memory in children born preterm: A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongbloed-Pereboom, M.; Janssen, A.J.W.M.; Steenbergen, Bert; Nijhuis-Van der Sanden, M.W.G.

    2012-01-01

    Children born preterm have a higher risk for developing motor, cognitive, and behavioral problems. Motor problems can occur in combination with working memory problems, and working memory is important for explicit learning of motor skills. The relation between motor learning and working memory has n

  12. Motor learning and working memory in children born preterm: a systematic review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongbloed-Pereboom, M.; Janssen, A.J.W.M.; Steenbergen, B.; Nijhuis-Van der Sanden, M.W.G.

    2012-01-01

    Children born preterm have a higher risk for developing motor, cognitive, and behavioral problems. Motor problems can occur in combination with working memory problems, and working memory is important for explicit learning of motor skills. The relation between motor learning and working memory has n

  13. Neonatal Morbidities and Developmental Delay in Moderately Preterm-Born Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerstjens, J.M.; Bocca-Tjeertes, I.F.; de Winter, A.F.; Reijneveld, S.A.; Bos, A.F.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Children born moderately preterm (32-35(6/7) weeks' gestation) are at increased risk of both neonatal morbidities and developmental delays in early childhood. It is unknown whether neonatal morbidities contribute to the increased risk of developmental delay. The objective o

  14. Longitudinal body composition of children born to normal weight, overweight and obese mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective: The longitudinal trajectories of body composition of children born to normal weight, overweight and obese mothers have not been evaluated using precise body composition methods. This study investigated the relationship between maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and offspring body composition traj...

  15. Maternal rigidity in infancy and level of intelligence at school age in children born preterm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Butcher, P.R.; Wijnberg-Williams, B.J; Hegemann, N; Stremmelaar, E.F; Schoemaker, M.M.; Van der Meere, J.J.; Bambang Oetomo, S

    2004-01-01

    Forty-four children who had been born preterm and their mothers participated in the follow-up study. At 3 and 14 months (corrected age) cognitive development was assessed using the BOS 2-30, the Dutch version of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development. The BOS yields measures of mental and motor dev

  16. Cortical morphometry and IQ in VLBW children without cerebral palsy born in 2003–2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Elisabeth Sølsnes

    2015-01-01

    We conclude that cortical deviations are evident in childhood even in VLBW children born in 2003–2007 who have received state of the art medical treatment in the perinatal period and who did not present with focal brain injuries on neonatal ultrasonography. The cortical deviations were associated with reduced cognitive functioning.

  17. Mortality rate in children born to mothers and fathers with celiac disease: a nationwide cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zugna, Daniela; Richiardi, Lorenzo; Stephansson, Olof; Cnattingius, Sven; Ludvigsson, Jonas F

    2013-06-15

    Celiac disease (CD) is associated with increased mortality rate and adverse pregnancy outcome, but little is known about offspring mortality rate. In this nationwide retrospective cohort study, we identified persons whose biopsy-verified CD was diagnosed in Sweden in 1969-2008. We compared mortality rates in children born to mothers with and without CD (n = 16,121 vs. n = 61,782) and children born to fathers with and without CD (n = 9,289 vs. n = 32,984). Median age of offspring at end of follow-up was 28.7 (range, 16.7-39.7) years. We also examined mortality rates in children born to mothers with undiagnosed CD (later CD diagnosis; n = 12,919) and diagnosed CD (n = 3,202) to determine if intrauterine exposures associated with CD could affect offspring mortality rate. We estimated hazard ratios for death by using Cox regression. Death rates were independent of maternal CD (60 deaths per 100,000 person-years in children of mothers with CD, vs. 54 in controls) and paternal CD (53 deaths per 100,000 person-years in children of fathers with CD, vs. 53 in controls). Corresponding adjusted hazard ratios were 1.09 (95% confidence interval: 0.95, 1.26) for maternal CD and 1.02 (95% confidence interval: 0.85, 1.23) for paternal CD. Death rates were similar in children born to mothers with undiagnosed CD and in children whose mothers had diagnosed CD during pregnancy. Parental CD does not seem to influence mortality rate in offspring, which suggests that neither genetic influences of CD nor intrauterine conditions have adverse effects on offspring mortality rate.

  18. Type 1 diabetes risk in children born to women with fertility problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hargreave, Marie; Kjaer, Susanne K; Jørgensen, Marit E

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: While some studies have indicated that children born following fertility treatment are at an increased risk for insulin resistance and higher blood glucose levels, no study to date has investigated the risk of type 1 diabetes. In this large population-based cohort study we aim to as...... 1.01, 95% CI 0.90-1.13) when taking into account birth year, sex, history of parental diabetes, parental age and age at diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: Our results showed no association between maternal fertility problems and risk of type 1 diabetes in children.......INTRODUCTION: While some studies have indicated that children born following fertility treatment are at an increased risk for insulin resistance and higher blood glucose levels, no study to date has investigated the risk of type 1 diabetes. In this large population-based cohort study we aim...... to assess the association between maternal fertility problems and the risk of type 1 diabetes in children. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Information on all children, born in Denmark from 1987 to 2010, was extracted from the Civil Registration System and linked with the Danish Infertility Cohort to identify maternal...

  19. [[Streptococcus mutans Acquisition and Dental Caries Development in First-Born Children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noce, Erica; Rubira, Cassia Maria Fischer; da Silva Rosa, Odila Pereira; da Silva, Salete Moura Bonifácio; Bretz, Walter Antonio

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the moment of streptococcus mutans (SM) acquisition, caries development and their associate variables along 23 months, in first-born children of low socioeconomic status families, starting at 7 months of age. METHOD: The sample was chosen based on highly SM-colonized mothers, including all members of 14 families living in the same houses. The study included 14 mothers, 14 fathers and 14 first-borns and 8 relatives (mostly grandparents). Initial clinical examinations and radiographs determined the caries indices and periodontal conditions of the adults. SM count in all adults was made in the first 2 visits. The children were examined for SM count, number of teeth and number of carious lesions, in 4 visits. RESULTS: SM prevalence was high in the adults, being absent in only one of the parents. SM was found in 1, 2, 3 and 10 children in the first, second, third and fourth visits. Dental caries was detected in only 3 children in the last visit (at 30 months), who presented significantly higher SM scores than the children without caries in the same visit. CONCLUSION: A low income social condition and mothers highly colonized by SM do not mean necessarily early SM colonization and high caries activity in children with oral homecare. Caries development is significantly associated with high SM scores in the children.

  20. [The cytokine profile in the acute period of tick-borne neuroinfections in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poponnikova, T V; Bedareva, T Iu; Vakhrameeva, T N; Galieva, G Iu

    2010-01-01

    Clinical peculiarities and blood levels of several cytokines were studied in 199 children, aged from 1 to 15 years, in the acute period of different tick-borne infections. The mixed infection manifested itself by the more severe progression of general clinical presentations compared to monoinfections. Etiologically unspecific changes of blood concentrations of cytokines in the acute period of the disease were found. These data were associated with different clinical forms of tick-borne infections. The decrease in the interferon gamma production was associated with the most severe disease progression with focal nervous system disorders. The use of cycloferon as immune modulator in the complex therapy led to the increase in the interferon gamma level and the decrease of general clinical manifestations during tick-borne encephalitis and mixed infection.

  1. Reduced corticomotor excitability and motor skills development in children born preterm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitcher, Julia B; Schneider, Luke A; Burns, Nicholas R; Drysdale, John L; Higgins, Ryan D; Ridding, Michael C; Nettelbeck, Theodore J; Haslam, Ross R; Robinson, Jeffrey S

    2012-11-15

    The mechanisms underlying the altered neurodevelopment commonly experienced by children born preterm, but without brain lesions, remain unknown. While individuals born the earliest are at most risk, late preterm children also experience significant motor, cognitive and behavioural dysfunction from school age, and reduced income and educational attainment in adulthood. We used transcranial magnetic stimulation and functional assessments to examine corticomotor development in 151 children without cerebral palsy, aged 10-13 years and born after gestations of 25-41 completed weeks. We hypothesized that motor cortex and corticospinal development are altered in preterm children, which underpins at least some of their motor dysfunction. We report for the first time that every week of reduced gestation is associated with a reduction in corticomotor excitability that remains evident in late childhood. This reduced excitability was associated with poorer motor skill development, particularly manual dexterity. However, child adiposity, sex and socio-economic factors regarding the child's home environment soon after birth were also powerful influences on development of motor skills. Preterm birth was also associated with reduced left hemisphere lateralization, but without increasing the likelihood of being left handed per se. These corticomotor findings have implications for normal motor development, but also raise questions regarding possible longer term consequences of preterm birth on motor function.

  2. PREMATURE BIRTH, MORPHOLOGY OF PLACENTA AND INTRAUTERINE GROWTH RETARDATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.V. Vasilenko

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Retrospectively studied following and outcome of pregnancy, women with non carrying of pregnancy, women that give birth to children with development delay (1 group and women that give birth in proper time (2 group. Premature birth arranged 4,4% of 2962 delivery. Fetus development delay was established by 38,1% of premature babies and by 10,5% of borne in proper time. Non carrying of pregnancy stipulated by motherґs urogenital infection, high expressed gestosis and others obsterical and extra genital complications. Each third of women that give birth to premature babies with development delay, have inflammatory overpatching in placenta, each fifth have morphological proved FPI. Realized researches allowed to conclude, that for decreasing frequencies of premature births and fetus development delay is necessary doing opportunely urogenital tract sonation, pre-clinical diagnostics of gestosis Noncarryng of pregnancy and treat this disease preventive.

  3. Psychomotor and intellectual development of children born with intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puga, B; Ferrández Longás, A; García Romero, R; Mayayo, E; Labarta, J I

    2004-03-01

    The possible impact of IUGR on the intellectual outcome of children born with IUGR gives special relevance to this condition. In order to determine the psychomotor and intellectual development of such children, we analyzed the evolution of 60 children through appropriate tests, along the years, and the possible influence of two factors, the socio-economic status of the family, and whether or not there was catch-up growth. Our results show a negative impact of IUGR on the intellectual outcome of these children, independent of catch-up growth, although those with catch-up growth showed better evolution. The socio-economic status plays a limited role only at older age. Those children followed longitudinally for 1 year did not show any amelioration of their IQ.

  4. Cognitive and social development in preschool children born to women using substances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Irner, Tina Birk; Teasdale, Thomas William; Olofsson, May

    2012-01-01

    influence childhood development in addition to the teratological effect of prenatal substance exposure. This study explores the long-term developmental consequences in children from birth to age 7 born to women using substances and are in treatment. A series of t tests were performed to explore group...... effects on the cognitive and social dimensions of Griffiths Mental Development Scales compared with Swedish norms. The results showed significant effects on eye and hand coordination in children aged birth to 7 years and on hearing and speech, practical reasoning, and the general quotient in children aged...... 3 to 7 years. Children who were exposed primarily to alcohol in utero scored significantly lower on the personal and social skills subscale, eye and hand coordination subscale, and the general quotient than children exposed primarily to substances other than alcohol. These effects did not appear...

  5. Premature infant

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are many support groups for parents of premature babies. Ask the social worker in the neonatal intensive care unit. ... Prematurity used to be a major cause of infant deaths. Improved ... Prematurity can have long-term effects. Many premature infants ...

  6. Tick-borne Relapsing Fever in Children in the North-west of Iran, Qazvin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayazi, Parviz; Mahyar, Abolfazl; Oveisi, Sonia; Esmailzadehha, Neda; Nooroozi, Sadralnesa

    2015-01-01

    Relapsing fever is caused by the Borrelia species of spirochetes. Louse-borne epidemics of the disease may happen but the endemic disease is generally transmitted to humans by the bite of an infected tick (Ornithodorus). Clinical and laboratory findings of tick-borne relapsing fever in children in the north-west of Iran, Qazvin, were evaluated. This study was conducted from September 1992 to September 2012. Records from 53 cases of tick-borne relapsing fever (TBRF) were reviewed. In positive cases, febrile illness, and spirochetes were recognized in peripheral blood preparations. Of the 53 children younger than 12 years, fifty two percent were male and about one third (34%) of the patients were in the age range of 7-12 years. The disease is recorded through the whole year but its peak occurs during summer (52.8%) and autumn (32.1%). Sixty eight percent of patients were living in urban areas but had frequent travel to rural area. Thirty two percent of the cases were living in rural areas where their dwellings were close to animal shelters. All (100%) of the 53 subjects were febrile. Travellers to the rural areas with high prevalence of the disease should be attentive of the risk of tick-borne relapsing fever and use suitable control measures. Consequently relapsing fever should be considered when patients who live in or have vacationed in north-west of Iran show a recurring febrile illness.

  7. Neurodevelopmental disorders in children born to mothers with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinet, É; Pineau, C A; Clarke, A E; Fombonne, É; Platt, R W; Bernatsky, S

    2014-10-01

    Children born to women with systemic lupus erythematosus seem to have a potentially increased risk of neurodevelopmental disorders compared to children born to healthy women. Recent experimental data suggest in utero exposure to maternal antibodies and cytokines as important risk factors for neurodevelopmental disorders. Interestingly, women with systemic lupus erythematosus display high levels of autoantibodies and cytokines, which have been shown, in animal models, to alter fetal brain development and induce behavioral anomalies in offspring. Furthermore, subjects with systemic lupus erythematosus and neurodevelopmental disorders share a common genetic predisposition, which could impair the fetal immune response to in utero immunologic insults. Moreover, systemic lupus erythematosus pregnancies are at increased risk of adverse obstetrical outcomes and medication exposures, which have been implicated as potential risk factors for neurodevelopmental disorders. In this article, we review the current state of knowledge on neurodevelopmental disorders and their potential determinants in systemic lupus erythematosus offspring.

  8. Functional Outcomes at Age 7 Years of Moderate Preterm and Full Term Children Born Small for Gestational Age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tanis, Jozien C; van Braeckel, Koenraad N J A; Kerstjens, Jorien M; Bocca-Tjeertes, Inger F A; Reijneveld, Sijmen A; Bos, Arend F

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare functional outcomes of 7-year-old (school-age) children born small for gestational age (SGA; ie, a birth weight z score ≤ -1 SD), with appropriate for gestational age (AGA) peers, born moderately preterm or full term. STUDY DESIGN: Data were collected as part of the Longitudina

  9. Fatores prognósticos para o desenvolvimento cognitivo de prematuros de muito baixo peso Prognostic factors for cognitive development of very low birth weight premature children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Dalva Barbosa Baker Méio

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Crianças prematuras, de muito baixo peso, podem apresentar alterações em seu desenvolvimento cognitivo. No Brasil, pouco se conhece sobre a evolução dessas crianças na idade pré-escolar. O objetivo do estudo foi descrever o desenvolvimento cognitivo de uma população de recém-nascidos prematuros de muito baixo peso e verificar possíveis fatores prognósticos para desenvolvimento cognitivo anormal. MÉTODOS: Um estudo de coorte foi realizado com uma população de crianças pré-escolares, nascidas prematuras, de muito baixo peso, entre janeiro de 1991 e setembro de 1993. O desenvolvimento cognitivo foi avaliado por meio do teste WPPSI-R (Wechsler Preschool and Primary Intelligence Scales aplicado por psicólogas, utilizando dois pontos de corte para definição de anormalidade: escores abaixo de 1 e 2, desvios padrões da média (DP. RESULTADOS: Foram avaliadas 79 crianças de quatro a cinco anos de idade. A média do escore total do teste WIPPSI-R foi de 75,6 (±11,9. A incidência de escore total anormal foi de 77,2% e de 32,9% (1DP e 2 DP, respectivamente. Após o ajuste por "tipo de parto", ser pequeno para a idade gestacional (OR=6,19; IC95% 1,60-23,86, ultra-som transfontanela anormal (OR=5,90; IC95% 1,04-9,83 e ser do sexo masculino (OR=3,20; IC 95% 1,32-26,35 foram os fatores que predisseram escore total OBJECTIVE: Very low birth weight premature children often show cognitive development abnormalities. There is scarce information about the outcome of these children at preschool age in Brazil.The objective of the study is to describe the cognitive development of a population of premature newborns and to assess possible prognostic factors for abnormalities. METHODS: A cohort study was conducted in a preschool children population whose subjects were very low birth weight premature babies born between January 1991 and September 1993. WPPSI-R Test was used for cognitive evaluation and it was applied by psychologists. Two

  10. Health of children born through artificial oocyte activation: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deemeh, Mohammad R; Tavalaee, Marziyeh; Nasr-Esfahani, Mohammad H

    2015-03-01

    Artificial oocyte activation (AOA) has shown to improve fertility in severe male infertility following intracytoplasmic sperm insemination (ICSI). However, the effect of AOA on the health status of children has not been studied. This pilot historical cohort study aims to evaluate physical and mental health of 79 and 89 children from 275 and 406 couples undergoing ICSI-AOA using ionomycin and conventional ICSI, respectively. The outcomes assessed were clinical pregnancy, abortion, type of delivery, and health of children (major birth defect, mental and behavior status). No significant differences were observed between the ICSI-AOA and the ICSI groups for these parameters, and the rate of major birth defects were not significantly different between the 2 groups. In this study, AOA has not imposed a greater risk on physical and mental health of children born through AOA, but for such a solid conclusion, further trails with higher number of cases are required and conclusions drawn are limited to this study.

  11. Decomposing the Household Food Insecurity Gap for Children of U.S.-Born and Foreign-Born Hispanics: Evidence from 1998 to 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arteaga, Irma; Potochnick, Stephanie; Parsons, Sarah

    2017-03-13

    Using the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-K, multivariate analysis, state fixed effects, and regression decomposition, we examine changes in food insecurity for Hispanic kindergarteners between 1998 and 2011, a time period of rapid immigration and political/socio-economic changes. During this time the household food insecurity gap between children of U.S.-born and foreign-born mothers increased by almost 7 percentage points. The factors-child, family, and state-that contributed to the nativity gap differed over time. In both periods, lower familial resources among immigrant families, i.e. endowment effects, contributed to the gap; this was the main component of the gap in 2011 but only one component in 1998. In 1998, heterogeneity in state effects was positively associated with the nativity food insecurity gap. This means that children of foreign-born mothers experience higher household food insecurity than do children of U.S.-born mothers in the same state, even after controlling for child and family characteristics. In 2011, almost half of the gap remained unexplained. This unexplained portion could be driven by differential effects of the Great Recession, growing anti-immigrant sentiment, and/or the relatively large share of unauthorized immigrants in 2011.

  12. Renal elasticity quantification by acoustic radiation force impulse in children born preterm: preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Zaffanello

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available An emerging hypothesis from the recent literature describes how specific adverse factors related to growth retardation and low birth weight might influence renal development during fetal life and the insurgence of relevant pathologies in adulthood. Preterm births and related perinatal events can affect the mechanical proprieties of kidneys in childhood. We retrieved the laboratory medical records of 3 children born preterm, all in good condition, and investigated the elastic properties of their kidneys using the acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI technique. Shear wave velocity (SWV obtained by the ARFI technique depends on the elasticity of a parenchymatous tissue.Medical records of case patient 1 showed a shorter right kidney (5th percentile, a greater protein/creatinine ratio and higher α1-microglobulin in the urine spot if compared with controls. Patients 2 and 3 had unremarkable laboratory results. Moreover, compared with the same results of healthy full-term normal children obtained from a previous study of ours, we observed higher SWV values (m/s for the left kidney in patients 1 and 3; patient 2 had lower SWV values in both kidneys. The altered SWV values, measured in these children born preterm, may be correlated with a possible underlying renal pathology (for instance, disruption of the renal histology. Altered SWV values are generally observed also in 2 out of 3 children with a history of normal laboratory markers of renal function. Further studies are needed on larger cohorts of patients.

  13. Interaction with the Mother in Children Born as a Result of in Vitro Fertilization (IVF: Attachment and Parenting Style Features

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    Dueva A.A.,

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the social and emotional development of children. We tested and partially confirmed the hypothesis that children born as a result of reproductive technology, less often show reliable attachment type than the naturally born children. Such a pattern may emerge because of the behavior of IVF mothers. The present study involved 11 children aged from 5 years to 6 years 11 months, born as a result of IVF, and 10 control children conceived naturally, as well as their mothers. To collect anamnesis, we used: survey of parents with Child-parent emotional interaction questionnaire, and techniques Analysis of family education, projective drawing techniques Nest drawing and Drawing dialogue aimed at identifying the quality of the child's attachment to his mother and interaction in the dyad, as well as Kaplan method for determining the type of attachment.

  14. Outcomes for Extremely Premature Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Hannah C.; Costarino, Andrew T.; Stayer, Stephen A.; Brett, Claire; Cladis, Franklyn; Davis, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    children born at these early gestational ages. The striking similarities in response to extreme prematurity in the lung and brain imply that agents and techniques that benefit one organ are likely to also benefit the other. Finally, since therapy and supportive care continue to change, the outcomes of ELBW infants are ever evolving. Efforts to minimize injury, preserve growth, and identify interventions focused on antioxidant and anti-inflammatory pathways are now being evaluated. Thus, treating and preventing long-term deficits must be developed in the context of a “moving target.” PMID:25988638

  15. Outcomes for extremely premature infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Hannah C; Costarino, Andrew T; Stayer, Stephen A; Brett, Claire M; Cladis, Franklyn; Davis, Peter J

    2015-06-01

    social problems is critical for children born at these early gestational ages.The striking similarities in response to extreme prematurity in the lung and brain imply that agents and techniques that benefit one organ are likely to also benefit the other. Finally, because therapy and supportive care continue to change, the outcomes of extremely low birth weight infants are ever evolving. Efforts to minimize injury, preserve growth, and identify interventions focused on antioxidant and anti-inflammatory pathways are now being evaluated. Thus, treating and preventing long-term deficits must be developed in the context of a "moving target."

  16. Different sex ratios of children born to Indian and Pakistani immigrants in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brekke Torkel

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A low female-to-male ratio has been observed in different Asian countries, but this phenomenon has not been well studied among immigrants living in Western societies. In this study, we investigated whether a low female-to-male ratio exists among Indian and Pakistani immigrants living in Norway. In particular, we investigated whether the determination of sex via ultrasound examination, a common obstetric procedure that has been used in Norway since the early 1980 s, has influenced the female-to-male ratio among children born to parents of Indian or Pakistani origin. Methods We performed a retrospective cohort study of live births in mothers of Indian (n = 1597 and Pakistani (n = 5617 origin. Data were obtained from "Statistics Norway" and the female-to-male (F/M sex ratio was evaluated among 21,325 children born, in increasing birth order, during three stratified periods (i.e., 1969-1986, 1987-1996, and 1997-2005. Results A significant low female-to-male sex ratio was observed among children in the third and fourth birth order (sex ratio 65; 95% CI 51-80 from mothers of Indian origin who gave birth after 1987. Sex ratios did not deviate from the expected natural variation in the Indian cohort from 1969 to 1986, and remained stable in the Pakistani cohort during the entire study period. However, the female-to-male sex ratio seemed less skewed in recent years (i.e., 1997-2005. Conclusion Significant differences were observed in the sex ratio of children born to mothers of Indian origin compared with children born to mothers of Pakistani origin. A skewed number of female births among higher birth orders (i.e., third or later may partly reflect an increase in sex-selective abortion among mothers of Indian origin, although the numbers are too small to draw firm conclusions. Further research is needed to explain the observed differences in the female-to-male ratio among members of these ethnic groups who reside in Norway.

  17. 早产对脑性瘫痪儿童乳牙釉质发育的影响%The developmental enamel defects in the primary dentition of cerebral palsied children with premature birth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林小波; 张笋; 吴卫红; 吴志文

    2011-01-01

    目的 研究早产因素对脑瘫儿童乳牙釉质发育缺陷的影响.方法 选择135名脑瘫患儿,与62名正常儿童对比,进行乳牙釉质发育缺陷状况的统计调查.同时比较脑瘫儿童中早产与乳牙釉质发育缺陷发生的关系.结果 脑瘫儿童组中早产儿童乳牙釉质发育缺陷的患病率明显高于足月组,有统计学差异(P<0.05).结论 早产的脑瘫儿童更容易发生乳牙釉质发育缺陷.%Objective To investigate the developmental enamel defects in the primary dentition of cerebral palsied children with premature birth. Methods One hundred and thirty-five children with cerebral palsy were examined for the clinical manifestation of the developmental enamel defects in the primary dentition. The relationship between the defects and cerebral palsied children's birth conditions were assessed. Results The prevalence of enamel defects in cerebral palsied children born premarurely was significantly higher than that in those with full term birth. Conclusion Enamel defects in the primary dentition are more likely to happen in cerebral palsied children with premature birth than those with full term birth.

  18. A predictive model for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV hospitalisation of premature infants born at 33–35 weeks of gestational age, based on data from the Spanish FLIP study

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    Figueras-Aloy Jose

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study, conducted in Europe, was to develop a validated risk factor based model to predict RSV-related hospitalisation in premature infants born 33–35 weeks' gestational age (GA. Methods The predictive model was developed using risk factors captured in the Spanish FLIP dataset, a case-control study of 183 premature infants born between 33–35 weeks' GA who were hospitalised with RSV, and 371 age-matched controls. The model was validated internally by 100-fold bootstrapping. Discriminant function analysis was used to analyse combinations of risk factors to predict RSV hospitalisation. Successive models were chosen that had the highest probability for discriminating between hospitalised and non-hospitalised infants. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC curves were plotted. Results An initial 15 variable model was produced with a discriminant function of 72% and an area under the ROC curve of 0.795. A step-wise reduction exercise, alongside recalculations of some variables, produced a final model consisting of 7 variables: birth ± 10 weeks of start of season, birth weight, breast feeding for ≤ 2 months, siblings ≥ 2 years, family members with atopy, family members with wheeze, and gender. The discrimination of this model was 71% and the area under the ROC curve was 0.791. At the 0.75 sensitivity intercept, the false positive fraction was 0.33. The 100-fold bootstrapping resulted in a mean discriminant function of 72% (standard deviation: 2.18 and a median area under the ROC curve of 0.785 (range: 0.768–0.790, indicating a good internal validation. The calculated NNT for intervention to treat all at risk patients with a 75% level of protection was 11.7 (95% confidence interval: 9.5–13.6. Conclusion A robust model based on seven risk factors was developed, which is able to predict which premature infants born between 33–35 weeks' GA are at highest risk of hospitalisation from RSV. The model could be

  19. Executive functions, social information processing, and social adjustment in young children born with very low birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Kelly R; Vannatta, Kathryn; Nelin, Mary Ann; Yeates, Keith Owen

    2015-01-01

    Children born with very low birth weight (VLBW) are at risk for neurocognitive and behavioral sequelae. Although VLBW infants are at higher risk for deficits in executive functions (EFs) and social functioning during school-age years, few studies have investigated those sequelae or their association in young children born VLBW. We examined the associations between EFs and social functioning in preterm, VLBW children age 4-6 years (n = 20) and matched, term-born, normal birth weight controls admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) after birth (n = 18). The groups did not differ significantly on measures of EFs, social information processing, or parent-reported social adjustment. The VLBW group had lower IQs than controls, though both group means were in the average range. Within the VLBW group, medical predictors of better EFs included older gestational age at birth and no history of bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Across groups, EFs and social information processing were positively correlated. Deficits in EFs and social functioning may emerge after the preschool years in VLBW children, or improved care of children born VLBW may be reducing the cognitive and psychosocial sequelae observed in earlier cohorts. Among children born VLBW, early EFs may be directly related to social information processing.

  20. Social competence of 3 to 5-year-old children born with low birth weight

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    Nurul Komariah

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Low birth weight (LBW has long been used as an indicator of public health. Low birth weight is not a proxy for any dimension of other maternal or perinatal health outcomes. Low birth weight infants require special care, and have more chronic conditions, learning delays, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorders compared to infants of normal birth weight (NBW. Social competence is viewed as a primary component of healthy function and development and is an important predictor of academic and financial success.Objective To examine social competence of children aged 3-5 years born with low birth weight.Methods This cross-sectional study was undertaken in Palembang in 2012. Subjects consisted of children aged 3-5 years attended a preschool in the Seberang Ulu I District, Palembang, and were divided into two groups: low birth weight (LBW and normal birth weight (NBW. Social competence was assessed by observation and Interaction Rating Scale (IRS and Parenting Style questionnaire (PSQ. Chi-square analysis was used to compare social competence between the two groups. Multivariate regression logistic analysis was used to assess for the dominant factors that may affect a child’s social competence.Results Low birth weight children aged 3 to 5 years had a 1.435 times higher risk of low social competence compared to normal birth weight children of similar age. (RP 1.435; 95%CI 1.372 to 13.507; P=0.019. Multivariate regression logistic analysis revealed that parenting style was a dominant factor affecting social competence.Conclusion Social competence in 3 to 5-year-old children born with low birth weight is lower compared to those with normal birth weight.

  1. Clinical Implications of Diffuse Excessive High Signal Intensity (DEHSI on Neonatal MRI in School Age Children Born Extremely Preterm.

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    Lina Broström

    Full Text Available Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of the brain carried out during the neonatal period shows that 55-80% of extremely preterm infants display white matter diffuse excessive high signal intensity (DEHSI. Our aim was to study differences in developmental outcome at the age of 6.5 years in children born extremely preterm with and without DEHSI.This was a prospective cohort study of 83 children who were born in Stockholm, Sweden, between 2004 and 2007, born at gestational age of < 27 weeks + 0 days and who underwent an MRI scan of their brain at term equivalent age. The outcome measures at 6.5 years included testing 66 children with the modified Touwen neurology examination, the Movement Assessment Battery for Children 2, the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition, Beery Visual-motor Integration test-Sixth Edition, and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Group-wise comparisons were done between children with and without DEHSI using Student t-test, Mann Whitney U test, Chi square test and regression analysis.DEHSI was detected in 39 (59% of the 66 children who were assessed at 6.5 years. The presence of DEHSI was not associated with mild neurological dysfunction, scores on M-ABC assessment, cognition, visual-motor integration, or behavior at 6.5 years.The presence of qualitatively defined DEHSI on neonatal MRI did not prove to be a useful predictor of long-term impairment in children born extremely preterm.

  2. Children born preterm and full term have similar rates of feeding problems at three years of age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuis, Tjitske; Verhagen, Elise A.; Bos, Arend F.; van Dijk, Marijn W. G.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: We determined the prevalence of feeding problems and their association with perinatal risk factors in three-year-old children born preterm and compared them with a full-term reference group. Methods: This pilot study assessed feeding problem scores in 35 preterm children, with a median gestatio

  3. Self-Regulation in Children Born with Extremely Low Birth Weight at 2 Years Old: A Comparison Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Lisa N.; Cuskelly, Monica; Gray, Peter H.; O'Callaghan, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Survival rates for children born with extremely low birth weight (ELBW) are increasing; however, many of these children experience later problems with learning. This study adopted an integrated approach to these problems, involving the self-regulatory tasks of inhibition and delay of gratification and relevant individual factors including…

  4. Population based external validation of a European predictive model for respiratory syncytial virus hospitalization of premature infants born 33 to 35 weeks of gestational age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stensballe, Lone G; Fullarton, John R; Carbonell-Estrany, Xavier

    2010-01-01

    Prospectively collected population-based data on 2529 Danish infants born at 33 to 35 weeks of gestation were used to validate an European predictive model of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) hospitalization. The model was found to be robust with a diagnostic accuracy of 65.9% to distinguish bet...

  5. Early nursing intervention of retinopathy of premature children%早产儿视网膜病变的早期护理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋霞梅; 钟春霞; 韦素松

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the early screening; treatment and care methods of the retinopathy (ROP) of preterm children. Methods 210 premature children born in our hospital were selected to conduct eye screening,treatment and care from January to December 2009.The nursing key points were summarized. Results Among 210 preterm children,15 cases occurred ROP,the rate was 7.1%.Lesions appeared to be the threshold for laser treatment in 8 patients (16 eyes),accounting for 3.8%.The ROP morbidity rate was higher in birth weight ≤ 1000 g group than that in birth weight > 1000 g group,higher in gestational age ≤32-week group than that in gestational age> 32 weeks,higher in the inhalation oxygen concentration ≤ 96% group than in inhalation oxygen concentration > 96% group.Significant difference existed in ROP and non-ROP preterm children. Conclusions The incidence of retinopathy of premature children was closely related with low gestational age,low birth weight and prolonged and high-concentration oxygen inhalation,timely screening and early intervention care should be given to them.%目的 探讨早产儿视网膜病变(ROP)的早期筛查、治疗及护理方法.方法 选择2009年1~12月在我院出生的210例早产儿,进行眼部筛查、治疗及护理,将护理要点进行总结.结果 210例早产儿中,有15例发生ROP,发生率为7.1%.出现阈值病变需进行激光治疗者8例(16只眼)占3.8%.出生体质量≤1000 g组的ROP患病率显著高于出生体质量>1000 g组,孕周≤32周组的ROP患病率显著高于孕周>32周组,吸氧浓度≤96%组的ROP患病率低于吸氧浓度>96%组.无ROP与有ROP的早产儿吸氧时间相比差异显著.结论 早产儿视网膜病变的发生与低胎龄、低出生体质量和高浓度、长时间吸氧关系密切,应及时筛查,早期进行护理干预.

  6. Brain network characterization of high-risk preterm-born school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischi-Gomez, Elda; Muñoz-Moreno, Emma; Vasung, Lana; Griffa, Alessandra; Borradori-Tolsa, Cristina; Monnier, Maryline; Lazeyras, François; Thiran, Jean-Philippe; Hüppi, Petra S

    2016-01-01

    Higher risk for long-term cognitive and behavioral impairments is one of the hallmarks of extreme prematurity (EP) and pregnancy-associated fetal adverse conditions such as intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). While neurodevelopmental delay and abnormal brain function occur in the absence of overt brain lesions, these conditions have been recently associated with changes in microstructural brain development. Recent imaging studies indicate changes in brain connectivity, in particular involving the white matter fibers belonging to the cortico-basal ganglia-thalamic loop. Furthermore, EP and IUGR have been related to altered brain network architecture in childhood, with reduced network global capacity, global efficiency and average nodal strength. In this study, we used a connectome analysis to characterize the structural brain networks of these children, with a special focus on their topological organization. On one hand, we confirm the reduced averaged network node degree and strength due to EP and IUGR. On the other, the decomposition of the brain networks in an optimal set of clusters remained substantially different among groups, talking in favor of a different network community structure. However, and despite the different community structure, the brain networks of these high-risk school-age children maintained the typical small-world, rich-club and modularity characteristics in all cases. Thus, our results suggest that brain reorganizes after EP and IUGR, prioritizing a tight modular structure, to maintain the small-world, rich-club and modularity characteristics. By themselves, both extreme prematurity and IUGR bear a similar risk for neurocognitive and behavioral impairment, and the here defined modular network alterations confirm similar structural changes both by IUGR and EP at school age compared to control. Interestingly, the combination of both conditions (IUGR + EP) does not result in a worse outcome. In such cases, the alteration in network

  7. Brain network characterization of high-risk preterm-born school-age children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elda Fischi-Gomez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Higher risk for long-term cognitive and behavioral impairments is one of the hallmarks of extreme prematurity (EP and pregnancy-associated fetal adverse conditions such as intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR. While neurodevelopmental delay and abnormal brain function occur in the absence of overt brain lesions, these conditions have been recently associated with changes in microstructural brain development. Recent imaging studies indicate changes in brain connectivity, in particular involving the white matter fibers belonging to the cortico-basal ganglia-thalamic loop. Furthermore, EP and IUGR have been related to altered brain network architecture in childhood, with reduced network global capacity, global efficiency and average nodal strength. In this study, we used a connectome analysis to characterize the structural brain networks of these children, with a special focus on their topological organization. On one hand, we confirm the reduced averaged network node degree and strength due to EP and IUGR. On the other, the decomposition of the brain networks in an optimal set of clusters remained substantially different among groups, talking in favor of a different network community structure. However, and despite the different community structure, the brain networks of these high-risk school-age children maintained the typical small-world, rich-club and modularity characteristics in all cases. Thus, our results suggest that brain reorganizes after EP and IUGR, prioritizing a tight modular structure, to maintain the small-world, rich-club and modularity characteristics. By themselves, both extreme prematurity and IUGR bear a similar risk for neurocognitive and behavioral impairment, and the here defined modular network alterations confirm similar structural changes both by IUGR and EP at school age compared to control. Interestingly, the combination of both conditions (IUGR + EP does not result in a worse outcome. In such cases, the alteration

  8. Brain development, intelligence and cognitive outcome in children born small for gestational age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bie, H M A; Oostrom, K J; Delemarre-van de Waal, H A

    2010-01-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) can lead to infants being born small for gestational age (SGA). SGA is associated with increased neonatal morbidity and mortality as well as short stature, cardiovascular disease, insulin resistance, diabetes mellitus type 2, dyslipidemia and end-stage renal disease in adulthood. In addition, SGA children have decreased levels of intelligence and cognition, although the effects are mostly subtle. The overall outcome of each child is the result of a complex interaction between intrauterine and extrauterine factors. Animal and human studies show structural alterations in the brains of individuals with IUGR/SGA. The presence of growth hormone (GH) receptors in the brain implies that the brain is also a target for GH. Exogenous GH theoretically has the ability to act on the brain. This is exemplified by the effects of GH on cognition in GH-deficient adults. In SGA children, data on the effect of exogenous GH on intelligence and cognition are scant and contradictory.

  9. [The possibility of registering in the Spanish Civil Registry children born abroad from surrogate mothers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Barrón Arniches, Paloma

    2009-01-01

    In the Spanish Civil Registry it is now possible to register "natural" children of a homosexual marriage born overseas through surrogate pregnancy. And this is despite article 10.1 of the current Spanish law regarding assisted human reproduction techniques, which declares fully null and void contracts renouncing maternal relationship, and orders imperatively that in these cases, the relationship of children is determined by birth. This article analyses and formulates a criticism regarding the Resolution of the Office of Registries and Notaries, of February 18, 2009, insisting on some relevant issues such as legal security and greater interest of the minor, in the context of the analysis of the facts of the case and the arguments put forward in the resolution.

  10. Health and development of children born after assisted reproductive technology and sub-fertility compared to naturally conceived children: data from a national study

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    Alastair G. Sutcliffe

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In a non-matched case-control study using data from two large national cohort studies, we investigated whether indicators of child health and development up to 7 years of age differ between children conceived using assisted reproductive technology (ART, children born after sub-fertility (more than 24 months of trying for conception and other children. Information on ART use/sub-fertility was available for 23,649 children. There were 227 cases (children conceived through ART and two control groups: 783 children born to sub-fertile couples, and 22,639 children born to couples with no fertility issues. In models adjusted for social and demographic factors there were significant differences between groups in rate of hospital admissions before the children were 9 months old (P=0.029, with the ART group showing higher rates of hospital admission than the no fertility issues control group, the sub-fertile control group being intermediate between the two. Children born after ART had comparable health and development beyond 9 months of age to their naturally conceived peers. This applied to the whole sample and to a sub-sample of children from deprived neighborhoods.

  11. Neurodevelopmental Outcomes and Neural Mechanisms Associated with Non-right Handedness in Children Born Very Preterm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascoe, Leona; Scratch, Shannon E; Burnett, Alice C; Thompson, Deanne K; Lee, Katherine J; Doyle, Lex W; Cheong, Jeanie L Y; Inder, Terrie E; Anderson, Peter J

    2015-09-01

    Non-right handedness (NRH) is reportedly more common in very preterm (VPT; <32 weeks' gestation) children compared with term-born peers, but it is unclear whether neonatal brain injury or altered brain morphology and microstructure underpins NRH in this population. Given that NRH has been inconsistently reported to be associated with cognitive and motor difficulties, this study aimed to examine associations between handedness and neurodevelopmental outcomes in VPT 7-year-olds. Furthermore, the relationship between neonatal brain injury and integrity of motor tracts (corpus callosum and corticospinal tract) with handedness at age 7 years in VPT children was explored. One hundred seventy-five VPT and 69 term-born children completed neuropsychological and motor assessments and a measure of handedness at 7 years' corrected age. At term-equivalent age, brain injury on MRI was assessed and diffusion tensor measures were obtained for the corpus callosum and posterior limb of the internal capsule. There was little evidence of stronger NRH in the VPT group compared with term controls (regression coefficient [b] -1.95, 95% confidence interval [-5.67, 1.77]). Poorer academic and working memory outcomes were associated with stronger NRH in the VPT group. While there was little evidence that neonatal unilateral brain injury was associated with stronger NRH, increased area and fractional anisotropy of the corpus callosum splenium were predictive of stronger NRH in the VPT group. VPT birth may alter the relationship between handedness and academic outcomes, and neonatal corpus callosum integrity predicts hand preference in VPT children at school age. (JINS, 2015, 21, 610-621).

  12. WHO Child Growth Standards Are Often Incorrectly Applied to Children Born Preterm in Epidemiologic Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perumal, Nandita; Gaffey, Michelle F; Bassani, Diego G; Roth, Daniel E

    2015-11-01

    In epidemiologic research, there is no standard approach for accounting for gestational age (GA) at birth when interpreting postnatal anthropometric data in analyses of cohorts that include children born preterm (CBP). A scoping review was conducted to describe analytical approaches to account for GA at birth when applying the WHO Growth Standards (WHO-GS) to anthropometric data in epidemiologic studies. We searched PubMed, Scopus, MEDLINE, Embase, and Web of Science for studies that applied WHO-GS, included CBP in the study population, had access to data within 1 mo of age, and were published between 2006 and 2015 in English. Of the 80 included studies that used the WHO-GS, 80% (64 of 80) included all children regardless of GA, whereas 20% (16 of 80) restricted analyses that used WHO-GS to term-born children. Among the 64 studies that included all children, 53 (83%) used chronological age and 11 (17%) used corrected age for CBP. Of the 53 studies that used chronological age, 12 (23%) excluded data that were likely contributed by CBP (e.g., very low birth weight or extremely low outlying z scores) and 19 (36%) adjusted for or stratified by GA at birth in regression analyses. In summary, researchers commonly apply WHO-GS to CBP, usually based on chronological age. Methodologic challenges of analyzing data from CBP in the application of WHO-GS were rarely explicitly addressed. Further efforts are required to establish acceptable approaches to account for heterogeneity in GA at birth in the analysis of post-term anthropometric data in epidemiologic research.

  13. Surface displacement based shape analysis of central brain structures in preterm-born children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Amanmeet; Grunau, Ruth E.; Popuri, Karteek; Miller, Steven; Bjornson, Bruce; Poskitt, Kenneth J.; Beg, Mirza Faisal

    2016-03-01

    Many studies using T1 magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data have found associations between changes in global metrics (e.g. volume) of brain structures and preterm birth. In this work, we use the surface displacement feature extracted from the deformations of the surface models of the third ventricle, fourth ventricle and brainstem to capture the variation in shape in these structures at 8 years of age that may be due to differences in the trajectory of brain development as a result of very preterm birth (24-32 weeks gestation). Understanding the spatial patterns of shape alterations in these structures in children who were born very preterm as compared to those who were born at full term may lead to better insights into mechanisms of differing brain development between these two groups. The T1 MRI data for the brain was acquired from children born full term (FT, n=14, 8 males) and preterm (PT, n=51, 22 males) at age 8-years. Accurate segmentation labels for these structures were obtained via a multi-template fusion based segmentation method. A high dimensional non-rigid registration algorithm was utilized to register the target segmentation labels to a set of segmentation labels defined on an average-template. The surface displacement data for the brainstem and the third ventricle were found to be significantly different (p spatially localized clusters with inward and outward deformation were found to be associated with lower gestational age. The results from this study present a shape analysis method for pediatric MRI data and reveal shape changes that may be due to preterm birth.

  14. Autism spectrum disorder in children born preterm – role of exposure to perinatal inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Jacqueline Meldrum

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD is the collective term for neurodevelopmental disorders characterised by qualitative impairments in social interaction and communication, and a restricted range of activities and interests. Many countries, including Australia, have reported a dramatic increase in the number of diagnoses over the past three decades, and recent reports suggest a prevalence of ASD of 1 in every 110 individuals (~1%. The potential role for an immune-mediated mechanism in ASD has been implicated by several studies, and some evidence suggests a potential link between prenatal infection-driven inflammation and subsequent development of ASD. Furthermore, contemporary studies have reported a markedly increased prevalence of ASD in children born preterm, who are at highest risk of exposure to perinatal inflammation. However, the mechanisms that underpin the susceptibility to infection-driven inflammation during pregnancy and risk of preterm birth, and how these intersect with the subsequent development of ASD in the offspring, is not understood. This review aims to summarise and evaluate the potential mechanisms and evidence for the role of prenatal infection on the central nervous system, and how it may increase the susceptibility for ASD pathogenesis in children born preterm.

  15. Transactional processes in children born preterm: Influences of mother-child interactions and parenting stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerstein, Emily D; Poehlmann-Tynan, Julie

    2015-10-01

    This prospective, longitudinal study examined the transactional relations among perceived maternal parenting stress, maternal insensitivity, and child behavior across toddlerhood through age 6 within families of a child born preterm. A sample of 173 mother-child dyads were followed from just before the infant was discharged from the neonatal intensive care unit to 6 years of age, with observational measurements of maternal insensitivity and child noncompliance (24 and 36 months), maternal self-reports of perceived parenting stress (24 months, 36 months, 6 years), and maternal reports of child externalizing behavior at 6 years. Results indicated that maternal insensitivity at 36 months significantly mediated the relation between parenting stress at 24 months and externalizing behaviors at 6 years. Parenting stress was also directly associated with child noncompliance at 36 months and with child externalizing behavior at 6 years. Neonatal risk was associated with increased maternal insensitivity at 24 months, but also decreased parenting stress at 24 months. No significant "child effects" from child behavior to either maternal insensitivity or parenting stress were found. Parenting stress appears to play a critical role for children born preterm, and it is associated with children's behavior both directly and through its influence on parenting. The role of neonatal risk needs continued investigation, as families traditionally considered to be at lower risk may still face significant challenges.

  16. Mature maternity: long term associations in first children born to older mothers in 1970 in the UK.

    OpenAIRE

    Pollock, J I

    1996-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVES: To identify the physical, behavioural, medical, and educational outcomes in first children born to women aged 30 or more compared with those born to younger women. DESIGN: Longitudinal cohort study design employing logistic regression analysis of data obtained from the British births survey of 1970 and the child health and education study follow ups to this cohort at ages 5 and 10. SETTING: One week birth cohort covering the whole of the United Kingdom. PARTICIPANTS: The car...

  17. Premature subclinical atherosclerosis in children and young adults with juvenile idiopathic arthritis. A review considering preventive measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohr, Anna-Helene; Fuhlbrigge, Robert C; Pedersen, Freddy Karup; de Ferranti, Sarah D; Müller, Klaus

    2016-01-06

    Many studies show that Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA) is associated with early subclinical signs of atherosclerosis. Chronic inflammation per se may be an important driver but other known risk factors, such as dyslipidemia, hypertension, insulin insensitivity, a physically inactive lifestyle, obesity, and tobacco smoking may also contribute substantially. We performed a systematic review of studies through the last 20 years on early signs of subclinical atherosclerosis in children and adolescents with JIA with the purpose of investigating whether possible risk factors, other than inflammation, were considered.We found 13 descriptive cross sectional studies with healthy controls, one intervention study and two studies on adults diagnosed with JIA. Only one study addressed obesity, and physical activity (PA) has only been assessed in one study on adults with JIA and only by self-reporting. This is important as studies on PA in children with JIA have shown that most patients are less physically active than their healthy peers, and as physical inactivity in several large studies of normal schoolchildren is found to be associated with increased clustering of risk factors for cardiovascular disease. It is thus possible that an inactive lifestyle in patients with JIA is an important contributor to development of the subclinical signs of atherosclerosis seen in children with JIA, and that promotion of an active lifestyle in childhood and adolescence may diminish the risk for premature atherosclerotic events in adulthood.

  18. Calculation of organ doses in x-ray examinations of premature babies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smans, Kristien; Tapiovaara, Markku; Cannie, Mieke; Struelens, Lara; Vanhavere, Filip; Smet, Marleen; Bosmans, Hilde

    2008-02-01

    Lung disease represents one of the most life-threatening conditions in prematurely born children. In the evaluation of the neonatal chest, the primary and most important diagnostic study is the chest radiograph. Since prematurely born children are very sensitive to radiation, those radiographs may lead to a significant radiation detriment. Knowledge of the radiation dose is therefore necessary to justify the exposures. To calculate doses in the entire body and in specific organs, computational models of the human anatomy are needed. Using medical imaging techniques, voxel phantoms have been developed to achieve a representation as close as possible to the anatomical properties. In this study two voxel phantoms, representing prematurely born babies, were created from computed tomography- and magnetic resonance images: Phantom 1 (1910 g) and Phantom 2 (590 g). The two voxel phantoms were used in Monte Carlo calculations (MCNPX) to assess organ doses. The results were compared with the commercially available software package PCXMC in which the available mathematical phantoms can be downsized toward the prematurely born baby. The simple phantom-scaling method used in PCXMC seems to be sufficient to calculate doses for organs within the radiation field. However, one should be careful in specifying the irradiation geometry. Doses in organs that are wholly or partially outside the primary radiation field depend critically on the irradiation conditions and the phantom model.

  19. Development of a portable premature born infant's incubator using phase change material (PCM) as thermal energy storage and temperature control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suwono, A.

    1999-12-16

    In response to the need of premature infant's incubators in many unelectrified and remote rural areas, a portable prototype of incubator heated by some melted phase change material (PCM) as thermal energy storage and temperature control has been developed. To avoid the use of electricity at all, the incubator was designed so that the air circulation can take place by natural convection. A numerical simulation on the design prototype was carried out prior to prototype production. Three identical incubator prototypes were made and tested in the laboratory and in the hospital. The obtained results so far were satisfactory. Actually, the field test was only done in a hospital to get some comments for further improvements. In near future, some other prototypes will be actually manufactured based on the already received comments. These prototypes will be donated to several hospitals and village health centers and their operation will be monitored. (author)

  20. Mechanisms of premature vascular aging in children with Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhard-Herman, Marie; Smoot, Leslie B; Wake, Nicole; Kieran, Mark W; Kleinman, Monica E; Miller, David T; Schwartzman, Armin; Giobbie-Hurder, Anita; Neuberg, Donna; Gordon, Leslie B

    2012-01-01

    Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome is a rare, segmental premature aging syndrome of accelerated atherosclerosis and early death from myocardial infarction or stroke. This study sought to establish comprehensive characterization of the fatal vasculopathy in Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome and its relevance to normal aging. We performed cardiovascular assessments at a single clinical site on the largest prospectively studied cohort to date. Carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity was dramatically elevated (mean: 13.00±3.83 m/s). Carotid duplex ultrasound echobrightness, assessed in predefined tissue sites as a measure of arterial wall density, was significantly greater than age- and sex-matched controls in the intima-media (Pprogeria syndrome. There is considerable overlap with cardiovascular changes of normal aging, which reinforces the view that defining mechanisms of cardiovascular disease in Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome provides a unique opportunity to isolate a subset of factors influencing cardiovascular disease in the general aging population.

  1. Methylphenidate and the response to growth hormone treatment in short children born small for gestational age.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith S Renes

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Growth hormone (GH treatment has become a frequently applied growth promoting therapy in short children born small for gestational age (SGA. Children born SGA have a higher risk of developing attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. Treatment of ADHD with methylphenidate (MP has greatly increased in recent years, therefore more children are being treated with GH and MP simultaneously. Some studies have found an association between MP treatment and growth deceleration, but data are contradictory. OBJECTIVE: To explore the effects of MP treatment on growth in GH-treated short SGA children METHODS: Anthropometric measurements were performed in 78 GH-treated short SGA children (mean age 10.6 yr, 39 of whom were also treated with MP (SGA-GH/MP. The SGA-GH/MP group was compared to 39 SGA-GH treated subjects. They were matched for sex, age and height at start of GH, height SDS at start of MP treatment and target height SDS. Serum insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I and IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3 levels were yearly determined. Growth, serum IGF-I and IGFBP-3 levels during the first three years of treatment were analyzed using repeated measures regression analysis. RESULTS: The SGA-GH/MP group had a lower height gain during the first 3 years than the SGA-GH subjects, only significant between 6 and 12 months of MP treatment. After 3 years of MP treatment, the height gain was 0.2 SDS (± 0.1 SD lower in the SGA-GH/MP group (P = 0.17. Adult height was not significantly different between the SGA-GH/MP and SGA-GH group (-1.9 SDS and -1.9 SDS respectively, P = 0.46. Moreover, during the first 3 years of MP treatment IGF-I and IGFBP-3 measurements were similar in both groups. CONCLUSION: MP has some negative effect on growth during the first years in short SGA children treated with GH, but adult height is not affected.

  2. Prevalence of prematurely lost primary teeth in 5–10-year-old children in Thamar city, Yemen: A cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Murshid, Sakhr A.; Al-Labani, Mohammed A.; Aldhorae, Khalid A.; Rodis, Omar M. M.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The premature loss of primary teeth is a potential risk factor for poor arch length development. Adequate arch length is important to the progression of the permanent teeth. Poor arch length can lead to crowding, ectopic eruption, or impaction of these teeth. This study is designed to assess the prevalence of premature loss of primary teeth in the 5-10-year-old age group. Materials and Methods: The study group included 185 children, that is, 91 boys and 94 girls. The dental examin...

  3. Vaccination Coverage Disparities Between Foreign-Born and U.S.-Born Children Aged 19-35 Months, United States, 2010-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varan, Aiden K; Rodriguez-Lainz, Alfonso; Hill, Holly A; Elam-Evans, Laurie D; Yankey, David; Li, Qian

    2016-08-01

    Healthy People 2020 targets high vaccination coverage among children. Although reductions in coverage disparities by race/ethnicity have been described, data by nativity are limited. The National Immunization Survey is a random-digit-dialed telephone survey that estimates vaccination coverage among U.S. children aged 19-35 months. We assessed coverage among 52,441 children from pooled 2010-2012 data for individual vaccines and the combined 4:3:1:3*:3:1:4 series (which includes ≥4 doses of diphtheria, tetanus, and acellular pertussis vaccine/diphtheria and tetanus toxoids vaccine/diphtheria, tetanus toxoids, and pertussis vaccine, ≥3 doses of poliovirus vaccine, ≥1 dose of measles-containing vaccine, ≥3 or ≥4 doses of Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine (depending on product type of vaccine; denoted as 3* in the series name), ≥3 doses of hepatitis B vaccine, ≥1 dose of varicella vaccine, and ≥4 doses of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine). Coverage estimates controlling for sociodemographic factors and multivariable logistic regression modeling for 4:3:1:3*:3:1:4 series completion are presented. Significantly lower coverage among foreign-born children was detected for DTaP, hepatitis A, hepatitis B, Hib, pneumococcal conjugate, and rotavirus vaccines, and for the combined series. Series completion disparities persisted after control for demographic, access-to-care, poverty, and language effects. Substantial and potentially widening disparities in vaccination coverage exist among foreign-born children. Improved immunization strategies targeting this population and continued vaccination coverage monitoring by nativity are needed.

  4. The school readiness of children born to low-income, adolescent Latinas in Miami.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briceno, Ana-Carolina Loyola; De Feyter, Jessica J; Winsler, Adam

    2013-01-01

    Although studies show teenage parenting and low socioeconomic status predict poor child academic performance, limited research has examined relations between teen parenting and children's school readiness within low-income Latina mothers. In the context of the Miami School Readiness Project, low-income preschoolers (N = 3,023) attending subsidized child-care programs were assessed on cognitive, language, and fine motor skills, and parents and teachers reported on children's social skills and behavior concerns. Maternal teenage status at time of birth, maternal education, child attachment, child immigrant generational status, language, and other demographic variables were explored, as they uniquely and interactively predicted children's school readiness. Teenage parenting among low-income Latinas in this sample was less frequent (15%) than national estimates and more common among mothers born in the United States. Teen parenting was negatively associated with child cognitive and language competence at age 4, controlling for background variables. Maternal receipt of a high school diploma contributed additively, rather than interactively, to child outcomes. Parent-reported strong child attachment served as a buffer against the negative effects of teen parent status on child outcomes. Implications for intervention are discussed.

  5. Physical, mental and psychomotor development of children born after multifetal pregnancy reduction: a retrospective case-control study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Xiao-Qin; Wang Wen-Jun; Li Yu; Li Hong; Ma Yun; Chen Xiang-Hong; Yang Dong-Zi; Zhang Qing-Xue

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To assess the perinatal and developmental outcomes of assisted reproductive technologies (ART) children born after multifetal pregnancy reduction (MPR).Methods: Twenty-four ART children born after MPR were compared to 9 triplets without MPR, and 24 matched IVF children without MPR and 24 naturally conceived. Mental and psychological development was assessed by Bayley Scales.of Infant. The outcomes compared included perinatal characteristics, body mass index (BMI), mental development index (MDI) and psychomotor development index (PDI).Results: MPR singletons/twins had better neonatal outcomes than non-MPR triplets. Moreover, PDI of the MPR singletons/twins was significantly higher than that of the non-MPR triplets. There were no significantly difference in perinatal characteristics, BMI, MDI and PDI among 24 MPR children, 24 matched IVF children without MPR and 24 matched naturally conceived children.Conclusion: Multifetal pregnancy reduction could improve perinatal outcomes and would not affect physical, mental and psychomotor development for children born after it.

  6. MECHANISMS OF PREMATURE VASCULAR AGING IN CHILDREN WITH HUTCHINSON-GILFORD PROGERIA SYNDROME

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhard-Herman, Marie; Smoot, Leslie B.; Wake, Nicole; Kieran, Mark W.; Kleinman, Monica E.; Miller, David T.; Schwartzman, Armin; Giobbie-Hurder, Anita; Neuberg, Donna; Gordon, Leslie B.

    2011-01-01

    Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) is a rare, segmental premature aging syndrome of accelerated atherosclerosis and early death from myocardial infarction or stroke. This study sought to establish comprehensive characterization of the fatal vasculopathy in HGPS and its relevance to normal aging. We performed cardiovascular assessments at a single clinical site on the largest prospectively studied cohort to date. Carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity was dramatically elevated (mean 13.00±3.83 m/s). Carotid duplex ultrasound echobrightness, assessed in predefined tissue sites as a measure of arterial wall density, was significantly greater than age- and gender-matched controls in the intima-media (P<0.02), near adventitia (P<0.003) and deep adventitia (P<0.01), as was internal carotid artery mean flow velocity (p<0.0001). Ankle-brachial indices were abnormal in 78% of patients. Effective disease treatments may be heralded by normalizing trends of these noninvasive cardiovascular measures. The data demonstrates that, along with peripheral vascular occlusive disease, accelerated vascular stiffening is an early and pervasive mechanism of vascular disease in HGPS. There is considerable overlap with cardiovascular changes of normal aging, which reinforces the view that defining mechanisms of cardiovascular disease in HGPS provides a unique opportunity to isolate a subset of factors influencing cardiovascular disease in the general aging population. PMID:22083160

  7. When war is better than peace: The post-conflict realities of children born of wartime rape in northern Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denov, Myriam; Lakor, Atim Angela

    2017-03-01

    This paper examines the realities and perspectives of a sample of 60 children born of wartime rape within the Lord's Resistance Army (LRA), and currently living in northern Uganda. These children were born to mothers who were abducted by the LRA, held captive for extended periods of time, repeatedly raped and impregnated. The paper explores the multiple challenges that these children face in the post-war period including, rejection, stigma, violence, socio-economic marginalization, and issues of identity and belonging. Participants underscored the profound violence and deprivation that they experienced while in LRA captivity. However, because of post-war marginalization, participants individually and collectively articulated that wartime was better than peacetime. Multiple systems of support are needed to ensure the rights and protection of these children and importantly, to address and reverse young people's perceptions that "war is better than peace".

  8. Early communicative gestures and play as predictors of language development in children born with and without family risk for dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unhjem, Astrid; Eklund, Kenneth; Nergård-Nilssen, Trude

    2014-08-01

    The present study investigated early communicative gestures, play, and language skills in children born with family risk for dyslexia (FR) and a control group of children without this inheritable risk at ages 12, 15, 18, and 24 months. Participants were drawn from the Tromsø Longitudinal study of Dyslexia (TLD) which follows children's cognitive and language development from age 12 months through Grade 2 in order to identify early markers of developmental dyslexia. Results showed that symbolic play and parent reported play at age 12 months and communicative gestures at age 15 months explained 61% of the variance in productive language at 24 months in the FR group. These early nonlinguistic measures seem to be potentially interesting markers of later language development in children born at risk for dyslexia.

  9. Short children born small for gestational age (SGA) : puberty, hormonal profiles, combined GnRHa and GH treatment and (epi)genetics of 2 IGFBP gene promotors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.C.M. van der Kaay (Danielle)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractIn the Netherlands, children who remain short after being born small for gestational age (SGA) are treated with growth hormone (GH). The clinical studies described in this thesis focused on treatment options in short children born SGA who came under medical attention around pubertal age.

  10. Psychological Vulnerability in Children Next-Born after Stillbirth: A Case-Control Follow-Up Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turton, Penelope; Badenhorst, William; Pawlby, Susan; White, Sarah; Hughes, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    Background: Case studies and anecdotal accounts suggest that perinatal loss may impact upon other children in the family, including those born subsequent to loss. However, there is a dearth of systematically collected quantitative data on this potentially vulnerable group. Methods: Case-controlled follow-up of 52 mothers with history of stillbirth…

  11. Functioning of very preterm born children at preschool age: Follow-up of an early intervention programme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkerk, G.J.Q.

    2014-01-01

    The thesis presents the effects of the multicentre RCT on the Infant Behavioral Assessment and Intervention Program (IBAIP) in children born preterm, with a gestation of less than 32 weeks and/or a birth weight below 1500 grams (VLBW), at the age of school entry. Eighty-six infants were enrolled in

  12. Disseminated tuberculosis and tuberculous meningitis in Australian-born children; case reports and review of current epidemiology and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Benjamin B; Hazelton, Briony J; Heywood, Anita E; Snelling, Thomas L; Peacock, Kenneth M; Macartney, Kristine K

    2013-03-01

    We present two cases of tuberculous meningitis in Australian-born children. We review the current literature surrounding management of paediatric tuberculosis and disseminated disease, emphasising the importance of prompt diagnosis and intervention. We discuss the epidemiology of tuberculosis in the Australian paediatric population and highlight the sentinel role of childhood infection in public health surveillance.

  13. Return Migration, Investment in Children, and Intergenerational Mobility: Comparing Sons of Foreign- and Native-Born Fathers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dustmann, Christian

    2008-01-01

    This paper studies parental investment in education and intergenerational earnings mobility for father-son pairs with native- and foreign-born fathers. We illustrate within a simple model that for immigrants, investment in their children is related to their return migration probability. In our empirical analysis, we include a measure for return…

  14. Born Too Soon: What Can We Expect? Nature of Home Literacy Experiences for Children with Very Low Birth Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragusa, G.

    2009-01-01

    This study documents the home literacy experiences of children born with very low birth weight (VLBW). The study's design was modelled after Purcell-Gates' study of social domains mediated by print as home literacy experiences. A design combining purposeful sampling, semi-structured data collection and descriptive case study analysis was employed…

  15. Familial influences on poverty among young children in black immigrant, U.S.-born black, and nonblack immigrant families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Kevin J A

    2011-05-01

    This study examines how familial contexts affect poverty disparities between the children of immigrant and U.S.-born blacks, and among black and nonblack children of immigrants. Despite lower gross child poverty rates in immigrant than in U.S.-born black families, accounting for differences in family structure reveals that child poverty risks among blacks are highest in single-parent black immigrant families. In addition, within two-parent immigrant families, child poverty declines associated with increasing assimilation are greater than the respective declines in single-parent families. The heads of black immigrant households have more schooling than those of native-black households. However, increased schooling has a weaker negative association with child poverty among the former than among the latter. In terms of racial disparities among the children of immigrants, poverty rates are higher among black than nonblack children. This black disadvantage is, however, driven by the outcomes of first-generation children of African and Hispanic-black immigrants. The results also show that although children in refugee families face elevated poverty risks, these risks are higher among black than among nonblack children of refugees. In addition, the poverty-reducing impact associated with having an English-proficient household head is about three times lower among black children of immigrants than among non-Hispanic white children of immigrants.

  16. Does Embryo Culture Medium Influence the Health and Development of Children Born after In Vitro Fertilization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouillon, Céline; Léandri, Roger; Desch, Laurent; Ernst, Alexandra; Bruno, Céline; Cerf, Charline; Chiron, Alexandra; Souchay, Céline; Burguet, Antoine; Jimenez, Clément; Sagot, Paul; Fauque, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    In animal studies, extensive data revealed the influence of culture medium on embryonic development, foetal growth and the behaviour of offspring. However, this impact has never been investigated in humans. For the first time, we investigated in depth the effects of embryo culture media on health, growth and development of infants conceived by In Vitro Fertilization until the age of 5 years old. This single-centre cohort study was based on an earlier randomized study. During six months, in vitro fertilization attempts (No. 371) were randomized according to two media (Single Step Medium--SSM group) or Global medium (Global group). This randomized study was stopped prematurely as significantly lower pregnancy and implantation rates were observed in the SSM group. Singletons (No. 73) conceived in the randomized study were included (42 for Global and 31 for SSM). The medical data for gestational, neonatal and early childhood periods were extracted from medical records and parental interviews (256 variables recorded). The developmental profiles of the children in eight domains (social, self-help, gross motor, fine motor, expressive language, language comprehension, letter knowledge and number knowledge--270 items) were compared in relation to the culture medium. The delivery rate was significantly lower in the SSM group than in the Global group (pculture medium had no significant effect on birthweight, risk of malformation (minor and major), growth and the frequency of medical concerns. However, the children of the Global group were less likely than those of the SSM group to show developmental problems (p = 0.002), irrespective of the different domains. In conclusion, our findings showed that the embryo culture medium may have an impact on further development.

  17. Does Embryo Culture Medium Influence the Health and Development of Children Born after In Vitro Fertilization?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Céline Bouillon

    Full Text Available In animal studies, extensive data revealed the influence of culture medium on embryonic development, foetal growth and the behaviour of offspring. However, this impact has never been investigated in humans. For the first time, we investigated in depth the effects of embryo culture media on health, growth and development of infants conceived by In Vitro Fertilization until the age of 5 years old. This single-centre cohort study was based on an earlier randomized study. During six months, in vitro fertilization attempts (No. 371 were randomized according to two media (Single Step Medium--SSM group or Global medium (Global group. This randomized study was stopped prematurely as significantly lower pregnancy and implantation rates were observed in the SSM group. Singletons (No. 73 conceived in the randomized study were included (42 for Global and 31 for SSM. The medical data for gestational, neonatal and early childhood periods were extracted from medical records and parental interviews (256 variables recorded. The developmental profiles of the children in eight domains (social, self-help, gross motor, fine motor, expressive language, language comprehension, letter knowledge and number knowledge--270 items were compared in relation to the culture medium. The delivery rate was significantly lower in the SSM group than in the Global group (p<0.05. The culture medium had no significant effect on birthweight, risk of malformation (minor and major, growth and the frequency of medical concerns. However, the children of the Global group were less likely than those of the SSM group to show developmental problems (p = 0.002, irrespective of the different domains. In conclusion, our findings showed that the embryo culture medium may have an impact on further development.

  18. Neuro-ophthalmic manifestations of prematurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhablani, Preeti Patil; Kekunnaya, Ramesh

    2014-10-01

    Increasing rates of preterm births coupled with better survival of these infants have resulted in higher prevalence of systemic and ocular complications associated with prematurity. In addition to retinopathy of prematurity, infants who are born preterm may suffer from severe visual impairment as a result of hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy, hypoglycemia, and other metabolic imbalances. The effect of these processes on the anterior visual pathway may result in optic atrophy, optic nerve hypoplasia or optic disc cupping and affection of the posterior visual pathway leads to cortical visual impairment (CVI). Other ocular associations include strabismus, nystagmus, and ocular motor abnormalities such as tonic down gaze and defective saccades and pursuits. Cortical and subcortical involvement also manifests as defects in functional vision and these have not yet been completely understood. Children with CVI may have visual field defects, photophobia, defective visual processing, and deficient color vision. Since most of these children also suffer from additional systemic disabilities, evaluation, and management remains a challenge. However, early diagnosis and initiation of rehabilitation therapy can prove to be of significant benefit in these children.

  19. Neuro-ophthalmic manifestations of prematurity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preeti Patil Chhablani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing rates of preterm births coupled with better survival of these infants have resulted in higher prevalence of systemic and ocular complications associated with prematurity. In addition to retinopathy of prematurity, infants who are born preterm may suffer from severe visual impairment as a result of hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy, hypoglycemia, and other metabolic imbalances. The effect of these processes on the anterior visual pathway may result in optic atrophy, optic nerve hypoplasia or optic disc cupping and affection of the posterior visual pathway leads to cortical visual impairment (CVI. Other ocular associations include strabismus, nystagmus, and ocular motor abnormalities such as tonic down gaze and defective saccades and pursuits. Cortical and subcortical involvement also manifests as defects in functional vision and these have not yet been completely understood. Children with CVI may have visual field defects, photophobia, defective visual processing, and deficient color vision. Since most of these children also suffer from additional systemic disabilities, evaluation, and management remains a challenge. However, early diagnosis and initiation of rehabilitation therapy can prove to be of significant benefit in these children.

  20. Perinatal outcomes of children born after frozen-thawed embryo transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wennerholm, Ulla-Britt; Henningsen, Anna-Karina Aaris; Romundstad, Liv Bente;

    2013-01-01

    What are the risks of adverse outcomes in singletons born after frozen-thawed embryo transfer (FET)?......What are the risks of adverse outcomes in singletons born after frozen-thawed embryo transfer (FET)?...

  1. Molar-incisor hypomineralization and oral hygiene in 10- to-12-yr-old Swedish children born preterm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brogårdh-Roth, Susanne; Matsson, Lars; Klingberg, Gunilla

    2011-02-01

    Although preterm birth is associated with an increased risk of medical problems and impairments, there is limited knowledge of how this affects oral health. It was hypothesized that when 10-12 yr of age, children who were preterm at birth would present with a higher prevalence of molar-incisor hypomineralization (MIH), more dental plaque, and a higher degree of gingival inflammation than full-term control children. Eighty-two preterm children, born between 24 and 32 wk of gestation, and 82 control children, born between 37 and 43 wk of gestation, were clinically examined for developmental defects in enamel, MIH, dental plaque, and gingival health. In addition, behaviour management problems were evaluated. Information on any aetiological factors with a potential influence on MIH and oral health was collected via questionnaires. Molar-incisor hypomineralization was more common in preterm children than in controls (38% vs. 16%), as were enamel developmental defects (69.5% vs. 51%). Low gestational age and low birth weight increased the risk of MIH. Preterm children had more plaque, a higher degree of gingival inflammation, and more behaviour-management problems than controls. In conclusion, oral health problems were more common in preterm children than in control children.

  2. Visual-motor and executive functions in children born preterm: the Bender Visual Motor Gestalt Test revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhm, Birgitta; Lundequist, Aiko; Smedler, Ann-Charlotte

    2010-10-01

    Visual-motor development and executive functions were investigated with the Bender Test at age 5½ years in 175 children born preterm and 125 full-term controls, within the longitudinal Stockholm Neonatal Project. Assessment also included WPPSI-R and NEPSY neuropsychological battery for ages 4-7 (Korkman, 1990). Bender protocols were scored according to Brannigan & Decker (2003), Koppitz (1963) and a complementary neuropsychological scoring system (ABC), aimed at executive functions and developed for this study. Bender results by all three scoring systems were strongly related to overall cognitive level (Performance IQ), in both groups. The preterm group displayed inferior visual-motor skills compared to controls also when controlling for IQ. The largest group differences were found on the ABC scoring, which shared unique variance with NEPSY tests of executive function. Multiple regression analyses showed that hyperactive behavior and inattention increased the risk for visual-motor deficits in children born preterm, whereas no added risk was seen among hyperactive term children. Gender differences favoring girls were strongest within the preterm group, presumably reflecting the specific vulnerability of preterm boys. The results indicate that preterm children develop a different neurobehavioral organization from children born at term, and that the Bender test with a neuropsychological scoring is a useful tool in developmental screening around school start.

  3. Cohort effects explain the increase in autism diagnosis among children born from 1992 to 2003 in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyes, Katherine M; Susser, Ezra; Cheslack-Postava, Keely; Fountain, Christine; Liu, Kayuet; Bearman, Peter S

    2012-01-01

    Background The incidence and prevalence of autism have dramatically increased over the last 20 years. Decomposition of autism incidence rates into age, period and cohort effects disentangle underlying domains of causal factors linked to time trends. We estimate an age-period-cohort effect model for autism diagnostic incidence overall and by level of functioning. Methods Data are drawn from sequential cohorts of all 6 501 262 individuals born in California from 1992 to 2003. Autism diagnoses from 1994 to 2005 were ascertained from the California Department of Development Services Client Development and Evaluation Report. Results Compared with those born in 1992, each successively younger cohort has significantly higher odds of an autism diagnosis than the previous cohort, controlling for age and period effects. For example, individuals born in 2003 have 16.6 times the odds of an autism diagnosis compared with those born in 1992 [95% confidence interval (CI) 7.8–35.3]. The cohort effect observed in these data is stronger for high than for low-functioning children with an autism diagnosis. Discussion Autism incidence in California exhibits a robust and linear positive cohort effect that is stronger among high-functioning children with an autism diagnosis. This finding indicates that the primary drivers of the increases in autism diagnoses must be factors that: (i) have increased linearly year-to-year; (ii) aggregate in birth cohorts; and (iii) are stronger among children with higher levels of functioning. PMID:22253308

  4. Frequency of neonatal complications after premature delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Grgić

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Preterm delivery is the delivery before 37 weeks of gestation are completed. The incidence of preterm birth ranges from 5 to 15%. Aims of the study were to determine the average body weight, Apgar score after one and five minutes, and the frequency of the most common complications in preterminfants.Methods: The study involved a total of 631 newborns, of whom 331 were born prematurely Aims of this study were to (24th-37th gestational weeks-experimental group, while 300 infants were born in time (37-42 weeks of gestation-control group.Results: Average body weight of prematurely born infants was 2382 grams, while the average Apgar score in this group after the fi rst minute was 7.32 and 7.79 after the fifth minute. The incidence of respiratory distress syndrome was 50%, intracranial hemorrhage, 28.1% and 4.8% of sepsis. Respiratory distresssyndrome was more common in infants born before 32 weeks of gestation. Mortality of premature infants is present in 9.1% and is higher than that of infants born at term.Conclusions: Birth body weight and Apgar scores was lower in preterm infants. Respiratory distress syndrome is the most common fetal complication of prematurity. Intracranial hemorrhage is the second most common complication of prematurity. Mortality of premature infants is higher than the mortality of infants born at term birth.

  5. Premature subclinical atherosclerosis in children and young adults with juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohr, Anna-Helene; Fuhlbrigge, Robert C; Karup Pedersen, Freddy

    2016-01-01

    -reporting. This is important as studies on PA in children with JIA have shown that most patients are less physically active than their healthy peers, and as physical inactivity in several large studies of normal schoolchildren is found to be associated with increased clustering of risk factors for cardiovascular disease......Many studies show that Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA) is associated with early subclinical signs of atherosclerosis. Chronic inflammation per se may be an important driver but other known risk factors, such as dyslipidemia, hypertension, insulin insensitivity, a physically inactive lifestyle......, were considered.We found 13 descriptive cross sectional studies with healthy controls, one intervention study and two studies on adults diagnosed with JIA. Only one study addressed obesity, and physical activity (PA) has only been assessed in one study on adults with JIA and only by self...

  6. Influence of post discharge nutrition on body composition at 6 years of age among children born very preterm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftlund, Line Hedegaard; Zachariassen, Gitte; Agertoft, Lone

    if type of nutrition in early life effects the body composition in later life among very preterm born children Method In 2004-08 a birth cohort of very preterm born infants with a gestational age ≤32+0 weeks. At time of hospital discharge, the infants were randomised into 3 different feeding groups...... month corrected age. At 6 years, a dexa scan was performed to evaluate body composition. Results A total number of 277 infants will be invited to follow up at 6 years of age. So far 79 children have had a dexa scan performed (HM 26, HMF: 22 and PF: 31). Fat mass (FM) and muscle mass (MM) was measured.......841 g), but no significant difference between the groups. Conclusion Human milk seems to result in a lower fat mass and higher muscle mass among very preterm born infants. The results are preliminary due to the small number of children. The remaining children in this cohort will be invited to similar...

  7. Developmental neuropsychological assessment of 4- to 5-year-old children born following Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD): A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacks, Gilat Chaya; Altarescu, Gheona; Guedalia, Judith; Varshaver, Irit; Gilboa, Tal; Levy-Lahad, Ephrat; Eldar-Geva, Talia

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate developmental neuropsychological profiles of 4- to 5-year-old children born after Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD). Twenty-seven participants received a neurological examination and a battery of neuropsychological assessments including Wechsler Preschool & Primary Scale of Intelligence - Third Edition (WPPSI-III; cognitive development), Preschool Language Scale, Fourth Edition (PLS-4; language development), Wide Range Assessment of Visual Motor Abilities (visual motor abilities), Childhood Autism Rating Scales II (a screening test for autistic spectrum disorders), and the Miles ABC Test (ocular dominance). Parental questionnaires included the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function Preschool Version (BRIEF-P; executive function), Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and the Carey Temperament Scales Behavioral Style Questionnaire (socioemotional development and temperament), and the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, Interview Edition, Second Edition (general adaptive behavior). Subjects' tests results were compared to each test's norms. Children born after PGD demonstrated scores within the normal or above-normal ranges for all developmental outcomes (mean ± SD): WPPSI-III-VIQ 107.4 ± 14.4 (p = .013), PLS-4-Total 113.2 ± 12.4, p family history of autism was noted. In conclusion, in this pilot study, children assessed at age 4-5 years and conceived after PGD displayed developmental neuropsychological outcomes within normal limits as compared to their chronologic peers. A larger study is needed to evaluate and follow the neuropsychological development of children born after PGD.

  8. Developmental Outcomes in Young Children Born to Mothers with West Nile Illness during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirois, Patricia A.; Pridjian, Gabriella; McRae, Scott; Hinckley, Alison F.; Rasmussen, Sonja A.; Kissinger, Patricia; Buekens, Pierre; Hayes, Edward B.; O’Leary, Daniel R.; Swan, Kenneth F.; Xiong, Xu; Wesson, Dawn M.

    2015-01-01

    Background West Nile virus (WNV) infection is associated with acute morbidity and mortality in adults and children. Information on the effects of maternal WNV illness during pregnancy on early childhood development is limited. This study was designed to examine the relationship between maternal WNV illness during pregnancy and birth and developmental outcomes at age 3 years. Methods Mother-child participants were identified using a national surveillance registry for women with WNV illness during pregnancy. Maternal and infant health data and relevant family characteristics were obtained through medical record reviews and maternal questionnaires. All infants received ophthalmologic examinations. Child development was evaluated at age 3 years using the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development–Third Edition (Bayley-III). Results As a group, the children’s (N = 11) birth weight, head circumference, and infant ophthalmologic examination results were within age expectations; one child was born preterm (gestational age 36 weeks). Mean (SD) age at the time of Bayley-III testing was 36.7 (3.8) months. The group’s mean performance on the Bayley-III was at or above age level in all domains, but one child showed a mild delay in the Adaptive domain. The variability observed in this sample (1/53 [1.9%] Domain scores < −2.0 SDs) was consistent with expectations based upon the distribution of Bayley-III Domain scores in the general population. Conclusion Maternal WNV infection does not appear to be associated with global developmental delays in young children. These results are preliminary, however, and require confirmation in future research. PMID:25196266

  9. The Ages and Stages Questionnaire and Neurodevelopmental Impairment in Two-Year-Old Preterm-Born Children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorien M Kerstjens

    Full Text Available To test the ability of the Ages and Stages Questionnaire, Third Edition (ASQ3 to help identify or exclude neurodevelopmental impairment (NDI in very preterm-born children at the corrected age of two.We studied the test results of 224 children, born at <32 postmenstrual weeks, who had scores on ASQ3 and Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition (BSIDIII and neurological examination at 22-26 months' corrected age. We defined NDI as a score of <70 on the cognitive--or motor composite scale of BSIDIII, or impairment on neurological examination or audiovisual screening. We compared NDI with abnormal ASQ3 scores, i.e., < -2SDs on any domain, and with ASQ3 total scores. To correct for possible overestimation of BSIDIII, we also analyzed the adjusted BSIDIII thresholds for NDI, i.e., scores <80 and <85.We found 61 (27% children with abnormal ASQ3 scores, and 10 (4.5% children who had NDI with original BSIDIII thresholds (<70. Twelve children had NDI at BSIDIII thresholds at <80, and 15 had <85. None of the 163 (73% children who passed ASQ3 had NDI. The sensitivity of ASQ3 to detect NDI was excellent (100%, its specificity was acceptable (76%, and its negative predictive value (NPV was 100%. Sensitivity and NPV remained high with the adjusted BSIDIII thresholds.The Ages and Stages Questionnaire is a simple, valid and cost-effective screening tool to help identify and exclude NDI in very preterm-born children at the corrected age of two years.

  10. HIV感染孕产妇所生儿童的死亡状况分析%An analysis of mortality situation of children born by HIV-infected mothers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方利文; 邢再玲; 王临虹; 王前; 张伟; 孙定勇; 黄越华; 张燕

    2009-01-01

    目的 了解我国艾滋病高流行地区艾滋病感染孕产妇所生儿童的死亡状况.方法 于2008年8~11月在我国艾滋病高发4省7县/区对2004年1月~2007年12月期间艾滋病感染孕产妇所生儿童的死亡状况进行回顾性调查,分析儿童死亡原因及死亡水平.结果 艾滋病感染孕产妇所生新生儿死亡率为33.71‰,婴儿死亡密度为110.78/1 000人年,5岁以下儿童死亡密度为59.83/1 000人年;艾滋病感染婴儿死亡率为352.94‰,艾滋病感染孕产妇所生非艾滋病感染婴儿死亡率为62.50‰;艾滋病感染孕产妇所生的5岁以下死亡儿童中,44.90%死于艾滋病,15.56%死于早产低出生体重.结论 我国艾滋病高流行地区艾滋病感染孕产妇所生儿童死亡率处于较高水平,艾滋病感染孕产妇所生儿童死亡的首要原因是艾滋病,其次是早产低出生体重.%Objective To investigate mortality rate of children born by HIV-infected mothers in some HIV highly prevalent areas in China. Methods The mortality situation of children born by HIV-positive mothers in 7 counties or prefectures of 4 provinces of HIV highly prevalent areas in China in a period from January, 2004~December, 2007 was investigated retrospectively for cause of death and mortality rate from August to November, 2008. Results The mortality rate of neonate born by HIV-infected mothers was 33.71‰, the infantile mortality density was 110.78 /1 000 infant-year, the mortality density of children under 5 years was 59.83 /1 000 child-year; the mortality rate in HIV-infected infants was 352.94‰; the mortality rate in HIV-uninfected infants born by HIV-infected mothers was 62.50‰. Among dead children under 5 years, 44.90% of them died from HIV/AIDS and 15.56% of them died from premature low birth weight. Conclusion The mortality rate of children born by HIV-infected mothers in HIV highly prevalent areas in China is high. The first cause of death of children born by HIV

  11. Prevalence of prematurely lost primary teeth in 5–10-year-old children in Thamar city, Yemen: A cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murshid, Sakhr A.; Al-Labani, Mohammed A.; Aldhorae, Khalid A.; Rodis, Omar M. M.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The premature loss of primary teeth is a potential risk factor for poor arch length development. Adequate arch length is important to the progression of the permanent teeth. Poor arch length can lead to crowding, ectopic eruption, or impaction of these teeth. This study is designed to assess the prevalence of premature loss of primary teeth in the 5-10-year-old age group. Materials and Methods: The study group included 185 children, that is, 91 boys and 94 girls. The dental examination was conducted by an experienced examiner under sufficient artificial light. Data including patient age and missing teeth were collected. Descriptive statistics were applied for data analysis, and from the results, Chi-square tests were used at a level of significance of 5% (P space problems associated with the early loss of primary teeth would help in reducing malocclusion problems. PMID:27652244

  12. Hospitalized Infection Analysis of 77 Cases of Premature Children%77例住院早产儿医院感染临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨爱梅

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨分析住院早产儿医院感染的临床因素。方法选取2012年7月~2014年7月在我院新生儿科进行治疗的早产儿共77例,分析早产儿感染的因素并分析早产儿感染的部位。结果出生的体重比1500 g小、机械通气、动脉置管、预防性的应用抗生素、胎龄小于32周、开奶的日龄大于5d、经外周中心静脉置管、住院时间大于2周都和医院感染有一定的关系,早产儿发生下呼吸道感染和血液感染的比较多,其次是口腔感染与皮肤感染。结论早产儿发生医院感染的原因比较多,且这些原因相互影响相互作用,所以应该加强对于早产儿的护理,采取缩短上机时间、加强营养、减少侵袭性操作次数、生后早期开奶等措施,降低早产儿发生医院感染的可能性。%Objective To investigate the clinical factors in premature children hospitalized Infection. Methods From July 2012 to July 2014 a total of 77 cases preterm children treated in our hospital,analysis of the factors in premature children infected and analyze the site of infection in premature children. Results Birth weight smaller than 1 500 g,mechanical ventilation,arterial catheter,prophylactic antibiotics,gestational age less than 32 weeks of age to open more than five days of milk,the outer periphery of central venous catheter,length of stay more than two weeks were and hospital infection had a certain relationship,lower respiratory tract infection occur in preterm children and bloodstream infections more,followed by oral infections and skin infections. Conclusion Nosocomial infection in premature children are more reasons,and these reasons interaction interaction,so it should strengthen care for premature children,take shorten the machine time,better nutrition,reduce the number of invasive procedures,such as milk after birth early start measures to reduce the likelihood of the occurrence of nosocomial infection in premature

  13. Developmental Delay in Moderately Preterm-Born Children at School Entry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerstjens, Jorien M.; de Winter, Andrea F.; Bocca-Tjeertes, Inger F.; ten Vergert, Elisabeth M. J.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.; Bos, Arend F.; B0cca-Tjeertes, I.F.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine the prevalence and nature of developmental delay at preschool age in infants born moderately preterm compared with those born full-term and early preterm. Study design Parents of 927 moderate preterm infants (32-35(+) 6 weeks gestation), 512 early preterm infants ( Results Abn

  14. Sensory and motor deficits in children with cerebral palsy born preterm correlate with diffusion tensor imaging abnormalities in thalamocortical pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    HOON, ALEXANDER H; STASHINKO, ELAINE E; NAGAE, LIDIA M; LIN, DORIS DM; KELLER, JENNIFER; BASTIAN, AMY; CAMPBELL, MICHELLE L; LEVEY, ERIC; MORI, SUSUMU; JOHNSTON, MICHAEL V

    2010-01-01

    AIM Cerebral palsy (CP) is frequently linked to white matter injury in children born preterm. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is a powerful technique providing precise identification of white matter microstructure. We investigated the relationship between DTI-observed thalamocortical (posterior thalamic radiation) injury, motor (corticospinal tract) injury, and sensorimotor function. METHOD Twenty-eight children born preterm(16 males, 12 females; mean age 5y 10mo, SD 2y 6mo, range 16mo–13y; mean gestational age at birth 28wks, SD 2.7wks, range 23–34wks) were included in this case–control study. Twenty-one children had spastic diplegia, four had spastic quadriplegia, two had hemiplegia, and one had ataxic hypotonic CP; 15 of the participants walked independently. Normative comparison data were obtained from 35 healthy age-matched children born at term(19 males, 16 females; mean age 5y 9mo, SD 4y 4mo, range 15mo–15y). Two-dimensional DTI color maps were created to evaluate 26 central white matter tracts, which were graded by a neuroradiologist masked to clinical status. Quantitative measures of touch, proprioception, strength (dynamometer), and spasticity (modified Ashworth scale) were obtained from a subset of participants. RESULTS All 28 participants with CP had periventricular white-matter injury on magnetic resonance imaging. Using DTI color maps, there was more severe injury in the posterior thalamic radiation pathways than in the descending corticospinal tracts. Posterior thalamic radiation injury correlated with reduced contralateral touch threshold, proprioception, and motor severity, whereas corticospinal tract injury did not correlate with motor or sensory outcome measures. INTERPRETATION These findings extend previous research demonstrating that CP in preterm children reflects disruption of thalamocortical connections as well as descending corticospinal pathways. PMID:19416315

  15. School-age outcomes of children born at the limit of viability : a Swedish national prospective follow-up study at 10 to 12 years

    OpenAIRE

    Farooqi, Aijaz

    2007-01-01

    Background/Aim: During the past two decades, major advances in maternal-fetal medicine, neonatology, and the development of regionalized perinatal care have resulted in dramatic increases in survival rates, by more than 60%, of extremely immature (EI) infants born at less than 26 completed weeks of gestation, creating a new infant population. Studies of school-age outcomes in children with an extremely low birth weight of < 1000 g, born in the1980s, indicated that these children had a subs...

  16. Speech outcome in children born with cleft lip and palate treated with one-stage palate repair : aspects of function and environment

    OpenAIRE

    Nyberg, Jill

    2016-01-01

    Introduction and aims: This project focused on speech outcomes at 5 and 10 years of age after two different surgical protocols and on peer perceptions of speech in children born with cleft palate. The aim was to gain knowledge about speech outcome in children born with unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP) or cleft palate only (CPO), treated with one-stage palatoplasty at approximately 12 months of age, according to two different surgical protocols: minimal incision technique (MIT) and minim...

  17. Region-specific slowing of alpha oscillations associated with visual-perceptual abilities in children born very preterm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam McLeod Doesburg

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Children born very preterm (≤32 weeks GA without major intellectual or neurological impairments often express selective deficits in visual-perceptual abilities. The alterations in neurophysiological development underlying these problems, however, remain poorly understood. Recent research has indicated that spontaneous alpha oscillations are slowed in children born very preterm, and that atypical alpha-mediated functional network connectivity may underlie selective developmental difficulties in visual-perceptual ability in this group. The present study provides the first source-resolved analysis of slowing of spontaneous alpha oscillations in very preterm children, indicating alterations in a distributed set of brain regions concentrated in areas of posterior parietal and inferior temporal regions associated with visual-perception, as well as prefrontal cortical regions and thalamus. We also uniquely demonstrate that slowing of alpha oscillations is associated with selective difficulties in visual-perceptual ability in very preterm children. These results indicate that region-specific slowing of alpha oscillations contribute to selective developmental difficulties prevalent in this population.

  18. The prevalence of crowding, attrition, midline discrepancies and premature tooth loss in the primary dentition of children in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamoudi, N

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to evaluate the prevalence of crowding, attrition, midline discrepancies and premature loss of primary molars in primary dentition of children resident in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Five hundred and two (502) children aged 4-6 years old residing in the city of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia provide the data for the analysis. Crowding was found in 14.7% of the subjects crowding in the maxilla occurred in 27 (5.4%) of the children, and 67 (13.4%) in the mandible. Simultaneous crowding in maxilla and mandible was present in 20 (3.98%) of the subject. The prevalence of crowding was significantly higher in the mandible than the maxilla (P > 0.01) and higher in male (P teeth out of total number of 10,040 teeth. Tooth #84 was most commonly lost tooth (P premature loss of 1st primary molars was found to be significantly higher than 2nd primary molars (P < .001).

  19. Analysis of clinical characteristics of children premature thelarche%789例儿童乳房早发育病因及临床特点分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏艳; 程昕然; 鄢力; 唐芳

    2015-01-01

    目的:分析儿童乳房发育的临床特点。方法详细询问789例以乳房发育为主诉的患儿第二性征出现的时间、生长速率及外源性激素接触情况,分析其乳房发育的病因及临床特点。比较≥7岁患儿GnRH依赖组及非GnRH依赖组的子宫、卵巢、卵泡及LH基础值的差异。结果不同年龄儿童病因分别为:0~3岁患儿中,主要乳房早发育(93.72%)、误服避孕药(4.6%);4~6岁患儿中主要乳房早发育(80.56%)、部分性性早熟(8.33%)、中枢性性早熟(5.56%);≥7岁患儿中乳房早发育(58.87%)、中枢性性早熟(13.79%)、正常乳房发育(22.91%)。 GnRH依赖组与非GnRH依赖组的子宫、卵巢及卵泡大小、LH基础值差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),但两者子宫均值均小于3.5 cm,卵巢容积均大于1 ml,卵泡均小于4 mm。结论不同年龄组患儿乳房发育的病因不同,除单纯乳房早发育外,婴幼儿以接触外源性激素如误服避孕药较多,而中枢性性早熟主要集中在学龄前及学龄期的儿童,特别是学龄期。了解不同年龄组病因不同为临床医生的诊断思路提供了参考。%Objective To analyze the clinical feature of children premature thelarche .Methods The appearing time of sec-ondary sexual characteristics ,growth rate and exogenous hormone contact in 789 children who had premature thelarche were carefully questioned .The causes of premature thelarche and clinical feature were analyzed .The differences in uterine length ,ovarian volumes ,fol-licle and LH basic value between GnRH-dependent and non-GnRH-dependent children older than 7 years old were compared .Results In the 0~3 years old group ,93.72%of the children had premature thelarche and 4.6%accidently swallowed contraceptive pills .In the 4~6 years old group ,80.56%of the children had premature thelarche ,8.33%showed partial sexual precocity and

  20. Premature delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardita Donoso Bernales

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Preterm delivery is the single most important cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality. In Chile, preterm births have increased in the past decade, although neonatal morbidity and mortality attributable to it shows a downward trend, thanks to improvements in neonatal care of premature babies, rather than the success of obstetric preventive and therapeutic strategies. This article describes clinical entities, disease processes and conditions that constitute predisposing factors of preterm birth, as well as an outline for the prevention and clinical management of women at risk of preterm birth.

  1. Prevalence of Feeding Related Issues/Difficulties in Taiwanese Children with History of Prematurity, 2003-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Tsu-Hsin; Hsu, Chyong-Hsin; Tsai, Mei-Wun

    2010-01-01

    Feeding problems are common problems seen in premature infants following their discharge from the NICU. However, the prevalence of feeding issues and failure to thrive among preterm infants in Taiwan is uncertain. All former studies of prevalence and identifications of feeding issues were from western countries. Those findings are therefore not…

  2. Retinopathies in premature infants, incidence, risk factors, prevention and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chernenkov Yu.V.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Research Objective: Analysis of incidence and accompanying states, detection of risk factors of retinopathies in premature infants (RN, dynamic monitoring and improvement of medical actions. Material and Methods: 134 children have been surveyed in the group of risk on development of RN for the last 2 years. Results: From 134 surveyed infants with gestation from 22 to 37 weeks and body weight at birth from 750 to 2500 kg. At 56 children (41,8% the retinopathy of various degree of expressiveness has been revealed. 38 children with RN of 1-2 stages (67,8% from which at 22 (39,3% —the disease ended with the induced regress after a course of «retinalamin», at 16 (28,6% of RN — spontaneous regress. 4 children (7,1% had RN 2-3 of the Art., 3-4 Art. at 12 (21,4%, and 5 Art. a cicatricial phase with retinal detachment — 2 (3,5%. In 12 cases the laser photocoagulation in the eye centers is carried out. Conclusion: The revealed relationship of cause and effect of risk factors of formation of RN with features of a current ofthe neonatal period at patients with RN, promoted development of the system of monitoring, implementation of the program of treatment and rehabilitation of prematurely born children suffering RN. Ophthalmologic screening of premature infants with the use of the ophthalmologic digital pediatric camera "Ret Cam 3" allows to diagnose a retinopathy at early stages, in due time to hold preventive an3 medical measures that allows to lower the invalidization of this group of children.

  3. STUDY REGARDING THE CORRELATION BETWEEN NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL TESTS AND WEIGHT IN NORMAL PSYCHOMOTOR DEVELOPING OF THE PREMATURE BABIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hodorca Raluca

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Premature is a newborn alive whose birth weight is equal to or less than 2500 grams, regardless of the duration of gestation. Prematurity have sometimes negative effects on child development by slowing the psychomotor development (child goes to talk later, you can recover delay until the age of 3-5 years. Some of these older children, will be clumsy. PURPOSE: To verify the importance of the adapted recovery program making a correlation between neuro-psychological assessment tests and weight of children born prematurely. HYPOTHESIS: Early systematic and continuous intervention, using adapted physical therapy methods lead to a improved neuromotor development of the premature by reaching the normal range. MATERIAL AND METHODS The study included 10 children, 6 boys and 4 girls, born prematurely. They were subjected to the test "assessment of neuro-psychological development in children 0-36 months" (it is a battery of tests that help to evaluate their development monthly and test weight. Applied therapeutic program included: exercise (performed by the game, massage, neuromotor rehabilitation methods (Bobath, Vojta, Kabat, hydrotherapy and music therapy. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: If neuro-psychological tests, we proceeded to calculate averages scores for the 3 test, which is further correlated with children's weight. Average scores range between 7 and 10. 333, with an overall average of 9.371. In all 3 tests averages ranging from 8,575 in the initial stage, in 9386, and 10,152 in the midway point in the final stage. CONCLUSIONS: Weight, explain in smaller proportions, and other parameters and results of neuro-psychological tests children (65.6%. ANOVA models indicate statistically significant relationships between parameters and neuro-psychological testing stages, showing progressive improvement of children's performance. Following statistical interpretation can confirm the effectiveness of the recovery program implemented so we suggest to the parents

  4. Children born after unplanned pregnancies and cognitive development at 3 years: social differentials in the United Kingdom Millennium Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de La Rochebrochard, Elise; Joshi, Heather

    2013-09-15

    Children born after an unplanned pregnancy have poorer developmental scores. This could arise from less favorable parenting but also could reflect confounding from the socioeconomic circumstances. In a large representative sample in the United Kingdom, the Millennium Cohort Study (2001-2005), cognitive delay at 3 years was explored with the Bracken Assessment. Its association with unplanned pregnancy was studied in logistic models controlling for demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of the family, the child's characteristics, and parenting behavior. Stratification by the mother's educational level (grouped into 3 categories) was explored. Of 12,182 children included in the analysis, 41% were born after a pregnancy reported by the mother to have been a "surprise." Such unplanned pregnancies were associated in univariate analysis with more cognitive delay. Among mothers with a low or middle level of education, this association vanished when socioeconomic circumstances were controlled. Among mothers with a high level of education, the risk of cognitive delay remained significantly and unexplainedly raised after unplanned pregnancies, despite controlling for socioeconomic characteristics and parental behavior. In conclusion, for socially disadvantaged children, having resulted from an unplanned pregnancy does not seem to increase their already disproportionate risk of cognitive delay. Births after unplanned conceptions are mainly a symptom rather than a source of disadvantage.

  5. Specific memory impairment following neonatal encephalopathy in term-born children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Handel, M. van; Sonneville, L. de; Vries, L.S. de; Jongmans, M.C.J.; Swaab, H.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines short-term memory, verbal working memory, episodic long-term memory, and intelligence in 32 children with mild neonatal encephalopathy (NE), 39 children with moderate NE, 10 children with NE who developed cerebral palsy (CP), and 53 comparison children, at the age of 9 to 10 year

  6. Auditory disorders and acquisition of the ability to localize sound in children born to HIV-positive mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Gentile Matas

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate children born to HIV-infected mothers and to determine whether such children present auditory disorders or poor acquisition of the ability to localize sound. The population studied included 143 children (82 males and 61 females, ranging in age from one month to 30 months. The children were divided into three groups according to the classification system devised in 1994 by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: infected; seroreverted; and exposed. The children were then submitted to audiological evaluation, including behavioral audiometry, visual reinforcement audiometry and measurement of acoustic immittance. Statistical analysis showed that the incidence of auditory disorders was significantly higher in the infected group. In the seroreverted and exposed groups, there was a marked absence of auditory disorders. In the infected group as a whole, the findings were suggestive of central auditory disorders. Evolution of the ability to localize sound was found to be poorer among the children in the infected group than among those in the seroreverted and exposed groups.

  7. Prenatal Stress, Prematurity, and Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medsker, Brock; Forno, Erick; Simhan, Hyagriv; Celedón, Juan C

    2015-12-01

    Asthma is the most common chronic disease of childhood, affecting millions of children in the United States and worldwide. Prematurity is a risk factor for asthma, and certain ethnic or racial minorities such as Puerto Ricans and non-Hispanic blacks are disproportionately affected by both prematurity and asthma. In this review, we examine current evidence to support maternal psychosocial stress as a putative link between prematurity and asthma, while also focusing on disruption of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and immune responses as potential underlying mechanisms for stress-induced "premature asthma." Prenatal stress may cause not only abnormalities in the HPA axis but also epigenetic changes in the fetal glucocorticoid receptor gene (NR3C1), leading to impaired glucocorticoid metabolism. Moreover, maternal stress can alter fetal cytokine balance, favoring TH2 (allergic) immune responses characteristic of atopic asthma: interleukin 6 (IL-6), which has been associated with premature labor, can promote TH2 responses by stimulating production of IL-4 and IL-13. Given a link among stress, prematurity, and asthma, future research should include birth cohorts aimed at confirming and better characterizing "premature asthma." If confirmed, clinical trials of prenatal maternal stress reduction would be warranted to reduce the burden of these common comorbidities. While awaiting the results of such studies, sound policies to prevent domestic and community violence (eg, from firearms) are justified, not only by public safety but also by growing evidence of detrimental effects of violence-induced stress on psychiatric and somatic health.

  8. Long-Term Health Outcomes in Children Born to Mothers with Diabetes: A Population-Based Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Chun S.; Nohr, Ellen A; Bech, Bodil H; Vestergaard, Mogens; Olsen, Jørn

    2012-01-01

    Background To examine whether prenatal exposure to parental type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, or gestational diabetes is associated with an increased risk of malignant neoplasm or diseases of the circulatory system in the offspring. Methods/Principal Findings We conducted a population-based cohort study of 1,781,576 singletons born in Denmark from 1977 to 2008. Children were followed for up to 30 years from the day of birth until the onset of the outcomes under study, death, emigration, or De...

  9. Neuro-ophthalmic manifestations of prematurity

    OpenAIRE

    Preeti Patil Chhablani; Ramesh Kekunnaya

    2014-01-01

    Increasing rates of preterm births coupled with better survival of these infants have resulted in higher prevalence of systemic and ocular complications associated with prematurity. In addition to retinopathy of prematurity, infants who are born preterm may suffer from severe visual impairment as a result of hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy, hypoglycemia, and other metabolic imbalances. The effect of these processes on the anterior visual pathway may result in optic atrophy, optic nerve hypopl...

  10. A alimentação do prematuro por meio do copo Cup-feeding of premature newborn children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina de Medeiros Guilherme da Silva

    2009-01-01

    . METHODS: Twenty premature newborn children, 11 female and nine male, participated on this study. The mean corrected gestational age was 36 weeks, and mean weight during evaluation was 1668 grams. The babies were orally fed for, at least, two days. Their medical files were analyzed regarding sex, gestational age, current weight, days of life, period of time receiving oral feeding, and period of time using orogastric tube, in order to relate these data with cup-feeding offer. For cup-feeding, the newborns were positioned according to World Health Organization standards. The milk administration was carried out using disposable 50-milliliters cups; gauze was placed as a shield, and the length of offer was measured. Later, the gauze was weighed. RESULTS: There was a significant statistical difference between the volumes of accepted (81.5% and wasted (22.8% milk, with more acceptance for female newborns and for the babies who did not present signs of stress. The mean length of cup-feeding was 416 seconds. CONCLUSION: Female preterm newborns accepted grater milk volume, and the lesser exposition to stressing factors the bigger the acceptance of milk. The mean length of ingestion was not influenced by the variables analyzed.

  11. Effect of air pollution on preterm birth among children born in Southern California between 1989 and 1993.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritz, B; Yu, F; Chapa, G; Fruin, S

    2000-09-01

    We evaluated the effect of air pollution exposure during pregnancy on the occurrence of preterm birth in a cohort of 97,518 neonates born in Southern California. We used measurements of carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide, ozone, and particulate matter less than 10 microm (PM10) collected at 17 air-quality-monitoring stations to create average exposure estimates for periods of pregnancy. We calculated crude and adjusted risk ratios (RRs) for premature birth by period-specific ambient pollution levels. We observed a 20% increase in preterm birth per 50-microg increase in ambient PM10 levels averaged over 6 weeks before birth [RRcrude = 1.20; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.09-1.33] and a 16% increase when averaging over the first month of pregnancy (RRcrude = 1.16; 95% CI = 1.06-1.26). PM10 effects showed no regional pattern. CO exposure 6 weeks before birth consistently exhibited an effect only for the inland regions (RRcrude = 1.13; 95% CI = 1.08-1.18 per 3 parts per million), and during the first month of pregnancy, the effect was weak for all stations (RRcrude = 1.04; 95% CI = 1.01-1.09 per 3 parts per million). Exposure to increased levels of ambient PM10 and possibly CO during pregnancy may contribute to the occurrence of preterm births in Southern California.

  12. A longitudinal group study of speech development in Danish children born with and without cleft lip and palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutters, B; Bau, A; Brøndsted, K

    2001-01-01

    The present study focuses on contoid vocalization by Danish 1-year-old unrepaired toddlers born with cleft lip and palate, and how they differ from their non-cleft peers. Furthermore, we focus on how the same children master Danish consonants at 3 years of age compared with their non-cleft peers in terms of their ability to produce consonants in accordance with adult target. Also, with the 3 year olds, we look at cleft speech characteristics as well as developmental speech characteristics found in both groups of children. Based on phonetic transcription, it was found that Danish unoperated cleft palate children at 1 year of age produced few types of contoids and preferably contoids that did not require closure of the velopharyngeal port in their prespeech. In addition, the data suggest that consonants produced by cleft children who are treated with one-stage surgery after speech onset, at 3 years of age differ from speech produced by non-cleft children, not only as regards cleft speech characteristics, but also as regards developmental speech characteristics.

  13. The Development of Cognitive, Language, and Cultural Skills from Age 3 to 6: A Comparison between Children of Turkish Origin and Children of Native-Born German Parents and the Role of Immigrant Parents' Acculturation to the Receiving Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Birgit; Klein, Oliver; Biedinger, Nicole

    2013-01-01

    This article analyzes the longitudinal development of differences in academic skills between children of Turkish origin and children of native-born German parents from age 3 to 6 in Germany with a focus on the role of immigrant parents' acculturation to the receiving society. Growth curve models show that Turkish-origin children start with lower…

  14. Season of birth in Danish children with language disorder born in the 1958-1976 period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauschild, Karen-Marie; Mouridsen, Svend Erik; Nielsen, Søren

    2005-01-01

    in the same period. For some part of the period (1964-1969), an excess of boys born in November was found. Particular attention was given to the inconsistent findings also found in language-related disorders like infantile autism and dyslexia and the choice of statistical method to determine seasonality....

  15. Lung function in 6 years old children born very preterm and fed different diets post discharge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftlund, Line Hedegaard; Agertoft, Lone; Halken, Susanne

    Background: Research has shown that being born preterm may affect lung capacity later in childhood. It is though unknown if type of early nutrition influences lung capacity and the risk of developing asthma in childhood. Aim: The aim was to investigate if type of early nutrition has an impact on ...

  16. The Effect of Age-Correction on IQ Scores among School-Aged Children Born Preterm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Rachel M.; George, Wing Man; Cole, Carolyn; Marshall, Peter; Ellison, Vanessa; Fabel, Helen

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effect of age-correction on IQ scores among preterm school-aged children. Data from the Flinders Medical Centre Neonatal Unit Follow-up Program for 81 children aged five years and assessed with the WPPSI-III, and 177 children aged eight years and assessed with the WISC-IV, were analysed. Corrected IQ scores were…

  17. Functioning of 7-Year-Old Children Born at 32 to 35 Weeks' Gestational Age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cserjesi, R.; Van Braeckel, K.N.J.A.; Butcher, P.R.; Kerstjens, J.M.; Reijneveld, S.A.; Bouma, A.; Geuze, R.H.; Bos, A.F.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare neuropsychological functions in moderately preterm (32-35 weeks' gestation) and full-term children at the age of 7 years and identify gender differences. METHODS: Community-based prospective cohort study of 248 moderately preterm children (138 boys) and 130 full-term children (

  18. Psychomotor and intellectual development (Neurocognitive Function) of children born small for gestational age (SGA). Transversal and longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puga, Beatriz; Puga, Paloma Gil; de Arriba, Antonio; Armendariz, Yolanda; Labarta, Jose I; Longas, Angel Ferrandez

    2009-02-01

    Although much is now known about the effects of intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) on children born SGA with regard to anthropometric and biochemical parameters and their treatment, there are still many gaps associated with its impact on neurocognitive functions. In our experience published several years ago, IUGR has a negative effect on neurocognitive development, regardless of whether these children showed evidence of catch-up growth or not or of the socio-economic conditions that might contribute to the situation. We have now accumulated a large number of cases, many of whom have been followed longitudinally, some for up to 7 years, many having been treated with GH from the time when this therapy was first approved by the EMA. Apart from the cases mentioned, other confounding factors such as gestational age, Apgar score, neonatal comorbidity and the possible effects of GH treatment have also been included. In addition and using our own reference standards, we now present our experience, which confirms what we had already noted in the past, that IUGR is in itself a condition that often causes psychomotorintellectual impairment, may be extremely severe and tends to worsen. This negative impact of IUGR on neurocognitive development does not depend on how the child grows,spontaneous growth is better and when growth is not altered by GH therapy. Later studies will be able to confirm whether early treatment with GH throughout the 2nd year of life, or an early specific stimulation programme, or the sum of both, can improve the neurocognitive development of these children. IUGR prevention, acting on causal factors that are partly avoidable such as smoking, working conditions and stress during pregnancy (see the corresponding article in this supplement) proves once again to be the best way to stop this negative impact on the IQ of many children born SGA.

  19. 儿童蜱传脑炎研究进展%Advances on tick-borne encephalitis in children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘琦(综述); 陈益平(审校)

    2015-01-01

    蜱传脑炎是儿童中枢神经系统感染性疾病。儿童病情较轻,极少数可能出现永久性损伤,遗留神经系统后遗症。该文介绍蜱传脑炎的流行病学和临床特征,并总结生物学和病毒学方面,以更好地了解病毒的生命周期和传播。在我国蜱传脑炎病毒是通过全沟硬蜱传播的一种黄病毒,可引起急性脑膜脑炎。血清学诊断通常是简单直接的。该病无特效治疗存在,免疫是主要预防措施。%Tick-borne encephalitis ( TBE) is a well-known central nervous system ( CNS) infection in children. The disease in children is generally milder,although severe illness may occur and even lead to perma-nent impairment of the quality of life due to neuropsychological sequelae. We review the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of tick-borne encephalitis,and summarise biological and virological aspects that are impor-tant for understanding the life-cycle and transmission of the virus. Tick-borne encephalitis virus is a flavivirus that is transmitted by ixodes persulcatus. Tick-borne encephalitis causes acute meningoencephalitis. The serologi-cal diagnosis is usually straightforward. No specific treatment for the disease exists,and immunisation is the main preventive measure.

  20. Parents of preterm-born children; sources of stress and worry and experiences with an early intervention programme - a qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    Kynø, Nina M; Ravn, Ingrid H; Lindemann, Rolf; Smeby, Nina A; Torgersen, Anne M; Gundersen, Tonje

    2014-01-01

    Background Preterm-born children are at increased risk of adverse developmental outcomes, and their parents may experience increased stress levels. The Mother–Infant Transaction Program (MITP) is an early intervention that aims to enhance the parent–infant relationship and child development. The present study investigated differences in parents’ experience of stress and concerns about caring for their preterm-born child according to whether they participated in the programm...

  1. Clinical significance to variation of serum electrolytes about premature children%早产儿血电解质变化的临床意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范春燕; 王玲玲

    2010-01-01

    目的 探讨早产儿生后24 h与72 h血电解质的变化规律,提高对早产儿电解质平衡的认识,为正确补充电解质提供理论依据.方法 对140例早产儿血清电解质进行分析.结果 140例早产儿中,24 h血清电解质浓度异常88例占62.86%,其中高钾血症、低钠血症、低氯血症、低钙血症发生率高,而高钾血症及低钙血症发生率最高.72 h血清电解质浓度异常者40例,占28.86%,其中低钾血症、低钠血症、低氯血症、低钙血症发生率较高,而以低钙血症发生率最高.同时小胎龄组更易发生电解质紊乱.结论 早期新生早产儿易发生低钙、高钾血症而随着日龄的增加即72 h后低钙发生率仍高而高钾转为低钾,并且胎龄越小发生率越高,监测早产儿血清电解质有利于指导治疗.%Objective To investigate the 24 hours after birth in preterm children with 72 hours variation of serum electrolytes,to increase awareness of electrolyte balance in premature children,in order to provide a theoretical basis for the right to add electrolyte.Methods 140 cases of premature children serum electrolyte analysis.Results 140 cases of premature children,the 24 hours serum electrolyte concentrations were 88 cases of abnormalities,accounting for 62.86%,of which hyperkalemia,hyponatremia,low chlorine hyperinsulinemia,the high incidence of hypocalcemia and hyperkalemia blood disease and the highest incidence of hypocalcemia.72 hours,the concentration of serum electrolyte abnormalities in 40 patients,accounting for 28.86%,of which hypokalemia,hyponatremia,low chlorine hyperlipidemia,relatively high incidence of hypocalcemia with the highest incidence of hypocalcemia.At the same time a small gestational age group more susceptible to electrolyte imbalance.Conclusion Early neonatal hypocalcemia in preterm children prone,hyperkalemia and as day-old or72 hours after the increase in the incidence of low calcium is still high and high potassium to low

  2. Health outcomes of children born after IVF/ICSI: a review of current expert opinion and literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauser, B C J M; Devroey, P; Diedrich, K; Balaban, B; Bonduelle, M; Delemarre-van de Waal, H A; Estella, C; Ezcurra, D; Geraedts, J P M; Howles, C M; Lerner-Geva, L; Serna, J; Wells, D

    2014-02-01

    The Sixth Evian Annual Reproduction (EVAR) Workshop Group Meeting was held to evaluate the impact of IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection on the health of assisted-conception children. Epidemiologists, reproductive endocrinologists, embryologists and geneticists presented data from published literature and ongoing research on the incidence of genetic and epigenetic abnormalities and congenital malformations in assisted-conception versus naturally conceived children to reach a consensus on the reasons for potential differences in outcomes between these two groups. IVF-conceived children have lower birthweights and higher peripheral fat, blood pressure and fasting glucose concentrations than controls. Growth, development and cognitive function in assisted-conception children are similar to controls. The absolute risk of imprinting disorders after assisted reproduction is less than 1%. A direct link between assisted reproduction and health-related outcomes in assisted-conception children could not be established. Women undergoing assisted reproduction are often older, increasing the chances of obtaining abnormal gametes that may cause deviations in outcomes between assisted-conception and naturally conceived children. However, after taking into account these factors, it is not clear to what extent poorer outcomes are due to the assisted reproduction procedures themselves. Large-scale, multicentre, prospective epidemiological studies are needed to investigate this further and to confirm long-term health consequences in assisted-conception children. Assisted reproduction treatment is a general term used to describe methods of achieving pregnancy by artificial means and includes IVF and sperm implantation. The effect of assisted reproduction treatment on the health of children born using these artificial methods is not fully understood. In April 2011, fertility research experts met to give presentations based on research in this area and to look carefully at the evidence

  3. Premature Ventricular Contractions (PVCs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diseases and Conditions Premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) By Mayo Clinic Staff Premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) are extra, abnormal heartbeats that begin in one of your heart's two ...

  4. Questions never asked. Positive family outcomes of extremely premature childbirth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lou, Hanne; Pedersen, Birthe D; Hedegaard, Morten

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To explore positive aspects of family life after extremely premature childbirth, thereby supplementing current literature on long-term family outcome. DESIGN: Semi-structured, qualitative research interviews were analysed according to the editing strategy described by Miller and Crabtree....... SETTING: Denmark, Europe. PARTICIPANTS: Nine fathers and 11 mothers of 14 children born before 28 completed weeks of gestation at a tertiary centre were interviewed when their children were 7-10 years old. RESULTS: Whereas developmental delay, functional limitations, family burden, and parental distress...... are commonly used outcome measures, experiences of another nature were reported in the lives of survivors and their parents in our study. Thus, in spite of periods of deep distress and fear, periods of concern and anxiety and for some parents a workload far beyond average, parents' descriptions...

  5. Premature ejaculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris G McMahon

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Premature ejaculation (PE is a common male sexual disorder. Recent normative data suggests that men with an intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT of less than 1 minute have "definite" PE, while men with IELTs between 1 and 1.5 minutes have "probable" PE. Although there is insufficient empirical evidence to identify the etiology of PE, there is limited correlational evidence to suggest that men with PE have high levels of sexual anxiety and inherited altered sensitivity of central 5-HT (5-hydroxytryptamine, serotonin receptors. Pharmacological modulation of the ejaculatory threshold using off-label daily or on-demand selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors is well tolerated and offers patients a high likelihood of achieving improved ejaculatory control within a few days of initiating treatment, consequential improvements in sexual desire and other sexual domains. Investigational drugs such as the ejaculo-selective serotonin transport inhibitor, dapoxetine represent a major development in sexual medicine. These drugs offer patients the convenience of on-demand dosing, significant improvements in IELT, ejaculatory control and sexual satisfaction with minimal adverse effects.

  6. Premature ejaculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Chris G

    2007-04-01

    Premature ejaculation (PE) is a common male sexual disorder. Recent normative data suggests that men with an intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT) of less than 1 minute have "definite" PE, while men with IELTs between 1 and 1.5 minutes have "probable" PE. Although there is insufficient empirical evidence to identify the etiology of PE, there is limited correlational evidence to suggest that men with PE have high levels of sexual anxiety and inherited altered sensitivity of central 5-HT (5-hydroxytryptamine, serotonin) receptors. Pharmacological modulation of the ejaculatory threshold using off-label daily or on-demand selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors is well tolerated and offers patients a high likelihood of achieving improved ejaculatory control within a few days of initiating treatment, consequential improvements in sexual desire and other sexual domains. Investigational drugs such as the ejaculo-selective serotonin transport inhibitor, dapoxetine represent a major development in sexual medicine. These drugs offer patients the convenience of on-demand dosing, significant improvements in IELT, ejaculatory control and sexual satisfaction with minimal adverse effects.

  7. Long-term health outcomes in children born to mothers with diabetes: a population-based cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun S Wu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To examine whether prenatal exposure to parental type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, or gestational diabetes is associated with an increased risk of malignant neoplasm or diseases of the circulatory system in the offspring. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We conducted a population-based cohort study of 1,781,576 singletons born in Denmark from 1977 to 2008. Children were followed for up to 30 years from the day of birth until the onset of the outcomes under study, death, emigration, or December 31, 2009, whichever came first. We used Cox proportional hazards model to estimate hazard ratios (HR with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI for the outcomes under study while adjusting for potential confounders. An increased risk of malignant neoplasm was found in children prenatally exposed to maternal type 2 diabetes (HR = 2.2, 95%CI: 1.5-3.2. An increased risk of diseases of the circulatory system was found in children exposed to maternal type 1 diabetes (HR = 2.2, 95%CI: 1.6-3.0, type 2 diabetes (HR = 1.4, 95%CI: 1.1-1.7, and gestational diabetes (HR = 1.3, 95%CI: 1.1-1.6, but results were attenuated after excluding children with congenital malformations. An increased risk of diseases of the circulatory system was also found in children exposed to paternal type 2 diabetes (HR = 1.5, 95%CI: 1.1-2.2 and the elevated risk remained after excluding children with congenital malformations. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that susceptibility to malignant neoplasm is modified partly by fetal programming. Diseases of the circulatory system may be modified by genetic factors, other time-stable family factors, or fetal programming.

  8. Epilepsy and cerebral palsy: characteristics and trends in children born in 1976-1998

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sellier, Elodie; Uldall, Peter; Calado, Eulalia;

    2012-01-01

    Although epilepsy is common in children with cerebral palsy (CP), no data exists on prevalence rates of CP and epilepsy.......Although epilepsy is common in children with cerebral palsy (CP), no data exists on prevalence rates of CP and epilepsy....

  9. Thermal detection thresholds in 5-year-old preterm born children; IQ does matter.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaf, J. de; Valkenburg, A.J.; Tibboel, D.; Dijk, M.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Experiencing pain at newborn age may have consequences on one's somatosensory perception later in life. Children's perception for cold and warm stimuli may be determined with the Thermal Sensory Analyzer (TSA) device by two different methods. AIM: This pilot study in 5-year-old children

  10. "You Are Not Born Being Racist, Are You?" Discussing Racism with Primary Aged-Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priest, Naomi; Walton, Jessica; White, Fiona; Kowal, Emma; Fox, Brandi; Paradies, Yin

    2016-01-01

    Ethnic-racial socialisation is broadly described as processes by which both minority and majority children and young people learn about and negotiate racial, ethnic and cultural diversity. This article extends the existing ethnic-racial socialisation literature in three significant ways: (1) it explores ways children make sense of their…

  11. The Effects of Fetal Surgery on Retinopathy of Prematurity Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudha Nallasamy

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fetal surgery is selectively offered for severe or life-threatening fetal malformations. These infants are often born prematurely and are thus at risk for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP. It is not known whether fetal surgery confers an increased risk of developing severe ROP relative to published rates in standard premature populations ≤37 weeks of age grouped by birth weight (

  12. HBV carriage in children born from HIV-seropositive mothers in Senegal: The need of birth-dose HBV vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gueye, Sokhna Bousso; Diop-Ndiaye, Halimatou; Lo, Gora; Mintsa, Sandrine; Guindo, Ibrahima; Dia, Aminata; Sow-Sall, Amina; Gaye-Diallo, Aissatou; Mboup, Souleymane; Touré-Kane, Coumba

    2016-05-01

    Hepatitis B is a major public health problem in Senegal, a country with high prevalence and a transmission occurring mainly during infancy. Only, one 6-8 weeks vaccination campaign was initiated in 2005 and it was part of the expanded program of immunization. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of HBsAg in children born from HIV-seropositive mothers by using dried blood specimens. Specimens were collected between July 2007 and November 2012 from children aged 2-48 weeks in Dakar and decentralized sites working on HIV mother-to-child transmission prevention. HBsAg detection was performed using Architect HBsAg Qualitative II kit (Abbott Diagnostics, Ireland) and for all reactive samples confirmation was done using Architect HBsAg Qualitative II Confirmatory kit (Abbott Diagnostics, Ireland). Nine hundred thirty samples were collected throughout the country with 66% out of Dakar, the capital city. The median age was 20 weeks and 88% of children were less than 1 year of age with a sex ratio of 1.27 in favor of boys. HBsAg was detected in 28 cases giving a global prevalence of 3%. According to age, HBsAg prevalences were 5.1% for children less than 6 weeks, 4.1% and 4.6%, respectively, for those aged 12-18 weeks and 18-24 weeks of age. The HIV prevalence was 2.6% with no HIV/HBV co-infection. This study showed a high rate of HBV infection in children under 24 months, highlighting the need to promote birth-dose HBV vaccination as recommended by WHO.

  13. Neuropsychological development in preschool children born with asymmetrical intrauterine growth restriction and impact of postnatal head growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaric, Andrea Simić; Galić, Slavka; Kolundzić, Zdravko; Bosnjak, Vlatka Mejaski

    2013-07-01

    Neuropsychological development and the impact of postnatal head growth were studied in preschool children with asymmetrical intrauterine growth restriction. Examinees born at term with a birth weight below the 10th percentile were matched to the control group according to chronological and gestational age, gender, and maternal education. Fifty children were in each group, with a mean age of 6 years, 4 months. The Touwen neurological examination, the Čuturić developmental test, an imitative hand positions test, and a visual attention test were performed. There were significant differences (Pmotor variables, the developmental quotient, and the imitative hand positions test. Fine motor skills had the most discriminative power. Relative growth of the head in relation to weight gain was positively correlated to neurocognitive outcome. Intrauterine growth-restricted children with a current head circumference ≤10th percentile had poorer outcomes. Conclusively, intrauterine growth restriction has a negative impact on neurocognitive development. Slow postnatal head growth is correlated with a poorer neuropsychological outcome.

  14. Increased risk of ALL among premature infants is not explained by increased prevalence of pre-leukemic cell clones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lausten-Thomsen, Ulrik; Madsen, Hans Ole; Vestergaard, Therese Risom

    2010-01-01

    in the prevalence and magnitude of preleukaemic t(12;21)-positive cells compared to previously published data from mature children could be demonstrated. This indirectly supports the theory that prevalence and quantity of preleukaemic t(12;21)-positive cells peaks at term or early childhood and that exogenous......The multi-hit hypothesis for paediatric leukemogenesis states that an initial genetic hit (often occurring prenataly) must be followed by one or more hit(s) before a cell become leukeamic. Studies have demonstrated the presence of pre-leukaemic t(12;21)-positive cells at levels 10(-3) to 10...... and quantity of pre-leukaemic t(12;21)-positive children born prematurely. Using a sensitive qRT-PCR assay, we screened messenger RNA from fresh umbilical cord-blood samples from 256 premature children. In none of the neonates, t(12;21)-positive cells could be demonstrated. Therefore, no increase...

  15. Poverty among Young Children in Black Immigrant, US-Born Black, and Non-Black Immigrant Families: The Role of Familial Contexts. Discussion Paper Series. DP 2010-02

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Kevin J. A.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines how familial contexts affect poverty disparities between the children of immigrant and US-born Blacks, and among Black and non-Black children of immigrants. Despite lower gross child poverty rates in immigrant than US-born Black families, accounting for differences in family structure reveals that child poverty risks among…

  16. Motor trajectories from birth to 5 years of children born at less than 30 weeks’ gestation: early predictors and functional implications. Protocol for a prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia J Spittle

    2016-10-01

    Discussion/significance: Understanding the developmental precursors of motor impairment in children born before 30 weeks is essential for limiting disruption to skill development, and potential secondary impacts on physical activity, participation, academic achievement, self-esteem and associated outcomes (such as obesity, poor physical fitness and social isolation. An improved understanding of motor skill development will enable targeting of interventions and streamlining of services to children at highest risk of motor impairments.

  17. Cognitive profiles in bilingual children born to immigrant parents and Italian monolingual native children with specific learning disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riva, Anna; Nacinovich, Renata; Bertuletti, Nadia; Montrasi, Valentina; Marchetti, Sara; Neri, Francesca; Bomba, Monica

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study is to compare the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children® – fourth edition IV (WISC IV) intellectual profile of two groups of children with specific learning disorder, a group of bilingual children and a group of monolingual Italian children, in order to identify possible significant differences between them. Patients and methods A group of 48 bilingual children and a group of 48 Italian monolingual children were included in this study. A preliminary comparison showed the homogeneity of the two groups regarding learning disorder typology and sociodemographic characteristics (age at WISC IV assessment, sex and years of education in Italy) with the exception of socioeconomic status. Socioeconomic status was then used as a covariate in the analysis. Results Even if the two groups were comparable in specific learning disorder severity and, in particular, in the text comprehension performance, our findings showed that the WISC IV performances of the bilingual group were significantly worse than the Italian group in Full Scale Intelligence Quotient (P=0.03), in General Ability Index (P=0.03), in Working Memory Index (P=0.009) and in some subtests and clusters requiring advanced linguistic abilities. Conclusion These results support the hypothesis of a weakness in metalinguistic abilities in bilingual children with specific learning disorders than monolinguals. If confirmed, this result must be considered in the rehabilitation treatment. PMID:28115851

  18. Validation of self-reported folic acid use in a multiethnic population: results of the Amsterdam Born Children and their Development study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.J. Sikkens; M. van Eijsden; G.J. Bonsel; M.C. Cornel

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To assess folic acid supplementation rates and validate the self-reporting of folic acid supplement use among pregnant women in a multiethnic cohort. Design: Secondary analysis of a prospective cohort study. Setting: Self-reported folic acid supplement use in the Amsterdam Born Children a

  19. Genetic and Environmental Factors in Pre- and Postnatal Growth Disorders: Studies in children born small for gestational age (SGA), with and without postnatal short stature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.A. Ester (Wietske)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractTh is thesis describes genetic and environmental factors which are important in pre- and postnatal growth disorders and specifi cally focuses on children born small for gestational age (SGA) with or without postnatal catch-up growth. It also presents a subclassifi cation of short SGA sub

  20. Children and young adults born small for gestational age (SGA) : GH-IGF-IGFBP axis, insulin sensitivity, adipocytokines and body composition during and after growth hormone treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. van Dijk (Marije)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractThis doctoral thesis gives a detailed account of various studies, performed in short children born small for gestational age (SGA) participating in the third Dutch GH trial (IUGR-3 study), and in young SGA adults previously treated with GH in the first Dutch GH trial (SGA follow-up study

  1. A randomised controlled trial evaluating IGF1 titration in contrast to current GH dosing strategies in children born small for gestational age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rikke Beck; Thankamony, Ajay; O'Connell, Susan M

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Short children born small for gestational age (SGA) are treated with a GH dose based on body size, but treatment may lead to high levels of IGF1. The objective was to evaluate IGF1 titration of GH dose in contrast to current dosing strategies. METHODS: In the North European Small-for-...

  2. Catch-up growth up to ten years of age in children born very preterm or with very low birth weight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knops, N.B.B.; Sneeuw, K.C.A.; Brand, R.; Hille, E.T.M.; Ouden, A.L. den; Wit, J.M.; Verloove-Vanhorick, S.P.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Improved survival due to advances in neonatal care has brought issues such as postnatal growth and development more to the focus of our attention. Most studies report stunting in children born very preterm and/or small for gestational age. In this article we study the growth pattern of t

  3. Multigenerational: Households and the School Readiness of Children Born to Unmarried Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustine, Jennifer March; Raley, R Kelly

    2013-04-01

    Following the ongoing increase in nonmarital fertility, policy makers have looked for ways to limit the disadvantages faced by children of unmarried mothers. Recent initiatives included marriage promotion and welfare-to-work programs. Yet policy might also consider the promotion of three generational households. We know little about whether multigenerational households benefit children of unwed mothers, although they are mandated for unmarried teen mothers applying for welfare benefits. Multigenerational households are also becoming increasingly common. Thus, using data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (N = 217), this study examines whether grandparent-headed coresidential households benefit preschool-aged children's school readiness, employing propensity score techniques to account for selection into these households. Findings reveal living with a grandparent is not associated with child outcomes for families that select into such arrangements but is positively associated with reading scores and behavior problems for families with a low propensity to coreside. The implications of these findings for policy are discussed.

  4. Cognitive profiles in bilingual children born to immigrant parents and Italian monolingual native children with specific learning disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riva A

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Anna Riva, Renata Nacinovich, Nadia Bertuletti, Valentina Montrasi, Sara Marchetti, Francesca Neri, Monica Bomba Child and Adolescent Mental Health Department, University of Milan Bicocca, San Gerardo Hospital, Monza, Italy Purpose: The aim of this study is to compare the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children® – fourth edition IV (WISC IV intellectual profile of two groups of children with specific learning disorder, a group of bilingual children and a group of monolingual Italian children, in order to identify possible significant differences between them. Patients and methods: A group of 48 bilingual children and a group of 48 Italian monolingual children were included in this study. A preliminary comparison showed the homogeneity of the two groups regarding learning disorder typology and sociodemographic characteristics (age at WISC IV assessment, sex and years of education in Italy with the exception of socioeconomic status. Socioeconomic status was then used as a covariate in the analysis. Results: Even if the two groups were comparable in specific learning disorder severity and, in particular, in the text comprehension performance, our findings showed that the WISC IV performances of the bilingual group were significantly worse than the Italian group in Full Scale Intelligence Quotient (P=0.03, in General Ability Index (P=0.03, in Working Memory Index (P=0.009 and in some subtests and clusters requiring advanced linguistic abilities. Conclusion: These results support the hypothesis of a weakness in metalinguistic abilities in bilingual children with specific learning disorders than monolinguals. If confirmed, this result must be considered in the rehabilitation treatment. Keywords: children, bilingualism, WISC IV, SLD

  5. Multigenerational Households and the School Readiness of Children Born to Unmarried Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustine, Jennifer March; Raley, R. Kelly

    2013-01-01

    Following the ongoing increase in nonmarital fertility, policy makers have looked for ways to limit the disadvantages faced by children of unmarried mothers. Recent initiatives included marriage promotion and welfare-to-work programs. Yet policy might also consider the promotion of three generational households. We know little about whether…

  6. Co-occurrence of developmental and behavioural problems in moderate to late preterm-born children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Potijk, Marieke R; de Winter, Andrea F; Bos, Arend F; Kerstjens, Jorien M; Reijneveld, Sijmen A

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine the occurrence of emotional and behavioural problems (EBP) in moderate to late preterm (MLP) and full-term children with developmental delay. Design Participants were recruited from 13 randomly selected preventive child healthcare (PCH) centres in the Netherlands. We included

  7. ADHD and Infant Disorganized Attachment: A Prospective Study of Children Next-Born after Stillbirth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Carmen; Turton, Penelope; Hughes, Patricia; White, Sarah; Gillberg, Christopher

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether infant disorganized attachment predicts ADHD at school age. Method: A cohort of 53 children who had been identified as having significant levels of disorganized attachment in infancy is compared to a control group. Symptoms and signs of ADHD at age 7 are evaluated together with a range of relevant maternal variables.…

  8. Functional impairments at school age of preterm born children with late-onset sepsis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Ree, Meike; Tanis, Jozien C.; Van Braeckel, Koenraad N. J. A.; Bos, Arend F.; Roze, Elise

    2011-01-01

    Background: Late-onset sepsis is a relatively common complication particularly of preterm birth that affects approximately a quarter of very low birth weight infants. Aim: We aimed to determine the motor, cognitive, and behavioural outcome at school age of preterm children with late-onset sepsis com

  9. Late-onset blueberry muffin lesions following recombinant erythropoietin administration in a premature infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Vishal; Dummula, Krishna; Fraga, Garth; Parimi, Prabhu

    2012-10-01

    Recombinant erythropoietin is being used in premature population for anemia of prematurity. It is considered very safe in this population, although risks are still being evaluated. We report the first case of dermal erythropoiesis as a side effect of recombinant erythropoietin in an extremely prematurely born infant presenting with late-onset blueberry muffin lesions.

  10. Effect of socioeconomic status on psychosocial problems in 5- to 6-year-old preterm- and term-born children: the ABCD study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Laat, Sanne A A; Essink-Bot, Marie-Louise; van Wassenaer-Leemhuis, Aleid G; Vrijkotte, Tanja G

    2016-07-01

    This study aimed at analysing the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and psychosocial problems in preterm- and term-born children. Scores of mothers and teachers on the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) regarding 217 preterm-born children (preterm children (6.1 ± 4.7) than for term children (5.2 ± 4.1). After covariate adjustment, this difference was 0.5 (95 % CI 0.0-1.0). For preterm children 16.1 % of the mothers reported psychosocial problems compared with 10.1 % for term children. Lower maternal education and lower income adequacy were significantly related to higher SDQ scores of mothers and teachers. Differences in mothers' SDQ score between preterm and term children were larger in the high-education (Δ0.9, 95 % CI 0.2-1.5) and high-income group (Δ0.9, 95 % CI 0.3-1.6). No significant differences were found between preterm and term children in the SDQ scores reported by teachers. Low level of maternal education and inadequate income showed a much stronger association with psychosocial problems than preterm birth. No combined effect of low SES and preterm birth was found. This study corroborates the evidence for the strength of the disadvantageous effects of low SES on early psychosocial development.

  11. Increased risk for mental illness, injuries, and violence in children born to mothers with intellectual disability: A register study in Sweden during 1999-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickström, Maria; Höglund, Berit; Larsson, Margareta; Lundgren, Maria

    2017-03-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that mothers with intellectual disability (ID) have a higher prevalence of mental health illness, lower socio-economic status, and a higher risk of alcohol and drug use compared to mothers without ID. The children of mothers with ID are over-represented in child protection and legal proceedings but are generally a less studied group than the mothers. The aim of this study was to investigate if children born to mothers with ID had an increased risk of being diagnosed with mental illness, injuries, and violence compared with children of mothers without ID. The study comprised a population-based cohort of children born in Sweden between 1999 and 2005. Data were collected from the Medical Birth Register and linked with two other national registers; ICD-10 codes were used for medical diagnoses, including ID. The children were followed from birth to seven years of age. In total, 478,577 children were included, of whom 2749 were born to mothers with ID. Children of mothers with ID were at a greater risk of having mental health problems (adjusted odds ratio (OR)=2.02; 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.74-2.35) and ID (OR=4.14; CI=2.95-5.82) in early childhood. They had an increased risk for injuries due to falls (OR=1.15; Cl 1.04-1.27). The largest risk related to trauma was violence and child abuse (OR=3.11; CI=1.89-5.12). In conclusion, children of mothers with ID had an increased risk for injuries, violence, and child abuse. We therefore suggest that parents with ID should receive evidence based support so that their children receive the best care and protection.

  12. Assessing Child Maltreatment in Children Born to Mothers Who Used Methamphetamine during Pregnancy at Siriraj Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patcharoros, Nontima; Chulakadabba, Sudsabuy; Na Manorom, Nattawadee; Boon-Yasidhi, Vitharon

    2014-01-01

    Studies on maltreatment of children born to methamphetamine abusing mothers are lacking. This cross-sectional study examined child maltreatment among children born at Siriraj Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand, to mothers who used methamphetamines during pregnancy. During the study period between July 2011 and January 2012, 34 caretakers of these children were interviewed using the ISPCAN Child Abuse Screening Tool-Parent Version (ICAST-P) to assess their disciplinary actions. The associations between child's and caretaker's characteristics and child maltreatment behaviors were analyzed. More than 90% of caretakers were female with age ranging from 18 to 35 years and about 60% were biological mothers. The children's age ranged from 1 to 9 years. Disciplinary acts and child rearing practices that were considered to be child maltreatment behaviors were reported as follows: psychological discipline 82.4%, physical discipline 79.4%, and neglect 29.4%. No associations between the child's or the caretaker's characteristics and child maltreatment behaviors were found. In conclusion, child maltreatment behaviors were frequent in caretakers of children born to mothers who used methamphetamine during pregnancy. Supervision on child rearing and careful monitoring are needed for this population.

  13. Mother-Child Interaction and Early Language Skills in Children Born to Mothers with Substance Abuse and Psychiatric Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    J Haabrekke, Kristin; Siqveland, Torill; Smith, Lars; Wentzel-Larsen, Tore; Walhovd, Kristine B; Moe, Vibeke

    2015-10-01

    This prospective, longitudinal study with data collected at four time points investigated how maternal psychiatric symptoms, substance abuse and maternal intrusiveness in interaction were related to early child language skills. Three groups of mothers were recruited during pregnancy: One from residential treatment institutions for substance abuse (n = 18), one from psychiatric outpatient treatment (n = 22) and one from well-baby clinics (n = 30). Maternal substance abuse and anti-social and borderline personality traits were assessed during pregnancy, postpartum depression at 3 months, maternal intrusiveness in interaction at 12 months, and child language skills at 2 years. Results showed that the mothers in the substance abuse group had the lowest level of education, they were younger and they were more likely to be single mothers than the mothers in the two other groups. There was a significant difference in expressive language between children born to mothers with substance abuse problems and those born to comparison mothers, however not when controlling for maternal age, education and single parenthood. No group differences in receptive language skills were detected. Results further showed that maternal intrusiveness observed in mother-child interaction at 12 months was significantly related to child expressive language at 2 years, also when controlling for socio-demographic risk factors. This suggests that in addition to addressing substance abuse and psychiatric problems, there is a need for applying treatment models promoting sensitive caregiving, in order to enhance child expressive language skills.

  14. Improvement in perinatal care for extremely premature infants in Denmark from 1994 to 2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasselager, Asbjørn Børch; Børch, Klaus; Pryds, Ole Axel

    2016-01-01

    PVL) and intraventricular haemorrhage grade 3-4 (IVH 3-4). RESULTS: A total of 184, 83 and 127 infants were included from the cohorts. Delivery rates at level 3 Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) hospitals increased from 69% to 87%. Transfer rates to level 3 NICU almost doubled during the period. Survival rates were......INTRODUCTION: Major advances in perinatal care over the latest decades have increased the survival rate of extremely premature infants. Centralisation of perinatal care was implemented in Denmark from 1995. This study evaluates the effect of organisational changes of perinatal care on survival...... gestational age and administration of surfactant. CONCLUSIONS: Centralisation of treatment of extremely premature infants has been implemented because more children are being born at highly specialised perinatal centres. Care improved as more infants received evidence-based treatment. IVH 3-4 rates declined...

  15. Pharmacotherapy for premature ejaculation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waldinger, Marcel D

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: As there are various drugs and different treatment strategies to delay ejaculation, a review of the current drug treatments for premature ejaculation is relevant for daily clinical practice. RECENT FINDINGS: There are four premature ejaculation subtypes: lifelong premature ejacula

  16. Differences in uptake of immunisations and health examinations among refugee children compared to Danish-born children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moller, Sanne Pagh; Hjern, Anders; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo;

    2016-01-01

    diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis and polio (HR = 0.50; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.48–0.51). Participation in child health examinations was also lower among refugee children with the lowest at the last child health examination at age 5 (HR = 0.48; 95 % CI 0.47–0.50). Adjusting the analysis for parental...

  17. Immunization coverage and its determinants among children born in 2008-2009 by questionnaire survey in Zhejiang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yu; Chen, Enfu; Li, Qian; Chen, Yaping; Qi, Xiaohua

    2015-03-01

    The study aimed to assess the determinants of immunization coverage in children born in 2008-2009, living in Zhejiang Province. The World Health Organization's cluster sampling technique was applied. Immunization coverage of 5 vaccines was assessed: BCG vaccine, diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and pertussis vaccine, poliomyelitis vaccine, hepatitis B vaccine, and measles-containing vaccine. Determinants for age-appropriate immunization coverage rates were explored using logistic regression models. Immunization coverage of 5 vaccines were all greater than 90%, but the age-appropriate immunization coverage rates for 3 months and for first dose of measles-containing vaccine was 41.3% and 64.5%, respectively. Siblings in household, mother's education level, household registration, socioeconomic level of resident areas, satisfaction with clinical immunization service, and convenient access to local immunization clinic were associated with age-appropriate coverage rates. Age-appropriate immunization coverage rates should be given more attention and should be considered as a benchmark to strive for in the future intervention.

  18. Selective deficit in spatial location memory in extremely low birth weight children at age six: the PETIT study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Ida Sue; Brandt, Jason; Ahronovich, Margot D; Baker, Robin; Erickson, Kristine; Litman, Fern R

    2012-01-01

    Spatial location memory has rarely been assessed in young children due to a scarcity of developmentally appropriate tests. This study sought to compare nonverbal learning and recall in children born extremely low birth weight (ELBW; children at early school age using a recently developed and adapted test. We administered a modification of the Hopkins Board to 210 children at age six; 84 born ELBW (35 born children had worse general cognition, item naming, delayed item recall, delayed location recall, and percent retention than term-born children. Delayed item recall and percent retention performances of ELBW children remained worse after correction for general cognition. ELBW groups (children in naming and delayed item recall with chronological age as covariate. Those born before 26 GW, but not 26-33 GW, performed worse than term-born children in delayed location recall and percent retention. Differences remained significant after controlling for gender, maternal education, and delivery type. All three groups' performance declined from final learning trial to delayed location recall, with a decline greater for less than 26 GW than term-born children. Extreme prematurity (spatial location memory deficit. The modified Hopkins Board discriminated high-risk preterm and term-born children at early school age and appears to be a useful test to measure this rarely studied cognitive capacity.

  19. Premature dental eruption: report of case.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McNamara, C M

    2011-08-05

    This case report reviews the variability of dental eruption and the possible sequelae. Dental eruption of the permanent teeth in cleft palate children may be variable, with delayed eruption the most common phenomenon. A case of premature dental eruption of a maxillary left first premolar is demonstrated, however, in a five-year-old male. This localized premature dental eruption anomaly was attributed to early extraction of the primary dentition, due to caries.

  20. Circulating TNF-alpha and IL-6 concentrations and TNF-alpha -308 G>A polymorphism in children with premature adrenarche

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauliina eUtriainen

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Premature adrenarche (PA, the early rise in adrenal androgen production leading to prepubertal signs of androgen action, has been connected with adverse metabolic features. The metabolic syndrome is characterized by low grade inflammation which in turn is associated with increases in circulating proinflammatory cytokines, like tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α and interleukin-6 (IL-6. We tested the hypothesis that serum concentrations of TNF-α and IL-6 are increased in PA by studing 73 children with PA and 98 age- and gender-matched controls. Serum TNF-α and IL-6 concentrations were measured using a multiplex bead array. The subjects were genotyped for the TNF-α gene -308 G>A polymorphism (known to affect TNF-α gene transcription, and genotype-phenotype associations were studied. The mean serum TNF-α concentration was higher in the PA than control children (20.4 vs. 18.4 pg/ml, P=0.048, whereas there was no significant difference in the mean serum IL-6 concentrations between the study groups. The difference in TNF-α was not explained by excess body weight in the PA subjects as the difference remained significant after BMI-adjustment (P=0.038. In the PA group, TNF-α concentration was not associated with metabolic-endocrine features, but high IL-6 was associated with lower birth weight. There was no difference in the genotype distribution of the TNF-α gene -308 G>A polymorphism between the PA and control groups. In conclusion, PA was associated with increased serum TNF-α concentrations which, unexpectedly, were not connected with BMI or insulin resistance. The TNF-α gene -308 G>A polymorphism does not seem to be associated with the development of PA.

  1. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders: a population based study of premature mortality rates in the mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qing; Fisher, Wayne W; Peng, Chun-Zi; Williams, Andrew D; Burd, Larry

    2012-08-01

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) are associated with an increase in risk for mortality for people with an FASD and their siblings. In this study we examine mortality rates of birth mothers of children with FASD, using a retrospective case control methodology. We utilized the North Dakota FASD Registry to locate birth certificates for children with FASD which we used to identify birth mothers. We then searched for mothers' death certificates. We then compared the mortality rates of the birth mothers with an age matched control group comprised of all North Dakota women who were born and died in the same year as the birth mother. The birth mothers of children with FASD had a mortality rate of 15/304 = 4.93%; (95% CI 2.44-7.43%). The mortality rate for control mothers born in same years as the FASD mothers was 126/114,714 = 0.11% (95% CI 0.09-0.13%). Mothers of children with an FASD had a 44.82 fold increase in mortality risk and 87% of the deaths occurred in women under the age of 50. Three causes of death (cancer, injuries, and alcohol related disease) accounted for 67% of the deaths in the mothers of children with FASD. A diagnosis of FASD is an important risk marker for premature death in the mothers of children diagnosed with an FASD. These women should be encouraged to enter substance abuse treatment.

  2. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders: A Population Based Study of Premature Mortality Rates in the Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qing; Fisher, Wayne W.; Peng, Chun-Zi; Williams, Andrew D.

    2017-01-01

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) are associated with an increase in risk for mortality for people with an FASD and their siblings. In this study we examine mortality rates of birth mothers of children with FASD, using a retrospective case control methodology. We utilized the North Dakota FASD Registry to locate birth certificates for children with FASD which we used to identify birth mothers. We then searched for mothers’ death certificates. We then compared the mortality rates of the birth mothers with an age matched control group comprised of all North Dakota women who were born and died in the same year as the birth mother. The birth mothers of children with FASD had a mortality rate of 15/304 = 4.93%; (95% CI 2.44–7.43%). The mortality rate for control mothers born in same years as the FASD mothers was 126/114,714 = 0.11% (95% CI 0.09–0.13%). Mothers of children with an FASD had a 44.82 fold increase in mortality risk and 87% of the deaths occurred in women under the age of 50. Three causes of death (cancer, injuries, and alcohol related disease) accounted for 67% of the deaths in the mothers of children with FASD. A diagnosis of FASD is an important risk marker for premature death in the mothers of children diagnosed with an FASD. These women should be encouraged to enter substance abuse treatment. PMID:21710184

  3. The interplay between drugs and the kidney in premature neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreuder, Michiel F; Bueters, Ruud R G; Allegaert, Karel

    2014-11-01

    The kidney plays a central role in the clearance of drugs. However, renal drug handling entails more than glomerular filtration and includes tubular excretion and reabsorption, and intracellular metabolization by cellular enzyme systems, such as the Cytochrome P450 isoenzymes. All these processes show maturation from birth onwards, which is one of the reasons why drug dosing in children is not simply similar to dosing in small adults. As kidney development normally finishes around the 36th week of gestation, being born prematurely will result in even more immature renal drug handling. Environmental effects, such as extra-uterine growth restriction, sepsis, asphyxia, or drug treatments like caffeine, aminoglycosides, or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, may further hamper drug handling in the kidney. Dosing in preterm neonates is therefore dependent on many factors that need to be taken into account. Drug treatment may significantly hamper postnatal kidney development in preterm neonates, just like renal immaturity has an impact on drug handling. The restricted kidney development results in a lower number of nephrons that may have several long-term sequelae, such as hypertension, albuminuria, and renal failure. This review focuses on the interplay between drugs and the kidney in premature neonates.

  4. Long-Term Maternal Stress and Post-traumatic Stress Symptoms Related to Developmental Outcome of Extremely Premature Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerach, Gadi; Elsayag, Adi; Shefer, Shahar; Gabis, Lidia

    2015-08-01

    In this study, we examined the relations between the severity of developmental outcomes of extremely low birth weight (ELBW) children and their mothers' stress and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, 4-16 years after birth. Israeli mothers (N = 78) of a cohort of extremely premature infants (24-27 weeks) born 4-16 years earlier were asked to report about the medical and developmental condition of their child and their current perceived stress and PTSD symptoms. Results show that mothers of ELBW children with normal development reported the lowest perceived stress compared with mothers of ELBW children with developmental difficulties. We also found that 25.6% of the mothers had the potential to suffer from PTSD following the birth of an ELBW child. Furthermore, the severity of prematurity developmental outcomes made a significant contribution to mothers' perceived stress. To sum, mothers of ELBW infants' perceived stress is related to their children's severity of prematurity developmental outcomes, 4-16 years after birth. Clinical implications of these findings are discussed.

  5. Early life predictors of childhood intelligence: evidence from the Aberdeen children of the 1950s study

    OpenAIRE

    Lawlor,D.A.; Batty, G D; Morton, S M B; Deary, I.J.; Macintyre, S.; Ronalds, G.; Leon, D. A.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To identify the early life predictors of childhood intelligence. \\ud \\ud Design: Cohort study of 10 424 children who were born in Aberdeen (Scotland) between 1950 and 1956. \\ud \\ud Results: Social class of father around the time of birth, gravidity, maternal age, maternal physical condition, whether the child was born outside of marriage, prematurity, intrauterine growth, and childhood height were all independently associated with childhood intelligence at ages 7, 9, and 11. The ef...

  6. Description of Clean and Healthy Behavior of Food Borne Disease Among by School Children Age in Babat Jerawat I Elementary School, District Pakal Surabaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidayat Heny Sholikhah

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Incidence of food borne disease, such as diarrhea, typhoid and hookworm infection in school childrenwere still sufficient susceptible. Lack of clean and healthy behavior became primary cause, so that the agent can easilyenter to the body through the food consumed. The purpose of this study was to descript the clean and healthy behaviors by school children age at Babat Jerawat I Elementary School, District Pakal Surabaya. Methods: This study was a crosssectional study. The sample of this study were 112 of fifth grade students at Babat Jerawat I Elementary school, District Pakal Surabaya, selected by purposive sampling of 121 students who met the inclusion criteria. Data of clean and healthy behavior were collected by observation and interviews focused on a group of school children using questionnaires, checklists and interview guides. Data analysis was done by using descriptive analysis. Results: The results showed that the clean and healthy behaviors about food borne disease, the majority of school children in Elementary school Babat Jerawat I District Pakal Surabaya included in good criteria (51.8% and small portion of these included less category (48.2%. Conclusion:Clean and Healthy Behavior of food borne disease in school children age had good criteria, but still need attention formany factors that influence it, such as the availability of facilities, affordability snacks outside of school and examples ofunhealthy behaviors in family environment. Recommendation: Improve the cooperation between the school and localhealth officials to tighten rules on the management of snack vending around schools, and do continuous education both within the school and the child’s school community.

  7. An evaluation of data for 10 children born to mothers who attempted suicide by taking large doses of alprazolam during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gidai, J; Acs, N; Bánhidy, F; Czeizel, A E

    2008-01-01

    FDA has identified alprazolam, a new type of benzodiazepine, as pregnancy category D. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects on fetal development of very large doses of alprazolam that were used for suicide attempts during pregnancy. Pregnant women were identified among the patients of the Department of Toxicology Internal Medicine, Korányi Hospital, Budapest, who were admitted as self-poisoned subjects from a total population of the three million people of Budapest and its surrounding region. Rates of congenital abnormalities, intrauterine fetal development, and cognitive-behavioral status were compared between children born to mothers who attempted suicide during pregnancy using alprazolam alone or in combination with other drugs and in their sib controls. Between 1984 and 1993, 559 pregnant women attempted suicide during pregnancy with drugs: 30 of these women self-poisoned with alprazolam, 10 delivered live-born infants who were examined. Doses of alprazolam used were between 7.5 and 100 mg, with a mean of 30 mg. Six of the 10 exposed children were born to mothers who attempted suicide between the 6th and 12th postconceptional weeks. Of the 10 exposed children, two had congenital abnormalities. One had a multiple congenital abnormality that included atypical gastroschisis and minor anomalies; an association of this defect and the 30 mg alprazolam used for self-poisoning in the 14th postconceptional week cannot be excluded. Another exposed child had mild pectus excavatum, but the times of the suicide attempt and the critical period for producing this defect did not overlap. Of 12 sibs, one had a multiple congenital abnormality. Thus, the rate of congenital abnormalities did not significantly differ between exposed children and their sibs. Mean birth weight was higher for babies born to mothers who attempted suicide by alprazolam during pregnancy than in their sib controls. Cognitive status and behavioral scale of the exposed children did not

  8. Positional moulding in premature hydrocephalics.

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    Kumar R

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Seven premature hydrocephalics presenting with lambdoid positional moulding (LPM were reviewed. All were treated for hydrocephalus secondary to aqueductal stenosis, Dandy Walker Syndrome and infection. Parenchymal hemorrhage, intraventricular bleed, cortical atrophy, septal agenesis, cortical anomalies and subdural hygroma were the other common associations. These children did not show expected improvement in their higher mental functions at 6 months to 5.4 years of follow-up, following the management of hydrocephalus. It was not the LPM but associated intracranial anomalies, which were most probably responsible for their poor outcome. The differentiation from posterior plagiocephaly is also highlighted.

  9. Description of the methodology used in an ongoing pediatric care interventional study of children born with cleft lip and palate in South America [NCT00097149

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    Mariona Alejandra

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The contribution of birth defects, including cleft lip and palate, to neonatal and infant mortality and morbidity is substantial. As other mortality and morbidity causes including infections, hygiene, prematurity, and nutrition are eradicated in less developed countries, the burden of birth defects will increase proportionally. Methods/Design We are using cleft lip and palate as a sentinel birth defect to evaluate its burden on neonatal and infant health and to assess the effectiveness of systematic pediatric care during the first month and first two years of life in decreasing this burden. The neonatal intervention, consisting of weekly pediatric evaluation and referral to appropriate care, is delivered to about 696 infants born with cleft lip and/or palate in 47 hospitals in South America. Neonatal mortality in this group will be compared to that in a retrospective control group of about 464 infants born with cleft lip and/or palate in the same hospitals. The subgroup of infants with isolated clefts of both the lip and palate (about 264 is also randomized into two groups, intervened and non-intervened, and further followed up over 2 years. Intervened cases are evaluated by pediatricians every three months and referred for appropriate care. The intervened and non-intervened cases will be compared over study outcomes to evaluate the intervention effectiveness. Non-intervened cases are matched and compared to healthy controls to assess the burden of cleft lip and palate. Outcomes include child's neurological and physical development and family social and economic conditions. Discussion Large-scale clinical trials to improve infant health in developing countries are commonly suggested, making it important to share the methods used in ongoing studies with other investigators implementing similar research. We describe here the content of our ongoing pediatric care study in South America. We hope that this may help researchers

  10. Growth during the first two years predicts pre-school height in children born with very low birth weight (VLBW): results of a study of 1,320 children in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trebar, Branko; Traunecker, Richard; Selbmann, Hans-Konrad; Ranke, Michael B

    2007-08-01

    Children born with very low birth weight (VLBW) are at risk of impaired growth. We aimed to study VLBW survivors (90.8%) born in 1998/1999 in the state of Baden-Württemberg (n = 2103) for whom growth data were available up to age six. Classification as appropriate for gestational age (AGA) or small for gestational age (SGA) depended on size at birth. Models to predict height SDS at 5 y were developed using data for 1 yr (Model 1) and 2 yrs (Model 2). The data of 1320 (63%) children were available: SGA: n = 730, AGA: n = 590. At 6 yrs, 8.3% AGA and 13.4% SGA children were short (weight SDS, birth weight SDS; (b) Model 2 (n = 991; R2 = 0.72; error: 0.65 SDS): 1st yr Ht SDS; change (2nd yr) in Ht and weight SDS; MPH SDS; 1st yr weight SDS; birth weight SDS. Thus, some AGA and SGA children born VLBW remain short and preventive strategies need to be developed for those at risk.

  11. Challenges facing effective implementation of co-trimoxazole prophylaxis in children born to HIV-infected mothers in the public health facilities

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    Kamuhabwa AAR

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Appolinary AR Kamuhabwa,1 Vicky Manyanga21Unit of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 2Department of Medicinal Chemistry, School of Pharmacy, Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences, Dar es Salaam, TanzaniaBackground: If children born to HIV-infected mothers are not identified early, approximately 30% of them will die within the first year of life due to opportunistic infections. In order to prevent morbidity and mortality due to opportunistic infections in children, the World Health Organization recommends the use of prophylaxis using co-trimoxazole. However, the challenges affecting effective implementation of this policy in Tanzania have not been documented.Aim: In this study, we assessed the challenges facing the provision of co-trimoxazole prophylaxis among children born to HIV-infected mothers in the public hospitals of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.Methodology: Four hundred and ninety-eight infants' PMTCT (Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV register books for the past 2 years were reviewed to obtain information regarding the provision of co-trimoxazole prophylaxis. One hundred and twenty-six health care workers were interviewed to identify success stories and challenges in the provision of co-trimoxazole prophylaxis in children. In addition, 321 parents and guardians of children born to HIV-infected mothers were interviewed in the health facilities.Results: Approximately 80% of children were initiated with co-trimoxazole prophylaxis within 2 months after birth. Two hundred and ninety-one (58.4% children started using co-trimoxazole within 4 weeks after birth. Majority (n=458, 91.8% of the children were prescribed 120 mg of co-trimoxazole per day, whereas 39 (7.8% received 240 mg per day. Only a small proportion (n=1, 0.2% of children received 480 mg/day. Dose determination was based on the child's age rather than body weight. Parents and guardians reported that 42 (13.1% children had missed one or more doses of co

  12. Psychological development of school-age children born preterm in comparison with children born full-term / Desenvolvimento psicológico na fase escolar de crianças nascidas pré-termo em comparação com crianças nascidas a termo

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    Maria Beatriz Martins Linhares

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to assess psychological development in terms of behavioral, intellectual and emotional indicators of preterm and very low birthweight children at school age in comparison with full-term children. The sample in this study consisted of forty children aged from 8 to 10 years. They were divided into 2 groups: Preterm (PT consisting of 20 children born 2.500g birthweight. Raven's Special Scale, Draw-a-Person and Child Behavior Scale were used in the psychological assessment. PT group presented more behavioral problems and lower intellectual level when compared to the FT group. Enuresis, fear, tics, impatience and lack of focus on activities were significantly more frequent in the PT group than in the FT group. In the PT group the lower the intellectual level of the children the more behavior problems they presented.

  13. Nature or nurture: a systematic review of the effect of socio-economic status on the developmental and cognitive outcomes of children born preterm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Hilary S; Edwards, Phil

    2013-11-01

    The effect of socio-economic status (SES) on the cognitive outcome of preterm-born children is unknown. The objectives of this study were to systematically review the published literature and to report the strength and consistency of the effect of SES on the cognitive outcomes of preterm children, across different SES indicators. We conducted a literature search on MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO and Social Science Citation Index to identify English-language cohort or case-control studies published after 1990 that had reported the effect of at least one SES indicator on cognitive outcome in children born <37 weeks gestation. Fifteen studies (from a total 4,162 identified) were included. Thirteen SES indicators were evaluated [categorized as: "individual-level" (6 indicators), "family-structure" (3), "contextual" (2) and "composite" (2)]. Maternal educational level was the most frequently evaluated SES indicator (by 11/15 studies) and was most consistently associated with cognitive outcome. Maternal education below high school level was associated with severe cognitive deficiency [reported odds ratios (95 % CI) range: OR = 1.4 (1.0-1.9) to OR = 2.3 (1.2-4.5)]. A meta-analytic measure of the effect of SES was not calculated due to heterogeneity in studies. SES appears to confound the association between preterm birth and cognitive deficit and should be adjusted for in studies reporting cognitive outcome.

  14. The Effects of Teaching Primary Caregivers to Conduct Formative Assessment on Caregiver-Child Social Interaction and Children's Developmental Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yaoying

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine the effects of teaching primary caregivers to conduct formative assessment procedures on the development of social interactions between themselves and their infants who were born prematurely and had low birth weight, and who were from economically disadvantaged families. Children's overall development…

  15. Hepatitis B vaccination coverage and risk factors associated with incomplete vaccination of children born to hepatitis B surface antigen-positive mothers, Denmark, 2006 to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunoee, Asja; Nielsen, Jens; Cowan, Susan

    2016-01-01

    In Denmark, universal screening of pregnant women for hepatitis B has been in place since November 2005, with the first two years as a trial period with enhanced surveillance. It is unknown what the change to universal screening without enhanced surveillance has meant for vaccination coverage among children born to hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-positive mothers and what risk factors exist for incomplete vaccination. This retrospective cohort study included 699 children of mothers positive for HBsAg. Information on vaccination and risk factors was collected from central registers. In total, 93% (651/699) of the children were vaccinated within 48 hours of birth, with considerable variation between birthplaces. Only 64% (306/475) of the children had received all four vaccinations through their general practitioner (GP) at the age of two years, and 10% (47/475) of the children had received no hepatitis B vaccinations at all. Enhanced surveillance was correlated positively with coverage of birth vaccination but not with coverage at the GP. No or few prenatal examinations were a risk factor for incomplete vaccination at the GP. Maternity wards and GPs are encouraged to revise their vaccination procedures and routines for pregnant women, mothers with chronic HBV infection and their children.

  16. Premature birth: An Enigma for the Society?

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    Sribas Goswami

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Infants born preterm are at greater risk than infants born at term for mortality and a variety of health and developmental problems. Complications include acute respiratory, gastrointestinal, immunologic, central nervous system, hearing, and vision problems, as well as longer-term motor, cognitive, visual, hearing, behavioral, social-emotional, health, and growth problems. The birth of a preterm infant can also bring considerable emotional and economic costs to families and have implications for public-sector services, such as health insurance, educational, and other social support systems. The greatest risk of mortality and morbidity is for those infants born at the earliest gestational ages. However, those infants born nearer to term represent the greatest number of infants born preterm and also experience more complications than infants born at term. Preterm birth is a complex cluster of problems with a set of overlapping factors of influence. Its causes may include individual-level behavioral and psychosocial factors, neighborhood characteristics, environmental exposures, medical conditions, infertility treatments, biological factors and genetics. Many of these factors occur in combination, particularly in those who are socioeconomically disadvantaged or who are members of racial and ethnic minority groups. The empirical investigation was carried out to draw correlation between preterm birth and eventuality. This paper deals with various issues related to the premature deliveries from socio-biological perspectives.

  17. Language and reading skills in school-aged children and adolescents born preterm are associated with white matter properties on diffusion tensor imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Heidi M; Lee, Eliana S; Yeatman, Jason D; Yeom, Kristen W

    2012-12-01

    Children born preterm are at risk for deficits in language and reading. They are also at risk for injury to the white matter of the brain. The goal of this study was to determine whether performance in language and reading skills would be associated with white matter properties in children born preterm and full-term. Children born before 36 weeks gestation (n=23, mean±SD age 12.5±2.0 years, gestational age 28.7±2.5 weeks, birth weight 1184±431 g) and controls born after 37 weeks gestation (n=19, 13.1±2.1 years, 39.3±1.0 weeks, 3178±413 g) underwent a battery of language and reading tests. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) scans were processed using tract-based spatial statistics to generate a core white matter skeleton that was anatomically comparable across participants. Fractional anisotropy (FA) was the diffusion property used in analyses. In the full-term group, no regions of the whole FA-skeleton were associated with language and reading. In the preterm group, regions of the FA-skeleton were significantly associated with verbal IQ, linguistic processing speed, syntactic comprehension, and decoding. Combined, the regions formed a composite map of 22 clusters on 15 tracts in both hemispheres and in the ventral and dorsal streams. ROI analyses in the preterm group found that several of these regions also showed positive associations with receptive vocabulary, verbal memory, and reading comprehension. Some of the same regions showed weak negative correlations within the full-term group. Exploratory multiple regression in the preterm group found that specific white matter pathways were related to different aspects of language processing and reading, accounting for 27-44% of the variance. The findings suggest that higher performance in language and reading in a group of preterm but not full-term children is associated with higher fractional anisotropy of a bilateral and distributed white matter network.

  18. Growth hormone treatment in children with short stature born small for gestational age: 5-year results of a randomized, double-blind, dose-response trial

    OpenAIRE

    Sas, Theo; Waal, Wouter; Houdijk, M.; Jansen, Maarten; Reeser, M.; Mulder, Paul; Hokken-Koelega, Anita

    1999-01-01

    textabstractThe growth-promoting effect of continuous GH treatment was evaluated over 5 yr in 79 children with short stature (height SD score, less than -1.88) born small for gestational age (SGA; birth length SD score, less than -1.88). Patients were randomly and blindly assigned to 1 of 2 GH dosage groups (3 vs. 6 IU/m2 body surface-day). GH deficiency was not an exclusion criterium. After 5 yr of GH treatment almost every child had reached a height well within the normal range for healthy ...

  19. Prediction models for short children born small for gestational age (SGA covering the total growth phase. Analyses based on data from KIGS (Pfizer International Growth Database

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    Lindberg Anders

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mathematical models can be developed to predict growth in short children treated with growth hormone (GH. These models can serve to optimize and individualize treatment in terms of height outcomes and costs. The aims of this study were to compile existing prediction models for short children born SGA (SGA, to develop new models and to validate the algorithms. Methods Existing models to predict height velocity (HV for the first two and the fourth prepubertal years and during total pubertal growth (TPG on GH were applied to SGA children from the KIGS (Pfizer International Growth Database - 1st year: N = 2340; 2nd year: N = 1358; 4th year: N = 182; TPG: N = 59. A new prediction model was developed for the 3rd prepubertal year based upon 317 children by means of the all-possible regression approach, using Mallow's C(p criterion. Results The comparison between the observed and predicted height velocity showed no significant difference when the existing prediction models were applied to new cohorts. A model for predicting HV during the 3rd year explained 33% of the variability with an error SD of 1.0 cm/year. The predictors were (in order of importance: HV previous year; chronological age; weight SDS; mid-parent height SDS and GH dose. Conclusions Models to predict growth to GH from prepubertal years to adult height are available for short children born SGA. The models utilize easily accessible predictors and are accurate. The overall explained variability in SGA is relatively low, due to the heterogeneity of the disorder. The models can be used to provide patients with a realistic expectation of treatment, and may help to identify compliance problems or other underlying causes of treatment failure.

  20. Baseline IGF-I Levels Determine Insulin Secretion and Insulin Sensitivity during the First Year on Growth Hormone Therapy in Children Born Small for Gestational Age. Results from a North European Multicentre Study (NESGAS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rikke Beck; Thankamony, Ajay; O'Connell, Susan M

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Developmental programming alters growth and metabolic outcome in children born small for gestational age (SGA). We explored insulin and glucose metabolism in SGA children treated with a fixed GH dose over 1 year. Methods: In the North European Small for Gestational Age Study (NESGAS), ...

  1. Asthma and atopy in children born by caesarean section: effect modification by family history of allergies – a population based cross-sectional study

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    Kolokotroni Ourania

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies on the association of birth by caesarean section (C/S and allergies have produced conflicting findings. Furthermore, evidence on whether this association may differ in those at risk of atopy is limited. This study aims to investigate the association of mode of delivery with asthma and atopic sensitization and the extent to which any effect is modified by family history of allergies. Methods Asthma outcomes were assessed cross-sectionally in 2216 children at age 8 on the basis of parents’ responses to the ISAAC questionnaire whilst skin prick tests to eleven aeroallergens were also performed in a subgroup of 746 children. Adjusted odds ratios of asthma and atopy by mode of delivery were estimated in multivariable logistic models while evidence of effect modification was examined by introducing interaction terms in the models. Results After adjusting for potential confounders, children born by C/S appeared significantly more likely than those born vaginally to report ever wheezing (OR 1.36, 95% CI 1.07-1.71, asthma diagnosis (OR 1.41, 95% CI 1.09-1.83 and be atopic (OR 1.67, 95% CI 1.08-2.60. There was modest evidence that family history of allergies may modify the effect of C/S delivery on atopy (p for effect modification=0.06 but this was not the case for the asthma outcomes. Specifically, while more than a two-fold increase in the odds of being a topic was observed in children with a family history of allergies if born by C/S (OR 2.62, 95% CI 1.38-5.00, no association was observed in children without a family history of allergies (OR 1.16, 95% CI 0.64-2.11. Conclusions Birth by C/S is associated with asthma and atopic sensitization in childhood. The association of C/S and atopy appears more pronounced in children with family history of allergies.

  2. Short communication: high prevalence of drug resistance in HIV type 1-infected children born in Honduras and Belize 2001 to 2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parham, Leda; de Rivera, Ivette Lorenzana; Murillo, Wendy; Naver, Lars; Largaespada, Natalia; Albert, Jan; Karlsson, Annika C

    2011-10-01

    Antiretroviral therapy has had a great impact on the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV-1. However, development of drug resistance, which could be subsequently transmitted to the child, is a major concern. In Honduras and Belize the prevalence of drug resistance among HIV-1-infected children remains unknown. A total of 95 dried blood spot samples was obtained from HIV-1-infected, untreated children in Honduras and Belize born during 2001 to 2004, when preventive antiretroviral therapy was often suboptimal and consisted of monotherapy with nevirapine or zidovudine. Partial HIV-1 pol gene sequences were successfully obtained from 66 children (Honduras n=55; Belize n=11). Mutations associated with drug resistance were detected in 13% of the Honduran and 27% of the Belizean children. Most of the mutations detected in Honduras (43%) and all mutations detected in Belize were associated with resistance to nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, which was expected from the wide use of nevirapine to prevent MTCT during the study period. In addition, although several mothers reported that they had not received antiretroviral therapy, mutations associated with resistance to nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors and protease inhibitors were found in Honduras. This suggests prior and unreported use of these drugs, or that these women had been infected with resistant virus. The present study demonstrates, for the first time, the presence of drug resistance-associated mutations in HIV-1-infected Honduran and Belizean children.

  3. Loss of integrity of thyroid morphology and function in children born to mothers with inadequately treated Graves' disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kempers, M.J.E.; Trotsenburg, A.S. van; Rijn, R.R. van; Smets, A.M.; Smit, B.J.; Vijlder, J.J. de; Vulsma, T.

    2007-01-01

    CONTEXT: Central congenital hypothyroidism (CH-C) in neonates born to mothers with inadequately treated Graves' disease usually needs T(4) supplementation. The thyroid and its regulatory system have not yet been extensively studied after T(4) withdrawal, until we observed disintegrated thyroid gland

  4. Roles of Perinatal Problems on Adolescent Antisocial Behaviors among Children Born after 33 Completed Weeks: A Prospective Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Yoko; Rajendran, Khushmand; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Newcorn, Jeffrey H.

    2008-01-01

    Background: There is uncertainty about the extent to which mildly sub-optimal perinatal characteristics among individuals born near-term (greater than 33 weeks of gestation) are associated with various subsequent childhood problems, including antisocial behavior. There is even more uncertainty about whether the pathway to antisocial behavior…

  5. Adiposity in Children Born Small for Gestational Age Is Associated With β-Cell Function, Genetic Variants for Insulin Resistance, and Response to Growth Hormone Treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thankamony, Ajay; Jensen, Rikke Beck; O'Connell, Susan M

    2016-01-01

    secretion, and response to GH treatment in short children born small for gestational age (SGA). METHODS: In 89 short prepubertal SGA children (age, 6.2 ± 1.6 y; 55 boys) treated with GH for 1 year in a multicenter study, body fat percentage was estimated at baseline and 1 year using dual-energy x......-ray absorptiometry. The main outcome measures were treatment-related changes in height, IGF-1 standard deviation score, insulin sensitivity, insulin secretion, and disposition index. Combined multiallele gene scores based on single nucleotide polymorphisms with known associations with lower insulin sensitivity (gene...... scores for insulin resistance [GS-InRes]) and insulin secretion (gene scores for insulin secretion [GS-InSec]) were analyzed for their relationships with adiposity. RESULTS: Mean percentage body fat at baseline was low compared to normative data (P = .045) and decreased even further on GH treatment...

  6. Parental educational level and injury incidence and mortality among foreign-born children: a cohort study with 46 years follow-up

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    Omid Beiki

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Background: Injury risk during childhood and adolescence vary depending on socio-economic factors. The aim of this study was to study if the risk of fatal and non-fatal unintentional injuries among foreign-born children was similar across parental educational level or not. Methods: In this retrospective cohort study we followed 907,335 children between 1961 and 2007 in Sweden. We established the cohort by linkage between Swedish national registers including cause of death register and in-patient register, through unique Personal Identification Numbers. The main exposure variable was parental (maternal and paternal educational level. The cohorts was followed from start date of follow-up period, or date of birth whichever occurred last, until exit date from the cohort, which was date of hospitalization or death due to unintentional injury, first emigration, death due to other causes than injury or end of follow-up, whichever came first. We calculated hazard ratios (HR with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI by Cox proportional hazards regression models. Results: Overall, we found 705 and 78,182 cases of death and hospitalization due to unintentional injuries, respectively. Risk of death and hospitalization due to unintentional injuries was statistically significantly 1.48 (95% CI: 1.24-1.78 and 1.10 (95% CI: 1.08-1.12 times higher among children with lowest parental educational level (9 years and shorter years of study compared to children with highest parental educational level (+13 years of study. We found similar results when stratified our study group by sex of children, by maternal and paternal educational level separately, and injury type (traffic-related, fall, poisoning, burn and drowning. Conclusions: It seems injury prevention work against unintentional injuries is less effective among children with low parental education compared with those with higher parental education. We recommend designing specific preventive interventions

  7. Intrauterine skull depression and intracranial hemorrhage in a premature infant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batton, G.D.; DiCarmine, F.; Boal, D.K.

    1988-04-01

    The authors describe a case of a premature infant born with a parietal skull depression who suffered an intraventricular hemorrhage and an ipsilateral intracerebral injury. At 21 months of life the infant's gross motor milestones were delayed and he had moderate spastic hemiplegia. Although skull depressions at birth are usually benign, they may be associated with long-term neurologic sequelae.

  8. The Auxological and Biochemical Continuum of Short Children Born Small for Gestational Age (SGA or with Normal Birth Size (Idiopathic Short Stature

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    Ranke MichaelB

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Retrospective single-centre analysis of growth characteristics in 182 healthy short children born small for gestational age (SGA or appropriate for gestational age (idiopathic short stature, ISS. Methods. Birth size references from the USA and Sweden were compared, and for the classification as SGA or ISS the Swedish reference was chosen. Height, target height (TH, bone age (BA, predicted adult height (PAH, IGF-I and IGFBP-3 values were compared between SGA and ISS. Results. In the combined group, birth weight and length showed a symmetric Gaussian distribution. The American reference overestimates the percentage of short birth length and underestimates that of low birth weight. In childhood, SGA children were shorter than ISS (−3.1 versus −2.6 SDS, , also in comparison to TH (−2.6 versus −1.9 SDS, . TH, height SDS change over time, BA delay, and PAH were similar. IGF-I and IGFBP-3 were lower in ISS ( and .09. Conclusions. SGA children represent the left tail of the Gaussian distribution of birth size in short children. The distinction between SGA and ISS depends on birth size reference. Childhood height of SGA is lower than of ISS, but the other auxological features are similar.

  9. The Auxological and Biochemical Continuum of Short Children Born Small for Gestational Age (SGA or with Normal Birth Size (Idiopathic Short Stature

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    Jan M. Wit

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Retrospective single-centre analysis of growth characteristics in 182 healthy short children born small for gestational age (SGA or appropriate for gestational age (idiopathic short stature, ISS. Methods. Birth size references from the USA and Sweden were compared, and for the classification as SGA or ISS the Swedish reference was chosen. Height, target height (TH, bone age (BA, predicted adult height (PAH, IGF-I and IGFBP-3 values were compared between SGA and ISS. Results. In the combined group, birth weight and length showed a symmetric Gaussian distribution. The American reference overestimates the percentage of short birth length and underestimates that of low birth weight. In childhood, SGA children were shorter than ISS (−3.1 versus −2.6 SDS, P<.001, also in comparison to TH (−2.6 versus −1.9 SDS, P<.001. TH, height SDS change over time, BA delay, and PAH were similar. IGF-I and IGFBP-3 were lower in ISS (P=.03 and .09. Conclusions. SGA children represent the left tail of the Gaussian distribution of birth size in short children. The distinction between SGA and ISS depends on birth size reference. Childhood height of SGA is lower than of ISS, but the other auxological features are similar.

  10. Ichthyosis prematurity syndrome: a well-defined congenital ichthyosis subtype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bygum, Anette; Westermark, Per; Brandrup, Flemming

    2008-01-01

    . The parents recalled that his elder sister had similar but milder skin changes and respiratory distress syndrome at birth. Ichthyosis prematurity syndrome was suggested and the diagnosis supported by electron microscopy of a skin biopsy specimen showing pathognomonic trilamellar membrane aggregations...... birth he developed respiratory distress and needed intubation. Remarkable skin changes were noticed with universal red, edematous and desquamating, spongy skin giving an impression of excessive vernix caseosa. Marked regression of the edema and ichthyotic scaling was observed within a few weeks......Ichthyosis prematurity syndrome is a rare syndrome characterized by the clinical triad of premature birth, thick caseous desquamating epidermis, and neonatal asphyxia. We describe two siblings with ichthyosis prematurity syndrome. The index patient was born at gestational week 34. Immediately after...

  11. Pointing to the future : New insights into elementary visuomotor processes in typically developing and preterm born children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Braeckel, Koenraad Noëlla Josephine Antoon

    2008-01-01

    As a result of improved care in the last few decades, up to 3000 children survive preterm birth in the Netherlands. The minority of this group of children develops cerebral palsy. Although the majority survives without serious neonatal medical complications, follow-up studies show subtle cognitive a

  12. Impact of maternal obesity on inhaled corticosteroid use in childhood: a registry based analysis of first born children and a sibling pair analysis.

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    Adrian J Lowe

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It has been proposed that maternal obesity during pregnancy may increase the risk that the child develops allergic disease and asthma, although the mechanisms underpinning this relationship are currently unclear. We sought to assess if this association may be due to confounding by genetic or environmental risk factors that are common to maternal obesity and childhood asthma, using a sibling pair analysis. METHODS: The study population comprised a Swedish national cohort of term children born between 1992 and 2008 to native Swedish parents. Maternal body mass index (BMI was measured at 8-10 weeks gestation. Unconditional logistic regression models were used to determine if maternal obesity was associated with increased risk of inhaled corticosteroid (ICS in 431,718 first-born children, while adjusting for potential confounders. An age-matched discordant sib-pair analysis was performed, taking into account shared genetic and environmental risk factors. RESULTS: Maternal over-weight and obesity were associated with increased risk that the child would require ICS (for BMI≥35 kg/m(2, aOR = 1.30, 95%CI = 1.10-1.52 compared with normal weight mothers in children aged 6-12 years. Similar effects were seen in younger children, but in children aged 13-16 years, maternal obesity (BMI≥30 was related to increased risk of ICS use in girls (aOR = 1.28, 95%CI = 1.07-1.53 but not boys (OR = 1.05, 95%CI = 0.87-1.26. The sib-pair analysis, which included 2,034 sib-pairs older than six years who were discordant for both ICS use and maternal BMI category, failed to find any evidence that increasing maternal weight was related to increased risk of ICS use. CONCLUSION: Maternal obesity is associated with increased risk of childhood ICS use up to approximately 12 years of age, but only in girls after this age. These effects could not be confirmed in a sib pair analysis, suggesting either limited statistical power, or the effects

  13. Delayed early primary visual pathway development in premature infants: high density electrophysiological evidence.

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    Emmanuel Tremblay

    Full Text Available In the past decades, multiple studies have been interested in developmental patterns of the visual system in healthy infants. During the first year of life, differential maturational changes have been observed between the Magnocellular (P and the Parvocellular (P visual pathways. However, few studies investigated P and M system development in infants born prematurely. The aim of the present study was to characterize P and M system maturational differences between healthy preterm and fullterm infants through a critical period of visual maturation: the first year of life. Using a cross-sectional design, high-density electroencephalogram (EEG was recorded in 31 healthy preterms and 41 fullterm infants of 3, 6, or 12 months (corrected age for premature babies. Three visual stimulations varying in contrast and spatial frequency were presented to stimulate preferentially the M pathway, the P pathway, or both systems simultaneously during EEG recordings. Results from early visual evoked potentials in response to the stimulation that activates simultaneously both systems revealed longer N1 latencies and smaller P1 amplitudes in preterm infants compared to fullterms. Moreover, preterms showed longer N1 and P1 latencies in response to stimuli assessing the M pathway at 3 months. No differences between preterms and fullterms were found when using the preferential P system stimulation. In order to identify the cerebral generator of each visual response, distributed source analyses were computed in 12-month-old infants using LORETA. Source analysis demonstrated an activation of the parietal dorsal region in fullterm infants, in response to the preferential M pathway, which was not seen in the preterms. Overall, these findings suggest that the Magnocellular pathway development is affected in premature infants. Although our VEP results suggest that premature children overcome, at least partially, the visual developmental delay with time, source analyses reveal

  14. Development Status of 4-24 Months Children Born to Teenage Mothers Referred to Health Care Centers in Yasuj, 2013

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    Afraz SF

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: A developmental delay in children is considered as one of the world's health problems in developing and developed countries. This has a massive impact on children’s health and eventually has broader scale effect on society. The purpose of this study was to assess the developmental status of children age 4-24 months to teenage mothers referred to health care centers related to Yasuj University of Medical Sciences, Yasuj, Iran, in 2013. Methods: The present cross-sectional study was conducted on 200 mothers less than 19 years of age with children of 4-24 months referred to health centers of Yasuj University of Medical Sciences which were selected by multistage sampling. Data collection was conducted using demographic, midwifery ages and stages questionnaire in children aged 24-4 months. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, t-test and chi-square test. Results: The results showed that the mean age of mothers during pregnancy were16.64±1.22 years with age range 12 to 18 years. Prevalence of delayed development in 4-24 month children was reported to be 7%. Most developmental delay was observed in gross motor area and the lowest was in the private personal and social domains. In this study, a significant difference was seen in birth weight between two groups of children, so that birth weight of children with developmental delay significantly lowers than children with normal development (P=0.027. Conclusion: the Pregnancy under the age of 19 years is considered as risk factors for children’s developmental disorder that by the implementation of appropriate education to reduce high-risk pregnancies in this age range can be prevented the developmental disorders and their adverse outcome.

  15. Mitotic crossover promotes leukemogenesis in children born with TEL-AML1 via the generation of loss of heterozygosity at 12p

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Ivanovski

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available TEL-AML1 (ETV6-RUNX1 fusion gene which is formed prenatally in 1% of the newborns, is a common genetic abnormality in childhood Bcell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia. But only one child out of a hundred children born with this fusion gene develops leukemia (bottleneck phenomenon later in its life, if contracts the second mutation. In other words, out of a hundred children born with TEL-AML1 only one child is at risk for leukemia development, which means that TEL-AML1 fusion gene is not sufficient for overt leukemia. There is a stringent requirement for a second genetic abnormality for leukemia development and this is the real or the ultimate cause of the leukemia bottleneck phenomenon. In most cases of TEL-AML1+ leukemia, the translocation t(12;21 is complemented with the loss of the normal TEL gene, not involved in the translocation, on the contralateral 12p. The loss of the normal TEL gene, i.e. loss of heterozygosity at 12p, occurs postnatally during the mitotic proliferation of TEL-AML1+ cell in the mitotic crossing over process. Mitotic crossing over is a very rare event with a frequency rate of 10–6 in a 10 kb region. The exploration and identification of the environmental exposure(s that cause(s proliferation of the TELAML1+ cell in which approximately 106 mitoses are generated to cause 12p loss of heterozygosity, i.e. TEL gene deletion, may contribute to the introduction of preventive measures for leukemia.

  16. Apnea of prematurity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apnea - newborns; AOP; As and Bs; A/B/D; Blue spell - newborns; Dusky spell - newborns; Spell - newborns; Apnea - neonatal ... particular those who were born early, may have apnea, including: If their brain is not fully developed ...

  17. Giving birth to life--again!: bereaved parents' experiences with children born following the death of an adult son.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamama-Raz, Yaira; Rosenfeld, Sarah; Buchbinder, Eli

    2010-01-01

    This article is based on a qualitative study examining the experiences of parents that lost a son during military service in Israel and consequently choose to give birth to another child. Seven couples and 3 mothers were interviewed for the study, and their interviews were analyzed using a phenomenological-hermeneutic approach. Three main themes were extracted from parents' descriptions of their experiences: (a) "From the place where pain and sadness was sown, a new smile was grown," relating to transforming the experience of loss into a new meaning for life; (b) "No to a child memorial," focusing on parents' awareness of the burden placed on the child who was born; and (c) "Different parenting," dealing with participant's parenting following their loss. The study's findings are discussed in the context of literature dealing with reconstructing meaning through coping and bereavement.

  18. Aspectos neuropsicológico e neurológico de crianças nascidas prematuras e com peso inferior a 1.500 gramas Neurological and neuropsychological aspects of children born preterm and with weight lower than 1,500 grams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Ferreira Campos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Crianças nascidas prematuras, especialmente aquelas com peso Preterm children - especially those with birth weight <1,500g - often present neonatal complications and higher risk of suffering from developmental disorders. Twenty children aged seven, with average intelligence and normal neurological exams, born with gestational age <33 weeks and weight <1,500g, were enrolled in a study and compared with 20 children born at full term. Intelligence was measured by WISC-III and behavior by the Conners Questionnaire. Lefèvre Evolutive Neurological Examination was applied in the preterm children. Children born preterm had lower IQ than those born at full term. In the Conners, there was no difference between groups. Only 20% of preterm children performed all tests from the Evolutive Exam for their age. This study highlights the importance of specific cognitive evaluations in preterm children during school age, even if they have normal neurological exams.

  19. Qualitative research on care experience of caregivers of retinopathy of prematurity children%早产儿视网膜病变患儿照顾者照护体验的质性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周玲玲; 汪磊

    2016-01-01

    目的:了解早产儿视网膜病变患儿家属的照护体验及对医疗护理的需求,为健全早产儿视网膜病变防治及康复体系提供参考依据。方法应用质性研究的现象学研究方法,对11名住院患儿家属进行访谈,采用Colaizzi资料分析法,对研究资料进行分析整理,提炼出主题。结果分析出有关患儿照顾者照护体验的3个主题,即心理压力过大,承受照顾负荷,期望得到医疗护理的指导与支持。结论医护人员应完善早产儿视网膜病变的治疗体制,加强健康教育,关注日常护理指导,为患儿及照顾者提供信息与心理支持,提高患儿生命质量。%Objective To know about care experience and medical care demands of caregivers of retinopathy of prematurity children in order to provide reference for clinic. Methods A total of 11 caregivers were interviewed by qualitative research methodology. Data and subjects were refined by Colaizzi methodology. Results Totally 3 subjects about care experience were extracted, which were high psychological pressure, heavy caregiver burden, desire for medical and nursing support. Conclusions Medical care personnel should improve treatment system of retinopathy of prematurity and provide information and psychological support in order to improve quality of life of children.

  20. Retinopatia da prematuridade limiar em crianças submetidas à terapia com surfactante exógeno endotraqueal Threshold retinopathy of prematurity in children undergoing exogenous endotracheal surfactant therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário Martins dos Santos Motta

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estudar a freqüência da retinopatia da prematuridade (ROP em qualquer estadiamento e da retinopatia da prematuridade limiar em prematuros que usaram ou não surfactante endotraqueal, para tratamento da síndrome da membrana hialina e avaliar a resposta dos olhos que necessitaram tratamento de ablação da retina periférica. MÉTODOS: Cento e sessenta e oito prematuros, nascidos com 1.500 gramas ou menos e/ou idade gestacional de 32 semanas ou menos, foram triados para a ROP por avaliação oftalmoscópica. Foram comparados os achados de 40 crianças tratadas pelo surfactante endotraqueal com os de 128 que não precisaram desta terapia. A ablação da retina periférica, com laser ou crioterapia, foi realizada nos pacientes com ROP limiar. Para análise estatística foram usados os testes t de Student, qui-quadrado e Kruskal-Wallis, além do teste exato de Fisher com significância para pOBJECTIVE: To study the frequency of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP in any stage and its threshold form in premature infants, either treated or non-treated with exogenous surfactant to neonatal respiratory distress syndrome, and evaluate the response of eyes with threshold retinopathy to ablation treatment. METHODS: One hundred and sixty eight premature infants who weighed 1500 grams or less and/or who had a gestational age of 32 weeks or less, were screened for ROP by ophthalmoscopy. We compared findings in 40 patients treated with exogenous endotracheal surfactant, with those of 128 patients who did not require such therapy. Ablation of ischaemic peripheral retina, either with laser or cryotherapy, was applied in cases of threshold ROP. For statistical analysis Student's t, qui-square, Kruskal-Wallins and Fisher's exact tests were used, with p value of < 0.05 considered as significant. RESULTS: ROP, in any stage, occurred in 51,2% of children. Threshold ROP, requiring treatment, was found in 12 (7,4% of them and regressed in 9. There was no

  1. MRI measurements of the pons and cerebellum in children born preterm; associations with the severity of periventricular leukomalacia and perinatal risk factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Argyropoulou, M.I.; Xydis, V.; Argyropoulou, P.I.; Efremidis, S.C. [Department of Radiology, Medical School, University of Ioannina (Greece); Drougia, A.; Andronikou, S. [Neonatology Unit, Department of Paediatrics, Medical School, University of Ioannina (Greece); Tzoufi, M. [Department of Paediatrics, Medical School, University of Ioannina (Greece); Bassounas, A. [Department of Computer Science, Unit of Medical Technology and Intelligent Information Systems, University of Ioannina (Greece)

    2003-10-01

    Our purpose was to measure the size of the pons and cerebellum in preterm babies with periventricular leukomalacia (PVL), and to study their relationship with the severity of PVL and with perinatal risk factors. We examined 33 premature children, mean gestational age 31 weeks, range 26-36 weeks with PVL on MRI, and 27 full-term controls. On MRI at 0.4-5.5 years (mean 1.4 years) we measured the area of the corpus callosum and vermis, the anteroposterior diameter of the pons and the volume of the cerebellum. The area of the corpus callosum was used as a marker of white matter loss and PVL severity. All regional brain measurements except that of the vermis were significantly lower in patients than controls: corpus callosum (mm{sup 2}): 239.6{+-}92.5 vs 434.8{+-}126.8, P <0.01; pons (mm): 14.8{+-}3.0 vs 17.9{+-}1.4, P <0.01; cerebellum (cm{sup 3}): 68.2{+-}31.6 vs 100.6{+-}28.3, P <0.01; vermis (mm{sup 2}): 808.1{+-}292.2 vs 942.2{+-}246.2, NS. Significant reduction in the area of the vermis: 411.3{+-}203.3 vs 935{+-}252.6 mm{sup 2}; cerebellar volume: 16.3{+-}12.5 vs 96.6{+-}20.2 mm{sup 3}; and the diameter of the pons: 10.1{+-}2.2 vs 17.5{+-}1.3 mm (P <0.01) were observed in seven children with gestational age {<=}28 weeks, severe hypotension and large patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). There was a significant correlation between the duration of mechanical ventilation and the size of the vermis, pons and cerebellum (R=-0.65, -0.57 and -0.73, respectively, P <0.01). (orig.)

  2. Minor neurological dysfunction and behaviour in 9-year-old children born at term : evidence for sex dimorphism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kikkert, Hedwig K.; de Jong, Corina; van den Heuvel, Edwin R.; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    2013-01-01

    Aim The aim of the study was to assess associations between minor neurological dysfunction (MND) and behaviour, with specific attention to sex differences. MethodThis was an observational cohort study in which 341 9-year-old children (177 male, 164 female) without perinatal risk were neurologically

  3. Lifestyle influences on prematurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creasy, R K

    1991-01-01

    It is apparent from this review that the lifestyle of an individual gravida can potentially lead to a premature delivery. Some of these adverse behavioral characteristics may be dealt with by education and motivation, and some with actual medical treatment. However, there also appears to be significant need for public policy reorientation if we are to make a significant impact on the problem of preterm delivery.

  4. Prematurity as a factor of damaged child development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chukhutova G.L.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available At present time prematurity is the main reason for disability in children, which can be exemplified by the fact that 2/3 of educatees of children' homes for blind and deaf are preterm children. The most drastic consequences of prematurity is cerebral palsy with spastic diplegia; blindness or poor vision as a result of retina detachment; auditory inefficiency connected with the nerve deafness, decline in general cognitive and speech development; difficulties in coordination and planning serial operations; psycho-emotional impairments like autism. The distinctive features of appearance (failure to thrive, microcephalism with deformation of the shape of the head and behavior (stereotyped movements, lack in initiative purposeful activity make these children recognizable and let us talk about naturally determined set of impairments connected with the main reason — prematurity. The article regards the influence of preterm birth on child's nervous system and it's remote effect on his/her psychic development.

  5. Changes in prevalence, aetiology, age at detection, and associated disabilities in preschool children with hearing impairment born in Göteborg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darin, N; Hanner, P; Thiringer, K

    1997-12-01

    The prevalence of hearing impairment (HI) in preschool children born in Göteborg in 1980 to 1984 was 2.0 per 1000. This was significantly lower than the 3.8 per 1000 found in a previous study for 1970 to 1974. The decrease took place in the moderate to severe range of HI, while deafness and mild HI remained unchanged during the period. The cause was considered to be prenatal in 58% with heredity in 33% as the main causative factor. Following the introduction of the MPR (Morbilli-Parotitis-Rubella) vaccination programme in Sweden, no cases of rubella- or mumps-induced HI could be found. The number of HI of perinatal origin decreased by half, in spite of the fact that the figures for preterm baby survival almost doubled during the period. Associated disabilities were diagnosed in 62% of the children with HI; speech retardation in 33%, visual abnormalities in 30%, mental retardation in 12% and neuropsychiatric disorders in 9% of the cases. The importance of collaborative efforts between the otolaryngologist and the neurologically and neuropsychiatrically interested paediatrician in the complete evaluation of additional difficulties in the HI child is emphasized.

  6. DISORDERS OF THE SOUND ARTICULATION IN PRETERM CHILDREN

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    Vesela MILANKOV

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Speech and language development is a good indicator of child’s cognitive development. The risk factors influencing development and functioning of prematurely born children are multiple. In addition to articulation disorder, there are motoric, conginitive and social aspects of delayed development. Premature babies are born before they physically ready to leave the womb. However, most babies born after about 26 weeks of gestational age have chances for survival, but they are at a greater risk of medical complications, since the earlier children are born, the less developed their organs are. Aim: To demonstrate basic parameters, establish differences, determine characteristics of disorder of sound articulation in fullterm and preterm children. Methodology: Research was conducted at the Clinics of Child’s Habilitation and Rehabilitation in Novi Sad. The prospective research study was carried out comprising 61 children with mean age of 4 years. The study inclusion criteria were gestational age and birth weight. Regarding these parameters, the children without major neurlologic or system disabilities were included, and they were Serbian speaking. The sample comprised 31 children with GS≥38 weeks and body weight of ≥3000 g, while the preterm group comprised 30 children with GS≤32 weeks and body weight of ≤1500 g. Results of the study indicate to a difference between fullterm children and preterm children with regard to articulation disorders, of which the statistically significant was a sound distortion. The overall sample showed that the substitution with distortion was most frequent disorder, while the interdental sigmatism was the most represented one. Conclusion: The obtained results lead to conclusion that preterm children, being a high-risk group, need to be followed up by age two, and provided timely proffesional help at pre-school age, since numerous adverse factors affect their overall development.

  7. Clinical sonography in premature infant: Sonographic analysis of incidence and grade of germinal metrixhemorrhage according to gestational age,risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Hyoung; Kim, I. W.; Yeon, K. M. [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1989-12-15

    The authors reviewed 63 premature infants who was born from January 1986 to August 1988 at College of Medicine Seoul National University, to analyze grade of germinal metrixhemorrhage to gestational age, risk.

  8. Vaccination technique, PPD reaction and BCG scarring in a cohort of children born in Guinea-Bissau 2000-2002

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roth, Adam Anders Edvin; Sodemann, Morten; Jensen, Henrik

    2005-01-01

    The rates of positive tuberculin skin test (TST) reactions and BCG scarring after BCG vaccination vary between studies and populations. Tuberculin reactivity and BCG scarring may be related to better child survival in low-income countries. We therefore studied determinants for TST reaction......=2225) of age. In a subgroup of the children the vaccination technique was monitored by direct observation of post-vaccination wheal and route of administration. Three different types of BCG vaccine supplied by the local Extended Programme on Immunization were used. At 6 months of age the rate of PPD.......66 (1.24-2.21)). In the multivariable analyses of BCG-vaccinated children assessed at 6 months of age, monitoring of vaccination technique and type of BCG vaccine were important. This was not changed by control for other determinants, including sex, season, vaccination place, birthplace, ethnic group...

  9. Social identity and self-esteem among Mainland Chinese, Hong Kong Chinese, British born Chinese and white Scottish children

    OpenAIRE

    Dai, Qian

    2013-01-01

    The Chinese community is the fastest growing non-European ethnic group in the UK, with 11.2% annual growth between 2001 and 2007. According to the National Statistics office (2005), there are over a quarter of a million Chinese in Britain. Compared to other ethnic minority groups, the Chinese group is socio-economically widespread, characterized by high academic achievements and high household income. It is estimated that there are about 30,000 Chinese immigrant children stu...

  10. Parent-reported prevalence of autism spectrum disorders in US-born children: an assessment of changes within birth cohorts from the 2003 to the 2007 National Survey of Children's Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schieve, Laura A; Rice, Catherine; Yeargin-Allsopp, Marshalyn; Boyle, Coleen A; Kogan, Michael D; Drews, Carolyn; Devine, Owen

    2012-04-01

    The prevalence of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) from the 2007 National Survey of Children's Health (NSCH) was twice the 2003 NSCH estimate for autism. From each NSCH, we selected children born in the US from 1990 to 2000. We estimated autism prevalence within each 1-year birth cohort to hold genetic and non-genetic prenatal factors constant. Prevalence differences across surveys thus reflect survey measurement changes and/or external identification effects. In 2003, parents were asked whether their child was ever diagnosed with autism. In 2007, parents were asked whether their child was ever diagnosed with an ASD and whether s/he currently had an ASD. For the 1997-2000 birth cohorts (children aged 3-6 years in 2003 and 7-10 years in 2007), relative increases between 2003 autism estimates and 2007 ASD estimates were 200-600 %. For the 1990-1996 birth cohorts (children aged 7-13 years in 2003) increases were lower; nonetheless, differences between 2003 estimates and 2007 "ever ASD" estimates were >100 % for 6 cohorts and differences between 2003 estimates and 2007 "current ASD" estimates were >80 % for 3 cohorts. The magnitude of most birth cohort-specific differences suggests continuing diagnosis of children in the community played a sizable role in the 2003-2007 ASD prevalence increase. While some increase was expected for 1997-2000 cohorts, because some children have later diagnoses coinciding with school entry, increases were also observed for children ages ≥ 7 years in 2003. Given past ASD subtype studies, the 2003 "autism" question might have missed a modest amount (≤ 33 %) of ASDs other than autistic disorder.

  11. Altered microstructural connectivity of the superior and middle cerebellar peduncles are related to motor dysfunction in children with diffuse periventricular leucomalacia born preterm: A DTI tractography study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Shanshan, E-mail: jelly_66@126.com; Fan, Guo Guang, E-mail: cjr.fanguoguang@vip.163.com; Xu, Ke, E-mail: cjr.xuke@vip.163.com; Wang, Ci, E-mail: xiangxuehai19850224@yahoo.cn

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate the microstructural integrity of superior cerebellar peduncles (SCP) and middle cerebellar peduncles (MCP) by using DTI tractography method, and further to detect whether the microstructural integrity of these major cerebellar pathways is related to motor function in children with diffuse periventricular leucomalacia (PVL) born preterm. Materials and methods: 46 children with diffuse PVL (30 males and 16 females; age range 3–48 months; mean age 22.4 ± 6.7 months; mean gestational age 30.5 ± 2.2 weeks) and 40 healthy controls (27 males and 13 females; age range 3.5–48 months; mean age 22.1 ± 5.8 months) were enrolled in this study. DTI outcome measurements, fractional anisotropy (FA), for the SCP, MCP and cortical spinal tract (CST) were calculated. The gross motor function classification system (GMFCS) was used for assessing motor functions. Results: Compared to the controls, patients with diffuse PVL had a significantly lower FA in bilateral SCP, MCP and CST. There was a significant negative correlation between GMFCS levels and FA in bilateral SCP, MCP and CST in the patients group. In addition, significant inverse correlation of FA value was found between not only the contralateral but also the ipsilateral CST and SCP/MCP. Conclusions: These findings suggest that the injury of SCP and MCP may contribute to the motor dysfunction of diffuse PVL. Moreover, the correlations we found between supratentorial and subtentorial injured white matter extend our knowledge about the cerebro-cerebellar white matter interaction in children with diffuse PVL.

  12. Potential of diffusion tensor MR imaging in the assessment of cognitive impairments in children with periventricular leukomalacia born preterm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Shanshan, E-mail: jelly_66@126.com [Department of Radiology, The First Hospital, China Medical University, #155, Nanjing North St., Heping Dist., Shenyang, Liaoning 110001 (China); Fan, Guoguang, E-mail: cjr.fanguoguang@vip.163.com [Department of Radiology, The First Hospital, China Medical University, #155, Nanjing North St., Heping Dist., Shenyang, Liaoning 110001 (China); Xu, Ke, E-mail: cjr.xuke@vip.163.com [Department of Radiology, The First Hospital, China Medical University, #155, Nanjing North St., Heping Dist., Shenyang, Liaoning 110001 (China); Wang, Ci, E-mail: xiangxuehai19850224@yahoo.cn [Department of Radiology, The First Hospital, China Medical University, #155, Nanjing North St., Heping Dist., Shenyang, Liaoning 110001 (China)

    2013-01-15

    Purpose: To investigate MR diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and fiber tractography (FT) in the assessment of altered major white matter fibers correlated with cognitive functions in preterm infants with periventricular leukomalacia (PVL), to explore the neural foundation for PVL children's cognitive impairments. Materials and methods: Forty six preterm infants (16 ± 4.7 months) suffered from PVL and 16 age-matched normal controls were recruited. Developmental quotient (DQ) was recorded to evaluate PVL children's cognitive functions. According to the DQ scores, patients were divided into three groups: mild, moderate and severe cognitive impairment groups. DTI scan was performed. Fractional anisotropy (FA) values of major white matter fibers were measured and their correlation with cognitive levels was evaluated. Results: Compared with the control group, the PVL group showed a significant mean FA reduction in bilateral corticospinal tract (CST), anterior/posterior limb of internal capsule (ICAL/ICPL), arcuate fasciculus (AF), corona radiate (CR), superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF), splenium of corpus callosum (SCC) (p < 0.05) and bilateral posterior thalamic radiation (PTR) (p < 0.01). The FA values of left CST, bilateral AF, anterior cingulum (ACG), SLF, ICAL, ICPL, PTR, CR, genu of corpus callosum (GCC), SCC and middle cerebellar peduncle showed significant negative correlations with the cognitive levels. Conclusions: DTI can provide more information for understanding the pathophysiology of cognitive impairment in preterm infants with PVL.

  13. 经络抚触对早产儿生长发育的影响%Effect of meridians massage on the growth and development of premature children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡文晖; 肖婷; 潘家仪

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of meridian massage on the growth and development of premature infants.Methods 60 preterm infants were randomly divided into the observation group and the control group with 30 cases in each group,the control group adopted modified domestic simple meridian massage method,and the observation group increase meridian massage based on the control group,2 times a day and 15 minutes one time.Body weight,length,intake of milk,sleep time,time to regain birth weight,and meconium drained time were eomparel between two groups.Results The observation group was significantly better than the control group in body weight,length,intake of milk,sleep time,time to regain birth weight,and meconium drained time.Conclusions Meridian massage based on the domestic simple touch method plays a significant role in promoting the growth and development of premature infants.%目的 探讨经络抚触对早产儿生长发育的影响.方法 将60例早产儿随机分为观察组和对照组各30例,对照组采用国内改良简易抚触法,观察组在此基础上增加经络抚触,2次/d,15 min/次.比较2组早产儿的体质量、身长、摄奶量、睡眠时间等指标的情况.结果 观察组体质量、身长、摄入奶量、睡眠时间、恢复出生体质量时间、胎粪排尽时间显著优于对照组.结论 在国内改良简易抚触法基础上增加经络抚触对早产儿生长发育有明显的促进作用.

  14. Two-year morbidity-mortality and alternatives to prolonged breast-feeding among children born to HIV-infected mothers in Cote d'Ivoire.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renaud Becquet

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Little is known about the long-term safety of infant feeding interventions aimed at reducing breast milk HIV transmission in Africa. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In 2001-2005, HIV-infected pregnant women having received in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire, a peripartum antiretroviral prophylaxis were presented antenatally with infant feeding interventions: either artificial feeding, or exclusive breast-feeding and then early cessation from 4 mo of age. Nutritional counseling and clinical management were provided for 2 y. Breast-milk substitutes were provided for free. The primary outcome was the occurrence of adverse health outcomes in children, defined as validated morbid events (diarrhea, acute respiratory infections, or malnutrition or severe events (hospitalization or death. Hazards ratios to compare formula-fed versus short-term breast-fed (reference children were adjusted for confounders (baseline covariates and pediatric HIV status as a time-dependant covariate. The 18-mo mortality rates were also compared to those observed in the Ditrame historical trial, which was conducted at the same sites in 1995-1998, and in which long-term breast-feeding was practiced in the absence of any specific infant feeding intervention. Of the 557 live-born children, 262 (47% were breast-fed for a median of 4 mo, whereas 295 were formula-fed. Over the 2-y follow-up period, 37% of the formula-fed and 34% of the short-term breast-fed children remained free from any adverse health outcome (adjusted hazard ratio [HR]: 1.10; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.87-1.38; p = 0.43. The 2-y probability of presenting with a severe event was the same among formula-fed (14% and short-term breast-fed children (15% (adjusted HR, 1.19; 95% CI, 0.75-1.91; p = 0.44. An overall 18-mo probability of survival of 96% was observed among both HIV-uninfected short-term and formula-fed children, which was similar to the 95% probability observed in the long-term breast-fed ones of the

  15. Prematurity, smallness-for-gestational age and later hospital admissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Á Rogvi, Rasmus; Forman, Julie Lyng; Greisen, Gorm

    2015-01-01

    significantly different from unity for people born premature or SGA. After correcting for multiple testing, 250 remained significant. The diagnoses covered diseases in most organ systems, including cardiovascular, endocrinological, infectious, neurological/neurosurgical, obstetric, orthopedic, psychiatric, lung...... & urological diseases, and occurred throughout childhood and early adulthood. Novel findings included increased risks for delayed puberty, neurofibromatosis type 1 and ileus and decreased risks of mononucleosis, peritonsillar abscesses, chronic hypothyroidism and several types of fractures and contusions later...

  16. Concepções das mães sobre os filhos prematuros em UTI Concepciones de las madres acerca de sus hijos prematuros en la UTI Mothers' conceptions about their premature children in ICU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catarina Aparecida Sales

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Neste estudo, nossa proposta foi dirigir-nos às mães que tiveram bebês nascidos prematuros e necessitaram ser assistidas em UTI neonatal, buscando compreender os sentimentos suscitados nessas mães por tal situação e, assim, projetar novas possibilidades de cuidado a esses seres. Para tanto, optamos por um estudo qualitativo-descritivo, embasado nos princípios da fenomenologia existencial. Da análise emergiram quatro categorias; A dor de ver seu filho nascer prematuro e ser tirado de seus braços; padecimento ante a possibilidade de perder parte de si; sentimentos avivados a partir da compreensão da situação do filho e, a importância da equipe de saúde no processo de recuperação do filho. Depreendemos que escutar e olhar atentamente são instrumentos imprescindíveis para assistir a mãe e seu filho em suas singularidades.En este estudio nuestra propuesta fue dirigirnos a las madres que tuvieron bebés nacidos prematuros y necesitaron ser acompañados en UCI Neonatal, buscando comprender los sentimientos provocados en esas madres por tal situación y, así, proyectar nuevas posibilidad de cuidados a esos seres. Para eso, optamos por un estudio cualitativo descriptivo, con base en los principios de la fenomenología existencial. Del análisis emergieron cuatro categorías; El dolor de ver a su hijo nacer prematuro y ser arrancado de sus brazos; padecimientos ante la posibilidad de perder parte de sí misma; sentimientos avivados a partir de la comprensión de la situación del hijo y, la importancia del equipe de salud en el proceso de recuperación del hijo. Percibimos que escuchar y mirar atentamente son instrumentos imprescindibles para ayudar ala madre y a su hijo en sus singularidad.In this study, our purpose was to direct ourselves to the mothers who had babies that were born prematurely and needed to be assisted in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, searching for the comprehension of the feelings provoked in these mothers due to

  17. Higher risk of orofacial clefts in children born to mothers with angina pectoris: a population-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czeizel, Andrew E; Vereczkey, Attila; Bánhidy, Ferenc

    2015-02-01

    Previously an unexpected association of maternal angina pectoris (MAP) during pregnancy with a higher risk of orofacial clefts in their children was found. There were three objectives of this study: (i) to evaluate the validity of MAP-diagnoses in the previous study and the recent history of mothers with MAP in a follow-up study; (ii) to estimate the prevalence of other congenital abnormalities in the offspring of mothers with MAP; and (iii) to analyze the possible effect of confounders for the risk of orofacial clefts. The large dataset of population-based Hungarian Case-Control Surveillance System of Congenital Abnormalities, 1980-1996 was evaluated including 22 843 cases with congenital abnormalities and 38 151 controls without any defect. Twenty-two cases (0.10%) and 12 controls (0.03%) were born to mothers with medically recorded MAP (odds ratio [OR] with 95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.7, 1.8-7.3). Of 22 cases, six had isolated cleft lip ± palate (OR with 95% CI: 13.3, 4.9-35.9) and two were affected with isolated cleft palate (OR with 95% CI: 10.5, 2.3-47.6). The diagnosis of MAP was confirmed in seven women visited at home in 2009-2010, two had recent myocardial infarction and five were smokers. There was no higher risk for other congenital abnormalities. In conclusion the higher risk of orofacial clefts was confirmed in the children of mothers with MAP and smoking may trigger the genetic predisposition of both MAP and orofacial clefts. However, the number of cases was limited and therefore further studies are needed to confirm or reject this theoretically and practically important observation.

  18. 人工助孕子代的体格和神经精神发育状况%Physiological and neuropsychological development in children born after assisted reproductive technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑思锐; 任榕娜; 刘芸

    2012-01-01

    neuropsychological development in children born after assisted reproductive technology(ART),and to evaluate the safety of ART.Methods Eighty-four 6-month-old to 6-year-old children born after ART performed from January 1st,2006 to June 30th,2011 in Reproduction Center of Fuzhou General Hospital were taken as ART group; and 84 matched children born after spontaneous conception were as control group.The physiological and neuropsychological states of these children in their newborn stage and 6-month-old to 6-year-old duration were compared with Chi-square or t test.Results There was no statistical difference in childbearing age of mothers,the prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus and hypcrtensive disorder complicating pregnancy,delivery mode,living environment,parents' education level,newborn birth length,birth weight,the rate of premature birth,low birth weight,asphyxia and hospitalized to neonatal intensive care unit between two groups (P>0.05).In ART group,the incidence of growth retardation and abnormal social life skills was 6.0 % (5/84) and 1.2 % (1/84),and no statistical difference were found comparing with control guoup [4.8%(4/84) and 1.2%(1/84),x2 =0.12 and 0.00,P>0.05],neither the developmental quotient (95.9±6.1 vs 94.8±5.1,t=1.25,P=0.21).Twins had higher rates of preterm birth [41.8% (33/79) vs 10.1%(9/89),x2 =22.37,OR=6.38,95%CI:2.81-14.50,P=0.00],low birth weight [51.9%(41/79) vs 6.7%(6/89),x2=42.35,OR=14.93,95% CI:5.84-38.16,P=0.00],asphyxia [10.1 % (8/79) vs 1.1 %(1/89),x2 =6.69,OR=9.92,95% CI:1.21~81.15,P=0.01],hospitalized to neonatal intensive care unit [36.7 % (29/79) vs 14.6 % (13/89),x2 =10.90,OR =3.39,95%CI:1.61-7.14,P=0.00] and growth retardation [11.4%(9/79) vs 0.0%(0/89),x2=10.71,RR=0.11,P=0.00] than singleton.Conclusions ART has no negative effects on children's physical and neuropsychological development.It could increase the incidence of twins,so that it might increase the incidences of preterm labor and

  19. [Positive rolandic sharp waves, periventricular ischemia and neurologic outcome. Prospective study in 66 premature infants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marret, S; Jeannot, E; Parain, D; Samson-Dollfus, D; Fessard, C

    1989-04-01

    A prospective study concerning 66 prematures born after 32 weeks of gestation showed a 33% incidence of positive rolandic sharp waves (PRSW) on EEGs. The results showed a good sensitivity (Se = 95%) and specificity (Sp = 93%) of PRSW for the diagnosis of periventricular ischemia with motor sequelae. A PRSW frequency higher than one per minute and its persistence on 2 successive EEGs constitutes an indication of severity of the lesions. This study emphasizes the necessity of several EEG recordings in prematures.

  20. Impact of Early Nutrition on Body Composition in Children Aged 9.5 Years Born with Extremely Low Birth Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stutte, Sonja; Gohlke, Bettina; Peiler, Annika; Schreiner, Felix; Born, Mark; Bartmann, Peter; Woelfle, Joachim

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate body composition, metabolism and growth as well as their interaction with early nutrition in former extremely low birth weight infants (ELBW), we assessed qualitative and quantitative nutritional intake during initial hospitalization and infantile growth parameters in 61 former ELBW infants with a birth weight <1000 g. In two follow-up exams, physical and biochemical development were measured at 5.7 and at 9.5 years. At the second follow-up, in addition to biochemical reassessment, body composition was analyzed by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). Protein intake between birth and discharge was associated with weight gain in the first six months of life (r = 0.51; p < 0.01). Weight catch-up preceded height catch-up. Protein intake in early infancy correlated highly significantly with abdominal fat mass (r = 0.49; p < 0.05), but not with lean body mass at 9.5 years (r = 0.30; not significant (n.s.). In contrast to nutrient intake, birth weight was associated with lean body mass (r = 0.433; p < 0.001). Early protein and carbohydrate intake were associated with high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, and early catch-up growth correlated with fasting insulin at follow-up. Stepwise linear regression demonstrated that protein intake predicted fat mass (p < 0.05), whereas only gender and birth weight standard deviation score (SDS) contributed significantly to lean body mass variation (p < 0.05). Our results suggest an important impact of early nutrient intake on body composition and metabolism in later childhood in ELBW children. PMID:28208596

  1. Impact of Early Nutrition on Body Composition in Children Aged 9.5 Years Born with Extremely Low Birth Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Stutte

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate body composition, metabolism and growth as well as their interaction with early nutrition in former extremely low birth weight infants (ELBW, we assessed qualitative and quantitative nutritional intake during initial hospitalization and infantile growth parameters in 61 former ELBW infants with a birth weight <1000 g. In two follow-up exams, physical and biochemical development were measured at 5.7 and at 9.5 years. At the second follow-up, in addition to biochemical reassessment, body composition was analyzed by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA. Protein intake between birth and discharge was associated with weight gain in the first six months of life (r = 0.51; p < 0.01. Weight catch-up preceded height catch-up. Protein intake in early infancy correlated highly significantly with abdominal fat mass (r = 0.49; p < 0.05, but not with lean body mass at 9.5 years (r = 0.30; not significant (n.s.. In contrast to nutrient intake, birth weight was associated with lean body mass (r = 0.433; p < 0.001. Early protein and carbohydrate intake were associated with high-density lipoprotein (HDL-cholesterol, and early catch-up growth correlated with fasting insulin at follow-up. Stepwise linear regression demonstrated that protein intake predicted fat mass (p < 0.05, whereas only gender and birth weight standard deviation score (SDS contributed significantly to lean body mass variation (p < 0.05. Our results suggest an important impact of early nutrient intake on body composition and metabolism in later childhood in ELBW children.

  2. Premature ejaculation: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukumar Reddy Gajjala

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Premature ejaculation (PE is a common male sexual disorder. It is defined by the Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders as "ejaculation occurring, without control, on or shortly after penetration and before the person wishes it, causing marked distress or interpersonal difficulty. [1] Although the timing of intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT (i.e., time from penetration to ejaculation is not included in this definition, an IELT of <2 min, or ejaculation occurring before penetration, has been considered consistent with PE. [2] Management involves both the patient and his partner. Therapeutic options should suit both partners and be appropriate to their habit in planning and frequency of intercourse. Follow-up at appropriate intervals to judge efficacy, titrate dosage of pharmacological treatments and ascertain side effects is mandatory.

  3. Apnea of prematurity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piermichele Paolillo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Apnea of prematurity (AOP is one of the most frequent pathologies in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, with an incidence inversely related to gestational age. Its etiology is often multi factorial and diagnosis of idiopathic forms requires exclusion of other underlying diseases. Despite being a self-limiting condition which regresses with the maturation of the newborn, possible long-term effects of recurring apneas and the degree of desaturation and bradycardia who may lead to abnormal neurological outcome are not yet clarified. Therefore AOP needs careful evaluation of its etiology and adequate therapy that can be both pharmacological and non-pharmacological. Proceedings of the 9th International Workshop on Neonatology · Cagliari (Italy · October 23rd-26th, 2013 · Learned lessons, changing practice and cutting-edge research

  4. Premature ovarian failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelling, Andrew N

    2010-11-01

    Premature ovarian failure (POF) is a common cause of infertility in women, and is characterised by amenorrhoea, hypo-oestrogenism and elevated gonadotrophin levels in women under the age of 40. Known causes include iatrogenic agents that cause permanent damage to the ovaries, such as chemotherapy, radiation therapy and surgery, autoimmune conditions, X-chromosome abnormalities and autosomal genetic conditions. However, few genes have been identified that can explain a substantial proportion of cases of POF. Most women with POF are deeply upset by the diagnosis, partly due to the unexpected menopausal symptoms, but also due to infertility. Therefore, early detection would provide better opportunity for early intervention, and furthermore, the identification of specific gene defects will help to direct potential targets for future treatment.

  5. Apnea of Prematurity (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... other babies. The apnea of prematurity does not cause brain damage. A healthy baby who is apnea free for a week will probably never have AOP again. Although sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) does happen more often in premature infants, no relationship between AOP and SIDS has ...

  6. [Use of dried blood spots in early diagnosis of HIV-1 infection in children born to HIV-infected mothers as part of the prevention of mother-to-child transmission in Benin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchiakpe, E; Hounto-Ogouyemi, A; Diop Ndiaye, H; Diouara, A A M; Aïssi, A K; Keke, R K; Kpangon, A A; Lafia, B; Métadokou, D; Bouraïma, B; Anthony, D; Hounsinou, A; Alao, M J; Azondekon, A; Ahouidi, A D; Bei, A K; Mbengue, M A S; Touré Kane, C; Zannou, D M

    2016-08-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate using the molecular diagnosis, infection transmission rate of HIV in children born to HIV-1 positive mothers as part of the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) in Benin. The sample consisted of 524 dried blood spots (DBS) of children born to HIV-1 positive mothers, from 30 sites (PMTCT) taken between October 2009 and June 2010. The diagnosis of HIV-1 was performed by the qualitative detection of viral nucleic acids (RNA and DNA) in DBS on filter paper using the Abbott RealTime(®) HIV-1 Qualitative assay. We found that 51 DBS were positive (9.7%) and 473 were negative (90.3%). The failure rate of PMTCT among 420 mothers who received antiretroviral prophylaxis was 6.7% (28/420). This failure rate was significantly higher among children born to infected mothers on antiretroviral monotherapy than on triple therapy (HAART). The results of our study enrich the data in the literature on highly active antiretroviral chemoprophylaxis to reduce the transmission of HIV-1 from mother to child.

  7. 306例出生缺陷患儿追踪结局分析%Analysis of the outcome of 306 children born with birth defects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张颖; 彭振耀; 刘凯波; 潘迎

    2011-01-01

    目的 了解活产出生缺陷患儿的结局.方法 对306例2007年7月~2008年9月分娩且家长均居住在北京市海淀区的306例活产出生缺陷患儿,分娩6~8个月时通过电话调查方式询问出生缺陷惠儿家长.结果 306例出生缺陷种类主要为先天性心脏病、多指/趾、除小耳和无耳的外耳畸形、睾丸未降、尿道下裂,占调查总数的75.16%o出生缺陷患儿分娩后6~8个月时的追踪结局主要包括:死亡15例(占4.90%),到医院复诊过至少1次的208例(占67.97%),未到医院复查的76例(占27.13%),家长拒绝承认孩子有出生缺陷的7例(占2.29%).结论 先天性心脏病仍然是影响婴儿死亡和健康的最主要的出生缺陷;应提高出生缺陷的筛查、诊断水平,明确出生缺陷诊断标准;加强医生与出生缺陷患儿家长的沟通.%Objective: To describe the outcome of children born with birth defects. Methods: Between July 2007 and September 2008, 306 live bom cases of birth defects were diagnosed and registered by the Beijing Birth Defects Monitoring network-a hospital based birth defects registry system. Their parents were called to assess their survival status from birth up to the age of 6 - 8 months. Results: The major birth defects types were congenital heart defects, polydactyly, congenital malformations of ear excluding absence of ear, undescended testicle, hypospadias, the total proportions of all was 75. 16%. The proportions of all live born infants with birth defects , died at the end of the 6-8 months, having been to the hospital once at least, not having been to the hospital, not acknowledging the fact of infants' birth defects were 4. 90% , 67. 97% , 27. 13% , and 2. 29% respectively. Conclusions; Congenital heart disease make an important contribution to infant mortality and health. The level of screening and diagnosis of birth defects should be improved. The relationship of physician and parents of children bom with birth defects should

  8. 心理干预结合辅助生殖技术对出生婴儿体格及精神运动发育状况的影响%Influence of psychological intervention on physical and psychomotor development of children born of assisted reproductive technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈向红; 蒙顺好; 骆绮云; 陈玉珍; 于雯昶; 阙文清

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the influence of psychological intervention on the physical and psychomotor development of children born of assisted reproductive technology. Methods 329 cases of ART born children in our hospital were set as the experimental group,the parturients were given pertinent psychological intervention.254 cases of children of spontaneous pregnancy were selected as the control group.The two groups were given follow-up for 24 months.Their physical condition at birth and psychomotor development during follow - up period were compared. Results Compared with the control group,length of infants at birth,body mass of the experimental group were significantly lower,and the incidence rate of premature birth,low birth weight,NICU stay during neonatal stage were higher.But there were no differences in psychomotor development between two groups. Conclusions ART born children of 24-month old show normal psychomotor development,but there are still more unfavorable physical factors,therefore,pertinent nursing intervention should be given based upon psychological intervention in clinic.%目的 探讨心理干预结合辅助生殖技术对出生婴儿的体格和精神运动发育状况的影响.方法 将利用现代辅助生殖技术(assisted reproductive technology,ART)出生的329例婴儿列为实验组,并对其家长进行相应的心理干预;另选取同期出生的254例自然妊娠婴儿列为对照组.随访至24月龄,对2组婴儿出生时的体格状况及随访期的精神运动发育状况进行比较.结果 2组相比,实验组婴儿出生时的身长、体质量均显著低于对照组,而其早产、低出生体质量、新生儿期入住NICU等的发生率均显著高于对照组;但2组的精神运动发育指标比较无显著差异.结论 24个月内的ART婴儿精神运动发育正常,但其还存在着较多的体格不利因素,因此临床上应在结合心理干预的基础上予以针对性的措施.

  9. Sensory modulation in preterm children: Theoretical perspective and systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oostrom, Kim J.; Lafeber, Harrie N.; Jansma, Elise P.; Oosterlaan, Jaap

    2017-01-01

    Background Neurodevelopmental sequelae in preterm born children are generally considered to result from cerebral white matter damage and noxious effects of environmental factors in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Cerebral white matter damage is associated with sensory processing problems in terms of registration, integration and modulation. However, research into sensory processing problems and, in particular, sensory modulation problems, is scarce in preterm children. Aim This review aims to integrate available evidence on sensory modulation problems in preterm infants and children (<37 weeks of gestation) and their association with neurocognitive and behavioral problems. Method Relevant studies were extracted from PubMed, EMBASE.com and PsycINFO following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Selection criteria included assessment of sensory modulation in preterm born children (<37 weeks of gestation) or with prematurity as a risk factor. Results Eighteen studies were included. Results of this review support the presence of sensory modulation problems in preterm children. Although prematurity may distort various aspects of sensory modulation, the nature and severity of sensory modulation problems differ widely between studies. Conclusions Sensory modulation problems may play a key role in understanding neurocognitive and behavioral sequelae in preterm children. Some support is found for a dose-response relationship between both white matter brain injury and length of NICU stay and sensory modulation problems. PMID:28182680

  10. Homocysteine level in Iranian patients with premature acute myocardial infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammad Shojaie; Farzan Naghshvar; Hamid Reza Izadi; Ahad Eshraghian; Morteza Pourahmad

    2009-01-01

    @@ Homocysteine may impair vascular endothelial cell function.Besides,it may also induce cell damage,smooth muscle cell proliferation,thrombogenesis and oxidation of low-density lipoproteins.1 The possible role of elevated blood concentrations of homocysteine in cardiovascular disease was firstly hypothesized after the observation of high incidence of premature occlusive vascular disease in children with homozygous homocystinuria.2

  11. Premature ovarian failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vujović Svetlana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Premature ovarian failure (POF is the occurrence of hypergonadotropic hypoestrogenic amenorrhea in women under the age of forty years. It is idiopathic in 74-90% patients. Known cases can be divided into primary and secondary POF. In primary POF genetic aberrations can involve the X chromosome (monosomy, trisomy, translocations, deletions or autosomes. Genetic mechanisms include reduced gene dosage and non-specific chromosome effects impairing meiosis, decreasing the pool of primordial follicles and increasing atresia due to apoptosis or failure of follicle maturation. Autoimmune ovarian damage is caused by alteration of T-cell subsets and T-cell mediated injury, increase of autoantibody producing B-cells, a low number of effector/cytotoxic lymphocyte, which decreases the number and activity of natural killer cells. Bilateral oophorectomy, chemotherapy, radiotherapy and infections cause the secondary POF. Symptoms of POF include irritability, nervousness, loss of libido, depression, lack of concentration, hot flushes, weight gaining, dry skin, vaginal dryness, frequent infections etc. The diagnosis is confirmed by the level of FSH of over 40 IU/L and estradiol below 50 pmol/L in women aged below 40 years. Biochemical and other hormonal analysis (free thyroxin, TSH, prolactin, testosterone, karyotype (<30 years of age, ultrasound of the breasts and pelvis are advisable. Optimal therapy is combined estrogen progestagen therapy given in a sequential rhythm, after excluding absolute contraindications. Testosterone can be added to adnexectomized women and those with a low libido. Sequential estrogen progestagen replacement therapy is the first line therapy for ovulation induction in those looking for pregnancy and after that oocyte donation will be advised. Appropriate estro-progestagen therapy improves the quality of life and prevents complications such as cardiovascular diseases, osteoporosis, stroke etc.

  12. Influencing factors of retinopathy in prematurity%早产儿视网膜病变影响因素调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘毅

    2014-01-01

      结果:早产儿视网膜病变检出率为11.7%,多因素Logistic回归分析显示胎龄、吸氧浓度、出生体质量、机械通气、吸氧时间、贫血、颅内出血均为早产儿视网膜病变的危险因素(P  结论:低出生体质量的早产儿在吸氧浓度等因素上都与早产儿视网膜病变的发生有显著关系。%AIM:To analyze the occurrence and influencing factors of retinopathy in prematurity. METHODS: Totally, 103 premature infants born in Ningbo Women and Children's Hospital Department of Ophthalmology from May 2012 to May 2013 were selected as the research objects. The incidence and risk factors of screening for ROP were checked. RESULTS: The positive rate of preterm infants was 11.7%. Logistic multivariate regression analysis results showed that the gestational age, birth weight, oxygen concentration, mechanical ventilation, oxygen time, anemia, intracranial hemorrhage were the risk factors of ROP (P CONCLUSION: Low birth weight of premature infants and oxygen concentration factors has significant relationship with the occurrence of ROP.

  13. The impact of premature birth on fear of personal death and attachment of styles in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubetzky, Ofra; Gilat, Itzhak

    2002-09-01

    The differences between adolescents born pre-term (n = 50) and a matched sample of adolescents born full-term were examined in relation to fear of personal death, attachment styles, and the relation between the two variables. Findings revealed that adolescents born pre-term showed a higher level of fear of personal death and a lower frequency of secure attachment style than adolescents born full-term. In addition, secure full-term born adolescents exhibited a lower level of fear of personal death compared with insecure adolescents; whereas among those born pre-term, attachment styles did not affect the level of fear of personal death. Results are discussed in terms of the long-term impact of premature birth on affect regulation in adolescence.

  14. Birth outcome in HIV vertically-exposed children in two Romanian centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tudor, Ana Maria; Mărdărescu, Mariana; Petre, Cristina; Neagu Drăghicenoiu, Ruxandra; Ungurianu, Rodica; Tilişcan, Cătălin; Oţelea, Dan; Cambrea, Simona Claudia; Tănase, Doina Eugenia; Schweitzer, Ana Maria; Ruţă, Simona

    2015-01-01

    Background The Romanian HIV epidemic is characterized by a high prevalence among children born in the late ’80s, perinatally infected. The impact of long-term treatment on their offspring is unknown. We evaluated the influence of prenatal care on the rate of premature birth among the HIV-exposed children of heavily treated HIV-infected mothers in two Romanian centers. Methods We retrospectively analyzed data on all patients born by HIV-infected mothers between 2006 and 2012 followed up in two main regional centers. We compared the rate of premature birth and the differences between the sites regarding children and maternal demographic characteristics and antiretroviral exposure in pregnant women. Results A total of 358 children born to 315 women were enrolled between 2006-2012, 262 children from the National Institute for Infectious Diseases “Prof. Dr. Matei Balş” Bucharest (NIID) and 96 children from the Clinical Infectious Diseases Hospital Constanţa (IDHC). Gender rate in newborns and mean age in mothers were similar. We recorded statistically significant differences between centers in the rate of HIV vertical transmission (16.8% vs. 6.2%, p=0.002) and prematurity (25.2 vs. 14.6%, p=0.023). The most used antiretroviral combination during pregnancy in IDHC was boosted lopinavir and fixed dose zidovudine-lamivudine (66% of cases), while in NIID a greater diversity of antiretrovirals were used. Women from IDHC were more frequently treated during pregnancy (83.3% vs. 68.6%, p=0.004). HCV coinfection and illegal drug use were associated with prematurity in the NIID cohort (p=0.037, p=0.024). Conclusion We found a higher rate of premature birth and HIV infection in NIID. In IDHC we found a higher rate of low birth weight in children and a higher rate of heavily treated women. Prematurity was associated with hepatitis C infection and illegal drug use in the NIID cohort. PMID:26716100

  15. Preventing respiratory syncytial virus in homebound premature infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Jennifer

    2007-01-01

    This article explores the home health nurse's role in preventing respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) among premature infants. Thousands of children infected with RSV require hospitalization each year. Consistent contact with the infant alerts the nurse to subtle signs and symptoms of RSV infection, which may include nasal congestion, cough, low-grade fever, and malaise. By developing patient and caregiver trust, the home health nurse can implement an RSV prevention plan, leading to a decrease in hospitalization episodes of premature infants with RSV. Identification of patient risk factors contributing to RSV together with caregiver education is addressed in this article.

  16. Outcome and quality of screening in a nationwide survey on retinopathy of prematurity in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sorge, A.J. van; Termote, J.U.; Simonsz, H.J.; Kerkhoff, F.T.; Rijn, L.J. van; Lemmens, W.A.J.G.; Schalij-Delfos, N.E.

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: Provide insight in natural history, screening and treatment policy of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in The Netherlands. METHODS: A multicentre, prospective, population-based study (NEDROP) included all preterm infants born in 2009 in The Netherlands fulfilling the inclusion criteria for

  17. Nationwide inventory of risk factors for retinopathy of prematurity in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sorge, A.J. van; Termote, J.U.; Kerkhoff, F.T.; Rijn, L.J. van; Simonsz, H.J.; Peer, P.G.M.; Schalij-Delfos, N.E.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To study the incidence and risk factors for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in the Netherlands. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective, approximating population-based study that included infants with gestational age (GA) <32 weeks and/or birth weight (BW) <1500 g born in 2009. Pediatricians an

  18. Maternal panic disorder: Infant prematurity and low birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Susan L; Racu, Camellia; Gregg, Vanessa; Simmens, Samuel J

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this pilot research was to investigate whether infants of mothers with panic disorder (PD) would be at higher risk for prematurity and low birth weight (corrected for gestational age) than controls. Medical records were reviewed for 25 mothers with PD and 33 mothers without a lifetime history of anxiety disorders or other major psychopathology as determined by diagnostic interview. Mothers also completed questionnaires concerning demographic information and life stresses. Compared to controls, infants with PD mothers were not significantly more likely to be born prematurely or earlier than controls but did show smaller birth weight corrected for gestational age, even after accounting for possible confounding influences. Additional research is needed to confirm these preliminary findings. Studying PD mothers during pregnancy could provide insight concerning mechanisms for the development of low birth weight and psychopathology.

  19. [Social representation of fathers regarding their premature child in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, Jovanka Bittencourt Leite; Araújo, Ana Cristina Pinheiro Fernandes; Costa, Iris do Céu Clara; de Brito, Rosineide Santana; de Souza, Nilba Lima

    2009-01-01

    Qualitative study that aimed at understanding the social representation of a parent with a premature child. The data were collected between May and June 2008, in a semi-structured interview with 17 parents whose premature children were hospitalized in the NICU of two public institutions in Natal, Brazil. The reports were analyzed based on the Social Representations Theory (SRT). The results reveal that the hospitalization of their children causes parents to experience emotions of fear, anguish, anxiety, loneliness interspersed with those of faith, joy and hope. For a parent the NICU is a frightening environment, albeit necessary for the specialized care that the conditions of the premature newborn require.

  20. Premature exfoliation of teeth in childhood and adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartsfield, J K

    1994-01-01

    Although the premature loss of primary teeth in conjunction with early eruption may be of no clinical significance, the loss of primary or permanent teeth in the absence of trauma should not be overlooked by the clinician. Premature loss of teeth associated with systemic disease usually results from some change in the immune system or connective tissue. This chapter presented some conditions associated with loosening and/or premature loss of teeth that may be encountered in children and adolescents. The most common of these conditions appear to be hypophosphatasia and early-onset periodontitis. Other less common conditions were described to aid in forming a differential diagnosis. Other diseases that may manifest with severe oral infection, such as Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome, diabetes mellitus, or herpes zoster, could result in early tooth loss.

  1. Risk factors of intracranial hemorrhage in premature neonates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrin Khalessi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH is an important cause of brain injury in premature neonates. Current study tries to define associated risk factors of IVH in preterm neonates in Aliasghar Children Hospital during 2008 to 2011. In this study, the risk factors have been evaluated in premature neonates with IVH, who had at least one brain sonography since their admission in NICU. A total of 63 premature neonates with IVH were assessed. Mean gestational age was 29.81 (24-34 weeks and mean birth weight was 1290.83±382.96 gr. Other risk factors such as sex, mode of delivery, history of using infertility drugs, maternal disease, maternal hypertension and preeclampsia, lumbar puncture, ventilator therapy and pneumothorax were considered. Because no absolute treatment for IVH is available, identifying risk factors is important in prevention and management of IVH.

  2. Comparison of response to 2-years' growth hormone treatment in children with isolated growth hormone deficiency, born small for gestational age, idiopathic short stature, or multiple pituitary hormone deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Peter A; Sävendahl, Lars; Oliver, Isabelle

    2012-01-01

    Few studies have compared the response to growth hormone (GH) treatment between indications such as isolated growth hormone deficiency (IGHD), born small for gestational age (SGA), idiopathic short stature (ISS), and multiple pituitary hormone deficiency (MPHD). The aim of this analysis of data......, collected from two large ongoing observational outcome studies, was to evaluate growth and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) response data for children of short stature with IGHD, MPHD, SGA, or ISS following two years of treatment with the recombinant GH product Norditropin® (Novo Nordisk A/S, Bagsværd...

  3. Características de comportamento do filho único vs filho primogênito e não primogênito Behavioral characteristics of the only child vs first-born and children with siblings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo B. Tavares

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o impacto de ser filho único sobre as caraterísticas de relacionamento com amigos e pais, desempenho escolar, comportamento social e sexual. MÉTODOS: Realizou-se um estudo, incluindo um total de 360 adolescentes identificados no terceiro ano do ensino médio de uma escola privada de Porto Alegre, em 2000 e 2001. Adolescentes do sexo masculino e feminino, com idade entre 15 e 19 anos foram selecionados para participar de um estudo transversal. Um questionário anônimo, pré-testado e auto-administrado foi preenchido em sala de aula com dados demográficos, educação dos pais, ordem de nascimento (filho único, primogênito e não primogênito, tabagismo, consumo de bebidas alcoólicas, uso de drogas ilícitas, desempenho escolar, comportamento social e sexual e outras características. RESULTADOS: Identificaram-se 8% de adolescentes filhos únicos, 35% primogênitos e 57% não primogênitos em uma amostra socioeconomicamente homogênea. Comportamento social, relacionamento com os pais e amigos, prática de esportes, tabagismo e uso de drogas não se associaram com ordem de nascimento. Os filhos únicos menos freqüentemente relataram intoxicação alcoólica (39% comparativamente aos primogênitos (68,9%; p=0,03 e adolescentes com irmãos (72,3%; pOBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of being an only child on characteristics of parental and peer relationships, school achievement, social and sexual behavior. METHODS: In the total, 360 adolescents identified at third year of high school were sampled from a private school from Porto Alegre in 2000 and 2001. Fifteen to nineteen years old male and female were selected in a cross-sectional study. Assessment of demographic data, education of the parents, birth order (only child, first born and non-first born children, cigarette smoking, alcoholic beverages consumption, illicit drug use, school achievement, social and sexual behavior were gathered with a pre-tested self

  4. Estudo longitudinal das crianças nascidas em 1982 em Pelotas, RS, Brasil: metodologia e resultados preliminares Study in length of children born in Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, in 1982: metodology and preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Gomes Victora

    1985-02-01

    Full Text Available Tentou-se acompanhar a morbi-mortalidade e o crescimento de uma coorte de 6.011 crianças urbanas nascidas em 1982 nos hospitais de Pelotas, RS, através de visitas domiciliares aos 12 meses (para uma amostra de 30% das crianças e aos 20 meses (para toda a população. Estas crianças representaram mais de 99% de todos os nascimentos urbanos naquele ano. Foi possível localizar 81% das crianças aos 12 meses e 86% aos 20 meses, devido a uma mudança na estratégia de trabalho de campo. A metodologia empregada e as principais dificuldades encontradas são descritas e as características ao nascer das crianças localizadas no acompanhamento são comparadas com as características das crianças não localizadas. A potencialidade de uso dos dados coletados é exemplificada através de alguns resultados preliminares mostrando as associações entre o peso ao nascer, a renda familiar e o estado nutricional aos 12 meses. O estudo mostra que é possível acompanhar, com uma perda relativamente pequena, uma coorte de crianças com base populacional em uma cidade brasileira de tamanho médio.A cohort of 6,011 urban children born in 1982 in the hospitals of Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, was followed up so that their morbidity, mortality and growth could be assessed. These children accounted for over 99% of all births in the city. A 30% sample of the children were visited at home when approximately 12 months old, and the whole population was visited at about 20 months of age. It was possible to locate 81% of the children at 12 months. This proportion increased to 86% at 24 months, due to a change in the logistics of the field work which then included visiting all 69,000 households in the city to locate children whose families had moved within the urban area. The methodology and main difficulties encountered are discussed, and the characteristics at birth of children who were located at the first follow-up visit was compared to those of children lost to

  5. Long-term neurological outcome of term-born children treated with two or more anti-epileptic drugs during the neonatal period

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heide, Mariska J.; Roze, Elise; van der Veere, Christa N.; ter Horst, Hendrik J.; Brouwer, Oebele F.; Bos, Arend F.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Neonatal seizures may persist despite treatment with multiple anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs). Objective: To determine in term-born infants with seizures that required two or more AEDs, whether treatment efficacy and/or the underlying disorder were related to neurological outcome. Design/met

  6. "Assessment of retinopathy of prematurity among 150 premature neonates in Farabi eye hospital "

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    "Riazi Esfahani M

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to estimate the incidence of retinopathy of permaturity (ROP and to evaluate possible neonatal risk factors for ROP. The main study was a cross-sectional study including 150 high-risk neonates born at teaching hospitals of Tehran universities referring to to Farabi Eye Hospital. The chossing critertia were birth weight less than 2500 g or gestational age younger than 37 weeks. ROP was present in 9(6% newborns, all of whom aged less than 32 weeks a birth. There was also strong association between ROP and birth weight, oxygen administration, respiratory distress syndrome and intraventricular hemorrhage. There also seems to be a higher risk for developing ROP in female neoates, those who were born by multiple gestaional pregnancies or were treated by phototherapy or transfusion and those who had suffered from bronchopulmonary dysplasia or seiss.Prematurity per se remains the strongest risk factof for ROP. Suitable criteria for screening of ROP seems to be gestational age younger than 32 weeks or birth weight less than 1500 g

  7. Music Therapy with Premature Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standley, Jayne

    2003-01-01

    Over 20 years of research and clinical practice in music therapy with premature infants has been compiled into this text designed for Board Certified Music Therapists specializing in Neonatal Intensive Care clinical services, for NICU medical staff incorporating research-based music therapy into developmental care plans, and for parents of…

  8. A cumulative risk factor model for early identification of academic difficulties in premature and low birth weight infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roberts, G.; Bellinger, D.; McCormick, Marie C.

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: Premature and low birth weight children have a high prevalence of academic difficulties. This study examines a model comprised of cumulative risk factors that allows early identification of these difficulties. Methods: This is a secondary analysis of data from a large cohort of premature

  9. Prematurity and programming: contribution of neonatal Intensive Care Unit interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalhan, S C; Wilson-Costello, D

    2013-04-01

    Contemporary clinical practice for the care of the prematurely born babies has markedly improved their rates of survival so that most of these babies are expected to grow up to live a healthy functional life. Since the clinical follow-up is of short duration (years), only limited data are available to relate non-communicable diseases in adult life to events and interventions in the neonatal period. The major events that could have a programming effect include: (1) intrauterine growth restriction; (2) interruption of pregnancy with change in redox and reactive oxygen species (ROS) injury; (3) nutritional and pharmacological protocols for clinical care; and (4) nutritional care in the first 2 years resulting in accelerated weight gain. The available data are discussed in the context of perturbations in one carbon (methyl transfer) metabolism and its possible programming effects. Although direct evidence for genomic methylation is not available, clinical and experimental data on impact of redox and ROS, of low protein intake, excess methionine load and vitamin A, on methyl transfers are reviewed. The consequences of antenatal and postnatal administration of glucocorticoids are presented. Analysis of the correlates of insulin sensitivity at older age, suggests that premature birth is the major contributor, and is compounded by gain in weight during infancy. We speculate that premature interruption of pregnancy and neonatal interventions by affecting one carbon metabolism may cause programming effects on the immature baby. These can be additive to the effects of intrauterine environment (growth restriction) and are compounded by accelerated growth in early infancy.

  10. Cost estimate of hospital stays for premature newborns in a public tertiary hospital in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Maria Desgualdo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To estimate the direct costs of hospital stays for premature newborns in the Interlagos Hospital and Maternity Center in São Paulo, Brazil and to assess the difference between the amount reimbursed to the hospital by the Unified Health System and the real cost of care for each premature newborn. METHODS: A cost-estimate study in which hospital and professional costs were estimated for premature infants born at 22 to 36 weeks gestation during the calendar year of 2004 and surviving beyond one hour of age. Direct costs included hospital services, professional care, diagnoses and therapy, orthotics, prosthetics, special materials, and blood products. Costs were estimated using tables published by the Unified Health System and the Brasindice as well as the list of medical procedures provided by the Brazilian Classification of Medical Procedures. RESULTS: The average direct cost of care for initial hospitalization of a premature newborn in 2004 was $2,386 USD. Total hospital expenses and professional services for all premature infants in this hospital were $227,000 and $69,500 USD, respectively. The costs for diagnostic testing and blood products for all premature infants totaled $22,440 and $1,833 USD. The daily average cost of a premature newborn weighing less than 1,000 g was $115 USD, and the daily average cost of a premature newborn weighing more than 2,500 g was $89 USD. Amounts reimbursed to the hospital by the Unified Health System corresponded to only 27.42% of the real cost of care. CONCLUSIONS: The cost of hospital stays for premature newborns was much greater than the amount reimbursed to the hospital by the Unified Health System. The highest costs corresponded to newborns with lower birth weight. Hospital costs progressively and discretely decreased as the newborns' weight increased.

  11. Innovative Born Globals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraus, Sascha; Brem, Alexander; Muench, Miriam

    2017-01-01

    Internationalization is a hot topic in innovation management, whereby the phenomenon of “Born Globals” is still limited to research in the domains of Entrepreneurship and International Management. As business model design plays a key role for Born Globals, we link these two concepts. For this, we...

  12. Food-borne Zoonoses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: The awareness of food borne illness has shifted over the years as international agribusiness and transportation have steadily increased. At least 30 food borne agents have been identified, with one-third emerging in the last 3 decades. Despite an increased emphasis on control measures, t...

  13. [Forensic importance of premature craniosynostosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehlow, P

    1991-01-01

    In agreement with Canabis craniosynostosis as a little known organic partial factor of sociopathy is demonstrated. A psychic syndrome of the frontal lobe with increased susceptibility in environmental damages is assumed to be basic disorder. In the criminals of the material sexual offenders were preponderating. Associated craniofacial dysplasias are a risk for psychic maldevelopment. The importance of premature craniosynostocis as a biological risk factor, incidence, diagnostic, indication for an operation, also in the meaning of a neurosurgical "Konflikttherapie" (cosmetical indication) are discussed.

  14. Screening for Dysregulation among Toddlers Born Very Low Birth Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Sarah J.; MacLean, Peggy; Duvall, Susanne Woolsey; Lowe, Jean R.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Children born very low birth weight (VLBW) are at increased risk for regulatory difficulties. However, identifying toddlers at risk has been impeded by a lack of screening measures appropriate for this population. Methods: We studied the nature of dysregulation in toddlers born VLBW (N = 32) using the Infant-Toddler Social and…

  15. Inflammatory and oxidative stress airway markers in premature newborns of hypertensive mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madoglio, R J; Rugolo, L M S S; Kurokawa, C S; Sá, M P A; Lyra, J C; Antunes, L C O

    2016-08-01

    Although oxidative stress and inflammation are important mechanisms in the pathophysiology of preeclampsia and preterm diseases, their contribution to the respiratory prognosis of premature infants of hypertensive mothers is not known. Our objective was to determine the levels of oxidative stress and inflammation markers in the airways of premature infants born to hypertensive and normotensive mothers, in the first 72 h of life, and to investigate whether they are predictors of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD)/death. This was a prospective study with premature infants less than 34 weeks' gestation on respiratory support who were stratified into 2 groups: 32 premature infants of hypertensive mothers and 41 of normotensive women, with a mean gestational age of 29 weeks. Exclusion criteria were as follows: diabetes mellitus, chorioamnionitis, malformation, congenital infection, and death within 24 h after birth. The outcome of interest was BPD/death. Malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO), and interleukin 8 (IL-8) were measured in airway aspirates from the first and third days of life and did not differ between the groups. Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses were performed. The concentrations of MDA, NO, and IL-8 were not predictors of BPD/death. Premature infants who developed BPD/death had higher levels of IL-8 in the first days of life. The gestational age, mechanical ventilation, and a small size for gestational age were risk factors for BPD/death. In conclusion, the biomarkers evaluated were not increased in premature infants of hypertensive mothers and were not predictors of BPD/death.

  16. Detecting rickets in premature infants and treating them with calcitriol: experience from two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hung-Yi; Chiu, Li-Chien; Yek, Yung-Lee; Chen, Yi-Ling

    2012-08-01

    A premature infant is a baby born before 37 weeks of gestation. Rickets is a bone disease characterized by growth retardation due to the expansion of the hypertrophic chondrocyte layer of the growth plate and a failure to mineralize bone. Consequently, the bone is soft and permits marked bending and distortion. Although the incidence of rickets in preterm infants is lower due to improvements in health care and nutrition, there are still infants at high risk for this disease. However, few reports are available regarding the treatment of rickets in premature infants. Furthermore, published case studies on experiences with using calcitriol as a potential therapeutic for rickets in premature infants are very rare. Herein, we describe the detection of rickets in premature infants and our experience with calcitriol treatment in two premature infants. We recommended the use of oral calcitriol at a dose of 0.03-0.125 μg/kg/day, in addition to an appropriate formula that provides an adequate amount of calcium and phosphate intake. One patient was prescribed calcitriol for 40 days and the other for 37 days. The two infants gradually recovered and were discharged without any obvious side effects. It is recommended that alkaline phosphatase levels be monitored within 1 month after birth in premature infants with a birth weight of <1000 g. Infants presenting with high alkaline phosphatase levels are candidates for a long bone survey.

  17. Estudo longitudinal do desenvolvimento de crianças nascidas pré-termo no primeiro ano pós-natal Longitudinal study of the development of children born preterm in the first year of post-natal age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabíola Dantas Andréz Nobre

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar indicadores de desenvolvimento de crianças nascidas pré-termo e comparar o desempenho nas faixas de 5 a 7 e 10 a 14 meses de idade corrigida. Foram relacionados indicadores do desenvolvimento com variáveis neonatais e do ambiente familiar e sexo. Trinta crianças foram avaliadas pelo Denver-II. As cuidadoras responderam à entrevista e o prontuário médico foi analisado. Na faixa de 5 a 7 meses, 20 % das crianças apresentaram risco para problemas de desenvolvimento e 27% de 10 a 14 meses. Houve diferença significativa entre as fases com mais risco na linguagem na faixa de 10 a 14 meses. As crianças nascidas com menor peso e idade gestacional, que permaneceram mais tempo hospitalizadas e com situações familiares adversas apresentaram mais problemas de desenvolvimento.The aim of the study was to assess the development of children born preterm and to compare the performance in the ranges of 5-7 and 10-14 months of corrected age. The children's development indicators and the variables of neonatal period and familial environment were correlated. Thirty children were assessed by Denver-II. The caregivers were interviewed and the medical chart was examined. Twenty per cent of children presented risk for developmental problems at 5-7 months, and 27% at 10-14 months. There was statistical significant difference between ages in language, with high risk at 10-14. The children with lower birthweight, lower gestational age, longer time stay in the hospital, and with adverse family situations showed higher risk for developmental problems.

  18. Quality of Life and Its Associated Factors among School - Aged Children Born with Very Low Birth Weight%极低出生体质量儿童学龄期的生存质量及相关因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾小璐; 岑超群; 钟敏泉; 翟琼香; 卢奕云; 杨杰; 钟向明

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the quality of life( QOL) and its associated factors among school - aged children born with very low birth weight( VLBW), which may provide scientific evidences for early clinical intervention. Methods In this cross - sectional case control study ,235 children with VLBW and 396 healthy children with normal birth weight( NBW) were recruited from mainstream schools. The postal paediatric quality of life inventory( PedsQLTM4.0) generic core scales containing 23 items was used and completed by the parents.and the proxy questionnaire included questions on physical functioning,emotional functioning,social functioning and role functioning about their children. The scores of total scale and all dimensions were calculated to analyze the differences of QOL between 2 groups and related factors of VI.BW children. Results A total of 570 out of 631 questionnaires sent out were completed,with a response rate of 90.3%. The mean age of VLBW group at the time of PedsQL completion was (9.6 ± 2.5) years old, with 1 004 - 1 498 g[ (1 201 ± 279) g] of birth weight. The mean age of NBW cases was (9.7 ±3.1) years old,with 2 512-3 955 g[ (3 216 ±435) g] of birth weighl,and scores of VLBW group in terms of emotional function, role function and total scores were significantly lower than those of the NBW group [ respectively (73.12 ± 16.67) scores, (70.43 ±20.67) scores, (75.98 ± 17. 53) scores vs (79. 16 ±17. 22) scores, (77. 43 ±19.63) scores, (80. 21 ± 17. 29) scores, P, < 0. 05]. Multiple regression analysis showed that among the VLBW group, children whose mothers had higher educational level had better QOL,while those with neonatal intracranial hemorrhage and retinopathy of prematurity had worse QOL. Conclusions QOL of children born with VLBW are worse than that of NBW children, especially in the aspects of emotional function and role function. Maternal educational level and pathophysiological slate during neonatal period are important influential

  19. Less efficient elementary visuomotor processes in 7- to 10-year-old preterm-born children without cerebral palsy : An indication of impaired dorsal stream processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Braeckel, K.N.J.A.; Butcher, P.R.; Geuze, R.H.; van Duijn, M.A.J.; Bos, Arie; Bouma, A

    2008-01-01

    Follow-up studies of preterm children without serious neurological complications have consistently found deficits in visuomotor skills. To determine whether these deficits may be related to impaired elementary visuomotor processes, we investigated movement programming and execution of simple pointin

  20. The case for addressing primary resistance mutations to non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors to treat children born from mothers living with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khady Kébé

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV drug resistance mutations (DRMs was estimated in 25 untreated infants who were living with HIV-1, younger than 13 months and living in Senegal. Antiretroviral DRMs were detected in 8 of 25 (32% children. Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI DRMs were present in all (100% children whose viruses harboured DRMs: K103N in 43%; Y181C, K101E and V106M each in 29%; and Y188L in 14%. The D67N thymidine-analogue mutation was observed in only two children whose mothers had received chemoprophylaxis of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT. The proportion of children whose viruses harboured DRMs was then 6.5-fold higher in children whose mother–child couples had received nevirapine (NVP-based chemoprophylaxis than in other couples without prophylaxis [7 of 13 (53.8% vs. 1 of 12 (8.3%]. These findings point to the absolute need to address primary resistance mutations in case of virological failure in young children treated by antiretroviral drugs, and to make more effective treatment regimens available to NVP-exposed infants living with HIV-1 in Senegal.

  1. Children’s E-books are Born: How E-books for Children are Leading E-book Development and Redefining the Reading Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Schreurs

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Children’s e-books waited to emerge until technology could support their advanced requirements. Recent technologies such as colour e-readers and tablets like Apple’s iPad provide support for heavy visual content and opportunities for interactivity. E-books for children have grown in availability and popularity and now include puzzles, games, music, video, and audio features that boost narratives and create a unique reading experience that is further from print than ever before. This article positions e-books for children as leaders in e-book development. It reviews concepts, practices, and scholarship in the area of e-books for children and highlights issues with definitions and research caused by the rapid growth of enhanced and interactive e-books. There is little argument among scholars and practitioners that the reading experience is changing, and the new generation of readers may have different opinions, assumptions, and preferences for the meanings of ‘book’ and ‘reading’. Managing these shifts in the reading experience, which is still strongly tied to notions from print culture, is an important role for LIS scholars, librarians, educators, and parents. Recent research on e-books for children focuses largely on literacy and education. Little attention has been paid to if and why children enjoy the e-reading experience. Additionally, the majority of current research examines children’s e-reading from an adult perspective with most surveys and interviews consulting parent participants and not children. An examination of relevant research as well as literature on the history and conceptualization of e-books and reading as an evolving experience reveals that, from new technologies to new experiences and new definitions, e-books for children are pushing toward the future of reading.

  2. 河南省农村HIV阳性产妇分娩婴儿营养状况评价%Nutritional assessment of children born to HIV infected mothers in Henan province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王奇; 韩萍; 孙定勇; 王玲; 王旗

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the nutrition status of children born to human immunodeficiency virus ( HIV) -infected mothers in rural area of Henan province. Methods Totally 160 children were included in the research. Z scores of weight for age,height for age,and weight for height were calculated using WHO Anthro 2010 at birth and 1,3,6,9, 12,and 18 months of age. Z scores based on WHO standard were used to evaluate nutrition status of the children. Results Among the children, 128 were HIV negative and 32 HIV positive. The incidence of underweight in the HIV-negative children was lower than in HIV-positive children except for the children at the age of 3 months (P <0. 05). The incidence of stunning in HIV-negative children was lower than in HIV-positive children at 6,12, and 18 months of age( P < 0. 05). The growth trend of Z values for age-related weight (WAZ) in HIV-negative children was better than in HIV-positive children (P <0. 05) and the WAZ ranged from - 0. 59 to 0. 79 for HIV-negative children and - 1. 41 to - 0. 04 for HIV-positive children. There were significant differences in Z values for age-related height (HAZ) at 9 and 18 months of age between two groups and HAZ ranged from - 1. 22 to - 0. 17 for HIV-negative children and - 1. 89 to - 0. 14 for HIV-positive children. The length and weight of the children at different months of age were lower than the normal standards significantly. Conclusion The incidence of malnutrition in the children born to HIV infected mothers in rural area of Henan province is high, especially in the HIV-positive children.%目的 了解河南省农村地区艾滋病病毒(HIV)感染母亲分娩婴幼儿的营养状况.方法 使用WHO的Anthro 2010软件,分别计算160名婴幼儿在满1、3、6、9、12、18月龄的年龄别体重、年龄别身高、身高别体重Z值评分,以WHO参考人群为标准评估婴幼儿的营养状况.结果 共调查满18月龄存活婴幼儿160人,其中HIV阳性婴幼儿32

  3. Hepatitis B virus (HBV status of children born to HIV/HBV co-infected women in a French hospital: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Sellier

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV Mother-To-Child-Transmission (MTCT and prevention by combined antiretroviral therapy (cART have been extensively studied. Hepatitis B Virus (HBV MTCT from HIV/HBV co-infected women and prevention by antiretroviral therapy with dual activity have been poorly studied. The aim of the study was to assess HBV MTCT from HIV/HBV co-infected women in a developed country with a large access to cART. Materials and Methods: HIV/HBV co-infected pregnant women attending the Obstetrics Department from 1st January 2000 to 1st January 2012 could be included in the study (NCT02044068. Antiretroviral therapy during pregnancy, injection of immunoglobulin and/or vaccine to newborns was retrospectively recorded. We assessed HBV status of children at least as old as two years. Results: Forty nine (9.2% from 530 HIV-infected women followed in the hospital were HIV/HBV co-infected. 34 (69.4% had given birth to 57 children in the hospital. 13 of these women (22 children were lost-to-follow-up, 21 women (35 children could be studied. Twenty six children (74.3% had HBs Ab at a protective level, 22 of them had received immunoglobulin at birth; 24 had received a complete vaccine schedule during the first six months of life (with immunoglobulin in 21 cases. The women had been given lamivudine or tenofovir/emtricitabine during eight and nine pregnancies respectively. Eight children (22.8% were tested negative for HBs Ag, HBs Ab and HBc Ab: 4 (11.4% had received immunoglobulin and a complete vaccine schedule; in two children, immunoglobulin was uncertain; in one child, the vaccine schedule was incomplete; in the last one, data about immunoglobulin and the vaccine schedule were lacking. The women had been given lamivudine or tenofovir/emtricitabine during five and two pregnancies respectively. One child had HBc Ab and HBs Ab, immunoglobulin was uncertain and the vaccine schedule was incomplete. The woman had been given lamivudine

  4. Current therapies for premature ejaculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gur, Serap; Kadowitz, Philip J; Sikka, Suresh C

    2016-07-01

    Premature ejaculation (PE) subjectively affects 20-30% of men globally. Until recently, understanding of PE was hampered by the absence of a widely accepted definition, paucity of evidence-based clinical studies, and the absence of an appropriate animal model. Here, we elaborate on the current definition of PE, its pathogenesis, currently available therapies, and future treatment prospects. Most treatments for PE are 'off-label' and include selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), topical anesthetics, tramadol, and phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitors. Such knowledge of the benefit and limitations of each treatment will help to direct future drug design and formulations.

  5. [Premature ejaculation: pills or sexology?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisard, M; Audette, N

    2008-03-26

    Premature ejaculation (PE) is a frequent male sexual complaint that affects 20 to 30% of men. The exact aetiology is unknown: psychological/behavioristic and biogenic etiologies have been proposed. The introduction of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) was revolutionary in the medical treatment of PE. However precautions should be taken because of potential adverse side effects. There is no clear consensus as to whether SSRI may represent an eventual cure of PE or will be required for life. The sexocorporal approach is an other treatment of PE, but convincing scientific treatment data are also lacking.

  6. Deficits in Top-Down Sensory Prediction in Infants At Risk due to Premature Birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emberson, Lauren L; Boldin, Alex M; Riccio, Julie E; Guillet, Ronnie; Aslin, Richard N

    2017-02-06

    A prominent theoretical view is that the brain is inherently predictive [1, 2] and that prediction helps drive the engine of development [3, 4]. Although infants exhibit neural signatures of top-down sensory prediction [5, 6], in order to establish that prediction supports development, it must be established that deficits in early prediction abilities alter trajectories. We investigated prediction in infants born prematurely, a leading cause of neuro-cognitive impairment worldwide [7]. Prematurity, independent of medical complications, leads to developmental disturbances [8-12] and a broad range of developmental delays [13-17]. Is an alteration in early prediction abilities the common cause? Using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), we measured top-down sensory prediction in preterm infants (born identification of infants at risk and could guide early intervention regimens.

  7. The preterm pig as a model of premature infant gait ataxia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergström, A.; Ryom, K.; Vanden Hole, C.

    Aims/background Compromised gait, balance and motor coordination (ataxia) as observed in cases of cerebral palsy is a serious complication to premature birth. The cerebellum is a central region with regards to these brain functions and its development shows high sensitivity to premature birth. Our...... group has over many years refined a pig model of premature birth focusing on gut and immune system development. Phenotypically, we have observed distinct motoric problems e.g. falls, tiptoe walking and swaying in preterm pigs relative to term born counterparts, indicating compromised brain function...... distinct postnatal days. MatLab was used to determine a list of spatiotemporal gait characteristics e.g. stride length/ frequency, ”duty factor” and asymmetry indices. These data were paralleled by qPCR of >60 selected neurodevelopmental genes of isolated cerebellar tissue. Results While most genes did...

  8. Comparison of response to 2-years’ growth hormone treatment in children with isolated growth hormone deficiency, born small for gestational age, idiopathic short stature, or multiple pituitary hormone deficiency: combined results from two large observational studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Peter A

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies have compared the response to growth hormone (GH treatment between indications such as isolated growth hormone deficiency (IGHD, born small for gestational age (SGA, idiopathic short stature (ISS, and multiple pituitary hormone deficiency (MPHD. The aim of this analysis of data, collected from two large ongoing observational outcome studies, was to evaluate growth and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I response data for children of short stature with IGHD, MPHD, SGA, or ISS following two years of treatment with the recombinant GH product Norditropin® (Novo Nordisk A/S, Bagsværd, Denmark. Methods Analysis of auxologic data from two ongoing prospective observational studies, NordiNet® International Outcomes Study (NordiNet® IOS and NovoNet®/American Norditropin® Studies: Web-enabled Research (ANSWER Program®. Results 4,582 children aged p = 0.047; p  0.001 vs. IGHD, respectively. Height gain was comparable between IGHD and MPHD. In pre-pubertal children vs. total population, height SDS change after two years was: IGHD, +1.24 vs. +0.97; SGA, +1.17 vs. +1.03; ISS, +1.04 vs. +0.84; and MPHD, +1.16 vs. +0.99 (all p  Conclusions After two years’ GH treatment, change in height SDS was greater in SGA and less in ISS, compared with IGHD; the discrepancy in responses may be due to the disease nature or confounders (i.e. age. Height SDS increase was greatest in pre-pubertal children, supporting early treatment initiation to optimize growth outcomes.

  9. Premature ventricular contractions associated with isotretinoin use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alan, Sevil; Ünal, Betül; Yildirim, Aytül

    2016-01-01

    Isotretinoin has been considered a unique drug for acne treatment. However, it is associated with numerous adverse effects. Isotretinoin can trigger premature ventricular contractions. This report describes a 33-year-old-woman who presented with palpitations for 1 week while undergoing 1-month isotretinoin treatment for mild-moderate facial acne. An electrocardiogram and Holter monitoring showed premature ventricular contractions during isotretinoin (Roaccutane, Roche) treatment. Isotretinoin-related premature ventricular contractions were strongly suggested in this case due to the existence of documented premature ventricular contractions on electrocardiograms and the disappearance of these premature ventricular contractions two weeks after termination of the treatment To the authors' knowledge, there has been 1 reported case of premature ventricular contractions linked to isotretinoin use; this report describes a second such case.

  10. Premature ventricular contractions associated with isotretinoin use*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alan, Sevil; Ünal, Betül; Yildirim, Aytül

    2016-01-01

    Isotretinoin has been considered a unique drug for acne treatment. However, it is associated with numerous adverse effects. Isotretinoin can trigger premature ventricular contractions. This report describes a 33-year-old-woman who presented with palpitations for 1 week while undergoing 1-month isotretinoin treatment for mild-moderate facial acne. An electrocardiogram and Holter monitoring showed premature ventricular contractions during isotretinoin (Roaccutane, Roche) treatment. Isotretinoin-related premature ventricular contractions were strongly suggested in this case due to the existence of documented premature ventricular contractions on electrocardiograms and the disappearance of these premature ventricular contractions two weeks after termination of the treatment To the authors' knowledge, there has been 1 reported case of premature ventricular contractions linked to isotretinoin use; this report describes a second such case. PMID:28099609

  11. Blindness in schoolchildren: importance of heredity, congenital cataract, and prematurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, C I; Levy, A M; Newton, M; Stokoe, N L

    1987-08-01

    Of 99 children in the Royal Blind School, Edinburgh (which serves Scotland and part of N E England), 15 had optic atrophy (hydrocephalus 4, intracranial haemorrhage 2, prematurity 2, fetal distress 2, birth asphyxia 2, cerebral atrophy 1, cardiac arrest during hernia operation 1, and leukaemia 1). Fourteen had congenital cataract, 12 congenital retinal aplasia (Leber's congenital amaurosis) and 11 retinopathy of prematurity. There were small numbers in many other diagnostic categories, including three with non-accidental head injury. Mental retardation, spasticity, and nystagmus were frequent other correlates in all diagnostic categories. 'Very probably hereditary' was a conservative attribution in 36, while 'probable' seemed appropriate for 12-that is, almost 48% were hereditary. Only about 11 cases might have been prevented through genetic counselling, which testifies to the frequency of autosomal recessive hereditary disease, although no parents were consanguineous.

  12. Handwriting performance of preterm children at school age: a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Souza de Medeiros Rocha

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: At school age, handwriting is on of the most important tasks among the fine motor activities. Good handwriting performance contributes to the child´s school performance. As prematurity impacts on motor development, it may influence handwriting. Objective: To review the specific literature and investigate whether there are differences in handwriting performance at school age between children born preterm and full term. Method: A search was performed in the Capes electronic database, in English and Portuguese, comprising the time period between January 2000 and June 2012. Articles were selected according to the inclusion criteria; the sample, objectives, instruments utilized and outcomes were analyzed. Results: Six articles were included in the study. Data analysis indicates that children born prematurely present poorer handwriting performance and a handicap in the underlying handwriting mechanisms when compared with full term infants. Conclusion: Preterm children without obvious neurological impairment are at increased risk for problems in handwriting development at school age. The small number of recent studies on this topic indicates a need for further research, as well as the development of standardized resources for the motor and handwriting assessment of Brazilian children.

  13. Terminal Pregnancy Complicated by Measles and Premature Labor:a Case Report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-chen Zhang; Li Liu; Xiao-li Yang

    2013-01-01

    Measles infection in pregnant women is a very dangerous clinical condition. Patients usually had complicated pneumonia, and virus could pass through the placenta to the fetus and lead to premature delivery, stillbirth, miscarriage and neonatal measles. In this report, one such case, which was diagnosed by clinical signs and symptoms, clinical and laboratory examination was described. After proper therapeutic treatment, the infection was well-controlled and a baby was born by nature labor.

  14. Role of Late Maternal Thyroid Hormones in Cerebral Cortex Development: An Experimental Model for Human Prematurity

    OpenAIRE

    Berbel, P.; Navarro, D.; Ausó, E.; Varea, E; Rodríguez, A E; Ballesta, J. J.; Salinas, M; Flores, E; Faura, C. C.; Morreale de Escobar, G

    2009-01-01

    Hypothyroxinemia affects 35–50% of neonates born prematurely (12% of births) and increases their risk of suffering neurodevelopmental alterations. We have developed an animal model to study the role of maternal thyroid hormones (THs) at the end of gestation on offspring's cerebral maturation. Pregnant rats were surgically thyroidectomized at embryonic day (E) 16 and infused with calcitonin and parathormone (late maternal hypothyroidism [LMH] rats). After birth, pups were nursed by normal rats...

  15. Birth Defects Among Children Born to Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Women Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Protocols 219 and 219C

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brogly, Susan B.; Abzug, Mark J.; Watts, D. Heather; Cunningham, Coleen K.; Williams, Paige L.; Oleske, James; Conway, Daniel; Sperling, Rhoda S.; Spiegel, Hans; Van Dyke, Russell B.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Some studies have detected associations between in utero antiretroviral therapy (ARV) exposure and birth defects but evidence is inconclusive. Methods: A total of 2202 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-exposed children enrolled in the Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group 219 and 219 C p

  16. Depression, Somatization, and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Children Born of Occupation After World War II in Comparison With a General Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Marie; Kuwert, Philipp; Braehler, Elmar; Glaesmer, Heide

    2015-10-01

    At the end of World War II and during the first decade after the war, roughly 200,000 children were fathered in intimate contacts between German women and foreign soldiers. The experiences of these German occupation children (GOC) have been so far described in case reports and from historical perspective only. Research on psychosocial consequences of growing up as a GOC has been missing so far. This study examined traumatic experiences, posttraumatic stress disorder, somatization, and depression in GOC (N = 146) using self-report instruments: Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale and Patient Health Questionnaire. Findings have then been compared with a representative birth cohort-matched sample from the German general population (N = 977). German occupation children showed significantly higher prevalence rates of most traumatic experiences, higher point prevalence rates of full and partial posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, and somatization than the control group. In summary, GOC often grew up under difficult conditions (e.g., poverty, single mothers, and stigmatization). Even decades later, they showed higher rates of different mental disorders and higher comorbidity. These findings underline the complex and long-term impact of their burdened social, financial, and familial conditions. The results underpin the importance of conceptualizing occupation children as a vulnerable group in postconflict settings.

  17. Premature temporal theta (PT theta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, J R; Fino, J J; Hart, L A

    1987-07-01

    A distinctive pattern called premature temporal theta (PT theta) was studied in 436 infants, ranging in age from 24 to 46 weeks. The pattern is seen in early prematurity, maximizes at 29-31 weeks and then diminishes and disappears near term. Usually the pattern is found independently on both temporal areas, but with a right-sided preference. Patients without PT theta or with a significantly low amount had either neurological or non-neurological (medical) conditions. With age there is a tendency for an increase in frequency and a decrease in amplitude. Five different peaks in the amount of this pattern are seen at approximately every month. Unilateral PT theta tends to be seen in older babies, more often on the right side and with an abnormal EEG. An abnormal EEG is usually associated with a delay in both the appearance and disappearance of this wave form. PT theta is also associated mainly with REM or active sleep. A polynomial rather than an exponential or power function best describes these data with changes of age. PT theta may arise from the inferior temporal gyrus and/or especially the transverse gyrus.

  18. Tough Decisions for Premature Triplets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Ashley; Vergales, Brooke D; Paget-Brown, Alix; Mercurio, Mark; Lantos, John D

    2016-02-01

    When infants are born at the borderline of viability, doctors and parents have to make tough decisions about whether to institute intensive care or provide only palliative care. Often, these decisions are made in moments of profound emotional turmoil, and parents receive different information from different health professionals. Communication can become garbled. It may be difficult to tell when and whether the patient's clinical condition has changed enough so that certain choices that had once been permissible become impermissible. In this "Ethics Rounds," we present a case of triplets born at the borderline of viability. We sought comments from the triplets' parents, the doctors and ethicist who were caring for the infants, and a bioethicist/neonatologist from another hospital.

  19. Central adiposity in children born small and large for gestational age Adiposidad central en niños que nacieron con poco o con excesivo peso para su edad gestacional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Biosca

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate body composition differences between children that were born small (SGA or large for gestational age (LGA compared with their counterparts born adequate for gestational age (AGA. Methods: Body composition was assessed in 124 healthy Caucasian children (50% girls aged 6-10, classified according to their birth weight for gestational age as AGA, SGA and LGA. Fat mass (FM, percentage of FM, lean mass (LM, bone mineral content (BMC and bone mineral density were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA in the whole body and at different body regions. Results: LM (adjusted for age and sex and total BMC (adjusted for age, sex and weight were both significantly higher in LGA children and lower in SGA when compared with those born AGA. After adjustments for height, LM and BMC differences between groups were not significant. In SGA children, truncal (P Objetivo: Evaluar las diferencias que existen en la composición corporal de aquellos niños que nacieron pequeños (PEG o grandes para su edad gestacional (GEG en comparación con los que presentaban un peso adecuado al nacer (AEG. Métodos: La composición corporal se valoró en 124 niños caucásicos (50% niñas con edades entre 6 y 10 años, clasificados según su peso al nacer como AEG, PEG y GEG. La masa grasa (MG, el porcentaje de MG, la masa magra (MM, el contenido mineral óseo (CMO y la densidad mineral ósea se midieron mediante absorciometría dual de rayos X (DXA tanto globalmente como en las diferentes regiones corporales. Resultados: La MM (ajustada por edad y sexo y el CMO (ajustado por edad, sexo y peso fueron mayores en los GEG y menores en los PEG al compararlos con los AEG; al ajustar la MM el CMO por la altura, dichas diferencias ya no fueron significativas. En los PEG, la grasa abdominal (p < 0,01 y en el tronco (p < 0,05 eran mayores que en los AEG y que en los GEG tras ajustar por edad, sexo y altura. No existían diferencias en el porcentaje de MG

  20. [Incidence of congenital heart disease and factors associated with mortality in children born in two Hospitals in the State of Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendieta-Alcántara, Gustavo Gabriel; Santiago-Alcántara, Elia; Mendieta-Zerón, Hugo; Dorantes-Piña, Ramsés; Ortiz de Zárate-Alarcón, Gabriela; Otero-Ojeda, Gloria A

    2013-01-01

    We studied the incidence, survival, and risk factors for mortality in a cohort of infants for a period of five years, born in two hospitals, one a second-level General Hospital, the second a tertiary perinatal hospital, both in the City of Toluca. The analysis of survival was performed with the Kaplan-Meier method, and Cox regression was used to estimate the risk of death according to different factors. We found an overall incidence of 7.4 per 1,000 live births; in preterm infants, the rate was 35.6 per 1,000, and in term newborns it was 3.68 per 1,000. The most common heart disease was the ductus arteriosus in the overall group and in preterm infants; in term newborns the most common was the atrial septal defect. The specific mortality was 18.64%, follow-up was 579 days, where we found, according to Kaplan-Meier, survival of an average of 437.92 days, with 95% confidence intervals of 393.25 to 482.6 days, with a standard error of 22.79 days; the cumulative probability of survival was 0.741, with a standard error of 0.44. In Cox regression, two variables had a high hazard ratio (HR): these were the presence or absence of cyanosis and the hospital where they were treated as newborns.

  1. Higher weight status of only and last-born children. Maternal feeding and child eating behaviors as underlying processes among 4-8 year olds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosli, Rana H; Lumeng, Julie C; Kaciroti, Niko; Peterson, Karen E; Rosenblum, Katherine; Baylin, Ana; Miller, Alison L

    2015-09-01

    Birth order has been associated with childhood obesity. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to examine maternal feeding and child eating behaviors as underlying processes for increased weight status of only children and youngest siblings. Participants included 274 low-income 4-8 year old children and their mothers. The dyads completed a videotaped laboratory mealtime observation. Mothers completed the Caregiver's Feeding Styles Questionnaire and the Children's Eating Behavior Questionnaire. Child weight and height were measured using standardized procedures. Path analysis was used to examine associations of birth order, maternal feeding behavior, child eating behavior, and child overweight/obese status. The association between only child status and greater likelihood of overweight/obesity was fully mediated by higher maternal Verbal Discouragement to eat and lower maternal Praise (all p values < 0.05). The association between youngest sibling status and greater likelihood of overweight/obesity was partially mediated by lower maternal Praise and lower child Food Fussiness (all p values < 0.05). Results provide support for our hypothesis that maternal control and support and child food acceptance are underlying pathways for the association between birth order and weight status. Future findings can help inform family-based programs by guiding family counseling and tailoring of recommendations for family mealtime interactions.

  2. Progeria: a rare genetic premature ageing disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Jitendra Kumar; Ghosh, Shampa; Raghunath, Manchala

    2014-05-01

    Progeria is characterized by clinical features that mimic premature ageing. Although the mutation responsible for this syndrome has been deciphered, the mechanism of its action remains elusive. Progeria research has gained momentum particularly in the last two decades because of the possibility of revealing evidences about the ageing process in normal and other pathophysiological conditions. Various experimental models, both in vivo and in vitro, have been developed in an effort to understand the cellular and molecular basis of a number of clinically heterogeneous rare genetic disorders that come under the umbrella of progeroid syndromes (PSs). As per the latest clinical trial reports, Lonafarnib, a farnesyltranferase inhibitor, is a potent 'drug of hope' for Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) and has been successful in facilitating weight gain and improving cardiovascular and skeletal pathologies in progeroid children. This can be considered as the dawn of a new era in progeria research and thus, an apt time to review the research developments in this area highlighting the molecular aspects, experimental models, promising drugs in trial and their implications to gain a better understanding of PSs.

  3. Progeria: A rare genetic premature ageing disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitendra Kumar Sinha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Progeria is characterized by clinical features that mimic premature ageing. Although the mutation responsible for this syndrome has been deciphered, the mechanism of its action remains elusive. Progeria research has gained momentum particularly in the last two decades because of the possibility of revealing evidences about the ageing process in normal and other pathophysiological conditions. Various experimental models, both in vivo and in vitro, have been developed in an effort to understand the cellular and molecular basis of a number of clinically heterogeneous rare genetic disorders that come under the umbrella of progeroid syndromes (PSs. As per the latest clinical trial reports, Lonafarnib, a farnesyltranferase inhibitor, is a potent ′drug of hope′ for Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS and has been successful in facilitating weight gain and improving cardiovascular and skeletal pathologies in progeroid children. This can be considered as the dawn of a new era in progeria research and thus, an apt time to review the research developments in this area highlighting the molecular aspects, experimental models, promising drugs in trial and their implications to gain a better understanding of PSs.

  4. Music therapy for improving premature infants' well-being and communication skills and enhancing mother-infant bonding : a case study

    OpenAIRE

    Antonakopoulou, Stefania

    2016-01-01

    Over the last few decades, mother-child attachment has received increasing attention in early intervention with prematurely born infants. In these early years, physical interactions constitute a crucial arena for early learning and brain development, and together with the strong emotional bonding between the mother and her infant, they build the foundation for later interaction relationships. Premature birth is a challenging experience for the mother-infant relationship and is always a risk f...

  5. Skewed birth sex ratio and premature mortality in elephants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saragusty, Joseph; Hermes, Robert; Göritz, Frank; Schmitt, Dennis L; Hildebrandt, Thomas B

    2009-10-01

    Sex allocation theories predict equal offspring number of both sexes unless differential investment is required or some competition exists. Left undisturbed, elephants reproduce well and in approximately even numbers in the wild. We report an excess of males are born and substantial juvenile mortality occurs, perinatally, in captivity. Studbook data on captive births (CB, n=487) and premature deaths (PD, 6 months with maternal insufficient milk production, natural hazards and accidents being the main causes. European Asian and Myanmar elephants PD was biased towards males (0.71, P=0.024 and 0.56, P<0.001, respectively). The skewed birth sex ratio and high juvenile mortality hinder efforts to help captive populations become self-sustaining. Efforts should be invested to identify the mechanism behind these trends and seek solutions for them.

  6. Iatrogenic Anetoderma of Prematurity: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Maffeis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Anetoderma is a skin disorder characterized by focal loss of elastic tissue in the mid dermis, resulting in localized areas of macular depressions or pouchlike herniations of skin. An iatrogenic form of anetoderma has been rarely described in extremely premature infants and has been related to the placement of monitoring devices on the patient skin. Because of the increasing survival of extremely premature infants, it is easy to foresee that the prevalence of anetoderma of prematurity will increase in the next future. Although it is a benign lesion, it persists over time and can lead to significant aesthetic damage with need for surgical correction. Sometimes the diagnosis can be difficult, especially when the atrophic lesions become evident after discharge. Here, we report on a premature infant born at 24 weeks of gestation, who developed multiple anetodermic patches of skin on the trunk at the sites where electrocardiographic electrodes were previously applied. The knowledge of the disease can encourage a more careful management of the skin of extremely premature babies and aid the physicians to diagnose the disease when anetoderma patches are first encountered later in childhood.

  7. [Premature rupture of membranes and chorioamnionitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez Garcia, R

    1988-01-01

    Despite advances in perinatal medicine in the past decade, the diagnosis and treatment of premature rupture of membranes remain controversial. Premature rupture occurs in 2.7-7.0% of pregnancies and most cases occur spontaneously without apparent cause. The disparity in reported rates of premature rupture is due to differences in the definition and diagnostic criteria for premature rupture and lack of comparability in the populations studied. Mexico's National Institute of Perinatology has adopted the definition of the American COllege of Gynecology and Obstetrics which views premature rupture as that occurring before regular uterine contractions that produce cervical dilation. 8.8% of its patients have premature rupture according to this definition. 20% of cases occur before the 36th week of pregnancy. Treatment of rupture occurring before 37 weeks must balance the threat of amniotic infection with the dangers of premature birth. Infections appear more common in low income patient populations. Chorioamnionitis is a serious complication of pregnancy and is the main argument against conservative treatment of premature rupture. The rate of maternal infection is directly related to the time elapsing between rupture of the membranes and birth. The rate increases after the 1st 24 hours and is at least 10 times higher after 72 hours. But recent studies suggest that there is no considerable increase in infection if vaginal explorations are avoided and careful techniques are used in treating the patient. Those who advise conservative treatment believe that prenatal outcomes are better because respiratory disease syndrome due to prematurity is avoided. Conservative management requires a white cell count at least every 24 hours and measurement of pulse, maternal temperature, and fetal heart rate ideally every 4 hours. Perinatal mortality rates due to premature rupture of membranes range from 2.5-50%. The principal causes are respiratory disease syndrome, infection, asphyxia

  8. Genetic and Environmental Influences on Retinopathy of Prematurity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Ortega-Molina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The goals were to isolate and study the genetic susceptibility to retinopathy of prematurity (ROP, as well as the gene-environment interaction established in this disease. Methods. A retrospective study (2000–2014 was performed about the heritability of retinopathy of prematurity in 257 infants who were born at a gestational age of ≤32 weeks. The ROP was studied and treated by a single pediatric ophthalmologist. A binary logistic regression analysis was completed between the presence or absence of ROP and the predictor variables. Results. Data obtained from 38 monozygotic twins, 66 dizygotic twins, and 153 of simple birth were analyzed. The clinical features of the cohorts of monozygotic and dizygotic twins were not significantly different. Genetic factors represented 72.8% of the variability in the stage of ROP, environmental factors 23.08%, and random factors 4.12%. The environmental variables representing the highest risk of ROP were the number of days of tracheal intubation (p < 0.001, postnatal weight gain (p = 0.001, and development of sepsis (p = 0.0014. Conclusion. The heritability of ROP was found to be 0.73. The environmental factors regulate and modify the expression of the genetic code.

  9. Necrotizing Enterocolitis: A dreadful condition of premature babies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak sharma

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available NEC is inflammatory necrosis of intestine with most common site being terminal ileum and ascending colon in preterm babies (1. The condition is typically seen in premature infants, and the timing of its onset is generally inversely proportional to the gestational age of the baby at birth, i.e. The earlier a baby is born, longer is the time of risk for NEC in premature babies. The incidence of NEC is inversely proportional to the gestational age and birth weight (2. Baby have initial symptoms which include feeding intolerance, increased gastric residuals, abdominal distension and bloody stools (3. The laboratory triad includes metabolic acidosis, hyponatremia and thrombocytopenia. Pneumatosis intestinalis is the pathognomonic radiological finding in the NEC. Modified Bell’s staging is used to stage the NEC. Treatment involves Nil per Oral, supportive care, antibiotics, surgery in advanced stages and parenteral nutrition (4,5. Complication of NEC includes mortality, prolonged NICU stay, intestinal strictures, enterocutaneous fistula, intra-abdominal abscess, cholestasis, and short-bowel syndrome (6,7, neurodevelopmental, motor, sensory, and cognitive problems (8,9.

  10. Adverse childhood experiences and premature all-cause mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly-Irving, Michelle; Lepage, Benoit; Dedieu, Dominique; Bartley, Mel; Blane, David; Grosclaude, Pascale; Lang, Thierry; Delpierre, Cyrille

    2013-09-01

    Events causing stress responses during sensitive periods of rapid neurological development in childhood may be early determinants of all-cause premature mortality. Using a British birth cohort study of individuals born in 1958, the relationship between adverse childhood experiences (ACE) and mortality≤50 year was examined for men (n=7,816) and women (n=7,405) separately. ACE were measured using prospectively collected reports from parents and the school: no adversities (70%); one adversity (22%), two or more adversities (8%). A Cox regression model was carried out controlling for early life variables and for characteristics at 23 years. In men the risk of death was 57% higher among those who had experienced 2+ ACE compared to those with none (HR 1.57, 95% CI 1.13, 2.18, p=0.007). In women, a graded relationship was observed between ACE and mortality, the risk increasing as ACE accumulated. Women with one ACE had a 66% increased risk of death (HR 1.66, 95% CI 1.19, 2.33, p=0.003) and those with ≥2 ACE had an 80% increased risk (HR 1.80, 95% CI 1.10, 2.95, p=0.020) versus those with no ACE. Given the small impact of adult life style factors on the association between ACE and premature mortality, biological embedding during sensitive periods in early development is a plausible explanatory mechanism.

  11. Major Congenital Metabolic Disorders in the First 12 years of Life in 79,100 Consecutively Born Children in Qazvin Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolfazl Movafagh

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveDeficient enzyme activity may cause congenital metabolic defects. These defectsare inherited in an autosomal recessive, autosomal dominant, and X-linkedpatterns. This study was aimed at investigating the occurrence of metabolicdiseases in Qazvin Province.Materials & MethodsThis cross-sectional study was performed on 79,100 children aged 12 years orless between 2000 and 2010. Clinical manifestations, laboratory findings, and allother essential information were assessed to precisely diagnose the metabolicdiseases. The sorted information on congenital metabolic defects of the patients,information included in a checklist, and data were analyzed usnig SPSS.ResultsA total of 57 metabolic disorders were recorded. The difference in the prevalenceof metabolic disorders between male (29 cases and female (28 cases wasnot statistically significant. The most frequent congenital metabolic disorderamong our patients was phenylketonuria (PKU; 5 per 1,000 cases, and the leastcommon disorder was galactosemia (3 per 1,000 cases.ConclusionTimely detection and management of congenital metabolic disorders canhelp save the affected children. Prenatal screening programs, molecular genetherapy, and counseling for consanguineous marriage can play important rolesin reducing the rate of metabolic disorders in this province.Keywords: Congenital metabolic disorders; prevalence; population; Qazvin

  12. Major Congenital Metabolic Disorders in the First 12 years of Life in 79,100 Consecutively Born Children in Qazvin Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolfazl Movafagh

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveDeficient enzyme activity may cause congenital metabolic defects. These defectsare inherited in an autosomal recessive, autosomal dominant, and X-linkedpatterns. This study was aimed at investigating the occurrence of metabolicdiseases in Qazvin Province.Materials & MethodsThis cross-sectional study was performed on 79,100 children aged 12 years orless between 2000 and 2010. Clinical manifestations, laboratory findings, and allother essential information were assessed to precisely diagnose the metabolicdiseases. The sorted information on congenital metabolic defects of the patients,information included in a checklist, and data were analyzed usnig SPSS.ResultsA total of 57 metabolic disorders were recorded. The difference in the prevalenceof metabolic disorders between male (29 cases and female (28 cases wasnot statistically significant. The most frequent congenital metabolic disorderamong our patients was phenylketonuria (PKU; 5 per 1,000 cases, and the leastcommon disorder was galactosemia (3 per 1,000 cases.ConclusionTimely detection and management of congenital metabolic disorders canhelp save the affected children. Prenatal screening programs, molecular genetherapy, and counseling for consanguineous marriage can play important rolesin reducing the rate of metabolic disorders in this province.

  13. Carnitine deficiency in premature infants receiving total parenteral nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penn, D; Schmidt-Sommerfeld, E; Wolf, H

    1980-03-01

    Carnitine plays a significant role in fatty acid utilization and ketone body production. Its availability is especially important during the immediate postnatal period. To determine whether low birth weight infants who cannot be orally fed are at risk of developing carnitine deficiency, we compared the carnitine blood levels and urinary excretion of 12 premature infants (Group A) receiving total parenteral nutrition (TPN) with those of 8 infants of similar gestational age and birth weight (Group B) who received carnitine-containing milk formulas. In Group A, serum levels of total and free carnitine fell after 5 days of carnitine-deficient parenteral nutrition, and urinary excretion was significantly reduced. Serum levels and urinary excretion increased after the onset of oral feedings. The control Group B exhibited no significant changes in carnitine blood levels between the first and fifth days of life, but did show a later increase. Children in Group A had lower carnitine blood levels compared to those in Group B on the fifth day of life. These findings suggest that premature infants are not able to synthesize enough carnitine to maintain blood levels, and that carnitine deficiency can occur following TPN. Further investigation of metabolic consequences secondary to deficient carnitine intake in premature infants is necessary before carnitine supplementation should be considered.

  14. Vector-borne Infections

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-04-18

    This podcast discusses emerging vector-borne pathogens, their role as prominent contributors to emerging infectious diseases, how they're spread, and the ineffectiveness of mosquito control methods.  Created: 4/18/2011 by National Center for Emerging Zoonotic and Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 4/27/2011.

  15. Tick-Borne Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Topics Tick-Borne Disease Hazards to Outdoor Workers Physical Hazards Heat Stress Cold Stress Sun Exposure Noise Biological Hazards Insects ... No Longer Available Lyme Disease Hazards to Outdoor Workers Physical Hazards Heat Stress Cold Stress Sun Exposure Noise Biological Hazards Insects ...

  16. Premature Ventricular Complexes and Premature Ventricular Complex Induced Cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latchamsetty, Rakesh; Bogun, Frank

    2015-09-01

    Presentation, prognosis, and management of premature ventricular complexes (PVCs) vary significantly among patients and depend on PVC characteristics as well as patient comorbidities. Presentation can range from incidental discovery in an asymptomatic patient to debilitating heart failure. Prognosis depends on, among other factors, the presence or absence of structural heart disease, PVC burden and other factors detailed in this review. Our understanding of the clinical significance of frequent PVCs, particularly as it relates to development of cardiomyopathy, has advanced greatly in the past decade. In this article, we explore the mechanisms governing PVC initiation and discuss prevalence and frequency of PVCs in the general population. We also explore prognostic implications based on PVC frequency as well as the presence or absence of underlying heart disease. We then take a focused look at PVC-induced cardiomyopathy and identify predictors for developing cardiomyopathy. Finally, we discuss clinical evaluation and management of patients presenting with frequent PVCs. Management can include clinical observation, addressing reversible causes, lifestyle modification, pharmacotherapy, or catheter ablation.

  17. Psychosocial interventions for premature ejaculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Melnik

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Premature ejaculation (PE is a very common sexual dysfunction among patients, and with varying prevalence estimates ranging from 3% to 20%. Although psychological issues are present in most patients with premature PE, as a cause or as a consequence, research on the effects of psychological approaches for PE has in general not been controlled or randomised and is lacking in long-term follow up. OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy of psychosocial interventions for PE. CRITERIA FOR CONSIDERING STUDIES FOR THIS REVIEW: Trials were searched in computerized general and specialized databases, such as: MEDLINE by PubMed (1966 to 2010; PsycINFO (1974 to 2010; EMBASE (1980 to 2010; LILACS (1982 to 2010; the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (Cochrane Library, 2010; and by checking bibliographies, and contacting manufacturers and researchers. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials evaluating psychosocial interventions compared with different psychosocial interventions, pharmacological interventions, waiting list, or no treatment for PE. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Information on patients, interventions, and outcomes was extracted by at least two independent reviewers using a standard form. The primary outcome measure for comparing the effects of psychosocial interventions to waiting list and standard medications was improvement in IELT (i.e., time from vaginal penetration to ejaculation. The secondary outcome was change in validated PE questionnaires. MAIN RESULTS: In one study behavioral therapy (BT was significantly better than waiting list for duration of intercourse (MD (mean difference 407.90 seconds, 95% CI 302.42 to 513.38, and couples' sexual satisfaction (MD -26.10, CI -50.48 to -1.72. BT was also significantly better for a new functional-sexological treatment (FS (MD 412.00 seconds, 95% CI 305.88 to 518.12, change over time in subjective perception of duration of intercourse (Women: MD 2

  18. Medical, nutritional, and dental considerations in children with low birth weight.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connell, Susan

    2009-11-01

    It is estimated that 8 to 26 percent of infants are born with low birth weight (LBW) worldwide. These children are at risk for medical problems in childhood and adulthood and often have poor oral health. The influence of fetal growth on birth weight and its relevance to childhood growth and future adult health is controversial. Evidence now indicates that the postnatal period is a critical time when nutrition may predispose the child to lifelong metabolic disturbance and obesity. Given the lack of consensus on optimum infant nutrition for LBW, premature, and small-for-gestational-age infants, many such infants may be suboptimally managed. This may result in rapid postnatal weight gain and ongoing health problems. The purpose of this review was to summarize medical terminology and issues related to fetal growth, morbidity associated with being born low birth weight, premature, or small for gestational age, and the importance of appropriate nutrition in such infants. Pediatric dentists can play an important role in supporting healthy feeding practices and improving long-term health in these children. Early integrated medical and dental care should be encouraged for all children with low birth weight.

  19. Patients particularly exposed: first results of two studies on the premature babies and the children/adolescents suffering of cystic fibrosis;Des patients particulierement exposes: premiers resultats de deux etudes sur les prematures et les enfants/adolescents atteints de mucoviscidose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donadieu, J.; Roudier, C.; Pirard, Ph. [Institut de veille sanitaire, Saint-Maurice (France); Jarreau, P.H. [Hopital Cochin, Assistance publique, 75 - Paris (France); Chiron, R. [Centre de Ressources et de Competences de la Mucoviscidose, 34 - Montpellier (France); Maccia, C. [Centre d' Assurance de Qualite des Applications Technologiques dans le Domaine de la Sante, 92 - Bourg-la-Reine (France)

    2006-04-15

    We report two studies that have explored a particular health situation among children. These studies were concerned for one of preterm infants admitted to a neonatal intensive care unit, and for other patients with cystic fibrosis. These studies were limited to a dosimetry evaluation of a existing practice. It is worth noting that such studies are exceptional in literature. They aim to provide a missing information for radiation protection of populations not in good health, but suffering from diseases. (N.C.)

  20. Creatine, Glutamine plus Glutamate, and Macromolecules Are Decreased in the Central White Matter of Premature Neonates around Term

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Fur, Yann; Viout, Patrick; Ratiney, Hélène; Confort-Gouny, Sylviane; Cozzone, Patrick J.; Girard, Nadine

    2016-01-01

    Preterm birth represents a high risk of neurodevelopmental disabilities when associated with white-matter damage. Recent studies have reported cognitive deficits in children born preterm without brain injury on MRI at term-equivalent age. Understanding the microstructural and metabolic underpinnings of these deficits is essential for their early detection. Here, we used diffusion-weighted imaging and single-voxel 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) to compare brain maturation at term-equivalent age in premature neonates with no evidence of white matter injury on conventional MRI except diffuse excessive high-signal intensity, and normal term neonates. Thirty-two infants, 16 term neonates (mean post-conceptional age at scan: 39.8±1 weeks) and 16 premature neonates (mean gestational age at birth: 29.1±2 weeks, mean post-conceptional age at scan: 39.2±1 weeks) were investigated. The MRI/MRS protocol performed at 1.5T involved diffusion-weighted MRI and localized 1H-MRS with the Point RESolved Spectroscopy (PRESS) sequence. Preterm neonates showed significantly higher ADC values in the temporal white matter (P<0.05), the occipital white matter (P<0.005) and the thalamus (P<0.05). The proton spectrum of the centrum semiovale was characterized by significantly lower taurine/H2O and macromolecules/H2O ratios (P<0.05) at a TE of 30 ms, and reduced (creatine+phosphocreatine)/H2O and (glutamine+glutamate)/H2O ratios (P<0.05) at a TE of 135 ms in the preterm neonates than in full-term neonates. Our findings indicate that premature neonates with normal conventional MRI present a delay in brain maturation affecting the white matter and the thalamus. Their brain metabolic profile is characterized by lower levels of creatine, glutamine plus glutamate, and macromolecules in the centrum semiovale, a finding suggesting altered energy metabolism and protein synthesis. PMID:27547969

  1. Acute appendicitis in a premature baby

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beluffi, Giampiero; Alberici, Elisa [Department of Radiodiagnosis, Section of Paediatric Radiology, IRCCS Policlinico S. Matteo, Piazzale Golgi 2, 27100 Pavia PV (Italy)

    2002-07-01

    A case of acute appendicitis in a premature baby in whom diagnosis was suggested on plain films of the abdomen is presented. In this baby air in a hollow viscus suspected of being an enlarged appendix was the clue to diagnosis. The diagnostic dilemma of this rare and life-threatening condition in premature babies and newborns is underlined. The relevance of different imaging modalities and of different findings in this age group is discussed. Awareness of this rare condition and possible differential diagnosis in newborns and premature babies is stressed. (orig.)

  2. Sexuality in pregnancy and premature labour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgakopoulos, P A; Dodos, D; Mechleris, D

    1984-09-01

    The relation of sexual behaviour during pregnancy to the initiation of labour was investigated in 358 patients of whom 58 were delivered after premature labour and 300 were delivered spontaneously at term. In all patients the mean weekly coital frequency and the frequency of orgasm were investigated by means of a retrospective questionnaire. There was no significant difference in coital or orgasmic frequency between the women who had a premature labour and those who had a spontaneous delivery at term. This was also true when those having premature labour were divided into those starting labour with ruptured membranes and those starting with contractions.

  3. Psychosexual therapy for premature ejaculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Althof, Stanley E

    2016-08-01

    Premature ejaculation (PE) is a male sexual dysfunction that creates considerable anguish for the man, his partner and their relationship. PE is not one disorder but includes the four subtypes (lifelong, acquired, natural and subjective) each with unique psychological concerns and issues. Psychological treatment for men and couples with PE addresses sexual skills/techniques but also focuses on issues of self-esteem, performance anxiety and interpersonal conflict. The outcome studies for psychotherapy alone are difficult to interpret and compare because of poor methodological design (lack of control groups, small sample size, poor outcome measures and lack of follow-up). However, the few studies that surmount these methodological hurdles suggest that psychological intervention offers men and couples a promising treatment option. Combination pharmaco- and psychotherapy is the most promising intervention for lifelong and acquired PE and offers superior efficacy to drug alone. This is because men and couples learn sexual skills, address the intrapsychic, interpersonal and cognitive issues that precipitate and maintain the dysfunction.

  4. The epidemiology of premature ejaculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saitz, Theodore Robert; Serefoglu, Ege Can

    2016-08-01

    Vast advances have occurred over the past decade with regards to understanding the epidemiology, pathophysiology and management of premature ejaculation (PE); however, we still have much to learn about this common sexual problem. As a standardized evidence-based definition of PE has only recently been established, the reported prevalence rates of PE prior to this definition have been difficult to interpret. As a result, a large range of conflicting prevalence rates have been reported. In addition to the lack of a standardized definition and operational criteria, the method of recruitment for study participation and method of data collection have obviously contributed to the broad range of reported prevalence rates. The new criteria and classification of PE will allow for continued research into the diverse phenomenology, etiology and pathogenesis of the disease to be conducted. While the absolute pathophysiology and true prevalence of PE remains unclear, developing a better understanding of the true prevalence of the disease will allow for the completion of more accurate analysis and treatment of the disease.

  5. Medical therapy for premature ejaculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohee, Amar; Eardley, Ian

    2011-01-01

    Premature ejaculation (PE) is a common male sexual dysfunction. Advances in PE research have been hampered owing to a nonstandardized definition of PE, until the definition by the International Society of Sexual Medicine (ISSM) in 2009. Once the diagnosis of PE is established through a thorough history, a variety of medical therapies is available, including tricyclic antidepressants, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), centrally acting opiates, phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors and topical desensitizing creams. Most of these treatments increase the intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT) and patient satisfaction scores, with the most convincing evidence for SSRIs and topical creams. Daily SSRIs such as paroxetine, although efficacious, do have a substantial and prolonged side effect profile. Dapoxetine, which is a on-demand SSRI, is the only licensed drug for the treatment of PE, increasing IELT by a factor of 2.5 to 3 with limited and tolerable side effects. In the near future, the topical aerosol PSD502 is due to be licensed for the treatment of PE, increasing IELT by up to a factor of 6 but having minimal local and negligible systemic side effects. PMID:22046199

  6. [Premature newborn: a case presentation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor Rodríguez, Jesús David; Pastor Bravo, María Del Mar; López García, Visitación; Cotes Teruel, María Isabel; Mellado, Jesús Eulogio; Cárceles, José Jara

    2010-01-01

    A case is presented of a premature newborn of 27 weeks gestation and weighing 420 grams who was delivered as a result of a maternal pre-eclampsia and retarded intra-uterine growth. During the 125 days of hospitalisation, an individual care plan based on the Virginia Henderson model was devised and applied to both the child and her parents using NANDA diagnostics, interventions according to the NIC classification, and the expected results according to the NOC classification. The Marjory Gordon functional patterns were used for the initial assessment. By applying the pre-term newborn (PTNB) plan, all their needs were provided and were modified throughout the hospital stay, with new needs that were added to the established ones. These required a continuous assessment with the subsequent adapting of the care plan. Likewise, the care required by the parents varied from the initial grief due to the possible loss of their child to learning the alarm signs and the home care that their child would need. The child was finally discharged weighing 2900 grams and with normal neurological and psychomotor development, although with a lower weight appropriate to her age. Currently, at 2 years old, the child has a normal neurological and psychomotor development, but with weight and size lower than the P(3) percentile. She requires speech therapy treatment due to paralysis of the right vocal cord.

  7. PSYCHOMOTOR DEVELOPMENT IN PREMATURE INFANTS UNTIL THE END OF THEIR THIRD YEAR OF LIFE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina DUKOVSKA

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Psychomotor development in premature infants has specific characteristics with increased tendency towards neuro-developmental difficulties, such as the fact that certain percent of the developmentally challenged people belongs in this category of children.Many factors contribute to the neuro-developmental difficulties in premature infants. A large number of studies have shown that the birth weight (BW and gestational age (GA have strong correlation with the neuro-developmental outcome.In order to establish the general developmental outcome and the developmental outcome in specific areas of early development, that is the first three years of life in preemies, we have conducted a research on our own population. We conducted a longitudinal study on 20 premature newborns with very low birth weight (VLBW, with a follow-up period from 4 weeks CGA until 36 weeks GA.The research results showed that the largest difference in developmental areas between the group of premature infants with VLBW and the control group is present at the end of the 36th month of life and the general development quotient (GDQ in the premature group was significantly lower during the whole follow-up period, except at the end of month 4 - in different developmental areas. We also concluded that 20% of the premature infants with VLBW have developmental difficulties and severe difficulties in their motor development.

  8. Childhood Nocturnal Enuresis: The Prediction of Premature Withdrawal from Behavioral Conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, William G.; Johnson, J. T.

    1988-01-01

    Predictors of premature withdrawal from a 12-week program of behavioral conditioning for childhood nocturnal enuresis were examined for 47 children (ages 5-14). The function containing number of previous techniques used, presence of child behavior problems, and parent tolerance of enuresis was a significant predictor of early termination of…

  9. Surgical revascularization for premature coronary artery disease in second and third decade of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, SriKrishna Modugula; Byrapaneni, Ramesh Babu; Rangappa, ChandraMohan; Gouni, Uday Kumar; Vakati, Chakravarthy; Suryavanshi, Satish; Kola, Prabhakar Reddy

    2017-01-01

    Coronary artery bypass grafting surgery may be needed in children and young adults for significant premature coronary artery occlusive disease. We report a case series of seven patients who underwent surgical revascularization in their second and third decade of life for significant multivessel coronary artery occlusive disease due to unusual causes.

  10. Impact of Tactile Stimulation on Neurobehavioral Development of Premature Infants in Assiut City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayed, Atyat Mohammed Hassan; Youssef, Magda Mohamed E.; Hassanein, Farouk El-Sayed; Mobarak, Amal Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To assess impact of tactile stimulation on neurobehavioral development of premature infants in Assiut City. Design: Quasi-experimental research design. Setting: The study was conducted in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit at Assiut University Children Hospital, Assiut General Hospital, Health Insurance Hospital (ElMabarah Hospital) and…

  11. Tick-Borne Encephalitis (TBE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Tick-borne Encephalitis (TBE) Note: Javascript is disabled or ... CDC.gov . Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Tick-borne encephalitis, or TBE, is a human viral ...

  12. Environmental noise exposure, early biological risk and mental health in nine to ten year old children: a cross-sectional field study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stansfeld Stephen A

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous research suggests that children born prematurely or with a low birth weight are more vulnerable to the mental health effects of ambient neighbourhood noise; predominantly road and rail noise, at home. This study used data from the Road Traffic and Aircraft Noise Exposure and Children's Cognition and Health (RANCH study to see if this finding extends to aircraft and road traffic noise at school. Methods Children and their parents from schools around three European airports were selected to represent a range of aircraft and road traffic noise exposure levels. Birth weight and gestation period were merged to create a dichotomous variable assessing 'early biological risk'. Mental health was assessed using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ. Complete data were available for 1900 primary school children. Results Children who were 'at risk' (i.e. low birth weight or premature birth were rated as having more conduct problems and emotional symptoms and poorer overall mental health than children not at risk. However, there was no interaction between aircraft or road traffic noise exposure at school and early biological risk. Conclusions Data from the RANCH study suggests that children with early biological risk are not more vulnerable to the effects of aircraft or road traffic noise at school on mental health than children without this risk; however they are more likely to have mental ill-health.

  13. [Food-borne botulism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Yuko; Sawada, Mikio; Ikeguchi, Kunihiko; Nakano, Imaharu

    2012-08-01

    Botulism is a neuroparalytic disease caused by neurotoxins produced by Clostridium botulinum, and classically presents as palsies of cranial nerves and acute descending flaccid paralysis. Food-borne botulism is the most common form of botulism, and caused by preformed neurotoxins produced by Clostridium botulinum. Electrophysiological studies play an important role in the early diagnosis. Confirmation of the diagnosis is based on the detection of botulinum toxins in the patient's serum or stool. In Japan, decades ago, botulism type E occurred, though only sporadically, almost every year, but in recent years, has dramatically decreased in frequency. Botulism is a curable disease when treated early and adequately. Differential diagnosis of cranial nerves and limb muscle palsies with rapid exacerbation should include food-borne botulism.

  14. Where was Joseph Babinski born?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H A G Teive

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available There is controversy in the neurological literature about where Joseph Babinski was born, including a myth propounded by various important authors that he was born in Lima, Peru. However, according to the most consistent biographical data, he was in fact born in Paris, France, and became a medical celebrity there and in Poland as well as around the world.

  15. Where was Joseph Babinski born?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teive, Hélio A G; Munhoz, Renato P; de Souza, Leonardo Cruz

    2011-01-01

    There is controversy in the neurological literature about where Joseph Babinski was born, including a myth propounded by various important authors that he was born in Lima, Peru. However, according to the most consistent biographical data, he was in fact born in Paris, France, and became a medical celebrity there and in Poland as well as around the world.

  16. Premature Children Late-onset Metabolic Acidosis Analysis of 89 Cases%早产儿晚发性代谢性酸中毒89例分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝宝生; 王艳

    2013-01-01

    Objective To study the incidence of late metabolic acidosis among premature infant. Method: Summary of clinical data of 89 cases of LMA patients from Mar 2005 to June 2008 and analysis of the gestational age, birth weight and feeding, timing of occurrence, blood gas analysis and treatment result. Results ① The gestational age 2.5kg accounting for 14.49%; ② breastfeeding 8 cases (11.5%), occurred in 2 ~ 3w 36 cases (52.17%); ③blood gas analysis showed that lower pH, BE negative increase, PCO2 normal or slightly lower, PO2 normal; ④short SB oral treatment I excel ent outcomes. Conclusion:The incidence of late metabolic acidosis among premature infant is higher. The smal er the gestational age at birth, lower birth weight, the higher incidence of LMA;Artificial feeding showed higher incidence; clinical symptoms is not typical, Timely blood gas analysis would be helpful for early diagnosis. Treatment is simple and with early intervention, prognosis is good.%目的了解早产儿晚发性代谢性酸中毒的情况。方法总结2005年3月~2008年6月共89例LMA患儿的资料,对LMA发生的出生胎龄、出生体重、喂养方式、发生时间及血气分析及治疗结果进行分析。结果①出生胎龄2.5kg占14.49%;②母乳喂养8例(11.5%),发生时间在2~3w36例(52.17%);③血气分析结果表明,pH值降低,BE负值增大,PCO2正常或稍低,PO2正常;④治疗予短期SB口服,疗效良好。结论早产儿晚发性代谢性酸中毒发生率较高。出生胎龄越小,出生体重越低,发生率越高;人工喂养发生率高;临床表现不典型,及时进行血气分析以早期明确诊断;本病治疗简单,早期积极干预,预后良好。

  17. Apnea of prematurity: challenges and solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Picone S

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Simonetta Picone, Roberto Aufieri, Piermichele PaolilloDivision of Neonatology and Neonatal Intensive Care, Department of Maternal and Child Health, Casilino General Hospital, Rome, ItalyAbstract: Apnea of prematurity is a developmental disorder that frequently affects preterm infants, especially those with lower gestational age. Even if apnea of prematurity is by definition a self-limiting condition, it can cause serious problems during the hospital stay and can potentially have long-term neurological and cognitive consequences depending on the severity and intensity of the episodes. The diagnosis of apnea of prematurity can be made only after excluding a number of diseases of the preterm infant in which apnea may be an epiphenomenon. Etiological diagnosis is essential for selection of appropriate treatment, which may be nonpharmacological or involve use of drugs.Keywords: apnea of prematurity, idiopathic and secondary apnea, caffeine

  18. Maternal assessment of pain in premature infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Carolina Correia dos Santos

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to identify mothers' perceptions about the pain in their premature babies in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. Methods: evaluative, quantitative study with investigative nature conducted with 19 mothers of hospitalized premature newborns. Data were obtained from closed questions, answered by mothers. Results: from the participants, two (10.5% reported that newborns are unable to feel pain. From the 17 mothers who said that premature babies can feel pain, the majority (94.1% identified crying as a characteristic of pain sensation. Eleven (64.7% stated that uneasiness is a sign of pain in newborns. Conclusion: for the proper management of neonatal pain it is essential that mothers know the signs of pain in premature newborns, and that health professionals instruct this recognition, through the enhancement of the maternal presence and practice of effective communication between professionals and newborns’ families.

  19. The pathophysiology of acquired premature ejaculation

    OpenAIRE

    McMahon, Chris G; Jannini, Emmanuele A.; Serefoglu, Ege C.; Hellstrom, Wayne J.G.

    2016-01-01

    The second Ad Hoc International Society for Sexual Medicine (ISSM) Committee for the Definition of Premature Ejaculation defined acquired premature ejaculation (PE) as a male sexual dysfunction characterized by a the development of a clinically significant and bothersome reduction in ejaculation latency time in men with previous normal ejaculatory experiences, often to about 3 minutes or less, the inability to delay ejaculation on all or nearly all vaginal penetrations, and the presence of ne...

  20. Neuromodulation of Limb Proprioceptive Afferents Decreases Apnea of Prematurity and Accompanying Intermittent Hypoxia and Bradycardia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalpashri Kesavan

    Full Text Available Apnea of Prematurity (AOP is common, affecting the majority of infants born at <34 weeks gestational age. Apnea and periodic breathing are accompanied by intermittent hypoxia (IH. Animal and human studies demonstrate that IH exposure contributes to multiple pathologies, including retinopathy of prematurity (ROP, injury to sympathetic ganglia regulating cardiovascular action, impaired pancreatic islet cell and bone development, cerebellar injury, and neurodevelopmental disabilities. Current standard of care for AOP/IH includes prone positioning, positive pressure ventilation, and methylxanthine therapy; these interventions are inadequate, and not optimal for early development.The objective is to support breathing in premature infants by using a simple, non-invasive vibratory device placed over limb proprioceptor fibers, an intervention using the principle that limb movements trigger reflexive facilitation of breathing.Premature infants (23-34 wks gestational age, with clinical evidence of AOP/IH episodes were enrolled 1 week after birth. Caffeine treatment was not a reason for exclusion. Small vibration devices were placed on one hand and one foot and activated in 6 hour ON/OFF sequences for a total of 24 hours. Heart rate, respiratory rate, oxygen saturation (SpO2, and breathing pauses were continuously collected.Fewer respiratory pauses occurred during vibration periods, relative to baseline (p<0.005. Significantly fewer SpO2 declines occurred with vibration (p<0.05, relative to control periods. Significantly fewer bradycardic events occurred during vibration periods, relative to no vibration periods (p<0.05.In premature neonates, limb proprioceptive stimulation, simulating limb movement, reduces breathing pauses and IH episodes, and lowers the number of bradycardic events that accompany aberrant breathing episodes. This low-cost neuromodulatory procedure has the potential to provide a non-invasive intervention to reduce apnea, bradycardia and

  1. Inflammatory and oxidative stress airway markers in premature newborns of hypertensive mothers

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    R.J. Madoglio

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Although oxidative stress and inflammation are important mechanisms in the pathophysiology of preeclampsia and preterm diseases, their contribution to the respiratory prognosis of premature infants of hypertensive mothers is not known. Our objective was to determine the levels of oxidative stress and inflammation markers in the airways of premature infants born to hypertensive and normotensive mothers, in the first 72 h of life, and to investigate whether they are predictors of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD/death. This was a prospective study with premature infants less than 34 weeks’ gestation on respiratory support who were stratified into 2 groups: 32 premature infants of hypertensive mothers and 41 of normotensive women, with a mean gestational age of 29 weeks. Exclusion criteria were as follows: diabetes mellitus, chorioamnionitis, malformation, congenital infection, and death within 24 h after birth. The outcome of interest was BPD/death. Malondialdehyde (MDA, nitric oxide (NO, and interleukin 8 (IL-8 were measured in airway aspirates from the first and third days of life and did not differ between the groups. Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses were performed. The concentrations of MDA, NO, and IL-8 were not predictors of BPD/death. Premature infants who developed BPD/death had higher levels of IL-8 in the first days of life. The gestational age, mechanical ventilation, and a small size for gestational age were risk factors for BPD/death. In conclusion, the biomarkers evaluated were not increased in premature infants of hypertensive mothers and were not predictors of BPD/death.

  2. Epileptic Encephalopathy in Children with Risk Factors for Brain Damage

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    Josefina Ricardo-Garcell

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the study of 887 new born infants with prenatal and perinatal risk factors for brain damage, 11 children with West syndrome that progressed into Lennox-Gastaut syndrome and another 4 children with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome that had not been preceded by West syndrome were found. In this study we present the main findings of these 15 subjects. In all infants multifactor antecedents were detected. The most frequent risk factors were prematurity and severe asphyxia; however placenta disorders, sepsis, and hyperbilirubinemia were also frequent. In all infants MRI direct or secondary features of periventricular leukomalacia were observed. Followup of all infants showed moderate to severe neurodevelopmental delay as well as cerebral palsy. It is concluded that prenatal and perinatal risk factors for brain damage are very important antecedents that should be taken into account to follow up those infants from an early age in order to detect and treat as early as possible an epileptic encephalopathy.

  3. Epileptic Encephalopathy in Children with Risk Factors for Brain Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricardo-Garcell, Josefina; Harmony, Thalía; Porras-Kattz, Eneida; Colmenero-Batallán, Miguel J.; Barrera-Reséndiz, Jesús E.; Fernández-Bouzas, Antonio; Cruz-Rivero, Erika

    2012-01-01

    In the study of 887 new born infants with prenatal and perinatal risk factors for brain damage, 11 children with West syndrome that progressed into Lennox-Gastaut syndrome and another 4 children with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome that had not been preceded by West syndrome were found. In this study we present the main findings of these 15 subjects. In all infants multifactor antecedents were detected. The most frequent risk factors were prematurity and severe asphyxia; however placenta disorders, sepsis, and hyperbilirubinemia were also frequent. In all infants MRI direct or secondary features of periventricular leukomalacia were observed. Followup of all infants showed moderate to severe neurodevelopmental delay as well as cerebral palsy. It is concluded that prenatal and perinatal risk factors for brain damage are very important antecedents that should be taken into account to follow up those infants from an early age in order to detect and treat as early as possible an epileptic encephalopathy. PMID:22957240

  4. Temperament analysis of children combined with retinopathy of prematurity aged 3 years old%合并早产儿视网膜病变的儿童学龄前期气质特点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏宁; 尹同进; 叶巍岭; 杨代秀

    2014-01-01

    目的 探讨合并不同程度早产儿视网膜病变(retinopathy of prematurity,ROP)幼儿期的气质特征,为临床早期干预提供理论依据.方法 采用Carry儿童气质问卷对46例合并不同程度ROP的早产儿在36月龄时进行测试,并与对照组46例进行比较.结果 合并ROP组患儿气质类型以抚养困难型与中间偏难型为主,在适应性、持久性、反应阈方面分值与对照组比较差异有统计学意义.结论 合并ROP的儿童有其自身的气质特点.

  5. Study on the influence of maternal physiology, mentality and prenatal health care on children born with low birth weight%孕妇生理心理与孕期保健对低出生体重儿的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张荣莲; 陈烈平; 陈起燕; 修晓燕; 陈菊芳; 王晓梅

    2008-01-01

    目的 探讨孕妇生理心理与孕期保健对低出生体重儿(LBW)的影响.方法 采用回顾性LBW-小于胎龄儿(SGA)-对照(正常)三组病例对照研究方法,对2004年11月至2006年6月在福建省妇幼保健院住院分娩的婴儿及产妇,于产后对896例的产妇进行问卷调查和摘取病历相关资料.将所得变量采用χ2检验进行单因素分析,再将有意义的变量入选logistic回归多因素分析.结果 22个变量因素中有统计学意义的单因素有15个,包括孕妇心理因素2个、生理因素4个、病理因素6个、孕期保健因素3个.经logistic回归多因素分析结果显示孕妇身高、产检次数、无应激试验异常、脐带绕颈、脐血流阻力异常、初检孕周、胎膜早破、孕妇对婴儿性别的企盼、异常家族史等9个因素是LBW的主要影响因素,健康教育知识获取与否是保护因素,说明有些LBW可以在孕期预防.结论 LBW的发生是多种因素综合作用的结果.%Objective To explore the role of maternal physiology, mentality and prenatal health care on low birth weight (LBW). Methods A LBW-small for gestation age (SGA)-control group retrospective study was conducted based upon a population of infants born from November 2004 to June 2006. 896 cases involved in this study were entirely under voluntary participation and subject could withdraw their consent at any point. All subject recruitment and enrollment took place at Fujian Provincial Maternal and Children Hospital at the time of delivery. Using χ2 test for single factor analysis and logistic regression for multiple analyses Results There were 15 out of 22 single factors having statistical significances, including 2 maternal psychological, 4 physiological, 6 pathological and 3 prenatal health care factors respectively. When multi-factorial stepwise regression analyses was performed, there were 9 factors for main relative factors of LBW ,including women's height, number of prenatal

  6. An investigation into infant feeding in children born with cleft lip and (or) palate%唇腭裂患儿早期喂养状况的调查研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈华; 李秀娥; 杨鹏远; 杨园园; 梁爽

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the status and influencing factors of infant feeding in children born with cleft lip and (or) palate.Methods Using a descriptive cross-sectional study and convenient sampling,data on early infant feeding status were collected on 92 children with cleft lip and(or) palate aged less than 3 years.Results The main infant feeding mode of the involved children was milk feeding.The rate of breastfeeding was low and only 15 cases(16.3%) experienced breastfeeding more than 6 months.The main feeding difficulties of children with cleft lip and(or) palate were frequent coughing for choke and overflowing with milk,lack of proper feeding equipments and frequent upper respiratory tract infections.Their body weights at 1 month and 3 months after delivery were significantly lower than the average body weight of healthy infants(P<0.05).Breast-feeding and hospitalization had influence on the body weight gain in the first month.Conclusions Feeding problems of children with cleft lip and(or) palate mainly exist in the initial stage.It is suggested to provide feeding intervention for the parents as soon as possible,strengthen feeding skills training for obstetric nurses and intensify the training cleft palate specialist nurses.%目的 了解唇腭裂患儿的早期喂养现状及相关影响因素.方法 采用描述性研究设计,方便选取年龄≤3岁的腭裂伴或不伴有唇裂的患儿92例,通过自设问卷调查患儿母亲及患儿的一般资料和患儿早期喂养的相关情况.结果 唇腭裂患儿的早期喂养方式主要为人工喂养,母乳喂养率较低,只有15例(16.3%)患儿母乳喂养时间超过6个月.唇腭裂患儿主要的喂养困难是“呛咳溢奶频发”、“没有合适的喂养工具”和“上呼吸道感染频发”.唇腭裂患儿第1个月、第3个月的平均体重明显低于同月龄正常儿童(P<0.05);是否母乳喂养及是否因病入院对患儿的满月体重增长情况有影响.结论

  7. 极低出生体重儿童学龄期的行为适应分析%Analysis of behavioral adjustment in school-aged children born with very low birth weight

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾小璐; 钟敏泉; 岑超群; 邹小兵; 杨杰; 钟向明

    2013-01-01

    [Objective] To evaluate behavioral adjustment and its influential factors among school-aged children born with very low birth weight(VLBW). [Method] The BASICS Behavioral Adjustment Scale was used to investigate 235 very low birth weight children and 396 normal birth weight(NBW) children who studied in mainstream schools, parents of the children completed the questionaire. [Results] A total of 570 out of 631 questionaires were completed, with a response rate of 90. 3%. Scores for VLBW group in dimension of achievement, self-relations, internal state and total scores were significantly higher than those of the NBW group (respectively 3. 06±0. 93,3. 62 ± 0. 88,4. 11 ± 1. 18 and 3. 19 ± 0. 71 vs 2. 29 ± 0. 85,2. 27 ± 0. 78,2. 45 ± 0. 86 and 2. 31 ± 0. 75,P all<0. 05). Multiple regression analysis showed that higer family economics status and main caregiver education level were predictors of better behavioral adjustment among the VLBW group. While those with neonatal intracranial hemorrhage and higer doses of corticosteroid had worse behavioral adjustment.[conclusion] VLBW children have increased behavior problems, early evaluation and intervention is recommended.%[目的]评估极低出生体重(very low birth weight,VLBW)儿童学龄期行为适应状况并探讨相关的影响因素. [方法]采用BASICS行为适应量表对235名就读主流学校的极低出生体重儿童和396名正常出生体重儿童的家长进行问卷调查. [结果]调查的631个家庭中570个家庭完成问卷,应答率90.3%.极低出生体重儿童组成就[(3.06±0.93)分]、自我关系[(3.62±0.88)分]、内在状态[(4.11±1.18)分]得分及行为适应总分[(3.19±0.71)分]高于正常出生体重儿童组,分别为[(2.29±0.85)分],[(2.27±0.78)分],[(2.45±0.86)分]和[(2.31±0.75)分],差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).多元线性回归分析结果显示,家庭收入高、主要管教者受教育程度高的VLBW儿童行为适应较好,新生儿期患颅内出血

  8. O efeito da prematuridade em habilidades locomotoras e de controle de objetos de crianças de primeira infância The effect of prematurity on locomotors and object control skills of toddlers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Maria Coelho Campos

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Prematuridade é um fator de risco biológico para o desenvolvimento motor infantil, mas não tem sido investigada a interação deste risco com o sexo e a especificidade da tarefa. Objetivou-se verificar o efeito da prematuridade no desempenho locomotor e de controle de objetos em crianças de primeira infância. Vinte meninos e quarenta meninas pré-escolares com idade média de 4,5 anos (DP=0,7 formaram os grupos: Prematuro (n = 30; média da idade gestacional = 31,7 semanas, DP = 2,8 e Controle (n = 30; idade gestacional > 37 semanas; as habilidades motoras foram avaliadas pelo TGMD-2. De maneira geral, as crianças prematuras foram capazes de atingir o mesmo nível de desempenho motor grosso quando comparadas com aquelas nascidas a termo. Quando as análises levaram em consideração sexo e especificidade da tarefa, os achados sugeriram que ser uma menina prematura afeta negativamente o desenvolvimento em habilidades motoras de controle de objetos.Prematurity is a biological risk factor for infant motor development and the interaction among this risk with sex and task specificity hasn't been investigated yet. The aim was to verify the effect of prematurity in gross motor performance of children in locomotors and object control skills. Twenty boys and forty girls from preschools, with mean age of 4.5 years (SD = 0.7, were separated into premature group (n = 30, mean gestational age = 31.7 weeks SD = 2.8 and control group (n = 30, gestational age> 37 weeks and their gross motor development was assessed by TGMD-2. In general, premature children were able to achieve the same level of gross motor performance when compared with children born at term. When the analysis took into account sex and task specificity, the findings suggested that being a girl can to affect the early development of the object control motor skills.

  9. First-born siblings show better second language skills than later born siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Karin; Troesch, Larissa M; Grob, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    We examined the extent to which three sibling structure variables number of siblings, birth order, and presence of an older sibling at school age are linked to the second language skills of bilingual children. The research questions were tested using an ethnically heterogeneous sample of 1209 bilingual children with German as a second language. Controlling for children's age, sex, nationality, number of children's books at home, family language and parental German language skills, hierarchical regression analyses showed an inverse relationship between the number of siblings and second language skills: the more siblings a child had, the lower was his/her second language proficiency. This relationship was mediated by attendance in early education institutions. Moreover, first-born siblings showed better second language skills than later born siblings. The current study revealed that the resource dilution model, i.e., the decrease in resources for every additional sibling, holds for second language acquisition. Moreover, the results indicate that bilingual children from families with several children benefit from access to early education institutions.

  10. An Evaluation of the Pea Pod System for Assessing Body Composition of Moderately Premature Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsum, Elisabet; Olhager, Elisabeth; Törnqvist, Caroline

    2016-04-22

    (1) BACKGROUND: Assessing the quality of growth in premature infants is important in order to be able to provide them with optimal nutrition. The Pea Pod device, based on air displacement plethysmography, is able to assess body composition of infants. However, this method has not been sufficiently evaluated in premature infants; (2) METHODS: In 14 infants in an age range of 3-7 days, born after 32-35 completed weeks of gestation, body weight, body volume, fat-free mass density (predicted by the Pea Pod software), and total body water (isotope dilution) were assessed. Reference estimates of fat-free mass density and body composition were obtained using a three-component model; (3) RESULTS: Fat-free mass density values, predicted using Pea Pod, were biased but not significantly (p > 0.05) different from reference estimates. Body fat (%), assessed using Pea Pod, was not significantly different from reference estimates. The biological variability of fat-free mass density was 0.55% of the average value (1.0627 g/mL); (4) CONCLUSION: The results indicate that the Pea Pod system is accurate for groups of newborn, moderately premature infants. However, more studies where this system is used for premature infants are needed, and we provide suggestions regarding how to develop this area.

  11. An Evaluation of the Pea Pod System for Assessing Body Composition of Moderately Premature Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabet Forsum

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available (1 Background: Assessing the quality of growth in premature infants is important in order to be able to provide them with optimal nutrition. The Pea Pod device, based on air displacement plethysmography, is able to assess body composition of infants. However, this method has not been sufficiently evaluated in premature infants; (2 Methods: In 14 infants in an age range of 3–7 days, born after 32–35 completed weeks of gestation, body weight, body volume, fat-free mass density (predicted by the Pea Pod software, and total body water (isotope dilution were assessed. Reference estimates of fat-free mass density and body composition were obtained using a three-component model; (3 Results: Fat-free mass density values, predicted using Pea Pod, were biased but not significantly (p > 0.05 different from reference estimates. Body fat (%, assessed using Pea Pod, was not significantly different from reference estimates. The biological variability of fat-free mass density was 0.55% of the average value (1.0627 g/mL; (4 Conclusion: The results indicate that the Pea Pod system is accurate for groups of newborn, moderately premature infants. However, more studies where this system is used for premature infants are needed, and we provide suggestions regarding how to develop this area.

  12. Born-Infeld Cosmologies

    CERN Document Server

    García-Salcedo, R; Garcia-Salcedo, Ricardo; Breton, Nora

    2000-01-01

    We present a model for an inhomogeneous and anisotropic early universe filled with a nonlinear electromagnetic field of Born-Infeld (BI) type. The effects of the BI field are compared with the linear case (Maxwell). Since the curvature invaria nts are well behaved then we conjecture that our model does not present an initial big bang singularity. The existence of the BI field modifies the curvature invariants at t=0 as well as sets bounds on the amplitude of the conformal metric function

  13. Lived experiences of parents of premature babies in the intensive care unit in a private hospital in Johannesburg, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Steyn

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Many of the 15 million premature babies born worldwide every year survive because of advanced medical interventions. Their parents have intense experiences when their babies are in the intensive care unit (ICU, and these have an impact on their thoughts, feelings and relationships, including their relationships with their premature babies. Objectives: The aim of the study was to explore and describe the lived experiences of parents of premature babies in an ICU. Method: Research design was qualitative, exploratory, descriptive and contextual. A purposive sample of parents with premature babies in an ICU in a private hospital in Johannesburg Gauteng in South Africa was used. Eight parents, four mothers and four fathers, married and either Afrikaans or English-speaking, were included in the study. Data were collected by conducting in-depth phenomenological interviews with them and making use of field notes. Trustworthiness was ensured by implementing the strategies of credibility, transferability, dependability and confirmability. Ethical principles such as autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence and justice were adhered to throughout the research process. Results: Thematic analyses were utilised to analyse the data. Two themes in the experiences of parents with premature babies in ICU became apparent. Parents experienced thoughts, emotions and hope while their premature babies were in the ICU as well as challenges in their relationships and these challenges influenced their experiences. Recommendations: Mindfulness of intensive care nurses should be facilitated so that intensive care nurses can promote the mental health of parents with premature babies in the ICU. Conclusion: Parents with premature babies in the ICU have thoughts and emotional experiences which include hope and they affect parents’ relationships.

  14. A Fatal Case of Congenital Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis with Disseminated Cutaneous Lesions in a Premature Neonate

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    Michio Inoue

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The outcome of neonates with congenital cutaneous Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH is variable. Observations. We report a case of LCH in a female premature neonate born at 33-week gestation. She had disseminated cutaneous lesions, which consisted of hemorrhagic papules and vesicles, with sparse healthy skin areas, and the hands and feet were contracted with scarring and blackened. She was in respiratory failure although no apparent pulmonary or bone lesions on X-rays were noted. Skin biopsy confirmed a diagnosis of LCH due to observation of CD1a+ Langerhans cells, which lacked expression of E-cadherin and CD56. The patient died 57 hours after birth. Conclusions. Based on this case and the literature survey, the outcome of premature babies with congenital cutaneous LCH lesions is noted to be unfavorable, with the majority of such cases suffering from multisystem disease.

  15. A case of extreme prematurity and delayed diagnosis of pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Saman, Abdulaziz S; Rizk, Tamer M

    2012-10-01

    Pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy presents early in life, even in utero. It is usually refractory to conventional antiepileptic medications and responds only to lifelong pyridoxine supplementation. Seizures are usually generalized tonic clonic. We report a 3-year-old child that was born prematurely at 25 weeks of gestation. He presented with abnormal movements in the second month of life. At 10 months of age he presented with status epilepticus, which was refractory to multiple antiepileptic medications and was controlled with intravenous pyridoxine. An elevated level of a-aminoadipic semialdehyde excretion in the urine supported the diagnosis of pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy. Subsequently, a c.1195G>C homozygous mutation in the 5q31 aldehyde dehydrogenase 7A1 gene was confirmed. This case calls for considering pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy and its early management in cases with resistant seizures; even in the presence of extreme prematurity with its neurological consequences.

  16. Prevalence of Rotavirus, Adenovirus, Norovirus, and Astrovirus Infections and Coinfections among Hospitalized Children in Northern France▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Adissa; Talmud, Déborah; Lejeune, Benoît; Jovenin, Nicolas; Renois, Fanny; Payan, Christopher; Leveque, Nicolas; Andreoletti, Laurent

    2010-01-01

    From January to December 2007, 973 stool specimens were prospectively collected from children hospitalized for gastroenteritis signs or from neonates and premature cases who were born in two French hospital settings in the north of France. They were tested by rapid enzyme immunoassay (EIA) analyses for rotavirus and adenovirus and by two commercially available ELISA tests for the detection of norovirus and astrovirus. The overall rates of prevalence for rotavirus, norovirus, adenovirus, and astrovirus were 21, 13, 5, and 1.8%, respectively, and they did not significantly differ between the two hospital settings (P = 0.12). Mixed virus infections were detected in 32 (3.3%) of the 973 study children and were associated with norovirus in 21 (66%) infants, including 5 premature cases. From fall to spring, norovirus infections accounted for 52% of documented gastroenteritidis viral infections at a time when rotavirus was epidemic, resulting in mixed norovirus and rotavirus gastrointestinal tract infections. Of the 367 documented viral gastroenteritis cases, 15 (4.1%) were identified as nosocomial infections, 5 of which occurred in premature cases. These findings highlight the need to implement norovirus and astrovirus ELISA detection assays in association with rapid EIA rotavirus and adenovirus detection assays for the clinical diagnosis and the nosocomial prevention of gastroenteritis viral infections in pediatric departments. PMID:20305010

  17. Premature Ejaculation and Utilization of Cognitive Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serkan AKKOYUNLU

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Premature ejaculation is the most common male sexual dysfunction leading to distress in many couples. Master and Johnson emphasized the concept of early learned experiences and Kaplan emphasized lack of sensory awareness. For treatment sex therapists mainly utilize start-stop and squeeze techniques as homework. Couples enter sex therapy with some cognitive distortions and beliefs about sex and sexuality. These beliefs are also named sexual myths. For some couples using techniques to challenge cognitive distortions and maladaptive beliefs about sex and sexuality can be used. In this paper by presenting a case we discussed how cognitive techniques can be used along with behaviour techniques with couples. Case: Presenting clients are five years married couple who are thirty and twenty nine years old respectively. They attended to the outpatient clinic with the request of the female client. Their main complaint was premature ejaculation. They were diagnosed premature ejaculation using clinical interview. In treatment besides start and stop technique, cognitive techniques were utilized to address dysfunctional beliefs about sexuality. Discussion: Premature ejaculation is a male sexual dysfunction that causes distress and intimacy problems between couples. Stop start and squeeze techniques were accepted as the choice of treatment but their effectiveness is questioned recently. Also cognitive distortions and maladaptive beliefs may hamper therapy progress. Besides that, behavioral techniques utilizing cognitive techniques to lessen the degree of dysfunctional beliefs about sex and sexuality may help the couple to overcome premature ejaculation and enhance sexual satisfaction and intimacy.

  18. Adiponectin levels measured in dried blood spot samples from neonates born small and appropriate for gestational age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klamer, A; Skogstrand, Kristin; Hougaard, D M;

    2007-01-01

    Adiponectin levels measured in neonatal dried blood spot samples (DBSS) might be affected by both prematurity and being born small for gestational age (SGA). The aim of the study was to measure adiponectin levels in routinely collected neonatal DBSS taken on day 5 (range 3-12) postnatal from...

  19. Younger or older parental age and risk of suicidality, premature death, psychiatric illness, and criminality in offspring

    OpenAIRE

    Mok, Pearl; Antonsen, Sussie; Pedersen, Carsten Bøcker; Webb, Roger

    2017-01-01

    BackgroundYounger or older parental age has been linked with a range of adverse offspring endpoints. We investigated associations between parental age and nine adverse offspring outcomes in three correlated domains: (i) Premature death: suicide, unnatural death, natural death; (ii) Psychiatric morbidity: any mental illness, suicide attempt, substance misuse; (iii) Criminality: violent offending, imprisonment, driving whilst intoxicated.MethodsPersons born in Denmark 1966–1996 were followed fr...

  20. Agenesis of the corpus callosumina premature infant associated with Langdon-Down syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velisavljev-Filipović Gordana

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Agenesis of the corpus callosum is an abnormality of the part of the brain connecting the two cerebral hemispheres. It can be partial, complete or atypical. The fibers from the cerebral cortex project towards the homotypical region of the contra-lateral cortex passing through the corpus callosum, and crossing the middle line. The absence of corpus callosum causes failure of information transfer from one hemisphere to the other. Children with this anomaly present with learning disabilities and trouble with memorizing facts. Agenesis of corpus callosum may be of syndromic or non-syndromic type. The more common form is the one not associated with any syndrome. The agenesis of corpus callosum is more frequent in male children. Case report This paper presents a child from a twin pregnancy with partial absence of corpus callosum. The pregnancy was not controlled. It ended in premature birth. The afflicted twin is a boy, second in birth order. Apart from agenesis of corpus callosum, he also suffers from Down syndrome. The first twin is healthy, with corpus callosum and with normal karyotype. There was no consanguinity. In the 6th month of pregnancy the mother suffered from infection of the upper respiratory tract that might be the etiological factor of this anomaly. The child was born with hypotrophy, and all anthropometric parameters were below the third percentile. In the neonatal period, the agenesis of corpus callosum was diagnosed by ultrasonic examination and confirmed by CT and MR examinations. The child is now three and a half month old. Active monitoring of the psychical and motor development will show whether there will be any retardation in the psycho-motor development and later deficiency of the higher cortical functions and intelligence. Discussion and Conclusion The clinical characteristics of this anomaly are numerous. They range from asymptomatic cases, with normal intellectual capacity, to severe mental retardation

  1. Cortisol levels in former preterm children at school age are predicted by neonatal procedural pain-related stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brummelte, Susanne; Chau, Cecil M Y; Cepeda, Ivan L; Degenhardt, Amanda; Weinberg, Joanne; Synnes, Anne R; Grunau, Ruth E

    2015-01-01

    Early life stress can alter hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis function. Differences in cortisol levels have been found in preterm infants exposed to substantial procedural stress during neonatal intensive care, compared to infants born full-term, but only a few studies investigated whether altered programming of the HPA axis persists past toddler age. Further, there is a dearth of knowledge of what may contribute to these changes in cortisol. This prospective cohort study examined the cortisol profiles in response to the stress of cognitive assessment, as well as the diurnal rhythm of cortisol, in children (n=129) born at varying levels of prematurity (24-32 weeks gestation) and at full-term (38-41 weeks gestation), at age 7 years. Further, we investigated the relationships among cortisol levels and neonatal procedural pain-related stress (controlling for multiple medical confounders), concurrent maternal factors (parenting stress, depressive and anxiety symptoms) and children's behavioral problems. For each aim we investigate acute cortisol response profiles to a cognitive challenge as well as diurnal cortisol patterns at home. We hypothesized that children born very preterm will differ in their pattern of cortisol secretion from children born full-term, possibly depended on concurrent child and maternal factors, and that exposure to neonatal pain-related stress would be associated with altered cortisol secretion in children born very preterm, possibly in a sex-dependent way. Saliva samples were collected from 7-year old children three times during a laboratory visit for assessment of cognitive and executive functions (pretest, mid-test, end-study day acute stress profile) and at four times over two consecutive non-school days at home (i.e. morning, mid-morning, afternoon and bedtime-diurnal rhythm profile). We found that cortisol profiles were similar in preterm and full-term children, albeit preterms had slightly higher cortisol at bedtime compared to

  2. LOSS OF SPACE ACCORDING TO THE TIME AND THE TYPE OF THE PREMATURE EXTRACTED DECIDUOUS TEETH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radosveta S. Andreeva

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available There is a difference of space loss depending on the time of premature extraction and the type of the prematurely extracted teeth. The aim of the study is to determine the space loss according to the time and the type of the extracted teeth. Material and methods: We studied 90 children 6 to 9 years old with premature loss of one or more primary teeth divided into three groups according to the severity of the orthodontic deformation. We used two biometric methods – the Moyers method and measured the mesial and distal movement of the adjustment teeth by drawing perpendicular lines towards the middle line. Results: The average amount of space lost is 0,033 mm for the first group, 2,2 for the second and 3,16 for the third group. The lack of space when the first primary molars are extracted is 0,37 mm in the upper jaw and is due to medicalization of the second primary molar. In the lower jaw the loss of space is – 1,12mm. The lack of space when the second primary molars are prematurely extracted is 1,2 for the upper and 1,45 for the lower jaw. Conclusion: The time is a significant factor for the loss of space. The reduction of space increases when the premature extraction is done before more than two months and when second primary molars are extracted.

  3. The circadian variation of premature atrial contractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strøier Larsen, Bjørn; Kumarathurai, Preman; Wendelboe Nielsen, Olav;

    2016-01-01

    AIMS: The aim of the study was to assess a possible circadian variation of premature atrial contractions (PACs) in a community-based population and to determine if the daily variation could be used to assess a more vulnerable period of PACs in predicting later incidence of atrial fibrillation (AF...... variation in heart rate. After adjusting for relevant risk factors, the risk of AF was equal in all time intervals throughout the day. CONCLUSION: Premature atrial contractions showed a circadian variation in subjects with frequent PACs. No specific time interval of the day was more predictive of AF than...

  4. Developmental Outcomes of Premature and Low Birth Weight Infants

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    Reza Saeidi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prematurity is the most common cause of death and disability And Preterm infants, are prone to developmental complications. For this reason this study was designed for follow up of these babies until 2 years by modified DDST-2. Methods: This study was a prospective longitudinal descriptive study from March 2009 to March 2011 in clinic of sheikh and Imam Reza Hospitals, mashhad, Iran. Sample size with Confidence coefficient of 95% and power 80%, was determined 100 hundred babies. Infants were seen by a pediatrician at a follow up clinic at 1, 3, 6, 9,12,15,18, 24, months.The developmental assessment was done using Denver-2 Developmental Screening Test. Results: mean age for smiling was 4/6 ± 2/1  months which significantly differed with appropriate age (p = 0.000, mean age for telling two syllables words 11/7±  1/9 months, without significant difference of appropriate age.(p = 0.139. Average age for understanding NO was 10/4±  2/0 months that significantly differed with appropriate age(p = 0.000. The average age for telling 6 word was 17/8±  3/0, without significant difference with appropriate age (p = 0.510. Conclusion: Children with history of prematurity and low birth weight have more disability and developmental delay so they need to developmental screening tests.

  5. 频发室性早搏患儿心脏储备功能的变化及心肺运动试验的应用研究%Effect of frequent premature ventricular contraction on cardiac reserve function in children and clinical application of cardiopulmonary exercise test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑彤; 汪芸; 刘艳; 任军; 赵地; 石琳

    2012-01-01

    目的 观察频发室性早搏(premature ventricular contraction,PVC)患儿磷酸肌酸治疗前、后的心肺运动试验(cardiopulmonary exercise test,CPET)各项参数变化,比较与正常儿童的差异,了解频发PVC对患儿心脏储备功能的影响.方法 采用心肺运动测试系统和活动平板对109例频发PVC患儿于治疗前、后分别进行CPET及98例健康儿童进行CPET,记录3组CPET指标,包括最大公斤体重摄氧量(maximal oxygen consumption/kg,VO2max/kg)、最大每搏摄氧量(maximal oxygen consumption/heart rate,VO2max/HR)、不同时段HR、无氧阈(anaerobic threshold,AT)、无氧阈占预计最大摄氧量的百分比( AT/VO2max pred).结果 频发PVC患儿组磷酸肌酸治疗前VO2max/kg、VO2max/HR及AT分别为(22.9 ±7.4)ml/(kg·min)、(9.3±1.5)ml、(15.5±2.7)ml/(kg·min),治疗后分别为(26.4±6.0) ml/(kg·min)、(11.4±3.3) ml、(17.4±3.8)ml/(kg·min),频发PVC患儿治疗后VO2max/kg、VO2max/HR、AT明显高于治疗前,差异均有统计学意义:VO2max/kg(t =2.11,P<0.001)、VO2max/HR(t=4.02,P<0.001)、AT(t=10.2,P<0.001).健康对照组进行的运动试验结果判定皆为阴性.结论 频发PVC患儿心脏储备功能降低,经临床治疗后,运动耐力得到改善,心脏储备功能增强,CPET可较好地反映患儿心脏储备功能的变化.%Objective To observe the changes in cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) variables of children with frequent premature ventricular contraction (PVC)before and after creatine phosphate treatment,to examine the difference of CPET results between PVC patients and healthy children,and to evaluate the effect of frequent PVC on the cardiac reserve function in children.Methods One hundred and nine frequent PVC children and 98 healthy children underwent treadmill exercise test and CPET respectively,the changes of CPET variables were observed among patients before and after treatment as well as among the healthy children.CPET variables include maximal oxygen

  6. Liver Abscess: Increasing Occurrence in Premature Newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OKTAV BOSNALI

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal liver abscess is a very rare condition associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. There seems to be an increasing trend of this rare condition amongst the newborns admitted to neonatal intensive care units. We report a case of liver abscess in a premature newborn and briefly review the literature and discuss its management.

  7. Liver Abscess: Increasing Occurrence in Premature Newborns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosnalı, Oktav; Moralıoğlu, Serdar; Pektaş, Osman

    2013-01-01

    Neonatal liver abscess is a very rare condition associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. There seems to be an increasing trend of this rare condition amongst the newborns admitted to neonatal intensive care units. We report a case of liver abscess in a premature newborn and briefly review the literature and discuss its management. PMID:26023443

  8. Liver Abscess: Increasing Occurrence in Premature Newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oktav Bosnalı

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal liver abscess is a very rare condition associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. There seems to be an increasing trend of this rare condition amongst the newborns admitted to neonatal intensive care units. We report a case of liver abscess in a premature newborn and briefly review the literature and discuss its management.

  9. Optimal oxygen saturation in premature infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meayoung Chang

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available There is a delicate balance between too little and too much supplemental oxygen exposure in premature infants. Since underuse and overuse of supplemental oxygen can harm premature infants, oxygen saturation levels must be monitored and kept at less than 95% to prevent reactive oxygen species-related diseases, such as retinopathy of prematurity and bronchopulmonary dysplasia. At the same time, desaturation below 80 to 85% must be avoided to prevent adverse consequences, such as cerebral palsy. It is still unclear what range of oxygen saturation is appropriate for premature infants; however, until the results of further studies are available, a reasonable target for pulse oxygen saturation (SpO2 is 90 to 93% with an intermittent review of the correlation between SpO2 and the partial pressure of arterial oxygen tension (PaO2. Because optimal oxygenation depends on individuals at the bedside making ongoing adjustments, each unit must define an optimal target range and set alarm limits according to their own equipment or conditions. All staff must be aware of these values and adjust the concentration of supplemental oxygen frequently.

  10. [Nontraumatic chylopericardium and chylothorax in premature neonates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avrel'kina, E A; Ignat'eva, E N; Fediarova, M A; Pliukhin, S V

    2014-01-01

    Deaths of extremely premature babies undiagnosed as having spontaneous chylopericardium (CP) and chylothorax (CT) are analyzed. The specific features of these death cases are the polyetiology of CP/CT and the similarity of their pathogenesis in the absence of specific clinical symptomatology.

  11. Catheter ablation of parahisian premature ventricular complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jun; Kim, Jeong Su; Park, Yong Hyun; Kim, June Hong; Chun, Kook Jin

    2011-12-01

    Catheter ablation is performed in selected patients with a symptomatic premature ventricular complex (PVC) or PVC-induced cardiomyopathy. Ablation of PVC from the His region has a high risk of inducing a complete atrioventricular block. Here we report successful catheter ablation of a parahisian PVC in a 63-year-old man.

  12. Premature ovarian failure and ovarian autoimmunity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A. Schoemaker (Joop); H.A. Drexhage (Hemmo); A. Hoek (Annemieke)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractPremature ovarian failure (POF) is defined as a syndrome characterized by menopause before the age of 40 yr. The patients suffer from anovulation and hypoestrogenism. Approximately 1% of women will experience menopause before the age of 40 yr. POF is a heter

  13. Premature mortality in Japan due to ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawahda, Amin; Yamashita, Ken; Ohara, Toshimasa; Kurokawa, Junichi; Ohizumi, Tsuyoshi; Chen, Fang; Akimoto, Hajime

    2013-12-01

    In Japan, all 47 prefectures conduct routine air quality monitoring at 1145 stations throughout the country to assess environmental effects. This study aims to provide a better understanding of possible estimations of premature mortality in Japan caused by exposure to monitored and modeled concentrations of tropospheric ozone during the period from January to December, 2005. The spatial distribution and temporal variation of ozone concentrations were modeled using the Models-3 Community Multiscale Air Quality modeling system coupled with the Regional Emission Inventory in Asia (CMAQ/REAS). Premature mortality caused by exposure to ozone was calculated assuming a relative risk (RR) value of 1.003 [95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.001-1.004] for concentrations above 35 ppb according to the SOMO35 index (annual Sum of daily maximum 8-h Ozone Means Over 35 ppb) recommended by WHO (2008). Based on CMAQ/REAS simulations, the estimated all-cause premature mortality in 2005 is about 13,000 (95% CI: 4320-17,300) cases. This value is 2.5 times greater than the estimated premature mortality based on monitored ozone concentrations, which is 5220 (95% CI: 1740-6960) cases.

  14. New Information About Premature Births (For Consumers)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2006-10-06

    A new study finds that prematurity is the most frequent cause of infant death in the United States. Learn more.  Created: 10/6/2006 by CDC Division of Reproductive Health.   Date Released: 10/6/2006.

  15. AMH as Predictor of Premature Ovarian Insufficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunding, Stine Aa; Aksglæde, Lise; Anderson, Richard A

    2015-01-01

    CONTEXT: The majority of Turner syndrome (TS) patients suffer from accelerated loss of primordial follicles. Low circulating levels of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) may predict the lack of spontaneous puberty in prepubertal girls and imminent premature ovarian insufficiency (POI) in TS women...

  16. Determinants of oral bioavailability of soil-borne contaminants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oomen, Agnes Guadalupe

    2001-01-01

    Children ingest soil, either accidentally via hand-to-mouth behavior or deliberately. In this manner, a child ingests on average between 50 and 200 mg soil/day, although amounts of as much as 60 g/day have also been observed. Hence, soil ingestion can be a main route of exposure to soil-borne

  17. Imitation by Second-Borns in Adult-Sibling Dyads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodapp, Albert F.; LaVoie, Joseph C.

    Five- to seven-year-old second-born children from white, middle-class, intact families were the subjects for this study. Older siblings served as role model for each child, and the parent surrogate models were selected from a pool and trained to act as the child's real parent. The imitation task emphasized verbal, postural, and motor responses of…

  18. RESEARCH ON REDUCING PREMATURITY RUPTURE OF MEMBRANE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria URSACHI (BOLOTA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The membranes surrounding the amniotic cavity are composed from amnion and chorion, tightly adherent layers which are composed of several cell types, including epithelial cells, trophoblasts cells and mesenchyme cells, embedded in a collagenous matrix. They retain amniotic fluid, secret substances into the amniotic fluid, as well as to the uterus and protect the fetus against upward infections from urogenital tract. Normally, the membranes it breaks during labor. Premature rupture of the amniotic sac (PRAS is defined as rupture of membranes before the onset of labor. Premature rupture of the fetal membrane, which occurs before 37 weeks of gestation, usually, refers to preterm premature rupture of membranes. Despite advances in the care period, premature rupture of membranes and premature rupture of membranes preterm continue to be regarded as serious obstetric complications. On the term 8% - 10% of pregnant women have premature rupture of membranes; these women are at increased risk of intrauterine infections, where the interval between membrane rupture and expulsion is rolled-over. Premature rupture of membranes preterm occurs in approximately 1% of all pregnancies and is associated with 30% -40% of preterm births. Thus, it is important to identify the cause of pre-term birth (after less than 37 completed weeks of "gestation" and its complications, including respiratory distress syndrome, neonatal infection and intraventricular hemorrhage. Objectives: the development of the protocol of the clinical trial on patients with impending preterm birth, study clinical and statistical on the socio-demographic characteristics of patients with imminent preterm birth; clinical condition of patients and selection of cases that could benefit from the application of interventional therapy; preclinical investigation (biological and imaging of patients with imminent preterm birth; the modality therapy; clinical investigation of the effectiveness of short

  19. Acute renal failure in premature neonates

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    Doronjski Aleksandra

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Hemodynamic stress is the leading cause of acute renal failure (ARF in premature neonates. Incidence of ARF in this population is between 8 and 24%. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of presence of ARF in premature neonates, as well as its impact on their survival. Methods. A retrospective study of 114 premature neonates [(gestational age, GA less than 37 gestation weeks (gw] admitted to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU at the Pediatric Clinic, Institute of Child and Youth Healthcare of Vojvodina in 2007 was conducted. Serum creatinine, urea and bilirubine were determined on the 3rd day of life in 65 newborns who met inclusion criteria. ARF was diagnosed in 16 newborns (n=16/65; 25%. Results. The premature neonates with ARF had significantly lower GA [<28 gw - 8/16 (50% vs. 5/49 (10%; p < 0.05], birth weight (BW (1 265 g vs. 1615 g; p < 0.05 and systolic blood pressure (43.37 mm Hg vs. 52.7 mmHg; p < 0.05 than ones without ARF. Non-olyguric ARF was diagnosed in 62% of newborns with ARF (n=10/16, while the rest had the olyguric type (n = 6/16; 38%. Twenty-five percent of premature neonates with ARF (n = 4/16 died in contrast to 10% of premature neonates without ARF (n = 5/49. ARF was treated conservatively in all but 3 cases when peritoneal dialysis was performed. Renal function has recovered completely in all of the survivors. In order to determine their predictivity in relation to ARF, following parameters were analyzed: GA, BW < 1 500 g, presence of concomitant sepsis and intracranial hemorrhage grade III/IV. BW < 1 500 g demonstrated the highest sensitivity (se 0.75, while GA < 28 gw, sepsis and intracranial hemorrhage grade III/IV showed high specificity (sp = 0.90, 0.89 0.88, respectively. Conclusion. Acute renal failure frequently occurs in population of premature neonates and requires meticulous fluid and electrolyte balance, especially in the case of low birth weight and extreme immaturity.

  20. Attention problems and language development in preterm low-birth-weight children: Cross-lagged relations from 18 to 36 months

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohrer-Baumgartner Nina

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research has highlighted a series of persistent deficits in cognitive ability in preterm low-birth-weight children. Language and attention problems are among these deficits, although the nature of the relation between attention and language in early development is not well known. This study represents a preliminary attempt to shed light on the relations between attention problems and language development in preterm low-birth-weight children. Methods The aim of this study was to analyse reciprocal influences between language and attention problems from 18 to 36 months. We used maternal reports on attention problems and language ability referring to a sample of 1288 premature low-birth-weight infants, collected as part of the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa. A sample of children born full-term was used as the control group (N = 37010. Cross-lagged panel analyses were carried out to study reciprocal influences between attention problems and language. Results Language ability at 18 months did not significantly predict attention problems at 36 months, adjusting for attention problems at 18 months. Attention problems at 18 months significantly predicted changes in language ability from 18 to 36 months, pointing to a precursor role of attention in relation to language in children born preterm. Gender, age corrected for prematurity, and mother's education emerged as important covariates. Conclusions Preliminary evidence was found for a precursor role of early attention problems in relation to language in prematurity. This finding can contribute to a better understanding of the developmental pathways of attention and language and lead to better management of unfavourable outcomes associated with co-morbid attention and language difficulties.

  1. First-born siblings show better second language skills than later born siblings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin eKeller

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We examined the extent to which three sibling structure variables number of siblings, birth order and presence of an older sibling at school age are linked to the second language skills of bilingual children. The research questions were tested using an ethnically heterogeneous sample of 1209 bilingual children with German as a second language. Controlling for children’s age, sex, nationality, number of children’s books at home, family language and parental German language skills, hierarchical regression analyses showed an inverse relationship between the number of siblings and second language skills: The more siblings a child had, the lower was his/her second language proficiency. This relationship was mediated by attendance in early education institutions. Moreover, first-born siblings showed better second language skills than later born siblings.The current study revealed that the resource dilution model, i.e., the decrease in resources for every additional sibling, holds for second language acquisition. Moreover, the results indicate that bilingual children from families with several children benefit from access to early education institutions.

  2. Management of patent ductus arteriosus in premature infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Rama; Das, Utpala G

    2015-01-01

    Patency of the ductus arteriosus is required for fetal survival in utero. In infants born prematurely, ductus fails to close and shunt reverses from left to right. Incidence of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is inversely proportional to the gestational age. A large PDA (>1.5 mm diameter) with left to right shunt in very low birth weight infants can cause pulmonary edema, congestive heart failure, pulmonary hemorrhage and increase the risk for bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Attempts to prevent or close the duct by pharmacological or surgical methods have not changed the morbidity or the long term outcome. Pharmacological treatment with indomethacin or ibuprofen is successful in 75 to 80 % of infants but its use also exposes these infants to undesirable side effects like gastrointestinal bleeding, perforation and necrotizing enterocolitis. Prophylactic therapy with indomethacin or ibuprofen to prevent PDA has not altered the morbidity or long term outcome. Currently, there is a dilemma as to how to treat, when to treat and whom to treat. Recent literature suggests a trial of conservative management during the first week followed by selective use of anti-inflammatory drugs. Surgical ligation is reserved for infants who fail medical therapy and still remain symptomatic. Spontaneous closure of the PDA has been reported in up to 40-67 % of very low birth weight (VLBW) infants by 7 d. In this review authors discuss these controversies and propose a more rational approach.

  3. Early Recollections of First-Borns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakouri, M. Ebrahim; Hafner, James L.

    1984-01-01

    Compared the early recollections of 50 first-borns and 98 later-borns. The first-borns mentioned significantly more nonfamily members, illness/injury, hospital/doctor's office. Later-borns mentioned significantly more siblings than did first-borns. Findings were discussed in the context of Adler's personality theory. (JAC)

  4. Long-Term Cognitive Outcomes of Infants Born Moderately and Late Preterm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odd, David Edward; Emond, Alan; Whitelaw, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To investigate whether infants born late preterm have poorer cognitive outcomes than term-born infants. Method: A cohort study based on the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Cognitive measures were assessed between the ages of 8 and 11 years. Exposure groups were defined as moderate/late preterm (32-36 weeks' gestation) or term…

  5. Little Babies: Born Too Soon--Born Too Small.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Inst. of Child Health and Human Development (NIH), Bethesda, MD. Office of Research Reporting.

    The booklet describes the condttion known as low birth weight and suggests ways in which a mother can take precautions against its occurring in her own child. Problems and maternal factors associated with low birth weight babies are discussed, and research on the causes of prematurity and growth retardation are reviewed. (SBH)

  6. Prevalence of malocclusion in relation to premature loss of primary teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, J; Stensgaard, K; Melsen, B

    1978-07-01

    The influence of premature extraction of primary teeth. The influence of the site of extraction was analyzed by studying the frequency of malocclusion in the group of children with extraction in the mandible or maxilla only. It was found that early loss of primary teeth would result in an increased frequency of sagittal, vertical as well as transversal malocclusion. As a consequence the need for treatment would increase significantly by early extraction of primary teeth. Whereas extraction in the maxilla would tend to result in need for extraction of permanent teeth; extraction in the mandible would often lead to need for orthodontic treatment of longer duration. On the basis of these findings it could be concluded that maintaining a high standard of dental service for preschool children must be considered good economy, since the need for premature extractions is reduced.

  7. Clinical Study on Preventive and Curative Effects of Caffeine Citrate on Apnea of Prematurity of Children with Very Low Birth Weight%枸橼酸咖啡因防治极低出生体重儿呼吸暂停的临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵剑锋; 李俊燕

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨枸橼酸咖啡因对极低出生体重儿呼吸暂停的防治情况。方法收集极低体重儿80例,随机将患儿分成两组,咖啡因预防组40例,对照组40例,咖啡因预防组患儿入组即给予枸橼酸咖啡因,对照组患儿发生呼吸暂停后及时给予枸橼酸咖啡因。结果咖啡因预防组早产儿呼吸暂停(AOP)发病人数为11例(36.7%),对照组发病人数为24例(80.0%),差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);两组患儿治疗有效率比较,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05)。结论枸橼酸咖啡因对极低体重患儿呼吸暂停有预防作用,且疗效显著。%Objective To study the preventive and curative effects of caffeine citrate on apnea of prematurity (AOP) of children with very low birth weight. Methods 80 children with very low birth weight were included in this study, which were divided into two groups randomly. 40 patients are included in control group, and the other 40 patients were included in intervention group. The patients in intervention group were given caffeine citrate immediately, and the children in the control group were treated with caffeine citrate after onset of apnea. Results There were 11 AOP cases in caffeine prevention group (incidence of 36.7%) and 24 AOP cases in the control group (incidence of 80.0%), the difference was statistically significant (P0.05). Conclusion Caffeine citrate can prevent the onset of AOP, and the curative effect is significant.

  8. Death among children and adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... death among children and teens. THE TOP THREE CAUSES OF DEATH BY AGE GROUP 0 to 1 year: Developmental and genetic conditions that were present at birth Conditions due to premature birth (short gestation) Health problems of the mother ...

  9. Born-Infeld cosmology with scalar Born-Infeld matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jana, Soumya; Kar, Sayan

    2016-09-01

    Cosmology in Eddington-inspired Born-Infeld gravity is investigated using a scalar Born-Infeld field (e.g. tachyon condensate) as matter. In this way, both in the gravity and matter sectors we have Born-Infeld-like structures characterized by their actions and via two separate constants, κ and αT2 , respectively. With a particular choice of the form of ϕ ˙ (the time derivative of the Born-Infeld scalar), analytical cosmological solutions are found. Thereafter, we explore some of the unique features of the corresponding cosmological spacetimes. For κ >0 , our solution has a de Sitter-like expansion both at early and late times, with an intermediate deceleration sandwiched between the accelerating phases. On the other hand, when κ 0 solution are as good as in Λ CDM cosmology. However, the κ <0 solution has to be discarded due to the occurrence of a bounce at an unacceptably low redshift.

  10. Born : vastutustundlikud tulevikus edukad / Kerstin Born ; interv. Kristo Kiviorg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Born, Kerstin

    2007-01-01

    Vastutustundliku ettevõtluse Euroopa organisatsiooni CSR Europe'i juht Kerstin Born vastab küsimustele ettevõtete vastutustundlikkuse kohta ühiskonnas. Vt. samas: Käivitus vastutustundliku ettevõtluse indeks

  11. Born-Infeld cosmology with scalar Born-Infeld matter

    CERN Document Server

    Jana, Soumya

    2016-01-01

    Cosmology in Eddington-inspired Born-Infeld gravity is investigated using a scalar Born-Infeld field (eg. tachyon condensate) as matter. In this way, both in the gravity and matter sectors we have Born-Infeld-like structures characterised by their actions and via two separate constants, $\\kappa$ and $\\alpha_T^2$ respectively. With a particular choice of the form of $\\dot{\\phi}$ (time derivative of the Born-Infeld scalar), analytical cosmological solutions are found. Thereafter, we explore some of the unique features of the corresponding cosmological spacetimes. For $\\kappa>0$, our solution has a de Sitter-like expansion both at early and late times, with an intermediate deceleration sandwiched between the accelerating phases. On the other hand, when $\\kappa0$ solution, are as good as in $\\Lambda$CDM cosmology. However, the $\\kappa<0$ solution has to be discarded due to the occurrence of a bounce at an unacceptably low redshift.

  12. Cerebral flow og intraventrikulær blødning hos premature

    OpenAIRE

    Lossius, Anne Kristine

    2009-01-01

    Intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH) is a serious complication in premature infants. This type of bleeding may lead to serious neurological sequelae or even death. IVH is prevalent in VLBW children, with an incidence of 30%. Recent research shows a significant relationship between low cerebral blood flow and IVH. The most common way to measure blood flow is to measure blood pressure. However, studies suggest that a more correct method is to measure the SVC (Superior vena cava) flow. The SV...

  13. Atopic diseases in twins born after assisted reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäderberg, Ida; Thomsen, Simon F; Kyvik, Kirsten O; Skytthe, Axel; Backer, Vibeke

    2012-03-01

    We examined the risk of atopic diseases in twins born after assisted reproduction. Data on atopic diseases and assisted reproduction in 9694 twin pairs, 3-20 years of age, from the Danish Twin Registry were collected via multidisciplinary questionnaires. The risk of atopic diseases in twins born after assisted reproduction was compared with the risk in twins born after spontaneous conception using logistic regression and variance components analysis. Children born after assisted reproduction did not have a different risk of atopic outcomes (adjusted odds ratios [95% confidence intervals] for asthma: 0.95 [0.85, 1.07], P = 0.403; hay fever: 1.01 [0.86, 1.18], P = 0.918; and atopic dermatitis: 1.02 [0.81, 1.11], P = 0.773 respectively) compared with children born after spontaneous conception. Assisted reproduction did not modify the heritability of atopic diseases. This study does not support an association between assisted reproduction and development of atopic diseases. This result must be confirmed in subsequent studies, preferably of singleton populations.

  14. Associations between regional brain volumes at term-equivalent age and development at 2 years of age in preterm children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lind, Annika [Turku University Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, Turku (Finland); Aabo Akademi University, Department of Psychology, Turku (Finland); Parkkola, Riitta [University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, Department of Radiology and Turku PET Center, PO Box 52, Turku (Finland); Lehtonen, Liisa; Maunu, Jonna; Lapinleimu, Helena [University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, Turku (Finland); Munck, Petriina [Turku University Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, Turku (Finland); University of Turku, Department of Psychology, Turku (Finland); Haataja, Leena [University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, Department of Pediatric Neurology, Turku (Finland)

    2011-08-15

    Altered brain volumes and associations between volumes and developmental outcomes have been reported in prematurely born children. To assess which regional brain volumes are different in very low birth weight (VLBW) children without neurodevelopmental impairments ([NDI] cerebral palsy, hearing loss, blindness and significantly delayed cognitive performance) compared with VLBW children with NDI, and to evaluate the association between regional brain volumes at term-equivalent age and cognitive development and neurological performance at a corrected age of 2 years. The study group consisted of a regional cohort of 164 VLBW children, divided into one group of children without NDI (n = 148) and one group of children with NDI (n = 16). Brain (MRI) was performed at term-equivalent age, from which brain volumes were manually analysed. Cognitive development was assessed with the Bayley Scales of Infant Development II (BSID-II), and neurological performance with the Hammersmith Infant Neurological Examination at the corrected age of 2 years. The volumes of total brain tissue, cerebrum, frontal lobes, basal ganglia and thalami, and cerebellum were significantly smaller, and the volume of the ventricles significantly larger, in the children with NDI than in those without NDI. Even in children without NDI, a smaller cerebellar volume was significantly correlated with poor neurological performance at 2 years of corrected age. Volumetric analysis at brain MRI can provide an additional parameter for early prediction of outcome in VLBW children. (orig.)

  15. Role of late maternal thyroid hormones in cerebral cortex development: an experimental model for human prematurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berbel, P; Navarro, D; Ausó, E; Varea, E; Rodríguez, A E; Ballesta, J J; Salinas, M; Flores, E; Faura, C C; de Escobar, G Morreale

    2010-06-01

    Hypothyroxinemia affects 35-50% of neonates born prematurely (12% of births) and increases their risk of suffering neurodevelopmental alterations. We have developed an animal model to study the role of maternal thyroid hormones (THs) at the end of gestation on offspring's cerebral maturation. Pregnant rats were surgically thyroidectomized at embryonic day (E) 16 and infused with calcitonin and parathormone (late maternal hypothyroidism [LMH] rats). After birth, pups were nursed by normal rats. Pups born to LMH dams, thyroxine treated from E17 to postnatal day (P) 0, were also studied. In developing LMH pups, the cortical lamination was abnormal. At P40, heterotopic neurons were found in the subcortical white matter and in the hippocampal stratum oriens and alveus. The Zn-positive area of the stratum oriens of hippocampal CA3 was decreased by 41.5% showing altered mossy fibers' organization. LMH pups showed delayed learning in parallel to decreased phosphorylated cAMP response element-binding protein (pCREB) and phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (pERK1/2) expression in the hippocampus. Thyroxine treatment of LMH dams reverted abnormalities. In conclusion, maternal THs are still essential for normal offspring's neurodevelopment even after onset of fetal thyroid function. Our data suggest that thyroxine treatment of premature neonates should be attempted to compensate for the interruption of the maternal supply.

  16. Pain-associated stressor exposure and neuroendocrine values for premature infants in neonatal intensive care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohan, Annie J

    2016-01-01

    Recurrent stress during neonatal intensive care taxes the adaptive capacity of the premature infant and may be a risk factor for suboptimal developmental outcomes. This research used a descriptive, cross-sectional design and a life course perspective to examine the relationship between resting adrenocorticoid values at 37 postmenstrual weeks of age and cumulative pain-associated stressor exposure in prematurely born infants. Subjects were 59 infants born at under 35 completed weeks of gestation, who were at least 2 weeks of age, and who had been cared for in the NICU since birth. No significant relationships were identified between cortisol values and any of the study variables (number of skin breaking procedures, hours of assisted ventilation, gestational age at birth, exposure to antenatal steroids, history of severe academia, birthweight, days of age to attain birthweight, weight at testing, days of age at testing, recent pain-associated procedures, and 17-OHP value). A significant negative correlation (Spearman rank, one-tailed) between the number of skin-breaking procedures and 17-OHP values was identified (r = -.232, p = .039). Recurrent pain-associated stressor exposure may be a more important factor in explaining the variance of 17-OHP values at 37 postmenstrual weeks of age than birthweight, gestational age, or chronological age.

  17. Combination of Intravitreal Ranibizumab and Laser Photocoagulation for Aggressive Posterior Retinopathy of Prematurity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ágata Mota

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To report on 2 cases of aggressive posterior retinopathy of prematurity (ROP treated with intravitreal ranibizumab (Lucentis® and laser photocoagulation. Methods: Two premature females, born at 25 and 26 weeks’ gestation with a birth weight of 530 and 550 g, respectively, with aggressive posterior ROP received combined treatment with laser photocoagulation and intravitreal ranibizumab (0.3 mg [30 µl] to each eye. Structural outcomes were evaluated by indirect ophthalmoscopy and documented by retinography. Results: An intravitreal injection was made at 34 weeks of postmenstrual age in the first case, followed by laser photocoagulation 1 week later. There was a partial regression of ROP with treatment. Five weeks later, neovascularization regrowth with bleeding in both eyes (intraretinal and subhyaloid occurred and retreatment with combined therapy was performed. In the second case, single therapy with laser photocoagulation was made at 34 weeks of postmenstrual age. In spite of the confluent photocoagulation in the avascular area, progression to 4A ROP stage occurred 1 week later. Both eyes were retreated 1 week later with intravitreal ranibizumab and laser photocoagulation. Treatment resulted in ROP regression in both cases. There were no signs of systemic or ocular adverse side effects. Conclusion: The cases presented show that combination therapy of indirect laser photocoagulation and intravitreal ranibizumab can be effective in the management of aggressive posterior ROP. Further investigation on anti-VEGF safety in premature infants is necessary . Additional studies are needed to define the role of anti-VEGF in ROP treatment.

  18. Prognostic value of neonatal electroencephalography in premature newborns less than 33 weeks of gestational age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marret, S; Parain, D; Ménard, J F; Blanc, T; Devaux, A M; Ensel, P; Fessard, C; Samson-Dollfus, D

    1997-03-01

    In a prospective study of 417 premature neonates born before 33 weeks' gestational age, neonatal tracings were reviewed to evaluate the use of EEG in prognosis of neurological injuries. The population was divided into two groups: Group 1, infants who died before the age of 1, and Group 2, survivors in which two categories of motor development were considered. Category A, were abnormal, and Category B, were always normal. Positive rolandic sharp waves (PRSW), which reflect white matter injury, occurred equally in both groups, indicating a similar incidence of white matter damage in Groups 1 and 2. In Group 2, there was a significant correlation of PRSW with developmental motor sequelae (Category A). A frequency of PRSW above 2/min (suggesting more severe periventricular white matter injury) and seizures were significantly more prevalent in Group 1 than in Group 2 and in Category A of Group 2 than in Category B. Background abnormalities occurred equally in both subgroups of extremely premature infants ( 28 weeks' gestation) and extremely (< or = 28 weeks' gestation) premature newborns.

  19. Fatores de risco para aterosclerose em crianças e adolescentes com história familiar de doença arterial coronariana prematura Risk factors for atherosclerosis in children and adolescents with family history of premature coronary artery disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceres C. Romaldini

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Analisar a prevalência de dislipidemia em 109 crianças e adolescentes com história familiar de doença arterial coronariana prematura e a associação com outros fatores de risco para aterosclerose. MÉTODOS: Foram determinados valores séricos de colesterol total, de lipoproteínas de baixa densidade (LDL-C, alta densidade (HDL-C, triglicérides, índice de massa corpórea e pressão arterial. Foram também avaliados: prática de atividade física, tabagismo, renda familiar e escolaridade da mãe. RESULTADOS: Do total, 27,5 e 19,3% apresentaram, respectivamente, valores de colesterol total e LDL-C acima do normal, 13,8% valores de HDL-C diminuídos e 13,0% trigliceridemia elevada. Excesso de peso (obesidade e sobrepeso foi detectado em 25,7% dos casos; destes, 57,1% apresentavam valores anormais de lipídios. A prevalência de dislipidemia, isolada ou concomitante com outros fatores de risco, foi de 38,5%. Hábito de fumar ocorreu em 3,6% dos casos, hipertensão arterial em 2,7%, e 72,5% não praticavam atividade física. Não houve associação entre as variáveis renda familiar, escolaridade da mãe e prática de atividade física e dislipidemia. Entretanto, observou-se associação significativa entre dislipidemia e excesso de peso (p = 0,02; odds ratio = 2,82; IC 95% = 1,16-6,81. CONCLUSÃO: Fatores de risco para aterosclerose em crianças e adolescentes com história familiar de doença arterial coronariana prematura devem ser identificados o mais cedo possível para que sejam adotados programas preventivos de saúde.OBJECTIVES: To identify the prevalence of dyslipidemia in a group of 109 children and adolescents with a family history of premature coronary artery disease and to investigate the association between dyslipidemia and other risk factors for atherosclerosis. METHODS: Total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, triglycerides, body mass index, blood

  20. Clinical manifestations of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV infection in children in the first few months of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aziza Khodjaeva

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The research objective was to study frequency of antenatal infection and record probable clinical manifestations in 100 children with HCMV born from mother with HCMV in blood and mononuclear cells. The study identified poly-systemic internal organ damage in neonates due to prenatal HCMV. Research procedures involved study of 100 pairs of patients, Mother-Child tandem, using regular clinical assessment methods per algorithm and HCMV diagnostic methods: ELISA, affinity and avidity of HCMV antibodies, and HCMV genome identification via PCR method in blood plasma and mononuclear cells. Initial clinical disease manifested in 71% of children during late neonatal period. Children who died of HCMV (5% were infected antenatal, and 39% were born prematurely. Embryonic stigma found in five cases. HCMV’s affinity to different tissues during the process of embryogenesis leads of poly-systemic damage and results in various clinical manifestations in the postnatal period. HCMV’s ability to invade mononuclear blood cells jeopardizes the antivirus defense system. The research is vital to deter the transmission of the virus and provide HCMV specific treatment to couples planning to have children.