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Sample records for children attending care

  1. Comparison of motor and cognitive performance of children attending public and private day care centers

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    Mariana M. Santos

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Given that environmental factors, such as the school environment, can influence child development, more attention should be paid to the development of children attending day care centers. OBJECTIVE: Todetermine whether there are differences in the gross motor, fine motor, or cognitive performances of children between 1 and3 years-old of similar socioeconomic status attending public and private day care centers full time. METHOD: Participants were divided into 2 groups, 1 of children attending public day care centers (69 children and another of children attending private day care centers (47 children. All children were healthy and regularly attended day care full time for over 4 months. To assess cognitive, gross and fine motor performance, the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development III was used. The Mann-Whitney test was used for comparative analyses between groups of children between 13 and 24 months, 25 and 41 months, and 13 and 41 months. RESULTS: Children in public day care centers exhibited lower scores on the cognitive development scale beginning at 13 months old. The fine and gross motor performance scores were lower in children over the age of 25 months attending public centers. Maternal education was not related to the performance of children in either group. CONCLUSION: The scores of cognitive performance as well as fine and gross motor performance of children of similar socioeconomic status who attend public day care centers are lower than children attending private daycare centers.

  2. High Detection Rates of Enteropathogens in Asymptomatic Children Attending Day Care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Enserink, Remko; Scholts, Rianne; Bruijning-Verhagen, Patricia; Duizer, Erwin; Vennema, Harry; de Boer, Richard; Kortbeek, Titia; Roelfsema, Jeroen; Smit, Henriette; Kooistra-Smid, Mirjam; van Pelt, Wilfrid

    2014-01-01

    Background: Gastroenteritis morbidity is high among children under the age of four, especially amongst those who attend day care. Objective: To determine the prevalence of a range of enteropathogens in the intestinal flora of children attending day care and to relate their occurrence with characteri

  3. Psychiatric disorders in children attending a Nigerian primary care unit: functional impairment and risk factors

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    Tunde-Ayinmode Mosunmola

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is dearth of data on the level of functional impairment and risk factors for psychiatric morbidity in children attending primary care services in developing countries like Nigeria. The risk factors for psychiatric morbidity and functional impairment in children attending the primary care unit of a teaching hospital in Ilorin, Nigeria was therefore investigated to obtain data that could be used in improving service provision by primary care physicians. Methods A cross-sectional two-stage design was employed for the study. The first stage involved administration of the Child Behavior Questionnaire (CBQ to 350 children while the children’s version of the schedule for affective disorders and schizophrenia was used for the second stage involving 157 children, all high scorers on CBQ (score of ≥ 7 and 30% of low scorers (score  In addition, the Children Global Assessment Scale was used to assess the functional status of the children (score of ≤ 70 indicates functional impairment while the mothers’ mental health status was assessed with the 12-item version of the General Health Questionnaire, a score of 3 or more on this instrument indicate presence of mental morbidity. Results It was observed that 11.4% of the children had diagnosable psychiatric disorders and 7.1% were functionally impaired; and those with psychiatric disorders were more functionally impaired than those without. Thus, significant negative correlation was noted between CBQ scores and CGAS (r = 0.53; p  Conclusions Child psychiatric disorders are prevalent in the primary care unit studied. Many of the risk factors identified in the study population are modifiable. Collaborative efforts between psychiatrists and primary care physicians could therefore help to reduce level of risk and functional impairment and psychiatric morbidity among children attending the primary care unit studied. It could also help improve referral rates of

  4. Respiratory Virus Detection and Clinical Diagnosis in Children Attending Day Care

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    Moe, Nina; Pedersen, Bård; Nordbø, Svein Arne; Skanke, Lars Høsøien; Krokstad, Sidsel; Smyrnaios, Anastasios; Døllner, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Background Respiratory viruses often have been studied in children with respiratory tract infection (RTI), but less knowledge exists about viruses in asymptomatic children. We have studied the occurrence of a broad panel of respiratory viruses in apparently healthy children attending day care, taking into account the influence of possible confounding factors, such as age, clinical signs of respiratory tract infection (RTI), location (day-care section) and season. Methods We have studied 161 children in two day-care centers, each with separate sections for younger and older children, during four autumn and winter visits over a two-year period. A total of 355 clinical examinations were performed, and 343 nasopharyngeal samples (NPS) were analyzed by semi-quantitative, real-time, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests for 19 respiratory pathogens. Result Forty-three percent of all NPS were PCR-positive for ≥ 1 of 13 virus species, with high species variation during visits. Rhinovirus 26% (88/343 NPS), enterovirus 12% (40/343) and parechovirus 9% (30/343) were detected in every visit, and the rates varied in relation to age, day-care section and season. Ten other viruses were detected in ≤ 3% of the NPS. Generally, viruses occurred together in the NPS. In 24% (79/331) of the clinical examinations with available NPS, the children had clear signs of RTI, while in 41% (135/331) they had mild signs, and in 35% (117/331) the children had no signs of RTI. Moreover, viruses were found in 70% (55/79) of children with clear signs of RTI, in 41% (55/135) with mild signs and in 30% (35/117) without any signs of RTI (p < 0.001). Conclusions Positive PCR tests for respiratory viruses, particularly picornaviruses, were frequently detected in apparently healthy children attending day care. Virus detection rates were related to age, presence of clinical signs of RTI, location in day care and season. PMID:27433803

  5. Perspective of Parents and Caregivers on the Influence of Full-Time Day-Care Attendance on Young Children

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    Undheim, Anne Mari; Drugli, May Britt

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the experience of parents and caregivers regarding young children in day care. The tiredness of children after day-care attendance was explored. In the autumn of 2009, 41 parents and 35 caregivers of children aged 1.5 years or younger living in the city of Trondheim and nearby communities were assessed using a…

  6. Gastroenteritis Attributable to 16 Enteropathogens in Children Attending Day Care Significant Effects of Rotavirus, Norovirus, Astrovirus, Cryptosporidium and Giardia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Enserink, Remko; van den Wijngaard, Cees; Bruijning-Verhagen, Patricia; van Asten, Liselotte; Mughini-Gras, Lapo; Duizer, Erwin; Kortbeek, Titia; Scholts, Rianne; Nagelkerke, Nico; Smit, Henriette A.; Kooistra-Smid, Mirjam; van Pelt, Wilfrid

    2015-01-01

    Background: Children attending day care experience substantial gastrointestinal morbidity due to circulating seasonal enteropathogens in the day-care environment. The lack of a distinct clinical presentation of gastroenteritis (GE) in these children, in combination with the high diversity of enterop

  7. Prevalence and Risk Factor Analysis for Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Nasal Colonization in Children Attending Child Care Centers▿

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    Miller, Melissa B.; David J. Weber; Goodrich, Jennifer S.; Popowitch, Elena B.; Poe, Michele D.; Nyugen, Viet; Shope, Timothy R.; Foster, David T.; Miller, James R; Kotch, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    Children attending child care centers (CCCs) are at increased risk for infections, including those caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Nasal colonization often precedes infection, and MRSA colonization has been associated with increased infection risk. Community-associated MRSA (CA-MRSA) has caused increased MRSA infections in the general population, including children. Little is known about the frequency of MRSA nasal colonization in young children, particularly in ...

  8. Care for overweight children attending the 5-year preventive child health examination in general practice

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    Andersen, Merethe Kousgaard; Christensen, Bo; Søndergaard, Jens

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to analyse general practitioners' (GPs) care for children with a weight-for-height above normal based on the GPs' clinical evaluation, that is, 'GP-assessed overweight'.Design. This study is a cross-sectional survey targeting GPs' care for children with GP...

  9. Do sack lunches provided by parents meet the nutritional needs of young children who attend child care?

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    Sweitzer, Sara J; Briley, Margaret E; Robert-Gray, Cindy

    2009-01-01

    Recent changes in Texas state regulations of child-care foodservice have resulted in more centers halting meal and snack preparation and requiring parents to provide food from home for their children. In the spring of 2006, sack lunches prepared at home for children attending licensed child-care centers were evaluated based on Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) and Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP) standards. The study included 3- to 5-year-old children attending full-time child-care centers that required parents to provide lunches. Lunch contents were observed and recorded for 3 consecutive days. A 3-day mean nutrient content was used to determine whether the lunches provided a minimum of 33% of the DRI. The following nutrients were evaluated: energy, carbohydrates, protein, dietary fiber, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin C, vitamin A, calcium, iron, zinc, and sodium. Food items were summarized and compared with CACFP standards. More than 50% of the 3-day means provided less than 33% of the DRIs for energy (n=58), carbohydrate (n=59), vitamin A (n=58), calcium (n=49), iron (n=44), and zinc (n=38). Seventy-one of the 74 children (96%) received less than 33% of the DRI for dietary fiber, yet the mean amount of sodium in observed lunches was 114% of the DRI. The observed lunches did not meet the CACFP standards for servings of fruits and vegetables for 157 (71%) or for servings of milk in 178 (80%). Sack lunches sent from home may not regularly provide adequate nutrients for the growth and development of young children. Nutrition education should be provided to parents to ensure that sack lunches sent from home meet children's nutritional needs. PMID:19103336

  10. Prevalence of Hepatitis B co-infection amongst HIV infected children attending a care and treatment centre in Owerri, South-eastern Nigeria

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    Nwolisa, Emeka; Mbanefo, Francis; Ezeogu, Joseph; Amadi, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Hepatitis B infection impacts negatively on disease progression in HIV infected children thereby increasing morbidity and mortality. In spite of the foregoing, there is paucity of data on Hepatitis B co-infection in children living with HIV in Owerri, South Eastern Nigeria.This study set out to determine the prevalence of Hepatitis B Co- infection in HIV infected children attending the Paediatric HIV Care and Treatment clinic of the Federal Medical Centre Owerri. Methods The stud...

  11. A hand hygiene intervention to decrease infections among children attending day care centers: Design of a cluster randomized controlled trial

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    T.P. Zomer (Tizza); V. Erasmus (Vicky); N. Vlaar (Nico); E.F. van Beeck (Ed); A. Tjon-A-Tsien (A.); J.H. Richardus (Jan Hendrik); H.A.C.M. Voeten (Hélène)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Day care center attendance has been recognized as a risk factor for acquiring gastrointestinal and respiratory infections, which can be prevented with adequate hand hygiene (HH). Based on previous studies on environmental and sociocognitive determinants of caregivers' complia

  12. Food Consumption and Nutrient Intake by Children Aged 10 to 48 Months Attending Day Care in The Netherlands.

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    Goldbohm, R Alexandra; Rubingh, Carina M; Lanting, Caren I; Joosten, Koen F M

    2016-01-01

    The diet of young children is an important determinant of long-term health effects, such as overweight and obesity. We analyzed two-day food consumption records from 1526 young children (10-48 months old) attending 199 daycare centers across The Netherlands. Data were observed and recorded in diaries by caregivers at the day nursery and by parents at home on days that the children attended the daycare center. According to national and European reference values, the children had an adequate nutrient intake with exception of low intakes of total fat, n-3 fatty acids from fish and possibly iron. Intakes of energy and protein were substantially higher than recommended and part of the population exceeded the tolerable upper intake levels for sodium, zinc and retinol. Consumption of fruit, fats, fish, and fluids was substantially less than recommended. The children used mostly (semi-)skimmed milk products and non-refined bread and cereals, as recommended. Two thirds of the consumed beverages, however, contained sugar and contributed substantially to energy intake. In young children, low intakes of n-3 fatty acids and iron are a potential matter of concern, as are the high intakes of energy, protein, sugared beverages, and milk, since these may increase the risk of becoming overweight. PMID:27428995

  13. Food Consumption and Nutrient Intake by Children Aged 10 to 48 Months Attending Day Care in The Netherlands

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    R. Alexandra Goldbohm

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The diet of young children is an important determinant of long-term health effects, such as overweight and obesity. We analyzed two-day food consumption records from 1526 young children (10–48 months old attending 199 daycare centers across The Netherlands. Data were observed and recorded in diaries by caregivers at the day nursery and by parents at home on days that the children attended the daycare center. According to national and European reference values, the children had an adequate nutrient intake with exception of low intakes of total fat, n-3 fatty acids from fish and possibly iron. Intakes of energy and protein were substantially higher than recommended and part of the population exceeded the tolerable upper intake levels for sodium, zinc and retinol. Consumption of fruit, fats, fish, and fluids was substantially less than recommended. The children used mostly (semi-skimmed milk products and non-refined bread and cereals, as recommended. Two thirds of the consumed beverages, however, contained sugar and contributed substantially to energy intake. In young children, low intakes of n-3 fatty acids and iron are a potential matter of concern, as are the high intakes of energy, protein, sugared beverages, and milk, since these may increase the risk of becoming overweight.

  14. Oral health status and treatment needs of children and young adults attending a day centre for individuals with special health care needs

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    Akindayomi Yinka; Oredugba Folakemi A

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background The oral health condition of individuals with special health care needs have been reported in literature to be influenced by various sociodemographic factors, including living conditions and severity of impairment. This study was carried out to determine the oral health status and treatment needs of children and young adults attending a day institution for those with special needs. Methods This study was carried out as part of an oral health screening program organized by ...

  15. A cluster randomised trial to evaluate a physical activity intervention among 3-5 year old children attending long day care services: study protocol

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    Finch Meghan

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Young children are not participating in recommended levels of physical activity and exhibit high levels of sedentary behaviour. Childcare services provide access to large numbers of young children for prolonged periods, yet there is limited experimental evidence regarding the effectiveness of physical activity interventions implemented in this setting. The aim of this study is to assess the effectiveness and acceptability of a multi-component physical activity intervention, delivered by childcare service staff, in increasing the physical activity levels of children attending long day care services. Methods/Design The study will employ a cluster randomised controlled trial design. Three hundred children aged between 3-5 years from twenty randomly selected long day care services in the Hunter Region of New South Wales, Australia will be invited to participate in the trial. Ten of the 20 long day care services will be randomly allocated to deliver the intervention with the remaining ten services allocated to a wait list control group. The physical activity intervention will consist of a number of strategies including: delivering structured fundamental movement skill activities, increasing physical activity opportunities, increasing staff role modelling, providing children with a physical activity promoting indoor and outdoor environment and limiting children's small screen recreation and sedentary behaviours. Intervention effectiveness will be measured via child physical activity levels during attendance at long day care. The study also seeks to determine the acceptability and extent of implementation of the intervention by services and their staff participating in the study. Discussion The trial will address current gaps in the research evidence base and contribute to the design and delivery of future interventions promoting physical activity for young children in long day care settings. Trial registration Australian New

  16. No-fault compensation for ventilator-dependent children: a reasonable settlement value for lifetime attendant care

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    Jenkins, Randall C; Boelens, Brian W; Aasheim, Kari L; Gravenstein, Nikolaus

    2016-01-01

    Severe neurological outcomes sustained in childhood often result in lifetime health care needs that are beyond the financial means of most families. When severe neurological deficits are alleged to have resulted from professional negligence, relief may be sought through litigation; however, the American tort system often yields inconsistent results or no compensation for patients. We sought to identify a reasonable, objective, and data-based monetary range for a no-fault compensation system with high- and low-financial limits for those with severe neurological deficits. Based on documented life expectancies and attendant care cost studies, the data analysis indicates a no-fault settlement payment ranging from US$479,712.24 to $3,098,504.16, reasonably ensures care and services for life. PMID:27574476

  17. No-fault compensation for ventilator-dependent children: a reasonable settlement value for lifetime attendant care.

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    Jenkins, Randall C; Boelens, Brian W; Aasheim, Kari L; Gravenstein, Nikolaus

    2016-01-01

    Severe neurological outcomes sustained in childhood often result in lifetime health care needs that are beyond the financial means of most families. When severe neurological deficits are alleged to have resulted from professional negligence, relief may be sought through litigation; however, the American tort system often yields inconsistent results or no compensation for patients. We sought to identify a reasonable, objective, and data-based monetary range for a no-fault compensation system with high- and low-financial limits for those with severe neurological deficits. Based on documented life expectancies and attendant care cost studies, the data analysis indicates a no-fault settlement payment ranging from US$479,712.24 to $3,098,504.16, reasonably ensures care and services for life. PMID:27574476

  18. Care-seeking behaviour and diagnostic processes for symptomatic giardiasis in children attending an academic paediatric hospital

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    Escobedo, Angel A.; Almirall, Pedro; Ávila, Ivonne; Salazar, Yohana; Alfonso, Maydel

    2014-01-01

    Giardiasis is one of the commonest intestinal parasitic infections in Cuba. In order to determine care-seeking behaviour and diagnostic processes in paediatric in-patients with giardiasis, structured questionnaires were administered by interview mothers of children with giardiasis during January to December 2010. During the study period, 97 children were diagnosed with giardiasis, of whom 86 (88.6%) caregivers were interviewed. The median number of days from symptoms onset to the first presen...

  19. No-fault compensation for ventilator-dependent children: a reasonable settlement value for lifetime attendant care

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    Jenkins RC

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Randall C Jenkins,1–3 Brian W Boelens,1 Kari L Aasheim,1 Nikolaus Gravenstein4–5 1University of Florida Self-Insurance Program, 2University of Florida Healthcare Education Insurance Company, 3Department of Health Services Research, Management & Policy, College of Public Health and Health Professions, 4Department of Anesthesiology, 5Department of Neurosurgery, College of Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA Abstract: Severe neurological outcomes sustained in childhood often result in lifetime health care needs that are beyond the financial means of most families. When severe neurological deficits are alleged to have resulted from professional negligence, relief may be sought through litigation; however, the American tort system often yields inconsistent results or no compensation for patients. We sought to identify a reasonable, objective, and data-based monetary range for a no-fault compensation system with high- and low-financial limits for those with severe neurological deficits. Based on documented life expectancies and attendant care cost studies, the data analysis indicates a no-fault settlement payment ranging from US$479,712.24 to $3,098,504.16, reasonably ensures care and services for life. Keywords: cost of health care, health law, health regulation, long-term care, medical malpractice

  20. Knowledge, attitude and practice of oral health promoting factors among caretakers of children attending day-care centers in Kubang Kerian, Malaysia: A preliminary study

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    Mani S

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: The role of caretakers at day-care centers has become more imperative in promoting oral health care in children since many new mothers opt to work outside their homes, leaving their children at day-care centers. The aim of this study is to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of oral health promoting factors among secondary caretakers of children attending day-care centers. Settings and Design: This was a cross-sectional exploratory study conducted among secondary caretakers in Kubang Kerian, Malaysia. Materials and Methods: Thirty-four caretakers fulfilling the inclusion and exclusion criteria participated in the study. The data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire addressing various aspects of knowledge, attitude and practice of oral health in children. Analysis was done using SPSS version 12.0. Results: The knowledge of factors causing dental caries was found to be good among majority of the caretakers, but the concepts of transmissibility of caries and effect of hidden sugars were not evident. Seventy one percent did not know that frequent bottle feeding could cause tooth decay. Attitudes seemed to be governed by the cultural practices of the region rather than the knowledge obtained. The knowledge was not translated to practice adequately. Giving sweetened liquid in bottles was practiced by 53% of the caretakers. Conclusion: Implementation of nursery-based oral health promotion programs for secondary caretakers is needed to counteract early childhood caries.

  1. Challenges of caring for children with mental disorders: Experiences and views of caregivers attending the outpatient clinic at Muhimbili National Hospital, Dar es Salaam - Tanzania

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    Ambikile Joel

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is estimated that world-wide up to 20 % of children suffer from debilitating mental illness. Mental disorders that pose a significant concern include learning disorders, hyperkinetic disorders (ADHD, depression, psychosis, pervasive development disorders, attachment disorders, anxiety disorders, conduct disorder, substance abuse and eating disorders. Living with such children can be very stressful for caregivers in the family. Therefore, determination of challenges of living with these children is important in the process of finding ways to help or support caregivers to provide proper care for their children. The purpose of this study was to explore the psychological and emotional, social, and economic challenges that parents or guardians experience when caring for mentally ill children and what they do to address or deal with them. Methodology A qualitative study design using in-depth interviews and focus group discussions was applied. The study was conducted at the psychiatric unit of Muhimbili National Hospital in Tanzania. Two focus groups discussions (FGDs and 8 in-depth interviews were conducted with caregivers who attended the psychiatric clinic with their children. Data analysis was done using content analysis. Results The study revealed psychological and emotional, social, and economic challenges caregivers endure while living with mentally ill children. Psychological and emotional challenges included being stressed by caring tasks and having worries about the present and future life of their children. They had feelings of sadness, and inner pain or bitterness due to the disturbing behaviour of the children. They also experienced some communication problems with their children due to their inability to talk. Social challenges were inadequate social services for their children, stigma, burden of caring task, lack of public awareness of mental illness, lack of social support, and problems with social life. The

  2. Cortisol Patterns at Home and Child Care: Afternoon Differences and Evening Recovery in Children Attending Very High Quality Full-Day Center-Based Child Care

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    Watamura, Sarah E.; Kryzer, Erin M.; Robertson, Steven S.

    2008-01-01

    Previous work has found that many young children show different patterns of production of the hormone cortisol, which is sensitive to stress and challenge, on days when they are at child care compared with days when they are at home. At home, preschool age children typically show a decreasing pattern of cortisol production across the day which is…

  3. Prevalence of childhood and early adolescence mental disorders among children attending primary health care centers in Mosul, Iraq: a cross-sectional study

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    Al-Jawadi Asma A

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Children and adolescents are more vulnerable to the affects of war and violence than adults. At the time of initiation of this study, nothing was known about the prevalence of childhood and early adolescence mental disorders. The aim of the present study is to measure the point prevalence of mental disorders among children of 1–15 years age in the city of Mosul, Iraq. Methods A cross-sectional study design was adopted. Four primary health care centers were chosen consecutively as a study setting. The subjects of the present study were mothers who came to the primary health care center for vaccination of their children. The chosen mothers were included by systematic sampling randomization. All children (aged 1–15 that each mother had were considered in the interview and examination. Results Out of 3079 children assessed, 1152 have childhood mental disorders, giving a point prevalence of 37.4%, with a male to female ratio of to 1.22:1. The top 10 disorders among the examined children are post-traumatic stress disorder (10.5%, enuresis (6%, separation anxiety disorder (4.3%, specific phobia (3.3% stuttering and refusal to attend school (3.2% each, learning and conduct disorders (2.5% each, stereotypic movement (2.3% and feeding disorder in infancy or early childhood (2.0%. Overall, the highest prevalence of mental disorders was among children 10–15 years old (49.2% while the lowest was among 1–5 year olds (29.1%. Boys are more affected than girls (40.2% and 33.2%, respectively. Conclusion Childhood mental disorders are a common condition highly prevalent amongst the children and early adolescents in Mosul. Data from the present study mirrors the size of the problem in local community. Several points deserve attention, the most important of which include giving care at the community level, educating the public on mental health, involving communities and families, monitoring community mental health indicators, and

  4. Situation of the supplementary diet of children between 6 and 24 months attended in the Primary Care Network of Macaé, RJ, Brazil.

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    Marinho, Leticia Maia Forte; Capelli, Jane de Carlos Santana; Rocha, Camilla Medeiros Macedo da; Bouskela, Alice; do Carmo, Cleber Nascimento; de Freitas, Silvia Eliza Almeida Pereira; Anastácio, Alexandra da Silva; de Almeida, Maria Fernanda Larcher; Pontes, Juliana da Silva

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to analyze the supplementary nutritional situation of children aged 6-24 months attended by the Primary Care unit of Macaé/RJ. It was conducted as a cross-sectional study, and data was obtained from the SISVAN Web website, including and analyzing all of the records (n=218) of children between 6-24 months in the year 2013. In infants between 6-12 months, the consumption of 72.3% of vegetables, 75.3% of fruits, and 63.4% of meats was detected, considered indicators of healthy supplementary nutrition. In contrast, 23.8% were already consuming sugar-based food sources (honey, molasses, simple sugar, and unrefined cane sugar), 34.7% industrialized juice, and 17.8% soft drinks. The consumption of industrialized juice was significantly greater in boys (p-value soft drinks. Between 18-24 months, it was recorded that 89.9% of children consumed vegetables, 83.1% fruits, and 96.7% meat. The consumption of sugar-based foods was 33.9%, 69.5% for industrialized juices, and 55.5% for soft drinks. We conclude that the indicators of healthy complementary nutrition come close to the target set by the Ministry of Health (80%). PMID:26960109

  5. ASSESSMENT OF KNOWLEDGE ABOUT IMMUNIZATION OF UNDER FIVE CHILDREN AMONG MOTHERS ATTENDING OUTPATIENT DEPARTMENT OF PEDIATRICS IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL IN KOLLAM, KERALA

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    Ahmad Nadeem

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Immunization is the most cost effective public health intervention to reduce childhood morbidity and mortality. Thousands of children can be saved from vaccine preventable diseases each year by immunization. The knowledge of mothers’ is an important factor for better immunization coverage. Less knowledge affects decision making regarding immunization. OBJECTIVES: To assess the knowledge about immunization of under five children among mothers a ttending outpatient department of paediatrics in a tertiary care hospital in Kollam, Kerala and to find out the association of the knowledge level of mothers with some selected variables. MATERIAL AND METHODS : A Cross sectional study was done among mothers of under five children attending the OPD of pediatrics in a tertiary care hospital in Kollam, Kerala from 1 st to 30 th May, 2014. The sample size was 210 and simple random sampling was used. Statistical analysis was done and chi - square test & percentages w ere calculated. RESULT: 93.8% of mothers knew that vaccines are beneficial for their child. 58% were aware about the side effects of few vaccines. 50% of mothers believed that as polio is eradicated from India, there is no need to give polio vaccine. 35% o f mothers acquired knowledge regarding immunization through health workers. All of them had knowledge about polio vaccine but only half of them knew about rotavirus vaccine. 60% mothers believed that multiple vaccines are beneficial although 26% hold their view that it has no benefit at all. 39.5% of mothers’ had adequate knowledge about immunization. It was positively associated with education, working class and high socio - economic status of mothers. CONCLUSION: There are several loopholes in the mother’s knowledge regarding immunization. Many of them had no knowledge about optional vaccines. There is a need to improve knowledge regarding immunization among general population. Adequate information about completin g the

  6. A prospective study of hearing impairment in school going children of Ghaziabad city attending a tertiary care hospital

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    Saud Lateef Chishty

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Overcrowding, poor hygiene, socio-economic status, climate, lack of resources to avail medical facilities, poor medical awareness have their bearing on the incidence of hearing loss. The family of each hearing-impaired child has its own cultural, social, educational, and financial background, and its own special needs. The aim of this study is to determine the percentage of hearing impaired school going children in Ghaziabad city. Methods: The material for the present study were a representative sample constituting 1000 school children selected from various localities of Ghaziabad city within age group of 6-12 years. The children belonged to all the strata of society and children from both sexes were evaluated for hearing loss and its underlying etiological factors. Children were subjected to detailed ENT examination in our OPD. Results: In the present study sample the incidence of hearing loss is 9.3%. The maximum cases 60.22% belonged to the low socio-economic strata. A statistically significant difference of distribution by gender was noticed with a male preponderance (61.29% as against 38.71% for females. The hearing loss in majority of cases was of a mild degree i.e., 26 to 45 dB (34.41% of which majority of cases (87.10% had conductive loss. Wax was the commonest cause of hearing loss (41.94%. CSOM was found in 21.50 % of all cases. Peak prevalence of hearing loss was found at 8 years of age, again declining after that from 20.43 % to 5.38 % by 12 years of age. Also it was observed that 59.14% children were living in crowded localities of city and 40.86% were living in non- crowded/open locality which is again statistically significant (P and #8804;0.05. Conclusion: The inferences drawn from the present study substantiates the view point of earlier workers that school screening is the most effective method of diagnosing deafness in school going children and should be extended to all schools in all the areas. Proper assessment

  7. Varicella zoster in children attending day care centers Varicela-zóster em crianças que frequentam creches

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    Ricardo Marcitelli

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe morbidity associated to varicella in children attending day care centers. METHODS: Descriptive study carried out through inquiries with parents of 664 children who acquired varicella after admission to day care centers in Taubaté (population: 244,165, census of 2004, a prosperous city in the State of São Paulo. RESULTS: The median age was 36 months (range 6 to 80 months; 8.4% of the children had varicella before 1 year of age. The main symptoms were: exanthema (100.0%, fever (85.4% anorexia (39.6%, and headache (15.3%. 517 children (77.9% had at least 1 medical visit, and 80.6% received at least 1 medication; 73 (11.0% received nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, and 52 (7.8% received antibiotics. Complications occurred in 38 children (5.7%; 95% confidence interval: 3% - 8%; 8 (1.2% were hospitalized, and 5 (0.7% had sequelae. Complications and hospitalizations rates were 3 times more frequent in children with less than 1 year of age than in older children. More than half of the children and of the working parents were absent from their regular activities for more than a week. CONCLUSIONS: Varicella was associated with significant morbidity, affected younger children, was complicated in more than 5%, and left sequelae in 0.7% of children. More than 10% of the children received nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, highlighting the need to warn the population about the risks of these drugs. Although varicella vaccination is not recommended for children younger than 12 months, vaccination of the children older than a year could avoid by herd immunity the transmission to babies. Brazilian public health authorities should be alerted to this issue and offer varicella vaccine to children attending day care centers.OBJETIVO: Descrever a morbidade associada à varicela nas crianças usuárias de creches. MÉTODOS: Estudo descritivo, realizado através de inquérito com pais ou responsáveis por 664 crianças que contra

  8. A PROSPECTIVE STUDY OF HEARING IMPAIRMENT IN SCHOOL GOING CHILDREN OF GHAZIABAD CITY ATTENDING A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saud Lateef chishty

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Overcrowding, poor hygiene, socio-economic status, climate, lack of resources to avail medical facilities, poor medical awareness have their bearing on the incidence of hearing loss .The family of each hearing-impaired child has its own cultural, social, educational, and financial background, and its own special needs. The aim of this study is to determine the percentage of hearing impaired school going children in Ghaziabad city. Materials and Methods: The material for the present study were a representative sample constituting 1000 school children selected from various localities of Ghaziabad city within age group of 6 — 12 years. The children belonged to all the strata of society and children from both sexes were evaluated for hearing loss and its underlying etiological factors. Children were subjected to detailed ENT examination in our OPD. Results: In the present study sample the incidence of hearing loss is 9.3 %. The maximum cases 60.22 % belonged to the low socio-economic strata. A statistically significant difference of distribution by gender was noticed with a male preponderance (61.29% as against 38.71% for females. The hearing loss in majority of cases was of a mild degree i.e., 26 to 45 dB (34.41% of which majority of cases (87.10% had conductive loss. Wax was the commonest cause of hearing loss (41 .94%. CSOM was found in 21.50 % of all cases. Peak prevalence of hearing loss was found at 8 years of age, again declining after that from 20.43 % to 5.38 % by 12 years of age. Also it was observed that 59.14% children were living in crowded localities of city & 40.86% were living in non- crowded/open locality which is again statistically significant (p< or =0.05 Conclusion: The inferences drawn from the present study substantiates the view point of earlier workers that school screening is the most effective method of diagnosing deafness in school going children and should be extended to all schools in all the areas

  9. Day-care attendance and child development:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauchmüller, Robert; Gørtz, Mette; Rasmussen, Astrid Würtz

    , of total work experiences, ages and hourly wages of staff members. Those indicators show the expected correlations with children’s development outcomes, better day-care quality being linked to better child outcomes ten years later. We use rich administrative information about the children’s background......Earlier research suggests that children’s development is shaped in their early years of life. This paper examines whether differences in day-care experiences during pre-school age are important for children’s cognitive and language development at the age of 15. The analysis is based on class...... performance at the end of elementary schooling. We assess the effects of attended types and qualities of day-care institutions on various child outcomes as measured by school grades in mathematics, science, English and Danish for the whole Danish population as well as outcomes from the 2006 PISA Denmark...

  10. Oral health status and treatment needs of children and young adults attending a day centre for individuals with special health care needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akindayomi Yinka

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The oral health condition of individuals with special health care needs have been reported in literature to be influenced by various sociodemographic factors, including living conditions and severity of impairment. This study was carried out to determine the oral health status and treatment needs of children and young adults attending a day institution for those with special needs. Methods This study was carried out as part of an oral health screening program organized by the institution and consent was obtained from parents and guardians before the screening. All information was supplied by the parents during the screening using a questionnaire completed by the dentist. Oral examination was carried out on all consenting subjects in attendance on the days of screening in the school clinic with parents and teachers in attendance, using standard World Health Organisation oral health indices to assess dental caries, oral hygiene status, malocclusion and other oral health parameters. Results Fifty-four subjects aged 3–26 years (mean 12.28 ± 6.82 years and comprising 72.2% males and 27.8% females participated in the study. Over 90% were from parents of high and middle level educational background. Thirty-six (66.7% were caries free, with a mean dmft score of 0.7 ± 1.77 and mean DMFT score of 0.4 ± 1.44 with no significant difference across gender (p = 0.5 and parents' educational status (p = 0.43. The mean OHI-S of the total population in this study was 1.36 ± 0.16. Females had a mean score of 0.88 ± 1.10 while males had a mean score of 1.55 ± 1.24 with no significant difference (p = 0.6. Twenty-five (46.3% had good oral hygiene, 17 (31.5% had fair oral hygiene and 12 (22.2% had poor oral hygiene, with no significant difference across gender (p = 1.11 and age groups (p = 0.07. Fifteen (27.8% had gingivitis with no significant difference across age groups (p = 0.17. Forty-five (83.3% had Angle's class I malocclusion, 6

  11. Attending Behavior of Children Near a Child Who is Reinforced for Attending

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okovita, Hymie Wolf; Bucher, Bradley

    1976-01-01

    The present study investigated effects of a token program for one child on the attending behavior of other children sitting near him. Results show the rewarded child's attending increased in the reinforcement conditions and the unrewarded children's attending increased when they were sitting on either side of the rewarded child. (Author)

  12. Persistent frequent attenders in primary care: costs, reasons for attendance, organisation of care and potential for cognitive behavioural therapeutic intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morriss Richard

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The top 3% of frequent attendance in primary care is associated with 15% of all appointments in primary care, a fivefold increase in hospital expenditure, and more mental disorder and functional somatic symptoms compared to normal attendance. Although often temporary if these rates of attendance last more than two years, they may become persistent (persistent frequent or regular attendance. However, there is no long-term study of the economic impact or clinical characteristics of regular attendance in primary care. Cognitive behaviour formulation and treatment (CBT for regular attendance as a motivated behaviour may offer an understanding of the development, maintenance and treatment of regular attendance in the context of their health problems, cognitive processes and social context. Methods/design A case control design will compare the clinical characteristics, patterns of health care use and economic costs over the last 10 years of 100 regular attenders (≥30 appointments with general practitioner [GP] over 2 years with 100 normal attenders (6–22 appointments with GP over 2 years, from purposefully selected primary care practices with differing organisation of care and patient demographics. Qualitative interviews with regular attending patients and practice staff will explore patient barriers, drivers and experiences of consultation, and organisation of care by practices with its challenges. Cognitive behaviour formulation analysed thematically will explore the development, maintenance and therapeutic opportunities for management in regular attenders. The feasibility, acceptability and utility of CBT for regular attendance will be examined. Discussion The health care costs, clinical needs, patient motivation for consultation and organisation of care for persistent frequent or regular attendance in primary care will be explored to develop training and policies for service providers. CBT for regular attendance will

  13. Consumption of industrialized food by infants attending child day care centers

    OpenAIRE

    Toloni, Maysa Helena de A.; Giovana Longo-Silva; Tulio Konstantyner; Jose Augusto de A. C. Taddei

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To identify the age of introduction of petit suisse cheese and instant noodles in the diet of infants attending nurseries of public day care centers and to compare the nutritional composition of these foods with the healthy recommended diet (breast milk and salt meal) for this age, in order to estimate nutritional errors. Methods: Cross-sectional study of 366 children (from nine to 36 months old) who attended day care centers, whose mothers were interviewed about the age of in...

  14. Attending unintended transformations of health care infrastructure

    OpenAIRE

    Wentzer, Helle; Bygholm, Ann

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: Western health care is under pressure from growing demands on quality and efficiency. The development and implementation of information technology, IT is a key mean of health care authorities to improve on health care infrastructure. Theory and methods: Against a background of theories on human-computer interaction and IT-mediated communication, different empirical studies of IT implementation in health care are analyzed. The outcome is an analytical discernment between differe...

  15. Pattern of Adverse Drug Reactions in Children Attending the Department of Pediatrics in a Tertiary Care Center: A Prospective Observational Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Digra, Kishour Kumar; Pandita, Aakash; Saini, GS; Bharti, Rajni

    2015-01-01

    AIM To study the pattern of various adverse drug reactions (ADRs) occurring in children attending the Department of Pediatrics, SMGS Hospital, Jammu over 1 year. SUBJECTS AND METHODS This was a prospective study, with study population of patients attending Department of Pediatrics over a period of 1 year. A structured format was used to enroll the participants. A pilot study was conducted to test the suitability of the format and feasibility of the study. The study was carried out to review various pattern of ADRs by using the Naranjo probability scale, and severity was assessed by using the Hartwig severity scale. ADRs were classified according to the classification used by the Adverse Drug Reaction Monitoring Center, Central Drugs Standard Control Organization, New Delhi, India. RESULTS In the present study, 104 patients were found to have developed acute drug reactions. Among these, 83.6% were type B, 14.42% type A, and 1.92% were type U. Furthermore, 25.96% ADRs were due to anticonvulsants, followed by antibiotics (22.11%), antipyretics (11.53%), vaccination (8.65%), steroids (6.73%), decongestants (5.67%), snake antivenom and antiemetics (3.84%), and fluids, insulin, and antacids (1.92%). The patients’ dermatological system was involved in 67.30%, followed by the central nervous system (CNS) in 11.53% patients. Renal system was involved in 6.73% patients. Cardiac, musculoskeletal, metabolic, and other systems were involved in 4.80%, 3.84%, 2.88%, and 0.96%, respectively. According to the Hartwig severity scale of ADRs, 64.4% patients had moderate ADRs, 29.8% patients had severe ADRs, and 5.76% had mild ADRs. In the present study, 64.4% patients expressed moderate severity, whereas 29.8% expressed high severity and 5.76% expressed mild ADRs. CONCLUSION ADRs were seen in 71% of the patients between 1 and 5 years of age, 26% in the age group of 5–10 years, and 3% were more than 10 years old. Anticonvulsants (25.96%) and antibiotics (22.11%) were responsible

  16. Attending Unintended Transformations of Health Care Infrastructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wentzer, Helle; Bygholm, Ann

    2007-01-01

    of theories on human-computer interaction and IT-mediated communication, different empirical studies of IT implementation in health care are analyzed. The outcome is an analytical discernment between different relations of communication and levels of interaction with IT in health care infrastructure....... These relations and levels are synthesized into a framework for identifying tensions and potential problems in the mediation of health care with the IT system. These problems are also known as unexpected adverse consequences, UACs, from IT implementation into clinical health care practices. Results: This paper...... develops a conceptual framework for addressing transformations of communication and workflow in health care as a result of implementing IT. Conclusion and discussion: The purpose of the conceptual framework is to support the attention to and continuous screening for errors and unintended consequences...

  17. Familial and Extrafamilial Correlates of Children's Child-Care Perceptions

    OpenAIRE

    Godfrey, Michael K.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the individual, familial, and child-care characteristics related to children's perceptions of their nonparental child-care environments. One-hundred seventy-five children, their families, and child-care providers participated in this study. Children attended one of three forms of child care: large center-based child-care settings, home-based child-care settings, and a preschool. Correlates of children's perceptions of their child-care experiences came...

  18. Mobile phones improve antenatal care attendance in Zanzibar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Stine; Nielsen, Birgitte B; Hemed, Maryam;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Applying mobile phones in healthcare is increasingly prioritized to strengthen healthcare systems. Antenatal care has the potential to reduce maternal morbidity and improve newborns' survival but this benefit may not be realized in sub-Saharan Africa where the attendance and quality...... measure was four or more antenatal care visits during pregnancy. Secondary outcome measures were tetanus vaccination, preventive treatment for malaria, gestational age at last antenatal care visit, and antepartum referral. RESULTS: The mobile phone intervention was associated with an increase in antenatal...... care attendance. In the intervention group 44% of the women received four or more antenatal care visits versus 31% in the control group (OR, 2.39; 95% CI, 1.03-5.55). There was a trend towards improved timing and quality of antenatal care services across all secondary outcome measures although...

  19. Health profiles of foreigners attending primary care clinics in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Ab Rahman, Norazida; Sivasampu, Sheamini; Mohamad Noh, Kamaliah; Khoo, Ee Ming

    2016-01-01

    Background The world population has become more globalised with increasing number of people residing in another country for work or other reasons. Little is known about the health profiles of foreign population in Malaysia. The aim of this study was to provide a detailed description of the health problems presented by foreigners attending primary care clinics in Malaysia. Methods Data were derived from the 2012 National Medical Care Survey (NMCS), a cross sectional survey of primary care enco...

  20. Children's hospice care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong-Dailey, A

    1990-01-01

    Facing the inevitable death of a child is a difficult reality for many parents and health care providers as well. Children's Hospice International offers a variety of information and education services to support the provision of children's hospice care.

  1. Protocol for Northern Ireland Caries Prevention in Practice Trial (NIC-PIP) trial: a randomised controlled trial to measure the effects and costs of a dental caries prevention regime for young children attending primary care dental services

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tickle, Martin

    2011-10-10

    Abstract Background Dental caries is a persistent public health problem with little change in the prevalence in young children over the last 20 years. Once a child contracts the disease it has a significant impact on their quality of life. There is good evidence from Cochrane reviews including trials that fluoride varnish and regular use of fluoride toothpaste can prevent caries. The Northern Ireland Caries Prevention in Practice Trial (NIC-PIP) trial will compare the costs and effects of a caries preventive package (fluoride varnish, toothpaste, toothbrush and standardised dental health education) with dental health education alone in young children. Methods\\/Design A randomised controlled trial on children initially aged 2 and 3 years old who are regular attenders at the primary dental care services in Northern Ireland. Children will be recruited and randomised in dental practices. Children will be randomised to the prevention package of both fluoride varnish (twice per year for three years), fluoride toothpaste (1,450 ppm F) (supplied twice per year), a toothbrush (supplied twice a year) or not; both test and control groups receive standardised dental health education delivered by the dentist twice per year. Randomisation will be conducted by the Belfast Trust Clinical Research Support Centre ([CRSC] a Clinical Trials Unit). 1200 participants will be recruited from approximately 40 dental practices. Children will be examined for caries by independent dental examiners at baseline and will be excluded if they have caries. The independent dental examiners will examine the children again at 3 years blinded to study group. The primary end-point is whether the child develops caries (cavitation into dentine) or not over the three years. One secondary outcome is the number of carious surfaces in the primary dentition in children who experience caries. Other secondary outcomes are episodes of pain, extraction of primary teeth, other adverse events and costs which will

  2. Protocol for Northern Ireland Caries Prevention in Practice Trial (NIC-PIP trial: a randomised controlled trial to measure the effects and costs of a dental caries prevention regime for young children attending primary care dental services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noble Solveig

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dental caries is a persistent public health problem with little change in the prevalence in young children over the last 20 years. Once a child contracts the disease it has a significant impact on their quality of life. There is good evidence from Cochrane reviews including trials that fluoride varnish and regular use of fluoride toothpaste can prevent caries. The Northern Ireland Caries Prevention in Practice Trial (NIC-PIP trial will compare the costs and effects of a caries preventive package (fluoride varnish, toothpaste, toothbrush and standardised dental health education with dental health education alone in young children. Methods/Design A randomised controlled trial on children initially aged 2 and 3 years old who are regular attenders at the primary dental care services in Northern Ireland. Children will be recruited and randomised in dental practices. Children will be randomised to the prevention package of both fluoride varnish (twice per year for three years, fluoride toothpaste (1,450 ppm F (supplied twice per year, a toothbrush (supplied twice a year or not; both test and control groups receive standardised dental health education delivered by the dentist twice per year. Randomisation will be conducted by the Belfast Trust Clinical Research Support Centre ([CRSC] a Clinical Trials Unit. 1200 participants will be recruited from approximately 40 dental practices. Children will be examined for caries by independent dental examiners at baseline and will be excluded if they have caries. The independent dental examiners will examine the children again at 3 years blinded to study group. The primary end-point is whether the child develops caries (cavitation into dentine or not over the three years. One secondary outcome is the number of carious surfaces in the primary dentition in children who experience caries. Other secondary outcomes are episodes of pain, extraction of primary teeth, other adverse events and costs

  3. ATTEND: Toward a Mindfulness-Based Bereavement Care Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacciatore, Joanne; Flint, Melissa

    2012-01-01

    Few, if any, mindfulness-based bereavement care models exist. The ATTEND (attunement, trust, touch, egalitarianism, nuance, and death education) model is an interdisciplinary paradigm for providers, including physicians, social workers, therapists, nursing staff, and others. Using a case example to enhance the breadth and depth of understanding,…

  4. Canadian Indian Children Who Had Never Attended School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Lolita

    1973-01-01

    This study was designed to compare the performance on selected intelligence tests of a group of Canadian Indian children who had never been to school with the performance of a similar group of children who were attending school regularly. (Author/RK)

  5. ASSESSMENT OF KNOWLEDGE ABOUT IMMUNIZATION OF UNDER FIVE CHILDREN AMONG MOTHERS ATTENDING OUTPATIENT DEPARTMENT OF PEDIATRICS IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL IN KOLLAM, KERALA

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Nadeem; Athira; Ankitha K .; Athira V; Asha,; Bency; Anas; Ahemmed

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND : Immunization is the most cost effective public health intervention to reduce childhood morbidity and mortality. Thousands of children can be saved from vaccine preventable diseases each year by immunization. The knowledge of mothers’ is an important factor for better immunization coverage. Less knowledge affects decision making regarding immunization. OBJECTIVES: To assess the knowledge about immunization of under five children among mothers a ...

  6. Effect of removing user fees on attendance for curative and preventive primary health care services in rural South Africa.

    OpenAIRE

    Wilkinson, D.; Gouws, E; Sach, M.; Karim, S. S.

    2001-01-01

    User fees are used to recover costs and discourage unnecessary attendance at primary care clinics in many developing countries. In South Africa, user fees for children aged under 6 years and pregnant women were removed in 1994, and in 1997 all user fees at all primary health care clinics were abolished. The intention of these policy changes was to improve access to health services for previously disadvantaged communities. We investigated the impact of these changes on clinic attendance patter...

  7. An Investigation of Creativity Among Children Attending Preschools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuhal Gizir Ergen

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate creativity among children attending preschools in terms of several variables. The study was conducted with 72 female and 63 male 5-year-old (60-72 months children selected from independent preschools related to the Turkish Ministry of National Education in Ankara. The “General Information Form” was administered to children in order to collect basic information about children and their parents. To determine creativity among children, the “Torrence Creative Thinking Test” developed by Torrence in 1966 and translated into Turkish by Aslan (1999 was used. Mann-Whitney U and Kruskall-Wallis H tests were used to analyze data. As a result of the study, gender and father’s educational level do not affect creativity scores of the children, yet duration of preschool attendance and mother’s educational level statistically have a significant effect on their creativity scores (p<.05.

  8. Frequência à creche e estado nutricional de pré-escolares: uma revisão sistemática Day care centers attendance and preschool children's nutritional status: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra da Silva Pereira

    2010-12-01

    goal of this study. Among the papers gathered in the literature, very few of them allowed any inference about the influence of daycare centers on preschoolers' nutritional status. Nevertheless, some longitudinal studies showed a causal association between children's attendance to daycare centers and improvement of their nutritional status. CONCLUSIONS: There is a positive relation between children's attendance to day care centers and improvement of their nutritional status.

  9. Effect of the Consumption of a Fermented Milk on Common Infections in Children Aged 3-6 Years, Attending Day Care Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-05

    Common Infectious Diseases, Occuring in Healthy Children,; Including Upper Respiratory Tract Infections (Defined as; Rhinopharyngitis, Sore Throat, Sinusitis and Otitis), Lower; Respiratory Tract Infections (Defined as Bronchitis,; Pneumopathy and Flu and Flu-like Syndromes), and; Gastrointestinal Tract Infection Defined as Gastroenteritis.

  10. Child-care attendance and common morbidity: evidence of association in the literature and questions of design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barros Aluísio J. D.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Papers on child-care attendance as a risk factor for acute respiratory infections and diarrhea were reviewed. There was great variety among the studies with regard to the design, definition of exposure and definition of outcomes. All the traditional epidemiological study designs have been used. The studies varied in terms of how child-care attendance in general was defined, and for different settings. These definitions differed especially in relation to the minimum time of attendance required. The outcomes were also defined and measured in several different ways. The analyses performed were not always appropriate, leading to sets of results of uneven quality, and composed of different measures of association relating different exposures and outcomes, that made summarizing difficult. Despite that, the results reported were remarkably consistent. Only two of the papers reviewed failed to show some association between child-care attendance and increased acute respiratory infections, or diarrhea. On the other hand, the magnitude of the associations reported varied widely, especially for lower respiratory infections. Taken together, the studies so far published provide evidence that children attending child-care centers, especially those under three years of age, are at a higher risk of upper respiratory infections, lower respiratory infections, and diarrhea. The studies were not consistent, however, in relation to attendance at child-care homes. Children in such settings were sometimes similar to those in child-care centers, sometimes similar to those cared for at home, and sometimes presented an intermediate risk.

  11. Day care attendance in early life, maternal history of asthma, and asthma at the age of 6 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Celedon, JC; Wright, RJ; Litonjua, AA; Sredl, D; Ryan, L; Weiss, ST; Gold, DR

    2003-01-01

    Among children not selected on the basis of a parental history of atopy, day care attendance in early life is inversely associated with asthma at school age. We examined the relation between day care in the first year of life and asthma, recurrent wheezing, and eczema at the age of 6 years and wheez

  12. Medical Versus Nonmedical Immunization Exemptions for Child Care and School Attendance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Routine childhood immunizations against infectious diseases are an integral part of our public health infrastructure. They provide direct protection to the immunized individual and indirect protection to children and adults unable to be immunized via the effect of community immunity. All 50 states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico have regulations requiring proof of immunization for child care and school attendance as a public health strategy to protect children in these settings and to secondarily serve as a mechanism to promote timely immunization of children by their caregivers. Although all states and the District of Columbia have mechanisms to exempt school attendees from specific immunization requirements for medical reasons, the majority also have a heterogeneous collection of regulations and laws that allow nonmedical exemptions from childhood immunizations otherwise required for child care and school attendance. The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) supports regulations and laws requiring certification of immunization to attend child care and school as a sound means of providing a safe environment for attendees and employees of these settings. The AAP also supports medically indicated exemptions to specific immunizations as determined for each individual child. The AAP views nonmedical exemptions to school-required immunizations as inappropriate for individual, public health, and ethical reasons and advocates for their elimination. PMID:27573087

  13. Intergroup Attitudes of European American Children Attending Ethnically Homogeneous Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGlothlin, Heidi; Killen, Melanie

    2006-01-01

    Intergroup attitudes were assessed in European American 1st-grade (M=6.99 years, SD=0.32) and 4th-grade (M=10.01 years, SD=0.36) children (N=138) attending ethnically homogeneous schools to test hypotheses about racial biases and interracial friendships. An Ambiguous Situations Task and an Intergroup Contact Assessment were administered to all…

  14. Attendance patterns and dental health of parents and children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittle, J G

    1993-09-01

    Questionnaires were posted to the parents of 293 5-year-old children who had been dentally examined at school in Stretford, Manchester, UK. Replies were received from 195 addresses and consisted of 182 mothers and 149 fathers. The mothers who replied were divided into three groups; 99 who reported that they attended the dentist for regular check-ups, 38 who went for occasional check-ups and 45 who only went when having trouble. The mean numbers of decayed teeth of their children were 0.92, 1.50 and 2.00 respectively (p < 0.05) and the mean dmft scores were 1.36, 2.05 and 2.69 (p < 0.05). Fifty children whose mothers reported having 25 teeth or less had a mean of 2.12 decayed teeth compared with 1.06 for 125 children whose mothers had 26 teeth or more (p < 0.01). The mean dmft scores for the two groups were 2.68 and 1.59 respectively (p < 0.05). In contrast, dividing the children into groups based on reported attendance patterns and numbers of natural teeth of their fathers did not show any significant differences in decayed teeth or dmft scores. It is concluded that the dental attendance pattern and dental health of the mother, but not of the father, are important influences on the dental health of 5-year-old children. PMID:8269338

  15. [Relationship between child day-care attendance and acute infectious disease. A systematic review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa Sangrador, Carlos; Barajas Sánchez, M Verisima; Muñoz Martín, Beatriz

    2007-01-01

    Child day-care attendance is considered to be an acute early childhood disease risk factor, the studies available however not affording the possibility of fully quantifying this risk. A systematic review of clinical trials and cohort studies was conducted, in which the effects child day-care attendance had on the health of young children based on the Cochrane Collaboration, PubMed and Spanish Medical Index databases, without any time or language-related limits, were analyzed and rounded out with analyses of referenced works and an additional EMBASE search. The methodological quality was evaluated by means of personalized criteria. Pooling measures (relative risks, incidence density ratios and weighted mean differences) were calculated with their confidence intervals, assuming random effects models. A significant increase was found to exist of a risk consistent over time and among different social and geographical environments. Considering the most methodologically-stringent studies with adjusted effect estimates, child day-care attendance was related to an increased risk of upper respiratory tract infection (RR=1,88), acute otitis media (RR=1,58), otitis media with fluid draining (RR=2,43), lower respiratory tract infections (overall RR=210; acute pneumonia RR=1.70; broncholitis RR=1,80; bronchitis RR=2,10) and gastroenteritis (RR=1,40). Child day-care attendance could be responsible for 33%-50% of the episodes of respiratory infection and gastroenteritis among the exposed population. In conclusion, it can be said that the risk for childhood health attributable to the child day-care attendance is discreet but of high-impact. This information has some major implications for research, clinical practice, healthcare authorities and society as a whole.

  16. Physical activity and motor skills in children attending 43 preschools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Line Grønholt; Kristensen, Peter Lund; Ried-Larsen, Mathias;

    2014-01-01

    provide a valuable reference material for studies monitoring future trends in obesity, MS and PA behaviour in Denmark and other countries.Knowledge about sources of variation in PA among preschool children is scarce and our findings need to be replicated in future studies. A potentially important finding......BACKGROUND: Little is known about health characteristics and the physical activity (PA) patterns in children attending preschools. The objective of this study was to describe the gender differences in relation to body mass index (BMI), motor skills (MS) and PA, including PA patterns by the day type...... and time of day. Additionally, the between-preschool variation in mean PA was estimated using the intraclass correlation. METHODS: We invited 627 children 5-6 years of age attending 43 randomly selected preschools in Odense, Denmark. Aiming and catching MS was assessed using subtests of the Movement...

  17. Patterns of Attendance of Children Under 12 Years at School Dental Service in Western Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Lam, SPL; Baros, H; O’Grady, MJ; Kendall, GE; Messer, LB; Slack-Smith, LM

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the patterns of attendance at School Dental Service (SDS) and reasons for attendance (treatment or prevention) for children in the Perth Metropolitan Area, in particular investigating the first year of SDS attendance and attendance until the year the child turned 12. The first 150 SDS records located for children from the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study were used for this study. Patterns of attendance of children at SDS were described...

  18. Relationship-Focused Child Care Practices: Quality of Care and Child Outcomes for Children in Poverty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Margaret Tresch; Klausli, Julia F.; Mata-Otero, Ana-Maria; Caughy, Margaret O'Brien

    2008-01-01

    Research Findings: Child care delivery practices promoting continuous, primary caregiver-child relationships (relationship-focused child care) were evaluated for 223 preschool-age children (45% African American, 55% Latino) attending child care centers serving low-income children. Both relationship-focused and non-relationship-focused centers were…

  19. The Immediate Impacts of Preschool Attendance on Turkish Children's Mathematics Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, Durmus; Aktas Arnas, Yasare

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the immediate impacts of preschool attendance on Turkish children's mathematics achievement. The participants were 200 children who attended or did not attend preschool. The number and operation task and the geometric shapes sorting task were used as the data collection tools. The children who attended…

  20. Does Early Child Care Help or Hurt Children's Development?

    OpenAIRE

    Felfe, Christina; Lalive, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    More children than ever attend center-based care early in life. We study whether children who attend center-based care before age 3 have better or worse language and motor skills, socio-emotional maturity, and school readiness just before entering primary school. In data covering about 36,000 children in one West German state, we use a marginal treatment effects framework to show how causal effects vary with observed characteristics of children, parents, and care centers and with unobserved p...

  1. Does early child care help or hurt childrens's development?

    OpenAIRE

    Felfe, Christina; Lalive, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    More children than ever attend center-based care early in life. We study whether children who attend center-based care before age 3 have better or worse language and motor skills, socio-emotional maturity, and school readiness just before entering primary school. In data covering about 36,000 children in one West German state, we use a marginal treatment effects framework to show how causal effects vary with observed characteristics of children, parents, and care centers and with unobserved p...

  2. Frequent attenders in out-of-hours general practice care: attendance prognosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedsted, Peter; Olesen, Frede

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We aimed to describe the use of out-of-hours service and analyse attendance prognosis for frequent attenders and other groups of attenders, and to present a concept describing frequent attendance over time. METHODS: All adult attenders in 1990 were included in a 4-year follow-up study....... Frequent attenders (FAs) were defined as those 10% among the attenders who most frequently used the out-of-hours service during a calendar year (12 months). This gave an intersection point of four or more contacts for frequent attenders. Three more groups were defined according to whether they had one, two......,321 individuals aged 18 years and over who contacted the out-of-hours service in 1990. Outcome measures were attendance per year, age and sex. RESULTS: FAs made 42% of the out-of-hours contacts in 1990, and 33% of those who were FAs in 1990 were also FAs in 1991. Among the 1990 FAs, 67% contacted the out...

  3. [Knowledge of oral health and practices among mothers attending a mother-child dental care program].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, Lúcia de Fátima Almeida de Deus; de Moura, Marcoeli Silva; de Toledo, Orlando Ayrton

    2007-01-01

    This study assesses the assimilation of knowledge and preventive practices in oral health among the mothers of children assisted by a mother-child dental care program. The Preventive Program for Pregnant Mothers and Babies (PPPMB) is an extension project run by the Piauí Federal University (UFPI), whose goal is to make pregnant women and mothers of children from zero to 36 months old more concerned about habits fostering oral health. After a random selection of clinical record cards for children who had participated in this Program, letters were sent to their mothers. Feedback was received from 281 mothers, who responded through interviews that included questions on matters addressed by the Program. The findings indicate that mothers attending this Program were properly informed, adopting hygienic practices in their families that underpin the control and prevention of oral diseases. PMID:17680166

  4. Children in Self-Care: An Exploratory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Martha

    Before- and after-school care arrangements for third- and fifth-grade students were investigated, with specific attention given to the extent of self-care arrangements, satisfaction levels of parents and children using self-care, and variables contributing to satisfaction. The sample included 675 students attending Newington Elementary School in…

  5. Swimming pool attendance is related to asthma among atopic school children: a population-based study

    OpenAIRE

    Andersson, Martin; Hedman, Linnéa; Nordberg, Gunnar; Forsberg, Bertil; Eriksson, Kåre; Rönmark, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Background: By-products of water disinfectants have been suggested to cause asthma, especially in atopic children. However, studies on indoor swimming pool attendance and asthma in children have presented conflicting results. The present study examined the relationship between indoor swimming pool attendance and asthma among sensitized and non-sensitized children aged 11-12 years. Methods: An extended ISAAC questionnaire was sent to the families of all children attending fifth or sixth grade,...

  6. Consumption of industrialized food by infants attending child day care centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maysa Helena de A. Toloni

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify the age of introduction of petit suisse cheese and instant noodles in the diet of infants attending nurseries of public day care centers and to compare the nutritional composition of these foods with the healthy recommended diet (breast milk and salt meal for this age, in order to estimate nutritional errors. Methods: Cross-sectional study of 366 children (from nine to 36 months old who attended day care centers, whose mothers were interviewed about the age of introduction of those foods. The means of the nutrients indicated on the labels of the most consumed brands were considered. For the calculation of the percent composition of breast milk and salt meal, Tables of Food Composition were used. To assess the nutritional adequacy, we used the Dietary Reference Intakes by age group. The percentage of adequacy evaluation of the petit suisse cheese and the instant noodles nutritional compositions was made by comparing them with those of the human milk and the salt meal, respectively. Results: The petit suisse cheese and the instant noodles were consumed by 89.6 and 65.3% of the children in the first year of life. The percentages of adequacy for carbohydrates were more than twice and the percentages for sodium were 20 times higher than those found in the recommended foods. Conclusions: Both industrialized products are inappropriate for infants, emphasizing the need for adoption of norms that can inform health professionals, educators and parents about the risks of consumption.

  7. Children and chiropractic care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartvigsen, Jan; Hestbaek, Lise

    2009-01-01

    care profession has convincingly assumed the responsibility of spinal and musculoskeletal health for children. Considering the magnitude of the challenges ahead for both researchers and clinicians, this may be a good opportunity for doctors of chiropractic to take responsibility and engage...

  8. Orofacial manifestations in HIV positive children attending Mildmay Clinic in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabbanja, Juliet; Gitta, Sheba; Peterson, Stefan; Rwenyonyi, Charles Mugisha

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the orofacial manifestations and their influence on oral function in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive children attending Mildmay Clinic in Uganda. This was a cross-sectional study based on clinical examination, medical records and a structured questionnaire of 368 children aged between 1.5 and 17 years. The clinical examination for dental caries was based on decayed, extracted and filled teeth (deft) and decayed, missing and filled teeth (DMFT) indices as defined by World Health Organisation. The soft tissue orofacial lesions were assessed using the classification and diagnostic criteria as described by the Collaborative Workgroup on the Oral Manifestations of Pediatric HIV Infections. Approximately 67.4% of the children were on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). The majority (77.4%) of the children had at least one orofacial lesion associated with HIV, pseudomembranous candidiasis being the most prevalent. Overall, 61.7% of the children with orofacial lesions reported at least one form of discomfort in the mouth. Discomfort was particularly associated with swallowing. The prevalence of orofacial lesions was significantly higher in children with poor oral hygiene and lower in those on HAART than in their respective counterparts. The CD4+ cell count, age and gender of the children did not significantly influence the distribution of orofacial lesions. The mean deft and DMFT scores were 11.8 and 2.7, respectively. The d- and D-components contributed 54.7 and 42.1%, respectively. Consumption of sugary snacks was directly associated with dental caries. Despite these children attending an HIV care centre of excellence, they have a high prevalence of orofacial manifestations associated with HIV. The majority of the children experienced discomfort in the oral cavity, particularly during swallowing.

  9. A Prevalence and Management Study of Acute Pain in Children Attending Emergency Departments by Ambulance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Adrian; McCoy, Siobhan; O'Reilly, Kay; Fogarty, Eoin; Dietz, Jason; Crispino, Gloria; Wakai, Abel; O'Sullivan, Ronan

    2016-01-01

    Pain is the most common symptom in the emergency setting and remains one of the most challenging problems for emergency care providers, particularly in the pediatric population. The primary objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of acute pain in children attending emergency departments (EDs) in Ireland by ambulance. In addition, this study sought to describe the prehospital and initial ED management of pain in this population, with specific reference to etiology of pain, frequency of pain assessment, pain severity, and pharmacological analgesic interventions. A prospective cross-sectional study was undertaken over a 12-month period of all pediatric patients transported by emergency ambulance to four tertiary referral hospitals in Ireland. All children (management of acute pain in children transferred by ambulance to the ED in Ireland is currently poor, with documentary evidence of only 26% receiving prehospital analgesic agents. PMID:26024309

  10. Off-hours admission and mortality in two pediatric intensive care units without 24-h in-house senior staff attendance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, Babette; Jansen, Nicolaas J. G.; Bollen, Casper W.; van Vught, Adrianus J.; van der Heide, Douwe; Albers, Marcel J. I. J.

    2010-01-01

    To compare risk-adjusted mortality of children non-electively admitted during off-hours with risk-adjusted mortality of children admitted during office hours to two pediatric intensive care units (PICUs) without 24-h in-house attendance of senior staff. Prospective observational study, performed bet

  11. Oral health profile of education and health professionals attending handicapped children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pomarico Luciana

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the knowledge and attitudes toward oral health of education and health professionals working in a children care program for handicapped children from 0 to 6 years of age, run by a public municipal institution in Rio de Janeiro. Using a printed questionnaire, 67 professionals (teachers, attendants and health professionals were interviewed. The results were compared to the children's oral hygiene habits, by directly observing their daily nursery routine. Although 97.0% said that oral health could play a part in general health, only 37.3% of the professionals answered correctly on this matter. As for methods for preventing caries, although 92.5% said that they were aware of them, only 17.9% went to the dentist for preventive treatment. Although the majority (81.3% indicated oral hygiene as a way of preventing caries, observation showed that this practice is not always put into effect in the program's day nursery. Regarding when to start toothbrushing in children, 75.0% of the teachers and 94.4% of the health professionals said that they were aware of the need to begin brushing before one year of age, although this reply was given by only 52.5% of the attendants (chi-square, p = 0.006. In view of these results, it was concluded that attitudes toward oral health were not always coherent with the knowledge that these professionals express.

  12. A STUDY INTO DETERMINING THE MATHEMATICAL DEVELOPMENT OF CHILDREN ATTENDING TO A KINDERGARTEN

    OpenAIRE

    ÇELİK, Meryem

    2014-01-01

    The current study was carried out to determine the mathematical development levels of children attending to a preschool education institution in terms of mathematical content. The research was conducted on 334 children between 60-72 months attending to an independent kindergarten. The mathematical development level of children was measured through Progress in Math 6 Test. As a result of the statistics obtained, it was found that the success of the children for ?Shapes-Space-Measurements? and ...

  13. COOPERATION OF THE SCHOOL WITH PARENTS OF CHILDREN WHO ARE BEGINNING SCHOOL ATTENDANCE

    OpenAIRE

    SLEPIČKOVÁ, Jana

    2011-01-01

    This thesis ?Cooperation of the school with parents of children who are begginning school attendance? describes concrete forms of communicatoin and coopertion of the school with parents of children who are begginning school attendance. The theoretical part is focused on scholar of freshman class, focused on school maturity and readiness, school immaturity, initiation of school attendance and affimnity of family with school. The practical part is focused on concrete forms of communicatoin and ...

  14. Swimming pool attendance and risk of asthma and allergic symptoms in children.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Font-Ribera, L.; Kogevinas, M.; Zock, J.P.; Nieuwenhuijsen, M.J.; Heederik, D.; Villanueva, C.M.

    2010-01-01

    Increased asthma risk has been associated with pool attendance in children but evidence is inconsistent and inconclusive. A survey was conducted of 3,223 9-12-yr-old children in Sabadell (Spain) to evaluate association between swimming pool attendance and prevalence of asthma and allergic conditions

  15. 9 CFR 2.33 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... animal health, behavior, and well-being is conveyed to the attending veterinarian; (4) Guidance to... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care. 2.33 Section 2.33 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION...

  16. 9 CFR 2.40 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... on problems of animal health, behavior, and well-being is conveyed to the attending veterinarian; (4... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors). 2.40 Section 2.40 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND...

  17. Visual Attending Preferences in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Comparison between Live and Video Presentation Modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardon, Teresa; Azuma, Tamiko

    2012-01-01

    Visual attending patterns of children with ASD differ from those of typically developing (TD) children. Children with ASD spend less time visually attending to relevant people and stimuli than do TD children. Impaired visual attending patterns can greatly decrease the effectiveness of therapy. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the…

  18. Parental concerns in children requiring palliative care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjiri Dighe

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Children with advanced, life-limiting illness have unique needs which are different from those of adults. Pediatric palliative care is an under developed specialty. Aims : To identify concerns of parents of children with advanced, incurable cancers, and to elicit their attitudes toward revealing the diagnosis and prognosis to the sick child. Method : This study was carried out in a large tertiary cancer center in India. Parents of 20 pediatric palliative care patients attending the outpatient department were interviewed and emerging themes identified. Results : Parents showed varying degrees of anticipatory grief. Most families were financially strained. Most parents were reluctant to discuss disease and dying with the child. Siblings were rarely told or directly involved in care. There was resistance to allowing the palliative care team to communicate with the patient. Patients did not receive any formal support. Parents identified family and neighbors as the main sources of support. Conclusions : Parental attitudes hinder open communication with dying children in India. There is a need for research to explore the concerns of families of children with fatal illness. Specialist training is required for professionals working in pediatric palliative care to address this issue.

  19. Children as partners with adults in their medical care

    OpenAIRE

    Alderson, P.; Sutcliffe, K; Curtis, K.

    2006-01-01

    Aims: To investigate the seldom published views of children with type 1 diabetes about their condition and ways in which they share in managing their medical and health care with adults. Methods: Semi-structured, tape recorded interviews, during 2003, with a purposive sample of 24 children aged 3–12 years who have type I diabetes and who attend two inner London hospitals and one hospital in a commuter town. Results: The children reported high levels of understanding, knowledge, and ...

  20. Prevalence and risk factors for non-carious cervical lesions in children attending special needs schools in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sandeep; Kumar, Arunoday; Debnath, Nitai; Kumar, Amit; K Badiyani, Bhumika; Basak, Debashish; S A Ali, Mohamed; B Ismail, Mohammed

    2015-03-01

    We assessed the prevalence and risk factors for development of non-carious cervical lesions (NCCLs) in children attending special needs schools in India. The participants were 395 children aged 12-15 years with disabilities in learning, communication, physical function, and/or development. A questionnaire was designed in order to collect information on sociodemographic characteristics, oral hygiene practices, dietary habits, and risk factors for NCCLs. The chi-square test, bivariate analysis, and logistic regression analysis were used to analyze the data. Presence of NCCLs was associated with use of toothpowder or other materials for teeth cleaning, use of harder toothbrushes, use of a horizontal scrub technique for toothbrushing, consumption of a vegetarian diet, and greater consumption of lemon. The overall prevalence of NCCLs was 22.7%. Most lesions involved minimal loss of contour or defects health care among children attending special needs schools. PMID:25807907

  1. The Development of Attitude to School by Children Beginning School Attendance

    OpenAIRE

    KŘIŽANOVÁ, Jaroslava

    2009-01-01

    The aim of my diploma thesis is to ascertain how is developed attitude to school by children beginning school attendance. The theoretical part is devoted to pre-school children and primary school children with specialization in socialization in their family and out of it. There is also included concept of primary school. The practical part is devoted to the research of the developmet attitude to school by three children. Information was found out of that three children, their parents and teac...

  2. Migration, Remittances, and Children's High School Attendance: The Case of Rural China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Feng

    2012-01-01

    This paper uses a large nationally representative survey data to examine the impact of China's rural-urban migration on high school attendance of left-behind children by disentangling the effect of remittances from that of migration. The results show that the absence of adult household members has a negative impact on the high school attendance of…

  3. Carolinas HealthCare attends to patients, amenities; builds business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, T

    2000-01-01

    Carolinas HealthCare System has grown into a nearly two billion dollar entity by focusing on patient needs and amenities in its health care facilities. Growth of the system, the largest in North and South Carolina, is due in large part to Harry A. Nurkin, president and CEO, who started out with a run-down hospital for indigents. With the approval of the hospital board, Nurkin launched a marketing effort that included taking a lesson from the founders of the Holiday Inn hotel chain. He remodeled and developed facilities that are pleasing to patients and visitors, moved patient parking closer to the hospitals' front doors, taught key hospital personnel the basics about marketing, aligned the system with ABA and NFL teams and conducted an aggressive advertising program. PMID:11143133

  4. Swimming pool attendance and risk of asthma and allergic symptoms in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Font-Ribera, L; Kogevinas, M; Zock, J-P; Nieuwenhuijsen, M J; Heederik, D; Villanueva, C M

    2009-12-01

    Increased asthma risk has been associated with pool attendance in children but evidence is inconsistent and inconclusive. A survey was conducted of 3,223 9-12-yr-old children in Sabadell (Spain) to evaluate association between swimming pool attendance and prevalence of asthma and allergic conditions and symptoms. Parents completed a questionnaire on lifetime frequency of pool attendance and symptoms in the last 12 months (wheezing, asthma medication, rhinitis and allergic rhinitis), ever having asthma and eczema, and potential confounders. Indicators of indoor and outdoor swimming pool attendance early in life, cumulatively and currently were calculated. Swimming pool attendance before the age of 2 yrs was associated with slightly lower prevalence of current asthma (OR 0.79, 95% CI 0.43-1.46), rhinitis (OR 0.86, 95% CI 0.68-1.08) and allergic rhinitis symptoms (OR 0.72, 95% CI 0.54-0.96) compared to those who started attending swimming pools after 4 yrs of age. An increased prevalence of eczema was associated with duration of lifetime pool attendance (OR 1.71, 95%CI 1.38-2.12 for >5 yrs versus 0 yrs). Swimming pool attendance in Spanish children was associated with slightly less upper and lower respiratory tract symptoms and with more eczema. Longitudinal studies are required to confirm these findings and avoid potential reverse causation. PMID:19443529

  5. Pain in young children attending an accident and emergency department

    OpenAIRE

    McCarthy, C.; Hewitt, S; Choonara, I.

    2000-01-01

    Objectives—To assess pain in young children presenting to an accident and emergency (A&E) department. To evaluate the use of the toddler-preschooler postoperative pain scale (TPPPS) and the use of analgesia in these children.

  6. Parent-reported problem behavior among children with sensory disabilities attending elementary regular schools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maes, B; Grietens, H

    2004-01-01

    Parent-reported problem behaviors of 94 children with visual and auditory disabilities, attending elementary regular schools, were compared with problems reported in a general population sample of nondisabled children. Both samples were matched by means of a pairwise matching procedure, taking into

  7. Treatment of Trichuris trichiura infections improves growth, spelling scores and school attendance in some children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simeon, D T; Grantham-McGregor, S M; Callender, J E; Wong, M S

    1995-07-01

    The effects of treating Trichuris trichiura infections were investigated in 407 Jamaican children age 6 to 12 y. The children were randomly assigned to receive treatment (albendazole) or a placebo. The outcome variables included growth, tests of reading, spelling and arithmetic, and school attendance. After 6 mo of treatment, there was no significant main effect on any of the outcomes. However, there were significant treatment-by-infection intensity interactions with spelling (P < 0.05) and body mass index (P < 0.01), and a significant treatment-by-stunting interaction with school attendance (P < 0.01). In spelling, the children with heavy infections showed improvements with treatment that approached significance (P = 0.06), whereas those with lower intensities did not. However, the children with lower infection intensities had increased body mass index with treatment (P = 0.02), although there was no difference in children with heavy infections. In school attendance, the stunted children improved with treatment (P < 0.04), whereas there was no difference in the nonstunted children. These findings suggest that in the sample of Jamaican children examined, the treatment of T. trichiura was more likely to benefit school performance in children of poor nutritional status and those with heavy infections, and to improve weight gain in children with lighter infection intensities.

  8. Pilot nutrition and physical activity intervention for preschool children attending daycare centres (JUNJI: primary and secondary outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Salazar

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A pilot intervention was conducted to promote physical activity and nutrition in public preschool education (near half a million children in Chile, in order to prevent obesity. Objective: To assess the primary (body fat and secondary outcomes (physical activity and energy intake of a nutrition and physical activity pilot intervention for preschool children, attending day care centres. Methods: A pilot intervention in six day care centres selected at random (n = 530, in 4-5 years old preschool children, Santiago, Chile intending to: provide nutritional and physical activity education to educators and health promotion activities for the family, which in turn, will affect the primary (body fat, and secondary outcomes (physical activity pattern and energy food intake were measured in a representative subsample of 120 intervened and 145 controls children. Results: In relation to secondary outcomes monitoring, moderate-vigorous activity was duplicated in the intervention group (+5.4% and +4.7%, respectively, in both obese and eutrophic children. Energy intake decreased in 11.7% in obese and 7.5% in eutrophic children. Dietary fat intake was reduced (-11 g in obese and -8.4 g in eutrophic children. Intervened obese children reduced body fat in 1.5%, meanwhile in control obese children, body fat increased 1.3% (p < 0.01. Conclusions: The pilot intervention demonstrated the feasibility to influence dietary risk factors and physical activity at the day care centres and families. Therefore, the implementation of the validated intervention program will be tested in different weather conditions, to prevent unhealthy habits in preschool children and their families.

  9. Caring for children with ostomies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garvin, G

    1994-12-01

    Caring for children with ostomies comprehensively requires that the healthcare professional understand issues related to normal growth and development as well as more specific medical information about disease processes and ostomy care. Parents should have a working knowledge of routine ostomy care and need guidelines to assist them in recognizing ostomy complications. Complications range from mild to severe. Many patients will experience at least one ostomy-related complication during the time they have their diversion. Active support of the child and the parent is essential toward facilitating acceptance and integration of ostomy care in pediatric ostomy clients.

  10. School Attendance of Children and the Work of Mothers: A Joint Multilevel Model for India

    OpenAIRE

    Francavilla, Francesca; Giannelli, Gianna Claudia; Grilli, Leonardo

    2008-01-01

    IZA WP 3531 Contributo di ricerca This paper investigates the determinants of school attendance of children and their mother’s working status when the mother decides how to allocate her time and that of her children. A multilevel random effects model is applied to study the mother’s participation and the schooling status of her children in a joint framework. Using the second National Family Health Survey (NFHS-2) for India, we find that, controlling for many...

  11. Attendance at day care centers increases the risk of childhood pneumonia among the urban poor in Fortaleza, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Fonseca

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available We carried out a case-control study to investigate risk factors for childhood pneumonia in two groups of 650 children aged under two years in the city of Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil. The cases were children recruited at the main pediatric hospital with a radiological diagnosis of pneumonia, and controls were children of the same age group recruited from the neighbourhood of the cases. In this paper we focus on variables related to childcare practices. Working mothers, proportion of time the mother had worked since the child was born, and use of day care centers emerged as important risk factors with estimated relative risks of 1.58, 1.76 and 5.22, respectively. Also important were the number of children living in the house and presence of grandparents. However, the presence of siblings under two years and the birth order were not associated with pneumonia. All analysis included adjustment for confounding by income, parents' education, and other risk factors as appropriate. This is the first study from a developing country to identify attendance at day care centers as a risk factor for increased childhood morbidity, in this case pneumonia. This finding is of significant public health importance for countries such as Brazil with growing urban populations and an increasing need by mothers to find work outside the home.

  12. Attendance at day care centers increases the risk of childhood pneumonia among the urban poor in Fortaleza, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fonseca Walter

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available We carried out a case-control study to investigate risk factors for childhood pneumonia in two groups of 650 children aged under two years in the city of Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil. The cases were children recruited at the main pediatric hospital with a radiological diagnosis of pneumonia, and controls were children of the same age group recruited from the neighbourhood of the cases. In this paper we focus on variables related to childcare practices. Working mothers, proportion of time the mother had worked since the child was born, and use of day care centers emerged as important risk factors with estimated relative risks of 1.58, 1.76 and 5.22, respectively. Also important were the number of children living in the house and presence of grandparents. However, the presence of siblings under two years and the birth order were not associated with pneumonia. All analysis included adjustment for confounding by income, parents' education, and other risk factors as appropriate. This is the first study from a developing country to identify attendance at day care centers as a risk factor for increased childhood morbidity, in this case pneumonia. This finding is of significant public health importance for countries such as Brazil with growing urban populations and an increasing need by mothers to find work outside the home.

  13. Freqüência à creche e outros condicionantes do estado nutricional infantil Attendance at day-care centers and other conditioning factors in child nutritional status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Vieira da Silva

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available O estudo descreve o estado nutricional de 2 096 pré-escolares atendidos nos 27 Centros Educacionais e Creches do município de Piracicaba, estado de São Paulo. Observa-se que 5,1% das crianças apresentam déficit de altura/idade (escore ZAI The study describes the nutritional status of 2 096 preschool children attending 27 Educational Centers and Day-Care Centers in Piracicaba, state of São Paulo. Five point one percent of the children are observed to present a height/age deficit (score HAZ<-2.0 and a proportion of 1.2 with weight/height deficit (score WHZ<-2.0. The results reveal that per capita income, mother schooling, type of sewage, type of housing and attendance time at are the variables that cause impact on the HAZ score of the children.The positive association detected between attendance time at and -Z score of height for age stresses the importance of these investments as means to protect children, mainly against chronic malnutrition, as basic care with health, feeding and hygiene is associated with education. The day-care center also provides the participation of mothers in the work market, which is very important in poor families in order to increase family income.

  14. A Comparison of the Achievement Test Performance of Children Who Attended Montessori Schools and Those Who Attended Non-Montessori Schools in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Hsin-Hui

    2009-01-01

    There are two purposes of the current study. First was to examine whether or not children in the elementary school in Taiwan who had received Montessori early childhood education obtain significantly higher scores on tests of language arts, math, and social studies than children who attended non-Montessori pre-elementary programs. Second one was…

  15. Prevalence of problem alcohol use among patients attending primary care for methadone treatment

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ryder, Niamh

    2009-06-11

    Abstract Background Problem alcohol use is associated with adverse health outcomes among current or former heroin users and primary care is providing methadone treatment for increasing numbers of this population. This study aimed todetermine the prevalence of problem alcohol use among current or former heroin users attending primary care for methadone treatment and to describe the socio-demographic characteristics and health service utilisation characteristics associated with problem alcohol uses. Methods We conducted a cross sectional survey of patients sampled from a national database of patients attending general practice for methadone treatment. Participants were recruited by their general practitioner and data was collected using an interviewer-administered questionnaire, which included the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (\\'AUDIT\\'), with a score of >7 considered abnormal (ie \\'AUDIT positive cases\\') and socio-demographic, medical and substance use characteristics. Results We interviewed 196 patients (71% of those invited, 31% of those sampled, 11% of the national database). The median age was 32 years, 55% were hepatitis C positive, 79% had used illicit drugs in the previous month and 68% were male. Sixty-eight \\'AUDIT positive\\' cases were identified (prevalence of 35%, 95% CI = 28–41%) and these were more likely to have attended a local Emergency Department in the previous year (p < 0.05) and less likely to have attended a hospital clinic in the previous year (p < 0.05). Twenty-seven (14%) scored 20 or higher indicating possible alcohol dependence. Conclusion Problem alcohol use has a high prevalence among current or former heroin users attending primary care for methadone treatment and interventions that address this issue should be explored as a priority. Interventions that address problem alcohol use in this population should be considered as a priority, although the complex medical and psychological needs of this population may make

  16. Prevalence of problem alcohol use among patients attending primary care for methadone treatment.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ryder, Niamh

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Problem alcohol use is associated with adverse health outcomes among current or former heroin users and primary care is providing methadone treatment for increasing numbers of this population. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of problem alcohol use among current or former heroin users attending primary care for methadone treatment and to describe the socio-demographic characteristics and health service utilisation characteristics associated with problem alcohol uses. METHODS: We conducted a cross sectional survey of patients sampled from a national database of patients attending general practice for methadone treatment. Participants were recruited by their general practitioner and data was collected using an interviewer-administered questionnaire, which included the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (\\'AUDIT\\'), with a score of >7 considered abnormal (ie \\'AUDIT positive cases\\') and socio-demographic, medical and substance use characteristics. RESULTS: We interviewed 196 patients (71% of those invited, 31% of those sampled, 11% of the national database). The median age was 32 years, 55% were hepatitis C positive, 79% had used illicit drugs in the previous month and 68% were male. Sixty-eight \\'AUDIT positive\\' cases were identified (prevalence of 35%, 95% CI = 28-41%) and these were more likely to have attended a local Emergency Department in the previous year (p < 0.05) and less likely to have attended a hospital clinic in the previous year (p < 0.05). Twenty-seven (14%) scored 20 or higher indicating possible alcohol dependence. CONCLUSION: Problem alcohol use has a high prevalence among current or former heroin users attending primary care for methadone treatment and interventions that address this issue should be explored as a priority. Interventions that address problem alcohol use in this population should be considered as a priority, although the complex medical and psychological needs of this population may make this

  17. Impact of collaborative care on survival time for dogs with congestive heart failure and revenue for attending primary care veterinarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefbom, Bonnie K; Peckens, Neal K

    2016-07-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess the effects of in-person collaborative care by primary care veterinarians (pcDVMs) and board-certified veterinary cardiologists (BCVCs) on survival time of dogs after onset of congestive heart failure (CHF) and on associated revenue for the attending pcDVMs. DESIGN Retrospective cohort study. ANIMALS 26 small-breed dogs treated for naturally occurring CHF secondary to myxomatous mitral valve disease at a multilocation primary care veterinary hospital between 2008 and 2013. PROCEDURES Electronic medical records were reviewed to identify dogs with confirmed CHF secondary to myxomatous mitral valve disease and collect information on patient care, survival time, and pcDVM revenue. Data were compared between dogs that received collaborative care from the pcDVM and a BCVC and dogs that received care from the pcDVM alone. RESULTS Dogs that received collaborative care had a longer median survival time (254 days) than did dogs that received care from the pcDVM alone (146 days). A significant positive correlation was identified between pcDVM revenue and survival time for dogs that received collaborative care (ie, the longer the dog survived, the greater the pcDVM revenue generated from caring for that patient). CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Findings suggested that collaborative care provided to small-breed dogs with CHF by a BCVC and pcDVM could result in survival benefits for affected dogs and increased revenue for pcDVMs, compared with care provided by a pcDVM alone. PMID:27308884

  18. Impact of collaborative care on survival time for dogs with congestive heart failure and revenue for attending primary care veterinarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefbom, Bonnie K; Peckens, Neal K

    2016-07-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess the effects of in-person collaborative care by primary care veterinarians (pcDVMs) and board-certified veterinary cardiologists (BCVCs) on survival time of dogs after onset of congestive heart failure (CHF) and on associated revenue for the attending pcDVMs. DESIGN Retrospective cohort study. ANIMALS 26 small-breed dogs treated for naturally occurring CHF secondary to myxomatous mitral valve disease at a multilocation primary care veterinary hospital between 2008 and 2013. PROCEDURES Electronic medical records were reviewed to identify dogs with confirmed CHF secondary to myxomatous mitral valve disease and collect information on patient care, survival time, and pcDVM revenue. Data were compared between dogs that received collaborative care from the pcDVM and a BCVC and dogs that received care from the pcDVM alone. RESULTS Dogs that received collaborative care had a longer median survival time (254 days) than did dogs that received care from the pcDVM alone (146 days). A significant positive correlation was identified between pcDVM revenue and survival time for dogs that received collaborative care (ie, the longer the dog survived, the greater the pcDVM revenue generated from caring for that patient). CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Findings suggested that collaborative care provided to small-breed dogs with CHF by a BCVC and pcDVM could result in survival benefits for affected dogs and increased revenue for pcDVMs, compared with care provided by a pcDVM alone.

  19. Red cell alloimmunization among antenatal women attending a tertiary care hospital in south India

    OpenAIRE

    Jophy Varghese; Chacko, Mary P.; Molly Rajaiah; Dolly Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Background & objectives: Detection of maternal alloimmunization against red cell antigens is vital in the management of haemolytic disease of the foetus and newborn (HDFN). This study was conducted to measure the presence of allosensitization to blood group antibodies in the antenatal women attending a tertiary care hospital and to observe the proportion of minor blood group antibodies to assess the benefit of screening for the same. Methods: All antenatal women registered in the hospital...

  20. Red Cell Alloimmunization to Rhesus Antigen Among Pregnant Women Attending a Tertiary Care Hospital in Oman

    OpenAIRE

    Tamima Al-Dughaishi; Yusra Al Harrasi; Maymoona Al-Duhli; Ikhlass Al-Rubkhi; Nihal Al-Riyami; Al-Riyami, Arwa Z.; Pathare, Anil V.; Vaidyanathan Gowri

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The detection of maternal alloimmunization against red cell antigens is vital in the management of hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn. We sought to measure the presence of allosensitization to Rhesus D (RhD) antibodies in antenatal women attending a tertiary care hospital and assess the fetal outcome in sensitized women. Methods: We conducted a retrospective review of pregnant Omani women who registered at the Sultan Qaboos University Hospital between June 2011 and Ju...

  1. Non-attendance at psychiatric outpatient clinics: communication and implications for primary care.

    OpenAIRE

    Killaspy, H; Banerjee, S.; King, M.; LLOYD, M

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: What should happen when an outpatient fails to attend a psychiatric clinic? Guidelines from the General Medical Services Committee suggest that general practitioners (GPs) have no further responsibility of care for a patient once a referral to a psychiatrist has been made. This raises questions about the formulation of effective management plans for those patients with whom psychiatric services find it difficult to engage due to non-compliance with assessment and follow-up. AIMS: ...

  2. Prevalence of sexually transmitted infections in women attending antenatal care in Tete province, Mozambique

    OpenAIRE

    Luján, Jhonny; Arrázola de Oñate, Wouter; Delva, Wim; Claeys, Patricia; Sambola, Fulgencia; Temmerman, Marleen; Fernando, Joaquim; Folgosa, Elena

    2008-01-01

    Objective. To determine the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) and syphilis in pregnant women. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted among women attending antenatal care clinics (ANCs). Blood samples were tested for syphilis using the rapid plasma reagin (RPR) and treponemal haemagglutination (TPHA) tests; CT and NG were diagnosed using a manual polymerase chain reaction assay on first-void urine samples. A socio-demographic questionnaire was com...

  3. Factors affecting antenatal care attendance: results from qualitative studies in Ghana, Kenya and Malawi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Pell

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Antenatal care (ANC is a key strategy to improve maternal and infant health. However, survey data from sub-Saharan Africa indicate that women often only initiate ANC after the first trimester and do not achieve the recommended number of ANC visits. Drawing on qualitative data, this article comparatively explores the factors that influence ANC attendance across four sub-Saharan African sites in three countries (Ghana, Kenya and Malawi with varying levels of ANC attendance. METHODS: Data were collected as part of a programme of qualitative research investigating the social and cultural context of malaria in pregnancy. A range of methods was employed interviews, focus groups with diverse respondents and observations in local communities and health facilities. RESULTS: Across the sites, women attended ANC at least once. However, their descriptions of ANC were often vague. General ideas about pregnancy care - checking the foetus' position or monitoring its progress - motivated women to attend ANC; as did, especially in Kenya, obtaining the ANC card to avoid reprimands from health workers. Women's timing of ANC initiation was influenced by reproductive concerns and pregnancy uncertainties, particularly during the first trimester, and how ANC services responded to this uncertainty; age, parity and the associated implications for pregnancy disclosure; interactions with healthcare workers, particularly messages about timing of ANC; and the cost of ANC, including charges levied for ANC procedures - in spite of policies of free ANC - combined with ideas about the compulsory nature of follow-up appointments. CONCLUSION: In these socially and culturally diverse sites, the findings suggest that 'supply' side factors have an important influence on ANC attendance: the design of ANC and particularly how ANC deals with the needs and concerns of women during the first trimester has implications for timing of initiation.

  4. Behavioral and Cognitive Readiness for School: Cross-Domain Associations for Children Attending Head Start

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierman, Karen L.; Torres, Marcela M.; Domitrovich, Celene E.; Welsh, Janet A.; Gest, Scott D.

    2009-01-01

    Utilizing a diverse sample of 356 four-year-old children attending Head Start, this study examined the degree to which behavioral aspects of school readiness, including classroom participation, prosocial behavior, and aggression control were related to direct assessments of child cognitive readiness (academic knowledge, executive function skills)…

  5. A Helping Hand in Assessing Children's Knowledge: Instructing Adults To Attend to Gesture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Spencer D.; Singer, Melissa; Hicks, Janna; Goldin-Meadow, Susan

    2002-01-01

    Three experiments tested whether it is possible to teach college students who are not trained investigators to comprehend information regarding knowledge of conservation problems and mathematical equivalence conveyed through children's hand gestures. Findings suggest that instructing adults to attend to gesture enhances their assessment of…

  6. Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder Do Not Preferentially Attend to Biological Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annaz, Dagmara; Campbell, Ruth; Coleman, Mike; Milne, Elizabeth; Swettenham, John

    2012-01-01

    Preferential attention to biological motion can be seen in typically developing infants in the first few days of life and is thought to be an important precursor in the development of social communication. We examined whether children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) aged 3-7 years preferentially attend to point-light displays depicting…

  7. Mainstream and Special School Attendance among a Dutch Cohort of Children with Down Syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouwe, J.P. van; Gameren-Oosterom, H.B.M. van; Verkerk, P.H.; Dommelen, P. van; Fekkes, M.

    2014-01-01

    Object. To determine the level of mainstream education in a nationwide cohort of adolescents with Down Syndrome (DS), and to find characteristics related to mainstream or special school attendance. Method. Dutch children with DS born in 1992, 1993 or 1994, were assessed when 16–19 years old. Parents

  8. Tuition for Children Who Cannot Attend School Due to Illness in Scotland: Experiences of Home Tutors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo, Mercedes; Gilchrist, Anne

    2007-01-01

    We have explored the working patterns and perceptions of a group of teachers who provide home tuition for children who cannot attend school due to medical problems. These teachers reported high levels of experience in teaching, enthusiasm for their work, and clear managerial structures. Home tutors found it very rewarding to build relationships…

  9. Children's hospice: completing the circle of caring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong-Dailey, A

    1994-12-01

    Often an ignored area of hospice care, children's hospice programs are growing as more and more children contract cancer and AIDS. Children's hospice care differs from adult programs in its approach and requires the cooperation of families and professionals to care for the dying child.

  10. Prevalence of problem alcohol use among patients attending primary care for methadone treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryder Niamh

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Problem alcohol use is associated with adverse health outcomes among current or former heroin users and primary care is providing methadone treatment for increasing numbers of this population. This study aimed todetermine the prevalence of problem alcohol use among current or former heroin users attending primary care for methadone treatment and to describe the socio-demographic characteristics and health service utilisation characteristics associated with problem alcohol uses. Methods We conducted a cross sectional survey of patients sampled from a national database of patients attending general practice for methadone treatment. Participants were recruited by their general practitioner and data was collected using an interviewer-administered questionnaire, which included the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test ('AUDIT', with a score of >7 considered abnormal (ie 'AUDIT positive cases' and socio-demographic, medical and substance use characteristics. Results We interviewed 196 patients (71% of those invited, 31% of those sampled, 11% of the national database. The median age was 32 years, 55% were hepatitis C positive, 79% had used illicit drugs in the previous month and 68% were male. Sixty-eight 'AUDIT positive' cases were identified (prevalence of 35%, 95% CI = 28–41% and these were more likely to have attended a local Emergency Department in the previous year (p Conclusion Problem alcohol use has a high prevalence among current or former heroin users attending primary care for methadone treatment and interventions that address this issue should be explored as a priority. Interventions that address problem alcohol use in this population should be considered as a priority, although the complex medical and psychological needs of this population may make this challenging.

  11. Does child care availability play a role in maternal employment and children's development? Evidence from Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Ylenia Brilli; Daniela Del Boca; Pronzato, Chiara D.

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the e ects of public child care availability in Italy in mothers' working status and children's scholastic achievements. We use a newly available dataset containing individual standardized test scores of pupils attending the second grade of primary school in 2009-10 in conjunction with data on public child care availability. Our estimates indicate a positive and signi cant e ects of child care availability on both mothers' working status and children's Language test sc...

  12. Utilization of traditional birth attendants in MCH care in rural Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, H

    1987-12-01

    Training of the traditional birth attendants (TBAs) in Malaysia was preceded by a KAP study, and the results have been a tremendous improvement in maternal-child health care. Although Malaysia has an extensive health care system composed of government sponsored midwife clinics, health centers and sub-centers, regional hospitals, private general practitioners and estate clinics, which are utilized by 94% for prenatal care, 40% of women still called in TBAs for delivery. TBAs are popular because they provide a full range of traditional customs, are available locally, and well known to local women. 100 active TBAs in the Krian District, an area of 157,649 people in northwestern Malaysia, were surveyed. 89% had primary education; 76% were over 55 years of age; 82% had over 10 years of experience; 60% had received family planning training. They had favorable attitudes toward modern medicine, advised women to attend prenatal care, advised them on traditional diet, and performed such procedures as abdominal massage and heat fomentation. They tended to take all cases regardless of risk. The training consisted of practical demonstrations and flip charts for 6 consecutive saturdays conducted by public health nurses. TBAs were taken to meet staff and see hospital facilities and received a UN midwifery kit as an incentive. After training, hospital deliveries rose from 29.5% in 1976 to 35.9% in 1983; government midwives attended 40.2% compared to 23.3% of deliveries; deliveries conducted by TBAs fell from 47.2% to 19.4%; and more high risk cases were referred to hospitals. During the period maternal mortality declined from 1.46-1.98 in the 1970s to 0.84-1.09 in the 1980s.

  13. Under-attending free antenatal care is associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinonen Seppo

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most pertinent studies of inadequate antenatal care concentrate on the risk profile of women booking late or not booking at all to antenatal care. The objective of this study was to assess the outcome of pregnancies when free and easily accessible antenatal care has been either totally lacking or low in number of visits. Methods This is a hospital register based cohort study of pregnancies treated in Kuopio University Hospital, Finland, in 1989 – 2001. Pregnancy outcomes of women having low numbers (1–5 of antenatal care visits (n = 207 and no antenatal care visits (n = 270 were compared with women having 6–18 antenatal visits (n = 23137. Main outcome measures were: Low birth weight, fetal death, neonatal death. Adverse pregnancy outcomes were controlled for confounding factors (adjusted odds ratios, OR: s in multiple logistic regression models. Results Of the analyzed pregnant population, 1.0% had no antenatal care visits and 0.77% had 1–5 visits. Under- or non-attendance associated with social and health behavioral risk factors: unmarried status, lower educational level, young maternal age, smoking and alcohol use. Chorio-amnionitis or placental abruptions were more common complications of pregnancies of women avoiding antenatal care, and pregnancy outcome was impaired. After logistic regression analyses, controlling for confounding, there were significantly more low birth weight infants in under- and non-attenders (OR:s with 95% CI:s: 9.18 (6.65–12.68 and 5.46 (3.90–7.65, respectively more fetal deaths (OR:s 12.05 (5.95–24.40 and 5.19 (2.04–13.22, respectively and more neonatal deaths (OR:s 10.03 (3.85–26.13 and 8.66 (3.59–20.86, respectively. Conclusion Even when birth takes place in hospital, non- or under-attendance at antenatal care carries a substantially elevated risk of severe adverse pregnancy outcome. Underlying adverse health behavior and possible abuse indicate close surveillance of the

  14. Factors Associated with Follow-Up Attendance among Rape Victims Seen in Acute Medical Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darnell, Doyanne; Peterson, Roselyn; Berliner, Lucy; Stewart, Terri; Russo, Joan; Whiteside, Lauren; Zatzick, Douglas

    2016-01-01

    Objective Rape is associated with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and related comorbidities. Most victims do not obtain treatment for these conditions. Acute care medical settings are well-positioned to link patients to services; however, difficulty engaging victims and low attendance at provided follow-up appointments is well documented. Identifying factors associated with follow-up can inform engagement and linkage strategies. Method Administrative, patient self-report, and provider observational data from Harborview Medical Center were combined for the analysis. Using logistic regression, we examined factors associated with follow-up health service utilization after seeking services for rape in the emergency department. Results Of the 521 diverse female (n=476) and male (n=45) rape victims, 28% attended the recommended medical/counseling follow-up appointment. In the final (adjusted) logistic regression model, having a developmental or other disability (OR=0.40, 95% CI=0.21-0.77), having a current mental illness (OR=0.25, 95% CI=0.13-0.49), and being assaulted in public (OR=0.50, 95% CI=0.28-0.87) were uniquely associated with reduced odds of attending the follow-up. Having a prior mental health condition (OR= 3.02 95% CI=1.86-4.91), a completed SANE examination (OR=2.97, 95% CI=1.84-4.81), and social support available to help cope with the assault (OR=3.54, 95% CI=1.76-7.11) were associated with an increased odds of attending the follow-up. Conclusions Findings point to relevant characteristics ascertained at the acute care medical visit for rape that may be used to identify victims less likely to obtain posttraumatic medical and mental health services. Efforts to improve service linkage among these patients is warranted and may require alternative models to engage these patients to support posttraumatic recovery. PMID:26168030

  15. Abusive Head Trauma at a Tertiary Care Children's Hospital in Mexico City. A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Olavarrieta, Claudia; Garcia-Pina, Corina A.; Loredo-Abdala, Arturo; Paz, Francisco; Garcia, Sandra G.; Schilmann, Astrid

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Determine the prevalence, clinical signs and symptoms, and demographic and family characteristics of children attending a tertiary care hospital in Mexico City, Mexico, to illustrate the characteristics of abusive head trauma among this population. Methods: This is a cross-sectional descriptive study of infants and children under 5,…

  16. [Factors related to self-care in diabetes mellitus patients attended at emergency service in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baquedano, Irasema Romero; dos Santos, Manoel Antônio; Teixeira, Carla Regina de Souza; Martins, Tatiane Aparecida; Zanetti, Maria Lúcia

    2010-12-01

    This cross-sectional study aimed to determine the self-care ability of individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus and to relate this capacity with some sociodemographic and clinical variables. Participants were 251 patients who attended the Emergency Service at the Mérida Regional Hospital in Yucatán, Mexico, in 2006. Data were obtained through directed home interviews, using a form, a questionnaire and the Self-Care Capacity Scale. Descriptive and correlation statistics were used for data analysis. The results showed 83 (33.5%) subjects with good and 168 (66.5%) subjects with regular ability. A directly proportional correlation was found between self-care ability and years of study (r = 0.124; p diabetes patients, and further research needs to be developed with a focus on other variables involved in the behavior adopted to benefit their health.

  17. Characterization of the clientele attended in a Psychosocial Care Center - alcohol and drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliany Nazaré Oliveira

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This documentary and retrospective study aimed to analyze the profile of the clientele attended in the Psychosocial Care Center Alcohol and Other Drugs from Sobral, Ceará, Brazil in 2010, based on 300 records. Males predominated with 75% (n=225, with age ranging from 11 to 29 years old with 44.3% (n=133, single with 49% (n=147, and with elementary school 45.7% (n=137. The most commonly used drug among men was crack, 31.3% (n=94, and among women, tobacco, 12% (n=36. The losses associated with dependence, are mostly related to the family, with 31.3% (n=94. The highlight to crack requires changes in the care process implemented in institutions. One should remain alert to these new profiles related to chemical dependency, so that quality and integral care can be offered to this clientele.

  18. Determinants of Antenatal Care Attendance among Pregnant Women Living in Endemic Malaria Settings: Experience from the Democratic Republic of Congo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manianga, Célestin; Kapanga, Serge; Mona, Esther; Pululu, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Background. Antenatal care (ANC) attendance helps pregnant women to benefit from preventive and curative services. Methods. Determinants for ANC attendance were identified through a cross-sectional survey in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Sociocultural bottlenecks were assessed via focus groups discussion of married men and women. Results. In this survey, 28 of the 500 interviewed pregnant women (5.6%) did not attend ANC services and 82.4% booked over the first trimester. The first visit is positively influenced by the reproductive age (OR: 0.52, 95% CI(0.28–0.95), p attendance is delayed among poor women with little education and living alone.

  19. Children's health care assistance according to their families: a comparison between models of Primary Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Bertoglio Comassetto Antunes de Oliveira

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To compare the health assistance models of Basic Traditional Units (UBS with the Family Health Strategy (ESF units for presence and extent of attributes of Primary Health Care (APS, specifically in the care of children. METHOD A cross-sectional study of a quantitative approach with families of children attended by the Public Health Service of Colombo, Paraná. The Primary Care Assessment Tool (PCA-Tool was applied to parents of 482 children, 235 ESF units and 247 UBS units covering all primary care units of the municipality, between June and July 2012. The results were analyzed according to the PCA-Tool manual. RESULTS ESF units reached a borderline overall score for primary health care standards. However, they fared better in their attributes of Affiliation, Integration of care coordination, Comprehensiveness, Family Centeredness and Accessibility of use, while the attributes of Community Guidance/Orientation, Coordination of Information Systems, Longitudinality and Access attributes were rated as insufficient for APS. UBS units had low scores on all attributes. CONCLUSION The ESF units are closer to the principles of APS (Primary Health Care, but there is need to review actions of child care aimed at the attributes of APS in both care models, corroborating similar studies from other regions of Brazil.

  20. The effect of providing skilled birth attendance and emergency obstetric care in preventing stillbirths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawn Joy E

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Of the global burden of 2.6 million stillbirths, around 1.2 million occur during labour i.e. are intrapartum deaths. In low-/middle-income countries, a significant proportion of women give birth at home, usually in the absence of a skilled birth attendant. This review discusses the impact of skilled birth attendance (SBA and the provision of Emergency Obstetric Care (EOC on stillbirths and perinatal mortality. Methods A systematic literature search was performed on PubMed/MEDLINE, Cochrane Database and the WHO regional libraries. Data of all eligible studies were extracted into a standardized Excel sheet containing variables such as participants’ characteristics, sample size, location, setting, blinding, allocation concealment, intervention and control details and limitations. We undertook a meta-analysis of the impact of SBA on stillbirths. Given the paucity of data from randomized trials or robust quasi-experimental designs, we undertook an expert Delphi consultation to determine impact estimates of provision of Basic and Comprehensive EOC on reducing stillbirths if there would be universal coverage (99%. Results The literature search yielded 871 hits. A total of 21 studies were selected for data abstraction. Our meta-analysis on community-based skilled birth attendance based on two before-after studies showed a 23% significant reduction in stillbirths (RR = 0.77; 95% CI: 0.69 – 0.85. The overall quality grade of available evidence for this intervention on stillbirths was ‘moderate’. The Delphi process supported the estimated reduction in stillbirths by skilled attendance and experts further suggested that the provision of Basic EOC had the potential to avert intrapartum stillbirths by 45% and with provision of Comprehensive EOC this could be reduced by 75%. These estimates are conservative, consistent with historical trends in maternal and perinatal mortality from both developed and developing countries, and are

  1. Perception and utilization of traditional birth attendants by pregnant women attending primary health care clinics in a rural Local Government Area in Ogun State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Ebuehi OM; Akintujoye IA

    2012-01-01

    Olufunke M Ebuehi, IA AkintujoyeReproductive and International Health Unit, Department of Community Health and Primary Care, College of Medicine, University of Lagos, Lagos, NigeriaBackground: In developing countries, most childbirth occurs at home and is not assisted by skilled attendants. This situation increases the risk of death for both mother and child and has severe maternal and neonatal health complications. The purpose of this study was to explore pregnant women’s perceptio...

  2. Drumming as a Medium to Promote Emotional and Social Functioning of Children in Middle Childhood in Residential Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Kim; van Niekerk, Caroline; le Roux, Liana

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the potential of drumming to enhance emotional and social functioning of children in residential care. Fifteen children (aged 7-12) from a child and youth care centre in South Africa attended four months of weekly drumming sessions. Gestalt theory principles informed the workshops' theoretical foundation and interpretation of…

  3. Neuropsychological screening of children of substance-abusing women attending a Special Child Welfare Clinic in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skogmo Idar

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exposure to alcohol and illicit substances during pregnancy can have an impact on the child for the rest of his/her life. A Special Child Welfare Clinic (SCWC in Norway provides care for pregnant women with substance abuse problems. Treatment and support are provided without replacement therapy. Methods We performed a neuropsychological screening of 40 children aged four to 11 years whose mothers had attended the SCWC during pregnancy, and of a comparison group of 80 children of women without substance abuse problems. The children were presented with tests chosen from Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, third version (WISC-III, Nepsy, Halstead-Reitan and Raven's Progressive Matrices, Coloured Version. The tests were grouped into five main domains; (1 learning and memory, (2 visual scanning, planning and attention, (3 executive function, (4 visuo-motor speed and dexterity and (5 general intellectual ability Results No children in the study had test results in the clinical range in any domain. Bivariate analyses revealed that children of short-term substance-abusing mothers (who stopped substance abuse within the first trimester had significantly lower test scores than the comparison group in three out of five domains (domain 2,3,4. Children of long-term substance abusers (who maintained moderate substance abuse throughout pregnancy had significantly lower test results than the comparison group in one domain of the test results (domain 1. All but one child in the long-term group were or had been in foster homes. Most children in the short-term group stayed with their mothers. Multivariate regression analyses revealed that foster care minimum 50% of life time was associated with better scores on domains (1 learning and memory, (2 visual scanning, planning and attention, and (3 executive functions, while no significant associations with test scores was found for substance abuse and birth before 38 weeks of gestation

  4. The Physical Development, Eating Habits, and Physical Activity of Children Attending Music School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forjasz Justyna

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Obesity is a multifactorial disorder affecting the energy balance in the body, in which the energy ingested exceeds the energy used by the body over a certain period of time. Some of the key causes of obesity in children include inappropriate eating habits and an insufficient amount of physical activity. The aim of the study presented in this article was to describe the level of physical development, nutritional status, and physical activity of children attending music school, whose free time is more limited than that of their peers.

  5. Likelihood of Attending Treatment for Anxiety Among Veteran Primary Care Patients: Patient Preferences for Treatment Attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepardson, Robyn L; Funderburk, Jennifer S

    2016-09-01

    Anxiety is common, but under-treated, in primary care. Behavioral health providers embedded in primary care can help address this treatment gap. Guidance on anxiety treatment preferences would help inform tailoring of clinical practice and new interventions to be more patient-centered and increase treatment engagement. We surveyed 144 non-treatment seeking Veteran primary care patients (82.6 % male, 85.4 % White, age M = 59.8 years, SD = 13.9) reporting current anxiety symptoms (M = 13.87, SD = 3.66, on the Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 Questionnaire) on their likelihood of attending anxiety treatment featuring various levels of 11 attributes (modality, type, location, format, provider, visit frequency, visit length, treatment duration, type of psychotherapy, symptom focus, and topic/skill). Participants indicated clear preferences for individual, face-to-face treatment in primary care, occurring once a month for at least 30 min and lasting at least three sessions. They also tended to prefer a stress management approach focused on trouble sleeping or fatigue, but all topics/skills were rated equivalently. For most attributes, the highest rated options were consistent with characteristics of integrated care. Implications for research and practice are discussed. PMID:27465641

  6. KNOWLEDGE ATTITUDE & PRACTICE REGARDING EYE DONATION AMONG PEOPLE ATTENDING TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL - A SHORT REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachna

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the knowledge , attitudes and practices regarding eye donation in selected adult population attending tertiary eye care centre. Methods: 636 interviews were successfully completed and used for analysis. A questionnaire was specially designed to know the facts about awareness and willingness for eye donation among general population attending tertiary eye care centre. Questionnaire included whether they had any knowledge of eye donation , source of information , willingness to donate eyes and also impact of eye donation on corneal blindness status. Results: Knowledge about eye donation was significantly associated with education and socioeconomic status. After counseling , 84.90% of partici pants agreed to motivate other family members/ friends to fill the pledge form of eye donation. Allowance of eye donation in religion was significantly associated with the motivation to donate . Higher level of education and higher socioeconomic status were significant predictors of knowledge status of eye donation. For motivation , higher socioeconomic status , adequate knowledge and belief that eye donation is allowed in religion were significant predictors. Television emerged as the major source of information. Conclusion: Better knowledge may ultimately translate into the act of donation. Effective measures sh ould be taken to educate people with relevant information with the involvement of media , doctors and religious scholars

  7. SATISFACTION FROM HEALTH INSURANCE INSTITUTIONS AMONG PEOPLE ATTENDING THE PRIMARY HEALTH CARE CENTERS IN ANKARA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma ILHAN

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the status of satisfaction from health insurance institutions among people at age 18 and over , attending the primary health care centers in Ankara city center. This study was conducted by applying a questionnaire to the persons attending to four primary health care center and two Mather-Child Health Care and Family Planning Centers in Ankara City Center between May 20-July 20, 2003. 3184 persons applied to six primary health care centers in Ankara city center were interviewed. The median age of the subjects was 38; 66.4 % were women; 30.9 % were primary school graduate and 48.8% were housewife. 100% of the subjects who own private health insurance were satisfied with their insurance status. This rate was 92.0% for the subjects who were under coverage of Emekli Sandigi, and 79% for those who were under coverage of Bag-Kur. The most common health insurance institution the subjects were not satisfied with, was SSK with 48.4 % unsatisfaction rate. “The capability of being physically emamined and treated in any health facility he/she want” was in the first rank among the satisfaction reasons (54.2%. “The absence of this capability” was the most common reason for unsatisfaction (44.0%. 51.6 of the subjects were satisfied with their own health insurance institution, Emekli Sandigi was the most preffered institution with a percentage of 22.3. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2006; 5(4.000: 244-253

  8. Providing nursing care in a children's hospice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Alison

    Children who are admitted to hospices need specialist treatment that enables them to enjoy their childhood as much as possible while they receive the care they require. Their parents also have particular needs. During Children's Hospice Week, which started on September 21, the Association of Children's Hospices aims to raise awareness of the work done by children's hospices and the services they provide.

  9. Incidence of rotavirus infection in children with gastroenteritis attending Jos university teaching hospital, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olabode Atanda O

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study was conducted to determine the incidence of rotavirus infection in children with gastroenteritis attending Jos university teaching hospital, Plateau State. A total of 160 children with acute diarrhea were selected by random sampling. Stool samples were obtained and assayed for rotavirus antigens by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay technique using standard diagnostic BIOLINE Rotavirus kit. Demographic data of parents were also recorded. Rotavirus were detected in faeces of 22(13.8% children with acute diarrhea, 90.9% of positive cases of rotavirus gastroenteritis were under 2 years of age with highest prevalence in children 7-12 months of age. Males excreted rotavirus at a significant higher rate than females (P

  10. Dealing with minor illnesses: The link between primary care characteristics and Walk-in Centres' attendances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugolini, Cristina; Lippi Bruni, Matteo; Mammi, Irene; Donatini, Andrea; Fiorentini, Gianluca

    2016-01-01

    The reformulation of existing boundaries between primary and secondary care, in order to shift selected services traditionally provided by Emergency Departments (EDs) to community-based alternatives, has determined a variety of organisational solutions. One innovative change has been the introduction of fast-track systems for minor injuries or illnesses, whereby community care providers are involved in order to divert patients away from EDs. These facilities offer an open-access service for patients not requiring hospital treatments, and may be staffed by nurses and/or primary care general practitioners operating within, or alongside, the ED. To date little research has been undertaken on such experiences. To fill this gap, we analyse a Walk-in Centre (WiC) in the Italian city of Parma, consisting of a minor injury unit located alongside the teaching hospital's ED. We examine the link between the utilisation rates of the WiC and primary care characteristics, focusing on the main organisational features of the practices and estimating panel count data models for 2007-2010. Our main findings indicate that the extension of practice opening hours significantly lowers the number of attendances, after controlling for General Practitioner's and practice's characteristics. PMID:26657741

  11. Intestinal parasite infections in symptomatic children attending hospital in Siem Reap, Cambodia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catrin E Moore

    Full Text Available Infections with helminths and other intestinal parasites are an important but neglected problem in children in developing countries. Accurate surveys of intestinal parasites in children inform empirical treatment regimens and can assess the impact of school based drug treatment programmes. There is limited information on this topic in Cambodia.In a prospective study of intestinal parasites in symptomatic children attending Angkor Hospital for Children, Siem Reap, Cambodia, April-June 2012, samples were examined by microscopy of a direct and concentrated fecal sample. Two culture methods for hookworm and Strongyloides stercoralis were employed when sufficient sample was received. Demographic, clinical and epidemiological data were collected.We studied 970 samples from 865 children. The median (inter-quartile range age of the children was 5.4 (1.9-9.2 years, 54% were male. The proportion of children with abdominal pain was 66.8%, diarrhea 34.9%, anemia 12.7% and malnutrition 7.4%. 458 parasitic infections were detected in 340 (39.3% children. The most common parasites using all methods of detection were hookworm (14.3%, Strongyloides stercoralis (11.6% and Giardia lamblia (11.2%. Giardia lamblia was most common in children aged 1-5 years, hookworm and Strongyloides stercoralis were more common with increasing age. Hookworm, Strongloides stercoralis and Giardia lamblia were more common in children living outside of Siem Reap town. In a multivariate logistic regression increasing age was associated with all three infections, defecating in the forest for hookworm infection, the presence of cattle for S. stercoralis and not using soap for handwashing for G. lamblia.This study confirms the importance of intestinal parasitic infections in symptomatic Cambodian children and the need for adequate facilities for laboratory diagnosis together with education to improve personal hygiene and sanitation.

  12. Factors associated with acute respiratory illness in day care children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatakka, Katja; Piirainen, Laura; Pohjavuori, Sara; Poussa, Tuija; Savilahti, Erkki; Korpela, Riitta

    2010-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between child characteristics, parental and environmental factors and the occurrence of acute respiratory illness (ARI) and acute otitis media (AOM) among Finnish children attending day care centres (DCCs). The study was a cross-sectional questionnaire of 594 children aged 1-6 y from 18 DCCs in Helsinki, Finland. Recurrent (> or =4 diseases/y) ARI was present in 44% of the 1-3-y-olds and 23% of the 4-6-y-olds, and recurrent AOM in 15% and 2.5%, respectively. Parent atopic disease (odds ratio (OR) 1.53, p = 0.033), mother's academic education (OR 1.77, p = 0.008) and a medium length of DCC attendance compared to a short period (OR 1.67, p = 0.049) increased, while furry pets (OR 0.44, p = 0.003) and older child age (OR 0.38, p or =6 months (OR 0.20, p = 0.002) and older child age (OR 0.05, p < 0.001) reduced the risk of recurrent AOM. Parental and environmental factors had a significant impact on recurrent ARI and AOM episodes in children attending DCCs. These risk factors should be considered in future studies intending to reduce DCC infections.

  13. The Prevalence and the Determinants of Musculoskeletal Diseases in Emiratis Attending Primary Health Care Clinics in Dubai

    OpenAIRE

    Jamal Al Saleh; Manal EL Sayed; Nahed Monsef; Ebtihal Darwish

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of rheumatic diseases in the Emiratis attending primary health care (PHC) clinics in Dubai. The secondary objective was to study the relationship between age, gender, and body mass index (BMI) and rheumatic diseases in the general population.  Methods: The Prevalence of Rheumatic Diseases and Osteoporosis (PRO) in Dubai study was a cross-sectional study, which randomly enrolled Emiratis’ aged between 18–85 years old who attended one of 13 PHC clinics...

  14. Seroprevalence of syphilis in patients attending a tertiary care hospital in Southern India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sadia Khan; GodfredAntony Menezes; Rahul Dhodapkar; Belgode Narasimha Harish

    2014-01-01

    To report our experience with two tests, anti-cardiolipin antibody test [venereal disease reasearch laboratory (VDRL) test] and specific treponemal test (Treponema pallidum hemagglutination assay), used for screening antenatal, high risk cases and cases from sexually transmitted infection in a tertiary care hospital from January 2006 till December 2008. Methods: A total of 14639 samples received from various patient groups including antenatal cases, patients attending sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinic, blood donors and HIV positive patients were screened. Results: Among the 14639 samples collected, 103 were positive by VDRL test. Of these 89 cases were confirmed by quantitative VDRL test and Treponema pallidum hemagglutination assay. The cumulative seroprevalence over two years was found to be 0.61% in this study. The syphilis seroprevalence reduced from 0.88% in 2006 to 0.40% in 2008. Among the various sub-populations studied, patients attending the sexually transmitted infection clinic showed a seroprevalence of 2.62%. The seroprevalence decreased significantly from 4.00% in 2006 to 1.39% in 2008. Conclusions: Our study showed a statistically significant declining rate of syphilis in STD clinics as well as the overall seroprevalence. These findings could be interpreted as indicators of improved programmes for prevention and management of STDs.

  15. Seroprevalence of syphilis in patients attending a tertiary care hospital in Southern India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sadia; Khan; Godfred; Antony; Menezes; Rahul; Dhodapkar; Belgode; Narasimha; Harish

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To report our experience with two tests,anti-cardiolipin antibody test[venereal disease reasearch laboratory(VDRL) test]and specific treponemal test(Treponema pallidum hemagglutination assay),used for screening antenatal,high risk cases and cases from sexually transmitted infection in a tertiary care hospital from January 2006 till December 2008.Methods:A total of 14639 samples received from various patient groups including antenatal cases,patients attending sexually transmitted disease(STD) clinic,blood donors and HIV positive patients were screened.Results:Among the 14639 samples collected,103 were positive by VDRL test.Of these 89 cases were confirmed by quantitative VDRL test and Treponema pallidum hemagglutination assay.The cumulative seroprevalence over two years was found to be 0.61%in this study.The syphilis seroprevalence reduced from 0.88%in 2006 to 0.40%in 2008.Among the various sub-populations studied,patients attending the sexually transmitted infection clinic showed a seroprevalence of 2.62%.The seroprevalence decreased significantly from 4.00%in 2006 to1.39%in 2008.Conclusions:Our study showed a statistically significant declining rate of syphilis in STD clinics as well as the overall seroprevalence.These findings could be interpreted as indicators of improved programmes for prevention and management of STDs.

  16. Does child care availability play a role in maternal employment and children's development? Evidence from Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Brilli, Ylenia; Del Boca, Daniela; Pronzato, Chiara D.

    2013-01-01

    This version: 19 September 2013. This paper investigates the effects of public child care availability in Italy in mothers' working status and children's scholastic achievements. We use a newly available dataset containing individual standardized test scores of pupils attending the second grade of primary school in 2009-10 in conjunction with data on public child care availability. Our estimates indicate a positive and significant effects of child care availability on both mothers' working...

  17. Medical Management and Trauma-Informed Care for Children in Foster Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, Samantha; Fortin, Kristine; Forkey, Heather

    2015-10-01

    Children enter foster care with a myriad of exposures and experiences, which can threaten their physical and mental health and development. Expanding evidence and evolving guidelines have helped to shape the care of these children over the past two decades. These guidelines address initial health screening, comprehensive medical evaluations, and follow-up care. Information exchange, attention to exposures, and consideration of how the adversities, which lead to foster placement, can impact health is crucial. These children should be examined with a trauma lens, so that the child, caregiver, and community supports can be assisted to view their physical and behavioral health from the perspective of what we now understand about the impact of toxic stress. Health care providers can impact the health of foster children by screening for the negative health consequences of trauma, advocating for trauma-informed services, and providing trauma-informed anticipatory guidance to foster parents. By taking an organized and comprehensive approach, the health care provider can best attend to the needs of this vulnerable population.

  18. Medical Management and Trauma-Informed Care for Children in Foster Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, Samantha; Fortin, Kristine; Forkey, Heather

    2015-10-01

    Children enter foster care with a myriad of exposures and experiences, which can threaten their physical and mental health and development. Expanding evidence and evolving guidelines have helped to shape the care of these children over the past two decades. These guidelines address initial health screening, comprehensive medical evaluations, and follow-up care. Information exchange, attention to exposures, and consideration of how the adversities, which lead to foster placement, can impact health is crucial. These children should be examined with a trauma lens, so that the child, caregiver, and community supports can be assisted to view their physical and behavioral health from the perspective of what we now understand about the impact of toxic stress. Health care providers can impact the health of foster children by screening for the negative health consequences of trauma, advocating for trauma-informed services, and providing trauma-informed anticipatory guidance to foster parents. By taking an organized and comprehensive approach, the health care provider can best attend to the needs of this vulnerable population. PMID:26381646

  19. Gerontologic domiciliary attendance: contributions for the elderly health care in the community - doi:10.5020/18061230.2008.p61

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iracema Radael de Souza

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To present the contributions of the Domiciliary Attendance (DA for elderly care in the community. Data Synthesis: Following the proposals of Gerontology, the contributions of this type of attendance for elderly care were reached for as a directive question, and therein, delimiting the guiding principles of DA: the humanization, the interdisciplinarity and caregiver support, as fundamental for the continuity and success of this modality. The data search consisted of a research of primary data published in the periods of: 1988, 1994 and 1996-2007. Pointing out that the theme is in accordance to Health Politics proclaimed nowadays in Brazil; DA appears as a new attendance strategy contributing for the reorientation of the assistance models for the aged and, at the same time, humanizing elderly care. Conclusion: It was observed from the obtained data that domiciliary attendance significantly contributes for elderly care in the community, representing an advantageous strategy. One can say that such advantage occurs from the possibility of besides humanizing the attendance, also reducing the costs of the attention by means of precocious discharge, showing that DA with Gerontologic focusing is differenced, providing a more adequate treatment for the patient, his/her caregiver and the family.

  20. Estado nutricional de crianças assistidas em creches e situação de (insegurança alimentar de suas famílias Nutritional status of children attended in day-care-centers and food (insecurity of their families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maercio Mota de Souza

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Examinar fatores associados a excesso de peso, déficit de estatura e déficit de peso em crianças assistidas em creches estaduais de João Pessoa e descrever a situação de (insegurança alimentar das suas famílias. Trata-se de um estudo transversal com amostra de 250 crianças. Foram estudadas variáveis socioeconômicas, maternas e das crianças. O estado nutricional das crianças foi avaliado considerando os índices estatura-para-idade e peso-para-estatura. A segurança alimentar familiar foi avaliada com a utilização da Escala Brasileira de Insegurança Alimentar. As proporções de déficit de estatura, déficit de peso e excesso de peso foram 7,6%, 1,6% e 6,4%, respectivamente. Os fatores associados à baixa estatura foram baixa estatura materna e esquema vacinal incompleto. Com relação ao baixo peso, o fator associado foi idade materna inferior a 20 anos. O excesso de peso infantil apresentou associação com o excesso de peso materno e baixa estatura materna. Em 59,6% das famílias, observou-se situação de insegurança alimentar e nutricional, sendo mais frequente a forma leve (32,4%. Excesso de peso e déficit de estatura foram os distúrbios nutricionais mais frequentes neste estudo, constituindo prioridades que devem ser consideradas nas políticas públicas atuais.The scope of this study was to examine associated factors with overweight, stunting and underweight in children attending state day care centers of João Pessoa, as well as to describe the situation of food (insecurity of their families. A cross-sectional study was conducted with a sample of 250 children. Socioeconomic, maternal and child variables were studied. The nutritional status of children was evaluated considering the height-for-age and weight-for-height indices. Household food security was assessed using the Brazilian Scale of Food Insecurity. The proportions of stunting, underweight and overweight were 7.6%, 1.6% and 6.4% respectively. The associated

  1. Asthma care for children and adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Jonsson, Marina

    2015-01-01

    Background: Asthma is one of the most common chronic diseases among young children and adolescents. With high quality health care, most children and adolescents with asthma can live an active and normal life. Yet, many children and adolescents have uncontrolled asthma, with symptoms and exacerbations which may affect their daily life. Adolescence is a sensitive period and asthma may be difficult to treat due to poor adherence to treatment. Little is known about health care professionals’ adhe...

  2. Risk Factors for Functional Constipation in Young Children Attending Daycare Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Minkyu; Bang, Yun Gyu; Cho, Ky Young

    2016-08-01

    Our objective was to determine the risk factors associated with the development of functional constipation (FC) in young children attending daycare centers. A cross-sectional survey using a questionnaire based on the Rome III criteria was conducted in children aged 25 to 84 months from 3 randomly selected daycare centers in January 2016. The items in a questionnaire were statistically compared in the constipated and non-constipated groups. A total of 212 children were included and FC was found in 8.5%. Multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that maternal history of constipation (odds ratio [OR] = 4.1, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] 1.2-13.9), history of painful defecation before age 1 (OR = 10.4, 95% CI 1.1-101.3), history of painful defecation during toilet training (OR = 28.9, 95% CI 1.9-423.8), no or difficult defecation at a daycare center (OR = 5,804.6, 95% CI 134.4-250,718.4), no meat consumption (OR = 10.1, 95% CI 1.2-88.1), and 500 mL or less of water intake per day (OR = 9.9, 95% CI 0.9-99.5) were powerful predictors of FC in young children (P < 0.05). Additionally, the constipated group was significantly associated with 2 hours or less of outdoor play activities per day, entry into daycare centers before 24 months age, 6 hours or more of attendance at a daycare center per day, breastfeeding for less than 6 months, 3 meals or less per day, and 3 or fewer servings of fruits and vegetables per day (P < 0.05). The findings of this study can guide parents, daycare teachers, and clinicians in prevention, early recognition and early intervention for the risk factors associated with FC in young children. PMID:27478337

  3. Traumatised permanent teeth in 11-16-year-old Saudi Arabian children with a sensory impairment attending special schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlSarheed, M; Bedi, R; Hunt, N P

    2003-06-01

    - The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of traumatised permanent teeth among sensory (visual (VI) and hearing (HI)) impaired children attending special schools in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. All the dental injuries involved incisor teeth, and trauma was noted in 33 (6.7%) children attending government schools (control group) compared to 7 (9%) VI children and 24 (11.4%) HI children. Differences in the dental trauma only reached statistical significance between the HI and control group (P impaired children do have a tendency for more dental trauma. However, this was only statistically significant for HI children. Whereas a gender difference was most noticeable for the HI group, with males having higher levels of trauma, this was noticeable by its absence among VI children. PMID:12752532

  4. Nursing habits and early childhood caries in children attending Hospital University Science Malaysia (HUSM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widowati Witjaksono

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The habit of nocturnal bottle or breast-feeding has been reported to be a potential cause for early childhood caries (ECC in very young children. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of ECC in children 2-5 years of age attending out patient clinic HUSM, in relation to the nursing habits. In this cross-sectional study, 90 children were randomly selected to examine their caries status using torch and disposable mirror. Data on mothers’ educational level, nursing habits and oral hygiene practices, were gather by using structured questionnaire. It has been found that 16.7% of subjects were caries free while 83.3% of them had caries with mean dmf score 6 (SD 5.3. With regard to nursing habits, 29% of subjects had breast-feeding alone, 16% had bottle-feeding alone and 55% had both breast and bottle-feeding. Ninety-three percent of children had been nursed beyond 14 months and 47% had been fed with liquids other than breast milk, infant formula or water. Twenty-seven percent of children were allowed to sleep with nursing bottle in mouth and 52% were allowed to sleep with breast nipple in the mouth which shows significantly associated with ECC (p = 0.03. Tooth brushing habit was reported for 91% of children using toothpaste. Mean age of the children (in months when the mothers started brushing the teeth was 19.1 (SD 10.8 and has significant association with ECC (p < 0.05. This study demonstrates that the habit of allowing infants to sleep with breast nipple in their mouth and the late start of tooth brushing are associated with prevalence of ECC. Educational programs for pregnant women and mothers of young children should be emphasized to enhance the knowledge and awareness of mothers in preventing ECC.

  5. Caring teaching practices in multiethnic mathematics classrooms: attending to health and well-being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averill, Robin

    2012-06-01

    Factors that contribute to strong teacher-student relationships are vital to understand because of the influence these relationships have on achievement and motivation, particularly for minority group students. This article draws from a substantial quantity of empirical data, grounded in a wide theoretical and cultural base, regarding aspects of caring teacher practice to discuss mathematics teacher behaviours in relation to an existing model of health and well-being that encompasses cognitive, social, spiritual, and physical dimensions. Drawing from 100 Year 10 mathematics lesson observations involving six teachers and their classes across three urban schools, evidence emerged that for many indigenous (Māori), New Zealand Pacific, and New Zealand European students, caring teacher behaviours important for student engagement and achievement both include, and range beyond, traditional teaching practices. Examples include capitalising on student reactions and shared endeavours within the context of mathematics learning, expecting mathematical progress, showing respect for students and for their mathematics learning, being explicit about practice and expectations, incorporating one-to-one interactions, making opportunities within mathematics learning for sharing personal identities, and incorporating movement. This research illustrates how mathematics educators can attend to the specific and holistic mathematical learning needs of their students, including those often marginalised.

  6. Communities, birth attendants and health facilities: a continuum of emergency maternal and newborn care (the global network's EmONC trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liechty Edward A

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal and newborn mortality rates remain unacceptably high, especially where the majority of births occur in home settings or in facilities with inadequate resources. The introduction of emergency obstetric and newborn care services has been proposed by several organizations in order to improve pregnancy outcomes. However, the effectiveness of emergency obstetric and neonatal care services has never been proven. Also unproven is the effectiveness of community mobilization and community birth attendant training to improve pregnancy outcomes. Methods/Design We have developed a cluster-randomized controlled trial to evaluate the impact of a comprehensive intervention of community mobilization, birth attendant training and improvement of quality of care in health facilities on perinatal mortality in low and middle-income countries where the majority of births take place in homes or first level care facilities. This trial will take place in 106 clusters (300-500 deliveries per year each across 7 sites of the Global Network for Women's and Children's Health Research in Argentina, Guatemala, India, Kenya, Pakistan and Zambia. The trial intervention has three key elements, community mobilization, home-based life saving skills for communities and birth attendants, and training of providers at obstetric facilities to improve quality of care. The primary outcome of the trial is perinatal mortality. Secondary outcomes include rates of stillbirth, 7-day neonatal mortality, maternal death or severe morbidity (including obstetric fistula, eclampsia and obstetrical sepsis and 28-day neonatal mortality. Discussion In this trial, we are evaluating a combination of interventions including community mobilization and facility training in an attempt to improve pregnancy outcomes. If successful, the results of this trial will provide important information for policy makers and clinicians as they attempt to improve delivery services for pregnant

  7. Evaluating gingival health of children who attended the Preventive Program for pregnant women and babies in the city of Teresina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina de Deus Moura de Lima

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the gingival health of children who attended the Preventive Program for pregnant women and babies and correlate theresults obtained with the assiduousness of attending the consultations offered by the program, oral hygiene habits, mother’s educational level, family income, child’s age and the number of carious surfaces. Methods: Three hundred and forty-one patients were selected, and divided into two groups for comparative purposes. Group 1 (experimental was composed of 262 children of both sexes, between the ages of three and six, who attended the Preventive Program for pregnant women and babies; Group 2 (control consisted of 79 children in the same age group, who did not attend the Preventive Program for pregnant women and babies, but who were attended at the Social Perinatological Institute of Piaui by other health professionals. The exams were performed in dental offices to determine the Gingival Bleeding Index. Results: It was noted that 74.8% of the children from experimental group and 82.3% of control group presented gingival bleeding in one of the sites assessed. Lower Gingival Bleeding Index values were related to the higher educational level of the mothers, supervision or brushing by adults and increase in the number of daily brushings. The Chi-square test showed that the variables are dependent (p<0.001, that is, Gingival Bleeding Index is subject to the number of consultations attended at the Preventive Program for pregnant women and babies. Spearman’s Coefficient (= -0.292 proved that the higher the number of consultations attended at the program, the lower was the Gingival Bleeding Index (p<0.001. Conclusion: The children who presented the lowest gingival bleeding indexes were those who most assiduously attended the preventive maintenanceconsultations of the Preventive Program for pregnant women and babies.

  8. Shared responsibility for children in care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwartz, Ida

    2014-01-01

    The responsibility of children in care is shared by a number of professionals placed in different contexts. Parents are responsible for the “big issues” in these children’s lives, while many professionals are involved in the children´s everyday life across home, residential home, schools...... they live. Children in care are among the most disadvantaged groups in our society and currently there is much concern for how these children can achieve the same “life chances” as other kids. Studies have revealed that children in care as adults do not achieve the same educational and social possibilities...... as other kids. These differences are often explained by pointing at individual or family inheritance. This paper takes the perspective that social exclusion is multi-dimensional, and the cross-professional structuring of children´s everyday life plays an important role. Processes of social exclusion...

  9. How Insecurity impacts on school attendance and school drop out among urban slum children in Nairobi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chimaraoke Izugbara

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses how perceptions of personal security can impact on school enrolment and attendance. It mainly focuses on threats of physical harm, crime, and community and domestic violence. These security fears can include insecurity that children suffer from as they go to school, maybe through the use of unsafe routes; insecurity that children feel at school; and the insecurity they suffer from in their homes. Although poverty can be a source and/or an indicator of insecurity, this paper does not focus solely on poverty as it is well covered elsewhere in the literature. The paper relies on qualitative data col- lected in Korogocho and Viwandani slum areas in Nairobi, Kenya between October and November 2004. The paper analyses data from individual interviews and focus group interviews and focuses on the narrative of slum dwellers on how insecurity impacts on educational attainment. The conclusion in this paper is that insecure neighbourhoods may have a negative impact on schooling. As a result policies that address insecurity in slum neighbourhoods can also improve school attendance and performance.

  10. The impact of a pre-hospital medical response unit on patient care and emergency department attendances.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Deasy, C

    2012-02-03

    A rapid response team was instigated in Cork to improve prehospital care and reduce unnecessary Emergency Department (ED) visits. This consisted of a Specialist Registrar (SpR) in Emergency Medicine and a Paramedic who attended all "999" calls in a designated rapid response vehicle on the allotted study days. Two hundred and sixty-three patients were seen on designated days between Jan 2004 and March 2006. Presentations seen included; road traffic accident (23%) collapse (12%), fall (10%) and seizure (8%). The majority of calls were to houses (36%). The most common medical intervention was intravenous cannulation (25%). Intravenous medications were administered in 21% of these patients--morphine sulphate was the most common drug given. It was possible to safely discharge 31% of patients on scene. In our experience skilled Emergency Medicine doctors attending at scene could provide advanced care and reduce ambulance transportation and patient attendance.

  11. Health care for children: a community perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, D

    2001-04-01

    There are two puzzles about health care for children that need explanation. Why is it the sentimentality Americans express about children has not been backed by solid health care programs? If children are to have good health care, how can a case for their high priority be made, particularly in light of the fact that their health is the best of all age groups in the country? The first question is explored, but the second question is the focus of this paper. A priority system for health care is proposed, and at the same time an argument is presented for why children should have a high priority despite their generally good health. PMID:11376424

  12. Anthropometric Profile of Children Attending Anganwadi Centers under Integrated Child Development Sevices (ICDS Scheme in Doiwala Block

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gagan Deep Kaur

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction In any community, Mothers and Children constitutes not only priority group, but they are also a “Vulnerable” or “Special-risk Group”. Similarly in India our biggest problem is malnutrition among under five year old children. To break the vicious cycle of malnutrition, morbidity reduced learning capacity and mortality India launched the Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS Scheme in 1975. It is the foremost symbol of India’s commitment to her children Rationale: Forty percent of the world's severely under-nourished under-five children live in India so the present study was conducted to assess the nutritional status of children availing the services under Integrated Child Development Service Scheme in Uttarakhand. Objective: To estimate the level of nutrition in children attending Anganwadi centers of Doiwala block. Methods: Out of these Seven ICDS project areas, Doiwala Block was chosen for the study purpose since it is also the field practice area of Department of Community Medicine, HIMS. 19 AWC was selected by using Simple Random Sampling technique in Doiwala block. All the children aged between 3- 6years attending Anganwadi centers were included in community based, cross sectional study. Predesigned pretested anthropometric survey tool with local adaptability and minor modification for local suitability was adopted to collect information pertaining to growth monitoring of the children [Adopted from WHO child growth standard 2006]. Children were weighed, and their height and MUAC were recorded. Weight for age, height for age and MUAC for age was calculated using WHO growth references .Nutritional status according to the WHO Child Growth Standards was analysed using WHO Anthro statistical software. Results: 200 children were surveyed. From the total population 110 are males and 90 are females. After the analysis of weight for age with anthro software it was found that 20.9% of children lie within -2 SD with a mean

  13. A Randomized Evaluation of Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care: Effects on School Attendance and Homework Completion in Juvenile Justice Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leve, Leslie D; Chamberlain, Patricia

    2007-11-01

    Despite growing evidence that child welfare youth are at increased risk for juvenile delinquency, little is known about gender-specific processes and effective treatment programs for girls. Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care (MTFC), an empirically validated intervention for child welfare and juvenile justice populations, has demonstrated efficacy in reducing arrest rates in delinquent boys and girls. In this study, the efficacy of MTFC on school attendance and homework completion was examined in juvenile justice girls who were referred to out-of-home care (N = 81). Results from this randomized intervention trial suggest that MTFC was more effective than group care in increasing girls' school attendance and homework completion while in treatment and at 12 months postbaseline. In addition, the previously reported effect of MTFC on reducing girls' days in locked settings was mediated by homework completion while girls were enrolled in the intervention setting. Implications for policy and practice are described.

  14. Prereading Deficits in Children in Foster Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pears, Katherine C.; Heywood, Cynthia V.; Kim, Hyoun K.; Fisher, Philip A.

    2011-01-01

    Reading skills are core competencies in children's readiness to learn and may be particularly important for children in foster care, who are at risk for academic difficulties and higher rates of special education placement. In this study, prereading skills (phonological awareness, alphabetic knowledge, and oral language ability) and kindergarten…

  15. Child care and our youngest children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, D; Adams, G

    2001-01-01

    Studies of child development confirm that experiences with people mold an infant's mind and personality. Caregiving is, therefore, central to development, whether the caregiver is a parent, a grandmother, or a teacher in a child care center. This article uses data from new, national studies of families to examine the state of child care for infants and toddlers. The story it tells is complex, as the authors outline the overlapping impacts that diverse child care settings and home situations have on children. Early exposure to child care can foster children's learning and enhance their lives, or it can leave them at risk for troubled relationships. The outcome that results depends largely on the quality of the child care setting. Responsive caregivers who surround children with language, warmth, and chances to learn are the key to good outcomes. Other quality attributes (like training and staff-to-child ratios) matter because they foster positive caregiving. Diversity and variability are hallmarks of the American child care supply. Both "wonderful and woeful" care can be found in all types of child care but, overall, settings where quality is compromised are distressingly common. Children whose families are not buoyed by good incomes or government supports are the group most often exposed to poor-quality care. Given this balanced but troubling look at the status of child care for infants and toddlers, the authors conclude that there is a mismatch between the rhetoric of parental choice and the realities facing parents of young children in the United States. They call on communities, businesses, foundations, and government to play a larger role in helping parents secure good care for their infants and toddlers. PMID:11712454

  16. Coordinating Care for Children with Special Health Care Needs

    OpenAIRE

    Stephanie Peterson; Shanna Shulman; Henry Ireys

    2007-01-01

    This brief, the fourth in a series on critical issues involved in caring for children with special health care needs, notes that nearly three-quarters of parents who need professional care coordination services for their child say they do not get enough help—if they get any at all. Moreover, one-third of those who do get help are not fully satisfied with the quality of services they receive. Although many health plans coordinate care for their adult members with chronic conditions and disab...

  17. Children and the Feminist Ethic of Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockburn, Tom

    2005-01-01

    This article looks at the recent contributions made by feminists who advocate a distinctive 'ethic of care' to replace the conventional 'ethic of rights'. The article explores ways in which the ethic of care could be utilized and applied to the children's rights context. After looking at the important feminist criticisms of conventional…

  18. Febrile Children in Primary Care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Elshout (Gijs)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstractFever in children is a common symptom. Frequently,the underlying illness is self-limiting and medical intervention is seldom needed. However, general practitioners need to be alert on those children who are at risk for serious infections. In this thesis, we studied the natural course

  19. Day Care for America's Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaCrosse, E. Robert

    High quality day care is a pressing social need for the 1970's. Factors responsible for the strong interest in day care include pressures for welfare reform, the growing number of women in the labor force, minority pressures for equal opportunities, and research findings stressing the importance of development during the early years of a child's…

  20. Care for children is changing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Nick

    2016-03-01

    TRANSFORMING CARE has become a buzz phrase in the health service. Since NHS England's Five-Year Forward View was published in autumn 2014 a great deal of interest has been expressed in changing services to improve care and save money. PMID:26954632

  1. Oral self-care practices, dental attendance and self-perceived oral health status among internal medicine residents in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Omozehio Iwuala

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oral health is important for well-being and chronic disease prevention. Physician′s confidence and willingness to counsel patients on lifestyle practices is related to their personal behavior. Limited data exists regarding oral self-care practices among physicians in developing countries, as the majority seeks oral health advice and care from doctors rather than dentists. Aim: To determine the oral self-care practices, dental attendance, and self-perceived oral health status of internal medicine residents in Nigeria. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among internal medicine resident doctors attending an update course using a self-administered structured questionnaire, which included oral care practices. Data were analyzed with SPSS version 21.0, P male, P = 0.002. A higher proportion of junior compared to senior residents strongly agreed/agreed and strongly disagreed/disagreed that their oral health status was excellent (P = 0.026. Conclusion: The oral self-care practices of these doctors involved in managing patients with medical conditions linked to oral health is inadequate. There is a need for better education on oral self-care among physicians.

  2. Incidence of Medically Attended Respiratory Syncytial Virus and Influenza Illnesses in Children 6-59 Months Old During Four Seasons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Melissa D; Kieke, Burney A; Sundaram, Maria E; McClure, David L; Meece, Jennifer K; Sifakis, Frangiscos; Gasser, Robert A; Belongia, Edward A

    2016-04-01

    Background.  Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and influenza are significant causes of seasonal respiratory illness in children. The incidence of influenza and RSV hospitalization is well documented, but the incidence of medically attended, laboratory-confirmed illness has not been assessed in a well defined community cohort. Methods.  Children aged 6-59 months with medically attended acute respiratory illness were prospectively enrolled during the 2006-2007 through 2009-2010 influenza seasons in a Wisconsin community cohort. Nasal swabs were tested for RSV and influenza by multiplex reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. The population incidence of medically attended RSV and influenza was estimated separately and standardized to weeks 40 through 18 of each season. Results.  The cohort included 2800-3073 children each season. There were 2384 children enrolled with acute respiratory illness; 627 (26%) were positive for RSV and 314 (13%) for influenza. The mean age was 28 months (standard deviation [SD] = 15) for RSV-positive and 38 months (SD = 16) for influenza-positive children. Seasonal incidence (cases per 10 000) was 1718 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1602-1843) for RSV and 768 (95% CI, 696-848) for influenza. Respiratory syncytial virus incidence was highest among children 6-11 (2927) and 12-23 months old (2377). Influenza incidence was highest (850) in children 24-59 months old. The incidence of RSV was higher than influenza across all seasons and age groups. Conclusions.  The incidence of medically attended RSV was highest in children 6-23 months old, and it was consistently higher than influenza. The burden of RSV remains high throughout the first 2 years of life. PMID:27419158

  3. Probiotics and vitamin C for the prevention of respiratory tract infections in children attending preschool: a randomised controlled pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Garaiova, I.; Muchová, J; Nagyová, Z; Wang, D; Li, J. V.; Országhová, Z; Michael, D R; Plummer, S F; Ďuračková, Z

    2014-01-01

    Background: This pilot study investigates the efficacy of a probiotic consortium (Lab4) in combination with vitamin C on the prevention of respiratory tract infections in children attending preschool facilities. Subjects/methods: In a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled pilot study with children aged 3–6 years, 57 received 1.25 × 1010 colony-forming units of Lactobacillus acidophilus CUL21 (NCIMB 30156), Lactobacillus acidophilus CUL60 (NCIMB 30157), Bifidobacterium bifidum CUL20 (NC...

  4. Incidence of Medically Attended Respiratory Syncytial Virus and Influenza Illnesses in Children 6–59 Months Old During Four Seasons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Melissa D.; Kieke, Burney A.; Sundaram, Maria E.; McClure, David L.; Meece, Jennifer K.; Sifakis, Frangiscos; Gasser, Robert A.; Belongia, Edward A.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and influenza are significant causes of seasonal respiratory illness in children. The incidence of influenza and RSV hospitalization is well documented, but the incidence of medically attended, laboratory-confirmed illness has not been assessed in a well defined community cohort. Methods. Children aged 6–59 months with medically attended acute respiratory illness were prospectively enrolled during the 2006–2007 through 2009–2010 influenza seasons in a Wisconsin community cohort. Nasal swabs were tested for RSV and influenza by multiplex reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. The population incidence of medically attended RSV and influenza was estimated separately and standardized to weeks 40 through 18 of each season. Results. The cohort included 2800–3073 children each season. There were 2384 children enrolled with acute respiratory illness; 627 (26%) were positive for RSV and 314 (13%) for influenza. The mean age was 28 months (standard deviation [SD] = 15) for RSV-positive and 38 months (SD = 16) for influenza-positive children. Seasonal incidence (cases per 10 000) was 1718 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1602–1843) for RSV and 768 (95% CI, 696–848) for influenza. Respiratory syncytial virus incidence was highest among children 6–11 (2927) and 12–23 months old (2377). Influenza incidence was highest (850) in children 24–59 months old. The incidence of RSV was higher than influenza across all seasons and age groups. Conclusions. The incidence of medically attended RSV was highest in children 6–23 months old, and it was consistently higher than influenza. The burden of RSV remains high throughout the first 2 years of life. PMID:27419158

  5. Sensitization to common food and inhalant allergens in children attending Allergy and Asthma Pediatric Clinic in Doha, Qatar

    OpenAIRE

    Kerkadi, Abdelhamid; Al-Thani, Asma; Al-Boainain, Amina; al Janahi, Ibrahim; Singh, Rajiv

    2009-01-01

    The prevalence of allergic diseases such as asthma, allergic rhinitis and atopic dermatitis have risen at an alarming rate throughout the world in the past 50 years. Sensitization to food (FA) and inhalant allergens (IA) have been associated with an increase of allergic diseases. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of sensitization to FA and IA among children attending Allergy and Asthma Pediatric Clinic in Doha, Qatar. A total of 134 children with age between 1 mont...

  6. Is asthma in 2-12 year-old children associated with physician-attended recurrent upper respiratory tract infections?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hak, Eelko; Rovers, Maroeska M; Sachs, Alfred P E; Stalman, Wim A B; Verheij, Theo J M

    2003-01-01

    In a prevalence study, we evaluated whether recurrent physician-attended URTI episodes are more common in asthmatic children as compared to age- and gender-matched controls. URTI proneness, defined as > or = 5 episodes of rhinitis/pharyngitis, sinusitis, laryngitis/tracheitis or otitis media in a 24

  7. Changes in Socio-Emotional and Behavioral Functioning After Attending a Camp for Children with Tourette Syndrome: A Preliminary Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Cyd K; LaMotte, Julia; Gutierrez-Colina, Ana M; Kardon, Patricia; Blount, Ronald L

    2016-08-01

    Children and adolescents with Tourette syndrome are at risk for social, emotional, and behavioral difficulties that may negatively influence feelings of self-competence and attitudes toward having this diagnosis. Attending a camp for children with Tourette syndrome may facilitate improvements in overall socio-emotional and behavioral functioning and self-perception. The current study obtained data from 37 campers (76 % male, 24 % female) and 47 caregivers of campers to investigate changes in children's emotional and behavioral functioning, self-perception (i.e., social and general), attitudes towards having Tourette syndrome, and how different they felt from peers after attending a 1-week summer camp for youth with Tourette syndrome using a pre-post design. Results indicated that campers endorsed a significantly improved sense of social self-competence and more favorable attitudes toward having Tourette syndrome post-camp. Campers also tended to endorse feeling less different than peers at camp versus peers in general. Caregivers endorsed significantly less severe symptoms associated with Tourette syndrome for campers after attending camp. No pre-to-post-camp changes were observed for campers' levels of anxiety or obsessive-compulsive symptoms. These preliminary findings suggest that attending camp or having other opportunities to interact with similar peers may promote better perceptions of social self-competence, more favorable attitudes toward having Tourette syndrome, and a stronger sense of affiliation with peers for children with Tourette syndrome. PMID:26589437

  8. Increasing the use of skilled health personnel where traditional birth attendants were providers of childbirth care: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Claudia Vieira; Anayda Portela; Tina Miller; Ernestina Coast; Tiziana Leone; Cicely Marston

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Improved access to skilled health personnel for childbirth is a priority strategy to improve maternal health. This study investigates interventions to achieve this where traditional birth attendants were providers of childbirth care and asks what has been done and what has worked? METHODS AND FINDINGS: We systematically reviewed published and unpublished literature, searching 26 databases and contacting experts to find relevant studies. We included references from all time p...

  9. Factors affecting attendance at and timing of formal antenatal care: results from a qualitative study in Madang, Papua New Guinea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin V W Andrew

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Appropriate antenatal care (ANC is key for the health of mother and child. However, in Papua New Guinea (PNG, only a third of women receive any ANC during pregnancy. Drawing on qualitative research, this paper explores the influences on ANC attendance and timing of first visit in the Madang region of Papua New Guinea. METHODS: Data were collected in three sites utilizing several qualitative methods: free-listing and sorting of terms and definitions, focus group discussions, in-depth interviews, observation in health care facilities and case studies of pregnant women. Respondents included pregnant women, their relatives, biomedical and traditional health providers, opinion leaders and community members. RESULTS: Although generally reported to be important, respondents' understanding of the procedures involved in ANC was limited. Factors influencing attendance fell into three main categories: accessibility, attitudes to ANC, and interpersonal issues. Although women saw accessibility (distance and cost as a barrier, those who lived close to health facilities and could easily afford ANC also demonstrated poor attendance. Attitudes were shaped by previous experiences of ANC, such as waiting times, quality of care, and perceptions of preventative care and medical interventions during pregnancy. Interpersonal factors included relationships with healthcare providers, pregnancy disclosure, and family conflict. A desire to avoid repeat clinic visits, ideas about the strength of the fetus and parity were particularly relevant to the timing of first ANC visit. CONCLUSIONS: This long-term in-depth study (the first of its kind in Madang, PNG shows how socio-cultural and economic factors influence ANC attendance. These factors must be addressed to encourage timely ANC visits: interventions could focus on ANC delivery in health facilities, for example, by addressing healthcare staff's attitudes towards pregnant women.

  10. Prevalence of syphilis infection in Mozambican women with second trimester miscarriage and women attending antenatal care in second trimester.

    OpenAIRE

    Lindstrand, A; Bergström, S; Bugalho, A.; Zanconato, G; Helgesson, A M; Hederstedt, B.

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To elucidate whether recent syphilis infection is significantly more prevalent among women with mid-trimester miscarriage than among antenatal care attenders in midtrimester pregnancy. DESIGN--Two categories of pregnant women were compared regarding serological signs of syphilis. Rapid Plasma Reagin (RPR) analyses were done in Mozambique and Veneral Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL) tests in Sweden. In case of RPR and/or VDRL positivity, Treponema pallidum haemagglutination (TPHA...

  11. Health care utilization and symptom severity in Ghanaian children--a cross-sectional study.

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    Ralf Krumkamp

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify factors influencing health care utilization behavior for children with mild or severe disease symptoms in rural Ghana. Between March and September 2008 a cross-sectional health care utilization survey was conducted and 8,715 caregivers were interviewed regarding their intended behavior in case their children had mild or severe fever or diarrhea. To show associations between hospital attendance and further independent factors (e.g. travel distance or socio-economic status prevalence ratios were calculated for the four disease symptoms. A Poisson regression model was used to control for potential confounding. Frequency of hospital attendance decreased constantly with increasing distance to the health facility. Being enrolled in the national health insurance scheme increased the intention to attend a hospital. The effect of the other factors diminished in the Poisson regression if modeled together with travel distance. The observed associations weakened with increasing severity of symptoms, which indicates that barriers to visit a hospital are less important if children experience a more serious illness. As shown in other studies, travel distance to a health care provider had the strongest effect on health care utilization. Studies to identify local barriers to access health care services are important to inform health policy making as they identify deprived populations with low access to health services and to early treatment.

  12. Systematic review and validation of prediction rules for identifying children with serious infections in emergency departments and urgent-access primary care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thompson, M.; Van den Bruel, A.; Verbakel, J.; Lakhanpaul, M.; Haj-Hassan, T.; Stevens, R.; Moll, HA; Buntinx, F.; Berger, M.; Aertgeerts, B.; Oostenbrink, R.; Mant, D.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Although the vast majority of children with acute infections are managed at home, this is one of the most common problems encountered in children attending emergency departments (EDs) and primary care. Distinguishing children with serious infection from those with minor or self-limiting

  13. PREVALENCE OF INTESTINAL PARASITIC INFECTIONS IN PATIENTS ATTENDING A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL IN EASTERN BIHAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randhir

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Parasitic protozoa and helminths are responsible for some devastating and prevalent diseases of humans. Intestinal parasitic infections are a major health problem in India. While little study has been carried out regarding the problem in India, almost no study on the burden of intestinal infections has been done in Bihar. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to estimate the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections (IPI in the patients attending outdoor patient department in Katihar Medical College & Hospital. Fecal samples were examined for intestinal parasites by direct microscopy, and by microscopy following modified acid fast staining in HIV infected patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This study was carried out from June 2011 to February 2013. The study population consisted of individuals of all age groups, belonging to both the sexes, including children, pregnant woman and elderly individuals. A total of 2780 samples were examined by saline and Lugol’s iodine preparation. The negative samples were examined by formol ether concentration technique. Modified acid fast staining of fecal samples in HIV infected patients was also done. RESULTS: The result showed that the prevalence of parasitic infection was 10.71%. Out of this ,86.6% were single infections, 12.8% were double infections and 0.67% showed triple infections. Ascaris lumbricoides (28.5% and Giardia lamblia (18.5% were the most common intesitinal helminthes and protozoans isolated. A single patient with HIV infection was co-infected with Cryptosporidium parvum. The infected cases were more in the age group between 1-10years, more commonly among the male population. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of the helminthic infections is more than the prevalence of protozoal infections in this geographic region. Clinical microbiologists must follow standard laboratory procedures when screening stool samples so as to improve the chances of finding the parasites. An integrated

  14. Empower Foster Parents toward Caring Relations with Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swick, Kevin James

    2007-01-01

    Foster parents face many challenges in caring for children in foster care. Perhaps the major challenge is to achieve a caring environment for children who have experienced trauma and much change. Thus, this article provides ideas and strategies for nurturing foster parents toward a caring relationship with their children.

  15. Children, urban care, and everyday pavements

    OpenAIRE

    Kim Kullman

    2014-01-01

    This paper takes a mundane piece of urban infrastructure, the pavement, as a starting point, approaching it through the experiences of 7–12-year-old children who journey between home and school in Helsinki, Finland. In doing so, the paper argues that the children and their travel companions are employing pavements to cultivate the caring potential of their city, whether this entails patting dogs, picking up empty bottles, or checking the safety of zebra crossings. Inspired by recent work on t...

  16. Parent attendance and homework adherence predict response to a family-school intervention for children with ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Angela T; Marshall, Stephen A; Mautone, Jennifer A; Soffer, Stephen L; Jones, Heather A; Costigan, Tracy E; Patterson, Anwar; Jawad, Abbas F; Power, Thomas J

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the relative contribution of two dimensions of parent engagement, attendance and homework adherence, to parent and child treatment response and explored whether early engagement was a stronger predictor of outcomes than later engagement. The sample consisted of parents of participants (n = 92; M age = 9.4 years, SD = 1.27; 67% male, 69% White) in a 12-session evidence-based family-school intervention for children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Attendance was assessed using clinician records, and homework adherence was measured by rating permanent products. Outcomes included parent and teacher ratings of family involvement in education, parenting practices, and child functioning. Accounting for the contributions of baseline scores and attendance, homework adherence was a significant predictor of parental self-efficacy, the parent-teacher relationship, parenting through positive involvement, and the child's inattention to homework and homework productivity. Accounting for the contribution of baseline scores and homework adherence, attendance was a significant predictor of one outcome, the child's academic productivity. Early homework adherence appeared to be more predictive of outcomes than later adherence, whereas attendance did not predict outcomes during either half of treatment. These results indicate that, even in the context of evidence-based practice, it is the extent to which parents actively engage with treatment, rather than the number of sessions they attend, that is most important in predicting intervention response. Because attendance is limited as an index of engagement and a predictor of outcomes, increased efforts to develop interventions to promote parent adherence to behavioral interventions for children are warranted. PMID:23688140

  17. Positive behavioral intervention in children who were wards of the court attending a mainstream school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Jose I; Aguilar, Manuel; Aguilar, Concepcion; Alcalde, Concepcion; Marchena, Esperanza

    2007-12-01

    This report looked at the effects of treatment using contingency contracts and token economy procedures in three children, two 14 yr. and one 8 yr., who were wards of the court and attending a mainstream school. Students presented problems of adaptation to school, such as making constant noises with the mouth, hands, or pencil on the desk; frequently emitted raucous cries in the classroom; destruction of school resource materials; verbal aggression to classmates and teachers; verbal rejection of all academic work, refusing to do it, making negative comments prior to starting any school activity, in addition to lack of motivation for undertaking school activities. A 4-mo. individual treatment using contingency contracts and token economy behavioral procedures was implemented, with several follow-up sessions. The results indicated an adaptation of behavior to the school environment, confirmed by teachers, significantly reducing the incidence of insults, the destruction of school materials, and indolence during class sessions. These students are at high risk for social exclusion. Interventions have potential social importance in possible prevention of adult criminality, increasing academic achievement, and decreasing social exclusion. PMID:18361121

  18. Positive behavioral intervention in children who were wards of the court attending a mainstream school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Jose I; Aguilar, Manuel; Aguilar, Concepcion; Alcalde, Concepcion; Marchena, Esperanza

    2007-12-01

    This report looked at the effects of treatment using contingency contracts and token economy procedures in three children, two 14 yr. and one 8 yr., who were wards of the court and attending a mainstream school. Students presented problems of adaptation to school, such as making constant noises with the mouth, hands, or pencil on the desk; frequently emitted raucous cries in the classroom; destruction of school resource materials; verbal aggression to classmates and teachers; verbal rejection of all academic work, refusing to do it, making negative comments prior to starting any school activity, in addition to lack of motivation for undertaking school activities. A 4-mo. individual treatment using contingency contracts and token economy behavioral procedures was implemented, with several follow-up sessions. The results indicated an adaptation of behavior to the school environment, confirmed by teachers, significantly reducing the incidence of insults, the destruction of school materials, and indolence during class sessions. These students are at high risk for social exclusion. Interventions have potential social importance in possible prevention of adult criminality, increasing academic achievement, and decreasing social exclusion.

  19. Resiliency in Children and Youth in Kinship Care and Family Foster Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Jed

    2008-01-01

    This study examined self-concept, resiliency and social support in 107 children and youth placed in foster care in New York City. Of the children and youth, 55 were placed in family foster care, while the remaining 52 children and youth were placed in a kinship foster home. Significantly more of mothers of the kinship foster care children and…

  20. Health care seeking behaviour and expenditure pattern among Scrub Typhus patients attending a tertiary care hospital in Mysore city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Jayanandan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Scrub typhus is one among the re-emerging infectious diseases throughout the world. Various studies conducted across India reveals that its public health importance is increasing. This study was conducted 1 To describe the socio-demographic and epidemiological profile of patients admitted with scrub typhus. 2 To assess the health care seeking behaviour of these patients. 3 To estimate the cost factors incurred in the current episode of illness. Methods: This prospective study was conducted from January to December 2013 among all lab confirmed cases of scrub typhus admitted to department of medicine and pediatrics of JSS Hospital, Mysore. The study subjects were interviewed with a pre-tested and structured questionnaire. Data regarding socio-demographic profile, epidemiological profile, disease outcome, health care seeking behaviour and cost factors incurred with current episode of illness were collected. Data entry and analysis were done with SPSS.v.22.0 using descriptive statistics like mean, standard deviations and inferential statistics like chi-square test. Results: Among 192 patients tested positive by Weil-Felix test and/or Immuno-Chromatographic Test (ICT for scrub typhus majority 105 (54.7% were males and were predominantly 135 (70.3 % from rural areas. Mostly 172(89.6% were unaware of any mite bite in the past. Majority 167 (87.0% of them had visited atleast three Health Care Facilities (HCF for treatment. The mean +/- SD total duration of illness was 15.6 +/- 4.1 days. Most 104 (54.2 % of them had suffered from illness for 11-15 days. Majority 175 (91.1% of them had recovered while 3 (1.6% of them had succumbed to the condition. The median Total direct cost, total indirect cost and overall total cost were Rs. 7500 (7000-9500, Rs. 3000 (2500-3500 and Rs. 10500 (10000-13000 respectively. Most 104 (54.2% of them spent from money borrowed from others, followed by 78 (40.6% spent Out Of Pocket (OOP. Conclusion: People from rural

  1. Supporting Children's Transition to School Age Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dockett, Sue; Perry, Bob

    2016-01-01

    While a great deal of research has focused on children's experiences as they start school, less attention has been directed to their experiences--and those of their families and educators--as they start school age care. This paper draws from a recent research project investigating practices that promote positive transitions to school and school…

  2. SGA Children in Pediatric Primary Care

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    Patrizia Gallo MD

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Epidemiologic evidences suggest a strong association between low birth weight and some diseases in adult life ( hypertension, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases.Aim of this study was to evaluate the obesity/overweight prevalence in a population of children born small for gestation age, SGA children 400, 208 males and 192 females compared to a population of children born appropriate for gestational age 6818 AGA children, 3502 males and 3316 females, during childhood. Our intention was also to build the natural history of weight gain during prepubertal age in children born SGA and AGA. Design and Methods: Observational prospective longitudinal study. We followed our patients from January2001 up to December 2010; weight, height and body mass index (BMI were evaluated in all the SGA and AGA children. BMI z-score range for defining overweight and obesity was, respectively, 1.13 to 1.7 and >1.7 according to CDC growth charts. Results: In transversal evaluation, we prove that 10-year-old SGA females are twice obese and more overweight compared to equal age AGA females. In longitudinal evaluation, we highlight different observations: SGA children obese at 2 years are still obese at 10 years; the number of obese SGA children increases gradually until the age of 10; AGA children, appear to be less obese than SGA children at 10 years. Conclusion: SGA males and females are more obese at 5 and 10 years compared to the AGA population. Primary care pediatricians, through early detection of the children at risk, can carry out an effective obesity prevention project in SGA children.

  3. Fatores de risco para perda ponderal de crianças frequentadoras de berçários em creches do município de São Paulo Risk factors for ponderal loss of children attending the nurseries of day care centers in São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maysa Helena A. Toloni

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar e quantificar os fatores de risco relacionados ao agravamento da condição nutricional entre o nascimento e a realização deste estudo. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal com 270 crianças frequentadoras dos berçários de oito creches públicas e filantrópicas do município de São Paulo. Considerou-se com perda ponderal as crianças que apresentaram diferença negativa do escore Z para a relação peso para idade entre o nascimento e a ocasião da realização desse inquérito. No estudo das associações, utilizou-se o teste do qui-quadrado e consideraram-se as variáveis com nível de significância pOBJECTIVE: To identify and quantify risk factors related to the aggravation of nutritional condition from birth until the date of the study. METHODS: Cross-sectional study with 270 children attending nurseries of eight public and non-for-profit daycare centers in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. Ponderal loss was considered when children presented negative difference of Z score for weight-for-age (W/A from birth until the date of the present inquiry. Chi-square was used to test associations and considered significant if p<0.05. Multivariate logistic regression model adjusted Odds Ratio estimates for confounding variables and/or covariables. RESULTS: Anthropometric analysis showed 7.1% prevalence of malnutrition (W/A<-2 Z score at birth and 4.4% by the time of measurement. Ponderal evolution with unfavorable Z score was present in 50.7% of studied children (n=137. In the bivariate analyses, the variables: birth weight (OR=5.35; p<0.001, anemia (OR=1.81; p=0.019 and age less than 19 months (OR=1.67; p=0.036 were statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: Ponderal loss in Z score during the first months of life has not been often used in epidemiological studies. However, future researches might identify weight loss as an indicator of risk for sociobiological vulnerability. Development of health programs in order to reduce the

  4. A decade of inequality in maternity care: antenatal care, professional attendance at delivery, and caesarean section in Bangladesh (1991–2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronsmans Carine

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bangladesh is committed to the fifth Millennium Development Goal (MDG-5 target of reducing its maternal mortality ratio by three-quarters between 1990 and 2015. Since the early 1990s, Bangladesh has followed a strategy of improving access to facilities equipped and staffed to provide emergency obstetric care (EmOC. Methods We used data from four Demographic and Health Surveys conducted between 1993 and 2004 to examine trends in the proportions of live births preceded by antenatal consultation, attended by a health professional, and delivered by caesarean section, according to key socio-demographic characteristics. Results Utilization of antenatal care increased substantially, from 24% in 1991 to 60% in 2004. Despite a relatively greater increase in rural than urban areas, utilization remained much lower among the poorest rural women without formal education (18% compared with the richest urban women with secondary or higher education (99%. Professional attendance at delivery increased by 50% (from 9% to 14%, more rapidly in rural than urban areas, and caesarean sections trebled (from 2% to 6%, but these indicators remained low even by developing country standards. Within these trends there were huge inequalities; 86% of live births among the richest urban women with secondary or higher education were attended by a health professional, and 35% were delivered by caesarean section, compared with 2% and 0.1% respectively of live births among the poorest rural women without formal education. The trend in professional attendance was entirely confounded by socioeconomic and demographic changes, but education of the woman and her husband remained important determinants of utilization of obstetric services. Conclusion Despite commendable progress in improving uptake of antenatal care, and in equipping health facilities to provide emergency obstetric care, the very low utilization of these facilities, especially by poor women, is a

  5. INCLUSION OF CHILDREN WITH DEVELOPMENTAL DISORDERS IN DAY CARE INSTITUTION ESTREA MARA IN BITOLA

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    M. SOTIROVSKA-SIRVINI

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available The Day Care Institutions for children are forms of organized protection for improvement of the psycho-physical, emotional and social development of children. In this period, the growth and development are in their most intensive phase when the outside influence plays an extraordinary role both in a positive and in negative a direction. Directed and well-organized protection is of a great importance. By inclusion of children with developmental disorders in the group and with special, individual treatment of each child by adequate specialized staff, their socialization and stimulus for developmental acceleration is achieved.Many years ago, by recommendation of the Advisory Institution for Development, the doctors from the Advisory Institution for small children, the public-health nurses or by the parents initiative, the kindergartens accept children with Down syndrome, children with limited and lower level backwardness, with disharmonious development, with lower level forms of cerebral paralysis and with speech disorders.Children at the earliest age of one month are resided at the Advisory Institu­­tion for Development and receive treatment until they are categorized and are ready to start school, but certain children are sent to the kindergartens at the age of 3.In the previous years, out of five children with Down syndrome treated in the Advisory Institution for Development, four were sent to the kindergarten. Now, one of these children attends the fifth grade and two attend the first grade in a regular elementary school and one attends the special school. Three children with Spastic dyplegia, four children with lower level of retardation, two with surdomutitas and four with disharmonious development are still in the kindergarten.

  6. The relationship between visual orienting responses and clinical characteristics in children attending special education for the visually impaired.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooiker, Marlou J G; Pel, Johan J M; van der Steen, Johannes

    2015-05-01

    We recently introduced a method based on quantification of orienting responses toward visual stimuli to assess the quality of visual information processing in children. In the present study, we examined the relationship between orienting responses and factors that are associated with visual processing impairments in current clinical practice. Response time and fixation quality to visual features such as form, contrast, motion, and color stimuli were assessed in 104 children from 1 to 12 years attending special education for the visually impaired. Using regression analysis, we investigated whether these parameters were affected by clinical characteristics of children. Response times significantly depended on stimulus type. Responses to high-contrast cartoons were significantly slower in children with a clinical diagnosis of cerebral visual impairment. Fixation quality was significantly affected by visual acuity and nystagmus. The results suggest that the quantitative measurement of orienting responses is strongly related to cerebral visual impairment in children.

  7. The evaluation of nutritional status of children by anthropometric measurements attending the day nursery of Cerrahpaşa Medical School Original Article

    OpenAIRE

    Erkan, Tülay; Yalvaç, Sema; Erginöz, Ethem; Çokuğraş, Fügen; Kutlu, Tufan

    2007-01-01

    Aim: To determine the nutritional status of children attending the day nursery by anthropometric measures and to investigate the nutritional status of children who live in families having a certain educational status a socio economic level and social assurance Material and Method: Children who attending the day nursery between November 2004 January 2005 were evaluated for their nutritional status by measuring their weight head circumference thorax circumference superior midarm circumference s...

  8. [Effect of educational nutrition program on the energy and macronutrients intake of preschoolers attending Junji day care centres in the eastern sector of Santiago, Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vásquez, Fabián; Andrade, Margarita; Rodríguez, M del Pilar; Salazar, Gabriela

    2008-09-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the change on the energy and macronutrients intake in obese and eutrophic preschoolers, attending National Board of Day Care Centres (JUNJI), in the eastern area of Santiago, as product of an educational intervention in intake, nutrition and physical activity, sustained in the theory of the social cognitive learning and the model of community organization. The sample comprised of thirty five obese children, plus eighty five eutrophic children (4-5 years olds). Energy intake was evaluated, measuring full two days a week plus one weekend day. At the day care centre, all ingested food was weighed, and when back at home, child food-intake was recalled. During the stay at the day care centres, the intervention produced a reduction in: energy, proteins, lipids and carbohydrates in obese girls (p<0.05), energy and carbohydrate in obese boys (p<0.01), lipids and carbohydrates, in eutrophic girls and boys (p<0.05). When at home, intake reduced in: energy and lipids in the obese girls and eutrophic boys (p<0.05), lipids in eutrophic girls (p<0.05). During the weekend, obese boys, reduced the intake of calories (p<0.05) and lipids (p<0.05). In obese girls the reduction was in calories (p<0.05) and carbohydrates (p<0.05). In eutrophic girls and boys, lipid intake was reduced as well as, protein intake was increased (p<0.01). In conclusion, this intervention demonstrated to be effective in early modulation of preschool children dietary intake, one of the important risk factors for obesity and chronic diseases.

  9. Do healthy school meals affect illness, allergies and school attendance in 8- to 11-year-old children?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Rikke Pilmann; Lauritzen, Lotte; Ritz, Christian;

    2015-01-01

    periods. Occurrence and duration of illnesses, asthma and allergies during the last 14 days were recorded by parental questionnaires at baseline and after each 3-month period. Self-reported well-being was assessed by visual analogue scales.Results:The school meals did not affect school attendance, parent......Background/Objectives:A nutritionally adequate diet in childhood is important for health and resistance of allergies and infections. This study explored the effects of school meals rich in fish, vegetables and fibre on school attendance, asthma, allergies and illness in 797 Danish 8- to 11-year......-old children. No comparable studies conducted in high-income settings have been identified.Subjects/Methods:The OPUS School Meal Study was a cluster-randomised cross-over trial. Children from third and fourth grades at nine Danish schools received school meals or usual packed lunch (control) for two 3-month...

  10. Spirituality in end-of-life care: attending the person on their journey.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hayden, Deborah

    2011-11-01

    Spirituality is a fundamental element to the human experience of health and healing, illness and dying. Spiritual care is an essential component of palliative and end-of-life care provision and is the responsibility of all staff and carers involved in the care of patients and families. As end-of-life care is a significant element of community nursing, this article explores the relevancy of spirituality to end-of-life practice, the challenge of defining spirituality and the attributes and skills required for the practice of spiritual care. The aim of is to encourage self reflection and open dialogue about the subject, thus enhancing community nurses\\' understanding of spiritual care practice. By reflecting and generating talk about the practice of spiritual care, it may become more normalized, recognized, and practically meaningful, thereby retaining its significance in holistic nursing.

  11. PREVALENCE OF ALCOHOL USE AMONG PATIENTS ATTENDING TRAUMA CENTER IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL: A CROSS SECTIONAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available HYPOTHESIS: Significant number of cases attending trauma center are associated with alcohol use. AIM: To study the prevalence, pattern and severity of alcohol use in patient attending trauma center with an emergency in a tertiary care hospital. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Total of 100 consecutive patients attending the trauma center from 6pm – 6am and who were fulfilling the inclusion criteria and had consented to participate in the study were recruited. Alcohol breath analyzer was administered and then the rating scales SMAST, AUDIT and QIAD were administered. RESULTS: On socio demographic profile of study subjects’ age group between 18-30yrs, male gender and nuclear family background were found to be more predominant. Twenty one (21.9% patients in alcohol breath analysis and Twenty three (23.9% patients in SMAST screening were found to be positive for alcohol use. On evaluation of injury related variables; RTA and injury at single site were found to be more among the total subjects. In alcohol positives injuries at multiple sites and admission were found to be more as compared to negatives. Most of the patient among breath positives (70% scored 8 and above in AUDIT scale indicating hazardous level of drinking. Fifteen patients (15.6% were found to be “alcoholics’’ by QIAD analysis. CONCLUSION: In agreement with findings of previous several studies of worldwide, the present study draws attention to recognizing the alcohol use as a significant contributory factor to trauma, especially RTA.

  12. Expanded Medical Home Model Works for Children in Foster Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaudes, Paula Kienberger; Champagne, Vince; Harden, Allen; Masterson, James; Bilaver, Lucy A.

    2012-01-01

    The Illinois Child Welfare Department implemented a statewide health care system to ensure that children in foster care obtain quality health care by providing each child with a medical home. This study demonstrates that the Medical Home model works for children in foster care providing better health outcomes in higher immunization rates. These…

  13. Primary care-public health linkages: Older primary care patients with prediabetes & type 2 diabetes encouraged to attend community-based senior centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noël, Polly H; Parchman, Michael L; Finley, Erin P; Wang, Chen-Pin; Bollinger, Mary; Espinoza, Sara E; Hazuda, Helen P

    2016-12-01

    The Institute of Medicine (IOM) suggests that primary care-public health integration can improve health outcomes for vulnerable patients, but the extent to which formal linkages may enhance patients' use of community resources, or the factors that may influence providers to encourage their patients to use these resources, remain unclear. We conducted baseline assessments in 2014-2015 with 149 older adults with prediabetes or diabetes who had recently joined three senior centers linked to a network of primary care clinics in San Antonio, Texas. In addition to collecting sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, we asked members to identify their source of primary care and whether a health care provider had encouraged them to go to the senior center. We also asked members why they had joined the senior centers and which programs interested them the most. Members' source of primary care was not associated with being encouraged to attend the senior centers by a health care professional. Multivariable analysis indicated that participants with total annual household incomes of $20,000 or less [OR = 2.78; 95% CI = (1.05, 7.14)] and those reporting 12 years of education or less [OR = 3.57; 95% CI = (1.11, 11.11)] were significantly more likely to report being encouraged to attend the senior center by a health care provider. Providers who are aware of community-based resources to support patient self-management may be just as likely to encourage their socioeconomically vulnerable patients with prediabetes or diabetes to use them as providers who have a more formal partnership with the senior centers. PMID:27462529

  14. Primary care-public health linkages: Older primary care patients with prediabetes & type 2 diabetes encouraged to attend community-based senior centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noël, Polly H; Parchman, Michael L; Finley, Erin P; Wang, Chen-Pin; Bollinger, Mary; Espinoza, Sara E; Hazuda, Helen P

    2016-12-01

    The Institute of Medicine (IOM) suggests that primary care-public health integration can improve health outcomes for vulnerable patients, but the extent to which formal linkages may enhance patients' use of community resources, or the factors that may influence providers to encourage their patients to use these resources, remain unclear. We conducted baseline assessments in 2014-2015 with 149 older adults with prediabetes or diabetes who had recently joined three senior centers linked to a network of primary care clinics in San Antonio, Texas. In addition to collecting sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, we asked members to identify their source of primary care and whether a health care provider had encouraged them to go to the senior center. We also asked members why they had joined the senior centers and which programs interested them the most. Members' source of primary care was not associated with being encouraged to attend the senior centers by a health care professional. Multivariable analysis indicated that participants with total annual household incomes of $20,000 or less [OR = 2.78; 95% CI = (1.05, 7.14)] and those reporting 12 years of education or less [OR = 3.57; 95% CI = (1.11, 11.11)] were significantly more likely to report being encouraged to attend the senior center by a health care provider. Providers who are aware of community-based resources to support patient self-management may be just as likely to encourage their socioeconomically vulnerable patients with prediabetes or diabetes to use them as providers who have a more formal partnership with the senior centers.

  15. ATTAINMENT OF TREATMENT TARGETS AMONG TYPE 2 DIABETIC PATIENTS FIRST ATTENDING A TERTIARY CARE SETTING IN SUBURBAN KERALA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajeeth Kumar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Type 2 diabetes is growing in epidemic proportions worldwide, particularly in Asian subcontinent and especially in India. The disease takes a toll on the health system of a country, especially the developing nations. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES To study the attainment of metabolic and anthropometric goals of individuals with type 2 diabetes attending a tertiary care centre. MATERIALS AND METHODS i Informed consents were obtained. ii The study subjects were subjected to a detailed clinical, anthropometrical and biochemical evaluation at baseline by a dedicated diabetologist. iii These data were collected using a structured questionnaire and were analysed using EPI INFO (Ver 3.4.1. RESULTS A total of 350 cases were studied. Overall, 76.3% of patients could not achieve ADA A1c goal and 36.3% had very poor glycaemic control as evidenced by A1c >9%. CONCLUSIONS Despite the increasing awareness of type 2 diabetes both among attending physicians and patients, attainment of treatment targets still is a challenge even at a tertiary care setting. The lifestyle and dietary habits may be a main contributing factor for this situation. More focus needs to be given to nutritional aspects and physical exercise in not only in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, but also in apparently healthy individuals of the productive age group so that the disease can be delayed if not prevented.

  16. Risk factors for syphilis and hiv infection in pregnant women attending a tertiary care public sector hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Syphilis, a sexually transmitted disease which seemed to have disappeared or had been controlled over the years, has now been re-emerged as a major public health problem in many communities. It can complicate the pregnancies with serious consequences. Appropriate treatment of pregnant women often prevents such complications. Aims: To study the frequency of syphilis in pregnant women attending a tertiary care public sector hospital, and see the positivity for HIV/AIDS among syphilis positive women. Patients and Methods: This cross sectional and interventional study was conducted among pregnant women attending Sir Ganga Ram hospital for antenatal care at PMRC Research Centre, Fatima Jinnah Medical College, Lahore. Blood samples from 2000 women were collected after taking consent. The blood was tested for syphilis by Treponema Pallidum Haemagglutination. History of the subjects for risks factors was also taken. Syphilis positive women were further screened for human immunodeficiency virus positivity. Results: The treponemal antibodies were detected in less than one percent (9) pregnant women. The highest positivity was observed among age group of 21-26 years. Women in third trimester were significantly more infected with syphilis. Risk factors included husband's history with frequent traveling and drug abuse. All husbands of syphilis positive women were also positive. All syphilis positive women and their husbands were negative for Human immunodeficiency virus /Acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Conclusions: Less than 1% of pregnant women were infected with syphilis, and most of the spouses of these positive women were either travelers or drug addicts.(author)

  17. Maintenance of Discipline Through Increasing Children's Span of Attending by Means of a Token Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Rudolph F.; Guyer, Barbara P.

    1971-01-01

    Findings suggest that conditioning a student's attending behavior to a given task seems to affect general adjustment behavior positively and thus decreases disciplinary problems in school. However, it does not seem to have an influence on performance. (Author)

  18. "I Have to Rest All the Time Because You Are Not Allowed to Play": Exploring Children's Perceptions of Autonomy during Sleep-Time in Long Day Care Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nothard, Michaela; Irvine, Susan; Theobald, Maryanne; Staton, Sally; Pattinson, Cassandra; Thorpe, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Daytime sleep is a significant part of the daily routine for children attending early childhood education and care (ECEC) services in Australia and many other countries. The practice of sleep-time can account for a substantial portion of the day in ECEC and often involves a mandated sleep/rest period for all children, including older…

  19. Frecuencia de virus respiratorios y características clínicas de niños que acuden a un hospital en México Frequency of respiratory viruses and clinical characteristics in children attending a care center in Mexico City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa María Wong-Chew

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO. Describir la frecuencia de virus respiratorios y características clínicas en niños con cuadros respiratorios de un hospital de tercer nivel en México. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS. Se incluyeron niños con diagnóstico de infección respiratoria y un resultado positivo por inmunofluorescencia de enero 2004 a octubre 2006. RESULTADOS. De 986 muestras nasofaríngeas, 138 (14% fueron positivas. La frecuencia fue: 80% virus sincicial respiratorio (VSR, 8% parainfluenza 1, 5% parainfluenza3, 2% adenovirus, 2% influenza A, 1% parainfluenza 2 y 1% influenza B. CONCLUSIONES. La frecuencia de virus respiratorios fue de 14%. El VSR se identificó asociado con más frecuencia, a neumonía y bronquiolitis en menores de 3 años.OBJECTIVE. To describe the frequency of respiratory viruses and clinical characteristics in children with respiratory signs and symptoms in a tertiary care center in Mexico. MATERIAL AND METHODS. Patients with a clinical diagnosis of respiratory infection and a positive immunofluorescence result (Light Diagnostics from January 2004 to October 2006 were included. RESULTS. From the 986 nashopharyngeal samples, 138 (14% were positive by immunofluorescence. The frequency was: 80% RSV, 8% parainfluenza 1, 5% parainfluenza 3, 2% adenovirus, 2% influenza A, 1% parainfluenza 2 and 1% influenza B. CONCLUSIONS. Respiratory viruses were detected in 14% of samples tested. RSV was the most frequently identified virus and was associated with pneumonia and bronchiolitis in children younger than 3 years old.

  20. Ethnocultural and Sex Characteristics of Patients Attending a Tertiary Care Pain Clinic in Toronto, Ontario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Mailis-Gagnon

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ethnocultural factors and sex may greatly affect pain perception and expression. Emerging literature is also documenting racial and ethnic differences in pain access and care.

  1. Foot care and footwear practices among patients attending a specialist diabetes clinic in Jamaica

    OpenAIRE

    Gayle, Krystal A.T.; Tulloch-Reid, Marshall K.; Younger, Novie O; Francis, Damian K.; Shelly R. McFarlane; Wright-Pascoe, Rosemarie A.; Boyne, Michael S.; Wilks, Rainford J; Ferguson, Trevor S

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to estimate the proportion of patients at the University Hospital of the West Indies (UHWI) Diabetes Clinic who engage in recommended foot care and footwear practices. Seventy-two participants from the UHWI Diabetes Clinic completed an interviewer-administered questionnaire on foot care practices and types of footwear worn. Participants were a subset of a sex-stratified random sample of clinic attendees and were interviewed in 2010. Data analysis included frequency estimates ...

  2. Health Care Policies for Children in Out-of-Home Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risley-Curtiss, Christina; Kronenfeld, Jennie Jacobs

    2001-01-01

    Examined health care policies and services for children under 46 state welfare agencies. Found that most states had written policies regarding health care for foster children, but half had no management system to record health care data. Most states did not meet standards set by the Child Welfare League of America for health care of these…

  3. Frequency and risk factors associated with dry eye in patients attending a tertiary care ophthalmology center in Mexico City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Jaime D; Galor, Anat; Ramos-Betancourt, Nallely; Lisker-Cervantes, Andrés; Beltrán, Francisco; Ozorno-Zárate, Jorge; Sánchez-Huerta, Valeria; Torres-Vera, Marco-Antonio; Hernández-Quintela, Everardo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to ascertain the frequency and risk factors of dry eye (DE) among patients attending a tertiary care ophthalmology center in Mexico. Methods Approximately 338 consecutive new patients attending a tertiary care ophthalmology center in Mexico City underwent an ocular surface examination, which included tear film break-up time, fluorescein corneal staining, Schirmer’s test, and evaluation of meibum quality. Symptoms of DE were evaluated by the Ocular Surface Disease Index and Dry Eye Questionnaire-5. Information on demographics, exposures, past medical and ocular history, and medications was also collected. Results The frequency of severe DE symptoms was found to be 43% based on the Ocular Surface Disease Index and 30% based on Dry Eye Questionnaire-5. Risk factors significantly associated with increased DE symptoms included dry mouth and gastrointestinal ulcer medications. With regard to signs, aqueous tear deficiency was a less-frequent finding (22%) in our population than evaporative deficiency (94%). Risk factors associated with aqueous tear deficiency were dry mouth and diuretic use. No risk factors were associated with evaporative deficiency. Risk factors associated with meibomian gland dysfunction included old age, male sex, arthritis, and use of an antihypertensive. The only risk factor associated with corneal staining was dry mouth. Conclusion This is the first study to demonstrate the frequency of symptomatic and clinical DE in a tertiary care ophthalmology center in Mexico. The frequency of DE ranged from 30% using a symptomatic definition to 94% using objective measures. Different risk factors were found for different aspects of DE, suggesting differing underlying pathophysiologies behind different DE subtypes. PMID:27499613

  4. Evaluation of general practitioners' assessment of overweight among children attending the five-year preventive child health examination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Merethe Kousgaard; Christensen, Bo; Obel, Carsten;

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective. To evaluate general practitioners' (GPs') assessment of potential overweight among children attending the five-year preventive child health examination (PCHE) by comparing their assessment of the children's weight-for-stature with overweight defined by body mass index (BMI......) according to paediatric standard definitions. Design. A cross-sectional survey. Data were obtained from a questionnaire survey of children's health in general and their growth in particular. Setting. The five-year preventive child health examination (PCHE) in general practice in the Central Denmark Region......), i.e. the Danish national growth charts for BMI, as the gold standard yielded a sensitivity of 70.1% (95% CI 62.0-77.3) and a specificity of 92.4% (95% CI 90.6-93.9). The sensitivity was influenced by the GPs' use of BMI and the presence of previous notes regarding abnormal weight development...

  5. Healthcare-seeking behavior of patients with epileptic seizure disorders attending a tertiary care hospital, Kolkata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhik Sinha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Neurological diseases are very important causes of prolonged morbidity and disability, leading to profound financial loss. Epilepsy is one of the most important neurological disorders Healthcare seeking by epilepsy patients is quite diverse and unique. Aims and Objectives: The study was conducted among the epilepsy patients, to assess their healthcare-seeking behavior and its determinants. Materials and Methods: Three hundred and fifteen epilepsy patients, selected by systematic random sampling, in the neuromedicine outpatient department of a tertiary care hospital were interviewed with a predesigned, pretested, semi-structured proforma. Results and Conclusion: More than 90% sought healthcare just after the onset of a seizure. The majority opted for allopathic medicine and the causes for not seeking initial care from allopaths were ignorance, faith in another system, constraint of money, and so on. A significant association existed between rural residence and low social status of the patients with initial care seeking from someone other than allopaths. No association was found among sex, type of seizure, educational status of the patients, and care seeking. The mean treatment gap was 2.98 ± 10.49 months and the chief motivators were mostly the family members. Patients for anti epileptic drugs preferred neurologists in urban areas and general practitioners in rural areas. District care model of epilepsy was proposed in the recommendation.

  6. Helping Children Learn To Care for One Another.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Dawne

    1999-01-01

    Discusses ways of helping children learn to care for one another. Notes that even very young children respond with empathy to others' expressed distress. Explores ways to enhance children's natural empathy in terms of empathy as identification, as communication, as a caring act, as a moral act, and as respect. (DLH)

  7. The Economics of Adoption of Children from Foster Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Mary Eschelbach; Hansen, Bradley A.

    2006-01-01

    Federal initiatives since 1996 have intensified the efforts of states to achieve adoption for children in foster care. For many waiting children, the path to adoption is long. The authors offer an economic analysis of adoption from foster care, with an emphasis on the reasons why achieving the goal of adoption for all waiting children may be so…

  8. The Prevalence and the Determinants of Musculoskeletal Diseases in Emiratis Attending Primary Health Care Clinics in Dubai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal Al Saleh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of rheumatic diseases in the Emiratis attending primary health care (PHC clinics in Dubai. The secondary objective was to study the relationship between age, gender, and body mass index (BMI and rheumatic diseases in the general population.  Methods: The Prevalence of Rheumatic Diseases and Osteoporosis (PRO in Dubai study was a cross-sectional study, which randomly enrolled Emiratis’ aged between 18–85 years old who attended one of 13 PHC clinics between 2 January 2009 and 31 December 2009. Demographic and health data for all participants was obtained via a questionnaire. Participants that indicated positive answers had their responses validated by a rheumatologist and underwent a thorough locomotor examination.  Results: The study included 3,985 participants with a mean age of 42.1±15.8 years. The majority (77.4% were female. Lower back pain was the most prevalent problem in our study population (32.9%. Knee osteoarthritis (OA was the most common form of arthritis seen in our cohort (25.8%. Overall, the prevalence of inflammatory arthritis was 3.1%. Age and BMI were associated with increased risk of knee OA and lower back pain.  Conclusions: Rheumatic diseases are quite common in Emirati patients attending PHC clinics. Lower back pain and knee OA were the most common musculoskeletal diseases seen in our cohort. There is a need for more population-based studies in the Middle East to have a better understanding of the epidemiology of rheumatic diseases in this region.

  9. Unhappiness with the Fetal Gender is associated with Depression in Adult Pregnant Women Attending Prenatal Care in a Public Hospital in Durango, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Sifuentes-Alvarez, Antonio; Salas-Martinez, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Depression during pregnancy has been scantily studied in Mexican women. We aimed to determine the prevalence and correlates of depression in adult pregnant women attending a public hospital in the northern Mexican city of Durango, Mexico. Through a cross-sectional study design, we assessed depression in 270 adult pregnant women attended for prenatal care in a public hospital using a validated Mexican version of the Edinburg Postnatal Depression Scale in pregnancy and further confirmation by a...

  10. Why do some women still prefer traditional birth attendants and home delivery?: a qualitative study on delivery care services in West Java Province, Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Titaley Christiana R; Hunter Cynthia L; Dibley Michael J; Heywood Peter

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Trained birth attendants at delivery are important for preventing both maternal and newborn deaths. West Java is one of the provinces on Java Island, Indonesia, where many women still deliver at home and without the assistance of trained birth attendants. This study aims to explore the perspectives of community members and health workers about the use of delivery care services in six villages of West Java Province. Methods A qualitative study using focus group discussions ...

  11. Examination of children's body composition and biomotoric features which attended summer football schools

    OpenAIRE

    INAN, Burak; DALIOGLU, Onder

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to examine body composition and biomotoric specifications of subjects who attended the football program for 8 weeks, 3 days a week.In the applied study, 50 subjects were chosen occasionally and voluntarily out of 125 football players. This study was applied on 8-13 aged male football players who attended summer football school in city of Gaziantep. Pre examination of the group was 1 week before 8 week training program, and post examination was 1 week after 8 week t...

  12. Clinical Features Of Acute Febrile Thrombocytopaenia Among Patients Attending Primary Care Clinics

    OpenAIRE

    Fah, Tong Seng; MMed, Noorazah Abdul Aziz; Liew, Chin Gek; Omar, Khairani

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: Identifying clinical features that differentiate acute febrile thrombocytopaenia from acute febrile illness without thrombocytopaenia can help primary care physician to decide whether to order a full blood count (FBC). This is important because thrombocytopaenia in viral fever may signify more serious underlying aetiology like dengue infection.

  13. Cortisol Response to Physical Activity in African American Toddlers Attending Full-Time Day Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Sarah J.; Rudisill, Mary E.; Gladden, L. Bruce

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine African American toddlers' cortisol response to acute physical play activity within a full-time subsidized day care environment. Saliva samples were taken from participants (N = 22, ages 26-45.5 months) before and after physical play and control play conditions at the same time of day. Actiheart[TM]monitors…

  14. Longitudinal behavioral analysis during dental care of children aged 0 to 3 years

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    Robson Frederico Cunha

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available "When" and "how" the dentist intervenes have repercussions on children's physical and emotional patterns. The objective of the present study was to conduct a longitudinal behavioral analysis during dental care of babies aged 0 to 3 years. A total of 216 patients seen at the Baby Clinic of the School of Dentistry at Araçatuba, São Paulo State University (UNESP, were selected. The selection criterion was attendance at ten dental care sessions at bimonthly intervals for routine procedures such as clinical examination and oral hygiene. There was a predominance of cooperative behavior compared to uncooperative behavior when each visit was analyzed separately. The behavior of the patients must have been directly influenced by their psychomotor development. Constant attendance and exposure of the baby to non-stressful dental stimuli are factors that favor a cooperative behavior.

  15. Determinants of Tuberculosis Infection among Adult HIV Positives Attending Clinical Care in Western Ethiopia: A Case-Control Study

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    Hatoluf Melkamu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There has been a drastic rise of tuberculosis (TB infection across the world associated with the pandemic occurrence of HIV/AIDS. There are various determinants factors that increase the chance of TB infection among HIV positives (TB/HIV confection that varies contextually. This study aimed to assess the determinants of TB/HIV coinfection among adult HIV positives attending clinical care at two public health facilities in Nekemte, western Ethiopia. Unmatched case-control study was conducted from December 26, 2011, to February 29, 2012. Cases were 123 TB infected HIV positives, and controls were 246 non-TB infected HIV positives. Being divorced/widowed , 95% CI (1.70, 7.88, not attending formal education , 95% CI (2.20, 14.15, being underweight ( kg/m2 , 95% CI (2.18, 6.87, having history of diabetic mellitus , 95% CI (1.33, 9.94, and being in advanced WHO HIV/AIDS clinical staging , 95% CI (1.32, 3.98, were determinant factors associated with TB/HIV co-infection. Having a separate kitchen , 95% CI (0.28, 0.81 showed protective role. For most of these determinants interventions can be made at individual and institutional levels, whereas, factors like education and nutrition need societal level integrations.

  16. Foot care and footwear practices among patients attending a specialist diabetes clinic in Jamaica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayle, Krystal A T; Tulloch Reid, Marshall K; Younger, Novie O; Francis, Damian K; McFarlane, Shelly R; Wright-Pascoe, Rosemarie A; Boyne, Michael S; Wilks, Rainford J; Ferguson, Trevor S

    2012-10-12

    This study aimed to estimate the proportion of patients at the University Hospital of the West Indies (UHWI) Diabetes Clinic who engage in recommended foot care and footwear practices. Seventy-two participants from the UHWI Diabetes Clinic completed an interviewer-administered questionnaire on foot care practices and types of footwear worn. Participants were a subset of a sex-stratified random sample of clinic attendees and were interviewed in 2010. Data analysis included frequency estimates of the various foot care practices and types of footwear worn. Participants had a mean age of 57.0±14.3 years and mean duration of diabetes of 17.0±10.3 years. Fifty-three percent of participants reported being taught how to care for their feet, while daily foot inspection was performed by approximately 60% of participants. Most participants (90%) reported daily use of moisturizing lotion on the feet but almost 50% used lotion between the toes. Approximately 85% of participants reported wearing shoes or slippers both indoors and outdoors but over 40% reported walking barefoot at some time. Thirteen percent wore special shoes for diabetes while over 80% wore shoes without socks at some time. Although much larger proportions reported wearing broad round toe shoes (82%) or leather shoes (64%), fairly high proportions reported wearing pointed toe shoes (39%), and 43% of women wore high heel shoes. In conclusion, approximately 60% of patients at the UHWI diabetic clinic engage in daily foot inspection and other recommended practices, but fairly high proportions reported foot care or footwear choices that should be avoided. PMID:24765484

  17. Foot care and footwear practices among patients attending a specialist diabetes clinic in Jamaica

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    Krystal A.T. Gayle

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to estimate the proportion of patients at the University Hospital of the West Indies (UHWI Diabetes Clinic who engage in recommended foot care and footwear practices. Seventy-two participants from the UHWI Diabetes Clinic completed an interviewer-administered questionnaire on foot care practices and types of footwear worn. Participants were a subset of a sex-stratified random sample of clinic attendees and were interviewed in 2010. Data analysis included frequency estimates of the various foot care practices and types of footwear worn. Participants had a mean age of 57.0±14.3 years and mean duration of diabetes of 17.0±10.3 years. Fifty-three percent of participants reported being taught how to care for their feet, while daily foot inspection was performed by approximately 60% of participants. Most participants (90% reported daily use of moisturizing lotion on the feet but almost 50% used lotion between the toes. In conclusion, approximately 85% of participants reported wearing shoes or slippers both indoors and outdoors but over 40% reported walking barefoot at some time. Thirteen percent wore special shoes for diabetes while over 80% wore shoes without socks at some time. Although much larger proportions reported wearing broad round toe shoes (82% or leather shoes (64%, fairly high proportions reported wearing pointed toe shoes (39%, and 43% of women wore high heel shoes. Approximately 60% of patients at the UHWI diabetic clinic engage in daily foot inspection and other recommended practices, but fairly high proportions reported foot care or footwear choices that should be avoided.

  18. Physicians′ therapeutic practice and compliance of diabetic patients attending rural primary health care units in Alexandria

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    Nahla Khamis R Ibrahim

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The objectives of the study were to investigate physician′s therapeutic practice and the compliance of diabetic patients attending rural primary health units in Alexandria. Material and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted and a multistage stratified random sample method was used for the selection of 600 diabetic patients. Data were collected by means of an interviewing questionnaire, an observation checklist, review of prescriptions and laboratory investigations. A scoring system was made for a diabetic patient′s knowledge and skills, patient′s compliance, doctor-patient relationship, and glycemic control. Results: About 57% always took their medication as prescribed by doctor and on time, only 2.2% always complied with dietary regimen while no one reported regular compliance with exercise regimen. Complications of the regimen was the commonest cause (63.3% of noncompliance. A highly statistically significant difference was found between compliance with all regimens and patient′s knowledge of diabetes. The scores for doctor-patient relationship were all unsatisfactory. Results of glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c revealed that metabolic control of four-fifth of the patients was satisfactory, 12% had fair and 8% had poor metabolic control. Conclusions: Patient′s compliance with most of the diabetes regimen was low. Doctor-patient relationship and patient′s compliance should be improved by conducting educational and training programs.

  19. A Topic Diathesis In Hereditary Ichthyosis Patients Attending A Tertiary Health Care Center In Saudi Arabia

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    Al-Akloby Omar M Al-Amro

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of atopic diathesis in hereditary ichthyosis (HI has not been documented in Saudi patients. The atopic manifestations in histopathologically confirmed HI patients attending the dermatology clinic of king Fahad Hospital of the University at Al-Khobar city, Saudi Arabia is discussed in this study. From the dermatology OPD logbook, all Saudi patients with confirmed HI seen between January 1990 to December 1995 were included in the study. The findings regarding atopic manifestations were extracted into data collection forms and analyzed. During the 5 year study period, 10,455 new cases were seen in our dermatology OPD. Of these, 61 had hereditary icthyosis, with 37 males and 24 females with a male to female ratio of 1.5:1. Thus, the frequency of HI among Saudi hospital attendees was 6 per 1000 new cases. The type of HI was ichthyosis vulgaris in 25 (41% patients, X-linked recessive ichthyosis in 11 (18%, lamellar ichthyosis in 4(7%, bullous ichthyosiform erythroderma in 2 (3% and nonbullous ichthyosiform erythroderma was seen in 19 (31%. Generalized pruritus was present in 49 (80% cases, atopic dermatitis in , elevated serum IgE level was noted in 27 and bronchial asthma in 3 cases. Dandruff was reported in 24 cases, keratosis pilaris in15, recurrent skin infection in 7. Combination of hereditary ichthyosis, generalized pruritus and high serum IGE level was reported in 27 (44.3% patient.

  20. Arithmetical Thinking in Children Attending Special Schools for the Intellectually Disabled

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Gota

    2008-01-01

    This article focuses on spontaneous and progressive knowledge building in ''the arithmetic of the child.'' The aim is to investigate variations in the behavior patterns of eight pupils attending a school for the intellectually disabled. The study is based on the epistemology of radical constructivism and the methodology of multiple clinical…

  1. Traditional food consumption is associated with higher nutrient intakes in Inuit children attending childcare centres in Nunavik

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    Doris Gagné

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To describe traditional food (TF consumption and to evaluate its impact on nutrient intakes of preschool Inuit children from Nunavik. Design. A cross-sectional study. Methods. Dietary intakes of children were assessed with a single 24-hour recall (n=217. TF consumption at home and at the childcare centres was compared. Differences in children's nutrient intakes when consuming or not consuming at least 1 TF item were examined using ANCOVA. Results. A total of 245 children attending childcare centres in 10 communities of Nunavik were recruited between 2006 and 2010. The children's mean age was 25.0±9.6 months (11–54 months. Thirty-six percent of children had consumed at least 1 TF item on the day of the recall. TF contributed to 2.6% of total energy intake. Caribou and Arctic char were the most reported TF species. Land animals and fish/shellfish were the main contributors to energy intake from TF (38 and 33%, respectively. In spite of a low TF intake, children who consumed TF had significantly (p<0.05 higher intakes of protein, omega-3 fatty acids, iron, phosphorus, zinc, copper, selenium, niacin, pantothenic acid, riboflavin, and vitamin B12, and lower intakes of energy and carbohydrate compared with non-consumers. There was no significant difference in any of the socio-economic variables between children who consumed TF and those who did not. Conclusion. Although TF was not eaten much, it contributed significantly to the nutrient intakes of children. Consumption of TF should be encouraged as it provides many nutritional, economic, and sociocultural benefits.

  2. Nasopharyngeal colonization by Haemophilus influenzae in children attending day-care centers, in Ribeirão Preto, State of São Paulo, Brazil Colonização da nasofaringe por Haemophilus influenzae em crianças que freqüentam creches em Ribeirão Preto, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil

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    Maria E.N. Bonifácio da Silva

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Nasopharyngeal carriage of Haemophilus influenzae (Hi was studied in 114 healthy children A colonização da nasofaringe por Haemophilus influenzae (Hi foi estudada em 114 crianças saudáveis com menos de 3 anos de idade e que freqüentam creches (day-care centers DCC em Ribeirão Preto, estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Para cada uma das cepas isoladas foram determinados o biótipo, o sorotipo (por antisoro especifico e PCR e a sensibilidade a 14 antibióticos. A freqüência de colonização por Hi foi de 72,0%. As cepas isoladas foram identificadas como pertencentes aos biótipos II (36,5%, I (21,5%, V (18,2% e III (16,1%. A freqüência encontrada de cepas encapsuladas foi de 3,2% para o tipo f, 1,0% para o tipo b, 1,0% para o tipo d e 1,0% para o tipo e. A resistência para trimetoprim-sulfametoxazole e ampicilina foi de 46,2% e 10,7% respectivamente. Resistência múltipla foi encontrada em 14 (15,0% das cepas analisadas. 13,9% das cepas analisadas eram produtoras de beta-lactamase, e não foi recuperada nenhuma cepa beta-lactamase negativa e ampicilina resistente. DCCs são considerados locais de risco, com um alto potencial de disseminação de microrganismos e por isto devem ser continuadamente monitorados com a finalidade de detectar a eliminação da colonização da nasofaringe por cepas H. influenzae tipo b das crianças que freqüentam DCC, ou detectar a sua substituição por outro tipo de cepa.

  3. Prevalence and Specificity of RBC Alloantibodies in Indian Patients Attending a Tertiary Care Hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Shamsuz Zaman; Rahul Chaurasia; Kabita Chatterjee; Rakesh Mohan Thapliyal

    2014-01-01

    Background. Red blood cell (RBC) alloimmunization results from genetic disparity of RBC antigens between donor and recipients. Data about alloimmunization rate in general patient population is scarce especially from resource limited countries. We undertook this study to determine prevalence and specificity of RBC alloantibodies in patients admitted in various clinical specialties at a tertiary care hospital in North India. Methods. Antibody screening was carried out in 11,235 patients on auto...

  4. UTILIZATION OF HEALTH CARE SERVICES AMONG ADULTS ATTENDING A HEALTH FAIR IN SOUTH LOS ANGELES COUNTY

    OpenAIRE

    Macias, Eduardo P.; Morales, Leo S.

    2000-01-01

    A bilingual survey was developed to collect information regarding socio-demographics, access to medical and dental care, health insurance coverage, perceived health status, and use of folk medicine providers from 70 adults presenting to a health fair in South Los Angeles County. Ninety-seven percent of respondents were foreign-born. Seventy-nine percent reported having no health insurance during the year prior to survey. Of the uninsured, 61 percent lacked a doctor visit and 76 percent lacked...

  5. Sociodemographic and Clinical Characteristics of Patients attending Psychotherapy in a Tertiary Care Hospital in Oman

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    Zena Al-Sharbati

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: There is significant evidence that psychotherapy is a pivotal treatment for persons diagnosed with Axis I clinical psychiatric conditions; however, a psychotherapy service has only recently been established in the Omani health care system. This study aimed to investigate the sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of attendees at a psychotherapy clinic at a tertiary care hospital. Methods: An analysis was carried out of 133 new referrals to the Psychotherapy Service at Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, a tertiary care hospital. Results: The majority of referrals were females (59%, aged 18–34 years, employed (38%, had ≤12 years of formal education (51%, and were single (54%. A total of 43% were treated for anxiety disorders (including obsessive compulsive disorder, while 22% were treated for depression. A total of 65% were prescribed psychotropic medications. The utilisation of the Psychotherapy Service and its user characteristics are discussed within the context of a culturally diverse Omani community which has unique personal belief systems such as in supernatural powers (Jinn, contemptuous envy (Hassad, evil eye (Ain and sorcery (Sihr which are often used to explain the aetiology of mental illness and influence personal decisions on utilising medical and psychological treatments. Conclusion: Despite the low number of referrals to the Psychotherapy Service, there is reason to believe that psychotherapy would be an essential tool to come to grips with the increasing number of mental disorders in Oman.

  6. Psychiatric morbidity in elderly patients attending OPD of tertiary care centre in western region of Nepal

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    Prakash Thapa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Aging of population is currently a global phenomenon. At least one in 5 people over the age of 65 years will suffer from a mental disorder by 2030. Study of psychiatric morbidities in this age group is essential to prepare for upcoming challenges. Aims: To find out the prevalence of different psychiatric morbidities in elderly population and to find out if there are any age and gender specific differences. Settings and Design: Retrospective review; Psychiatric outpatient department of Manipal Teaching Hospital, Pokhara, Nepal. Materials and Methods: Data for patients ≥ 65 years of age attending the psychiatric outpatient department of Manipal Teaching Hospital, Pokhara, Nepal, from 1 st January 2012 to 15 th January 2013 were collected retrospectively in a predesigned proforma. Statistical Analysis Used: Risk of having different psychiatric disorders was estimated using odds ratio. Results: The mean age of 120 patients included in this study was 69.67 (SD = 5.94 years. Depressive disorder (26.7% was the most common diagnosis. There was no statistically significant difference in psychiatric disorders in >75 years compared with ≤75 years except for dementia [odd ratio (OR (≤75 years/>75 years=0.055, 95% confidence interval (CI=0.016; 0.194]. Alcohol dependence syndrome [OR (male/female=7.826, 95% CI = 1.699;36.705] and dementia [OR (male/female=3.394, 95% CI = 1.015;11.350] was more common in males. Conclusions: Depressive disorder was the most common psychiatric morbidity among the elderly patients. The odds suffering from dementia increased with increasing age. The odds of having alcohol related problems and dementia were more in males compared with females.

  7. Cortisol Levels and Children's Orientation in Day Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reunamo, Jyrki; Sajaniemi, Nina; Suhonen, Eira; Kontu, Elina

    2012-01-01

    Children's stress in day care is related to the stressful qualities of the environment and to children's orientations in that environment. The study involved 55 children in five day centres in Finland. Baseline saliva samples for measuring cortisol (stress) levels were collected five times during the day. Children were interviewed to measure their…

  8. Intergenerational pathways leading to foster care placement of foster care alumni’s children

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson Foster, Lovie J.; Beadnell, Blair; Pecora, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined a path model that postulated intergenerational relationships between biological parent psychosocial functioning and foster care alumni mental health, economic status, and social support; and from these to the likelihood of children of foster care alumni being placed in foster care. The sample included 742 adults who spent time in foster care as children with a private foster care agency and who reported having at least one biological child. A full pathway was found between...

  9. Prevalence of vulvovaginal candidiasis among nonpregnant women attending a tertiary health care facility in Abuja, Nigeria

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    Emeribe AU

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Anthony Uchenna Emeribe,1 Idris Abdullahi Nasir,2 Justus Onyia,2 Alinwachukwu Loveth Ifunanya31Department of Medical Laboratory Science, University of Calabar, Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria; 2Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Abuja Teaching Hospital, Gwagwalada, Federal Capital Territory, Nigeria; 3Department of Medical Laboratory, School of Health Technology, Tsafe, Zamfara State, NigeriaBackground: Candida spp. are normal flora of the vagina that eventually become pathogenic under some prevailing conditions, and thus present as a common etiology of vulvovaginitis. When prompt recognition and laboratory confirmation is not achieved, this could lead to devastating genital discomfort and a major reason for frequent hospital visits.Aims: This was a cross-sectional prospective study that aimed to determine the prevalence and some associated risk factors of vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC among nonpregnant women attending University of Abuja Teaching Hospital, Gwagwalada.Subjects and methods: A pair of high vaginal swab and endocervical swab samples was collected from each of 200 individual participating subjects. They were separately inoculated on Sabouraud's dextrose agar and incubated aerobically at 33°C for 48 hours. Ten percent KOH wet mount and Gram staining was done on swabs and colonies, respectively. Structured questionnaires were used to obtain sociodemographic and clinical data.Results: Of the 200 participating subjects, the prevalence of Candida albicans was 6.5% and that of non-albicans candidiasis 7.5%. Candidiasis was observed mostly among the 20- to 30-year age-group. All subjects with Candida-positive culture had been on antibacterial therapy prior to participating in this study – 28 (100%. There was a statistical relationship between the prevalence of VVC with previous antibacterial therapy (P<0.05, but not with age or other prevailing health conditions studied (P>0.05.Conclusion: The outcome of this study

  10. Comparison of Optimal Cardiovascular Risk Factor Management in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Who Attended Urban Medical Health Center with those Attended a Tertiary Care Center: Experiences from Tehran, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, Sedighe; Haji Ghanbari, Mohammad Javad; Ebrahimi, Hedyeh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Diabetes is a leading cause of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Moreover, CVD accounts for primary cause of death among diabetic patients. Physicians, especially in the primary care setting, have effective role in the management of cardiovascular risk factors. Therefore, we aimed to compare the prevalence of modifiable cardiovascular risk factors in Type 2 diabetic patients attending to an urban health center as a primary care center with Institute of Endocrinology and Metabolism Diabetes Clinic (IEMDC) as a tertiary center. Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed on 200 adult diabetic patients attending urban health center (Abouzar Health Center) and 201 diabetic patients in a tertiary center. The patients’ cardiovascular risk factors including lipid profile, systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP), and smoking history were recorded. The number of patients who did not achieve the target according to the American Diabetes Association guidelines was determined and compared. Results: The patients in urban health center were older than those who attending IEMDC (P = 0.004). The duration of diabetes was longer among urban center patients (P glycosylated hemoglobin level, high-density lipoprotein level, and systolic BP. Conclusions: Both centers have failure in target achievement in some risk factors; however, the inability of the primary care center in controlling hyperlipidemia in comparison with the tertiary center is a serious warning to provide training about managing dyslipidemia in these centers. PMID:27761215

  11. Why do some women still prefer traditional birth attendants and home delivery?: a qualitative study on delivery care services in West Java Province, Indonesia

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    Titaley Christiana R

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Trained birth attendants at delivery are important for preventing both maternal and newborn deaths. West Java is one of the provinces on Java Island, Indonesia, where many women still deliver at home and without the assistance of trained birth attendants. This study aims to explore the perspectives of community members and health workers about the use of delivery care services in six villages of West Java Province. Methods A qualitative study using focus group discussions (FGDs and in-depth interviews was conducted in six villages of three districts in West Java Province from March to July 2009. Twenty FGDs and 165 in-depth interviews were conducted involving a total of 295 participants representing mothers, fathers, health care providers, traditional birth attendants and community leaders. The FGD and in-depth interview guidelines included reasons for using a trained or a traditional birth attendant and reasons for having a home or an institutional delivery. Results The use of traditional birth attendants and home delivery were preferable for some community members despite the availability of the village midwife in the village. Physical distance and financial limitations were two major constraints that prevented community members from accessing and using trained attendants and institutional deliveries. A number of respondents reported that trained delivery attendants or an institutional delivery were only aimed at women who experienced obstetric complications. The limited availability of health care providers was reported by residents in remote areas. In these settings the village midwife, who was sometimes the only health care provider, frequently travelled out of the village. The community perceived the role of both village midwives and traditional birth attendants as essential for providing maternal and health care services. Conclusions A comprehensive strategy to increase the availability, accessibility, and

  12. Effects of a Supplemental Spanish Oral Language Program on Sentence Length, Complexity, and Grammaticality in Spanish-Speaking Children Attending English-Only Preschools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restrepo, M. Adelaida; Castilla, Anny P.; Schwanenflugel, Paula J.; Neuharth-Pritchett, Stacey; Hamilton, Claire E.; Arboleda, Alejandra

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a supplemental Spanish language instruction program for children who spoke Spanish as their native language and were attending English-only preschool programs. Specifically, the study evaluated the program's effects on the children's Spanish sentence length in words, subordination…

  13. Pulmonary Epithelial Integrity in Children: Relationship to Ambient Ozone Exposure and Swimming Pool Attendance

    OpenAIRE

    Lagerkvist, Birgitta Json; Bernard, Alfred; Blomberg, Anders; Bergstrom, Erik; Forsberg, Bertil; Holmstrom, Karin; Karp, Kjell; Lundstrom, Nils-Goran; Segerstedt, Bo; Svensson, Mona; Nordberg, Gunnar

    2004-01-01

    Airway irritants such as ozone are known to impair lung function and induce airway inflammation. Clara cell protein (CC16) is a small anti-inflammatory protein secreted by the nonciliated bronchiolar Clara cells. CC16 in serum has been proposed as a noninvasive and sensitive marker of lung epithelial injury. In this study, we used lung function and serum CC16 concentration to examine the pulmonary responses to ambient O3 exposure and swimming pool attendance. The measurements were made on 57 ...

  14. Identifying Divergent Foster Care Careers for Danish Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fallesen, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Foster care children who experience placement disruption and foster care instability are at elevated risk for a host of poor outcomes, yet little work considers what these unstable foster care careers look like or what causes them. In this article, I start by using previous studies on foster care...

  15. Utilization of Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV Services and Associated Factors among Antenatal Care Attending Mothers in Sebeta Town, Central Ethiopia

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    Hailu Merga

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. HIV transmission from mother to child continues to be the major source of HIV infection among children under the age of fifteen. Targeting pregnant women attending antenatal clinics provides a unique opportunity for implementing prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT programs against HIV infection of newborn babies. This study assessed utilization of PMTCT service of HIV and associated factors among ANC attending mothers. Methods. An institutional based cross-sectional study was conducted from February 20 to March 30, 2015, using exit interviews with 377 ANC attendees using consecutive sampling method. In-depth interviews with service provider were conducted to complement the quantitative data. Data were entered and analysed using EpiData and SPSS, respectively. Results. The prevalence of PMTCT service utilization was 86.9% in this study. Only 8.6% of respondents attended the facility for HCT. After controlling confounders using logistic regression, PMTCT service utilization was associated with age (25–34 of respondents (AOR (95% CI = 0.46 (0.22, 0.97, mother’s occupational status (being merchant AOR (95% CI = 0.31 (0.12, 0.83, government employee AOR (95% CI = 0.05 (0.01, 0.28, student AOR (95% CI = 0.1 (0.01, 0.44, and daily laborer AOR (95% CI = 0.13 (0.05, 0.33, husband’s educational status (lack of formal education (AOR (95% CI = 3.3 (1.1, 9.9, having discussion with husband (AOR (95% CI = 6.1 (2.6, 14.1, partner tested (AOR (95% CI = 8.2 (1.9, 34.46, and being not satisfied with the service (AOR (95% CI = 0.46 (0.2, 0.99. Conclusions. This study revealed that utilization of HIV counseling and testing during antenatal care was high among pregnant women in Sebeta town. It highlights that focusing on improvement of quality and coverage of health services has significant effects on PMTCT service utilization. Effective use or uptake of ARV drug among HIV-positive pregnant women should be further investigated so that

  16. Frequency and risk factors associated with dry eye in patients attending a tertiary care ophthalmology center in Mexico City

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    Martinez JD

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Jaime D Martinez,1 Anat Galor,2,3 Nallely Ramos-Betancourt,1 Andrés Lisker-Cervantes,1 Francisco Beltrán,1 Jorge Ozorno-Zárate,1 Valeria Sánchez-Huerta,1 Marco-Antonio Torres-Vera,1 Everardo Hernández-Quintela1 1Cornea and External Diseases Service, Asociación Para Evitar la Ceguera en Mexico (Association to prevent blindness in Mexico, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico City, Mexico; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Miami Veterans Affairs Medical Center, 3Cornea and External Diseases Division, Bascom Palmer Eye Institute, University of Miami, Miami, FL, USA Purpose: The purpose of this study was to ascertain the frequency and risk factors of dry eye (DE among patients attending a tertiary care ophthalmology center in Mexico.Methods: Approximately 338 consecutive new patients attending a tertiary care ophthalmology center in Mexico City underwent an ocular surface examination, which included tear film break-up time, fluorescein corneal staining, Schirmer’s test, and evaluation of meibum quality. Symptoms of DE were evaluated by the Ocular Surface Disease Index and Dry Eye Questionnaire-5. Information on demographics, exposures, past medical and ocular history, and medications was also collected.Results: The frequency of severe DE symptoms was found to be 43% based on the Ocular Surface Disease Index and 30% based on Dry Eye Questionnaire-5. Risk factors significantly associated with increased DE symptoms included dry mouth and gastrointestinal ulcer medications. With regard to signs, aqueous tear deficiency was a less-frequent finding (22% in our population than evaporative deficiency (94%. Risk factors associated with aqueous tear deficiency were dry mouth and diuretic use. No risk factors were associated with evaporative deficiency. Risk factors associated with meibomian gland dysfunction included old age, male sex, arthritis, and use of an antihypertensive. The only risk factor associated with corneal staining was dry

  17. Prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis by PCR in men attending a primary care urology clinic in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Jun-Hyeok; Yang, Hye-Won; Joo, So-Young; Song, Su-Min; Lee, Yu-Ran; Ryu, Jae-Sook; Yoo, Eun Sang; Lee, Won Kee; Kong, Hyun-Hee; Lee, Sang-Eun; Lee, Won-Ja; Goo, Youn-Kyoung; Chung, Dong-Il; Hong, Yeonchul

    2014-10-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis, a causative agent of trichomoniasis, may trigger symptomatic or asymptomatic nongonococcal urethritis and chronic prostatitis in men. Despite the availability of highly sensitive diagnostic tests, such as nucleic acid amplification tests, including PCR, few prospective studies present data on male T. vaginalis infection in South Korea. In the present study, the prevalence of T. vaginalis and associated clinical conditions were evaluated in 201 male patients from a primary care urology clinic in South Korea. The prevalence of T. vaginalis infection in our cohort was 4% (8/201) by PCR. T. vaginalis infection was common in men older than 40 years (median age, 52 years). Among the 8 Trichomonas-positive patients, 87.5% (7/8) had prostatic diseases, such as prostatitis and benign prostatic hyperplasia, and 25.0% (2/8) and 12.5% (1/8) were coinfected with Chlamydia trachomatis and Mycoplasma genitalium, respectively. Our results suggest that T. vaginalis infection is not rare in men attending primary care urology clinics in South Korea, especially in those older than 40 years, in whom it may explain the presence of prostatic disease. The possibility of T. vaginalis infection should be routinely considered in older male patients with prostatic diseases in South Korea.

  18. Prevalence of erectile dysfunction and its correlates among men attending primary care clinics in three countries: Pakistan, Egypt, and Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaeer, K Z M; Osegbe, D N; Siddiqui, S H; Razzaque, A; Glasser, D B; Jaguste, V

    2003-04-01

    The prevalence and correlates of erectile dysfunction (ED) in developing countries are largely unknown. Our objectives were to determine the prevalence and associated factors of ED in three countries (Pakistan, Egypt, Nigeria) that represent very different cultures. Men 35-70y of age seeking primary medical care answered a structured questionnaire adapted to reflect local cultures. Degree of ED was categorized as 'none,' 'mild,' 'moderate,' or 'complete.' The age-adjusted prevalence rates of ED among men attending primary care clinics was 57.4% in Nigeria, 63.6% in Egypt, and 80.8% in Pakistan. Older age, diabetes, peptic ulcers, prostate disease, depression-related symptoms, and caffeine consumption were independently associated with increased prevalence of ED, whereas being moderately active to very active at work (hard physical labor) and during leisure time (strenuous exercise) was associated with half the prevalence of moderate-to-complete ED. Our multicultural study demonstrates that in every country studied, high proportions of men older than age 35 have some degree of ED (57-81%). Both severity and prevalence increase consistently with age. Factors associated with ED are similar, but their distribution differs across countries. PMID:12825103

  19. Low serum Vitamin C status among pregnant women attending antenatal care at general hospital Dawakin Kudu, Northwest Nigeria

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    Emmanuel Ajuluchukwu Ugwa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vitamin C levels are low in pregnancy. The purpose of this study was to determine serum Vitamins C levels among pregnant women attending antenatal care at a General Hospital in Dawakin Kudu, Kano, and this can help further research to determine the place of Vitamin C supplementation in pregnancy. Methods: This was a prospective study of 400 pregnant women who presented for antenatal care in General Hospital Dawakin Kudu, Kano, Nigeria. Research structured questionnaire was administered to 400 respondents. Determination of serum Vitamin C was done using appropriate biochemical methods. Results: Vitamin C deficiency was found in 79.5% of the participants. The values for Vitamin C were 0.20 ± 0.18 mg/dl during the first trimester, 0.50 ± 0.99 mg/dl in the second trimester, and 0.35 ± 0.36 mg/dl in the third trimester and P = 0.001. Conclusions: There is a significant reduction in the serum Vitamins C concentration throughout the period of pregnancy with the highest levels in the second trimester. Therefore, Vitamin C supplementation is suggested during pregnancy, especially for those whose fruit and vegetable consumption is inadequate.

  20. Hospital-based home care for children with cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansson, Eva Helena; Kjaergaard, Hanne; Johansen, Christoffer;

    2013-01-01

    children and 43 parents in the home care group, and 47 children and 66 parents receiving standard hospital care. RESULTS: All parents in the HBHC program were satisfied and preferred home care. There were no serious adverse events associated with HBHC, and costs did not increase. When adjusting for age......BACKGROUND: To assess the feasibility and psychosocial impact of a hospital-based home care (HBHC) program for children with cancer. PROCEDURE: A HBHC program was carried out with 51 children (0-18 years) with cancer to assess its feasibility in terms of satisfaction, care preferences, safety......, gender, diagnosis and time since diagnosis, we found significant higher HRQOL scores in parent-reported physical health (P = 0.04; 95% confidence interval (CI): -0.2-19.5) and worry (P = 0.04; 95% CI: -0.4-20.6) in the home-care group indicating better physical health and less worry for children...

  1. Children without parental care as a vulnerable category

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    Kvrgić Svetlana T.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Health protection and health promotion are the primary goals of modern medicine. Since children's health is the cornerstone of adult's health, it must be in the center of all social and health care strategies. Vulnerability concept Vulnerability means exposure to harmful influences, risks or stress, which increases disease probability. The most vulnerable are categories that are exposed to influence of many harmful factors, which have minimal chances for survival and lowest quality of life. Vulnerability of children without parental care Vulnerability of children without parental care is caused by lack and/or inadequate family environment. These children are usually emotionally unstable; they frequently develop conduct disorders and have low self-esteem. As adolescents, these children have tendency to risky behavior, which greatly decreases their health potentials. Health status and quality of life All three components of health are endangered with children without parental care. These children present with physical, psycho-motoric and intellectual impairments. There are no studies about quality of life regarding these children, but we can assume that their quality of life is lower than in children who experience protective family environment, since quality of psychosocial factors and family environment are very important predictors of quality of life. Conclusion Children without parental care are an extremely vulnerable category, because they are subjected to various risk factors. Therefore, in order to improve health potentials and quality of life, special measures are required in health care, psychological care and social welfare.

  2. PSYCHIATRIC MORBIDITIES IN PATIENTS OF COPD AND BRONCHIAL ASTHMA ATTENDING OPD OF TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL

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    Ab. Majid

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Chronic pulmonary diseases are a global health problem and the number of patients being treated in primary care settings is increasing. The prevalence of a life-time diagnosis of asthma has increased in all age groups. There has been a dramatic shift in the conceptualization and treatment of asthma and COPD in the last 50 years. Psychiatric disorders, especially anxiety disorders, are very common in patients with asthma and COPD. Anxiety is also common in COPD and is related to some of the same factors described for asthma including the psychological response to the experience of breathlessness as well as side effects of beta-agonists. Since there is paucity of relevant data from Kashmir, this study was designed to find the co morbidity in patients of COPD and Asthma in a tertiary care teaching hospital in Srinagar, Kashmir. METHODS Sixty successive patients presents with history of thirty each of asthma and COPD who fulfilled inclusion and exclusion criteria were taken up for the study and administered the Hamilton depression rating scale (HAM-D and Hamilton Anxiety rating scale (HAM-A scales for evaluation of depressive disorder and anxiety disorder. Each patient was informed about the purpose of interview; his/her consent was obtained and strict confidentiality was ensured. General description, demographic data and psychiatric history were recorded using semi structured Proforma and HAM-A and HAM-D. RESULTS Out of sixty cases of COPD and Bronchial Asthma, 50% of the patients were in the age group of 66-80 followed by 35% in age group of 81-85 years. This could suggest that COPD and Bronchial Asthma is a problem of old age. There were predominantly more males (65% than females (35% in our study. Representations of gender, religion, family type and marital status have been found to be in accordance with socio-demographic profile of our country. Out of sixty cases of COPD and Bronchial Asthma, 35% of the patients were educated up to

  3. Cardiovascular risk rate in hypertensive patients attended in primary health care units: the influence of pharmaceutical care

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    Paulo Yuri Milen Firmino

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular complications are relevant due to their frequency and severity on the hypertension scenario. Studies refer Pharmaceutical Care (PC as capable of decreasing cardiovascular risk rate (%CVR on hypertensive patients. This study aimed to investigate, through a randomized clinical assay, the influence of PC service on the %CVR of hypertensive patients assisted in a health primary care unit from Fortaleza-Ceará. Two study groups were formed: i. Intervention Group (IG, which received orientation about taking medicines, actions aiming to prevent/solve medicine interactions and adverse effects and non-pharmacological interventions for 9 months and, ii. Control Group (CG, which received traditional assistance of the unit and was monitored during the same period. It was observed a statistically significant reduction on %CVR (10.76 to 7.86; p=0.04 and systolic blood pressure levels (SBP (137.69 to 131.54; p<0.01 in the IG, while, in the CG, there was no significant alteration. 151 Drug Related Problem (DRP were identified and it was realized 124 pharmaceutical interventions, with 89.2% of them resulting on solution/prevention of the problem. Our findings indicated that the inclusion of the PC service in the hypertensive health assistance was more effective at the %CVR and the SBP reduction in comparison to the traditional assistance offered.

  4. Racial versus Sexual Differentiation in Social Schemata of Children Attending Integrated and Nonintegrated Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davison, Dewitt C.

    1978-01-01

    Racial and sexual distinctions in social schemata of 328 second grade children were examined in this study. Photographs of Black and White male and female children were presented in three-picture sets, and subjects were asked to pair two of the pictures and separate the third. All groups paired photographs more often on race than on sex. (SE)

  5. Utility of Accelerometers to Measure Physical Activity in Children Attending an Obesity Treatment Intervention

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    Wendy Robertson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To investigate the use of accelerometers to monitor change in physical activity in a childhood obesity treatment intervention. Methods. 28 children aged 7–13 taking part in “Families for Health” were asked to wear an accelerometer (Actigraph for 7-days, and complete an accompanying activity diary, at baseline, 3-months and 9-months. Interviews with 12 parents asked about research measurements. Results. Over 90% of children provided 4 days of accelerometer data, and around half of children provided 7 days. Adequately completed diaries were collected from 60% of children. Children partake in a wide range of physical activity which uniaxial monitors may undermonitor (cycling, nonmotorised scootering or overmonitor (trampolining. Two different cutoffs (4 METS or 3200 counts⋅min-1 for minutes spent in moderate and vigorous physical activity (MVPA yielded very different results, although reached the same conclusion regarding a lack of change in MVPA after the intervention. Some children were unwilling to wear accelerometers at school and during sport because they felt they put them at risk of stigma and bullying. Conclusion. Accelerometers are acceptable to a majority of children, although their use at school is problematic for some, but they may underestimate children's physical activity.

  6. Deaf Children Attending Different School Environments: Sign Language Abilities and Theory of Mind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasuolo, Elena; Valeri, Giovanni; Di Renzo, Alessio; Pasqualetti, Patrizio; Volterra, Virginia

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined whether full access to sign language as a medium for instruction could influence performance in Theory of Mind (ToM) tasks. Three groups of Italian participants (age range: 6-14 years) participated in the study: Two groups of deaf signing children and one group of hearing-speaking children. The two groups of deaf…

  7. The Effects of Sleep Disturbance on School Performance: A Preliminary Investigation of Children Attending Elementary Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reale, Laura; Guarnera, Manuela; Mazzone, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    Sleep disorders in children are common. Sleep plays an important role in children's development and sleep disorders can have a substantial impact on their quality of life. Indeed, sleep is crucial for physical growth, behavior, and emotional development and it is also closely related to cognitive functioning, learning and attention, and…

  8. Nonpain symptoms of new and follow-up cancer patients attending a palliative care outpatient clinic in Saudi Arabia

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    Mohammad Zafir Al-Shahri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Epidemiology of cancer-related nonpain symptoms receives less attention in literature as compared with cancer pain. Objective : This paper aims at exploring the prevalence and severity of nonpain symptoms in cancer patients attending a palliative care (PC outpatient clinic. Materials and Methods : Over a 5 months period, consecutive adult cancer patients attending PC outpatient clinic at a tertiary hospital were evaluated for the presence and severity of 10 nonpain symptoms. Patients were grouped to new or follow-up cases and were also grouped according to performance status and cancer type. Prevalence and severity of symptoms were compared between groups using t test or analysis of variance as appropriate. Results : Fifty-one males and 73 females were interviewed. The most common cancer is female breast (27.4% followed by head and neck (15.3%. Majority of patients (67% were new to PC clinic. Patients had 5.1 nonpain symptoms on average, with most common symptoms being tiredness (79.8%, loss of appetite (71.8%, dry mouth (69.4%, anxiety (60.5%, and depression (50.8%. The least common symptoms were confusion and nausea (22.6% each. The median scores of severity were highest for tiredness, loss of appetite, dry mouth, and insomnia (5 points each. Symptoms were fewer among patients with good performance status (P = 0.002, whereas age, gender, cancer type, and encounter type were not associated with difference in symptom prevalence. Younger patients, females and those with poor performance status have shown a tendency toward higher severity scores for several symptoms. Conclusion : The significant prevalence and severity of nonpain symptoms among new and follow-up cancer patients seen in a PC outpatient clinic emphasizes the need for comprehensive assessment and routinely audited symptom management plans.

  9. Care coordination impacts on access to care for children with special health care needs enrolled in Medicaid and CHIP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Kipyn

    2014-05-01

    Children with special health care needs (CSHCN) often require services from multiple health care providers. This study's objective is to evaluate whether CSHCN, enrolled in Medicaid or the Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP) and receiving care coordination services, experience improved access to mental and specialty health care services. Using data from the 2009-2010 National Survey of Children with Special Health Care Needs, two separate outcomes are used to evaluate children's access to care: receipt of needed mental and specialty care and timely access to services. Using propensity score matching, CSHCN propensity for receiving care coordination services is derived and an assessment is made of care coordination's impact on the receipt of health care and whether care is delayed. Results demonstrate that care coordination is positively associated with whether a child receives the mental and specialty care that they need, regardless of whether or not that coordination is perceived to be adequate by parents. However, receiving care coordination services that parents perceive to be adequate has a larger impact on the timeliness in which care is received. This study indicates that care coordination is associated with an increased ability for CSHCN to access needed mental and specialty care. States should consider offering care coordination services that support provider communication and fulfill families' coordination needs to the CSHCN enrolled in their Medicaid and CHIP programs.

  10. Prevalence and Specificity of RBC Alloantibodies in Indian Patients Attending a Tertiary Care Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaman, Shamsuz; Chaurasia, Rahul; Chatterjee, Kabita; Thapliyal, Rakesh Mohan

    2014-01-01

    Background. Red blood cell (RBC) alloimmunization results from genetic disparity of RBC antigens between donor and recipients. Data about alloimmunization rate in general patient population is scarce especially from resource limited countries. We undertook this study to determine prevalence and specificity of RBC alloantibodies in patients admitted in various clinical specialties at a tertiary care hospital in North India. Methods. Antibody screening was carried out in 11,235 patients on automated QWALYS 3 platform (Diagast, Loos, France). Antibody identification was carried out with an 11-cell identification panel (ID-Diapanel, Diamed GmbH, Switzerland). Results. The overall incidence of RBC alloimmunization in transfused patients was 1.4% (157/11235), with anti-E being the most common specificity (36.3%), followed by anti-D (16%), anti-c (6.4%), anti-c + E (6.4%), anti-C + D (5.1%), and anti-K (4.5%). The highest incidence of alloimmunization was observed in hematology/oncology patients (1.9%), whereas in other specialties the range was 0.7-1%. Conclusion. As alloimmunization complicates the transfusion outcomes, authors recommend pretransfusion antibody screening and issue of Rh and Kell matched blood to patients who warrant high transfusion requirements in future. PMID:25386192

  11. Health-related quality of life among osteoarthritis patients attending primary care clinics of Mangalore city

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    HN Harsha Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Osteoarthritis (OA of the knee is the most common type of arthritis of the elderly among Asians. Reports suggest that it affects the quality of life. Hence, this study was undertaken with the objective to know the impact of OA of the knee on 8 domains of health related quality of life (HRQoL which include: (1 Physical functioning (PF, (2 role limitation due to physical health (RP. (3 Emotional well-being/mental health (MH, (4 role limitation due to emotional problems (RE, (5 energy/vitality, (6 social well-being (short form [SF], (7 body pain, (8 general health. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in primary care rural clinics situated on peripheral areas of Mangalore city. Total sample size was calculated to be 77. Patients who met the criteria of modified American Rheumatologic Association Classification for OA of knee were administered a SF-36 questionnaire to measure the HRQoL in the local language version. Mean scores (with its standard deviation across each domain was calculated. Results: Of 80 patients, 38 were males. OA affected HRQoL. Four out 8 factors had more impact on HRQoL (they are PF, RP, MH, RE. Duration of OA is an important determinant on HRQoL. Patients with newer onset of OA (4 years of OA (Domain, Mean, the emotional impact (MH, 44.67; RE, 45.67 reduced but the physical impact (PF, 47.83; RP, 19.75 persisted/got worse. Conclusion: Osteoarthritis had impact on HRQoL. Duration of OA determines the kind of impact. With the onset of OA emotional/mental support would be needed in addition to the medical treatment. As the disease progresses, they tend to cope with emotional/mental problems even as the physical problems persist/increase.

  12. Chikungunya fever among patients with acute febrile illness attending a Tertiary Care Hospital in Mumbai

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    Lata Baswanna Galate

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chikungunya fever (CHIK is an arboviral disease. Dengue fever (DENG and CHIK are indistinguishable clinically and need to be differentiated by laboratory investigations. Purpose: This study aimed at estimating the seroprevalence of CHIK mono-infection and CHIK and DENG dual infection in suspected patients. We also analyzed the age, sex distribution, joint involvement, and relation of joint movement restriction with visual analog scale (VAS. Materials and Methods: Two hundred patients clinically suspected with DENG and CHIK were enrolled from a Tertiary Care Hospital in Mumbai from April 2012 to October 2013. The detailed history and examination findings were recorded. Serum samples were subjected to DENG and CHIK immunoglobulin G (IgM enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Results: The seroprevalence of CHIK was 12.5%. Mono-infection of CHIK was 3%, and CHIK and DENG dual infection was 9.5%. Most affected age group in CHIK cases was 46-60 years wherein female preponderance was seen. All 6 patients with CHIK mono-infection had fever and joint involvement; knee and elbow were the most commonly affected joints. All CHIK patients had VAS score of 6-10 with restricted joint movement. Of the patients with dual infection, the majorities were from 31 to 45 years with male preponderance; all had fever and joint pain mainly affecting knee and elbow. Of patients who had VAS score 6-10 in patients with dual infection, only 5.26% had restricted joint movement. Conclusion: IgM ELISA for Chikungunya infection should be included in the routine laboratory tests for acute febrile illness.

  13. Knowledge of and attitude to foot care amongst Type 2 diabetes patients attending a university-based primary care clinic in Nigeria

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    Rabi I. Ekore

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Individuals living with diabetes mellitus are at an increased risk of developing foot ulcers and cardiovascular complications or a neuropathy that may result in amputations. These complications have been shown to be already present in about 10% of diabetic patients at the time of diagnosis.Objectives: This study was carried out to determine the level of awareness and attitude to foot care among adult diabetic patients attending a university health centre (i.e. a primary care centre and to emphasise the ever-present need for health education and promotion and early complication detection (especially of foot problems among diabetic patients.Method: A descriptive cross-sectional, clinic-based study was carried out at the University of Ibadan Health Centre (Jaja Clinic. The study population consisted of consenting adult diabetic patients. Data were collected by the self-administration of structured questionnaires to eligible subjects and were analysed using the SPSS v.15software. Appropriate statistics were employed to analyse the collected data.Results: A total of 137 patients participated in the study and ranged in age from 37 to 75 years, with the mean ± SD age being 58.2 ± 9.2 years. Of the participants, 98 (71.5% were men and 39 (28.5%were women; all of the participants were married. The duration of illness ranged from 1 year to 20 years, with the median duration of illness being 3 ± 1.7 years. One hundred and twenty-six (92%patients had never received any education on foot care from their healthcare providers, while 11(8% had received some form of foot care education. Among those who had never received any foot care education, 92 (73% had been diabetic for 1–5 years, while the remaining 34 (27% had been diabetic for 6 – 20 years. Of the foot care measures that were known, 35 (25.5% patients knew to wash their feet daily and dry in between the toes thoroughly, 31 (22.6% knew not to go outdoors barefooted, 27 (19.7% checked

  14. Estado nutricional e consumo de energia e nutrientes de pré-escolares que frequentam creches no município de Manaus, Amazonas: existem diferenças entre creches públicas e privadas? Estado nutricional y consumo de energía y nutrientes de pre-escolares que frecuentan guarderías en el municipio de Manaus, Amazonas (Brasil: ¿existen diferencias entre guarderías públicas y privadas? Nutritional status and energy and nutrients intake of children attending day-care centers in the city of Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil: are there differences between public and private day-care centers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Mendes Tavares

    2012-01-01

    consumo alimentar en la guardería fue evaluado por el método de pesaje directo individual de los alimentos y, en el domicilio, por el registro alimentar de un día aplicado a los responsables. Se estimó la frecuencia de niños con ingestión de nutrientes por encima o por debajo de los puntos de corte de Estimated Average Intake (EAR o Adequate Intake (AI. RESULTADOS: Se verificó mayor frecuencia de niños con exceso de peso en las guarderías privadas, por los índices de peso para estatura e IMC para edad. Los niños de las instituciones públicas, cuando comparados a aquellos de las privadas, consumieron más grasas poliinsaturadas, trans, ácido graso omega-6, vitamina C y sodio, y menos zinc. En ambos tipos de guarderías, se observaron consumo elevado de energía y proporción elevada de niños con consumo de vitaminas A y C, zinc y sodio por encima del límite superior tolerable de ingestión. La proporción de niños con inadecuación de consumo de calcio fue mayor en las guarderías públicas que en las privadas (27,6 versus 7,9%; pOBJECTIVES: To assess the nutritional status and dietary intakes of children attending public and private day care centers in Manaus, Brazil. METHODS: The study assessed children aged 24 to 72 months, enrolled at two public (n=217 and two private (n=91 day care centers in Manaus. Nutritional status was classified according to Z scores for weight-for-age, weight-for-height, height-for-age and BMI-for-age. Dietary intakes were measured using the direct food-weighing method for 1 day. A 1-day dietary recall was administered to parents to assess dietary intakes outside the day care centers. The frequencies of children with nutrient intakes above and below the Estimated Average Requirements (EAR or Adequate Intake (AI cutoffs were calculated. RESULTS: There proportion of overweight children was higher at the private day care centers, according to both weight-for-height and BMI-for-age indexes. Children from the public day care centers

  15. Desempenho motor de lactentes frequentadores de berçários em creches públicas Motor performance of infants attending the nurseries of public day care centers

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    Letícia Baltieri

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar o desempenho motor axial, apendicular e global e sua correlação com as características neonatais, familiares e de tempo de exposição à creche em crianças com idade entre 12-24 meses, frequentadoras de creches públicas. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal com 40 lactentes (idade média 14,3±2,4 meses frequentadores de creches públicas. Os participantes foram avaliados quanto ao desempenho motor com a Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development-III, a qual possibilita análise do desempenho motor e comparação dos domínios motores axial e apendicular. Foram coletados dados neonatais, familiares e de exposição à creche e pesquisou-se a correlação destes fatores ao desempenho motor. Foi utilizado o teste t pareado para comparar médias e a correlação de Pearson. RESULTADOS: O desempenho motor do grupo esteve, em média, abaixo da referência, com 22,5% das crianças classificadas como suspeitas de atraso nos desempenhos axial e global, contrastando com nenhuma no domínio apendicular. A comparação axial e apendicular apontou diferença significativa, com desempenho axial aquém do apendicular, além de 35% do grupo ter apresentado discrepância significativa entre esses domínios. Não foi encontrada correlação linear entre os domínios motores avaliados e as variáveis neonatais, familiares e de exposição à creche. CONCLUSÕES: O desempenho motor global do grupo esteve abaixo da média de referência, com desempenho motor axial inferior ao apendicular e importante discrepância entre esses. Recomenda-se atenção às habilidades motoras axiais e às oportunidades de exploração que o ambiente em creches pode propiciar, especialmente no decorrer dos dois primeiros anos de vida.OBJECTIVE: To analyze gross, fine and global motor performance and its correlation with neonatal and familial variables and day care exposure among children between 12-24 months of age attending public day care centers. METHODS: This

  16. The Physical and Mental Health of Children in Foster Care

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    Pietro Ferrara

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: To evaluate physical and mental health in children in foster care and comparison with general population.Methods: The study is carried out between September 2011 and April 2012 into nine group homes in Rome. It involved 112 children ranging in age 2-17 years, living in temporary care facilities or institutes. All data came out of clinical history and physical exams, validated by a pediatrician. Such data were being then compared with samples of general population.Results: Significant themes were high percentage of children with psychiatric disorders in foster care (22.3%; high percentage of psychiatric disorders diagnosed immediately while arriving at the foster care (56%; no significant differences in weight, height and BMI between children in foster care and general population; significant differences (P<0.05 for allergy, gastrointestinal diseases and caries between children in foster care and general population.Conclusion: The results suggest that the physical health of children in group homes is no worse than that of children living care in their own homes and that the foster care provides necessary conditions to support the growth of the children and their physical, mental and social needs.

  17. Prueba de Aptitud para el Aprendizaje de Lenguas Extranjeras (PAPALE) Language Aptitude Test (LAT) (First and Second Versions). English for Special Purposes. Emergency Care Attendant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muro, Gertrude

    This book contains two versions of the Language Aptitude Test. It is part of a package of materials developed for use in an English for Special Purposes project, which offers classes in reading, grammar, and emergency care attendant training for limited English proficient students. Introductory material describes the parts of two versions and…

  18. Plasmodium falciparum malaria in pregnancy: Prevalence of peripheral parasitaemia, anaemia and malaria care-seeking behaviour among pregnant women attending two antenatal clinics in Edo State, Nigeria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.F.O. Enato; P.F. Mens; A.O. Okhamafe; E.E. Okpere; E. Pogoson; H.D.F.H. Schallig

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluated malaria care-seeking behaviour, as well as the prevalence of parasitaemia and anaemia among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics of two tertiary healthcare facilities in Edo State, Nigeria. Malaria was highly prevalent in the study group (20%) by microscopy and estimated 2

  19. Health-related quality of life in patients with knee osteoarthritis attending two primary care clinics in Malaysia: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Zakaria Zainal F; Bakar Azman A; Hasmoni Hadzri M; Rani Fauzi A; Kadir Samiah A

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Measurement of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among patients with osteoarthritis (OA) helps the health care provider to understand the impact of the disease in the patients' own perspective and make health services more patient-centered. The main aim of this study was to measure the quality of life among patients with symptomatic knee OA attending primary care clinic. We also aimed to ascertain the association between socio-demographic and medical status of patient...

  20. The impact of informal care-giving networks on adult children's care-giver burden

    OpenAIRE

    Tolkacheva, N.; Broese van Groenou, M. I.; Boer; Tilburg, van, P.J.A.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research on the care-giver burden experienced by adult children has typically focused on the adult child and parent dyad. This study uses information on multiple informal care-givers and examines how characteristics of the informal care-giving network affect the adult child's care-giver burden. In 2007, 602 Dutch care-givers who were assisting their older parents reported on parental and personal characteristics, care activities, experienced burden and characteristics of other inform...

  1. Anemia em crianças menores de cinco anos que freqüentam creches públicas do município do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Anemia in children under five years old attended at public day care centers from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabela Escórcio Augusto da Matta

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: estimar a prevalência de anemia em crianças matriculadas em creches municipais do Rio de Janeiro e identificar os subgrupos de maior risco. MÉTODOS: foram avaliadas 865 crianças. A hemoglobina (Hb foi dosada em fotômetro portátil (HemoCue e a anemia foi definida quando Hb OBJECTIVES: to assess anemia prevalence in children enrolled in daycare centers in the city of Rio de Janeiro to determine the more at risk subgroups. METHODS: 865 children were assessed. Hemoglobin (Hb was measured in a portable photometer (HemoCue and anemia was defined with Hb<11g/dL and <9.5g/dL for children over and under six months old respectively. Biological, social and economic information was obtained by questionnaires responded by the mothers. RESULTS: anemic children had means of z weight score for their ages (-0.239 and height for age ( -0.548 lower than the non-anemic children. Anemia risk was higher for children under two years old (prevalence ratio of [PR]1.73; confidence interval [IC95%: 1.52-1.97, for the ones who had parents with less than four years of schooling (PR=1.57; IC95%: 1.24-1.99 and lived in homes with more than eight family members (PR=1.45; IC95%: 1.07-1.95. CONCLUSIONS: anemia prevalence was high. Children who were underweight and with short height for their age, under two years old, living in crowded homes and with low parental schooling were more vulnerable to anemia and should be the focus for control and prevention.

  2. Incidence of nutritional anaemia among the under five children attending Ahmed Gasim hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A survey was carried out in Khartoum North Ahmed Gasim specialist Hospital for children to identify aetiological factors that lead to incidence of nutritional anaemia among children under under five years of age. The sample consists of 192 patients taken from the hospital wards (experimental group), and 60 healthy children taken from out patient vaccination department of same hospital. A questionnaire was used as a tool for collection data regarding children and their families with emphasis to general information, socio-economic information, dietary information, anthropometric information, medical history and laboratory investigations including haemoglobin, hematocrit (PCV)%, peripheral blood picture, serum ferritin, serum folate and serum B12. Results show no correlation between anaemia and age R(0.1048) p12 deficiency. Some children affected had mixed deficiency anaemia (3.182). Iron deficiency without anaemia was common among healthy children (control) 22.8%. Some recommendations were set for the improvement of the existing situation e.g. health education, nutrition education with emphasis on intake of supplements and weaning diets rich in iron and folate. Follow up and surveillance program to compact nutritional anaemia should be adopted.(Author)

  3. Primary care for children with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone, Paul S; Farley, Megan; Davis, Toby

    2010-02-15

    The earliest sign of autism in children is the delayed attainment of social skill milestones, including joint attention, social orienting, and pretend play. Language impairment is a common, but less specific, sign of autism. Repetitive behaviors and restricted interests may not be noted until after social skill and communication impairments are exhibited. Physicians should perform developmental surveillance at all well-child visits, and the American Academy of Pediatrics recommends administering an autism-specific screening tool at the 18- and 24-month visits. A referral for comprehensive diagnostic evaluation is appropriate if concerns arise from surveillance, screening, or parental observations. The goals of long-term management are to maximize functional independence and community engagement, minimize maladaptive behaviors, and provide family and caregiver support. Physicians play an important role in coordinating care through an interdisciplinary team; referring families for specialized services; and treating children's associated conditions, including sleep disturbances, gastrointestinal problems, anxiety, and hyperactivity. Autism is a lifelong condition, but early recognition, diagnosis, and treatment can improve the prognosis, whereas associated medical conditions, psychiatric conditions, and intellectual disability can worsen the prognosis.

  4. Primary care for children with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone, Paul S; Farley, Megan; Davis, Toby

    2010-02-15

    The earliest sign of autism in children is the delayed attainment of social skill milestones, including joint attention, social orienting, and pretend play. Language impairment is a common, but less specific, sign of autism. Repetitive behaviors and restricted interests may not be noted until after social skill and communication impairments are exhibited. Physicians should perform developmental surveillance at all well-child visits, and the American Academy of Pediatrics recommends administering an autism-specific screening tool at the 18- and 24-month visits. A referral for comprehensive diagnostic evaluation is appropriate if concerns arise from surveillance, screening, or parental observations. The goals of long-term management are to maximize functional independence and community engagement, minimize maladaptive behaviors, and provide family and caregiver support. Physicians play an important role in coordinating care through an interdisciplinary team; referring families for specialized services; and treating children's associated conditions, including sleep disturbances, gastrointestinal problems, anxiety, and hyperactivity. Autism is a lifelong condition, but early recognition, diagnosis, and treatment can improve the prognosis, whereas associated medical conditions, psychiatric conditions, and intellectual disability can worsen the prognosis. PMID:20148499

  5. Oral health care for children – a call for action

    OpenAIRE

    Rowan-Legg, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Oral health is a fundamental component of overall health. All children and youth should have access to preventive and treatment-based dental care. Canadian children continue to have a high rate of dental disease, and this burden of illness is disproportionately represented by children of lower socioeconomic status, those in Aboriginal communities and new immigrants. In Canada, the proportion of public funding for dental care has been decreasing. This financial pressure has most affected low-i...

  6. Hospital-based home care for children with cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansson, Helena; Hallström, Inger; Kjaergaard, Hanne;

    2011-01-01

    Hospital-based home care (HBHC) is widely applied in Pediatric Oncology. We reviewed the potential effect of HBHC on children's physical health and risk of adverse events, parental and child satisfaction, quality of life of children and their parents, and costs. A search of PubMed, CINAHL...... for children with cancer....

  7. Health Care Coverage among Child Support-Eligible Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aron, Laudan Y.

    Using data from the National Survey of America's Families (a nationally representative survey of the economic, social, and health characteristics of children, adults, and their families), this paper discusses health care coverage among child support eligible children. It begins with a detailed profile of child support eligible children living with…

  8. Physician acceptance of home care for terminally ill children.

    OpenAIRE

    Edwardson, S R

    1985-01-01

    The study reported here explored the factors associated with the implementation of Martinson's model of home care and treatment for children in the terminal stages of illness with cancer. The model is described as an example of a health care strategy that was dramatically different from the prevalent model of care and may have conflicted with existing values. Data for the study were gathered from the hospital records of the children and from a survey of their oncologists. The findings suggest...

  9. Problematising Home-based Care for Children with Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Fletcher, Hannah Kate

    2013-01-01

    Background and Literature Review This study explores issues around home-based care for children with cancer. Current policy tends to promote home-based care for children with cancer; this project seeks to interrogate that approach further and to explore the evidence base for this policy direction. The literature review is structured around key themes and demonstrates the gap in the evidence from health care professionals‘ perspectives and UK based research Methodology I adopt a quali...

  10. Myths about diabetes mellitus among non-diabetic individuals attending primary health care centers of karachi suburbs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the myths and misconception about diabetes mellitus among non-diabetics attending primary health care centers of Gadap town, Karachi. Data was collected from four primary health care centers, located at Gadap Town, Karachi, and about 198 non-diabetic patients, above 18 years of age, and resident of Gadap Town, coming consecutively during the month of July 2005, were interviewed after taking the informed consent by using a semi-structured pre-tested questionnaire regarding prevailing myths about diabetes mellitus. The data collected was entered and analyzed by using a statistical package SPSS 11.0. Myths are defined as stories shared by a group, as part of the cultural identity. There were 198 participants in the study. Mean age of study participants was 40 years with standard deviation of 13, while approximately two thirds, 62.6%, were females. About 39% had history of type II diabetes mellitus in family. Overall myths related to diabetes mellitus were common among the individuals, males reported myths pre-dominantly contagiousness of diabetes (p= <0.03), diabetics becoming more ill (p=<0.009) and belief in spiritual treatment for permanent cure of diabetes (p=<0.006). People having 5- 16 years of education were less misconceived as compared to illiterates. The variables that showed significant difference were overeating, causing diabetes (p= <0.006), diabetics falling ill more than others (p=<0.04), eating less starch (p=< 0.0006) and alternative treatment like spiritual treatment (p=<0.00001). Family history of diabetes was also found significantly associated with reporting myths. Frequency of reporting myths was significantly high in this study with preponderance of males, family history of diabetes mellitus and educational status. Education serves as protective factor, hence efforts should be made to promote education and health awareness regarding the disease, with more emphasis on addressing myths regarding diabetes mellitus. (author)

  11. Mental health of carers of children affected by HIV attending community-based programmes in South Africa and Malawi

    OpenAIRE

    Skeen, Sarah; Tomlinson, Mark; Macedo, Ana; Croome, Natasha; Sherr, Lorraine

    2014-01-01

    There is strong evidence that both adults and children infected with and affected by HIV have high levels of mental health burden. Yet there have been few studies investigating carer mental health outcomes in the context of HIV in Malawi and South Africa. The objective of this study was to assess the mental health of carers of children affected by HIV as a part of the Child Community Care study, which aims to generate evidence on the effectiveness of community-based organisation (CBO) service...

  12. Pre-School Attendance and Child Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauchmüller, Robert; Gørtz, Mette; Rasmussen, Astrid Würtz

    , of total work experiences, ages and hourly wages of staff members. Those indicators show the expected correlations with children's development outcomes, better day-care quality being linked to better child outcomes ten years later. We use rich administrative information about the children's background......Earlier research suggests that children's development is shaped in their early years of life. This paper examines whether differences in day-care experiences during pre-school age are important for children's cognitive and language development at the age of 15. The analysis is based on class...... performance at the end of elementary schooling. We assess the effects of attended types and qualities of day-care institutions on various child outcomes as measured by school grades in mathematics, science, English and Danish for the whole Danish population as well as outcomes from the 2006 PISA Denmark...

  13. Labour Force Inclusion of Parents Caring for Children with Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roeher Inst., North York (Ontario).

    This report discusses the outcomes of a study that sought to identify the particular problems Canadian parents caring for children with disabilities face in trying to make the transition to work in terms of their child care arrangements and employment-related factors, and best practices in child care arrangements and employment accommodations.…

  14. An Intersectoral Response to Children with Complex Health Care Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Wendy; Earle, Jasmin; Dadebo, Mark

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to stimulate debate on how to define and enact public responsibility to children with complex health care needs and their families. We present a program, developed using the Auditor General's framework for accountability that involves Community Care Access Centres, schools and Saint Elizabeth Health Care, a complex…

  15. Child Care Assistance: Helping Parents Work and Children Succeed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Hannah; Walker, Christina

    2014-01-01

    Quality child care enables parents to work or go to school while also providing young children with the early childhood education experiences needed for healthy development. The Child Care and Development Block Grant (CCDBG) is the primary federal program that provides funding for child care assistance for low-income working parents. Child care…

  16. Palliative nursing care for children and adolescents with cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilmer MJ

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Terrah L Foster,1,2 Cynthia J Bell,1 Carey F McDonald,2 Joy S Harris,3 Mary Jo Gilmer,1,21Vanderbilt University School of Nursing, Nashville, 2Monroe Carell Jr Children's Hospital at Vanderbilt, Nashville, 3Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, USAAbstract: Pediatric palliative care aims to enhance life and decrease suffering of children and adolescents living with life-threatening conditions and their loved ones. Oncology nurses are instrumental in providing palliative care to pediatric oncology populations. This paper describes pediatric palliative care and provides an overview of literature related to the physical, psychological, social, and spiritual domains of palliative nursing care for children and adolescents with cancer. Nurses can provide optimal palliative care by accounting for children's understanding of death, encouraging early initiation of palliative care services, and improving utilization of pediatric palliative care in cancer settings. Specific roles of registered nurses and advanced practice nurses in pediatric palliative care will be addressed. Recommendations for future research are made to further advance the science of pediatric palliative care and decrease suffering for children and teens with cancer.Keywords: pediatric palliative care, pediatric cancer, oncology, child, suffering

  17. Does the Janani Suraksha Yojana cash transfer programme to promote facility births in India ensure skilled birth attendance? A qualitative study of intrapartum care in Madhya Pradesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarika Chaturvedi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Access to facility delivery in India has significantly increased with the Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY cash transfer programme to promote facility births. However, a decline in maternal mortality has only followed secular trends as seen from the beginning of the decade well before the programme began. We, therefore, examined the quality of intrapartum care provided in facilities under the JSY programme to study whether it ensures skilled attendance at birth. Design: 1 Non-participant observations (n=18 of intrapartum care during vaginal deliveries at a representative sample of 11 facilities in Madhya Pradesh to document what happens during intrapartum care. 2 Interviews (n=10 with providers to explore reasons for this care. Thematic framework analysis was used. Results: Three themes emerged from the data: 1 delivery environment is chaotic: delivery rooms were not conducive to safe, women-friendly care provision, and coordination between providers was poor. 2 Staff do not provide skilled care routinely: this emerged from observations that monitoring was limited to assessment of cervical dilatation, lack of readiness to provide key elements of care, and the execution of harmful/unnecessary practices coupled with poor techniques. 3 Dominant staff, passive recipients: staff sometimes threatened, abused, or ignored women during delivery; women were passive and accepted dominance and disrespect. Attendants served as ‘go-betweens’ patients and providers. The interviews with providers revealed their awareness of the compromised quality of care, but they were constrained by structural problems. Positive practices were also observed, including companionship during childbirth and women mobilising in the early stages of labour. Conclusions: Our observational study did not suggest an adequate level of skilled birth attendance (SBA. The findings reveal insufficiencies in the health system and organisational structures to provide an

  18. Assessment of the Psychosocial Development of Children Attending Nursery Schools in Karen Refugee Camps in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Akiko

    2013-01-01

    The Karen, an ethnic minority group in Burma, have experienced a prolonged state of exile in refugee camps in neighboring Thailand because of ethnic conflict in their home country. Nursery schools in the three largest Karen refugee camps aim to promote the psychosocial development of young children by providing a child-centered, creative,…

  19. Educational Attainments of Spina Bifida Children Attending Ordinary or Special Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Janet; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Spina Bifida children (N=22) in regular and special schools were matched for IQ and their academic achievement compared. Data from tests revealed that Ss from special schools were behind their peers in mathematics with no significant differences in reading. (CL)

  20. Antenatal care practice and the chance of having nurse/midwife birth attendant: a study in Central Mountain of Papua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinda Asiah Nuril Haya

    2015-01-01

    antenatal care (ANC are important factors in decreasing maternal mortality rate.  This study aimed to identify the association of ANC to nurse/midwife-assisted birth in Papua.Methods: The subjects of this cross-sectional study and purposive sampling consisted of females with toddlers in the family visiting the integrated community center on 15-30 January 2014 in 24 villages in Central Mountain of Jayawijaya, Papua. Several demographic characteristics, ANC practices, and labor practices were collected by interview. Analysis was carried out by Cox regression with constant time.Results: There were 469 subjects, but only 391 subjects were available for analysis which consisted of 280 subjects with self/family-assisted births and 111 with nurse/midwife-assistedbirths. There were only 3 subjects that gave birth in the forest or stable (“kandang hina”. Compared with those who never had ANC, those who had ANC in the integrated community center had 5.6-fold possibility to have a nurse/ midwife-assisted birth [adjusted relative risk (RRa = 5.60; 95% confidence interval (CI = 2.99-10.47]. In addition, compared with those who never had ANC, those who had ANC by midwife and 4 ANC visits had higher possibility to have nurse/midwife-assisted birth, 4.9-fold (RRa = 4.89; 95% CI = 2.70-8.86 and 6.9-fold (RRa = 6.90; 95% CI = 3.59-13.27 respectively.Conclusion: Antenatal care service is a possible way to increase the proportion of deliveries by nurse/midwife in Central Mountain of Jayawijaya, Papua. (Health Science Indones 2014;2:60-6Key words: antenatal care, nurse/midwife attended birth/labor, Papua

  1. Nutritional support of children in the intensive care unit.

    OpenAIRE

    Seashore, J. H.

    1984-01-01

    Nutritional support is an integral and essential part of the management of 5-10 percent of hospitalized children. Children in the intensive care unit are particularly likely to develop malnutrition because of the nature and duration of their illness, and their inability to eat by mouth. This article reviews the physiology of starvation and the development of malnutrition in children. A method of estimating the nutritional requirements of children is presented. The techniques of nutritional su...

  2. Effects of parental smoking on medical care utilization by children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, T M

    1984-01-01

    A household interview survey of 2,582 adult members of the Kaiser-Permanente Medical Care Program of Oregon conducted in 1970-71 contained detailed questions about cigarette smoking patterns. Detailed, computerized medical records were maintained for all inpatient and outpatient care rendered between 1967 and 1974 to the 1,761 children of the interviewed sample. Adjusted for age, family size, socioeconomic status, and duration of Health Plan membership, children in non-smoking households used significantly more outpatient services than did children in smoking households, a relationship largely accounted for by their use of more preventive medical services than by children in smoking households. There were no significant differences in inpatient medical care use and outpatient care use for respiratory illness by children of smoking and non-smoking households. PMID:6689838

  3. Cumulative Risks of Foster Care Placement for Danish Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fallesen, Peter; Emanuel, Natalia; Wildeman, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Although recent research suggests that the cumulative risk of foster care placement is far higher for American children than originally suspected, little is known about the cumulative risk of foster care placement in other countries, which makes it difficult to gauge the degree to which factor...... foster care placement is salient in other contexts. In this article, we provide companion estimates to those provided in recent work on the US by using Danish registry data and synthetic cohort life tables to show how high and unequally distributed the cumulative risk of foster care placement...... is for Danish children. Results suggest that at the beginning of the study period (in 1998) the cumulative risk of foster care placement for Danish children was roughly in line with the risk for American children. Yet, by the end of the study period (2010), the risk had declined to half the risk for American...

  4. Study of the effect of humanistic nursing care model wards in Children Caring Ward School on the nurses' caring ability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiao He; De-Ying Hu; Yi-Lan Liu; Li-Fen Wu; Lian Liu

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To understand the effect of humanistic nursing care model wards in Children Caring Ward School (CCWS) on the nurses' caring ability. Methods: Questionnaire 25 nurses of humanistic nursing care model wards in CCWS using the Nkongho Caring Ability Inventory (CAI) before and after implement the humanistic nursing care model, including reform the systems of nursing care, introduce humanistic care model, implement the humanistic care, to measure the nurses' caring ability. Results: The nurses' caring ability had significantly developed on total, cognition dimension, courage dimension and patience dimension after all measures considered (p Conclusions: The humanistic nursing care model wards in CCWS has a positive effect on the nurses' caring ability, not only to help build great relationships between nurses and patients but also to enhance the patients' satisfaction.

  5. The impact of extended radiology attending coverage in a children's hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective. In order to achieve more 'timely' interpretation of radiologic examinations, a 3 to 11 p.m. attending radiologist slot was incorporated into the daily schedule utilizing existing staff. Our purpose was to assess the effectiveness of this practice by measuring report generation times. Material and methods. Using a radiology information system (DecRAD), the time between completion of the technical examination and dictation of the official report for general (plain film) studies was determined for a 2-month period and compared to similar periods 1 and 2 years prior to instituting extended hours. Emergency and portable (ICU) exams were similarly analyzed. Results. The number of examinations reported within 2 h of technical completion increased by 8.5% (mean); reporting within 4 h increased by 20%; reporting within 6 and 12 h of completion each increased by 24%. Over 80% of cases were dictated within 12 h after the change in practice occurred; whereas, it took up to 24 h in preceding years. Analysis of emergency and portable ICU exams showed similar trends, and the number of next day 'call-backs' to the emergency department was significantly reduced. (orig.)

  6. BMI changes in children and adolescents attending a specialized childhood obesity center: a cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Maggio, Albane Bertha; Saunders, Catherine Tamsin; Gal-Duding, Claudine; Beghetti, Maurice; Martin, Xavier; Farpour-Lambert, Nathalie; Chamay-weber, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    Background Multidisciplinary group therapies for obese children and adolescents are effective but difficult to implement. There is a crucial need to evaluate simpler management programs that target the obese child and his family. This study aimed to determine changes in body mass indexes (BMI) after individual family-based obesity intervention with a pediatrician in a specialized obesity center for child and adolescent. Methods This cohort study included 283 patients (3.3 to 17.1 years, mean ...

  7. The relationship between treatment attendance, adherence, and outcome in a caregiver-mediated intervention for low-resourced families of young children with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Themba; Shih, Wendy; Lawton, Kathy; Lord, Catherine; King, Bryan; Kasari, Connie

    2016-08-01

    Rates of participation in intervention research have not been extensively studied within autism spectrum disorder. Such research is important given the benefit of early intervention on long-term prognosis for children with autism spectrum disorder. The goals of this study were to examine how family demographic factors predicted treatment attendance and adherence in a caregiver-mediated randomized controlled trial targeting core deficits of autism spectrum disorder, and whether treatment attendance and adherence predicted outcome. In all, 147 caregiver-child dyads from a low-resourced population were randomized to in-home caregiver-mediated module or group-based caregiver education module treatment. Treatment attendance, adherence, and outcome (time spent in joint engagement) were the primary outcome variables. The majority of families who entered treatment (N = 87) maintained good attendance. Attendance was significantly predicted by socioeconomic status, site, and treatment condition. Families in caregiver-mediated module reported lower levels of treatment adherence, which was significantly predicted by site, condition, caregiver stress, and child nonverbal intelligence quotient. Dyads in caregiver-mediated module had significantly longer interactions of joint engagement, which was significantly predicted by an interaction between treatment attendance and condition. Overall, the results from this study stress the importance of considering demographic variables in research design when considering barriers to treatment attendance and adherence. PMID:26290524

  8. The Economics of Adoption of Children from Foster Care

    OpenAIRE

    Mary Eschelbach Hansen; Bradley A. Hansen

    2005-01-01

    Federal initiatives since 1996 have intensified the efforts of states to achieve adoption for children in foster care with the case goal of adoption. For many waiting children, the path to adoption is long. We offer an economic analysis of adoption from foster care, with an emphasis on the reasons why it may be so difficult to achieve the goal of adoption for all waiting children. We then estimate the determinants of adoptions from foster care across the states using data for fiscal years 199...

  9. Self-care functional development analysis of children with Down Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Ferreira da Silva

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Down syndrome (DS differs from other genetic disorders by presenting a specific group of physical and mental characteristics, representing one of the most usual abnormalities of autosomal chromosomes and being the oldest known cause of mental retardation. It is characterized by a change in chromosome division resulting in the tripling of genetic material on chromosome 21. Objective: Highlight the functional performance in the area of self-care with DS in children from three to seven years old. Methodology: Seventeen children with DS participated in the research, attended at the Association of Parents and Friends of the Mentally Disabled (APAE, using the Pediatric Evaluation Disability Inventory (PEDI. Result: After test application, it was possible to observe that the functional performance of children with DS is lower than that of children with no syndrome, and that external factors such as the inclusion of children in the school process and the educational level of caretakers interfere in the development of children. Conclusion: PEDI has proved to be an important tool for health professionals, mainly for occupational therapists, since it identifies the specific areas that children are disadvantaged, allowing the possibility to intervene strategically in the specific difficulties of each child.

  10. Etiological beliefs of patients with neurological disorders attending a tertiary care center: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhupender Kumar Bajaj

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The understanding and management of neurological disorders is undergoing revolutionary changes over the last three decades in the background of ever increasing advances in medical technologies, diagnostic techniques, therapeutic processes and, molecular and genetic medicine. The fruits of these advances can reach patients only if the psychosocial hurdles in their delivery are identified, acknowledged and addressed. Aim: To explore the beliefs and practices of patients with neurological disorders in a tertiary care center in the eastern Nepal. Materials and Methods: One hundred patients attending neurology/medicine outpatient for neurological disorders were interviewed about their beliefs regarding the triggering factors, causation and treatment-seeking behavior particularly from traditional healers. Result: Of the 100 patients (49 males, 51 females recruited in the study, 51% expressed having ′no idea′ about their illness. Only 20% patients gave medically congruent explanation for their illness. Psychological factors were attributed as triggering factors by 16% of patients, of which two-thirds were females. Chance, destiny and ′jadu tona′ topped the list of triggering factors. Forty-four percent patients had sought help of traditional faith healers (′Dhami Jhakri′ before seeking medical help. Traditional faith healers were approached by patients irrespective of their educational background. Fifty-nine percent of patients who first sought traditional faith healers, believed in ′jadu-tona′. Of those interviewed, 16% were planning to go to a faith healer in near future. Conclusion: The beliefs of patients with neurological disorders frequently do not conform to current medical opinion. There is need for greater communication and education of patients by their treating physicians.

  11. Potential prescription patterns and errors in elderly adult patients attending public primary health care centers in Mexico City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corona-Rojo, José Antonio; Altagracia-Martínez, Marina; Kravzov-Jinich, Jaime; Vázquez-Cervantes, Laura; Pérez-Montoya, Edilberto; Rubio-Poo, Consuelo

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Six out of every 10 elderly persons live in developing countries. Objective To analyze and assess the drug prescription patterns and errors in elderly outpatients attending public health care centers in Mexico City, Mexico. Materials and methods A descriptive and retrospective study was conducted in 2007. Fourteen hundred prescriptions were analyzed. Prescriptions of ambulatory adults aged >70 years who were residents of Mexico City for at least two years were included. Prescription errors were divided into two groups: (1) administrative and legal, and (2) pharmacotherapeutic. In group 2, we analyzed drug dose strength, administration route, frequency of drug administration, treatment length, potential drug–drug interactions, and contraindications. Variables were classified as correct or incorrect based on clinical literature. Variables for each drug were dichotomized as correct (0) or incorrect (1). A Prescription Index (PI) was calculated by considering each drug on the prescription. SPSS statistical software was used to process the collected data (95% confidence interval; p <0.05). Results The drug prescription pattern in elderly outpatients shows that 12 drugs account for 70.72% (2880) of prescribed drugs. The most prescribed drugs presented potential pharmacotherapeutic errors (as defined in the present study). Acetylsalicylic acid–captopril was the most common potential interaction (not clinically assessed). Potential prescription error was high (53% of total prescriptions). Most of the prescription errors were due to omissions of dosage, administration route, and length of treatment and may potentially cause harm to the elderly outpatients. Conclusions A high number of potential prescription errors were found, mainly due to omissions. The drug prescription pattern of the study population is mainly constituted by 12 drugs. The results indicate that prescription quality depends on the number of prescribed drugs per prescription (p < 0

  12. Seasonal prevalence and incidence of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis and associated diarrhoea in children attending pre-schools in Kafue, Zambia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siwila, J.; Phiri, I.G.K.; Enemark, Heidi L.;

    2011-01-01

    Prevalence, incidence and seasonal variation of Cryptosporidium and Giardia duodenalis were studied over a 12-month period in 100 children from four pre-schools in Kafue, Zambia. Questionnaire data and a single stool sample were collected monthly from each child. Samples were processed using...... = 0.26). We conclude that gastro-intestinal protozoal infections are highly prevalent among children attending pre-school in peri-urban Zambia highlighting the need for further studies of risk factors....

  13. Cumulative risks of foster care placement for Danish children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Fallesen

    Full Text Available Although recent research suggests that the cumulative risk of foster care placement is far higher for American children than originally suspected, little is known about the cumulative risk of foster care placement in other countries, which makes it difficult to gauge the degree to which factor foster care placement is salient in other contexts. In this article, we provide companion estimates to those provided in recent work on the US by using Danish registry data and synthetic cohort life tables to show how high and unequally distributed the cumulative risk of foster care placement is for Danish children. Results suggest that at the beginning of the study period (in 1998 the cumulative risk of foster care placement for Danish children was roughly in line with the risk for American children. Yet, by the end of the study period (2010, the risk had declined to half the risk for American children. Our results also show some variations by parental ethnicity and sex, but these differences are small. Indeed, they appear quite muted relative to racial/ethnic differences in these risks in the United States. Last, though cumulative risks are similar between Danish and American children (especially at the beginning of the study period, the age-specific risk profiles are markedly different, with higher risks for older Danish children than for older American children.

  14. Eliminating Barriers to the Adoption of Children from Foster Care

    OpenAIRE

    Kamarck, Elaine; Hansen, Mary Eschelbach; Wilson, Julie Boatright Boatright; Katz, Jeff

    2012-01-01

    For children in foster care who cannot be reunified with their families of origin, there is no question that adoption is preferable to “aging out†. Moreover, every dollar spent on adoption for a child from foster care yields three dollars in benefits. Yet, 27,854 youth aged out of foster care in FY2010, and, for each child who was adopted during the year, two children with a goal of adoption continued to wait in foster care. Research shows that there are more than enough families interest...

  15. Estudo do atendimento de enfermagem institucional a crianças de 0 a 5 anos Institutional nursing attendance of children zero to five years of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelice Ferreira Moura

    1981-08-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizada avaliação operacional sobre a implantação do atendimento de enfermagem institucional à criança de 0 a 5 anos realizado de outubro de 1977 a outubro de 1978 no Centro de Saúde Experimental da Escola Paulista de Medicina, São Paulo (Brasil. Focaliza-se não só o problema gerado desde a implantação desta atividade (a maioria dos atendimentos de enfermagem são encaminhados para consulta médica, mas também procura conhecer a opinião da clientela sobre esta nova modalidade de assistência de saúde à comunidade.Operational evaluation of institutional nursing attendance given children 0-5 years of age was carried out from October, 1977 to October, 1978, in the Experimental Health Center of the "Escola Paulista de Medicina", S. Paulo (Brazil. It tells of problems that have arisen since the implanting of the Center and recounts clientes' opinions about this new vehicle of community health care.

  16. Prevalence and Risk Factors for Colonization With Extended-Spectrum Cephalosporin-Resistant Escherichia coli in Children Attending Daycare Centers : A Cohort Study in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koningstein, Maike; Leenen, Margriet A; Mughini-Gras, Lapo; Scholts, Rianne M C; van Huisstede-Vlaanderen, Kirstin W; Enserink, Remko; Zuidema, Rody; Kooistra-Smid, Mirjam A M D; Veldman, Kees; Mevius, Dik; van Pelt, Wilfrid

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors for colonization with extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant (ESC-R) Escherichia coli in daycare center (DCC)-attending children. METHODS: This is a prospective cohort study including 44 DCCs in the Netherlands

  17. Characteristics and Experiences of Children and Young People with Severe Intellectual Disabilities and Challenging Behaviour Attending 52-Week Residential Special Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilling, N.; McGill, P.; Cooper, V.

    2007-01-01

    Background: This study sought to gather information about the characteristics and experiences of children and young people with severe intellectual disabilities and severe challenging behaviour attending 52-week residential special schools. Method: Staff of nine schools completed postal questionnaires on the characteristics and experiences of 156…

  18. Relationship among the Parenting Styles and the Social Competence and Prosocial Behaviors of the Children Who are Attending to State and Private Preschools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altay, Fatma Basak; Gure, Aysen

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the associations of social competence and prosocial behaviors of the boys and girls who are attending to private or state preschools with the parenting styles of mothers' perception. Participants of the research were 344 children's (ranging from 35 and 75 months of age) teachers and mothers.…

  19. [A sanitation plan for a food distributor attending children and the elderly].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serna-Cock, Liliana; Correa-Gómez, Maria D C; Ayala-Aponte, Alfredo A

    2009-10-01

    The responsibility for providing healthy food involves all members of the production chain from input supplier to the distributor and consumer of food. Children and older adults represent the most vulnerable consumers for acquiring food-borne illness (FBI), meaning that the risk factors produced in food-processing targeted for this population group must be reduced. A clean-up plan was thus designed and implemented following the guideline laid down in decree 3075/1997 to reduce FBI risk factors in a population of children and older adults. A training plan was also conducted for handling staff involved in receiving, storing, packaging and distributing raw materials in a food distributor. The clean-up plan and training led to a 40 % to 70 % increase in compliance with best manufacturing practices (BPM). These results represent a solid basis for ensuring food safety and reducing the risk of acquiring FBI in the study population. This article also provides an outline for easily acquiring the necessary methodology for implementing a clean-up plan in a food industry.

  20. Does informal care from children to their elderly parents substitute for formal care in Europe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonsang, Eric

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyzes the impact of informal care by adult children on the use of long-term care among the elderly in Europe and the effect of the level of the parent's disability on this relationship. We focus on two types of formal home care that are the most likely to interact with informal care: paid domestic help and nursing care. Using recent European data emerging from the Survey on Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE), we build a two-part utilization model analyzing both the decision to use each type of formal care or not and the amount of formal care received by the elderly. Instrumental variables estimations are used to control for the potential endogeneity existing between formal and informal care. We find endogeneity of informal care in the decision to receive paid domestic help. Estimation results indicate that informal care substitutes for this type of formal home care. However, we find that this substitution effect tends to disappear as the level of disability of the elderly person increases. Finally, informal care is a weak complement to nursing care, independently of the level of disability. These results highlight the heterogeneous effects of informal care on formal care use and suggest that informal care is an effective substitute for long-term care as long as the needs of the elderly are low and require unskilled type of care. Any policy encouraging informal care to decrease long-term care expenditures should take it into account to assess its effectiveness. PMID:18950879

  1. Dental pain among 10–15 year old children attending oral health promoting schools: A cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saheer, Abdul; Kousalya, Pallavi Swami; Raju, Rekha; Gubbihal, Radha

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Dental pain is a major public health problem and one of the consequences of oral diseases which requires significant adjustments in life management leading to decreased quality of life. Objective: To assess prevalence of dental pain and its impact on daily life and to explore its relationship with oral health behavior and clinical oral status among 10-15 year old school children attending oral health promoting schools. Method: This cross sectional study was conducted in 6 schools serving low -middle socio economic strata in Bangalore, India. A total of 1237 children were surveyed for history of dental pain during past 3 month. Participants who reported dental pain completed self-reported oral health behaviour and Child dental pain questionnaire. Clinical oral examination included assessment of dental caries, periodontal status. Data was analyzed using t - test, Chi-square test, ANOVA and Regression Analysis. Results: Prevalence of dental pain was 15.6% (n = 194). Among children with pain, 17%, 43% and 40% reported mild, moderate and severe pain. Impact on daily activities was reported by 66%. Mean DMFT and DMFS was 1.80 and 2.11 Mean deft and defs was 2.47 and 3.41. Multiple logistic regression revealed that severity and impact of dental pain was associated with gender, frequency of tooth brushing, consumption of sweets and deciduous dental caries experience. Conclusion: Prevalence of Dental pain is associated with brushing behavior, consumption of sweets and deciduous dental caries experience, showing need for further attention to these conditions and a need to strengthen preventive and therapeutic dental services. PMID:26942112

  2. Pediculose nos centros de educação infantil: conhecimentos e práticas dos trabalhadores Infestión de piojos en los centros de educación infantil: conocimientos y prácticas de los trabajadores Pediculosis in children attending day care centers: knowledge and practice of workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Lopes Gabani

    2010-06-01

    ún son limitadas. Persisten muchos mitos y tabúes (que los piojos saltan, el uso de la sal, del vinagre y de la parafina, etc. Las principales dudas se relacionan con el tratamiento y la mayor dificultad que se presenta es la falta de cooperación de los padres. Por último, cabe señalar la necesidad y la importancia de que se implementen acciones intersectoriales, preventivas y sistemáticas en el ambiente escolar.This study aimed to identify and analyze knowledge and practices, about pediculosis, from employees at Child Day Care Centers at two areas of coverage of the Family Health Units, Londrina, Paraná. It's descriptive transversal study. Form was applied with questions about myths, taboos, practices, doubts and difficulties in stopping the infestation of pediculosis in eight Child Day Care Centers. Subsequently, workshop was held with educational materials. 60.4% of employees participated, those who were present on the day determined by the institution. Almost all indicated the ectoparasitic infestation, as well as their families. The problem is faced daily in Child Day Care Centers (72.1%. Practice appropriate care is still limited. Many myths and taboos persist (lice jump, use salt, vinegar and kerosene, etc. The main questions are related to treatment and the greatest difficulty is the lack of cooperation from parents. It emphasizes, finally, the need and the importance of internal actions, preventive and systematic in the school environment.

  3. Internação domiciliar: o perfil dos pacientes assistidos pelo Programa HU em Casa Home care: profile of patients attended by a home care program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniella Reis Barbosa Martelli

    2011-01-01

    medical records from May 2005 to May 2008. Of the 137 analyzed patients, 75 were females (54.7% and 62 males (45.3%. Concerning age, the 61-80 year group was the most prevalent (37.2% and 73% lived and was attended in the peripheral districts of Montes Claros city. Among the most important diseases in the first admission, the most prevalent was pneumonia (22 cases, 16.1%. Most patients were referred to the HU em Casa Home Care Program for the medical clinic (84.7% with a range of higher prevalence of 2 to 3 admissions (42.4%. Of the total patients, 120 (87.6% stayed in hospital for 16 to 30 days. Referring to resolutivity, 130 (94.9% patients were discharged to the program on the first admission. The PID proved to be a high-solving program, attended mainly elderly women with low income and with periods of relatively short hospitalization.

  4. Self-medication and Contributing Factors among Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Care in Ethiopia: The Case of Jimma University Specialized Hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Befekadu, Abdi; Dhekama, Nezif Hussein; MOHAMMED, Mohammed Adem

    2014-01-01

    Self-medication is the selection and use of non-prescription medicines by individuals own initiatives to treat self-recognized illnesses or symptoms. It is practiced significantly worldwide even though its type, extent and reasons for its practice may vary. In this study we aimed to determine the prevalence of self-medication and contributing factors among pregnant women attending antenatal care at JUSH, Jimma town, south west Ethiopia. A prospective hospital based cross-sectional study with ...

  5. Differences between attendance in emergency care of male and female victims of traffic accidents in Porto alegre, Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Raquel Forgiarini Saldanha; Flavio Pechansky; Daniela Benzano; Carlos Alberto Sampaio Martins de Barros; Raquel Brandini De Boni

    2014-01-01

    Driving under the influence of alcohol/ drugs (DUI) is a well-established risk factor for traffic accidents, and men and women have different consumption patterns. The scope of this paper is to analyze differences in alcohol and drug consumption, as well as on behavior associated with traffic accidents among men and women. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 609 sequential traffic accident victims attended in emergency care from Porto Alegre. Subjects gave a structured interview, were ...

  6. Nurses' emotional experience of caring for children with burns.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hilliard, Carol

    2012-02-01

    AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The aim of this phenomenological study was to explore the emotions experienced by children\\'s nurses when caring for children with burns, in addition to ascertaining how the nurses dealt with these emotions. BACKGROUND: The nature of nursing practice is such that it inevitably generates some form of emotional response in nurses. The literature reveals that the manner nurses deal with their emotional experiences can impact on their nursing care. DESIGN: The study used Husserlian phenomenology to explore the emotional experiences of eight purposively selected children\\'s nurses who have worked on the burns unit of an Irish paediatric hospital. METHODS: Data were collected using in-depth, unstructured interviews and analysed using Colaizzi\\'s seven stage framework. RESULTS: The phenomenon of participants\\' emotional experiences is captured in four themes: (1) caring for children with burns, (2) supporting parents, (3) sustaining nurses\\' emotional well-being, and (4) learning to be a burns nurse. Nursing children with burns generated a myriad of emotions for participants. Burns dressing-changes, managing burn-related pain, supporting parents and the impact of busy workloads on the emotional care of children and their parents emerged as the most emotionally challenging aspects of participants\\' role. Participants recognised the need to manage their emotional responses and spoke of the benefits of a supportive nursing team. CONCLUSIONS: The findings offer insights into both the rewarding and challenging aspects of nursing children with burns. Nurses in this environment must be supported to recognise and manage their emotional responses to their work. RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: Helping nurses to manage the emotional consequences of their work will help to sustain their emotional well-being, enhance the care received by children and also enable nurses to support parents in their role as partners in care.

  7. Detection of anti-Giardia lamblia serum antibody among children of day care centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semíramis Guimarães

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVES: To detect anti-Giardia lamblia serum antibodies in healthy children attending public day care centers and to assess serological tests as tools for estimating the prevalence of G. lamblia in endemic areas. METHODS: Three separate stool specimens and filter paper blood samples were collected from 147 children ranging from 0 to 6 years old. Each stool sample was processed using spontaneous sedimentation and zinc sulfate flotation methods. Blood samples were tested by indirect immunofluorescence (IIF and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA for Giardia IgG. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Of 147 individuals tested, 93 (63.3% showed Giardia cysts in their feces. Using IIF and ELISA, serum antibodies were detected in 93 (63.3% and 100 (68% samples , respectively. Sensitivity of IIF and ELISA was 82% and 72%, respectively. However, ELISA revealed to be less specific (39% than IIF (70%. IIF also showed a higher concordance with microscopic examination than ELISA.

  8. Detection of anti-Giardia lamblia serum antibody among children of day care centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guimarães Semíramis

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVES: To detect anti-Giardia lamblia serum antibodies in healthy children attending public day care centers and to assess serological tests as tools for estimating the prevalence of G. lamblia in endemic areas. METHODS: Three separate stool specimens and filter paper blood samples were collected from 147 children ranging from 0 to 6 years old. Each stool sample was processed using spontaneous sedimentation and zinc sulfate flotation methods. Blood samples were tested by indirect immunofluorescence (IIF and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA for Giardia IgG. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Of 147 individuals tested, 93 (63.3% showed Giardia cysts in their feces. Using IIF and ELISA, serum antibodies were detected in 93 (63.3% and 100 (68% samples , respectively. Sensitivity of IIF and ELISA was 82% and 72%, respectively. However, ELISA revealed to be less specific (39% than IIF (70%. IIF also showed a higher concordance with microscopic examination than ELISA.

  9. Alarming signs of serious infections in febrile children: Studies in primary care and hospital emergency care

    OpenAIRE

    van Ierland, Yvette

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Children constitute a substantial part of the workload of physicians in primary care and hospital emergency care. In the Netherlands, about 70% of the 3.9 million inhabitants less than 20 years of age had one or more contacts with their general practitioner (GP) in 2011. Primary out-ofhours care is annually visited by approximately 600,000 children younger than 14 years of age and hospital emergency departments (EDs) by nearly 400,000 children in this age group. F...

  10. Children and Stress: Caring Strategies to Guide Children

    OpenAIRE

    Ruffin, Novella J.

    2009-01-01

    Helping children to deal positively with stressful and tension causing events prepares them for healthy emotional and social development. This is an important responsibility of parents, teachers and other caregivers: to effectively guide and help children.

  11. Children's palliative care now! Highlights from the second ICPCN conference on children's palliative care, 18-21 May 2016, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downing, J; Kiman, R; Boucher, S; Nkosi, B; Steel, B; Marston, C; Lascar, E; Marston, J

    2016-01-01

    The International Children's Palliative Care Network held its second international conference on children's palliative care in Buenos Aires, Argentina, from the 18th-21st May 2016. The theme of the conference was 'Children's Palliative Care…. Now!' emphasising the need for palliative care for children now, as the future will be too late for many of them. Six pre-conference workshops were held, addressing issues connected to pain assessment and management, adolescent palliative care, ethics and decision-making, developing programmes, the basics of children's palliative care, and hidden aspects of children's palliative care. The conference brought together 410 participants from 40 countries. Plenary, concurrent, and poster presentations covered issues around the status of children's palliative care, genetics, perinatal and neonatal palliative care, the impact of children's palliative care and the experiences of parents and volunteers, palliative care as a human right, education in children's palliative care, managing complex pain in children, spiritual care and when to initiate palliative care. The 'Big Debate' explored issues around decision-making and end of life care in children, and gave participants the opportunity to explore a sensitive and thought provoking topic. At the end of the conference, delegates were urged to sign the Commitment of Buenos Aires which called for governments to implement the WHA resolution and ensure access to palliative care for neonates, children and their families, and also commits us as palliative care providers to share all that we can and collaborate with each other to achieve the global vision of palliative care for all children who need it. The conference highlighted the ongoing issues in children's palliative care and participants were continually challenged to ensure that children can access palliative care NOW. PMID:27610193

  12. Preventive Care Delivery to Young Children With Sickle Cell Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundy, David G; Muschelli, John; Clemens, Gwendolyn D; Strouse, John J; Thompson, Richard E; Casella, James F; Miller, Marlene R

    2016-05-01

    Preventive services can reduce the morbidity of sickle cell disease (SCD) in children but are delivered unreliably. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of children aged 2 to 5 years with SCD, evaluating each child for 14 months and expecting that he/she should receive ≥75% of days covered by antibiotic prophylaxis, ≥1 influenza immunization, and ≥1 transcranial Doppler ultrasound (TCD). We used logistic regression to quantify the relationship between ambulatory generalist and hematologist visits and preventive services delivery. Of 266 children meeting the inclusion criteria, 30% consistently filled prophylactic antibiotic prescriptions. Having ≥2 generalist, non-well child care visits or ≥2 hematologist visits was associated with more reliable antibiotic prophylaxis. Forty-one percent of children received ≥1 influenza immunizations. Children with ≥2 hematologist visits were most likely to be immunized (62% vs. 35% among children without a hematologist visit). Only 25% of children received ≥1 TCD. Children most likely to receive a TCD (42%) were those with ≥2 hematologist visits. One in 20 children received all 3 preventive services. Preventive services delivery to young children with SCD was inconsistent but associated with multiple visits to ambulatory providers. Better connecting children with SCD to hematologists and strengthening preventive care delivery by generalists are both essential. PMID:26950087

  13. Elderly Care and Intrafamily Resource Allocation when Children Migrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antman, Francisca M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper considers the intrafamily allocation of elderly care in the context of international migration where migrant children may be able to provide financial assistance to their parents but are unable to offer physical care. To investigate sibling interaction, I estimate best response functions for individual physical and financial…

  14. Optimizing Health Care for Children with Spina Bifida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liptak, Gregory S.; El Samra, Ahmad

    2010-01-01

    The health care needs of children with spina bifida are complex. They need specialists, generalists, and an integrated system to deliver this complex care and to align and inform all the providers. Most research in spina bifida has been focused on narrow medical outcomes; it has been noncollaborative, based on small samples of convenience, with no…

  15. Child Care Teachers' Strategies in Children's Socialization of Emotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Hey Jun

    2005-01-01

    An observational study was conducted to examine teachers' emotional socialization strategies in three child care centers. Qualitative analysis of the data suggests that teachers in child care centers respond to children's emotional expressions with various strategies. Teachers clearly expressed a preference for positive emotion through verbal…

  16. Promoting Smooth School Transitions for Children in Foster Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laviolette, Ghyslyn T.

    2011-01-01

    Children in foster care move two times per year on average. School records are not always transferred in a timely manner, which leads to a lack of services. Schools often are not aware of the legal issues surrounding foster care, such as who has legal rights to sign field trip permission slips or consent for educational evaluations. This study led…

  17. Hospital-based home care for children with cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansson, Eva Helena; Kjaergaard, H; Schmiegelow, K;

    2012-01-01

    . Our study highlights the importance of providing hospital-based home care with consideration for the family members' need for the sense of security achieved by home care by experienced paediatric oncology nurses and regular contact with the doctor. In future studies, interviews with children...

  18. Potential prescription patterns and errors in elderly adult patients attending public primary health care centers in Mexico City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Corona-Rojo

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available José Antonio Corona-Rojo1, Marina Altagracia-Martínez1, Jaime Kravzov-Jinich1, Laura Vázquez-Cervantes1, Edilberto Pérez-Montoya2, Consuelo Rubio-Poo31Division of Biological Sciences and Health, Metropolitan Autonomous University, Campus Xochimilco (UAM-X, Xochimilco, México; 2National Polytechnical Institute (IPN, México DF; 3Faculty of Higher Studies – Zaragoza (FES-Zaragoza, National Autonomous University of México (UNAM, México City, MéxicoIntroduction: Six out of every 10 elderly persons live in developing countries.Objective: To analyze and assess the drug prescription patterns and errors in elderly outpatients attending public health care centers in Mexico City, Mexico.Materials and methods: A descriptive and retrospective study was conducted in 2007. Fourteen hundred prescriptions were analyzed. Prescriptions of ambulatory adults aged >70 years who were residents of Mexico City for at least two years were included. Prescription errors were divided into two groups: (1 administrative and legal, and (2 pharmacotherapeutic. In group 2, we analyzed drug dose strength, administration route, frequency of drug administration, treatment length, potential drug–drug interactions, and contraindications. Variables were classified as correct or incorrect based on clinical literature. Variables for each drug were dichotomized as correct (0 or incorrect (1. A Prescription Index (PI was calculated by considering each drug on the prescription. SPSS statistical software was used to process the collected data (95% confidence interval; p < 0.05.Results: The drug prescription pattern in elderly outpatients shows that 12 drugs account for 70.72% (2880 of prescribed drugs. The most prescribed drugs presented potential pharmacotherapeutic errors (as defined in the present study. Acetylsalicylic acid–captopril was the most common potential interaction (not clinically assessed. Potential prescription error was high (53% of total prescriptions. Most

  19. Foster Care Outcomes for Children With Intellectual Disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slayter, Elspeth M

    2016-10-01

    The promotion of speedy, permanent outcomes for foster children is a central child welfare policy goal. However, while children with intellectual disability (ID) are at greater risk for child welfare involvement, little is known about their case outcomes. This cross-sectional national study explores between-group foster care outcomes. Foster children with intellectual disability were more likely to have experienced an adoption disruption or dissolution but less likely to be reunified with a parent, primary caretaker or other family member. Implications for interagency collaboration in support of pre and post-foster care discharge support services are discussed. PMID:27673732

  20. Tensions in setting health care priorities for South Africa's children.

    OpenAIRE

    Landman, W A; Henley, L D

    1998-01-01

    The new South African constitution commits the government to guarantee "basic health services" for every child under 18. Primary health care for pregnant women and children under six and elements of essential primary health care have received priority. At present, there is little analysis of the moral considerations involved in making choices about more advanced or costly health care which may, arguably, also be "basic". This paper illustrates some of the tensions in setting priorities for a ...

  1. Challenges of Assessing Maltreated Children Coming into Foster Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchett, Rachel; Hockaday, Harriet; Anderson, Beatrice; Davidson, Claire; Gillberg, Christopher; Minnis, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Children who have experienced early adversity have been known to be at risk of developing cognitive, attachment, and mental health problems; therefore, it is crucial that children entering foster care can be properly assessed as early as possible. There are known difficulties in assessing children in foster care, for example, in finding a reliable informant. An ongoing randomised controlled trial in Glasgow, Scotland, recruiting infants entering foster care, provides a unique opportunity to explore some of the issues which need to be considered when assessing these children. The assessment data of 70 infants entering care is described while exploring the reliability of foster carers as informants and the importance of infant engagement with tasks. This group of infants was shown to be having more problems than children from the general population. While correlations were found between a carer's level of concern about a child and the severity of a child's problem, there were still a number of children displaying worrying problem scores whom foster carers did not report concern. The child's engagement in the cognitive task showed associations with the child's attainment on the task. Findings emphasise the importance of a holistic assessment for these children and all should be considered as potential cases with Maltreatment-Associated Psychiatric Problems (MAPP). PMID:26881270

  2. Challenges of Assessing Maltreated Children Coming into Foster Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Pritchett

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Children who have experienced early adversity have been known to be at risk of developing cognitive, attachment, and mental health problems; therefore, it is crucial that children entering foster care can be properly assessed as early as possible. There are known difficulties in assessing children in foster care, for example, in finding a reliable informant. An ongoing randomised controlled trial in Glasgow, Scotland, recruiting infants entering foster care, provides a unique opportunity to explore some of the issues which need to be considered when assessing these children. The assessment data of 70 infants entering care is described while exploring the reliability of foster carers as informants and the importance of infant engagement with tasks. This group of infants was shown to be having more problems than children from the general population. While correlations were found between a carer’s level of concern about a child and the severity of a child’s problem, there were still a number of children displaying worrying problem scores whom foster carers did not report concern. The child’s engagement in the cognitive task showed associations with the child’s attainment on the task. Findings emphasise the importance of a holistic assessment for these children and all should be considered as potential cases with Maltreatment-Associated Psychiatric Problems (MAPP.

  3. Participation of Children with Special Health Care Needs in School and the Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houtrow, Amy; Jones, Jessica; Ghandour, Reem; Strickland, Bonnie; Newacheck, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Objective Children with special health care needs (CSHCN) are at risk for decreased participation which can negatively impact their lives. The objectives of this study were to document the presence of participation restrictions for CSHCN compared to other children and to determine how personal and environmental factors are associated with participation restrictions for CSHCN. Methods The 2007 National Survey of Children’s Health (NSCH) was analyzed to evaluate two participation outcomes for children aged 6–17 years: school attendance and participation in organized activities, and two participation outcomes for children aged 12–17 years: working for pay and volunteering. Adjusted prevalences of participation restrictions were calculated for children with and without special health care needs. Logistic regression was used to identify factors independently associated with participation restrictions for CSHCN. Results After adjustment for sociodemographic characteristics, a larger proportion of CSHCN (27.9%) reported missing more than 5 days of school than other children (15.1%). In contrast, no differences were found for participation in organized activities, working for pay or volunteering. CSHCN with functional limitations were more likely to experience all four types of participation restrictions compared to other CSHCN and non-CSHCN. For CSHCN, the odds of certain participation restrictions were higher for those with functional limitations, in fair/poor health, with depressed mood, living at or near the federal poverty level and living in homes not headed by two parents. Conclusions CSHCN with functional limitations and those with worse health status are at elevated risk of experiencing participation restrictions than other children. Social disadvantage furthers the likelihood that CSHCN will experience participation restrictions. PMID:22683160

  4. Training day care staff to facilitate children's language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girolametto, Luigi; Weitzman, Elaine; Greenberg, Janice

    2003-08-01

    This exploratory study investigated the outcome of in-service training on language facilitation strategies of child care providers in day care centers. Sixteen caregivers were randomly assigned to experimental and control groups. Caregivers were taught to be responsive to children's initiations, engage children in interactions, model simplified language, and encourage peer interactions. At posttest, the experimental group waited for children to initiate, engaged them in turn-taking, used face to face interaction, and included uninvolved children more frequently than the control group. In turn, children in the experimental group talked more, produced more combinations, and talked to peers more often than the control group. The results support the viability of this training model in early childhood education settings and suggest directions for future research. PMID:12971819

  5. Preprofile preparation of children without parental care in residential care

    OpenAIRE

    Volodina, Julia; Matyash, Natalia

    2012-01-01

    The article deals with the psychological and pedagogical features of the preparation of orphans to professional self-determination. The analysis of experimental data, temporal perspective of orphans, their professional interests and inclinations, self-concept as a component of self-consciousness of adolescents. The characteristic of the program of psychological support for children orphaned during preprofile training.

  6. Primary Medical Care and Children's Learning Problems

    OpenAIRE

    McGrath, Patrick J; Feldman, William; Rosser, Walter

    1989-01-01

    The authors describe the major learning problems that confront the primary-care physician. They discuss why they believe that the primary-care physician has an important role in case finding, referral, case management, and advocacy for the child with learning problems and his or her family.

  7. Maternal ability to take care of children exposed to HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julyana Gomes Freitas

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to assess the ability of mothers to take care of children exposed to HIV, using the Assessment Scale of Care Skills for Children Exposed to HIV at Birth and to check the association between the scale dimensions and maternal characteristics. METHOD: this cross-sectional study involved 62 HIV+ mothers whose children of up to one year old had been exposed to the virus at birth. The Assessment Scale of Care Skills for Children Exposed to HIV at Birth consists of 52 items and five dimensions, indicating high, moderate or low care ability. RESULTS: 72.7% of the mothers appropriately offered zidovudine syrup; 86.0% were highly skilled to prepare and administer milk formula; 44.4% were moderately able to prepare and administer complementary feeding; 76.5% revealed high ability to administer prophylactic treatment against pneumonia and 95.3% demonstrated high abilities for clinical monitoring and immunization. Significant associations were found between some maternal variables and the scale dimensions. CONCLUSION: the scale permits the assessment of maternal care delivery to these children and the accomplishment of specific child health interventions.

  8. Alarming signs of serious infections in febrile children: Studies in primary care and hospital emergency care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y. van Ierland (Yvette)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Children constitute a substantial part of the workload of physicians in primary care and hospital emergency care. In the Netherlands, about 70% of the 3.9 million inhabitants less than 20 years of age had one or more contacts with their general practitioner (GP) in 2011

  9. Does Informal Care from Children to their Elderly Parents Substitute for Formal Care in Europe?

    OpenAIRE

    Eric Bonsang

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyzes the impact of informal care by adult children on the use of long-term care among the elderly in Europe and the effect of the level of the parent’s disability on this relationship. We focus on two types of formal home care that are the most likely to interact with informal care: paid domestic help and nursing care. Using the most recent European data emerging from the Survey on Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE), we build a two-part utilization model analyzing ...

  10. Care of children with anterior uveitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanski, J J

    1981-09-01

    The clinical features of 290 children with anterior uveitis are presented. The vast majority suffered from chronic uveitis. Specific uveitis entities in children include the syndrome of 'chronic iridocyclitis' in girls, heterochromic cyclitis, and pars planitis. Systemic associations include sarcoidosis, the Vogt-Harada-Koyanagi syndrome, and the seronegative arthritides (juvenile chronic arthritis, juvenile ankylosing spondylitis, psoriatic arthritis, and rarely Reiter's and Beçet's syndromes). Children with a pauciarticular onset of juvenile chronic arthritis, especially when combined with positive findings for antinuclear antibody, are at particular risk of developing chronic anterior uveitis. Most cases of chronic anterior uveitis can be controlled with topical corticosteroids. Those that are resistant to both topical and systemic corticosteroids may have to be treated with chlorambucil. The operation of lensectomy is a great advance in the management of complicated cataract. Secondary glaucoma is the most devastating complication of chronic anterior uveitis in children and responds poorly to therapy.

  11. Diagnostic Accuracy of Lateral Flow Urine LAM Assay for TB Screening of Adults with Advanced Immunosuppression Attending Routine HIV Care in South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasmeen Hanifa

    Full Text Available We assessed the diagnostic accuracy of Determine TB-LAM (LF-LAM to screen for tuberculosis among ambulatory adults established in HIV care in South Africa.A systematic sample of adults attending for HIV care, regardless of symptomatology, were enrolled in the XPHACTOR study, which tested a novel algorithm for prioritising investigation with Xpert MTB/RIF. In this substudy, restricted to participants with enrolment CD495% irrespective of diagnostic reference standard, CD4 stratum, or whether grade 1 or grade 2 cut-off was used.Sensitivity of LF-LAM is too low to recommend as part of intensified case finding in ambulatory patients established in HIV care.

  12. Ocular morbidity among children at a tertiary eye care hospital in Kolkata, West Bengal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaya Biswas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Eye diseases in childhood are important causes of medical consultation and it affects learning ability, adjustment in school and personality. To determine the pattern of ocular morbidity a cross-sectional observational study was conducted among 714 children, attending Ophthalmology department at a tertiary eye care center in Kolkata, West Bengal. All the children less than 15 years of age, attending in Unit II outpatient department were selected by complete enumeration method for duration of one year (January-December 2010. Distribution of association was analyzed by Chi-square test and difference between two proportions was calculated by z test for proportions. The common ocular morbidity were refractive errors (23.67% followed by allergic conjunctivitis (17.23%, infection of the eye and adnexa (15.13%, ocular trauma (12.74%, and congenital eye diseases (13.59%. Majority of ocular morbidity is treatable and need early attention through eye screening cum intervention program beginning right from the childhood.

  13. Placement in Foster Care Enhances Quality of Attachment among Young Institutionalized Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyke, Anna T.; Zeanah, Charles H.; Fox, Nathan A.; Nelson, Charles A.; Guthrie, Donald

    2010-01-01

    This study examined classifications of attachment in 42-month-old Romanian children (N = 169). Institutionalized since birth, children were assessed comprehensively, randomly assigned to care as usual (CAU) or to foster care, and compared to family-reared children. Attachment classifications for children in foster care were markedly different from…

  14. AMBULATORY CARE - SENSITIVE CONDITIONS IN CHILDREN UNDER FIVE YEARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Aparecida Araújo Figueiredo

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective:analyzethe extent to which the incidence rate of primary care sensitivehospitalizations in children under five years is influenced by the percentage of coverage of theprimary care.Methods:This was a cross-sectional ecological study that combines coverage ofprimary careand theambulatorycare-sensitiveconditionsin 2000 and 2010. We used data from theHospital Information System (HIS and the Information System of Primary Care (SIAB.Results:The data revealed that the increased coverage providedprimary carereductionrateofhospitalization diseases studied. In 2000 the reduction was greater for gastroenteritis (51% inchildren under 01 years and 30% in children 01-04 years in 2010 for respiratory diseases (51% inchildren under 01years and 33% in children aged 01-04 years.Conclusion:we found an association between the coverage ofprimary careand admission rates, however seem to affect othervariables, suggesting the need for further studies.

  15. Life style and behavior of school children without parental care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kvrgić Svetlana T.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Indroduction Life style (behavior is one of the most significant factors affecting health. Although a number of factors participate in creating behavior, family is one the most important. The goal was to analyze the life style of children without parental care. Material and methods The research was done using cross-sectional data from "Children village" in Sremska Kamenica (N=127, and a questionnaire was especially created for this purpose. Results and discussion It was established that 75% of elementary school children and 43% of high school children are physically active. The greatest health risk is smoking (only 50% of students reported never to smoke cigarettes, while 17.5% were daily smokers. The problem is greatest in high school children (43% polled are daily smokers. Alcohol consumption is less common than in the general population of the same age (10% polled drink beer and wine several times a month, while 5% drink spirits - brandy, whisky etc.. Attitudes to sports, smoking and alcohol are mainly positive, but at older age there is an increased number of children with negative attitudes. Knowledge regarding healthy diet is on a lower level comparing with general population, meals are more regular, but with less desirable food. Conclusion From the aspect of health, life style of children without parental care is characterized by risky behavior, particularly in high school children.

  16. The family doctor and children with special educational needs.

    OpenAIRE

    Ni Bhrolchain, C M

    1989-01-01

    Twenty three of the 1548 children registered with a group practice were found to have special educational needs. Only half of these children were known by the health visitor attached to the practice to have such needs. Ten of the 17 children attending school had no reference to their special needs in their case notes. Irregular attendance and poor immunization records indicated a lack of anticipatory care within the practice. Children with a physical handicap, in particular, attended their fa...

  17. Analgesia and sedation for children undergoing burn wound care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayat, Ahmad; Ramaiah, Ramesh; Bhananker, Sanjay M

    2010-11-01

    Standard care of burn wounds consists of cleaning and debridement (removing devitalized tissue), followed by daily dressing changes. Children with burns undergo multiple, painful and anxiety-provoking procedures during wound care and rehabilitation. The goal of procedural sedation is safe and efficacious management of pain and emotional distress, requiring a careful and systematic approach. Achieving the best results needs understanding of the mechanisms of pain and the physiologic changes in burn patients, frequent evaluation and assessment of pain and anxiety, and administration of suitable pharmacological and nonpharmacological therapies. Pharmacological therapies provide the backbone of analgesia and sedation for procedural pain management. Opioids provide excellent pain control, but they must be administered judiciously due to their side effects. Sedative drugs, such as benzodiazepines and propofol, provide excellent sedation, but they must not be used as a substitute for analgesic drugs. Ketamine is increasingly used for analgesia and sedation in children as a single agent or an adjuvant. Nonpharmacological therapies such as virtual reality, relaxation, cartoon viewing, music, massage and hypnosis are necessary components of procedural sedation and analgesia for children. These can be combined with pharmacological techniques and are used to limit the use of drugs (and hence side effects), as well as to improve patient participation and satisfaction. In this article, we review the pathophysiologic changes associated with major thermal injury in children, the options available for sedation and analgesia for wound care procedures in these children and our institutional guidelines for procedural sedation. PMID:20977331

  18. Oral health care for children - a call for action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowan-Legg, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Oral health is a fundamental component of overall health. All children and youth should have access to preventive and treatment-based dental care. Canadian children continue to have a high rate of dental disease, and this burden of illness is disproportionately represented by children of lower socioeconomic status, those in Aboriginal communities and new immigrants. In Canada, the proportion of public funding for dental care has been decreasing. This financial pressure has most affected low-income families, who are also less likely to have dental insurance. Publicly funded provincial/territorial dental plans for Canadian children are limited and show significant variability in their coverage. There is sound evidence that preventive dental visits improve oral health and reduce later costs, and good evidence that fluoridation therapy decreases the rate of dental caries, particularly in high-risk populations. Paediatricians and family physicians play an important role in identifying children at high risk for dental disease and in advocating for more comprehensive and universal dental care for children. PMID:24381493

  19. Pro patria et spes gentis: military medicine, paediatric surgery and those who care for children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearn, John

    2011-12-01

    Children and military medicine have many links. On humanitarian and disaster deployments, the surgery of war has increasingly seen children as the focus of clinical salvage. When Romans spoke of children, they used the phrase 'spes gentis'-'the hope of the race'. In modern times, there developed a synergy, in the context of defensive war, that its prosecution depended not only on the defence of territory but also on its hopes for continuation of people and culture, into the future. In the 19th century, in Australia, several regiments had the motto 'Pro Aris et Focis'-'For the Defence of Hearth and Home'. Hearth implies the family and that implies children. From the point of view of an attending military clinician, the centrum of all medical care is the patient himself, and that centrality is reflected equally in the helplessness of a bomb-blast or gunshot victim as it is in the vulnerability of a sick or injured infant or child. The life and service of Major General Rupert Downes (1885-1945), whom the Downes Memorial Lecture commemorates, reflected this nexus. His career was that of a national leader in military medicine and that of paediatric surgery. The 2011 Rupert Downes Lecture explores and documents the extraordinary corpus of service of Australian paediatric surgeons and their contributions to military medicine from the 19th to the 21st centuries.

  20. Seasonal variation, weather and behavior in day-care children: a multilevel approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciucci, Enrica; Calussi, Pamela; Menesini, Ersilia; Mattei, Alessandra; Petralli, Martina; Orlandini, Simone

    2013-11-01

    This study analyzes the effect of weather variables, such as solar radiation, indoor and outdoor air temperature, relative humidity and time spent outdoor, on the behavior of 2-year-old children and their affects across different seasons: winter, spring and summer. Participants were a group of 61 children (33 males and 28 females) attending four day-care centers in Florence (Central Italy). Mean age of children at the beginning of the study was 24.1 months ( SD = 3.6). We used multilevel linear analyses to account for the hierarchical structure of our data. The study analyzed the following behavioral variables: Activity Level, Attentional Focusing, Frustration, and Aggression. Results showed a different impact of some weather variables on children’s behavior across seasons, indicating that the weather variable that affects children’s behavior is usually the one that shows extreme values during the studied seasons, such as air temperature and relative humidity in winter and summer. Studying children and their reactions to weather conditions could have potentially wide-reaching implications for parenting and teaching practices, as well as for researchers studying social relationships development.

  1. FACTORS DETERMINING DISCLOSURE BY PARENTS AMONG CHILDREN LIVING WITH HIV/AIDS ATTENDING THE CENTER OF EXCELLENCE IN KIGALI UNIVERSITY TEACHING HOSPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SP. Ingabire

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The increasing access to antiretroviral therapy (ART and survival of HIV-infected children has raised challenges on disclosing HIV diagnosis to children. Many parents and guardians are reluctant to allow children living with HIV to know their status, arguing that they are too young and will not understand fully their circumstances causing emotional disturbances as a result. There are further concerns that children may blame their parents and ask questions on how they got the disease, even inadvertently “blurting out the secret” and thus exposing the family to stigma and discrimination. In this cross-sectional study, eligible children were recruited to participate. Data on these children was obtained from the electronic databases and completed with data extraction from the individual patient fie. A sample of both parents and guardians who disclosed and those who did not disclose have been interviewed to identify the factors and reasons behind their decision-making process in addition to what they believe would improve their disclosure. A total of 64% of HIV positive (HIV+ children had their status disclosed to them by parents while 35.8% did not. The majority of parents or guardians (80% found that disclosing status improved adherence. A large number of parents or guardians (67% attended psychosocial support groups and accordingly disclosure status was highly associated with psychosocial support group attendance (p<0.05. Disclosure and statistical tests showed that disclosure status was highly associated with CD4 outcomes (p<0.05. In addition, disclosure status was highly associated with viral load outcome (p<0.05. Moreover, 64.4% of children living with HIV underwent an increase of weight greater or equal 4 kg after disclosure and statistically disclosure status was highly associated with weight outcomes (p<0.05.

  2. Prevalence of arrhythmias among children below 15 years of age with congenital heart diseases attending Mulago National Referral Hospital, Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Batte, Anthony; Lwabi, Peter; Lubega, Sulaiman; Kiguli, Sarah; Nabatte, Violette; Karamagi, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Background In Uganda, few children with congenital heart diseases (CHD) benefit from early corrective cardiac surgery. These children are at high risk of developing heart failure and electrolyte imbalances; factors which increase their risk of developing arrhythmias. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and factors associated with arrhythmias among children with congenital heart diseases receiving care at Mulago Hospital. Methods This was a cross-sectional study carried out from Augus...

  3. Child perceptions of parental care and overprotection in children with cancer and healthy children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillery, Rachel; Long, Alanna; Phipps, Sean

    2014-06-01

    The primary aims of this study were to: (a) examine child perceptions of overprotection; and (b) explore how these perceptions relate to child health and adjustment. Children with a prior diagnosis of cancer (n = 205) and children without a history of serious illness (n = 76) reported on parental overprotective and caring behaviors. Children with cancer were recruited from one of four strata based on the elapsed time since their cancer diagnosis (1-6 months; 6-24 months; 2-5 years; >5 years) Children also reported on symptoms of depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress. Children with cancer did not differ from healthy children in their perceptions of parental care or overprotection. Child distress was more strongly related to perceptions of care and overprotection than child's health status. Children with cancer do not report their parents approach to care and protection differently than children without a cancer history. These findings mirror prior research examining parental perceptions of overprotection and suggest that, despite the challenges of parenting a child with serious illness, parental protection is not significantly altered. PMID:24682801

  4. Child perceptions of parental care and overprotection in children with cancer and healthy children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillery, Rachel; Long, Alanna; Phipps, Sean

    2014-06-01

    The primary aims of this study were to: (a) examine child perceptions of overprotection; and (b) explore how these perceptions relate to child health and adjustment. Children with a prior diagnosis of cancer (n = 205) and children without a history of serious illness (n = 76) reported on parental overprotective and caring behaviors. Children with cancer were recruited from one of four strata based on the elapsed time since their cancer diagnosis (1-6 months; 6-24 months; 2-5 years; >5 years) Children also reported on symptoms of depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress. Children with cancer did not differ from healthy children in their perceptions of parental care or overprotection. Child distress was more strongly related to perceptions of care and overprotection than child's health status. Children with cancer do not report their parents approach to care and protection differently than children without a cancer history. These findings mirror prior research examining parental perceptions of overprotection and suggest that, despite the challenges of parenting a child with serious illness, parental protection is not significantly altered.

  5. Caring for Rosie the Riveter's Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKenzie, Bill

    2011-01-01

    During the Second World War, women in the United States who worked in the war industries in such jobs as welders, riveters, heavy machinery operators, and parachute riggers were heralded in the media as "Rosie the Riveter." From 1943 to 1945 a fortunate few of these workplace pioneers participated in a memorable experiment in child care at Kaiser…

  6. Medicaid and Financing of Health Care for Children in Foster Care: Findings from a National Survey. Health Services for Children in Foster Care. Number 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inkelas, Moira; Halfon, Neal

    2002-01-01

    In recent years, state Medicaid programs have implemented significant change and innovation in delivering health and behavioral health services. Prepaid capitated financing and the provider networks created by Medicaid managed care expansions have altered systems of medical and mental/behavioral health. Most children in foster care receive…

  7. Self-care 3 months after attending chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patient education: a qualitative descriptive analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mousing, Camilla Askov; Lomborg, Kirsten

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The authors performed a qualitative descriptive analysis to explore how group patient education influences the self-care of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Patients and methods: In the period 2009–2010, eleven patients diagnosed with chronic obstructive pulmonary....... Talking to health care professionals focused the patients' attention on their newly acquired skills and the research interview made them more aware of their enhanced self-care. Conclusion: Patients' self-care may be enhanced through group education, even though the patients are not always able to see...... the immediate outcome. Some patients may require professional help to implement their newly acquired knowledge and skills in everyday life. A planned dialogue concentrating on self-care in everyday life 3 months after finishing the course may enhance patients' awareness and appraisal of their newly acquired...

  8. Health-related quality of life in patients with knee osteoarthritis attending two primary care clinics in Malaysia: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakaria Zainal F

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Measurement of health-related quality of life (HRQOL among patients with osteoarthritis (OA helps the health care provider to understand the impact of the disease in the patients' own perspective and make health services more patient-centered. The main aim of this study was to measure the quality of life among patients with symptomatic knee OA attending primary care clinic. We also aimed to ascertain the association between socio-demographic and medical status of patients with knee OA and their quality of life. Methods A clinic based, cross sectional study using the Short Form-36 (SF-36 questionnaire was conducted in two primary care health clinics in Hulu Langat, Selangor, Malaysia over a period of 8 months. The nurses and medical assistants were involved in recruiting the patients while the family physicians conducted the interview. Results A total 151 respondents were recruited. The mean age was 65.6 ± 10.8 years with females constituted 119 (78.8% of the patients. The mean duration of knee pain was 4.07 ± 2.96 years. Half of the patients were overweight and majority, 138 (91.4%, had at least one co-morbidity, the commonest being hypertension. The physical health status showed lower score as compared to mental health component. The domain concerning mental health components showed positive correlation with age. There was a significant negative correlation between age and physical functioning (p Conclusions This study has shown that patients with knee OA attending primary care clinics have relatively poor quality of life pertaining to the physical health components but less impact was seen on the patients' mental health.

  9. Shared Decision Making: Improving Care for Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golnik, Allison; Maccabee-Ryaboy, Nadia; Scal, Peter; Wey, Andrew; Gaillard, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    We assessed the extent to which parents of children with autism spectrum disorder report that they are engaged in shared decision making. We measured the association between shared decision making and (a) satisfaction with care, (b) perceived guidance regarding controversial issues in autism spectrum disorder, and (c) perceived assistance…

  10. Modern Family: Adoption and Foster Care in Children's Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meese, Ruth Lyn

    2012-01-01

    Teachers often have no preparation for handling the questions and conversations that arise in the classroom when discussing literature having adoption or foster care themes. Instead of relying on personal experiences or stereotypes portrayed through the media, teachers are advised to understand the developmental tasks of children from families…

  11. Preschool Education and Day Care for Swedish Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Jeanne

    A comprehensive study of the types of care provided for Swedish children is presented. The point is made that the three major frameworks which support the Swedish philosophy of early childhood education are those of Arnold Gesell, Jean Piaget, and Erik H. Erikson. From all three sources, preschool teachers learn the concept of epigenesis, the…

  12. Improving Educational Outcomes for Children in Foster Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Christina; Kabler, Brenda

    2012-01-01

    Recent statistics estimate that there are 783,000 children living in foster care in the United States. This vulnerable population is at risk for academic failure as well as internalizing and externalizing behavioral problems. Compared to their peers, foster youth face significant educational difficulties, including lower levels of academic…

  13. Inclusive Education for Children with Special Health Care Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janz, Janice; And Others

    This paper discusses issues concerning inclusion of children with special health care needs in the regular classroom. Six categories of health conditions are discussed in terms of their implications for the educational setting. These are: (1) "hidden" conditions (e.g., juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, sickle cell anemia, asthma, and cystic…

  14. The influence of averageness on judgments of facial attractiveness: no own-age or own-sex advantage among children attending single-sex schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vingilis-Jaremko, Larissa; Maurer, Daphne; Gao, Xiaoqing

    2014-04-01

    We examined how recent biased face experience affects the influence of averageness on judgments of facial attractiveness among 8- and 9-year-old children attending a girls' school, a boys' school, and a mixed-sex school. We presented pairs of individual faces in which one face was transformed 50% toward its group average, whereas the other face was transformed 50% away from that average. Across blocks, the faces varied in age (adult, 9-year-old, or 5-year-old) and sex (male or female). We expected that averageness might influence attractiveness judgments more strongly for same-age faces and, for children attending single-sex schools, same-sex faces of that age because their prototype(s) should be best tuned to the faces they see most frequently. Averageness influenced children's judgments of attractiveness, but the strength of the influence was not modulated by the age of the face, nor did the effects of sex of face differ across schools. Recent biased experience might not have affected the results because of similarities between the average faces of different ages and sexes and/or because a minimum level of experience with a particular group of faces may be adequate for the formation of a veridical prototype and its influence on judgments of attractiveness. The results suggest that averageness affects children's judgments of the attractiveness of the faces they encounter in everyday life regardless of age or sex of face. PMID:24326246

  15. Nursing care of children after a traumatic incident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos Nakakis

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Childhood experiences of living in a world of sweeping changes and unpredictable extreme events can be very stressful and are often traumatic and children are not able to mobilize the defense mechanisms necessary for adaptation. Traumatic experiences for a child can include exposure to natural disasters, circumstances such as war and terrorism, situations of victimization (physical or sexual abuse, accidents resulting in serious injury and disability, loss of loved one, a life-threatening illness and hospitalizations, painful situations, as well as domestic and interfamily violence. The aim of this literature review was to explore the nursing care of children after a traumatic incident through a critical review of the existing literature. Material and Methods: A literature search was performed in Medline, Cinahl, BNI, PsycINFO, and Scopus databases with keywords relevant to the subject of this review. Results: From the literature review it was found that the published resources with respect to the nursing care of children after a traumatic event are very limited and they do not provide clear nursing care plans. Nursing care of children after a traumatic incident involves the prevention of trauma, the detection of early symptoms, the protection of the child from self-destructive and suicidal behavior, the restoration of confidence in self and others, the enhancement of the expressiveness, covering child's emotional needs, the family counseling and reconnection with their peers and childhood activities, as well as ensuring follow-up of their therapeutic progress. Conclusions: Traumatic experiences directly influence a child at physical, mental and emotional levels, making an impact on the smooth psycho-emotional development, the formation of his personality and the quality of childhood and future adult life. It is vital that nurses are aware of therapeutic techniques, in order to approach and nurse traumatized children in the community or in

  16. Can Community and School-Based Supports Improve the Achievement of First-Generation Immigrant Children Attending High-Poverty Schools?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dearing, Eric; Walsh, Mary E; Sibley, Erin; Lee-St John, Terry; Foley, Claire; Raczek, Anastacia E

    2016-05-01

    Using a quasi-experimental design, the effects of a student support intervention were estimated for the math and reading achievement of first-generation immigrant children (n = 667, M = 11.05 years of age) attending high-poverty, urban elementary schools. The intervention was designed to help schools identify developmental strengths and barriers to learning and, in turn, connect children to community and school supports aligned with their strengths and needs. By exploiting within-school changes in the implementation of the intervention, the present study revealed statistically and practically significant treatment effects indicating improvements in math and reading achievement at the end of elementary school. In addition, the intervention appears to considerably narrow achievement gaps between English language learners and immigrant children proficient in English. PMID:27028490

  17. Ultra-processed foods: Consumption among children at day-care centers and their classification according to Traffic Light Labelling system

    OpenAIRE

    Longo-Silva, Giovana; Toloni, Maysa Helena de Aguiar; de Menezes, Risia Cristina Egito; Asakura, Leiko; Oliveira, Maria Alice Araújo; Taddei, José Augusto de Aguiar Carrazedo

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To identify the age at which ultra-processed foods are introduced in the diet of infants enrolled in public daycare centers and analyze these foods' nutritional composition according to the Traffic Light Labelling system adapted to the Brazilian norms and recommendations.Methods: Cross-sectional study including 636 nursery age children attending day care centers. Their mothers were interviewed about the age of introduction of instant noodles, snack chips, encased meat, chocolate, i...

  18. Evaluation of risk factors in patients attending STI clinic in a tertiary care hospital in North India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charu Nayyar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the past few years, the interest in STDs and their management has increased tremendously because of their proven role in facilitation of HIV infection, which, in turn, also increases the risk of acquiring STIs. Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs are a major health problem affecting mostly young people, not only in developing, but also in developed countries Male circumcision is being considered as strategy to reduce the burden of HIV/AIDS. Aims: (i To screen the new patients attending the STI clinic for bacterial causes of STIs (Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Treponema pallidum and Gardnerella vaginalis and (ii to evaluate the role of various risk factors in the prevalence of STIs. Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted on 200 patients attending the STI clinic. They were evaluated for the prevalence of HIV and bacterial STIs (Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Treponema pallidum and Gardnerella vaginalis along with the role of risk factors particularly circumcision. Results: The prevalence of HIV was 7% and prevalence of other STI was 20%. The causative agents were Chlamydia 8%, Gonorrhea 7.5%, Bacterial Vaginosis 2.7% and Syphilis 2%. Conclusion: The factors found to be significantly associated with the prevalence of STI were circumcision, positive HIV status, education, religion, multiple sexual partners, contact with Commercial sex workers (CSW, non use of contraception, profession involving long stay away from home, and past history of STI. The present study suggests that circumcision is a protective factor for acquisition of STIs but other factors like sexual behavior, use of barrier contraceptives, drug abuse etc., also play a role.

  19. Risk Factors Associated with Children Lost to Care in a State Early Childhood Intervention Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannoni, Peggy P.; Kass, Philip H.

    2010-01-01

    A retrospective cohort study was conducted to identify risk factors associated with children lost to care, and their families, compared to those not lost to care within the California Early Start Program. The cohort included data on 8987 children enrolled in the Early Start Program in 1998. This cohort consisted of 2443 children lost to care, 6363…

  20. Care for Sick Children as a Proxy for Gender Equality in the Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Rickard; Nermo, Magnus

    2010-01-01

    Swedish parents are entitled to government paid benefits to take care of sick children. In this paper we show that the gender distribution of paid care for sick children is a good proxy for the gender division of household work. Using two examples we show that registry data on care for sick children is a useful data source for studies on gender…

  1. Hospice Care for Children With Cancer: Where Do These Children Die?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thienprayoon, Rachel; Lee, Simon C; Leonard, David; Winick, Naomi

    2015-07-01

    Hospice is an important provider of end of life care; many children who die of cancer enroll in hospice programs. How frequently such children remain in hospice to die at home, or disenroll from hospice and die in the hospital, has not been described. A child's location of death has important implications for quality of life and parental adaptation. This represents a subanalysis of a retrospective study of 202 consecutive oncology patients who died at a single center between January 1, 2006 and December 31, 2010. Of 95 children who enrolled in hospice, 82 had known location of death. Sixty (73%) died at home or an inpatient hospice unit, 15 (18%) died in the oncology unit, 5 (6%) died in the intensive care unit, and 2 (2%) died in the emergency department. The median length of hospice services was 41 days, twice the national median of 21 days reported in adults. One quarter of children disenrolled from hospice care, ultimately dying in an acute care setting. Further studies are warranted to explore the hospice experience in children, and to address modifiable factors that may impact a family's choice to withdraw from hospice care.

  2. Children and managed care: what research can, can't, and should tell us about impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, L; Fraser, I

    1999-01-01

    The speed and ubiquity of the move from fee-for-service to managed care raises questions about how these changes affect children. This article examines (1) the pace and context of the move to managed care for children, (2) potential opportunities and challenges emerging from these changes, (3) research findings on how managed care affects children, and (4) next steps for learning more. The research review provides a consistent answer to whether managed care is good for children: it depends on what kind of managed care, which children, and under what circumstances. This finding suggests lessons for future research: (1) focus on particular features of managed care, (2) get inside the "black box" of managed care and examine providers, (3) expand the portfolio of research on children: research on adults cannot "trickle down" to children, (4) foster research partnerships and networks, and (5) focus on poor and chronically ill children. PMID:10327822

  3. Addressing trauma in collaborative mental health care for refugee children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseau, Cecile; Measham, Toby; Nadeau, Lucie

    2013-01-01

    Primary care institutions, including clinics, schools and community organizations, because of their closeness to the family living environment, are often in a privileged position to detect problems in traumatized refugee children and to provide help. In a collaborative care model, the child psychiatrist consultant can assist the primary care consultee and family in holding the trauma narrative and organizing a safe network around the child and family. The consultant can support the establishment of a therapeutic alliance, provide a cultural understanding of presenting problems and negotiate with the consultee and the family a treatment plan. In many settings, trauma focused psychotherapy may not be widely available, but committed community workers and primary care professionals may provide excellent psychosocial support and a forum for empathic listening that may provide relief to the family and the child. PMID:22626671

  4. Managing strategy to enhance care for children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Aaron; Mainland, Jeff; Blais, Irene

    2011-01-01

    The adoption of the Balanced Scorecard philosophy of measure, monitor and manage by The Hospital for Sick Children (SickKids) has resulted in SickKids' staff understanding, appreciating and ultimately being able to accept the enhanced transparency and accountability around performance, at both the system and hospital levels. The leadership of the organization observed these differences after initial SickKids scorecard update meetings, realizing this was not a flavour of the month but a totally new way of operating in a quest to achieve SickKids' vision and mission. Almost immediately, the internal culture began to shift as staff better understood how their roles actively contribute to the organization's ability to execute on its strategy. Based on 2010 staff engagement results, 70% of staff "see a direct link between personal work objectives and SickKids' strategy," while 60% were familiar with the newly released strategic plan, unprecedented results based on current benchmarks. This article provides an overview of the SickKids strategy management system, outlining both best practices and the journey from its launch to induction into the Balanced Scorecard Hall of Fame. Performance, at all levels across the enterprise, has shown measureable improvement with the introduction of the comprehensive strategy management system. PMID:22008569

  5. The Structure of Families who Adopt Children from Foster Care

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Mary Eschelbach

    2008-01-01

    The 1997 Adoption and Safe Families Act (ASFA) gave incentives to states to expedite the adoption of children from foster care. Administrative data describe the changes in adoptive families from 1996 to 2003 in terms of the marital status and sex of the household head and in terms of the relationship of the parents to the child prior to adoption. Patterns in the way children with special needs were matched with different kinds of families are described. The data show that agencies have tapped...

  6. Caring for Children in Immigrant Families: Vulnerabilities, Resilience, and Opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linton, Julie M; Choi, Ricky; Mendoza, Fernando

    2016-02-01

    Demographics indicate that pediatricians increasingly care for children in immigrant families in routine practice. Although these children may be at risk for health disparities relating to socioeconomic disadvantage and cultural or linguistic challenges, immigrant families have unique strengths and potential for resilience. Adaptive and acculturation processes concerning health and well-being can be mediated by cultural media. Pediatricians have a professional responsibility to address the medical, mental health, and social needs of immigrant families. Advocacy and research at the practice level and beyond can further explore the unique needs of this population and evidence-based strategies for health promotion. PMID:26613692

  7. CLINICO EPIDEMIOLOGICAL PROFILE OF WILD ANIMAL BITE VICTIMS ATTENDING ANTI RABIES CLINIC AT GOVERNMENT TERTIARY CARE CENTRE IN MANDYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jahnavi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available : INTRODUCTION: Rabies is an acute viral disease that causes fatal encephalitis in virtually all the warm blooded animals including man. In India it is estimated that annually 17.4 million animal bite cases occur and 20, 000 deaths occur due to human rabies. Dogs are responsible for about 97%of the human rabies, followed by cats (2%, jackals, mongoose and others (1%. There is scarcity of literature regarding human rabies due to wild animals. OBJECTIVES: To describe the socio- demographic characteristics of wild animal bite victims attending Anti Rabies Clinic (ARC, Mandya Institute of Medical Sciences (MIMS, Mandya and to describe the circumstances, characteristics of bite and post exposure prophylactic measures taken to prevent rabies. METHODOLOGY: This hospital based case record analysis was done for a period of 3 years from January 2011 to December 2013 at Anti Rabies Clinic (ARC, Mandya Institute of Medical Sciences, Mandya. The details regarding the socio demographic characteristics of bite victims, characteristics of the bite wound and post exposure prophylactic measures taken to prevent rabies were collected using case records of wild animal bite victims. RESULTS: A total of 12, 798 animal bite victims had attended ARC during the study period, of which 67 (0.52% cases were exposed to wild animals. Of these 67 cases, 45 (67.2% of the victims were exposed to monkey and 13 (19.4% were exposed to wild boar. 45 (67.2% of the wild animal bite victims were in the age group of 15 to 60 years, 49 (73.1% were males and 22 (32.8% belonging to class IV socio economic status. Many of the monkey bites happened when the monkey was trying to snatch food from the victims and while other wild animal bites happened when the farmers were guarding their field. 40 (59.7% had bites on upper limb. 51 (76.1% had washed the wound with soap and water before coming to ARC. RIG was advised to all victims but was taken by 49 (73.1% of the bite victims. All four doses

  8. A Randomized Evaluation of Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care: Effects on School Attendance and Homework Completion in Juvenile Justice Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leve, Leslie D.; Chamberlain, Patricia

    2007-01-01

    Despite growing evidence that child welfare youth are at increased risk for juvenile delinquency, little is known about gender-specific processes and effective treatment programs for girls. Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care (MTFC), an empirically validated intervention for child welfare and juvenile justice populations, has demonstrated…

  9. Effects of an Integrated Care System on quality of care and satisfaction for children with special health care needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Caprice; Madden, Vanessa; Sloyer, Phyllis; Shenkman, Elizabeth

    2012-04-01

    To assess the effects of an Integrated Care System (ICS) on parent-reported quality of care and satisfaction for Children with Special Health Care Needs (CSHCN). In 2006 Florida reformed its Medicaid program in Broward and Duval counties. Children's Medical Services Network (CMSN) chose to participate in the reform and developed an ICS for CSHCN. The ICS ushered in several changes such as more prior approval requirements and closing of the provider network. Telephone surveys were conducted with CMSN parents whose children reside in the reform counties and parents whose children reside outside of the reform counties in 2006 and 2007 (n = 1,727). Results from multivariate quasi-experimental models show that one component of parent-report quality of care, customer service, increased. Following implementation of the ICS, customer service increased by 0.22 points. After implementation of the ICS, parent-reported quality and satisfaction were generally unaffected. Although significant increases were not seen in the majority of the quality and satisfaction domains, it is nonetheless encouraging that parents did not report negative experiences with the ICS. It is important to present these interim findings so that progress can be monitored and decision-makers can begin to consider if the program should be expanded statewide. PMID:21509433

  10. Effects of an Integrated Care System on quality of care and satisfaction for children with special health care needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Caprice; Madden, Vanessa; Sloyer, Phyllis; Shenkman, Elizabeth

    2012-04-01

    To assess the effects of an Integrated Care System (ICS) on parent-reported quality of care and satisfaction for Children with Special Health Care Needs (CSHCN). In 2006 Florida reformed its Medicaid program in Broward and Duval counties. Children's Medical Services Network (CMSN) chose to participate in the reform and developed an ICS for CSHCN. The ICS ushered in several changes such as more prior approval requirements and closing of the provider network. Telephone surveys were conducted with CMSN parents whose children reside in the reform counties and parents whose children reside outside of the reform counties in 2006 and 2007 (n = 1,727). Results from multivariate quasi-experimental models show that one component of parent-report quality of care, customer service, increased. Following implementation of the ICS, customer service increased by 0.22 points. After implementation of the ICS, parent-reported quality and satisfaction were generally unaffected. Although significant increases were not seen in the majority of the quality and satisfaction domains, it is nonetheless encouraging that parents did not report negative experiences with the ICS. It is important to present these interim findings so that progress can be monitored and decision-makers can begin to consider if the program should be expanded statewide.

  11. Anti-Toxocara antibodies detected in children attending elementary school in Vitoria, State of Espírito Santo, Brazil: prevalence and associated factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Paranhos Fragoso

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of anti-Toxocara antibodies in serum from 7-year-old children attending elementary school in Vitória-ES, Brazil and to correlate these antibodies with socio-demographic factors, the presence of intestinal helminths, blood eosinophil numbers, past history of allergy or asthma, and clinical manifestations of helminth infections. METHODS: The detection of anti-Toxocara antibodies was performed using an ELISA (Cellabs Pty Ltdon serum from 391 children who had already been examined by fecal examination and blood cell counts. Data from clinical and physical examinations were obtained for all children. RESULTS: The prevalence of anti-Toxocara antibodies was 51.6%, with no gender differences. No significant differences were observed between positive serology and the presence or absence of intestinal worms (60.3 and 51.7%, respectively; p = 0.286. The only variables significantly related to positive serology were onycophagy and the use of unfiltered water. Although eosinophilia (blood eosinophil count higher than 600/mm³ was significantly related to the presence of a positive ELISA result, this significance disappeared when we considered only children without worms or without a past history of allergy or asthma. No clinical symptoms related to Toxocara infection were observed. CONCLUSIONS: There is a high prevalence of anti-Toxocara antibodies in children attending elementary schools in Vitória, which may be partially related to cross-reactivity with intestinal helminths or to a high frequency of infection with a small number of Toxocara eggs.

  12. Infection Control in Child Day Care Centres: Development and evaluation of a hand hygiene intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Zomer, Tizza

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Children attending child day care centres are at increased risk of acquiring gastrointestinal and respiratory infections compared to children cared for at home. Hand hygiene is known to be an effective measure to prevent infections. However, compliance with hand hygiene guidelines is generally low. In order to develop successful interventions to improve hand hygiene compliance and reduce gastrointestinal and respiratory infections among children attending day care...

  13. A review of cortisol production and child care attendace: The promotion of positive child development

    OpenAIRE

    Mikkelborg, Susann

    2009-01-01

    Extensive evidence exist, demonstrating an association between cortisol and child care attendance. Cortisol is regarded as a valid and reliable measure of stress. This review aim to summarize findings regarding child care and cortisol. The results reveal a trend of atypical levels of cortisol seen in children attending non-parental group-based child care, in particular encompassing children below age three. Long-term effects are evident in some children, resulting in a down regulation of the ...

  14. Readiness for School of Children Having Attended Language Immersion Kindergarten in Their Teachers' and Parents' Opinions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukk, Airi; Õun, Tiia; Ugaste, Aino

    2014-01-01

    In multicultural societies, much attention is given to children's language learning possibilities. In Estonia, the early language immersion programme for kindergarten children was started in the year 2000. The programme, while considered to be successful, has raised the question of whether the children participating in it are adequately…

  15. The Role of Care Coordinator for Children with Complex Care Needs: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rowan Hillis

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This systematic review seeks to identify the intended components of the role of care coordinator for children with complex care needs and the factors that determine its composition in practice. Theory and methods: The initial search identified 1,157 articles, of which 37 met the inclusion criteria. They were quality assessed using the SIGN hierarchy of evidence structure. Results: Core components of the role include: coordination of care needs, planning and assessment, specialist support, emotional support, administration and logistics and continuing professional development. Influencing factors on the role include the external environment (political and socio-economic, the internal environment (organisational structure and funding protocols, the skills, qualifications and experience of the coordinator, the family circumstances and the nature of the interaction between the care coordinator and the family. Discussion: The lack of consistent terminology creates challenges and there is a need for greater consensus on this issue. Organisations and healthcare professionals need to recognise the extent to which contextual factors influence the role of a care coordinator in practice and plan accordingly. Despite evidence that suggests that the role is pivotal in ensuring that care needs are sustained, there remains great variability in the understanding of the role of a care coordinator for this population. Conclusions: As the provision of care increasingly moves closer to home there is a need for greater understanding of the nature and composition of the interaction between care coordinators and families to determine the extent to which appropriate services are being provided. Further work in this area should take into consideration any potential variance in service provision, for example any potential inequity arising due to geographic location. It is also imperative, where appropriate, to seek the views of children with complex care

  16. Self-care 3 months after attending chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patient education: a qualitative descriptive analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mousing C

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Camilla Askov Mousing1, Kirsten Lomborg21School of Health Sciences, Randers School of Nursing, VIA University College, Randers, Denmark; 2Department of Public Health, Nursing Science, Aarhus University, Aarhus, DenmarkPurpose: The authors performed a qualitative descriptive analysis to explore how group patient education influences the self-care of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.Patients and methods: In the period 2009–2010, eleven patients diagnosed with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease completed an 8-week group education program in a Danish community health center. The patients were interviewed 3 months after completion of the program.Findings: Patients reported that their knowledge of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease had increased, that they had acquired tools to handle their symptoms, and that the social aspect of patient education had motivated them to utilize their new habits after finishing the course. The data indicate that patients need a period of adjustment (a "ripening period": it took time for patients to integrate new habits and competencies into everyday life. Talking to health care professionals focused the patients' attention on their newly acquired skills and the research interview made them more aware of their enhanced self-care.Conclusion: Patients' self-care may be enhanced through group education, even though the patients are not always able to see the immediate outcome. Some patients may require professional help to implement their newly acquired knowledge and skills in everyday life. A planned dialogue concentrating on self-care in everyday life 3 months after finishing the course may enhance patients' awareness and appraisal of their newly acquired competencies.Keywords: COPD, education program, patient knowledge, patient perspective, patient skills, ripening period

  17. Complementary and alternative medicine for children's asthma: satisfaction, care provider responsiveness, and networks of care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freidin, Betina; Timmermans, Stefan

    2008-01-01

    We explain why some caretakers opt for alternative medicine for the treatment of children's asthma whereas others do not. In the past 15 years, asthma care has been standardized, with clinical practice guidelines centered on advanced pharmacological regimes. Clinicians argue that with proper biomedical treatment and environmental control, asthma should be a manageable chronic disease. Yet many patients forego available pharmacological treatments for alternative medicine or complement prescribed drugs with unconventional treatments. On the basis of open-ended, in-depth qualitative interviews with 50 mothers of children with asthma, we argue that the experience with biomedical treatments, social influence in mother's network of care, concerns about adverse and long-term effects, health care providers' responsiveness to such concerns, and familiarity with alternative treatments explain why some families rely on alternative medicine and others do not. PMID:18174534

  18. Why don't some women attend antenatal and postnatal care services?: a qualitative study of community members' perspectives in Garut, Sukabumi and Ciamis districts of West Java Province, Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Heywood Peter; Hunter Cynthia L; Titaley Christiana R; Dibley Michael J

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Antenatal, delivery and postnatal care services are amongst the recommended interventions aimed at preventing maternal and newborn deaths worldwide. West Java is one of the provinces of Java Island in Indonesia with a high proportion of home deliveries, a low attendance of four antenatal services and a low postnatal care uptake. This paper aims to explore community members' perspectives on antenatal and postnatal care services, including reasons for using or not using thes...

  19. A study on prescribing pattern of antihypertensives in adult patients attending in a tertiary care hospital of Assam, India

    OpenAIRE

    Pavel Sikidar; Pinaki Chakravarty; Ayan Purkayastha; Rohit Tigga

    2016-01-01

    Background: Hypertension is one of the most common chronic medical problems prompting visits to health care providers. It has been estimated that hypertension accounts for 13% of deaths worldwide. The main objective of the present study was to assess the pattern of drug utilisation and to evaluate whether the prescribing patterns for anti-hypertensive in our institution is in adherence with JNC 8 guidelines for treatment of hypertension. Methods: A prospective, observational, non-intervent...

  20. DRUG SAFETY MONITORING IN PATIENTS ATTENDING EPILEPSY CLINIC IN A TERTIARY CARE TEACHING HOSPITAL IN RURAL BENGAL

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    Sourav

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Epilepsy is the second most common neurological disorder affecting fifty million people globally. Antiepileptic Drugs (AEDs are the mainstay of management in epilepsy. Use of AEDs over prolonged duration makes occurrence of multiple Adverse Drug Reactions (ADRs frequently, especially with polytherapy. OBJECTIVES To estimate the incidence of all the ADRs among patients taking AEDs and to assess their causalities and to quantify their severity. MATERIAL AND METHODS This prospective, observational study was carried out at an Outpatient Referral Epilepsy Clinic at Neurology Department at Bankura Sammilani Medical College, West Bengal, between 1st June and 30th September 2015. The demographic data, diagnosis, drugs prescribed and ADRs experienced by the patients were recorded. Causality and severity assessment was done using Naranjo’s Scale and Hartwig’s Severity Assessment Scale respectively. RESULTS Incidence of ADRs among the patients who attended the clinic was 3.3% (105 patients among 3146 experienced at least one ADR. Total 161 ADRs were detected, among which 55.3% were CNS adverse events followed by 15.5% gastrointestinal, 14.3% endocrine, 10.6% psychiatric abnormalities and 4.3% related to dermatological and allergic manifestations. Nearly one-third of the ADRs (32.3% were found to be possible and 109 (67.7% are of probable category, whereas none were deemed to be doubtful or definite. The most commonly implicated suspect drug was valproate (51.5% followed by Phenytoin (22.9%. Most of the ADRs were mild (93.2%, 5.6% were moderate and only 1.2% were deemed severe. CONCLUSION Incidence of ADRs is found to be common in patients on AEDs. Though rare, but they can be life-threatening. Routine safety assessments and pharmacovigilance is necessary in this set up to reduce the incidence and also improve pharmacotherapy and patient compliance

  1. CLINICO-MYCOLOGICAL PROFILE OF DERMATOPHYTOSIS IN PATIENTS ATTENDING A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL IN EASTERN BIHAR, INDIA

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    Partha Pratim

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dermatophytes are closely related keratinophilic fungi that cause dermatophytosis. Dermatophytosis is caused by three genera of fungi imperfectii viz. Microsporum, Trichophyton and Epidermophyton and where the perfect state of the species has been identified to the genus Arthroderma in the class Ascomycetes. Their keratinophilic nature allows them to degrade keratin and thus invade skin, hair and nails. AIMS: This study aimed to establish the identity of fungal isolates from clinically suspected cases of dermatophytosis and to correlate the occurrence of dermatophytosis with clinico-epidemiological profile of patient. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 372 samples from patients attending outpatient department from March 2010 to May 2011 were included in the study. A brief clinical history was obtained from the patients and samples were collected and processed as per standard protocol. Fungal growth was identified by gross colony morphology, lactophenol cotton blue mount, and color change on dermatophyte test medium (DTM and microslide culture. RESULTS: The most common dermatophyte was Trichophyton rubrum (12.1% whereas Aspergillus niger (5.6% was the commonest isolate among non-dermatophyte. Among clinical forms, majority of the patients had tinea corporis (55.3%. CONCLUSIONS: Dermatophytosis was found to be more prevalent in young adults (21-30 years. Culturing specimen on Sabouraud Dextrose Agar (SDA with antibiotics was found to be the best method for diagnosis and this medium proved to be better than DTM. The most common dermatophyte was Trichophyton rubrum and the most common clinical form of dermatophytosis was tinea corporis. Fungal infection of the skin tends to be chronic and lead to disfigurement, which may be a source of embarrassment to the person concerned. Diagnosis of these fungal infections in the laboratory must be encouraged, as they are easy to perform and require minimum infrastructure

  2. [Nursing care for children undergoing percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Mei-Jung; Lin, Chieh-Chung; Cheng, Shue-Lin

    2004-06-01

    Ever since percutaneous endoscopic gastronomy (PEG) was used for the first time in 1980 by Gauderer, Ponsky, Izant et al., It has been widely used in patients incapable of oral feeding. It is a safe and effective technique for long-term nutritional support in children, and easy to perform, as only local anesthesia or heavy sedation is required PEG can prevent children from suffering from nasopharyngeal and esophageal erosions due to repeated insertion of nasogastric tubes and the complication of aspiration pneumonia. It is therefore an alternative for children who need long-term feeding. In this article we review the literature on PEG and give a full description of its indications, complications, as well as advice on when to change gastrostomy tubes, and on nursing care, in the hope that this will be useful reference material for medical staff.

  3. The Effects of the Children Having Incarcerated Parents Succeeding Group on Delinquent Behavior, Academic Achievement, Self-Esteem, Attendance and Aggressive Behavior with Seventh and Eighth Grade Students Who Have Incarcerated Parents or Guardians

    Science.gov (United States)

    King-White, Dakota L.

    2012-01-01

    A sample of middle school students was investigated to determine whether an intervention group called Children Having Incarcerated Parents (C.H.I.P.S.; King-White & Lipford-Sanders, 2007) was an effective intervention for delinquent behavior, academic achievement, self-esteem, attendance, and aggressive behavior in children of incarcerated…

  4. Self-care 3 months after attending chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patient education: a qualitative descriptive analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mousing, Camilla A; Lomborg, Kirsten

    2012-01-01

    disease completed an 8-week group education program in a Danish community health center. The patients were interviewed 3 months after completion of the program. Findings: Patients reported that their knowledge of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease had increased, that they had acquired tools to handle...... the immediate outcome. Some patients may require professional help to implement their newly acquired knowledge and skills in everyday life. A planned dialogue concentrating on self-care in everyday life 3 months after finishing the course may enhance patients' awareness and appraisal of their newly acquired...

  5. Productivity in dental care for children. Factors influencing the time spent delivering dental care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, N J

    1994-12-01

    The cost of dental services is related to their productivity. The purpose of the study was to identify factors influencing productivity, measured as time spent providing dental care per child under care, per year, in public dental clinics. The time was expected to vary with characteristics of the patients, the personnel and the clinics. Time spent by dentists and dental hygienists delivering dental care for children aged three to 18 years was obtained from 137 public dental clinics. The data showed substantial variation in productivity between clinics. Multiple regression analysis revealed that the time spent per child was associated with interval between examinations, proportion of male dentists, ratio of dental assistants to dentists, proportion of child treatment time given by dental hygienists and proportion of all treatment time spent on child patients. These variables explained 43 per cent of the variance in the total time spent by dentists and hygienists and 41 per cent of the variance in dentists' time. Individual dentists and hygienists may reduce the mean time spent per child by extending recall intervals. On an administrative level, dentists' time per child may be reduced by employing more dental assistants or dental hygienists and allowing dentists to treat patient groups other than children. It is concluded that productivity in dental care for children in the public dental services may be influenced in several ways, both by clinical and administrative decisions. PMID:7850642

  6. Attributes of advanced practice registered nurse care coordination for children with medical complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cady, Rhonda G; Kelly, Anne M; Finkelstein, Stanley M; Looman, Wendy S; Garwick, Ann W

    2014-01-01

    Care coordination is an essential component of the pediatric health care home. This study investigated the attributes of relationship-based advanced practice registered nurse care coordination for children with medical complexity enrolled in a tertiary hospital-based health care home. Retrospective review of 2,628 care coordination episodes conducted by telehealth over a consecutive 3-year time period for 27 children indicated that parents initiated the majority of episodes and the most frequent reason was acute and chronic condition management. During this period, care coordination episodes tripled, with a significant increase (p care coordination model has potential for changing the health management processes for children with medical complexity.

  7. Identity of care in a Psychosocial Care Center for Children and Adolescents who uses drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabella Teixeira Bastos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective To associate the territory of identity with the production of care within a PCC focusing on children and adolescents with drug abuse and their institutional identity. Method We used the “ process tracing methodology” in four research categories: focus groups, characterization of professionals, observing the everyday and interviewing two members of emblematic cases of the service. Results territory of identity of the institution, which operates the production of care is crossed by the difficulty of dealing with the complexity brought by the users and the performance of the PCC network. This paper is also permeated by different conceptions of care and small problematization of these issues in collective spaces of service. Conclusion The discussion in focus groups and other devices can be powerful resources to reframe the meaning of care and identity of collective service.

  8. HIGH PREVALENCE OF Blastocystis spp. INFECTION IN CHILDREN AND STAFF MEMBERS ATTENDING PUBLIC URBAN SCHOOLS IN SÃO PAULO STATE, BRAZIL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebolla, Mayra Frozoni; Silva, Eliete Maria; Gomes, Jancarlo Ferreira; Falcão, Alexandre Xavier; Rebolla, Maria Vicentina Frozoni; Franco, Regina Maura Bueno

    2016-01-01

    After a gastroenteritis outbreak of unknown etiology in the municipality of Sebastião da Grama, São Paulo, Brazil, we conducted a parasitological survey to establish the epidemiological profile of enteroparasitosis in children and staff members attending the public urban schools in operation in town. The cross-sectional study evaluated 172 children aged 11 months to 6 years old and 33 staff members aged 19 to 58 years old. Overall, 96 (55.81%) children and 20 (60.61%) staff members were mono-parasitized, while 58 (33.72%) children and 4 (12.12%) workers were poly-parasitized. Protozoa (88.37%; 72.73%) was more prevalent than helminthes (3.48%; 0%) in children and staff members respectively.Blastocystis spp. was the most prevalent parasite in children (86.63%) and staff members (66.67%). The age of 1 year old or less was found to be associated with increased prevalence of giardiasis [OR = 13.04; 95%CI 2.89-58.91; p = 0.00] and public garbage collection was identified as a protective factor against intestinal helminth infections [OR = 0.06; 95%CI 0.00-0.79; p = 0.03]. Although most of the children tested positive for Blastocystis spp. and also presented clinical signs/symptoms (62.2%), this association was not statistically significant [OR = 1.35; 95%CI 0.53-3.44; p = 0.51]. Intestinal parasites still represent a public health concern and this study underscores the importance of further investigations to better understand the pathogenic role of Blastocystis spp. PMID:27074325

  9. Psychiatric morbidity in married females living away from their spouses attending the psychiatry clinic in a tertiary care, teaching hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirza Ghazanfar Baig

    2015-08-01

    The factors such as social support from family and friends, the stay of the study group with parents or in-laws, and duration of pre-separation, the study proved that there is no significant difference exists on the marital quality of the study group based on these factors. Conclusions: The numbers of females who were separated from their spouses are more likely to have psychiatric illnesses due the additional work load of looking after the children and managing the household activities. The study also found that the females staying with their parents after the separation from their spouses were less likely to have a severe psychiatric morbidity as they felt comfortable due the cooperation from their parents. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(8.000: 2086-2092

  10. PREVALENCE OF VEROCYTOTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA-COLI SEROTYPE O157H7 IN CHILDREN WITH DIARRHEA ATTENDING A SYDNEY HOSPITAL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ONG, J; ROBINSBROWNE, R; GAPES, M; OLOUGHLIN, EV

    1993-01-01

    Verotoxin producing Escherichia coli, in particular serotype O157:H7, have been implicated as an important cause of acute gastroenteritis in children. This study was undertaken to determine if E.coli O157:H7 is an important cause of acute gastroenteritis in children in metropolitan Sydney. During th

  11. MAGNITUDE AND CAUSES OF VISUAL IMPAIRMENT AND BLINDNESS AMONG CHILDREN ATTENDING PAEDIATRIC EYE CLINIC AT SANTHIRAM MEDICAL COLLEGE

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    Sanjeeva Kumar

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The number of blind years resulting from blindness in children is alarmingly high. Blindness in children can have a significant impact on their performance at school as well as their social interaction and future employment as visually impaired children have a long lifetime of blindness ahead of them. The consequences of visual impairment and blindness in children are an important public health issues with greater impact in developing countries, where 80% of the blindness in children occurs. The control of blindness in children is considered a high priority area within the World Health Organization’s VISION 2020 initiative. However many developing countries do not have the accurate information about the magnitude and causes of visual impairment and blindness in children, from which the scope and priorities for prevention and treatment can be identified. To date the established Pediatric Eye Clinic, which works as a Tertiary Eye Centre does not have baseline data on the magnitude and causes of visual impairment and blindness in children.

  12. Seeing is believing - reducing misconceptions about children's hospice care through effective teaching with undergraduate nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Jayne; Dornan, Jean; Quail, Lorraine

    2013-09-01

    Children's palliative care has evolved in recent years and is now recognised as a distinct area of health and social care practice. Whilst children's hospices are viewed as central to quality care for these children and families, lack of knowledge regarding the exact nature of care they provide exists. Education can go part way to changing attitudes and knowledge about the key contribution of hospices, thus improving future care. Alternative and innovative strategies to stimulate meaningful learning are pivotal to children's nurse education and this paper examines one such innovation adopted with 2nd year children's nursing students. Aiming to help students explore the ethos of children's hospice an educational visit was arranged, followed by an on line discussion. Although some practical challenges were encountered, the visit heightened student awareness moving them from the readily held perception that children's hospices were exclusively for dying children and was viewed by students as more effective than a traditional classroom session.

  13. Nutrient intake and socio-economic status among children attending a health exhibition in Malaysian rural villages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norhayati, M; Noor Hayati, M I; Oothuman, P; Fatmah, M S; Zainudin, B; Fatimah, A

    1995-12-01

    A dietary survey was carried out in 216 children (109 males, 107 females) aged 1-7 years, living in rural villages in Selangor, Malaysia to assess their nutrient intake and to determine the association between nutrient consumption and socio-economic background. All the children studied had inadequate intakes of energy, iron and niacin according to Recommended Daily Intake (RDI). Children aged of 4-9 years showed inadequate intake of calcium, thiamine and riboflavin. However, the intake of protein, vitamin A and ascorbic acid were above the recommended value. The mean percentage requirements of protein, iron and niacin were significantly higher in children from small families compared with children from large families. However the employment status of mothers had a significantly effect on the mean percentage requirements of niacin. The results indicate that education level of the mothers, is strongly associated with the mean percentage nutrient requirements of children and we strongly feel that this is a strategy to be adopted for improvement in nutrition of children. PMID:8668061

  14. Children in Residential Group Care with No Family Ties: Facing Existential Aloneness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvir, Orly; Weiner, Anita; Kupermintz, Hagai

    2012-01-01

    The issue of children living in residential group care in Israel completely without family ties is studied in order to explore the feelings of staff and uncover possible characteristics of these children. Data were collected through focus groups, questionnaires, and life stories of children who left group care at 18 years of age. Results reveal…

  15. Parental Book Reading and Social-Emotional Outcomes for Head Start Children in Foster Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyunghee; Lee, Jung-Sook

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the associations between parental book reading and social-emotional outcomes for Head Start children in foster care. Despite no main Head Start impact on parental book reading, subgroup effects were found. Foster parents in Head Start provided more book reading for children with disabilities but less for children with low preacademic scores. Head Start enhanced social-emotional outcomes for children in foster care. The positive impacts of Head Start on children's social-emotional outcomes were greater when parents read books frequently. Head Start should include more foster families and provided parenting skills to enhance social-emotional outcomes for children in foster care.

  16. Parental Book Reading and Social-Emotional Outcomes for Head Start Children in Foster Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyunghee; Lee, Jung-Sook

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the associations between parental book reading and social-emotional outcomes for Head Start children in foster care. Despite no main Head Start impact on parental book reading, subgroup effects were found. Foster parents in Head Start provided more book reading for children with disabilities but less for children with low preacademic scores. Head Start enhanced social-emotional outcomes for children in foster care. The positive impacts of Head Start on children's social-emotional outcomes were greater when parents read books frequently. Head Start should include more foster families and provided parenting skills to enhance social-emotional outcomes for children in foster care. PMID:27167763

  17. Unhappiness with the Fetal Gender is associated with Depression in Adult Pregnant Women Attending Prenatal Care in a Public Hospital in Durango, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Sifuentes-Alvarez, Antonio; Salas-Martinez, Carlos

    2016-03-01

    Depression during pregnancy has been scantily studied in Mexican women. We aimed to determine the prevalence and correlates of depression in adult pregnant women attending a public hospital in the northern Mexican city of Durango, Mexico. Through a cross-sectional study design, we assessed depression in 270 adult pregnant women attended for prenatal care in a public hospital using a validated Mexican version of the Edinburg Postnatal Depression Scale in pregnancy and further confirmation by a psychiatric evaluation using the DSM-IV criteria for depression. Prevalence association with socio-demographic, clinical and psychosocial characteristics of the pregnant women was also investigated. Of the 270 pregnant women studied, 101 (37.4%) had EPDS scores equal to or higher than nine. Depression was confirmed in 56 (20.7%) women. Of them, 42 suffered from minor depression and 14 from major depression. Multivariate analysis of socio-demographic, clinical and psychosocial characteristics of the women showed that depression was associated with depression before pregnancy (OR = 3.36; 95% CI: 1.20-9.40; P=0.02), anxiety during pregnancy (OR = 9.38; 95% CI: 1.87-46.96; P=0.006), smoking (OR = 25.05; 95% CI: 1.77-353.07; P=0.01), unhappy with the fetal sex (OR = 8.53; 95% CI: 2.46-29.48; Pwomen studied had confirmed depression. This is the first report of an association of prenatal depression with unhappiness with the fetal sex. Factors associated with prenatal depression found in this study may help for the optimal design of preventive measures against prenatal depression.

  18. Comparison of four diagnostic techniques for detection of Trichomonas vaginalis infection in females attending tertiary care hospital of North India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razia Khatoon

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Trichomonas vaginalis causes a common sexually transmitted disease trichomoniasis, which may lead to increased risk of transmission of human immunodeficiency virus infection and other pelvic inflammatory diseases. Wet mount examination is the most common test for diagnosis, but it has low sensitivity. Acridine orange staining can be used for diagnosis, but it requires special microscopic facility. Culture is considered as the gold standard, but it takes a long time for diagnosis. OSOM Trichomonas Rapid Test is a recently introduced rapid method based on immunochromatographic assay of trichomonal protein antigens. Hence, the present study was done to compare these four diagnostic techniques for detection of trichomoniasis in females with vaginal discharge. Materials and Methods: Vaginal swabs were taken from 835 female patients and wet mount examination, acridine orange staining, culture in Kupferberg medium, and OSOM Trichomonas Rapid Test, were performed. Results: Out of 835 patients included in our study, 68 (8.1% positive cases of trichomoniasis were detected by culture. OSOM Trichomonas Rapid Test detected 63 (7.5% cases, acridine orange staining detected 53 (6.3% cases, whereas, wet mount examination detected only 45 (5.4% positive cases. OSOM Trichomonas Rapid Test performed well and showed high sensitivity and specificity of 88.2% and 99.6%, respectively. Conclusion: As OSOM Trichomonas Rapid Test is a point of care test and gave better results than both wet mount examination and acridine orange staining; it can be used as a routine test in peripheral areas lacking laboratory facilities.

  19. Asthma control assessment using asthma control test among patients attending 5 tertiary care hospitals in Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective was the evaluation of asthma control using the Asthma Control Test (ACT). The ACT was used to assess asthma control among patients with bronchial asthma visiting pulmonary clinics in 5 major tertiary care hospitals in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Each hospital had target of 300 patients to recruit over the period of the study from 1st September to 30th November 2006. The total number of patients studied was 1060 patients. Males constituted 442 (42%) and the females constituted 618 (58%), the median age was 38.56 years range 15-75. One-third of the patients had no formal education. The ACT score revealed uncontrolled asthma in 677 (64%), well controlled asthma in 328 (31%) and complete controlled in 55 (5%). There were no significant correlation between the age below 40 and above 40 years and level of asthma control p=0.12. However, the younger age group less than 20 had better control of asthma in comparison with older patients p=0.0001. There was significant correlation between level of asthma control and gender, males 44% had better asthma control than females (30%, p=0.0001). Control of bronchial asthma is still major concern in our population. Further studies are needed to explore the factors leading to poor asthma control. (author)

  20. How Much is Too Much? The Influence of Preschool Centers on Children's Social and Cognitive Development

    OpenAIRE

    Susanna Loeb; Margaret Bridges; Bruce Fuller; Russ Rumberger; Daphna Bassok

    2005-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that attending center care is associated with cognitive benefits for young children. However, little is known about the ideal age for children to enter such care or the "right" amount of time, both weekly and yearly, for children to attend center programs. Using national data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study (ECLS-K), this paper asks whether there are optimal levels of center care duration and intensity and whether these levels vary by race or inc...

  1. Younger Children's (Three to Five Years) Perceptions of Being in a Health-Care Situation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stålberg, Anna; Sandberg, Anette; Söderbäck, Maja

    2016-01-01

    Younger children are common users of health-care services. Their perspective on a health-care situation and their ways of communication differ from that of adults. There is a shortness of research of younger children's perceptions of health-care situations. The knowledge that exists indicates the importance of involving the child's perspective to…

  2. 45 CFR 1356.22 - Implementation requirements for children voluntarily placed in foster care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... voluntarily placed in foster care. 1356.22 Section 1356.22 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public... ADMINISTRATION ON CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FOSTER CARE MAINTENANCE PAYMENTS, ADOPTION ASSISTANCE, AND CHILD... children voluntarily placed in foster care. (a) As a condition of receipt of Federal...

  3. Patient- and family-centered care coordination: a framework for integrating care for children and youth across multiple systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    Understanding a care coordination framework, its functions, and its effects on children and families is critical for patients and families themselves, as well as for pediatricians, pediatric medical subspecialists/surgical specialists, and anyone providing services to children and families. Care coordination is an essential element of a transformed American health care delivery system that emphasizes optimal quality and cost outcomes, addresses family-centered care, and calls for partnership across various settings and communities. High-quality, cost-effective health care requires that the delivery system include elements for the provision of services supporting the coordination of care across settings and professionals. This requirement of supporting coordination of care is generally true for health systems providing care for all children and youth but especially for those with special health care needs. At the foundation of an efficient and effective system of care delivery is the patient-/family-centered medical home. From its inception, the medical home has had care coordination as a core element. In general, optimal outcomes for children and youth, especially those with special health care needs, require interfacing among multiple care systems and individuals, including the following: medical, social, and behavioral professionals; the educational system; payers; medical equipment providers; home care agencies; advocacy groups; needed supportive therapies/services; and families. Coordination of care across settings permits an integration of services that is centered on the comprehensive needs of the patient and family, leading to decreased health care costs, reduction in fragmented care, and improvement in the patient/family experience of care.

  4. School attendance 1880-1939

    OpenAIRE

    Sheldon, Nicola; Professor Jane Humphries; Janet Howarth

    2008-01-01

    The thesis covers two sides of the truancy problem in the period following compulsory school attendance - the truanting children and their parents, and the local authorities charged with enforcing the law. The introduction covers current concerns about truancy and school attendance, which have increased in prominence since the 1980s. Chapter 2 reviews the historiography, which has mainly debated working-class attitudes towards compulsory schooling in the nineteenth century. Th...

  5. School attendance and parental disability

    OpenAIRE

    Raccanello, Kristiano; Garñudo Estrada, León; Herrera Escalante, Andrea; Uribe Cruz, Gabriel

    2011-01-01

    Socio economic problems exacerbate school drop-out that harms youths by limiting their knowledge and future development. Scholars have investigated both the variables linked to school attendance and the problems faced by impaired children. However, it has not yet been considered whether school attendance is harmed when parents are impaired. In order to partially fill this gap, we test the hypothesis that parental disability increases school drop-out through a sample of 598 youths between 14 a...

  6. Prevalence, correlates, attitude and treatment seeking of erectile dysfunction among type 2 diabetic Chinese men attending primary care outpatient clinics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wai Hon Lo; Sau Nga Fu; Carlos King Ho Wong; Ee San Chen

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the prevalence, correlates, attitude and treatment seeking behavior of erectile dysfunction(ED) in type2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients in the primary care setting, a multi‑center cross‑sectional survey using a structured anonymous self‑administered questionnaire was performed in 10 general outpatient clinics. Of the 603 subjects(91% response rate), the prevalence of ED men, as deifned by the International Index of Erectile Function, was 79.1%. Most subjects had mild ED(28.9%), followed by mild‑to‑moderate ED(27.9%), then moderate ED(13.4%) and severe ED(9%). Nearly 55% of those with ED did not consider themselves as having ED. Less than 10% of them had ever sought medical treatment, although 76.1% of them wished to receive management from doctor(s) should they be diagnosed with ED. They considered the most important management from doctors to be clinical assessment(41.7%), followed by management of potential underlying cause(37.8%), referral to specialist(27.5%), education(23.9%), prescription of phosphodiesterase type5 inhibitors(16.9%) and referral to counseling service(6.7%). The prevalence of ED was strongly associated with subjects who thought they had ED(odds ratio(OR)= 90.49(20.00–409.48, P<0.001)) and were from the older age group(OR=1.043(1.011–1.076,P=0.008)). In conclusion, ED is highly prevalent among T2DM men. The majority of them wanted management from doctors should they have ED, but only a minority would actually voice out the request. Screening of ED among T2DM men using structural questionnaire allowed the diagnosis of more than half of the ED cases, which otherwise would have gone undiagnosed.

  7. Out of hours care: a profile analysis of patients attending the emergency department and the general practitioner on call

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buylaert Walter

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Overuse of emergency departments (ED is of concern in Western society and it is often referred to as 'inappropriate' use. This phenomenon may compromise efficient use of health care personnel, infrastructure and financial resources of the ED. To redirect patients, an extensive knowledge of the experiences and attitudes of patients and their choice behaviour is necessary. The aim of this study is to quantify the patients and socio-economical determinants for choosing the general practitioner (GP on call or the ED. Methods Data collection was conducted simultaneously in 4 large cities in Belgium. All patients who visited EDs or used the services of the GP on call during two weekends in January 2005 were enrolled in the study in a prospective manner. We used semi-structured questionnaires to interview patients from both services. Results 1611 patient contacts were suitable for further analysis. 640 patients visited the GP and 971 went to the ED. Determinants that associated with the choice of the ED are: being male, having visited the ED during the past 12 months at least once, speaking another language than Dutch or French, being of African (sub-Saharan as well as North African nationality and no medical insurance. We also found that young men are more likely to seek help at the ED for minor trauma, compared to women. Conclusions Patients tend to seek help at the service they are acquainted with. Two populations that distinctively seek help at the ED for minor medical problems are people of foreign origin and men suffering minor trauma. Aiming at a redirection of patients, special attention should go to these patients. Informing them about the health services' specific tasks and the needlessness of technical examinations for minor trauma, might be a useful intervention.

  8. Opening the Black Box: Toward Classifying Care and Treatment for Children and Adolescents with Behavioral and Emotional Problems within and across Care Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evenboer, K. E.; Huyghen, A. M. N.; Tuinstra, J.; Reijneveld, S. A.; Knorth, E. J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The Taxonomy of Care for Youth was developed to gather information about the care offered to children and adolescents with behavioral and emotional problems in various care settings. The aim was to determine similarities and differences in the content of care and thereby to classify the care offered to these children and youth within…

  9. Factors affecting the presence of depression, anxiety disorders, and suicidal ideation in patients attending primary health care service in Lithuania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunevicius, Robertas; Peceliuniene, Jurate; Raskauskiene, Nijole; Bunevicius, Adomas; Mickuviene, Narseta

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective. The aim of this study was to establish prevalence, recognition, and risk factors for mental disorders and suicidal ideation in PC patients. Design. A cross-sectional survey based on standard mental health evaluation. Setting. Lithuanian primary care. Subjects. 998 patients from four urban PC clinics. Main outcome measures. Current mental disorders and suicidal ideation assessed using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI). Results. According to the MINI, 27% of patients were diagnosed with at least one current mental disorder. The most common mental disorders were generalized anxiety disorder (18%) and major depressive episode (MDE) (15%), followed by social phobia (3%), panic disorder (3%), and post-traumatic stress disorder (2%). Some 6% of patients reported suicidal ideation. About 70% of patients with current mental disorder had no documented psychiatric diagnosis and about 60% received no psychiatric treatment. Greater adjusted odds for current MDE were associated with being widowed or divorced patients (odds ratio, OR = 1.8, 95% CI 1.2–2.8) and with lower education (OR = 1.6, 95% CI 1.1–2.3), while greater adjusted odds for any current anxiety disorder were found for women (OR = 1.9, 95% CI 1.3–2.8) and for patients with documented insomnia (OR = 2.2, 95% CI 1.2–4.2). Suicidal ideation was independently associated with use of antidepressants (OR = 5.4, 95% CI 1.7–16.9), with current MDE (OR = 2.9, 95% CI 1.5–5.8), and with excessive alcohol consumption (OR = 2.0, 95% CI 1.1–3.8). Conclusions. Depression, anxiety disorders, and suicidal ideation are prevalent but poorly recognized among PC patients. The presence of current MDE is independently associated with marital status and with lower education, while current anxiety disorder is associated with female gender and insomnia. Suicidal ideation is associated with current MDE, and with antidepressants and alcohol use. PMID:24533847

  10. Social and emotional difficulties in children with ADHD and the impact on school attendance and healthcare utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Classi Peter

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study was to examine the impact of co-occurring social and emotional difficulties on missed school days and healthcare utilization among children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. Methods Data were from the 2007 U.S. National Health Interview Survey (NHIS and were based on parental proxy responses to questions in the Sample Child Core, which includes questions on demographics, health, healthcare treatment, and social and emotional status as measured by questions about depression, anxiety, and phobias, as well as items from the brief version of the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ. Logistic regression was used to assess the association between co-occurring social and emotional difficulties with missed school days and healthcare utilization, adjusting for demographics. Results Of the 5896 children aged 6–17 years in the 2007 NHIS, 432 (7.3% had ADHD, based on parental report. Children with ADHD and comorbid depression, anxiety, or phobias had significantly greater odds of experiencing > 2 weeks of missed school days, ≥ 6 visits to a healthcare provider (HCP, and ≥ 2 visits to the ER, compared with ADHD children without those comorbidities (OR range: 2.1 to 10.4. Significantly greater odds of missed school days, HCP visits, and ER visits were also experienced by children with ADHD who were worried, unhappy/depressed, or having emotional difficulties as assessed by the SDQ, compared with ADHD children without those difficulties (OR range: 2.2 to 4.4. Conclusions In children with ADHD, the presence of social and emotional problems resulted in greater odds of missed school days and healthcare utilization. These findings should be viewed in light of the limited nature of the parent-report measures used to assess social and emotional problems.

  11. Predictive indices of empirical clinical diagnosis of malaria among under-five febrile children attending paediatric outpatient clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan A Elechi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Malaria has remained an important public health problem in Nigeria with children under 5 years of age bearing the greatest burden. Accurate and prompt diagnosis of malaria is an important element in the fight against the scourge. Due to the several limitations of microscopy, diagnosis of malaria has continued to be made based on clinical ground against several World Health Organization (WHO recommendations. Thus, we aim to assess the performance of empirical clinical diagnosis among febrile children under 5 years of age in a busy pediatric outpatient clinic. Materials and Methods: The study was a cross-sectional study. Children aged <5 years with fever or 72 h history of fever were recruited. Children on antimalarial prophylaxis or on treatment for malaria were excluded. Relevant information was obtained from the caregiver and clinical note of the child using interviewer administered questionnaire. Two thick and two thin films were made, stained, and read for each recruited child. Data was analysed using SPSS version 16. Results: Of the 433 children studied, 98 (22.6% were empirically diagnosed as having malaria and antimalarial drug prescribed. Twenty-three (23.5% of these children were confirmed by microscopy to have malaria parasitemia, while 75 (76.5% were negative for malaria parasitemia. Empirical clinical diagnosis show poor predictive indices with sensitivity of 19.2%, specificity of 76.0%, positive predictive value of 23.5% and negative predictive value of 71%. Conclusion and Recommendations: Empirical clinical diagnosis of malaria among the under-five children with symptoms suggestive of acute malaria is highly not reliable and hence the need to strengthen parasitological diagnosis.

  12. Prevalence and determinant of early childhood caries among the children attending the Anganwadis of Wardha district, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhay M Gaidhane

    2013-01-01

    Materials and Methods: Community-based cross-sectional study among the selected Anganwadis children of 2-5 years of Wardha district. Result: A total 330 subjects, 105 children were found to be having ECC, 47 (30.92% males and 58 (32.58% females. Total 215 children belonged to 43-60 months age group. Out of these, 72 (33.48% children were having ECC. A significant association was found between the history of bottle-feeding and ECC (P = 0.0218. Prevalence of ECC was more among those who were bottle-fed than those who were not bottle-fed. Conclusion: Future health promotion and education programs in Anganwadis should include oral health issues and the risk factors for ECC, and its consequences should be addressed. Public-funded oral health program should be started and targeted at children from lower socioeconomic status. Effective strategies should be developed to promote use of brush and paste for cleaning teeth and discouraging inappropriate bottle-feeding, discouraging on demand consumption of chocolates and sugars.

  13. Dental caries prevalence in children up to 36 months of age attending daycare centers in municipalities with different water fluoride content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Valéria Pagliari Tiano

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available This study determined the prevalence of cavitated caries lesions (CCL and early childhood caries (ECC, and the contribution of some variables in children up to 36 months of age attending daycare centers in municipalities with different fluoride levels in the water supply: AFC (adequate fluoride content and LFC (low fluoride content. After approval of the Ethics Committee, the parents were interviewed. The children were clinically examined using the same codes and criteria established by the WHO (World Health Organization and the ADA (American Dental Association. Fisher's exact test (p<0.05 was applied for statistical analysis of data. The dmft indices calculated in the LFC and AFC municipalities were 0.57 and 0.68, respectively. Considering all children examined, 17.6% presented CCL and 33.8% ECC. The economic classification, mother's education level and duration of breastfeeding were considered statistically significant with regards to CCL prevalence. The age group, duration of the habit of drinking milk before bedtime and age at which oral hygiene started were considered statistically significant with regards to ECC prevalence.

  14. Association between child-care and acute diarrhea: a study in Portuguese children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barros Henrique

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To quantify the influence of the type of child-care on the occurrence of acute diarrhea with special emphasis on the effect of children grouping during care. METHODS: From October 1998 to January 1999 292 children, aged 24 to 36 months, recruited using a previously assembled cohort of newborns, were evaluated. Information on the type of care and occurrence of diarrhea in the previous year was obtained from parents by telephone interview. The X² and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to compare proportions and quantitative variables, respectively. The risk of diarrhea was estimated through the calculation of incident odds ratios (OR and their respective 95% confidence intervals (95% CI, crude and adjusted by unconditional logistic regression. RESULTS: Using as reference category children cared individually at home, the adjusted ORs for diarrhea occurrence were 3.18, 95% CI [1.49, 6.77] for children cared in group at home, 2.28, 95% CI [0.92, 5.67] for children cared in group in day-care homes and 2.54, 95% CI [1.21, 5.33] for children cared in day-care centers. Children that changed from any other type of child-care setting to child-care centers in the year preceding the study showed a risk even higher (OR 7.65, 95% CI [3.25, 18.02]. CONCLUSIONS: Group care increases the risk of acute diarrhea whatsoever the specific setting.

  15. Young Children's Self-care and Independence Tasks: Applying Self-efficacy Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrand, Verna

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the theory of self-efficacy, the ways in which young children learn self-care and self-efficacy, and methods parents and other caregivers can use to encourage self-efficacy in young children. (RJC)

  16. Potential Benefits of Companion Animals for Self-Care Children. Reviews of Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, D. Terry; McKenry, Patrick C.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the potential benefits of having pets for self-care children. Researchers suggest that companion animals can lower blood pressure, show up high on a list of children's helpers and indirectly increase feelings of safety. (RJC)

  17. Exploring the King’s outcome scale for childhood head injury in children attending a rehabilitation hospital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rumney, Peter; Hung, Ryan; McAdam, Laura;

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Few tools exist to assess and monitor impairment and disability in children with acquired brain injury. The King’s Outcome Scale for Childhood Head Injury (KOSCHI) was developed as an alternative to the Glasgow Outcome Scale. However, limited information is available to support its...... reliability, validity and responsiveness. A pilot study was designed to (1) develop a KOSCHI data collection form; and (2) determine the feasibility of studying its intra-rater and inter-rater reliability in children with acquired brain injury. Methods: A KOSCHI data collection form was developed after...... reviewing the literature. Two paediatricians and one paediatric neurologist tested its use in a clinical setting and the form was modified. As a pilot study, a rehabilitation paediatrician then assessed 10 children (aged 5–18 years) with acquired brain injuries (six traumatic, four non...

  18. The Pediatric Home Care/Expenditure Classification Model (P/ECM): A Home Care Case-Mix Model for Children Facing Special Health Care Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Phillips, Charles D

    2015-01-01

    Case-mix classification and payment systems help assure that persons with similar needs receive similar amounts of care resources, which is a major equity concern for consumers, providers, and programs. Although health service programs for adults regularly use case-mix payment systems, programs providing health services to children and youth rarely use such models. This research utilized Medicaid home care expenditures and assessment data on 2,578 children receiving home care in one large sta...

  19. Physiological and Behavioral Stress and Anxiety in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders during Routine Oral Care

    OpenAIRE

    Stein, Leah I.; Lane, Christianne J.; Williams, Marian E.; Dawson, Michael E.; José C. Polido; Cermak, Sharon A.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) commonly exhibit uncooperative behaviors which impede oral care. Previous studies have utilized dentist-report measures of uncooperative behaviors in children with ASD but none have utilized an objective measure of children's behavior or a physiological measure of distress. This study investigated behavioral and physiological distress in children with ASD during routine oral care and examined factors associated with this distress. Meth...

  20. Cost-effectiveness study of oral hypoglycemic agents in the treatment of outpatients with type 2 diabetes attending a public primary care clinic in Mexico City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cárdenas-Elizalde MR

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Christian Díaz de León-Castañeda, Marina Altagracia-Martínez, Jaime Kravzov-Jinich, Ma del Rosario Cárdenas-Elizalde, Consuelo Moreno-Bonett, Juan Manuel Martínez-NúñezDepartment of Biological Systems and Health Care, Biological and Health Sciences Division, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Xochimilco, Mexico DF, MexicoIntroduction: Worldwide, diabetes mellitus presents a high burden for individuals and society. In Latin America, many people with diabetes have limited access to health care, which means that indirect costs may exceed direct health care cost. Diabetes is Mexico's leading cause of death.Purpose: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness ratios of the most used oral hypoglycemic agents (OHA in the treatment of outpatients with type 2 diabetes attending a public primary care clinic in Mexico City.Design: A cross-sectional and analytic study was conducted in Mexico City.Methodology: Twenty-seven adult outpatients with type 2 diabetes who were treated either with metformin or glibenclamide were included. Acarbose was used as an alternative strategy. The study was carried out from the perspective of Mexican society. Direct medical and nonmedical costs as well as indirect costs were evaluated using a structured questionnaire. Efficacies of all drug treatments were evaluated retrospectively. A systematic search was conducted to select published randomized clinical trials based on predetermined inclusion criteria, and treatment success was defined as glycosylated hemoglobin factor ≤ 7%. Efficacy data of each drug and/or combination were analyzed using meta-analysis. The Monte Carlo Markov model was used. Quality-adjusted life-years (QALY were used as the unit of effectiveness; incremental and sensitive analyses were performed and a 5% discount rate was calculated. A hypothetical cohort of 10,000 patients was modeled.Results: The odds ratios of the success of each drug treatment were obtained from the meta-analyses, and were the

  1. The Voices of Thirteen Chinese and Taiwanese Parents Sharing Views about their Children Attending Chinese Heritage Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Li-yuan; Larke, Patrica J.

    2008-01-01

    Many Chinese and Taiwanese parents in the United States see benefits of Chinese schools in providing their children the opportunity to learn Chinese culture and language. The results of this qualitative study involving interviews with thirteen Chinese and Taiwanese parents indicated that there were three main reasons why parents want to send their…

  2. Piano Keyboard Training and the Spatial-Temporal Development of Young Children Attending Kindergarten Classes in Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafranas, Nikolaos

    2004-01-01

    This research had three main goals: to control whether children would show significant improvement in cognitive test scores following piano/keyboard instruction; to compare whether the spatial tasks would show greater improvement than other tasks; and to examine whether the effects of piano/keyboard training on spatial tasks are gender…

  3. Intersubjectivity as a Measure of Social Competence among Children Attending Head Start: Assessing the Measure's Validity and Relation to Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garte, Rebecca R.

    2015-01-01

    The present paper reported on a new method and procedure for assessing preschooler's social competence. This method utilized an observational measure of intersubjectivity to assess the social competence that develops in real time during interaction between two or more children. The measure of intersubjectivity reflected a conceptualization of the…

  4. Medical foster care: what happens when children with medical complexity cannot be cared for by their families?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seltzer, Rebecca R; Henderson, Carrie M; Boss, Renee D

    2016-01-01

    Medical interventions for life-threatening pediatric conditions often oblige ongoing and complex medical care for survivors. For some children with medical complexity, their caretaking needs outstrip their parents' resources and abilities. When this occurs, the medical foster care system can provide the necessary health care and supervision to permit these children to live outside of hospitals. However, foster children with medical complexity experience extremes of social and medical risk, confounding their prognosis and quality of life beyond that of similar children living with biologic parents. Medical foster parents report inadequate training and preparation, perpetuating these health risks. Further, critical decisions that weigh the benefits and burdens of medical interventions for these children must accommodate complicated relationships involving foster families, caseworkers, biologic families, legal consultants, and clinicians. These variables can delay and undermine coordinated and comprehensive care. To rectify these issues, medical homes and written care plans can promote collaboration between providers, families, and agencies. Pediatricians should receive specialized training to meet the unique needs of this population. National policy and research agendas could target medical and social interventions to reduce the need for medical foster care for children with medical complexity, and to improve its quality for those children who do. PMID:26460524

  5. Differences between attendance in emergency care of male and female victims of traffic accidents in Porto alegre, Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Forgiarini Saldanha

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Driving under the influence of alcohol/ drugs (DUI is a well-established risk factor for traffic accidents, and men and women have different consumption patterns. The scope of this paper is to analyze differences in alcohol and drug consumption, as well as on behavior associated with traffic accidents among men and women. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 609 sequential traffic accident victims attended in emergency care from Porto Alegre. Subjects gave a structured interview, were breathalyzed and had a saliva test for alcohol/drug screening. Results showed that women were mainly passengers or pedestrians (p < 0.001. There was no significant difference in positive blood alcohol concentration. However, men reported more binge drinking and THC use, while women had more benzodiazepine in their saliva (p<0.05. This is the first Brazilian study to compare alcohol and drug use among men and women who were the victims of traffic accidents. Results point to differences in the pattern of substance abuse, as well on risk behavior. Data may be useful for specific prevention strategies that take gender differences into consideration.

  6. EVALUATION OF ANXIETY & DEPRESSIVE SYMPTOMS IN PATIENTS WITH 1 ST EPISODE OF CHEST PAIN ATTENDING MEDICINE OUT PATIENT DEPARTMENT OF TERTIARY CARE TEACHING HOSPITAL

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    Bhavik S.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: As chest pain is an important symptom of coronary artery disease (CAD and other non - cardiac diseases , the presentation of the symptom often prompts referral to physicians for further investigation. Previous studies h ad shown significant as sociation between chest pain and D e pr e ssive and anxiety symptoms. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: Evaluate and screen depressive symptoms , anxiety symptoms and somatic symptoms in patients with 1 st episode of chest pain attending medicine out - patient department of tertiary care teaching hospital. METHODOLGY : Cross - sectional observational study. Prior permission from institutional ethics committee of ‘SUMANDEEP VIDYAPEETH’ had been taken. 100 patients having first episosde of chest pain coming to M edicine opd of DHIRAJ HOSPITAL are recruited randomly after 1st December 2014. Each patient is given case r eport form containing sociodemographic data , patients medical history , depression and somatic symptoms scale and Hamilton’s anxiety scale (HAM - A. All data are entered in spss 16 and analysed with different ( S tatistical tests. Differences on categorical m easures will be reported as P value. The result is significant if P <0.05. RESULT: 38% & 49% patients have clinically significant depression and anxiety respectively. DSSS score is positively correlated with duration of chest pain. CONCLUSION : significant level of depression and anxiety found in 1 st episode of chest pain patients.

  7. Compliance with Iron-Folate Supplement and Associated Factors among Antenatal Care Attendant Mothers in Misha District, South Ethiopia: Community Based Cross-Sectional Study

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    Abinet Arega Sadore

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. In Ethiopia, higher proportions of pregnant women are anemic. Despite the efforts to reduce iron deficiency anemia during pregnancy, only few women took an iron supplement as recommended. Thus, this study aimed to assess compliance with iron-folate supplement and associated factors among antenatal care attendant mothers in Misha district, South Ethiopia. Method. Community based cross-sectional study supported with in-depth interview was conducted from March 1 to March 30, 2015. The sample size was determined using single population proportion to 303. Simple random sampling technique was used to select the study participants. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses were employed to identify factors associated with compliance to iron-folate supplement. Results. The compliance rate was found to be 39.2%. Mothers knowledge of anemia (AOR = 4.451, 95% CI = (2.027,9.777, knowledge of iron-folate supplement (AOR = 3.509, 95% CI = (1.442,8.537, and counseling on iron-folate supplement (AOR = 4.093, 95% CI = (2.002,8.368 were significantly associated with compliance to iron-folate supplement. Conclusions. Compliance rate of iron-folate supplementation during pregnancy remains very low. This study showed that providing women with clear instructions about iron-folate tablet intake and educating them on the health benefits of the iron-folate tablets can increase compliance with iron-folate supplementation.

  8. Medication adherence and blood pressure control amongst adults with primary hypertension attending a tertiary hospital primary care clinic in Eastern Nigeria

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    Gabriel UP. Iloh

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: As the case detection rates of hypertension increase in adult Nigerians, achieving target blood pressure (BP control has become an important management challenge.Objectives: To describe medication adherence and BP control amongst adult Nigerians with primary hypertension attending a primary care clinic of a tertiary hospital in a resource-poor environment in Eastern Nigeria.Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in 140 adult patients with primary hypertension who have been on treatment for at least 6 months at the primary care clinic of Federal Medical Centre, Umuahia. A patient was said to have achieved goal BP control if the BP was < 140 per 90 mmHg. Adherence was assessed in the previous 30 days using a pretested researcher-administered questionnaire on 30 days of self-reported therapy. Adherence was graded using an ordinal scoring system of 0–4; an adherent patient was one who scored 4 points in the previous 30 days. Reasons for non-adherence were documented.Results: Adherence to medication and BP control rates were 42.9% and 35.0% respectively. BP control was significantly associated with medication adherence (p = 0.03, antihypertensive medication duration ≥3 years (p = 0.042, and taking ≥ one form of antihypertensive medication (p = 0.04. BP at the recruitment visit was significantly higher than at the end of the study (p = 0.036. The most common reason for non-adherence was forgetfulness (p = 0.046. Conclusion: The rate of BP control amongst the study population was low, which may be connected with low medication adherence. This study urges consideration of factors relating to adherence alongside other factors driving goal BP control.

  9. The impact of caring for children with mental retardation on families as perceived by mothers in Karachi, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To assess how families perceive the positive and negative impacts of caring for a child with mental retardation. Methods: The quantitative descriptive study was conducted from January to August 2007 and comprised 54 families attending a private day-care centre for children with special needs in Karachi, Pakistan. The Kansas Inventory of Parental Perceptions was used to assess mothers' perceptions on the impact of caring for a child with mental retardation. Positive contributions, social comparisons with others, understanding of disability and perception of control were assessed. SPSS 16 was used for statistical analysis. Results: Mothers reported positive contribution to family life as a result of caring for a child with mental retardation (Mean: 2.95+-0.37). There was an acceptance of the situation and a trend towards upward favourable comparison with other families (Mean: 3.13+-0.07). Conclusions: Contrary to earlier studies exploring the impact of caring for a child with disabilities having largely focused on negative contributions, the study highlights some positive contributions. (author)

  10. Impact of the Kenya post-election crisis on clinic attendance and medication adherence for HIV-infected children in western Kenya

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    Sang Edwin

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Kenya experienced a political and humanitarian crisis following presidential elections on 27 December 2007. Over 1,200 people were killed and 300,000 displaced, with disproportionate violence in western Kenya. We sought to describe the immediate impact of this conflict on return to clinic and medication adherence for HIV-infected children cared for within the USAID-Academic Model Providing Access to Healthcare (AMPATH in western Kenya. Methods We conducted a mixed methods analysis that included a retrospective cohort analysis, as well as key informant interviews with pediatric healthcare providers. Eligible patients were HIV-infected children, less than 14 years of age, seen in the AMPATH HIV clinic system between 26 October 2007 and 25 December 2007. We extracted demographic and clinical data, generating descriptive statistics for pre- and post-conflict antiretroviral therapy (ART adherence and post-election return to clinic for this cohort. ART adherence was derived from caregiver-report of taking all ART doses in past 7 days. We used multivariable logistic regression to assess factors associated with not returning to clinic. Interview dialogue from was analyzed using constant comparison, progressive coding and triangulation. Results Between 26 October 2007 and 25 December 2007, 2,585 HIV-infected children (including 1,642 on ART were seen. During 26 December 2007 to 15 April 2008, 93% (N = 2,398 returned to care. At their first visit after the election, 95% of children on ART (N = 1,408 reported perfect ART adherence, a significant drop from 98% pre-election (p Conclusion During a period of humanitarian crisis, the vulnerable, HIV-infected pediatric population had disruptions in clinical care and in medication adherence, putting children at risk for viral resistance and increased morbidity. However, unique program strengths may have minimized these disruptions.

  11. Impact of requiring influenza vaccination for children in licensed child care or preschool programs--Connecticut, 2012-13 influenza season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadler, James L; Yousey-Hindes, Kimberly; Kudish, Kathy; Kennedy, Erin D; Sacco, Vincent; Cartter, Matthew L

    2014-03-01

    Preschool-aged children are at increased risk for severe influenza-related illness and complications. Congregate child care settings facilitate influenza transmission among susceptible children. To protect against influenza transmission in these settings, in September 2010, Connecticut became the second U.S. state (after New Jersey) to implement regulations requiring that all children aged 6-59 months receive at least 1 dose of influenza vaccine each year to attend a licensed child care program. To evaluate the impact of this regulation on vaccination levels and influenza-associated hospitalizations during the 2012-13 influenza season, vaccination data from U.S. and Connecticut surveys and the Emerging Infections Program (EIP) were analyzed. After the regulation took effect, vaccination rates among Connecticut children aged 6-59 months increased from 67.8% during the 2009-10 influenza season to 84.1% during the 2012-13 season. During the 2012-13 influenza season, among all 11 EIP surveillance sites, Connecticut had the greatest percentage decrease (12%) in the influenza-associated hospitalization rate from 2007-08 among children aged ≤4 years. Additionally, the ratio of the influenza-associated hospitalization rates among children aged ≤4 years to the overall population rate (0.53) was lower than for any other EIP site. Requiring vaccination for child care admission might have helped to increase vaccination rates in Connecticut and reduced serious morbidity from influenza.

  12. Equitable rationing of highly specialised health care services for children: a perspective from South Africa.

    OpenAIRE

    Landman, W A; Henley, L D

    1999-01-01

    The principles of equality and equity, respectively in the Bill of Rights and the white paper on health, provide the moral and legal foundations for future health care for children in South Africa. However, given extreme health care need and scarce resources, the government faces formidable obstacles if it hopes to achieve a just allocation of public health care resources, especially among children in need of highly specialised health care. In this regard, there is a dearth of moral analysis ...

  13. Patient characteristics affecting attendance at general outpatient clinics.

    OpenAIRE

    McClure, R J; Newell, S J; Edwards, S

    1996-01-01

    A study was carried out to identify the characteristics of children who do not attend appointments at general outpatient clinics. Over six months, 359 children who had an appointment at a general clinic were studied using a questionnaire given to parents (74% response rate) and by inspection of case notes. Based on their first appointment in the study period, children were divided into 'attenders' (n = 262) and 'non-attenders' (n = 97) for analysis. Non-attenders were significantly more likel...

  14. Nursing care of children after a traumatic incident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvihill, Deanna

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the nursing interventions with children and their parents to reduce the impact of a traumatic incident. A traumatic incident can be a natural disaster, a plane or car accident, or child abuse. The author has conducted an interdisciplinary integrative review of the research literature on the health impact of childhood trauma. This research is summarized and the results are synthesized and presented in a diagram that demonstrates the strong relationships that trauma has to both short and long-term health status. The impact of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and interventions to reduce its impact are described. Predictability and continuity in nursing care grounded in both routine and personnel are important. Nurses can teach self-soothing techniques and coping skills prior to using exploratory dialogue to assist the child and the parent in reviewing the traumatic incident. Nurses can also act as advocates for unsafe situations and practices, such as corporal punishment. Assessment of children for history of trauma is indicated, especially children who exhibit signs of short-term health effects. Areas for health education and future research are also presented. PMID:17613139

  15. [Nutritional status of preschool children attending the Chilean National Nursery Schools Council Programs (JUNJI): assessment of the agreement among anthropometric indicators of obesity and central obesity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérez-Gómez, Yareni; Kain, Juliana; Uauy, Ricardo; Galván, Marcos; Corvalán, Camila

    2009-03-01

    Historically, the anthropometric assessment of nutritional welfare programs has been targeted to assess nutritional deficiencies based on weight-to-age and height-to-age indicators. Recently, given the increase on childhood obesity, it has been also recommended the measurement of indicators of obesity (i.e., weight-to-height) and central obesity (i.e., waist circumference). However, the agreement of these indicators in preschool children is unclear. The aims of this study were: (1) assess the nutritional status of children attending the Chilean National Nursery Schools Council Program (JUNJI); (2) assess the agreement between general and central obesity anthropometric measurements in these children. In 574 girls and 580 boys, 3.0 to 5.9 years old, we measured: weight, height, waist and hip circumference, and five skinfolds. We used the WHO 2006 growth standards to estimate Z-scores. We defined general obesity as WHZ or BAZ= 2, and central obesity as waist circumference > or =90 percentile of NHANES III. The participants were on average slightly shorter but considerably heavier and obese than the reference populations. Prevalence of general obesity was close to 16% with both indicators while prevalence of central obesity reached 15%. There was good agreement among general obesity indicators and central obesity indicators (Kappa = 0.6-0.7). In summary, we found a high prevalence of obesity and central obesity among Chilean preschool children beneficiaries of a welfare program. At this age, there was a good agreement among general obesity indicators and central obesity indicators. These results suggest that waist circumferences measurements should not be incorporated to the program.

  16. Prevalence of Aeromonas Hydrophila and Yersinia Enterocolitica in Children with Acute Diarrhea Attending Health Centers in Hamadan

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    S. Kazemi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Diarrhea is the most common cause of morbidity and mortality in all age groups, especially children, the elderly and immunocompromised patients. Various studies have been reported regarding the relationship between the children acute diarrhea and Aeromonashydrophila and Yersinia enterocolitica. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of the bacteria and their sensitivity to common antibiotics and the prevalence of virulence genes in the bacteria in Hamadan, Iran. Materials & Methods: In this study, 120 stool samples collected from children less than 10 years of age with acute diarrhea were examined for Aeromonashydrophila and Yersinia enterocolitica. Identification of the bacteria was performed by biochemical reactions and PCR using 16S rRNA genes. Moreover, the prevalence of virulence genes earA and hyl of Aeromonashydrophila and ail and ystB genes of Yersinia enterocolitica were investigated using PCR. Antibiotic susceptibility of isolated bacteria was performed by disk diffusion method. Results: Out of 120 stool samples, 2 (1.7 % Aeromonashydrophila and 3 (2.5% Yersinia enterocolitica were isolated. All isolates of Aeromonashydrophila were sensitive to the chloramphenicol, co-trimoxazole, gentamicin, meropenem, amikacin and 50% of isolates were sensitive to the ceftriaxone and azithromycin. All Aeromonashydrophila isolates were resistant to erythromycin. All isolates of Yersinia enterocolitica were sensitive to the chloramphenicol, co-trimoxazole and meropenem. The 33.3% of the isolates were sensitive to gentamicin and amikacin and 66.6% of them were susceptible to ceftriaxone. However, all of Yersinia enterocolitica isolates were resistant to erythromycin and azithromycin. The prevalence aerA and hyl genes in Aeromonashydrophila were reported 100% and 50%, respectively. The prevalence of ail and ystB genes in Yersinia enterocolitica was reported as 66.6%. Conclusions: Identification and analysis of

  17. Children's early child care and their mothers' later involvement with schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosnoe, Robert; Augustine, Jennifer March; Huston, Aletha C

    2012-01-01

    Theory and policy highlight the role of child care in preparing children for the transition into school. Approaching this issue in a different way, this study investigated whether children's care experiences before this transition promoted their mothers' school involvement after it, with the hypothesized mechanism for this link being the cultivation of children's social and academic skills. Analyses of 1,352 children (1 month-6 years) and parents in the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development revealed that mothers were more involved at their children's schools when children had prior histories of high-quality nonparental care. This pattern, which was fairly stable across levels of maternal education and employment, was mediated by children's academic skills and home environments.

  18. End-of-life care in a children's hospice program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Rose; Davies, Betty; Collins, John B; Cook, Karen

    2005-01-01

    A project was completed in 1999 to evaluate the Canuck Place children's hospice program. This article reports only on the end-of-life care component. Results are provided from mail-out surveys with families who required end-of-life care and are supplemented by qualitative data which were collected from interviews with individuals prior to the survey. Eighteen families completed face-to-face interviews and another 70 families completed the mail-out questionnaire developed from the initial interviews. A total of 39 parents responded to the survey section about end-of-life care services. Results indicated that parents were reasonably comfortable discussing death with staff; they generally felt well prepared for their child's death because of the staff; the death of another child had a significant effect on families; parents' wishes at the time of their child's death were very supported by staff; and families were well supported by staff at the time of a child's death. Implications for practice and suggestions for future research are discussed.

  19. Cost-effectiveness study of oral hypoglycemic agents in the treatment of outpatients with type 2 diabetes attending a public primary care clinic in Mexico City

    Science.gov (United States)

    de León-Castañeda, Christian Díaz; Altagracia-Martínez, Marina; Kravzov-Jinich, Jaime; Cárdenas-Elizalde, Ma del Rosario; Moreno-Bonett, Consuelo; Martínez-Núñez, Juan Manuel

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Worldwide, diabetes mellitus presents a high burden for individuals and society. In Latin America, many people with diabetes have limited access to health care, which means that indirect costs may exceed direct health care cost. Diabetes is Mexico’s leading cause of death. Purpose To evaluate the cost-effectiveness ratios of the most used oral hypoglycemic agents (OHA) in the treatment of outpatients with type 2 diabetes attending a public primary care clinic in Mexico City. Design A cross-sectional and analytic study was conducted in Mexico City. Methodology Twenty-seven adult outpatients with type 2 diabetes who were treated either with metformin or glibenclamide were included. Acarbose was used as an alternative strategy. The study was carried out from the perspective of Mexican society. Direct medical and nonmedical costs as well as indirect costs were evaluated using a structured questionnaire. Efficacies of all drug treatments were evaluated retrospectively. A systematic search was conducted to select published randomized clinical trials based on predetermined inclusion criteria, and treatment success was defined as glycosylated hemoglobin factor ≤ 7%. Efficacy data of each drug and/or combination were analyzed using meta-analysis. The Monte Carlo Markov model was used. Quality-adjusted life-years (QALY) were used as the unit of effectiveness; incremental and sensitive analyses were performed and a 5% discount rate was calculated. A hypothetical cohort of 10,000 patients was modeled. Results The odds ratios of the success of each drug treatment were obtained from the meta-analyses, and were the following: 5.82 (glibenclamide), 3.86 (metformin), 3.5 (acarbose), and 6.76 (metformin–glibenclamide). The cost-effectiveness ratios found were US$272.63/QALY (glibenclamide), US$296.48/QALY (metformin), and US$409.86/QALY (acarbose). Sensitivity analysis did not show changes for the most cost-effective therapy when the effectiveness probabilities or

  20. Frequency of acute myeloid leukemia in children attended in Belém, Pará from August 2005 to May 2009

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    Lacy C. B. Junior

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Acute myeloid leukemia (AML has variable incidence in different regions of Brazil. Objective: To determine the frequency of AML subtypes in children aged 0-17 years attended at Belém, Pará, from August 2005 to May 2009. Patients and methods: A retrospective study was performed with 278 patients diagnosed with acute or chronic leukemia based on clinical and morphological criteria (French-American-British [FAB]/World Health Organization classification [WHO] and immunophenotyping profile by flow cytometry, to determine the frequency of the subtypes in AML. Results: We found 70 (25.18% cases of AML, 37 of these (52.9% were children aged 0-17 years (median age of 7 years and 8 months. There was no statistical difference in relation to gender. We observed a higher frequency of AML subtype M2 (18/37 - 48.6% and M0/M1 (10/37 - 27%, especially in the first decade of life (16/28 [57.1%] AML M2 and 9/28 [32.1%] AML M0/M1. Conclusion: In the pediatric population, the types of AML M2, M0/M1 and M3 were respectively the most frequent.

  1. Primary Early Care and Education Arrangements and Achievement at Kindergarten Entry. NCES 2016-070

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathbun, Amy; Zhang, Anlan

    2016-01-01

    Young children experience various types of early care and education environments the year before they enter kindergarten. Some children attend center-based arrangements such as preschools, childcare centers, or Head Start programs, while others are cared for in relatives' or nonrelatives' homes or are normally cared for only by their parents.…

  2. Segregated from the Start: Peer Context in Center-Based Child Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fram, Maryah Stella; Kim, Jinseok

    2012-01-01

    A majority of U.S. children attend some type of child care before entering kindergarten. The quality of child care environment and of teacher-child interactions appear to influence children's development, but little attention has been paid to the influence of child-care peers. Using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort,…

  3. Clinical, Virologic, Immunologic Outcomes and Emerging HIV Drug Resistance Patterns in Children and Adolescents in Public ART Care in Zimbabwe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A T Makadzange

    Full Text Available To determine immunologic, virologic outcomes and drug resistance among children and adolescents receiving care during routine programmatic implementation in a low-income country.A cross-sectional evaluation with collection of clinical and laboratory data for children (0-<10 years and adolescents (10-19 years attending a public ART program in Harare providing care for pediatric patients since 2004, was conducted. Longitudinal data for each participant was obtained from the clinic based medical record.Data from 599 children and adolescents was evaluated. The participants presented to care with low CD4 cell count and CD4%, median baseline CD4% was lower in adolescents compared with children (11.0% vs. 15.0%, p<0.0001. The median age at ART initiation was 8.0 years (IQR 3.0, 12.0; median time on ART was 2.9 years (IQR 1.7, 4.5. On ART, median CD4% improved for all age groups but remained below 25%. Older age (≥ 5 years at ART initiation was associated with severe stunting (HAZ <-2: 53.3% vs. 28.4%, p<0.0001. Virologic failure rate was 30.6% and associated with age at ART initiation. In children, nevirapine based ART regimen was associated with a 3-fold increased risk of failure (AOR: 3.5; 95% CI: 1.3, 9.1, p = 0.0180. Children (<10 y on ART for ≥4 years had higher failure rates than those on ART for <4 years (39.6% vs. 23.9%, p = 0.0239. In those initiating ART as adolescents, each additional year in age above 10 years at the time of ART initiation (AOR 0.4 95%CI: 0.1, 0.9, p = 0.0324, and each additional year on ART (AOR 0.4, 95%CI 0.2, 0.9, p = 0.0379 were associated with decreased risk of virologic failure. Drug resistance was evident in 67.6% of sequenced virus isolates.During routine programmatic implementation of HIV care for children and adolescents, delayed age at ART initiation has long-term implications on immunologic recovery, growth and virologic outcomes.

  4. A Study of the Views of Teachers of First Year Infant School Children Concerning the Effects on the Language and Socialisation of Children Who Have Previously Attended Playgroups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Sinclair; Wheeler, T. J.

    This paper reports the findings of a survey to determine the effects, if any, that experience in playgroups had upon children of varying social class backgrounds in differing areas within the United Kingdom. The project aimed at answering two major questions: (1) Did teachers perceive differences in first year infant school children that they…

  5. Communicating for Quality in School Age Care Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartmel, Jennifer; Grieshaber, Susan

    2014-01-01

    School Age Care (SAC) services have existed in Australia for over 100 years but they have tended to take a back seat when compared with provision for school-aged children and those under school age using early childhood education and care (ECEC) services. Many SAC services are housed in shared premises and many children attending preparatory or…

  6. Clinical-epidemiological profile of children with schistosomal myeloradiculopathy attended at the Instituto Materno-Infantil de Pernambuco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Karina Conceição G M; Rosa e Silva, Cristiana da; Barbosa, Constança Simões; Ferrari, Teresa C A

    2006-09-01

    The most critical phase of exposure to schistosomal infection is the infancy, because of the more frequent contact with contaminated water and the immaturity of the immune system. One of the most severe presentations of this parasitosis is the involvement of the spinal cord, which prognosis is largely dependent on early diagnosis and treatment. Reports on this clinical form of schistosomiasis in children are rare in the literature. We present here the clinical-epidemiological profile of schistosomal myeloradiculopathy (SMR) from ten children who were admitted at the Instituto Materno-Infantil de Pernambuco over a five-year period. They were evaluated according to an investigation protocol. Most of these patients presented an acute neurological picture which included as the main clinical manifestations: sphincteral disorders, low back and lower limbs pain, paresthesia, lower limbs muscle weakness and absence of deep tendon reflex, and impairment of the gait. The diagnosis was presumptive in the majority of the cases. This study emphasizes the importance of considering the diagnosis of SMR in pediatric patients coming from endemic areas who present a low cord syndrome, in order to start the appropriate therapy and avoid future complications.

  7. Rotavirus infection in children and adult patients attending in a tertiary Hospital of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emerson Carraro

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available During the period of January 2003 to December 2005, 3,768 stool samples were received in the Microbiology Laboratory for rotavirus antigen detection from outpatients and inpatients of Albert Einstein Hospital, SP. Fresh stool samples from children and adults were analyzed by two methodologies: during 2003 and 2004 by latex agglutination (Slidex Rotavirus, Biomerieux and 2005 by an immunochromatographic assay for the combined detection of rotavirus and adenovirus (Vikia Rota-Adeno, Biomerieux. Rotavirus group A was detected in 755 (20% samples. The annual prevalence was 19.8% in 2003, 21.7% in 2004, and 18.7% in 2005. Rotavirus was detected every month during the period of the study, with peak of positivity between June and August (>35%. The prevalence in hospitalized patients was 26.1% (352/1,350 and in outpatients was 16.7% (403/2,418. For hospitalized patients most of the rotavirus infections were diagnosed in Pediatric setting, age range of 0 to 10 years (prevalence of 55.3%, 295/534. Overall positivity was up to 30% in patients between six months and five years of age (67% of all positive patients, all other age groups had at least 10% positive tests. Rotavirus infection is common in Sao Paulo, and besides the expected higher frequency in children it is also frequent in adults.

  8. Health and Mental Health Services for Children in Foster Care: The Central Role of Foster Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasztor, Eileen Mayers; Hollinger, David Swanson; Inkelas, Moira; Halfon, Neal

    2006-01-01

    It is well documented that children enter foster care with special health and mental health needs and, while in care, those conditions are often exacerbated. However, less attention has been given to foster parents who have the most contact with these children. Results are presented from a national study on the developmental, health and mental…

  9. Place of Child Care and Medicated Respiratory Illness among Young American Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presser, Harriet B.

    1988-01-01

    Study based on Child Health Supplement to 1981 National Health Interview Survey showed higher prevalence of medicated respiratory illness among children under age five when they were cared for outside the home. For children under age three, prevalence was highest in child care centers, lower in other homes, and lowest in own home. (Author/NB)

  10. Child Care Arrangements for Toddlers and Preschoolers: Are They Different for Youngest Children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joesch, Jutta M.; Maher, Erin J.; Durfee, Alesha

    2006-01-01

    Many extant studies on the use of non-parental child care are based on data from the youngest child in the household. To date, it has not been addressed whether this approach introduces bias. We present reasons why child care arrangements for youngest children may differ from those of same-age older children and examine whether the use of child…

  11. Attachment Style, Home-Leaving Age and Behavioral Problems among Residential Care Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shechory, Mally; Sommerfeld, Eliane

    2007-01-01

    In a prospective study, the attachment style, home-leaving age, length of time in residential care, and behavioral problems among Israeli residential care children (N=68), were studied. Data analyses showed that children removed from their homes at a later age suffered from higher levels of anxiety, depression and social problems compared to…

  12. Canadian Children and Youth in Care: The Cost of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popova, Svetlana; Lange, Shannon; Burd, Larry; Rehm, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Background: A high prevalence of prenatal alcohol exposure has been reported among children in care and thus, the risk of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) in this population is high. Objective: The purpose of the current study was to estimate the number of children (0-18 years) in care with FASD and to determine the associated cost by age…

  13. Critical Issues in Foster Care: Lessons the Children's Ark Learned from Barbara and Nathan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Janet; Kretchmar, Molly D.; Worsham, Nancy L.

    2008-01-01

    Using an attachment theory framework, this article explores several critical issues in foster care as reflected in the case of Barbara and her 9-month-old son, Nathan. Barbara and Nathan participated in The Children's Ark, an innovative intervention for families in foster care that allowed mothers who had lost custody of their children to live,…

  14. A Special Challenge for Europe: The Inclusion of Roma Children in Early Years Education and Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaus, Sarah; Marsh, Adrian

    2014-01-01

    Provision of early childhood education and care (ECEC) for Roma children serves as a litmus test for the broader social inclusion agenda in Europe. The majority of Roma children and families live in substandard, often insecure and isolated housing and have limited access to quality health, social care and education services. There is a growing…

  15. Vulnerable children in Ukraine : impact of institutional care and HIV on the development of preschoolers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dobrova-Krol, Natasha

    2009-01-01

    Although institutional care jeopardizes children’s development, some studies suggest that well-functioning child-care institutions may offer children a better environment than their own dysfunctional families. For the growing number of HIV-infected children who often live in underprivileged families

  16. Measuring Therapeutic Alliance with Children in Residential Treatment and Therapeutic Day Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roest, Jesse; van der Helm, Peer; Strijbosch, Eefje; van Brandenburg, Mariëtte; Stams, Geert Jan

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the construct validity and reliability of a therapeutic alliance measure (Children's Alliance Questionnaire [CAQ]) for children with psychosocial and/or behavioral problems, receiving therapeutic residential care or day care in the Netherlands. Methods: Confirmatory factor analysis of a one-factor model ''therapeutic…

  17. Assessment of health care by children and adolescents depends on when they respond to the questionnaire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hanne Irene; Ammentorp, Jette; Kofoed, Poul-Erik

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the assessments and priorities by children and adolescents of health care in a paediatric outpatient clinic, to examine the influence of the time factor on the assessments and priorities by children and adolescents of health care, and to determine...

  18. Avaliação do desempenho motor global e em habilidades motoras axiais e apendiculares de lactentes frequentadores de creche Assessment of global motor performance and gross and fine motor skills of infants attending day care centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina T Souza

    2010-08-01

    assessed at 12 and 17 months of age with the Motor Scale of the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition (Bayley-III. This scale allows the analysis of global motor performance, fine and gross motor performance, and the discrepancy between them. The Wilcoxon test and Spearman's correlation coefficient were used. RESULTS: Most of the participants showed global motor performance within the normal range, but below the reference mean at 12 and 17 months, with 30% classified as having "suspected delays" in at least one of the assessments. Gross motor development was poorer than fine motor development at 12 and at 17 months of age, with great discrepancy between these two subtests in the second assessment. A clear individual variability was observed in fine motor skills, with weak linear correlation between the first and the second assessment of this subtest. A lower individual variability was found in the gross motor skills and global motor performance with positive moderate correlation between assessments. Considering both performance measurements obtained at 12 and 17 months of age, four infants were identified as having a "possible delay in motor development". CONCLUSIONS: The study showed the need for closer attention to the motor development of children who attend day care centers during the first 17 months of life, with special attention to gross motor skills (which are considered an integral part of the child's overall development and to children with suspected delays in two consecutive assessments.

  19. A Parent's Journey: Incorporating Principles of Palliative Care into Practice for Children with Chronic Neurologic Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Allyson; Clark, Jonna D

    2015-09-01

    Rather than in conflict or in competition with the curative model of care, pediatric palliative care is a complementary and transdisciplinary approach used to optimize medical care for children with complex medical conditions. It provides care to the whole child, including physical, mental, and spiritual dimensions, in addition to support for the family. Through the voice of a parent, the following case-based discussion demonstrates how the fundamentals of palliative care medicine, when instituted early in the course of disease, can assist parents and families with shared medical decision making, ultimately improving the quality of life for children with life-limiting illnesses. Pediatric neurologists, as subspecialists who provide medical care for children with chronic and complex conditions, should consider invoking the principles of palliative care early in the course of a disease process, either through applying general facets or, if available, through consultation with a specialty palliative care service. PMID:26358425

  20. Button battery injury in children - a primary care issue?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Michael; Hamill, James K; Barker, Ruth

    2014-03-01

    There is a well-described increase in the incidence of significant injury associated with button batteries in children. Button battery ingestion or insertion (ear/nose) is a time-sensitive injury mechanism, with severe injury occurring within hours. Prevention efforts are being developed that may include changes to packaging, public awareness campaigns, safe disposal mechanisms, changes to battery design and changes to device design. However, there is not a single, simple and effective prevention strategy available. This community hazard has significant implications for primary care. This article presents the clinical characteristics and epidemiology of button battery exposure and subsequent injury. It also describes the clinical recommendations, specifically an emphasis on early diagnosis, including maintaining a high index of suspicion; rapid removal where possible or urgent referral for operative intervention. PMID:24624414

  1. Button battery injury in children — a primary care issue?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shepherd M

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available There is a well-described increase in the incidence of significant injury associated with button batteries in children. Button battery ingestion or insertion (ear/nose is a time-sensitive injury mechanism, with severe injury occurring within hours. Prevention efforts are being developed that may include changes to packaging, public awareness campaigns, safe disposal mechanisms, changes to battery design and changes to device design. However, there is not a single, simple and effective prevention strategy available. This community hazard has significant implications for primary care. This article presents the clinical characteristics and epidemiology of button battery exposure and subsequent injury. It also describes the clinical recommendations, specifically an emphasis on early diagnosis, including maintaining a high index of suspicion; rapid removal where possible or urgent referral for operative intervention.

  2. Knowledge, attitude, perception of malaria and evaluation of malaria parasitaemia among pregnant women attending antenatal care clinic in metropolitan Lagos, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.C. Iriemenam, A.O. Dosunmu, W.A. Oyibo & A.F. Fagbenro-Beyioku

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Little information exists on the compliance of pregnant women to malaria managementin malaria endemic countries. This study was designed to access knowledge, attitude, perception and homemanagement of malaria among consenting pregnant women attending antenatal care (ANC clinic.Methods: In total, 350 pregnant women were randomly recruited during their ANC Clinic in Lagos. Structuredquestionnaires were administered in a two-stages research design; first during their early months of ANC visitand the second approximately 1–2 months before delivery. Information on occupation, parity, symptoms used torecognise malaria, treatment sources, control measures, knowledge factors, anti-vector measures, health-seekingpractices, malaria parasitaemia and packed cell volume (PCV were recorded.Results: The results revealed that 78.9% of the pregnant women identified infected mosquitoes as the cause ofmalaria while 86% of the pregnant women identified stagnant water as its breeding sites. Knowledge of thebenefit of insecticide-treated mosquito bednets was less prominent as most of the selected subjects decried itshigh market price. Our data also showed that educational programme targeted on potential mothers is beneficial.Overall, 27.4% (96/350 of the pregnant women had peripheral malaria infection with 88.5% (85/96 of theparasite positive women infected with Plasmodium falciparum and 11.5% (11/96 with P. malariae. PCV rangedfrom 20–40% (median 33.9% with 25.7% (90/350 of the pregnant women being anaemic with PCV <33%. Wefound an association between malaria infection and occupation, and this association was not influenced byparity.Interpretation & conclusion: Our findings revealed that improvement in knowledge and education of women ofchild-bearing age has an influential impact on malaria control

  3. Cervical pre-malignant lesions in HIV infected women attending Care and Treatment Centre in a tertiary hospital, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balandya, Belinda S; Pembe, Andrea B; Mwakyoma, Henry A

    2011-09-01

    The aims of this study was to determine proportion of HIV infected women with cervical pre-malignant lesions; and compare the use of Visual Inspection of the cervix after application of Acetic acid (VIA) and Papanicolau (Pap) smear in screening for cervical premalignant lesions in HIV positive women attending Care and Treatment Centre (CTC) at Muhimbili National Hospital (MNH), Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. A total of 316 women aged 18-70 years had a Pap smear taken for cytology, followed by spraying onto the cervix with 4% acetic acid and then inspecting it. Cytology was considered negative when there was no Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia (CIN) lesion reported from the Pap smear taken, and positive if CIN lesion 1, 2 or 3 was reported. Detection of a well-defined, opaque acetowhite lesion close to the squamocolumnar junction or close to the external cervical os constituted a positive VIA. Out of 316 women, 132 women had acetowhite lesions on VIA, making the proportion of abnormal cervical lesions to be 42.4%. One hundred and one out of 312 women (32.4%) had CIN lesions detected on Pap smear. The proportion of agreement between these two tests was 0.3. The proportion of agreement was moderate in women with advanced WHO HIV clinical stage of the disease and in women not on ART (Anti Retroviral Therapy). Women with CD-4 count less than 200 cells/mm3 had more abnormal cervical lesions. There is considerable proportion of HIV positive women with premalignant lesions of the cervix. Considering the proportion of HIV women with abnormal lesions and the difficulty in logistics of doing Pap smear in low resource settings, these results supports the recommendation to introduce screening of premalignant lesions of the cervix using VIA to all HIV infected women.

  4. Sero-prevalence and associated risk factors of Toxoplasma gondi infection among pregnant women attending antenatal care at Felege Hiwot Referral Hospital, northwest Ethiopia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kefale; Awoke; Endalkachew; Nibret; Abaineh; Munshea

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of toxoplasmosis and to assess the possible risk factors associated with the infection among pregnant women attending antenatal care center at Felege Hiwot Referral Hospital, Bahir Dar town, northwest Ethiopia. Methods: A hospital based cross-sectional study was designed to determine the prevalence of toxoplasmosis among pregnant women. Three hundred eighty four serum samples were collected from November 2013 to January 2014. Data on socio-demographic and predisposing factors were collected from each study participant with simple random sampling technique. The serum samples were examined for anti- Toxoplasma gondii(T. gondii) antibodies using latex agglutination test. Results: The overall seroprevalence of T. gondii among the pregnant women was 18.5%. All of T. gondii positive cases found to be positive only for Ig G antibody. Significant association was observed between seroprevalence and presence of domestic cats [AOR=2.85, 95% CI: 1.66-4.90, P=0.000], consumption of raw or undercooked meat [AOR=1.98, 95% CI: 1.15-2.43, P=0.014] and history of abortion [AOR=2.47, 95% CI: 1.40-4.34, P=0.002]. No significant association was observed between seroprevalence and socio-demographic characters, gestational age, gravidity, consumption of raw vegetable, and blood transfusion. Conclusions: The seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis among pregnant women in Bahir Dar town was relatively high. Presence of domestic cats at home and consumption of raw or undercooked meat were identified as main risk factors for T. gondii infection. Therefore, health education towards avoiding eating raw or undercooked meat and avoiding contact with cats are recommended for prevention of miscarriage or defects during pregnancy.

  5. Screening of pregnant women attending the antenatal care clinic of a tertiary hospital in eastern Saudi Arabia for Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alzahrani Alhusain

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Inroduction: Of the "top ten" sexually transmitted infections, Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae are ranked second and fifth, respectively, worldwide. Aim: The aim of this study was to screen the pregnant women for C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae infections and to detect antimicrobial resistance pattern of N. gonorrhoeae. Materials and Methods: This study was a prospective, hospital-based analysis of a random sample of pregnant women visiting the antenatal clinic of a tertiary hospital in eastern Saudi Arabia. Endocervical and high vaginal swabs were collected both from pregnant women and female patients attending gynecology clinic with lower genital tract infection (control group. C. trachomatis antigen was detected using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. N. gonorrhoeae was detected by culture and identification of isolates, and antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 13.0 and Chi-square test were used for statistical analysis. Results: C. trachomatis antigen was detected in 10.5% (10/95 and 34.4% (35/102 of pregnant women and control group, respectively (P < 0.001. The isolation rate of N. gonorrhoeae among pregnant women was 0.0% compared to 7.8% (8/102 among the control group (P < 0.01. N. gonorrhoeae were resistant to penicillin (62.5%, tetracycline (50%, ampicillin (25%, amoxycillin-clavulinic acid (25% and ciprofloxacin (37.5%, while they were susceptible to cefepime, ceftriaxone, ceftazidime, spectinomycin, and cefuroxime. Conclusion: Screening of pregnant women for C. trachomatis infection should be included in the antenatal care in this area. The detection rate of both organisms among the control group highlights the importance of preventive strategies. Certain antibiotics previously used in treating gonorrhea are no longer effective.

  6. Researching family through the everyday lives of children across home and day care in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kousholt, Dorte

    2011-01-01

    The article investigates family as a conflictual community with a specific starting point in exploring children's lives across day-care institution and home. Children's development is theorised in relation to taking part in different communities across different contexts. The article draws...... on an ethnographically inspired research project with 6 families living in a small town in Denmark. The analysis points to how the children's possibilities of participation are created across their different life contexts and that the social interplay and conflicts between the children in the day-care institution have...... and connections between the day-care institution and home....

  7. Spectrum of thyroid function in children among the patients attending to examine thyroidal illness at CNMU, Dhaka - A retrospective Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Establishment of a standard range of thyroid hormones for Bangladesh younger population is very essential. Trials were conducted to standardize the normal range of thyroid hormones i.e. T3, T4 and TSH level, at 95% confidence limit (2sd) of age ranging from 1 day to 12 yrs of Bangladesh children group, which were differ by sex. The ranges of different thyroid status were evaluated in the In vitro Laboratory of Centre for Nuclear Medicine and Ultrasound, Dhaka. Comparing three stages (Table 2,3, and 4) observed hormone ranges at euthyroid stage marked off for overlapping the higher level of hypo thyroidal stage by lower side and the lower level of hyper thyroidal stage by higher side. Present work calculated the mean values of thyroid hormones of both sexes, which were found not affected by the sex. (author)

  8. Why don't some women attend antenatal and postnatal care services?: a qualitative study of community members' perspectives in Garut, Sukabumi and Ciamis districts of West Java Province, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heywood Peter

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antenatal, delivery and postnatal care services are amongst the recommended interventions aimed at preventing maternal and newborn deaths worldwide. West Java is one of the provinces of Java Island in Indonesia with a high proportion of home deliveries, a low attendance of four antenatal services and a low postnatal care uptake. This paper aims to explore community members' perspectives on antenatal and postnatal care services, including reasons for using or not using these services, the services received during antenatal and postnatal care, and cultural practices during antenatal and postnatal periods in Garut, Sukabumi and Ciamis districts of West Java province. Methods A qualitative study was conducted from March to July 2009 in six villages in three districts of West Java province. Twenty focus group discussions (FGDs and 165 in-depth interviews were carried out involving a total of 295 respondents. The guidelines for FGDs and in-depth interviews included the topics of community experiences with antenatal and postnatal care services, reasons for not attending the services, and cultural practices during antenatal and postnatal periods. Results Our study found that the main reason women attended antenatal and postnatal care services was to ensure the safe health of both mother and infant. Financial difficulty emerged as the major issue among women who did not fulfil the minimum requirements of four antenatal care services or two postnatal care services within the first month after delivery. This was related to the cost of health services, transportation costs, or both. In remote areas, the limited availability of health services was also a problem, especially if the village midwife frequently travelled out of the village. The distances from health facilities, in addition to poor road conditions were major concerns, particularly for those living in remote areas. Lack of community awareness about the importance of these

  9. Nine states' use of collaboratives to improve children's health care quality in medicaid and CHIP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devers, Kelly J; Foster, Leslie; Brach, Cindy

    2013-01-01

    We examine quality improvement (QI) collaboratives underway in 9 states participating in the Children's Health Insurance Program Reauthorization Act (CHIPRA) Quality Demonstration Grant Program. A total of 147 diverse, child-serving practices were participating in the collaboratives. We conducted 256 semistructured interviews with key stakeholders from March to August 2012-2 years into the 5-year demonstration projects-and analyzed states' grant applications, operating plans, and progress reports. The collaboratives have multiple complex aims. In addition to developing patient-centered medical home (PCMH) capability, some states use collaboratives to familiarize practices with CMS's Initial Core Set of Children's Health Care Quality Measures, practice-level quality measurement, and improving QI knowledge and skills. The duration of the collaboratives is longer than other well-known collaborative models. Collaboratives also vary in their methods for targeting areas for improvement and strategies for motivating practice recruitment and engagement. States also vary with respect to the other strategies they use to support QI and PCMH development. All states supplement the collaboratives with practice facilitation; the majority utilized practice-level parent engagement, but only 4 used workforce augmentation (ie, providing care coordinators and QI specialists). Practice staff highly valued aspects of the collaboratives and supplemental strategies, including the opportunity to work with experts and other child-serving practices; states' efforts to provide stipends and align demonstration efforts with other professional requirements or programs; receipt of relevant, customized QI materials; opportunities to learn how care coordinators or QI specialists might work in their practice without the risk of hiring them; and satisfaction from learning more about quality measures, QI concepts and techniques, critical medical home components, and how to identify PCMH capacity and

  10. Do children get their fair share of health and dental care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopelman, L M; Mouradian, W E

    2001-04-01

    This paper reviews the work of several authors, D.W. Brock, D. Callahan, L. Churchill, L.M. Kopelman, R. Tong who consider assumptions and arguments about how to allocate health and dental care to children fairly. They use various approaches including feminist, rights based, and principled considerations, applying general notions of duty or justice to the issues of children's access to basic health and dental care. Two discuss these issues in relation to the work of David Hume. These authors consider children's greatest unmet health needs, including that of dental care, often mistakenly regarded as medically unimportant in terms of children's wellbeing, opportunities, and self-image. They review possible age bias against children in the allocation of health and dental care, the gap between what we say and do where children are concerned, and whether some fundamental shift in social thinking needs to occur.

  11. Children's perceptions of interactions with their caregivers in child and youth care centres / Claire Heathcote

    OpenAIRE

    Heathcote, Claire

    2015-01-01

    In South Africa, alternative care solutions such as foster homes, child-headed households, placements with relatives and Child and Youth Care Centres (CYCCs), are under pressure to provide for the large numbers of children who need care. Child and Youth Care Centres include facilities such as children’s homes, places of safety, secure care facilities and schools of industry or reform schools. South African legislation offers guidelines towards the fulfilment of children’s needs in CYCCs by pr...

  12. A taxonomy of care for children and adolescents with behavioural and emotional problems: development and application

    OpenAIRE

    Evenboer, Klaasje Elisabeth

    2015-01-01

    Characteristics of care for youth with behavioural and emotional problems are of growing interest. Statements about the effectiveness of care are hard to make, because of a lack of standardized instruments for recording and classifying care. The aim of this study was to partly open the black box of care and treatment provided to children and adolescents with behavioural and emotional problems by developing, testing and applying a Taxonomy of care for Youth (TOCFY). This study was conducted wi...

  13. Integrated complex care coordination for children with medical complexity: A mixed-methods evaluation of tertiary care-community collaboration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cohen Eyal

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Primary care medical homes may improve health outcomes for children with special healthcare needs (CSHCN, by improving care coordination. However, community-based primary care practices may be challenged to deliver comprehensive care coordination to complex subsets of CSHCN such as children with medical complexity (CMC. Linking a tertiary care center with the community may achieve cost effective and high quality care for CMC. The objective of this study was to evaluate the outcomes of community-based complex care clinics integrated with a tertiary care center. Methods A before- and after-intervention study design with mixed (quantitative/qualitative methods was utilized. Clinics at two community hospitals distant from tertiary care were staffed by local community pediatricians with the tertiary care center nurse practitioner and linked with primary care providers. Eighty-one children with underlying chronic conditions, fragility, requirement for high intensity care and/or technology assistance, and involvement of multiple providers participated. Main outcome measures included health care utilization and expenditures, parent reports of parent- and child-quality of life [QOL (SF-36®, CPCHILD©, PedsQL™], and family-centered care (MPOC-20®. Comparisons were made in equal (up to 1 year pre- and post-periods supplemented by qualitative perspectives of families and pediatricians. Results Total health care system costs decreased from median (IQR $244 (981 per patient per month (PPPM pre-enrolment to $131 (355 PPPM post-enrolment (p=.007, driven primarily by fewer inpatient days in the tertiary care center (p=.006. Parents reported decreased out of pocket expenses (p© domains [Health Standardization Section (p=.04; Comfort and Emotions (p=.03], while total CPCHILD© score decreased between baseline and 1 year (p=.003. Parents and providers reported the ability to receive care close to home as a key benefit. Conclusions Complex

  14. How Do Finnish Children Express Care and Justice in Comic Strips and Written Narratives?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Juha; Hannula, Markku S.

    2014-01-01

    This case study explored how children's moral expressions like love and violence differ according to the mode of narrative, comic strips or written narratives. Sixteen third-grade children from a primary school in Finland took part in the study. Children's moral expressions were divided into justice and care. Reading frequency of fairy…

  15. Deliberate Self-Harm among Children in Tertiary Care Residential Treatment: Prevalence and Correlates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Shannon L.; Baiden, Philip; Theall-Honey, Laura; den Dunnen, Wendy

    2014-01-01

    Background: Few studies have examined deliberate self-harm (DSH) among children in residential treatment in Canada. Most of the existing studies examined adolescent students or children from pediatric emergency departments. Objectives: The objectives of this study were to examine the prevalence of DSH among children in tertiary care residential…

  16. Individualized Health Care Plans: Supporting Children With Chronic Conditions in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Amanda F.; Hughes, Mary-alayne

    2016-01-01

    Due to the major advances in technology and the sciences, advances in the medical treatment options for children with chronic conditions are being made at an astonishing rate. In the health care field, "children with chronic conditions" is a generic phrase that typically refers to children with physical, developmental, behavioral, or…

  17. Parental Perceptions of Hospital Care in Children with Accidental or Alleged Non-Accidental Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ince, Elif E.; Rubin, David; Christian, Cindy W.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether a suspicion or diagnosis of child abuse during hospitalization influences parental perceptions of hospital care in families of children admitted with traumatic injuries. Method: Parents of children younger than 6 years of age admitted with traumatic injuries to a large urban children's hospital were recruited to…

  18. Behavioural and emotional problems in children referred to a centre for special dental care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. ten Berge; J.S.J. Veerkamp; J. Hoogstraten; P.J.M. Prins

    1999-01-01

    This study was conducted among 203 children (103 boys) referred to a centre for special dental care because of a high level of dental fear. It was under-taken to explore to what extent behavioural and emotional problems co-exist in these children compared with children of a Dutch norm group. The chi

  19. A Pilot Study of a 6-Week Parenting Program for Mothers of Pre-school Children Attending Family Health Centers in Karachi, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasmin Khowaja

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Recently, parenting programs to address behavioural and emotional problems associated with child maltreatment in developing countries have received much attention. There is a paucity of literature on effective parent education interventions in the local context of Pakistan. This study aimed to assess the feasibility of offering a 6-week parenting program for mothers of pre-school children attending family health centres (FHCs in Karachi, the largest metropolitan city of Pakistan. Methods A pilot quasi-experimental trial was conducted. Two FHCs were selected, one as the intervention and the second as the control. A total of 57 mothers of pre-school children (n = 30 intervention; n = 27 control participated in this study. Mothers in the intervention group received SOS Help for parents module, while mothers in the control group received information about routine childcare. A parenting scale (PS was administered before the program was implemented and repeated 2 weeks after the program was completed in both groups. Statistical analysis was performed to compare participants’ attributes. Descriptive analysis was conducted to compare pre- and post-test mean scores along with standard deviation for parenting subscales in the intervention and control groups. Results A total of 50 mothers (n = 25 intervention; n = 25 control completed the 6-week program. Attrition was observed as 5/30 (17% in the intervention arm and 2/27 (2% in the control arm. Mothers commonly reported the burden of daily domestic and social responsibilities as the main reason for dropping out. Furthermore, the majority of participants in the control group recommended increasing the duration of weekly sessions from 1 to 1.5 hours, thereby decreasing the program period from 6 to 4 weeks. Mothers in intervention group reported substantial improvement in parenting skills as indicated by mean difference in their pre- and post-test scores for laxness and over

  20. Influenza and respiratory syncytial virus in infants and children: relationship with attendance at a paediatric emergency unit and characteristics of the circulating strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparini, R; Durando, P; Ansaldi, F; Sticchi, L; Banfi, F; Amicizia, D; Panatto, D; Esposito, S; Principi, N; Icardi, G; Crovari, P

    2007-09-01

    A study was carried out on 2,696 Italian children, aged 0-14 years. The goals were: (1) to define the age-related impact of acute respiratory infections (ARI), measured as the risk of attendance at the Paediatric Emergency Room, (2) to better define the importance and proportion of influenza and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infections and (3) to acquire deeper knowledge of the influenza strains circulating in infants and children. A standardised emergency unit attendance risk (EUAR) was calculated, by age group for ARI. Specific EUARs were also calculated for the two pathogens. Pharyngeal swabs were tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for influenza and RSVs. Isolation in Madine-Darby canine kidney cells (MDCK) and Hep cells, haemagglutination inhibition (HI) testing and HA1 gene sequence analysis were performed for influenza viruses. Most of the patients enrolled were aged 0-5 years, 1,139 (84.6%) and 1,061 (78.5%) in the two seasons, respectively. The most represented age class was that of 1 year olds (331 cases in 2001-2002 and 301 in 2002-2003). The highest EUAR for ARI was in patients aged 0-3 years (16.8 and 12.9 during the two seasons). The same was observed on calculating this risk by specific pathogens: 17.4 and 5.5 for influenza and 13.0 and 12.7 for RSV. Virological analysis was performed on 2,696 samples, 595 of which proved positive (22%). The highest number of isolates (326) came from patients aged 1-3 years. RSVs were more often identified than influenza viruses in infants aged up to 1 year (32 vs. 20 isolates). Of 265 strains isolated in 2001-2002, 103 were RSVs (87 type A, 16 B) and 162 were influenza (90 type A, 72 B). HI showed that influenza B viruses were related to two lineages, B/Victoria/2/87 (32%) and B/Yamagata/16/88 (68%). Of 330 strains isolated in 2002-2003, 102 were RSVs (91 type A, 11 B) and 228 were influenza viruses (220 type A, 8 B). A/H3N2 strains belonged to two clusters, A/Panama/2007/99-like and A/Fujian/411/02-like

  1. Student Satisfaction with Attending Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, Thomas A.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    A survey of 252 dental students in three schools measured student satisfaction with (1) the patient care system in the dental school clinic; and (2) the responsibilities of the attending faculty, who manage 10-student teams. Results indicated general satisfaction but point to some problems in individual situations. (MSE)

  2. Disclosure experience to partner and its effect on intention to utilize prevention of mother to child transmission service among HIV positive pregnant women attending antenatal care in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Sendo, Endalew Gemechu; Cherie, Amsale; Erku, Tadese Asfaw

    2013-01-01

    Background Disclosure of HIV status has become an entry criterion for prevention of mother to child transmission programs in resource-constrained countries. However, little has been explored about the prevalence of, barriers to, outcomes and factors associated with HIV status disclosure among HIV positive pregnant women in Ethiopia. Method Cross- sectional study was conducted among 107 pregnant women who were attending antenatal care in public centers from April to June 2011 in Addis Ababa ca...

  3. Family-centered care coordination for children with special needs across multiple settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindeke, Linda L; Leonard, Barbara J; Presler, Betty; Garwick, Ann

    2002-01-01

    Care coordination is a process that involves assessment, planning, implementation, evaluation, education, monitoring, support, and advocacy. Pediatric nurse practitioners (PNPs) are well positioned to coordinate care but may not be well educated about potential conflicts of interest in balancing cost-containment constraints with obtaining maximum quality and quantity of care for children and families with complex needs. The philosophy of family-centered care is embodied in some care coordination models and absent in others. PNPs who aim to support families of children with special health care needs need to understand the complexity of interacting with multiple care coordination models across health and educational settings. PNPs may act as change agents to infuse family-centered care principles into existing and future care coordination models. PMID:12436098

  4. Feeding and oral hygiene habits of children attending daycare centres in Bangalore and their caretakers oral health knowledge, attitude and practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Vinay

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Caretakers in day-care centers play a significant role in imparting good oral hygiene practices and also extend a working relationship with parents with regard to their children′s oral health. As a result of this, caregiver′s dental knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and practices affect the child′s oral condition. Settings and Design: A descriptive cross-sectional study involved caretakers working in day-care centers of Bangalore. Fifty-two day-care centers were randomly selected from the different zones of Bangalore city, from which 246 caretakers provided consent for participation. Materials and Methods: A comprehensive, closed-ended, self-administered questionnaire was employed which was designed to collect the sociodemographic details and to evaluate the oral health knowledge, attitudes, practice of caretakers. The institutional review committee approved the study. Data were entered using SPSS 13.01. Results: Seventy-nine percent of the subjects had good knowledge of child′s tooth eruption time, clinical presentation of dental caries and the role of fluoride in caries prevention. Yet, half of the subjects found routine dental examination after all the milk teeth have erupted in the oral cavity insignificant and 41% strongly agreed that dentist should be consulted only when the child has a toothache. In spite of the good knowledge, 77% preferred to use pacifier dipped in honey/sugar if the children acted troublesome. Analogous to this, 45% gave milk/juice with sugar before the child′s nap time. Conclusions: The results of this study indicate that caretaker′s attitude toward oral health care needs is far from acceptable standards to mirror any positive impact on the children.

  5. Child Care Quality and Children's Cortisol in Basque Country and the Netherlands

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    Vermeer, Harriet J.; Groeneveld, Marleen G.; Larrea, Inaki; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Barandiaran, Alexander; Linting, Marielle

    2010-01-01

    A cross-country comparison of children's cortisol levels at child care was performed in relation to their cortisol levels at home and the quality and quantity of child care they received. Participants were toddlers visiting child care centers in Spanish Basque Country (N = 60) and the Netherlands (N = 25) with substantial variation in structural…

  6. Self-care and deviance in elementary school-age children.

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    Pettine, A; Rosén, L A

    1998-08-01

    Fourth-, fifth- and sixth-grade students were surveyed to investigate whether self-care was related to self-reports of behavioral or attitudinal deviance, liking for school, or both. The Child Self-Care Measure (CSCM), a multiscale self-report instrument, measured self-care as a developmental task with four major dimensions: temporal, physical, structural, and psychological. Self-care in general was not linked to deviance. However, increases in psychological self-care were strongly correlated with reductions in children's liking for school. Additionally, children in self-care who cared for younger siblings for more than a year reported more deviant behaviors than those without responsibility for younger siblings; children in the care of older siblings less than 16 years old for more than 4 years reported more tolerance for deviance than peers in self-care without older sibling caregivers. Findings support earlier speculations that children in self-care may not be developmentally ready to take responsibility for elementary school-aged siblings. Results also indicated that although girls in self-care manifest problems earlier than boys, long term self-care may be more problematic for boys than girls. PMID:9696113

  7. Exploring the usefulness of comprehensive care plans for children with medical complexity (CMC: a qualitative study

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    Adams Sherri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Medical Home model recommends that Children with Special Health Care Needs (CSHCN receive a medical care plan, outlining the child’s major medical issues and care needs to assist with care coordination. While care plans are a primary component of effective care coordination, the creation and maintenance of care plans is time, labor, and cost intensive, and the desired content of the care plan has not been studied. The purpose of this qualitative study was to understand the usefulness and desired content of comprehensive care plans by exploring the perceptions of parents and health care providers (HCPs of children with medical complexity (CMC. Methods This qualitative study utilized in-depth semi-structured interviews and focus groups. HCPs (n = 15 and parents (n = 15 of CMC who had all used a comprehensive care plan were recruited from a tertiary pediatric academic health sciences center. Themes were identified through grounded theory analysis of interview and focus group data. Results A multi-dimensional model of perceived care plan usefulness emerged. The model highlights three integral aspects of the care plan: care plan characteristics, activating factors and perceived outcomes of using a care plan. Care plans were perceived as a useful tool that centralized and focused the care of the child. Care plans were reported to flatten the hierarchical relationship between HCPs and parents, resulting in enhanced reciprocal information exchange and strengthened relationships. Participants expressed that a standardized template that is family-centered and includes content relevant to both the medical and social needs of the child is beneficial when integrated into overall care planning and delivery for CMC. Conclusions Care plans are perceived to be a useful tool to both health care providers and parents of CMC. These findings inform the utility and development of a comprehensive care plan template as well as a model of how

  8. Oral health status and treatment needs of hearing impaired children attending a special school in Bhimavaram, India

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    V Sandeep

    2016-01-01

    Study Design: The study design was a descriptive cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted in November 2012 at SVS special school for deaf, Bhimavaram, India. This study involved 180 CHI of both genders, aged 6-16 years, divided into Group-I (6-8 years, Group-II (9-12 years, and Group-III (13-16 years. Oral health status and treatment needs were recorded using methods and standards recommended by the WHO for Oral Health Surveys, 1997. Dental caries prevalence (decayed, missing, and filled teeth [DMFT/dmft], gingivitis levels (Lφe, Silness Gingival Index, plaque levels (Silness, Lφe Plaque index, and treatment needs were the parameters recorded and analyzed. Statistical Analysis: Z-test for proportion, one-way analysis of variance, and Chi-square test were used to analyze the data. Results: Prevalence of dental caries in the sample was found to be 65% with a mean level of caries prevalence (DMFT of 1.6 ± 1.3 in Group-I, 1.9 ± 1.2 in Group-II, and 2.2 ± 1.2 in Group-III. About 91.7% of the total children examined needs treatment. The mean plaque and gingivitis scores of the sample were 1.70 ± 0.61 and 1.59 ± 0.58, respectively. Conclusion: These findings imply the overwhelming situation of CHI in oral health perspective. Hence, prevention-based educational and motivational programs should be targeted to this vital group to achieve adequate oral hygiene levels.

  9. Exploring the experiences and perspectives of families using a children's hospice and professionals providing hospice care to identify future research priorities for children's hospice care.

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    Malcolm, C; Forbat, L; Knighting, K; Kearney, N

    2008-12-01

    The main objective of this study is to generate a list of priority topics for children's hospice care research in Scotland from the perspective of its key stakeholders. The method consists of qualitative semi-structured interviews with families using hospice services (n = 5), four focus groups with hospice staff and volunteers (n = 44) and telephone interviews with professionals associated with the hospice (n = 18). Fourteen broad themes emerged following thematic content and interpretive analysis of the interview data. Some of the research themes were specific to certain stakeholder groups, whereas other themes were identified unanimously across all the stakeholder groups as being priority areas for future research. Increasing awareness of and improving access to children's hospice care, hospice and respite care needs of young people, community/home care and issues related to supporting the wider family arose, independently, in all three stakeholder groups as being priority topics for future research. In conclusion, a greater evidence base is required in the field of children's palliative care and the topics researched should be identified and led by those most closely involved in the hospices. Engaging families and care providers in the process of identifying research priorities resulted in the development of an extensive research agenda, which will contribute to quality hospice care for children and families.

  10. Care in the home for seriously ill children with complex needs: A narrative literature review.

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    Ward, Cynthia; Glass, Nel; Ford, Rosemary

    2015-12-01

    This article reviews contemporary literature on home care of the seriously ill child with complex care needs and the sick child/parent dyad. The literature search revealed three major themes, namely the increasing acuity of child illness, the evolving role of the parent as care provider, and the health professional as care provider. While there is much known about the complexity of care of children and the role of family in that care, little is known about what families require in terms of support and sustenance during the long years of care provision. PMID:24982427

  11. Preventing Obesity among Preschool Children: How Can Child-Care Settings Promote Healthy Eating and Physical Activity? Research Synthesis

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    Larson, Nicole; Ward, Dianne; Neelon, Sara Benjamin; Story, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Child-care settings provide numerous opportunities to promote healthy eating and physical activity behaviors among preschool children. The majority of U.S. children are placed in some form of non-parental care during their preschool years. While approximately 15 percent of preschool children are primarily cared for by their relatives, most…

  12. Immigrant Children's access to Health Care: Differences by global region of Birth

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    Blewett, Lynn A.; Johnson, Pamela Jo; Mach, Annie L.

    2010-01-01

    We use data from the National Health Interview Survey (2000–2006) to examine the social determinants of health insurance coverage and access to care for immigrant children by 10 global regions of birth. We find dramatic differences in the social and economic characteristics of immigrant children by region of birth. Children from Mexico and Latin America fare worse than immigrant children born in the U.S. with significantly lower incomes and little or no education. These social determinants, a...

  13. Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Mental Health Care for Children and Young Adults: A National Study.

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    Marrast, Lyndonna; Himmelstein, David U; Woolhandler, Steffie

    2016-10-01

    Psychiatric and behavior problems are common among children and young adults, and many go without care or only receive treatment in carceral settings. We examined racial and ethnic disparities in children's and young adults' receipt of mental health and substance abuse care using nationally representative data from the 2006-2012 Medical Expenditure Panel Surveys. Blacks' and Hispanics' visit rates (and per capita expenditures) were about half those of non-Hispanic whites for all types and definitions of outpatient mental health services. Disparities were generally larger for young adults than for children. Black and white children had similar psychiatric inpatient and emergency department utilization rates, while Hispanic children had lower hospitalization rates. Multivariate control for mental health impairment, demographics, and insurance status did not attenuate racial/ethnic disparities in outpatient care. We conclude that psychiatric and behavioral problems among minority youth often result in school punishment or incarceration, but rarely mental health care. PMID:27520100

  14. Dilemmas in sharing care: maternal provision of professionally driven therapy for children with disabilities.

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    Leiter, Valerie

    2004-02-01

    This paper explores some of the dilemmas that result when mothers and professionals collaborate in providing care to young children with disabilities within a US public program called Early Intervention. Successful collaboration between professionals and activist parents resulted in the program having a "family centered" approach, but the implementation of that approach is problematic. Professionals transmit therapeutic knowledge and skills to mothers of young children with special needs, urging them to perform therapeutic care work with their children. Through these efforts, professionals create a "therapeutic imperative" for mothers, expecting them to do therapeutic work that usually exceeds the amount of work that professionals do with their children. This paper explores the dilemmas mothers and professionals face when implementing family centered care and the ways in which mothers and professionals negotiate contested understandings of the optimal mixture of public (professional) and private (maternal) provision of therapeutic care to young children with disabilities.

  15. Non-adherence in children with asthma reviewed: The need for improvement of asthma care and medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klok, Ted; Kaptein, Adrian A; Brand, Paul L P

    2015-05-01

    Adherence to daily inhaled corticosteroid therapy is a key determinant of asthma control. Therefore, improving adherence to inhaled corticosteroids is the most effective method through which healthcare providers can help children with uncontrolled asthma. However, identifying non-adherent patients is difficult, and electronic monitoring is the only reliable method to assess adherence. (Non-)adherence is a complex behavioural process influenced by many interacting factors. Intentional barriers to adherence are common; driven by illness perceptions and medication beliefs, patients and parents deliberately choose not to follow the doctor's recommendations. Common non-intentional barriers are related to family routines, child-raising issues, and to social issues such as poverty. Effective interventions improving adherence are complex, because they take intentional and non-intentional barriers to adherence into account. There is evidence that comprehensive, guideline-based asthma self-management programmes can be successful, with excellent adherence and good asthma control. Patient-centred care focused on healthcare provider-patient/parent collaboration is the key factor determining the success of guided self-management programmes. Such care should focus on shared decision-making as this has been shown to improve adherence and healthcare outcomes. Current asthma care falls short because many physicians fail to adhere to asthma guidelines in their diagnostic approach and therapeutic prescriptions, and because of the lack of application of patient-centred health care. Increased awareness of the importance of patient-centred communication and increased training in patient-centred communication skills of undergraduates and experienced attending physicians are needed to improve adherence to daily controller therapy and asthma control in children with asthma. PMID:25704083

  16. Avaliação do consumo alimentar de crianças pertencentes a uma creche filantrópica na Ilha de Paquetá, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Food intake assessment of children attending a philanthropic daycare center in the Ilha de Paquetá, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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    Roseane M. S. Barbosa

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: comparar o consumo alimentar de pré-escolares, pertencentes a uma creche filantrópica, em dois períodos (no ato da matrícula e após seis meses, com base na proposta da Pirâmide Alimentar Infantil Norte-Americana e através do Índice de Alimentação Saudável (IAS. MÉTODOS: relativamente à avaliação dietética, foi utilizada a história alimentar da criança com o responsável, no ato da matrícula; após seis meses de frequência da criança, utilizou-se o método de pesagem de alimentos (na creche e registro alimentar (na residência. Posteriormente, compararam-se as médias das porções consumidas nos dois períodos, de cada grupo alimentar, utilizando o teste "t" Student, a fim de se verificar a diferença estatística entre os grupos. Considerou-se o nível de significância de 5%. Igualmente, avaliou-se o IAS, nos dois períodos. RESULTADOS: observou-se uma diferença significativa (pOBJECTIVES: to compare the food intake of children in a philanthropic daycare center in two periods (at enrollment and following six months attendance based on the North American Food Guide Pyramid through the Healthy Eating Index (HEI. METHODS: the children eating habits were informed by the parents or custodians at enrollment and following six months of children's attendance, the food weighing technique was performed (at the daycare center and food checking (at home as well. Following, averages of the portions eaten in the two periods were compared in each of the food intake groups through the "t" Student test to determine the statistical significance between the groups, with the significance rate established at 5%. HEI for the two periods was equally assessed. RESULTS: a significant difference (p<0,05 was determined in the average of fruit and vegetable portions consumed, based on the North American Food Pyramid, and a satisfactory scoring of the Healthy Eating Index following six months of the children's attendance of the day care

  17. Child care subsidies and the school readiness of children of immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Anna D; Han, Wen-Jui; Ruhm, Christopher J; Waldfogel, Jane

    2014-01-01

    This study is the first to test whether receipt of a federal child care subsidy is associated with children of immigrants' school readiness skills. Using nationally representative data (n ≈ 2,900), this study estimates the associations between subsidy receipt at age 4 and kindergarten cognitive and social outcomes, for children of immigrant versus native-born parents. Among children of immigrants, subsidized center-based care (vs. subsidized and unsubsidized home-based care) was positively linked with reading. Among children of native-born parents, those in subsidized center care displayed poorer math skills than those in unsubsidized centers, and more externalizing problems than those in unsubsidized home-based care. PMID:25156308

  18. Gut Microbiota in Type 2 Diabetes Individuals and Correlation with Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein1 and Interferon Gamma from Patients Attending a Tertiary Care Centre in Chennai, India

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    Premalatha Pushpanathan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM and obesity are associated with changes in gut microbiota and characterized by chronic low-grade inflammation. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1 and interferon gamma (IFNγ are proinflammatory cytokines which play an important role in the development of T2DM. We undertook this study to analyze the gut microbiota of T2DM and nondiabetic subjects and to determine the profile of MCP 1 and IFNγ in the same subjects attending a tertiary care center in Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. Methods: The study included 30 subjects with clinical details. Stool and blood samples were collected from all the subjects. DNA was extracted from fecal samples and polymerase chain reaction was done using fusion primers. Metagenomic analysis was performed using ion torrent sequencing. The reads obtained were in FASTA format and reported as operational taxonomic units. Human MCP 1 and IFNγ enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA were performed for 23 serum samples. Results: The study consisted of 30 subjects; 17 were T2DM and 13 were nondiabetics. The gut microbiota among T2DM consisted predominantly of Gram negative bacteria; Escherichia and Prevotella, when compared with the nondiabetic group with predominantly Gram positive organisms suchas Faecalibacterium, Eubacterium, and Bifidobacterium. The mean MCP-1 values in the diabetic group were 232.8 pg/ml and in the nondiabetic group 170.84 pg/ml. IFNγ (mean 385.5 pg/ml was raised in glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c group of 6.5–7.5% which was statistically significant. Association of Escherichia with T2DM and association of Bifidobacteria in the nondiabetics were also statistically significant. Conclusion: Escherichia counts were elevated in T2DM with HbA1c of 6.5–8.5% which was statistically significant suggesting that lipopolysaccharides present in the cell wall of Gram-negative bacteria may be responsible for low-grade inflammation as evidenced by elevated MCP-1 and

  19. Symptom Clusters in People Living with HIV Attending Five Palliative Care Facilities in Two Sub-Saharan African Countries: A Hierarchical Cluster Analysis.

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    Katrien Moens

    Full Text Available Symptom research across conditions has historically focused on single symptoms, and the burden of multiple symptoms and their interactions has been relatively neglected especially in people living with HIV. Symptom cluster studies are required to set priorities in treatment planning, and to lessen the total symptom burden. This study aimed to identify and compare symptom clusters among people living with HIV attending five palliative care facilities in two sub-Saharan African countries.Data from cross-sectional self-report of seven-day symptom prevalence on the 32-item Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale-Short Form were used. A hierarchical cluster analysis was conducted using Ward's method applying squared Euclidean Distance as the similarity measure to determine the clusters. Contingency tables, X2 tests and ANOVA were used to compare the clusters by patient specific characteristics and distress scores.Among the sample (N=217 the mean age was 36.5 (SD 9.0, 73.2% were female, and 49.1% were on antiretroviral therapy (ART. The cluster analysis produced five symptom clusters identified as: 1 dermatological; 2 generalised anxiety and elimination; 3 social and image; 4 persistently present; and 5 a gastrointestinal-related symptom cluster. The patients in the first three symptom clusters reported the highest physical and psychological distress scores. Patient characteristics varied significantly across the five clusters by functional status (worst functional physical status in cluster one, p<0.001; being on ART (highest proportions for clusters two and three, p=0.012; global distress (F=26.8, p<0.001, physical distress (F=36.3, p<0.001 and psychological distress subscale (F=21.8, p<0.001 (all subscales worst for cluster one, best for cluster four.The greatest burden is associated with cluster one, and should be prioritised in clinical management. Further symptom cluster research in people living with HIV with longitudinally collected symptom data to

  20. Improved identification and enrolment into care of HIV-exposed and -infected infants and children following a community health worker intervention in Lilongwe, Malawi

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    Saeed Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Early identification and entry into care is critical to reducing morbidity and mortality in children with HIV. The objective of this report is to describe the impact of the Tingathe programme, which utilizes community health workers (CHWs to improve identification and enrolment into care of HIV-exposed and -infected infants and children. Methods: Three programme phases are described. During the first phase, Mentorship Only (MO (March 2007–February 2008 on-site clinical mentorship on paediatric HIV care was provided. In the second phase, Tingathe-Basic (March 2008–February 2009, CHWs provided HIV testing and counselling to improve case finding of HIV-exposed and -infected children. In the final phase, Tingathe-PMTCT (prevention of mother-to-child transmission (March 2009–February 2011, CHWs were also assigned to HIV-positive pregnant women to improve mother-infant retention in care. We reviewed routinely collected programme data from HIV testing registers, patient mastercards and clinic attendance registers from March 2005 to March 2011. Results: During MO, 42 children (38 HIV-infected and 4 HIV-exposed were active in care. During Tingathe-Basic, 238 HIV-infected children (HIC were newly enrolled, a six-fold increase in rate of enrolment from 3.2 to 19.8 per month. The number of HIV-exposed infants (HEI increased from 4 to 118. During Tingathe-PMTCT, 526 HIC were newly enrolled over 24 months, at a rate of 21.9 patients per month. There was also a seven-fold increase in the average number of exposed infants enrolled per month (9.5–70 patients per month, resulting in 1667 enrolled with a younger median age at enrolment (5.2 vs. 2.5 months; p<0.001.During the Tingathe-Basic and Tingathe-PMTCT periods, CHWs conducted 44,388 rapid HIV tests, 7658 (17.3% in children aged 18 months to 15 years; 351 (4.6% tested HIV-positive. Over this time, 1781 HEI were enrolled, with 102 (5.7% found HIV-infected by positive PCR. Additional HIC