WorldWideScience

Sample records for children attending care

  1. Comparison of motor and cognitive performance of children attending public and private day care centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana M. Santos

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Given that environmental factors, such as the school environment, can influence child development, more attention should be paid to the development of children attending day care centers. OBJECTIVE: Todetermine whether there are differences in the gross motor, fine motor, or cognitive performances of children between 1 and3 years-old of similar socioeconomic status attending public and private day care centers full time. METHOD: Participants were divided into 2 groups, 1 of children attending public day care centers (69 children and another of children attending private day care centers (47 children. All children were healthy and regularly attended day care full time for over 4 months. To assess cognitive, gross and fine motor performance, the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development III was used. The Mann-Whitney test was used for comparative analyses between groups of children between 13 and 24 months, 25 and 41 months, and 13 and 41 months. RESULTS: Children in public day care centers exhibited lower scores on the cognitive development scale beginning at 13 months old. The fine and gross motor performance scores were lower in children over the age of 25 months attending public centers. Maternal education was not related to the performance of children in either group. CONCLUSION: The scores of cognitive performance as well as fine and gross motor performance of children of similar socioeconomic status who attend public day care centers are lower than children attending private daycare centers.

  2. High Detection Rates of Enteropathogens in Asymptomatic Children Attending Day Care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Enserink, Remko; Scholts, Rianne; Bruijning-Verhagen, Patricia; Duizer, Erwin; Vennema, Harry; de Boer, Richard; Kortbeek, Titia; Roelfsema, Jeroen; Smit, Henriette; Kooistra-Smid, Mirjam; van Pelt, Wilfrid

    2014-01-01

    Background: Gastroenteritis morbidity is high among children under the age of four, especially amongst those who attend day care. Objective: To determine the prevalence of a range of enteropathogens in the intestinal flora of children attending day care and to relate their occurrence with characteri

  3. Psychiatric disorders in children attending a Nigerian primary care unit: functional impairment and risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tunde-Ayinmode Mosunmola

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is dearth of data on the level of functional impairment and risk factors for psychiatric morbidity in children attending primary care services in developing countries like Nigeria. The risk factors for psychiatric morbidity and functional impairment in children attending the primary care unit of a teaching hospital in Ilorin, Nigeria was therefore investigated to obtain data that could be used in improving service provision by primary care physicians. Methods A cross-sectional two-stage design was employed for the study. The first stage involved administration of the Child Behavior Questionnaire (CBQ to 350 children while the children’s version of the schedule for affective disorders and schizophrenia was used for the second stage involving 157 children, all high scorers on CBQ (score of ≥ 7 and 30% of low scorers (score  In addition, the Children Global Assessment Scale was used to assess the functional status of the children (score of ≤ 70 indicates functional impairment while the mothers’ mental health status was assessed with the 12-item version of the General Health Questionnaire, a score of 3 or more on this instrument indicate presence of mental morbidity. Results It was observed that 11.4% of the children had diagnosable psychiatric disorders and 7.1% were functionally impaired; and those with psychiatric disorders were more functionally impaired than those without. Thus, significant negative correlation was noted between CBQ scores and CGAS (r = 0.53; p  Conclusions Child psychiatric disorders are prevalent in the primary care unit studied. Many of the risk factors identified in the study population are modifiable. Collaborative efforts between psychiatrists and primary care physicians could therefore help to reduce level of risk and functional impairment and psychiatric morbidity among children attending the primary care unit studied. It could also help improve referral rates of

  4. Impact of extrinsic factors on fine motor performance of children attending day care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsi, Carolina; dos Santos, Mariana Martins; de Andrade Perez Marques, Luísa; Rocha, Nelci Adriana Cicuto Ferreira

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To assess the impact of extrinsic factors on fine motor performance of children aged 2-years old. Methods: 73 children attending public and 21 private day care centers were assessed. Day care environment was evaluated using the Infant/Toddler Environment Rating Scale-Revised Edition (ITERS-R), fine motor performance was assessed through the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development-III (BSITD-III), socioeconomic data, maternal education and time of start at the day care were collected through interviews. Spearman's correlation coefficient was calculated to assess the association between the studied variables. Results: The time at the day care was positively correlated with the children's performance in some fine motor tasks of the BSITD-III, showing that the activities developed in day care centers were important for the refinement of specific motor skills, while the overall fine motor performance by the scale was associated with maternal education and the ITERS-R scale sub-item “language and understanding”. Conclusions: Extrinsic factors such as higher maternal education and quality of day care centers are associated with fine motor performance in children attending day care. PMID:27094472

  5. High detection rates of enteropathogens in asymptomatic children attending day care.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remko Enserink

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Gastroenteritis morbidity is high among children under the age of four, especially amongst those who attend day care. OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of a range of enteropathogens in the intestinal flora of children attending day care and to relate their occurrence with characteristics of the sampled child and the sampling season. METHODS: We performed three years of enteropathogen surveillance in a network of 29 child day care centers in the Netherlands. The centers were instructed to take one fecal sample from ten randomly chosen children each month, regardless of gastrointestinal symptoms at time of sampling. All samples were analyzed for the molecular detection of 16 enteropathogenic bacteria, parasites and viruses by real-time multiplex PCR. RESULTS: Enteropathogens were detected in 78.0% of the 5197 fecal samples. Of the total, 95.4% of samples were obtained from children who had no gastroenteritis symptoms at time of sampling. Bacterial enteropathogens were detected most often (most prevalent EPEC, 19.9%, followed by parasitic enteropathogens (most prevalent: D. fragilis, 22.1% and viral enteropathogens (most prevalent: norovirus, 9.5%. 4.6% of samples related to children that experienced symptoms of gastroenteritis at time of sampling. Only rotavirus and norovirus were significantly associated with gastroenteritis among day care attendees. CONCLUSIONS: Our study indicates that asymptomatic infections with enteropathogens in day care attendees are not a rare event and that gastroenteritis caused by infections with these enteropathogens is only one expression of their presence.

  6. Respiratory Virus Detection and Clinical Diagnosis in Children Attending Day Care.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Moe

    Full Text Available Respiratory viruses often have been studied in children with respiratory tract infection (RTI, but less knowledge exists about viruses in asymptomatic children. We have studied the occurrence of a broad panel of respiratory viruses in apparently healthy children attending day care, taking into account the influence of possible confounding factors, such as age, clinical signs of respiratory tract infection (RTI, location (day-care section and season.We have studied 161 children in two day-care centers, each with separate sections for younger and older children, during four autumn and winter visits over a two-year period. A total of 355 clinical examinations were performed, and 343 nasopharyngeal samples (NPS were analyzed by semi-quantitative, real-time, polymerase chain reaction (PCR tests for 19 respiratory pathogens.Forty-three percent of all NPS were PCR-positive for ≥ 1 of 13 virus species, with high species variation during visits. Rhinovirus 26% (88/343 NPS, enterovirus 12% (40/343 and parechovirus 9% (30/343 were detected in every visit, and the rates varied in relation to age, day-care section and season. Ten other viruses were detected in ≤ 3% of the NPS. Generally, viruses occurred together in the NPS. In 24% (79/331 of the clinical examinations with available NPS, the children had clear signs of RTI, while in 41% (135/331 they had mild signs, and in 35% (117/331 the children had no signs of RTI. Moreover, viruses were found in 70% (55/79 of children with clear signs of RTI, in 41% (55/135 with mild signs and in 30% (35/117 without any signs of RTI (p < 0.001.Positive PCR tests for respiratory viruses, particularly picornaviruses, were frequently detected in apparently healthy children attending day care. Virus detection rates were related to age, presence of clinical signs of RTI, location in day care and season.

  7. Clinical Profile of Children and Adolescents Attending the Behavioural Paediatrics Unit OPD in a Tertiary Care Set up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaprakash, R.

    2012-01-01

    Background: There are limited studies on the clinical profile of children attending child guidance clinic under Paediatric background. Aims: To study clinical profile of Children & adolescents attending the Behavioural Paediatrics Unit (BPU) OPD under department of Paediatrics in a tertiary care set up. Methods: Monthly average turnover in the…

  8. Gastroenteritis Attributable to 16 Enteropathogens in Children Attending Day Care Significant Effects of Rotavirus, Norovirus, Astrovirus, Cryptosporidium and Giardia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Enserink, Remko; van den Wijngaard, Cees; Bruijning-Verhagen, Patricia; van Asten, Liselotte; Mughini-Gras, Lapo; Duizer, Erwin; Kortbeek, Titia; Scholts, Rianne; Nagelkerke, Nico; Smit, Henriette A.; Kooistra-Smid, Mirjam; van Pelt, Wilfrid

    2015-01-01

    Background: Children attending day care experience substantial gastrointestinal morbidity due to circulating seasonal enteropathogens in the day-care environment. The lack of a distinct clinical presentation of gastroenteritis (GE) in these children, in combination with the high diversity of enterop

  9. Assessment of Antiretroviral Treatment Adherence among Children Attending Care at a Tertiary Hospital in Southeastern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cletus Akahara

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Adherence is the strongest predictor of successful treatment outcome among children infected with HIV. Our aim was to assess the antiretroviral drugs adherence status of HIV-infected children attending care at a tertiary hospital in Southeastern Nigeria. Method. The study involved a cross-sectional survey of 210 HIV-infected children attending care at a tertiary hospital in Southeastern Nigeria using self-report method of assessment. Optimal ART adherence is defined as patient taking not missing more than 1 dose of combined antiretroviral therapy medication in the preceding 2 weeks prior to the study. Result. A majority of the subjects 191 (91% had good adherence. There was a significant relationship between adherence and patient educational level (p=0.004, duration of treatment (p=0.001, drug administrator (p=0.005, and orphan status (p=0.001. The motivating factor for adherence was “not falling sick as before” while stigma was the most discouraging factor. Conclusion. The adherence level in this study was good. Stigma was an important reason given by patient/caregivers for nonadherence. There is need for concerted effort in addressing this barrier to improve adherence and prevent the emergence of drug resistance and treatment failure.

  10. Lifestyle and Dietary Behaviors among Saudi Preschool Children Attending Primary Health Care Centers, Eastern Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdy A. Darwish

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To study life styles and dietary behaviors among Saudi preschool children (1–5 years attending primary health care centers (PHCCs in Dammam and Qatif areas, eastern province, Saudi Arabia. Material and Methods. Cross-sectional study. Data were collected using structured, interviewer-filled questionnaire. Children and their mothers were encountered during their well-baby clinic visits. A total number of 300 preschool children and their mothers were interviewed during study period. Results. Unsatisfactory areas include smoking fathers (32%, smoking in front of children (11.3%, overweight and obesity among mothers (60.3%, noncompliance using seat belts for both parents (56.3% and children (68%, children watching television (T.V more than 2 hours (50%, adherence to exclusive breast feeding (only 20.7%, and late solid food introduction (65.3%. Frequent intake of unhealthy food items was 26%, 25%, and 24% for pizza, burger, and soft drinks. Unfortunately frequent intake of the following unhealthy food items was high: biscuits, deserts/chocolates, and chips which was 78%, 67%, and 72%, respectively. Conclusion. This study provides benchmark about the current situation. It provides health care workers and decision makers with important information that may help to improve health services.

  11. School Readiness among Low-Income, Latino Children Attending Family Childcare versus Centre-Based Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Arya; Winsler, Adam

    2012-01-01

    Latino children often struggle in school. Early childhood education programmes are seen as critical for fostering children's school readiness. Latino families often choose family childcare (FCC) over centre-based childcare (CBC), yet little is known about the school readiness of Latino children attending FCC. We compared school readiness over the…

  12. Effects of Experimentally Imposed Noise on Task Performance of Black Children Attending Day Care Centers Near Elevated Subway Trains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hambrick-Dixon, Priscilla Janet

    1986-01-01

    Investigates whether an experimentally imposed 80dB (A) noise affected psychomotor, serial memory words and pictures, incidental memory, visual recall, paired associates, perceptual learning, and coding performance of five-year-old Black children attending day care centers near and far from elevated subways. (HOD)

  13. The Role of Attending Center-Based Care for Kindergarten-Aged Children with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottfried, Michael A.

    2017-01-01

    Background/Context: Families have been increasingly utilizing center-based care both during prekindergarten as well as before/after school during kindergarten (CBC-K), and the literature has addressed the relative effectiveness of attending the former on early schooling outcomes. However, missing in the field is an analysis of the efficacy of…

  14. Care for overweight children attending the 5-year preventive child health examination in general practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Merethe Kousgaard; Christensen, Bo; Søndergaard, Jens

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to analyse general practitioners' (GPs) care for children with a weight-for-height above normal based on the GPs' clinical evaluation, that is, 'GP-assessed overweight'.Design. This study is a cross-sectional survey targeting GPs' care for children with GP...

  15. Different risk factors for infection with Giardia lamblia assemblages A and B in children attending day-care centres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pijnacker, R; Mughini-Gras, L; Heusinkveld, M; Roelfsema, J; van Pelt, W; Kortbeek, T

    2016-12-01

    Giardia lamblia is a major cause of diarrhoea in children, especially those attending day-care centres (DCCs). Only Giardia assemblages A and B infect humans. Given the lack of assemblage-specific epidemiological data, we aimed to identify risk factors for infection by assemblages A and B in DCC attendees. During 2010-2013, 5,015 faecal samples from ≤4-year-old children attending 40 DCCs participating in laboratory surveillance in the Netherlands were tested for Giardia using RT-PCR. Giardia-positive samples were typed for identification of assemblages A and B. We compared child- and DCC-level characteristics of Giardia-positive children with those of Giardia-negative children using mixed-effects logistic regression. Overall, 226 samples (4.5 %) tested positive for Giardia, and assemblages were determined for 138 of them: 62 (45 %) were assemblage A and 76 (55 %) were B. The only risk factor for assemblage A infection was attending DCCs with indoor sandpits and cats during spring/summer (odds ratio [OR] 13.5; 95% CI 1.8-101.3). For assemblage B, risk factors were attending DCCs with dedicated diaper-changing (OR 3.6; 95% CI 1.7-7.6) and laundry (OR 2.3; 95% CI 1.1-4.9) areas. Preventing sick children from attending day-care and having cloth-towels at the DCC decreased the risk of assemblage B infection (OR 0.0; 95% CI 0.0-0.5 and OR 0.3; 95% CI 0.1-0.6 respectively). Risk factors for assemblages A and B infection in DCC-attending children were different, with assemblage B being mainly related to anthroponotic transmission, and assemblage A being related to zoonotic transmission. Given these differences, interventions to reduce the burden of childhood giardiasis cannot ignore those assemblage-specific preferred reservoirs and transmission routes.

  16. The use of the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and viral findings in the nasopharynx of children attending day care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumpu, Minna; Lehtoranta, Liisa; Roivainen, Merja; Rönkkö, Esa; Ziegler, Thedi; Söderlund-Venermo, Maria; Kautiainen, Hannu; Järvenpää, Salme; Kekkonen, Riina; Hatakka, Katja; Korpela, Riitta; Pitkäranta, Anne

    2013-09-01

    Limited data are available on the effects of probiotics on the nasopharyngeal presence of respiratory viruses in children attending day care. In this substudy of a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled 28-week intervention study, nasopharyngeal swab samples were collected, on visits to a physician due to symptoms of infection, from children receiving control milk (N = 97) and children receiving the same milk supplemented with probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (N = 97). The presence of 14 respiratory viruses was assessed by PCR methods, and viral findings were compared with symptom prevalences in the intervention groups. Rhinovirus was identified in 28.6% of 315 swab samples, followed by respiratory syncytial virus (12.4%), parainfluenza virus 1 (12.1%), enterovirus (8.9%), influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 (7.9%), human bocavirus 1 (3.8%), parainfluenza virus 2 (3.2%), adenovirus (2.9%), and influenza A(H3N2) (0.6%). The children in the probiotic group had less days with respiratory symptoms per month than the children in the control group (6.48 [95% CI 6.28-6.68] vs. 7.19 [95% CI 6.98-7.41], P Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG had fewer days with respiratory symptoms than children in the control group, although probiotic intervention was not effective in reducing the amount of viral findings or the respiratory symptoms associated with viral findings.

  17. Gastrointestinal and respiratory illness in children that do and do not attend child day care centers: a cost-of-illness study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remko Enserink

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Gastrointestinal and respiratory diseases are major causes of morbidity for young children, particularly for those children attending child day care centers (DCCs. Although both diseases are presumed to cause considerable societal costs for care and treatment of illness, the extent of these costs, and the difference of these costs between children that do and do not attend such centers, is largely unknown. OBJECTIVE: Estimate the societal costs for care and treatment of episodes of gastroenteritis (GE and influenza-like illness (ILI experienced by Dutch children that attend a DCC, compared to children that do not attend a DCC. METHODS: A web-based monthly survey was conducted among households with children aged 0-48 months from October 2012 to October 2013. Households filled-in a questionnaire on the incidence of GE and ILI episodes experienced by their child during the past 4 weeks, on the costs related to care and treatment of these episodes, and on DCC arrangements. Costs and incidence were adjusted for socioeconomic characteristics including education level, nationality and monthly income of parents, number of children in the household, gender and age of the child and month of survey conduct. RESULTS: Children attending a DCC experienced higher rates of GE (aIRR 1.4 [95%CI: 1.2-1.9] and ILI (aIRR: 1.4 [95%CI: 1.2-1.6] compared to children not attending a DCC. The societal costs for care and treatment of an episode of GE and ILI experienced by a DCC-attending child were estimated at €215.45 [€115.69-€315.02] and €196.32 [€161.58-€232.74] respectively, twice as high as for a non-DCC-attending child. The DCC-attributable economic burden of GE and ILI for the Netherlands was estimated at €25 million and €72 million per year. CONCLUSIONS: Although children attending a DCC experience only slightly higher rates of GE and ILI compared to children not attending a DCC, the costs involved per episode are substantially higher.

  18. Prevalence of Undernutrition among Preschool Children under Five Attending Pediatric OPD in a Tertiary Care Hospital of Northeastern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sourabh Duwarah

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prevalence of undernutrition in developing countries, though on the declining trend, is still a cause for alarm.The prevalence in India is among the highest in the world. In such a scenario,this study was undertaken to find out the nutritional status of under five children attending the pediatric OPD of a tertiary care hospital of North East india. Methodology: The study was an OPD based cross sectional study carried out at the Pediatric OPD, NEIGRIHMS, Shillong.The study was carried out from 1stJanuary 2012 – 31st December 2012. Weight and Height was taken by trained staff following standard anthropometric techniques. A total of 6624 children aged 0-60 months were included in the study.Results: A total of 6624 children aged 0-60 months were enrolled during 1st January 2012 – 31st December 2012 in the Pediatric OPD, NEIGRIHMS. Out of these, 6183 children were included in the present analyses. Overall the prevalence of underweight, stunting and wasting was 19.7%, 35.5% and 8.5% respectively. Of these, 9.0%, 19.7% and 3.4% children were found to be severely underweight, stunted and wasted. It was observed that the prevalence of underweight, stunting and wasting was significantly higher in boys than girls. Based on the World Health Organization classification of severity in malnutrition, the overall prevalence of underweight (>19% and stunting (>30% was high. While the prevalence rates of wasting (5–9% were medium. Conclusion: The nutritional status of the subjects is unsatisfactory. There is scope for a detailed community based study and nutritional interventions

  19. Food Consumption and Nutrient Intake by Children Aged 10 to 48 Months Attending Day Care in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goldbohm, R.A.; Rubingh, C.M.; Lanting, C.L.; Joosten, K.F.M.

    2016-01-01

    The diet of young children is an important determinant of long-term health effects, such as overweight and obesity. We analyzed two-day food consumption records from 1526 young children (10–48 months old) attending 199 daycare centers across The Netherlands. Data were observed and recorded in diarie

  20. Food consumption and nutrient intake by children aged 10 to 48 months attending day care in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.A. Goldbohm; Rubingh, C.M. (Carina M.); C.I. Lanting (Caren); K.F.M. Joosten (Koen)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThe diet of young children is an important determinant of long-term health effects, such as overweight and obesity. We analyzed two-day food consumption records from 1526 young children (10–48 months old) attending 199 daycare centers across The Netherlands. Data were observed and record

  1. Pathotypes of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli in children attending a tertiary care hospital in South India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajendran, Priya; Ajjampur, Sitara Swarna Rao; Chidambaram, Divya; Chandrabose, Gunasekaran; Thangaraj, Bhuvaneswari; Sarkar, Rajiv; Samuel, Prasanna; Rajan, Deva Prasanna; Kang, Gagandeep

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) in children under 5 years was studied in children with diarrhea and controls in South India. Four polymerase chain reaction (PCR) “schemes” were used to detect genes of the 6 pathotypes of DEC. In 394 children with diarrhea, 203 (52%) DEC infections were found. Among the 198 controls, 126 (63%) DEC infections were found. Enteroaggregative E. coli was the most common pathotype by multiplex PCR both in cases (58, 14.7%) and controls (47, 23.7%), followed by enteropathogenic E. coli seen in 10% cases and 8% of controls. Enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC), enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC), enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC), and diffusely adherent E. coli (DAEC) were found in 4.1%, 2.0%, 1.0%, and 0.5% of cases, respectively. ETEC was found in 2.5% of controls, but EHEC, EIEC, and DAEC were not detected. Overall, no single assay worked well, but by discounting genes with a pathogenicity index of less than 1, it was possible to use the PCR assays to identify DEC in 75/394 (19%) cases and 12/198 (6.1%) controls, while mixed infection could be identified in 8/394 (2%) cases and 2/198 (1%) controls. PMID:20846583

  2. A hand hygiene intervention to decrease infections among children attending day care centers: Design of a cluster randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.P. Zomer (Tizza); V. Erasmus (Vicky); N. Vlaar (Nico); E.F. van Beeck (Ed); A. Tjon-A-Tsien (Aimée); J.H. Richardus (Jan Hendrik); H.A.C.M. Voeten (Hélène)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Day care center attendance has been recognized as a risk factor for acquiring gastrointestinal and respiratory infections, which can be prevented with adequate hand hygiene (HH). Based on previous studies on environmental and sociocognitive determinants of caregivers' complia

  3. Food Consumption and Nutrient Intake by Children Aged 10 to 48 Months Attending Day Care in The Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Alexandra Goldbohm

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The diet of young children is an important determinant of long-term health effects, such as overweight and obesity. We analyzed two-day food consumption records from 1526 young children (10–48 months old attending 199 daycare centers across The Netherlands. Data were observed and recorded in diaries by caregivers at the day nursery and by parents at home on days that the children attended the daycare center. According to national and European reference values, the children had an adequate nutrient intake with exception of low intakes of total fat, n-3 fatty acids from fish and possibly iron. Intakes of energy and protein were substantially higher than recommended and part of the population exceeded the tolerable upper intake levels for sodium, zinc and retinol. Consumption of fruit, fats, fish, and fluids was substantially less than recommended. The children used mostly (semi-skimmed milk products and non-refined bread and cereals, as recommended. Two thirds of the consumed beverages, however, contained sugar and contributed substantially to energy intake. In young children, low intakes of n-3 fatty acids and iron are a potential matter of concern, as are the high intakes of energy, protein, sugared beverages, and milk, since these may increase the risk of becoming overweight.

  4. A cluster randomised trial to evaluate a physical activity intervention among 3-5 year old children attending long day care services: study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Finch Meghan

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Young children are not participating in recommended levels of physical activity and exhibit high levels of sedentary behaviour. Childcare services provide access to large numbers of young children for prolonged periods, yet there is limited experimental evidence regarding the effectiveness of physical activity interventions implemented in this setting. The aim of this study is to assess the effectiveness and acceptability of a multi-component physical activity intervention, delivered by childcare service staff, in increasing the physical activity levels of children attending long day care services. Methods/Design The study will employ a cluster randomised controlled trial design. Three hundred children aged between 3-5 years from twenty randomly selected long day care services in the Hunter Region of New South Wales, Australia will be invited to participate in the trial. Ten of the 20 long day care services will be randomly allocated to deliver the intervention with the remaining ten services allocated to a wait list control group. The physical activity intervention will consist of a number of strategies including: delivering structured fundamental movement skill activities, increasing physical activity opportunities, increasing staff role modelling, providing children with a physical activity promoting indoor and outdoor environment and limiting children's small screen recreation and sedentary behaviours. Intervention effectiveness will be measured via child physical activity levels during attendance at long day care. The study also seeks to determine the acceptability and extent of implementation of the intervention by services and their staff participating in the study. Discussion The trial will address current gaps in the research evidence base and contribute to the design and delivery of future interventions promoting physical activity for young children in long day care settings. Trial registration Australian New

  5. Pattern of Headache in School Going Children Attending Specialized Clinic in aTertiary Care Hospital in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Azharul Hoque

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the pattern of headache and its associated symptoms in school going children.Methods: The data of all the school going children attending the Headache Clinic in the Dept. of Neurology, Dhaka Medical College Hospital were retrospectively reviewed. A total of 1021 patients from October 1996 to September 2011 were selected. Data were collected through a predesigned questionnaire containing information on age, sex, social status, clinical features, opthalmoscopic findings, management, and in selected cases imaging results.Result: The mean age of headache in school children was 12.6±1.08 years with relatively older age of presentation among girls. The sex ratio was 1.64:1 in favor of girls at older age. Tension type headache (71.1% was the most common form of headache, followed by migraine (18.4% and mixed headache (6.7%. Though the girls had more frequent headache of both tension type (59.4% and migraine (68.1% variety, the latter was significantly associated in girls (p<0.001. Headache was of moderate severity in 53.3%, whereas severe headache was experienced by 19.9% of the children. The children commonly had nausea and/or vomiting (47.2%, as well as photophobia (24.7% with headache. Mentalstress (34% and sunlight (30.9% were common triggering factors whereas a sound sleep relieved headache in the majority (59.4%. Paracetamol (83.3% and nor tryptyline (62.8% were the most commonly prescribed drug taken by them.Conclusion: Headache is a major health problem in school children, apart from other common health issues at this age. With increasing age, the girls more commonly suffer not only from migraine but also with other chronic headache. The direct causal association is yet to be determined.

  6. Knowledge, attitude and practice of oral health promoting factors among caretakers of children attending day-care centers in Kubang Kerian, Malaysia: A preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mani S

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: The role of caretakers at day-care centers has become more imperative in promoting oral health care in children since many new mothers opt to work outside their homes, leaving their children at day-care centers. The aim of this study is to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of oral health promoting factors among secondary caretakers of children attending day-care centers. Settings and Design: This was a cross-sectional exploratory study conducted among secondary caretakers in Kubang Kerian, Malaysia. Materials and Methods: Thirty-four caretakers fulfilling the inclusion and exclusion criteria participated in the study. The data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire addressing various aspects of knowledge, attitude and practice of oral health in children. Analysis was done using SPSS version 12.0. Results: The knowledge of factors causing dental caries was found to be good among majority of the caretakers, but the concepts of transmissibility of caries and effect of hidden sugars were not evident. Seventy one percent did not know that frequent bottle feeding could cause tooth decay. Attitudes seemed to be governed by the cultural practices of the region rather than the knowledge obtained. The knowledge was not translated to practice adequately. Giving sweetened liquid in bottles was practiced by 53% of the caretakers. Conclusion: Implementation of nursery-based oral health promotion programs for secondary caretakers is needed to counteract early childhood caries.

  7. Challenges of caring for children with mental disorders: Experiences and views of caregivers attending the outpatient clinic at Muhimbili National Hospital, Dar es Salaam - Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambikile Joel

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is estimated that world-wide up to 20 % of children suffer from debilitating mental illness. Mental disorders that pose a significant concern include learning disorders, hyperkinetic disorders (ADHD, depression, psychosis, pervasive development disorders, attachment disorders, anxiety disorders, conduct disorder, substance abuse and eating disorders. Living with such children can be very stressful for caregivers in the family. Therefore, determination of challenges of living with these children is important in the process of finding ways to help or support caregivers to provide proper care for their children. The purpose of this study was to explore the psychological and emotional, social, and economic challenges that parents or guardians experience when caring for mentally ill children and what they do to address or deal with them. Methodology A qualitative study design using in-depth interviews and focus group discussions was applied. The study was conducted at the psychiatric unit of Muhimbili National Hospital in Tanzania. Two focus groups discussions (FGDs and 8 in-depth interviews were conducted with caregivers who attended the psychiatric clinic with their children. Data analysis was done using content analysis. Results The study revealed psychological and emotional, social, and economic challenges caregivers endure while living with mentally ill children. Psychological and emotional challenges included being stressed by caring tasks and having worries about the present and future life of their children. They had feelings of sadness, and inner pain or bitterness due to the disturbing behaviour of the children. They also experienced some communication problems with their children due to their inability to talk. Social challenges were inadequate social services for their children, stigma, burden of caring task, lack of public awareness of mental illness, lack of social support, and problems with social life. The

  8. Cortisol Patterns at Home and Child Care: Afternoon Differences and Evening Recovery in Children Attending Very High Quality Full-Day Center-Based Child Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watamura, Sarah E.; Kryzer, Erin M.; Robertson, Steven S.

    2008-01-01

    Previous work has found that many young children show different patterns of production of the hormone cortisol, which is sensitive to stress and challenge, on days when they are at child care compared with days when they are at home. At home, preschool age children typically show a decreasing pattern of cortisol production across the day which is…

  9. Prevalence of childhood and early adolescence mental disorders among children attending primary health care centers in Mosul, Iraq: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Jawadi Asma A

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Children and adolescents are more vulnerable to the affects of war and violence than adults. At the time of initiation of this study, nothing was known about the prevalence of childhood and early adolescence mental disorders. The aim of the present study is to measure the point prevalence of mental disorders among children of 1–15 years age in the city of Mosul, Iraq. Methods A cross-sectional study design was adopted. Four primary health care centers were chosen consecutively as a study setting. The subjects of the present study were mothers who came to the primary health care center for vaccination of their children. The chosen mothers were included by systematic sampling randomization. All children (aged 1–15 that each mother had were considered in the interview and examination. Results Out of 3079 children assessed, 1152 have childhood mental disorders, giving a point prevalence of 37.4%, with a male to female ratio of to 1.22:1. The top 10 disorders among the examined children are post-traumatic stress disorder (10.5%, enuresis (6%, separation anxiety disorder (4.3%, specific phobia (3.3% stuttering and refusal to attend school (3.2% each, learning and conduct disorders (2.5% each, stereotypic movement (2.3% and feeding disorder in infancy or early childhood (2.0%. Overall, the highest prevalence of mental disorders was among children 10–15 years old (49.2% while the lowest was among 1–5 year olds (29.1%. Boys are more affected than girls (40.2% and 33.2%, respectively. Conclusion Childhood mental disorders are a common condition highly prevalent amongst the children and early adolescents in Mosul. Data from the present study mirrors the size of the problem in local community. Several points deserve attention, the most important of which include giving care at the community level, educating the public on mental health, involving communities and families, monitoring community mental health indicators, and

  10. ASSESSMENT OF KNOWLEDGE ABOUT IMMUNIZATION OF UNDER FIVE CHILDREN AMONG MOTHERS ATTENDING OUTPATIENT DEPARTMENT OF PEDIATRICS IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL IN KOLLAM, KERALA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Nadeem

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Immunization is the most cost effective public health intervention to reduce childhood morbidity and mortality. Thousands of children can be saved from vaccine preventable diseases each year by immunization. The knowledge of mothers’ is an important factor for better immunization coverage. Less knowledge affects decision making regarding immunization. OBJECTIVES: To assess the knowledge about immunization of under five children among mothers a ttending outpatient department of paediatrics in a tertiary care hospital in Kollam, Kerala and to find out the association of the knowledge level of mothers with some selected variables. MATERIAL AND METHODS : A Cross sectional study was done among mothers of under five children attending the OPD of pediatrics in a tertiary care hospital in Kollam, Kerala from 1 st to 30 th May, 2014. The sample size was 210 and simple random sampling was used. Statistical analysis was done and chi - square test & percentages w ere calculated. RESULT: 93.8% of mothers knew that vaccines are beneficial for their child. 58% were aware about the side effects of few vaccines. 50% of mothers believed that as polio is eradicated from India, there is no need to give polio vaccine. 35% o f mothers acquired knowledge regarding immunization through health workers. All of them had knowledge about polio vaccine but only half of them knew about rotavirus vaccine. 60% mothers believed that multiple vaccines are beneficial although 26% hold their view that it has no benefit at all. 39.5% of mothers’ had adequate knowledge about immunization. It was positively associated with education, working class and high socio - economic status of mothers. CONCLUSION: There are several loopholes in the mother’s knowledge regarding immunization. Many of them had no knowledge about optional vaccines. There is a need to improve knowledge regarding immunization among general population. Adequate information about completin g the

  11. Varicella zoster in children attending day care centers Varicela-zóster em crianças que frequentam creches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Marcitelli

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe morbidity associated to varicella in children attending day care centers. METHODS: Descriptive study carried out through inquiries with parents of 664 children who acquired varicella after admission to day care centers in Taubaté (population: 244,165, census of 2004, a prosperous city in the State of São Paulo. RESULTS: The median age was 36 months (range 6 to 80 months; 8.4% of the children had varicella before 1 year of age. The main symptoms were: exanthema (100.0%, fever (85.4% anorexia (39.6%, and headache (15.3%. 517 children (77.9% had at least 1 medical visit, and 80.6% received at least 1 medication; 73 (11.0% received nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, and 52 (7.8% received antibiotics. Complications occurred in 38 children (5.7%; 95% confidence interval: 3% - 8%; 8 (1.2% were hospitalized, and 5 (0.7% had sequelae. Complications and hospitalizations rates were 3 times more frequent in children with less than 1 year of age than in older children. More than half of the children and of the working parents were absent from their regular activities for more than a week. CONCLUSIONS: Varicella was associated with significant morbidity, affected younger children, was complicated in more than 5%, and left sequelae in 0.7% of children. More than 10% of the children received nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, highlighting the need to warn the population about the risks of these drugs. Although varicella vaccination is not recommended for children younger than 12 months, vaccination of the children older than a year could avoid by herd immunity the transmission to babies. Brazilian public health authorities should be alerted to this issue and offer varicella vaccine to children attending day care centers.OBJETIVO: Descrever a morbidade associada à varicela nas crianças usuárias de creches. MÉTODOS: Estudo descritivo, realizado através de inquérito com pais ou responsáveis por 664 crianças que contra

  12. A prospective study of hearing impairment in school going children of Ghaziabad city attending a tertiary care hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saud Lateef Chishty

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Overcrowding, poor hygiene, socio-economic status, climate, lack of resources to avail medical facilities, poor medical awareness have their bearing on the incidence of hearing loss. The family of each hearing-impaired child has its own cultural, social, educational, and financial background, and its own special needs. The aim of this study is to determine the percentage of hearing impaired school going children in Ghaziabad city. Methods: The material for the present study were a representative sample constituting 1000 school children selected from various localities of Ghaziabad city within age group of 6-12 years. The children belonged to all the strata of society and children from both sexes were evaluated for hearing loss and its underlying etiological factors. Children were subjected to detailed ENT examination in our OPD. Results: In the present study sample the incidence of hearing loss is 9.3%. The maximum cases 60.22% belonged to the low socio-economic strata. A statistically significant difference of distribution by gender was noticed with a male preponderance (61.29% as against 38.71% for females. The hearing loss in majority of cases was of a mild degree i.e., 26 to 45 dB (34.41% of which majority of cases (87.10% had conductive loss. Wax was the commonest cause of hearing loss (41.94%. CSOM was found in 21.50 % of all cases. Peak prevalence of hearing loss was found at 8 years of age, again declining after that from 20.43 % to 5.38 % by 12 years of age. Also it was observed that 59.14% children were living in crowded localities of city and 40.86% were living in non- crowded/open locality which is again statistically significant (P and #8804;0.05. Conclusion: The inferences drawn from the present study substantiates the view point of earlier workers that school screening is the most effective method of diagnosing deafness in school going children and should be extended to all schools in all the areas. Proper assessment

  13. A PROSPECTIVE STUDY OF HEARING IMPAIRMENT IN SCHOOL GOING CHILDREN OF GHAZIABAD CITY ATTENDING A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saud Lateef chishty

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Overcrowding, poor hygiene, socio-economic status, climate, lack of resources to avail medical facilities, poor medical awareness have their bearing on the incidence of hearing loss .The family of each hearing-impaired child has its own cultural, social, educational, and financial background, and its own special needs. The aim of this study is to determine the percentage of hearing impaired school going children in Ghaziabad city. Materials and Methods: The material for the present study were a representative sample constituting 1000 school children selected from various localities of Ghaziabad city within age group of 6 — 12 years. The children belonged to all the strata of society and children from both sexes were evaluated for hearing loss and its underlying etiological factors. Children were subjected to detailed ENT examination in our OPD. Results: In the present study sample the incidence of hearing loss is 9.3 %. The maximum cases 60.22 % belonged to the low socio-economic strata. A statistically significant difference of distribution by gender was noticed with a male preponderance (61.29% as against 38.71% for females. The hearing loss in majority of cases was of a mild degree i.e., 26 to 45 dB (34.41% of which majority of cases (87.10% had conductive loss. Wax was the commonest cause of hearing loss (41 .94%. CSOM was found in 21.50 % of all cases. Peak prevalence of hearing loss was found at 8 years of age, again declining after that from 20.43 % to 5.38 % by 12 years of age. Also it was observed that 59.14% children were living in crowded localities of city & 40.86% were living in non- crowded/open locality which is again statistically significant (p< or =0.05 Conclusion: The inferences drawn from the present study substantiates the view point of earlier workers that school screening is the most effective method of diagnosing deafness in school going children and should be extended to all schools in all the areas

  14. Day-care attendance and child development:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauchmüller, Robert; Gørtz, Mette; Rasmussen, Astrid Würtz

    Earlier research suggests that children’s development is shaped in their early years of life. This paper examines whether differences in day-care experiences during pre-school age are important for children’s cognitive and language development at the age of 15. The analysis is based on class...... performance at the end of elementary schooling. We assess the effects of attended types and qualities of day-care institutions on various child outcomes as measured by school grades in mathematics, science, English and Danish for the whole Danish population as well as outcomes from the 2006 PISA Denmark......, of total work experiences, ages and hourly wages of staff members. Those indicators show the expected correlations with children’s development outcomes, better day-care quality being linked to better child outcomes ten years later. We use rich administrative information about the children’s background...

  15. Oral health status and treatment needs of children and young adults attending a day centre for individuals with special health care needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akindayomi Yinka

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The oral health condition of individuals with special health care needs have been reported in literature to be influenced by various sociodemographic factors, including living conditions and severity of impairment. This study was carried out to determine the oral health status and treatment needs of children and young adults attending a day institution for those with special needs. Methods This study was carried out as part of an oral health screening program organized by the institution and consent was obtained from parents and guardians before the screening. All information was supplied by the parents during the screening using a questionnaire completed by the dentist. Oral examination was carried out on all consenting subjects in attendance on the days of screening in the school clinic with parents and teachers in attendance, using standard World Health Organisation oral health indices to assess dental caries, oral hygiene status, malocclusion and other oral health parameters. Results Fifty-four subjects aged 3–26 years (mean 12.28 ± 6.82 years and comprising 72.2% males and 27.8% females participated in the study. Over 90% were from parents of high and middle level educational background. Thirty-six (66.7% were caries free, with a mean dmft score of 0.7 ± 1.77 and mean DMFT score of 0.4 ± 1.44 with no significant difference across gender (p = 0.5 and parents' educational status (p = 0.43. The mean OHI-S of the total population in this study was 1.36 ± 0.16. Females had a mean score of 0.88 ± 1.10 while males had a mean score of 1.55 ± 1.24 with no significant difference (p = 0.6. Twenty-five (46.3% had good oral hygiene, 17 (31.5% had fair oral hygiene and 12 (22.2% had poor oral hygiene, with no significant difference across gender (p = 1.11 and age groups (p = 0.07. Fifteen (27.8% had gingivitis with no significant difference across age groups (p = 0.17. Forty-five (83.3% had Angle's class I malocclusion, 6

  16. The seroprevalence of hepatitis C virus infection among children and their mothers attending for dental care in Glasgow, Scotland, United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, Maureen; Bagg, Jeremy; Welbury, Richard; Hutchinson, Sharon J; Hague, Rosie; Geary, Isabella; Roy, Kirsty M

    2016-08-24

    This paper describes a voluntary anonymous survey to investigate the seroprevalence of Hepatitis C (HCV) in children in Glasgow, UK attending a Dental Hospital and the proportion of HCV positive mothers who have a child who is HCV seropositive. The study was undertaken among children and accompanying parents and household contacts attending a general anaesthetic assessment clinic at Glasgow Dental Hospital and School. Children were asked to provide an oral fluid specimen for HCV testing. Accompanying adults were asked to provide demographic data on the child and information on familial risk factors for HCV infection using a standardised questionnaire. Birth mothers were also asked to provide an oral fluid specimen. Specimens and questionnaires were linked by a unique anonymous study number. Between June 2009 and December 2011, samples were collected from 2141 children and 1698 mothers. None of the samples from the children were HCV seropositive but 16 (0.9%, 95% CI 0.6-1.5%) of the specimens from mothers were HCV antibody positive. In summary, the prevalence of HCV seropositivity in the birth mothers of the children was similar to that estimated in the general population served by the hospital and showed no evidence of mother-to-child transmission of HCV.

  17. Oral microflora in preschool children attending a fluoride varnish program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anderson, Maria; Grindefjord, Margaret; Dahllöf, Göran

    2016-01-01

    hundred seven 3-year-old children were enrolled from a cohort of 3403 preschool children taking part in a community based oral health project. Two hundred sixty-three of them had attended caries-preventive program with semi-annual applications of a fluoride varnish since the age of 1 year (test group......BACKGROUND: To compare the oral microflora in preschool children attending a fluoride varnish program with a reference group receiving a standard oral health program without fluoride varnish applications. A second aim was to relate the microbial composition to the caries prevalence. METHODS: Five......) while 237 had received standard preventive care (reference group). Oral samples were collected with a sterile swab and analysed with checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization using 12 pre-determined bacterial probes. Caries and background data were collected from clinical examinations and questionnaires...

  18. Children's School Placement in Germany: Does Kindergarten Attendance Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiess, C. Katharina; Buchel, Felix; Wagner, Gert G.

    2003-01-01

    Examined the relationship between kindergarten attendance and seventh-grade school placement of children in West Germany, differentiating associations for children of citizens from those of immigrants' children. Found a significant relationship between kindergarten attendance and later school placement for children in immigrant households but not…

  19. Seroprevalence of hepatitis B and C viral co-infections among children infected with human immunodeficiency virus attending the paediatric HIV care and treatment center at Muhimbili National Hospital in Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munubhi Emmanuel K

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With increased availability of antibiotics and antifungal agents hepatitis B virus (HBV and hepatitis C virus (HCV infections are becoming a cause for significant concern in HIV infected children. We determined the seroprevalence and risk factors for HBV and HCV among HIV infected children aged 18 months to 17 years, attending the Paediatric HIV Care and Treatment Center (CTC at Muhimbili National Hospital (MNH in Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania. Methods Investigations included; interviews, physical examination and serology for HBsAg, IgG antibodies to HCV and alanine aminotransferase (ALT levels. HIV serostatus and CD4 counts were obtained from patient records. Results 167 HIV infected children, 88(52.7% males and 79(47.3% females were enrolled. The overall prevalence of hepatitis co-infection was 15%, with the seroprevalence of HBV and HCV being 1.2% and 13.8%, respectively. Hepatitis virus co-infection was not associated with any of the investigated risk factors and there was no association between HBV and HCV. Elevated ALT was associated with hepatitis viral co-infection but not with ART usage or immune status. Conclusion The high seroprevalence (15% of hepatitis co-infection in HIV infected children attending the Paediatrics HIV CTC at the MNH calls for routine screening of hepatitis viral co-infection and modification in the management of HIV infected children.

  20. Attending Unintended Transformations of Health Care Infrastructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wentzer, Helle; Bygholm, Ann

    2007-01-01

    of theories on human-computer interaction and IT-mediated communication, different empirical studies of IT implementation in health care are analyzed. The outcome is an analytical discernment between different relations of communication and levels of interaction with IT in health care infrastructure....... These relations and levels are synthesized into a framework for identifying tensions and potential problems in the mediation of health care with the IT system. These problems are also known as unexpected adverse consequences, UACs, from IT implementation into clinical health care practices. Results: This paper...

  1. Children's hospice care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong-Dailey, A

    1990-01-01

    Facing the inevitable death of a child is a difficult reality for many parents and health care providers as well. Children's Hospice International offers a variety of information and education services to support the provision of children's hospice care.

  2. Mobile phones improve antenatal care attendance in Zanzibar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Stine; Nielsen, Birgitte B; Hemed, Maryam;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Applying mobile phones in healthcare is increasingly prioritized to strengthen healthcare systems. Antenatal care has the potential to reduce maternal morbidity and improve newborns' survival but this benefit may not be realized in sub-Saharan Africa where the attendance and quality o...

  3. ATTEND: Toward a Mindfulness-Based Bereavement Care Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacciatore, Joanne; Flint, Melissa

    2012-01-01

    Few, if any, mindfulness-based bereavement care models exist. The ATTEND (attunement, trust, touch, egalitarianism, nuance, and death education) model is an interdisciplinary paradigm for providers, including physicians, social workers, therapists, nursing staff, and others. Using a case example to enhance the breadth and depth of understanding,…

  4. Protocol for Northern Ireland Caries Prevention in Practice Trial (NIC-PIP trial: a randomised controlled trial to measure the effects and costs of a dental caries prevention regime for young children attending primary care dental services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noble Solveig

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dental caries is a persistent public health problem with little change in the prevalence in young children over the last 20 years. Once a child contracts the disease it has a significant impact on their quality of life. There is good evidence from Cochrane reviews including trials that fluoride varnish and regular use of fluoride toothpaste can prevent caries. The Northern Ireland Caries Prevention in Practice Trial (NIC-PIP trial will compare the costs and effects of a caries preventive package (fluoride varnish, toothpaste, toothbrush and standardised dental health education with dental health education alone in young children. Methods/Design A randomised controlled trial on children initially aged 2 and 3 years old who are regular attenders at the primary dental care services in Northern Ireland. Children will be recruited and randomised in dental practices. Children will be randomised to the prevention package of both fluoride varnish (twice per year for three years, fluoride toothpaste (1,450 ppm F (supplied twice per year, a toothbrush (supplied twice a year or not; both test and control groups receive standardised dental health education delivered by the dentist twice per year. Randomisation will be conducted by the Belfast Trust Clinical Research Support Centre ([CRSC] a Clinical Trials Unit. 1200 participants will be recruited from approximately 40 dental practices. Children will be examined for caries by independent dental examiners at baseline and will be excluded if they have caries. The independent dental examiners will examine the children again at 3 years blinded to study group. The primary end-point is whether the child develops caries (cavitation into dentine or not over the three years. One secondary outcome is the number of carious surfaces in the primary dentition in children who experience caries. Other secondary outcomes are episodes of pain, extraction of primary teeth, other adverse events and costs

  5. Protocol for Northern Ireland Caries Prevention in Practice Trial (NIC-PIP) trial: a randomised controlled trial to measure the effects and costs of a dental caries prevention regime for young children attending primary care dental services

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tickle, Martin

    2011-10-10

    Abstract Background Dental caries is a persistent public health problem with little change in the prevalence in young children over the last 20 years. Once a child contracts the disease it has a significant impact on their quality of life. There is good evidence from Cochrane reviews including trials that fluoride varnish and regular use of fluoride toothpaste can prevent caries. The Northern Ireland Caries Prevention in Practice Trial (NIC-PIP) trial will compare the costs and effects of a caries preventive package (fluoride varnish, toothpaste, toothbrush and standardised dental health education) with dental health education alone in young children. Methods\\/Design A randomised controlled trial on children initially aged 2 and 3 years old who are regular attenders at the primary dental care services in Northern Ireland. Children will be recruited and randomised in dental practices. Children will be randomised to the prevention package of both fluoride varnish (twice per year for three years), fluoride toothpaste (1,450 ppm F) (supplied twice per year), a toothbrush (supplied twice a year) or not; both test and control groups receive standardised dental health education delivered by the dentist twice per year. Randomisation will be conducted by the Belfast Trust Clinical Research Support Centre ([CRSC] a Clinical Trials Unit). 1200 participants will be recruited from approximately 40 dental practices. Children will be examined for caries by independent dental examiners at baseline and will be excluded if they have caries. The independent dental examiners will examine the children again at 3 years blinded to study group. The primary end-point is whether the child develops caries (cavitation into dentine) or not over the three years. One secondary outcome is the number of carious surfaces in the primary dentition in children who experience caries. Other secondary outcomes are episodes of pain, extraction of primary teeth, other adverse events and costs which will

  6. Canadian Indian Children Who Had Never Attended School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Lolita

    1973-01-01

    This study was designed to compare the performance on selected intelligence tests of a group of Canadian Indian children who had never been to school with the performance of a similar group of children who were attending school regularly. (Author/RK)

  7. Antenatal care attendance, a surrogate for pregnancy outcome? The case of Kumasi, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asundep, Ntui N; Jolly, Pauline E; Carson, April; Turpin, Cornelius A; Zhang, Kui; Tameru, Berhanu

    2014-07-01

    Antenatal care (ANC) has been shown to influence infant and maternal outcomes. WHO recommends 4 ANC visits for uncomplicated pregnancies. However, pregnant women in Ghana are required to attend 8-13 antenatal visits. We investigated the association of ANC attendance with adverse pregnancy outcomes (defined as low infant birth weight, stillbirth, preterm delivery or small for gestational age). A quantitative cross-sectional study was conducted on 629 women, age 19-48 years who presented for delivery at two selected public hospitals and 16 traditional birth attendants from July to November 2011. Socio-demographic and antenatal information were collected using a structured questionnaire. ANC attendance, medical and obstetric/gynecological history were abstracted from maternal antenatal records. Data were analyzed using Chi square and logistic regression. Twenty-two percent of the women experienced an adverse outcome. Eleven percent of the women attended 5 children) was also associated with adverse birth outcomes. Women screened for syphilis or use of insecticide-treated bed nets had a 40 and 36% (p = 0.0447 and p = 0.0293) reduced likelihood of experiencing an adverse pregnancy outcome respectively. After adjusting for confounders, attending <4 antenatal visits was associated with adverse pregnancy outcome compared with ≥4 ANC visits (Adjusted OR 2.55; 95% CI 1.16-5.63; p = 0.0202). Attending <4 antenatal visits and high parity were associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes for uncomplicated pregnancies.

  8. An Investigation of Creativity Among Children Attending Preschools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuhal Gizir Ergen

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate creativity among children attending preschools in terms of several variables. The study was conducted with 72 female and 63 male 5-year-old (60-72 months children selected from independent preschools related to the Turkish Ministry of National Education in Ankara. The “General Information Form” was administered to children in order to collect basic information about children and their parents. To determine creativity among children, the “Torrence Creative Thinking Test” developed by Torrence in 1966 and translated into Turkish by Aslan (1999 was used. Mann-Whitney U and Kruskall-Wallis H tests were used to analyze data. As a result of the study, gender and father’s educational level do not affect creativity scores of the children, yet duration of preschool attendance and mother’s educational level statistically have a significant effect on their creativity scores (p<.05.

  9. Child-care attendance and common morbidity: evidence of association in the literature and questions of design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barros Aluísio J. D.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Papers on child-care attendance as a risk factor for acute respiratory infections and diarrhea were reviewed. There was great variety among the studies with regard to the design, definition of exposure and definition of outcomes. All the traditional epidemiological study designs have been used. The studies varied in terms of how child-care attendance in general was defined, and for different settings. These definitions differed especially in relation to the minimum time of attendance required. The outcomes were also defined and measured in several different ways. The analyses performed were not always appropriate, leading to sets of results of uneven quality, and composed of different measures of association relating different exposures and outcomes, that made summarizing difficult. Despite that, the results reported were remarkably consistent. Only two of the papers reviewed failed to show some association between child-care attendance and increased acute respiratory infections, or diarrhea. On the other hand, the magnitude of the associations reported varied widely, especially for lower respiratory infections. Taken together, the studies so far published provide evidence that children attending child-care centers, especially those under three years of age, are at a higher risk of upper respiratory infections, lower respiratory infections, and diarrhea. The studies were not consistent, however, in relation to attendance at child-care homes. Children in such settings were sometimes similar to those in child-care centers, sometimes similar to those cared for at home, and sometimes presented an intermediate risk.

  10. Frequência à creche e estado nutricional de pré-escolares: uma revisão sistemática Day care centers attendance and preschool children's nutritional status: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra da Silva Pereira

    2010-12-01

    goal of this study. Among the papers gathered in the literature, very few of them allowed any inference about the influence of daycare centers on preschoolers' nutritional status. Nevertheless, some longitudinal studies showed a causal association between children's attendance to daycare centers and improvement of their nutritional status. CONCLUSIONS: There is a positive relation between children's attendance to day care centers and improvement of their nutritional status.

  11. Day care attendance in early life, maternal history of asthma, and asthma at the age of 6 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Celedon, JC; Wright, RJ; Litonjua, AA; Sredl, D; Ryan, L; Weiss, ST; Gold, DR

    2003-01-01

    Among children not selected on the basis of a parental history of atopy, day care attendance in early life is inversely associated with asthma at school age. We examined the relation between day care in the first year of life and asthma, recurrent wheezing, and eczema at the age of 6 years and wheez

  12. Effect of the Consumption of a Fermented Milk on Common Infections in Children Aged 3-6 Years, Attending Day Care Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-05

    Common Infectious Diseases, Occuring in Healthy Children,; Including Upper Respiratory Tract Infections (Defined as; Rhinopharyngitis, Sore Throat, Sinusitis and Otitis), Lower; Respiratory Tract Infections (Defined as Bronchitis,; Pneumopathy and Flu and Flu-like Syndromes), and; Gastrointestinal Tract Infection Defined as Gastroenteritis.

  13. Appetitive behaviours of children attending obesity treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croker, H; Cooke, L; Wardle, J

    2011-10-01

    Associations between appetite and adiposity have not been examined in clinical samples of obese children. The Children's Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ) was used to compare appetite in community (n=406) and clinical (n=66) samples. Clear graded patterns were seen for food responsiveness and emotional overeating; levels increased with increasing BMI SDS and the clinical sample scored highest. The reverse was seen for satiety responsiveness/slowness in eating. Differences were not solely explained by weight differences, suggesting that the clinical sample had more pronounced 'obesogenic' appetitive traits. This could make adherence to dietary guidance difficult.

  14. The Attending Nurse Caring Model: integrating theory, evidence and advanced caring-healing therapeutics for transforming professional practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Jean; Foster, Roxie

    2003-05-01

    This paper presents a proposed model: The Attending Nursing Caring Model (ANCM) as an exemplar for advancing and transforming nursing practice within a reflective, theoretical and evidence-based context. Watson's theory of human caring is used as a guide for integrating theory, evidence and advanced therapeutics in the area of children's pain. The ANCM is offered as a programme for renewing the profession and its professional practices of caring-healing arts and science, during an era of decline, shortages, and crises in care, safety, and hospital and health reform. The ANCM elevates contemporary nursing's caring values, relationships, therapeutics and responsibilities to a higher/deeper order of caring science and professionalism, intersecting with other professions, while sustaining the finest of its heritage and traditions of healing.

  15. [Relationship between child day-care attendance and acute infectious disease. A systematic review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa Sangrador, Carlos; Barajas Sánchez, M Verisima; Muñoz Martín, Beatriz

    2007-01-01

    Child day-care attendance is considered to be an acute early childhood disease risk factor, the studies available however not affording the possibility of fully quantifying this risk. A systematic review of clinical trials and cohort studies was conducted, in which the effects child day-care attendance had on the health of young children based on the Cochrane Collaboration, PubMed and Spanish Medical Index databases, without any time or language-related limits, were analyzed and rounded out with analyses of referenced works and an additional EMBASE search. The methodological quality was evaluated by means of personalized criteria. Pooling measures (relative risks, incidence density ratios and weighted mean differences) were calculated with their confidence intervals, assuming random effects models. A significant increase was found to exist of a risk consistent over time and among different social and geographical environments. Considering the most methodologically-stringent studies with adjusted effect estimates, child day-care attendance was related to an increased risk of upper respiratory tract infection (RR=1,88), acute otitis media (RR=1,58), otitis media with fluid draining (RR=2,43), lower respiratory tract infections (overall RR=210; acute pneumonia RR=1.70; broncholitis RR=1,80; bronchitis RR=2,10) and gastroenteritis (RR=1,40). Child day-care attendance could be responsible for 33%-50% of the episodes of respiratory infection and gastroenteritis among the exposed population. In conclusion, it can be said that the risk for childhood health attributable to the child day-care attendance is discreet but of high-impact. This information has some major implications for research, clinical practice, healthcare authorities and society as a whole.

  16. Physical activity and motor skills in children attending 43 preschools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Line Grønholt; Kristensen, Peter Lund; Ried-Larsen, Mathias

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Little is known about health characteristics and the physical activity (PA) patterns in children attending preschools. The objective of this study was to describe the gender differences in relation to body mass index (BMI), motor skills (MS) and PA, including PA patterns by the day type...... decrease in PA from preschool to weekday leisure time was observed in children in the lowest PA quartile compared to children in the highest PA quartile. Finally, the preschool accounted for 19% of the total variance in PA, with significant gender differences. CONCLUSIONS: Results of this study could...

  17. Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates in healthy children attending day-care centers in 12 states in Mexico Aislamientos de S. pneumoniae en niños sanos de estancias infantiles en 12 estados de México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Elena Espinosa-de los Monteros

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic nasopharyngeal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae, which is a major factor in the transmission of this bacterium. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Nasopharyngeal cultures were performed on children attending 32 day-care centers in 12 states in Mexico. RESULTS: Streptococcus pneumoniae was isolated from the nasopharynx of 829 out of 2 777(29.9% subjects aged two months to six years. All children lived in urban areas and 80% spent more than six hours daily in a day-care center. Streptococcus pneumoniae serotypes most frequently identified were: 19F (23%, 6B (15.6%, 23F (11.2% and 6A (14.9%. Thirty-six percent of the isolates were susceptible to penicillin. CONCLUSIONS: Serotype distribution suggests the possible benefits that could be obtained from the heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine.OBJETIVO: La intención de este estudio fue determinar la prevalencia de portadores nasofaríngeos asintomáticos de Streptococcus pneumoniae, el cual es el principal factor en la transmisión de esta bacteria. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Los cultivos nasofaríngeos fueron realizados en niños que asisten a 32 estancias infantiles en 12 estados de México. RESULTADOS: Streptococcus pneumoniae fue aislado de la nasofaringe de 829 (29.9% niños de los 2 777 incluidos en el estudio con un rango de edad de 2 meses a 6 años. Todos los niños vivían en áreas urbanas y 80% permanecían más de seis horas diarias en la estancia infantil. Los serotipos de Streptococcus pneumoniae más frecuentemente identificados fueron: 19F (23%, 6B (15.6%, 23F (11.2% y 6 A (14.9%. Treinta y seis por ciento de los aislamientos fueron susceptibles a penicilina. CONCLUSIONES: La distribución de serotipos nos da una idea de los posibles beneficios que podrían obtenerse de la vacuna neumocóccica conjugada heptavalente.

  18. Relationship-Focused Child Care Practices: Quality of Care and Child Outcomes for Children in Poverty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Margaret Tresch; Klausli, Julia F.; Mata-Otero, Ana-Maria; Caughy, Margaret O'Brien

    2008-01-01

    Research Findings: Child care delivery practices promoting continuous, primary caregiver-child relationships (relationship-focused child care) were evaluated for 223 preschool-age children (45% African American, 55% Latino) attending child care centers serving low-income children. Both relationship-focused and non-relationship-focused centers were…

  19. Frequent attenders in out-of-hours general practice care: attendance prognosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedsted, Peter; Olesen, Frede

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We aimed to describe the use of out-of-hours service and analyse attendance prognosis for frequent attenders and other groups of attenders, and to present a concept describing frequent attendance over time. METHODS: All adult attenders in 1990 were included in a 4-year follow-up study...... or three contacts per year. The setting was out-of-hours general practice in Aarhus County, Denmark. Data were collected from the database of the Public Health Insurance, Aarhus County. The county had approximately 600,000 inhabitants, of whom 465,000 were aged 18 years and over. The subjects were 101...

  20. The Immediate Impacts of Preschool Attendance on Turkish Children's Mathematics Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, Durmus; Aktas Arnas, Yasare

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the immediate impacts of preschool attendance on Turkish children's mathematics achievement. The participants were 200 children who attended or did not attend preschool. The number and operation task and the geometric shapes sorting task were used as the data collection tools. The children who attended…

  1. Raising Children Who Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohn, Alfie

    2000-01-01

    Presents excerpt from Kohn's 1990 book, asserting that parents are most important to children and need to project a positive view of life. Argues that caring, the absence of physical punishment, guiding and explaining, cooperating, and taking children seriously are required to offset the pressure and negative values that a competitive culture…

  2. Male partner attendance of skilled antenatal care in peri-urban Gulu district, Northern Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tweheyo Raymond

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Male partner attendance of skilled Antenatal Care (ANC is beneficial to improving maternal outcomes. This study investigated the level, perceived benefits and factors associated with male partner attendance of skilled ANC in a peri-urban community recovering from two decades of civil conflict. Methods This cross-sectional survey used multi-stage sampling in 12 villages of Omoro county to select 331 married male respondents aged 18 years or more, whose female spouses had childbirth within 24 months prior to the survey. A structured questionnaire elicited responses about male partner attendance of ANC during pregnancy at a public health facility as the main outcome variable. Analysis used Generalized Linear Model (GLM in Stata version 10.0 to obtain Prevalence Risk Ratios (PRR for association between the binary outcome and independent factors. All factors significant at p Results Overall, 65.4% (95%CI; 60.3, 70.5 male partners attended at least one skilled ANC visit. Mean age was 31.9 years [SD 8.2]. Perceived benefits of attending ANC were: HIV screening (74.5%, monitoring foetal growth (34% and identifying complications during pregnancy (18.9%. Factors independently associated with higher ANC attendance were: knowledge of 3 or more ANC services (adj.PRR 2.77; 95%CI 2.24, 3.42, obtaining health information from facility health workers (adj.PRR 1.14; 95%CI 1.01, 1.29 and if spouse had skilled attendance at last childbirth (adj.PRR 1.31; 95%CI 1.04-1.64. However, factors for low attendance were: male partners intending their spouse to carry another pregnancy (adj.PRR 0.83; 95%CI 0.71, 0.97 and living more than 5 Km from a health facility (adj.PRR 0.83, 95%CI 0.70, 0.98. Conclusions Men who were knowledgeable of ANC services, obtained health information from a health worker and whose spouses utilised skilled delivery at last pregnancy were more likely to accompany their spouses at ANC, unlike those who wanted to have more

  3. Children in Self-Care: An Exploratory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Martha

    Before- and after-school care arrangements for third- and fifth-grade students were investigated, with specific attention given to the extent of self-care arrangements, satisfaction levels of parents and children using self-care, and variables contributing to satisfaction. The sample included 675 students attending Newington Elementary School in…

  4. Consumption of industrialized food by infants attending child day care centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maysa Helena de A. Toloni

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify the age of introduction of petit suisse cheese and instant noodles in the diet of infants attending nurseries of public day care centers and to compare the nutritional composition of these foods with the healthy recommended diet (breast milk and salt meal for this age, in order to estimate nutritional errors. Methods: Cross-sectional study of 366 children (from nine to 36 months old who attended day care centers, whose mothers were interviewed about the age of introduction of those foods. The means of the nutrients indicated on the labels of the most consumed brands were considered. For the calculation of the percent composition of breast milk and salt meal, Tables of Food Composition were used. To assess the nutritional adequacy, we used the Dietary Reference Intakes by age group. The percentage of adequacy evaluation of the petit suisse cheese and the instant noodles nutritional compositions was made by comparing them with those of the human milk and the salt meal, respectively. Results: The petit suisse cheese and the instant noodles were consumed by 89.6 and 65.3% of the children in the first year of life. The percentages of adequacy for carbohydrates were more than twice and the percentages for sodium were 20 times higher than those found in the recommended foods. Conclusions: Both industrialized products are inappropriate for infants, emphasizing the need for adoption of norms that can inform health professionals, educators and parents about the risks of consumption.

  5. Children and chiropractic care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartvigsen, Jan; Hestbaek, Lise

    2009-01-01

    care profession has convincingly assumed the responsibility of spinal and musculoskeletal health for children. Considering the magnitude of the challenges ahead for both researchers and clinicians, this may be a good opportunity for doctors of chiropractic to take responsibility and engage...

  6. Orofacial manifestations in HIV positive children attending Mildmay Clinic in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabbanja, Juliet; Gitta, Sheba; Peterson, Stefan; Rwenyonyi, Charles Mugisha

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the orofacial manifestations and their influence on oral function in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive children attending Mildmay Clinic in Uganda. This was a cross-sectional study based on clinical examination, medical records and a structured questionnaire of 368 children aged between 1.5 and 17 years. The clinical examination for dental caries was based on decayed, extracted and filled teeth (deft) and decayed, missing and filled teeth (DMFT) indices as defined by World Health Organisation. The soft tissue orofacial lesions were assessed using the classification and diagnostic criteria as described by the Collaborative Workgroup on the Oral Manifestations of Pediatric HIV Infections. Approximately 67.4% of the children were on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). The majority (77.4%) of the children had at least one orofacial lesion associated with HIV, pseudomembranous candidiasis being the most prevalent. Overall, 61.7% of the children with orofacial lesions reported at least one form of discomfort in the mouth. Discomfort was particularly associated with swallowing. The prevalence of orofacial lesions was significantly higher in children with poor oral hygiene and lower in those on HAART than in their respective counterparts. The CD4+ cell count, age and gender of the children did not significantly influence the distribution of orofacial lesions. The mean deft and DMFT scores were 11.8 and 2.7, respectively. The d- and D-components contributed 54.7 and 42.1%, respectively. Consumption of sugary snacks was directly associated with dental caries. Despite these children attending an HIV care centre of excellence, they have a high prevalence of orofacial manifestations associated with HIV. The majority of the children experienced discomfort in the oral cavity, particularly during swallowing.

  7. Off-hours admission and mortality in two pediatric intensive care units without 24-h in-house senior staff attendance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, Babette; Jansen, Nicolaas J. G.; Bollen, Casper W.; van Vught, Adrianus J.; van der Heide, Douwe; Albers, Marcel J. I. J.

    2010-01-01

    To compare risk-adjusted mortality of children non-electively admitted during off-hours with risk-adjusted mortality of children admitted during office hours to two pediatric intensive care units (PICUs) without 24-h in-house attendance of senior staff. Prospective observational study, performed bet

  8. Early infection and asymptomatic spread of hepatitis A virus in a public child care center in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: should attending children under two years of age be vaccinated?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliane M Morais

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional study was conducted in order to identify hepatitis A virus (HAV serological markers in 418 individuals (mean age, 16.4 years; range, 1 month-80 years at a public child care center in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, as well as to analyze risk factors and determine circulating genotypes. Serum samples were tested using an enzyme immunoassay. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR was used to detect and characterize HAV RNA, and sequencing was performed. Anti-HAV antibodies and IgM anti-HAV antibodies were detected, respectively, in 89.5% (374/418 and 10.5% (44/418 of the individuals tested. Acute HAV infection in children was independently correlated with crawling (p < 0.05. In 56.8% (25/44 of the IgM anti-HAV-positive individuals and in 33.3% (5/15 of the IgM anti-HAV-negative individuals presenting clinical symptoms, HAV RNA was detected. Phylogenetic analysis revealed co-circulation of subgenotypes IA and IB in 93.3% (28/30 of the amplified samples. In present study, we verify that 79% (30/38 of children IgM anti-HAV-positive were asymptomatic. In child care centers, this asymptomatic spread is a more serious problem, promoting the infection of young children, who rarely show signs of infection. Therefore, vaccinating children below the age of two might prevent the asymptomatic spread of hepatitis A.

  9. Personal volatile organic compound (VOC) exposure of children attending elementary schools adjacent to industrial complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kun-Ho; Jo, Wan-Kuen

    The major deficiency in linking the effects of environmental exposure to children's health is the lack of data on the exposure of children to hazardous environmental pollutants. Accordingly, the present study compared the personal volatile organic compound (VOC) exposure of children from four elementary schools at different proximities to the Daegu Dyeing Industrial Complex (DDIC) and adjacent to different traffic densities. The personal air concentrations of four VOCs (toluene, m, p-xylenes, and o-xylene) were significantly higher for the children attending the school (S1) closest to the boundary of the DDIC compared to the children attending the school (S2) further away. The DDIC was the likely primary cause for the elevated personal air concentrations of the four VOCs in the children attending the school nearest the DDIC. The personal exposure to toluene and methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) for the children attending the school near a major roadway with a high traffic density was significantly higher than that for the children attending the school near a roadway with a low traffic density. The difference in the breath concentrations was generally similar to the difference in the personal air concentrations among the children from the four schools. In contrast to the children attending schools in low-income areas, the children attending schools in high-income areas exhibited no significant difference in the concentrations of any of the target VOCs in the personal air and breath samples between the children living with and without a smoker in the home.

  10. Oral health profile of education and health professionals attending handicapped children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pomarico Luciana

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the knowledge and attitudes toward oral health of education and health professionals working in a children care program for handicapped children from 0 to 6 years of age, run by a public municipal institution in Rio de Janeiro. Using a printed questionnaire, 67 professionals (teachers, attendants and health professionals were interviewed. The results were compared to the children's oral hygiene habits, by directly observing their daily nursery routine. Although 97.0% said that oral health could play a part in general health, only 37.3% of the professionals answered correctly on this matter. As for methods for preventing caries, although 92.5% said that they were aware of them, only 17.9% went to the dentist for preventive treatment. Although the majority (81.3% indicated oral hygiene as a way of preventing caries, observation showed that this practice is not always put into effect in the program's day nursery. Regarding when to start toothbrushing in children, 75.0% of the teachers and 94.4% of the health professionals said that they were aware of the need to begin brushing before one year of age, although this reply was given by only 52.5% of the attendants (chi-square, p = 0.006. In view of these results, it was concluded that attitudes toward oral health were not always coherent with the knowledge that these professionals express.

  11. Perception of orthodox health care centers among pregnant women attending traditional birth attendants clinics in two local government areas of Lagos State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Okewole

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Adequate antenatal care and skilled obstetric assistance during delivery are important strategies that significantly reduce maternal mortality and morbidity. This study aimed to assess the awareness, attitudes and perception of orthodox health care centres among pregnant women patronizing traditional birth attendants in Mushin and Lagos Island local government areas of Lagos state. Methods: The survey was a community-based descriptive cross-sectional survey that employed interviews to collect data from 300 antenatal care attendees of seven traditional birth attendants′ clinics in Lagos Island and Mushin local government areas between December 2010 and January 2011 using a structured questionnaire. Results: The women ranged in age from 17-43 years with a mean age of 27.6 ± 4.6 SD and most of them were primigravidas (41.5%, married (88% and traders (44.1%. Most of the women (61% and their husbands (56.7% had completed their secondary education. The majority (81.7% of respondents were aware of a modern health facility around where they lived, the most commonly known being private hospitals (43.7%. Most of them (67.3% were aware of antenatal care services provided at these facilities but only 31.3% had ever made use of the antenatal services. Most of the women were not willing to deliver in hospitals because they didn′t like the attitude of the health workers (37.3% and because it was far from their houses (12.7%; the majority (75% preferring to deliver with traditional birth attendants because they give good service. However, almost all (98.5% of the women that had children took them to the orthodox health facilities for immunization, primarily the primary health care centers (55.7%. Conclusion: Traditional birth attendants are patronized by a wide array of women who are aware of orthodox health facilities but have a negative attitude towards their services. Improvements in communication and interpersonal skills of

  12. Improving Care for Children With Complex Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-28

    Medically Complex Children; Care Coordination; Case Manager; Care Manager; Collaborative Care; Disease Management; Patient Care Team or Organization; Managed Care; Children With Chronic Conditions; Children With Special Health Care Needs; Shared Care Plan; Patient Care Plan; Health Care and Resource Utilization; Adherence to Care; Functional Status and Productivity; Health Related Quality of Life; Satisfaction With Care; Care Coordinator; Family Experience of Care; Quality Health Care

  13. 9 CFR 2.33 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... veterinary care. 2.33 Section 2.33 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... adequate veterinary care. (a) Each research facility shall have an attending veterinarian who shall provide adequate veterinary care to its animals in compliance with this section: (1) Each research facility...

  14. Visual Attending Preferences in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Comparison between Live and Video Presentation Modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardon, Teresa; Azuma, Tamiko

    2012-01-01

    Visual attending patterns of children with ASD differ from those of typically developing (TD) children. Children with ASD spend less time visually attending to relevant people and stimuli than do TD children. Impaired visual attending patterns can greatly decrease the effectiveness of therapy. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the…

  15. [BMI of the children attending elementary schools in Tuzla Canton].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jusupović, Fatima; Juricić, Mojca; Rudić, Aida; Hazihalilović, Jasminka; Kasumović, Merima; Kalesic, Mirela

    2005-01-01

    BMI is frequently used in different studies as indicator of nutritional status. When BMI exceeds the limit values then it represents the risk factor leading to different diseases; therefore it is important to calculate BMI for young persons. In cases when BMI differs from the recommended value it is necessary to apply different measures in order to prevent diseases. The aim of this paper was to assess the present status and on the basis of the result obtained to assess the need for eventual preventive activities leading to healthy life stytes. This study was performed on a sample of 1544 school boys and girls aged eight, ten and fourteen attending first, third and seventh class of elementary school. The study covered four municipalities of Tuzla Canton: Tuzla, Lukavac, Gradanica and Kladanj, and both urban and rural areas. We used the method of anthropometric measurement (IBP International Biological Program) of body mass and body height, followed by calculation of BMI and statistical evaluation. This study found that the average BMI of girls and boys is increasinglongitudinally with the age, with significant change between 10 years and 14 years, without significant gen der difference. Boys aged eight have BMI 15.76, len years 16.52 and are similar to the BMI of girls aged eight 15.44 and ten years 16.59. Fourteen-year-old girls have BMI which is 19.54, higher than the BMI of boys at the same age which is 18.75. Having in mind the range of BMI percentile values for normal nutritional status (from 5 to 85) the values for eight years old boys ranged from 14.1 to 19.4, for ten-year-old boys from 13.4 to 19.2, and for fourteen-year-old boys from 13.6 to 19.5. The values for girls showed the following results; for eight-year-old girls the value ranged from 13.9 to 20.6; for ten-year-old girls t'rom 13.5 to 20.5 and fourteen-year-old girls from 13.7 to 19.6. In the sample there was 6.6% underweight children, and 15.2% overweight children, but the portion of overweight

  16. Early birds in day care: The social gradient in starting day care and children's non-cognitive skills

    OpenAIRE

    Peter, Frauke H.; Pia S. Schober; Spiess, C. Katharina

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, almost all children below school age in Western industrialized countries have some experience of attending day care institutions. However, the age at which children enter day care and therefore the overall time spent in day carevaries substantially. We investigate the potential impact of later day care entry on the social and emotional behaviour of children, one important aspect of non-cognitive skills. Based on the English sample of the Millennium Cohort Study, we analyse th...

  17. Deaf children attending different school environments: sign language abilities and theory of mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasuolo, Elena; Valeri, Giovanni; Di Renzo, Alessio; Pasqualetti, Patrizio; Volterra, Virginia

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined whether full access to sign language as a medium for instruction could influence performance in Theory of Mind (ToM) tasks. Three groups of Italian participants (age range: 6-14 years) participated in the study: Two groups of deaf signing children and one group of hearing-speaking children. The two groups of deaf children differed only in their school environment: One group attended a school with a teaching assistant (TA; Sign Language is offered only by the TA to a single deaf child), and the other group attended a bilingual program (Italian Sign Language and Italian). Linguistic abilities and understanding of false belief were assessed using similar materials and procedures in spoken Italian with hearing children and in Italian Sign Language with deaf children. Deaf children attending the bilingual school performed significantly better than deaf children attending school with the TA in tasks assessing lexical comprehension and ToM, whereas the performance of hearing children was in between that of the two deaf groups. As for lexical production, deaf children attending the bilingual school performed significantly better than the two other groups. No significant differences were found between early and late signers or between children with deaf and hearing parents.

  18. Migration, Remittances, and Children's High School Attendance: The Case of Rural China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Feng

    2012-01-01

    This paper uses a large nationally representative survey data to examine the impact of China's rural-urban migration on high school attendance of left-behind children by disentangling the effect of remittances from that of migration. The results show that the absence of adult household members has a negative impact on the high school attendance of…

  19. [Inclusion of traditional birth attendants in the public health care system in Brazil: reflecting on challenges].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusman, Christine Ranier; Viana, Ana Paula de Andrade Lima; Miranda, Margarida Araújo Barbosa; Pedrosa, Mayane Vilela; Villela, Wilza Vieira

    2015-05-01

    The present article describes an experience with traditional birth attendants carried out in the state of Tocantins, Brazil, between 2010 and 2014. The experience was part of a diagnostic project to survey home deliveries in the state of Tocantins and set up a registry of traditional birth attendants for the Health Ministry's Working with Traditional Birth Attendants Program (PTPT). The project aimed to articulate the home deliveries performed by traditional birth attendants to the local health care systems (SUS). Sixty-seven active traditional birth attendants were identified in the state of Tocantins, and 41 (39 indigenous) participated in workshops. During these workshops, they discussed their realities, difficulties, and solutions in the context of daily adversities. Birth attendants were also trained in the use of biomedical tools and neonatal resuscitation. Based on these experiences, the question came up regarding the true effectiveness of the strategy to include traditional birth attendants in the SUS. The present article discusses this theme with support from the relevant literature. The dearth of systematic studies focusing on the impact of PTPT actions on the routine of traditional birth attendants, including perinatal outcomes and remodeling of health practices in rural, riverfront, former slave, forest, and indigenous communities, translates into a major gap in terms of the knowledge regarding the effectiveness of such initiatives.

  20. Perceptions of Parents of Young Children with and without Disabilities Attending Inclusive Preschool Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilbert, Dana

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the characteristics of parents of children with and without disabilities whose young children attend an inclusive, early childhood education program that influence their perceptions of inclusion and inclusive preschool programs. Participants included parents of preschool children without disabilities (n=64) and parents…

  1. Oral health screening of elderly people attending a community care centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diu, S; Gelbier, S

    1989-08-01

    A socio-dental survey was carried out to determine the level of dental disease and treatment requirement among elderly people attending a Community Care Centre. A screening programme involving 293 elderly people demonstrated a normative need of 82% and a felt need of 53%. Seventy-six per cent would have benefited from dental care. Many individuals who both needed and wanted dental care were not receiving it because they were discouraged from doing so predominantly because of poor mobility. It is recommended, therefore, that dentists be included in multi-disciplinary teams caring for elderly people so that they can be screened and given the opportunity to obtain dental care.

  2. Parent-reported problem behavior among children with sensory disabilities attending elementary regular schools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maes, B; Grietens, H

    2004-01-01

    Parent-reported problem behaviors of 94 children with visual and auditory disabilities, attending elementary regular schools, were compared with problems reported in a general population sample of nondisabled children. Both samples were matched by means of a pairwise matching procedure, taking into

  3. Association between nutritional status and subjective health status in chronically ill children attending special schools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.F.M. Joosten (Koen); K. van der Velde (Kelly); P. Joosten (Pieter); H. Rutten (Hans); J.M. Hulst (Jessie); K. Dulfer (Karolijn)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractPurpose: In hospitalized children with a chronic disease, malnutrition was associated with a lower subjective health status. In outpatient children with a chronic disease attending special schools, this association has never been studied. The aim of this study was to assess the associati

  4. Treatment of Trichuris trichiura infections improves growth, spelling scores and school attendance in some children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simeon, D T; Grantham-McGregor, S M; Callender, J E; Wong, M S

    1995-07-01

    The effects of treating Trichuris trichiura infections were investigated in 407 Jamaican children age 6 to 12 y. The children were randomly assigned to receive treatment (albendazole) or a placebo. The outcome variables included growth, tests of reading, spelling and arithmetic, and school attendance. After 6 mo of treatment, there was no significant main effect on any of the outcomes. However, there were significant treatment-by-infection intensity interactions with spelling (P < 0.05) and body mass index (P < 0.01), and a significant treatment-by-stunting interaction with school attendance (P < 0.01). In spelling, the children with heavy infections showed improvements with treatment that approached significance (P = 0.06), whereas those with lower intensities did not. However, the children with lower infection intensities had increased body mass index with treatment (P = 0.02), although there was no difference in children with heavy infections. In school attendance, the stunted children improved with treatment (P < 0.04), whereas there was no difference in the nonstunted children. These findings suggest that in the sample of Jamaican children examined, the treatment of T. trichiura was more likely to benefit school performance in children of poor nutritional status and those with heavy infections, and to improve weight gain in children with lighter infection intensities.

  5. Where Do the Children of Professors Attend College?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegfried, John; Getz, Malcolm

    2006-01-01

    To judge whether better-informed consumers of higher education, the families of faculty, make different choices than other similarly endowed consumers, we compare the pattern of colleges chosen by 4742 children of college and university faculty with the pattern chosen by the children of non-faculty families of similar socio-economic status. The…

  6. Pilot nutrition and physical activity intervention for preschool children attending daycare centres (JUNJI: primary and secondary outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Salazar

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A pilot intervention was conducted to promote physical activity and nutrition in public preschool education (near half a million children in Chile, in order to prevent obesity. Objective: To assess the primary (body fat and secondary outcomes (physical activity and energy intake of a nutrition and physical activity pilot intervention for preschool children, attending day care centres. Methods: A pilot intervention in six day care centres selected at random (n = 530, in 4-5 years old preschool children, Santiago, Chile intending to: provide nutritional and physical activity education to educators and health promotion activities for the family, which in turn, will affect the primary (body fat, and secondary outcomes (physical activity pattern and energy food intake were measured in a representative subsample of 120 intervened and 145 controls children. Results: In relation to secondary outcomes monitoring, moderate-vigorous activity was duplicated in the intervention group (+5.4% and +4.7%, respectively, in both obese and eutrophic children. Energy intake decreased in 11.7% in obese and 7.5% in eutrophic children. Dietary fat intake was reduced (-11 g in obese and -8.4 g in eutrophic children. Intervened obese children reduced body fat in 1.5%, meanwhile in control obese children, body fat increased 1.3% (p < 0.01. Conclusions: The pilot intervention demonstrated the feasibility to influence dietary risk factors and physical activity at the day care centres and families. Therefore, the implementation of the validated intervention program will be tested in different weather conditions, to prevent unhealthy habits in preschool children and their families.

  7. Caring for children with ostomies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garvin, G

    1994-12-01

    Caring for children with ostomies comprehensively requires that the healthcare professional understand issues related to normal growth and development as well as more specific medical information about disease processes and ostomy care. Parents should have a working knowledge of routine ostomy care and need guidelines to assist them in recognizing ostomy complications. Complications range from mild to severe. Many patients will experience at least one ostomy-related complication during the time they have their diversion. Active support of the child and the parent is essential toward facilitating acceptance and integration of ostomy care in pediatric ostomy clients.

  8. Social demographic aspects and self-referred health conditions of men attending a health care unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raissa de Oliveira Martins Cabacinha

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at characterizing social demographic aspects and health conditions of men attending a Primary Family Health Care unit in Montes Claros, MG, Brazil, correlating these variables with health self-perception and identifying men’s difficulty in using the health service. 115 adult men were interviewed who had attended the service in April and May, 2013. Most of them had completed high school, were married and adopted healthy practices, although they consumed alcoholic beverages. The main complaint regarding the health service was the long waiting time for attendance. The main factors that contributed for negative self-perception of health were: being married, suffering from chronic diseases and having low education; whereas those that contributed to the positive self-perception of health were: being young, being employed and not making regular use of medication (p<0.05. Those findings can subsidize policies to prevent diseases in promoting men’s health.

  9. Freqüência à creche e outros condicionantes do estado nutricional infantil Attendance at day-care centers and other conditioning factors in child nutritional status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Vieira da Silva

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available O estudo descreve o estado nutricional de 2 096 pré-escolares atendidos nos 27 Centros Educacionais e Creches do município de Piracicaba, estado de São Paulo. Observa-se que 5,1% das crianças apresentam déficit de altura/idade (escore ZAI The study describes the nutritional status of 2 096 preschool children attending 27 Educational Centers and Day-Care Centers in Piracicaba, state of São Paulo. Five point one percent of the children are observed to present a height/age deficit (score HAZ<-2.0 and a proportion of 1.2 with weight/height deficit (score WHZ<-2.0. The results reveal that per capita income, mother schooling, type of sewage, type of housing and attendance time at are the variables that cause impact on the HAZ score of the children.The positive association detected between attendance time at and -Z score of height for age stresses the importance of these investments as means to protect children, mainly against chronic malnutrition, as basic care with health, feeding and hygiene is associated with education. The day-care center also provides the participation of mothers in the work market, which is very important in poor families in order to increase family income.

  10. Quebec's Child Care Services: What Are the Mechanisms Influencing Children's Behaviors across Quantity, Type, and Quality of Care Experienced?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemay, Lise; Bigras, Nathalie; Bouchard, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine how quantity, type, and quality of care interact in predicting externalizing and internalizing behaviors of 36-month-old children attending Quebec's educational child care from their first years of life. To do so, the authors examined two hypothesized models: (1) a mediation model where quantity, type,…

  11. Prevalence of problem alcohol use among patients attending primary care for methadone treatment.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ryder, Niamh

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Problem alcohol use is associated with adverse health outcomes among current or former heroin users and primary care is providing methadone treatment for increasing numbers of this population. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of problem alcohol use among current or former heroin users attending primary care for methadone treatment and to describe the socio-demographic characteristics and health service utilisation characteristics associated with problem alcohol uses. METHODS: We conducted a cross sectional survey of patients sampled from a national database of patients attending general practice for methadone treatment. Participants were recruited by their general practitioner and data was collected using an interviewer-administered questionnaire, which included the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (\\'AUDIT\\'), with a score of >7 considered abnormal (ie \\'AUDIT positive cases\\') and socio-demographic, medical and substance use characteristics. RESULTS: We interviewed 196 patients (71% of those invited, 31% of those sampled, 11% of the national database). The median age was 32 years, 55% were hepatitis C positive, 79% had used illicit drugs in the previous month and 68% were male. Sixty-eight \\'AUDIT positive\\' cases were identified (prevalence of 35%, 95% CI = 28-41%) and these were more likely to have attended a local Emergency Department in the previous year (p < 0.05) and less likely to have attended a hospital clinic in the previous year (p < 0.05). Twenty-seven (14%) scored 20 or higher indicating possible alcohol dependence. CONCLUSION: Problem alcohol use has a high prevalence among current or former heroin users attending primary care for methadone treatment and interventions that address this issue should be explored as a priority. Interventions that address problem alcohol use in this population should be considered as a priority, although the complex medical and psychological needs of this population may make this

  12. Prevalence of problem alcohol use among patients attending primary care for methadone treatment

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ryder, Niamh

    2009-06-11

    Abstract Background Problem alcohol use is associated with adverse health outcomes among current or former heroin users and primary care is providing methadone treatment for increasing numbers of this population. This study aimed todetermine the prevalence of problem alcohol use among current or former heroin users attending primary care for methadone treatment and to describe the socio-demographic characteristics and health service utilisation characteristics associated with problem alcohol uses. Methods We conducted a cross sectional survey of patients sampled from a national database of patients attending general practice for methadone treatment. Participants were recruited by their general practitioner and data was collected using an interviewer-administered questionnaire, which included the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (\\'AUDIT\\'), with a score of >7 considered abnormal (ie \\'AUDIT positive cases\\') and socio-demographic, medical and substance use characteristics. Results We interviewed 196 patients (71% of those invited, 31% of those sampled, 11% of the national database). The median age was 32 years, 55% were hepatitis C positive, 79% had used illicit drugs in the previous month and 68% were male. Sixty-eight \\'AUDIT positive\\' cases were identified (prevalence of 35%, 95% CI = 28–41%) and these were more likely to have attended a local Emergency Department in the previous year (p < 0.05) and less likely to have attended a hospital clinic in the previous year (p < 0.05). Twenty-seven (14%) scored 20 or higher indicating possible alcohol dependence. Conclusion Problem alcohol use has a high prevalence among current or former heroin users attending primary care for methadone treatment and interventions that address this issue should be explored as a priority. Interventions that address problem alcohol use in this population should be considered as a priority, although the complex medical and psychological needs of this population may make

  13. Impact of collaborative care on survival time for dogs with congestive heart failure and revenue for attending primary care veterinarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefbom, Bonnie K; Peckens, Neal K

    2016-07-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess the effects of in-person collaborative care by primary care veterinarians (pcDVMs) and board-certified veterinary cardiologists (BCVCs) on survival time of dogs after onset of congestive heart failure (CHF) and on associated revenue for the attending pcDVMs. DESIGN Retrospective cohort study. ANIMALS 26 small-breed dogs treated for naturally occurring CHF secondary to myxomatous mitral valve disease at a multilocation primary care veterinary hospital between 2008 and 2013. PROCEDURES Electronic medical records were reviewed to identify dogs with confirmed CHF secondary to myxomatous mitral valve disease and collect information on patient care, survival time, and pcDVM revenue. Data were compared between dogs that received collaborative care from the pcDVM and a BCVC and dogs that received care from the pcDVM alone. RESULTS Dogs that received collaborative care had a longer median survival time (254 days) than did dogs that received care from the pcDVM alone (146 days). A significant positive correlation was identified between pcDVM revenue and survival time for dogs that received collaborative care (ie, the longer the dog survived, the greater the pcDVM revenue generated from caring for that patient). CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Findings suggested that collaborative care provided to small-breed dogs with CHF by a BCVC and pcDVM could result in survival benefits for affected dogs and increased revenue for pcDVMs, compared with care provided by a pcDVM alone.

  14. A Comparison of the Achievement Test Performance of Children Who Attended Montessori Schools and Those Who Attended Non-Montessori Schools in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Hsin-Hui

    2009-01-01

    There are two purposes of the current study. First was to examine whether or not children in the elementary school in Taiwan who had received Montessori early childhood education obtain significantly higher scores on tests of language arts, math, and social studies than children who attended non-Montessori pre-elementary programs. Second one was…

  15. Determinants of life satisfaction among Japanese elderly women attending health care and welfare service facilities

    OpenAIRE

    Onishi, Chiemi; Yuasa, Kyoko; Sei, Masako; EWIS, ASHRAF; Nakano, Takuro; Munakata, Hokuma; Nakahori, Yutaka

    2010-01-01

    Prolonged life expectancy must be recognized as an excellent achievement of modern medicine, but not all the elderly people are satisfied with their lives. Life satisfaction is a multi-dimensional issue that depends on many objective and subjective characteristics. In this study, we aimed at investigating the factors affecting life satisfaction of 314 elderly Japanese women attending in 28 elderly-care and welfare facilities at Tokushima Prefecture, Japan. Our results indicated...

  16. Protocol for Northern Ireland Caries Prevention in Practice Trial (NIC-PIP) trial: a randomised controlled trial to measure the effects and costs of a dental caries prevention regime for young children attending primary care dental services

    OpenAIRE

    Noble Solveig; Sutton Matthew; Crealey Grainne; O'Neill Ciaran; Killough Seamus; Donaldson Michael; Milsom Keith M; Tickle Martin; Greer Margaret; Worthington Helen V

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Dental caries is a persistent public health problem with little change in the prevalence in young children over the last 20 years. Once a child contracts the disease it has a significant impact on their quality of life. There is good evidence from Cochrane reviews including trials that fluoride varnish and regular use of fluoride toothpaste can prevent caries. The Northern Ireland Caries Prevention in Practice Trial (NIC-PIP) trial will compare the costs and effects of a c...

  17. Factors affecting antenatal care attendance: results from qualitative studies in Ghana, Kenya and Malawi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Pell

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Antenatal care (ANC is a key strategy to improve maternal and infant health. However, survey data from sub-Saharan Africa indicate that women often only initiate ANC after the first trimester and do not achieve the recommended number of ANC visits. Drawing on qualitative data, this article comparatively explores the factors that influence ANC attendance across four sub-Saharan African sites in three countries (Ghana, Kenya and Malawi with varying levels of ANC attendance. METHODS: Data were collected as part of a programme of qualitative research investigating the social and cultural context of malaria in pregnancy. A range of methods was employed interviews, focus groups with diverse respondents and observations in local communities and health facilities. RESULTS: Across the sites, women attended ANC at least once. However, their descriptions of ANC were often vague. General ideas about pregnancy care - checking the foetus' position or monitoring its progress - motivated women to attend ANC; as did, especially in Kenya, obtaining the ANC card to avoid reprimands from health workers. Women's timing of ANC initiation was influenced by reproductive concerns and pregnancy uncertainties, particularly during the first trimester, and how ANC services responded to this uncertainty; age, parity and the associated implications for pregnancy disclosure; interactions with healthcare workers, particularly messages about timing of ANC; and the cost of ANC, including charges levied for ANC procedures - in spite of policies of free ANC - combined with ideas about the compulsory nature of follow-up appointments. CONCLUSION: In these socially and culturally diverse sites, the findings suggest that 'supply' side factors have an important influence on ANC attendance: the design of ANC and particularly how ANC deals with the needs and concerns of women during the first trimester has implications for timing of initiation.

  18. Bilingual and monolingual children attend to different cues when learning new words

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana eColunga

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The way in which children learn language can vary depending on their language environment. Previous work suggests that bilingual children may be more sensitive to pragmatic cues from a speaker when learning new words than monolingual children are. On the other hand, monolingual children may rely more heavily on object properties than bilingual children do. In this study we manipulate these two sources of information within the same paradigm, using eye gaze as a pragmatic cue and similarity along different dimensions as an object cue. In the crucial condition, object and pragmatic cues were inconsistent with each other. Our results showed that in this ambiguous condition monolingual children attend more to object property cues whereas bilingual children attend more to pragmatic cues. Control conditions showed that monolingual children were sensitive to eye gaze and bilingual children were sensitive to similarity by shape; it was only when the cues were inconsistent that children’s preference for one or the other cue was apparent. Our results suggest that children learn to weigh different cues depending on their relative informativeness in their environment

  19. The mental health of children of migrant workers in Beijing: the protective role of public school attendance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Qin; Li, Hong; Zou, Hong; Cross, Wendi; Bian, Ran; Liu, Yan

    2015-08-01

    The present study aims to understand the mental health status of an understudied group of migrant children - children of migrant workers in China. A total of 1,466 children from Beijing participated in the study that compared migrant children (n = 1,019) to their local peers (n = 447) in public and private school settings. Results showed that overall, migrant children reported more internalizing and externalizing mental health problems and lower life satisfaction than local peers. However, public school attendance served as a protective factor for migrant children's mental health. The mental health status of migrant children attending public schools, including externalizing problems as well as friend and school satisfaction, was not different from local children. In addition, our data indicates that the protective effect of public school attendance for migrant children may be even more salient among girls than boys, and for younger children than older children.

  20. Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder Do Not Preferentially Attend to Biological Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annaz, Dagmara; Campbell, Ruth; Coleman, Mike; Milne, Elizabeth; Swettenham, John

    2012-01-01

    Preferential attention to biological motion can be seen in typically developing infants in the first few days of life and is thought to be an important precursor in the development of social communication. We examined whether children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) aged 3-7 years preferentially attend to point-light displays depicting…

  1. Health-Related Quality of Life in Children Attending Special and Typical Education Greek Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulou, D.; Malliou, P.; Kofotolis, N.; Vlachopoulos, S. P.; Kellis, E.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine parental perceptions about Health Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) of typical education and special education students in Greece. The Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL) was administered to the parents of 251 children from typical schools, 46 students attending integration classes (IC) within a…

  2. Behavioral and Cognitive Readiness for School: Cross-Domain Associations for Children Attending Head Start

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierman, Karen L.; Torres, Marcela M.; Domitrovich, Celene E.; Welsh, Janet A.; Gest, Scott D.

    2009-01-01

    Utilizing a diverse sample of 356 four-year-old children attending Head Start, this study examined the degree to which behavioral aspects of school readiness, including classroom participation, prosocial behavior, and aggression control were related to direct assessments of child cognitive readiness (academic knowledge, executive function skills)…

  3. Mainstream and Special School Attendance among a Dutch Cohort of Children with Down Syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouwe, J.P. van; Gameren-Oosterom, H.B.M. van; Verkerk, P.H.; Dommelen, P. van; Fekkes, M.

    2014-01-01

    Object. To determine the level of mainstream education in a nationwide cohort of adolescents with Down Syndrome (DS), and to find characteristics related to mainstream or special school attendance. Method. Dutch children with DS born in 1992, 1993 or 1994, were assessed when 16–19 years old. Parents

  4. School attendance and daily respiratory symptoms in children: influence of moisture damage.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Casas, L.; Espinosa, A.; Pekkanen, J.; Asikainen, A.; Borràs-Santos, A.; Jacobs, J.; Krop, E.; Täubel, M.; Hyvärinen, A.; Heederik, D.; Zock, J.P.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: We investigated the effect of weekends and school holidays on the daily frequency and severity of respiratory and other symptoms among children attending schools with (index) or without (reference) moisture damage in Spain, the Netherlands and Finland. Methods: Throughout one year, paren

  5. Impact of human coronavirus infections in otherwise healthy children who attended an emergency department

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Esposito, Susanna; Bosis, Samantha; Niesters, Hubert G M; Tremolati, Elena; Begliatti, Enrica; Rognoni, Alessandro; Tagliabue, Claudia; Principi, Nicola; Osterhaus, Albert D M E

    2006-01-01

    This prospective clinical and virological study of 2,060 otherwise healthy children aged <15 years of age (1,112 males; mean age +/- SD, 3.46 +/- 3.30 years) who attended the Emergency Department of Milan University's Institute of Pediatrics because of an acute disease excluding trauma during the wi

  6. Tuition for Children Who Cannot Attend School Due to Illness in Scotland: Experiences of Home Tutors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo, Mercedes; Gilchrist, Anne

    2007-01-01

    We have explored the working patterns and perceptions of a group of teachers who provide home tuition for children who cannot attend school due to medical problems. These teachers reported high levels of experience in teaching, enthusiasm for their work, and clear managerial structures. Home tutors found it very rewarding to build relationships…

  7. Children's hospice: completing the circle of caring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong-Dailey, A

    1994-12-01

    Often an ignored area of hospice care, children's hospice programs are growing as more and more children contract cancer and AIDS. Children's hospice care differs from adult programs in its approach and requires the cooperation of families and professionals to care for the dying child.

  8. Utilization of traditional birth attendants in MCH care in rural Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, H

    1987-12-01

    Training of the traditional birth attendants (TBAs) in Malaysia was preceded by a KAP study, and the results have been a tremendous improvement in maternal-child health care. Although Malaysia has an extensive health care system composed of government sponsored midwife clinics, health centers and sub-centers, regional hospitals, private general practitioners and estate clinics, which are utilized by 94% for prenatal care, 40% of women still called in TBAs for delivery. TBAs are popular because they provide a full range of traditional customs, are available locally, and well known to local women. 100 active TBAs in the Krian District, an area of 157,649 people in northwestern Malaysia, were surveyed. 89% had primary education; 76% were over 55 years of age; 82% had over 10 years of experience; 60% had received family planning training. They had favorable attitudes toward modern medicine, advised women to attend prenatal care, advised them on traditional diet, and performed such procedures as abdominal massage and heat fomentation. They tended to take all cases regardless of risk. The training consisted of practical demonstrations and flip charts for 6 consecutive saturdays conducted by public health nurses. TBAs were taken to meet staff and see hospital facilities and received a UN midwifery kit as an incentive. After training, hospital deliveries rose from 29.5% in 1976 to 35.9% in 1983; government midwives attended 40.2% compared to 23.3% of deliveries; deliveries conducted by TBAs fell from 47.2% to 19.4%; and more high risk cases were referred to hospitals. During the period maternal mortality declined from 1.46-1.98 in the 1970s to 0.84-1.09 in the 1980s.

  9. Under-attending free antenatal care is associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinonen Seppo

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most pertinent studies of inadequate antenatal care concentrate on the risk profile of women booking late or not booking at all to antenatal care. The objective of this study was to assess the outcome of pregnancies when free and easily accessible antenatal care has been either totally lacking or low in number of visits. Methods This is a hospital register based cohort study of pregnancies treated in Kuopio University Hospital, Finland, in 1989 – 2001. Pregnancy outcomes of women having low numbers (1–5 of antenatal care visits (n = 207 and no antenatal care visits (n = 270 were compared with women having 6–18 antenatal visits (n = 23137. Main outcome measures were: Low birth weight, fetal death, neonatal death. Adverse pregnancy outcomes were controlled for confounding factors (adjusted odds ratios, OR: s in multiple logistic regression models. Results Of the analyzed pregnant population, 1.0% had no antenatal care visits and 0.77% had 1–5 visits. Under- or non-attendance associated with social and health behavioral risk factors: unmarried status, lower educational level, young maternal age, smoking and alcohol use. Chorio-amnionitis or placental abruptions were more common complications of pregnancies of women avoiding antenatal care, and pregnancy outcome was impaired. After logistic regression analyses, controlling for confounding, there were significantly more low birth weight infants in under- and non-attenders (OR:s with 95% CI:s: 9.18 (6.65–12.68 and 5.46 (3.90–7.65, respectively more fetal deaths (OR:s 12.05 (5.95–24.40 and 5.19 (2.04–13.22, respectively and more neonatal deaths (OR:s 10.03 (3.85–26.13 and 8.66 (3.59–20.86, respectively. Conclusion Even when birth takes place in hospital, non- or under-attendance at antenatal care carries a substantially elevated risk of severe adverse pregnancy outcome. Underlying adverse health behavior and possible abuse indicate close surveillance of the

  10. Characterization of the clientele attended in a Psychosocial Care Center - alcohol and drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliany Nazaré Oliveira

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This documentary and retrospective study aimed to analyze the profile of the clientele attended in the Psychosocial Care Center Alcohol and Other Drugs from Sobral, Ceará, Brazil in 2010, based on 300 records. Males predominated with 75% (n=225, with age ranging from 11 to 29 years old with 44.3% (n=133, single with 49% (n=147, and with elementary school 45.7% (n=137. The most commonly used drug among men was crack, 31.3% (n=94, and among women, tobacco, 12% (n=36. The losses associated with dependence, are mostly related to the family, with 31.3% (n=94. The highlight to crack requires changes in the care process implemented in institutions. One should remain alert to these new profiles related to chemical dependency, so that quality and integral care can be offered to this clientele.

  11. Determinants of Antenatal Care Attendance among Pregnant Women Living in Endemic Malaria Settings: Experience from the Democratic Republic of Congo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manianga, Célestin; Kapanga, Serge; Mona, Esther; Pululu, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Background. Antenatal care (ANC) attendance helps pregnant women to benefit from preventive and curative services. Methods. Determinants for ANC attendance were identified through a cross-sectional survey in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Sociocultural bottlenecks were assessed via focus groups discussion of married men and women. Results. In this survey, 28 of the 500 interviewed pregnant women (5.6%) did not attend ANC services and 82.4% booked over the first trimester. The first visit is positively influenced by the reproductive age (OR: 0.52, 95% CI(0.28–0.95), p attendance is delayed among poor women with little education and living alone.

  12. Abusive Head Trauma at a Tertiary Care Children's Hospital in Mexico City. A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Olavarrieta, Claudia; Garcia-Pina, Corina A.; Loredo-Abdala, Arturo; Paz, Francisco; Garcia, Sandra G.; Schilmann, Astrid

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Determine the prevalence, clinical signs and symptoms, and demographic and family characteristics of children attending a tertiary care hospital in Mexico City, Mexico, to illustrate the characteristics of abusive head trauma among this population. Methods: This is a cross-sectional descriptive study of infants and children under 5,…

  13. Profile of patients attending psychogeriatric clinic in a tertiary care setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Neethu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Proportion of elderly is increasing among the total population of Kerala, and mental health problems of this group are unique. Objectives: To assess the clinical and sociodemographic profile of patients attending Psychogeriatric Clinic in a tertiary care center and to study the correlation of sociodemographic and clinical variables with psychiatric diagnoses in this population. Materials and Methods: A retrospective chart review of patients, who attended the Psychogeriatric Clinic of a tertiary care center over a period of 1 year, was done. The Institutional Ethics Committee discussed and waived clearance for the review. Results: There were 85 cases with a mean age of 69.5 years (standard deviation-7.36. Majority of them were females (56.5% and belonged to low socioeconomic status (52.9%. Comorbid physical illnesses were seen in 76.5% cases. Diagnoses were made by Junior Residents in Psychiatry and confirmed by a qualified psychiatrist, as per International Classification of Diseases-10 criteria. The most common psychiatric diagnosis was organic mental disorders (24.7%, which included dementias, delirium, and organic mood disorders. This was followed by bipolar affective disorders (22.4%, schizophrenia and related disorders (20.0%, depressive and anxiety disorders (17.6% and mental and behavioral disorders due to substance use (2.4%. Occurrence of organic psychiatric disorders showed positive correlation with age (Spearman's ρ =0.253, P = 0.02 and occurrence of hypertension (ρ =0.222, P = 0.04. Conclusions: Organic psychiatric disorders are more common in elderly patients attending a tertiary care center. Comorbid physical illnesses are seen in more than three-fourths of this population. Organic psychiatric disorders are seen more commonly with increasing age and occurrence of hypertension.

  14. Toxocariasis in children attending a Public Health Service Pneumology Unit in Paraná State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson V. Guilherme

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA is the most widely used tool to detect anti-Toxocara IgG antibodies for both serodiagnostic and seroepidemiological surveys on human toxocariasis. In the last eight years a high prevalence of toxocariasis (32.2-56.0% has been reported in children attending public health units from municipalities in the state of Paraná, Brazil. Therefore, the aim of this work was to compare the frequency found among the general child population with that of children attending a public pneumology service in Maringá, Paraná, Brazil and describe the laboratorial, clinical and epidemiological findings. The research was conducted at the Consórcio Público Intermunicipal de Saúde do Setentrião Paranaense (CISAMUSEP from July 2009 to July 2010 among children aged between one and 15 years. From a total of 167 children studied, only 4.2% (7/167 tested positive for anti-Toxocara spp. IgG antibodies and presented mild eosinophilia (2/7, increased serum IgE levels (6/7 and a positive allergy test for mites (5/7. The presence of pets (dogs or cats at home did not correlate with the seroprevalence. In conclusion, cases of toxocariasis involving the respiratory tract are rare in children attending a public health pneumology unit in the northwestern region of Paraná State, despite the high prevalence of this type of toxocariasis among the infantile population attending Basic Health Units in the same geographical area.

  15. Toxocariasis in children attending a Public Health Service Pneumology Unit in Paraná State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilherme, Edson V; Marchioro, Ariella A; Araujo, Silvana M; Falavigna, Dina Lúcia Morais; Adami, Carolina; Falavigna-Guilherme, Gustavo; Rubinsky-Elefant, Guita; Falavigna-Guilherme, Ana Lucia

    2013-01-01

    The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is the most widely used tool to detect anti-Toxocara IgG antibodies for both serodiagnostic and seroepidemiological surveys on human toxocariasis. In the last eight years a high prevalence of toxocariasis (32.2-56.0%) has been reported in children attending public health units from municipalities in the state of Paraná, Brazil. Therefore, the aim of this work was to compare the frequency found among the general child population with that of children attending a public pneumology service in Maringá, Paraná, Brazil and describe the laboratorial, clinical and epidemiological findings. The research was conducted at the Consórcio Público Intermunicipal de Saúde do Setentrião Paranaense (CISAMUSEP) from July 2009 to July 2010 among children aged between one and 15 years. From a total of 167 children studied, only 4.2% (7/167) tested positive for anti-Toxocara spp. IgG antibodies and presented mild eosinophilia (2/7), increased serum IgE levels (6/7) and a positive allergy test for mites (5/7). The presence of pets (dogs or cats) at home did not correlate with the seroprevalence. In conclusion, cases of toxocariasis involving the respiratory tract are rare in children attending a public health pneumology unit in the northwestern region of Paraná State, despite the high prevalence of this type of toxocariasis among the infantile population attending Basic Health Units in the same geographical area.

  16. The effect of providing skilled birth attendance and emergency obstetric care in preventing stillbirths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawn Joy E

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Of the global burden of 2.6 million stillbirths, around 1.2 million occur during labour i.e. are intrapartum deaths. In low-/middle-income countries, a significant proportion of women give birth at home, usually in the absence of a skilled birth attendant. This review discusses the impact of skilled birth attendance (SBA and the provision of Emergency Obstetric Care (EOC on stillbirths and perinatal mortality. Methods A systematic literature search was performed on PubMed/MEDLINE, Cochrane Database and the WHO regional libraries. Data of all eligible studies were extracted into a standardized Excel sheet containing variables such as participants’ characteristics, sample size, location, setting, blinding, allocation concealment, intervention and control details and limitations. We undertook a meta-analysis of the impact of SBA on stillbirths. Given the paucity of data from randomized trials or robust quasi-experimental designs, we undertook an expert Delphi consultation to determine impact estimates of provision of Basic and Comprehensive EOC on reducing stillbirths if there would be universal coverage (99%. Results The literature search yielded 871 hits. A total of 21 studies were selected for data abstraction. Our meta-analysis on community-based skilled birth attendance based on two before-after studies showed a 23% significant reduction in stillbirths (RR = 0.77; 95% CI: 0.69 – 0.85. The overall quality grade of available evidence for this intervention on stillbirths was ‘moderate’. The Delphi process supported the estimated reduction in stillbirths by skilled attendance and experts further suggested that the provision of Basic EOC had the potential to avert intrapartum stillbirths by 45% and with provision of Comprehensive EOC this could be reduced by 75%. These estimates are conservative, consistent with historical trends in maternal and perinatal mortality from both developed and developing countries, and are

  17. Children's health care assistance according to their families: a comparison between models of Primary Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Bertoglio Comassetto Antunes de Oliveira

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To compare the health assistance models of Basic Traditional Units (UBS with the Family Health Strategy (ESF units for presence and extent of attributes of Primary Health Care (APS, specifically in the care of children. METHOD A cross-sectional study of a quantitative approach with families of children attended by the Public Health Service of Colombo, Paraná. The Primary Care Assessment Tool (PCA-Tool was applied to parents of 482 children, 235 ESF units and 247 UBS units covering all primary care units of the municipality, between June and July 2012. The results were analyzed according to the PCA-Tool manual. RESULTS ESF units reached a borderline overall score for primary health care standards. However, they fared better in their attributes of Affiliation, Integration of care coordination, Comprehensiveness, Family Centeredness and Accessibility of use, while the attributes of Community Guidance/Orientation, Coordination of Information Systems, Longitudinality and Access attributes were rated as insufficient for APS. UBS units had low scores on all attributes. CONCLUSION The ESF units are closer to the principles of APS (Primary Health Care, but there is need to review actions of child care aimed at the attributes of APS in both care models, corroborating similar studies from other regions of Brazil.

  18. [Effect of educational nutrition program on the energy and macronutrients intake of preschoolers attending Junji day care centres in the eastern sector of Santiago, Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vásquez, Fabián; Andrade, Margarita; Rodríguez, M del Pilar; Salazar, Gabriela

    2008-09-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the change on the energy and macronutrients intake in obese and eutrophic preschoolers, attending National Board of Day Care Centres (JUNJI), in the eastern area of Santiago, as product of an educational intervention in intake, nutrition and physical activity, sustained in the theory of the social cognitive learning and the model of community organization. The sample comprised of thirty five obese children, plus eighty five eutrophic children (4-5 years olds). Energy intake was evaluated, measuring full two days a week plus one weekend day. At the day care centre, all ingested food was weighed, and when back at home, child food-intake was recalled. During the stay at the day care centres, the intervention produced a reduction in: energy, proteins, lipids and carbohydrates in obese girls (pobese boys (pobese girls and eutrophic boys (pobese boys, reduced the intake of calories (pobese girls the reduction was in calories (pobesity and chronic diseases.

  19. Reported Drug Allergy among Children Attending Day Care Centers

    OpenAIRE

    Carreiro-Martins, P.; Belo, J; Marques, J.; Papoila, AL; Caires, I; Araújo-Martins, J; Pedro, C; Rosado-Pinto, J.; Virella, D; Leiria-Pinto, P; Neuparth, N.

    2014-01-01

    Introdução: A prevalência de alergia a fármacos na população geral não se encontra devidamente caraterizada, existindo poucos estudos publicados que tenham abordado esta situação em crianças com idades inferior a seis anos de idade. Este estudo tem como objetivo principal estimar a prevalência de alergia a medicamentos reportada pelos pais de crianças de infantários de Lisboa e do Porto. Material e Métodos: No âmbito da Fase II do projeto “ENVIRH – Ambiente e Saúde em Creches e Infantários...

  20. [Reported drug allergy among children attending day care centers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Pedro; Belo, Joana; Marques, João; Papoila, Ana Luísa; Caires, Iolanda; Araújo-Martins, José; Pedro, Catarina; Rosado-Pinto, José; Virella, Daniel; Leiria-Pinto, Paula; Neuparth, Nuno

    2014-01-01

    Introdução: A prevalência de alergia a fármacos na população geral não se encontra devidamente caraterizada, existindo poucos estudos publicados que tenham abordado esta situação em crianças com idades inferior a seis anos de idade. Este estudo tem como objetivo principal estimar a prevalência de alergia a medicamentos reportada pelos pais de crianças de infantários de Lisboa e do Porto. Material e Métodos: No âmbito da Fase II do projeto “ENVIRH – Ambiente e Saúde em Creches e Infantários” foi aplicado um questionário sobre alergia a medicamentos aos pais das crianças, recrutadas por amostragem aleatória estratificada dos infantários. Resultados: Foram analisados 1 169 questionários, 52,5% de rapazes. A idade média foi de 3,5 ± 1,5 anos. A prevalência de alergia a medicamentos reportada foi de 4,1% (IC 95%: 3,0 - 5,2%). Os fármacos mais referidos foram os antibióticos (em 27 reações) e os AINEs (em seis reações). Na análise multivariável, a alergia a medicamentos reportada associou-se diretamente com a idade da criança (OR 1,19; IC 95% 1,01 - 1,41) e com a referência a alergia alimentar (OR 3,19; IC95% 1,41 - 7,19) e inversamente com o nível de escolaridade dos pais (OR 0,25; IC95% 0,10 - 0,59). Discussão: Apesar das limitações do estudo, os resultados encontram-se de acordo com o reportado por outros autores e sugerem que a prevalência reportada de alergia a medicamentos seja elevada no grupo etário estudado. Conclusão: Torna-se necessário que situações de alergia a medicamentos reportadas pelos pais sejam devidamente estudadas, no sentido de evitar evicções desnecessárias que possam condicionar opções terapêuticas em futuras situações de doença.

  1. Quality of nursing care and satisfaction of patients attended at a teaching hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Santana de Freitas

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: assess the quality of nursing care, the patients' satisfaction and the correlation between both.METHOD: cross-sectional study, involving 275 patients hospitalized at a teaching hospital in the Central-West of Brazil. The data were collected through the simultaneous application of three instruments. Next, they were included in an electronic database and analyzed in function of the positivity, median value and Spearman's correlation coefficients.RESULTS: among the nursing care assessed, only two were considered safe - hygiene and physical comfort; nutrition and hydration - while the remainder were classified as poor. Nevertheless, the patients were satisfied with the care received in the domains assessed: technical-professional, confidence and educational. This can be justified by the weak to moderate correlation that was observed among these variables.CONCLUSION: Despite the quality deficit, the patients' satisfaction level with the nursing care received was high. These results indicate that the institution needs to center its objectives on a continuing evaluation system of the care quality, aiming to attend to the patients' expectations.

  2. Likelihood of Attending Treatment for Anxiety Among Veteran Primary Care Patients: Patient Preferences for Treatment Attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepardson, Robyn L; Funderburk, Jennifer S

    2016-09-01

    Anxiety is common, but under-treated, in primary care. Behavioral health providers embedded in primary care can help address this treatment gap. Guidance on anxiety treatment preferences would help inform tailoring of clinical practice and new interventions to be more patient-centered and increase treatment engagement. We surveyed 144 non-treatment seeking Veteran primary care patients (82.6 % male, 85.4 % White, age M = 59.8 years, SD = 13.9) reporting current anxiety symptoms (M = 13.87, SD = 3.66, on the Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 Questionnaire) on their likelihood of attending anxiety treatment featuring various levels of 11 attributes (modality, type, location, format, provider, visit frequency, visit length, treatment duration, type of psychotherapy, symptom focus, and topic/skill). Participants indicated clear preferences for individual, face-to-face treatment in primary care, occurring once a month for at least 30 min and lasting at least three sessions. They also tended to prefer a stress management approach focused on trouble sleeping or fatigue, but all topics/skills were rated equivalently. For most attributes, the highest rated options were consistent with characteristics of integrated care. Implications for research and practice are discussed.

  3. Drumming as a Medium to Promote Emotional and Social Functioning of Children in Middle Childhood in Residential Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Kim; van Niekerk, Caroline; le Roux, Liana

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the potential of drumming to enhance emotional and social functioning of children in residential care. Fifteen children (aged 7-12) from a child and youth care centre in South Africa attended four months of weekly drumming sessions. Gestalt theory principles informed the workshops' theoretical foundation and interpretation of…

  4. KNOWLEDGE ATTITUDE & PRACTICE REGARDING EYE DONATION AMONG PEOPLE ATTENDING TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL - A SHORT REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachna

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the knowledge , attitudes and practices regarding eye donation in selected adult population attending tertiary eye care centre. Methods: 636 interviews were successfully completed and used for analysis. A questionnaire was specially designed to know the facts about awareness and willingness for eye donation among general population attending tertiary eye care centre. Questionnaire included whether they had any knowledge of eye donation , source of information , willingness to donate eyes and also impact of eye donation on corneal blindness status. Results: Knowledge about eye donation was significantly associated with education and socioeconomic status. After counseling , 84.90% of partici pants agreed to motivate other family members/ friends to fill the pledge form of eye donation. Allowance of eye donation in religion was significantly associated with the motivation to donate . Higher level of education and higher socioeconomic status were significant predictors of knowledge status of eye donation. For motivation , higher socioeconomic status , adequate knowledge and belief that eye donation is allowed in religion were significant predictors. Television emerged as the major source of information. Conclusion: Better knowledge may ultimately translate into the act of donation. Effective measures sh ould be taken to educate people with relevant information with the involvement of media , doctors and religious scholars

  5. SATISFACTION FROM HEALTH INSURANCE INSTITUTIONS AMONG PEOPLE ATTENDING THE PRIMARY HEALTH CARE CENTERS IN ANKARA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma ILHAN

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the status of satisfaction from health insurance institutions among people at age 18 and over , attending the primary health care centers in Ankara city center. This study was conducted by applying a questionnaire to the persons attending to four primary health care center and two Mather-Child Health Care and Family Planning Centers in Ankara City Center between May 20-July 20, 2003. 3184 persons applied to six primary health care centers in Ankara city center were interviewed. The median age of the subjects was 38; 66.4 % were women; 30.9 % were primary school graduate and 48.8% were housewife. 100% of the subjects who own private health insurance were satisfied with their insurance status. This rate was 92.0% for the subjects who were under coverage of Emekli Sandigi, and 79% for those who were under coverage of Bag-Kur. The most common health insurance institution the subjects were not satisfied with, was SSK with 48.4 % unsatisfaction rate. “The capability of being physically emamined and treated in any health facility he/she want” was in the first rank among the satisfaction reasons (54.2%. “The absence of this capability” was the most common reason for unsatisfaction (44.0%. 51.6 of the subjects were satisfied with their own health insurance institution, Emekli Sandigi was the most preffered institution with a percentage of 22.3. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2006; 5(4.000: 244-253

  6. Neuropsychological screening of children of substance-abusing women attending a Special Child Welfare Clinic in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skogmo Idar

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exposure to alcohol and illicit substances during pregnancy can have an impact on the child for the rest of his/her life. A Special Child Welfare Clinic (SCWC in Norway provides care for pregnant women with substance abuse problems. Treatment and support are provided without replacement therapy. Methods We performed a neuropsychological screening of 40 children aged four to 11 years whose mothers had attended the SCWC during pregnancy, and of a comparison group of 80 children of women without substance abuse problems. The children were presented with tests chosen from Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, third version (WISC-III, Nepsy, Halstead-Reitan and Raven's Progressive Matrices, Coloured Version. The tests were grouped into five main domains; (1 learning and memory, (2 visual scanning, planning and attention, (3 executive function, (4 visuo-motor speed and dexterity and (5 general intellectual ability Results No children in the study had test results in the clinical range in any domain. Bivariate analyses revealed that children of short-term substance-abusing mothers (who stopped substance abuse within the first trimester had significantly lower test scores than the comparison group in three out of five domains (domain 2,3,4. Children of long-term substance abusers (who maintained moderate substance abuse throughout pregnancy had significantly lower test results than the comparison group in one domain of the test results (domain 1. All but one child in the long-term group were or had been in foster homes. Most children in the short-term group stayed with their mothers. Multivariate regression analyses revealed that foster care minimum 50% of life time was associated with better scores on domains (1 learning and memory, (2 visual scanning, planning and attention, and (3 executive functions, while no significant associations with test scores was found for substance abuse and birth before 38 weeks of gestation

  7. Social behavior and sociometric status of pre-school children attending kindergartens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Zupančič

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The measures of temporal reliability and criterion validity of the Slovenian version of Social Competence and Behavior Evaluation Scale – Preschool Edition (SV-P are presented and discussed in the present contribution. Test-retest reliability indexes of the basic and composite scales were obtained with a sample of 39 children assessed in a two-month interval, while the temporal stability coefficients were obtained with an independent sample of 48 children evaluated after a six-month interval. All of the temporal reliability measures were proven sufficiently high. Sociometric indicators of a child's popularity and peer rejection were chosen as an external criterion to verify the concurrent validity of the SV-P. All of the children attending the same kindergarten groups as the target children (N=54 participated in a sociometric test. It was implemented in a form of combined nomination and paired-comparison technique using a group photo of the children in a kindergarten group. The results of the composite scales of SV-P – Social Competence, Internalizing Problems, Externalizing Problems and Genaral Adaptation – were related to the children's sociometric positions within the kindergarten group in the expected directions and to a satisfactory degree. In addition, the results obtained by the sociometric procedure with a sample of 210 children were analysed. They highlight the proportions of kindergarten children classified into different sociometric statuses - popular, neglected, rejected, controversial and average – and suggest that during the early childhood the children clearly prefer their same-sex peers.

  8. Hipovitaminose A em pré-escolares de creches públicas do Recife: indicadores bioquímico e dietético Vitamin A deficiency among preschool children attending public day care centres of Recife: biochemical and dietetic indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taciana Fernanda dos Santos Fernandes

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estimar a prevalência de hipovitaminose A em pré-escolares de creches públicas da cidade do Recife, Estado de Pernambuco, Brasil. MÉTODOS: Estudo de corte transversal, envolvendo 311 crianças menores de cinco anos, de ambos os sexos, aleatoriamente selecionadas, e avaliadas pelos indicadores bioquímico (retinol sérico, dietético (inquérito de consumo alimentar e antropométrico (peso/idade, altura/idade e peso/altura. RESULTADOS: A prevalência de níveis de retinol sérico baixos (0,05. O consumo dietético de vitamina A mostrou sensibilidade reduzida (43,0% e baixíssimo valor preditivo positivo (6,8% no diagnóstico da hiporretinolemia. CONCLUSÃO: A identificação de grupos populacionais vulneráveis, bem como a seleção de indicadores fidedignos do estado nutricional de vitamina A, são elementos essenciais para o diagnóstico e o planejamento de ações visando à prevenção e ao controle dessa carência nutricional específica.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the extent of vitamin A deficiency among preschool children attending public day care centres in Recife, State of Pernambuco, Brazil. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey involving 311 under 5-year-old children of both sexes, randomly selected, and assessed by biochemical (serum retinol, dietetic (vitamin A rich-food consumption and anthropometric indicators (weight-for-height, weight-for-age and height-for-age. RESULTS: The prevalence of hyporetinolemia (serum retinol 0.05. Vitamin A rich-food intake showed low sensitivity (43.0% and a very low positive predictive value (6.8% as a screening diagnostic test for vitamin A deficiency. CONCLUSION: The identification of vulnerable population groups, and the selection of reliable indicators for the assessment of vitamin A status, are both essential for the diagnosis and planning aimed at preventing and controlling vitamin A deficiency.

  9. Incidence of rotavirus infection in children with gastroenteritis attending Jos university teaching hospital, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olabode Atanda O

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study was conducted to determine the incidence of rotavirus infection in children with gastroenteritis attending Jos university teaching hospital, Plateau State. A total of 160 children with acute diarrhea were selected by random sampling. Stool samples were obtained and assayed for rotavirus antigens by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay technique using standard diagnostic BIOLINE Rotavirus kit. Demographic data of parents were also recorded. Rotavirus were detected in faeces of 22(13.8% children with acute diarrhea, 90.9% of positive cases of rotavirus gastroenteritis were under 2 years of age with highest prevalence in children 7-12 months of age. Males excreted rotavirus at a significant higher rate than females (P

  10. Providing nursing care in a children's hospice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Alison

    Children who are admitted to hospices need specialist treatment that enables them to enjoy their childhood as much as possible while they receive the care they require. Their parents also have particular needs. During Children's Hospice Week, which started on September 21, the Association of Children's Hospices aims to raise awareness of the work done by children's hospices and the services they provide.

  11. [Factors related to self-care in diabetes mellitus patients attended at emergency service in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baquedano, Irasema Romero; dos Santos, Manoel Antônio; Teixeira, Carla Regina de Souza; Martins, Tatiane Aparecida; Zanetti, Maria Lúcia

    2010-12-01

    This cross-sectional study aimed to determine the self-care ability of individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus and to relate this capacity with some sociodemographic and clinical variables. Participants were 251 patients who attended the Emergency Service at the Mérida Regional Hospital in Yucatán, Mexico, in 2006. Data were obtained through directed home interviews, using a form, a questionnaire and the Self-Care Capacity Scale. Descriptive and correlation statistics were used for data analysis. The results showed 83 (33.5%) subjects with good and 168 (66.5%) subjects with regular ability. A directly proportional correlation was found between self-care ability and years of study (r = 0.124; p religion (rs = -0.435; p < 0.05) and evolution time of the disease (r = -0.667; p < 0.05). These variables should be taken into account to promote self-care for diabetes patients, and further research needs to be developed with a focus on other variables involved in the behavior adopted to benefit their health.

  12. Comparing policies for children of parents attending hospital emergency departments after intimate partner violence, substance abuse or suicide attempt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoytema van Konijnenburg, Eva M M; Diderich, Hester M; Teeuw, Arianne H; Klein Velderman, Mariska; Oudesluys-Murphy, Anne Marie; van der Lee, Johanna H

    2016-03-01

    To improve identification of child maltreatment, a new policy ('Hague protocol') was implemented in hospitals in The Netherlands, stating that adults attending the hospital emergency department after intimate partner violence, substance abuse or a suicide attempt should be asked whether they care for children. If so, these children are referred to the Reporting Center for Child Abuse and Neglect (RCCAN), for assessment and referrals to support services. An adapted, hospital-based version of this protocol ('Amsterdam protocol') was implemented in another region. Children are identified in the same manner, but, instead of a RCCAN referral, they are referred to the pediatric outpatient department for an assessment, including a physical examination, and referrals to services. We compared results of both protocols to assess how differences between the protocols affect the outcomes on implementation, detection of child maltreatment and referrals to services. Furthermore, we assessed social validity and results of a screening physical examination. We included 212 families from the Amsterdam protocol (cohort study with reports by pediatric staff and parents) and 565 families from the Hague protocol (study of RCCAN records and telephone interviews with parents). We found that the RCCAN identified more maltreatment than pediatric staff (98% versus at least 51%), but referrals to services were similar (82% versus 80% of the total sample) and parents were positive about both interventions. Physical examination revealed signs of maltreatment in 5%. We conclude that, despite the differences, both procedures can serve as suitable methods to identify and refer children at risk for maltreatment.

  13. Strengthening care of injured children globally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mock, Charles; Abantanga, Francis; Goosen, Jacques; Joshipura, Manjul; Juillard, Catherine

    2009-05-01

    Part of the solution to the growing problem of child injury is to strengthen the care that injured children receive. This paper will point out the potential health gains to be made by doing this and will then review recent advances in the care of injured children in individual institutions and countries. It will discuss how these individual efforts have been aided by increased international attention to trauma care. Although there are no major, well-funded global programmes to improve trauma care, recent guidance documents developed by WHO and a broad network of collaborators have stimulated increased global attention to improving planning and resources for trauma care. This has in turn led to increased attention to strengthening trauma care capabilities in countries, including needs assessments and implementation of WHO recommendations in national policy. Most of these global efforts, however, have not yet specifically addressed children. Given the special needs of the injured child and the high burden of injury-related death and disability among children, clearly greater emphasis on childhood trauma care is needed. Trauma care needs assessments being conducted in a growing number of countries need to focus more on capabilities for care of injured children. Trauma care policy development needs to better encompass childhood trauma care. More broadly, the growing network of individuals and groups collaborating to strengthen trauma care globally needs to engage a broader range of stakeholders who will focus on and champion the improvement of care for injured children.

  14. Children with Special Health Care Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... by their families. "These children are at a disadvantage in the health care system, because important medical ... Care For You American College of Emergency Phycisians Copyright © American College of Emergency Physicians 2017 Privacy Policy ...

  15. The Prevalence and the Determinants of Musculoskeletal Diseases in Emiratis Attending Primary Health Care Clinics in Dubai

    OpenAIRE

    Jamal Al Saleh; Manal EL Sayed; Nahed Monsef; Ebtihal Darwish

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of rheumatic diseases in the Emiratis attending primary health care (PHC) clinics in Dubai. The secondary objective was to study the relationship between age, gender, and body mass index (BMI) and rheumatic diseases in the general population.  Methods: The Prevalence of Rheumatic Diseases and Osteoporosis (PRO) in Dubai study was a cross-sectional study, which randomly enrolled Emiratis’ aged between 18–85 years old who attended one of 13 PHC clinics...

  16. Seroprevalence of syphilis in patients attending a tertiary care hospital in Southern India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sadia Khan; GodfredAntony Menezes; Rahul Dhodapkar; Belgode Narasimha Harish

    2014-01-01

    To report our experience with two tests, anti-cardiolipin antibody test [venereal disease reasearch laboratory (VDRL) test] and specific treponemal test (Treponema pallidum hemagglutination assay), used for screening antenatal, high risk cases and cases from sexually transmitted infection in a tertiary care hospital from January 2006 till December 2008. Methods: A total of 14639 samples received from various patient groups including antenatal cases, patients attending sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinic, blood donors and HIV positive patients were screened. Results: Among the 14639 samples collected, 103 were positive by VDRL test. Of these 89 cases were confirmed by quantitative VDRL test and Treponema pallidum hemagglutination assay. The cumulative seroprevalence over two years was found to be 0.61% in this study. The syphilis seroprevalence reduced from 0.88% in 2006 to 0.40% in 2008. Among the various sub-populations studied, patients attending the sexually transmitted infection clinic showed a seroprevalence of 2.62%. The seroprevalence decreased significantly from 4.00% in 2006 to 1.39% in 2008. Conclusions: Our study showed a statistically significant declining rate of syphilis in STD clinics as well as the overall seroprevalence. These findings could be interpreted as indicators of improved programmes for prevention and management of STDs.

  17. Seroprevalence of syphilis in patients attending a tertiary care hospital in Southern India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sadia; Khan; Godfred; Antony; Menezes; Rahul; Dhodapkar; Belgode; Narasimha; Harish

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To report our experience with two tests,anti-cardiolipin antibody test[venereal disease reasearch laboratory(VDRL) test]and specific treponemal test(Treponema pallidum hemagglutination assay),used for screening antenatal,high risk cases and cases from sexually transmitted infection in a tertiary care hospital from January 2006 till December 2008.Methods:A total of 14639 samples received from various patient groups including antenatal cases,patients attending sexually transmitted disease(STD) clinic,blood donors and HIV positive patients were screened.Results:Among the 14639 samples collected,103 were positive by VDRL test.Of these 89 cases were confirmed by quantitative VDRL test and Treponema pallidum hemagglutination assay.The cumulative seroprevalence over two years was found to be 0.61%in this study.The syphilis seroprevalence reduced from 0.88%in 2006 to 0.40%in 2008.Among the various sub-populations studied,patients attending the sexually transmitted infection clinic showed a seroprevalence of 2.62%.The seroprevalence decreased significantly from 4.00%in 2006 to1.39%in 2008.Conclusions:Our study showed a statistically significant declining rate of syphilis in STD clinics as well as the overall seroprevalence.These findings could be interpreted as indicators of improved programmes for prevention and management of STDs.

  18. Factors associated with acute respiratory illness in day care children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatakka, Katja; Piirainen, Laura; Pohjavuori, Sara; Poussa, Tuija; Savilahti, Erkki; Korpela, Riitta

    2010-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between child characteristics, parental and environmental factors and the occurrence of acute respiratory illness (ARI) and acute otitis media (AOM) among Finnish children attending day care centres (DCCs). The study was a cross-sectional questionnaire of 594 children aged 1-6 y from 18 DCCs in Helsinki, Finland. Recurrent (> or =4 diseases/y) ARI was present in 44% of the 1-3-y-olds and 23% of the 4-6-y-olds, and recurrent AOM in 15% and 2.5%, respectively. Parent atopic disease (odds ratio (OR) 1.53, p = 0.033), mother's academic education (OR 1.77, p = 0.008) and a medium length of DCC attendance compared to a short period (OR 1.67, p = 0.049) increased, while furry pets (OR 0.44, p = 0.003) and older child age (OR 0.38, p or =6 months (OR 0.20, p = 0.002) and older child age (OR 0.05, p < 0.001) reduced the risk of recurrent AOM. Parental and environmental factors had a significant impact on recurrent ARI and AOM episodes in children attending DCCs. These risk factors should be considered in future studies intending to reduce DCC infections.

  19. Intestinal parasite infections in symptomatic children attending hospital in Siem Reap, Cambodia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catrin E Moore

    Full Text Available Infections with helminths and other intestinal parasites are an important but neglected problem in children in developing countries. Accurate surveys of intestinal parasites in children inform empirical treatment regimens and can assess the impact of school based drug treatment programmes. There is limited information on this topic in Cambodia.In a prospective study of intestinal parasites in symptomatic children attending Angkor Hospital for Children, Siem Reap, Cambodia, April-June 2012, samples were examined by microscopy of a direct and concentrated fecal sample. Two culture methods for hookworm and Strongyloides stercoralis were employed when sufficient sample was received. Demographic, clinical and epidemiological data were collected.We studied 970 samples from 865 children. The median (inter-quartile range age of the children was 5.4 (1.9-9.2 years, 54% were male. The proportion of children with abdominal pain was 66.8%, diarrhea 34.9%, anemia 12.7% and malnutrition 7.4%. 458 parasitic infections were detected in 340 (39.3% children. The most common parasites using all methods of detection were hookworm (14.3%, Strongyloides stercoralis (11.6% and Giardia lamblia (11.2%. Giardia lamblia was most common in children aged 1-5 years, hookworm and Strongyloides stercoralis were more common with increasing age. Hookworm, Strongloides stercoralis and Giardia lamblia were more common in children living outside of Siem Reap town. In a multivariate logistic regression increasing age was associated with all three infections, defecating in the forest for hookworm infection, the presence of cattle for S. stercoralis and not using soap for handwashing for G. lamblia.This study confirms the importance of intestinal parasitic infections in symptomatic Cambodian children and the need for adequate facilities for laboratory diagnosis together with education to improve personal hygiene and sanitation.

  20. Gerontologic domiciliary attendance: contributions for the elderly health care in the community - doi:10.5020/18061230.2008.p61

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iracema Radael de Souza

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To present the contributions of the Domiciliary Attendance (DA for elderly care in the community. Data Synthesis: Following the proposals of Gerontology, the contributions of this type of attendance for elderly care were reached for as a directive question, and therein, delimiting the guiding principles of DA: the humanization, the interdisciplinarity and caregiver support, as fundamental for the continuity and success of this modality. The data search consisted of a research of primary data published in the periods of: 1988, 1994 and 1996-2007. Pointing out that the theme is in accordance to Health Politics proclaimed nowadays in Brazil; DA appears as a new attendance strategy contributing for the reorientation of the assistance models for the aged and, at the same time, humanizing elderly care. Conclusion: It was observed from the obtained data that domiciliary attendance significantly contributes for elderly care in the community, representing an advantageous strategy. One can say that such advantage occurs from the possibility of besides humanizing the attendance, also reducing the costs of the attention by means of precocious discharge, showing that DA with Gerontologic focusing is differenced, providing a more adequate treatment for the patient, his/her caregiver and the family.

  1. The aetiology of dento-alveolar injuries and factors influencing attendance for emergency care of adolescents in the north west of England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blinkhorn, F A

    2000-08-01

    The aims of the study were to determine the main aetiological factors involved in injuries to anterior teeth and to identify factors influencing the attendance for emergency care. This information is essential, first, for planning dental health education programmes aimed at reducing the incidence of dental trauma and, second, to devise strategies for its effective treatment. Of 2022 schoolchildren examined for evidence of dental trauma, 696 (34%) had experienced injury and were interviewed regarding this injury. Of these, 403 knew about their damaged front tooth, but only 330 recollected the incident causing the injury. Over one third of accidents occurred at home and a further 25% at school. The most common cause of injury was falling onto a hard surface or object (34%) with accidents involving bicycles or other sporting activities accounting for a further 30%. Factors found to be significantly related to attendance for emergency care were experience of pain, unattractive appearance of the injured tooth and social classification, with children from higher income, more affluent areas being more likely to seek treatment. The majority of dental injuries were the result of genuine accidents which were almost impossible to prevent. This study highlighted the need for attention to be brought to parents, children, lay people and health care professionals that all dental injuries should be examined by a dentist, not just those injuries resulting in pain or poor aesthetics.

  2. A qualitative evaluation of the choice of traditional birth attendants for maternity care in 2008 Sierra Leone: implications for universal skilled attendance at delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyerinde, Koyejo; Harding, Yvonne; Amara, Philip; Garbrah-Aidoo, Nana; Kanu, Rugiatu; Oulare, Macoura; Shoo, Rumishael; Daoh, Kizito

    2013-07-01

    Maternal and newborn death is common in Sierra Leone; significant reductions in both maternal and newborn mortality require universal access to a skilled attendant during labor and delivery. When too few women use health facilities MDGs 4 and 5 targets will not be met. Our objectives were to identify why women use services provided by TBAs as compared to health facilities; and to suggest strategies to improve utilization of health facilities for maternity and newborn care services. Qualitative data from focus group discussions in communities adjacent to health facilities collected during the 2008 Emergency Obstetric and Newborn Care Needs Assessment were analyzed for themes relating to decision-making on the utilization of TBAs or health facilities. The prohibitive cost of services, and the geographic inaccessibility of health facilities discouraged women from using them while trust in the vast experience of TBAs as well as their compassionate care drew patients to them. Poor facility infrastructure, often absent staff, and the perception that facilities were poorly stocked and could not provide continuum of care services were barriers to facility utilization for maternity and newborn care. Improvements in infrastructure and the 24-hour provision of free, quality, comprehensive, and respectful care will minimize TBA preference in Sierra Leone.

  3. The effect of reminder calls in reducing non-attendance rates at care of the elderly clinics

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND—DNA ("did not attend") at outpatient clinics is an important problem costing the NHS an estimated £266 million annually. The national DNA rate for 1996-1997 for all clinics was 12%. The DNA rate at Hammersmith Hospital for the same year in the care of the elderly specialty was 21%. The aim of this study was to establish why this was so, and to test the efficacy of a reminder call in increasing attendance rates at care of the elderly clinics.
METHODS—23 DNAs from seven clinics were ...

  4. Estado nutricional de crianças assistidas em creches e situação de (insegurança alimentar de suas famílias Nutritional status of children attended in day-care-centers and food (insecurity of their families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maercio Mota de Souza

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Examinar fatores associados a excesso de peso, déficit de estatura e déficit de peso em crianças assistidas em creches estaduais de João Pessoa e descrever a situação de (insegurança alimentar das suas famílias. Trata-se de um estudo transversal com amostra de 250 crianças. Foram estudadas variáveis socioeconômicas, maternas e das crianças. O estado nutricional das crianças foi avaliado considerando os índices estatura-para-idade e peso-para-estatura. A segurança alimentar familiar foi avaliada com a utilização da Escala Brasileira de Insegurança Alimentar. As proporções de déficit de estatura, déficit de peso e excesso de peso foram 7,6%, 1,6% e 6,4%, respectivamente. Os fatores associados à baixa estatura foram baixa estatura materna e esquema vacinal incompleto. Com relação ao baixo peso, o fator associado foi idade materna inferior a 20 anos. O excesso de peso infantil apresentou associação com o excesso de peso materno e baixa estatura materna. Em 59,6% das famílias, observou-se situação de insegurança alimentar e nutricional, sendo mais frequente a forma leve (32,4%. Excesso de peso e déficit de estatura foram os distúrbios nutricionais mais frequentes neste estudo, constituindo prioridades que devem ser consideradas nas políticas públicas atuais.The scope of this study was to examine associated factors with overweight, stunting and underweight in children attending state day care centers of João Pessoa, as well as to describe the situation of food (insecurity of their families. A cross-sectional study was conducted with a sample of 250 children. Socioeconomic, maternal and child variables were studied. The nutritional status of children was evaluated considering the height-for-age and weight-for-height indices. Household food security was assessed using the Brazilian Scale of Food Insecurity. The proportions of stunting, underweight and overweight were 7.6%, 1.6% and 6.4% respectively. The associated

  5. Asthma care for children and adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Background: Asthma is one of the most common chronic diseases among young children and adolescents. With high quality health care, most children and adolescents with asthma can live an active and normal life. Yet, many children and adolescents have uncontrolled asthma, with symptoms and exacerbations which may affect their daily life. Adolescence is a sensitive period and asthma may be difficult to treat due to poor adherence to treatment. Little is known about health care professionals’ adhe...

  6. Caring teaching practices in multiethnic mathematics classrooms: attending to health and well-being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averill, Robin

    2012-06-01

    Factors that contribute to strong teacher-student relationships are vital to understand because of the influence these relationships have on achievement and motivation, particularly for minority group students. This article draws from a substantial quantity of empirical data, grounded in a wide theoretical and cultural base, regarding aspects of caring teacher practice to discuss mathematics teacher behaviours in relation to an existing model of health and well-being that encompasses cognitive, social, spiritual, and physical dimensions. Drawing from 100 Year 10 mathematics lesson observations involving six teachers and their classes across three urban schools, evidence emerged that for many indigenous (Māori), New Zealand Pacific, and New Zealand European students, caring teacher behaviours important for student engagement and achievement both include, and range beyond, traditional teaching practices. Examples include capitalising on student reactions and shared endeavours within the context of mathematics learning, expecting mathematical progress, showing respect for students and for their mathematics learning, being explicit about practice and expectations, incorporating one-to-one interactions, making opportunities within mathematics learning for sharing personal identities, and incorporating movement. This research illustrates how mathematics educators can attend to the specific and holistic mathematical learning needs of their students, including those often marginalised.

  7. Determinants of life satisfaction among Japanese elderly women attending health care and welfare service facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onishi, Chiemi; Yuasa, Kyoko; Sei, Masako; Ewis, Ashraf A; Nakano, Takuro; Munakata, Hokuma; Nakahori, Yutaka

    2010-02-01

    Prolonged life expectancy must be recognized as an excellent achievement of modern medicine, but not all the elderly people are satisfied with their lives. Life satisfaction is a multi-dimensional issue that depends on many objective and subjective characteristics. In this study, we aimed at investigating the factors affecting life satisfaction of 314 elderly Japanese women attending in 28 elderly-care and welfare facilities at Tokushima Prefecture, Japan. Our results indicated that elderly subjects with depression tendencies always show significantly lower degrees of life satisfaction than others who are not depressed (pelderly women who shared decision for their living place and whose opinions were considered for daily life decisions reported significantly more life satisfaction levels than others. We conclude that elderly life satisfaction is affected by various determinants however, with different influencing weight. Life satisfaction of elderly people, with or without dementia, is greatly affected by their mood status and share in decision making. Avoiding elderly people depressive mood, sharing them in various daily decisions, considering their opinions, and allowing them to decide their elderly-care facility placement are crucial determinants for their life satisfaction and essential for their coping, adaptation, well-being and successful aging.

  8. Communities, birth attendants and health facilities: a continuum of emergency maternal and newborn care (the global network's EmONC trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liechty Edward A

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal and newborn mortality rates remain unacceptably high, especially where the majority of births occur in home settings or in facilities with inadequate resources. The introduction of emergency obstetric and newborn care services has been proposed by several organizations in order to improve pregnancy outcomes. However, the effectiveness of emergency obstetric and neonatal care services has never been proven. Also unproven is the effectiveness of community mobilization and community birth attendant training to improve pregnancy outcomes. Methods/Design We have developed a cluster-randomized controlled trial to evaluate the impact of a comprehensive intervention of community mobilization, birth attendant training and improvement of quality of care in health facilities on perinatal mortality in low and middle-income countries where the majority of births take place in homes or first level care facilities. This trial will take place in 106 clusters (300-500 deliveries per year each across 7 sites of the Global Network for Women's and Children's Health Research in Argentina, Guatemala, India, Kenya, Pakistan and Zambia. The trial intervention has three key elements, community mobilization, home-based life saving skills for communities and birth attendants, and training of providers at obstetric facilities to improve quality of care. The primary outcome of the trial is perinatal mortality. Secondary outcomes include rates of stillbirth, 7-day neonatal mortality, maternal death or severe morbidity (including obstetric fistula, eclampsia and obstetrical sepsis and 28-day neonatal mortality. Discussion In this trial, we are evaluating a combination of interventions including community mobilization and facility training in an attempt to improve pregnancy outcomes. If successful, the results of this trial will provide important information for policy makers and clinicians as they attempt to improve delivery services for pregnant

  9. The impact of a pre-hospital medical response unit on patient care and emergency department attendances.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Deasy, C

    2012-02-03

    A rapid response team was instigated in Cork to improve prehospital care and reduce unnecessary Emergency Department (ED) visits. This consisted of a Specialist Registrar (SpR) in Emergency Medicine and a Paramedic who attended all "999" calls in a designated rapid response vehicle on the allotted study days. Two hundred and sixty-three patients were seen on designated days between Jan 2004 and March 2006. Presentations seen included; road traffic accident (23%) collapse (12%), fall (10%) and seizure (8%). The majority of calls were to houses (36%). The most common medical intervention was intravenous cannulation (25%). Intravenous medications were administered in 21% of these patients--morphine sulphate was the most common drug given. It was possible to safely discharge 31% of patients on scene. In our experience skilled Emergency Medicine doctors attending at scene could provide advanced care and reduce ambulance transportation and patient attendance.

  10. Nursing habits and early childhood caries in children attending Hospital University Science Malaysia (HUSM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widowati Witjaksono

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The habit of nocturnal bottle or breast-feeding has been reported to be a potential cause for early childhood caries (ECC in very young children. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of ECC in children 2-5 years of age attending out patient clinic HUSM, in relation to the nursing habits. In this cross-sectional study, 90 children were randomly selected to examine their caries status using torch and disposable mirror. Data on mothers’ educational level, nursing habits and oral hygiene practices, were gather by using structured questionnaire. It has been found that 16.7% of subjects were caries free while 83.3% of them had caries with mean dmf score 6 (SD 5.3. With regard to nursing habits, 29% of subjects had breast-feeding alone, 16% had bottle-feeding alone and 55% had both breast and bottle-feeding. Ninety-three percent of children had been nursed beyond 14 months and 47% had been fed with liquids other than breast milk, infant formula or water. Twenty-seven percent of children were allowed to sleep with nursing bottle in mouth and 52% were allowed to sleep with breast nipple in the mouth which shows significantly associated with ECC (p = 0.03. Tooth brushing habit was reported for 91% of children using toothpaste. Mean age of the children (in months when the mothers started brushing the teeth was 19.1 (SD 10.8 and has significant association with ECC (p < 0.05. This study demonstrates that the habit of allowing infants to sleep with breast nipple in their mouth and the late start of tooth brushing are associated with prevalence of ECC. Educational programs for pregnant women and mothers of young children should be emphasized to enhance the knowledge and awareness of mothers in preventing ECC.

  11. Latino Children Attending a Two-Way Immersion Program in the United States: A Comparative Case Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Lisa M.; Tapanes, Vanessa

    2011-01-01

    Research on two-way immersion programs has empirically investigated the success of such programs on children's dual-language development. The present study focuses on the language abilities of Latino children attending a Spanish-English differentiated two-way immersion program in the United States. Family dynamics relating to placement in this…

  12. Evaluating gingival health of children who attended the Preventive Program for pregnant women and babies in the city of Teresina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina de Deus Moura de Lima

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the gingival health of children who attended the Preventive Program for pregnant women and babies and correlate theresults obtained with the assiduousness of attending the consultations offered by the program, oral hygiene habits, mother’s educational level, family income, child’s age and the number of carious surfaces. Methods: Three hundred and forty-one patients were selected, and divided into two groups for comparative purposes. Group 1 (experimental was composed of 262 children of both sexes, between the ages of three and six, who attended the Preventive Program for pregnant women and babies; Group 2 (control consisted of 79 children in the same age group, who did not attend the Preventive Program for pregnant women and babies, but who were attended at the Social Perinatological Institute of Piaui by other health professionals. The exams were performed in dental offices to determine the Gingival Bleeding Index. Results: It was noted that 74.8% of the children from experimental group and 82.3% of control group presented gingival bleeding in one of the sites assessed. Lower Gingival Bleeding Index values were related to the higher educational level of the mothers, supervision or brushing by adults and increase in the number of daily brushings. The Chi-square test showed that the variables are dependent (p<0.001, that is, Gingival Bleeding Index is subject to the number of consultations attended at the Preventive Program for pregnant women and babies. Spearman’s Coefficient (= -0.292 proved that the higher the number of consultations attended at the program, the lower was the Gingival Bleeding Index (p<0.001. Conclusion: The children who presented the lowest gingival bleeding indexes were those who most assiduously attended the preventive maintenanceconsultations of the Preventive Program for pregnant women and babies.

  13. Daycare Center Attendance Buffers the Effects of Maternal Authoritarian Parenting Style on Physical Aggression in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, José M.; Braza, Paloma; Carreras, Rosario; Braza, Francisco; Azurmendi, Aitziber; Pascual-Sagastizábal, Eider; Cardas, Jaione; Sánchez-Martín, José R.

    2017-01-01

    A maternal authoritarian style has been related to the development of physical aggression during childhood and later future social problems; however, not too many studies have detected other than individual or family factors that may buffer this maternal effect. This work examines whether daycare center attendance may moderate the relationships between a mother authoritarian style and physical aggression. The study sample was 72 (40 girls) kindergarten children from Spain. Parents were asked to complete two questionnaires focused on individual family characteristics and parenting styles. At age 5, children physical aggression was assessed by direct observation at playtime; aggression scores at 6 was obtained by a peer-rated questionnaire. A least squared multiple regression was performed after controlling for children’s level of physical aggression at 5, child sex and siblings. A positive contribution of maternal authoritarian style on physical aggression was detected. Daycare center attendance appears to attenuate the effect of the mother’s authoritarian style on physical aggression, only in boys. PMID:28377733

  14. How Insecurity impacts on school attendance and school drop out among urban slum children in Nairobi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chimaraoke Izugbara

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses how perceptions of personal security can impact on school enrolment and attendance. It mainly focuses on threats of physical harm, crime, and community and domestic violence. These security fears can include insecurity that children suffer from as they go to school, maybe through the use of unsafe routes; insecurity that children feel at school; and the insecurity they suffer from in their homes. Although poverty can be a source and/or an indicator of insecurity, this paper does not focus solely on poverty as it is well covered elsewhere in the literature. The paper relies on qualitative data col- lected in Korogocho and Viwandani slum areas in Nairobi, Kenya between October and November 2004. The paper analyses data from individual interviews and focus group interviews and focuses on the narrative of slum dwellers on how insecurity impacts on educational attainment. The conclusion in this paper is that insecure neighbourhoods may have a negative impact on schooling. As a result policies that address insecurity in slum neighbourhoods can also improve school attendance and performance.

  15. Associations between preschool attendance and developmental impairments in pre-school children in a six-year retrospective survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baune Bernhard T

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many school-aged children suffer physical and mental impairments which can adversely affect their development and result in significant morbidity. A high proportion of children in western countries attend pre-school, and it is likely that the preschool environment influences the prevalence and severity of these impairments. Currently there is insufficient data available on the prevalence of these impairments and their causal associations. The influence that location of a pre-school and the duration of preschool attendance have on the prevalence of these impairments is not known. Methods In a retrospective survey spanning six years (1997–2002 we reviewed the records of 6,230 preschool children who had undergone routine school entry assessments. These children had been assessed utilising a modified manual of the "Bavarian Model" for school entry examinations. This model outlines specific criteria for impairments of motor, cognitive, behavioural and psychosocial functioning. Prevalence rates for physical and behavioural impairments were based on the results of these assessments. The relationship between the prevalence of impairments and the duration of preschool attendance and the location of the preschool attended was estimated utilizing logistic regression models. Results We found that 20.7% of children met the criteria for at least one type of impairment. Highest prevalence rates (11.5% were seen for speech impairments and lowest (3.5% for arithmetic impairments. Boys were disproportionately over represented, with 25.5% meeting the criteria for impairment, compared to 13.0% for girls. Children who had attended preschool for less than one year demonstrated higher rates of impairment (up to 19.1% for difficulties with memory, concentration or perseverance compared to those who had attended for a longer duration (up to 11.6% for difficulties with pronouncation. Children attending preschool in an urban location had slightly

  16. A Randomized Evaluation of Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care: Effects on School Attendance and Homework Completion in Juvenile Justice Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leve, Leslie D; Chamberlain, Patricia

    2007-11-01

    Despite growing evidence that child welfare youth are at increased risk for juvenile delinquency, little is known about gender-specific processes and effective treatment programs for girls. Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care (MTFC), an empirically validated intervention for child welfare and juvenile justice populations, has demonstrated efficacy in reducing arrest rates in delinquent boys and girls. In this study, the efficacy of MTFC on school attendance and homework completion was examined in juvenile justice girls who were referred to out-of-home care (N = 81). Results from this randomized intervention trial suggest that MTFC was more effective than group care in increasing girls' school attendance and homework completion while in treatment and at 12 months postbaseline. In addition, the previously reported effect of MTFC on reducing girls' days in locked settings was mediated by homework completion while girls were enrolled in the intervention setting. Implications for policy and practice are described.

  17. Anthropometric Profile of Children Attending Anganwadi Centers under Integrated Child Development Sevices (ICDS Scheme in Doiwala Block

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gagan Deep Kaur

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction In any community, Mothers and Children constitutes not only priority group, but they are also a “Vulnerable” or “Special-risk Group”. Similarly in India our biggest problem is malnutrition among under five year old children. To break the vicious cycle of malnutrition, morbidity reduced learning capacity and mortality India launched the Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS Scheme in 1975. It is the foremost symbol of India’s commitment to her children Rationale: Forty percent of the world's severely under-nourished under-five children live in India so the present study was conducted to assess the nutritional status of children availing the services under Integrated Child Development Service Scheme in Uttarakhand. Objective: To estimate the level of nutrition in children attending Anganwadi centers of Doiwala block. Methods: Out of these Seven ICDS project areas, Doiwala Block was chosen for the study purpose since it is also the field practice area of Department of Community Medicine, HIMS. 19 AWC was selected by using Simple Random Sampling technique in Doiwala block. All the children aged between 3- 6years attending Anganwadi centers were included in community based, cross sectional study. Predesigned pretested anthropometric survey tool with local adaptability and minor modification for local suitability was adopted to collect information pertaining to growth monitoring of the children [Adopted from WHO child growth standard 2006]. Children were weighed, and their height and MUAC were recorded. Weight for age, height for age and MUAC for age was calculated using WHO growth references .Nutritional status according to the WHO Child Growth Standards was analysed using WHO Anthro statistical software. Results: 200 children were surveyed. From the total population 110 are males and 90 are females. After the analysis of weight for age with anthro software it was found that 20.9% of children lie within -2 SD with a mean

  18. Children and the Feminist Ethic of Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockburn, Tom

    2005-01-01

    This article looks at the recent contributions made by feminists who advocate a distinctive 'ethic of care' to replace the conventional 'ethic of rights'. The article explores ways in which the ethic of care could be utilized and applied to the children's rights context. After looking at the important feminist criticisms of conventional…

  19. Creating a Caring Classroom with Children's Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamme, Linda Leonard; McKinley, Linda

    1992-01-01

    Based on one teacher's experiences with children's books that have caring themes, ways for teachers to nurture preschoolers' natural altruism are discussed. An annotated bibliography of books on caring for the sick, the disadvantaged, special friends, neighbors, siblings, parents and grandparents, people in distress, the environment, and animals…

  20. Care of adolescent parents and their children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinzon, Jorge L; Jones, Veronnie F

    2012-12-01

    Teen pregnancy and parenting remain an important public health issue in the United States and the world, and many children live with their adolescent parents alone or as part of an extended family. A significant proportion of teen parents reside with their family of origin, significantly affecting the multigenerational family structure. Repeated births to teen parents are also common. This clinical report updates a previous policy statement on care of the adolescent parent and their children and addresses medical and psychosocial risks specific to this population. Challenges unique to teen parents and their children are reviewed, along with suggestions for the pediatrician on models for intervention and care.

  1. Oral self-care practices, dental attendance and self-perceived oral health status among internal medicine residents in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Omozehio Iwuala

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oral health is important for well-being and chronic disease prevention. Physician′s confidence and willingness to counsel patients on lifestyle practices is related to their personal behavior. Limited data exists regarding oral self-care practices among physicians in developing countries, as the majority seeks oral health advice and care from doctors rather than dentists. Aim: To determine the oral self-care practices, dental attendance, and self-perceived oral health status of internal medicine residents in Nigeria. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among internal medicine resident doctors attending an update course using a self-administered structured questionnaire, which included oral care practices. Data were analyzed with SPSS version 21.0, P male, P = 0.002. A higher proportion of junior compared to senior residents strongly agreed/agreed and strongly disagreed/disagreed that their oral health status was excellent (P = 0.026. Conclusion: The oral self-care practices of these doctors involved in managing patients with medical conditions linked to oral health is inadequate. There is a need for better education on oral self-care among physicians.

  2. Anxiety among people living with HIV/AIDS on antiretroviral treatment attending tertiary care hospitals in Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India

    OpenAIRE

    Mukesh Shukla; Monika Agarwal,; Jai Vir Singh; Anand Kumar Srivastava

    2016-01-01

    Background: One of the major health challenges faced by India is the rapid growth of HIV/AIDS and its impact upon human life. Co-morbidities like anxiety are often overlooked while providing ART services to HIV/AIDS patients. Therefore the present study was conducted to assess the anxiety and associated factors among PLHA (People Living with HIV/AIDS) on antiretroviral treatment attending tertiary care hospitals in Lucknow. Methods: Hospital and #8209;based cross-sectional study was conduc...

  3. Febrile Children in Primary Care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Elshout (Gijs)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstractFever in children is a common symptom. Frequently,the underlying illness is self-limiting and medical intervention is seldom needed. However, general practitioners need to be alert on those children who are at risk for serious infections. In this thesis, we studied the natural course

  4. Evaluation of general practitioners' assessment of overweight among children attending the five-year preventive child health examination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Merethe Kousgaard; Christensen, Bo; Obel, Carsten

    2012-01-01

    ) according to paediatric standard definitions. Design. A cross-sectional survey. Data were obtained from a questionnaire survey of children's health in general and their growth in particular. Setting. The five-year preventive child health examination (PCHE) in general practice in the Central Denmark Region......Abstract Objective. To evaluate general practitioners' (GPs') assessment of potential overweight among children attending the five-year preventive child health examination (PCHE) by comparing their assessment of the children's weight-for-stature with overweight defined by body mass index (BMI....... Subjects. Children attending the five-year PCHE in general practice, regardless of their weight status. Main outcome measures. Paediatric standard definitions for childhood overweight based on BMI were used as the gold standard for categorizing weight-for-stature. Identification of overweight was analysed...

  5. Health care utilization and symptom severity in Ghanaian children--a cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf Krumkamp

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify factors influencing health care utilization behavior for children with mild or severe disease symptoms in rural Ghana. Between March and September 2008 a cross-sectional health care utilization survey was conducted and 8,715 caregivers were interviewed regarding their intended behavior in case their children had mild or severe fever or diarrhea. To show associations between hospital attendance and further independent factors (e.g. travel distance or socio-economic status prevalence ratios were calculated for the four disease symptoms. A Poisson regression model was used to control for potential confounding. Frequency of hospital attendance decreased constantly with increasing distance to the health facility. Being enrolled in the national health insurance scheme increased the intention to attend a hospital. The effect of the other factors diminished in the Poisson regression if modeled together with travel distance. The observed associations weakened with increasing severity of symptoms, which indicates that barriers to visit a hospital are less important if children experience a more serious illness. As shown in other studies, travel distance to a health care provider had the strongest effect on health care utilization. Studies to identify local barriers to access health care services are important to inform health policy making as they identify deprived populations with low access to health services and to early treatment.

  6. Associations between preschool attendance and developmental impairments in pre-school children in a six-year retrospective survey

    OpenAIRE

    Baune Bernhard T; Stich Heribert L; Caniato Riccardo N; Krämer Alexander

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Many school-aged children suffer physical and mental impairments which can adversely affect their development and result in significant morbidity. A high proportion of children in western countries attend pre-school, and it is likely that the preschool environment influences the prevalence and severity of these impairments. Currently there is insufficient data available on the prevalence of these impairments and their causal associations. The influence that location of a p...

  7. Systematic review and validation of prediction rules for identifying children with serious infections in emergency departments and urgent-access primary care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thompson, M.; Van den Bruel, A.; Verbakel, J.; Lakhanpaul, M.; Haj-Hassan, T.; Stevens, R.; Moll, HA; Buntinx, F.; Berger, M.; Aertgeerts, B.; Oostenbrink, R.; Mant, D.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Although the vast majority of children with acute infections are managed at home, this is one of the most common problems encountered in children attending emergency departments (EDs) and primary care. Distinguishing children with serious infection from those with minor or self-limiting

  8. Systematic review and validation of prediction rules for identifying children with serious infections in emergency departments and urgent-access primary care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Thompson (M.); A. van den Bruel (Ann); J. Verbakel (Johannes); M. Lakhanpaul (Monica); T. Haj-Hassan (Tanya); R. Stevens (Richard); H.A. Moll (Henriëtte); F. Buntinx (Frank); M.Y. Berger (Marjolein); B. Aertgeerts (Bert); R. Oostenbrink (Rianne); D. Mant (David)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Although the vast majority of children with acute infections are managed at home, this is one of the most common problems encountered in children attending emergency departments (EDs) and primary care. Distinguishing children with serious infection from those with minor or se

  9. Is asthma in 2-12 year-old children associated with physician-attended recurrent upper respiratory tract infections?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hak, Eelko; Rovers, Maroeska M; Sachs, Alfred P E; Stalman, Wim A B; Verheij, Theo J M

    2003-01-01

    In a prevalence study, we evaluated whether recurrent physician-attended URTI episodes are more common in asthmatic children as compared to age- and gender-matched controls. URTI proneness, defined as > or = 5 episodes of rhinitis/pharyngitis, sinusitis, laryngitis/tracheitis or otitis media in a 24

  10. The effect of reminder calls in reducing non-attendance rates at care of the elderly clinics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dockery, F; Rajkumar, C; Chapman, C; Bulpitt, C; Nicholl, C

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND—DNA ("did not attend") at outpatient clinics is an important problem costing the NHS an estimated £266 million annually. The national DNA rate for 1996-1997 for all clinics was 12%. The DNA rate at Hammersmith Hospital for the same year in the care of the elderly specialty was 21%. The aim of this study was to establish why this was so, and to test the efficacy of a reminder call in increasing attendance rates at care of the elderly clinics.
METHODS—23 DNAs from seven clinics were contacted to ascertain the reasons for non-attendance (group I). For seven further clinics, 84 patients were contacted in advance to reconfirm their appointment (group II).
RESULTS—From group II 12 patients were identified who were unaware of their appointment (14%), six of whom agreed to attend; thus six potential DNAs were prevented. Eleven vacant appointments were identified in advance. The unexpected DNA rate was reduced to 5% from a potential 21% as a result of this exercise. The DNA rate for all patients with dementia (both groups) was 44%, whereas the DNA rate for all patients without this diagnosis (both groups) was 16% (p < 0.001).
CONCLUSIONS—A preclinic phone call reminder to elderly patients is feasible, increases attendance rates, and identifies vacant appointments. Patients with dementia are more likely to miss clinic appointments; therefore they and their carers need specific reminders about appointment dates.
 PMID:11123393

  11. PREVALENCE OF INTESTINAL PARASITIC INFECTIONS IN PATIENTS ATTENDING A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL IN EASTERN BIHAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randhir

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Parasitic protozoa and helminths are responsible for some devastating and prevalent diseases of humans. Intestinal parasitic infections are a major health problem in India. While little study has been carried out regarding the problem in India, almost no study on the burden of intestinal infections has been done in Bihar. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to estimate the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections (IPI in the patients attending outdoor patient department in Katihar Medical College & Hospital. Fecal samples were examined for intestinal parasites by direct microscopy, and by microscopy following modified acid fast staining in HIV infected patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This study was carried out from June 2011 to February 2013. The study population consisted of individuals of all age groups, belonging to both the sexes, including children, pregnant woman and elderly individuals. A total of 2780 samples were examined by saline and Lugol’s iodine preparation. The negative samples were examined by formol ether concentration technique. Modified acid fast staining of fecal samples in HIV infected patients was also done. RESULTS: The result showed that the prevalence of parasitic infection was 10.71%. Out of this ,86.6% were single infections, 12.8% were double infections and 0.67% showed triple infections. Ascaris lumbricoides (28.5% and Giardia lamblia (18.5% were the most common intesitinal helminthes and protozoans isolated. A single patient with HIV infection was co-infected with Cryptosporidium parvum. The infected cases were more in the age group between 1-10years, more commonly among the male population. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of the helminthic infections is more than the prevalence of protozoal infections in this geographic region. Clinical microbiologists must follow standard laboratory procedures when screening stool samples so as to improve the chances of finding the parasites. An integrated

  12. Who Cares for America's Children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronfenbrenner, Urie

    1971-01-01

    Expresses the view that radical reforms, including reordering of national priorities, are needed to provide a human environment for children. Gives a concrete suggestion to make major institutions become family- and child- oriented. (Author/AJ)

  13. Intestinal helminth infections and nutritional status of children attending primary schools in Wakiso District, Central Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lwanga, Francis; Francis, Lwanga; Kirunda, Barbara Eva; Orach, Christopher Garimoi

    2012-08-01

    A cross-sectional study to assess the prevalence of intestinal helminth infections and nutritional status of primary school children was conducted in the Wakiso district in Central Uganda. A total of 432 primary school children aged 6-14 years were randomly selected from 23 schools. Anthropometric measurements of weight, height, MUAC were undertaken and analyzed using AnthroPlus software. Stool samples were examined using a Kato-Katz method. The prevalence of stunting, underweight and moderate acute malnutrition (MAM) was 22.5%, 5.3% and 18.5% respectively. Males had a threefold risk of being underweight (OR 3.2, 95% CI 1.17-9.4, p = 0.011) and 2 fold risk of suffering from MAM (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.21-3.48, p = 0.004). Children aged 10-14 years had a 2.9 fold risk of stunting (OR 2.9, 95% CI 1.37-6.16, p = 0.002) and 1.9 risk of MAM (OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.07-3.44, p = 0.019). Attending urban slum schools had 1.7 fold risk of stunting (OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.03-2.75, p = 0.027). Rural schools presented a twofold risk of helminth infection (OR 1.95, 95% CI 1.12-3.32, p = 0.012). The prevalence of helminth infections was (10.9%), (3.1%), (1.9%), (0.2%) for hookworm, Trichuriatrichiura, Schistosomamansoni and Ascarislumbricoides, respectively. The study revealed that 26.6%, 46% and 10.3% of incidences of stunting, underweight and MAM respectively were attributable to helminth infections.

  14. Shared responsibility for children in care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwartz, Ida

    2014-01-01

    and institutions. These groups of professionals contribute to the children’s everyday lives according to historically developed divisions of responsibility. It is a daily challenge to professionals, how they jointly support children in care so the children can be part of children´s communities in the places where....... Professional´s across contexts creates conditions for each other’s work and they contribute from different positions to the common possibilities of action. The paper applies the critical psychological notions of inter-subjectivity, situated learning and the conduct of everyday life across contexts (Dreier 2008......, Holzkamp 1998). Conflicts between professionals, lack of coordination and difficulties in exchanging of knowledge all contribute to the construction of problems in the field of caring for these children. The paper discusses how professionals in different contexts need to do something differently and work...

  15. A register-based study of variations in services received among dental care attenders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosing, Kasper; Hede, Børge; Christensen, Lisa Bøge

    2016-01-01

    . Materials and methods . This retrospective register-based study followed two Danish cohorts, aged 25 and 40, with a dental examination in 2009 (n = 32,351). The dental service data were registered during 2005–2009. The number of dental examinations, individual preventive services (IPS), tooth extractions......Objectives . To investigate whether receipt of dental services, among attenders, reflects variations in dental health or whether and to what degree it is associated with socioeconomic status, with irregular or regular dental attendance and with the availability of dentists in residential areas......, root fillings and composite fillings were analyzed in relation to socioeconomic status, irregular/regular dental attendance, inhabitant/dentist ratio and to DMFT at age 15 (DMFT15) and change in DMFT (ΔDMFT) from age 15 to age 25 and age 40, respectively. Poisson regression and negative binomial...

  16. Perceived benefits and barriers and self-efficacy affecting the attendance of health education programs among uninsured primary care patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamimura, Akiko; Nourian, Maziar M; Jess, Allison; Chernenko, Alla; Assasnik, Nushean; Ashby, Jeanie

    2016-12-01

    Lifestyle interventions have shown to be effective in improving health status, health behaviors, and self-efficacy. However, recruiting participants to health education programs and ensuring the continuity of health education for underserved populations is often challenging. The goals of this study are: to describe the attendance of health education programs; to identify stages of change to a healthy lifestyle; to determine cues to action; and to specify factors affecting perceived benefits and barriers to healthy food choices and physical activity among uninsured primary care patients. Uninsured primary care patients utilizing a free clinic (N=621) completed a self-administered survey from September to December of 2015. US born English speakers, non-US born English speakers, and Spanish speakers reported different kinds of cues to action in attending health education programs. While self-efficacy increases perceived benefits and decreases perceived barriers for physical activity, it increases both perceived benefits and perceived barriers for healthy food choices. The participants who had attended health education programs did not believe that there were benefits for healthy food choices and physical activity. This study adds to the body of literature on health education for underserved populations.

  17. Frequency of nutritional disorders and their risk factors among children attending 13 nurseries in São Paulo, Brazil. A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tulio Konstantyner

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTCONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Nutritional disorders are associated with health problems earlier in life. The objective here was to estimate the frequency of nutritional disorders and their risk factors among children. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study in nurseries at 13 day-care centers in São Paulo, Brazil.METHODS: The mothers of 482 children were interviewed, with anthropometry on these children. Children whose anthropometric indices for weight and height were greater than two standard deviations were considered to have nutritional disorders.RESULTS: Children in families with lower per capita income (odds ratio [OR]: 2.25; 95% confidence interval, CI: 1.08-4.67 and who presented neonatal risk (OR 8.08; 95% CI: 2.29-28.74, had incomplete vaccinations (OR 3.44; 95% CI: 1.15-10.31 or were male (OR 3.73; 95% CI: 1.63-8.56 were more likely to be malnourished. Children in families with lower per capita income were also less likely to be overnourished (OR 0.40; 95% CI: 0.19-0.88. Children who were exclusively breastfed for less than two months (OR 2.95; 95% CI: 1.35-6.44 or who were male (OR 2.18; 95% CI: 1.02-4.65 were also at greater risk of being overnourished. Children who presented neonatal risk (OR 3.41; 95% CI: 1.04-11.23, had incomplete vaccinations (OR 3.18; 95% CI: 1.307.76, or were male (OR 2.76; 95% CI: 1.56-4.90 were more likely to have a nutritional disorder.CONCLUSIONS: Nutritional disorders remain present in children attending nurseries in São Paulo. Actions should focus on boys, children who were exclusively breastfed for less than two months and those without up-to-date vaccinations.

  18. 9 CFR 2.40 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors). 2.40 Section 2.40 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT... veterinary care to its animals in compliance with this section. (1) Each dealer and exhibitor shall employ an... adequate veterinary care and to oversee the adequacy of other aspects of animal care and use. (b)...

  19. Media coverage and children's reactions to disaster with implications for primary care and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfefferbaum, Betty; Jeon-Slaughter, Hattie; Pfefferbaum, Rose L; Houston, J Brian; Rainwater, Scott M; Regens, James L

    2008-12-01

    To address the potential for media coverage of traumatic events to generate fear reactions in children, we examined exposure and reactions to media coverage of the 1995 Oklahoma City bombing in children attending a middle school 100 miles from the disaster site two and three years after the event. Many of the children studied recalled feeling "afraid," "sad," or "mad" in relation to initial media coverage. Overall exposure and reactions to bomb-related media coverage declined over the three years. However, these reactions persisted for some children and, when they did, the reactions were related to exposure to coverage right after the bombing. Approximately one-fourth of the children recalled that the bombing made them feel "a lot" less safe in their home, school, and/or neighborhood. These perceptions persisted for approximately 10% of the children. Our Findings suggest the importance of primary care and public health interventions to determine and monitor children's reactions.

  20. Children's Creativity in Day Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reunamo, Jyrki; Lee, Hui-Chun; Wang, Li-Chen; Ruokonen, Inkeri; Nikkola, Teemu; Malmstrom, Sanna

    2014-01-01

    In this research, children's creativity in pretend play and the conditions for creativity during high involvement are studied from four points of view: as a zone for proximal development, as a skill, as a personal orientation and as a culturally shared environment creation. The theoretical model is influenced by Vygotsky's ideas of creativity as…

  1. Health care seeking behaviour and expenditure pattern among Scrub Typhus patients attending a tertiary care hospital in Mysore city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Jayanandan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Scrub typhus is one among the re-emerging infectious diseases throughout the world. Various studies conducted across India reveals that its public health importance is increasing. This study was conducted 1 To describe the socio-demographic and epidemiological profile of patients admitted with scrub typhus. 2 To assess the health care seeking behaviour of these patients. 3 To estimate the cost factors incurred in the current episode of illness. Methods: This prospective study was conducted from January to December 2013 among all lab confirmed cases of scrub typhus admitted to department of medicine and pediatrics of JSS Hospital, Mysore. The study subjects were interviewed with a pre-tested and structured questionnaire. Data regarding socio-demographic profile, epidemiological profile, disease outcome, health care seeking behaviour and cost factors incurred with current episode of illness were collected. Data entry and analysis were done with SPSS.v.22.0 using descriptive statistics like mean, standard deviations and inferential statistics like chi-square test. Results: Among 192 patients tested positive by Weil-Felix test and/or Immuno-Chromatographic Test (ICT for scrub typhus majority 105 (54.7% were males and were predominantly 135 (70.3 % from rural areas. Mostly 172(89.6% were unaware of any mite bite in the past. Majority 167 (87.0% of them had visited atleast three Health Care Facilities (HCF for treatment. The mean +/- SD total duration of illness was 15.6 +/- 4.1 days. Most 104 (54.2 % of them had suffered from illness for 11-15 days. Majority 175 (91.1% of them had recovered while 3 (1.6% of them had succumbed to the condition. The median Total direct cost, total indirect cost and overall total cost were Rs. 7500 (7000-9500, Rs. 3000 (2500-3500 and Rs. 10500 (10000-13000 respectively. Most 104 (54.2% of them spent from money borrowed from others, followed by 78 (40.6% spent Out Of Pocket (OOP. Conclusion: People from rural

  2. Positive behavioral intervention in children who were wards of the court attending a mainstream school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Jose I; Aguilar, Manuel; Aguilar, Concepcion; Alcalde, Concepcion; Marchena, Esperanza

    2007-12-01

    This report looked at the effects of treatment using contingency contracts and token economy procedures in three children, two 14 yr. and one 8 yr., who were wards of the court and attending a mainstream school. Students presented problems of adaptation to school, such as making constant noises with the mouth, hands, or pencil on the desk; frequently emitted raucous cries in the classroom; destruction of school resource materials; verbal aggression to classmates and teachers; verbal rejection of all academic work, refusing to do it, making negative comments prior to starting any school activity, in addition to lack of motivation for undertaking school activities. A 4-mo. individual treatment using contingency contracts and token economy behavioral procedures was implemented, with several follow-up sessions. The results indicated an adaptation of behavior to the school environment, confirmed by teachers, significantly reducing the incidence of insults, the destruction of school materials, and indolence during class sessions. These students are at high risk for social exclusion. Interventions have potential social importance in possible prevention of adult criminality, increasing academic achievement, and decreasing social exclusion.

  3. A decade of inequality in maternity care: antenatal care, professional attendance at delivery, and caesarean section in Bangladesh (1991–2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronsmans Carine

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bangladesh is committed to the fifth Millennium Development Goal (MDG-5 target of reducing its maternal mortality ratio by three-quarters between 1990 and 2015. Since the early 1990s, Bangladesh has followed a strategy of improving access to facilities equipped and staffed to provide emergency obstetric care (EmOC. Methods We used data from four Demographic and Health Surveys conducted between 1993 and 2004 to examine trends in the proportions of live births preceded by antenatal consultation, attended by a health professional, and delivered by caesarean section, according to key socio-demographic characteristics. Results Utilization of antenatal care increased substantially, from 24% in 1991 to 60% in 2004. Despite a relatively greater increase in rural than urban areas, utilization remained much lower among the poorest rural women without formal education (18% compared with the richest urban women with secondary or higher education (99%. Professional attendance at delivery increased by 50% (from 9% to 14%, more rapidly in rural than urban areas, and caesarean sections trebled (from 2% to 6%, but these indicators remained low even by developing country standards. Within these trends there were huge inequalities; 86% of live births among the richest urban women with secondary or higher education were attended by a health professional, and 35% were delivered by caesarean section, compared with 2% and 0.1% respectively of live births among the poorest rural women without formal education. The trend in professional attendance was entirely confounded by socioeconomic and demographic changes, but education of the woman and her husband remained important determinants of utilization of obstetric services. Conclusion Despite commendable progress in improving uptake of antenatal care, and in equipping health facilities to provide emergency obstetric care, the very low utilization of these facilities, especially by poor women, is a

  4. Therapeutic Residential Care for Children and Youth:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whittaker, James K.; Holmes, Lisa; del Valle, Jorge F.

    2016-01-01

    so in closer collaboration with their families and in closer proximity to their home communities; and, (3) with the hope of reducing the high costs often associated with group residential provision. In some jurisdictions, efforts to reduce residential care resources in the absence of sufficient...... for Child and Family Research, Loughborough University in the U.K. for a Summit meeting on therapeutic residential care for children and youth funded by the Sir Halley Stewart Trust (UK). The focus centered on what is known about therapeutic residential care and what key questions should inform a priority...

  5. Fatores de risco para perda ponderal de crianças frequentadoras de berçários em creches do município de São Paulo Risk factors for ponderal loss of children attending the nurseries of day care centers in São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maysa Helena A. Toloni

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar e quantificar os fatores de risco relacionados ao agravamento da condição nutricional entre o nascimento e a realização deste estudo. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal com 270 crianças frequentadoras dos berçários de oito creches públicas e filantrópicas do município de São Paulo. Considerou-se com perda ponderal as crianças que apresentaram diferença negativa do escore Z para a relação peso para idade entre o nascimento e a ocasião da realização desse inquérito. No estudo das associações, utilizou-se o teste do qui-quadrado e consideraram-se as variáveis com nível de significância pOBJECTIVE: To identify and quantify risk factors related to the aggravation of nutritional condition from birth until the date of the study. METHODS: Cross-sectional study with 270 children attending nurseries of eight public and non-for-profit daycare centers in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. Ponderal loss was considered when children presented negative difference of Z score for weight-for-age (W/A from birth until the date of the present inquiry. Chi-square was used to test associations and considered significant if p<0.05. Multivariate logistic regression model adjusted Odds Ratio estimates for confounding variables and/or covariables. RESULTS: Anthropometric analysis showed 7.1% prevalence of malnutrition (W/A<-2 Z score at birth and 4.4% by the time of measurement. Ponderal evolution with unfavorable Z score was present in 50.7% of studied children (n=137. In the bivariate analyses, the variables: birth weight (OR=5.35; p<0.001, anemia (OR=1.81; p=0.019 and age less than 19 months (OR=1.67; p=0.036 were statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: Ponderal loss in Z score during the first months of life has not been often used in epidemiological studies. However, future researches might identify weight loss as an indicator of risk for sociobiological vulnerability. Development of health programs in order to reduce the

  6. Supporting Children's Transition to School Age Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dockett, Sue; Perry, Bob

    2016-01-01

    While a great deal of research has focused on children's experiences as they start school, less attention has been directed to their experiences--and those of their families and educators--as they start school age care. This paper draws from a recent research project investigating practices that promote positive transitions to school and school…

  7. SGA Children in Pediatric Primary Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizia Gallo MD

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Epidemiologic evidences suggest a strong association between low birth weight and some diseases in adult life ( hypertension, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases.Aim of this study was to evaluate the obesity/overweight prevalence in a population of children born small for gestation age, SGA children 400, 208 males and 192 females compared to a population of children born appropriate for gestational age 6818 AGA children, 3502 males and 3316 females, during childhood. Our intention was also to build the natural history of weight gain during prepubertal age in children born SGA and AGA. Design and Methods: Observational prospective longitudinal study. We followed our patients from January2001 up to December 2010; weight, height and body mass index (BMI were evaluated in all the SGA and AGA children. BMI z-score range for defining overweight and obesity was, respectively, 1.13 to 1.7 and >1.7 according to CDC growth charts. Results: In transversal evaluation, we prove that 10-year-old SGA females are twice obese and more overweight compared to equal age AGA females. In longitudinal evaluation, we highlight different observations: SGA children obese at 2 years are still obese at 10 years; the number of obese SGA children increases gradually until the age of 10; AGA children, appear to be less obese than SGA children at 10 years. Conclusion: SGA males and females are more obese at 5 and 10 years compared to the AGA population. Primary care pediatricians, through early detection of the children at risk, can carry out an effective obesity prevention project in SGA children.

  8. INCLUSION OF CHILDREN WITH DEVELOPMENTAL DISORDERS IN DAY CARE INSTITUTION ESTREA MARA IN BITOLA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. SOTIROVSKA-SIRVINI

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available The Day Care Institutions for children are forms of organized protection for improvement of the psycho-physical, emotional and social development of children. In this period, the growth and development are in their most intensive phase when the outside influence plays an extraordinary role both in a positive and in negative a direction. Directed and well-organized protection is of a great importance. By inclusion of children with developmental disorders in the group and with special, individual treatment of each child by adequate specialized staff, their socialization and stimulus for developmental acceleration is achieved.Many years ago, by recommendation of the Advisory Institution for Development, the doctors from the Advisory Institution for small children, the public-health nurses or by the parents initiative, the kindergartens accept children with Down syndrome, children with limited and lower level backwardness, with disharmonious development, with lower level forms of cerebral paralysis and with speech disorders.Children at the earliest age of one month are resided at the Advisory Institu­­tion for Development and receive treatment until they are categorized and are ready to start school, but certain children are sent to the kindergartens at the age of 3.In the previous years, out of five children with Down syndrome treated in the Advisory Institution for Development, four were sent to the kindergarten. Now, one of these children attends the fifth grade and two attend the first grade in a regular elementary school and one attends the special school. Three children with Spastic dyplegia, four children with lower level of retardation, two with surdomutitas and four with disharmonious development are still in the kindergarten.

  9. The relationship between visual orienting responses and clinical characteristics in children attending special education for the visually impaired.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooiker, Marlou J G; Pel, Johan J M; van der Steen, Johannes

    2015-05-01

    We recently introduced a method based on quantification of orienting responses toward visual stimuli to assess the quality of visual information processing in children. In the present study, we examined the relationship between orienting responses and factors that are associated with visual processing impairments in current clinical practice. Response time and fixation quality to visual features such as form, contrast, motion, and color stimuli were assessed in 104 children from 1 to 12 years attending special education for the visually impaired. Using regression analysis, we investigated whether these parameters were affected by clinical characteristics of children. Response times significantly depended on stimulus type. Responses to high-contrast cartoons were significantly slower in children with a clinical diagnosis of cerebral visual impairment. Fixation quality was significantly affected by visual acuity and nystagmus. The results suggest that the quantitative measurement of orienting responses is strongly related to cerebral visual impairment in children.

  10. Women's preference for traditional birth attendants and modern health care practitioners in Akpabuyo community of Cross River State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akpabio, Idongesit I; Edet, Olaide B; Etifit, Rita E; Robinson-Bassey, Grace C

    2014-01-01

    The proportion of women who patronized traditional birth attendants (TBAs) or modern health care practitioners (MHCPs) was compared, including reasons for their choices. A comparative design was adopted to study 300 respondents selected through a multistage systematic random sampling technique. The instrument for data collection was a validated 21-item structured questionnaire. We observed that 75 (25%) patronized and 80 (27%) preferred TBAs, and 206 (69%) patronized and 220 (75%) preferred MHCPs, while 19 (6%) patronized both. The view that TBAs prayed before conducting deliveries was supported by a majority 75 (94%) of the respondents who preferred them. Factors associated with preference for TBAs should be addressed.

  11. Spirituality in end-of-life care: attending the person on their journey.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hayden, Deborah

    2011-11-01

    Spirituality is a fundamental element to the human experience of health and healing, illness and dying. Spiritual care is an essential component of palliative and end-of-life care provision and is the responsibility of all staff and carers involved in the care of patients and families. As end-of-life care is a significant element of community nursing, this article explores the relevancy of spirituality to end-of-life practice, the challenge of defining spirituality and the attributes and skills required for the practice of spiritual care. The aim of is to encourage self reflection and open dialogue about the subject, thus enhancing community nurses\\' understanding of spiritual care practice. By reflecting and generating talk about the practice of spiritual care, it may become more normalized, recognized, and practically meaningful, thereby retaining its significance in holistic nursing.

  12. Expanded Medical Home Model Works for Children in Foster Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaudes, Paula Kienberger; Champagne, Vince; Harden, Allen; Masterson, James; Bilaver, Lucy A.

    2012-01-01

    The Illinois Child Welfare Department implemented a statewide health care system to ensure that children in foster care obtain quality health care by providing each child with a medical home. This study demonstrates that the Medical Home model works for children in foster care providing better health outcomes in higher immunization rates. These…

  13. Help Seeking Process among Children Attending Psychiatry Clinic in Tirana, Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastas Suli MD, Prof

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The goal of this study was to investigate all the potential routes to Child/Adolescent Psychiatry Clinic-University Hospital Center (CAPC-UHC in Tirana. The article provides demographic data, as well as further information on the types and amounts of services children/adolescents received during the process of seeking help related to different diagnoses .Method: The study was conducted in CAPC-UHC in Tirana, during September 2006-September 2007. Data were collected from 162 children and their parents using Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ and Pathways Encounter Form. The sample consisted of 53.1% (86 males and 46.9% (76 females. The mean age was 9.5 + 4.4 years .Results: Out of the total number of cases that sought care to CAPC; 55, 6% were referred by parents themselves, while the rest were referred by others. There was a significant effect of gender to intervals from the onset of problem to the first career (F = 10.803, p=0.001, as well as a significant effect of gender to total time intervals from the onset till the specialist of child mental health problem (F = 6.742, p=0.01.Conclusions: This is the first study investigating the help seeking process to psychiatric care in CAPC Tirana-Albania and may serve as a good start in generating evidence based on child/adolescent mental health service. Further multicentre studies will enhance the values of the findings, since the present study was performed in a single service, and in a setting lacking previous works with similar scope that could have served as references.

  14. Primary care-public health linkages: Older primary care patients with prediabetes & type 2 diabetes encouraged to attend community-based senior centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polly H. Noël

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Institute of Medicine (IOM suggests that primary care-public health integration can improve health outcomes for vulnerable patients, but the extent to which formal linkages may enhance patients' use of community resources, or the factors that may influence providers to encourage their patients to use these resources, remain unclear. We conducted baseline assessments in 2014–2015 with 149 older adults with prediabetes or diabetes who had recently joined three senior centers linked to a network of primary care clinics in San Antonio, Texas. In addition to collecting sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, we asked members to identify their source of primary care and whether a health care provider had encouraged them to go to the senior center. We also asked members why they had joined the senior centers and which programs interested them the most. Members' source of primary care was not associated with being encouraged to attend the senior centers by a health care professional. Multivariable analysis indicated that participants with total annual household incomes of $20,000 or less [OR = 2.78; 95% CI = (1.05, 7.14] and those reporting 12 years of education or less [OR = 3.57; 95% CI = (1.11, 11.11] were significantly more likely to report being encouraged to attend the senior center by a health care provider. Providers who are aware of community-based resources to support patient self-management may be just as likely to encourage their socioeconomically vulnerable patients with prediabetes or diabetes to use them as providers who have a more formal partnership with the senior centers.

  15. Primary care-public health linkages: Older primary care patients with prediabetes & type 2 diabetes encouraged to attend community-based senior centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noël, Polly H; Parchman, Michael L; Finley, Erin P; Wang, Chen-Pin; Bollinger, Mary; Espinoza, Sara E; Hazuda, Helen P

    2016-12-01

    The Institute of Medicine (IOM) suggests that primary care-public health integration can improve health outcomes for vulnerable patients, but the extent to which formal linkages may enhance patients' use of community resources, or the factors that may influence providers to encourage their patients to use these resources, remain unclear. We conducted baseline assessments in 2014-2015 with 149 older adults with prediabetes or diabetes who had recently joined three senior centers linked to a network of primary care clinics in San Antonio, Texas. In addition to collecting sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, we asked members to identify their source of primary care and whether a health care provider had encouraged them to go to the senior center. We also asked members why they had joined the senior centers and which programs interested them the most. Members' source of primary care was not associated with being encouraged to attend the senior centers by a health care professional. Multivariable analysis indicated that participants with total annual household incomes of $20,000 or less [OR = 2.78; 95% CI = (1.05, 7.14)] and those reporting 12 years of education or less [OR = 3.57; 95% CI = (1.11, 11.11)] were significantly more likely to report being encouraged to attend the senior center by a health care provider. Providers who are aware of community-based resources to support patient self-management may be just as likely to encourage their socioeconomically vulnerable patients with prediabetes or diabetes to use them as providers who have a more formal partnership with the senior centers.

  16. The potential impact of a cataract surgery programme on the care of orphans and vulnerable children in Swaziland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pons, J; Mapham, W E; Newsome, B; Myer, L; Anderson, R; Courtright, P; Cook, C

    2012-02-23

    We aimed to evaluate the potential impact of a cataract surgery programme at the Good Shepherd Hospital, Siteki, Swaziland, on the care of orphans and vulnerable children in Swaziland. We studied consecutive patients aged 50 years and older undergoing surgery for age-related cataract who reported having children living in their household. Of 131 subjects recruited, 65 (49.6%) were the primary caregivers for the child(ren) in their household. Visual acuities measured 2 weeks after surgery significantly improved. Four weeks after surgery, there was a sizable increase in the proportions of subjects who were able to undertake self-care activities, attend to activities of daily living, undertake income-generating activities and care for children. Cataract surgery on elderly visually impaired patients has the potential to impact positively on the care of orphans and vulnerable children.

  17. ATTAINMENT OF TREATMENT TARGETS AMONG TYPE 2 DIABETIC PATIENTS FIRST ATTENDING A TERTIARY CARE SETTING IN SUBURBAN KERALA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajeeth Kumar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Type 2 diabetes is growing in epidemic proportions worldwide, particularly in Asian subcontinent and especially in India. The disease takes a toll on the health system of a country, especially the developing nations. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES To study the attainment of metabolic and anthropometric goals of individuals with type 2 diabetes attending a tertiary care centre. MATERIALS AND METHODS i Informed consents were obtained. ii The study subjects were subjected to a detailed clinical, anthropometrical and biochemical evaluation at baseline by a dedicated diabetologist. iii These data were collected using a structured questionnaire and were analysed using EPI INFO (Ver 3.4.1. RESULTS A total of 350 cases were studied. Overall, 76.3% of patients could not achieve ADA A1c goal and 36.3% had very poor glycaemic control as evidenced by A1c >9%. CONCLUSIONS Despite the increasing awareness of type 2 diabetes both among attending physicians and patients, attainment of treatment targets still is a challenge even at a tertiary care setting. The lifestyle and dietary habits may be a main contributing factor for this situation. More focus needs to be given to nutritional aspects and physical exercise in not only in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, but also in apparently healthy individuals of the productive age group so that the disease can be delayed if not prevented.

  18. Utilization of dental health services by Danish adolescents attending private or public dental health care systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Lisa Bøge; Petersen, Poul Erik; Bastholm, Annelise

    2002-01-01

    The objectives of the study were: 1) to describe the choice of dental care system among 16-year-olds, 2) to describe the utilization of dental services among 16-17-year-olds enrolled in either public or private dental care systems, and to compare the dental services provided by the alternative sy...

  19. Does Community Poverty Reduce Children's School Attendance More at Primary Education than at Secondary Education? Evidence from Post-Conflict Sierra Leone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamanda, Mamusu

    2016-01-01

    In Sierra Leone, the number of primary schools is almost seven times more than junior-secondary schools (JSS). Living in a poor community has been shown to reduce children's school attendance because of lower access and poorer quality of education in these communities. However, it is unclear whether living in a poor community reduces attendance at…

  20. Estado nutricional e consumo de energia e nutrientes de pré-escolares que frequentam creches no município de Manaus, Amazonas: existem diferenças entre creches públicas e privadas? Estado nutricional y consumo de energía y nutrientes de pre-escolares que frecuentan guarderías en el municipio de Manaus, Amazonas (Brasil: ¿existen diferencias entre guarderías públicas y privadas? Nutritional status and energy and nutrients intake of children attending day-care centers in the city of Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil: are there differences between public and private day-care centers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Mendes Tavares

    2012-01-01

    consumo alimentar en la guardería fue evaluado por el método de pesaje directo individual de los alimentos y, en el domicilio, por el registro alimentar de un día aplicado a los responsables. Se estimó la frecuencia de niños con ingestión de nutrientes por encima o por debajo de los puntos de corte de Estimated Average Intake (EAR o Adequate Intake (AI. RESULTADOS: Se verificó mayor frecuencia de niños con exceso de peso en las guarderías privadas, por los índices de peso para estatura e IMC para edad. Los niños de las instituciones públicas, cuando comparados a aquellos de las privadas, consumieron más grasas poliinsaturadas, trans, ácido graso omega-6, vitamina C y sodio, y menos zinc. En ambos tipos de guarderías, se observaron consumo elevado de energía y proporción elevada de niños con consumo de vitaminas A y C, zinc y sodio por encima del límite superior tolerable de ingestión. La proporción de niños con inadecuación de consumo de calcio fue mayor en las guarderías públicas que en las privadas (27,6 versus 7,9%; pOBJECTIVES: To assess the nutritional status and dietary intakes of children attending public and private day care centers in Manaus, Brazil. METHODS: The study assessed children aged 24 to 72 months, enrolled at two public (n=217 and two private (n=91 day care centers in Manaus. Nutritional status was classified according to Z scores for weight-for-age, weight-for-height, height-for-age and BMI-for-age. Dietary intakes were measured using the direct food-weighing method for 1 day. A 1-day dietary recall was administered to parents to assess dietary intakes outside the day care centers. The frequencies of children with nutrient intakes above and below the Estimated Average Requirements (EAR or Adequate Intake (AI cutoffs were calculated. RESULTS: There proportion of overweight children was higher at the private day care centers, according to both weight-for-height and BMI-for-age indexes. Children from the public day care centers

  1. Overweight and obesity among children with Down syndrome: a descriptive study of children attending a Down syndrome clinic in South Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawn, Jason; Rice, Carryn; Nichols, Heather; McDermott, Suzanne

    2009-04-01

    Throughout their lifespan, children with DS have unique issues related to weight management. We must remember that as children with DS grow older, they typically increase their BMI and deviate from the norms of their peers. Thus, from infancy through adolescents primary care physicians must continue to incorporate core principals concerning healthy lifestyles and weight management. In addition, they need to be aware of other health care concerns in these special children.

  2. Ethnocultural and Sex Characteristics of Patients Attending a Tertiary Care Pain Clinic in Toronto, Ontario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Mailis-Gagnon

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ethnocultural factors and sex may greatly affect pain perception and expression. Emerging literature is also documenting racial and ethnic differences in pain access and care.

  3. Neonatal care in the home in northern rural Honduras: a qualitative study of the role of traditional birth attendants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacks, Emma; Bailey, Joanne Motiño; Robles, Chayla; Low, Lisa Kane

    2013-01-01

    Traditional birth attendants (TBAs) have limited ability to reduce maternal mortality, but may be able to have a significant impact on neonatal survival. This qualitative study explores TBAs' (possessive) experience with neonatal care in a rural Honduran community. In 6 semistructured focus groups, TBAs described services they routinely provide to newborns. Using Atlas.ti, Version 6.0. (ATLAS.ti Scientific Software Development GmbH, University of Berlin), transcripts were coded by bilingual researchers and analyzed by thematic content. TBAs demonstrated limited knowledge of newborn physiology, yet were aware of many internationally recommended practices. Despite attempts to follow recommendations, all TBAs expressed difficulty due to resource constraints. TBAs were strong advocates of immediate breast-feeding and skin-to-skin care, but they did not demonstrate knowledge regarding delayed bathing and thermal care. Most TBAs stated that a sick neonate could be identified immediately at birth; thus, infections or other illnesses developed in later days may be missed. TBAs did not believe they could have averted neonatal complications or deaths that had occurred under their care. For most healthy newborns, TBAs are the primary providers until the 2-month vaccine visit at the healthcare clinic. Improved TBA training focused on infection symptomotology, physiology, and thermoregulation for newborns may increase opportunities for improved health and timely referrals to healthcare facilities.

  4. Frecuencia de virus respiratorios y características clínicas de niños que acuden a un hospital en México Frequency of respiratory viruses and clinical characteristics in children attending a care center in Mexico City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa María Wong-Chew

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO. Describir la frecuencia de virus respiratorios y características clínicas en niños con cuadros respiratorios de un hospital de tercer nivel en México. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS. Se incluyeron niños con diagnóstico de infección respiratoria y un resultado positivo por inmunofluorescencia de enero 2004 a octubre 2006. RESULTADOS. De 986 muestras nasofaríngeas, 138 (14% fueron positivas. La frecuencia fue: 80% virus sincicial respiratorio (VSR, 8% parainfluenza 1, 5% parainfluenza3, 2% adenovirus, 2% influenza A, 1% parainfluenza 2 y 1% influenza B. CONCLUSIONES. La frecuencia de virus respiratorios fue de 14%. El VSR se identificó asociado con más frecuencia, a neumonía y bronquiolitis en menores de 3 años.OBJECTIVE. To describe the frequency of respiratory viruses and clinical characteristics in children with respiratory signs and symptoms in a tertiary care center in Mexico. MATERIAL AND METHODS. Patients with a clinical diagnosis of respiratory infection and a positive immunofluorescence result (Light Diagnostics from January 2004 to October 2006 were included. RESULTS. From the 986 nashopharyngeal samples, 138 (14% were positive by immunofluorescence. The frequency was: 80% RSV, 8% parainfluenza 1, 5% parainfluenza 3, 2% adenovirus, 2% influenza A, 1% parainfluenza 2 and 1% influenza B. CONCLUSIONS. Respiratory viruses were detected in 14% of samples tested. RSV was the most frequently identified virus and was associated with pneumonia and bronchiolitis in children younger than 3 years old.

  5. Frequency and risk factors associated with dry eye in patients attending a tertiary care ophthalmology center in Mexico City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Jaime D; Galor, Anat; Ramos-Betancourt, Nallely; Lisker-Cervantes, Andrés; Beltrán, Francisco; Ozorno-Zárate, Jorge; Sánchez-Huerta, Valeria; Torres-Vera, Marco-Antonio; Hernández-Quintela, Everardo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to ascertain the frequency and risk factors of dry eye (DE) among patients attending a tertiary care ophthalmology center in Mexico. Methods Approximately 338 consecutive new patients attending a tertiary care ophthalmology center in Mexico City underwent an ocular surface examination, which included tear film break-up time, fluorescein corneal staining, Schirmer’s test, and evaluation of meibum quality. Symptoms of DE were evaluated by the Ocular Surface Disease Index and Dry Eye Questionnaire-5. Information on demographics, exposures, past medical and ocular history, and medications was also collected. Results The frequency of severe DE symptoms was found to be 43% based on the Ocular Surface Disease Index and 30% based on Dry Eye Questionnaire-5. Risk factors significantly associated with increased DE symptoms included dry mouth and gastrointestinal ulcer medications. With regard to signs, aqueous tear deficiency was a less-frequent finding (22%) in our population than evaporative deficiency (94%). Risk factors associated with aqueous tear deficiency were dry mouth and diuretic use. No risk factors were associated with evaporative deficiency. Risk factors associated with meibomian gland dysfunction included old age, male sex, arthritis, and use of an antihypertensive. The only risk factor associated with corneal staining was dry mouth. Conclusion This is the first study to demonstrate the frequency of symptomatic and clinical DE in a tertiary care ophthalmology center in Mexico. The frequency of DE ranged from 30% using a symptomatic definition to 94% using objective measures. Different risk factors were found for different aspects of DE, suggesting differing underlying pathophysiologies behind different DE subtypes. PMID:27499613

  6. Skilled birth attendants in Tanzania: a descriptive study of cadres and emergency obstetric care signal functions performed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Etsuko; Adegoke, Adetoro A; Masenga, Gileard; Fimbo, Janeth; Msuya, Sia E

    2015-01-01

    Although most developing countries monitor the proportion of births attended by skilled birth attendants (SBA), they lack information on the availability and performance of emergency obstetric care (EmOC) signal functions by different cadres of health care providers (HCPs). The World Health Organisation signal functions are set of key interventions that targets direct obstetric causes of maternal deaths. Seven signal functions are required for health facilities providing basic EmOC and nine for facilities providing comprehensive EmOC. Our objectives were to describe cadres of HCPs who are considered SBAs in Tanzania, the EmOC signal functions they perform and challenges associated with performance of EmOC signal functions. We conducted a cross-sectional study of HCPs offering maternity care services at eight health facilities in Moshi Urban District in northern Tanzania. A questionnaire and health facility assessment forms were used to collect information from participants and health facilities. A total of 199 HCPs working at eight health facilities in Moshi Urban District met the inclusion criteria. Out of 199, 158 participated, giving a response rate of 79.4 %. Ten cadres of HCPs were identified as conducting deliveries regardless of the level of health facilities. Most of the participants (81 %) considered themselves SBAs, although some were not considered SBAs by the Ministry of Health and Social Welfare (MOHSW). Only two out of the eight facilities provided all of the required EmOC signal functions. While Assistant Medical Officers are expected to perform all the signal functions, only 38 % and 13 % had performed vacuum extraction or caesarean sections respectively. Very few registered and enrolled nurse-midwives had performed removal of retained products (22 %) or assisted vaginal delivery (24 and 11 %). Inadequate equipment and supplies, and lack of knowledge and skills in performing EmOC were two main challenges identified by health care providers in all

  7. Health-related benefits among children in the child welfare system: prevalence and determinants of basic and/or attendance benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abreham Mengesha Zewdu

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To examine the prevalence and determinants of basic and/or attendance benefits among children involved with the child welfare system (CWS.Design: A register study of all children involved with CWS in Norway from 1997-2006.Participants: 96,354 children from the CWS group and 149,030 children who had never been in the CWS as a comparison group.Results: 11% of children involved with CWS received basic and/or attendance benefits compared to 3% in the comparison group. In multivariate logistic regression, the boys’ chances of ever receiving basic and/or attendance benefits were greater than the girls’ chances. The chances of receiving benefits increased nearly four to sixfold as a child becomes older. However, they decrease as the age at debut to CWS increases. It was also revealed that those children who stayed under child welfare for two or more years had an increased chance of ever receiving basic and/or attendance benefits. For children with reported behavioral disorders, the chances of basic and/or attendance benefits were nearly twofold. For children under home-based support and medication interventions, the chances of receiving basic and/or attendance benefits were greater than for children who were not under these interventions.Conclusion: Chronic health conditions that claim basic and/or attendance benefits were more prevalent among children involved with CWS than the general children’s population. This phenomenon may be explained by gender, age, age at debut to CWS, length of stay under CWS, types and reasons for interventions

  8. Changes in Chinese Discharged Chronic Mental Patients Attending a Psychiatric Rehabilitation Program with Holistic Care Elements: A Quasi-Experimental Study

    OpenAIRE

    Luk, Andrew L.; Shek, Daniel T L

    2006-01-01

    This study attempted to examine the changes and related factors in discharged chronic mental patients attending a psychiatric rehabilitation program in Hong Kong adopting a self-help group (SHG) approach with holistic care emphases on the physical, psychological, social, and spiritual functioning of the program participants. A quasi-experimental design involving an experimental group (109 participants attending the program) and a control group (154 patients from a psychiatric outpatient clini...

  9. Determinants of first trimester attendance at antenatal care clinics in the Amazon region of Peru: A case-control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Nora; Blouin, Brittany; Razuri, Hugo; Casapia, Martin; Gyorkos, Theresa W.

    2017-01-01

    Objective To identify determinants which influence the timing of the first antenatal care (ANC) visit in pregnant women. Design Retrospective matched nested case-control study. Setting Two health centres, Belén and 6 de Octubre, in the Peruvian Amazon. Population All pregnant women who had attended ANC during the years 2010, 2011, and 2012. Methods All cases (819 women initiating ANC in their first trimester) were selected from ANC registries from 2010 to 2012. A random sample of controls (819 women initiating ANC in their second or third trimester) was matched 1:1 to cases on health centre and date of first ANC visit. Data were obtained from ANC registries. Conditional logistic regression analyses were performed. Main outcome measure Case-control status of each woman determined by the gestational age at first ANC visit. Results Cases had higher odds of: 1) being married or cohabiting (aOR = 1.69; 95% CI: 1.19, 2.41); 2) completing secondary school or attending post-secondary school (aOR = 1.45; 95% CI: 1.02, 2.06); 3) living in an urban environment (aOR = 1.79; 95% CI: 1.04, 3.10) and 4) having had a previous miscarriage (aOR = 1.56; 95% CI: 1.13, 2.15), compared to controls. No statistically significant difference in odds was found for parity (aOR = 1.08; 95% CI: 0.85, 1.36). Conclusions This study provides empirical evidence of determinants of first ANC attendance. These findings are crucial to the planning and timing of local interventions, like deworming, aimed at pregnant women so that they can access and benefit fully from all government-provided ANC services. PMID:28207749

  10. The Prevalence and the Determinants of Musculoskeletal Diseases in Emiratis Attending Primary Health Care Clinics in Dubai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal Al Saleh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of rheumatic diseases in the Emiratis attending primary health care (PHC clinics in Dubai. The secondary objective was to study the relationship between age, gender, and body mass index (BMI and rheumatic diseases in the general population.  Methods: The Prevalence of Rheumatic Diseases and Osteoporosis (PRO in Dubai study was a cross-sectional study, which randomly enrolled Emiratis’ aged between 18–85 years old who attended one of 13 PHC clinics between 2 January 2009 and 31 December 2009. Demographic and health data for all participants was obtained via a questionnaire. Participants that indicated positive answers had their responses validated by a rheumatologist and underwent a thorough locomotor examination.  Results: The study included 3,985 participants with a mean age of 42.1±15.8 years. The majority (77.4% were female. Lower back pain was the most prevalent problem in our study population (32.9%. Knee osteoarthritis (OA was the most common form of arthritis seen in our cohort (25.8%. Overall, the prevalence of inflammatory arthritis was 3.1%. Age and BMI were associated with increased risk of knee OA and lower back pain.  Conclusions: Rheumatic diseases are quite common in Emirati patients attending PHC clinics. Lower back pain and knee OA were the most common musculoskeletal diseases seen in our cohort. There is a need for more population-based studies in the Middle East to have a better understanding of the epidemiology of rheumatic diseases in this region.

  11. Knowledge of diabetes among type 2 diabetes patients attending a primary health care clinic in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, D P; De Silva, R E E; Perera, W L S P

    2013-07-01

    Patients' knowledge about their illness is considered important in controlling diabetes and preventing complications. A descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted among patients attending the diabetes clinic of a primary care level hospital in Moratuwa, Sri Lanka. During a 1-month period in 2009 all consenting patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes who had been attending the clinic for more than 3 months were included in the study. Using an interviewer administered, structured questionnaire 150 patients (135 females, 15 males) answered 25 questions about diabetes knowledge (scored x4 to give score range 0-100). A majority of patients (70.0%) had a good score (> 65) on the knowledge test but critical gaps in knowledge were revealed, especially regarding knowledge about symptoms of poor control and importance of regular follow-up. Although patients with longer duration of diabetes had higher mean knowledge scores, they also had higher fasting blood glucose levels. Education programmes are needed to address critical gaps in patients' knowledge.

  12. Determinants of Tuberculosis Infection among Adult HIV Positives Attending Clinical Care in Western Ethiopia: A Case-Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatoluf Melkamu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There has been a drastic rise of tuberculosis (TB infection across the world associated with the pandemic occurrence of HIV/AIDS. There are various determinants factors that increase the chance of TB infection among HIV positives (TB/HIV confection that varies contextually. This study aimed to assess the determinants of TB/HIV coinfection among adult HIV positives attending clinical care at two public health facilities in Nekemte, western Ethiopia. Unmatched case-control study was conducted from December 26, 2011, to February 29, 2012. Cases were 123 TB infected HIV positives, and controls were 246 non-TB infected HIV positives. Being divorced/widowed , 95% CI (1.70, 7.88, not attending formal education , 95% CI (2.20, 14.15, being underweight ( kg/m2 , 95% CI (2.18, 6.87, having history of diabetic mellitus , 95% CI (1.33, 9.94, and being in advanced WHO HIV/AIDS clinical staging , 95% CI (1.32, 3.98, were determinant factors associated with TB/HIV co-infection. Having a separate kitchen , 95% CI (0.28, 0.81 showed protective role. For most of these determinants interventions can be made at individual and institutional levels, whereas, factors like education and nutrition need societal level integrations.

  13. Cortisol Response to Physical Activity in African American Toddlers Attending Full-Time Day Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Sarah J.; Rudisill, Mary E.; Gladden, L. Bruce

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine African American toddlers' cortisol response to acute physical play activity within a full-time subsidized day care environment. Saliva samples were taken from participants (N = 22, ages 26-45.5 months) before and after physical play and control play conditions at the same time of day. Actiheart[TM]monitors…

  14. Young children returning home from care: The birth parents' perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Fargas Malet, Montserrat; McSherry, Dominic; Larkin, Emma; Kelly, Greg; Robinson, Clive; Schubotz, Dirk

    2010-01-01

    While a wide range of literature exists on the experiences of children in foster care or adoption, much less is known about children who return home from care to their birth parents. This paper focuses on the perspectives of a small sample of birth parents of young children who returned home from care. It draws on findings from the Northern Ireland Care Pathways and Outcomes Study that has been following a population (n = 374) of children who were under 5 years and in care in Northern Ireland...

  15. Foot care and footwear practices among patients attending a specialist diabetes clinic in Jamaica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystal A.T. Gayle

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to estimate the proportion of patients at the University Hospital of the West Indies (UHWI Diabetes Clinic who engage in recommended foot care and footwear practices. Seventy-two participants from the UHWI Diabetes Clinic completed an interviewer-administered questionnaire on foot care practices and types of footwear worn. Participants were a subset of a sex-stratified random sample of clinic attendees and were interviewed in 2010. Data analysis included frequency estimates of the various foot care practices and types of footwear worn. Participants had a mean age of 57.0±14.3 years and mean duration of diabetes of 17.0±10.3 years. Fifty-three percent of participants reported being taught how to care for their feet, while daily foot inspection was performed by approximately 60% of participants. Most participants (90% reported daily use of moisturizing lotion on the feet but almost 50% used lotion between the toes. In conclusion, approximately 85% of participants reported wearing shoes or slippers both indoors and outdoors but over 40% reported walking barefoot at some time. Thirteen percent wore special shoes for diabetes while over 80% wore shoes without socks at some time. Although much larger proportions reported wearing broad round toe shoes (82% or leather shoes (64%, fairly high proportions reported wearing pointed toe shoes (39%, and 43% of women wore high heel shoes. Approximately 60% of patients at the UHWI diabetic clinic engage in daily foot inspection and other recommended practices, but fairly high proportions reported foot care or footwear choices that should be avoided.

  16. The knowledge and attitudes of traditional birth attendants towards HIV/AIDS and their beliefs related to perinatal care: a study conducted in KwaZulu Natal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.G. Mchunu

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Traditional birth attendants (TBAs are still mainly being utilized in the rural areas even in the presence of the formal health care facilities. Studies reveal that the utilization of TBAs is beneficial in some other contexts with some support and supervision from the western health sector. In order to develop further training for TBAs the researchers deemed it necessary to assess their knowledge, attitudes and beliefs related to HIV/AIDS, prenatal care, delivery and postnatal care.

  17. Longitudinal behavioral analysis during dental care of children aged 0 to 3 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robson Frederico Cunha

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available "When" and "how" the dentist intervenes have repercussions on children's physical and emotional patterns. The objective of the present study was to conduct a longitudinal behavioral analysis during dental care of babies aged 0 to 3 years. A total of 216 patients seen at the Baby Clinic of the School of Dentistry at Araçatuba, São Paulo State University (UNESP, were selected. The selection criterion was attendance at ten dental care sessions at bimonthly intervals for routine procedures such as clinical examination and oral hygiene. There was a predominance of cooperative behavior compared to uncooperative behavior when each visit was analyzed separately. The behavior of the patients must have been directly influenced by their psychomotor development. Constant attendance and exposure of the baby to non-stressful dental stimuli are factors that favor a cooperative behavior.

  18. Physicians′ therapeutic practice and compliance of diabetic patients attending rural primary health care units in Alexandria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahla Khamis R Ibrahim

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The objectives of the study were to investigate physician′s therapeutic practice and the compliance of diabetic patients attending rural primary health units in Alexandria. Material and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted and a multistage stratified random sample method was used for the selection of 600 diabetic patients. Data were collected by means of an interviewing questionnaire, an observation checklist, review of prescriptions and laboratory investigations. A scoring system was made for a diabetic patient′s knowledge and skills, patient′s compliance, doctor-patient relationship, and glycemic control. Results: About 57% always took their medication as prescribed by doctor and on time, only 2.2% always complied with dietary regimen while no one reported regular compliance with exercise regimen. Complications of the regimen was the commonest cause (63.3% of noncompliance. A highly statistically significant difference was found between compliance with all regimens and patient′s knowledge of diabetes. The scores for doctor-patient relationship were all unsatisfactory. Results of glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c revealed that metabolic control of four-fifth of the patients was satisfactory, 12% had fair and 8% had poor metabolic control. Conclusions: Patient′s compliance with most of the diabetes regimen was low. Doctor-patient relationship and patient′s compliance should be improved by conducting educational and training programs.

  19. A Topic Diathesis In Hereditary Ichthyosis Patients Attending A Tertiary Health Care Center In Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Akloby Omar M Al-Amro

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of atopic diathesis in hereditary ichthyosis (HI has not been documented in Saudi patients. The atopic manifestations in histopathologically confirmed HI patients attending the dermatology clinic of king Fahad Hospital of the University at Al-Khobar city, Saudi Arabia is discussed in this study. From the dermatology OPD logbook, all Saudi patients with confirmed HI seen between January 1990 to December 1995 were included in the study. The findings regarding atopic manifestations were extracted into data collection forms and analyzed. During the 5 year study period, 10,455 new cases were seen in our dermatology OPD. Of these, 61 had hereditary icthyosis, with 37 males and 24 females with a male to female ratio of 1.5:1. Thus, the frequency of HI among Saudi hospital attendees was 6 per 1000 new cases. The type of HI was ichthyosis vulgaris in 25 (41% patients, X-linked recessive ichthyosis in 11 (18%, lamellar ichthyosis in 4(7%, bullous ichthyosiform erythroderma in 2 (3% and nonbullous ichthyosiform erythroderma was seen in 19 (31%. Generalized pruritus was present in 49 (80% cases, atopic dermatitis in , elevated serum IgE level was noted in 27 and bronchial asthma in 3 cases. Dandruff was reported in 24 cases, keratosis pilaris in15, recurrent skin infection in 7. Combination of hereditary ichthyosis, generalized pruritus and high serum IGE level was reported in 27 (44.3% patient.

  20. Prevalence and pattern of use of indigenous medicines in diabetic patients attending a tertiary care centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethi, Ankur; Srivastava, Saurabh; Madhu, S V

    2011-07-01

    The aim of the study was to see the pattern of use of indigenous medicines in diabetic patients and to find out its correlation with various demographic variables in patients of type 2 diabetes. A sample of 113 patients with diabetes (type 1 and type 2) was interviewed using a structured questionnaire by trained medical personnel about the intake of indigenous medicines. Correlation of intake of indigenous medicines with various demographic variables was assessed using appropriate statistical tests. Male to female ratio in the present study was 1:3. Mean duration of diabetes was 5.2 +/- 2 years. It was found that majority of patients 101/113 (89.4%) attending diabetic clinic were using indigenous medicines in one form or the other. Most common drugs used were karela (78.8%), jamun (65.5%), methi (38.9%) and neem (28.3%). Majority were taking on advice from fellow diabetics (41.6%) and were not sure (39.8%) about the effect. No significant correlation was found with their intake and demographic variables as age, sex, per capita income, duration of diabtes, occupation, cultural background and antidiabetic medicine used. There is a high percentage of indigenous drug use in patients with diabetes which is often not reported. Treating physicians need to be alert to this possibility while managing diabetic patients in order to correctly interpret glycaemic control, hypoglycaemic episodes and other unexplained comorbidities that might arise in them.

  1. Social life of people with diagnosis of schizophrenia, attended at a psychosocial care center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moll, Marciana Fernandes; Saeki, Toyoko

    2009-01-01

    This qualitative research aimed to investigate the social life of patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia at a Psychosocial Care Center (CAPS), and identify how the therapeutic process offered by the CAPS has contributed to their social lives. The subjects of the study were patients with schizophrenia, between eighteen and forty years of age and registered at the CAPS in Uberaba, Brazil. The data were collected through a semi-structured interview. Three categories were identified: the patients' life before and after the illness, their everyday life outside CAPS and CAPS care contributing to their social life and stabilization of symptoms. The results showed that the CAPS regimen enhances treatment compliance and decreases hospitalization. However, social functioning for schizophrenic patients occurs within the family and treatment contexts. This reality evidences the need for a partnership with the Family Health Strategy and the community to improve socialization.

  2. Sociodemographic and Clinical Characteristics of Patients attending Psychotherapy in a Tertiary Care Hospital in Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zena Al-Sharbati

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: There is significant evidence that psychotherapy is a pivotal treatment for persons diagnosed with Axis I clinical psychiatric conditions; however, a psychotherapy service has only recently been established in the Omani health care system. This study aimed to investigate the sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of attendees at a psychotherapy clinic at a tertiary care hospital. Methods: An analysis was carried out of 133 new referrals to the Psychotherapy Service at Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, a tertiary care hospital. Results: The majority of referrals were females (59%, aged 18–34 years, employed (38%, had ≤12 years of formal education (51%, and were single (54%. A total of 43% were treated for anxiety disorders (including obsessive compulsive disorder, while 22% were treated for depression. A total of 65% were prescribed psychotropic medications. The utilisation of the Psychotherapy Service and its user characteristics are discussed within the context of a culturally diverse Omani community which has unique personal belief systems such as in supernatural powers (Jinn, contemptuous envy (Hassad, evil eye (Ain and sorcery (Sihr which are often used to explain the aetiology of mental illness and influence personal decisions on utilising medical and psychological treatments. Conclusion: Despite the low number of referrals to the Psychotherapy Service, there is reason to believe that psychotherapy would be an essential tool to come to grips with the increasing number of mental disorders in Oman.

  3. Psychiatric morbidity in elderly patients attending OPD of tertiary care centre in western region of Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prakash Thapa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Aging of population is currently a global phenomenon. At least one in 5 people over the age of 65 years will suffer from a mental disorder by 2030. Study of psychiatric morbidities in this age group is essential to prepare for upcoming challenges. Aims: To find out the prevalence of different psychiatric morbidities in elderly population and to find out if there are any age and gender specific differences. Settings and Design: Retrospective review; Psychiatric outpatient department of Manipal Teaching Hospital, Pokhara, Nepal. Materials and Methods: Data for patients ≥ 65 years of age attending the psychiatric outpatient department of Manipal Teaching Hospital, Pokhara, Nepal, from 1 st January 2012 to 15 th January 2013 were collected retrospectively in a predesigned proforma. Statistical Analysis Used: Risk of having different psychiatric disorders was estimated using odds ratio. Results: The mean age of 120 patients included in this study was 69.67 (SD = 5.94 years. Depressive disorder (26.7% was the most common diagnosis. There was no statistically significant difference in psychiatric disorders in >75 years compared with ≤75 years except for dementia [odd ratio (OR (≤75 years/>75 years=0.055, 95% confidence interval (CI=0.016; 0.194]. Alcohol dependence syndrome [OR (male/female=7.826, 95% CI = 1.699;36.705] and dementia [OR (male/female=3.394, 95% CI = 1.015;11.350] was more common in males. Conclusions: Depressive disorder was the most common psychiatric morbidity among the elderly patients. The odds suffering from dementia increased with increasing age. The odds of having alcohol related problems and dementia were more in males compared with females.

  4. Arithmetical Thinking in Children Attending Special Schools for the Intellectually Disabled

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Gota

    2008-01-01

    This article focuses on spontaneous and progressive knowledge building in ''the arithmetic of the child.'' The aim is to investigate variations in the behavior patterns of eight pupils attending a school for the intellectually disabled. The study is based on the epistemology of radical constructivism and the methodology of multiple clinical…

  5. The Social, Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties of Primary School Children with Poor Attendance Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, H. C. M.

    2013-01-01

    Two complementary studies of poor and better attenders are presented. To measure emotional and behavioural difficulties (EBD) different teacher-completed rating scales were employed, and to determine social difficulties, the studies used sociometry and some items from the scales. One study had a longitudinal design. It revealed that, after…

  6. Chinese Delegation Attends High-Level Meeting on Women and Children Issues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang; Xuehe

    2015-01-01

    The opening ceremony of a high-level meeting of the"Every Woman Every Child"global movement was hosted by the Executive Office of the UN Secretary General at the UN headquarters in New York on September 26,2015,attended by

  7. Do healthy school meals affect illness, allergies and school attendance in 8- to 11-year-old children?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Rikke Pilmann; Lauritzen, Lotte; Ritz, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Background/Objectives:A nutritionally adequate diet in childhood is important for health and resistance of allergies and infections. This study explored the effects of school meals rich in fish, vegetables and fibre on school attendance, asthma, allergies and illness in 797 Danish 8- to 11-year-o......, allergies, illness or well-being in 8- to 11-year-old children. The slight increase in occurrence of headaches seems to be related to the physical eating environment.European Journal of Clinical Nutrition advance online publication, 10 December 2014; doi:10.1038/ejcn.2014.263....

  8. Traditional food consumption is associated with higher nutrient intakes in Inuit children attending childcare centres in Nunavik

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doris Gagné

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To describe traditional food (TF consumption and to evaluate its impact on nutrient intakes of preschool Inuit children from Nunavik. Design. A cross-sectional study. Methods. Dietary intakes of children were assessed with a single 24-hour recall (n=217. TF consumption at home and at the childcare centres was compared. Differences in children's nutrient intakes when consuming or not consuming at least 1 TF item were examined using ANCOVA. Results. A total of 245 children attending childcare centres in 10 communities of Nunavik were recruited between 2006 and 2010. The children's mean age was 25.0±9.6 months (11–54 months. Thirty-six percent of children had consumed at least 1 TF item on the day of the recall. TF contributed to 2.6% of total energy intake. Caribou and Arctic char were the most reported TF species. Land animals and fish/shellfish were the main contributors to energy intake from TF (38 and 33%, respectively. In spite of a low TF intake, children who consumed TF had significantly (p<0.05 higher intakes of protein, omega-3 fatty acids, iron, phosphorus, zinc, copper, selenium, niacin, pantothenic acid, riboflavin, and vitamin B12, and lower intakes of energy and carbohydrate compared with non-consumers. There was no significant difference in any of the socio-economic variables between children who consumed TF and those who did not. Conclusion. Although TF was not eaten much, it contributed significantly to the nutrient intakes of children. Consumption of TF should be encouraged as it provides many nutritional, economic, and sociocultural benefits.

  9. Traditional food consumption is associated with higher nutrient intakes in Inuit children attending childcare centres in Nunavik

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagné, Doris; Blanchet, Rosanne; Lauzière, Julie; Vaissière, Émilie; Vézina, Carole; Ayotte, Pierre; Déry, Serge; O'Brien, Huguette Turgeon

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To describe traditional food (TF) consumption and to evaluate its impact on nutrient intakes of preschool Inuit children from Nunavik. Design A cross-sectional study. Methods Dietary intakes of children were assessed with a single 24-hour recall (n=217). TF consumption at home and at the childcare centres was compared. Differences in children's nutrient intakes when consuming or not consuming at least 1 TF item were examined using ANCOVA. Results A total of 245 children attending childcare centres in 10 communities of Nunavik were recruited between 2006 and 2010. The children's mean age was 25.0±9.6 months (11–54 months). Thirty-six percent of children had consumed at least 1 TF item on the day of the recall. TF contributed to 2.6% of total energy intake. Caribou and Arctic char were the most reported TF species. Land animals and fish/shellfish were the main contributors to energy intake from TF (38 and 33%, respectively). In spite of a low TF intake, children who consumed TF had significantly (p<0.05) higher intakes of protein, omega-3 fatty acids, iron, phosphorus, zinc, copper, selenium, niacin, pantothenic acid, riboflavin, and vitamin B12, and lower intakes of energy and carbohydrate compared with non-consumers. There was no significant difference in any of the socio-economic variables between children who consumed TF and those who did not. Conclusion Although TF was not eaten much, it contributed significantly to the nutrient intakes of children. Consumption of TF should be encouraged as it provides many nutritional, economic, and sociocultural benefits. PMID:22818718

  10. Characteristics of injured children attending the emergency department : patients potentially in need of rehabilitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sturms, L.M.; van der Sluis, C.K.; Groothoff, J.W.; Ten Duis, H.J.; Eisma, W.H.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To provide an epidemiological overview of the characteristics of injured children and to compare hospitalized and nonhospitalized injured children to identify predictors of hospitalization and, with that, possible predictors of disablement. Design: Retrospective analysis of data obtained

  11. Why do some women still prefer traditional birth attendants and home delivery?: a qualitative study on delivery care services in West Java Province, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titaley Christiana R

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Trained birth attendants at delivery are important for preventing both maternal and newborn deaths. West Java is one of the provinces on Java Island, Indonesia, where many women still deliver at home and without the assistance of trained birth attendants. This study aims to explore the perspectives of community members and health workers about the use of delivery care services in six villages of West Java Province. Methods A qualitative study using focus group discussions (FGDs and in-depth interviews was conducted in six villages of three districts in West Java Province from March to July 2009. Twenty FGDs and 165 in-depth interviews were conducted involving a total of 295 participants representing mothers, fathers, health care providers, traditional birth attendants and community leaders. The FGD and in-depth interview guidelines included reasons for using a trained or a traditional birth attendant and reasons for having a home or an institutional delivery. Results The use of traditional birth attendants and home delivery were preferable for some community members despite the availability of the village midwife in the village. Physical distance and financial limitations were two major constraints that prevented community members from accessing and using trained attendants and institutional deliveries. A number of respondents reported that trained delivery attendants or an institutional delivery were only aimed at women who experienced obstetric complications. The limited availability of health care providers was reported by residents in remote areas. In these settings the village midwife, who was sometimes the only health care provider, frequently travelled out of the village. The community perceived the role of both village midwives and traditional birth attendants as essential for providing maternal and health care services. Conclusions A comprehensive strategy to increase the availability, accessibility, and

  12. Comparison of Optimal Cardiovascular Risk Factor Management in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Who Attended Urban Medical Health Center with those Attended a Tertiary Care Center: Experiences from Tehran, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, Sedighe; Haji Ghanbari, Mohammad Javad; Ebrahimi, Hedyeh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Diabetes is a leading cause of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Moreover, CVD accounts for primary cause of death among diabetic patients. Physicians, especially in the primary care setting, have effective role in the management of cardiovascular risk factors. Therefore, we aimed to compare the prevalence of modifiable cardiovascular risk factors in Type 2 diabetic patients attending to an urban health center as a primary care center with Institute of Endocrinology and Metabolism Diabetes Clinic (IEMDC) as a tertiary center. Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed on 200 adult diabetic patients attending urban health center (Abouzar Health Center) and 201 diabetic patients in a tertiary center. The patients’ cardiovascular risk factors including lipid profile, systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP), and smoking history were recorded. The number of patients who did not achieve the target according to the American Diabetes Association guidelines was determined and compared. Results: The patients in urban health center were older than those who attending IEMDC (P = 0.004). The duration of diabetes was longer among urban center patients (P glycosylated hemoglobin level, high-density lipoprotein level, and systolic BP. Conclusions: Both centers have failure in target achievement in some risk factors; however, the inability of the primary care center in controlling hyperlipidemia in comparison with the tertiary center is a serious warning to provide training about managing dyslipidemia in these centers. PMID:27761215

  13. Prevalence of vulvovaginal candidiasis among nonpregnant women attending a tertiary health care facility in Abuja, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emeribe AU

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Anthony Uchenna Emeribe,1 Idris Abdullahi Nasir,2 Justus Onyia,2 Alinwachukwu Loveth Ifunanya31Department of Medical Laboratory Science, University of Calabar, Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria; 2Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Abuja Teaching Hospital, Gwagwalada, Federal Capital Territory, Nigeria; 3Department of Medical Laboratory, School of Health Technology, Tsafe, Zamfara State, NigeriaBackground: Candida spp. are normal flora of the vagina that eventually become pathogenic under some prevailing conditions, and thus present as a common etiology of vulvovaginitis. When prompt recognition and laboratory confirmation is not achieved, this could lead to devastating genital discomfort and a major reason for frequent hospital visits.Aims: This was a cross-sectional prospective study that aimed to determine the prevalence and some associated risk factors of vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC among nonpregnant women attending University of Abuja Teaching Hospital, Gwagwalada.Subjects and methods: A pair of high vaginal swab and endocervical swab samples was collected from each of 200 individual participating subjects. They were separately inoculated on Sabouraud's dextrose agar and incubated aerobically at 33°C for 48 hours. Ten percent KOH wet mount and Gram staining was done on swabs and colonies, respectively. Structured questionnaires were used to obtain sociodemographic and clinical data.Results: Of the 200 participating subjects, the prevalence of Candida albicans was 6.5% and that of non-albicans candidiasis 7.5%. Candidiasis was observed mostly among the 20- to 30-year age-group. All subjects with Candida-positive culture had been on antibacterial therapy prior to participating in this study – 28 (100%. There was a statistical relationship between the prevalence of VVC with previous antibacterial therapy (P<0.05, but not with age or other prevailing health conditions studied (P>0.05.Conclusion: The outcome of this study

  14. Prevalence of disorders recorded in dogs attending primary-care veterinary practices in England.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan G O Neill

    Full Text Available Purebred dog health is thought to be compromised by an increasing occurence of inherited diseases but inadequate prevalence data on common disorders have hampered efforts to prioritise health reforms. Analysis of primary veterinary practice clinical data has been proposed for reliable estimation of disorder prevalence in dogs. Electronic patient record (EPR data were collected on 148,741 dogs attending 93 clinics across central and south-eastern England. Analysis in detail of a random sample of EPRs relating to 3,884 dogs from 89 clinics identified the most frequently recorded disorders as otitis externa (prevalence 10.2%, 95% CI: 9.1-11.3, periodontal disease (9.3%, 95% CI: 8.3-10.3 and anal sac impaction (7.1%, 95% CI: 6.1-8.1. Using syndromic classification, the most prevalent body location affected was the head-and-neck (32.8%, 95% CI: 30.7-34.9, the most prevalent organ system affected was the integument (36.3%, 95% CI: 33.9-38.6 and the most prevalent pathophysiologic process diagnosed was inflammation (32.1%, 95% CI: 29.8-34.3. Among the twenty most-frequently recorded disorders, purebred dogs had a significantly higher prevalence compared with crossbreds for three: otitis externa (P = 0.001, obesity (P = 0.006 and skin mass lesion (P = 0.033, and popular breeds differed significantly from each other in their prevalence for five: periodontal disease (P = 0.002, overgrown nails (P = 0.004, degenerative joint disease (P = 0.005, obesity (P = 0.001 and lipoma (P = 0.003. These results fill a crucial data gap in disorder prevalence information and assist with disorder prioritisation. The results suggest that, for maximal impact, breeding reforms should target commonly-diagnosed complex disorders that are amenable to genetic improvement and should place special focus on at-risk breeds. Future studies evaluating disorder severity and duration will augment the usefulness of the disorder prevalence information

  15. Cortisol Levels and Children's Orientation in Day Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reunamo, Jyrki; Sajaniemi, Nina; Suhonen, Eira; Kontu, Elina

    2012-01-01

    Children's stress in day care is related to the stressful qualities of the environment and to children's orientations in that environment. The study involved 55 children in five day centres in Finland. Baseline saliva samples for measuring cortisol (stress) levels were collected five times during the day. Children were interviewed to measure their…

  16. Exacerbations and health care resource utilization in patients with airflow limitation diseases attending a primary care setting: the PUMA study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes de Oca, Maria; Aguirre, Carlos; Lopez Varela, Maria Victorina; Laucho-Contreras, Maria E; Casas, Alejandro; Surmont, Filip

    2016-01-01

    Background COPD, asthma, and asthma–COPD overlap increase health care resource consumption, predominantly because of hospitalization for exacerbations and also increased visits to general practitioners (GPs) or specialists. Little information is available regarding this in the primary care setting. Objectives To describe the prevalence and number of GP and specialist visits for any cause or due to exacerbations in patients with COPD, asthma, and asthma–COPD overlap. Methods COPD was defined as post-bronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC) ratio <0.70; asthma was defined as prior medical diagnosis, wheezing in the last 12 months, or wheezing plus reversibility (post-bronchodilator FEV1 or FVC increase ≥200 mL and ≥12%); asthma–COPD overlap was defined as post-bronchodilator FEV1/FVC <0.70 plus prior asthma diagnosis. Health care utilization was evaluated as GP and/or specialist visits in the previous year. Results Among the 1,743 individuals who completed the questionnaire, 1,540 performed acceptable spirometry. COPD patients had a higher prevalence of any medical visits to any physician versus those without COPD (37.2% vs 21.8%, respectively) and exacerbations doubled the number of visits. The prevalence of any medical visits to any physician was also higher in asthma patients versus those without asthma (wheezing: 47.2% vs 22.7%; medical diagnosis: 54.6% vs 21.6%; wheezing plus reversibility: 46.2% vs 23.8%, respectively). Asthma patients with exacerbations had twice the number of visits versus those without an exacerbation. The number of visits was higher (2.8 times) in asthma–COPD overlap, asthma (1.9 times), or COPD (1.4 times) patients versus those without these respiratory diseases; the number of visits due to exacerbation was also higher (4.9 times) in asthma–COPD overlap, asthma (3.5 times), and COPD (3.8 times) patients. Conclusion COPD, asthma, and asthma–COPD overlap increase the prevalence of

  17. Exacerbations and health care resource utilization in patients with airflow limitation diseases attending a primary care setting: the PUMA study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montes de Oca M

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Maria Montes de Oca,1 Carlos Aguirre,2 Maria Victorina Lopez Varela,3 Maria E Laucho-Contreras,1 Alejandro Casas,2 Filip Surmont4 1Service of Pneumology, Hospital Universitario de Caracas, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Central de Venezuela, Caracas, Venezuela; 2Colombian Pneumological Foundation, Bogotá, Colombia; 3Universidad de la República, Facultad de Medicina, Hospital Maciel, Montevideo, Uruguay; 4Medical Affairs, AstraZeneca Latin America, Coral Gables, FL, USA Background: COPD, asthma, and asthma–COPD overlap increase health care resource consumption, predominantly because of hospitalization for exacerbations and also increased visits to general practitioners (GPs or specialists. Little information is available regarding this in the primary care setting. Objectives: To describe the prevalence and number of GP and specialist visits for any cause or due to exacerbations in patients with COPD, asthma, and asthma–COPD overlap. Methods: COPD was defined as post-bronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC ratio <0.70; asthma was defined as prior medical diagnosis, wheezing in the last 12 months, or wheezing plus reversibility (post-bronchodilator FEV1 or FVC increase ≥200 mL and ≥12%; asthma–COPD overlap was defined as post-bronchodilator FEV1/FVC <0.70 plus prior asthma diagnosis. Health care utilization was evaluated as GP and/or specialist visits in the previous year. Results: Among the 1,743 individuals who completed the questionnaire, 1,540 performed acceptable spirometry. COPD patients had a higher prevalence of any medical visits to any physician versus those without COPD (37.2% vs 21.8%, respectively and exacerbations doubled the number of visits. The prevalence of any medical visits to any physician was also higher in asthma patients versus those without asthma (wheezing: 47.2% vs 22.7%; medical diagnosis: 54.6% vs 21.6%; wheezing plus reversibility: 46.2% vs 23.8%, respectively

  18. Frequency and risk factors associated with dry eye in patients attending a tertiary care ophthalmology center in Mexico City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinez JD

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Jaime D Martinez,1 Anat Galor,2,3 Nallely Ramos-Betancourt,1 Andrés Lisker-Cervantes,1 Francisco Beltrán,1 Jorge Ozorno-Zárate,1 Valeria Sánchez-Huerta,1 Marco-Antonio Torres-Vera,1 Everardo Hernández-Quintela1 1Cornea and External Diseases Service, Asociación Para Evitar la Ceguera en Mexico (Association to prevent blindness in Mexico, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico City, Mexico; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Miami Veterans Affairs Medical Center, 3Cornea and External Diseases Division, Bascom Palmer Eye Institute, University of Miami, Miami, FL, USA Purpose: The purpose of this study was to ascertain the frequency and risk factors of dry eye (DE among patients attending a tertiary care ophthalmology center in Mexico.Methods: Approximately 338 consecutive new patients attending a tertiary care ophthalmology center in Mexico City underwent an ocular surface examination, which included tear film break-up time, fluorescein corneal staining, Schirmer’s test, and evaluation of meibum quality. Symptoms of DE were evaluated by the Ocular Surface Disease Index and Dry Eye Questionnaire-5. Information on demographics, exposures, past medical and ocular history, and medications was also collected.Results: The frequency of severe DE symptoms was found to be 43% based on the Ocular Surface Disease Index and 30% based on Dry Eye Questionnaire-5. Risk factors significantly associated with increased DE symptoms included dry mouth and gastrointestinal ulcer medications. With regard to signs, aqueous tear deficiency was a less-frequent finding (22% in our population than evaporative deficiency (94%. Risk factors associated with aqueous tear deficiency were dry mouth and diuretic use. No risk factors were associated with evaporative deficiency. Risk factors associated with meibomian gland dysfunction included old age, male sex, arthritis, and use of an antihypertensive. The only risk factor associated with corneal staining was dry

  19. Prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis by PCR in men attending a primary care urology clinic in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Jun-Hyeok; Yang, Hye-Won; Joo, So-Young; Song, Su-Min; Lee, Yu-Ran; Ryu, Jae-Sook; Yoo, Eun Sang; Lee, Won Kee; Kong, Hyun-Hee; Lee, Sang-Eun; Lee, Won-Ja; Goo, Youn-Kyoung; Chung, Dong-Il; Hong, Yeonchul

    2014-10-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis, a causative agent of trichomoniasis, may trigger symptomatic or asymptomatic nongonococcal urethritis and chronic prostatitis in men. Despite the availability of highly sensitive diagnostic tests, such as nucleic acid amplification tests, including PCR, few prospective studies present data on male T. vaginalis infection in South Korea. In the present study, the prevalence of T. vaginalis and associated clinical conditions were evaluated in 201 male patients from a primary care urology clinic in South Korea. The prevalence of T. vaginalis infection in our cohort was 4% (8/201) by PCR. T. vaginalis infection was common in men older than 40 years (median age, 52 years). Among the 8 Trichomonas-positive patients, 87.5% (7/8) had prostatic diseases, such as prostatitis and benign prostatic hyperplasia, and 25.0% (2/8) and 12.5% (1/8) were coinfected with Chlamydia trachomatis and Mycoplasma genitalium, respectively. Our results suggest that T. vaginalis infection is not rare in men attending primary care urology clinics in South Korea, especially in those older than 40 years, in whom it may explain the presence of prostatic disease. The possibility of T. vaginalis infection should be routinely considered in older male patients with prostatic diseases in South Korea.

  20. Low serum Vitamin C status among pregnant women attending antenatal care at general hospital Dawakin Kudu, Northwest Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Ajuluchukwu Ugwa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vitamin C levels are low in pregnancy. The purpose of this study was to determine serum Vitamins C levels among pregnant women attending antenatal care at a General Hospital in Dawakin Kudu, Kano, and this can help further research to determine the place of Vitamin C supplementation in pregnancy. Methods: This was a prospective study of 400 pregnant women who presented for antenatal care in General Hospital Dawakin Kudu, Kano, Nigeria. Research structured questionnaire was administered to 400 respondents. Determination of serum Vitamin C was done using appropriate biochemical methods. Results: Vitamin C deficiency was found in 79.5% of the participants. The values for Vitamin C were 0.20 ± 0.18 mg/dl during the first trimester, 0.50 ± 0.99 mg/dl in the second trimester, and 0.35 ± 0.36 mg/dl in the third trimester and P = 0.001. Conclusions: There is a significant reduction in the serum Vitamins C concentration throughout the period of pregnancy with the highest levels in the second trimester. Therefore, Vitamin C supplementation is suggested during pregnancy, especially for those whose fruit and vegetable consumption is inadequate.

  1. Sleep paralysis and trauma, psychiatric symptoms and disorders in an adult African American population attending primary medical care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellman, Thomas A; Aigbogun, Notalelomwan; Graves, Ruth Elaine; Lawson, William B; Alim, Tanya N

    2008-01-01

    The occurrence of sleep paralysis (SP) absent narcolepsy appears to not be uncommon in African Americans and probably other non-European groups. Prior research has linked SP to trauma and psychiatric disorders and suggested a specific relationship to panic disorder in African Americans. The objective of our study was to evaluate relationships of SP with trauma, concurrent psychiatric symptoms and lifetime psychiatric diagnoses in an adult African American population recruited from primary care. Cross sectional study with surveys and diagnostic interviews; Patients attending primary care clinics filled out a survey that determined the 6 month prevalence and associated features of SP, a panic disorder screen, the self-rated Hamilton Depression Scale, and an inventory of trauma exposure. A subset of trauma-exposed participants (N = 142) received comprehensive diagnostic interviews that incorporated the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV and the Clinician Assessed PTSD Scale. Four hundred and forty-one adults participated (mean age-40.0 SD = 13.3, 68% female, 95% African American). Fourteen percent endorsed recent SP. In approximately 1/3 of those with SP, episodes also featured panic symptoms. SP was strongly associated with trauma history, and concurrent anxiety and mood symptoms. SP was not associated with specific psychiatric disorders other than lifetime (but not current) alcohol or substance use disorders. Our findings suggest that SP is not uncommon in adult African Americans and is associated with trauma and concurrent distress but not with a specific psychiatric diagnosis.

  2. Effects of a Supplemental Spanish Oral Language Program on Sentence Length, Complexity, and Grammaticality in Spanish-Speaking Children Attending English-Only Preschools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restrepo, M. Adelaida; Castilla, Anny P.; Schwanenflugel, Paula J.; Neuharth-Pritchett, Stacey; Hamilton, Claire E.; Arboleda, Alejandra

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a supplemental Spanish language instruction program for children who spoke Spanish as their native language and were attending English-only preschool programs. Specifically, the study evaluated the program's effects on the children's Spanish sentence length in words, subordination…

  3. The Internalization of Jewish Values by Children Attending Orthodox Jewish Schools, and Its Relationship to Autonomy-Supportive Parenting and Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Lori R.; Milyavskaya, Marina; Koestner, Richard

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined the way in which children attending Orthodox Jewish schools internalize the value of both their Jewish studies and secular studies, as well as the value of Jewish cultural practices. A distinction was made between identified internalization, where children perceive Jewish studies and Jewish culture to be an important…

  4. Child-Care Subsidies: Do They Impact the Quality of Care Children Experience?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Anna D.; Ryan, Rebecca M.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2012-01-01

    The federal child-care subsidy program represents one of the government's largest investments in early care and education, but little is known about whether it increases low-income children's access to higher quality child care. This study used newly available nationally representative data on 4-year-old children (N = 750) to investigate whether…

  5. children satisfaction of nursing care by drawing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Shirdelzade

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objective: Patient satisfaction is the main indicator of the quality of healthcare systems. Usually in pediatric works parents are questioned due to lack of appropriate scale. Therefore, this study was done to assess the children’s satisfaction themselves by drawing which is an applicable scale for them.Patients & methods: This study was done with 20 hospitalized children aged 6-12 This study was done with 20 hospitalized children aged 6-12 years in medical and surgical wards of Dr. Sheikh pediatrics hospital in Mashhad who were hospitalized at least for 2 days In order to gathering data a blank A4 size paper and 12 color pencils was given to participants and asked them to draw what they’ve been thinking about nursing and their interventions. Each drawing was analyzed based on Plander et al scale (2007. The scale has content validity and reliability of α=0.89.Results: Most of participants were boys (65%, and hospitalized in medical wards (60%.In patient’s room no entertainment tools, toys or even readings were drawn. In all drawings the child was happy and in most was resting on a bed instead of playing or sitting (80%, 20%, and 0.0%, respectively. Conclusion: Drawing is a good and reliable source for assessing the quality of pediatric nursing care. So, suggested its usage in order of assessing children’s opinions in different matters relating to their care.

  6. The Examination of the Metalinguistic Skills of 5 and 6 - Year - Old Children Who Attend Preschool Education Institutions and Who Don’t

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Servet ŞEN

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to examine the metalinguistic skills of 5 and 6year-old children who attend preschool education and who do not in terms of age, sex andwhether they go to preschool or not. The research was conducted on 64 children belonging to5-6 year-old group attending preschool education and those not going to preschool. In theresearch, metalinguistic skill procedures were used. The data obtained were analyzed by ttest.According to the research, it has been observed that 6-year-old children are moresuccessful than 5-year-olds on CSA and SHA tasks. It is seen that girls’ skills on SHA tasksare more developed than boys’. At the end of SWS, SWP, FWB and FWE tasks, a result was gained in favour of children who attend preschool education.

  7. Identifying Divergent Foster Care Careers for Danish Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fallesen, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Foster care children who experience placement disruption and foster care instability are at elevated risk for a host of poor outcomes, yet little work considers what these unstable foster care careers look like or what causes them. In this article, I start by using previous studies on foster care...

  8. Utilização de assentos de segurança por crianças matriculadas em creches Utilización de asientos de seguridad por niños matriculados en guarderías Child safety restraint use among children attending day care centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Ricardo Lopes de Oliveira

    2009-10-01

    -sectional study using a stratified sampling conducted in the city of Maringá, Southern Brazil, between March and May 2007. Each day care center was visited at one day only. The outcome was use of child safety restraints by children under four. Vehicles (N=301 driving children under four were approached and information was collected using semi-structured questionnaires. Variables regarding child and adult seat distribution, use of safety restraints by occupants and driver's gender were analyzed. Data analyses included Fisher's exact test, Mantel-Haenszel chi-square test, and logistic regression. RESULTS: Of the drivers approached, 51.8% were using seat belts (60.4% among women, 44.9% among men. Among children, 36.1% were using child safety seats, 45.4% were unrestrained during traveling, 16.0% were seated on an adult lap, and 2.7% were using seat belts. The logistic regression showed the following factors affecting child safety restraint use: child age under 15 months (OR = 3.76; seat belt use by the driver (OR = 2.45; and children from socio-occupational condition with higher income and education (OR = 1.37. CONCLUSIONS: Child safety restraint use was associated to child age, seat belt use by the driver, and socio-occupational condition of day care centers. The finding of low rates of child safety restraint use poses a challenge to preventive medicine in Brazil, requiring attention and action to promote its widespread use.

  9. STUDY OF CLINICAL AND ENDOCRINE PROFILE OF PATIENTS WITH PITUITARY TUMOURS ATTENDING A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binoy Kumar Mohanty

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Pituitary tumours are relatively common endocrine tumours. They can present with symptoms related to hormone excess or hormone deficiency. They can also present with compressive symptoms like visual problems and headache. OBJECTIVE To study the various clinical presentations and endocrine profile of patients presenting with pituitary tumours to a tertiary care hospital. DESIGN Cross sectional study. MATERIAL AND METHODS We collected and analysed the clinical data including hormonal status of 33 consecutive patients who presented to our department from March 2014 to February 2016 for evaluation of pituitary tumours. RESULTS Majority of the subjects studied belonged to 40-50 years group (33.34%.The most common type of pituitary tumour in our population was non-functioning pituitary tumours (45.45%. The next common cause was somatotroph adenoma (27.27% followed by prolactinoma (15.15% and corticotroph adenomas (12.13%. There was significant male predominance (60.60% among total cases. Among all patients, headache (54.54% was most common presentation followed by features related to hormone excess (51.51%. CONCLUSIONS Pituitary tumours can present with variety of symptoms. A detailed endocrine workup is essential in each case to reach at correct diagnosis. In our cohort, non-functioning pituitary tumour was the most common tumour subtype.

  10. Care coordination impacts on access to care for children with special health care needs enrolled in Medicaid and CHIP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Kipyn

    2014-05-01

    Children with special health care needs (CSHCN) often require services from multiple health care providers. This study's objective is to evaluate whether CSHCN, enrolled in Medicaid or the Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP) and receiving care coordination services, experience improved access to mental and specialty health care services. Using data from the 2009-2010 National Survey of Children with Special Health Care Needs, two separate outcomes are used to evaluate children's access to care: receipt of needed mental and specialty care and timely access to services. Using propensity score matching, CSHCN propensity for receiving care coordination services is derived and an assessment is made of care coordination's impact on the receipt of health care and whether care is delayed. Results demonstrate that care coordination is positively associated with whether a child receives the mental and specialty care that they need, regardless of whether or not that coordination is perceived to be adequate by parents. However, receiving care coordination services that parents perceive to be adequate has a larger impact on the timeliness in which care is received. This study indicates that care coordination is associated with an increased ability for CSHCN to access needed mental and specialty care. States should consider offering care coordination services that support provider communication and fulfill families' coordination needs to the CSHCN enrolled in their Medicaid and CHIP programs.

  11. Children without parental care as a vulnerable category

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kvrgić Svetlana T.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Health protection and health promotion are the primary goals of modern medicine. Since children's health is the cornerstone of adult's health, it must be in the center of all social and health care strategies. Vulnerability concept Vulnerability means exposure to harmful influences, risks or stress, which increases disease probability. The most vulnerable are categories that are exposed to influence of many harmful factors, which have minimal chances for survival and lowest quality of life. Vulnerability of children without parental care Vulnerability of children without parental care is caused by lack and/or inadequate family environment. These children are usually emotionally unstable; they frequently develop conduct disorders and have low self-esteem. As adolescents, these children have tendency to risky behavior, which greatly decreases their health potentials. Health status and quality of life All three components of health are endangered with children without parental care. These children present with physical, psycho-motoric and intellectual impairments. There are no studies about quality of life regarding these children, but we can assume that their quality of life is lower than in children who experience protective family environment, since quality of psychosocial factors and family environment are very important predictors of quality of life. Conclusion Children without parental care are an extremely vulnerable category, because they are subjected to various risk factors. Therefore, in order to improve health potentials and quality of life, special measures are required in health care, psychological care and social welfare.

  12. Neuropsychological screening of children of substance-abusing women attending a Special Child Welfare Clinic in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Skogmo Idar; Lindbæk Morten; Hjerkinn Bjørg; Rosvold Elin

    2010-01-01

    Background Exposure to alcohol and illicit substances during pregnancy can have an impact on the child for the rest of his/her life. A Special Child Welfare Clinic (SCWC) in Norway provides care for pregnant women with substance abuse problems. Treatment and support are provided without replacement therapy. Methods We performed a neuropsychological screening of 40 children aged four to 11 years whose ...

  13. Prueba de Aptitud para el Aprendizaje de Lenguas Extranjeras (PAPALE) Language Aptitude Test (LAT) (First and Second Versions). English for Special Purposes. Emergency Care Attendant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muro, Gertrude

    This book contains two versions of the Language Aptitude Test. It is part of a package of materials developed for use in an English for Special Purposes project, which offers classes in reading, grammar, and emergency care attendant training for limited English proficient students. Introductory material describes the parts of two versions and…

  14. Desempenho motor de lactentes frequentadores de berçários em creches públicas Motor performance of infants attending the nurseries of public day care centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia Baltieri

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar o desempenho motor axial, apendicular e global e sua correlação com as características neonatais, familiares e de tempo de exposição à creche em crianças com idade entre 12-24 meses, frequentadoras de creches públicas. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal com 40 lactentes (idade média 14,3±2,4 meses frequentadores de creches públicas. Os participantes foram avaliados quanto ao desempenho motor com a Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development-III, a qual possibilita análise do desempenho motor e comparação dos domínios motores axial e apendicular. Foram coletados dados neonatais, familiares e de exposição à creche e pesquisou-se a correlação destes fatores ao desempenho motor. Foi utilizado o teste t pareado para comparar médias e a correlação de Pearson. RESULTADOS: O desempenho motor do grupo esteve, em média, abaixo da referência, com 22,5% das crianças classificadas como suspeitas de atraso nos desempenhos axial e global, contrastando com nenhuma no domínio apendicular. A comparação axial e apendicular apontou diferença significativa, com desempenho axial aquém do apendicular, além de 35% do grupo ter apresentado discrepância significativa entre esses domínios. Não foi encontrada correlação linear entre os domínios motores avaliados e as variáveis neonatais, familiares e de exposição à creche. CONCLUSÕES: O desempenho motor global do grupo esteve abaixo da média de referência, com desempenho motor axial inferior ao apendicular e importante discrepância entre esses. Recomenda-se atenção às habilidades motoras axiais e às oportunidades de exploração que o ambiente em creches pode propiciar, especialmente no decorrer dos dois primeiros anos de vida.OBJECTIVE: To analyze gross, fine and global motor performance and its correlation with neonatal and familial variables and day care exposure among children between 12-24 months of age attending public day care centers. METHODS: This

  15. Utility of Accelerometers to Measure Physical Activity in Children Attending an Obesity Treatment Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy Robertson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To investigate the use of accelerometers to monitor change in physical activity in a childhood obesity treatment intervention. Methods. 28 children aged 7–13 taking part in “Families for Health” were asked to wear an accelerometer (Actigraph for 7-days, and complete an accompanying activity diary, at baseline, 3-months and 9-months. Interviews with 12 parents asked about research measurements. Results. Over 90% of children provided 4 days of accelerometer data, and around half of children provided 7 days. Adequately completed diaries were collected from 60% of children. Children partake in a wide range of physical activity which uniaxial monitors may undermonitor (cycling, nonmotorised scootering or overmonitor (trampolining. Two different cutoffs (4 METS or 3200 counts⋅min-1 for minutes spent in moderate and vigorous physical activity (MVPA yielded very different results, although reached the same conclusion regarding a lack of change in MVPA after the intervention. Some children were unwilling to wear accelerometers at school and during sport because they felt they put them at risk of stigma and bullying. Conclusion. Accelerometers are acceptable to a majority of children, although their use at school is problematic for some, but they may underestimate children's physical activity.

  16. Deaf Children Attending Different School Environments: Sign Language Abilities and Theory of Mind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasuolo, Elena; Valeri, Giovanni; Di Renzo, Alessio; Pasqualetti, Patrizio; Volterra, Virginia

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined whether full access to sign language as a medium for instruction could influence performance in Theory of Mind (ToM) tasks. Three groups of Italian participants (age range: 6-14 years) participated in the study: Two groups of deaf signing children and one group of hearing-speaking children. The two groups of deaf…

  17. The Effects of Sleep Disturbance on School Performance: A Preliminary Investigation of Children Attending Elementary Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reale, Laura; Guarnera, Manuela; Mazzone, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    Sleep disorders in children are common. Sleep plays an important role in children's development and sleep disorders can have a substantial impact on their quality of life. Indeed, sleep is crucial for physical growth, behavior, and emotional development and it is also closely related to cognitive functioning, learning and attention, and…

  18. The Effects of Sleep Disturbance on School Performance: A Preliminary Investigation of Children Attending Elementary Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reale, Laura; Guarnera, Manuela; Mazzone, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    Sleep disorders in children are common. Sleep plays an important role in children's development and sleep disorders can have a substantial impact on their quality of life. Indeed, sleep is crucial for physical growth, behavior, and emotional development and it is also closely related to cognitive functioning, learning and attention, and therefore…

  19. Providing sporting experiences for children in Out of School Hours Care (OSHC) environments: sport and physical activity participation and intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spittle, Michael; O'Meara, James; Garnham, Jennie; Kerr, Megan

    2008-06-01

    The Out of School Hours Sports Program (OSHSP) aimed to provide structured sporting experiences and community links to local clubs for children in Out of School Hours Care (OSHC). The OSHSP involved 17 State Sporting Associations (SSAs), 71 OSHC Services and local club representatives. This study explored children's participation in sport in and outside the OSHSP and parental intention for participation in sport in and outside the OSHSP. Surveys were received from 211 children (76 girls and 125 boys; mean age=7.9 years, S.D.=1.7) and their parents/guardians (37.9% response rate). OSHC is characterised by freedom of choice of participation in activities by children. The OSHSP was used to provide an opportunity to choose to participate in a sport while attending OSHC. At the OSHC Services surveyed, between 7.1 and 100% of the children attending OSHC chose to participate in the OSHSP. Of those children who chose to participate, 85% were participating in a sport, usually a different sport to the one offered in the OSHSP. This participation was largely club-based (49.8%), most often once a week for training and competition (55.2%). Parental intentions for children's participation in the OSHSP sports varied with respect to the number of years attending the OSHSP, where children played and trained in their main sport, and how many times a week a child played and trained in their main sport. Older children tended to play and train for sport more times per week and had been attending the OSHC for more years than younger children.

  20. Pathway of care among patients with Dhat syndrome attending a psychosexual clinic in tertiary care center in North India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Grover

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to understand the pathway to care among patients with Dhat syndrome and to study the factors leading to delay in seeking professional psychiatric help. Materials and Methods: Forty-seven patients diagnosed with Dhat syndrome as per the International Classification of Diseases-10 criteria were assessed for sociodemographic and clinical details and information regarding previous treatment taken to determine the pathways to care at their first contact with the outpatient psychosexual clinic. Results: Majority of the patients were single (70.2%, received formal education for at least more than 10 years (66.0%, were employed (59.6%, followers of Hinduism (68.1 and from middle socio-economic class (59.6%, nuclear family setup (53.2%, and rural locality (63.8%. Comorbidity in the form of any psychiatric illness or sexual dysfunction was present on 61.7% of the patients. The mean age at onset of symptoms of Dhat syndrome was 20.38 years (standard deviation [SD] - 6.91. The mean duration of symptoms of Dhat before the patients presented to our psychosexual clinic was 6.78 years (SD - 6.94 while the mean number of agencies/help contacted before was 2.85 (SD - 1.40; range: 1–5. The favorite choice for the first contact was indigenous practitioners, followed by asking for help from friends or relatives, allopathic doctors, and traditional faith healers or pharmacists. The preference to visit indigenous practitioners gradually declined at each stage. Ayurvedic doctors remained the most preferred among all indigenous practitioners. The absence of any comorbid sexual dysfunction in patients with Dhat syndrome predicted an earlier visit to our center as compared to the patients with any comorbid sexual dysfunction. Conclusions: Majority of the patients with Dhat syndrome present very late to specialized psychosexual clinics. There is a need for improving the sexual knowledge and attitude at the community level which will

  1. Children discharged from neonatal intensive care: implications for the social care networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Licele do Nascimento

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: tounderstand the social care networks of children discharged from Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. Methods: qualitative study conducted in the home of six families of seven children. In data collection, authors used the triangulation of techniques with thematic content analysis. Results: family composition is nuclear, social networks are formed by the support of family, leisure and spiritual ties, by school and hospital institutions. The families reported the challenges of caring for a premature baby, and the main care demands were respiratory, motor and cognitive. The non-effective communication between professionals and family showed negative impact on hospitalization and home care. Conclusion:social care networks for children discharged from the Neonatal Intensive Care unit proved to be disjointed and health care for children and family proved to be fragmented.

  2. Children in care (CIC): A Danish longitudinal study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egelund, Tine; Hestbæk, Anne-Dorthe

    This paper presents results describing what characterizes young, Danish children in care and their parents, and, furthermore, discusses social policy implications of the complex psychosocial disadvantages influencing the families. The paper is based on a longitudinal study of all Danish children,...... collection newcomers into care from the 1995 cohort will be included in the sample....

  3. The New York Court Review of Children in Foster Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Festinger, Trudy Bradley

    1975-01-01

    Presents a study which investigated three areas: (1) factors related to the court's determination of foster care status or availability of children for adoption; (2) the extent of agreement between agency recommendations and court orders; and (3) the impact of the court review on moving children out of foster care. (SDH)

  4. Predictions of Children's Experiences with Latina Family Child Care Providers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuniga, Stephen A.; Howes, Carollee

    2009-01-01

    Research Findings: Relatively little is known about the pre-academic experiences of Latino/a children in family child care. In this work we tested the extent to which previously established relations among provider characteristics, scaffolding and responsive behaviors, total quality (Family Day Care Rating Scale), and children's engagement in…

  5. [Risk factors for impaired development in children attended at family health units at the end of the first year of life: socio-demographic aspects and maternal mental health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Débora Gerardo; Perosa, Gimol Benzaquen; Padovani, Flávia Helena Pereira

    2014-01-01

    The scope of this article is to evaluate risk and protection factors for the development of 1-year-olds assisted at family health care units. It is a cross-sectional study involving 65 children of approximately 1 year of age and their mothers attended at two family health care units. The development was assessed using a developmental screening test (Denver II). The mothers filled out the SRQ-20 questionnaire to identify common mental disorder (CMD) indicators. After data collection, descriptive and inferential statistical analysis was performed. Global development was at risk in 43.1% of the children evaluated, and the most affected areas were language and fine motor development; 44.6% of mothers had results indicative of CMD when the child was 1 year of age. In bivariate analysis, reported depression, smoking, infections in pregnancy, CMD after birth and working outside the home were significantly associated with the children's development. After full statistical analysis, CMD was revealed as being a risk factor, and working away from home as being a protection factor. In order to increase the chances of success of programs targeted for children at health care units and avoiding the risk of impaired development, it is important to focus on two aspects: children's stimulation and maternal mental health.

  6. Common mental disorder symptoms among patients with malaria attending primary care in Ethiopia: a cross-sectional survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markos Tesfaye

    Full Text Available Common Mental Disorders (CMDs are frequent among patients attending primary care. In Africa, CMDs are often misdiagnosed as physical illnesses because many of the patients complain of somatic symptoms of mental distress. We explored whether there was difference in the levels of CMD symptoms between patients with thick film confirmed and clinical cases of malaria with negative thick film in primary care.A cross-sectional comparative study was conducted on 300 adults with a clinical diagnosis of malaria in primary care centres in Jimma, Ethiopia. Patients were recruited consecutively until 100 cases of 'malaria' with a negative thick film and 200 cases of malaria with a positive thick film consented to participate. The 20-item Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20 was used to measure CMD. The non-parametric Wilcoxon rank-sum test was used to explore the association between thick film result and CMD.Participants had a mean age of 28.2 (S.D = 10.9 years and the majority (57.3% were women. The prevalence of high CMD symptoms (six or more symptoms on the SRQ-20 was 24.5%. Suicidal ideation was reported by 13.8% of the participants. CMD symptoms were significantly higher in patients who had taken medication prior to visiting the primary care (p = 0.012 and in those whose symptoms had been present for seven days or more (p = 0.041. There was no statistically significant association between level of CMD symptoms and having a negative thick film result (OR 0.98; 95%CI 0.92, 1.04 or objective presence of fever (OR 1.04; 95%CI 0.93, 1.15.CMD symptoms among cases of malaria did not appear to be associated with a negative thick film result. The high levels of CMD symptoms, including suicidal ideation, calls for further studies to investigate the persistence and progression of these symptoms following resolution of the acute malarial episode.

  7. Introduction of soft drinks and processed juice in the diet of infants attending public day care centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovana Longo-Silva

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Identifying at what age infants enrolled in public day care centers are introduced to soft drinks and industrialized juice, as well as comparing the nutritional composition of these goods with natural fruit juice. METHODS: A cross-sectional study with the mothers of 636 children (aged 0 to 36 months from nurseries of day care centers, who were asked questions about the age of feeding introduction. This study evaluated the proximate composition of soft drinks and artificial juice, comparing them with those of natural fruit juice regarding energy, sugar, fiber, vitamin C, and sodium values. The chemical composition of fruit juice was obtained by consulting the Table of Food Composition and, for industrialized drinks, the average nutritional information on the labels of the five most consumed product brands. RESULTS: The artificial drinks were consumed before the first year of life by more than half of the children studied, however, approximately 10% consumed them before the age of 6 months. With regard to the comparison among the drinks, artificial fruit juice beverages and soft drinks proved to contain from nine to 13 times higher amounts of sodium, and 15 times less vitamin C than natural juices. CONCLUSIONS: The introduction of soft drinks and industrialized juice in the diet of infants was inopportune and premature.. When compared to natural fruit juice, these have inferior nutritional composition, which suggests the urgent need for measures based on strategies for food and nutrition education in order to promote awareness and the maintenance of healthy eating habits.

  8. Introduction of soft drinks and processed juice in the diet of infants attending public day care centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo-Silva, Giovana; Toloni, Maysa Helena de Aguiar; de Menezes, Risia Cristina Egito; Asakura, Leiko; Oliveira, Maria Alice Araújo; Taddei, José Augusto de Aguiar Carrazedo

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Identifying at what age infants enrolled in public day care centers are introduced to soft drinks and industrialized juice, as well as comparing the nutritional composition of these goods with natural fruit juice. METHODS: A cross-sectional study with the mothers of 636 children (aged 0 to 36 months) from nurseries of day care centers, who were asked questions about the age of feeding introduction. This study evaluated the proximate composition of soft drinks and artificial juice, comparing them with those of natural fruit juice regarding energy, sugar, fiber, vitamin C, and sodium values. The chemical composition of fruit juice was obtained by consulting the Table of Food Composition and, for industrialized drinks, the average nutritional information on the labels of the five most consumed product brands. RESULTS: The artificial drinks were consumed before the first year of life by more than half of the children studied, however, approximately 10% consumed them before the age of 6 months. With regard to the comparison among the drinks, artificial fruit juice beverages and soft drinks proved to contain from nine to 13 times higher amounts of sodium, and 15 times less vitamin C than natural juices. CONCLUSIONS: The introduction of soft drinks and industrialized juice in the diet of infants was inopportune and premature.. When compared to natural fruit juice, these have inferior nutritional composition, which suggests the urgent need for measures based on strategies for food and nutrition education in order to promote awareness and the maintenance of healthy eating habits. PMID:25662561

  9. Healthcare-seeking preferences of patients with sexually transmitted infection attending a tertiary care center in South Kerala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabeena Jayapalan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sexually transmitted infections (STIs are a major public health problem in developing countries. These diseases are associated with increased risk of transmission of human immunodeficiency virus as well as adverse outcomes on pregnancy and reproductive health. Sexual behavior and healthcare-seeking behavior are identified as the true risk factors of STIs. Methods: Hospital-based cross-sectional study design was adopted. Eighty-five STI patients were studied regarding the inappropriate treatment-seeking behavior, the nature of the first point of contact with the health care, the appropriateness of treatment and the concerns of the patient regarding the services rendered by government health-care facilities. Results: Among the 85 patients studied, 55.3% were males and 44.7% were females. Inappropriate treatment-seeking behavior was seen in 29.8% of males and 36.8% of females. About 59.6% of males and 81.6% of females sought appropriate treatment from modern medicine practitioners before attending our institution. Only 7.1% of males and 3.2% of females received appropriate treatment. The government sector was the choice of treatment for 46.4% males and 93.5% females and this difference was statistically significant (P = 0.00081. Lack of free medicines, issues of confidentiality, and privacy were the major service-related issues in the public sector. Conclusion: Appropriate treatment at the first point of contact with the health system is an important measure to prevent further transmission and development of complications. Health providers from both private and public sector should be given frequent periodic training regarding syndromic management of STIs and the training should stress on the need for risk reduction and condom promotion messages along with medical management. Program planners should take necessary steps to ensure adequate and continuous supply of free drugs and tackle issues of confidentiality and privacy.

  10. Primary care for children with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone, Paul S; Farley, Megan; Davis, Toby

    2010-02-15

    The earliest sign of autism in children is the delayed attainment of social skill milestones, including joint attention, social orienting, and pretend play. Language impairment is a common, but less specific, sign of autism. Repetitive behaviors and restricted interests may not be noted until after social skill and communication impairments are exhibited. Physicians should perform developmental surveillance at all well-child visits, and the American Academy of Pediatrics recommends administering an autism-specific screening tool at the 18- and 24-month visits. A referral for comprehensive diagnostic evaluation is appropriate if concerns arise from surveillance, screening, or parental observations. The goals of long-term management are to maximize functional independence and community engagement, minimize maladaptive behaviors, and provide family and caregiver support. Physicians play an important role in coordinating care through an interdisciplinary team; referring families for specialized services; and treating children's associated conditions, including sleep disturbances, gastrointestinal problems, anxiety, and hyperactivity. Autism is a lifelong condition, but early recognition, diagnosis, and treatment can improve the prognosis, whereas associated medical conditions, psychiatric conditions, and intellectual disability can worsen the prognosis.

  11. Health Care Coverage among Child Support-Eligible Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aron, Laudan Y.

    Using data from the National Survey of America's Families (a nationally representative survey of the economic, social, and health characteristics of children, adults, and their families), this paper discusses health care coverage among child support eligible children. It begins with a detailed profile of child support eligible children living with…

  12. Does the Janani Suraksha Yojana cash transfer programme to promote facility births in India ensure skilled birth attendance? A qualitative study of intrapartum care in Madhya Pradesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarika Chaturvedi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Access to facility delivery in India has significantly increased with the Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY cash transfer programme to promote facility births. However, a decline in maternal mortality has only followed secular trends as seen from the beginning of the decade well before the programme began. We, therefore, examined the quality of intrapartum care provided in facilities under the JSY programme to study whether it ensures skilled attendance at birth. Design: 1 Non-participant observations (n=18 of intrapartum care during vaginal deliveries at a representative sample of 11 facilities in Madhya Pradesh to document what happens during intrapartum care. 2 Interviews (n=10 with providers to explore reasons for this care. Thematic framework analysis was used. Results: Three themes emerged from the data: 1 delivery environment is chaotic: delivery rooms were not conducive to safe, women-friendly care provision, and coordination between providers was poor. 2 Staff do not provide skilled care routinely: this emerged from observations that monitoring was limited to assessment of cervical dilatation, lack of readiness to provide key elements of care, and the execution of harmful/unnecessary practices coupled with poor techniques. 3 Dominant staff, passive recipients: staff sometimes threatened, abused, or ignored women during delivery; women were passive and accepted dominance and disrespect. Attendants served as ‘go-betweens’ patients and providers. The interviews with providers revealed their awareness of the compromised quality of care, but they were constrained by structural problems. Positive practices were also observed, including companionship during childbirth and women mobilising in the early stages of labour. Conclusions: Our observational study did not suggest an adequate level of skilled birth attendance (SBA. The findings reveal insufficiencies in the health system and organisational structures to provide an

  13. Antenatal care practice and the chance of having nurse/midwife birth attendant: a study in Central Mountain of Papua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinda Asiah Nuril Haya

    2015-01-01

    antenatal care (ANC are important factors in decreasing maternal mortality rate.  This study aimed to identify the association of ANC to nurse/midwife-assisted birth in Papua.Methods: The subjects of this cross-sectional study and purposive sampling consisted of females with toddlers in the family visiting the integrated community center on 15-30 January 2014 in 24 villages in Central Mountain of Jayawijaya, Papua. Several demographic characteristics, ANC practices, and labor practices were collected by interview. Analysis was carried out by Cox regression with constant time.Results: There were 469 subjects, but only 391 subjects were available for analysis which consisted of 280 subjects with self/family-assisted births and 111 with nurse/midwife-assistedbirths. There were only 3 subjects that gave birth in the forest or stable (“kandang hina”. Compared with those who never had ANC, those who had ANC in the integrated community center had 5.6-fold possibility to have a nurse/ midwife-assisted birth [adjusted relative risk (RRa = 5.60; 95% confidence interval (CI = 2.99-10.47]. In addition, compared with those who never had ANC, those who had ANC by midwife and 4 ANC visits had higher possibility to have nurse/midwife-assisted birth, 4.9-fold (RRa = 4.89; 95% CI = 2.70-8.86 and 6.9-fold (RRa = 6.90; 95% CI = 3.59-13.27 respectively.Conclusion: Antenatal care service is a possible way to increase the proportion of deliveries by nurse/midwife in Central Mountain of Jayawijaya, Papua. (Health Science Indones 2014;2:60-6Key words: antenatal care, nurse/midwife attended birth/labor, Papua

  14. Influence of the day care, home and neighbourhood environment on young children's physical activity and health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christian, Hayley; Maitland, Clover; Enkel, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    will be collected by geographic information systems measures, parent and day care educator surveys. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval has been granted by The University of Western Australia Human Ethics Research Committee, approval number RA/4/1/7417. Findings will be published in international peer......-sectional observational study (April 2015 to April 2018) of 2400 children aged 2-5 years attending long day care in metropolitan Perth, Western Australia. Accelerometers will measure physical activity with indoor physical activity measured using radio frequency identification. Global positioning systems will be used...... to determine outdoor location of physical activity around the home and neighbourhood for a subsample (n=310). The day care environment will be objectively measured using a validated audit tool. Other potential individual, social and physical environmental influences on preschoolers' physical activity...

  15. The prevalence of enterobiasis in children attending mobile health clinic of Huachiew Chalermprakiet University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nithikathkul, C; Changsap, B; Wannapinyosheep, S; Poister, C; Boontan, P

    2001-01-01

    A cross sectional survey of Enterobius vermicularis was carried out in 808 children in the Bangkok metropolis and nearby provinces. This was accomplished in a mobile health clinic from Huachiew Chalermprakiet University provided for communities in the areas during April 1999 to May 2000. Children 5-10 years of age were investigated for infestation of Enterobius vermicularis. Diagnosis was done by means of the transparent tape swab technique to recover eggs in the perianal region for examination under a light microscope. The average infection rate in children was 21.91%. The highest infection rate (38.59%) was found in Ang Thong Province, while the lowest one (11.66%) was found in Chonburi Province. The rate of infection seemed to relate to household environmental factors. The infection rate was significantly higher (p0.05) in the incidence of infection between males and females.

  16. Labour Force Inclusion of Parents Caring for Children with Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roeher Inst., North York (Ontario).

    This report discusses the outcomes of a study that sought to identify the particular problems Canadian parents caring for children with disabilities face in trying to make the transition to work in terms of their child care arrangements and employment-related factors, and best practices in child care arrangements and employment accommodations.…

  17. Ventilation in day care centers and sick leave among nursery children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolarik, B; Andersen, Z Jovanovic; Ibfelt, T; Engelund, E Hoj; Møller, E; Bräuner, E Vaclavik

    2016-04-01

    Several studies have reported poor indoor air quality (IAQ) in day care centers (DCCs), and other studies have shown that children attending them have an increased risk of respiratory and gastrointestinal infections. The aim of this study was to investigate whether there is an association between ventilation in DCCs and sick leave among nursery children. Data on child sick leave within an 11-week period were obtained for 635 children attending 20 DCCs. Ventilation measurements included three proxies of ventilation: air exchange rate (ACR) measured with the decay method, ACR measured by the perfluorocarbon tracer gas (PFT) method, and CO2 concentration measured over a 1-week period. All but two DCCs had balanced mechanical ventilation system, which could explain the low CO2 levels measured. The mean concentration of CO2 was 643 ppm, exceeding 1000 ppm in only one DCC. A statistically significant inverse relationship between the number of sick days and ACR measured with the decay method was found for crude and adjusted analysis, with a 12% decrease in number of sick days per hour increase in ACR measured with the decay method. This study suggests a relationship between sick leave among nursery children and ventilation in DCCs, as measured with the decay method.

  18. Palliative nursing care for children and adolescents with cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilmer MJ

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Terrah L Foster,1,2 Cynthia J Bell,1 Carey F McDonald,2 Joy S Harris,3 Mary Jo Gilmer,1,21Vanderbilt University School of Nursing, Nashville, 2Monroe Carell Jr Children's Hospital at Vanderbilt, Nashville, 3Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, USAAbstract: Pediatric palliative care aims to enhance life and decrease suffering of children and adolescents living with life-threatening conditions and their loved ones. Oncology nurses are instrumental in providing palliative care to pediatric oncology populations. This paper describes pediatric palliative care and provides an overview of literature related to the physical, psychological, social, and spiritual domains of palliative nursing care for children and adolescents with cancer. Nurses can provide optimal palliative care by accounting for children's understanding of death, encouraging early initiation of palliative care services, and improving utilization of pediatric palliative care in cancer settings. Specific roles of registered nurses and advanced practice nurses in pediatric palliative care will be addressed. Recommendations for future research are made to further advance the science of pediatric palliative care and decrease suffering for children and teens with cancer.Keywords: pediatric palliative care, pediatric cancer, oncology, child, suffering

  19. Ocular Morbidity among Children Attending Government and Private Schools of Kathmandu Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R K Shrestha

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Children from the developing world are more prone to going blind from avoidable and preventable causes. In Nepal, children in private schools are reported to have a higher ocular morbidity than those in government schools, with myopia being the major cause of the morbidity. This study was designed to evaluate ocular morbidity in students from both types of school. Methods: This was a cross-sectional, comparative study among students from government and private schools of Kathmandu. Eye examination was carried out evaluating visual acuity, color vision, refractive status, binocular vision status, and anterior and posterior segment findings. Results: A total of 4,228 students from government and private schools were evaluated. The prevalence of ocular morbidity was 19.56 % with refractive error (11.9 % being the major cause of the morbidity, followed by strabismus and infective disorders. No signifi cant difference in the prevalence of ocular morbidity and refractive status was found in the students from government and private schools. Conclusions: A signifi cant number of children of school-going age have ocular morbidity with no signifi cant difference in the prevalence in the students from government and private schools. Research exploring the effect of various risk factors in the progression of myopia would be helpful to investigate the refractive status in children from these different types of schools. Keywords: Myopia, ocular morbidity, school Students

  20. Assessment of the Psychosocial Development of Children Attending Nursery Schools in Karen Refugee Camps in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Akiko

    2013-01-01

    The Karen, an ethnic minority group in Burma, have experienced a prolonged state of exile in refugee camps in neighboring Thailand because of ethnic conflict in their home country. Nursery schools in the three largest Karen refugee camps aim to promote the psychosocial development of young children by providing a child-centered, creative,…

  1. Child Care Teachers' Perspectives on Including Children with Challenging Behavior in Child Care Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quesenberry, Amanda C.; Hemmeter, Mary Louise; Ostrosky, Michaelene M.; Hamann, Kira

    2014-01-01

    In this study, 9 teachers from 5 child care centers were interviewed to examine their perceptions on including children with challenging behavior in their classrooms. The findings provide a firsthand view into how child care teachers support children's social and emotional development and address challenging behavior. Results confirm previous…

  2. Nutritional support of children in the intensive care unit.

    OpenAIRE

    1984-01-01

    Nutritional support is an integral and essential part of the management of 5-10 percent of hospitalized children. Children in the intensive care unit are particularly likely to develop malnutrition because of the nature and duration of their illness, and their inability to eat by mouth. This article reviews the physiology of starvation and the development of malnutrition in children. A method of estimating the nutritional requirements of children is presented. The techniques of nutritional su...

  3. Study of the effect of humanistic nursing care model wards in Children Caring Ward School on the nurses' caring ability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiao He; De-Ying Hu; Yi-Lan Liu; Li-Fen Wu; Lian Liu

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To understand the effect of humanistic nursing care model wards in Children Caring Ward School (CCWS) on the nurses' caring ability. Methods: Questionnaire 25 nurses of humanistic nursing care model wards in CCWS using the Nkongho Caring Ability Inventory (CAI) before and after implement the humanistic nursing care model, including reform the systems of nursing care, introduce humanistic care model, implement the humanistic care, to measure the nurses' caring ability. Results: The nurses' caring ability had significantly developed on total, cognition dimension, courage dimension and patience dimension after all measures considered (p Conclusions: The humanistic nursing care model wards in CCWS has a positive effect on the nurses' caring ability, not only to help build great relationships between nurses and patients but also to enhance the patients' satisfaction.

  4. Cumulative Risks of Foster Care Placement for Danish Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fallesen, Peter; Emanuel, Natalia; Wildeman, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    foster care placement is salient in other contexts. In this article, we provide companion estimates to those provided in recent work on the US by using Danish registry data and synthetic cohort life tables to show how high and unequally distributed the cumulative risk of foster care placement...... is for Danish children. Results suggest that at the beginning of the study period (in 1998) the cumulative risk of foster care placement for Danish children was roughly in line with the risk for American children. Yet, by the end of the study period (2010), the risk had declined to half the risk for American......Although recent research suggests that the cumulative risk of foster care placement is far higher for American children than originally suspected, little is known about the cumulative risk of foster care placement in other countries, which makes it difficult to gauge the degree to which factor...

  5. The Power of Literacy: Applied to Traditional Birth Attendants, Saulteaux-Cree Indians and Hawaiian Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fargo, G. A.

    The literacy training strategy of the Brazilian educator Paulo Freire has gained a great deal of recognition over the past 15 years. In Freire's method, the context of the learner's life is carefully studied to find the critical issues in the formulation of dialogue between teacher and learner. A basic vocabulary then is generated to insure power…

  6. Depression during pregnancy: Prevalence and obstetric risk factors among pregnant women attending a tertiary care hospital in Navi Mumbai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaunak Ajinkya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Depression affects about 20% of women during their lifetime, with pregnancy being a period of high vulnerability. Prevalence of depression during pregnancy ranges from 4% to 20%. Several risk factors predispose to depression during pregnancy including obstetric factors. Depression during pregnancy is not only the strongest risk factor for post-natal depression but also leads to adverse obstetric outcomes. Aims: To study the prevalence of depression during pregnancy and its associated obstetric risk factors among pregnant women attending routine antenatal checkup. Settings and Design: Cross-sectional observational survey done at the outpatient department (OPD of the department of obstetrics of a tertiary care hospital in Navi Mumbai. Materials and Methods: One hundred and eighty-five pregnant women were randomly administered the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI for detecting depression. Additional socio-demographic and obstetric history was recorded and analyzed. Results: Prevalence of depression during pregnancy was found to be 9.18% based upon BDI, and it was significantly associated with several obstetric risk factors like gravidity (P = 0.0092, unplanned pregnancy (P = 0.001, history of abortions (P = 0.0001, and a history of obstetric complications, both present (P = 0.0001 and past (P = 0.0001. Conclusions: Depression during pregnancy is prevalent among pregnant women in Navi-Mumbai, and several obstetric risk factors were associated to depression during pregnancy. Future research in this area is needed, which will clearly elucidate the potential long-term impact of depression during pregnancy and associated obstetric risk factors so as to help health professionals identify vulnerable groups for early detection, diagnosis, and providing effective interventions for depression during pregnancy.

  7. Potential prescription patterns and errors in elderly adult patients attending public primary health care centers in Mexico City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corona-Rojo, José Antonio; Altagracia-Martínez, Marina; Kravzov-Jinich, Jaime; Vázquez-Cervantes, Laura; Pérez-Montoya, Edilberto; Rubio-Poo, Consuelo

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Six out of every 10 elderly persons live in developing countries. Objective To analyze and assess the drug prescription patterns and errors in elderly outpatients attending public health care centers in Mexico City, Mexico. Materials and methods A descriptive and retrospective study was conducted in 2007. Fourteen hundred prescriptions were analyzed. Prescriptions of ambulatory adults aged >70 years who were residents of Mexico City for at least two years were included. Prescription errors were divided into two groups: (1) administrative and legal, and (2) pharmacotherapeutic. In group 2, we analyzed drug dose strength, administration route, frequency of drug administration, treatment length, potential drug–drug interactions, and contraindications. Variables were classified as correct or incorrect based on clinical literature. Variables for each drug were dichotomized as correct (0) or incorrect (1). A Prescription Index (PI) was calculated by considering each drug on the prescription. SPSS statistical software was used to process the collected data (95% confidence interval; p <0.05). Results The drug prescription pattern in elderly outpatients shows that 12 drugs account for 70.72% (2880) of prescribed drugs. The most prescribed drugs presented potential pharmacotherapeutic errors (as defined in the present study). Acetylsalicylic acid–captopril was the most common potential interaction (not clinically assessed). Potential prescription error was high (53% of total prescriptions). Most of the prescription errors were due to omissions of dosage, administration route, and length of treatment and may potentially cause harm to the elderly outpatients. Conclusions A high number of potential prescription errors were found, mainly due to omissions. The drug prescription pattern of the study population is mainly constituted by 12 drugs. The results indicate that prescription quality depends on the number of prescribed drugs per prescription (p < 0

  8. Cardiovascular health knowledge and behavior in patient attendants at four tertiary care hospitals in Pakistan – a cause for concern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afzal Atif

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Knowledge about coronary heart disease (CHD and its risk factors is an important pre-requisite for an individual to implement behavioral changes leading towards CHD prevention. There is scant data on the status of knowledge about CHD in the general population of Pakistan. The objective of this study was to assess knowledge of CHD in a broad Pakistani population and identify the factors associated with knowledge. Methods Cross sectional study was carried out at four tertiary care hospitals in Pakistan using convenience sampling. Standard questionnaire was used to interview 792 patient attendants (persons accompanying patients. Knowledge was computed as a continuous variable based on correct answers to fifteen questions. Multivariable linear regression was conducted to determine the factors independently associated with knowledge. Results The mean age was 38.1 (±13 years. 27.1% had received no formal education. The median knowledge score was 3.0 out of a possible maximum of 15. Only 14% were able to correctly describe CHD as a condition involving limitation in blood flow to the heart. Majority of respondents could identify only up to two risk factors for CHD. Most commonly identified risk factors were stress (43.4%, dietary fat (39.1%, smoking (31.9% and lack of exercise (17.4%. About 20% were not able to identify even a single risk factor for CHD. Factors significantly associated with knowledge included age (p = 0.023, income (p Conclusion This is the first study assessing the state of CHD knowledge in a relatively diverse non-patient population in Pakistan. There are striking gaps in knowledge about CHD, its risk factors and symptoms. These translate to inadequate preventive behavior patterns. Educational programs are urgently required to improve the level of understanding of CHD in the Pakistani population.

  9. A Cross-Sectional Study of Quality of Life among Subjects with Epilepsy Attending a Tertiary Care Hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, K; Basavanna, P.L

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Epilepsy is a chronic disorder associated with profound physical and psychological consequences leading to impaired quality of life (QoL). Evaluation of the QoL among epileptics would throw light on various factors that impair or affect the QoL in such a population. Aim To study the QoL among epileptic patients attending outpatient departments of a tertiary care hospital and to identify various factors that affect the QoL in such a population. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional observational questionnaire based study, including patients with epilepsy, who were on antiepileptic drugs, on follow-up for minimum one year, aged more than 18years, both sexes and who were seizure free in the previous 24hours. The World Health Organisation Quality of Life (WHOQOL-BREF) questionnaire was administered to those included in the study. The data was analysed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20 and statistical tests like t-test for independent variables and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) were used to compare the QoL scores. Results Of the 98 subjects 61.2% were males, majority were educated upto high school level and most of them were employed in unskilled labour. The mean total QOL score was 53.9 (15.8). There was a significant lower mean total QOL score among people with low educational status and poor seizure control. Conclusion Epilepsy is a syndrome associated with chronic drug use and regular long term follow-ups to hospitals. These treatment and disease associated problems affects the QOL of the subjects significantly in various squares of life. We found that a lower education and having seizure in the recent past affected the QOL scores. PMID:28208904

  10. Prevalence of HBV Infection and Knowledge of Hepatitis B Among Patients Attending Primary Care Clinics in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganczak, Maria; Dmytrzyk-Daniłów, Gabriela; Korzeń, Marcin; Drozd-Dąbrowska, Marzena; Szych, Zbigniew

    2016-06-01

    It is well known that community awareness of hepatitis B (HB) can lead to vaccination and testing. The study objectives were to assess the prevalence of HBV infection and knowledge of HB among adult patients attending randomly selected primary care clinics. A cross-sectional sero-survey was conducted in March 2013 in the Zgorzelec region, Poland, with the use of an investigator-developed questionnaire containing 22 questions regarding HB knowledge. Serum samples were assayed for anti-HBc total and anti-HBs with enzyme immunoassay. The prevalence of anti-HBc total among 410 participants (median age 56 years) was 10.3 % (95 % CI 7.6-13.8 %), nobody was aware of an infection. The main sources of HB knowledge were the media and medical staff. The mean knowledge score was 14.8 ± 4.9; 76.7 % of the respondents had scores >50 %. Particular gaps were detected relating to knowledge of unprotected sexual intercourse and MTCT; 45.6 % patients were not aware of the potential asymptomatic course of HBV infection, 41.2 % about chronic HB treatment. A patient's low educational level was negatively associated with a high knowledge level; the willingness for further education on HB and HBV vaccination in the past were independently associated with good knowledge. In conclusion, the HBV infection remains a public health threat in Poland, since the prevalence of infection markers in asymptomatic adult patients was high. Knowledge gaps call for awareness campaigns which may increase testing and diagnosis, audiences representing lower education level should be targeted first. Knowledge on HB might serve as an effective tool in decision making regarding vaccination.

  11. Self-care functional development analysis of children with Down Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Ferreira da Silva

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Down syndrome (DS differs from other genetic disorders by presenting a specific group of physical and mental characteristics, representing one of the most usual abnormalities of autosomal chromosomes and being the oldest known cause of mental retardation. It is characterized by a change in chromosome division resulting in the tripling of genetic material on chromosome 21. Objective: Highlight the functional performance in the area of self-care with DS in children from three to seven years old. Methodology: Seventeen children with DS participated in the research, attended at the Association of Parents and Friends of the Mentally Disabled (APAE, using the Pediatric Evaluation Disability Inventory (PEDI. Result: After test application, it was possible to observe that the functional performance of children with DS is lower than that of children with no syndrome, and that external factors such as the inclusion of children in the school process and the educational level of caretakers interfere in the development of children. Conclusion: PEDI has proved to be an important tool for health professionals, mainly for occupational therapists, since it identifies the specific areas that children are disadvantaged, allowing the possibility to intervene strategically in the specific difficulties of each child.

  12. A situational analysis of sexual and reproductive health issues in physically challenged people, attending a tertiary care hospital in New Delhi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Utkarsha Agarwal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Physically challenged people constitute the most stigmatized sections of society, and are excluded from outreach programs, besides being considered sexually inactive. They have unaddressed sexual and reproductive healthcare (SRH issues, predisposing them to sexual abuse and sexually transmitted infections (STIs. The huge paucity of data in this field prompted us to undertake this study. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted on 100 people with more than 40% of permanent disability, attending various out/inpatient facilities of a tertiary care hospital in New Delhi, India. A structured, pretested questionnaire was used to assess SRH issues. Samples were collected from consenting individuals for diagnosis of various STIs, wherever relevant. Statistical analysis was done using Pearson's Chi-square test, considering significant at P <0.05. Results: Most people were in the age group of 15–30 years. Limbs were most commonly affected, and the use of assistive devices was statistically related to income levels (P = 0.045, 43% was married and 41% had children. Contraceptive usage was 33%, with a significant association (P = 0.03 with education levels. Issues related to sexual health included conditions ranging from nerve sensation loss in genitalia to fertility and gynecological issues, only 10% had received sexual counseling during rehabilitation. There were several misconceptions prevalent regarding HIV and STIs; 35% of the samples tested positive for chlamydia IgG. Interpretation and Conclusions: This is a pioneer study on a grossly neglected issue in India. There is a dire need to overcome hurdles and address the SRH issues of physically challenged people to achieve the universal WHO goal of “Health for All.”

  13. Parental concerns in parents of children attending pre- and primary school: analysis of the Portuguese population by District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Algarvio

    Full Text Available Objective: In this study, our aim was to assess and analyze parental concerns by Portuguese District. Methods: The participants were 3842 parents of children between 3 and 10 years old, attending preschool and primary school, from 820 public schools in 18 Portuguese Districts. Parents completed a sociodemographic questionnaire, and a Parental Concerns Scale, composed by 5 subscales, family and school problems; feeding, sleep and physical complaints; preparation; fears; and negative behaviors. Results: Portuguese parents concerned about all the dimensions considered in this study. The highest level of concern was obtained in family and school problems, and the lowest level of concern about their children’s fears. There were significant differences between Districts, parents from Porto and Bragança showed the highest levels of concern. Parents from Coimbra, Évora, Beja e Portalegre, presented the lowest levels of concern. Conclusion: Parental concerns are an aspect of general parenting and must be considered by health professionals to promote healthier parents-children relationships. Geographic differences should be further investigated.

  14. Estudo do atendimento de enfermagem institucional a crianças de 0 a 5 anos Institutional nursing attendance of children zero to five years of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelice Ferreira Moura

    1981-08-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizada avaliação operacional sobre a implantação do atendimento de enfermagem institucional à criança de 0 a 5 anos realizado de outubro de 1977 a outubro de 1978 no Centro de Saúde Experimental da Escola Paulista de Medicina, São Paulo (Brasil. Focaliza-se não só o problema gerado desde a implantação desta atividade (a maioria dos atendimentos de enfermagem são encaminhados para consulta médica, mas também procura conhecer a opinião da clientela sobre esta nova modalidade de assistência de saúde à comunidade.Operational evaluation of institutional nursing attendance given children 0-5 years of age was carried out from October, 1977 to October, 1978, in the Experimental Health Center of the "Escola Paulista de Medicina", S. Paulo (Brazil. It tells of problems that have arisen since the implanting of the Center and recounts clientes' opinions about this new vehicle of community health care.

  15. The transition to clinical expert: enhanced decision making for children aged less than 5 years attending the paediatric ED with acute respiratory conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Leah; Shaw, Alison; Lyttle, Mark D; Purdy, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    Background Rates of unplanned paediatric admissions are persistently high. Many admissions are short-stay events, lasting less than 48 hours. Objective This qualitative research explores factors that influence clinical decision making in the paediatric ED (PED) for children under 5 attending with acute respiratory conditions, focusing on how management decisions adapt with increasing experience. Method Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 15 PED clinicians (doctors, emergency nurse practitioners and registered nurses) with varying levels of experience in paediatric emergency medicine (PEM), emergency medicine or paediatrics. Audio-recorded interviews were transcribed and analysed thematically. Results There were clear differences in decision-making approaches between experienced clinicians and junior staff. The latter were more risk adverse, relying heavily on guidelines, set admission criteria, clinical theory and second opinions. This was particularly true for doctors. ‘Informal’ learning was apparent in accounts from less-experienced doctors and nurses, whereby tacit knowledge and risk management played an increasing role in the development of clinical intuition that permitted rapid assessment and treatment of young patients. Conclusions The emergence of intuition entwined with approaches to risk management and the role of these skills in clinical decision making, carry implications for the development of training programmes for clinicians working in PEM. Enhanced training for such groups to permit development of the supplementary skills described in this study could have the ability to improve care delivery and even reduce paediatric admissions. PMID:27496899

  16. Relationship among the Parenting Styles and the Social Competence and Prosocial Behaviors of the Children Who are Attending to State and Private Preschools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altay, Fatma Basak; Gure, Aysen

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the associations of social competence and prosocial behaviors of the boys and girls who are attending to private or state preschools with the parenting styles of mothers' perception. Participants of the research were 344 children's (ranging from 35 and 75 months of age) teachers and mothers.…

  17. Internação domiciliar: o perfil dos pacientes assistidos pelo Programa HU em Casa Home care: profile of patients attended by a home care program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniella Reis Barbosa Martelli

    2011-01-01

    medical records from May 2005 to May 2008. Of the 137 analyzed patients, 75 were females (54.7% and 62 males (45.3%. Concerning age, the 61-80 year group was the most prevalent (37.2% and 73% lived and was attended in the peripheral districts of Montes Claros city. Among the most important diseases in the first admission, the most prevalent was pneumonia (22 cases, 16.1%. Most patients were referred to the HU em Casa Home Care Program for the medical clinic (84.7% with a range of higher prevalence of 2 to 3 admissions (42.4%. Of the total patients, 120 (87.6% stayed in hospital for 16 to 30 days. Referring to resolutivity, 130 (94.9% patients were discharged to the program on the first admission. The PID proved to be a high-solving program, attended mainly elderly women with low income and with periods of relatively short hospitalization.

  18. [A sanitation plan for a food distributor attending children and the elderly].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serna-Cock, Liliana; Correa-Gómez, Maria D C; Ayala-Aponte, Alfredo A

    2009-10-01

    The responsibility for providing healthy food involves all members of the production chain from input supplier to the distributor and consumer of food. Children and older adults represent the most vulnerable consumers for acquiring food-borne illness (FBI), meaning that the risk factors produced in food-processing targeted for this population group must be reduced. A clean-up plan was thus designed and implemented following the guideline laid down in decree 3075/1997 to reduce FBI risk factors in a population of children and older adults. A training plan was also conducted for handling staff involved in receiving, storing, packaging and distributing raw materials in a food distributor. The clean-up plan and training led to a 40 % to 70 % increase in compliance with best manufacturing practices (BPM). These results represent a solid basis for ensuring food safety and reducing the risk of acquiring FBI in the study population. This article also provides an outline for easily acquiring the necessary methodology for implementing a clean-up plan in a food industry.

  19. Pre-School Attendance and Child Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauchmüller, Robert; Gørtz, Mette; Rasmussen, Astrid Würtz

    performance at the end of elementary schooling. We assess the effects of attended types and qualities of day-care institutions on various child outcomes as measured by school grades in mathematics, science, English and Danish for the whole Danish population as well as outcomes from the 2006 PISA Denmark......, of total work experiences, ages and hourly wages of staff members. Those indicators show the expected correlations with children's development outcomes, better day-care quality being linked to better child outcomes ten years later. We use rich administrative information about the children's background...... as well as an instrumental variable approach based on wider geographic area aggregates to test whether those correlations reveal unbiased causal effects. The identification of truly effective quality characteristics of day-care centres enhances policymakers' resource allocation to make all children...

  20. Pediculose nos centros de educação infantil: conhecimentos e práticas dos trabalhadores Infestión de piojos en los centros de educación infantil: conocimientos y prácticas de los trabajadores Pediculosis in children attending day care centers: knowledge and practice of workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Lopes Gabani

    2010-06-01

    ún son limitadas. Persisten muchos mitos y tabúes (que los piojos saltan, el uso de la sal, del vinagre y de la parafina, etc. Las principales dudas se relacionan con el tratamiento y la mayor dificultad que se presenta es la falta de cooperación de los padres. Por último, cabe señalar la necesidad y la importancia de que se implementen acciones intersectoriales, preventivas y sistemáticas en el ambiente escolar.This study aimed to identify and analyze knowledge and practices, about pediculosis, from employees at Child Day Care Centers at two areas of coverage of the Family Health Units, Londrina, Paraná. It's descriptive transversal study. Form was applied with questions about myths, taboos, practices, doubts and difficulties in stopping the infestation of pediculosis in eight Child Day Care Centers. Subsequently, workshop was held with educational materials. 60.4% of employees participated, those who were present on the day determined by the institution. Almost all indicated the ectoparasitic infestation, as well as their families. The problem is faced daily in Child Day Care Centers (72.1%. Practice appropriate care is still limited. Many myths and taboos persist (lice jump, use salt, vinegar and kerosene, etc. The main questions are related to treatment and the greatest difficulty is the lack of cooperation from parents. It emphasizes, finally, the need and the importance of internal actions, preventive and systematic in the school environment.

  1. Weather daily variation in winter and its effect on behavior and affective states in day-care children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciucci, Enrica; Calussi, Pamela; Menesini, Ersilia; Mattei, Alessandra; Petralli, Martina; Orlandini, Simone

    2011-05-01

    This study aimed to analyze the impact of winter weather conditions on young children's behavior and affective states by examining a group of 61 children attending day-care centers in Florence (Italy). Participants were 33 males, 28 females and their 11 teachers. The mean age of the children at the beginning of the observation period was 24.1 months. The day-care teachers observed the children's behavioral and emotional states during the morning before their sleeping time and filled in a questionnaire for each baby five times over a winter period of 3 weeks. Air temperature, relative humidity, air pressure and solar radiation data were collected every 15 min from a weather station located in the city center of Florence. At the same time, air temperature and relative humidity data were collected in the classroom and in the garden of each day-care center. We used multilevel linear models to evaluate the extent to which children's emotional and behavioral states could be predicted by weather conditions, controlling for child characteristics (gender and age). The data showed that relative humidity and solar radiation were the main predictors of the children's emotional and behavioral states. The outdoor humidity had a significant positive effect on frustration, sadness and aggression; solar radiation had a significant negative effect only on sadness, suggesting that a sunny winter day makes children more cheerful. The results are discussed in term of implications for parents and teachers to improve children's ecological environment.

  2. Hospital-based home care for children with cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansson, Eva Helena; Kjaergaard, H; Schmiegelow, K

    2012-01-01

    . Our study highlights the importance of providing hospital-based home care with consideration for the family members' need for the sense of security achieved by home care by experienced paediatric oncology nurses and regular contact with the doctor. In future studies, interviews with children......The study aims to describe the experiences of a hospital-based home care programme in the families of children with cancer. Fourteen parents, representing 10 families, were interviewed about their experiences of a hospital-based home care programme during a 4-month period in 2009 at a university...... hospital in Denmark. Five children participated in all or part of the interview. The interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed using qualitative content analysis. The findings indicate that hospital-based home care enabled the families to remain intact throughout the course of treatment...

  3. Nurses' emotional experience of caring for children with burns.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hilliard, Carol

    2012-02-01

    AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The aim of this phenomenological study was to explore the emotions experienced by children\\'s nurses when caring for children with burns, in addition to ascertaining how the nurses dealt with these emotions. BACKGROUND: The nature of nursing practice is such that it inevitably generates some form of emotional response in nurses. The literature reveals that the manner nurses deal with their emotional experiences can impact on their nursing care. DESIGN: The study used Husserlian phenomenology to explore the emotional experiences of eight purposively selected children\\'s nurses who have worked on the burns unit of an Irish paediatric hospital. METHODS: Data were collected using in-depth, unstructured interviews and analysed using Colaizzi\\'s seven stage framework. RESULTS: The phenomenon of participants\\' emotional experiences is captured in four themes: (1) caring for children with burns, (2) supporting parents, (3) sustaining nurses\\' emotional well-being, and (4) learning to be a burns nurse. Nursing children with burns generated a myriad of emotions for participants. Burns dressing-changes, managing burn-related pain, supporting parents and the impact of busy workloads on the emotional care of children and their parents emerged as the most emotionally challenging aspects of participants\\' role. Participants recognised the need to manage their emotional responses and spoke of the benefits of a supportive nursing team. CONCLUSIONS: The findings offer insights into both the rewarding and challenging aspects of nursing children with burns. Nurses in this environment must be supported to recognise and manage their emotional responses to their work. RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: Helping nurses to manage the emotional consequences of their work will help to sustain their emotional well-being, enhance the care received by children and also enable nurses to support parents in their role as partners in care.

  4. Detection of anti-Giardia lamblia serum antibody among children of day care centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guimarães Semíramis

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVES: To detect anti-Giardia lamblia serum antibodies in healthy children attending public day care centers and to assess serological tests as tools for estimating the prevalence of G. lamblia in endemic areas. METHODS: Three separate stool specimens and filter paper blood samples were collected from 147 children ranging from 0 to 6 years old. Each stool sample was processed using spontaneous sedimentation and zinc sulfate flotation methods. Blood samples were tested by indirect immunofluorescence (IIF and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA for Giardia IgG. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Of 147 individuals tested, 93 (63.3% showed Giardia cysts in their feces. Using IIF and ELISA, serum antibodies were detected in 93 (63.3% and 100 (68% samples , respectively. Sensitivity of IIF and ELISA was 82% and 72%, respectively. However, ELISA revealed to be less specific (39% than IIF (70%. IIF also showed a higher concordance with microscopic examination than ELISA.

  5. Detection of anti-Giardia lamblia serum antibody among children of day care centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semíramis Guimarães

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVES: To detect anti-Giardia lamblia serum antibodies in healthy children attending public day care centers and to assess serological tests as tools for estimating the prevalence of G. lamblia in endemic areas. METHODS: Three separate stool specimens and filter paper blood samples were collected from 147 children ranging from 0 to 6 years old. Each stool sample was processed using spontaneous sedimentation and zinc sulfate flotation methods. Blood samples were tested by indirect immunofluorescence (IIF and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA for Giardia IgG. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Of 147 individuals tested, 93 (63.3% showed Giardia cysts in their feces. Using IIF and ELISA, serum antibodies were detected in 93 (63.3% and 100 (68% samples , respectively. Sensitivity of IIF and ELISA was 82% and 72%, respectively. However, ELISA revealed to be less specific (39% than IIF (70%. IIF also showed a higher concordance with microscopic examination than ELISA.

  6. Potential prescription patterns and errors in elderly adult patients attending public primary health care centers in Mexico City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Corona-Rojo

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available José Antonio Corona-Rojo1, Marina Altagracia-Martínez1, Jaime Kravzov-Jinich1, Laura Vázquez-Cervantes1, Edilberto Pérez-Montoya2, Consuelo Rubio-Poo31Division of Biological Sciences and Health, Metropolitan Autonomous University, Campus Xochimilco (UAM-X, Xochimilco, México; 2National Polytechnical Institute (IPN, México DF; 3Faculty of Higher Studies – Zaragoza (FES-Zaragoza, National Autonomous University of México (UNAM, México City, MéxicoIntroduction: Six out of every 10 elderly persons live in developing countries.Objective: To analyze and assess the drug prescription patterns and errors in elderly outpatients attending public health care centers in Mexico City, Mexico.Materials and methods: A descriptive and retrospective study was conducted in 2007. Fourteen hundred prescriptions were analyzed. Prescriptions of ambulatory adults aged >70 years who were residents of Mexico City for at least two years were included. Prescription errors were divided into two groups: (1 administrative and legal, and (2 pharmacotherapeutic. In group 2, we analyzed drug dose strength, administration route, frequency of drug administration, treatment length, potential drug–drug interactions, and contraindications. Variables were classified as correct or incorrect based on clinical literature. Variables for each drug were dichotomized as correct (0 or incorrect (1. A Prescription Index (PI was calculated by considering each drug on the prescription. SPSS statistical software was used to process the collected data (95% confidence interval; p < 0.05.Results: The drug prescription pattern in elderly outpatients shows that 12 drugs account for 70.72% (2880 of prescribed drugs. The most prescribed drugs presented potential pharmacotherapeutic errors (as defined in the present study. Acetylsalicylic acid–captopril was the most common potential interaction (not clinically assessed. Potential prescription error was high (53% of total prescriptions. Most

  7. Why Do Families Differ? Children's Care for an Unmarried Mother

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henretta, John C.; Soldo, Beth J.; Van Voorhis, Matthew F.

    2011-01-01

    An adult child's provision of care to an unmarried elderly mother varies both within and between families. Within-family differences address the variation in different children's behavior within in a family. Between-family differences refer to the propensities that members of a family--the children of one mother--share and that differentiate them…

  8. Hospital-based home care for children with cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansson, Helena; Hallström, Inger; Kjaergaard, Hanne

    2011-01-01

    Hospital-based home care (HBHC) is widely applied in Pediatric Oncology. We reviewed the potential effect of HBHC on children's physical health and risk of adverse events, parental and child satisfaction, quality of life of children and their parents, and costs. A search of PubMed, CINAHL...

  9. Ethnic disparities in quality of care for children with asthma.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laar, J.J.N. van; Stronk, K.; Devillé, W.

    2004-01-01

    Studies from the UK and USA found ethnic disparities in asthma treatment for children. Little is known about ethnic disparities in asthma treatment for chidlren in the Netherlands. The aim of this study is to gain insight into ethnic disparities in asthma care for children living in the Nederlands.

  10. Supporting Children's Participation in Finnish Child Care Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venninen, Tuulikki; Leinonen, Jonna; Lipponen, Lasse; Ojala, Mikko

    2014-01-01

    Children's participation in the early childhood education context is a multidimensional issue and educators have a significant role in enhancing participation. In this paper, we focus on the existing challenges to children's participation and the ways that child care educators can work as teams to meet those challenges. The data were collected…

  11. More Than a Teacher. Caring for Children, Number Two.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Lois B.; Leeper, Ethel M.

    The booklet is the second in a series on the ways that child care centers can contribute to the healthy growth and development of preschool children, and focused on is the mothering teacher. The child care teacher is thought to be a mother substitute who can help the child learn to trust the world. Mothering is seen to involve a natural drive to…

  12. Elderly Care and Intrafamily Resource Allocation when Children Migrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antman, Francisca M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper considers the intrafamily allocation of elderly care in the context of international migration where migrant children may be able to provide financial assistance to their parents but are unable to offer physical care. To investigate sibling interaction, I estimate best response functions for individual physical and financial…

  13. Child Care Teachers' Strategies in Children's Socialization of Emotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Hey Jun

    2005-01-01

    An observational study was conducted to examine teachers' emotional socialization strategies in three child care centers. Qualitative analysis of the data suggests that teachers in child care centers respond to children's emotional expressions with various strategies. Teachers clearly expressed a preference for positive emotion through verbal…

  14. Optimizing Health Care for Children with Spina Bifida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liptak, Gregory S.; El Samra, Ahmad

    2010-01-01

    The health care needs of children with spina bifida are complex. They need specialists, generalists, and an integrated system to deliver this complex care and to align and inform all the providers. Most research in spina bifida has been focused on narrow medical outcomes; it has been noncollaborative, based on small samples of convenience, with no…

  15. Deficiencies in culturally competent asthma care for ethnic minority children: a qualitative assessment among care providers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seeleman Conny

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Asthma outcomes are generally worse for ethnic minority children. Cultural competence training is an instrument for improving healthcare for ethnic minority patients. To develop effective training, we explored the mechanisms in paediatric asthma care for ethnic minority patients that lead to deficiencies in the care process. Methods We conducted semi-structured interviews on care for ethnic minority children with asthma (aged 4-10 years with paediatricians (n = 13 and nurses (n = 3 in three hospitals. Interviews were analysed qualitatively with a framework method, using a cultural competence model. Results Respondents mentioned patient non-adherence as the central problem in asthma care. They related non-adherence in children from ethnic minority backgrounds to social context factors, difficulties in understanding the chronic nature of asthma, and parents’ language barriers. Reactions reported by respondents to patients’ non-adherence included retrieving additional information, providing biomedical information, occasionally providing referrals for social context issues, and using informal interpreters. Conclusions This study provides keys to improve the quality of specialist paediatric asthma care to ethnic minority children, mainly related to non-adherence. Care providers do not consciously recognise all the mechanisms that lead to deficiencies in culturally competent asthma care they provide to ethnic minority children (e.g. communicating mainly from a biomedical perspective and using mostly informal interpreters. Therefore, the learning objectives of cultural competence training should reflect issues that care providers are aware of as well as issues they are unaware of.

  16. HIV Prevalence and Antenatal Care Attendance among Pregnant Women in a Large Home-Based HIV Counseling and Testing Program in Western Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samson Ndege

    Full Text Available To describe the uptake of and factors associated with HIV prevalence among pregnant women in a large-scale home-based HIV counseling and testing (HBCT program in western Kenya.In 2007, the Academic Model Providing Access to Healthcare Program (AMPATH initiated HBCT to all individuals aged ≥13 years and high-risk children <13 years. Included in this analysis were females aged 13-50 years, from 6 catchment areas (11/08-01/12. We used descriptive statistics and logistic regression to describe factors associated with HIV prevalence.There were 119,678 women eligible for analysis; median age 25 (interquartile range, IQR: 18-34 years. Of these, 7,396 (6.2% were pregnant at the time of HBCT; 4,599 (62% had ever previously tested for HIV and 2,995 (40.5% had not yet attended ANC for their current pregnancy. Testing uptake among pregnant women was high (97%. HBCT newly identified 241 (3.3% pregnant HIV-positive women and overall HIV prevalence among all pregnant women was 6.9%. HIV prevalence among those who had attended ANC in this pregnancy was 5.4% compared to 9.0% among those who had not. Pregnant women were more likely to newly test HIV-positive in HBCT if they had not attended ANC in the current pregnancy (AOR: 6.85, 95% CI: 4.49-10.44.Pregnant women who had never attended ANC were about 6 times more likely to newly test HIV-positive compared to those who had attended ANC, suggesting that the cascade of services for prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission should optimally begin at the home and village level if elimination of perinatal HIV transmission is to be achieved.

  17. Hypophosphatemia in children hospitalized within an intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Menezes, Fernanda Souza; Leite, Heitor Pons; Fernandez, Juliana; Benzecry, Silvana Gomes; de Carvalho, Werther Brunow

    2006-01-01

    The aims of this study were to estimate the occurrence of hypophosphatemia and to identify potential risk factors and outcome measures associated with this disturbance in children admitted to a pediatric intensive care unit. Data concerning 42 children admitted consecutively to 1 pediatric intensive care unit over a 1-year period were examined. Serum phosphorus levels were measured on the third day of admission, where levels below 3.8 mg/dL were considered indicative of hypophosphatemia. Hypophosphatemia was found in 32 children (76%), and there was a significant association between this disturbance and malnutrition (P = .04). Of the potential risk factors such as sepsis, diuretic/steroid therapy, starvation (over 3 days), and Pediatric Index of Mortality, none discriminated for hypophosphatemia. There were no associations between hypophosphatemia and mortality, length of stay in the pediatric intensive care unit, or time on mechanical lung ventilation. Hypophosphatemia was a common finding in critically ill children and was associated with malnutrition.

  18. Play as a care strategy for children with cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kálya Yasmine Nunes de Lima

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To understand the influence of play in the care process as perceived by children with cancer. METHOD: A descriptive, exploratory and qualitative study conducted in a children's cancer unit in Natal, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. Data were collected between October 2013 and January 2014 by means of photographic records and semi-structured interviews with eight children, and content analysis with emphasis on two categories: Auxiliary instruments during play; and The influence of play in the process of care. RESULTS: Recreational activities involve watching television, using computers, games and toys, drawing, the playroom and the clown, which provide fun, feelings of joy, distraction and interaction with other people. CONCLUSION: There are several activities at the hospital that are considered play-related and, for the children, they all benefit their care process.

  19. Disparities in children's oral health and access to dental care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouradian, W E; Wehr, E; Crall, J J

    Dental caries can be prevented by a combination of community, professional, and individual measures including water fluoridation, professionally applied topical fluorides and dental sealants, and use of fluoride toothpastes. Yet, tooth decay is the most common chronic disease of childhood. Dental care is the most prevalent unmet health need in US children with wide disparities existing in oral health and access to care. Only 1 in 5 children covered by Medicaid received preventive oral care for which they are eligible. Children from low income and minority families have poorer oral health outcomes, fewer dental visits, and fewer protective sealants. Water fluoridation is the most effective measure in preventing caries, but only 62% of water supplies are fluoridated, and lack of fluoridation may disproportionately affect poor and minority children. Childhood oral disease has significant medical and financial consequences that may not be appreciated because of the separation of medicine and dentistry. The infectious nature of dental caries, its early onset, and the potential of early interventions require an emphasis on preventive oral care in primary pediatric care to complement existing dental services. However, many pediatricians lack critical knowledge to promote oral health. We recommend financial incentives for prioritizing Medicaid Early and Periodic Screening, Diagnostic, and Treatment dental services; managed care accountability; integration of medical and dental professional training, clinical care, and research; and national leadership. JAMA. 2000;284:2625-2631.

  20. Blind parents and nutrition of children: experiences and care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kariane Gomes Cezario

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to understand the experiences of blind parents in care related to breastfeeding and complementary feeding of children. Methods: qualitative research with the participation of four blind mothers and five blind fathers. Home interviews were carried out to address the experience of feeding children in the context of blindness, categorized by the technique of thematic analysis. Results: three categories emerged: Breastfeeding and complementary feeding offered by blind mothers; Blind fathers and the feeding of children; and Care of the children and blindness: coping strategies, in which difficulties and alternatives developed to feed the children were highlighted. Conclusion: blind parents have difficulties similar to those seer parents but with specific demands associated with the handling of utensils in safe and satisfactory supply of food.

  1. [The nutritional status of children in intensive care units].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uglitskikh, A K; Kon', I Ia; Ostreĭkov, I F; Shilina, N M; Smirnov, V F

    2008-01-01

    The paper deals with the nutritional status of infants in intensive care units (ICU). It shows nutritional trends in 269 children aged 1 month to 15 years, treated in the ICU of a Tushino children's city hospital, Moscow, for brain injury, abdominal surgical diseases, and severe pneumonia. The paper evaluates the physical development of children in the ICU, shows the trends in weight-height, somatometric, laboratory parameters, and balance study data. The values of protein losses and nitrogen balance in children in the postaggression period and their relationship to age and feeding mode (enteral, parenteral-enteral) are shown.

  2. Alarming signs of serious infections in febrile children: Studies in primary care and hospital emergency care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y. van Ierland (Yvette)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Children constitute a substantial part of the workload of physicians in primary care and hospital emergency care. In the Netherlands, about 70% of the 3.9 million inhabitants less than 20 years of age had one or more contacts with their general practitioner (GP) in 2011

  3. Quality health care for children and the Affordable Care Act: a voltage drop checklist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Tina L; Wise, Paul H; Halfon, Neal

    2014-10-01

    The Affordable Care Act (ACA) introduces enormous policy changes to the health care system with several anticipated benefits and a growing number of unanticipated challenges for child and adolescent health. Because the ACA gives each state and their payers substantial autonomy and discretion on implementation, understanding potential effects will require state-by-state monitoring of policies and their impact on children. The "voltage drop" framework is a useful interpretive guide for assessing the impact of insurance market change on the quality of care received. Using this framework we suggest a state-level checklist to examine ACA statewide implementation, assess its impact on health care delivery, and frame policy correctives to improve child health system performance. Although children's health care is a small part of US health care spending, child health provides the foundation for adult health and must be protected in ACA implementation.

  4. Maternal ability to take care of children exposed to HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julyana Gomes Freitas

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to assess the ability of mothers to take care of children exposed to HIV, using the Assessment Scale of Care Skills for Children Exposed to HIV at Birth and to check the association between the scale dimensions and maternal characteristics. METHOD: this cross-sectional study involved 62 HIV+ mothers whose children of up to one year old had been exposed to the virus at birth. The Assessment Scale of Care Skills for Children Exposed to HIV at Birth consists of 52 items and five dimensions, indicating high, moderate or low care ability. RESULTS: 72.7% of the mothers appropriately offered zidovudine syrup; 86.0% were highly skilled to prepare and administer milk formula; 44.4% were moderately able to prepare and administer complementary feeding; 76.5% revealed high ability to administer prophylactic treatment against pneumonia and 95.3% demonstrated high abilities for clinical monitoring and immunization. Significant associations were found between some maternal variables and the scale dimensions. CONCLUSION: the scale permits the assessment of maternal care delivery to these children and the accomplishment of specific child health interventions.

  5. Care of children with anterior uveitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanski, J J

    1981-09-01

    The clinical features of 290 children with anterior uveitis are presented. The vast majority suffered from chronic uveitis. Specific uveitis entities in children include the syndrome of 'chronic iridocyclitis' in girls, heterochromic cyclitis, and pars planitis. Systemic associations include sarcoidosis, the Vogt-Harada-Koyanagi syndrome, and the seronegative arthritides (juvenile chronic arthritis, juvenile ankylosing spondylitis, psoriatic arthritis, and rarely Reiter's and Beçet's syndromes). Children with a pauciarticular onset of juvenile chronic arthritis, especially when combined with positive findings for antinuclear antibody, are at particular risk of developing chronic anterior uveitis. Most cases of chronic anterior uveitis can be controlled with topical corticosteroids. Those that are resistant to both topical and systemic corticosteroids may have to be treated with chlorambucil. The operation of lensectomy is a great advance in the management of complicated cataract. Secondary glaucoma is the most devastating complication of chronic anterior uveitis in children and responds poorly to therapy.

  6. children satisfaction of nursing care by drawing

    OpenAIRE

    Sara Shirdelzade; Elahe Ramezanzade; Akram Gazerani

    2014-01-01

    Background & Objective: Patient satisfaction is the main indicator of the quality of healthcare systems. Usually in pediatric works parents are questioned due to lack of appropriate scale. Therefore, this study was done to assess the children’s satisfaction themselves by drawing which is an applicable scale for them.Patients & methods: This study was done with 20 hospitalized children aged 6-12 This study was done with 20 hospitalized children aged 6-12 years in medical and surgical wards of ...

  7. FLOATING ELBOW IN CHILDREN: A DESCRIPTIVE STUDY OF 31 CASES ATTENDED IN A REFERENCE CENTER FOR PEDIATRIC TRAUMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malheiros, Dorotea Starling; Bárbara, Gustavo Henrique Silva; Mafalda, Leandro Gonçalves; Madureira, João Lopo; Braga, Gilberto Ferreira; Terra, Dalton Lopes

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To conduct a descriptive analysis on 31 cases of children with floating elbow who were attended at our clinic between 1994 and 2009, and to review the literature relating to this topic. Methods: Data were obtained through examining the medical records. The following variables were used: age, gender, side, mechanism, type of fracture, classification, treatment and complications. Results: Twenty-four patients (77.4%) were male and seven (22.6%) were female. The mean age was 8.5 (± 3.2) years, ranging from one to 14 years. The left side was predominantly affected (67.7%). The commonest injury mechanism was a fall from a height (74.2%). All the supracondylar fractures were Gartland type III. Distal radius fractures alone, of Salter-Harris type II, were diagnosed in 22 patients (71%). Open fractures occurred in 22 cases (71%). Closed reduction and application of a plaster cast for a closed fracture of the distal radius was performed in two patients (6.45%). Simultaneous conservative treatment for two fractures was not used. Sixteen supracondylar fractures (54.8%) were fixed using crossed wires, at 90° to each other, and in 14 cases (45.16%), an intramedullary wire was used together with another wire introduced through the lateral epicondyle at 45°. The following complications were observed: deformed consolidation (10%), nerve injuries (6%), compartment syndrome (3%) and pin path infection (16%). Conclusions: This is an uncommon injury that in most cases results from high-energy trauma. Surgical treatment for both fractures is recommended by most authors. Ulnar nerve injuries were correlated with the fixation method, but no neurological injuries were triggered by the initial trauma. PMID:27027045

  8. Caring for vulnerable children: challenges of mothering in the Australian foster care system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blythe, Stacy L; Halcomb, Elizabeth J; Wilkes, Lesley; Jackson, Debra

    2013-04-01

    Foster carers have a significant responsibility in caring for vulnerable children. In order to support and facilitate foster carers it is important to understand how they perceive and fulfil this responsibility. A qualitative story-telling study, informed by feminist perspectives, was used to conduct in-depth, semi-structured interviews with 20 women providing long-term foster care in Australia. Thematic analysis revealed these women characterised themselves as mothers, rather than paid carers, to the long-term foster children in their care. Using this maternal self-perception as the starting point, this paper reveals some of the challenges and difficulties participants encountered when mothering within the confines of the child protection system. Implications for nursing practice are discussed. These implications focus on ways that nurses can effectively support foster carers, thus optimising the health and well-being of the vulnerable children in their care.

  9. AMBULATORY CARE - SENSITIVE CONDITIONS IN CHILDREN UNDER FIVE YEARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Aparecida Araújo Figueiredo

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective:analyzethe extent to which the incidence rate of primary care sensitivehospitalizations in children under five years is influenced by the percentage of coverage of theprimary care.Methods:This was a cross-sectional ecological study that combines coverage ofprimary careand theambulatorycare-sensitiveconditionsin 2000 and 2010. We used data from theHospital Information System (HIS and the Information System of Primary Care (SIAB.Results:The data revealed that the increased coverage providedprimary carereductionrateofhospitalization diseases studied. In 2000 the reduction was greater for gastroenteritis (51% inchildren under 01 years and 30% in children 01-04 years in 2010 for respiratory diseases (51% inchildren under 01years and 33% in children aged 01-04 years.Conclusion:we found an association between the coverage ofprimary careand admission rates, however seem to affect othervariables, suggesting the need for further studies.

  10. Comparison between Parodontax® and carbonated water to prevent chemotherapy-induced mucositis in children with cancer who attend the Centro Javeriano de Oncología

    OpenAIRE

    Erazo Cerón, Ivania Paola; Pontificia Universidad Javeriana; Romero Barrera, Erika María; Pontificia Universidad Javeriana; Bayona, Aura Lucía; Pontificia Universidad Javeriana

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: During chemotherapy for cancer treatment side effects in oral cavity are frequent, of which mucositis is the most common. PURPOSE: Compare the efficacy of Parodontaxâ and carbonated water used to treat chemotherapy-induced mucositis in children with cancer. METHODS: This was a double-blinded randomized clinical trial. The sample consisted of 30 children between the ages of 0 and 14 years who attended the Centro Javeriano de Oncología for chemotherapy. 3 dental plaque scores and di...

  11. Life style and behavior of school children without parental care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kvrgić Svetlana T.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Indroduction Life style (behavior is one of the most significant factors affecting health. Although a number of factors participate in creating behavior, family is one the most important. The goal was to analyze the life style of children without parental care. Material and methods The research was done using cross-sectional data from "Children village" in Sremska Kamenica (N=127, and a questionnaire was especially created for this purpose. Results and discussion It was established that 75% of elementary school children and 43% of high school children are physically active. The greatest health risk is smoking (only 50% of students reported never to smoke cigarettes, while 17.5% were daily smokers. The problem is greatest in high school children (43% polled are daily smokers. Alcohol consumption is less common than in the general population of the same age (10% polled drink beer and wine several times a month, while 5% drink spirits - brandy, whisky etc.. Attitudes to sports, smoking and alcohol are mainly positive, but at older age there is an increased number of children with negative attitudes. Knowledge regarding healthy diet is on a lower level comparing with general population, meals are more regular, but with less desirable food. Conclusion From the aspect of health, life style of children without parental care is characterized by risky behavior, particularly in high school children.

  12. Hospital-based home care for children with cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansson, Eva Helena; Kjaergaard, Hanne; Johansen, Christoffer

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To assess the feasibility and psychosocial impact of a hospital-based home care (HBHC) program for children with cancer. PROCEDURE: A HBHC program was carried out with 51 children (0-18 years) with cancer to assess its feasibility in terms of satisfaction, care preferences, safety, an...... and the psychosocial burden on the family does not increase. Pediatr Blood Cancer © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.......BACKGROUND: To assess the feasibility and psychosocial impact of a hospital-based home care (HBHC) program for children with cancer. PROCEDURE: A HBHC program was carried out with 51 children (0-18 years) with cancer to assess its feasibility in terms of satisfaction, care preferences, safety......, and cost. A controlled trial was conducted to assess children's health-related quality of life (HRQOL) using the parent-reported and self-reported PedsQL Generic Core Scale and PedsQL Cancer Module, and the psychosocial impact on the family by PedsQL Family Impact Module comprising a subsample of 28...

  13. Follow-up care of children suffered from burns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Константин Александрович Афоничев

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Outcomes of III-VI AB degree burns in children,regardless of the nature of treatment in the acute andrecovery period, are the development of scar contractures and deformities of the joints. However, thecorrect organization of follow-up care and rehabilitation treatment can significantly reduce the severity and facilitates the full recovery of the affected segment. Based on the analysis of their own material, the author defines the early stage of rehabilitation in these patients before full maturation of scar tissue or before the formation of functionally significant joint contractures, and later period, when there are indications for surgical rehabilitation. In the early period, follow-up care is recommended in 1 month after discharge and then on a quarterly basis, and with the appearance of deformities - at least once in 2 months. At the2nd stage of rehabilitation, older children and children of secondary school age are subject to follow-up care at least 1 time per year of primary school age - atleast once in 6 months, preschool children - every3 months. The proposed assessment of scar tissuehelps to determine the terms of follow-up care. Usingthis scheme of follow-up care and appropriate treatment allowed the author to obtain excellent and goodresults in 87-90 % of cases at the stages of rehabilitaion.

  14. Seasonal variation, weather and behavior in day-care children: a multilevel approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciucci, Enrica; Calussi, Pamela; Menesini, Ersilia; Mattei, Alessandra; Petralli, Martina; Orlandini, Simone

    2013-11-01

    This study analyzes the effect of weather variables, such as solar radiation, indoor and outdoor air temperature, relative humidity and time spent outdoor, on the behavior of 2-year-old children and their affects across different seasons: winter, spring and summer. Participants were a group of 61 children (33 males and 28 females) attending four day-care centers in Florence (Central Italy). Mean age of children at the beginning of the study was 24.1 months ( SD = 3.6). We used multilevel linear analyses to account for the hierarchical structure of our data. The study analyzed the following behavioral variables: Activity Level, Attentional Focusing, Frustration, and Aggression. Results showed a different impact of some weather variables on children’s behavior across seasons, indicating that the weather variable that affects children’s behavior is usually the one that shows extreme values during the studied seasons, such as air temperature and relative humidity in winter and summer. Studying children and their reactions to weather conditions could have potentially wide-reaching implications for parenting and teaching practices, as well as for researchers studying social relationships development.

  15. Pro patria et spes gentis: military medicine, paediatric surgery and those who care for children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearn, John

    2011-12-01

    Children and military medicine have many links. On humanitarian and disaster deployments, the surgery of war has increasingly seen children as the focus of clinical salvage. When Romans spoke of children, they used the phrase 'spes gentis'-'the hope of the race'. In modern times, there developed a synergy, in the context of defensive war, that its prosecution depended not only on the defence of territory but also on its hopes for continuation of people and culture, into the future. In the 19th century, in Australia, several regiments had the motto 'Pro Aris et Focis'-'For the Defence of Hearth and Home'. Hearth implies the family and that implies children. From the point of view of an attending military clinician, the centrum of all medical care is the patient himself, and that centrality is reflected equally in the helplessness of a bomb-blast or gunshot victim as it is in the vulnerability of a sick or injured infant or child. The life and service of Major General Rupert Downes (1885-1945), whom the Downes Memorial Lecture commemorates, reflected this nexus. His career was that of a national leader in military medicine and that of paediatric surgery. The 2011 Rupert Downes Lecture explores and documents the extraordinary corpus of service of Australian paediatric surgeons and their contributions to military medicine from the 19th to the 21st centuries.

  16. Role of traditional birth attendants (TBAs) in provision of antenatal and perinatal care at home amongst the urban poor in Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Samiksha; Chhabra, Pragti; Sujoy, Rachna

    2012-01-01

    More than 80% of deliveries amongst the urban poor are conducted at home, mostly by traditional birth attendants (TBAs). In all, 29 eligible TBAs in the study area were identified and interviewed to assess their knowledge and practices regarding antenatal and perinatal care. Their knowledge about complications in antenatal and perinatal period was inadequate. The majority provided inadequate advice to the mothers. Over seventy-nine percent (79.3%) gave injections of oxytocin. Sixteen (55.2%) did not wait or waited for less than 10 minutes for the mother to expel the placenta. Fourteen (48.3%) encountered excessive vaginal bleeding, but none knew how to manage it. Overall knowledge and care provided by the TBAs was poor.

  17. Intestinal parasites in children from a day care centre in Matanzas City, Cuba.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Cañete

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Intestinal parasitic infections are widely distributed throughout the world and children are the most affected population. Day care centres are environments where children have proven to be more susceptible to acquiring IP. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A cross-sectional study was carried to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites in stool samples among children who attend to a day care centre in an urban area of Matanzas city, Cuba, from March to June 2012. 104 children under five years old were included on the study after informed consent form was signed by parents or legal guardians. Three fresh faecal samples were collected from each child in different days and were examined by direct wet mount, formalin-ether, and Kato- Katz techniques. Data relating to demography, socioeconomic status, source of drinking water, and personal hygiene habits were also collected using a standardized questionnaire. In total, 71.1% of children harbored at least one type of intestinal parasite and 47 (45.2% were infected by more than one species. Giardia duodenalis and Blastocystis sp. were the most common parasites found, with prevalence rates of 54.8% and 38.5% respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Despite public health campaigns, improvement in the level of education, and the availability of and access to medical services in Cuba infections by intestinal protozoan is high in this centre. Almost nothing is published regarding intestinal parasites in Matanzas province during the last 40 years so this work could also be the initial point to carry out other studies to clarify the IP status in this region.

  18. The nurse´s care of obese children

    OpenAIRE

    Bergström, Maria; Nordin, Anna; Ahlquist, Eleonor

    2006-01-01

    Background: Children in our present society spend more time sedentary, and food has become more accessible. It is important to pay attention to obese children, because of the risk for serious diseases in the future. Obesity can also cause mental suffering for the child. Aim: The aim of this study was to describe the nurse’s care of obese children. Method: The study was carried out as a literature review. The articles were examined by qualitative content analysis. Result: It was shown to be ...

  19. Self-care 3 months after attending chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patient education: a qualitative descriptive analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mousing, Camilla Askov; Lomborg, Kirsten

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The authors performed a qualitative descriptive analysis to explore how group patient education influences the self-care of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Patients and methods: In the period 2009–2010, eleven patients diagnosed with chronic obstructive pulmonary....... Talking to health care professionals focused the patients' attention on their newly acquired skills and the research interview made them more aware of their enhanced self-care. Conclusion: Patients' self-care may be enhanced through group education, even though the patients are not always able to see...... the immediate outcome. Some patients may require professional help to implement their newly acquired knowledge and skills in everyday life. A planned dialogue concentrating on self-care in everyday life 3 months after finishing the course may enhance patients' awareness and appraisal of their newly acquired...

  20. Child perceptions of parental care and overprotection in children with cancer and healthy children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillery, Rachel; Long, Alanna; Phipps, Sean

    2014-06-01

    The primary aims of this study were to: (a) examine child perceptions of overprotection; and (b) explore how these perceptions relate to child health and adjustment. Children with a prior diagnosis of cancer (n = 205) and children without a history of serious illness (n = 76) reported on parental overprotective and caring behaviors. Children with cancer were recruited from one of four strata based on the elapsed time since their cancer diagnosis (1-6 months; 6-24 months; 2-5 years; >5 years) Children also reported on symptoms of depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress. Children with cancer did not differ from healthy children in their perceptions of parental care or overprotection. Child distress was more strongly related to perceptions of care and overprotection than child's health status. Children with cancer do not report their parents approach to care and protection differently than children without a cancer history. These findings mirror prior research examining parental perceptions of overprotection and suggest that, despite the challenges of parenting a child with serious illness, parental protection is not significantly altered.

  1. The waiting children : Pathways (and future) of children in long-term residential care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    López, Mónica; del Valle, Jorge F.

    2015-01-01

    There is an international consensus about the need to avoid prolonged stays in residential care and a preference for family-based interventions for those children who have been separated from their families. Nevertheless, Spanish statistics show a high number of children entering residential placeme

  2. Caring for Rosie the Riveter's Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKenzie, Bill

    2011-01-01

    During the Second World War, women in the United States who worked in the war industries in such jobs as welders, riveters, heavy machinery operators, and parachute riggers were heralded in the media as "Rosie the Riveter." From 1943 to 1945 a fortunate few of these workplace pioneers participated in a memorable experiment in child care at Kaiser…

  3. Preschool Education and Day Care for Swedish Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Jeanne

    A comprehensive study of the types of care provided for Swedish children is presented. The point is made that the three major frameworks which support the Swedish philosophy of early childhood education are those of Arnold Gesell, Jean Piaget, and Erik H. Erikson. From all three sources, preschool teachers learn the concept of epigenesis, the…

  4. Foster Family Care for Hard-to-Place Disabled Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Margaret; Siegel, Maxine

    1988-01-01

    In a program developed at Merrywood School (Bellevue, Washington), four key components were identified as critical to successfully placing disabled children in foster care: identification and recruitment of stable, motivated, and qualified foster parents; preparation of foster parents; support for foster parents' needs; and development of creative…

  5. Self-care 3 months after attending chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patient education: a qualitative descriptive analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mousing, Camilla A; Lomborg, Kirsten

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The authors performed a qualitative descriptive analysis to explore how group patient education influences the self-care of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Patients and methods: In the period 2009–2010, eleven patients diagnosed with chronic obstructive pulmonary....... Talking to health care professionals focused the patients' attention on their newly acquired skills and the research interview made them more aware of their enhanced self-care. Conclusion: Patients' self-care may be enhanced through group education, even though the patients are not always able to see...... disease completed an 8-week group education program in a Danish community health center. The patients were interviewed 3 months after completion of the program. Findings: Patients reported that their knowledge of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease had increased, that they had acquired tools to handle...

  6. Roles of nurses and parents caring for hospitalised children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedells, Ella; Bevan, Ann

    2016-03-01

    This article reviews the literature on nurses' and parents' self-perceived roles when caring for hospitalised children, focusing on research conducted since the Department of Health published the National Service Framework for Children: Standard for Hospital Services in 2003. Three main themes emerge from the review: nurses' perceptions, parents' perceptions, and negotiation. Clarification of what nurses and parents consider to be their respective roles when caring for hospitalised children is a prerequisite for negotiation of those roles. The family's background, life experiences and circumstances influence the effectiveness of negotiation between nurses and parents. The article explores potential barriers to negotiation, including poor communication and failure to provide information. Limitations of the research and the implications for practice are considered.

  7. Quality of care and temperament determine changes in cortisol concentrations over the day for young children in childcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dettling, A C; Parker, S W; Lane, S; Sebanc, A; Gunnar, M R

    2000-11-01

    The current study investigated whether patterns of cortisol production in preschool-aged children in group care were influenced by characteristics such as group size, adult:child ratio, separation from family/parents, and quality of attention and stimulation from the childcare provider. Data were obtained from preschoolers attending home-based childcare. Cortisol levels were sampled at home and at childcare. Parents and teachers assessed the child's temperament (CBQ, TBQ). At childcare, the children were observed using the Observational Ratings of the Caregiving Environment (ORCE). Childcare characteristics were independent of family or child characteristics. In home-based childcare, children's cortisol patterns over the day correlated significantly with the amount of attention and stimulation provided by the childcare provider. Using a median split on the quality index measure of focused attention/stimulation, children in settings that were above the median exhibited no change in cortisol from home to childcare, while those in settings below the median exhibited a reversal of the typical pattern of cortisol production from morning to afternoon. At home these children exhibited the expected decrease in cortisol from morning to afternoon. Patterns of cortisol production at childcare were also correlated with child temperament with larger increases from morning to afternoon for more emotionally negative children and those with less self-control. Finally, cortisol production in home-based childcare was compared to data from children in center-based childcare and children not enrolled in full-day childcare.

  8. Nursing care of children after a traumatic incident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos Nakakis

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Childhood experiences of living in a world of sweeping changes and unpredictable extreme events can be very stressful and are often traumatic and children are not able to mobilize the defense mechanisms necessary for adaptation. Traumatic experiences for a child can include exposure to natural disasters, circumstances such as war and terrorism, situations of victimization (physical or sexual abuse, accidents resulting in serious injury and disability, loss of loved one, a life-threatening illness and hospitalizations, painful situations, as well as domestic and interfamily violence. The aim of this literature review was to explore the nursing care of children after a traumatic incident through a critical review of the existing literature. Material and Methods: A literature search was performed in Medline, Cinahl, BNI, PsycINFO, and Scopus databases with keywords relevant to the subject of this review. Results: From the literature review it was found that the published resources with respect to the nursing care of children after a traumatic event are very limited and they do not provide clear nursing care plans. Nursing care of children after a traumatic incident involves the prevention of trauma, the detection of early symptoms, the protection of the child from self-destructive and suicidal behavior, the restoration of confidence in self and others, the enhancement of the expressiveness, covering child's emotional needs, the family counseling and reconnection with their peers and childhood activities, as well as ensuring follow-up of their therapeutic progress. Conclusions: Traumatic experiences directly influence a child at physical, mental and emotional levels, making an impact on the smooth psycho-emotional development, the formation of his personality and the quality of childhood and future adult life. It is vital that nurses are aware of therapeutic techniques, in order to approach and nurse traumatized children in the community or in

  9. Evaluation of risk factors in patients attending STI clinic in a tertiary care hospital in North India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charu Nayyar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the past few years, the interest in STDs and their management has increased tremendously because of their proven role in facilitation of HIV infection, which, in turn, also increases the risk of acquiring STIs. Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs are a major health problem affecting mostly young people, not only in developing, but also in developed countries Male circumcision is being considered as strategy to reduce the burden of HIV/AIDS. Aims: (i To screen the new patients attending the STI clinic for bacterial causes of STIs (Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Treponema pallidum and Gardnerella vaginalis and (ii to evaluate the role of various risk factors in the prevalence of STIs. Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted on 200 patients attending the STI clinic. They were evaluated for the prevalence of HIV and bacterial STIs (Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Treponema pallidum and Gardnerella vaginalis along with the role of risk factors particularly circumcision. Results: The prevalence of HIV was 7% and prevalence of other STI was 20%. The causative agents were Chlamydia 8%, Gonorrhea 7.5%, Bacterial Vaginosis 2.7% and Syphilis 2%. Conclusion: The factors found to be significantly associated with the prevalence of STI were circumcision, positive HIV status, education, religion, multiple sexual partners, contact with Commercial sex workers (CSW, non use of contraception, profession involving long stay away from home, and past history of STI. The present study suggests that circumcision is a protective factor for acquisition of STIs but other factors like sexual behavior, use of barrier contraceptives, drug abuse etc., also play a role.

  10. Evaluation of risk factors in patients attending STI clinic in a tertiary care hospital in North India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayyar, Charu; Chander, Ram; Gupta, Poonam; Sherwal, B. L.

    2015-01-01

    Background: In the past few years, the interest in STDs and their management has increased tremendously because of their proven role in facilitation of HIV infection, which, in turn, also increases the risk of acquiring STIs. Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are a major health problem affecting mostly young people, not only in developing, but also in developed countries Male circumcision is being considered as strategy to reduce the burden of HIV/AIDS. Aims: (i) To screen the new patients attending the STI clinic for bacterial causes of STIs (Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Treponema pallidum and Gardnerella vaginalis) and (ii) to evaluate the role of various risk factors in the prevalence of STIs. Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted on 200 patients attending the STI clinic. They were evaluated for the prevalence of HIV and bacterial STIs (Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Treponema pallidum and Gardnerella vaginalis) along with the role of risk factors particularly circumcision. Results: The prevalence of HIV was 7% and prevalence of other STI was 20%. The causative agents were Chlamydia 8%, Gonorrhea 7.5%, Bacterial Vaginosis 2.7% and Syphilis 2%. Conclusion: The factors found to be significantly associated with the prevalence of STI were circumcision, positive HIV status, education, religion, multiple sexual partners, contact with Commercial sex workers (CSW), non use of contraception, profession involving long stay away from home, and past history of STI. The present study suggests that circumcision is a protective factor for acquisition of STIs but other factors like sexual behavior, use of barrier contraceptives, drug abuse etc., also play a role. PMID:26392654

  11. Seasonal prevalence and incidence of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis and associated diarrhoea in children attending pre-schools in Kafue, Zambia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siwila, J.; Phiri, I.G.K.; Enemark, Heidi L.

    2011-01-01

    Prevalence, incidence and seasonal variation of Cryptosporidium and Giardia duodenalis were studied over a 12-month period in 100 children from four pre-schools in Kafue, Zambia. Questionnaire data and a single stool sample were collected monthly from each child. Samples were processed using a co...... = 0.26). We conclude that gastro-intestinal protozoal infections are highly prevalent among children attending pre-school in peri-urban Zambia highlighting the need for further studies of risk factors....... of cryptosporidiosis while 75% had giardiasis. Cumulative incidence per 100 children was 75.4 for Cryptosporidium and 49.0 for G. duodenalis. Both infections were significantly more common in the wet compared to the dry season (34.8%, 162/466 vs. 24.7%, 79/320, P = 0.003 and 35.2%, 164/466 vs. 20.0%, 64/320, P

  12. Early diagnosis is critical to ensure good outcomes in HIV-infected children: outlining barriers to care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feucht, Ute D; Meyer, Anell; Thomas, Winifred N; Forsyth, Brian W C; Kruger, Mariana

    2016-01-01

    HIV-infected children require early initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) to ensure good outcomes. The aim was to investigate missed opportunities in childhood HIV diagnosis leading to delayed ART initiation. Baseline data were reviewed of all children aged HIV services in Gauteng, South Africa. Of the 250 children, one-quarter (24.5%) was of school-going age, 34.5% in the preschool group, 18% between 6 and 12 months old and 23% below 6 months of age (median age = 1.5 years [interquartile range 0.5-4.8]). Most children (82%) presented with advanced/severe HIV disease, particularly those aged 6-12 months (95%). Malnutrition was prominent and referrals were mostly from hospital inpatient services (61%). A structured caregiver interview was conducted in a subgroup, with detailed review of medical records and HIV results. The majority (≥89%) of the 65 interviewed caregivers reported good access to routine healthcare, except for postnatal care (26%). Maternal HIV-testing was mostly done during the second and third pregnancy trimesters (69%). Maternal non-disclosure of HIV status was common (63%) and 83% of mothers reported a lack of psychosocial support. Routine infant HIV-testing was not done in 66%, and inadequate reporting on patient-held records (Road-to-Health Cards/Booklets) occurred frequently (74%). Children with symptomatic HIV disease were not investigated at primary healthcare in 53%, and in 68% of families the siblings were not tested. One-third of children (35%) had a previous HIV diagnosis, with 77% of caregivers aware of these prior results, while 50% acknowledged failing to attend ART services despite referral. In conclusion, a clear strategy on paediatric HIV case finding, especially at primary healthcare, is vital. Multiple barriers need to be overcome in the HIV care pathway to reach high uptake of services, of which especially maternal reasons for not attending paediatric ART services need further exploration.

  13. Oral health assessment and mouth care for children and young people receiving palliative care. Part one.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargeant, Stephanie; Chamley, Carol

    2013-03-01

    This is the first part of two articles exploring oral health problems and treatments for children receiving palliative care, successful management of which can improve considerably the quality of life for this group of children and young people. Part one includes an adapted oral health assessment tool for use in children and young people with complex and palliative healthcare needs that has the potential to help nurses identify and monitor oral health problems and prevent or minimise oral problems from developing. Part two--to be published next month--focuses on basic oral hygiene and the management of specific oral health problems.

  14. Risk Factors Associated with Children Lost to Care in a State Early Childhood Intervention Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannoni, Peggy P.; Kass, Philip H.

    2010-01-01

    A retrospective cohort study was conducted to identify risk factors associated with children lost to care, and their families, compared to those not lost to care within the California Early Start Program. The cohort included data on 8987 children enrolled in the Early Start Program in 1998. This cohort consisted of 2443 children lost to care, 6363…

  15. Oral health assessment and mouth care for children and young people receiving palliative care. Part two.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargeant, S; Chamley, C

    2013-04-01

    This is the second part of a two-part article on oral health assessment and mouth care for children and young people receiving palliative care. This article covers basic oral hygiene and management of oral health problems: oral candidiasis, coated tongue/dirty mouth, dry mouth, hypersalivation, ulceration, painful mouth, stomatitis and mucositis. The article also covers treating patients who are immunocompromised and the need to educate families and carers in the basic principles of oral care, including the importance of preventing cross-infection. Part one outlined oral assessment and discussed the adaptation of the Nottingham Oral Health Assessment Tool (Freer 2000).

  16. CLINICO EPIDEMIOLOGICAL PROFILE OF WILD ANIMAL BITE VICTIMS ATTENDING ANTI RABIES CLINIC AT GOVERNMENT TERTIARY CARE CENTRE IN MANDYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jahnavi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available : INTRODUCTION: Rabies is an acute viral disease that causes fatal encephalitis in virtually all the warm blooded animals including man. In India it is estimated that annually 17.4 million animal bite cases occur and 20, 000 deaths occur due to human rabies. Dogs are responsible for about 97%of the human rabies, followed by cats (2%, jackals, mongoose and others (1%. There is scarcity of literature regarding human rabies due to wild animals. OBJECTIVES: To describe the socio- demographic characteristics of wild animal bite victims attending Anti Rabies Clinic (ARC, Mandya Institute of Medical Sciences (MIMS, Mandya and to describe the circumstances, characteristics of bite and post exposure prophylactic measures taken to prevent rabies. METHODOLOGY: This hospital based case record analysis was done for a period of 3 years from January 2011 to December 2013 at Anti Rabies Clinic (ARC, Mandya Institute of Medical Sciences, Mandya. The details regarding the socio demographic characteristics of bite victims, characteristics of the bite wound and post exposure prophylactic measures taken to prevent rabies were collected using case records of wild animal bite victims. RESULTS: A total of 12, 798 animal bite victims had attended ARC during the study period, of which 67 (0.52% cases were exposed to wild animals. Of these 67 cases, 45 (67.2% of the victims were exposed to monkey and 13 (19.4% were exposed to wild boar. 45 (67.2% of the wild animal bite victims were in the age group of 15 to 60 years, 49 (73.1% were males and 22 (32.8% belonging to class IV socio economic status. Many of the monkey bites happened when the monkey was trying to snatch food from the victims and while other wild animal bites happened when the farmers were guarding their field. 40 (59.7% had bites on upper limb. 51 (76.1% had washed the wound with soap and water before coming to ARC. RIG was advised to all victims but was taken by 49 (73.1% of the bite victims. All four doses

  17. Preventive health care for mothers and children. A study in Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelley, D; Madeley, R J

    1983-12-01

    This study seeks to evaluate the delivery of preventive mother and child health services in Maputo, Mozambique. Mozambique has given priority to primary health care in the development of its new National Health Service, with a principal focus on maternal and child health (MCH). Three health centres were selected, from areas of contrasting urban ecology. Prenatal and under-fives' clinics were observed at each health centre. It was found that at a technical level the preventive services were operating efficiently, with a coverage of over two-thirds of the target population. However, frequency of attendance at both clinics was much lower in the poorer areas of the city. Additionally, it was observed that women and children identified as having a high risk status were rarely given more care and support. Nurses and midwives, frequently adopted an attitude more punitive than supportive to those most at risk. Notwithstanding these shortcomings, it is clear that significant advances in preventive MCH care are being achieved in a country where 6 years previously the only available health services were curative, and confined to the better-off urban districts.

  18. Hospice Care for Children With Cancer: Where Do These Children Die?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thienprayoon, Rachel; Lee, Simon C; Leonard, David; Winick, Naomi

    2015-07-01

    Hospice is an important provider of end of life care; many children who die of cancer enroll in hospice programs. How frequently such children remain in hospice to die at home, or disenroll from hospice and die in the hospital, has not been described. A child's location of death has important implications for quality of life and parental adaptation. This represents a subanalysis of a retrospective study of 202 consecutive oncology patients who died at a single center between January 1, 2006 and December 31, 2010. Of 95 children who enrolled in hospice, 82 had known location of death. Sixty (73%) died at home or an inpatient hospice unit, 15 (18%) died in the oncology unit, 5 (6%) died in the intensive care unit, and 2 (2%) died in the emergency department. The median length of hospice services was 41 days, twice the national median of 21 days reported in adults. One quarter of children disenrolled from hospice care, ultimately dying in an acute care setting. Further studies are warranted to explore the hospice experience in children, and to address modifiable factors that may impact a family's choice to withdraw from hospice care.

  19. Self-care 3 months after attending chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patient education: a qualitative descriptive analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mousing C

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Camilla Askov Mousing1, Kirsten Lomborg21School of Health Sciences, Randers School of Nursing, VIA University College, Randers, Denmark; 2Department of Public Health, Nursing Science, Aarhus University, Aarhus, DenmarkPurpose: The authors performed a qualitative descriptive analysis to explore how group patient education influences the self-care of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.Patients and methods: In the period 2009–2010, eleven patients diagnosed with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease completed an 8-week group education program in a Danish community health center. The patients were interviewed 3 months after completion of the program.Findings: Patients reported that their knowledge of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease had increased, that they had acquired tools to handle their symptoms, and that the social aspect of patient education had motivated them to utilize their new habits after finishing the course. The data indicate that patients need a period of adjustment (a "ripening period": it took time for patients to integrate new habits and competencies into everyday life. Talking to health care professionals focused the patients' attention on their newly acquired skills and the research interview made them more aware of their enhanced self-care.Conclusion: Patients' self-care may be enhanced through group education, even though the patients are not always able to see the immediate outcome. Some patients may require professional help to implement their newly acquired knowledge and skills in everyday life. A planned dialogue concentrating on self-care in everyday life 3 months after finishing the course may enhance patients' awareness and appraisal of their newly acquired competencies.Keywords: COPD, education program, patient knowledge, patient perspective, patient skills, ripening period

  20. Childhood Experiences: A Commitment to Caring and Care Work with Vulnerable Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brannen, Julia; Mooney, Ann; Statham, June

    2009-01-01

    This article draws upon biographical interview material from a mixed-method British study of workers caring for vulnerable children: residential social workers, family support workers, foster carers and community childminders. It has two aims: (1) to identify the contexts--the particular events, circumstances and life course phases--that…

  1. Effects of an Integrated Care System on quality of care and satisfaction for children with special health care needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Caprice; Madden, Vanessa; Sloyer, Phyllis; Shenkman, Elizabeth

    2012-04-01

    To assess the effects of an Integrated Care System (ICS) on parent-reported quality of care and satisfaction for Children with Special Health Care Needs (CSHCN). In 2006 Florida reformed its Medicaid program in Broward and Duval counties. Children's Medical Services Network (CMSN) chose to participate in the reform and developed an ICS for CSHCN. The ICS ushered in several changes such as more prior approval requirements and closing of the provider network. Telephone surveys were conducted with CMSN parents whose children reside in the reform counties and parents whose children reside outside of the reform counties in 2006 and 2007 (n = 1,727). Results from multivariate quasi-experimental models show that one component of parent-report quality of care, customer service, increased. Following implementation of the ICS, customer service increased by 0.22 points. After implementation of the ICS, parent-reported quality and satisfaction were generally unaffected. Although significant increases were not seen in the majority of the quality and satisfaction domains, it is nonetheless encouraging that parents did not report negative experiences with the ICS. It is important to present these interim findings so that progress can be monitored and decision-makers can begin to consider if the program should be expanded statewide.

  2. Anti-Toxocara antibodies detected in children attending elementary school in Vitoria, State of Espírito Santo, Brazil: prevalence and associated factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Paranhos Fragoso

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of anti-Toxocara antibodies in serum from 7-year-old children attending elementary school in Vitória-ES, Brazil and to correlate these antibodies with socio-demographic factors, the presence of intestinal helminths, blood eosinophil numbers, past history of allergy or asthma, and clinical manifestations of helminth infections. METHODS: The detection of anti-Toxocara antibodies was performed using an ELISA (Cellabs Pty Ltdon serum from 391 children who had already been examined by fecal examination and blood cell counts. Data from clinical and physical examinations were obtained for all children. RESULTS: The prevalence of anti-Toxocara antibodies was 51.6%, with no gender differences. No significant differences were observed between positive serology and the presence or absence of intestinal worms (60.3 and 51.7%, respectively; p = 0.286. The only variables significantly related to positive serology were onycophagy and the use of unfiltered water. Although eosinophilia (blood eosinophil count higher than 600/mm³ was significantly related to the presence of a positive ELISA result, this significance disappeared when we considered only children without worms or without a past history of allergy or asthma. No clinical symptoms related to Toxocara infection were observed. CONCLUSIONS: There is a high prevalence of anti-Toxocara antibodies in children attending elementary schools in Vitória, which may be partially related to cross-reactivity with intestinal helminths or to a high frequency of infection with a small number of Toxocara eggs.

  3. Screening for psychosocial problems in children attending the pediatric clinic at king Khalid university hospital (KKUH in Riyadh (KSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim H Al-Ayed

    2008-01-01

    Conclusion: This study revealed the feasibility of screening for behavioral problems of children in an outpatient setting. It is necessary to implement screening procedures for psycho-behavioral problems, and train pediatricians to screen children presenting at clinics.

  4. VERTEBRAL DEFORMITY IN CHILDREN AND DISPENSARY CARE ORGANIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. T. Batrshin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to analyze the prevalence of spine deformation pathology and the state of vertebral children care screening of 18 500 schoolchildren was conducted by computer optical topography. In 79.5% of them the posture disturbances and in 14.5% - spinal deformity were detected. The multivariate analysis of vertebral deformity was performed. It is established that vertebral deformity till 10° on Coob has usually monoplane form, and more than 10° - only multiplane form. Dispensary health groups were formed, screening program for children with subsequent monitoring was proposed.

  5. The Role of Care Coordinator for Children with Complex Care Needs: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rowan Hillis

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This systematic review seeks to identify the intended components of the role of care coordinator for children with complex care needs and the factors that determine its composition in practice. Theory and methods: The initial search identified 1,157 articles, of which 37 met the inclusion criteria. They were quality assessed using the SIGN hierarchy of evidence structure. Results: Core components of the role include: coordination of care needs, planning and assessment, specialist support, emotional support, administration and logistics and continuing professional development. Influencing factors on the role include the external environment (political and socio-economic, the internal environment (organisational structure and funding protocols, the skills, qualifications and experience of the coordinator, the family circumstances and the nature of the interaction between the care coordinator and the family. Discussion: The lack of consistent terminology creates challenges and there is a need for greater consensus on this issue. Organisations and healthcare professionals need to recognise the extent to which contextual factors influence the role of a care coordinator in practice and plan accordingly. Despite evidence that suggests that the role is pivotal in ensuring that care needs are sustained, there remains great variability in the understanding of the role of a care coordinator for this population. Conclusions: As the provision of care increasingly moves closer to home there is a need for greater understanding of the nature and composition of the interaction between care coordinators and families to determine the extent to which appropriate services are being provided. Further work in this area should take into consideration any potential variance in service provision, for example any potential inequity arising due to geographic location. It is also imperative, where appropriate, to seek the views of children with complex care

  6. The Mental Health of Children of Migrant Workers in Beijing: The Protective Role of Public School Attendance

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Qin; Li, Hong; Zou, Hong; Cross, Wendi; Bian, Ran; Liu, Yan

    2015-01-01

    The present study aims to understand the mental health status of an understudied group of migrant children—children of migrant workers in China. A total of 1466 children from Beijing participated in the study that compared migrant children (n = 1019) to their local peers (n = 447) in public and private school settings. Results showed that overall, migrant children reported more internalizing and externalizing mental health problems and lower life satisfaction than local peers. However, public...

  7. Pneumococcal carriage in children in The Netherlands: a molecular epidemiological study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Bogaert (Debby); M.N. Engelen (Marlene); A.J. Timmers-Reker; K.P. Elzenaar; P.G. Peerbooms; R.A. Coutinho (Roel); R. de Groot (Ronald); P.W.M. Hermans (Peter)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractIn 1999, Engelen and coworkers investigated colonization in Amsterdam among 259 children attending 16 day-care centers (DCCs) and among 276 children who did not attend day-care centers (NDCCs). A 1.6- to 3.4-fold increased risk for nasopharyngeal colonization was observ

  8. Sleep-Wake Cycle, Daytime Sleepiness, and Attention Components in Children Attending Preschool in the Morning and Afternoon Shifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belísio, Aline S.; Kolodiuk, Fernanda F.; Louzada, Fernando M.; Valdez, Pablo; Azevedo, Carolina V. M.

    2017-01-01

    Children tend to sleep and wake up early and to exhibit daytime sleep episodes. To evaluate the impact of school start times on sleepiness and attention in preschool children, this study compared the temporal patterns of sleep, daytime sleepiness, and the components of attention between children aged 4-6 years that study in the morning (n = 66)…

  9. DRUG SAFETY MONITORING IN PATIENTS ATTENDING EPILEPSY CLINIC IN A TERTIARY CARE TEACHING HOSPITAL IN RURAL BENGAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sourav

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Epilepsy is the second most common neurological disorder affecting fifty million people globally. Antiepileptic Drugs (AEDs are the mainstay of management in epilepsy. Use of AEDs over prolonged duration makes occurrence of multiple Adverse Drug Reactions (ADRs frequently, especially with polytherapy. OBJECTIVES To estimate the incidence of all the ADRs among patients taking AEDs and to assess their causalities and to quantify their severity. MATERIAL AND METHODS This prospective, observational study was carried out at an Outpatient Referral Epilepsy Clinic at Neurology Department at Bankura Sammilani Medical College, West Bengal, between 1st June and 30th September 2015. The demographic data, diagnosis, drugs prescribed and ADRs experienced by the patients were recorded. Causality and severity assessment was done using Naranjo’s Scale and Hartwig’s Severity Assessment Scale respectively. RESULTS Incidence of ADRs among the patients who attended the clinic was 3.3% (105 patients among 3146 experienced at least one ADR. Total 161 ADRs were detected, among which 55.3% were CNS adverse events followed by 15.5% gastrointestinal, 14.3% endocrine, 10.6% psychiatric abnormalities and 4.3% related to dermatological and allergic manifestations. Nearly one-third of the ADRs (32.3% were found to be possible and 109 (67.7% are of probable category, whereas none were deemed to be doubtful or definite. The most commonly implicated suspect drug was valproate (51.5% followed by Phenytoin (22.9%. Most of the ADRs were mild (93.2%, 5.6% were moderate and only 1.2% were deemed severe. CONCLUSION Incidence of ADRs is found to be common in patients on AEDs. Though rare, but they can be life-threatening. Routine safety assessments and pharmacovigilance is necessary in this set up to reduce the incidence and also improve pharmacotherapy and patient compliance

  10. Genital mycoplasmas in semen samples of males attending a tertiary care hospital in Nigeria: any role in sperm count reduction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbakoba, N R; Adetosoye, A I; Ikechebelu, J I

    2007-06-01

    Semen samples from 54 married men attending the outpatient clinics for problems of infertility and routine semen analysis were examined for the presence of genital mycoplasmas. The mean age of the men was 36.1 years with a range of 25 55 years. Majority of the men 57.4% (31 of 54) were in their fourth decade of life (30 39 years). This age group also had the highest percentage 57.2% (8 of 14) of positive isolates of genital mycoplasmas on semen culture. A total of 21 organisms obtained from 14 (26.0%) positive samples were isolated. Mycoplasma and Ureaplasma spp. separately isolated from the samples yielded frequencies of 1 (1.9%) and 6 (11.1%) respectively and the remaining 7 (13.0%) samples were infected with both organisms. A breakdown of the mycoplasma species include 5 (23.8%) M. hominis, 2 (9.5%) M. fermentans and 1 (4.8%) M. penetrans. Apart from one isolate of M. hominis other Mycoplasma species were found in association with Ureaplasma species. Fifteen (71.4%) of the 21 isolates [8 (53.3%) ureaplasmas and 7 (46.7%) mycoplasmas] were isolated from samples with sperm counts less than 20 million/ml while the remaining 6 (21.6%) isolates [5 (83.3%) ureaplasmas and 1 (16.7) mycoplasma] were from samples with counts greater than 20 million/ml. This finding could indicate a possible influence of genital mycoplasmas especially mycoplasmas species on sperm count.

  11. What drives prescribing of asthma medication to preschool wheezing children? A primary care study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montella, Silvia; Baraldi, Eugenio; Bruzzese, Dario; Mirra, Virginia; Di Giorgio, Angela; Santamaria, Francesca

    2013-12-01

    There is limited information on which data primary care pediatricians (PCPs) use to decide whether to prescribe or not asthma maintenance treatment, and what drives prescribing a specific therapy. The study aim was to investigate how prescribing anti-asthma maintenance treatment to preschool wheezing children is influenced by patient, family, environmental, and PCP characteristics. We conducted a cross-sectional study at 32 PCPs sites in Campania, Italy. Medical, family, and environmental information of 376 preschool wheezy children, and characteristics of the enrolled PCPs were collected. Main outcome measures of multilevel multivariate logistic regression analyses were the prescribing of maintenance treatment, and the prescription of a combined therapy as opposed to monotherapy. Variables significantly associated with long-term inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) and/or leukotriene modifiers prescription included frequent wheezing (OR = 7.19), emergency department (ED) visits (OR = 2.21), personal allergic diseases (OR = 8.49), day-care/kindergarten attendance (OR = 2.67), a high PCP prescribing volume (OR = 2.74), and a low proportion of 0- to 5-year-old patients with wheezing diagnosis (OR = 1.16). Leukotriene modifiers plus ICS were much more likely prescribed than ICS or leukotriene modifiers alone to older children (OR = 1.06) and to patients experiencing frequent wheezing (OR = 3.00), ED visits (OR = 3.12), or tobacco smoke exposure during the first 2 years of life (OR = 2.04). Finally, PCP's characteristics significantly associated with ICS plus leukotriene modifiers prescription were group practice (OR = 4.16) and a high prescribing volume (OR = 1.45). Our findings suggest that child characteristics alone are not sufficient to explain how PCPs decide to prescribe maintenance treatment and which therapy to assign, but variables associated to PCPs are crucial as well.

  12. [Nursing care for children undergoing percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Mei-Jung; Lin, Chieh-Chung; Cheng, Shue-Lin

    2004-06-01

    Ever since percutaneous endoscopic gastronomy (PEG) was used for the first time in 1980 by Gauderer, Ponsky, Izant et al., It has been widely used in patients incapable of oral feeding. It is a safe and effective technique for long-term nutritional support in children, and easy to perform, as only local anesthesia or heavy sedation is required PEG can prevent children from suffering from nasopharyngeal and esophageal erosions due to repeated insertion of nasogastric tubes and the complication of aspiration pneumonia. It is therefore an alternative for children who need long-term feeding. In this article we review the literature on PEG and give a full description of its indications, complications, as well as advice on when to change gastrostomy tubes, and on nursing care, in the hope that this will be useful reference material for medical staff.

  13. [The art of clown theater in care for hospitalized children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima, Regina Aparecida Garcia; Azevedo, Eliete Farias; Nascimento, Lucila Castanheira; Rocha, Semiramis Melani Melo

    2009-03-01

    Hospitalization can be a very traumatic experience for children and their family members. The purpose of this study was to explore the experience of using clown theater art in the care for hospitalized children, starting with an activity developed by undergraduate students in the healthcare area. Data were obtained by observing 20 children and 11 students, characters in the clown theater interacting in the pediatric clinic in a school hospital in the state of São Paulo. The empirical data were analyzed with the thematic content analysis, which were grouped around the following themes: artistic expressions as a form of communication, participation of the binomial child and accompanying partner, and the clown as a therapeutic resource. The results show that this experience was a concrete intervention, emphasizing the children's development process, since it opens up a space for fantasy, laughter, happiness and the appropriation of the hospital routine; it is an example of widening the diagnostic and therapeutic process with the incorporation of intervention focusing on the affective, emotional and cultural necessities of the child and the family, in the search for non-traumatic care.

  14. Assessment of social, demographic determinants and oral hygiene practices in relation to dental caries among the children attending Anganwadis of Hingna, Nagpur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shweta Suresh Bhayade

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In developing countries, dental caries is the most common disease of the early childhood. Its increased prevalence in younger age group have been predictive of oral health problems in future, affecting oral health and development leading to several morbid conditions of oral and general health. Prevalence and incidence of dental caries is highly influenced by a number of risk factors such as gender, age, socioeconomic status, dietary patterns, and oral hygiene habits. Aim: To assess social, demographic determinants and oral hygiene practices in relation to dental caries among the children attending Anganwadis of Hingna, Nagpur. Materials and Methodology: A cross sectional study in 27 Anganwadis of Hingna, Nagpur was carried out over a period of two months and a total of 324 subjects attending the Anganwadis were enrolled. Social, demographic and oral hygiene practices in relation to dental caries were assessed in the study population. Results: Out of 324 subjects, 206 had dental caries and 38 were found to be malnourished. A significant association was found among age, malnutrition, parent′s educational status, oral hygiene practices, total number of siblings, and dental caries. Conclusion: Anganwadis should be addressed routinely on effective oral and general health promoting strategies which must include education of parents, oral and general health issues, risk factors for dental caries, and malnutrition in children below 5 years of age.

  15. Psychiatric morbidity in married females living away from their spouses attending the psychiatry clinic in a tertiary care, teaching hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirza Ghazanfar Baig

    2015-08-01

    The factors such as social support from family and friends, the stay of the study group with parents or in-laws, and duration of pre-separation, the study proved that there is no significant difference exists on the marital quality of the study group based on these factors. Conclusions: The numbers of females who were separated from their spouses are more likely to have psychiatric illnesses due the additional work load of looking after the children and managing the household activities. The study also found that the females staying with their parents after the separation from their spouses were less likely to have a severe psychiatric morbidity as they felt comfortable due the cooperation from their parents. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(8.000: 2086-2092

  16. [Family Health Program and children palliative care: listening the relatives of technology dependent children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabello, Cláudia Azevedo Ferreira Guimarães; Rodrigues, Paulo Henrique de Almeida

    2010-03-01

    This study discusses the creation of a new children palliative care program based on the Family Health Program, considering the level of care at home and yielding to family requests. The study focused on eighteen members of nine families of technology dependent children (TDC) who were hospital patients at Instituto Fernandes Figueira (IFF): four who are being assisted by its palliative care program Programa de Assistência Domiciliar Interdisciplinar (PADI); three who were inpatients waiting for inclusion in the Program, and finally two inpatients already included in PADI. PADI was chosen because it is the only child palliative care program in Brazil. The results are positive in regards to the connection established between the families and the health care team, the reception of the children, the explanation to the family concerning the disease, and the functional dynamics between the PADI and IFF. As negative points, difficulties arose as a result of the implementation of the program, from its continuity to the worsening or illness of the entire family. In conclusion, although the PADI is the IFF's way of discharging patients, the domiciliary cares taken by the Family Health Program, well articulated with the healthcare system, would be ideal for being the adequate assistance for such.

  17. Attributes of advanced practice registered nurse care coordination for children with medical complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cady, Rhonda G; Kelly, Anne M; Finkelstein, Stanley M; Looman, Wendy S; Garwick, Ann W

    2014-01-01

    Care coordination is an essential component of the pediatric health care home. This study investigated the attributes of relationship-based advanced practice registered nurse care coordination for children with medical complexity enrolled in a tertiary hospital-based health care home. Retrospective review of 2,628 care coordination episodes conducted by telehealth over a consecutive 3-year time period for 27 children indicated that parents initiated the majority of episodes and the most frequent reason was acute and chronic condition management. During this period, care coordination episodes tripled, with a significant increase (p care coordination model has potential for changing the health management processes for children with medical complexity.

  18. Identity of care in a Psychosocial Care Center for Children and Adolescents who uses drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabella Teixeira Bastos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective To associate the territory of identity with the production of care within a PCC focusing on children and adolescents with drug abuse and their institutional identity. Method We used the “ process tracing methodology” in four research categories: focus groups, characterization of professionals, observing the everyday and interviewing two members of emblematic cases of the service. Results territory of identity of the institution, which operates the production of care is crossed by the difficulty of dealing with the complexity brought by the users and the performance of the PCC network. This paper is also permeated by different conceptions of care and small problematization of these issues in collective spaces of service. Conclusion The discussion in focus groups and other devices can be powerful resources to reframe the meaning of care and identity of collective service.

  19. Determinants of anemia among pregnant mothers attending antenatal care in Dessie town health facilities, northern central Ethiopia, unmatched case -control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seid, Omer; G/Mariam, Yemane; Fekadu, Abel; Wasihun, Yitbarek; Endris, Kedir; Bitew, Abebayehu

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Anemia affects around 38.2% and 22% of pregnant women at a global and national level respectively. In developing countries, women start pregnancy with already depleted body stores of iron and other vitamins with significant variation of anemia within and between regions. Objective To identify the determinants of anemia among pregnant mothers attending antenatal care in Dessie town health facilities, northern central Ethiopia. Methods A health facility based unmatched case control study was conducted among 112 cases and 336 controls from January to March 2016 G.C. The sample size was determined by using Epi Info version 7.1.5.2. Study subjects were selected using consecutive sampling technique. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire, entered using Epi Data version 3.1 and analyzed using SPSS version 20. Bivariable and multivariable logistic regression model was used to see the determinants of anemia. Adjusted odds ratio (AOR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) and p-valueanemia. Conclusions Inadequate intake of dark green leafy vegetables, inadequate consumption of chicken, trimester of the current pregnancy, HIV infection and medication were the determinants of anemia among pregnant women. Therefore, anemia prevention strategy should include promotion of adequate intake of dark green leafy vegetables and chicken, increase meal pattern during the entire pregnancy and strengthen the prevention of mother to child HIV transmission/antenatal care programs. PMID:28288159

  20. Blood glucose control and medication adherence among adult type 2 diabetic Nigerians attending a primary care clinic in under-resourced environment of eastern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iloh GU Pascal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite the evidence that goal blood glucose control reduces preventable emergency hospitalizations, the control of blood glucose has been variable in Nigeria. Aim: The study was designed to determine the blood glucose control and medication adherence among adult type 2 diabetic Nigerians attending a primary care clinic in under-resourced environment of Eastern Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out on 120 adult type 2 diabetic patients who were on treatment for at least 3 months at the primary care clinic of Federal Medical Centre, Umuahia. A patient was said to have a goal blood glucose control if the fasting blood glucose was 70-130 mg/dL. Adherence was assessed in the previous 30 days using pretested, interviewer-administered questionnaire on self-reported therapy. Operationally, an adherent patient was one who scored 4 points in the previous 30 days. The reasons for non-adherence were documented. Results: The blood glucose control and medication adherence rates were 61.7% and 72.5%, respectively. Blood glucose control was significantly associated with adherence to treatment (P=0.025 and medication duration ≥3 years (P=0.045. The most common reason for non-adherence was financial constraints (P=0.033. Conclusion: Glycaemic control and medication adherence among the study population were good and should constitute logical targets for intervention.

  1. Prevalence of Anemia and Associated Risk Factors among Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Care in Azezo Health Center Gondar Town, Northwest Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meseret Alem

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background: Anemia is a global public health problem affecting both developing and developed countries; approximately 1.3 billion individuals suffer from it. Pregnant women are the most vulnerable groups to anemia. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and risk factors for anemia in pregnant women attending antenatal care in Azezo Health Center, Gondar town, Northwest Ethiopia. Method: A cross-sectional study was conducted at Azezo Health Center from February to May 2011. Red blood cell morphology, Hgb level determination and intestinal parasites were assessed following the standard procedures. Socio-demographic data was collected by using a structured questionnaire. The data entered and analyzed by using the SPSS version 16.0 statistical software. P34, rural residence, history of malaria attack, hookworm infection and absence of iron supplements are significantly associated with increased risk of anemia. The most prevalent intestinal parasite among pregnant women was hookworm 18 (4.7%. Conclusion: In the present study, the prevalence of anemia was low when compared with the previous studies carried out in different countries including Ethiopia. More should be done in respect to the importance of regular visit to maternal care centres and health education promotion programs to succeed more. [J Interdiscipl Histopathol 2013; 1(3.000: 137-144

  2. Structural Determinants of Antiretroviral Therapy Use, HIV Care Attendance, and Viral Suppression among Adolescents and Young Adults Living with HIV.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoshana Y Kahana

    Full Text Available The authors examined associations between structural characteristics and HIV disease management among a geographically diverse sample of behaviorally and perinatally HIV-infected adolescents and young adults in the United States.The sample included 1891 adolescents and young adults living with HIV (27.8% perinatally infected; 72.2% behaviorally infected who were linked to care through 20 Adolescent Medicine Trials Network for HIV/AIDS Interventions Units. All completed audio computer-assisted self-interview surveys. Chart abstraction or blood draw provided viral load data. Geographic-level variables were extracted from the United States Census Bureau (e.g., socioeconomic disadvantage, percent of Black and Latino households, percent rural and Esri Crime (e.g., global crime index databases as Zip Code Tabulation Areas. AIDSVu data (e.g., prevalence of HIV among youth were extracted at the county-level. Using HLM v.7, the authors conducted means-as-outcomes random effects multi-level models to examine the association between structural-level and individual-level factors and (1 being on antiretroviral therapy (ART currently; (2 being on ART for at least 6 months; (3 missed HIV care appointments (not having missed any vs. having missed one or more appointments over the past 12 months; and (4 viral suppression (defined by the corresponding assay cutoff for the lower limit of viral load at each participating site which denoted nondetectability vs. detectability.Frequencies for the 4 primary outcomes were as follows: current ART use (n = 1120, 59.23%; ART use for ≥6 months (n = 861, 45.53%; at least one missed HIV care appointment (n = 936, 49.50; and viral suppression (n = 577, 30.51%. After adjusting for individual-level factors, youth living in more disadvantaged areas (defined by a composite score derived from 2010 Census indicators including percent poverty, percent receiving public assistance, percent of female, single-headed households, percent

  3. Perceived barriers in accessing dental care among patients attending dental institute using decision-making trial and evaluation laboratory method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravneet Malhi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Utilization of dental service is a concept of expressing the extent of interaction between the service provider and the people for whom it is indented. However, one of the major issues in social welfare is the equitable provision of these services to the population. Aim: To determine the perceived barriers affecting access to the dental services in the dental institute. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in the dental institute during the month of February in the year 2014 using decision-making trial and evaluation laboratory (DEMATEL method. The study sample included the 364 subjects. The required data were collected using a specially designed and pretested questionnaire. The data were analyzed using SPSS 18.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA and MATLAB 7.6.0. The mean, standard deviations were used to describe the data, and inferential statistics included one-way ANOVA and DEMATEL. Results: The five determinants of cost, inconvenience, fear, organization, and patient-dentist relationship were determined as barriers to access dental services. Based on subjects′ responses to the questions, the cost (54.75% agreed or strongly agreed was identified as the most important factor affecting the access to dental health care followed by dentist-patient relationship (48.57%, inconvenience (36.55%, fear (23.70%, and organization (14.02%. The difference was found to be statistically significant (P = 0.0001. When the hierarchy of the affecting and affected factors was calculated, based on the factor analysis by using DEMATEL method, the cost (R−J = 0.16 and organization (R−J = 1.15, were certain affecting determinant which influenced the access to dental services and inconvenience. Conclusion: The major barriers to oral health care utilization among our patients were cost, fear, and organization. Policymakers, administrators, and insurance organizations have a major role. Hence, the policies should be fair and

  4. Unhappiness with the Fetal Gender is associated with Depression in Adult Pregnant Women Attending Prenatal Care in a Public Hospital in Durango, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Sifuentes-Alvarez, Antonio; Salas-Martinez, Carlos

    2016-03-01

    Depression during pregnancy has been scantily studied in Mexican women. We aimed to determine the prevalence and correlates of depression in adult pregnant women attending a public hospital in the northern Mexican city of Durango, Mexico. Through a cross-sectional study design, we assessed depression in 270 adult pregnant women attended for prenatal care in a public hospital using a validated Mexican version of the Edinburg Postnatal Depression Scale in pregnancy and further confirmation by a psychiatric evaluation using the DSM-IV criteria for depression. Prevalence association with socio-demographic, clinical and psychosocial characteristics of the pregnant women was also investigated. Of the 270 pregnant women studied, 101 (37.4%) had EPDS scores equal to or higher than nine. Depression was confirmed in 56 (20.7%) women. Of them, 42 suffered from minor depression and 14 from major depression. Multivariate analysis of socio-demographic, clinical and psychosocial characteristics of the women showed that depression was associated with depression before pregnancy (OR = 3.36; 95% CI: 1.20-9.40; P=0.02), anxiety during pregnancy (OR = 9.38; 95% CI: 1.87-46.96; P=0.006), smoking (OR = 25.05; 95% CI: 1.77-353.07; P=0.01), unhappy with the fetal sex (OR = 8.53; 95% CI: 2.46-29.48; Pwomen studied had confirmed depression. This is the first report of an association of prenatal depression with unhappiness with the fetal sex. Factors associated with prenatal depression found in this study may help for the optimal design of preventive measures against prenatal depression.

  5. MAGNITUDE AND CAUSES OF VISUAL IMPAIRMENT AND BLINDNESS AMONG CHILDREN ATTENDING PAEDIATRIC EYE CLINIC AT SANTHIRAM MEDICAL COLLEGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeeva Kumar

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The number of blind years resulting from blindness in children is alarmingly high. Blindness in children can have a significant impact on their performance at school as well as their social interaction and future employment as visually impaired children have a long lifetime of blindness ahead of them. The consequences of visual impairment and blindness in children are an important public health issues with greater impact in developing countries, where 80% of the blindness in children occurs. The control of blindness in children is considered a high priority area within the World Health Organization’s VISION 2020 initiative. However many developing countries do not have the accurate information about the magnitude and causes of visual impairment and blindness in children, from which the scope and priorities for prevention and treatment can be identified. To date the established Pediatric Eye Clinic, which works as a Tertiary Eye Centre does not have baseline data on the magnitude and causes of visual impairment and blindness in children.

  6. PREVALENCE OF VEROCYTOTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA-COLI SEROTYPE O157H7 IN CHILDREN WITH DIARRHEA ATTENDING A SYDNEY HOSPITAL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ONG, J; ROBINSBROWNE, R; GAPES, M; OLOUGHLIN, EV

    1993-01-01

    Verotoxin producing Escherichia coli, in particular serotype O157:H7, have been implicated as an important cause of acute gastroenteritis in children. This study was undertaken to determine if E.coli O157:H7 is an important cause of acute gastroenteritis in children in metropolitan Sydney. During th

  7. Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Attend Typically to Faces and Objects Presented within Their Picture Communication Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie-Smith, K.; Riby, D. M.; Hancock, P. J. B.; Doherty-Sneddon, G.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) may require interventions for communication difficulties. One type of intervention is picture communication symbols which are proposed to improve comprehension of linguistic input for children with ASD. However, atypical attention to faces and objects is widely reported across the autism…

  8. Comparison of four diagnostic techniques for detection of Trichomonas vaginalis infection in females attending tertiary care hospital of North India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razia Khatoon

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Trichomonas vaginalis causes a common sexually transmitted disease trichomoniasis, which may lead to increased risk of transmission of human immunodeficiency virus infection and other pelvic inflammatory diseases. Wet mount examination is the most common test for diagnosis, but it has low sensitivity. Acridine orange staining can be used for diagnosis, but it requires special microscopic facility. Culture is considered as the gold standard, but it takes a long time for diagnosis. OSOM Trichomonas Rapid Test is a recently introduced rapid method based on immunochromatographic assay of trichomonal protein antigens. Hence, the present study was done to compare these four diagnostic techniques for detection of trichomoniasis in females with vaginal discharge. Materials and Methods: Vaginal swabs were taken from 835 female patients and wet mount examination, acridine orange staining, culture in Kupferberg medium, and OSOM Trichomonas Rapid Test, were performed. Results: Out of 835 patients included in our study, 68 (8.1% positive cases of trichomoniasis were detected by culture. OSOM Trichomonas Rapid Test detected 63 (7.5% cases, acridine orange staining detected 53 (6.3% cases, whereas, wet mount examination detected only 45 (5.4% positive cases. OSOM Trichomonas Rapid Test performed well and showed high sensitivity and specificity of 88.2% and 99.6%, respectively. Conclusion: As OSOM Trichomonas Rapid Test is a point of care test and gave better results than both wet mount examination and acridine orange staining; it can be used as a routine test in peripheral areas lacking laboratory facilities.

  9. Seeing is believing - reducing misconceptions about children's hospice care through effective teaching with undergraduate nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Jayne; Dornan, Jean; Quail, Lorraine

    2013-09-01

    Children's palliative care has evolved in recent years and is now recognised as a distinct area of health and social care practice. Whilst children's hospices are viewed as central to quality care for these children and families, lack of knowledge regarding the exact nature of care they provide exists. Education can go part way to changing attitudes and knowledge about the key contribution of hospices, thus improving future care. Alternative and innovative strategies to stimulate meaningful learning are pivotal to children's nurse education and this paper examines one such innovation adopted with 2nd year children's nursing students. Aiming to help students explore the ethos of children's hospice an educational visit was arranged, followed by an on line discussion. Although some practical challenges were encountered, the visit heightened student awareness moving them from the readily held perception that children's hospices were exclusively for dying children and was viewed by students as more effective than a traditional classroom session.

  10. Child Care Quality and Children's Cognitive and Socio-Emotional Development: An Australian Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gialamas, Angela; Mittinty, Murthy N.; Sawyer, Michael G.; Zubrick, Stephen R.; Lynch, John

    2014-01-01

    There is growing evidence that high-quality non-parental child care can contribute to children's learning, development and successful transition to school. Research examining the quality of child care and the effect on children's development is not well documented outside the USA. We used data from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children to…

  11. Parental Book Reading and Social-Emotional Outcomes for Head Start Children in Foster Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyunghee; Lee, Jung-Sook

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the associations between parental book reading and social-emotional outcomes for Head Start children in foster care. Despite no main Head Start impact on parental book reading, subgroup effects were found. Foster parents in Head Start provided more book reading for children with disabilities but less for children with low preacademic scores. Head Start enhanced social-emotional outcomes for children in foster care. The positive impacts of Head Start on children's social-emotional outcomes were greater when parents read books frequently. Head Start should include more foster families and provided parenting skills to enhance social-emotional outcomes for children in foster care.

  12. Prevalence, correlates, attitude and treatment seeking of erectile dysfunction among type 2 diabetic Chinese men attending primary care outpatient clinics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wai Hon Lo; Sau Nga Fu; Carlos King Ho Wong; Ee San Chen

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the prevalence, correlates, attitude and treatment seeking behavior of erectile dysfunction(ED) in type2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients in the primary care setting, a multi‑center cross‑sectional survey using a structured anonymous self‑administered questionnaire was performed in 10 general outpatient clinics. Of the 603 subjects(91% response rate), the prevalence of ED men, as deifned by the International Index of Erectile Function, was 79.1%. Most subjects had mild ED(28.9%), followed by mild‑to‑moderate ED(27.9%), then moderate ED(13.4%) and severe ED(9%). Nearly 55% of those with ED did not consider themselves as having ED. Less than 10% of them had ever sought medical treatment, although 76.1% of them wished to receive management from doctor(s) should they be diagnosed with ED. They considered the most important management from doctors to be clinical assessment(41.7%), followed by management of potential underlying cause(37.8%), referral to specialist(27.5%), education(23.9%), prescription of phosphodiesterase type5 inhibitors(16.9%) and referral to counseling service(6.7%). The prevalence of ED was strongly associated with subjects who thought they had ED(odds ratio(OR)= 90.49(20.00–409.48, P<0.001)) and were from the older age group(OR=1.043(1.011–1.076,P=0.008)). In conclusion, ED is highly prevalent among T2DM men. The majority of them wanted management from doctors should they have ED, but only a minority would actually voice out the request. Screening of ED among T2DM men using structural questionnaire allowed the diagnosis of more than half of the ED cases, which otherwise would have gone undiagnosed.

  13. Out of hours care: a profile analysis of patients attending the emergency department and the general practitioner on call

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buylaert Walter

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Overuse of emergency departments (ED is of concern in Western society and it is often referred to as 'inappropriate' use. This phenomenon may compromise efficient use of health care personnel, infrastructure and financial resources of the ED. To redirect patients, an extensive knowledge of the experiences and attitudes of patients and their choice behaviour is necessary. The aim of this study is to quantify the patients and socio-economical determinants for choosing the general practitioner (GP on call or the ED. Methods Data collection was conducted simultaneously in 4 large cities in Belgium. All patients who visited EDs or used the services of the GP on call during two weekends in January 2005 were enrolled in the study in a prospective manner. We used semi-structured questionnaires to interview patients from both services. Results 1611 patient contacts were suitable for further analysis. 640 patients visited the GP and 971 went to the ED. Determinants that associated with the choice of the ED are: being male, having visited the ED during the past 12 months at least once, speaking another language than Dutch or French, being of African (sub-Saharan as well as North African nationality and no medical insurance. We also found that young men are more likely to seek help at the ED for minor trauma, compared to women. Conclusions Patients tend to seek help at the service they are acquainted with. Two populations that distinctively seek help at the ED for minor medical problems are people of foreign origin and men suffering minor trauma. Aiming at a redirection of patients, special attention should go to these patients. Informing them about the health services' specific tasks and the needlessness of technical examinations for minor trauma, might be a useful intervention.

  14. Patient- and family-centered care coordination: a framework for integrating care for children and youth across multiple systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    Understanding a care coordination framework, its functions, and its effects on children and families is critical for patients and families themselves, as well as for pediatricians, pediatric medical subspecialists/surgical specialists, and anyone providing services to children and families. Care coordination is an essential element of a transformed American health care delivery system that emphasizes optimal quality and cost outcomes, addresses family-centered care, and calls for partnership across various settings and communities. High-quality, cost-effective health care requires that the delivery system include elements for the provision of services supporting the coordination of care across settings and professionals. This requirement of supporting coordination of care is generally true for health systems providing care for all children and youth but especially for those with special health care needs. At the foundation of an efficient and effective system of care delivery is the patient-/family-centered medical home. From its inception, the medical home has had care coordination as a core element. In general, optimal outcomes for children and youth, especially those with special health care needs, require interfacing among multiple care systems and individuals, including the following: medical, social, and behavioral professionals; the educational system; payers; medical equipment providers; home care agencies; advocacy groups; needed supportive therapies/services; and families. Coordination of care across settings permits an integration of services that is centered on the comprehensive needs of the patient and family, leading to decreased health care costs, reduction in fragmented care, and improvement in the patient/family experience of care.

  15. Advances in the care of children with lupus nephritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenderfer, Scott E; Ruth, Natasha M; Brunner, Hermine I

    2017-01-04

    The care of children with lupus nephritis (LN) has changed dramatically over the past 50 y. The majority of patients with childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus (cSLE) develop LN. In the 1960's, prognosis in children was worse than in adults; therapies were limited and toxic. Nearly half of cases resulted in death within 2 y. Since this time, several diagnostic recommendations and disease-specific indices have been developed to assist physicians caring for patients with LN. Pediatric researchers are validating and adapting these indices and guidelines for the treatment of LN in cSLE. Classification systems, activity, and chronicity indices for kidney biopsy have been validated in pediatric cohorts in several countries. Implementation of contemporary immunosuppressive agents has reduced treatment toxicity and improved outcomes. Biomarkers sensitive to LN in children have been identified in the kidney, urine, and blood. Multi-institutional collaborative networks have formed to address the challenges of pediatric LN research. Considerable variation in evaluation and treatment has been addressed for proliferative forms of LN by development of consensus treatment practices. Patient survival at 5 y is now 95-97% and renal survival exceeds 90%. Moreover, international consensus exists for quality indicators for cSLE that consider the unique aspects of chronic disease in childhood.Pediatric Research (2017); doi:10.1038/pr.2016.247.

  16. Younger Children's (Three to Five Years) Perceptions of Being in a Health-Care Situation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stålberg, Anna; Sandberg, Anette; Söderbäck, Maja

    2016-01-01

    Younger children are common users of health-care services. Their perspective on a health-care situation and their ways of communication differ from that of adults. There is a shortness of research of younger children's perceptions of health-care situations. The knowledge that exists indicates the importance of involving the child's perspective to…

  17. Spirometry in primary care for children with asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banasiak, Nancy Cantey

    2014-01-01

    Spirometry is an essential part of diagnosing a child with asthma. The National Asthma Education and Prevention Program (NAEPP) and the Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) expert panels recommend spirometry to be performed on children five years of age and older as an objective assessment of lung function, to diagnosis asthma, and for ongoing yearly management of asthma (GINA, 2012; NAEPP, 2007). According to the NAEPP expert panel, history and physical examination alone are not reliable to accurately diagnose asthma, exclude alternative diagnosis, or determine lung impairment (NAEPP, 2007 Dombkowski, Hassan, Wasilevich, and Clark (2010) found 52% of physicians who provide primary care to children used spirometry, but only 21% used spirometry according to the national guidelines, and only 35% of physicians surveyed were comfortable interpreting the test results. Zanconato, Meneghelli, Braga, Zacchello, and Baraldi (2005) found that 21% of spirometry readings were interpreted incorrectly, concluding that proper training and quality control were important to provide if spirometry in the primary care office setting is to be used. The purpose of this article is to review the appropriate use of spirometry in pediatric primary care.

  18. Home telehealth for children with special health-care needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cady, Rhonda; Kelly, Anne; Finkelstein, Stanley

    2008-01-01

    The U Special Kids (USK) programme at the University of Minnesota provides intensive care coordination and case management services to children with complex special health-care needs. We conducted a one-year pilot study to evaluate the feasibility of videoconferencing between the USK office and family homes. To ensure easy installation, families were provided with prepackaged equipment and software. However, the families had different Internet providers, different modems and/or routers and different firewall software, which required case-by-case resolution during home visits by the project coordinator. Five families participated in 3-5 videoconferencing sessions with a USK nurse. All connections with urban families had clear audio and video, whereas connections with rural families had clear audio, but unclear video. All of the scheduled virtual visits were rated by nurses as providing information that was similar to a telephone call. However, the unscheduled virtual visits were rated by the nurses as providing more information than a telephone call, suggesting that home-based videoconferencing may be useful in the management of children with complex special health-care needs.

  19. Opening the Black Box: Toward Classifying Care and Treatment for Children and Adolescents with Behavioral and Emotional Problems within and across Care Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evenboer, K. E.; Huyghen, A. M. N.; Tuinstra, J.; Reijneveld, S. A.; Knorth, E. J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The Taxonomy of Care for Youth was developed to gather information about the care offered to children and adolescents with behavioral and emotional problems in various care settings. The aim was to determine similarities and differences in the content of care and thereby to classify the care offered to these children and youth within…

  20. Racial and ethnic disparities in dental care for publicly insured children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourat, Nadereh; Finocchio, Len

    2010-07-01

    Poor oral health has important implications for the healthy development of children. Children in Medicaid, especially Latinos and African Americans, experience high rates of tooth decay, yet they visit dentists less often than privately insured children. Even Latino and African American children with private insurance are less likely than white children to visit dentists and have longer intervals between dental visits. Furthermore, Latino and African American children in Medicaid are more likely than white children in Medicaid to have longer intervals between visits. These findings raise concerns about Medicaid's ability to address disparities in dental care access and, more broadly, in health care.

  1. Predictive indices of empirical clinical diagnosis of malaria among under-five febrile children attending paediatric outpatient clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan A Elechi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Malaria has remained an important public health problem in Nigeria with children under 5 years of age bearing the greatest burden. Accurate and prompt diagnosis of malaria is an important element in the fight against the scourge. Due to the several limitations of microscopy, diagnosis of malaria has continued to be made based on clinical ground against several World Health Organization (WHO recommendations. Thus, we aim to assess the performance of empirical clinical diagnosis among febrile children under 5 years of age in a busy pediatric outpatient clinic. Materials and Methods: The study was a cross-sectional study. Children aged <5 years with fever or 72 h history of fever were recruited. Children on antimalarial prophylaxis or on treatment for malaria were excluded. Relevant information was obtained from the caregiver and clinical note of the child using interviewer administered questionnaire. Two thick and two thin films were made, stained, and read for each recruited child. Data was analysed using SPSS version 16. Results: Of the 433 children studied, 98 (22.6% were empirically diagnosed as having malaria and antimalarial drug prescribed. Twenty-three (23.5% of these children were confirmed by microscopy to have malaria parasitemia, while 75 (76.5% were negative for malaria parasitemia. Empirical clinical diagnosis show poor predictive indices with sensitivity of 19.2%, specificity of 76.0%, positive predictive value of 23.5% and negative predictive value of 71%. Conclusion and Recommendations: Empirical clinical diagnosis of malaria among the under-five children with symptoms suggestive of acute malaria is highly not reliable and hence the need to strengthen parasitological diagnosis.

  2. Social and emotional difficulties in children with ADHD and the impact on school attendance and healthcare utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Classi Peter

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study was to examine the impact of co-occurring social and emotional difficulties on missed school days and healthcare utilization among children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. Methods Data were from the 2007 U.S. National Health Interview Survey (NHIS and were based on parental proxy responses to questions in the Sample Child Core, which includes questions on demographics, health, healthcare treatment, and social and emotional status as measured by questions about depression, anxiety, and phobias, as well as items from the brief version of the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ. Logistic regression was used to assess the association between co-occurring social and emotional difficulties with missed school days and healthcare utilization, adjusting for demographics. Results Of the 5896 children aged 6–17 years in the 2007 NHIS, 432 (7.3% had ADHD, based on parental report. Children with ADHD and comorbid depression, anxiety, or phobias had significantly greater odds of experiencing > 2 weeks of missed school days, ≥ 6 visits to a healthcare provider (HCP, and ≥ 2 visits to the ER, compared with ADHD children without those comorbidities (OR range: 2.1 to 10.4. Significantly greater odds of missed school days, HCP visits, and ER visits were also experienced by children with ADHD who were worried, unhappy/depressed, or having emotional difficulties as assessed by the SDQ, compared with ADHD children without those difficulties (OR range: 2.2 to 4.4. Conclusions In children with ADHD, the presence of social and emotional problems resulted in greater odds of missed school days and healthcare utilization. These findings should be viewed in light of the limited nature of the parent-report measures used to assess social and emotional problems.

  3. DENTAL CARE FOR CHILDREN AFTER REPLANTATION OF AVULSED PERMANENT INCISORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossitza Kabaktchieva

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The diagnosis avulsion of permanent tooth/teeth is an emergency situation which has special requirements in respect of proper storage of the avulsed tooth, the need of urgent medical/dental care, time past till replantation and splinting, the need for endodontic treatment and long term follow up period. Those clinical actions depend on three groups: parents/people who are with the child in the moment when trauma happens and give the first aid; dental specialist- surgeon who replants the tooth/teeth; dental specialist- endodontist who takes care of the endodontic treatment and the long period after treatment for follow up and observation of the replanted teeth. The aim of the paper is to present the dental postoperative care in a couple of cases of children with trauma and replanted avulsed permanent incisors. Material and methods: We present four clinical cases of children who get 6 permanent upper incisors replanted. Replantation is made by the oral surgeon. Treatment and observation after replantation are made by dental specialists of pediatric dentistry and conservative dentistry. All 4 cases get 3 years follow up period. Results: After replantation of 2 central incisors with complete root development (first clinical case the left one has developed a resorption of the root but the right one is in a stable condition. Replantation of 3 teeth with incomplete root development (second and third clinical cases where the patients refer to specialized surgical care less than 60 minutes after injury and store the teeth in different ways lead to different clinical results. In the case of avulsed upper right incisor (second case, it is stored in milk and we observe revascularization followed by partial root canal obliteration. The tooth is scheduled for endodontic treatment. In the case of upper central incisors, both kept dry till replantation in the alveolus filled up with substitute bone, we observe fast root resorption which going to lead to early

  4. The Care Chain, Children's Mobility and the Caribbean Migration Tradition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olwig, Karen Fog

    2012-01-01

    Children’s mobility is analysed in this article as an important foundation of the migration tradition that has been an integral aspect of most Caribbean societies. I show that, because of their position as dependents who are not yet fully socialised and who are subject to adult authority, children...... move, and are moved, relatively easily between varying social domains and households in different locations. This migration has created a Caribbean ‘care chain’ that has played an important role in the generating and reinforcing of local, regional and transnational networks of interpersonal relations...

  5. Dental caries prevalence in children up to 36 months of age attending daycare centers in municipalities with different water fluoride content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Valéria Pagliari Tiano

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available This study determined the prevalence of cavitated caries lesions (CCL and early childhood caries (ECC, and the contribution of some variables in children up to 36 months of age attending daycare centers in municipalities with different fluoride levels in the water supply: AFC (adequate fluoride content and LFC (low fluoride content. After approval of the Ethics Committee, the parents were interviewed. The children were clinically examined using the same codes and criteria established by the WHO (World Health Organization and the ADA (American Dental Association. Fisher's exact test (p<0.05 was applied for statistical analysis of data. The dmft indices calculated in the LFC and AFC municipalities were 0.57 and 0.68, respectively. Considering all children examined, 17.6% presented CCL and 33.8% ECC. The economic classification, mother's education level and duration of breastfeeding were considered statistically significant with regards to CCL prevalence. The age group, duration of the habit of drinking milk before bedtime and age at which oral hygiene started were considered statistically significant with regards to ECC prevalence.

  6. Cost-effectiveness study of oral hypoglycemic agents in the treatment of outpatients with type 2 diabetes attending a public primary care clinic in Mexico City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cárdenas-Elizalde MR

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Christian Díaz de León-Castañeda, Marina Altagracia-Martínez, Jaime Kravzov-Jinich, Ma del Rosario Cárdenas-Elizalde, Consuelo Moreno-Bonett, Juan Manuel Martínez-NúñezDepartment of Biological Systems and Health Care, Biological and Health Sciences Division, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Xochimilco, Mexico DF, MexicoIntroduction: Worldwide, diabetes mellitus presents a high burden for individuals and society. In Latin America, many people with diabetes have limited access to health care, which means that indirect costs may exceed direct health care cost. Diabetes is Mexico's leading cause of death.Purpose: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness ratios of the most used oral hypoglycemic agents (OHA in the treatment of outpatients with type 2 diabetes attending a public primary care clinic in Mexico City.Design: A cross-sectional and analytic study was conducted in Mexico City.Methodology: Twenty-seven adult outpatients with type 2 diabetes who were treated either with metformin or glibenclamide were included. Acarbose was used as an alternative strategy. The study was carried out from the perspective of Mexican society. Direct medical and nonmedical costs as well as indirect costs were evaluated using a structured questionnaire. Efficacies of all drug treatments were evaluated retrospectively. A systematic search was conducted to select published randomized clinical trials based on predetermined inclusion criteria, and treatment success was defined as glycosylated hemoglobin factor ≤ 7%. Efficacy data of each drug and/or combination were analyzed using meta-analysis. The Monte Carlo Markov model was used. Quality-adjusted life-years (QALY were used as the unit of effectiveness; incremental and sensitive analyses were performed and a 5% discount rate was calculated. A hypothetical cohort of 10,000 patients was modeled.Results: The odds ratios of the success of each drug treatment were obtained from the meta-analyses, and were the

  7. Prevalence and determinant of early childhood caries among the children attending the Anganwadis of Wardha district, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhay M Gaidhane

    2013-01-01

    Materials and Methods: Community-based cross-sectional study among the selected Anganwadis children of 2-5 years of Wardha district. Result: A total 330 subjects, 105 children were found to be having ECC, 47 (30.92% males and 58 (32.58% females. Total 215 children belonged to 43-60 months age group. Out of these, 72 (33.48% children were having ECC. A significant association was found between the history of bottle-feeding and ECC (P = 0.0218. Prevalence of ECC was more among those who were bottle-fed than those who were not bottle-fed. Conclusion: Future health promotion and education programs in Anganwadis should include oral health issues and the risk factors for ECC, and its consequences should be addressed. Public-funded oral health program should be started and targeted at children from lower socioeconomic status. Effective strategies should be developed to promote use of brush and paste for cleaning teeth and discouraging inappropriate bottle-feeding, discouraging on demand consumption of chocolates and sugars.

  8. High mobile phone ownership, but low Internet and email usage among pregnant, HIV-infected women attending antenatal care in Johannesburg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clouse, Kate; Schwartz, Sheree R; Van Rie, Annelies; Bassett, Jean; Vermund, Sten H; Pettifor, Audrey E

    2015-03-01

    We investigated mobile phone usage amongst HIV-positive pregnant women attending antenatal services in a primary care clinic in Johannesburg (n = 50). We conducted a semi-structured interview and asked them about their mobile phone, Internet and email use. The median age of the women was 28 years, 36% had moved one or more times in the past year, and most were employed or recently employed, albeit earning low wages. Nearly all women (94%) reported that they did not share their phone and 76% of the SIM cards were registered to the woman herself. The median time with the current phone was one year (range 1 month-6 years) and the median time with the current phone number was three years (range 1 month-13 years). Even though 42% of the participants were from outside South Africa, they all had mobile phone numbers local to South Africa. About one-third of respondents reported Internet use (30%) and about one-fifth reported using email (18%). Overall, 20% accessed the Internet and 10% accessed email on their mobile phone. Mobile phone interventions are feasible amongst HIV-positive pregnant women and may be useful in prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT). Email and Internet-based interventions may not yet be appropriate.

  9. EVALUATION OF ANXIETY & DEPRESSIVE SYMPTOMS IN PATIENTS WITH 1 ST EPISODE OF CHEST PAIN ATTENDING MEDICINE OUT PATIENT DEPARTMENT OF TERTIARY CARE TEACHING HOSPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhavik S.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: As chest pain is an important symptom of coronary artery disease (CAD and other non - cardiac diseases , the presentation of the symptom often prompts referral to physicians for further investigation. Previous studies h ad shown significant as sociation between chest pain and D e pr e ssive and anxiety symptoms. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: Evaluate and screen depressive symptoms , anxiety symptoms and somatic symptoms in patients with 1 st episode of chest pain attending medicine out - patient department of tertiary care teaching hospital. METHODOLGY : Cross - sectional observational study. Prior permission from institutional ethics committee of ‘SUMANDEEP VIDYAPEETH’ had been taken. 100 patients having first episosde of chest pain coming to M edicine opd of DHIRAJ HOSPITAL are recruited randomly after 1st December 2014. Each patient is given case r eport form containing sociodemographic data , patients medical history , depression and somatic symptoms scale and Hamilton’s anxiety scale (HAM - A. All data are entered in spss 16 and analysed with different ( S tatistical tests. Differences on categorical m easures will be reported as P value. The result is significant if P <0.05. RESULT: 38% & 49% patients have clinically significant depression and anxiety respectively. DSSS score is positively correlated with duration of chest pain. CONCLUSION : significant level of depression and anxiety found in 1 st episode of chest pain patients.

  10. Differences between attendance in emergency care of male and female victims of traffic accidents in Porto alegre, Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Forgiarini Saldanha

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Driving under the influence of alcohol/ drugs (DUI is a well-established risk factor for traffic accidents, and men and women have different consumption patterns. The scope of this paper is to analyze differences in alcohol and drug consumption, as well as on behavior associated with traffic accidents among men and women. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 609 sequential traffic accident victims attended in emergency care from Porto Alegre. Subjects gave a structured interview, were breathalyzed and had a saliva test for alcohol/drug screening. Results showed that women were mainly passengers or pedestrians (p < 0.001. There was no significant difference in positive blood alcohol concentration. However, men reported more binge drinking and THC use, while women had more benzodiazepine in their saliva (p<0.05. This is the first Brazilian study to compare alcohol and drug use among men and women who were the victims of traffic accidents. Results point to differences in the pattern of substance abuse, as well on risk behavior. Data may be useful for specific prevention strategies that take gender differences into consideration.

  11. Compliance with Iron-Folate Supplement and Associated Factors among Antenatal Care Attendant Mothers in Misha District, South Ethiopia: Community Based Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abinet Arega Sadore

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. In Ethiopia, higher proportions of pregnant women are anemic. Despite the efforts to reduce iron deficiency anemia during pregnancy, only few women took an iron supplement as recommended. Thus, this study aimed to assess compliance with iron-folate supplement and associated factors among antenatal care attendant mothers in Misha district, South Ethiopia. Method. Community based cross-sectional study supported with in-depth interview was conducted from March 1 to March 30, 2015. The sample size was determined using single population proportion to 303. Simple random sampling technique was used to select the study participants. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses were employed to identify factors associated with compliance to iron-folate supplement. Results. The compliance rate was found to be 39.2%. Mothers knowledge of anemia (AOR = 4.451, 95% CI = (2.027,9.777, knowledge of iron-folate supplement (AOR = 3.509, 95% CI = (1.442,8.537, and counseling on iron-folate supplement (AOR = 4.093, 95% CI = (2.002,8.368 were significantly associated with compliance to iron-folate supplement. Conclusions. Compliance rate of iron-folate supplementation during pregnancy remains very low. This study showed that providing women with clear instructions about iron-folate tablet intake and educating them on the health benefits of the iron-folate tablets can increase compliance with iron-folate supplementation.

  12. Medication adherence and blood pressure control amongst adults with primary hypertension attending a tertiary hospital primary care clinic in Eastern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel UP. Iloh

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: As the case detection rates of hypertension increase in adult Nigerians, achieving target blood pressure (BP control has become an important management challenge.Objectives: To describe medication adherence and BP control amongst adult Nigerians with primary hypertension attending a primary care clinic of a tertiary hospital in a resource-poor environment in Eastern Nigeria.Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in 140 adult patients with primary hypertension who have been on treatment for at least 6 months at the primary care clinic of Federal Medical Centre, Umuahia. A patient was said to have achieved goal BP control if the BP was < 140 per 90 mmHg. Adherence was assessed in the previous 30 days using a pretested researcher-administered questionnaire on 30 days of self-reported therapy. Adherence was graded using an ordinal scoring system of 0–4; an adherent patient was one who scored 4 points in the previous 30 days. Reasons for non-adherence were documented.Results: Adherence to medication and BP control rates were 42.9% and 35.0% respectively. BP control was significantly associated with medication adherence (p = 0.03, antihypertensive medication duration ≥3 years (p = 0.042, and taking ≥ one form of antihypertensive medication (p = 0.04. BP at the recruitment visit was significantly higher than at the end of the study (p = 0.036. The most common reason for non-adherence was forgetfulness (p = 0.046. Conclusion: The rate of BP control amongst the study population was low, which may be connected with low medication adherence. This study urges consideration of factors relating to adherence alongside other factors driving goal BP control.

  13. Medication adherence and blood pressure control amongst adults with primary hypertension attending a tertiary hospital primary care clinic in Eastern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel U.P. Iloh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: As the case detection rates of hypertension increase in adult Nigerians, achieving target blood pressure (BP control has become an important management challenge.Objectives: To describe medication adherence and BP control amongst adult Nigerians with primary hypertension attending a primary care clinic of a tertiary hospital in a resource-poor environment in Eastern Nigeria.Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in 140 adult patients with primary hypertension who have been on treatment for at least 6 months at the primary care clinic of Federal Medical Centre, Umuahia. A patient was said to have achieved goal BP control if the BP was < 140 per 90 mmHg. Adherence was assessed in the previous 30 days using a pretested researcher-administered questionnaire on 30 days of self-reported therapy. Adherence was graded using an ordinal scoring system of 0–4; an adherent patient was one who scored 4 points in the previous 30 days. Reasons for non-adherence were documented.Results: Adherence to medication and BP control rates were 42.9% and 35.0% respectively. BP control was significantly associated with medication adherence (p = 0.03, antihypertensive medication duration ≥3 years (p = 0.042, and taking ≥ one form of antihypertensive medication (p = 0.04. BP at the recruitment visit was significantly higher than at the end of the study (p = 0.036. The most common reason for non-adherence was forgetfulness (p = 0.046.Conclusion: The rate of BP control amongst the study population was low, which may be connected with low medication adherence. This study urges consideration of factors relating to adherence alongside other factors driving goal BP control.

  14. Association between child-care and acute diarrhea: a study in Portuguese children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barros Henrique

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To quantify the influence of the type of child-care on the occurrence of acute diarrhea with special emphasis on the effect of children grouping during care. METHODS: From October 1998 to January 1999 292 children, aged 24 to 36 months, recruited using a previously assembled cohort of newborns, were evaluated. Information on the type of care and occurrence of diarrhea in the previous year was obtained from parents by telephone interview. The X² and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to compare proportions and quantitative variables, respectively. The risk of diarrhea was estimated through the calculation of incident odds ratios (OR and their respective 95% confidence intervals (95% CI, crude and adjusted by unconditional logistic regression. RESULTS: Using as reference category children cared individually at home, the adjusted ORs for diarrhea occurrence were 3.18, 95% CI [1.49, 6.77] for children cared in group at home, 2.28, 95% CI [0.92, 5.67] for children cared in group in day-care homes and 2.54, 95% CI [1.21, 5.33] for children cared in day-care centers. Children that changed from any other type of child-care setting to child-care centers in the year preceding the study showed a risk even higher (OR 7.65, 95% CI [3.25, 18.02]. CONCLUSIONS: Group care increases the risk of acute diarrhea whatsoever the specific setting.

  15. The Impact of the New York Court Review of Children in Foster Care: A Followup Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Festinger, Trudy Bradley

    1976-01-01

    Examines the data on children studied in a 1974 investigation. Proposes that court review speed movement of children out of foster care, and suggests steps necessary for both court and agencies to make the procedures more effective. (Author/SB)

  16. Young Children's Self-care and Independence Tasks: Applying Self-efficacy Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrand, Verna

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the theory of self-efficacy, the ways in which young children learn self-care and self-efficacy, and methods parents and other caregivers can use to encourage self-efficacy in young children. (RJC)

  17. Potential Benefits of Companion Animals for Self-Care Children. Reviews of Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, D. Terry; McKenry, Patrick C.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the potential benefits of having pets for self-care children. Researchers suggest that companion animals can lower blood pressure, show up high on a list of children's helpers and indirectly increase feelings of safety. (RJC)

  18. Who's Looking after Whom? The Education of Disaffected Children in Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Ingrid

    2008-01-01

    The social inclusion of vulnerable children is high on the political agenda in Britain. With policy issues concerning children in care or so-called "looked after children" (LAC) at such a pivotal point, now is the time to ensure that the educational needs of these particularly vulnerable children and young people take centre stage. It…

  19. Care for technology dependent children and their relationship with the health care systems1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okido, Aline Cristiane Cavicchioli; Zago, Márcia Maria Fontão; de Lima, Regina Aparecida Garcia

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: to understand the experience of care delivery to technology dependent children based on the mothers' experience. METHOD: exploratory study with qualitative approach, based on the theoretical framework of medical anthropology and the narrative method. Twelve mothers participated and, as the technique to obtain the narratives, open interviews were held at the participants' homes. RESULTS: the narratives were organized into three thematic categories: the family system, identifying the care forms, the association between popular and scientific knowledge and the participation of the social network; the professional system, which discusses the relations between professionals and family, the hegemony of the biomedical model and the role of nursing; and the popular system, presenting popular care practices like spirituality and religiosity. CONCLUSION: the study provided support for a health care project that takes into account the families' moral and symbolic values and beliefs in view of the illness of a technology-dependent child. The results found can contribute towards changes in the health work process, so that its foundation is guided not only by the biomedical model, allowing the integration of the sociocultural dimensions into the health care movement. PMID:26039300

  20. Asset ownership among households caring for orphans and vulnerable children in rural Zimbabwe: the influence of ownership on children's health and social vulnerabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crea, Thomas M; Lombe, Margaret; Robertson, Laura A; Dumba, Lovemore; Mushati, Phyllis; Makoni, J C; Mavise, Gideon; Eaton, Jeffrey W; Munatsi, Brighton; Nyamukapa, Constance A; Gregson, Simon

    2013-01-01

    The high prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome in sub-Saharan Africa has resulted in a dramatic increase in orphans and vulnerable children (OVC) over the past decade. These children typically rely on extended family networks for support, but the magnitude of the crisis has resulted in traditional familial networks becoming overwhelmed and more economically and socially vulnerable. Previous research consistently demonstrates the positive influence of household asset ownership on children's well-being. Using data from impoverished households caring for OVC in rural Manicaland Province, Zimbabwe, this study explores the influence of household asset ownership on OVC health vulnerability (HV) and social vulnerability (SV). Findings indicate that asset ownership is associated with significantly lower SV, in terms of school attendance and birth registration. Yet, assets do not emerge as a direct influence of OVC HV as measured by disease and chronic illness, although having a chronically ill adult in the household increases HV. These findings suggest that asset ownership, specifically a combination of fixed and movable assets, may offset the influence of other risk factors for children's SV.

  1. Impact of requiring influenza vaccination for children in licensed child care or preschool programs--Connecticut, 2012-13 influenza season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadler, James L; Yousey-Hindes, Kimberly; Kudish, Kathy; Kennedy, Erin D; Sacco, Vincent; Cartter, Matthew L

    2014-03-01

    Preschool-aged children are at increased risk for severe influenza-related illness and complications. Congregate child care settings facilitate influenza transmission among susceptible children. To protect against influenza transmission in these settings, in September 2010, Connecticut became the second U.S. state (after New Jersey) to implement regulations requiring that all children aged 6-59 months receive at least 1 dose of influenza vaccine each year to attend a licensed child care program. To evaluate the impact of this regulation on vaccination levels and influenza-associated hospitalizations during the 2012-13 influenza season, vaccination data from U.S. and Connecticut surveys and the Emerging Infections Program (EIP) were analyzed. After the regulation took effect, vaccination rates among Connecticut children aged 6-59 months increased from 67.8% during the 2009-10 influenza season to 84.1% during the 2012-13 season. During the 2012-13 influenza season, among all 11 EIP surveillance sites, Connecticut had the greatest percentage decrease (12%) in the influenza-associated hospitalization rate from 2007-08 among children aged ≤4 years. Additionally, the ratio of the influenza-associated hospitalization rates among children aged ≤4 years to the overall population rate (0.53) was lower than for any other EIP site. Requiring vaccination for child care admission might have helped to increase vaccination rates in Connecticut and reduced serious morbidity from influenza.

  2. Intersubjectivity as a Measure of Social Competence among Children Attending Head Start: Assessing the Measure's Validity and Relation to Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garte, Rebecca R.

    2015-01-01

    The present paper reported on a new method and procedure for assessing preschooler's social competence. This method utilized an observational measure of intersubjectivity to assess the social competence that develops in real time during interaction between two or more children. The measure of intersubjectivity reflected a conceptualization of the…

  3. Piano Keyboard Training and the Spatial-Temporal Development of Young Children Attending Kindergarten Classes in Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafranas, Nikolaos

    2004-01-01

    This research had three main goals: to control whether children would show significant improvement in cognitive test scores following piano/keyboard instruction; to compare whether the spatial tasks would show greater improvement than other tasks; and to examine whether the effects of piano/keyboard training on spatial tasks are gender…

  4. Exploring the King’s outcome scale for childhood head injury in children attending a rehabilitation hospital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rumney, Peter; Hung, Ryan; McAdam, Laura;

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Few tools exist to assess and monitor impairment and disability in children with acquired brain injury. The King’s Outcome Scale for Childhood Head Injury (KOSCHI) was developed as an alternative to the Glasgow Outcome Scale. However, limited information is available to support its rel...

  5. Impact of the Kenya post-election crisis on clinic attendance and medication adherence for HIV-infected children in western Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Edwin

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Kenya experienced a political and humanitarian crisis following presidential elections on 27 December 2007. Over 1,200 people were killed and 300,000 displaced, with disproportionate violence in western Kenya. We sought to describe the immediate impact of this conflict on return to clinic and medication adherence for HIV-infected children cared for within the USAID-Academic Model Providing Access to Healthcare (AMPATH in western Kenya. Methods We conducted a mixed methods analysis that included a retrospective cohort analysis, as well as key informant interviews with pediatric healthcare providers. Eligible patients were HIV-infected children, less than 14 years of age, seen in the AMPATH HIV clinic system between 26 October 2007 and 25 December 2007. We extracted demographic and clinical data, generating descriptive statistics for pre- and post-conflict antiretroviral therapy (ART adherence and post-election return to clinic for this cohort. ART adherence was derived from caregiver-report of taking all ART doses in past 7 days. We used multivariable logistic regression to assess factors associated with not returning to clinic. Interview dialogue from was analyzed using constant comparison, progressive coding and triangulation. Results Between 26 October 2007 and 25 December 2007, 2,585 HIV-infected children (including 1,642 on ART were seen. During 26 December 2007 to 15 April 2008, 93% (N = 2,398 returned to care. At their first visit after the election, 95% of children on ART (N = 1,408 reported perfect ART adherence, a significant drop from 98% pre-election (p Conclusion During a period of humanitarian crisis, the vulnerable, HIV-infected pediatric population had disruptions in clinical care and in medication adherence, putting children at risk for viral resistance and increased morbidity. However, unique program strengths may have minimized these disruptions.

  6. Cost-effectiveness study of oral hypoglycemic agents in the treatment of outpatients with type 2 diabetes attending a public primary care clinic in Mexico City

    Science.gov (United States)

    de León-Castañeda, Christian Díaz; Altagracia-Martínez, Marina; Kravzov-Jinich, Jaime; Cárdenas-Elizalde, Ma del Rosario; Moreno-Bonett, Consuelo; Martínez-Núñez, Juan Manuel

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Worldwide, diabetes mellitus presents a high burden for individuals and society. In Latin America, many people with diabetes have limited access to health care, which means that indirect costs may exceed direct health care cost. Diabetes is Mexico’s leading cause of death. Purpose To evaluate the cost-effectiveness ratios of the most used oral hypoglycemic agents (OHA) in the treatment of outpatients with type 2 diabetes attending a public primary care clinic in Mexico City. Design A cross-sectional and analytic study was conducted in Mexico City. Methodology Twenty-seven adult outpatients with type 2 diabetes who were treated either with metformin or glibenclamide were included. Acarbose was used as an alternative strategy. The study was carried out from the perspective of Mexican society. Direct medical and nonmedical costs as well as indirect costs were evaluated using a structured questionnaire. Efficacies of all drug treatments were evaluated retrospectively. A systematic search was conducted to select published randomized clinical trials based on predetermined inclusion criteria, and treatment success was defined as glycosylated hemoglobin factor ≤ 7%. Efficacy data of each drug and/or combination were analyzed using meta-analysis. The Monte Carlo Markov model was used. Quality-adjusted life-years (QALY) were used as the unit of effectiveness; incremental and sensitive analyses were performed and a 5% discount rate was calculated. A hypothetical cohort of 10,000 patients was modeled. Results The odds ratios of the success of each drug treatment were obtained from the meta-analyses, and were the following: 5.82 (glibenclamide), 3.86 (metformin), 3.5 (acarbose), and 6.76 (metformin–glibenclamide). The cost-effectiveness ratios found were US$272.63/QALY (glibenclamide), US$296.48/QALY (metformin), and US$409.86/QALY (acarbose). Sensitivity analysis did not show changes for the most cost-effective therapy when the effectiveness probabilities or

  7. Primary Early Care and Education Arrangements and Achievement at Kindergarten Entry. NCES 2016-070

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathbun, Amy; Zhang, Anlan

    2016-01-01

    Young children experience various types of early care and education environments the year before they enter kindergarten. Some children attend center-based arrangements such as preschools, childcare centers, or Head Start programs, while others are cared for in relatives' or nonrelatives' homes or are normally cared for only by their parents.…

  8. [Nutritional status of preschool children attending the Chilean National Nursery Schools Council Programs (JUNJI): assessment of the agreement among anthropometric indicators of obesity and central obesity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérez-Gómez, Yareni; Kain, Juliana; Uauy, Ricardo; Galván, Marcos; Corvalán, Camila

    2009-03-01

    Historically, the anthropometric assessment of nutritional welfare programs has been targeted to assess nutritional deficiencies based on weight-to-age and height-to-age indicators. Recently, given the increase on childhood obesity, it has been also recommended the measurement of indicators of obesity (i.e., weight-to-height) and central obesity (i.e., waist circumference). However, the agreement of these indicators in preschool children is unclear. The aims of this study were: (1) assess the nutritional status of children attending the Chilean National Nursery Schools Council Program (JUNJI); (2) assess the agreement between general and central obesity anthropometric measurements in these children. In 574 girls and 580 boys, 3.0 to 5.9 years old, we measured: weight, height, waist and hip circumference, and five skinfolds. We used the WHO 2006 growth standards to estimate Z-scores. We defined general obesity as WHZ or BAZ= 2, and central obesity as waist circumference > or =90 percentile of NHANES III. The participants were on average slightly shorter but considerably heavier and obese than the reference populations. Prevalence of general obesity was close to 16% with both indicators while prevalence of central obesity reached 15%. There was good agreement among general obesity indicators and central obesity indicators (Kappa = 0.6-0.7). In summary, we found a high prevalence of obesity and central obesity among Chilean preschool children beneficiaries of a welfare program. At this age, there was a good agreement among general obesity indicators and central obesity indicators. These results suggest that waist circumferences measurements should not be incorporated to the program.

  9. A sensitivity analysis of the Children's Treatment Network trial: a randomized controlled trial of integrated services versus usual care for children with special health care needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye C

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Chenglin Ye,1,2 Gina Browne,1,3 Joseph Beyene,1 Lehana Thabane1,2 1Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, McMaster University, 2Biostatistcs Unit, St Joseph's Healthcare Hamilton, 3School of Nursing, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada Background: The value of integrated care through comprehensive, coordinated, and family-centered services has been increasingly recognized for improving health outcomes of children with special health care needs (CSHCN. In a randomized controlled trial (RCT, the integrated care provided through the Children's Treatment Network (CTN was compared with usual care in improving the psychosocial health of target CSHCN. In this paper, we aimed to estimate the effect of CTN care by conducting multiple analyses to handle noncompliance in the trial. Methods: The trial recruited target children in Simcoe County and York Region, ON, Canada. Children were randomized to receive CTN or usual care and were followed for 2 years. The CTN group received integrated services through multiple providers to address their specific needs while the usual care group continued to receive care directed by their parents. The outcome was change in psychosocial quality of life at 2 years. We conducted intention-to-treat, as-treated, per-protocol, and instrumental variable analyses to analyze the outcome. Results: The trial randomized 445 children, with 229 in the intervention group and 216 in the control group. During follow-up, 52% of children in the intervention group did not receive complete CTN care for various reasons. At 2 years, we did not find a significant improvement in psychosocial quality of life among the children receiving CTN care compared with usual care (intention-to-treat mean difference 1.50, 95% confidence interval −1.49 to 4.50; P = 0.32. Other methods of analysis yielded similar results. Conclusion: Although the effect of CTN care was not significant, there was evidence showing benefits of integrated

  10. Prevalence of Aeromonas Hydrophila and Yersinia Enterocolitica in Children with Acute Diarrhea Attending Health Centers in Hamadan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kazemi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Diarrhea is the most common cause of morbidity and mortality in all age groups, especially children, the elderly and immunocompromised patients. Various studies have been reported regarding the relationship between the children acute diarrhea and Aeromonashydrophila and Yersinia enterocolitica. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of the bacteria and their sensitivity to common antibiotics and the prevalence of virulence genes in the bacteria in Hamadan, Iran. Materials & Methods: In this study, 120 stool samples collected from children less than 10 years of age with acute diarrhea were examined for Aeromonashydrophila and Yersinia enterocolitica. Identification of the bacteria was performed by biochemical reactions and PCR using 16S rRNA genes. Moreover, the prevalence of virulence genes earA and hyl of Aeromonashydrophila and ail and ystB genes of Yersinia enterocolitica were investigated using PCR. Antibiotic susceptibility of isolated bacteria was performed by disk diffusion method. Results: Out of 120 stool samples, 2 (1.7 % Aeromonashydrophila and 3 (2.5% Yersinia enterocolitica were isolated. All isolates of Aeromonashydrophila were sensitive to the chloramphenicol, co-trimoxazole, gentamicin, meropenem, amikacin and 50% of isolates were sensitive to the ceftriaxone and azithromycin. All Aeromonashydrophila isolates were resistant to erythromycin. All isolates of Yersinia enterocolitica were sensitive to the chloramphenicol, co-trimoxazole and meropenem. The 33.3% of the isolates were sensitive to gentamicin and amikacin and 66.6% of them were susceptible to ceftriaxone. However, all of Yersinia enterocolitica isolates were resistant to erythromycin and azithromycin. The prevalence aerA and hyl genes in Aeromonashydrophila were reported 100% and 50%, respectively. The prevalence of ail and ystB genes in Yersinia enterocolitica was reported as 66.6%. Conclusions: Identification and analysis of

  11. Routine immunization - do people know about it? A study among caretakers of children attending pulse polio immunization in east Delhi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Rahul

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Research question: Do caretakers of children under five years have sufficient knowledge regarding routine immunization (RI? Objective: To assess the knowledge about RI among caretakers of young children. Settings: Pulse polio immunization centres in East Delhi. Study design: Cross-sectional study. Participants: Six hundred and eighty-two caretakers accompanying children under 5 years to pulse polio booths in November 2006. Study tool: Pre-tested semi-open-ended questionnaire. Statistical analysis: Proportions, Chi-square test. Results: The proportions of respondents who had awareness about different aspects of RI, such as weekday of RI (37.0%, age group for RI (49.1%, number of visits required in the first year of life (27.0%, were all low. When asked to name the four diseases covered under the RI program in Delhi, only 268 (39.3% could name at least three. The education level of respondents was strongly associated with their knowledge about RI. Conclusion: The need of the hour is to make RI a ′felt need′ of the community. Making caretakers more aware about RI is a vital step in achieving this goal.

  12. Children's early child care and their mothers' later involvement with schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosnoe, Robert; Augustine, Jennifer March; Huston, Aletha C

    2012-01-01

    Theory and policy highlight the role of child care in preparing children for the transition into school. Approaching this issue in a different way, this study investigated whether children's care experiences before this transition promoted their mothers' school involvement after it, with the hypothesized mechanism for this link being the cultivation of children's social and academic skills. Analyses of 1,352 children (1 month-6 years) and parents in the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development revealed that mothers were more involved at their children's schools when children had prior histories of high-quality nonparental care. This pattern, which was fairly stable across levels of maternal education and employment, was mediated by children's academic skills and home environments.

  13. Examining the trajectories of children providing care for adults in rural Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovdal, Morten

    2011-01-01

    was adapted, with historical profiles, Photovoice and draw-and-write essays complementing 34 individual interviews and 2 group discussions. A thematic network analysis revealed that children's caregiving was not confined to a single experience. Children were observed to provide care for a number of different...... family and community members for varying periods of time and intensities. Although their living arrangements and life circumstances often gave them little choice but to care, a social recognition of children's capacity to provide care for fragile adults, helped the children construct an identity, which...... for many children in economically more advanced countries, this may not hold true in rural Africa, where poverty and AIDS can have significant knock-on effects on entire families and communities. This paper seeks to develop a more complex understanding of children's caring experiences by asking children...

  14. End-of-life care in a children's hospice program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Rose; Davies, Betty; Collins, John B; Cook, Karen

    2005-01-01

    A project was completed in 1999 to evaluate the Canuck Place children's hospice program. This article reports only on the end-of-life care component. Results are provided from mail-out surveys with families who required end-of-life care and are supplemented by qualitative data which were collected from interviews with individuals prior to the survey. Eighteen families completed face-to-face interviews and another 70 families completed the mail-out questionnaire developed from the initial interviews. A total of 39 parents responded to the survey section about end-of-life care services. Results indicated that parents were reasonably comfortable discussing death with staff; they generally felt well prepared for their child's death because of the staff; the death of another child had a significant effect on families; parents' wishes at the time of their child's death were very supported by staff; and families were well supported by staff at the time of a child's death. Implications for practice and suggestions for future research are discussed.

  15. Communicating for Quality in School Age Care Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartmel, Jennifer; Grieshaber, Susan

    2014-01-01

    School Age Care (SAC) services have existed in Australia for over 100 years but they have tended to take a back seat when compared with provision for school-aged children and those under school age using early childhood education and care (ECEC) services. Many SAC services are housed in shared premises and many children attending preparatory or…

  16. Health Care of Latino Children with Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities: Quality of Provider Interaction Mediates Utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parish, Susan; Magana, Sandra; Rose, Roderick; Timberlake, Maria; Swaine, Jamie G.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines access to, utilization of, and quality of health care for Latino children with autism and other developmental disabilities. We analyze data from the National Survey of Children with Special Health Care Needs (N = 4,414 children with autism and other developmental disabilities). Compared with White children, Latino children with…

  17. Clinical, Virologic, Immunologic Outcomes and Emerging HIV Drug Resistance Patterns in Children and Adolescents in Public ART Care in Zimbabwe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A T Makadzange

    Full Text Available To determine immunologic, virologic outcomes and drug resistance among children and adolescents receiving care during routine programmatic implementation in a low-income country.A cross-sectional evaluation with collection of clinical and laboratory data for children (0-<10 years and adolescents (10-19 years attending a public ART program in Harare providing care for pediatric patients since 2004, was conducted. Longitudinal data for each participant was obtained from the clinic based medical record.Data from 599 children and adolescents was evaluated. The participants presented to care with low CD4 cell count and CD4%, median baseline CD4% was lower in adolescents compared with children (11.0% vs. 15.0%, p<0.0001. The median age at ART initiation was 8.0 years (IQR 3.0, 12.0; median time on ART was 2.9 years (IQR 1.7, 4.5. On ART, median CD4% improved for all age groups but remained below 25%. Older age (≥ 5 years at ART initiation was associated with severe stunting (HAZ <-2: 53.3% vs. 28.4%, p<0.0001. Virologic failure rate was 30.6% and associated with age at ART initiation. In children, nevirapine based ART regimen was associated with a 3-fold increased risk of failure (AOR: 3.5; 95% CI: 1.3, 9.1, p = 0.0180. Children (<10 y on ART for ≥4 years had higher failure rates than those on ART for <4 years (39.6% vs. 23.9%, p = 0.0239. In those initiating ART as adolescents, each additional year in age above 10 years at the time of ART initiation (AOR 0.4 95%CI: 0.1, 0.9, p = 0.0324, and each additional year on ART (AOR 0.4, 95%CI 0.2, 0.9, p = 0.0379 were associated with decreased risk of virologic failure. Drug resistance was evident in 67.6% of sequenced virus isolates.During routine programmatic implementation of HIV care for children and adolescents, delayed age at ART initiation has long-term implications on immunologic recovery, growth and virologic outcomes.

  18. Nutritional assessment of children at the day care center “Marineritos del Sur” in Cienfuegos province, Cuba.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeida Bárbara Alejo Cruz

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: In many countries in the last few years, there has been an increasing interest for the assessment of the Nutritional System which can be defined as a systemic and permanent process of collection, transmission analysis and interpretation of the information that allows to keep updated knowledge of the nutritional state. The follow up of the children´s growth and development has the importance not only to assist the children´s needs at a determined age but also to assist them with a preventive criteria taking into account their dynamic and changing characteristics. Objectives: To assess nutritionally the children gathered at the ages from 2 to 6 years that attend the day care center ¨Marineritos del Sur¨ for more than one year during the period September 1 st - March 2000. Methods: The variables under study were age, sex, weight, folds brachial circumference and past illnesses. Results: According to the indicators weight/size, size/age, weight / age, tricipital fold/ age, brachial circumference / age, patients between 10 and 90 percentile had a predominance. The calculus of the Z point showed that 67,66 % of the children were eutrophic, 27,=6 tended to obesity and 5,28 malnourished. Giardia Lambia was the most frequent isolated parasite.

  19. Frequency of acute myeloid leukemia in children attended in Belém, Pará from August 2005 to May 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lacy C. B. Junior

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Acute myeloid leukemia (AML has variable incidence in different regions of Brazil. Objective: To determine the frequency of AML subtypes in children aged 0-17 years attended at Belém, Pará, from August 2005 to May 2009. Patients and methods: A retrospective study was performed with 278 patients diagnosed with acute or chronic leukemia based on clinical and morphological criteria (French-American-British [FAB]/World Health Organization classification [WHO] and immunophenotyping profile by flow cytometry, to determine the frequency of the subtypes in AML. Results: We found 70 (25.18% cases of AML, 37 of these (52.9% were children aged 0-17 years (median age of 7 years and 8 months. There was no statistical difference in relation to gender. We observed a higher frequency of AML subtype M2 (18/37 - 48.6% and M0/M1 (10/37 - 27%, especially in the first decade of life (16/28 [57.1%] AML M2 and 9/28 [32.1%] AML M0/M1. Conclusion: In the pediatric population, the types of AML M2, M0/M1 and M3 were respectively the most frequent.

  20. Avaliação do desempenho motor global e em habilidades motoras axiais e apendiculares de lactentes frequentadores de creche Assessment of global motor performance and gross and fine motor skills of infants attending day care centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina T Souza

    2010-08-01

    assessed at 12 and 17 months of age with the Motor Scale of the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition (Bayley-III. This scale allows the analysis of global motor performance, fine and gross motor performance, and the discrepancy between them. The Wilcoxon test and Spearman's correlation coefficient were used. RESULTS: Most of the participants showed global motor performance within the normal range, but below the reference mean at 12 and 17 months, with 30% classified as having "suspected delays" in at least one of the assessments. Gross motor development was poorer than fine motor development at 12 and at 17 months of age, with great discrepancy between these two subtests in the second assessment. A clear individual variability was observed in fine motor skills, with weak linear correlation between the first and the second assessment of this subtest. A lower individual variability was found in the gross motor skills and global motor performance with positive moderate correlation between assessments. Considering both performance measurements obtained at 12 and 17 months of age, four infants were identified as having a "possible delay in motor development". CONCLUSIONS: The study showed the need for closer attention to the motor development of children who attend day care centers during the first 17 months of life, with special attention to gross motor skills (which are considered an integral part of the child's overall development and to children with suspected delays in two consecutive assessments.

  1. Understanding health-care access and utilization disparities among Latino children in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langellier, Brent A; Chen, Jie; Vargas-Bustamante, Arturo; Inkelas, Moira; Ortega, Alexander N

    2016-06-01

    It is important to understand the source of health-care disparities between Latinos and other children in the United States. We examine parent-reported health-care access and utilization among Latino, White, and Black children (≤17 years old) in the United States in the 2006-2011 National Health Interview Survey. Using Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition, we portion health-care disparities into two parts (1) those attributable to differences in the levels of sociodemographic characteristics (e.g., income) and (2) those attributable to differences in group-specific regression coefficients that measure the health-care 'return' Latino, White, and Black children receive on these characteristics. In the United States, Latino children are less likely than Whites to have a usual source of care, receive at least one preventive care visit, and visit a doctor, and are more likely to have delayed care. The return on sociodemographic characteristics explains 20-30% of the disparity between Latino and White children in the usual source of care, delayed care, and doctor visits and 40-50% of the disparity between Latinos and Blacks in emergency department use and preventive care. Much of the health-care disadvantage experienced by Latino children would persist if Latinos had the sociodemographic characteristics as Whites and Blacks.

  2. Knowledge, attitude, perception of malaria and evaluation of malaria parasitaemia among pregnant women attending antenatal care clinic in metropolitan Lagos, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.C. Iriemenam, A.O. Dosunmu, W.A. Oyibo & A.F. Fagbenro-Beyioku

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Little information exists on the compliance of pregnant women to malaria managementin malaria endemic countries. This study was designed to access knowledge, attitude, perception and homemanagement of malaria among consenting pregnant women attending antenatal care (ANC clinic.Methods: In total, 350 pregnant women were randomly recruited during their ANC Clinic in Lagos. Structuredquestionnaires were administered in a two-stages research design; first during their early months of ANC visitand the second approximately 1–2 months before delivery. Information on occupation, parity, symptoms used torecognise malaria, treatment sources, control measures, knowledge factors, anti-vector measures, health-seekingpractices, malaria parasitaemia and packed cell volume (PCV were recorded.Results: The results revealed that 78.9% of the pregnant women identified infected mosquitoes as the cause ofmalaria while 86% of the pregnant women identified stagnant water as its breeding sites. Knowledge of thebenefit of insecticide-treated mosquito bednets was less prominent as most of the selected subjects decried itshigh market price. Our data also showed that educational programme targeted on potential mothers is beneficial.Overall, 27.4% (96/350 of the pregnant women had peripheral malaria infection with 88.5% (85/96 of theparasite positive women infected with Plasmodium falciparum and 11.5% (11/96 with P. malariae. PCV rangedfrom 20–40% (median 33.9% with 25.7% (90/350 of the pregnant women being anaemic with PCV <33%. Wefound an association between malaria infection and occupation, and this association was not influenced byparity.Interpretation & conclusion: Our findings revealed that improvement in knowledge and education of women ofchild-bearing age has an influential impact on malaria control

  3. Cervical pre-malignant lesions in HIV infected women attending Care and Treatment Centre in a tertiary hospital, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balandya, Belinda S; Pembe, Andrea B; Mwakyoma, Henry A

    2011-09-01

    The aims of this study was to determine proportion of HIV infected women with cervical pre-malignant lesions; and compare the use of Visual Inspection of the cervix after application of Acetic acid (VIA) and Papanicolau (Pap) smear in screening for cervical premalignant lesions in HIV positive women attending Care and Treatment Centre (CTC) at Muhimbili National Hospital (MNH), Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. A total of 316 women aged 18-70 years had a Pap smear taken for cytology, followed by spraying onto the cervix with 4% acetic acid and then inspecting it. Cytology was considered negative when there was no Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia (CIN) lesion reported from the Pap smear taken, and positive if CIN lesion 1, 2 or 3 was reported. Detection of a well-defined, opaque acetowhite lesion close to the squamocolumnar junction or close to the external cervical os constituted a positive VIA. Out of 316 women, 132 women had acetowhite lesions on VIA, making the proportion of abnormal cervical lesions to be 42.4%. One hundred and one out of 312 women (32.4%) had CIN lesions detected on Pap smear. The proportion of agreement between these two tests was 0.3. The proportion of agreement was moderate in women with advanced WHO HIV clinical stage of the disease and in women not on ART (Anti Retroviral Therapy). Women with CD-4 count less than 200 cells/mm3 had more abnormal cervical lesions. There is considerable proportion of HIV positive women with premalignant lesions of the cervix. Considering the proportion of HIV women with abnormal lesions and the difficulty in logistics of doing Pap smear in low resource settings, these results supports the recommendation to introduce screening of premalignant lesions of the cervix using VIA to all HIV infected women.

  4. Screening of pregnant women attending the antenatal care clinic of a tertiary hospital in eastern Saudi Arabia for Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alzahrani Alhusain

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Inroduction: Of the "top ten" sexually transmitted infections, Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae are ranked second and fifth, respectively, worldwide. Aim: The aim of this study was to screen the pregnant women for C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae infections and to detect antimicrobial resistance pattern of N. gonorrhoeae. Materials and Methods: This study was a prospective, hospital-based analysis of a random sample of pregnant women visiting the antenatal clinic of a tertiary hospital in eastern Saudi Arabia. Endocervical and high vaginal swabs were collected both from pregnant women and female patients attending gynecology clinic with lower genital tract infection (control group. C. trachomatis antigen was detected using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. N. gonorrhoeae was detected by culture and identification of isolates, and antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 13.0 and Chi-square test were used for statistical analysis. Results: C. trachomatis antigen was detected in 10.5% (10/95 and 34.4% (35/102 of pregnant women and control group, respectively (P < 0.001. The isolation rate of N. gonorrhoeae among pregnant women was 0.0% compared to 7.8% (8/102 among the control group (P < 0.01. N. gonorrhoeae were resistant to penicillin (62.5%, tetracycline (50%, ampicillin (25%, amoxycillin-clavulinic acid (25% and ciprofloxacin (37.5%, while they were susceptible to cefepime, ceftriaxone, ceftazidime, spectinomycin, and cefuroxime. Conclusion: Screening of pregnant women for C. trachomatis infection should be included in the antenatal care in this area. The detection rate of both organisms among the control group highlights the importance of preventive strategies. Certain antibiotics previously used in treating gonorrhea are no longer effective.

  5. Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage among outpatients attending primary health care centers: a comparative study of two cities in Saudi Arabia and Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hala M. Abou Shady

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological and molecular data on community acquired methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus(CA-MRSA are still scarce in both Egypt and Saudi Arabia. There is almost no data regarding methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA prevalence in both countries. This study was conducted to investigate the prevalence and molecular epidemiology of S. aureusand MRSA nasal carriage among outpatients attending primary health care centers in two big cities in both countries. A total of 206 nasal swabs were obtained, 103 swabs from each country. S. aureusisolates were characterized by antibiotic susceptibility, presence of mecAand PVL genes, SCCmec-typing and spa typing, the corresponding Multi locus sequence typing clonal complex was assigned for each spa type based on Ridom StaphType database. MRSA was detected in 32% of the Egyptian outpatients while it was found in 25% of the Saudi Arabian outpatients. All MRSA isolates belonged to SCCmec type V and IVa, where some isolates in Saudi Arabia remained nontypeable. Surprisingly PVL+ isolates were low in frequency: 15% of MRSA Egyptian isolates and 12% of MRSA isolates in Saudi Arabia. Two novel spa types were detected t11839 in Egypt, and t11841 in Saudi Arabia. We found 8 spa types among 20 isolates from Egypt, and 12 spa types out of 15 isolates from Saudi Arabia. Only two spa types t008 and t223 coexisted in both countries. Four clonal complexes (CC5, CC8, CC22, and CC80 were identified in both Egypt and Saudi Arabia. However, the data collected lacked a representation of isolates from different parts of each country as only one health center from each country was included, it still partially illustrates the CA-MRSA situation in both countries. In conclusion a set of control measures is required to prevent further increase in MRSA prevalence.

  6. Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage among outpatients attending primary health care centers: a comparative study of two cities in Saudi Arabia and Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou Shady, Hala M; Bakr, Alaa Eldin A; Hashad, Mahmoud E; Alzohairy, Mohammad A

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiological and molecular data on community acquired methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) are still scarce in both Egypt and Saudi Arabia. There is almost no data regarding methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) prevalence in both countries. This study was conducted to investigate the prevalence and molecular epidemiology of S. aureus and MRSA nasal carriage among outpatients attending primary health care centers in two big cities in both countries. A total of 206 nasal swabs were obtained, 103 swabs from each country. S. aureus isolates were characterized by antibiotic susceptibility, presence of mecA and PVL genes, SCCmec-typing and spa typing, the corresponding Multi locus sequence typing clonal complex was assigned for each spa type based on Ridom StaphType database. MRSA was detected in 32% of the Egyptian outpatients while it was found in 25% of the Saudi Arabian outpatients. All MRSA isolates belonged to SCCmec type V and IVa, where some isolates in Saudi Arabia remained nontypeable. Surprisingly PVL(+) isolates were low in frequency: 15% of MRSA Egyptian isolates and 12% of MRSA isolates in Saudi Arabia. Two novel spa types were detected t11839 in Egypt, and t11841 in Saudi Arabia. We found 8 spa types among 20 isolates from Egypt, and 12 spa types out of 15 isolates from Saudi Arabia. Only two spa types t008 and t223 coexisted in both countries. Four clonal complexes (CC5, CC8, CC22, and CC80) were identified in both Egypt and Saudi Arabia. However, the data collected lacked a representation of isolates from different parts of each country as only one health center from each country was included, it still partially illustrates the CA-MRSA situation in both countries. In conclusion a set of control measures is required to prevent further increase in MRSA prevalence.

  7. Why don't some women attend antenatal and postnatal care services?: a qualitative study of community members' perspectives in Garut, Sukabumi and Ciamis districts of West Java Province, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heywood Peter

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antenatal, delivery and postnatal care services are amongst the recommended interventions aimed at preventing maternal and newborn deaths worldwide. West Java is one of the provinces of Java Island in Indonesia with a high proportion of home deliveries, a low attendance of four antenatal services and a low postnatal care uptake. This paper aims to explore community members' perspectives on antenatal and postnatal care services, including reasons for using or not using these services, the services received during antenatal and postnatal care, and cultural practices during antenatal and postnatal periods in Garut, Sukabumi and Ciamis districts of West Java province. Methods A qualitative study was conducted from March to July 2009 in six villages in three districts of West Java province. Twenty focus group discussions (FGDs and 165 in-depth interviews were carried out involving a total of 295 respondents. The guidelines for FGDs and in-depth interviews included the topics of community experiences with antenatal and postnatal care services, reasons for not attending the services, and cultural practices during antenatal and postnatal periods. Results Our study found that the main reason women attended antenatal and postnatal care services was to ensure the safe health of both mother and infant. Financial difficulty emerged as the major issue among women who did not fulfil the minimum requirements of four antenatal care services or two postnatal care services within the first month after delivery. This was related to the cost of health services, transportation costs, or both. In remote areas, the limited availability of health services was also a problem, especially if the village midwife frequently travelled out of the village. The distances from health facilities, in addition to poor road conditions were major concerns, particularly for those living in remote areas. Lack of community awareness about the importance of these

  8. Older adults’ networks and public care receipt : Do partners and adult children substitute for unskilled public care?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schenk, N.; Dykstra, Pearl; Maas, Ineke; van Gaalen, R.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates how (a) the reliance on public care and (b) the type of public care received by older people in the Netherlands depends on the availability of partners and adult children. Older people aged 65 years and older were surveyed in the Netherlands Kinship Panel Study at two time-po

  9. A Study of the Views of Teachers of First Year Infant School Children Concerning the Effects on the Language and Socialisation of Children Who Have Previously Attended Playgroups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Sinclair; Wheeler, T. J.

    This paper reports the findings of a survey to determine the effects, if any, that experience in playgroups had upon children of varying social class backgrounds in differing areas within the United Kingdom. The project aimed at answering two major questions: (1) Did teachers perceive differences in first year infant school children that they…

  10. Rotavirus infection in children and adult patients attending in a tertiary Hospital of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emerson Carraro

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available During the period of January 2003 to December 2005, 3,768 stool samples were received in the Microbiology Laboratory for rotavirus antigen detection from outpatients and inpatients of Albert Einstein Hospital, SP. Fresh stool samples from children and adults were analyzed by two methodologies: during 2003 and 2004 by latex agglutination (Slidex Rotavirus, Biomerieux and 2005 by an immunochromatographic assay for the combined detection of rotavirus and adenovirus (Vikia Rota-Adeno, Biomerieux. Rotavirus group A was detected in 755 (20% samples. The annual prevalence was 19.8% in 2003, 21.7% in 2004, and 18.7% in 2005. Rotavirus was detected every month during the period of the study, with peak of positivity between June and August (>35%. The prevalence in hospitalized patients was 26.1% (352/1,350 and in outpatients was 16.7% (403/2,418. For hospitalized patients most of the rotavirus infections were diagnosed in Pediatric setting, age range of 0 to 10 years (prevalence of 55.3%, 295/534. Overall positivity was up to 30% in patients between six months and five years of age (67% of all positive patients, all other age groups had at least 10% positive tests. Rotavirus infection is common in Sao Paulo, and besides the expected higher frequency in children it is also frequent in adults.

  11. Clinical-epidemiological profile of children with schistosomal myeloradiculopathy attended at the Instituto Materno-Infantil de Pernambuco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Karina Conceição G M; Rosa e Silva, Cristiana da; Barbosa, Constança Simões; Ferrari, Teresa C A

    2006-09-01

    The most critical phase of exposure to schistosomal infection is the infancy, because of the more frequent contact with contaminated water and the immaturity of the immune system. One of the most severe presentations of this parasitosis is the involvement of the spinal cord, which prognosis is largely dependent on early diagnosis and treatment. Reports on this clinical form of schistosomiasis in children are rare in the literature. We present here the clinical-epidemiological profile of schistosomal myeloradiculopathy (SMR) from ten children who were admitted at the Instituto Materno-Infantil de Pernambuco over a five-year period. They were evaluated according to an investigation protocol. Most of these patients presented an acute neurological picture which included as the main clinical manifestations: sphincteral disorders, low back and lower limbs pain, paresthesia, lower limbs muscle weakness and absence of deep tendon reflex, and impairment of the gait. The diagnosis was presumptive in the majority of the cases. This study emphasizes the importance of considering the diagnosis of SMR in pediatric patients coming from endemic areas who present a low cord syndrome, in order to start the appropriate therapy and avoid future complications.

  12. Place of Child Care and Medicated Respiratory Illness among Young American Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presser, Harriet B.

    1988-01-01

    Study based on Child Health Supplement to 1981 National Health Interview Survey showed higher prevalence of medicated respiratory illness among children under age five when they were cared for outside the home. For children under age three, prevalence was highest in child care centers, lower in other homes, and lowest in own home. (Author/NB)

  13. Measuring Therapeutic Alliance with Children in Residential Treatment and Therapeutic Day Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roest, Jesse; van der Helm, Peer; Strijbosch, Eefje; van Brandenburg, Mariëtte; Stams, Geert Jan

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the construct validity and reliability of a therapeutic alliance measure (Children's Alliance Questionnaire [CAQ]) for children with psychosocial and/or behavioral problems, receiving therapeutic residential care or day care in the Netherlands. Methods: Confirmatory factor analysis of a one-factor model ''therapeutic…

  14. Assessment of health care by children and adolescents depends on when they respond to the questionnaire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hanne Irene; Ammentorp, Jette; Kofoed, Poul-Erik

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the assessments and priorities by children and adolescents of health care in a paediatric outpatient clinic, to examine the influence of the time factor on the assessments and priorities by children and adolescents of health care, and to determine their prefer...

  15. Canadian Children and Youth in Care: The Cost of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popova, Svetlana; Lange, Shannon; Burd, Larry; Rehm, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Background: A high prevalence of prenatal alcohol exposure has been reported among children in care and thus, the risk of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) in this population is high. Objective: The purpose of the current study was to estimate the number of children (0-18 years) in care with FASD and to determine the associated cost by age…

  16. Critical Issues in Foster Care: Lessons the Children's Ark Learned from Barbara and Nathan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Janet; Kretchmar, Molly D.; Worsham, Nancy L.

    2008-01-01

    Using an attachment theory framework, this article explores several critical issues in foster care as reflected in the case of Barbara and her 9-month-old son, Nathan. Barbara and Nathan participated in The Children's Ark, an innovative intervention for families in foster care that allowed mothers who had lost custody of their children to live,…

  17. Attachment Style, Home-Leaving Age and Behavioral Problems among Residential Care Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shechory, Mally; Sommerfeld, Eliane

    2007-01-01

    In a prospective study, the attachment style, home-leaving age, length of time in residential care, and behavioral problems among Israeli residential care children (N=68), were studied. Data analyses showed that children removed from their homes at a later age suffered from higher levels of anxiety, depression and social problems compared to…

  18. A Special Challenge for Europe: The Inclusion of Roma Children in Early Years Education and Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaus, Sarah; Marsh, Adrian

    2014-01-01

    Provision of early childhood education and care (ECEC) for Roma children serves as a litmus test for the broader social inclusion agenda in Europe. The majority of Roma children and families live in substandard, often insecure and isolated housing and have limited access to quality health, social care and education services. There is a growing…

  19. Influence of the day care, home and neighbourhood environment on young children's physical activity and health: protocol for the PLAYCE observational study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, Hayley; Maitland, Clover; Enkel, Stephanie; Trapp, Georgina; Trost, Stewart G; Schipperijn, Jasper; Boruff, Bryan; Lester, Leanne; Rosenberg, Michael; Zubrick, Stephen R

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The early years are a critical period in a child's health and development, yet most preschool children fail to meet physical activity guidelines. Outside of the home and neighbourhood, children spend a large proportion of time within early childhood education and care (ECEC) services such as long day care. Research is required to determine how the design of day care outdoor (and indoor) spaces provides opportunities or constraints for physical activity. A significant evidence gap surrounds what objectively measured attributes of the home and neighbourhood environment influence preschoolers’ physical activity. The PLAY Spaces & Environments for Children's Physical Activity (PLAYCE) study will empirically investigate the relative and cumulative influence of the day care, home and neighbourhood environment on preschoolers’ physical activity. Methods and analysis The PLAYCE study is a cross-sectional observational study (April 2015 to April 2018) of 2400 children aged 2–5 years attending long day care in metropolitan Perth, Western Australia. Accelerometers will measure physical activity with indoor physical activity measured using radio frequency identification. Global positioning systems will be used to determine outdoor location of physical activity around the home and neighbourhood for a subsample (n=310). The day care environment will be objectively measured using a validated audit tool. Other potential individual, social and physical environmental influences on preschoolers’ physical activity will be collected by geographic information systems measures, parent and day care educator surveys. Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval has been granted by The University of Western Australia Human Ethics Research Committee, approval number RA/4/1/7417. Findings will be published in international peer-reviewed journals and presented at international conferences. Key findings will be disseminated to stakeholders, collaborators, policymakers and

  20. Referral of children seeking care at private health facilities in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mbonye, Anthony K.; Buregyeya, Esther; Rutebemberwa, Elizeus

    2017-01-01

    Background In Uganda, referral of sick children seeking care at public health facilities is poor and widely reported. However, studies focusing on the private health sector are scanty. The main objective of this study was to assess referral practices for sick children seeking care at private health...... children to higher levels of care in the two weeks prior to the survey. The main constraints to follow referral advice as perceived by caretakers were: not appreciating the importance of referral, gender-related decision-making and negotiations at household level, poor quality of care at referral...

  1. Do children get their fair share of health and dental care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopelman, L M; Mouradian, W E

    2001-04-01

    This paper reviews the work of several authors, D.W. Brock, D. Callahan, L. Churchill, L.M. Kopelman, R. Tong who consider assumptions and arguments about how to allocate health and dental care to children fairly. They use various approaches including feminist, rights based, and principled considerations, applying general notions of duty or justice to the issues of children's access to basic health and dental care. Two discuss these issues in relation to the work of David Hume. These authors consider children's greatest unmet health needs, including that of dental care, often mistakenly regarded as medically unimportant in terms of children's wellbeing, opportunities, and self-image. They review possible age bias against children in the allocation of health and dental care, the gap between what we say and do where children are concerned, and whether some fundamental shift in social thinking needs to occur.

  2. Transition to skilled birth attendance: is there a future role for trained traditional birth attendants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibley, Lynn M; Sipe, Theresa Ann

    2006-12-01

    A brief history of training of traditional birth attendants (TBAs), summary of evidence for effectiveness of TBA training, and consideration of the future role of trained TBAs in an environment that emphasizes transition to skilled birth attendance are provided. Evidence of the effectiveness of TBA training, based on 60 studies and standard meta-analytic procedures, includes moderate-to-large improvements in behaviours of TBAs relating to selected intrapartum and postnatal care practices, small significant increases in women's use of antenatal care and emergency obstetric care, and small significant decreases in perinatal mortality and neonatal mortality due to birth asphyxia and pneumonia. Such findings are consistent with the historical focus of TBA training on extending the reach of primary healthcare and a few programmes that have included home-based management of complications of births and the newborns, such as birth asphyxia and pneumonia. Evidence suggests that, in settings characterized by high mortality and weak health systems, trained TBAs can contribute to the Millennium Development Goal 4--a two-thirds reduction in the rate of mortality of children aged less than 14 years by 2015--through participation in key evidence-based interventions.

  3. Integrated complex care coordination for children with medical complexity: A mixed-methods evaluation of tertiary care-community collaboration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cohen Eyal

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Primary care medical homes may improve health outcomes for children with special healthcare needs (CSHCN, by improving care coordination. However, community-based primary care practices may be challenged to deliver comprehensive care coordination to complex subsets of CSHCN such as children with medical complexity (CMC. Linking a tertiary care center with the community may achieve cost effective and high quality care for CMC. The objective of this study was to evaluate the outcomes of community-based complex care clinics integrated with a tertiary care center. Methods A before- and after-intervention study design with mixed (quantitative/qualitative methods was utilized. Clinics at two community hospitals distant from tertiary care were staffed by local community pediatricians with the tertiary care center nurse practitioner and linked with primary care providers. Eighty-one children with underlying chronic conditions, fragility, requirement for high intensity care and/or technology assistance, and involvement of multiple providers participated. Main outcome measures included health care utilization and expenditures, parent reports of parent- and child-quality of life [QOL (SF-36®, CPCHILD©, PedsQL™], and family-centered care (MPOC-20®. Comparisons were made in equal (up to 1 year pre- and post-periods supplemented by qualitative perspectives of families and pediatricians. Results Total health care system costs decreased from median (IQR $244 (981 per patient per month (PPPM pre-enrolment to $131 (355 PPPM post-enrolment (p=.007, driven primarily by fewer inpatient days in the tertiary care center (p=.006. Parents reported decreased out of pocket expenses (p© domains [Health Standardization Section (p=.04; Comfort and Emotions (p=.03], while total CPCHILD© score decreased between baseline and 1 year (p=.003. Parents and providers reported the ability to receive care close to home as a key benefit. Conclusions Complex

  4. A Pilot Study of a 6-Week Parenting Program for Mothers of Pre-school Children Attending Family Health Centers in Karachi, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasmin Khowaja

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Recently, parenting programs to address behavioural and emotional problems associated with child maltreatment in developing countries have received much attention. There is a paucity of literature on effective parent education interventions in the local context of Pakistan. This study aimed to assess the feasibility of offering a 6-week parenting program for mothers of pre-school children attending family health centres (FHCs in Karachi, the largest metropolitan city of Pakistan. Methods A pilot quasi-experimental trial was conducted. Two FHCs were selected, one as the intervention and the second as the control. A total of 57 mothers of pre-school children (n = 30 intervention; n = 27 control participated in this study. Mothers in the intervention group received SOS Help for parents module, while mothers in the control group received information about routine childcare. A parenting scale (PS was administered before the program was implemented and repeated 2 weeks after the program was completed in both groups. Statistical analysis was performed to compare participants’ attributes. Descriptive analysis was conducted to compare pre- and post-test mean scores along with standard deviation for parenting subscales in the intervention and control groups. Results A total of 50 mothers (n = 25 intervention; n = 25 control completed the 6-week program. Attrition was observed as 5/30 (17% in the intervention arm and 2/27 (2% in the control arm. Mothers commonly reported the burden of daily domestic and social responsibilities as the main reason for dropping out. Furthermore, the majority of participants in the control group recommended increasing the duration of weekly sessions from 1 to 1.5 hours, thereby decreasing the program period from 6 to 4 weeks. Mothers in intervention group reported substantial improvement in parenting skills as indicated by mean difference in their pre- and post-test scores for laxness and over

  5. Influenza and respiratory syncytial virus in infants and children: relationship with attendance at a paediatric emergency unit and characteristics of the circulating strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparini, R; Durando, P; Ansaldi, F; Sticchi, L; Banfi, F; Amicizia, D; Panatto, D; Esposito, S; Principi, N; Icardi, G; Crovari, P

    2007-09-01

    A study was carried out on 2,696 Italian children, aged 0-14 years. The goals were: (1) to define the age-related impact of acute respiratory infections (ARI), measured as the risk of attendance at the Paediatric Emergency Room, (2) to better define the importance and proportion of influenza and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infections and (3) to acquire deeper knowledge of the influenza strains circulating in infants and children. A standardised emergency unit attendance risk (EUAR) was calculated, by age group for ARI. Specific EUARs were also calculated for the two pathogens. Pharyngeal swabs were tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for influenza and RSVs. Isolation in Madine-Darby canine kidney cells (MDCK) and Hep cells, haemagglutination inhibition (HI) testing and HA1 gene sequence analysis were performed for influenza viruses. Most of the patients enrolled were aged 0-5 years, 1,139 (84.6%) and 1,061 (78.5%) in the two seasons, respectively. The most represented age class was that of 1 year olds (331 cases in 2001-2002 and 301 in 2002-2003). The highest EUAR for ARI was in patients aged 0-3 years (16.8 and 12.9 during the two seasons). The same was observed on calculating this risk by specific pathogens: 17.4 and 5.5 for influenza and 13.0 and 12.7 for RSV. Virological analysis was performed on 2,696 samples, 595 of which proved positive (22%). The highest number of isolates (326) came from patients aged 1-3 years. RSVs were more often identified than influenza viruses in infants aged up to 1 year (32 vs. 20 isolates). Of 265 strains isolated in 2001-2002, 103 were RSVs (87 type A, 16 B) and 162 were influenza (90 type A, 72 B). HI showed that influenza B viruses were related to two lineages, B/Victoria/2/87 (32%) and B/Yamagata/16/88 (68%). Of 330 strains isolated in 2002-2003, 102 were RSVs (91 type A, 11 B) and 228 were influenza viruses (220 type A, 8 B). A/H3N2 strains belonged to two clusters, A/Panama/2007/99-like and A/Fujian/411/02-like

  6. Clinical Predictors of Intensive Care Unit Admission for Asthmatic Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hasan Kargar Maher

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionChildren with severe asthma attack are a challenging group of patients who could be difficult to treat and leading to significant morbidity and mortality. Asthma attack severity is qualitatively estimated as mild, moderate and severe attacks and respiratory failure based on conditions such as respiration status, feeling of dyspnea, and the degree of unconsciousness. part of which are subjective rather than objective. We investigated clinical findings as predictors of severe attack and probable requirement for Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU admission.Materials and MethodsIn a cross sectional and analytical study 120 patients with asthma attack were enrolled from April 2010 to April 2014 (80 admitted in the ward and 40 in pediatric intensive care unit. Predictors of PICU admission were investigated regarding to initial heart rate(HR, respiratory rate (RR, Arterial Oxygen Saturation(SaO2 and PaCo2 and clinically evident cyanosis.ResultsInitial heart rate(p-value=0.02, respiratory rate (p-value=0.03, Arterial Oxygen Saturation(p-value=0.02 and PaCo2(p-value=0.03 and clinically evident cyanosis were significantly different in two groups(Ward admitted and PICU admittedConclusion There was a significant correlation between initial vital sign and blood gas analysis suggesting usefulness of these factors as predictors of severe asthma attack and subsequent clinical course.

  7. How Do Finnish Children Express Care and Justice in Comic Strips and Written Narratives?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Juha; Hannula, Markku S.

    2014-01-01

    This case study explored how children's moral expressions like love and violence differ according to the mode of narrative, comic strips or written narratives. Sixteen third-grade children from a primary school in Finland took part in the study. Children's moral expressions were divided into justice and care. Reading frequency of fairy…

  8. Individualized Health Care Plans: Supporting Children With Chronic Conditions in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Amanda F.; Hughes, Mary-alayne

    2016-01-01

    Due to the major advances in technology and the sciences, advances in the medical treatment options for children with chronic conditions are being made at an astonishing rate. In the health care field, "children with chronic conditions" is a generic phrase that typically refers to children with physical, developmental, behavioral, or…

  9. How Do Finnish Children Express Care and Justice in Comic Strips and Written Narratives?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Juha; Hannula, Markku S.

    2014-01-01

    This case study explored how children's moral expressions like love and violence differ according to the mode of narrative, comic strips or written narratives. Sixteen third-grade children from a primary school in Finland took part in the study. Children's moral expressions were divided into justice and care. Reading frequency of fairy tales and…

  10. Parental Perceptions of Hospital Care in Children with Accidental or Alleged Non-Accidental Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ince, Elif E.; Rubin, David; Christian, Cindy W.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether a suspicion or diagnosis of child abuse during hospitalization influences parental perceptions of hospital care in families of children admitted with traumatic injuries. Method: Parents of children younger than 6 years of age admitted with traumatic injuries to a large urban children's hospital were recruited to…

  11. Child Care Providers' Competence and Confidence in Referring Children at Risk for Developmental Delays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branson, Diane; Bingham, Ann

    2017-01-01

    Despite the benefits of early intervention for children, the majority of children with developmental delays are not identified prior to the age of 5 years. Child care providers could aid in recognition of children at risk for developmental delays; however, there is little research on this topic. This article reports on a qualitative research study…

  12. Social Support Is Associated with Blood Pressure Responses in Parents Caring for Children with Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Stephen; Whiteley, Jenny

    2012-01-01

    The present study tested whether parents caring for children with developmental disabilities would have higher blood pressure compared to parents of typically developing children (controls). It also examined the psychosocial factors underlying this observation. Thirty-five parents of children with developmental disability and thirty controls…

  13. Drooling in children with cerebral palsy: effect of salivary flow reduction on daily life and care.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burg, J.J. van der; Jongerius, P.H.; Hulst, K. van; Limbeek, J. van; Rotteveel, J.J.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of salivary flow reduction on daily life and provision of care in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Parents of children with CP were asked to fill in a questionnaire on the impact of drooling on the daily life of their children and their famil

  14. NIH Research: Children Research Volunteers Receive Care and Help Advance Knowledge | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Children Research Volunteers Receive Care and Help Advance Knowledge Past Issues / Winter 2012 Table of Contents Dr. ... Children research volunteers receive care and help advance knowledge I f one smile can light up a ...

  15. Mothers’ Satisfaction With Two Systems of Providing Care to Their Hospitalized Children

    OpenAIRE

    Hosseinian, Masoumeh; Mirbagher Ajorpaz, Neda; Esalat Manesh, Soophia

    2015-01-01

    Background: Despite the paramount importance of the patient’s satisfaction, there are limited data on mothers’ satisfaction with the nursing care provided to their children in Iranian clinical settings. Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate mothers’ satisfaction with two systems of providing care to their hospitalized children. Patients and Methods: This research was a two-group quasi-experimental study. Primarily, the basics of the case method and the functional care delivery systems were...

  16. Musculoskeletal conditions in children and adolescents managed in Australian primary care

    OpenAIRE

    Henschke, Nicholas; Harrison, Christopher; McKay, Damien; Broderick, Carolyn; Latimer, Jane; Britt, Helena; Maher, Christopher G

    2014-01-01

    Background Primary care settings play a vital role in the early detection and appropriate management of musculoskeletal conditions in paediatric populations. However, little data exist regarding these conditions in a primary care context or on the presentation of specific musculoskeletal disorders in children. The aim of this study was to estimate the caseload and describe typical management of musculoskeletal conditions in children and adolescents presenting to primary care in Australia. Met...

  17. Children's Stress Behaviors and Developmentally Appropriate Practice in Family Child Care Homes

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Chih-Ying

    2000-01-01

    This study investigated and qualitatively compared differences in children's stress reactions across two levels of developmentally appropriate practice in family child care homes. Data were collected through observations. Six children, five boys and one girl from six different family child care homes, between the ages of 36 and 60 months, were observed for the type and frequency of stress behaviors. The six family child care homes were divided into two groups based on more or less use of a...

  18. Waiting times before dental care under general anesthesia in children with special needs in the Children's Hospital of Casablanca

    OpenAIRE

    Badre, Bouchra; Serhier, Zineb; El Arabi, Samira

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Oral diseases may have an impact on quality of children's life. The presence of severe disability requires the use of care under general anesthesia (GA). However, because of the limited number of qualified health personnel, waiting time before intervention can be long. Aim: To evaluate the waiting time before dental care under general anesthesia for children with special needs in Morocco. Methods A retrospective cohort study was carried out in pediatric dentistry unit of the Univ...

  19. Feeding and oral hygiene habits of children attending daycare centres in Bangalore and their caretakers oral health knowledge, attitude and practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Vinay

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Caretakers in day-care centers play a significant role in imparting good oral hygiene practices and also extend a working relationship with parents with regard to their children′s oral health. As a result of this, caregiver′s dental knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and practices affect the child′s oral condition. Settings and Design: A descriptive cross-sectional study involved caretakers working in day-care centers of Bangalore. Fifty-two day-care centers were randomly selected from the different zones of Bangalore city, from which 246 caretakers provided consent for participation. Materials and Methods: A comprehensive, closed-ended, self-administered questionnaire was employed which was designed to collect the sociodemographic details and to evaluate the oral health knowledge, attitudes, practice of caretakers. The institutional review committee approved the study. Data were entered using SPSS 13.01. Results: Seventy-nine percent of the subjects had good knowledge of child′s tooth eruption time, clinical presentation of dental caries and the role of fluoride in caries prevention. Yet, half of the subjects found routine dental examination after all the milk teeth have erupted in the oral cavity insignificant and 41% strongly agreed that dentist should be consulted only when the child has a toothache. In spite of the good knowledge, 77% preferred to use pacifier dipped in honey/sugar if the children acted troublesome. Analogous to this, 45% gave milk/juice with sugar before the child′s nap time. Conclusions: The results of this study indicate that caretaker′s attitude toward oral health care needs is far from acceptable standards to mirror any positive impact on the children.

  20. Child Care Quality and Children's Cortisol in Basque Country and the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeer, Harriet J.; Groeneveld, Marleen G.; Larrea, Inaki; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Barandiaran, Alexander; Linting, Marielle

    2010-01-01

    A cross-country comparison of children's cortisol levels at child care was performed in relation to their cortisol levels at home and the quality and quantity of child care they received. Participants were toddlers visiting child care centers in Spanish Basque Country (N = 60) and the Netherlands (N = 25) with substantial variation in structural…

  1. Predicting additional care in young children with neurodevelopmental disability : a systematic literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meester-Delver, A; Beelen, A; Hennekam, R; Hadders-Algra, MN; Nollet, F

    2006-01-01

    Children with developmental disabilities often show a variety of associated impairments that lead to a lifelong need for additional care. Careful assessment of these impairments is required not only for diagnostic purposes but also to inform the parents about the expected additional care needs in th

  2. Oral health status and treatment needs of hearing impaired children attending a special school in Bhimavaram, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Sandeep

    2016-01-01

    Study Design: The study design was a descriptive cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted in November 2012 at SVS special school for deaf, Bhimavaram, India. This study involved 180 CHI of both genders, aged 6-16 years, divided into Group-I (6-8 years, Group-II (9-12 years, and Group-III (13-16 years. Oral health status and treatment needs were recorded using methods and standards recommended by the WHO for Oral Health Surveys, 1997. Dental caries prevalence (decayed, missing, and filled teeth [DMFT/dmft], gingivitis levels (Lφe, Silness Gingival Index, plaque levels (Silness, Lφe Plaque index, and treatment needs were the parameters recorded and analyzed. Statistical Analysis: Z-test for proportion, one-way analysis of variance, and Chi-square test were used to analyze the data. Results: Prevalence of dental caries in the sample was found to be 65% with a mean level of caries prevalence (DMFT of 1.6 ± 1.3 in Group-I, 1.9 ± 1.2 in Group-II, and 2.2 ± 1.2 in Group-III. About 91.7% of the total children examined needs treatment. The mean plaque and gingivitis scores of the sample were 1.70 ± 0.61 and 1.59 ± 0.58, respectively. Conclusion: These findings imply the overwhelming situation of CHI in oral health perspective. Hence, prevention-based educational and motivational programs should be targeted to this vital group to achieve adequate oral hygiene levels.

  3. Child Care and Development Block Grant (CCDBG) Participation Continues to Fall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Hannah; Schmit, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    Child care subsidies help make quality child care affordable for low-income parents, allowing them to attend work or school to support their families while ensuring their children's healthy development. The Child Care and Development Block Grant (CCDBG) is the primary source of federal funding for child care subsidies for low-income working…

  4. Care in the home for seriously ill children with complex needs: A narrative literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Cynthia; Glass, Nel; Ford, Rosemary

    2015-12-01

    This article reviews contemporary literature on home care of the seriously ill child with complex care needs and the sick child/parent dyad. The literature search revealed three major themes, namely the increasing acuity of child illness, the evolving role of the parent as care provider, and the health professional as care provider. While there is much known about the complexity of care of children and the role of family in that care, little is known about what families require in terms of support and sustenance during the long years of care provision.

  5. Exploring the experiences and perspectives of families using a children's hospice and professionals providing hospice care to identify future research priorities for children's hospice care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malcolm, C; Forbat, L; Knighting, K; Kearney, N

    2008-12-01

    The main objective of this study is to generate a list of priority topics for children's hospice care research in Scotland from the perspective of its key stakeholders. The method consists of qualitative semi-structured interviews with families using hospice services (n = 5), four focus groups with hospice staff and volunteers (n = 44) and telephone interviews with professionals associated with the hospice (n = 18). Fourteen broad themes emerged following thematic content and interpretive analysis of the interview data. Some of the research themes were specific to certain stakeholder groups, whereas other themes were identified unanimously across all the stakeholder groups as being priority areas for future research. Increasing awareness of and improving access to children's hospice care, hospice and respite care needs of young people, community/home care and issues related to supporting the wider family arose, independently, in all three stakeholder groups as being priority topics for future research. In conclusion, a greater evidence base is required in the field of children's palliative care and the topics researched should be identified and led by those most closely involved in the hospices. Engaging families and care providers in the process of identifying research priorities resulted in the development of an extensive research agenda, which will contribute to quality hospice care for children and families.

  6. Symptom Clusters in People Living with HIV Attending Five Palliative Care Facilities in Two Sub-Saharan African Countries: A Hierarchical Cluster Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrien Moens

    Full Text Available Symptom research across conditions has historically focused on single symptoms, and the burden of multiple symptoms and their interactions has been relatively neglected especially in people living with HIV. Symptom cluster studies are required to set priorities in treatment planning, and to lessen the total symptom burden. This study aimed to identify and compare symptom clusters among people living with HIV attending five palliative care facilities in two sub-Saharan African countries.Data from cross-sectional self-report of seven-day symptom prevalence on the 32-item Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale-Short Form were used. A hierarchical cluster analysis was conducted using Ward's method applying squared Euclidean Distance as the similarity measure to determine the clusters. Contingency tables, X2 tests and ANOVA were used to compare the clusters by patient specific characteristics and distress scores.Among the sample (N=217 the mean age was 36.5 (SD 9.0, 73.2% were female, and 49.1% were on antiretroviral therapy (ART. The cluster analysis produced five symptom clusters identified as: 1 dermatological; 2 generalised anxiety and elimination; 3 social and image; 4 persistently present; and 5 a gastrointestinal-related symptom cluster. The patients in the first three symptom clusters reported the highest physical and psychological distress scores. Patient characteristics varied significantly across the five clusters by functional status (worst functional physical status in cluster one, p<0.001; being on ART (highest proportions for clusters two and three, p=0.012; global distress (F=26.8, p<0.001, physical distress (F=36.3, p<0.001 and psychological distress subscale (F=21.8, p<0.001 (all subscales worst for cluster one, best for cluster four.The greatest burden is associated with cluster one, and should be prioritised in clinical management. Further symptom cluster research in people living with HIV with longitudinally collected symptom data to

  7. Cervical cytological changes in HIV-infected patients attending care and treatment clinic at Muhimbili National Hospital, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mwakigonja Amos R

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tanzania is among Sub-Saharan countries mostly affected by the HIV and AIDS pandemic, females being more vulnerable than males. HIV infected women appear to have a higher rate of persistent infection by high risk types of human papillomavirus (HPV strongly associated with high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL and invasive cervical carcinoma. Furthermore, although HIV infection and cervical cancer are major public health problems, the frequency and HIV/HPV association of cervical cancer and HSIL is not well documented in Tanzania, thus limiting the development of preventive and therapeutic strategies. Methods A prospective unmatched, case-control study of HIV-seropositive, ≥ 18 years of age and consenting non-pregnant patients attending the care and treatment center (CTC at Muhimbili National Hoospital (MNH as cases was done between 2005 and 2006. HIV seronegative, non-pregnant and consenting women recruited from the Cervical Cancer Screening unit (CCSU at ORCI were used as controls while those who did not consent to study participation and/or individuals under Results A total of 170 participants from the two centers were recruited including 50 HIV-seronegative controls were from the CCSU. Ages ranged from 20-66 years (mean 40.5 years for cases and 20-69 years (mean 41.6 years for controls. The age group 36-45 years was the most affected by HIV (39.2%, n = 47. Cervicitis, squamous intraepithelial lesions (SIL and carcinoma constituted 28.3% (n = 34, 38.3% (n = 46 and 5.8% (n = 7 respectively among cases, and 28% (n = 14, 34% (n = 17 and 2% (n = 1 for controls, although this was not statistically significant (P-value = 0.61. IHC showed that p53 was not detectable in HPV + Pap smears and cell blocks indicating possible degradation. Conclusions The frequency of SIL and carcinoma appeared to be higher among HIV-infected women on HAART compared to seronegative controls and as expected increased with age. HIV

  8. 75 FR 44971 - Medicaid Program; Request for Comments on Legislative Changes To Provide Quality of Care to Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-30

    ... [CMS-2480-NC] Medicaid Program; Request for Comments on Legislative Changes To Provide Quality of Care... recommendations for legislative changes to improve the quality of care provided to children under Medicaid and the... quality of care provided to children under Medicaid and the Children's Health Insurance Program....

  9. Preventing Obesity among Preschool Children: How Can Child-Care Settings Promote Healthy Eating and Physical Activity? Research Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Nicole; Ward, Dianne; Neelon, Sara Benjamin; Story, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Child-care settings provide numerous opportunities to promote healthy eating and physical activity behaviors among preschool children. The majority of U.S. children are placed in some form of non-parental care during their preschool years. While approximately 15 percent of preschool children are primarily cared for by their relatives, most…

  10. American Academy of Pediatrics. Committee on Injury and Poison Prevention. Transporting children with special health care needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, M; Agran, P; Laraque, D; Pollack, S H; Smith, G A; Spivak, H R; Tenenbein, M; Tully, S B; Brenner, R A; Bryn, S; Neverman, C; Schieber, R A; Stanwick, R; Tinsworth, D; Tully, W P; Garcia, V; Katcher, M L

    1999-10-01

    Children with special health care needs should have access to proper resources for safe transportation. This statement reviews important considerations for transporting children with special health care needs and provides current guidelines for the protection of children with specific health care needs, including those with a tracheostomy, a spica cast, challenging behaviors, or muscle tone abnormalities as well as those transported in wheelchairs.

  11. Examining the trajectories of children providing care for adults in rural Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovdal, Morten

    2011-01-01

    Research on caregiving children tends to be limited to children's caregiving experiences of parents with a specific disease or disability. This has led to a common perception that children's caregiving is a single, uniform and often long-term experience. Whilst this is most certainly the case...... for many children in economically more advanced countries, this may not hold true in rural Africa, where poverty and AIDS can have significant knock-on effects on entire families and communities. This paper seeks to develop a more complex understanding of children's caring experiences by asking children...... was adapted, with historical profiles, Photovoice and draw-and-write essays complementing 34 individual interviews and 2 group discussions. A thematic network analysis revealed that children's caregiving was not confined to a single experience. Children were observed to provide care for a number of different...

  12. Avaliação do consumo alimentar de crianças pertencentes a uma creche filantrópica na Ilha de Paquetá, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Food intake assessment of children attending a philanthropic daycare center in the Ilha de Paquetá, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roseane M. S. Barbosa

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: comparar o consumo alimentar de pré-escolares, pertencentes a uma creche filantrópica, em dois períodos (no ato da matrícula e após seis meses, com base na proposta da Pirâmide Alimentar Infantil Norte-Americana e através do Índice de Alimentação Saudável (IAS. MÉTODOS: relativamente à avaliação dietética, foi utilizada a história alimentar da criança com o responsável, no ato da matrícula; após seis meses de frequência da criança, utilizou-se o método de pesagem de alimentos (na creche e registro alimentar (na residência. Posteriormente, compararam-se as médias das porções consumidas nos dois períodos, de cada grupo alimentar, utilizando o teste "t" Student, a fim de se verificar a diferença estatística entre os grupos. Considerou-se o nível de significância de 5%. Igualmente, avaliou-se o IAS, nos dois períodos. RESULTADOS: observou-se uma diferença significativa (pOBJECTIVES: to compare the food intake of children in a philanthropic daycare center in two periods (at enrollment and following six months attendance based on the North American Food Guide Pyramid through the Healthy Eating Index (HEI. METHODS: the children eating habits were informed by the parents or custodians at enrollment and following six months of children's attendance, the food weighing technique was performed (at the daycare center and food checking (at home as well. Following, averages of the portions eaten in the two periods were compared in each of the food intake groups through the "t" Student test to determine the statistical significance between the groups, with the significance rate established at 5%. HEI for the two periods was equally assessed. RESULTS: a significant difference (p<0,05 was determined in the average of fruit and vegetable portions consumed, based on the North American Food Pyramid, and a satisfactory scoring of the Healthy Eating Index following six months of the children's attendance of the day care

  13. Improved identification and enrolment into care of HIV-exposed and -infected infants and children following a community health worker intervention in Lilongwe, Malawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Early identification and entry into care is critical to reducing morbidity and mortality in children with HIV. The objective of this report is to describe the impact of the Tingathe programme, which utilizes community health workers (CHWs to improve identification and enrolment into care of HIV-exposed and -infected infants and children. Methods: Three programme phases are described. During the first phase, Mentorship Only (MO (March 2007–February 2008 on-site clinical mentorship on paediatric HIV care was provided. In the second phase, Tingathe-Basic (March 2008–February 2009, CHWs provided HIV testing and counselling to improve case finding of HIV-exposed and -infected children. In the final phase, Tingathe-PMTCT (prevention of mother-to-child transmission (March 2009–February 2011, CHWs were also assigned to HIV-positive pregnant women to improve mother-infant retention in care. We reviewed routinely collected programme data from HIV testing registers, patient mastercards and clinic attendance registers from March 2005 to March 2011. Results: During MO, 42 children (38 HIV-infected and 4 HIV-exposed were active in care. During Tingathe-Basic, 238 HIV-infected children (HIC were newly enrolled, a six-fold increase in rate of enrolment from 3.2 to 19.8 per month. The number of HIV-exposed infants (HEI increased from 4 to 118. During Tingathe-PMTCT, 526 HIC were newly enrolled over 24 months, at a rate of 21.9 patients per month. There was also a seven-fold increase in the average number of exposed infants enrolled per month (9.5–70 patients per month, resulting in 1667 enrolled with a younger median age at enrolment (5.2 vs. 2.5 months; p<0.001.During the Tingathe-Basic and Tingathe-PMTCT periods, CHWs conducted 44,388 rapid HIV tests, 7658 (17.3% in children aged 18 months to 15 years; 351 (4.6% tested HIV-positive. Over this time, 1781 HEI were enrolled, with 102 (5.7% found HIV-infected by positive PCR. Additional HIC

  14. Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Quality of Health Care among Children with Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magana, Sandra; Parish, Susan L.; Rose, Roderick A.; Timberlake, Maria; Swaine, Jamie G.

    2012-01-01

    We examined racial and ethnic disparities in quality of care for children with autism and other developmental disabilities and whether disparities varied for children with autism compared to children with other developmental disabilities. Analyzing data from the National Survey of Children with Special Health Care Needs (N = 4,414), we compared…

  15. Dilemmas in sharing care: maternal provision of professionally driven therapy for children with disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiter, Valerie

    2004-02-01

    This paper explores some of the dilemmas that result when mothers and professionals collaborate in providing care to young children with disabilities within a US public program called Early Intervention. Successful collaboration between professionals and activist parents resulted in the program having a "family centered" approach, but the implementation of that approach is problematic. Professionals transmit therapeutic knowledge and skills to mothers of young children with special needs, urging them to perform therapeutic care work with their children. Through these efforts, professionals create a "therapeutic imperative" for mothers, expecting them to do therapeutic work that usually exceeds the amount of work that professionals do with their children. This paper explores the dilemmas mothers and professionals face when implementing family centered care and the ways in which mothers and professionals negotiate contested understandings of the optimal mixture of public (professional) and private (maternal) provision of therapeutic care to young children with disabilities.

  16. Comparison of optimal cardiovascular risk factor management in patients with Type 2 diabetes who attended urban medical health center with those attended a tertiary care center: Experiences from Tehran, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedighe Moradi

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: Both centers have failure in target achievement in some risk factors; however, the inability of the primary care center in controlling hyperlipidemia in comparison with the tertiary center is a serious warning to provide training about managing dyslipidemia in these centers.

  17. Nutrition and oral health considerations in children with special health care needs: implications for oral health care providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moursi, Amr M; Fernandez, Jill B; Daronch, Marcia; Zee, Lena; Jones, Cassandra L

    2010-01-01

    Children with special health care needs are at increased risk for oral diseases. The purpose of this article was to discuss: nutritional and oral health factors routinely observed in most chronic childhood disorders; dietary modifications associated with select systemic disorders and how they may impact oral health in children; and the following factors common to chronic disorders associated with diet modifications-decreased appetite and increased nutritional risk; frequency of food intake; parental overindulgence; long-term use of cariogenic medications; and xerostomia. Characteristics of childhood disorders that require dietary modifications (congenital heart disease, cystic fibrosis, cancer, AIDS/HIV, diabetes mellitus, and phenylketonuria) are summarized. In addition, healthy dietary modifications and oral health recommendations are suggested. Implementation of these recommendations can assist the dentist and dental team as they join physicians and nutritionists in delivering the best possible care to children with special health care needs.

  18. A randomised controlled trial on the efficacy of a multidisciplinary health care team on morbidity and mortality of elderly patients attending the Emergency Department. Study design and preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosario Santolaya-Perrín

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To estimate the prevalence of potentially inadequate drug prescriptions in elderly patients who attend the Emergency Department. Design: A multicentre randomized clinical trial. Patients over 65 years of age attending the Emergency Department are randomized to the control arm or the intervention arm. In the intervention arm, the pharmacist will review the chronic medication of patients and identify any potentially inadequate prescriptions, according to the STOPP-START criteria. The cases are discussed with the Emergency Specialist and, if considered adequate, a recommendation to modify the treatment is sent to the Primary Care Physician. The control arm will receive the standard of care, not including a systematic review of the adequacy to the STOPP-START criteria. This article presents preliminary outcomes regarding the prevalence of potentially inadequate prescriptions. Outcomes: Four hospitals participated in the study, and 665 patients were included (342 in the control arm and 305 in the intervention arm. The mean age in the control arm was 78.2 years vs. 78.99 in the intervention arm. The total number of medications received by patients at the time of inclusion was 3 275. Of these, 9.3% (CI 95%: 8.3-10.4 were considered potentially inadequate prescriptions according to the STOPP criteria. On the other hand, 81.1% (CI 95%: 76.8-85.4 of the patients evaluated presented potentially inadequate prescriptions. Conclusion: This study has detected a high prevalence of potentially inadequate prescriptions in elderly patients attending the Emergency Department

  19. Immunization Awareness amongst Mothers of Children at A Tertiary – Care Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nauman Ahmad Khan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vaccination is a crucial tool to defend against childhood infectious disease. The prevalence of immunization and immunization awareness are affected by a number of factors including maternal age, literacy and socioeconomic conditions. To counter the high infant mortality rate in developing countries, WHO and UNICEF launched the Extended Program for Immunization (EPI in 1976 to protect against the major infectious diseases affecting children. This study was conducted at Civil Hospital Karachi (CHK, the one of the largest hospitals in Pakistan.Objectives: -To assess the level of awareness about immunization amongst mothers at a large tertiary care hospital in a major city in Pakistan.-To determine mother’s perceptions about the effectiveness of immunization-The prevalence of complete immunization amongst children at CHK-To document the major contributors to awareness about immunization amongst mothers.Methodology: In this cross-sectional survey, a questionnaire was developed to gather information to define the demographic profile and to accomplish the study objectives. It was administered by trained medical students to mothers of children visiting pediatric clinics in Civil Hospital Karachi (CHK during August-October 2009. There are 3 pediatric wards in CHK with over 40 patients in each ward and over 100 patients attending clinic per day. 500 mothers were interviewed in the survey. Fathers and all relatives besides the mothers were excluded from the survey. Full immunization was defined as completing all vaccinations according to the EPI’s guidelines. After explaining study objectives to mothers, written informed consent was obtained and assurance with regards to confidentiality was provided. Results: 500 mothers and 1585 children were included in the study, with a mean 3.17 children per woman. The women were mostly uneducated (53% and from low-income homes (51%. Full immunization status was reported in only 542 (35% of children

  20. Universal health care for children: why every self-interested person should support it.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churchill, L R

    2001-04-01

    By comparison to other developed nations, both the health care and the health status of children in the U.S. are poor. Ethical arguments for covering all children for health services are numerous, but most of them require the suppression of self-interested motivations. Drawing from and developing the arguments of David Hume, this essay argues that self-interested motives need not work against an inclusive system, and can strengthen the case for covering children in particular. Anyone who hopes to benefit from the inter-generational transfers currently required by Social Security and Medicare policies should be an advocate for health care for all children.