WorldWideScience

Sample records for children aged 6-24

  1. Junk Food Consumption and Effects on Growth Status among Children Aged 6-24 Months in Mashhad, Northeastern Iran

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    Rahim Vakili

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Junk food, due to the lack of vitamins, minerals and trace amounts of energy and protein, there is the risk that the child's stomach filled and by reducing her/his appetite, reduce the chance of nutritious foods. So it is necessary to determine the relationship between using of junk food with growth rate in children. Materials and Methods This cross-sectional descriptive-analytic study was conducted on 300 mothers and their babies , who were referring to 10 selected Mashhad health-care centers for monitoring their 6-24 months children. Participants were selected by cluster and simple random sampling and valid and reliable   questionnaire was used to collect data. Data were analyzed by descriptive- analytic statistics and using SPSS version 16. Results In growth chart, 86.7 percent of children showed appropriate growth, 10.3 percent had delayed growth and 3 percent had horizontal growth curve. In 11.3 percent of families, the junk food has been used for children regularly, 44.7 percent did not believe in these snacks and 44 percent of mothers sometimes used this junk food for their children. Results showed the statistical correlation between junk food consumption and  growth status of children was significant, so children whom haven’t had junk food, have grown more favorable than the other kids (P

  2. Effect on longitudinal growth and anemia of zinc or multiple micronutrients added to vitamin A: a randomized controlled trial in children aged 6-24 months

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    Luabeya Kany-Kany A

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The benefits of zinc or multiple micronutrient supplementations in African children are uncertain. African children may differ from other populations of children in developing countries because of differences in the prevalence of zinc deficiency, low birth weight and preterm delivery, recurrent or chronic infections such as HIV, or the quality of complementary diets and genetic polymorphisms affecting iron metabolism. The aim of this study was to ascertain whether adding zinc or multiple micronutrients to vitamin A supplementation improves longitudinal growth or reduces prevalence of anemia in children aged 6-24 months. Methods Randomized, controlled double-blinded trial of prophylactic micronutrient supplementation to children aged 6-24 months. Children in three cohorts - 32 HIV-infected children, 154 HIV-uninfected children born to HIV-infected mothers, and 187 uninfected children born to HIV-uninfected mothers - were separately randomly assigned to receive daily vitamin A (VA [n = 124], vitamin A plus zinc (VAZ [n = 123], or multiple micronutrients that included vitamin A and zinc (MM [n = 126]. Results Among all children there were no significant differences between intervention arms in length-for-age Z scores (LAZ changes over 18 months. Among stunted children (LAZ below -2 [n = 62], those receiving MM had a 0.7 Z-score improvement in LAZ versus declines of 0.3 in VAZ and 0.2 in VA (P = 0.029 when comparing effects of treatment over time. In the 154 HIV-uninfected children, MM ameliorated the effect of repeated diarrhea on growth. Among those experiencing more than six episodes, those receiving MM had no decline in LAZ compared to 0.5 and 0.6 Z-score declines in children receiving VAZ and VA respectively (P = 0.06 for treatment by time interaction. After 12 months, there was 24% reduction in proportion of children with anemia (hemoglobin below 11 g/dL in MM arm (P = 0.001, 11% in VAZ (P = 0.131 and 18% in VA (P = 0

  3. The Relationship between Protein, Zinc and Phosphorus Consumption to IGF-1 Status of Children Aged 6-24 Months in Timur Tengah Selatan Regency, Nusa Tenggara Timur Province

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    Matius Rantesalu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Status of malnutrition in children should watch out because it can lead to immunological suppression, impaired growth, increased morbidity from infectious diseases, developmental disorders and the presence of locomotor coordination in infants and children, inhibition of learning progress and speaking, a deficit of intelligence quotient (IQ permanently 5 points below normal, as well as developmental disorders and cognitive behavior. This study aimed to examines the relationship between protein intake, Zink and Phosphorus with IGF-1 status in Timur Tengah, Selatan Regency, Nusa Tenggara Timur Province. This study was an observational study with cross-sectional design. The experiment was conducted in nine sub-district of South Central Timur. Children's levels of IGF-1 are determined using Elisa Quantikine Human IGF-1 Immunoassay. Other data that food consumption in children 6-24 months of age is obtained through consumption recall, while other supporting data obtained through questionnaires by enumerators power. Analysis of nutrients content in foods used a food processor 2 (FP2. The statistical test used was t-test. The results showed that the father work mostly farmers while the mother does not work. Mother's education and father respectively 51 people (70.8% and 48 (66.7% 9 years of basic education. IGF-1 levels below the average in children aged 6-24 months by 59 (81.9%. Statistical test between nutrient consumption of protein, Zinc and Phosphorus with a confidence level of 95% indicates that there is a is significant correlation between protein intake Zinc and Phosphorus with IGF-1 status.

  4. Methodology of infant and young child feeding index for children aged 6-24 months in China%6~24月龄中国婴幼儿喂养指数评价方法的建立

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫玲; 曾果; 孙要武; 李增宁; 董文兰; 潘丽莉; 王玉英; 赖建强

    2012-01-01

    Objective To establish a infant and young child feeding index (ICFI) in China to comprehensive evaluate the feeding of children aged 6-24 months. Methods Based on the feed index concept defined by Ruel and Menon in 2002, and according to the feeding principle by WHO and Chinese dietary guidelines for children aged 0-6 years,the feed index for infants and young children was built and the variables were scored. Then using WAZ, HAZ and WHZ, the correlation between ICFI and Z score for children in urban and rural of three provinces (Sichuan, Hebei and Heilongjiang) was evaluated. Results The ICFI was constituted by 7 parts; continued breast-eeding, bottle-feeding, dietary diversity for the past 24h, frequency of feeding solids/semisolids for the past 24h, food frequency for the past 7d, the supplementary time of the formula milk and other foods. The difference of ICFI score between urban and rural group was significant ( P < 0.05). In urban, the ICFI score of children aged 6 ~ 8months was lower than that of children aged 9-24 months. In urban, the negatively correlation between ICFI and WAZ WHZ was significant ( P < 0. 05 ) . In rural , the negatively correlation between ICFI and WHZ was significant ( P < 0. 05 ) , while the positively correlation between ICFI and HAZ was significant ( P < 0. 05 ). Conclusion ICFI is effective to evaluate the infant feeding in China.%目的 建立6 ~ 24月龄中国婴幼儿喂养指数,为综合评价婴幼儿喂养提供有效的工具.方法 以2002年Ruel和Menon提出的喂养指数概念为基础,根据世界卫生组织(WHO)喂养建议和中国0~6岁儿童膳食指南,建立喂养指数确定各变量分类及分值,利用四川、河北、黑龙江三地区城乡6 ~ 24月龄共1738名婴幼儿年龄别体重( WAZ)、年龄别身长(HAZ)和身长别体重(WHZ),分析喂养指数与婴幼儿Z评分之间的相关性.结果 喂养指数由持续母乳喂养、奶瓶使用、过去24小时膳食摄入种类和膳食摄入频

  5. Growth and development and its related factors among rural children aged 6 - 24 months in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region%广西农村6~24月龄婴幼儿生长发育及影响因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐轶群; 王惠珊; 宫丽敏; 韦萍; 赵晶; 张丽晋; 许慧琼

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the growth and development and its related factors among the rural children aged 6-24 months in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region and to provide reference for the improvement of the children's health. Methods A questionaire survey was conducted among the parents of 1 198 children aged 6-24 months selected randomly with stratified cluster sampling form eight towns in two counties of Guangxi. The height and weight of the children were measured by nuiformly trained personnel and were evaluated based on the study of nine cities in China,2005. Results The prevalence of malnutrition was 21. 9% among the children and was lower than the average level of the nine cities. The prevalences of underweight and stunting were 16. 2% and 13. 5% ,and increased with the age among the children. There were significant differences in malnutrition and stunting among the young children of different month of age. The results of multivariate logistic regression indicated that aged 12 months or more, second or late parity, and drinking unboiled water were the risk factors and normal delivery was a protective factor for malnutrition among the children. Conclusion The prevalences of low weight and stunting are relative high and preterm infants and children of second or late parity are at a high risk of malnutrition among the children in rural areas of Guangxi.%目的 了解广西壮族自治区农村地区6~24月龄婴幼儿的生长发育现状及其影响因素,为改善当地儿童生长发育水平提供参考依据.方法 采用分层整群随机抽样方法,抽取广西横县、宾阳县和灵山县8个乡的1 198名6 ~ 24月龄婴幼儿家长进行问卷调查,并由经过统一培训的人员测量婴幼儿的身长、体重.结果 广西壮族自治区农村地区6~24月龄婴幼儿体重和身长均低于中国9市标准人群,且随年龄增加,儿童身长、体重差距逐渐增大;广西农村地区6~24月龄婴幼儿营养不良发生率为21.9

  6. Desarrollo de producto sobre la base de harinas de cereales y leguminosa para niños celíacos entre 6 y 24 meses; II: Propiedades de las mezclas Product development on the basis of cereal and leguminous flours to coeliac disease in children aged 6-24 months; II: properties of the mixtures

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    P. Cerezal Mezquita

    2011-02-01

    with banana, that can be prepared with water or milk, constituted a good alternative as food supplement for the nutrition of children aged 6-24 months who suffer from celiac disease, since they contribute to the quality improvement of the protein, by essential amino acids compensation, they are of low cost and allow an increase in availability of products for gluten-intolerant children. Some physical, chemical, rheological, mechanical and fluidity properties, as well as the color of these mixtures for a period of conservation of 90 days were evaluated. At the end of the storage, the sweet mixture turned out to be of "little flow" and the dessert mixture changed from "little flow" to "easy flow". Viscosity for the dessert mixture, with its two types of dilutions, water and milk, presented a behavior of pseudoplastic fluid. It was possible to guess that the time of shelf life of the mixtures would be of 9 months before achieving the rancidity limit (10 mEq of oxigen/kg of fat, which would disqualify the product for consumption. The CIEL*a*b* color coordinates did not show significant differences keeping the colour in "a beige" tonality.

  7. [Young children, toddlers and school age children].

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    Heller-Rouassant, Solange; Flores-Quijano, María Eugenia

    2016-09-01

    Cow´s milk represents a very important source of proteins of high biological value and calcium in the child´s diet. The aim of this article is to review the available evidences of its role in nutrition of young children and school age children. Its main benefits are related with effects in linear growth, bone health and oral health, as protein source in early severe malnutrition, and it does not appears to influence metabolic syndrome risk and autism. High protein content in cow´s milk and increased protein consumption by children during the complementary feeding period is associated to the risk of developing a high body mass index and obesity in school-age children; therefore, milk consumption should be mildly restricted during the second year of life and to 480-720 ml/day during the first years of life. Its relationship with some diseases has not been confirmed, and milk consumption is associated with iron deficiency. The use of low-fat cow's milk instead of regular milk in young children remains controversial and its introduction is not advised before 2 to 4 years of age. PMID:27603883

  8. School-Age Children in CCDBG: 2008

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    Matthews, Hannah

    2009-01-01

    Child Care and Development Grant (CCDBG) is the primary source of federal funding for child care subsidies for low-income working families and to improve child care quality. CCDBG provides child care assistance to children from birth to age 13. In fiscal year 2010, states received $5 billion in federal CCDBG funds. States are expected to…

  9. Supporting Children's Transition to School Age Care

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    Dockett, Sue; Perry, Bob

    2016-01-01

    While a great deal of research has focused on children's experiences as they start school, less attention has been directed to their experiences--and those of their families and educators--as they start school age care. This paper draws from a recent research project investigating practices that promote positive transitions to school and school…

  10. Ages and Ages: The Multiplication of Children's "Ages" in Early Twentieth-Century Child Psychology

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    Beauvais, Clementine

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the trend, between 1905 and the late 1920s in UK and US child psychology, of "discovering," labelling and calculating different "ages" in children. Those new "ages"--from mental to emotional, social, anatomical ages, and more--were understood as either replacing, or meaningfully related to,…

  11. Epigenetic age analysis of children who seem to evade aging.

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    Walker, Richard F; Liu, Jia Sophie; Peters, Brock A; Ritz, Beate R; Wu, Timothy; Ophoff, Roel A; Horvath, Steve

    2015-05-01

    We previously reported the unusual case of a teenage girl stricken with multifocal developmental dysfunctions whose physical development was dramatically delayed resulting in her appearing to be a toddler or at best a preschooler, even unto the occasion of her death at the age of 20 years. Her life-long physician felt that the disorder was unique in the world and that future treatments for age-related diseases might emerge from its study. The objectives of our research were to determine if other such cases exist, and if so, whether aging is actually slowed. Of seven children characterized by dramatically slow developmental rates, five also had associated disorders displayed by the first case. All of the identified subjects were female. To objectively measure the age of blood tissue from these subjects, we used a highly accurate biomarker of aging known as "epigenetic clock" based on DNA methylation levels. No statistically significant differences in chronological and epigenetic ages were detected in any of the newly discovered cases. PMID:25991677

  12. Vocal overimitation in preschool-age children.

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    Subiaul, Francys; Winters, Katherine; Krumpak, Kathryn; Core, Cynthia

    2016-01-01

    Overimitation--copying incorrect, idiosyncratic, or causally irrelevant actions--has been linked to our species' long history with artifacts whose functions are often opaque. It is an open question, however, whether children overimitate outside the artifact domain. We explored this question by presenting preschool-age children (3- to 5-year-olds, N=120) with an elicited imitation task that included high- and low-frequency disyllabic nouns (e.g., 'pizza) and nonwords (e.g., 'chizza), all of which had a stressed first syllable. However, during testing, half of the stimuli were incorrectly pronounced by stressing the second syllable (e.g., pi'zza). More than half of the children copied the model's incorrect pronunciation of high-frequency familiar words, consistent with overimitation. This pattern of response persisted even after children had themselves correctly named the familiar words prior to the start of testing, confirming that children purposefully altered the pronunciation of known words to match the incorrect pronunciations used by a model. These results demonstrate that overimitation is not restricted to the artifact domain and might extend to many different tasks and domains. PMID:26407825

  13. Birth Order and Maladaptive Behavior in School-Aged Children.

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    Carmichael, Karla D.

    Drawing on Alfred Adler's theories on the effect of birth order on maladaptive behavior in children, this study focused on the relationship between birth order and the referral to counseling of school-aged children with maladaptive disorder. School-aged children (N=217) with academic or behavioral problems, ages 5 to 18, were referred to the staff…

  14. WEATHER SENSITIVITY OF KINDERGARTEN AGE CHILDREN

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    A. RAZSI

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Living organisms are sensitive to the changes of weather. Our study is carried out on effects of weather changes on children’s behaviour in 29 kindergarten groups in Eger. The kindergarten nurces were asked to characterise the behaviour of the children group every day during three month, from March 2011 to May 2011. Marks from 1 to 5 were defined, giving 3 to average behaviour, 2 and 4 to worse and to better than average one. Marks 1 and 5 were retained for extremely good or bad behaviour of the group on the given day. The components evaluated separately were as follows: i- Playing, array or disarray: How do they play? Do they keep the array, or make chaos? ii- Sleeping: Normally, children of this age sleep for a few hours after lunch, but sometimes they do not want to do so. We looked after how it depends on the actual weather. iii- Aggression: Sometimes, some children are more aggressive than the others, but on other days these children do not show aggressive attitude. Was this the case on the given day? iv- Activity: How were children motivated for activities on the given day? In order to compare these marks, provided by the kindergarten groups, with weather and its changes, front analysis was performed every day, based on temperature data at the 925 hPa and 850 hPa levels. Besides that, surface observations of temperature, sunshine, humidity were also incorporated into the search for weather relatedness of the children’s behaviour.

  15. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder among School Age Palestinian Children

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    Khamis, Vivian

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: This study was designed to assess the prevalence of PTSD among Palestinian school-age children. Variables that distinguish PTSD and non-PTSD children were examined, including child characteristics, socioeconomic status, family environment, and parental style of influence. Method: Participants were 1,000 children aged 12 to 16 years.…

  16. Age and Family Control Influences on Children's Television Viewing.

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    Rubin, Alan M.

    1986-01-01

    Indicates that (1) age and family control did not influence children's television viewing levels; (2) age influenced program preferences of children; (3) cartoon preferences related negatively to family control for the youngest groups; and (4) comedy and children's program preferences and television realism related positively to family control for…

  17. Oral health of children born small for gestational age.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connell, A C

    2010-10-01

    We sought to evaluate the oral health status of children born small for gestational age (SGA). Children now aged 4-8 years who were born SGA (birth weight < -2 SDS) were examined using standardised criteria. The parents completed a structured oral health questionnaire. Twenty females and 25 males, mean age 72.1 months, and mean birth weight 2.1 kg, participated in the study. Poor appetite was a concern; 32 (71%) children snacked between meals and 14 (30%) used carbonated beverages more than 3 times daily. Erosion was present in 9 (20%) children. Dental decay occurred in 22 (47%) children with 92% being untreated. Eight children had more than 5 decayed teeth. It is essential that clinicians working with children born SGA include oral health within the general health surveillance and refer these children for a dental assessment within the first 2 years to support parents in establishing safe feeding patterns for their children.

  18. EXAMINATION OF TELEVISION VIEWING HABITS OF SCHOOL AGE CHILDREN

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    ARSLAN, Filiz; Ayse Sevim UNAL; Hamide GULER; Kadriye KARDAS

    2006-01-01

    Television has powerful effects on children. Howewer TV gives positive messages to children it also can cause children to be inactive and prevent their creative play activities. In this study, it was aimed at to determine the television viewing habits of school age children between 6–12 years old. That Cross-sectional type study has been conducted on 100 students who were selected with stratified randomised sampling method according to sex, age and class among 492 students who were taken...

  19. Children's Social Behavior in Relationship to Participation in Mixed-Age or Same-Age Classrooms.

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    McClellan, Diane E.; Kinsey, Susan

    Research on the social and cognitive effects of grouping children in mixed-age versus same-age classrooms is gaining interest among practitioners and researchers. This investigation used a teacher rating scale to assess children's prosocial, aggressive, and friendship behaviors in mixed- and same-age classrooms. Confounding variables such as the…

  20. Malnutrition among Preschool-Aged Autistic Children in Oman

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    Al-Farsi, Yahya M.; Al-Sharbati, Marwan M.; Waly, Mostafa I.; Al-Farsi, Omar A.; Al Shafaee, Mohammed A.; Deth, Richard C.

    2011-01-01

    To assess prevalence of malnutrition indicators among preschool children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) a cross-sectional study was conducted among 128 Omani autistic children 3-5 years of age. Based on standardized z-scores, the overall prevalence of malnutrition was 9.2 per 100 preschool ASD children (95% CI 4.1, 11.6). The most common type…

  1. Executive Dysfunction in School-Age Children with ADHD

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    Lambek, Rikke; Tannock, Rosemary; Dalsgaard, Soeren; Trillingsgaard, Anegen; Damm, Dorte; Thomsen, Per Hove

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The study examined executive function deficits (EFD) in school-age children (7 to 14 years) with ADHD. Method: A clinical sample of children diagnosed with ADHD (n = 49) was compared to a population sample (n = 196) on eight executive function (EF) measures. Then, the prevalence of EFD in clinical and non-clinical children was examined…

  2. School maturity of pre-school age visually impaired children

    OpenAIRE

    Gudonis, Vytautas

    2015-01-01

    The sample or research is 310 pre-school age visually impaired children. The average age of the surveyed is 6.3 years, the sharpness of vision is V 0.3–1. The research employed the methods for assessment of children’s maturity for school worked out by G. Gintilienė, D. Butkienė, S. Girdzijauskienė et al. (2005). During the investigation, essential problems of pre-school age visually impaired children have been estimated: a number of hyperactive children increases; also, a number of children w...

  3. What Proportion of Preschool-Aged Children Consume Sweetened Beverages?

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    Nickelson, Jen; Lawrence, Jeannine C.; Parton, Jason M.; Knowlden, Adam P.; McDermott, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Obesity affects nearly 17% of US children and youth 2-19?years old and 10% of infants and toddlers under the age of 2?years. One strategy for addressing obesity is to discourage sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption. Compared with their older school-aged counterparts, children =5?years depend largely on parents for the purchase…

  4. Head Injuries in School-Age Children Who Play Golf

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    Reuter-Rice, Karin; Krebs, Madelyn; Eads, Julia K.

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the leading cause of death and disability in children. We conducted a prospective study, which examined injury characteristics and outcomes of school-age children of 5.0-15.0 years (N = 10) who were admitted to hospital for a TBI. This study evaluated the role of age, gender, the Glasgow Coma Scale, mechanisms and…

  5. Children's Choice Strategies: The Effects of Age and Task Demands

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    Bereby-Meyer, Yoella; Assor, Avi; Katz, Idit

    2004-01-01

    Two experiments examined the effect of age and cognitive demands on children's choice strategies. Children aged 8-9 and 12-13 years were asked to choose among either two or four products that differed in several attributes of varying importance to them. Choice tasks were designed to differentiate between the lexicographic and the equal-weighting…

  6. School-Age Children in CCDBG: 2012 Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Hannah; Reeves, Rhiannon

    2014-01-01

    The Child Care and Development Block Grant (CCDBG) is the primary funding source for federal child care subsidies to low-income working families, as well as improving child care quality. CCDBG provides child care assistance to children from birth to age 13. This fact sheet highlights key information about school-age children and CCDBG. This…

  7. Understanding Participation of Preschool-Age Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiarello, Lisa Ann; Palisano, Robert J.; Orlin, Margo N.; Chang, Hui-Ju; Begnoche, Denise; An, Mihee

    2012-01-01

    Participation in home, school, and community activities is a primary outcome of early intervention services for children with disabilities and their families. The objectives of this study were to (a) describe participation of preschool-age children with cerebral palsy (CP); (b) determine effects of sex, age, and gross motor function on intensity…

  8. Ataxia rating scales are age-dependent in healthy children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandsma, Rick; Spits, Anne H.; Kuiper, Marieke J.; Lunsing, Roelinka J.; Burger, Huibert; Kremer, Hubertus P.; Sival, Deborah A.

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate ataxia rating scales in children for reliability and the effect of age and sex. METHOD: Three independent neuropaediatric observers cross-sectionally scored a set of paediatric ataxia rating scales in a group of 52 healthy children (26 males, 26 females) aged 4 to 16 years (mean

  9. Relative Weights of the Backpacks of Elementary-Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Benjamin P.; Bryant, Judith B.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to describe the range of relative backpack weights of one group of elementary-aged children and the extent to which they exceeded recommended levels. A second purpose was to explore whether gender and age help predict the relative weight of children's backpacks. Ninety-five 8- to 12-year-old elementary school…

  10. Fecal Calprotectin in Healthy Children Aged 1-4 Years

    OpenAIRE

    Qingling Zhu; Feng Li; Junli Wang; Lixiao Shen; Xiaoyang Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Objective Calprotectin has been well emulated recently in adults as well as in children. The aim of this study was to assess fecal calprotectin concentrations in healthy children aged from 1 to 4 years. Methods Volunteers were enlisted from 3 nurseries. A brief questionnaire was used to ensure these children meet the inclusion criteria, and some clinical and sociodemographic factors were collected. Anthro software (version 3.1) was used to calculated Length-for-age Z-scores (LAZ), weight-for-...

  11. Unintentional Injuries in Preschool Age Children

    OpenAIRE

    ACAR, Ethem; Dursun, Onur Burak; Esin, İbrahim Selcuk; Öğütlü, Hakan; Halil ÖZCAN; Mutlu, Murat

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Unintentional injuries are the leading cause of death among children. Previous research has shown that most of the injuries occur in and around the home. Therefore, parents have a key role in the occurrence and prevention of injuries. In this study, we examined the relationship among home injuries to children and parental attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms, parental attitudes, and children's behavioral problems. Forty children who were admitted to the emergency ...

  12. EXAMINATION OF TELEVISION VIEWING HABITS OF SCHOOL AGE CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filiz ARSLAN

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Television has powerful effects on children. Howewer TV gives positive messages to children it also can cause children to be inactive and prevent their creative play activities. In this study, it was aimed at to determine the television viewing habits of school age children between 6–12 years old. That Cross-sectional type study has been conducted on 100 students who were selected with stratified randomised sampling method according to sex, age and class among 492 students who were taken education from first step of the Ankara-Cigiltepe Primary Education School. Mean age of school age children who were involved in study was 9.1±1.5. It was detemined that 43% of children (n=43 were watching TV more than 3 hours a day, 54% of them were watching TV to relieve their boredom and 48% of them were watching TV because they like watching. When the spare time activities of children were examined it was determined that they were spending their time by playing and making sportive activities with the highest rate (n=95, 26.1%, and television viewing was in the third order (n=61, 17.3%. In this study, it was determined that most of the children were watching TV under the offered time, children whose mother were not working were watching TV for longer time, and TV watching time of the children were increasing with increasing age. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2006; 5(6.000: 391-401

  13. Prenatal and early life influences on epigenetic age in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simpkin, Andrew J; Hemani, Gibran; Suderman, Matthew;

    2016-01-01

    DNA methylation based biomarkers of aging are highly correlated with actual age. Departures of methylation-estimated age from actual age can be used to define epigenetic measures of child development or age acceleration in adults. Very little is known about genetic or environmental determinants...... of these epigenetic measures of aging. We obtained DNA methylation profiles using Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChips across five time points in 1018 mother-child pairs from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Using the Horvath age estimation method, we calculated epigenetic age for these samples....... Age acceleration (AA) was defined as the residuals from regressing epigenetic age on actual age. AA was tested for associations with cross-sectional clinical variables in children. We identified associations between AA and sex, birth weight, birth by caesarean section and several maternal...

  14. Alimentação complementar e estado nutricional de crianças menores de dois anos atendidas no Programa Saúde da Família em Acrelândia, Acre, Amazônia Ocidental Brasileira Complementary feeding and nutritional status of 6-24-month-old children in Acrelândia, Acre State, Western Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Tarricone Garcia

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Com objetivo de investigar o estado nutricional e alimentação complementar em crianças de 6 a 24 meses, residentes na Amazônia Ocidental Brasileira, um estudo transversal foi realizado na área urbana do Município de Acrelândia, Estado do Acre, com 164 crianças. As prevalências de déficit de estatura/idade e anemia foram de 12% e 40%, respectivamente, e de deficiência de ferro isolada, de 85%. Os níveis séricos das vitaminas A e B12 estavam baixos em 15% e 12% das crianças, respectivamente. Houve baixo consumo alimentar dos seguintes nutrientes (% de crianças abaixo das recomendações: ácido fólico (33%, vitamina C (40%, vitamina A (42%, zinco (46% e ferro (71%. A biodisponibilidade de ferro da dieta foi de 8%. Observou-se baixo consumo de frutas, hortaliças e carnes, com consumo excessivo de leite de vaca e mingau.Our objective was to investigate nutritional status and complementary feeding practices in children from 6 to 24 months of age living in the Western Brazilian Amazon. A cross-sectional study was conducted within an urban area of Acrelândia, Acre State. A total of 164 children were studied. Prevalence rates for stunting and anemia were 12% and 40%, respectively, and overall prevalence of iron deficiency was 85%. Vitamin A and B12 serum levels were below normal thresholds in 15% and 12% of children, respectively. Low intake was observed for the following nutrients (% of children: folic acid (33%, vitamin C (40%, vitamin A (42%, zinc (46%, and iron (71%. Iron bioavailability in the diet was approximately 8%. Very low dietary intakes of fruits, vegetables, and meats were observed, in contrast with excessive consumption of cow's milk and porridge.

  15. Executive Dysfunction in School-Age Children With ADHD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lambek, Rikke; Tannock, Rosemary; Dalsgaard, Søren;

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The study examined executive function deficits (EFD) in school-age children (7 to 14 years) with ADHD. Method: A clinical sample of children diagnosed with ADHD (n = 49) was compared to a population sample (n = 196) on eight executive function (EF) measures. Then, the prevalence of EFD...... in clinical and non-clinical children was examined at the individual level according to three methods previously applied to define EFD, and a fourth method was included to control for the effect of age on performance. Results: Children with ADHD were significantly more impaired on measures of EF than children...... without ADHD at the group level. However, only about 50% of children with ADHD were found to have EFD at the individual level, and results appeared relatively robust across methods applied to define EFD. Conclusion: As a group, children with ADHD displayed more problems on neuropsychological measures...

  16. Subclinical Vitamin D Insufficiency in Korean School-aged Children

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Sang Woo; Kang, Ha Ra; Kim, Han Gyum; Kim, Joo Hyun; Uhm, Ji Hyun; Seo, Ji Young

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Recently, vitamin D insufficiency has increased and has been correlated to growth and puberty in children. This study was conducted to find the prevalence of subclinical vitamin D insufficiency and its influence on school-aged children in Korea. Methods The subjects of this study were 397 children aged 7 to 15 years who had been tested for 25-OH vitamin D3 among the outpatients of the Department of Pediatrics in Eulji General Hospital from March 2007 to February 2011. Data for age, se...

  17. Unintentional Injuries in Preschool Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acar, Ethem; Dursun, Onur Burak; Esin, İbrahim Selcuk; Öğütlü, Hakan; Özcan, Halil; Mutlu, Murat

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Unintentional injuries are the leading cause of death among children. Previous research has shown that most of the injuries occur in and around the home. Therefore, parents have a key role in the occurrence and prevention of injuries. In this study, we examined the relationship among home injuries to children and parental attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms, parental attitudes, and children's behavioral problems. Forty children who were admitted to the emergency department because of home injuries constitute the study group. The control group also consisted of 40 children, who were admitted for mild throat infections. The parents filled out questionnaires assessing parental ADHD, child behavioral problems, and parenting attitudes. Scores were significantly higher for both internalizing disorders and externalizing disorders in study groups. We also found that ADHD symptoms were significantly higher among fathers of injured children compared with fathers of control groups. Democratic parenting was also found to correlate with higher numbers of injuries. Parenting style, as well as the psychopathology of both the parents and children, is important factors in children's injuries. A child psychiatrist visit following an emergency procedure may help to prevent further unintentional injuries to the child. PMID:26266395

  18. COMPUTER EYE SYNDROME IN CHILDREN AGED 3 TO 6 YEARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krasina P. Valcheva

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To detect visual disturbances, major symptoms and relationship between them in children between the ages of 3 and 6 years, who spend some time in front of a computer. Material/Methods: In the present study 2823 children attending 23 kindergartens in the city of Pleven, were given inquiry cards. Those with completed questionnaires were examined for visual acuity and convergence. In cases with low vision the children were invited for a detailed eye examination in the Eye Clinic at the University Hospital "Dr George Stranski" - Pleven. Results: A total of 2332 children responded and were examined (1174 girls and 1158 boys. The age of children is from 3 to 6 years. We found 303 children with subjective complaints in a close work, 163 with low vision and 18 with impaired convergence. Regarding the duration of stay in front of a computer – 159 children stay over 3 hours a day in front of video display, 1228 children spend about 1 hour a day in front of a computer and 945 children do not play on a computer. Conclusion: Nowadays more and more children use computers for recreational purposes at home. From our study it became clear that preschool children overuse their stay in front of computer.

  19. Active transport among Czech school-aged children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Pavelka

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Active transport is a very important factor for increasing the level of physical activity in children, which is significant for both their health and positive physical behaviour in adult age. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to establish the proportion of Czech children aged 11 to 15 who select active transport to and from school and, at the same time, describe socio-economic and socio-demographic factors influencing active transport to and from school among children. METHODS: To establish the socio-demographic factors affecting active transport, data of a national representative sample of 11 to 15 year-old elementary school children in the Czech Republic (n = 4,425. Research data collection was performed within an international research study called Health Behaviour in School Aged Children in June 2010. Statistical processing of the results was made using a logistic regression analysis in the statistical programme IBM SPSS v 20. RESULTS: Active transport to and from school is opted for in the Czech Republic by approximately 2/3 of children aged 11 to 15. Differences between genders are not statistically significant; most children opting for active transport are aged 11 (69%. An important factor increasing the probability of active transport as much as 16 times is whether a child's place of residence is in the same municipality as the school. Other factors influencing this choice include BMI, time spent using a computer or a privateroom in a family. A significant factor determining active transport by children is safety; safe road crossing, opportunity to leave a bicycle safely at school, no fear of being assaulted on the way or provision of school lockers where children can leave their items. CONCLUSIONS: Active transport plays an important role in increasing the overall level of physical activity in children. Promotion of active transport should focus on children who spend more time using a computer; attention should also be

  20. Psychiatric disorders in Danish children aged 5-7 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elberling, Hanne; Linneberg, Allan; Ulrikka Rask, Charlotte;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Knowledge about the presentation of psychopathology in preschool age and associated risk factors is fundamental to preventive intervention before schooling. AIMS: To investigate the full spectrum of psychiatric diagnoses in general population children at the period of transition from ...

  1. Physical activity in Dublin children aged 7–9 years

    OpenAIRE

    Hussey, J; Gormley, J; Bell, C

    2001-01-01

    Objectives—To investigate the amount of regular activity and time spent in sedentary occupations in children aged 7–9 years. Sex differences in levels of activity and time and facilities for physical education at school were also examined.

  2. Chronic Respiratory Diseases of School-Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGovern, John P.

    1976-01-01

    The author examines the problems of chronic respiratory disease in school-age children from a medical viewpoint, including recognition and diagnosis, commonly encountered diseases, their effect on participation in physical exercise, emotional factors, medication, and emergency care. (MB)

  3. Thai and American Fathers' Involvement with Preschool-Age Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulananda, Oracha; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Using the Paternal Involvement in Childcare Index, examined father involvement in caregiving and the socialization of preschool-age children in 40 Thai and 24 American families. American fathers were more likely than Thai fathers to be involved in child care and the socialization of their children. (MDM)

  4. Aging Parents and Adult Children: Research Themes in Intergenerational Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, Jay A.; Blieszner, Rosemary

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the following dominant themes in the relationships of older parents and their adult children within the context of societal age structure changes: roles and responsibilities, parent-child interaction, individual well-being, relationship quality, and caregiving by adult children. Concludes with speculations on the future of research on…

  5. Self-Control in School-Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duckworth, Angela L.; Gendler, Tamar Szabó; Gross, James J.

    2014-01-01

    Conflicts between immediately rewarding activities and more enduringly valued goals abound in the lives of school-age children. Such conflicts call upon children to exercise self-control, a competence that depends in part on the mastery of metacognitive, prospective strategies. The "process model of self-control" organizes these…

  6. Correlations among adiposity measures in school-aged children

    OpenAIRE

    Boeke, Caroline E; Oken, Emily; Kleinman, Ken P.; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L.; Elsie M. Taveras; Gillman, Matthew W.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Given that it is not feasible to use dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) or other reference methods to measure adiposity in all pediatric clinical and research settings, it is important to identify reasonable alternatives. Therefore, we sought to determine the extent to which other adiposity measures were correlated with DXA fat mass in school-aged children. Methods: In 1110 children aged 6.5-10.9 years in the pre-birth cohort Project Viva, we calculated Spearman correlation coefficie...

  7. Correlations among adiposity measures in school-aged children

    OpenAIRE

    Boeke, Caroline E; Oken, Emily; Kleinman, Ken P.; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L.; Elsie M. Taveras; Gillman, Matthew W.

    2013-01-01

    Background Given that it is not feasible to use dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) or other reference methods to measure adiposity in all pediatric clinical and research settings, it is important to identify reasonable alternatives. Therefore, we sought to determine the extent to which other adiposity measures were correlated with DXA fat mass in school-aged children. Methods In 1110 children aged 6.5-10.9 years in the pre-birth cohort Project Viva, we calculated Spearman correlation coefficient...

  8. An own-age bias in age estimation of faces in children and adults.

    OpenAIRE

    Moyse, Evelyne; Brédart, Serge

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the occurence of an own-age bias on age estimation performance (better performance for faces from the same age range as that of the beholder) by using an experimental design inspired from research on the own-race effect. The age of participants (10 to 14 year old children and 20 to 30 year old adults) was an independent factor that was crossed with the age of the stimuli (faces of 10 to 14 year old children and faces of 20 to 30 year old adults), the...

  9. Percutaneous nephrolithotomy in children in different age groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guven, Selcuk; Frattini, Antonio; Onal, Bulent;

    2013-01-01

    Study Type - Therapy (case series) Level of Evidence 4 What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? Without age being a limiting risk factor, recent reports have shown that almost any version of percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) can be safely applied in children. As there has been...... no standardisation in the age categorisation of children, there are inconsistencies among the age subgroups in the current literature. To achieve a standard terminology and thus a common language, the World Health Organization age classification criterion was used in the present study. Based on the findings, we can...... suggest that PCNL can be applied safely and effectively in children in different age groups. OBJECTIVES: •  To present the overall results of paediatric percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) compared with adults. •  To present the indications, complications and outcomes of patients treated...

  10. Comorbidity in school-aged children with autism disorder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余明

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the occurrence of comorbidity in school-aged children with autism disorder.Methods Sixty-two outpatients in Peking University Institute of Mental Health,aged 6 to 16 years old,meeting the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental

  11. Dental age assessment among Tunisian children using the Demirjian method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abir Aissaoui

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Since Demirjian system of estimating dental maturity was first described, many researchers from different countries have tested its accuracy among diverse populations. Some of these studies have pointed out a need to determine population-specific standards. Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the suitability of the Demirjian's method for dental age assessment in Tunisian children. Materials and Methods: This is a prospective study previously approved by the Research Ethics Local Committee of the University Hospital Fattouma Bourguiba of Monastir (Tunisia. Panoramic radiographs of 280 healthy Tunisian children of age 2.8–16.5 years were examined with Demirjian method and scored by three trained observers. Statistical Analysis Used: Dental age was compared to chronological age by using the analysis of variance (ANOVA test. Cohen's Kappa test was performed to calculate the intra- and inter-examiner agreements. Results: Underestimation was seen in children aged between 9 and 16 years and the range of accuracy varied from −0.02 to 3 years. The advancement in dental age as determined by Demirjian system when compared to chronological age ranged from 0.3 to 1.32 year for young males and from 0.26 to 1.37 year for young females (age ranged from 3 to 8 years. Conclusions: The standards provided by Demirjian for French-Canadian children may not be suitable for Tunisian children. Each population of children may need their own specific standard for an accurate estimation of chronological age.

  12. Roentgen study of bone age in obese children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study included 100 children (50 boys and 50 girls) aged from 1 to 18 years with different degree of obesity, classified according to the scheme of Knyazev et al. The bone age was determined by a X-ray method including conventional X-ray study of the left hand at standard conditions. The H. Thiemann - I. Nittz Atlass (1986) was used as a test. It was established that the children with overweight had a change in the bone age which in most cases outstriped the calendar one. It was stated that the determination of the index 'bone age' remained to be a reliable method for studing the obesity effect on the growth and developing of the children' organism. 2 figs., 2 tabs., 12 refs

  13. Play Opportunities for School-Age Children, 6 to 14 Years of Age. Advisory Document.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canada Mortgage and Housing Corp., Ottawa (Ontario).

    Suggestions for the planning and design of playgrounds to meet the needs of children between 6 to 14 years of age living in medium- and high-density residential areas are offered in this document. The first and second chapters briefly focus on the child's right to play and present an overview of the developmental characteristics of children at…

  14. VOCABULARY PROBLEMS OF THE LIGHTLY MENTALLY RETARDED SCHOOL AGED CHILDREN

    OpenAIRE

    Vesna KOSTIC

    2000-01-01

    The main research objectives are the problems in the vocabulary of school aged, lightly mentally retarded children. Results of the research indicate which are the most important factors that have impact of the vocabulary and language competence of these persons. The research variables are: sex, IQ, chronological age and school age. Comics-like stories were used as an examination instrument in this research. Their interpretation is helpful in determining the vocabulary level of every single ex...

  15. Antipsychotic Prescriptions for Children Aged 5 Years or Younger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lòpez-De Fede

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of antipsychotics in very young children is of concern given the lack of empirical evidence in their efficacy and long-term impact on children’s health. This study examined the prescription of antipsychotics among children aged ≤5 years enrolled in a state Medicaid program. Secondary data analysis was conducted using the Medicaid administrative data of a southeastern state. Using SAS 9.3, descriptive statistics were performed to examine socio-demographic characteristics, psychiatric diagnoses, off-label use, receipt of medications from multiple psychotropic drug classes, and receipt of non-pharmacologic psychiatric services among children aged ≤5 years who received antipsychotic prescriptions in calendar year (CY 2011. A total of 112 children in the target age group received antipsychotics in CY 2011, the most common prescription being risperidone. The most common listed psychiatric diagnosis was attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Two in five children received antipsychotics for off-label use. Three in four children also received medications from at least one other psychotropic drug class. More than half did not receive adjunct psychiatric services. State-level policies offering specific guidance and recommendations for antipsychotic use among very young children are urgently needed. Future research is warranted to examine long-term impact of such practices on children’s growth and development.

  16. Fecal Calprotectin in Healthy Children Aged 1-4 Years.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingling Zhu

    Full Text Available Calprotectin has been well emulated recently in adults as well as in children. The aim of this study was to assess fecal calprotectin concentrations in healthy children aged from 1 to 4 years.Volunteers were enlisted from 3 nurseries. A brief questionnaire was used to ensure these children meet the inclusion criteria, and some clinical and sociodemographic factors were collected. Anthro software (version 3.1 was used to calculated Length-for-age Z-scores (LAZ, weight-for-age Z-scores (WAZ, and weight-for-length Z-scores (WLZ respectively. Fecal calprotectin was detected by a commercially available ELISA.In total 274 children were recruited, with age ranging from 1 to 4 years old. The median FC concentration was 83.19 μg/g [range 4.58 to 702.50 μg/g, interquartile range (IQR 14.69-419.45 μg/g] or 1.92 log10 μg/g (range 0.66 log10 to 2.85 log10 μg/g, IQR 1.17 log10-2.62 log10 μg/g. All of the children were divided into three groups, 1-2 years (12-24 months, 2-3 years (24-36 months, 3-4 years (36-48 months, with median FC concentrations 96.14 μg/g (1.98 log10 μg/g, 81.48 μg/g (1.91 log10 μg/g, 65.36 μg/g (1.82 log10 μg/g, respectively. There was similar FC level between boys and girls. FC concentrations showed a downward trend by the growing age groups. A statistic difference was found in FC concentrations among groups 1-2 years, 2-3 years and 3-4 years (P = 0.016. In inter-groups comparison, a significant difference was found between children aged 1-2 years and children aged 3-4 years (P = 0.007. A negative correlation trend was found between age and FC concentration (Spearman's rho = -0.167, P = 0.005 in all the participants. A simple correlation was performed among WLZ, WAZ, birth weight, or birth length with FC, and there was no correlation being observed.Children aged from 1 to 4 years old have lower FC concentrations compared with healthy infants (<1years, and higher FC concentrations when comparing with children older than 4

  17. Examining Relative Age Effects in Fundamental Skill Proficiency in British Children Aged 6-11 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, Samantha; Cummings, Laura; Oxford, Samuel W; Duncan, Michael J

    2016-10-01

    Birch, S, Cummings, L, Oxford, SW, and Duncan, MJ. Examining relative age effects in fundamental skill proficiency in British children aged 6-11 years. J Strength Cond Res 30(10): 2809-2815, 2016-The relative age effect (RAE) suggests that there is a clustering of birth dates just after the cutoff used for sports selection in age-grouped sports and that in such circumstances, relatively older sportspeople may enjoy maturational and physical advantages over their younger peers. Few studies have examined this issue in nonselective groups of children, and none have examined whether there is evidence of any RAE in skill performance. The aim of this study was to assess whether there were differences in fundamental movement skill (FMS) proficiency within children placed in age groups according to the school year. Six FMS (sprint, side gallop, balance, jump, catch, and throw) were assessed in 539 school children (258 boys and 281 girls) aged 6-11 years (mean age ± SD = 7.7 ± 1.7 years). We examined differences in these FMS between gender groups and children born in different quarters of the year after controlling for age and body mass index (BMI). For balance, chronological age was significant as a covariate (p = 0.0001) with increases in age associated with increases in balance. Boys had significantly higher sprint mastery compared with girls (p = 0.012), and increased BMI was associated with poorer sprint mastery (p = 0.001). Boys had higher catching mastery than girls (p = 0.003), and children born in Q1 had significantly greater catching mastery than those born in Q2 (p = 0.015), Q3 (p = 0.019), and Q4 (p = 0.01). Results for throwing mastery also indicated higher mastery in boys compared with girls (p = 0.013) and that children born in Q1 had higher throwing proficiency than those born in Q4 (p = 0.038). These results are important if coaches are basing sport selection on measures of skilled performance, particularly in object-control skills. Categorizing children

  18. Anxiety and fear in young school age children from perspective of parents and the children themselves.

    OpenAIRE

    HODKOVÁ, Kamila

    2013-01-01

    The bachelor thesis deals with children of younger school age and their feelings of anxiety and fear. The aim of this thesis is to conduct a survey of children?s emotions of anxiety and fear and to compare perception of those emotions from the perspective of parents and children. The theoretical part describes the terms anxiety and fear, origin of those emotions and how they are shown. The following chapter deals with the younger school age, describes its characteristics and focuses on cognit...

  19. DIETARY HABITS OF SCHOOL-AGE CHILDREN IN TBILISI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mebonia, N; Trapaidze, D; Kvanchakhadze, R; Zhizhilashvili, S; Kasradze, N

    2015-11-01

    Study Goal was to determine dietary habits in school-aged children. Sampling of children was conducted in two stages. In the first stage, five schools in Nadzaladevi district of city Tbilisi were randomly selected. On the second stage the study groups from the appropriate school-aged students (10-14 years old children) were also randomly selected. All student participants filled out standardized and adopted questionnaires suggested by the American Academy of family physicians. Data were analyzed by using EpiInfo 7th version. Statistical analyses looked at correlations between criteria of unhealthy diet (such as morning without breakfast, frequent consumption of non-alcoholic beverages and fast food products) and overweight/obesity. A Body Mass Index (BMI) was calculated by using CDC tool. 175 children with ages of 10-14 years (47% boys) were included and interviewed. Half of the children noted that they love or like fast food products. 10% - visits fast food places 2-3 times a week together with a family. 11% - visits fast food places 5 times a week and even more. 34% - do not start morning with breakfast; 15% - eat only twice a day; 26% - add salt to their dishes; 58% - drink non-alcoholic beverages every day or many times during a week; 24% - are overweight; 29% suffer from obesity; 25% noted that fast food places are located near schools. Very weak correlation was found between unhealthy diet (morning without breakfast, frequent consumption of non-alcoholic beverages and fast food products) and overweight/obesity. According to study results, dietary habits of school-age children in Tbilisi is unhealthy; to improve nutritional habits is essential: (1) promote consumer (students, parents and teachers) awareness on a healthy diet, (2) educate children, adolescents and adults about nutrition and healthy dietary practices, (3) encourage to raise awareness about the salt consumption in recommended doses in children. PMID:26656554

  20. DYSPRAXIA AS A PSYCHOMOTOR DISORDER OF SCHOOL AGE CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nowak Agata

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of the study was to define the epidemiology of dyspraxia among children from 6 to10 years’ age, attending grades I-III of primary schools in Wrocław, Poland. Material: the study was conducted among pupils of primary schools in Wrocław, Poland. The studied groups included 48 girls and 52 boys. The study employed Polish version of Questionnaire for the screening assessment of dyspraxia’s occurrence among children from 5 to 15 years’ age (DCDQ-PL, as well as the Coordination Test for Children (KTK. Results. After assessing the occurrence of dyspraxia among studied children, it was found out that this disorder is present in the studied group. The prevalence of dyspraxia depends on studied children’s gender; however, it is not related to their age. The results of tests, conducted with the DCDQ-PL and the KTK are consistent and confirm the observed inter-dependencies. Conclusions. Dyspraxia is a widespread psychomotor disorder, which can be diagnosed among children in the early school years. A diagnosis of a child’s development with respect to this disorder should constitute a constant element of work for teachers and educationists dealing with children at this stage of education.

  1. Evaluation of Obesity in School-Age Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobashi, Kazushige

    2016-01-01

    To prevent obesity in middle age, early precautions and interventions are required during childhood. Therefore, it is very important to accurately evaluate the degree of overweight in children. Body mass index (BMI) is widely used worldwide in adults, but not in children. Because standard BMI, which is calculated using the average height and weight for age, changes widely during growth, a constant cut-off point cannot be set for children. An international unified method defining childhood obesity has not been established. In many countries, BMI-for-age percentile (BMI%) value or Z (standard deviation) score is used, whereas in Japan, the percentage of overweight (POW), which is the modified weight-for-height method, is used. We compared BMI% values with POW values obtained using the anthropometric data of elementary and junior high school students based on the Japanese school survey conducted in 2000 and found that the values for the degree of overweight were significantly different between the two methods. It became clear that tall students were easily defined as being overweight, whereas short students tended to be evaluated as being underweight when using BMI%. POW method seemed to be more appropriate than BMI% for school-age children. Abdominal obesity, excess visceral adipose tissue (VAT), is highly associated with obesity-related complications. Waist circumference (WC) is now accepted as an appropriate guide to VAT accumulation. The cut-off value of WC defining excess VAT is 80 cm at the umbilical level in Japanese school-age children. It is not easy to decide the obesity criteria and optimum WC in school-age children. Childhood obesity should be discussed more internationally.

  2. DYSPRAXIA AS A PSYCHOMOTOR DISORDER OF SCHOOL AGE CHILDREN

    OpenAIRE

    Nowak Agata; Gnitecka Jolanta; Romanowska-Tolloczko Anna

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the study was to define the epidemiology of dyspraxia among children from 6 to10 years’ age, attending grades I-III of primary schools in Wrocław, Poland. Material: the study was conducted among pupils of primary schools in Wrocław, Poland. The studied groups included 48 girls and 52 boys. The study employed Polish version of Questionnaire for the screening assessment of dyspraxia’s occurrence among children from 5 to 15 years’ age (DCDQ-PL), as well as the Coordinatio...

  3. Modifiable diarrhoea risk factors in Egyptian children aged <5 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, A M; Mohammady, H El; Shabrawi, M El; Shabaan, S Y; Zekri, M Abou; Nassar, M; Salem, M E; Mostafa, M; Riddle, M S; Klena, J D; Messih, I A Abdel; Levin, S; Young, S Y N

    2013-12-01

    By conducting a case-control study in two university hospitals, we explored the association between modifiable risk behaviours and diarrhoea. Children aged bacterial pathogens using standard techniques and tested by ELISA to detect rotavirus and Cryptosporidium spp. Four hundred cases and controls were enrolled between 2007 and 2009. The strongest independent risk factors for diarrhoea were: presence of another household member with diarrhoea [matched odds ratio (mOR) 4.9, 95% CI 2.8-8.4] in the week preceding the survey, introduction to a new kind of food (mOR 3, 95% CI 1.7-5.4), and the child being cared for outside home (mOR 2.6, 95% CI 1.3-5.2). While these risk factors are not identifiable, in some age groups more easily modifiable risk factors were identified including: having no soap for handwashing (mOR 6.3, 95% CI 1.2-33.9) for children aged 7-12 months, and pacifier use (mOR 1.9, 95% CI 1.0-3.5) in children aged 0-6 months. In total, the findings of this study suggest that community-based interventions to improve practices related to sanitation and hygiene, handwashing and food could be utilized to reduce the burden of diarrhoea in Egyptian children aged <5 years. PMID:23433452

  4. Gross Motor Coincidence Timing by Children with Learning Difficulties and Children Matched on Mean Chronological and Mental Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacklin, Susan M.

    1987-01-01

    This study examines the learning of a gross motor coincidence timing task by children with learning difficulties, compared with that by children of average intelligence of an equivalent chronological age and mental age. Results are discussed. (Author/MT)

  5. Premature aging and immune senescence in HIV-infected children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianesin, Ketty; Noguera-Julian, Antoni; Zanchetta, Marisa; Del Bianco, Paola; Petrara, Maria Raffaella; Freguja, Riccardo; Rampon, Osvalda; Fortuny, Clàudia; Camós, Mireia; Mozzo, Elena; Giaquinto, Carlo; De Rossi, Anita

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Several pieces of evidence indicate that HIV-infected adults undergo premature aging. The effect of HIV and antiretroviral therapy (ART) exposure on the aging process of HIV-infected children may be more deleterious since their immune system coevolves from birth with HIV. Design: Seventy-one HIV-infected (HIV+), 65 HIV-exposed-uninfected (HEU), and 56 HIV-unexposed-uninfected (HUU) children, all aged 0–5 years, were studied for biological aging and immune senescence. Methods: Telomere length and T-cell receptor rearrangement excision circle levels were quantified in peripheral blood cells by real-time PCR. CD4+ and CD8+ cells were analysed for differentiation, senescence, and activation/exhaustion markers by flow cytometry. Results: Telomere lengths were significantly shorter in HIV+ than in HEU and HUU children (overall, P < 0.001 adjusted for age); HIV+ ART-naive (42%) children had shorter telomere length compared with children on ART (P = 0.003 adjusted for age). T-cell receptor rearrangement excision circle levels and CD8+ recent thymic emigrant cells (CD45RA+CD31+) were significantly lower in the HIV+ than in control groups (overall, P = 0.025 and P = 0.005, respectively). Percentages of senescent (CD28−CD57+), activated (CD38+HLA-DR+), and exhausted (PD1+) CD8+ cells were significantly higher in HIV+ than in HEU and HUU children (P = 0.004, P < 0.001, and P < 0.001, respectively). Within the CD4+ cell subset, the percentage of senescent cells did not differ between HIV+ and controls, but programmed cell death receptor-1 expression was upregulated in the former. Conclusions: HIV-infected children exhibit premature biological aging with accelerated immune senescence, which particularly affects the CD8+ cell subset. HIV infection per se seems to influence the aging process, rather than exposure to ART for prophylaxis or treatment. PMID:26990630

  6. [Influence of pedagogy on vigilance in school age children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaczyk-Martin, C; Nuttens, M C; Hautekeete, M; Salomez, J L; Lequien, P

    1990-01-01

    The relationship between vigilance and pedagogy was studied in 3 middle classes of primary school (children aged between 8 and 9 yrs). Three different types of pedagogy, belonging to 3 major pedagogic currents were evaluated: the pedagogy of Maria Montessori, the traditional one and the so-called "open" pedagogy. The vigilance of children was tested with the psychometric test of Zazzo. The rate of performance of the test was significantly different according to the nature of pedagogy after adjustment of the only 2 confusing factors between the 3 schools: the age of the children and the degree of the mother. This difference was in favor of the pedagogy of Maria Montessori compared with the 2 others. It was observed on the results to the tests but also on learning. PMID:2170913

  7. Body Composition and Cardiovascular Health in School-aged Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klakk, Heidi

    Background In 2011 the World Health Organization (WHO) estimated that more than 40 million children under the age of five were overweight and ten per cent of the world’s school aged children are estimated to carry excess body fat. Childhood obesity is associated with a number of immediate...... and youth and plays an important role in the prevention of overweight and obesity and related morbidities. Schools are recognized as potentially effective settings for public health initiatives, as they access a large population of children and youth across a variety of ethnic and socioeconomic groups...... Health, Activity and Motor Performance School study (CHAMPS study-DK) is the scientific research part of the Svendborg Project evaluating the initiative. Purpose and objectives of the thesis The overall aim of this thesis is to evaluate the effect of four extra PE lessons in primary school (pre-school...

  8. How Elementary-Age Children Read Polysyllabic Polymorphemic Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearns, Devin M.

    2015-01-01

    Developing readers of English appear to favor phonograms over grapheme-phoneme correspondences (GPCs) to read unknown words. For polysyllabic polymorphemic (PSPM) words, the morphophonemic nature of English means elementary-age children may focus on roots and affixes. Does developing readers' PSPM word reading accuracy relate to the morphological…

  9. School-Age Children in CCDBG: 2009 Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Hannah; Lim, Teresa

    2011-01-01

    The Child Care and Development Block Grant (CCDBG) is the primary source of federal funding for child care subsidies for low-income working families and to improve child care quality. CCDBG provides child care assistance to children from birth to age 13. In fiscal year 2010, states received $5 billion in federal CCDBG funds. States are expected to…

  10. Child Sustained Attention in Preschool-Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiCarlo, Cynthia F.; Baumgartner, Jennifer J.; Ota, Carrie; Geary, Kelly

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the mean duration of child attention across three teaching conditions (child choice, adult choice, or adult presentation) of 63 preschool-age children. A repeated-measures ANOVA was used to compare the means across the three teaching conditions, indicating a statistically significant difference between the teaching conditions.…

  11. School Readiness of Moderately Preterm Children at Preschool Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perricone, Giovanna; Morales, M. Regina; Anzalone, Germana

    2013-01-01

    The study investigates the preschool readiness of moderately preterm children and, in particular, the likely presence of learning disabilities at preschool age. Its theoretical model detects linguistic comprehension and expression; memory-related metacognition and cognition skills; orientation and motor coordination skills; premathematics and…

  12. Physical activity and play in kindergarten age children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caroli, Margherita; Malecka-Tendera, Ewa; Epifani, Susi;

    2011-01-01

    PERISCOPE project assesses factors promoting or preventing obesity development in early age. A specifi c aim is to assess preschool children ’ s physical activity habits in three different European countries. PERISCOPE has been implemented in 1094 children attending kindergartens in Denmark, Italy...... and Poland. The parents ’ and children ’ s physical activity habits and attitudes assessed by a questionnaire fi lled by the parents. Overweight and obesity assessed by Cole ’ s BMI cut-off points. Statistical analysis performed by χ^2 test and the test of proportion. Denmark shows the lowest rate (14.......6 %) of overweight, followed by Poland (17.1%), while Italy shows the highest (21.2 %) (p children, but only the 50...

  13. Social Information Processing in Elementary-School Aged Children with ADHD: Medication Effects and Comparisons with Typical Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Sara; Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Pelham, William E., Jr.; Frankland, Bradley W.; Andrade, Brendan F.; Jacques, Sophie; Corkum, Penny V.

    2009-01-01

    Examined social information processing (SIP) in medicated and unmedicated children with ADHD and in controls. Participants were 75 children (56 boys, 19 girls) aged 6-12 years, including 41 children with ADHD and 34 controls. Children were randomized into medication conditions such that 20 children with ADHD participated after receiving placebo…

  14. Leprosy among children under 15 years of age: literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Marcela Bahia Barretto de; Diniz, Lucia Martins

    2016-04-01

    Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae, representing a public health issue in some countries. Though more prevalent in adults, the detection of new cases in children under 15 years of age reveals an active circulation of bacillus, continued transmission and lack of disease control by the health system, as well as aiding in the monitoring of the endemic. Among patients under 15 years of age, the most affected age group is children between 10 and 14 years of age, although cases of patients of younger than 1 year of age have also been reported. Household contacts are the primary source of infection, given that caretakers, such as babysitters and others, must be considered in this scenario. Paucibacillary forms of the disease prevailed, especially borderline-tuberculoid leprosy, with a single lesion in exposed areas of the body representing the main clinical manifestation. Reactional states: Lepra reactions are rare, although some authors have reported high frequencies of this phenomenon, the most frequent of which is Type 1 Lepra Reaction. Peripheral nerve involvement has been described at alarming rates in some studies, which increases the chance of deformities, a serious problem, especially if one considers the age of these patients. The protective effect of BCG vaccination was found in some studies, but no consensus has been reached among different authors. Children must receive the same multidrug therapy regimen and the doses should, ideally, be calculated based on the child´s weight. Adverse reactions to this therapy are rare within this age group. This article aims to review epidemiological, clinical, and therapeutic aspects of leprosy in patients under 15 years of age.

  15. Leprosy among children under 15 years of age: literature review*

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Marcela Bahia Barretto; Diniz, Lucia Martins

    2016-01-01

    Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae, representing a public health issue in some countries. Though more prevalent in adults, the detection of new cases in children under 15 years of age reveals an active circulation of bacillus, continued transmission and lack of disease control by the health system, as well as aiding in the monitoring of the endemic. Among patients under 15 years of age, the most affected age group is children between 10 and 14 years of age, although cases of patients of younger than 1 year of age have also been reported. Household contacts are the primary source of infection, given that caretakers, such as babysitters and others, must be considered in this scenario. Paucibacillary forms of the disease prevailed, especially borderline-tuberculoid leprosy, with a single lesion in exposed areas of the body representing the main clinical manifestation. Reactional states: Lepra reactions are rare, although some authors have reported high frequencies of this phenomenon, the most frequent of which is Type 1 Lepra Reaction. Peripheral nerve involvement has been described at alarming rates in some studies, which increases the chance of deformities, a serious problem, especially if one considers the age of these patients. The protective effect of BCG vaccination was found in some studies, but no consensus has been reached among different authors. Children must receive the same multidrug therapy regimen and the doses should, ideally, be calculated based on the child´s weight. Adverse reactions to this therapy are rare within this age group. This article aims to review epidemiological, clinical, and therapeutic aspects of leprosy in patients under 15 years of age. PMID:27192519

  16. Prevalence of Parasomnia in School aged Children in Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Naserbakht

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available "nObjectives: Parasomnias can create sleep disruption; in this article we assessed parasomnias in school-aged children in Tehran. "nMethods: In spring 2005, a total of 6000 sleep questionnaires were distributed to school-aged children in 5 districts of Tehran (Iran. A modified Pediatrics sleep questionnaire with 34 questions was used. "nResults: Parasomnias varied from 0.5% to 5.7% among the subjects as follows: 2.7% sleep talking, 0.5% sleepwalking, 5.7% bruxism, 2.3% enuresis, and nightmare 4%. A group of children showed parasomnias occasionally- this was 13.1% for sleep talking, 1.4% for sleepwalking, 10.6% for bruxism, 3.1% for enuresis and 18.4% for nightmares. "nConclusion: A high proportion of children starting school suffer from sleep problems. In many cases this is a temporary, developmentally related phenomenon, but in 6% of the children the disorder is more serious and may be connected with various stress factors and further behavioral disturbances.

  17. LIFESTYLE AND PHYSICAL FITNESS IN EARLY SCHOOL-AGE CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Podstawski Robert

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study: the aim of the study was determining relation between selected health behaviour aspects and level of physical fitness in 1 st - 3 rd grade pupils at primary school in Malbork (Pomorskie province. Materials and Methods: the research was conducted in 2009 among 153 children aged 7-10 years. The research group consisted of 80 girls and 73 boys. The diagnostic survey method with use of a questionnaire technique and a set of indirect motor trials was applied. Results: the research has shown that the health behaviours of young Polish children do not differ from their peers in other countries. The largest percentage of early school-age children in Malbork achieved the average level of physical fitness (57.0%, while the percentage of students with low (22.0% and high (21.0% level was similar. Conclusions: the connection between pro-health attitudes of early school-age children (i.e., leisure activities, own health condition, nutrition and the use of drugs and the level of their physical fitness was not ascertained.

  18. Sensory evaluation of a novel vegetable in school age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulthard, Helen; Palfreyman, Zoe; Morizet, David

    2016-05-01

    A behavioural sensory task was undertaken to further understanding into whether children's sensory evaluation of a new vegetable is associated with tasting and food neophobia scores. A sample of ninety-five children, aged 7-11 years, was recruited from a primary school in inner city Birmingham, UK. They were asked to rate the sight, smell and feel of a familiar vegetable (carrot) and an unfamiliar vegetable (celeriac) in a randomised order to control for order effects. They were then asked to try the each vegetable, and rate its taste. It was found that children rated the sensory characteristics of the familiar vegetable more positively than the novel vegetable across all sensory domains (p < 0.05). Refusing to try the novel vegetable was associated with food neophobia scores and olfactory ratings. The ratings of the taste of the novel vegetable were associated with olfactory and tactile ratings. In addition there was a clear developmental shift in the sample with younger children being more likely to rate the novel vegetable as 'looking strange' and older children rating the novel vegetable as 'smelling strange'. This research strengthens the idea that sensory information is important in children deciding to try, and their hedonic evaluation of the taste of a new vegetable. PMID:26809143

  19. Direction of single obstacle circumvention in middle-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackney, Amy L; Van Ruymbeke, Nicole; Bryden, Pamela J; Cinelli, Michael E

    2014-01-01

    When required to walk around a stationary object, adults use the location of the goal to set up their locomotor axis and obstacles presented along the locomotor axis will repel the individual towards the side that affords more space [1]. Research has yet to examine whether children can identify the locomotor axis and choose their paths accordingly. Therefore, the current study examined the factors that influence the direction in which children choose to deviate around a single obstacle and whether the presence or absence of a goal influences path selection and trajectory. Ten children (age: 7.1 years±0.8) walked along a 9 m path and avoided a single obstacle that was located in one of three locations (midline, 15 cm to the right or 15 cm to the left). On half the trials, an end-goal was visible from the start of the path while the other half of the trials had no visible goal. The results demonstrate that: (1) children are able to perceive and move towards more open space but are more variable when the end-goal is not visible; (2) children are capable of maintaining an elliptical-shaped protective envelope when avoiding a single obstacle regardless of whether or not the locomotor axis is established; and (3) although children are capable of choosing paths that afford the most space, the manner in which they arrive at their goal is not driven by factors similar to adults. PMID:24679592

  20. Advancing Age, Advantaged Youth: Parental Age and the Transmission of Resources to Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Brian; Steelman, Lala Carr; Carini, Robert M.

    2006-01-01

    Using data from the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988, we identify parental age as influential in the parental provision of economic resources, social capital and cultural capital to adolescents, as well as in parental educational expectations for their children. At the bivariate level, the relationship is curvilinear, suggesting that…

  1. Uroflowmetry nomogram in Iranian children aged 7 to 14 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tajik Parvin

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As the voiding habits of Iranian children differs from other children because of some cultural and religious considerations, we aimed to establish normal reference values of urinary flow rates in Iranian children between 7 to 14 years of age. Methods Eight hundred and two uroflowmetry studies were performed on children with no history of a renal, urological, psychological or neurological disorder, between the ages 7 and 14. Five hundred twenty five studies from 192 girls and 335 boys were considered in this study excluding the staccato/interrupted voiding pattern or voided volume less than 20 ml. The voiding volume, the maximum and average urinary flow rates were extensively analyzed. Results The maximal and average urine flow rate nomograms were plotted for both girls and boys. Mean maximum urine flow rate was 19.9 (ml/sec for boys and 23.5 (ml/sec for girls with a mean voided volume of 142 (ml for boys and 147 (ml for girls. Flow rates showed a close association with voiding volume in both sexes. The maximum and average flow rates were higher in girls than in boys, and they showed a significant increase in flow rates with increasing age, where boys did not. The mean maximum urine flow rates (19.9 ml/sec for boys and 23.5 ml/sec for girls were found to be higher in this study than other studies. Conclusion Nomograms of maximal and average flow rates of girls and boys are presented in centile form, which can help the physician to evaluate the response to medical or surgical treatment and be useful for the screening of lower urinary tract disturbances in children, for a wide range of voided volumes.

  2. Predictors for snoring in children with rhinitis at age 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Nathaniel S; Almqvist, Catarina; Grunstein, Ronald R; Marks, Guy B

    2007-07-01

    Snoring is often found in allergic diseases and may be an early manifestation of more serious sleep-disordered breathing. We aimed to investigate whether the risk factors for snoring among pre-school children with rhinitis are similar to those for allergic diseases in a birth cohort. The study cohort was drawn from participants in the Childhood Asthma Prevention Study (CAPS). This is a randomized controlled trial of dietary intervention and house dust mite avoidance during the first 5 years of life, aimed at reducing the risk of acquiring asthma and other allergic conditions in children at high-risk for allergic diseases. Parents of children with symptoms of rhinitis at age 5 years (n = 219 out of 516 cohort members) were asked if their child snored: 127 (60%) reported some snoring and 56 (26%) snored more than three times per week. Multiple logistic regression analyses indicated that children who were first-born (adjusted odds ratio, 2.50, 95% CI 1.20-5.21), were exposed to maternal tobacco smoke during the first year of life (2.40, 1.1-5.25), or who had asthma (2.51, 1.14-5.55) and/or eczema (2.29, 1.02-5.13) at age 5 years were more likely to snore. Birth-weight, body mass index at age 4.5, spirometry, and breastfeeding were not related to snoring. Risk factors for snoring are similar to risk factors for allergic disorders. Snoring may be part of the allergic spectrum of diseases. Our data may contribute to clinician's ability to effectively screen for snoring in preschool children. PMID:17534968

  3. The health of Inuit children under age 6 in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leanne C. Findlay

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Previous research has suggested that Inuit children experience poor health as compared to their non-Aboriginal counterparts, although social determinants such as family and social conditions, lifestyle or behaviour, and cultural factors may be at play. The purpose of the current study was to examine the parent-reported health of Inuit children under 6 years of age living in Canada. Study design and methods. Data from the 2006 Aboriginal Children's Survey were used to examine measures of Inuit child health as rated by parents including child health, limitations to physical activity, chronic conditions, ear infections, and dental problems. Associations between social determinants of health and parent-rated Inuit child health were also explored. Results. Most Inuit children under age 6 were reported by their parents or guardians to be in excellent or very good health. The most common chronic conditions identified were asthma, speech and language difficulties, allergies, lactose intolerance, and hearing impairment. Several social determinants of health were associated with child health, including parental education, household income, breastfeeding, and perceived housing conditions. Conclusions. The findings show that social determinants of health, including both socio-economic and household characteristics, are associated with Inuit child health.

  4. Optimizing Population Screening of Bullying in School-Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaillancourt, Tracy; Trinh, Vi; McDougall, Patricia; Duku, Eric; Cunningham, Lesley; Cunningham, Charles; Hymel, Shelley; Short, Kathy

    2010-01-01

    A two-part screening procedure was used to assess school-age children's experience with bullying. In the first part 16,799 students (8,195 girls, 8,604 boys) in grades 4 to 12 were provided with a definition of bullying and then asked about their experiences using two general questions from the Olweus Bully/Victim Questionnaire (1996). In the…

  5. The effect of age on physical fitness of deaf elementary school children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartman, Esther; Visscher, Chris; Houwen, Suzanne

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to measure physical fitness of deaf Dutch elementary school children compared with hearing children and to investigate the influence of age on physical fitness. Deaf children were physically less fit than hearing children. Overall, physical fitness increased with age in dea

  6. Dynamics of Learning Motivation in Early School Age Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkhireyeva T.V.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents outcomes of a longitudinal study on learning motivation in children of early school age. The aim was to reveal the leading motives in first, second, third and fourth grades and to explore the dynamics of some learning motives in children over the whole period of elementary school. As it was found, the learning activity in the children was mostly motivated by social motives, among which the leading ones were the motives of selfdetermination and wellbeing. As for learning motives, over the course of all four years the children were for the most part motivated by the content of the learning activity, and not by its process. The dynamics of certain social motives of the learning activity varied across the sample, with some going through the periods of increase and decrease and others having a oneway dynamics. The study also revealed a decrease in the motivation rooted in the learning activity itself between the second and third year; at the same time, in the second, third and fourth years the children were more motivated by the content of the learning activity than by its process

  7. Modern diagnostic method of microelementosis of school age children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Human and animal pathology stipulated by deficiency of vitally important (or 'essential') microelements or their excess, has got its combined name microelementosis [1]. In connection with high biological activity of microelements in organism in different physiologic and pathologic status the quantitative determination of several metals in biomedium of organism is of great importance in the study of microelement metabolism. However, objective and representative data on estimation of school children's provision with microelements are practically absent. The objective of the study was to investigate contents of microelements connected with deficiency of biometals participating in hemopoiesis (Cu, Zn, Co, Mn) in biomedium of the organism of school children in Zarafshan region of the Republic of Uzbekistan. We have applied the method of neutron-activation analysis for determination of microelements (Fe, Zn, Cu, Co, Mn) in hair, whole blood, blood serum, urine, saliva, food-stuff samples and in more than 20 elements of other biomedia, as per designed method in Nuclear Physics Institute, Republic of Uzbekistan [4]. The study was carried out on 245 practically healthy children aged 7-17, 131 boys and 33 girls living in four different areas of Samarkand region. According to the designed method the determination of Mn, Cu was done as follows: samples together with standards were packed in polyethylene container and underwent irradiation in vertical channel of the reactor by neutron flow 5x1013 neutron cm-2 sec-1, (for 15 seconds). The measurement of direct activity was conducted in 2 hours for determining of Cu and Mn. For determining of iron, cobalt, zinc the irradiation test measurement was done within 15 hours one month after irradiation by the corresponding radionuclides. In all measurement of element contents different standards were applied: Intralaboratory data was received by fixing a certain number of elements on ashless filter paper and comparison

  8. Preparing Books for Children from Birth to Age Six: The Approach of Appropriateness for the Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çer, Ekran

    2016-01-01

    Children's books must primarily be appropriate for children so that they could be a significant stimulus in children's lives. In other words, it is essential that the concepts child reality, literary criteria and artist sensitivity be reflected in books in order to create children's books. From birth to age 6, the fact that children's books are…

  9. Enamel defect of deciduous teeth in small gestational age children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willyanti S Syarif

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Enamel defect could be caused by genetic and environmental factors in prenatal period. Meanwhile, prenatal malnutrition could also cause small gestational age (SGA. Small Gestational Age is the term used for a neonatal baby with birthweight below the -2SD normal value or 10th percentile on the intrauterine Lubchenco curve. This condition is due to intra-uterine growth restriction, and eventually ends up with several developmental defects of organs, including teeth. In fact, deciduous tooth development has a critical phase within this development period. Purpose: The aim of this study is not only to find out the incidence of enamel defect in SGA children, but also to know the percentage of SGA risk factor to develop enamel defect. Method: This was a epidemiology research with consecutive admission technique. It consisted of 153 SGA children aged 9–48 months. Next, the Ponderal index was used to assign SGA types, symmetrical or asymmetrical one-in this study 59 and 94 respectively. On the other hand, three hundred and ninety Appropriate for Gestational Age (AGA children aged 4–48 months were also included in the study as a control group. Enamel defect then was determined by intraoral examination, classified into hypoplasia and hypocalcifications. Chi-square test was finally used to determine the relative risk ratio between the SGA and the control AGA children. Result: The result of this research showed that incidence of enamel defect in SGA children was 86.92%, meanwhile, that in AGA children was 23.08%, 66.00% of which were commonly suffered from hypocalcification. With p<0.05 it is also known that SGA children has the risk of enamel defect with hypocalcification, about 79% higher than AGA children. Conclusion: It could be concluded that 79% of SGA children had the risk of deciduous tooth enamel defect with hypocalcification as the most.Latar belakang: Defek email dapat terjadi karena faktor genetik dan lingkungan sistemik yang

  10. Ages and Stages Questionnaire used to measure cognitive deficit in children born extremely preterm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klamer, Anja; Lando, Ane; Pinborg, Anja;

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To validate the Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ) and to measure average cognitive deficit in children born extremely preterm. METHODS: Parents of 30 term children aged 36-42 mo completed the ASQ and the children underwent the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scales of Intelligence--Revised.......AIM: To validate the Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ) and to measure average cognitive deficit in children born extremely preterm. METHODS: Parents of 30 term children aged 36-42 mo completed the ASQ and the children underwent the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scales of Intelligence...

  11. Desarrollo de producto sobre la base de harinas de cereales y leguminosa para niños celíacos entre 6 y 24 meses; I: Formulación y aceptabilidad Product development on the basis of cereal and leguminous flours to coeliac disease in children between 6-24 months; I: formulation and acceptability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Cerezal Mezquita

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available La revalorización de los cultivos andinos, quinua (Chenopodium quinua Willd y lupino (Lupinus albus L, para ser utilizados en mezclas alimenticias, con cereales tradicionales como maíz (Zea mays L. y arroz (Oryza sativa L., originan mezclas sin gluten que constituyen una buena alternativa para la alimentación de niños menores de 24 meses que sufren la enfermedad celíaca, ya que mejoran la calidad de la proteína, por compensación de los aminoácidos esenciales, e incide en la diversificación de productos. En el presente trabajo se determinó la composición de los porcentajes de cada harina en la mezcla mediante Programación Lineal empleando la planilla Solver de la hoja de cálculo Excel. Se determinaron las prolaminas en las harinas de quinua y lupino por el método ELISA y se empleó la técnica del HPLC en los dos productos obtenidos, denominados "mezcla dulce" y "mezcla postre", para definir la cantidad de aminoácidos con la finalidad de suplementar alrededor del 15% de las proteínas requeridas en el día. Las mezclas de harina seleccionadas como óptimas, mezcla dulce, apropiada para la preparación de queques, así como para la mezcla postre, que por adición de agua o leche, da origen a un postre, se evaluaron después de tres meses de almacenamiento, siendo aceptables sus requisitos microbiológicos, bromatológicos y sensoriales, corroborándose los resultados, con la buena aceptación de los productos preparados a partir de las mezclas formuladas, por parte de los menores de 2 Jardines Infantiles de la Ciudad de Antofagasta-Chile.The revaluation of the Andean cultivations, quinua (Chenopodium quinua Willd and lupin (Lupinus albus L., to be used in nutritional mixtures, with traditional cereals like corn (Zea mays L. and rice (Oryza sativa L., originate mixtures without gluten which constitute a good alternative for the nutrition of children under 24 months that suffer from celiac disease, since they improve the quality of

  12. Overweight among primary school-age children in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidu, Balkish Mahadir; Mahmud, Siti Zuraidah; Ambak, Rashidah; Sallehuddin, Syafinaz Mohd; Mutalip, Hatta Abdul; Saari, Riyanti; Sahril, Norhafizah; Hamid, Hamizatul Akmal Abdul

    2013-01-01

    This study is a secondary data analysis from the National Health Morbidity Survey III, a population-based study conducted in 2006. A total of 7,749 children between 7 and 12 years old were recruited into the study. This study seeks to report the prevalence of overweight (including obesity) children in Malaysia using international cut-off point and identify its associated key social determinants. The results show that the overall prevalence of overweight children in Malaysia was 19.9%. The urban residents, males, Chinese, those who are wealthy, have overweight or educated guardians showed higher prevalence of overweight. In multivariable analysis, higher likelihood of being overweight was observed among those with advancing age (OR=1.15), urban residents (OR=1.16, 95% CI: 1.01-1.36), the Chinese (OR=1.45, 95% CI: 1.19-1.77), boys (OR=1.23, 95% CI: 1.08-1.41), and those who came from higher income family. In conclusion, one out of five of 7-12 year-old-children in Malaysia were overweight. Locality of residence, ethnicity, gender, guardian education, and overweight guardian were likely to be the predictors of this alarming issue. Societal and public health efforts are needed in order to reduce the burden of disease associated with obesity. PMID:23945411

  13. Relative age effect on success in tennis competition in the older age-school children

    OpenAIRE

    Adrián Agricola; Rudolf Psotta; Reza Abdollahipour

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The theory of relative age effect assumes that children and adolescents - athletes born at the beginning of the calendar year in sports competitions are more successful than those who were born in the later months of the same year. This percentage is based on advantage of fitness, morphological and psychological assumptions of the older athletes. AIM: The research objective of the present study was to verify the assumption of competitive success of older players in the elite...

  14. ATTITUDES OF HEALTHY CHILDREN PARENTS TOWARDS HANDICAPPED CHILDREN AT THE PRE-SCHOOL AGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruzica KERAMICIEVA

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1970-ties, in the USA and Western and Eastern Europe, the model of segregated education has been abandoned, and nowadays the handicapped children attend regular schools all together with other healthy pupils. This , so called Integrative Pedagogy, proceeds from the mental hygiene aspects according to which the restrictive environment in special schools has not been a favorable one for the development of those children.The integrational process of these children in preschool institutions and schools has rather been difficult due to a number of reasons. As one of them, already mentioned and found in literature , has been the negative attitude of non-handicapped children parents towards those handicapped in their development.The problem of this research is to check and test the attitude of healthy children parents towards handicapped children at preschool age. This research shall also tend to analyze the origin of the such attitudes i. e. , whether they have been a result of an insufficient information and ignorance of the obstacles during development, or been produced by imitation of the environment, or due to an empathy, or even because of the fear that “ such a thing better never enter their home”, etc.We sincerely believe that, revealing the above parents’ attitudes and their origin, would certainly bring finding ways of their successful socialization and making the integrational process of handicapped children with their normal mates in preschool institutions easier.

  15. Optimal dental age estimation practice in United Arab Emirates' children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altalie, Salem; Thevissen, Patrick; Fieuws, Steffen; Willems, Guy

    2014-03-01

    The aim of the study was to detect whether the Willems model, developed on a Belgian reference sample, can be used for age estimations in United Arab Emirates (UAE) children. Furthermore, it was verified that if added third molars development information in children provided more accurate age predictions. On 1900 panoramic radiographs, the development of left mandibular permanent teeth (PT) and third molars (TM) was registered according the Demirjian and the Kohler technique, respectively. The PT data were used to verify the Willems model and to develop a UAE model and to verify it. Multiple regression models with PT, TM, and PT + TM scores as independent and age as dependent factor were developed. Comparing the verified Willems- and the UAE model revealed differences in mean error of -0.01 year, mean absolute error of 0.01 year and root mean squared error of 0.90 year. Neglectable overall decrease in RMSE was detected combining PM and TM developmental information.

  16. A longitudinal investigation of children internationally adopted at school age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helder, Emily J; Mulder, Elizabeth; Gunnoe, Marjorie Linder

    2016-01-01

    Most existing research on children adopted internationally has focused on those adopted as infants and toddlers. The current study longitudinally tracked several outcomes, including cognitive, behavioral, emotional, attachment, and family functioning, in 25 children who had been internationally adopted at school age (M = 7.7 years old at adoption, SD = 3.4, range = 4–15 years). We examined the incidence of clinically significant impairments, significant change in outcomes over the three study points, and variables that predicted outcomes over time. Clinically significant impairments in sustained attention, full-scale intelligence, reading, language, executive functioning, externalizing problems, and parenting stress were common, with language and executive functioning impairments present at higher levels in the current study compared with past research focusing on children adopted as infants and toddlers. Over the three study points, significant improvements across most cognitive areas and attachment functioning were observed, though significant worsening in executive functioning and internalizing problems was present. Adoptive family-specific variables, such as greater maternal education, smaller family size, a parenting approach that encouraged age-expected behaviors, home schooling, and being the sole adopted child in the family were associated with greater improvement across several cognitive outcomes. In contrast, decreased parenting stress was predicted by having multiple adopted children and smaller family sizes were associated with greater difficulties with executive functioning. Child-specific variables were also linked to outcomes, with girls displaying worse attachment and poorer cognitive performance and with less time in orphanage care resulting in greater adoption success. Implications for future research and clinical applications are discussed. PMID:26835531

  17. A longitudinal investigation of children internationally adopted at school age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helder, Emily J; Mulder, Elizabeth; Gunnoe, Marjorie Linder

    2016-01-01

    Most existing research on children adopted internationally has focused on those adopted as infants and toddlers. The current study longitudinally tracked several outcomes, including cognitive, behavioral, emotional, attachment, and family functioning, in 25 children who had been internationally adopted at school age (M = 7.7 years old at adoption, SD = 3.4, range = 4–15 years). We examined the incidence of clinically significant impairments, significant change in outcomes over the three study points, and variables that predicted outcomes over time. Clinically significant impairments in sustained attention, full-scale intelligence, reading, language, executive functioning, externalizing problems, and parenting stress were common, with language and executive functioning impairments present at higher levels in the current study compared with past research focusing on children adopted as infants and toddlers. Over the three study points, significant improvements across most cognitive areas and attachment functioning were observed, though significant worsening in executive functioning and internalizing problems was present. Adoptive family-specific variables, such as greater maternal education, smaller family size, a parenting approach that encouraged age-expected behaviors, home schooling, and being the sole adopted child in the family were associated with greater improvement across several cognitive outcomes. In contrast, decreased parenting stress was predicted by having multiple adopted children and smaller family sizes were associated with greater difficulties with executive functioning. Child-specific variables were also linked to outcomes, with girls displaying worse attachment and poorer cognitive performance and with less time in orphanage care resulting in greater adoption success. Implications for future research and clinical applications are discussed.

  18. Pre-School Age Visually Impaired Children's Motives for Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Gudonis, Vytautas

    2015-01-01

    The article presents longitudinal data of the survey of 212 Šiauliai Petras Avižonis Visual Centre’s 6–7-year-old pre-school children’s motives to attend school. A brief theoretical analysis of significance of motives for learning in child’s development is displayed. Analysing research results, a positive experience on development of positive motives for school attendance in pre-school age children attending Šiauliai Petras Avižonis Visual Centre is rendered in a generalising way.

  19. Prospective Memory in Children: The Effects of Age and Task Interruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvavilashvili, Lia; Messer, David J.; Ebdon, Pippa

    2001-01-01

    Three experiments examined effects of age and task interruption on children's prospective memory (PM), remembering to carry out a future task. Age explained a small portion of variance in performance. Children who did not have to interrupt their ongoing activity to complete the PM tasks performed significantly better than children who had to…

  20. Norm scores of the box and block test for children ages 3-10 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongbloed-Pereboom, M.; Nijhuis-Van der Sanden, M.W.G.; Steenbergen, B.

    2013-01-01

    This study provides new norm scores for the Box and Block Test for gross manual dexterity in children ages 3-10 yr. Two hundred fifteen Dutch children performed the Box and Block Test separately with each hand. We found an age effect for the scores; older children obtained higher scores than younger

  1. Norm Scores of the Box and Block Test for Children Ages 3-10 Years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongbloed-Pereboom, M.; Nijhuis-Van der Sanden, M.W.G.; Steenbergen, B.

    2013-01-01

    This study provides new norm scores for the Box and Block Test for gross manual dexterity in children ages 3-10 yr. Two hundred fifteen Dutch children performed the Box and Block Test separately with each hand. We found an age effect for the scores; older children obtained higher scores than younger

  2. Recognition of Facial Expressions of Mixed Emotions in School-Age Children Exposed to Terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scrimin, Sara; Moscardino, Ughetta; Capello, Fabia; Altoe, Gianmarco; Axia, Giovanna

    2009-01-01

    This exploratory study aims at investigating the effects of terrorism on children's ability to recognize emotions. A sample of 101 exposed and 102 nonexposed children (mean age = 11 years), balanced for age and gender, were assessed 20 months after a terrorist attack in Beslan, Russia. Two trials controlled for children's ability to match a facial…

  3. Associations between regional brain volumes at term-equivalent age and development at 2 years of age in preterm children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altered brain volumes and associations between volumes and developmental outcomes have been reported in prematurely born children. To assess which regional brain volumes are different in very low birth weight (VLBW) children without neurodevelopmental impairments ([NDI] cerebral palsy, hearing loss, blindness and significantly delayed cognitive performance) compared with VLBW children with NDI, and to evaluate the association between regional brain volumes at term-equivalent age and cognitive development and neurological performance at a corrected age of 2 years. The study group consisted of a regional cohort of 164 VLBW children, divided into one group of children without NDI (n = 148) and one group of children with NDI (n = 16). Brain (MRI) was performed at term-equivalent age, from which brain volumes were manually analysed. Cognitive development was assessed with the Bayley Scales of Infant Development II (BSID-II), and neurological performance with the Hammersmith Infant Neurological Examination at the corrected age of 2 years. The volumes of total brain tissue, cerebrum, frontal lobes, basal ganglia and thalami, and cerebellum were significantly smaller, and the volume of the ventricles significantly larger, in the children with NDI than in those without NDI. Even in children without NDI, a smaller cerebellar volume was significantly correlated with poor neurological performance at 2 years of corrected age. Volumetric analysis at brain MRI can provide an additional parameter for early prediction of outcome in VLBW children. (orig.)

  4. Associations between regional brain volumes at term-equivalent age and development at 2 years of age in preterm children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lind, Annika [Turku University Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, Turku (Finland); Aabo Akademi University, Department of Psychology, Turku (Finland); Parkkola, Riitta [University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, Department of Radiology and Turku PET Center, PO Box 52, Turku (Finland); Lehtonen, Liisa; Maunu, Jonna; Lapinleimu, Helena [University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, Turku (Finland); Munck, Petriina [Turku University Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, Turku (Finland); University of Turku, Department of Psychology, Turku (Finland); Haataja, Leena [University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, Department of Pediatric Neurology, Turku (Finland)

    2011-08-15

    Altered brain volumes and associations between volumes and developmental outcomes have been reported in prematurely born children. To assess which regional brain volumes are different in very low birth weight (VLBW) children without neurodevelopmental impairments ([NDI] cerebral palsy, hearing loss, blindness and significantly delayed cognitive performance) compared with VLBW children with NDI, and to evaluate the association between regional brain volumes at term-equivalent age and cognitive development and neurological performance at a corrected age of 2 years. The study group consisted of a regional cohort of 164 VLBW children, divided into one group of children without NDI (n = 148) and one group of children with NDI (n = 16). Brain (MRI) was performed at term-equivalent age, from which brain volumes were manually analysed. Cognitive development was assessed with the Bayley Scales of Infant Development II (BSID-II), and neurological performance with the Hammersmith Infant Neurological Examination at the corrected age of 2 years. The volumes of total brain tissue, cerebrum, frontal lobes, basal ganglia and thalami, and cerebellum were significantly smaller, and the volume of the ventricles significantly larger, in the children with NDI than in those without NDI. Even in children without NDI, a smaller cerebellar volume was significantly correlated with poor neurological performance at 2 years of corrected age. Volumetric analysis at brain MRI can provide an additional parameter for early prediction of outcome in VLBW children. (orig.)

  5. Spontaneous Facial Expressions in Congenitally Blind and Sighted Children Aged 8-11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galati, Dario; Sini, Barbara; Schmidt, Susanne; Tinti, Carla

    2003-01-01

    This study found that the emotional facial expressions of 10 congenitally blind and 10 sighted children, ages 8-11, were similar. However, the frequency of certain facial movements was higher in the blind children than in the sighted children, and social influences were evident only in the expressions of the sighted children, who often masked…

  6. Validity of a figure rating scale assessing body size perception in school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardo, Caterina; Battagliese, Gemma; Pezzuti, Lina; Lucidi, Fabio

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to provide data concerning the validity of a short sequence of face valid pictorial stimuli assessing the perception of body size in school-age children. A sequence of gender and age-appropriate silhouettes was administered to 314 boys and girls aged 6-14 years. The self-evaluations provided by the children correlated significantly with their actual BMI corrected for age. Furthermore, the children's self-evaluations always significantly correlated with the evaluations provided by the three external observers; i.e., both parents and the interviewers. The results indicate that this sequence of pictorial stimuli, depicting realistic human forms appropriate for children, is a valid measure of children's body image. Relevant differences across age groups were also found, indicating that before the age of eight, the correlations between the children's self-evaluations and their BMI or the judgments of the three observers are lower than in the other age groups. PMID:24264145

  7. Shame Solutions: How Shame Impacts School-Aged Children and What Teachers Can Do to Help

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroe, Ann

    2009-01-01

    Though many psychologists and researchers argue over the age at which humans first experience shame, all agree that by age two children have the capacity to be shamed (Lansky and Morrison 1997). School-aged children have invariably been exposed to shame at home and receive an extra dose of it in our current school system. This essay investigates…

  8. Physical activity level of school children of age 10-13 years

    OpenAIRE

    Ronghe, Dr. Rashmi N; Gotmare, Dr. Neha A; Kawishwar, Dr. Shraddha

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To assess physical activity level of school children of age 10-13 years.Objectives: To assess and grade physical activity level in children of age 10-13 years using Physical Activity Questionnaire for Children (PAQ-C) classified into: Light Physical activity; Moderate Physical activity; Moderate to vigorous Physical activity and High Physical activity.Methodology: This is Questionnaire based survey study which was conducted on 100 school going children of 10-13 years who were present on ...

  9. Blood Pressure Nomograms by Age and Weight for Iranian Children and Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Mostafa Hosseini; Masoud Baikpour; Mahmoud Yousefifard; Mehdi Yaseri; Mohammad Fayaz; Hoda Shirafkan; Arash Abbasi; Hadi Asady; Faezeh Javidilarijani; Behnaz Bazargani; Neamatollah Ataei

    2016-01-01

    Background: Normal standard references of blood pressure (BP) for children and adolescents have been suggested to be constructed based on anthropometric indices. Accordingly, we aimed to develop first BP reference percentiles by weight and age for Iranian children aged 3-18 years old. Materials and Methods: A total of 16,246 children and adolescents aged 3-18 years were included from 3 cross-sectional studies conducted in Tehran- Iran. Data on demographic characteristics, anthropometric indic...

  10. Age and gender identity in a perpetrators of sexual violence against children

    OpenAIRE

    Dvoryanchikov N.V.; Makarova T.E.

    2016-01-01

    The paper devoted to the age and gender identity among the perpetrators of sexual violence against children and discussed the factors lead to pathogenesis of abnormal sexual behavior against children. We have identified particularities of gender and age identity in perpetrators of violent sexual acts against children. It was noted that patients with a diagnosis of pedophilia have abnormalities mostly in cognitive structure of sexual identity, that is shown in undifferentiated age peculiaritie...

  11. The Effects of the Parenting Styles on Social Skills of Children Aged 5-6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kol, Suat

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the effects of the parenting styles on social skills of children aged 5-6. The problem sentence of the research is; Do the parenting styles' have any effects on social skills of children aged 5-6?. The sub-problems of the research are in the form as; Does the social skills of children aged 5-6 differs from…

  12. Is Rural School-aged Children's Quality of Life Affected by Their Responses to Asthma?

    OpenAIRE

    Horner, Sharon D.; Brown, Sharon A.; Walker, Veronica García

    2011-01-01

    The unpredictable nature of asthma makes it stressful for children and can affect their quality of life. An exploratory analysis of 183 rural school-aged children's data was conducted to determine relationships among demographic factors, children's responses to asthma (coping, asthma self-management), and their quality of life (QOL). Coping frequency, asthma severity, and race/ethnicity significantly predicted children's asthma-related QOL. Children reported more frequent coping as asthma-rel...

  13. Age Effects on Upper Limb Kinematics Assessed by the REAplan Robot in Healthy School-Aged Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilliaux, Maxime; Dierckx, Floriane; Vanden Berghe, Lola; Lejeune, Thierry M; Sapin, Julien; Dehez, Bruno; Stoquart, Gaëtan; Detrembleur, Christine

    2015-05-01

    The use of kinematics is recommended to quantitatively evaluate upper limb movements. The aims of this study were to determine the age effects on upper limb kinematics and establish norms in healthy children. Ninety-three healthy children, aged 3-12 years, participated in this study. Twenty-eight kinematic indices were computed from four tasks. Each task was performed with the REAplan, a distal effector robotic device that allows upper limb displacements in the horizontal plane. Twenty-four of the 28 indices showed an improvement during childhood. Indeed, older children showed better upper limb movements. This study was the first to use a robotic device to show the age effects on upper limb kinematics and establish norms in healthy children. PMID:25413362

  14. Functioning of 7-Year-Old Children Born at 32 to 35 Weeks' Gestational Age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cserjesi, R.; Van Braeckel, K.N.J.A.; Butcher, P.R.; Kerstjens, J.M.; Reijneveld, S.A.; Bouma, A.; Geuze, R.H.; Bos, A.F.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare neuropsychological functions in moderately preterm (32-35 weeks' gestation) and full-term children at the age of 7 years and identify gender differences. METHODS: Community-based prospective cohort study of 248 moderately preterm children (138 boys) and 130 full-term children (

  15. Attachment Stability in Children Aged 6 to 9 Years in Extended and Nuclear Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seven, Serdal; Ogelman, Hulya Gulay

    2012-01-01

    Research Findings: The main aim of this study was to identify whether the attachment security of children living in nuclear and extended families is stable from ages 6 to 9 years in a sample of Turkish children. In total, 54 children participated in the study, of whom 27 lived in nuclear families and the other 27 lived in extended families in Mus…

  16. Recall Memory in Children with Down Syndrome and Typically Developing Peers Matched on Developmental Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milojevich, H.; Lukowski, A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Whereas research has indicated that children with Down syndrome (DS) imitate demonstrated actions over short delays, it is presently unknown whether children with DS recall information over lengthy delays at levels comparable with typically developing (TD) children matched on developmental age. Method: In the present research, 10…

  17. Diarrhea in children less than two years of age with known HIV status in Kisumu, Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M. van Eijk; J.T. Brooks; P.M. Adcock; V. Garrett; M. Eberhard; D.H. Rosen; J.G. Ayisi; J.B. Ochieng; L. Kumar; J.R. Gentsch; B.L. Nahlen; E.D. Mintz; L. Slutsker

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To compare the frequency and etiology of diarrhea in children aged less than 2 years with known HIV status. Methods: This was a nested cohort study, whereby children were followed during monthly routine and unscheduled visits. The HIV status of children was determined with PCR. A stool cu

  18. Attention and Memory in School-Age Children Surviving the Terrorist Attack in Beslan, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scrimin, Sara; Moscardino, Ughetta; Capello, Fabia; Axia, Giovanna

    2009-01-01

    Little is known about the impact of terrorism on children's cognitive functioning and school learning. The primary purpose of this study was to report on cognitive functioning among school-age children 20 months after a terrorist attack against their school. Participants included 203 directly and indirectly exposed children from Beslan and 100…

  19. Evaluation of the Teaching of English to German Children of Pre-School Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid-Schonbein, Gisela

    1980-01-01

    Discusses some reasons offered for the ease with which young children learn a second language. Children of kindergarten age can learn language in a playlike atmosphere in groups no larger than 10-12 children. Pronunciation is the outstanding skill, but comprehension and active speaking also show favorable results. (PJM)

  20. Gender Concept Development and Preschool-Aged Children in the United States and Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickerscheid, Jean D.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Tested the gender understanding of 31 American and 31 Egyptian children. American children had a higher mean score on gender identity than Egyptian children. Found significant positive relationships between subject's age and two gender constructs, identity and stability. (Author/BJV)

  1. Speech and Language Guidelines for Children Adopted from Abroad at Older Ages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glennen, Sharon

    2009-01-01

    Children adopted from abroad at older ages have unique speech and language-learning issues. At adoption, the impact of longer stays in orphanages with their associated lack of enrichment, nutrition, and healthcare is more pronounced. After adoption, the children begin school in a new language soon after arriving home. These children quickly lose…

  2. Dichotic Listening in Children: Age-Related Changes in Direction and Magnitude of Ear Advantage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moncrieff, Deborah W.

    2011-01-01

    Children between the ages of 5 and 12 years were tested with dichotic listening tests utilizing single syllable words and random presentations of digits. They produced a higher prevalence of left ear dominance than expected, especially among right-handed children when tested with words. Whether more children demonstrate the LEA because of right…

  3. Cartoons Influence towards Violence and Aggression in School Age Children in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Odukomaiya, Elizabeth Ibukunoluwa

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study is to explore how violence and aggression in cartoon affects school age children in Nigeria. The reason for embarking on this research is to know whether and to what extent cartoon on television makes school age children (both male and female) violent and aggressive. Children are exposed to cartoon at their tender age (4-12). Though it serves as a means of entertainment to them, children learn faster than adults, and their re-enactment of media messages is unri...

  4. Ultrasound Monitoring and Age Sonographic Characteristics of Community-Acquired Pneumonia in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Т.I. Dianova; D.V. Safonov

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the investigation was to study ultrasound semiotics of community-acquired pneumonias in children of different age, and its dynamics in the course of treatment. Materials and Methods. Pneumonia semiotics study and dynamic monitoring of the disease have been carried out on the basis of chest ultrasound of 154 children divided into 4 age groups: 14 infants (9.1%) from birth to 3 months; 60 children (39.0%) from 3 months to 3 years of age; 49 children (31.8%) from 4 to 7 years of a...

  5. Children's relative age in class and use of medication for ADHD: a Danish Nationwide Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pottegård, Anton; Hallas, J.; Hernandez, Diaz;

    2014-01-01

    BackgroundPrevious studies from North America and Iceland have shown that the youngest children within a grade are up to twice as likely to be diagnosed and treated for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) compared with their older classmates. We aimed to investigate whether younger age...... in class is associated with an increased probability of being prescribed medication for ADHD among school-aged children in Denmark. MethodsWe followed all Danish children between 2000 and 2012 from 1st through 6th grade (7-12years). Among children who started school on their age-assigned grade level, we...... estimated the prevalence proportion ratio (PPR) of receiving ADHD medication between the youngest children in class (born in October-December) and the oldest in class (born in January-March), specified by grade level, calendar year and gender. As a sensitivity analysis, we added children not on their age...

  6. Intensity of ADHD Symptoms and Subjective Feelings of Competence in School Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanc, Tomasz; Brzezinska, Anna Izabela

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to assess how different levels of intensity of ADHD symptoms influence the development of the subjective feeling of competence in school age children. The sample was comprised of 62 children age 11 to 13. For the purpose of estimation of the subjective feeling of competence, The Feeling of Competence Questionnaire…

  7. School-Age Children Talk about Chess: Does Knowledge Drive Syntactic Complexity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nippold, Marilyn A.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined language productivity and syntactic complexity in school-age children in relation to their knowledge of the topic of discussion--the game of chess. Method: Children (N = 32; mean age = 10;11 [years;months]) who played chess volunteered to be interviewed by an adult examiner who had little or no experience playing…

  8. Predictors of Care-Giver Stress in Families of Preschool-Aged Children with Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant, K. M.; Sanders, M. R.

    2007-01-01

    Background: This study examined the predictors, mediators and moderators of parent stress in families of preschool-aged children with developmental disability. Method: One hundred and five mothers of preschool-aged children with developmental disability completed assessment measures addressing the key variables. Results: Analyses demonstrated that…

  9. Correlation between Food Schemes and Children Nutrient Status at the Toddler's Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnaningsih, Tri; Lestari, Indah

    2016-01-01

    The nutrient in the meal is very important, especially for the children at the toddler's age. The aim of this research was to know the correlation between the food schemes with the children nutrient status at the toddler's age (1-3 years). The research design was cross sectional. The population for this research was all of the mothers and the…

  10. Attachment Style, Home-Leaving Age and Behavioral Problems among Residential Care Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shechory, Mally; Sommerfeld, Eliane

    2007-01-01

    In a prospective study, the attachment style, home-leaving age, length of time in residential care, and behavioral problems among Israeli residential care children (N=68), were studied. Data analyses showed that children removed from their homes at a later age suffered from higher levels of anxiety, depression and social problems compared to…

  11. Parenting clinically anxious versus healthy control children aged 4-12 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.M. van der Sluis; F.J.A. van Steensel; S.M. Bögels

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated whether parenting behaviors differed between parents of 68 clinically anxious children and 106 healthy control children aged 4-12 years. The effects of parent gender, child gender and child age on parenting were explored. Mothers and fathers completed a questionnaire to asses

  12. Executive Functioning Skills in Preschool-Age Children with Cochlear Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, Jessica; Kronenberger, William G.; Castellanos, Irina; Colson, Bethany G.; Henning, Shirley C.; Pisoni, David B.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine whether deficits in executive functioning (EF) in children with cochlear implants (CIs) emerge as early as the preschool years. Method: Two groups of children ages 3 to 6 years participated in this cross-sectional study: 24 preschoolers who had CIs prior to 36 months of age and 21 preschoolers…

  13. Sleep Problems in Chinese School-Aged Children with a Parent-Reported History of ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shenghui; Jin, Xinming; Yan, Chonghuai; Wu, Shenghu; Jiang, Fan; Shen, Xiaoming

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The objective was to survey the prevalence of parent-reported ADHD diagnosis and to assess its associations with sleep problems among urban school-aged children in China. Method: A random sample of 20,152 school-aged children participated in a cross-sectional survey in eight cities of China. A parent-administered questionnaire and the…

  14. Children's Response to First Dental Visit as a Function of Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Console, Cara M.; Chambliss, Catherine A.

    This study was designed to identify the age at which children who are between 1 and 8 years old display the least anxiety during their first dental visit. Parents completed a survey that asked for the child's gender, age at first dental visit, and general reaction to the first visit. Children's reactions were classified as resistant, anxious,…

  15. Age related effects in children taking the computerized assessment of response bias and word memory test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtney, John C; Dinkins, Juliet P; Allen, Lyle M; Kuroski, Katherine

    2003-06-01

    The assessment of effort is a fundamental component of test performance analysis, since effort determines whether a psychological evaluation is valid. The assessment of effort in children has proven problematic. This may be related to the variable and inconsistent nature of children's developing self-regulatory systems, and the fact that measures commonly used to assess effort were standardized on adults. If one uses effort measures designed for adults to assess children, then one must presume that the maintenance of effort in children is comparable to the same behavior in adults. However, because children's executive functioning, including their abilities to self-regulate, attend, concentrate, and to engage in various cognitive activities improve with time (Barkley, 1997, pp. 209-234), our hypothesis is that young children's effort regulation is dissimilar to that of adults, and the presumption of similarity is implausible. The purpose of this study was to determine whether age is a significant influence upon young children's performances on the Computerized Assessment of Response Bias (CARB) and Word Memory Test (WMT). Statistical analysis suggests that younger children (those under 10 years of age) tended to produce poorer performance on these instruments. Younger children's scores differed significantly from children ages 10 and older. Children 11 years and older produced CARB and WMT results similar to adult participants, suggesting a viability for adult normative comparisons with children in this age range. The current investigation concluded that children's maintenance of effort appears to be significantly related to age and reading ability level. Consequently, the use of current adult-based norms with the CARB and WMT, without regard for a child's developmental status and other contextual factors such as the child's ability to read, appears ill-advised especially with children under 11 years of age. PMID:12815513

  16. Fecal Calprotectin Concentrations in Healthy Children Aged 1-18 Months

    OpenAIRE

    Feng Li; Jingqiu Ma; Shanshan Geng; Junli Wang; Jinrong Liu; Jie Zhang; Xiaoyang Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Objective Fecal calprotectin (FC) is an established biomarker of gut inflammation. The aim of this study was to evaluate FC concentrations in healthy children between 1 and 18 months of age. Methods Healthy children aged 1-18 months were enrolled in this study at the Department of Children's Health Care in Shanghai, China. Children’s stool samples were collected and analyzed, and FC concentration was determined using a commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The chil...

  17. Emotional Understanding and Color-Emotion Associations in Children Aged 7-8 Years

    OpenAIRE

    Pope, Debbie J.; Hannah Butler; Pamela Qualter

    2012-01-01

    An understanding of the development of emotional knowledge can help us determine how children perceive and interpret their surroundings and color-emotion associations are one measure of the expression of a child’s emotional interpretations. Emotional understanding and color-emotion associations were examined in a sample of UK school children, aged 7-8 years. Forty primary school children (mean age = 7.38; SD = 0.49) were administered color assessment and emotional understanding tasks, and...

  18. Children's Moral Judgments and Moral Emotions Following Exclusion of Children with Disabilities: Relations with Inclusive Education, Age, and Contact Intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasser, Luciano; Malti, Tina; Buholzer, Alois

    2013-01-01

    We investigated relations between children's moral judgments and moral emotions following disability-based exclusion and inclusive education, age, and contact intensity. Nine- and 12-year-old Swiss children (N = 351) from inclusive and noninclusive classrooms provided moral judgments and moral emotion attributions following six vignettes about…

  19. Daytime Secretion of Salivary Cortisol and Alpha-Amylase in Preschool-Aged Children with Autism and Typically Developing Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, Sharon A.; Corbett, Blythe A.; Granger, Douglas A.; Boyce, W. Thomas; Anders, Thomas F.; Tager, Ira B.

    2012-01-01

    We examined daytime salivary cortisol and salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) secretion levels and variability in preschool-aged children with autism (AUT) and typically developing children (TYP). Fifty-two subjects (26 AUT and 26 TYP) were enrolled. Salivary samples were obtained at waking, midday, and bedtime on two consecutive days at three phases…

  20. Diverse Family Types and Out-Of-School Learning Time of Young School Age Children

    OpenAIRE

    Ono, Hiromi; Sanders, James

    2010-01-01

    =Sources of differentials in out-of-school learning time between children in first marriage biological parent families and children in six nontraditional family types are identified. Analyses of time diaries reveal that children in four of the six nontraditional family types spend fewer minutes learning than do children in first marriage biological parent families. In all four cases, however, the differentials are explained by the presence of siblings age 18+, lower levels of family income, o...

  1. Coping strategies in mothers and fathers of pre-school and school age children with autism

    OpenAIRE

    Hastings, Richard P.; Kovshoff, Hanna; Brown, Tony; Ward, Nicholas J.; Degli Espinosa, Francesca; Remington, Bob

    2005-01-01

    Despite the theoretical and demonstrated empirical significance of parental coping strategies for the wellbeing of families of children with disabilities, relatively little research has focused explicitly on coping in mothers and fathers of children with autism. In the present study, 89 parents of preschool children and 46 parents of school-age children completed a measure of the strategies they used to cope with the stresses of raising their child with autism. Factor analysis revealed f...

  2. Greater length-for-age increases the odds of attaining motor milestones in Vietnamese children aged 5-18 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Shibani; Ramakrishnan, Usha; Dearden, Kirk A; Marsh, David R; Ha, Tran Thu; Tran, Thach Duc; Pachón, Helena

    2012-01-01

    Early childhood malnutrition has been associated with delayed development. Limited data exist however about the timing of developmental delay early in life. We assessed motor milestone (MM) achievement using the World Health Organization's windows of achievement for gross motor milestones. We performed secondary analysis of baseline data of 158 Vietnamese children aged 5-18 months from a randomized community intervention trial. Median age of motor milestone achievement was compared to WHO reported medians. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify socioeconomic, anthropometric and dietary factors associated with motor milestone achievement during the windows of achievement. Thirty four per cent of the children were stunted. Median age of MM achievement of Vietnamese children lagged by 2.4-3.7 months, compared to the WHO median for all MMs. Greater length-for-age increased the odds for walking with assistance, standing alone and walking alone by more than 3 times. Greater weight-for-age increased the odds by 3.6 for hand-and-knees crawling. Likewise, frequency of daily complementary feeding raised the odds by 3.6 for standing with assistance. In this first application of WHO windows of achievement in Viet Nam, pre-schoolers achieved motor milestones later than WHO reported median age. High prevalence of stunting and association of length-for-age with motor milestone achievement underscore the importance of addressing chronic malnutrition to optimize children's growth and development.

  3. Early psychological intervention in accidentally injured children ages 2–16: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didier N. Kramer

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Road traffic accidents (RTA and burns are frequent events in children. Although many children recover spontaneously, a considerable number develop long-term psychological sequelae. Evidence on early psychological interventions to prevent such long-term problems is still scarce for school-age children and completely lacking for pre-school children. Objectives: To evaluate the efficacy of an early two-session cognitive-behavioral intervention in 108 children ages 2–16 after RTAs and burns. Methods: Children assessed at risk for the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD were randomly assigned to either a control group offered treatment as usual or an intervention group. Primary outcomes were PTSD, behavioral problems, and depression symptoms. Baseline and blinded 3- and 6-month follow-up assessments were conducted. Results: In pre-school children, no intervention effects were found. School-age children in the intervention group exhibited significantly fewer internalizing problems at 3-month follow-up relative to controls and a borderline significant time-by-group effect for PTSD intrusion symptoms was found (p=0.06. Conclusions: This is the first study examining the efficacy of an indicated, early psychological intervention among both school-age and pre-school-age children. Because the intervention was ineffective for young children, no evidence-based practice can currently be suggested. Given that parents of pre-school children perceived the intervention as helpful, brief counseling of parents in terms of psychoeducation and training in coping skills still should be provided by clinicians, despite the current lack of evidence. To prevent trauma-related disorders in school-age children, the intervention might be used in a step-wise manner, where only children at risk for long-term psychological maladjustment are provided with psychological support.

  4. Evaluating the Reliability of Three Different Dental Age Estimation Methods in Visakhapatnam Children

    OpenAIRE

    Patnana, Arun Kumar; Vabbalareddy, Raja Sekhar; V Vanga, Narasimha Rao

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT% Dental age is important for treatment planning in the specialities of pedodontics and orthodontics. Although, Demirjian's method was considered standard for dental age estimation, it may not be reliable for all population. Aim: The goal of the study was to evaluate the reliability of Demir-jian's, Haavikko's and Willems method of dental age estimation methods in Visakhapatnam (Andhra Pradesh, India) children. Study design: One hundred and two children of 6 to 14 years old who underw...

  5. State of cognitive development in children 5-6 years of age with nutritional iron deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chechel V.V.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Features of the development of cognitive functions in children 5-6 years of age with iron deficiency (ID were studied and the relationship of the revealed features of iron deficiency degree was established. After clinical and laboratory examination 205 children aged 5-6 years, pupils of pre-school institutions were included in the study. The core group consisted of 155 children, including 105 children with latent iron deficiency (LID and 50 children with iron deficiency anemia (IDA I degree. The control group consisted of 50 healthy children. To study cognitive function, "Approximate comprehensive program of study of children's readiness for school" was used. A significant decrease of average data of all mental functions (perception, memory, language, thinking, ima¬gination in children 5-6 years old with ID, most pronounced in children with IDA was revealed. Indicators of cognitive functions correspond predominantly to a mild and moderate level of development in children with IDA, the average - in children with LID, good and high - in healthy children. There was a significant direct correlation between the level of cognitive functioning and the level of hemoglobin, serum iron and ferritin. The effect of iron deficiency on the development of indicators of cognitive function toward their reduce in preschool children was established. The level of cognitive functioning depends on the degree of iron deficiency.

  6. The relation of age to the severity of Type I diabetes in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suliman H Al-Fifi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the relationship between the age and severity of Type 1 diabetes in children 0 - 5 years and more than 5 years of age admitted to Aseer Central Hospital, Southwestern Saudi Arabia over a 7-year period. Materials and Methods: A retrospective review of children less than 13 years of age with Type 1 diabetes admitted to the Pediatric Department, between 1st January 2000 to 31st December 2006. Results: A total of 181 children with Type1 diabetes were admitted to the hospital during this period. Of these, 27.6% were children 5 years or less, while 72.4% were more than 5 years of age. The duration of symptoms was longer in younger children compared to older patients. Diabetic ketoacidosis was present in 31.4% of the younger children, and in 15.3% of the children more than 5 years old. Hospital stay was also longer in children less than 5 years of age. Most significant differences were in the younger children′s group and affected the biochemical test results. Conclusion: The present study showed that more younger children present to the hospital late, and in a state of diabetic ketoacidosis compared to older patients. Efforts should be directed at improving the knowledge and skills of the primary health care personnel to be able to diagnose and refer these cases earlier.

  7. Individual differences in children's emotion understanding: Effects of age and language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pons, Francisco; Lawson, J.: Harris, P.; Rosnay, M. de

    2003-01-01

    Over the last two decades, it has been established that children's emotion understanding changes as they develop. Recent studies have also begun to address individual differences in children's emotion understanding. The first goal of this study was to examine the development of these individual...... differences across a wide age range with a test assessing nine different components of emotion understanding. The second goal was to examine the relation between language ability and individual differences in emotion understanding. Eighty children ranging in age from 4 to 11 years were tested. Children...

  8. Relationship between anthropometric indicators and cognitive performance in Southeast Asian school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandjaja; Poh, Bee Koon; Rojroonwasinkul, Nipa; Le Nyugen, Bao Khanh; Budiman, Basuki; Ng, Lai Oon; Soonthorndhada, Kusol; Xuyen, Hoang Thi; Deurenberg, Paul; Parikh, Panam

    2013-09-01

    Nutrition is an important factor in mental development and, as a consequence, in cognitive performance. Malnutrition is reflected in children's weight, height and BMI curves. The present cross-sectional study aimed to evaluate the association between anthropometric indices and cognitive performance in 6746 school-aged children (aged 6-12 years) of four Southeast Asian countries: Indonesia; Malaysia; Thailand; Vietnam. Cognitive performance (non-verbal intelligence quotient (IQ)) was measured using Raven's Progressive Matrices test or Test of Non-Verbal Intelligence, third edition (TONI-3). Height-for-age z-scores (HAZ), weight-for-age z-scores (WAZ) and BMI-for-age z-scores (BAZ) were used as anthropometric nutritional status indices. Data were weighted using age, sex and urban/rural weight factors to resemble the total primary school-aged population per country. Overall, 21% of the children in the four countries were underweight and 19% were stunted. Children with low WAZ were 3·5 times more likely to have a non-verbal IQ children. Effective strategies to improve nutrition in preschoolers and school-aged children can have a pronounced effect on cognition and, in the longer term, help in positively contributing to individual and national development. PMID:24016767

  9. Effects of Age and Ritalin Dosage on the Mother-Child Interactions of Hyperactive Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkley, Russell A.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Observed the mother-child interactions of three age groups of hyperactive children (N=54) during free play and task settings using two dose levels of Ritalin. Results indicated that the interactions of hyperactive boys with their mothers improve with age, and that Ritalin produces further improvements regardless of age examined. (LLL)

  10. Causes of Mortality in Newborns and Children Under 5 Years of Age in Northern Iran

    OpenAIRE

    FS Sharifi

    2002-01-01

    1- A survey of the causes of mortality in newborns and children under 5 years of age during 10 years (1988-1997) in northern Iran (Regions eastern and western bandpey, gatab and kolagarmahalleh in province babol) revealed following results: Average incidence of mortality in newborns and children under 5 years of age was 10.5 and 4 per thousand respectively. The most frequently encountered causes of death in children under 5 years of age were congenital anomalies (20.2%), infections (16.8%), p...

  11. Age-Related Changes in Children's Use of External Representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelazo, Philip David; Sommerville, Jessica A.; Nichols, Shana

    1999-01-01

    Three experiments explored 3- and 4-year olds' use of external representations. Results indicated that 4-year olds outperformed 3-year olds on self-recognition task; children performed better with photographs than drawings; a delay had no effect. Results suggested that assessments of self and other understanding may reflect children's ability to…

  12. Age and Learning Environment: Are Children Implicit Second Language Learners?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtman, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Children are thought to learn second languages (L2s) using primarily implicit mechanisms, in contrast to adults, who primarily rely on explicit language learning. This difference is usually attributed to cognitive maturation, but adults also receive more explicit instruction than children, which may influence their learning strategies. This study…

  13. Clinical Characteristics and Low Vision Rehabilitation Methods for Partially Sighted School-Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özen Tunay, Zuhal; Çalışkan, Deniz; İdil, Aysun; Öztuna, Derya

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the clinical features and the distribution of diagnosis in partially sighted school-age children, to report the chosen low vision rehabilitation methods and to emphasize the importance of low vision rehabilitation. Materials and Methods: The study included 150 partially sighted children between the ages of 6 and 18 years. The distribution of diagnosis, accompanying ocular findings, visual acuity of the children both for near and distance with and without low vision devices, and the methods of low vision rehabilitation (for distance and for near) were determined. The demographic characteristics of the children and the parental consanguinity were recorded. Results: The mean age of children was 10.6 years and the median age was 10 years; 88 (58.7%) of them were male and 62 (41.3%) of them were female. According to distribution of diagnoses among the children, the most frequent diagnosis was hereditary fundus dystrophies (36%) followed by cortical visual impairment (18%). The most frequently used rehabilitation methods were: telescopic lenses (91.3%) for distance vision; magnifiers (38.7%) and telemicroscopic systems (26.0%) for near vision. A significant improvement in visual acuity both for distance and near vision were determined with low vision aids. Conclusion: A significant improvement in visual acuity can be achieved both for distance and near vision with low vision rehabilitation in partially sighted school-age children. It is important for ophthalmologists and pediatricians to guide parents and children to low vision rehabilitation.

  14. Age and Gender-Related Changes in Biogenic Amine Metabolites in Cerebrospinal Fluid in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuśmierska, Katarzyna; Szymańska, Krystyna; Rokicki, Dariusz; Kotulska, Katarzyna; Jóźwiak, Sergiusz; Sykut-Cegielska, Jolanta; Mierzewska, Hanna; Szczepanik, Elzbieta; Pronicka, Ewa; Demkow, Urszula

    2016-01-01

    Metabolites of cerebrospinal biogenic amines (dopamine and serotonin)are an important tool in clinical research and diagnosis of children with neurotransmitter disorders. In this article we focused on finding relationships between the concentration of biogenic amine metabolites, age, and gender. We analyzed 148 samples from children with drug resistant seizures of unknown etiology and children with mild stable encephalopathy aged 0-18 years. A normal profile of biogenic amineswas found in 107 children and those children were enrolled to the study group. The CSF samples were analyzed by HPLC with an electrochemical detector. The concentrations of the dopamine and serotonin metabolites homovanillic acid (HVA) and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), respectively, were high at birth, gradually decreasing afterward until the 18 years of age. Nevertheless, the HVA/5-HIAA ratio did not vary with age, except in the children below 1 year of age. In the youngest group we observed a strong relationship between the HVA/5-HIAA ratio and age (r = 0.69, p biogenic amine metabolites is age and sex dependent. PMID:26453071

  15. Effects of age, dysphoria, and emotion-focusing on autobiographical memory specificity in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Carroll, Ronan E; Dalgleish, Tim; Drummond, Lyndsey E; Dritschel, Barbara; Astell, Arlene

    2006-04-01

    Overgeneral autobiographical memory (OGM) is strongly associated with depression in adults and appears to reflect a stable cognitive bias. However, it is not known whether this bias exists in children or what factors contribute to its development. We examined the roles of age, dysphoria, and a new variable, emotion-focusing (EF), on the production of specific autobiographical memory (AM) in children, using the standard Autobiographical Memory Test (AMT; Williams & Broadbent, 1986 ). Results show that older children are more specific than younger children, irrespective of cue valence. Dysphoria was linked to less specific retrieval of positive memories in children. A three-way interaction between age, valence, and dysphoria was also found, such that older dysphoric children demonstrated a difficulty in retrieving specific negative memories. In addition, emotion-focusing was associated with specific AM recall, especially to negative cues. Results are discussed with reference to the development of depressogenic biases.

  16. Effects of age, dysphoria, and emotion-focusing on autobiographical memory specificity in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Carroll, Ronan E; Dalgleish, Tim; Drummond, Lyndsey E; Dritschel, Barbara; Astell, Arlene

    2006-04-01

    Overgeneral autobiographical memory (OGM) is strongly associated with depression in adults and appears to reflect a stable cognitive bias. However, it is not known whether this bias exists in children or what factors contribute to its development. We examined the roles of age, dysphoria, and a new variable, emotion-focusing (EF), on the production of specific autobiographical memory (AM) in children, using the standard Autobiographical Memory Test (AMT; Williams & Broadbent, 1986 ). Results show that older children are more specific than younger children, irrespective of cue valence. Dysphoria was linked to less specific retrieval of positive memories in children. A three-way interaction between age, valence, and dysphoria was also found, such that older dysphoric children demonstrated a difficulty in retrieving specific negative memories. In addition, emotion-focusing was associated with specific AM recall, especially to negative cues. Results are discussed with reference to the development of depressogenic biases. PMID:26529217

  17. Human Rights for Children: A Curriculum for Teaching Human Rights to Children Ages 3-12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatch, Virginia; And Others

    Created to heighten teachers' awareness of human rights issues, particularly those related to children's rights, this guide offers children knowledge and skills in developing both self-worth and empathy for others. These feelings, the curriculum argues, are the foundation children need if they are to understand their rights as children and the…

  18. Prediction of compliance with MRI procedures among children of ages 3 years to 12 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A number of children are unable to comply with an MRI procedure and require general anesthetic. However, we lack information about which factors are associated with MRI compliance in young children. To determine the strongest predictors of MRI compliance, focusing on variables that can be easily rated by patients' parents. A sample of 205 children ages 3-11 years (mean age 6.6 years) who were at risk of non-compliance were recruited from a children's hospital. Their parents completed a behavior assessment scale for children as well as a questionnaire that assessed their expectations of compliance and perception of their child's typical medical compliance. The children subsequently completed a mock MRI with an educational play therapist and a clinical MRI, with the quality of the scan scored by the MRI technologist. Overall, 88.3% of children complied with the clinical scan and achieved diagnostic images, with age unrelated to compliance in this well-prepared patient group. The strongest predictors of MRI compliance were parental expectations and ratings of how well the child typically copes with medical procedures. Non-compliance was related to child attention problems and to poor adaptability among children. A total of 64 preschool-age children (91.4%) and 110 school-age children (95.7%) were correctly classified as compliant or non-compliant based on these predictor variables. A child's temperament, medical experiences and parental expectations provide important information in predicting which children successfully comply with an MRI procedure and which require general anesthesia. Further study is needed to explore the utility of these variables in predicting compliance at sites that do not have access to an MRI simulator. (orig.)

  19. Prediction of compliance with MRI procedures among children of ages 3 years to 12 years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cahoon, Glenn D. [The Royal Children' s Hospital Melbourne, Medical Imaging Department, Parkville (Australia); Davison, Tanya E. [Monash University, Melbourne (Australia)

    2014-10-15

    A number of children are unable to comply with an MRI procedure and require general anesthetic. However, we lack information about which factors are associated with MRI compliance in young children. To determine the strongest predictors of MRI compliance, focusing on variables that can be easily rated by patients' parents. A sample of 205 children ages 3-11 years (mean age 6.6 years) who were at risk of non-compliance were recruited from a children's hospital. Their parents completed a behavior assessment scale for children as well as a questionnaire that assessed their expectations of compliance and perception of their child's typical medical compliance. The children subsequently completed a mock MRI with an educational play therapist and a clinical MRI, with the quality of the scan scored by the MRI technologist. Overall, 88.3% of children complied with the clinical scan and achieved diagnostic images, with age unrelated to compliance in this well-prepared patient group. The strongest predictors of MRI compliance were parental expectations and ratings of how well the child typically copes with medical procedures. Non-compliance was related to child attention problems and to poor adaptability among children. A total of 64 preschool-age children (91.4%) and 110 school-age children (95.7%) were correctly classified as compliant or non-compliant based on these predictor variables. A child's temperament, medical experiences and parental expectations provide important information in predicting which children successfully comply with an MRI procedure and which require general anesthesia. Further study is needed to explore the utility of these variables in predicting compliance at sites that do not have access to an MRI simulator. (orig.)

  20. Development of spasticity with age in a total population of children with cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner Philippe

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The development of spasticity with age in children with cerebral palsy (CP has, to our knowledge, not been studied before. In 1994, a register and a health care program for children with CP in southern Sweden were initiated. In the programme the child's muscle tone according to the modified Ashworth scale is measured twice a year until six years of age, then once a year. We have used this data to analyse the development of spasticity with age in a total population of children with cerebral palsy. Methods All measurements of muscle tone in the gastrocnemius-soleus muscle in all children with CP from 0 to 15 years during the period 1995–2006 were analysed. The CP subtypes were classified according to the Surveillance of Cerebral Palsy in Europe network system. Using these criteria, the study was based on 6218 examinations in 547 children. For the statistical analysis the Ashworth scale was dichotomized. The levels 0–1 were gathered in one category and levels 2–4 in the other. The pattern of development with age was evaluated using piecewise logistic regression in combination with Akaike's An Information Criterion. Results In the total sample the degree of muscle tone increased up to 4 years of age. After 4 years of age the muscle tone decreased each year up to 12 years of age. A similar development was seen when excluding the children operated with selective dorsal rhizotomy, intrathecal baclofen pump or tendo Achilles lengthening. At 4 years of age about 47% of the children had spasticity in their gastro-soleus muscle graded as Ashworth 2–4. After 12 years of age 23% of the children had that level of spasticity. The CP subtypes spastic bilateral and spastic unilateral CP showed the same pattern as the total sample. Children with dyskinetic type of CP showed an increasing muscle tone up to age 6, followed by a decreasing pattern up to age 15. Conclusion In children with CP, the muscle tone as measured with the Ashworth

  1. The Association between Sleep and Injury among School-Aged Children in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Forugh Rafii; Fatemeh Oskouie; Mahnaz Shoghi

    2013-01-01

    Background. A good night’s sleep plays a key role in diseases resistance, injury prevention, and mood stability. The objective of this study was to examine relationship between sleep problems and accidental injury occurrences in school-aged children. Method. A retrospective study was conducted for comparing two groups of children. Children who have experienced injuries for at least two times during an academic year are the participants in the injury group (IG) and those who have not experienc...

  2. Factors affecting nocturnal enuresis amongst school-aged children: brief report

    OpenAIRE

    Ashrafalsadat Hakim; Farshid Kompani; Mohammad Bahadoram

    2015-01-01

    Enuresis is the inability to control urination during sleep. It is one of the most common childhood urologic disorders. Nocturnal enuresis refers to the occurrence of involuntary voiding at night after 5 years. Persistent nocturia can decrease self-esteem, increase anxiety and other emotional problems in children. The aim of this study is to evaluate the factors affecting nocturia amongst school-aged children. Methods: This cross- sectional study was conducted on 200 children over a period...

  3. Dental Treatment Needs in Vancouver Inner-City Elementary School-Aged Children

    OpenAIRE

    Samim, F.; Aleksejuniene, J.; Zed, C.; Salimi, N.; Emperumal, C. P.

    2013-01-01

    Aims. To examine the dental treatment needs of inner-city Vancouver elementary school-aged children and relate them to sociodemographic characteristics. Methods. A census sampling comprising 562 children from six out of eight eligible schools was chosen (response rate was 65.4%). Dental treatment needs were assessed based on criteria from the World Health Organization. Results. Every third child examined needed at least one restorative treatment. A higher proportion of children born outside C...

  4. Language ability, executive functioning and behaviour in school-age children

    OpenAIRE

    Karasinski, Courtney

    2015-01-01

    Background Many children with language impairment present with deficits in other areas, including executive functioning (EF), attention and behaviour. Similarly, many children receiving services for attention or behaviour problems have deficits in language ability. Aims To evaluate the relations among EF, language ability and behaviour problems in a sample of school-age children with a wide range of language and behaviour profiles. The following research questions were addressed: Does perform...

  5. Functioning of 7-Year-Old Children Born at 32 to 35 Weeks' Gestational Age

    OpenAIRE

    Cserjesi, R.; Van Braeckel, K.N.J.A.; Butcher, P.R.; Kerstjens, J.M.; Reijneveld, S.A.; Bouma, A.; Geuze, R.H.; Bos, A.F

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare neuropsychological functions in moderately preterm (32-35 weeks' gestation) and full-term children at the age of 7 years and identify gender differences. METHODS: Community-based prospective cohort study of 248 moderately preterm children (138 boys) and 130 full-term children (58 boys). Neuropsychological tests included IQ, memory, attention, visual perception, motor skills, visuomotor skills, and parental report of executive functioning. RESULTS: The moderately preterm ...

  6. Hip displacement in relation to age and gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Larnert, Per; Risto, Olof; Hägglund, Gunnar; Wagner, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Hip dislocation in cerebral palsy (CP) is a serious complication. By radiographic screening and prophylactic surgery of children at risk most dislocations can be prevented. CPUP, the Swedish CP registry and follow-up program, includes annual radiographic examinations of children at Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) levels III–V. Data from CPUP were analysed to assess the risk of hip displacement in relation to GMFCS levels and age. Methods All children at GMFCS levels...

  7. Predictors of Self-Reported Depression in Korean Children 9 to 12 Years of Age

    OpenAIRE

    Shin, Yun Mi; Cho, Hyun; Lim, Ki Young; Cho, Sun Mi

    2008-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationships among various psychosocial factors, behavior problems, and depressive symptoms reported by parents, and to investigate self-reported depression in Korean children using a community sample. Materials and Methods The sample consisted of 1279 children between 9 and 12 years of age. The children were evaluated using the Korean version of the Child Behavior Checklist (K-CBCL) and the Child Depression Inventory (CDI). Results The avera...

  8. Prospective memory in children: the effects of age and task interruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvavilashvili, L; Messer, D J; Ebdon, P

    2001-05-01

    Prospective memory (PM), remembering to carry out a task in the future, is highly relevant to children's everyday functioning, yet relatively little is known about it. For these reasons the effects of age and task interruption on PM were studied in 3 experiments. Children aged 4, 5, and 7 years were asked to name pictures in stacks of cards (the ongoing task) and to remember to do something when they saw a target picture (the PM task). Significant age differences were identified, but age explained only a small amount of variance. As predicted, children in the no-interruption condition performed significantly better than those who had to interrupt the ongoing activity in order to carry out the PM task. An additional finding was that no relation was detected between performance on prospective and retrospective memory tasks. Taken together, these findings provide support for current models of PM and identify ways to assist children's PM. PMID:11370916

  9. The student`s training to creating computer games for preschool-age children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Мардарова И.К.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the special aspects of future kindergartner training to creating computer games for children of preschool age. The scratch-projects technology and recommendation for use at kindergarten pedagogical process are described in it.

  10. The use of mobile games in the formation of social competence of preschool age children

    OpenAIRE

    Natalia Finogenova; Denis Reshetov

    2013-01-01

    The article is devoted to the issues of comprehensive use of mobile games in physical education of pre-school age children, providing versatile effect on their physical development and the formation of social competence.

  11. 36 CFR 1280.6 - Can children under the age of 14 use NARA facilities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Conduct on NARA Property? General Information on Using Nara Facilities § 1280.6 Can children under the age... special circumstances (e.g., students who have been given permission to conduct research without...

  12. Pneumococcal Vaccination Recommendations for Children and Adults by Age and/or Risk Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... HIV Chronic renal failure Nephrotic syndrome Leukemia Lymphoma Hodgkin disease Generalized malignancy Iatrogenic immunosuppression 5 Solid organ transplant Multiple myeloma PCV13 Administer PCV13 doses needed to complete series to children through age 71 months X X X X ...

  13. Children's Attitudes toward Older Adults and Aging: A Synthesis of Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Cara N.; Ricketts, Kristina G.

    2008-01-01

    This paper serves as a summation of literature on children's attitudes toward older adults and aging. Research indicates that the vast amount of information available provides varying levels of understanding toward children's actual views of older adults. Differences between measurements, settings, and procedures stand as barriers in…

  14. Age Effects in a Study Abroad Context: Children and Adults Studying Abroad and at Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llanes, Angels; Munoz, Carmen

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the effects of learning context and age on second language development by comparing the language gains, measured in terms of oral and written fluency, lexical and syntactic complexity, and accuracy, experienced by four groups of learners of English: children in a study abroad setting, children in their at-home school, adults in…

  15. Construction of Graphic Symbol Sequences by Preschool-Aged Children: Learning, Training, and Maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poupart, Annick; Trudeau, Natacha; Sutton, Ann

    2013-01-01

    The use of augmentative and alternative communication systems based on graphic symbols requires children to learn to combine symbols to convey utterances. The current study investigated how children without disabilities aged 4 to 6 years (n = 74) performed on a simple sentence (subject-verb and subject-verb-object) transposition task (i.e., spoken…

  16. Children as Knowledge Brokers of Playground Games and Rhymes in the New Media Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Jackie

    2012-01-01

    This article draws on data from a project on children's playground games and rhymes in the new media age. One objective of the project was to examine the relationship between traditional playground games and children's media cultures. As part of the project, two ethnographic studies of primary playgrounds took place in two schools, one in the…

  17. Children's Media Comprehension: The Relationship between Media Platform, Executive Functioning Abilities, and Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menkes, Susan M.

    2012-01-01

    Children's media comprehension was compared for material presented on television, computer, or touchscreen tablet. One hundred and thirty-two children were equally distributed across 12 groups defined by age (4- or 6-years-olds), gender, and the three media platforms. Executive functioning as measured by attentional control, cognitive…

  18. An Exploratory Study of Aggression in School-Age Children: Underlying Factors and Implications for Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priddis, Lynn E.; Landy, Sarah; Moroney, Darren; Kane, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Aggressive behaviour in school-aged children presents a significant challenge for society. If not managed, it can result in adverse academic, social, emotional, and behavioural outcomes for the child. In addition, it can create stress for families and become a significant burden for the community as these children reach adolescence and adulthood,…

  19. E-Safety and Web 2.0 for Children Aged 11-16

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharples, M.; Graber, R.; Harrison, C.; Logan, K.

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports findings from a survey and interviews with children aged 11-16 years, teachers and parents on their attitudes to e-safety in relation to social networking and media creation (Web 2.0) and their practices at school and at home. The results showed that 74% of the children surveyed have used social network (SN) sites and that a…

  20. Shared Etiology of Phonological Memory and Vocabulary Deficits in School-Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Robin L.; Pennington, Bruce F.; Samuelsson, Stefan; Byrne, Brian; Olson, Richard K.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The goal of this study was to investigate the etiologic basis for the association between deficits in phonological memory (PM) and vocabulary in school-age children. Method: Children with deficits in PM or vocabulary were identified within the International Longitudinal Twin Study (ILTS; Samuelsson et al., 2005). The ILTS includes 1,045…

  1. Parent perceived quality of life is age-dependent in children with food allergy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wassenberg, Jacqueline; Cochard, Marie-Madeleine; DunnGalvin, Audrey; Ballabeni, Pierluigi; Flokstra-de Blok, Bertine M. J.; Newman, Christopher J.; Hofer, Michael; Eigenmann, Philippe A.

    2012-01-01

    To cite this article: Wassenberg J, Cochard M-M, DunnGalvin A, Ballabeni P, Flokstra-de Blok BMJ, Newman CJ, Hofer M, Eigenmann PA. Parent perceived quality of life is age-dependent in children with food allergy. Pediatr Allergy Immunol 2012: 23: 412419. Abstract Background: Food allergy in children

  2. Early Math Trajectories: Low-Income Children's Mathematics Knowledge from Age 4 to 11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rittle-Johnson, Bethany; Fyfe, Emily R.; Hofer, Kerry G.; Farran, Dale C.

    2016-01-01

    Early mathematics knowledge is a strong predictor of later academic achievement, but children from low-income families enter school with weak mathematics knowledge. An Early Math Trajectories model is proposed and evaluated within a longitudinal study of 517 low-income American children from age 4 to 11. This model includes a broad range of math…

  3. "Away with the Fairies?" Disability within Primary-Age Children's Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckett, Angharad; Ellison, Nick; Barrett, Sam; Shah, Sonali

    2010-01-01

    This article outlines the findings of a new study that explores the portrayal of disability within a sample of the primary-age children's literature most readily available to UK schools. The kind of literature to which children are exposed is likely to influence their general perceptions of social life. How disability is handled by authors is…

  4. Teaching Grammar to School-Aged Children with Specific Language Impairment Using Shape Coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebbels, Susan

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes an approach to teaching grammar which has been designed for school-aged children with specific language impairment (SLI). The approach uses shapes, colours and arrows to make the grammatical rules of English explicit. Evidence is presented which supports the use of this approach with older children in the areas of past tense…

  5. School Nurse Interventions in Managing Functional Urinary Incontinence in School-Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivers, Charisse L.

    2010-01-01

    Uncomplicated urinary incontinence (UI) in school-age children is a prevalent yet underrecognized problem that has remained in the shadow of other concerns commonly perceived as more prominent or urgent. There is good evidence that functional UI in children can be treated and managed effectively. When there is no structural or neurologic…

  6. Identification of Aggressive Behaviour Tendencies in Junior Age Children: First Stage in a Study of Aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, C.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Discusses a study of children aged eight to nine years who were presenting aggressive behavior, with the aim of facilitating intervention at an early stage. Results of questionnaires given to teachers, the children themselves, their peer group, and parents are examined. Difficulties that arose in undertaking this study are explored. (Author/CT)

  7. Psychiatric Disorders among Children with Cerebral Palsy at School Starting Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjorgaas, H. M.; Hysing, M.; Elgen, I.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present population study was to estimate the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in children with cerebral palsy (CP), as well as the impact of comorbid conditions. A cohort of children with CP born 2001-2003, and living in the Western Health Region of Norway were evaluated at school starting age. Parents were interviewed with the…

  8. Digital Games for Young Children Ages Three to Six: From Research to Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Debra A.; Fisk, Maria Chesley; Biely, Erica

    2009-01-01

    Young children ages 3 to 6 play a wide range of digital games, which are now available on large screens, handheld screens, electronic learning systems, and electronic toys, and their time spent with games is growing. This article examines effects of digital games and how they could be designed to best serve children's needs. A small body of…

  9. The 220-age equation does not predict maximum heart rate in children and adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verschuren, Olaf; Maltais, Desiree B.; Takken, Tim

    2011-01-01

    Our primary purpose was to provide maximum heart rate (HR(max)) values for ambulatory children with cerebral palsy (CP). The secondary purpose was to determine the effects of age, sex, ambulatory ability, height, and weight on HR(max). In 362 ambulatory children and adolescents with CP (213 males an

  10. Influence of spatial perception abilities on reading in school-age children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaud Saj

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Spatial perception abilities enable individuals to explore a visual field, to detect spatial position and to infer relationships between visual stimuli. Written words and text are conceptualized spatially along a horizontal mental line, but little is known about the way children develop these representations. The exact relationship between visuo-spatial perception and academic achievement has never been directly assessed. Therefore, our aim was to study the developmental trajectory of space perception abilities by assessing perceptual, attentional and memory components, the relationship between these abilities and reading achievement in school-age children. Forty-nine children aged between 6.5 and 11 years old were divided into four age groups and were assessed with visual bisection, visual search and visual memory location tasks. The results showed that the groups of older children, from the age of nine, improved significantly on the bisection and visual search tasks with respect to all visual fields, while the groups of younger children showed more errors in the left visual field (LVF. Performances on these tasks were correlated with reading level and age. Older children with a low reading score showed a LVF bias, similar to the youngest children. These results demonstrate how abnormal space perception might distort space representation and in turn affect reading and learning processes.

  11. Sociodemographic profile of speech and language delay up to six years of age in Indian children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham Binu, Raj Sunil, Stephenson Baburaj, Mohandas MK

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Speech and language is the most important skill for the child’s development and scholastic performance. Awareness of the delay is important in the programs for early identification. Purpose: to assess the prevalence of speech and language delay in children from age group 0 to six years of age. Methodology: The speech and language development of children coming in the well baby clinic and daily pediatric clinic of age group from birth to 6 years were evaluated using Language Evaluation Scale Trivandrum (LEST. The prevalence of speech and language delay in each age group was calculated and also analyzed in the sociodemograhic profile. Results: A total of 102 children were studied in which 13.7% had language delay. 18% had questionable language delay and 15.7% had suspect language delay. Though among language delay mixed type was more, children had more difficulty in doing expressive items. Language delay was also found to be more prevalent in males, single child, first born child and children of working mothers. Parental age, education or socioeconomic status was not found to be related to language delay. Conclusion: The 13.7% prevalence of language delay in the children indicates the need of early identification and for it a simple screening tool like LEST is a must during the routine evaluation of young children in pediatric clinics. Health care givers and parents should ensure that babies grow up in a language rich, nurturing and stimulating environment right from birth onwards.

  12. Children Perception on TV Advertisement: The Impact of Age, Gender and Parental Influence

    OpenAIRE

    Ahasanul Haque; Ali Khatibi

    2004-01-01

    This study examined two components of understanding TV advertising: the recognition of the difference between programmes and commercials and the comprehension of advertising intent. ANOVA analyses were performed to assess the effect on age, gender, parent-child interaction and parental control over children of TV programme watching. Research found that majority of children aged between five and eight have some understanding of TV advertising, they are capable in differentiate programme and co...

  13. Children with differing developmental trajectories of prelinguistic communication skills: Language and working memory at age 5

    OpenAIRE

    Määttä, Sira; Laakso, Marja-Leena; Tolvanen, Asko; Ahonen, Timo; Aro, Tuija

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This paper examines the developmental continuity from prelinguistic communication to kindergarten age in language and working memory capacity. Method: Following our work outlining six groups of children with different trajectories of Early Communication Development (ECD, Määttä et al., 2012), we examined their later development by psychometric assessment. Ninety-one children first assessed at age 12 to 21 months completed a battery of language and working memory tests ...

  14. Serum ferritin to detect iron deficiency in children below five years of age

    OpenAIRE

    Windy Saufia Apriyanti; Sutaryo; Sri Mulatsih

    2013-01-01

    Background Iron deficiency (ID) anemia impacts the cognitive and motor development of children until the age of 10 years, despite receiving iron therapy. Early detection of ID is recommended and serum ferritin has been proposed as an alternative indicator for ID detection. Objective To assess the diagnostic accuracy of serum ferritin for detecting ID in children below five years of age. Methods This cross-sectional, diagnostic study was conducted in primary health care centers in Yogy...

  15. Communicative profile of children who entered in primary school after the age of five

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Paula Zaboroski; Graziela Chamarelli Bougo; Rudahyra Taísa Osswald de Oliveira; Jáima Pinheiro de Oliveira; Ana Cândida Schier

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To characterize the communicative behaviors of children who entered in Primary School after the age of five. Methods: It was a descriptive study, held in a city at the countryside of Parana state (Brazil), in the years 2007 and 2008, in both school and home environments. Twelve children of both genders joined in the study, with age ranging from five years and two months to six years, besides their mothers and respective teachers. Interviews were conducted with mothers and a questio...

  16. Communicative profile of children who entered in primary school after the age of five -

    OpenAIRE

    Jáima Pinheiro de Oliveira; Rudahyra Taísa Osswald de Oliveira; Graziela Chamarelli Bougo; Ana Paula Zaboroski; Ana Cândida Schier

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To characterize the communicative behaviors of children who entered in Primary School after the age of five. Methods: It was a descriptive study, held in a city at the countryside of Parana state (Brazil), in the years 2007 and 2008, in both school and home environments. Twelve children of both genders joined in the study, with age ranging from five years and two months to six years, besides their mothers and respective teachers. Interviews were conducted with mothers and a q...

  17. Direct and Indirect Costs of Asthma in School-age Children

    OpenAIRE

    Li Yan Wang, MBA, MA; Yuna Zhong, MD, MSPH; Lani Wheeler, MD

    2004-01-01

    Introduction Asthma is one of the most common chronic diseases of childhood and is the most common cause of school absenteeism due to chronic conditions. The objective of this study is to estimate direct and indirect costs of asthma in school-age children. Methods Using data from the 1996 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, we estimated direct medical costs and school absence days among school-age children who had treatment for asthma during 1996. We estimated indirect costs as costs of l...

  18. Epidemiologic Evaluation of Child Abuse and Neglect in School-Aged Children of Qazvin Province, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study was carried out to detect the prevalence of child abuse in three domains of physical, psychological and neglect among elementary school aged children of Qazvin Province, Iran. Methods In this descriptive-analytic and cross-sectional study, 1028 elementary school aged children of Qazvin Province selected through multistage cluster sampling were assessed for child abuse in all domains, except for sexual abuse through a researcher-made questionnaire. The questionnaire was st...

  19. Health maintenance in school-aged children: Part I. History, physical examination, screening, and immunizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Margaret; Locke, Amy B; Skye, Eric P

    2011-03-15

    The goals of the well-child examination in school-aged children (kindergarten through early adolescence) are promoting health, detecting disease, and counseling to prevent injury and future health problems. A complete history should address any concerns from the patient and family and screen for lifestyle habits, including diet, physical activity, daily screen time (e.g., television, computer, video games), hours of sleep per night, dental care, and safety habits. School performance can be used for developmental surveillance. A full physical examination should be performed; however, the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommends against routine scoliosis screening and testicular examination. Children should be screened for obesity, which is defined as a body mass index at or above the 95th percentile for age and sex, and resources for comprehensive, intensive behavioral interventions should be provided to children with obesity. Although the evidence is mixed regarding screening for hypertension before 18 years of age, many experts recommend checking blood pressure annually beginning at three years of age. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends vision and hearing screening annually or every two years in school-aged children. There is insufficient evidence to recommend screening for dyslipidemia in children of any age, or screening for depression before 12 years of age. All children should receive at least 400 IU of vitamin D daily, with higher doses indicated in children with vitamin D deficiency. Children who live in areas with inadequate fluoride in the water (less than 0.6 ppm) should receive a daily fluoride supplement. Age-appropriate immunizations should be given, as well as any missed immunizations. PMID:21404978

  20. Age and gender identity in the perpetrators of sexual violence against children

    OpenAIRE

    Makarova T.E.; Dvoryanchikov N.V.

    2013-01-01

    The article is devoted to the study of age and gender identity in the perpetrators of sexual violence against children. We discuss the factors underlying the pathogenesis of abnormal sexual behavior agains minors. We reveal the features of gender and age identity in individuals who have committed violent sexual acts against children. We note that in patients with a diagnosis of pedophilia, the violations detected affect predominantly the cognitive structure of sexual identity, and manifest in...

  1. Learning Disabilities in Extremely Low Birth Weight Children and Neurodevelopmental Profiles at Preschool Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squarza, Chiara; Picciolini, Odoardo; Gardon, Laura; Giannì, Maria L; Murru, Alessandra; Gangi, Silvana; Cortinovis, Ivan; Milani, Silvano; Mosca, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    At school age extremely low birth weight (ELBW) and extremely low gestational age (ELGAN) children are more likely to show Learning Disabilities (LDs) and difficulties in emotional regulation. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence of LDs at school age and to detect neurodevelopmental indicators of risk for LDs at preschool ages in a cohort of ELBW/ELGAN children with broadly average intelligence. All consecutively newborns 2001-2006 admitted to the same Institution entered the study. Inclusion criteria were BW disabilities, genetic abnormalities, and/or a Developmental Quotient below normal limits (disabilities at school age was investigated through a parent-report questionnaire at children's age range 9-10 years. Neurodevelopmental profiles were assessed through the Griffiths Mental Development Scales at 1 and 2 years of corrected age and at 3, 4, 5, and 6 years of chronological age and were analyzed comparing two groups of children: those with LDs and those without. At school age 24 on 102 (23.5%) of our ELBW/ELGAN children met criteria for LDs in one or more areas, with 70.8% comorbidity with emotional/attention difficulties. Children with LDs scored significantly lower in the Griffiths Locomotor and Language subscales at 2 years of corrected age and in the Personal-social, Performance and Practical Reasoning subscales at 5 years of chronological age. Our findings suggest that, among the early developmental indicators of adverse school outcome, there is a poor motor experimentation, language delay, and personal-social immaturity. Cognitive rigidity and poor ability to manage practical situations also affect academic attainment. Timely detection of these early indicators of risk is crucial to assist the transition to school. PMID:27445952

  2. Methods of Engaging Preschool-age Children in Science Practices During Astronomy Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plummer, J. D.

    2015-11-01

    Providing preschool children with science learning experiences may improve their later science literacy. Further, research shows that children are capable of engaging in the same kinds of scientific reasoning as adults. An initial step towards increasing the opportunities for children to engage in science is to improve our understanding of how to support children's engagement in the practices of science in astronomy. To this end, the My Sky Tonight project is developing and evaluating astronomy activities for informal science educators to use with young children. I have gathered video of a series of astronomy workshops that engaged preschool-age children with My Sky Tonight-developed activities. This paper describes features of these museum-based astronomy activities that supported young children in evidence-based science practices.

  3. The paediatric flat foot and general anthropometry in 140 Australian school children aged 7 - 10 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evans Angela M

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many studies have found a positive relationship between increased body weight and flat foot posture in children. Methods From a study population of 140 children aged seven to 10 years, a sample of 31 children with flat feet was identified by screening with the FPI-6. Basic anthropometric measures were compared between subjects with and without flat feet as designated. Results The results of this study, in contrast to many others, question the association of flat feet and heavy children. A significant relationship between foot posture and weight (FPI (L r = -0.186 (p Conclusions This study presents results which conflict with those of many previous investigations addressing the relationship between children's weight and foot posture. In contrast to previous studies, the implication of these results is that heavy children have less flat feet. Further investigation is warranted using a standardized approach to assessment and a larger sample of children to test this apparent contradiction.

  4. [Bamako school age children and their diet from street vendors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauliac, M; Monnier, T; Bendech, M A

    1994-01-01

    Eating outside the home is very common in African cities. Food is bought from street vendors and eaten on the street. A large proportion of these consumers are school children, but little is known about what they buy, and the reasons why they make the choices they do. We therefore surveyed 494 second and sixth year primary school children in 1993. They were all enrolled at schools or Muslim colleges in both affluent and underprivileged areas of Bamako (Mali). The language used for the survey was Bambara. Almost all the children had money, mostly given by either or both of their parents and in most cases supplemented by odd jobs. The richest group of children were those in the sixth year in the more privileged areas. However, within a district or a (school) class, there was no correlation between the family's socio-economic group (SEG) and money available to the child. The proportions of children in each area, SEG and class buying the following classes of food were nearly identical; drinks, ice cream, groundnuts, fruit, cooked meals, uncooked meals, and sweets. The amount of money available correlated with the purchase of cooked or uncooked meals and drinks. The amount spent on food correlated with the money available, and the relationship is particularly clear for cooked and uncooked meals. The independence of the children in buying food represents a large part of the total daily food budget of the family. Their true diet and its nutritional value should therefore be quantified. Strategies targeting these children to help improve their diet would have a favorable effect on nutrition, because of their autonomy. Any such strategy should involve the street vendors so as to improve the quality of their products. PMID:7850193

  5. The effect of leukemia and its treatment on self-esteem of school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullis, R L; Mullis, A K; Kerchoff, N F

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the self-esteem of school-age children with leukemia in a clinic setting and to compare it to the self-esteem of healthy children. Thirteen chronically ill children, 6 to 11 years old, who were patients at a midwestern clinic and children's hospital, and 50 school-age children without chronic illness participated in the study. Children were administered the Kinetic Family Drawing-Revised (Spinetta, McLaren, Fox, & Sparta, 1981) to measure their self-image in relation to their family. Children's self-esteem was measured by the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory (SEI) (Coopersmith, 1981). The results indicated that children with leukemia did not differ in self-esteem from healthy children except on one subscale of the SEI. However, children with and without leukemia did differ on components of the self-image measure, a dimension of self-esteem. Implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:1301479

  6. Respiratory Viruses Associated Hospitalization among Children Aged <5 Years in Bangladesh: 2010-2014.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nusrat Homaira

    Full Text Available We combined hospital-based surveillance and health utilization survey data to estimate the incidence of respiratory viral infections associated hospitalization among children aged < 5 years in Bangladesh.Surveillance physicians collected respiratory specimens from children aged <5 years hospitalized with respiratory illness and residing in the primary hospital catchment areas. We tested respiratory specimens for respiratory syncytial virus, parainfluenza viruses, human metapneumovirus, influenza, adenovirus and rhinoviruses using rRT-PCR. During 2013, we conducted a health utilization survey in the primary catchment areas of the hospitals to determine the proportion of all hospitalizations for respiratory illness among children aged <5 years at the surveillance hospitals during the preceding 12 months. We estimated the respiratory virus-specific incidence of hospitalization by dividing the estimated number of hospitalized children with a laboratory confirmed infection with a respiratory virus by the population aged <5 years of the catchment areas and adjusted for the proportion of children who were hospitalized at the surveillance hospitals.We estimated that the annual incidence per 1000 children (95% CI of all cause associated respiratory hospitalization was 11.5 (10-12. The incidences per 1000 children (95% CI per year for respiratory syncytial virus, parainfluenza, adenovirus, human metapneumovirus and influenza infections were 3(2-3, 0.5(0.4-0.8, 0.4 (0.3-0.6, 0.4 (0.3-0.6, and 0.4 (0.3-0.6 respectively. The incidences per 1000 children (95%CI of rhinovirus-associated infections among hospitalized children were 5 (3-7, 2 (1-3, 1 (0.6-2, and 3 (2-4 in 2010, 2011, 2012 and 2013, respectively.Our data suggest that respiratory viruses are associated with a substantial burden of hospitalization in children aged <5 years in Bangladesh.

  7. Respiratory Viruses Associated Hospitalization among Children Aged <5 Years in Bangladesh: 2010-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homaira, Nusrat; Luby, Stephen P.; Hossain, Kamal; Islam, Kariul; Ahmed, Makhdum; Rahman, Mustafizur; Rahman, Ziaur; Paul, Repon C.; Bhuiyan, Mejbah Uddin; Brooks, W. Abdullah; Sohel, Badrul Munir; Banik, Kajal Chandra; Widdowson, Marc-Alain; Willby, Melisa; Rahman, Mahmudur; Bresee, Joseph; Ramirez, Katharine-Sturm; Azziz-Baumgartner, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    Background We combined hospital-based surveillance and health utilization survey data to estimate the incidence of respiratory viral infections associated hospitalization among children aged < 5 years in Bangladesh. Methods Surveillance physicians collected respiratory specimens from children aged <5 years hospitalized with respiratory illness and residing in the primary hospital catchment areas. We tested respiratory specimens for respiratory syncytial virus, parainfluenza viruses, human metapneumovirus, influenza, adenovirus and rhinoviruses using rRT-PCR. During 2013, we conducted a health utilization survey in the primary catchment areas of the hospitals to determine the proportion of all hospitalizations for respiratory illness among children aged <5 years at the surveillance hospitals during the preceding 12 months. We estimated the respiratory virus-specific incidence of hospitalization by dividing the estimated number of hospitalized children with a laboratory confirmed infection with a respiratory virus by the population aged <5 years of the catchment areas and adjusted for the proportion of children who were hospitalized at the surveillance hospitals. Results We estimated that the annual incidence per 1000 children (95% CI) of all cause associated respiratory hospitalization was 11.5 (10–12). The incidences per 1000 children (95% CI) per year for respiratory syncytial virus, parainfluenza, adenovirus, human metapneumovirus and influenza infections were 3(2–3), 0.5(0.4–0.8), 0.4 (0.3–0.6), 0.4 (0.3–0.6), and 0.4 (0.3–0.6) respectively. The incidences per 1000 children (95%CI) of rhinovirus-associated infections among hospitalized children were 5 (3–7), 2 (1–3), 1 (0.6–2), and 3 (2–4) in 2010, 2011, 2012 and 2013, respectively. Conclusion Our data suggest that respiratory viruses are associated with a substantial burden of hospitalization in children aged <5 years in Bangladesh. PMID:26840782

  8. Blood Pressure Nomograms by Age and Weight for Iranian Children and Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Hosseini

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Normal standard references of blood pressure (BP for children and adolescents have been suggested to be constructed based on anthropometric indices. Accordingly, we aimed to develop first BP reference percentiles by weight and age for Iranian children aged 3-18 years old. Materials and Methods: A total of 16,246 children and adolescents aged 3-18 years were included from 3 cross-sectional studies conducted in Tehran- Iran. Data on demographic characteristics, anthropometric indices and BP values of these subjects were gathered. Quantile regression model was used to assess the need for weight adjustment in different percentiles of systolic and diastolic BPs with age, gender, and the corresponding weight percentiles. Then, Age- and sex-specific BP nomograms were developed according to weight. Results: All the regression coefficients for weight percentiles were statistically significant in quantile regression of BPs, which confirms the positive effect of adjustment for weight (P

  9. Mortality in Children Aged 0-9 Years: A Nationwide Cohort Study from Three Nordic Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Yongfu; Qin, Guoyou; Cnattingius, Sven;

    2016-01-01

    boys and girls decreased from 1.25 to 1.21 with the most prominent reduction in children aged 5–9 years (from 1.59 to 1.19). Neoplasms, diseases of the nervous system and transport accidents were the most frequent cause of death after the first year of life. These three leading causes of death declined...... comparing cause-specific mortality, and half of deaths from diseases of the nervous system occurred in infancy. Mortality rate due to transport accidents increased with age and was highest in boys aged 5–9 years. Conclusions Mortality rate in children aged 0–9 years has been decreasing with diminished...... difference between genders over the past decades. Our results suggest the importance of further research on mortality by causes of neoplasms, and causes of transport accidents—especially in children aged 5–9 years...

  10. Resting-state oscillatory activity in children born small for gestational age: a magnetoencephalographic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria eBoersma

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Growth restriction in utero during a period that is critical for normal growth of the brain, has previously been associated with deviations in cognitive abilities and brain anatomical and functional changes. We measured magnetoencephalography (MEG in 4-7 year old children to test if children born small for gestational age (SGA show deviations in resting-state brain oscillatory activity. Children born SGA children with postnatally spontaneous catch-up growth (SGA+; 6 boys, 7 girls; mean age 6.3 y (SD=0.9 and children born appropriate for gestational age (AGA; 7 boys, 3 girls; mean age 6.0 y (SD=1.2 participated in a resting-state MEG study. We calculated absolute and relative power spectra and used nonparametric statistics to test for group differences. SGA+ and AGA born children showed no significant differences in absolute and relative power except for reduced absolute gamma band power in SGA children. At time of MEG investigation, SGA+ children showed was significantly lower head circumference (HC and a trend toward lower IQ, however there was no association of HC or IQ with absolute or relative power. Except for reduced absolute gamma band power, our findings suggest normal brain activity patterns at school age in a group of children born SGA in which spontaneous catch-up growth of bodily length after birth occurred. Although previous findings suggest that being born SGA alters brain oscillatory activity early in neonatal life, we show that these neonatal alterations do not persist at early school age when spontaneous postnatal catch-up growth occurs after birth.

  11. Diarrhea, pneumonia, and infectious disease mortality in children aged 5 to 14 years in India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaun K Morris

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Little is known about the causes of death in children in India after age five years. The objective of this study is to provide the first ever direct national and sub-national estimates of infectious disease mortality in Indian children aged 5 to 14 years. METHODS: A verbal autopsy based assessment of 3 855 deaths is children aged 5 to 14 years from a nationally representative survey of deaths occurring in 2001-03 in 1.1 million homes in India. RESULTS: Infectious diseases accounted for 58% of all deaths among children aged 5 to 14 years. About 18% of deaths were due to diarrheal diseases, 10% due to pneumonia, 8% due to central nervous system infections, 4% due to measles, and 12% due to other infectious diseases. Nationally, in 2005 about 59 000 and 34 000 children aged 5 to 14 years died from diarrheal diseases and pneumonia, corresponding to mortality of 24.1 and 13.9 per 100 000 respectively. Mortality was nearly 50% higher in girls than in boys for both diarrheal diseases and pneumonia. CONCLUSIONS: Approximately 60% of all deaths in this age group are due to infectious diseases and nearly half of these deaths are due to diarrheal diseases and pneumonia. Mortality in this age group from infectious diseases, and diarrhea in particular, is much higher than previously estimated.

  12. Voiding dysfunction in children aged five to 15 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karaklajić Dragana

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Voiding dysfunction in children was analyzed in 91 patients in a period from January 1st to October 1st 1998. Most of the patients had functional voiding disorder (92.31%, and only 7.69% manifested monosymptomatic night enuresis. The number of girls was bigger in the group of patients with voiding dysfunction while the boys were predominant in the group with mono-symptomatic nocturnal enuresis. More than a half of children with functional voiding disorder had repeated urinal infections (58.23%, incontinence (93.49%, need for urgent voiding (68.13%, and vesicoureteral reflux (47.61%. The most common type of voiding dysfunction was urge syndrome/urge incontinence. The incidence of dysfunctional voiding disorder was more often in children with scaring changes of kidney which were diagnosed by static scintigraphy.

  13. Fitting model of ABR age dependency in a clinical population of normal hearing children

    OpenAIRE

    Coenraad, Saskia; Immerzeel, Tabitha; Hoeve, Hans; Goedegebure, Andre

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe purpose of this study was to present a simple and powerful fitting model that describes age-dependent changes of auditory brainstem responses (ABR) in a clinical population of normal hearing children. A total of 175 children (younger than 200 weeks postconceptional age) were referred for audiologic assessment with normal ABR results. ABR parameters of normal hearing children between 2003 and 2008 were included. The results of the right ears recorded at 90 dB nHL were analyzed....

  14. Rotavirus vaccination coverage among children aged 2-59 months: a report from Guangzhou, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing He

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We aimed to estimate the Lanzhou lamb rotavirus (LLR vaccination coverage (VC and timeliness among children aged 2 to 59 months in Guangzhou, China. METHODS: An electronic system-based VC survey was conducted using stratified cluster random sampling. RESULTS: We reported an overall Lanzhou lamb rotavirus vaccine coverage of 25.3% among children aged 2-59 months (2-8 months, 2.6% in Guangzhou, China. CONCLUSION: Great efforts should be taken to increase LLR VC in eligible children in Guangzhou, China.

  15. Social Adversity and Regional Differences in Prescribing of ADHD Medication for School-Age Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kildemoes, Helle Wallach; Skovgaard, Anne Mette; Thielen, Karsten;

    2015-01-01

    adversity (low parental education and single parenthood). Methods: A cohort of Danish school-age children (ages 5–17) without previous psychiatric conditions (N = 813,416) was followed during 2010–2011 for incident ADHD prescribing in the individual-level Danish registers. Register information was retrieved...... (region*social adversity), the multivariable analyses revealed a higher rate for the most disadvantaged children in North (IRR, 2.00; 95% CI, 1.51–2.66) and a lower rate in South (IRR, 0.47; 95% CI, 0.3–0.65). Prescribing rates were the highest for disadvantaged children in all regions, demonstrating...

  16. Factor structure of functional state of primary school age children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davidenko O.V.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The examination of primary school children to determine the ranking of significant factors that determine the structure of their functional state depending on the level of physical health. It is shown that the main factor in the structure of the functional state of younger schoolchildren in low-and lower-middle level of physical fitness is selected morpho-functional status, which characterizes the functions of the body at rest. For children with average or above average level of physical fitness is a leading factor in physical fitness of schoolchildren.

  17. Growth and Body Composition of School-Aged Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalskov, Stine-Mathilde

    together, the data presented in this thesis suggest that provision of ad libitum school meals based on an apparently healthy diet may have potentially negative effects on children´s body composition despite overall positive effects on risk markers of the metabolic syndrome. However, diet is not the only...... of this thesis was to identify factors influencing or associated with growth and body composition of 8-11 year old children. Four specific research questions were specified: 1.) Does a school meal intervention based on the New Nordic Diet (NND) influence height, body mass index (BMI) z-score, waist circumference...

  18. Production of didactic toys to children aged 3–6 years

    OpenAIRE

    Fajdiga, Ani

    2013-01-01

    The motivation for writing my diploma thesis titled Production of didactic toys to children aged 3–6 years came during arts and crafts course at the faculty when I made some didactic toys and took them to the kindergarten. There I observed how children eagerly examined the toys and asked me lots of questions about them with curiosity. Since there are not many good toys with which the children can play in the kindergarten, a thought sprang to mind that the children could acquire new knowledge ...

  19. Oral Health Intervention in School-age Children with Oral Habits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivette Álvarez Mora

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: malocclusions are considered a major oral health problem and they are mostly associated with oral habits which are not corrected at an early age.Objective: to analyze the effectiveness of an educational intervention in children with oral habits aged 5 to 11 years.Methods: a before and after intervention study with a quasi-experimental design was conducted from October 2008 to April 2009. It included children with oral habits aged 5 to 11 years who attend the Guerrillero Heroico Primary School of the Area II in the municipality of Cienfuegos. Parents and guardians signed the consent for their children participation in the research. Preventive and therapeutic educational measures were used. The results of the intervention were assessed through a before-and-after interview with children, parents or guardians and educators. Results: the level of awareness of children, parents and teachers increased significantly as well as the correction of oral habits in the majority of children, especially tongue thrusting, the use of feeding bottle and pacifier. Better results were found in females. Dentomaxillofacial deformities diminished after the intervention, primarily upper incisors deviated towards the oral vestibule and increased overjet. Conclusions: educational intervention in school-age children contributed to the correction of oral habits.

  20. Dental Treatment Needs in Vancouver Inner-City Elementary School-Aged Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Samim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. To examine the dental treatment needs of inner-city Vancouver elementary school-aged children and relate them to sociodemographic characteristics. Methods. A census sampling comprising 562 children from six out of eight eligible schools was chosen (response rate was 65.4%. Dental treatment needs were assessed based on criteria from the World Health Organization. Results. Every third child examined needed at least one restorative treatment. A higher proportion of children born outside Canada were in need of more extensive dental treatments such as pulp care and extractions compared to the children born in Canada. There were no statistically significant differences in dental treatment needs between age, gender, or income groups or between children with or without dental insurance (Chi Squared P>0.05. The best significant predictors (Linear Multiple Regression, P>0.05 of higher dental treatment needs were being born outside Canada, gender, time of last dental visit, and family income. Having dental insurance did not associate with needing less treatment. Conclusion. A high level of unmet dental treatment needs (32% was found in inner-city Vancouver elementary school-aged children. Children born outside Canada, particularly the ones who recently arrived to Canada, needed more extensive dental treatments than children born in Canada.

  1. Emotional Understanding and Color-Emotion Associations in Children Aged 7-8 Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debbie J. Pope

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An understanding of the development of emotional knowledge can help us determine how children perceive and interpret their surroundings and color-emotion associations are one measure of the expression of a child’s emotional interpretations. Emotional understanding and color-emotion associations were examined in a sample of UK school children, aged 7-8 years. Forty primary school children (mean age = 7.38; SD = 0.49 were administered color assessment and emotional understanding tasks, and an expressive vocabulary test. Results identified significant gender differences with girls providing more appropriate and higher quality expressions of emotional understanding than boys. Children were more able to link color to positive rather than negative emotions and significant gender differences in specific color preferences were observed. The implications of adult misinterpretations of color-emotion associations in young children are discussed.

  2. Discrimination of speech sounds by children with dyslexia: comparisons with chronological age and reading level controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogliotti, C; Serniclaes, W; Messaoud-Galusi, S; Sprenger-Charolles, L

    2008-10-01

    Previous studies have shown that children suffering from developmental dyslexia have a deficit in categorical perception of speech sounds. The aim of the current study was to better understand the nature of this categorical perception deficit. In this study, categorical perception skills of children with dyslexia were compared with those of chronological age and reading level controls. Children identified and discriminated /do-to/ syllables along a voice onset time (VOT) continuum. Results showed that children with dyslexia discriminated among phonemically contrastive pairs less accurately than did chronological age and reading level controls and also showed higher sensitivity in the discrimination of allophonic contrasts. These results suggest that children with dyslexia perceive speech with allophonic units rather than phonemic units. The origin of allophonic perception in the course of perceptual development and its implication for reading acquisition are discussed. PMID:18462745

  3. Parenting clinically anxious versus healthy control children aged 4-12 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Sluis, C M; van Steensel, F J A; Bögels, S M

    2015-05-01

    This study investigated whether parenting behaviors differed between parents of 68 clinically anxious children and 106 healthy control children aged 4-12 years. The effects of parent gender, child gender and child age on parenting were explored. Mothers and fathers completed a questionnaire to assess parenting behaviors in for children hypothetically anxious situations. Results showed that parents of clinically anxious children reported more anxiety-enhancing parenting (reinforcement of dependency and punishment) as well as more positive parenting (positive reinforcement). For the clinical sample, fathers reported using more modeling/reassurance than mothers, and parents reported using more force with their 4-7-year-olds than with their 8-12-year-olds. No interaction effects were found for child gender with child anxiety status on parenting. Results indicate that for intervention, it is important to measure parenting behaviors, and to take into account father and mother differences and the age of the child. PMID:25819172

  4. Socioeconomic determinants of iron-deficiency anemia among children aged 6 to 59 months in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharati, Susmita; Pal, Manoranjan; Chakrabarty, Suman; Bharati, Premananda

    2015-03-01

    The extent of anemia and its socioeconomic determinants among the preschool children (6-59 months old) in India have been studied in this article. Relevant data are taken from the third round of the National Family Health Survey. The initial analysis reveals some interesting features. The most affected children are in the age-group of 6 to 23 months. Beyond this age a decreasing trend is observed up to the age of 48 to 59 months. The highest and the lowest prevalence of anemia have been found to be in the central and the northeast zones, respectively. The vulnerable groups are the children of illiterate parents and those belonging to the poor families in the rural areas. Categorical logistic regression also confirms that status of literacy and wealth of parents have strong negative association with the status of anemia of the children.

  5. Children Perception on TV Advertisement: The Impact of Age, Gender and Parental Influence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahasanul Haque

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined two components of understanding TV advertising: the recognition of the difference between programmes and commercials and the comprehension of advertising intent. ANOVA analyses were performed to assess the effect on age, gender, parent-child interaction and parental control over children of TV programme watching. Research found that majority of children aged between five and eight have some understanding of TV advertising, they are capable in differentiate programme and commercials especially if this understanding is measured by non-verbal rather than verbal measure. However, the results based on verbal measures are not as conclusive. The findings also indicated that children age has substantial positive effect on the children understanding of TV advertising. This effect pronounced for verbal measure of comprehension intent for advertisements. Results also showed a small but significant negative effect of parental control of TV viewing, in which a high control of TV viewing result in a relatively low understanding of TV advertising.

  6. The prevalence of lactase deficiency and lactose intolerance in Chinese children of different ages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Objective To determine lactose metabolism and lactase activity in Chinese children of different ages, prevalence of lactase deficiency (LD), and lactose intolerance (LI). Methods All 1168 healthy subjects between 3 and 13 years were recruited from schools in four large cities in China. They were screened by a 25 g lactose tolerance test.Some subjecls were challenged with .50 g milk powder on different days. Both indicators,the expiratory H2 concentration and intolerance symptoms, were analyzed. Results LD occurred in 38.5% of children in the 3-5 year age group, and 87% of the 7-8 year and 11-13 year old groups. The age of occurrence for LD may be at 7-8 years among Chinese children. The prevalence of LI among Chinese children was 12.2% alage 3-5 years, 33.1% at age 7-8 years, and 30.5% al age 11-13 years, respectively. Conclusion The results demonstrate that LD is very common in Chinese children from these four cities. LD and LI have a dose dependent response: lactose absorption and symptorms are based on lactase activity. The relationship between breast feeding history (or the history of cow milk intake) and lactase activity among Chinese children has not been established.

  7. Factors influencing the motor development of prematurely born school-aged children in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Rafaela S; Magalhães, Lívia C; Dourado, Jordana S; Lemos, Stela M A; Alves, Claudia R L

    2014-09-01

    Despite technological advances in neonatology, premature children are still susceptible to disruptions in neurological development. The current study aimed to analyze the factors that influence motor development in prematurely born school-aged children in Brazil. This cross-sectional study involved 100 "apparently normal" children, aged 8-10 years, born at less than 35 weeks of gestation or with birth weightToken Test (TT) and Teste de Desempenho Escolar (TDE), respectively. Parents answered questions regarding the child's clinical history and behavior using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) and family environment resources (RAF). Hierarchical multivariate analyses revealed that 39% of the children scored lower on the MABC-2, as compared to that expected for their age (manual dexterity: 49%; balance: 35%; throwing/catching a ball: 26%). Multivariate analysis indicated that the lower the birth weight, the maternal age at childbirth, and the RAF score, the greater was the chance of impairment on the MABC-2 scores. The probability of having an impairment MABC-2 scores was four times higher when the mother was not employed. We also found associations between MABC-2 scores and the tasks of tying shoes and opening/closing zippers and buttons. Factors related to children's home environments and birth weight are associated with deficient motor performance in prematurely born Brazilian school-aged children. Deficient motor skills were also associated with difficulty in performing functional tasks requiring greater manual dexterity. PMID:24858787

  8. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder in School-Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helbing, Mary-Lee C.; Ficca, Michelle

    2009-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is an anxiety disorder characterized by disturbing thoughts, impulses, or images (obsessions); repetitive or ritualistic behaviors (compulsions); or the presence of both. Although some may believe this disorder is isolated to the adult population, it affects anywhere from 1% to 4% of children in the United…

  9. Domain-Specific Impulsivity in School-Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukayama, Eli; Duckworth, Angela Lee; Kim, Betty

    2013-01-01

    Impulsivity is a salient individual difference in children with well-established predictive validity for life outcomes. The current investigation proposes that impulsive behaviors vary systematically by domain. In a series of studies with ethnically and socioeconomically diverse samples of middle school students, we find that schoolwork-related…

  10. Epilepsy in School-Aged Children: More than Just Seizures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Colin; Ballantine, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    Epilepsy is the most common neurological disorder in childhood and can have a significant impact on a child's schooling. Children with epilepsy may have special educational needs due to having learning disability, specific learning difficulties, specific cognitive deficits or having symptoms associated with ASD, ADHD, depression or anxiety. These…

  11. Occupational Therapy for School-Aged Children in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asher, Asha; Jatar, Anuradha; Bijlani, Jyothika

    2015-01-01

    Occupational therapists exploring international opportunities should understand how the profession is practiced globally. This paper describes the framework under which occupational therapy services can be accessed by families of children with disabilities in urban India. Background information about the country, its health care, and occupational…

  12. A Longitudinal Study of Language and Speech in Children Who Were Internationally Adopted at Different Ages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glennen, Sharon

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The author followed 56 internationally adopted children during the first 3 years after adoption to determine how and when they reached age-expected language proficiency in Standard American English. The influence of age of adoption was measured, along with the relationship between early and later language and speech outcomes. Method:…

  13. Asymptomatic Celiac Disease in Children with Trisomy 21 at 26 Months of Age or Less

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy J. Roizen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We report three cases of asymptomatic celiac disease identified in children with Down syndrome after being screened at around twenty-four months of age.  These cases raise the question as to what age is screening for celiac disease indicated in a child with Down syndrome and no symptoms.

  14. Predicting who will have asthma at school age among preschool children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Savenije, Olga E. M.; Kerkhof, Marjan; Koppelman, Gerard H.; Postma, Dirkje S.

    2012-01-01

    It is difficult to distinguish at preschool age whether a wheezing child will or will not have asthma at school age. A prediction rule for asthma in preschool children might help to determine a prognosis and to study improvements in treatment and prevention. This review discusses (1) the development

  15. Predicting an asthma exacerbation in children 2 to 5 years of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swern, A.S.; Tozzi, C.A.; Knorr, B.;

    2008-01-01

    could predict an asthma exacerbation in children 2 to 5 years of age. METHODS: Post hoc analyses were conducted on data collected in a study of 689 patients 2 to 5 years of age with asthma symptoms, randomly assigned to montelukast, 4 mg, or placebo daily for 12 weeks. During the study, 196 patients had...

  16. Inhibited and Aggressive Preschool Children at 23 Years of Age: Personality and Social Transitions into Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asendorpf, Jens B.; Denissen, Jaap J. A.; van Aken, Marcel A. G.

    2008-01-01

    In a 19-year longitudinal study, the 15% most inhibited and the 15% most aggressive children at ages 4-6 years were followed up until age 23 years and were compared with controls who were below average in preschool inhibition or aggressiveness. As adults, inhibited boys and girls were judged as inhibited by their parents and showed a delay in…

  17. PERKEMBANGAN ANAK USIA 6-24 BUL AN DI WILAYAH KERJA PUSKESMAS ANDALAS KECAMATAN PADANG TIMUR PADANG

    OpenAIRE

    Indah Gemala; Delmi Sulastri; Azrimaidaliza Azrimaidaliza

    2008-01-01

    Prevalensi gizi kurus dan sangat kurus berdasarkan indeks berat badan menurut tinggi badan pada balita masih cukup tinggi di Kota Padang. Status gizi kurang pada balita terutama usia kritis, yaitu 6-24 bulan berdampak pada perkembangan balita. Perkembangan anak juga dipengaruhi oleh pola asuh, status kesehatan dan pekerjaan ibu. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahuiperkembangan anak usia 6-24 bidan dan faktor paling dominan berhubungan dengan perkembangan anak tersebut. Studi cross sectio...

  18. A Multicenter Retrospective Case Study of Anaphylaxis Triggers by Age in Korean Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, So-Yeon; Ahn, Kangmo; Kim, Jihyun; Jang, Gwang Cheon; Min, Taek Ki; Yang, Hyeon-Jong; Pyun, Bok Yang; Kwon, Ji-Won; Sohn, Myung Hyun; Kim, Kyung Won; Kim, Kyu-Earn; Yu, Jinho; Hong, Soo-Jong; Kwon, Jung Hyun; Kim, Sung-Won; Song, Tae Won; Kim, Woo Kyung; Kim, Hyung Young; Jeon, You Hoon; Lee, Yong Ju; Lee, Hae Ran; Kim, Hye-Young; Ahn, Youngmin; Yum, Hye Yung; Suh, Dong In; Kim, Hyun Hee; Kim, Jin-Tack; Kim, Jeong Hee; Park, Yong Mean

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Although anaphylaxis is recognized as an important, life-threatening condition, data are limited regarding its triggers in different age groups. We aimed to identify anaphylaxis triggers by age in Korean children. Methods We performed a retrospective review of medical records for children diagnosed with anaphylaxis between 2009 and 2013 in 23 secondary or tertiary hospitals in South Korea. Results A total of 991 cases (mean age=5.89±5.24) were reported, with 63.9% involving patients younger than 6 years of age and 66% involving male children. Food was the most common anaphylaxis trigger (74.7%), followed by drugs and radiocontrast media (10.7%), idiopathic factors (9.2%), and exercise (3.6%). The most common food allergen was milk (28.4%), followed by egg white (13.6%), walnut (8.0%), wheat (7.2%), buckwheat (6.5%), and peanut (6.2%). Milk and seafood were the most common anaphylaxis triggers in young and older children, respectively. Drug-triggered anaphylaxis was observed more frequently with increasing age, with antibiotics (34.9%) and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (17.9%) being the most common causes. Conclusions The most common anaphylaxis trigger in Korean children was food. Data on these triggers show that their relative frequency may vary by age. PMID:27582405

  19. How is This Child Feeling? Preschool-Aged Children's Ability to Recognize Emotion in Faces and Body Poses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Alison E.; Mathis, Erin T.; Kupersmidt, Janis B.

    2013-01-01

    Research Findings: The study examined children's recognition of emotion from faces and body poses, as well as gender differences in these recognition abilities. Preschool-aged children ("N" = 55) and their parents and teachers participated in the study. Preschool-aged children completed a web-based measure of emotion recognition skills that…

  20. Factors that Limit and Enable Preschool-Aged Children's Physical Activity on Child Care Centre Playgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Bianca; Dyment, Janet E.

    2013-01-01

    The incidence of childhood obesity amongst preschool-aged children has increased dramatically in recent years and can be attributed, in part, to a lack of physical activity amongst children in this age group. This study explores the social factors that stand to limit and/or enable children's physical activity opportunities in outdoor settings…

  1. Comparing Mental Health of School-Age Children of Parents With/Without Bipolar Disorders: A Case Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Shamsaei; Cheraghi; Dehghani; Jahangard

    2015-01-01

    Background Children of parents with bipolar disorder appear to have an increased risk of early-onset Bipolar Disorder (BP), mood disorders and other psychiatric disorders. Objectives The aim of this study was to compare the mental health of school-age children of parents, with/without bipolar disorder. Materials and Methods This case-control study included one hundred children aged...

  2. Age and gender identity in a perpetrators of sexual violence against children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dvoryanchikov N.V.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper devoted to the age and gender identity among the perpetrators of sexual violence against children and discussed the factors lead to pathogenesis of abnormal sexual behavior against children. We have identified particularities of gender and age identity in perpetrators of violent sexual acts against children. It was noted that patients with a diagnosis of pedophilia have abnormalities mostly in cognitive structure of sexual identity, that is shown in undifferentiated age peculiarities of perception of self-image and gender and role stereotypes. These data allow assessing more accurately the abnormalities of sexual sphere, explaining the deviant behavior, as well as structure of age and sex self-identity in persons with the disorder of sexual desire in the form of pedophilia and take a step closer to understanding the mechanisms of abnormal choice of sexual object.

  3. "Math Talk" in Families of Preschool-Aged Children: Frequency and Relations to Children's Early Math Skills across Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susperreguy Jorquera, Maria Ines

    2013-01-01

    Early math skills are the strongest predictors of later math achievement in school. This two-wave study addressed three research questions about the role of families in fostering these skills in preschool-aged children. First, how do families talk about math at home? Second, how do these conversations vary across families with different…

  4. The influence of nutritional status on age misstatement for young children in rural Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bairagi, R; Edmonston, B; Hye, A

    1991-01-01

    The influence of nutritional status on age misstatement in 1981 among 679 children aged 22-59 months in Companyganj, Bangladesh, is examined. The age limits were established to represent the most vulnerable age group; age information 22 months was unavailable. Calibrated scales were used for measurement. Weight was measured within 100 g, and height and arm circumference within .1 cm. Age error was calculated as actual age minus reported age. Weight for age (WA) and height for age (HA) were also calculated for actual and reported age. The Polish standard was used to calculate arm circumference for age (ACA). This rural area revealed findings different from those previously reported for the Matlab area. Systematic and random error was higher in Companyganj. Interviewer bias needs to be investigated as 1 possible explanation for the differences. There was a difference of 4.1 months between the best and worst interviewer. Although child's sex and mother's age were associated with age error in the Matlab study, child's sex was found to be insignificant. The Matlab study included children 0-14 years, which may explain the difference. The nutritional status of children influenced different interviewers, and literate and illiterate mothers report ages differently. The reasons given are the varying expectations of both the interviewers and the mothers of normal growth patterns by age. A malnourished child might be underestimated and a well-nourished child overestimated. The illiterate mother may be influenced by the opinions of the interviewer or not know the child's actual birth date, and then understate the age. The results are that there was age overreporting for each age group. The standard deviation of the age error reveals random error. The standard error increases with age. The systematic error and random error are significantly higher than in comparable Matlab data. In the analysis of nutritional status, mother's education, and interviewer, nutritional status was

  5. Sexual Abuse of School Age Children : Evidence from Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Ruto, Sara Jerop

    2009-01-01

    Student unrest that sometimes culminates in violent expressions have had a long history in Kenyan schools. Recent evidence, however, points to new expressions of abuse on children. There is concern that an ethos of gendered violence often expressed by sexual subjugation of girls by boys is getting institutionalised within Kenyan Schools. The rise in incidents of reported crimes of a sexual nature and the periodic mass sexual violence directed at girls within learning institutions attest to th...

  6. The Development of Skin Conductance Fear Conditioning in Children from Ages 3 to 8 Years

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Yu; Raine, Adrian; Venables, Peter H.; Dawson, Michael E.; Mednick, Sarnoff A.

    2010-01-01

    Although fear conditioning is an important psychological construct implicated in behavioral and emotional problems little is known about how it develops in early childhood. Using a differential, partial reinforcement conditioning paradigm, this longitudinal study assessed skin conductance conditioned responses in 200 children at ages 3, 4, 5, 6, and 8 years. Results demonstrated that in both boys and girls: (1) fear conditioning increased across age, particularly from ages 5 to 6 years, (2) t...

  7. Changes in reading strategies in school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanabria Díaz, Gretel; Torres, María del Rosario; Iglesias, Jorge; Mosquera, Raysil; Reigosa, Vivian; Santos, Elsa; Lage, Agustín; Estévez, Nancy; Galán, Lidice

    2009-11-01

    Learning to read is one of the most important cognitive milestones in the human social environment. One of the most accepted models explaining such process is the Double-Route Cascaded Model. It suggests the existence of two reading strategies: lexical and sublexical. In the Spanish language there are some contradictions about how these strategies are applied for reading. In addition, there are only a few studies dealing with the analysis of shifts between them, achieving a fluent reading process. In this paper we use a reading task including words and pseudowords for characterizing the cost of shifting between reading strategies in children with developmental dyslexia and normal controls. Our results suggest the presence of both strategies in these two experimental groups. In controls, both strategies become more efficient in correspondence to the increased exposition to written material. However, in children with developmental dyslexia only the lexical strategy exhibits such improvement. Their also point to a low cost for shifting between strategies in controls and a much more significant one in children with developmental dyslexia, differentiating subgroups with distinct shifting patterns.

  8. Age specific aetiological agents of diarrhoea in hospitalized children aged less than five years in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myrmel Helge

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aimed to determine the age-specific aetiologic agents of diarrhoea in children aged less than five years. The study also assessed the efficacy of the empiric treatment of childhood diarrhoea using Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI guidelines. Methods This study included 280 children aged less than 5 years, admitted with diarrhoea to any of the four major hospitals in Dar es Salaam. Bacterial pathogens were identified using conventional methods. Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA and agglutination assay were used to detect viruses and intestinal protozoa, respectively. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined using Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. Results At least one of the searched pathogens was detected in 67.1% of the cases, and mixed infections were detected in 20.7% of cases. Overall, bacteria and viruses contributed equally accounting for 33.2% and 32.2% of all the cases, respectively, while parasites were detected in 19.2% patients. Diarrhoeagenic Escherichia coli (DEC was the most common enteric pathogen, isolated in 22.9% of patients, followed by Cryptosporidium parvum (18.9%, rotavirus (18.1% and norovirus (13.7%. The main cause of diarrhoea in children aged 0 to 6 months were bacteria, predominantly DEC, while viruses predominated in the 7-12 months age group. Vibrio cholerae was isolated mostly in children above two years. Shigella spp, V. cholerae and DEC showed moderate to high rates of resistance to erythromycin, ampicillin, chloramphenicol and tetracycline (56.2-100%. V. cholerae showed full susceptibility to co-trimoxazole (100%, while DEC and Shigella showed high rate of resistance to co-trimoxazole; 90.6% and 93.3% respectively. None of the bacterial pathogens isolated showed resistance to ciprofloxacin which is not recommended for use in children. Cefotaxime resistance was found only in 4.7% of the DEC. Conclusion During the dry season, acute watery diarrhoea is the

  9. Factors associated with the nutritional status of children less than 5 years of age

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    Teresa Cristina Miglioli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To analyze if the nutritional status of children aged less than five years is related to the biological conditions of their mothers, environmental and socioeconomic factors, and access to health services and social programs.METHODS This cross-sectional population-based study analyzed 664 mothers and 790 children using canonical correlation analysis. Dependent variables were characteristics of the children (weight/age, height/age, BMI/age, hemoglobin, and retinol serum levels. Independent variables were those related to the mothers’ nutritional status (BMI, hemoglobin, and retinol serum levels, age, environmental and socioeconomic factors and access to health service and social programs. A < 0.05 significance level was adopted to select the interpreted canonical functions (CF and ± 0.40 as canonical load value of the analyzed variables.RESULTS Three canonical functions were selected, concentrating 89.9% of the variability of the relationship among the groups. In the first canonical function, weight/age (-0.73 and height/age (-0.99 of the children were directly related to the mother’s height (-0.82, prenatal appointments (-0.43, geographical area of the residence (-0.41, and household incomeper capita (-0.42. Inverse relationship between the variables related to the children and people/room (0.44 showed that the larger the number of people/room, the poorer their nutritional status. Rural residents were found to have the worse nutritional conditions. In the second canonical function, the BMI of the mother (-0.48 was related to BMI/age and retinol of the children, indicating that as women gained weight so did their children. Underweight women tended to have children with vitamin A deficiency. In the third canonical function, hemoglobin (-0.72 and retinol serum levels (-0.40 of the children were directly related to the mother’s hemoglobin levels (-0.43.CONCLUSIONS Mothers and children were associated concerning anemia, vitamin A

  10. Is tuberculin testing before BCG vaccination necessary for children over three months of age?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hennessy, B

    2008-03-01

    In July 2007 Irish national policy changed such that children aged 3 months to 6 years no longer routinely require tuberculin (Mantoux) skin testing prior to BCG vaccination. Previous to that a tuberculin test was required in all children in this age group pre vaccination. While the previous policy was in place this study was conducted to assess the value of this test. The observation that children are frightened by the test (an injection into the skin) prompted the study. The author conducted a retrospective study of the results of 1,854 tuberculin tests performed as a prerequisite to BCG vaccination and found that only 0.7% of children had a positive test result (induration > 5mm). None of 107 children < 6 years of age tested positive. Those > 12 years were more likely to test positive than younger children (1.09% vs 0.4% respectively, p < 0.05). This study suggests that testing young children before BCG vaccination has a low yield of positive results and adds little to the detection of latent or active TB.

  11. Incidence of Acute Diarrhea Among Children Aged 0 - 1 Year in Southern Brazil, 2012

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    Nascimento

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background The incidence rate of acute diarrheal disease in children is a health indicator, and the estimation of these data can help guide public health policies. Objectives The aim of this study was to estimate the incidence and risk factors for acute diarrheal disease in children aged 0 - 1 year. Patients and Methods An observational prospective cohort study was conducted on 210 children recruited at Hospital Nossa Senhora da Conceicao, in Tubarao, state of Santa Catarina, Brazil. Children born between July and September 2012 were followed up for 12 months. The presence of three or more liquid or loose stools during a 24-hour period was considered acute diarrhea. The categories of variables evaluated were comprised of sociodemographic characteristics (per capita income, maternal education, maternal age, access to medical care [public or private], and housing and living conditions [sanitation and hygiene, water supply, daycare attendance, and domestic animal] and characteristics of the child (gender, birth weight, and breastfeeding. Results The incidence of acute diarrhea among the 0 - 1-year-old children was 26.7 cases per 1,000 children per month. Independent risk factors for the occurrence of diarrhea were maternal age under 20 years and health care services provided by the Brazilian National Health System (SUS. Conclusions The high incidence density of diarrhea among the children recruited in this study indicates the need for educational programs directed at people who are involved in this issue.

  12. Children with cerebral palsy and periventricular white matter injury: does gestational age affect functional outcome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Adrienne R; Randall, Melinda; Reid, Susan M; Lee, Katherine J; Imms, Christine; Rodda, Jillian; Eldridge, Beverley; Orsini, Francesca; Reddihough, Dinah

    2013-09-01

    This study aimed to determine differences in functional profiles and movement disorder patterns in children aged 4-12 years with cerebral palsy (CP) and periventricular white matter injury (PWMI) born >34 weeks gestation compared with those born earlier. Eligible children born between 1999 and 2006 were recruited through the Victorian CP register. Functional profiles were determined using the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS), Manual Abilities Classification System (MACS), Communication Function Classification System (CFCS), Functional Mobility Scale (FMS) and Bimanual Fine Motor Function (BFMF). Movement disorder and topography were classified using the Surveillance of Cerebral Palsy in Europe (SCPE) classification. 49 children born >34 weeks (65% males, mean age 8 y 9 mo [standard deviation (SD) 2 y 2 mo]) and 60 children born ≤ 34 weeks (62% males, mean age 8 y 2 mo [SD 2 y 2 mo]) were recruited. There was evidence of differences between the groups for the GMFCS (p=0.003), FMS 5, 50 and 500 (p=0.003, 0.002 and 0.012), MACS (p=0.04) and CFCS (p=0.035), with a greater number of children born ≤ 34 weeks more severely impaired compared with children born later. Children with CP and PWMI born >34 weeks gestation had milder limitations in gross motor function, mobility, manual ability and communication compared with those born earlier.

  13. The relative age effect on anthropometric characteristics and motor performances in Turkish children aged between 8 and 12 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haslofça Ercan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to investigate the effect of relative age on anthropometric properties and motor performance in Turkish children (girls n=423, boys n=601. Anthropometric measurement sites and techniques have been set out by the ISAK (International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry. A group of tests involved in Eurofit Test Battery and other standard tests were used. For each age, the data of those who were born within the first three months and the last three months of the year were compared. The MedCalc Statistics Program was used for the differentiation and variation percentages between two periods were studied (p≤ 0.001, p= 0.05. Consequently effect of relative age was observed on anthropometric characteristics and motor performances of Turkish girls and boys between 8 and 12 years old. Researchers, trainers, families, sports managers and organizers are advised to consider Effect of Relative Age.

  14. Theory of mind and specific language impairment in school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanoudis, George

    2016-01-01

    Research on the relationship between aspects of language development and Theory of Mind (ToM) in children with language impairments suggests that children with language impairment show a delay in ToM development. This study aimed to examine the relationships of the syntactic, semantic, and pragmatic skills with ToM in school-age children. Twenty children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) aged 9-12 years and two control groups, one matched for chronological age (CA) and one for language ability (LA) (aged 8-10 years) were compared on a set of language tasks tapping syntactic, semantic, and pragmatic skills and on an advanced test of ToM. Results showed that children with SLI performed poorly on the ToM task compared to the CA matches. Also, analysis showed that language skills and ToM are related and that syntactic and pragmatic abilities contributed significantly to the prediction of ToM performance in the SLI group. It is concluded that the syntax/pragmatic aspects of the language impact on ToM understanding in children with SLI.

  15. Visual acuity and refraction by age for children of three different ethnic groups in Paraguay

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    Marissa Janine Carter

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To characterize refractive errors in Paraguayan children aged 5-16 years and investigate effect of age, gender, and ethnicity. METHODS:The study was conducted at 3 schools that catered to Mennonite, indigenous, and mixed race children. Children were examined for presenting visual acuity, autorefraction with and without cycloplegia, and retinoscopy. Data were analyzed for myopia and hyperopia (SE ≤-1 D or -0.5 D and ≥2 D or ≥3 D and astigmatism (cylinder ≥1 D. Spherical equivalent (SE values were calculated from right eye cycloplegic autorefraction data and analyzed using general linear modelling. RESULTS: There were 190, 118, and 168 children of Mennonite, indigenous and mixed race ethnicity, respectively. SE values between right/left eyes were nonsignificant. Mean visual acuity (VA without correction was better for Mennonites compared to indigenous or mixed race children (right eyes: 0.031, 0.090, and 0.102 logMAR units, respectively; P<0.000001. There were 2 cases of myopia in the Mennonite group (1.2% and 2 cases in the mixed race group (1.4% (SE ≤-0.5 D. The prevalence of hyperopia (SE ≥2 D was 40.6%, 34.2%, and 46.3% for Mennonite, indigenous and mixed race children. Corresponding astigmatism rates were 3.2%, 9.5%, and 12.7%. Females were slightly more hyperopic than males, and the 9-11 years age group was the most hyperopic. Mennonite and mixed race children were more hyperopic than indigenous children. CONCLUSIONS: Paraguayan children were remarkably hyperopic and relatively free of myopia. Differences with regard to gender, age, and ethnicity were small.

  16. Factors influencing the motor development of prematurely born school-aged children in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Rafaela S; Magalhães, Lívia C; Dourado, Jordana S; Lemos, Stela M A; Alves, Claudia R L

    2014-09-01

    Despite technological advances in neonatology, premature children are still susceptible to disruptions in neurological development. The current study aimed to analyze the factors that influence motor development in prematurely born school-aged children in Brazil. This cross-sectional study involved 100 "apparently normal" children, aged 8-10 years, born at less than 35 weeks of gestation or with birth weightmotor development was assessed using the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (MABC-2). The children's neuropsychological and academic performance was assessed with the Token Test (TT) and Teste de Desempenho Escolar (TDE), respectively. Parents answered questions regarding the child's clinical history and behavior using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) and family environment resources (RAF). Hierarchical multivariate analyses revealed that 39% of the children scored lower on the MABC-2, as compared to that expected for their age (manual dexterity: 49%; balance: 35%; throwing/catching a ball: 26%). Multivariate analysis indicated that the lower the birth weight, the maternal age at childbirth, and the RAF score, the greater was the chance of impairment on the MABC-2 scores. The probability of having an impairment MABC-2 scores was four times higher when the mother was not employed. We also found associations between MABC-2 scores and the tasks of tying shoes and opening/closing zippers and buttons. Factors related to children's home environments and birth weight are associated with deficient motor performance in prematurely born Brazilian school-aged children. Deficient motor skills were also associated with difficulty in performing functional tasks requiring greater manual dexterity.

  17. Impact of sociodemographic factors on cognitive function in school-aged HIV-infected Nigerian children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyede GO

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Gbemisola O Boyede,1,2 Foluso EA Lesi,2 Veronica C Ezeaka,2 Charles S Umeh3 1Division of Developmental Paediatrics, School of Child and Adolescent Health, Red Cross War Memorial Children’s Hospital, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa; 2Department of Paediatrics, 3Clinical Psychology Unit, Department of Psychiatry, Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Lagos, Nigeria Background: In this study, we sought to evaluate the influence of sociodemographic factors, ie, age, sex, socioeconomic status, maternal education, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV status, on cognitive performance in school-aged HIV-infected Nigerian children. Methods: Sixty-nine HIV-positive children aged 6–15 years were matched with 69 HIV-negative control children for age and sex. The children were subdivided for the purpose of analysis into two cognitive developmental stages using Piaget’s staging, ie, the concrete operational stage (6–11 years and the formal operational stage (12–15 years. All participants underwent cognitive assessment using Raven’s Standard Progressive Matrices (RPM. Sociodemographic data for the study participants, ie, age, sex, socioeconomic status, and level of maternal education, were obtained using a study proforma. Logistic regression analyses were used to determine associations of HIV status and sociodemographic characteristics with RPM cognitive scores. Results: The overall mean RPM score for the HIV-positive children was 18.2 ± 9.8 (range 8.0–47.0 which was significantly lower than the score of 27.2 ± 13.8 (range 8.0–52.0 for the HIV-negative children (P < 0.001. On RPM grading, 56.5% of the HIV-positive children had cognitive performance at below average to intellectually defective range. Below average RPM scores were found to be significantly associated with younger age (6–11 years, positive HIV status, lower socioeconomic status, and low level of maternal education. Conclusion: Younger age, poor socioeconomic

  18. Dental age assessment: The applicability of Demirjian method in southwestern of eastern Anatolia region Turkish children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oğuzhan Altun

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available

    Objectives: Age estimation plays an important role in forensic medicine and orthodontics. Many methods of age estimation have been suggested. Demirjian method is the most frequently used one of these. In the literature, there is a little known about applicability of this method in Turkish children. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the reliability of Demirjian method of dental age estimaiton and for description of mandibular permanent tooth formation in Turkish children from the southwest Eastern Anatolia region.

    Materials and Methods: A retrospective study was performed on 1015 panoramic radiographs and 5-15 years of age South western of Eastern Anatolia Regionof Turkish children. The stages of dental maturity of the mandibular left seven permanent teeth for each subject using the eight radiographic dental maturity stages demonstrated by Demirjian’s method were evaluated. A pired t-test was used for statistical analysis.

    Results: The mean difference between the chronological and dental ages ranged 0,28 to 1,10 years in boys and from 0,18 to 0,68 years in girls. South western of Eastern Anatolia Region ofTurkish children were generally delayed in dental maturity compared with children in Demirjian sample. The differences between the chronological and dental ages were statistically significant in 6-6.9, 8-8.9, 9-9.9, 10-10.9, 11-11.9 years in boys and in 8-8.9, 9-9.9,11-11.9 years in girls.

    Conclusions: Turkish children from the southwest Eastern Anatolia region are significantly more delayed in dental maturity compared to Demirjian’s French-Canadian sample. The applicability of Demirjian data is not suitable for Southwestern of Eastern Anatolia Region of Turkish children.

  19. Energy and nutrient intake in preschool and school age Mexican children: National Nutrition Survey 1999

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barquera Simón

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To estimate energy and nutrient intake and adequacy in preschool and school age Mexican children, using the National Nutrition Survey 1999 (NNS-1999. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty four-h dietary recalls from pre-school (n=1 309 and school (n=2 611 children obtained from a representative sub-sample of the NNS-1999 were analyzed. Intakes and adequacies were estimated and compared across four regions, socio-economic strata, and between urban and rural areas, and indigenous vs. non-indigenous children. RESULTS: Median energy intake in pre-school children was 949 kcal and in school children 1 377 kcal, with adequacies 150% in both age groups. The North and Mexico City regions had the highest fat intake and the lowest fiber intake. Children in the South region, indigenous children, and those in the lowest socio-economic stratum had higher fiber and carbohydrate intakes and the lowest fat intake. These children also showed the highest risks of inadequacies for vitamin A, vitamin C, folate, iron, zinc and calcium. CONCLUSIONS: Mexico is experiencing a nutrition transition with internal inequalities across regions and socio-economic strata. Food policy must account for these differences in order to optimize resources directed at social programs.

  20. Age of Diagnosis Influences Serologic Responses in Children with Crohn Disease: A Possible Clue to Etiology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markowitz, James; Kugathasan, Subra; Dubinsky, Marla; Mei, Ling; Crandall, Wallace; LeLeiko, Neal; Oliva-Hemker, Maria; Rosh, Joel; Evans, Jonathan; Mack, David; Otley, Anthony; Pfefferkorn, Marian; Bahar, Ron; Vasiliauskas, Eric; Wahbeh, Ghassan; Silber, Gary; Quiros, J. Antonio; Wrobel, Iwona; Nebel, Justin; Landers, Carol; Picornell, Yoanna; Targan, Stephan; Lerer, Trudy; Hyams, Jeffrey

    2009-01-01

    Crohn disease (CD) is often associated with antibodies to microbial antigens. Differences in immune response may offer clues to the pathogenesis of the disease. AIM To examine the influence of age at diagnosis on serologic response in children with CD. METHODS Data were drawn from 3 North American multicenter pediatric IBD research consortia. At or shortly after diagnosis, pANCA, ASCA IgA, ASCA IgG, anti-ompC and anti-CBir1 were assayed. Results were compared as a function of age at CD diagnosis (0–7 years vs 8–15 years). RESULTS 705 children (79 <8 yr of age at diagnosis, 626 ≥8yr) were studied. Small bowel CD was less frequent in the younger group (48.7% vs 72.6%; p<0.0001) while colonic involvement was comparable (91.0% vs 86.5%). ASCA IgA and IgG were seen in <20% of those 0–7 yr compared to nearly 40% of those 8–15 yr (p<0.001), while anti-CBir1 was more frequent in the younger children (66% vs 54%, p<0.05). Anti-CBir1 detected a significant number of children in both age groups who otherwise were serologically negative. Both age at diagnosis and site of CD involvement were independently associated with expression of ASCA and anti-CBir1. CONCLUSIONS Compared to children 8–15 yr of age at diagnosis, those 0–7 yr are more likely to express anti-CBir1 but only half as likely to express ASCA. These age-associated differences in antimicrobial seropositivity suggest that there may be different, and as yet unrecognized, genetic, immunologic and/or microbial factors leading to CD in the youngest children. PMID:19107777

  1. Age-Related Increases in Motivation among Children with Mental Retardation and MA- and CA-Matched Controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Clancy; Greenberg, Mark; Crnic, Keith

    2001-01-01

    Child positive affect and task orientation in response to cognitively demanding puzzle tasks were assessed at two time points separated by 12 months in children with mild mental retardation and mental age and chronological age matched controls (ages 1-5 years). Results suggested correlates of motivation were similar for children with mild mental…

  2. The relation among sleep duration, homework burden, and sleep hygiene in chinese school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wan-Qi; Spruyt, Karen; Chen, Wen-Juan; Jiang, Yan-Rui; Schonfeld, David; Adams, Ryan; Tseng, Chia-Huei; Shen, Xiao-Ming; Jiang, Fan

    2014-09-01

    Insufficient sleep in school-aged children is common in modern society, with homework burden being a potential risk factor. The aim of this article is to explore the effect of sleep hygiene on the association between homework and sleep duration. Children filled out the Chinese version of the Adolescent Sleep Hygiene Scale, and parents filled out a sociodemographic questionnaire. The final sample included 363 boys and 371 girls with a mean age of 10.82 ± 0.38 years. Children with more homework went to bed later and slept less. Better sleep hygiene was associated with earlier bedtimes and longer sleep duration. Findings suggest that homework burden had a larger effect on sleep duration than sleep hygiene. Fifth-grade children in Shanghai have an excessive homework burden, which overwrites the benefit of sleep hygiene on sleep duration. PMID:24188543

  3. Association of Eating Behavior With Nutritional Status and Body Composition in Primary School-Aged Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Chee Wee; Chin, Yit Siew; Lee, Shoo Thien; Khouw, Ilse; Poh, Bee Koon

    2016-07-01

    Problematic eating behaviors during childhood may lead to positive energy balance and obesity. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the association of eating behaviors with nutritional status and body composition in Malaysian children aged 7 to 12 years. A total of 1782 primary schoolchildren were randomly recruited from 6 regions in Malaysia. The multidimensional Children's Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ) was reported by parents to determine the 8 different dimensions of eating styles among children. Body mass index (BMI), BMI-for-age Z-score, waist circumference, and body fat percentage were assessed. Linear regression analyses revealed that both food responsiveness and desire to drink subscales were positively associated with a child's body adiposity, whereas satiety responsiveness, slowness in eating, and emotional undereating subscales were negatively associated with adiposity (all P Malaysian children. PMID:27252248

  4. Association of Eating Behavior With Nutritional Status and Body Composition in Primary School-Aged Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Chee Wee; Chin, Yit Siew; Lee, Shoo Thien; Khouw, Ilse; Poh, Bee Koon

    2016-07-01

    Problematic eating behaviors during childhood may lead to positive energy balance and obesity. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the association of eating behaviors with nutritional status and body composition in Malaysian children aged 7 to 12 years. A total of 1782 primary schoolchildren were randomly recruited from 6 regions in Malaysia. The multidimensional Children's Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ) was reported by parents to determine the 8 different dimensions of eating styles among children. Body mass index (BMI), BMI-for-age Z-score, waist circumference, and body fat percentage were assessed. Linear regression analyses revealed that both food responsiveness and desire to drink subscales were positively associated with a child's body adiposity, whereas satiety responsiveness, slowness in eating, and emotional undereating subscales were negatively associated with adiposity (all P obesity problems among Malaysian children.

  5. Gestational age and birth weight in relation to school performance of 10-year-old children: a follow-up study of children born after 32 completed weeks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Ida; Obel, Carsten; Hedegaard, Morten;

    2006-01-01

    after 32 completed weeks and birth weight in relation to the child's school performance at the age of 10 years. METHODS: We performed a follow-up study of 5319 children born between January 1990 and June 1992. We got the information on birth weight and gestational age from birth registration forms; when......BACKGROUND: Children born extremely premature (school performance than children born at term with a normal birth weight. Much less is known about children of higher gestational ages and birth weights. We studied gestational age...... the children were between 9 and 11 years of age, we gathered information about their school performance (reading, spelling, and arithmetic) from questionnaires completed by the parents and the children's primary school teachers. RESULTS: The association between birth weight and reading, as well as spelling...

  6. Children With Disability Are More at Risk of Violence Victimization: Evidence From a Study of School-Aged Chinese Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Ko Ling; Emery, Clifton R; Ip, Patrick

    2016-03-01

    Although research tends to focus on whether children with disability are more at risk of violence victimization, conclusive evidence on the association, especially in non-Western settings, is lacking. Using a large and representative sample of school-aged children in Hong Kong (N = 5,841, aged 9-18 years), this study aims to fill the research gap by providing reliable estimates of the prevalence of disability and the direct and indirect experiences of violence among children with disability. The study also compares the prevalence of child maltreatment, parental intimate partner violence (IPV), and in-law conflict to explore the factors related to the association between disability and violence victimization. The prevalence of disability among children was about 6%. Children with disability were more likely to report victimization than those without disability: 32% to 60% of the former had experienced child maltreatment, and 12% to 46% of them had witnessed IPV between parents or in-law conflict. The results of a logistic regression showed that disability increased the risk of lifetime physical maltreatment by 1.6 times. Furthermore, low levels of parental education and paternal unemployment were risk factors for lifetime child maltreatment. The risk of child maltreatment could have an almost sixfold increase when the child had also witnessed other types of family violence. Possible explanations and implications of the findings are discussed.

  7. Children With Disability Are More at Risk of Violence Victimization: Evidence From a Study of School-Aged Chinese Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Ko Ling; Emery, Clifton R; Ip, Patrick

    2016-03-01

    Although research tends to focus on whether children with disability are more at risk of violence victimization, conclusive evidence on the association, especially in non-Western settings, is lacking. Using a large and representative sample of school-aged children in Hong Kong (N = 5,841, aged 9-18 years), this study aims to fill the research gap by providing reliable estimates of the prevalence of disability and the direct and indirect experiences of violence among children with disability. The study also compares the prevalence of child maltreatment, parental intimate partner violence (IPV), and in-law conflict to explore the factors related to the association between disability and violence victimization. The prevalence of disability among children was about 6%. Children with disability were more likely to report victimization than those without disability: 32% to 60% of the former had experienced child maltreatment, and 12% to 46% of them had witnessed IPV between parents or in-law conflict. The results of a logistic regression showed that disability increased the risk of lifetime physical maltreatment by 1.6 times. Furthermore, low levels of parental education and paternal unemployment were risk factors for lifetime child maltreatment. The risk of child maltreatment could have an almost sixfold increase when the child had also witnessed other types of family violence. Possible explanations and implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:25542523

  8. THE CORRECTION AND DEVELOPMENT OF INTERPERSONAL RELATIONS THROUGH CREATIVE PLAY AMONG CHILDREN UNDER SCHOOL AGE HAVING GENERAL UNDERDEVELOPMENT OF SPEECH

    OpenAIRE

    Serebryakova, Olga

    2011-01-01

    The article offers the results of the work with children having general underdevelopment of speech of the third level. Playing activity is represented as a means for correcting and developing interpersonal relations among children under school age. The elaborated methods are based on creative play and aimed at teaching children to be able to control their behaviour, solve conflict situations, and trust the children of the same age.

  9. Evaluation of the thyroid blood flow with Doppler ultrasonography in healthy school-aged children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yazici, Burhan [Department of Radiology, Duzce University School of Medicine, Konuralp, Duzce 81620 (Turkey)], E-mail: dryazici@yahoo.com; Simsek, Enver [Department of Pediatrics, Duzce University School of Medicine, Konuralp, Duzce (Turkey); Erdogmus, Besir [Department of Radiology, Duzce University School of Medicine, Konuralp, Duzce 81620 (Turkey); Bahcebasi, Talat [Department of Public Health, Duzce University School of Medicine, Konuralp, Duzce (Turkey); Aktas, Alev [Department of Pediatrics, Duzce University School of Medicine, Konuralp, Duzce (Turkey); Buyukkaya, Ramazan [Department of Radiology, Duzce University School of Medicine, Konuralp, Duzce 81620 (Turkey); Uzun, Hakan [Department of Pediatrics, Duzce University School of Medicine, Konuralp, Duzce (Turkey); Safak, Alp Alper [Department of Radiology, Duzce University School of Medicine, Konuralp, Duzce 81620 (Turkey)

    2007-08-15

    Objective: To determine the relationship between thyroid blood flow and anthropometric measurements, pubertal stage, and thyroid and gonadotropic hormones. Materials and methods: We examined 123 healthy school-aged children prospectively (69 boys (56.1%) and 54 girls (43.9%), 7-17 years old). Their sex, age, body weight, height, body mass index (BMI), and pubertal stage were determined. Serum thyrotropin, free thyroxine, luteinizing hormone, and follicle stimulating hormone were measured in both genders, along with testosterone in boys and estradiol in girls. The peak systolic velocity (PSV), resistance index (RI), and pulsatility index (PI) of the superior thyroid artery were determined. The correlations between the Doppler parameters and these factors were investigated. Results: There were no differences in age, weight, height, BMI, thyroid volume, PSV, RI, or PI between boys and girls (P > 0.05). The PSV and PI showed strong correlations with age, height, weight, puberty stage, thyroid volume, and BMI. The RI showed a strong inverse correlation with age, height, weight, puberty stage, and thyroid volume and a weak inverse correlation with the BMI. Conclusion: Determination of the thyroid arterial flow in normal healthy children is important during a Doppler ultrasound (US) examination. Doppler US parameters and their percentiles should be described in healthy children from different age groups, and these percentiles will aid in interpreting Doppler US in children.

  10. Bone age assessment for young children from newborn to 7-year-old using carpal bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Aifeng; Gertych, Arkadiusz; Liu, Brent J.; Huang, H. K.

    2007-03-01

    A computer-aided-diagnosis (CAD) method has been previously developed based on features extracted from phalangeal regions of interest (ROI) in a digital hand atlas, which can assess bone age of children from ages 7 to 18 accurately. Therefore, in order to assess the bone age of children in younger ages, the inclusion of carpal bones is necessary. In this paper, we developed and implemented a knowledge-based method for fully automatic carpal bone segmentation and morphological feature analysis. Fuzzy classification was then used to assess the bone age based on the selected features. Last year, we presented carpal bone segmentation algorithm. This year, research works on procedures after carpal bone segmentation including carpal bone identification, feature analysis and fuzzy system for bone age assessment is presented. This method has been successfully applied on all cases in which carpal bones have not overlapped. CAD results of total about 205 cases from the digital hand atlas were evaluated against subject chronological age as well as readings of two radiologists. It was found that the carpal ROI provides reliable information in determining the bone age for young children from newborn to 7-year-old.

  11. Daily Stressors in School-Age Children: A Multilevel Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, Milagros; Alarcón, Rafael; Blanca, María J.; Fernández-Baena, F. Javier; Rosel, Jesús F.; Trianes, María Victoria

    2013-01-01

    This study uses hierarchical or multilevel modeling to identify variables that contribute to daily stressors in a population of schoolchildren. Four hierarchical levels with several predictive variables were considered: student (age, sex, social adaptation of the student, number of life events and chronic stressors experienced, and educational…

  12. Moderately preterm children need attention! : Behavior and development of moderately preterm children at toddler age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, M.

    2016-01-01

    Every year, more than 10.000 children in the Netherlands are born moderately preterm after 32 to 36+6 weeks of gestation, which is 6.1% of all births. These children are at risk for difficulties on the short and long term. Previous studies especially found academic problems and difficulties in atten

  13. Preparing Books for Children from Birth through Age Six: A New Children's Reality Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çer, Erkan

    2016-01-01

    Works of literature for children are supposed to give prominence to the child's self. In other words, the level of the works is expected to be appropriate to the characteristics of this demographic. In works of children's literature, the prominence of adults and their worlds along with their ideological, religious, and traditional statements,…

  14. The intelligence quotient of school aged children delivered by cesarean section and vaginal delivery

    OpenAIRE

    Khadem, Nayereh; Khadivzadeh, Talaat

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There has always been an asking question with physicians and health staff whether delivery mode can effect on child intelligence. This study was conducted to compare the intelligence quotient (IQ) of school aged children delivered by cesarean section and vaginal delivery in Mashhad, Iran. METHODS: This study conducted in two stages; a cross-sectional section in which 5000 randomly selected children, who were 6-7 years old, attended at 10 Cognitive Examination Posts in Mashhad. The...

  15. Functional performance of school children diagnosed with developmental delay up to two years of age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dornelas, Lílian de Fátima; Magalhães, Lívia de Castro

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To compare the functional performance of students diagnosed with developmental delay (DD) up to two years of age with peers exhibiting typical development. Methods: Cross-sectional study with functional performance assessment of children diagnosed with DD up to two years of age compared to those with typical development at seven to eight years of age. Each group consisted of 45 children, selected by non-random sampling, evaluated for motor skills, quality of home environment, school participation and performance. ANOVA and the Binomial test for two proportions were used to assess differences between groups. Results: The group with DD had lower motor skills when compared to the typical group. While 66.7% of children in the typical group showed adequate school participation, receiving aid in cognitive and behavioral tasks similar to that offered to other children at the same level, only 22.2% of children with DD showed the same performance. Although 53.3% of the children with DD achieved an academic performance expected for the school level, there were limitations in some activities. Only two indicators of family environment, diversity and activities with parents at home, showed statistically significant difference between the groups, with advantage being shown for the typical group. Conclusions: Children with DD have persistent difficulties at school age, with motor deficit, restrictions in school activity performance and low participation in the school context, as well as significantly lower functional performance when compared to children without DD. A systematic monitoring of this population is recommended to identify needs and minimize future problems. PMID:26553573

  16. Psychosocial coping resources in elementary school-age children of divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, L

    1994-10-01

    The psychosocial coping resources of elementary school-age children living in the sole custody of a divorced single parent were compared with those of their peers living with nondivorced parents. Children of divorced parents were found to have lower levels of self-efficacy, self-esteem, and social support, and less effectual coping styles. Contact with the noncustodial parent was found to have a positive influence on their attitudes toward divorce.

  17. Functional performance of school children diagnosed with developmental delay up to two years of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lílian de Fátima Dornelas

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To compare the functional performance of students diagnosed with developmental delay (DD up to two years of age with peers exhibiting typical development. Methods: Cross-sectional study with functional performance assessment of children diagnosed with DD up to two years of age compared to those with typical development at seven to eight years of age. Each group consisted of 45 children, selected by non-random sampling, evaluated for motor skills, quality of home environment, school participation and performance. ANOVA and the Binomial test for two proportions were used to assess differences between groups. Results: The group with DD had lower motor skills when compared to the typical group. While 66.7% of children in the typical group showed adequate school participation, receiving aid in cognitive and behavioral tasks similar to that offered to other children at the same level, only 22.2% of children with DD showed the same performance. Although 53.3% of the children with DD achieved an academic performance expected for the school level, there were limitations in some activities. Only two indicators of family environment, diversity and activities with parents at home, showed statistically significant difference between the groups, with advantage being shown for the typical group. Conclusions: Children with DD have persistent difficulties at school age, with motor deficit, restrictions in school activity performance and low participation in the school context, as well as significantly lower functional performance when compared to children without DD. A systematic monitoring of this population is recommended to identify needs and minimize future problems.

  18. Psychosocial coping resources in elementary school-age children of divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, L

    1994-10-01

    The psychosocial coping resources of elementary school-age children living in the sole custody of a divorced single parent were compared with those of their peers living with nondivorced parents. Children of divorced parents were found to have lower levels of self-efficacy, self-esteem, and social support, and less effectual coping styles. Contact with the noncustodial parent was found to have a positive influence on their attitudes toward divorce. PMID:7847571

  19. Hypnosis for treatment of insomnia in school-age children: a retrospective chart review

    OpenAIRE

    Slothower Molly P; Anbar Ran D

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background The purposes of this study are to document psychosocial stressors and medical conditions associated with development of insomnia in school-age children and to report use of hypnosis for this condition. Methods A retrospective chart review was performed for 84 children and adolescents with insomnia, excluding those with central or obstructive sleep apnea. All patients were offered and accepted instruction in self-hypnosis for treatment of insomnia, and for other symptoms if...

  20. Total Fluoride Intake and Urinary Excretion in German Children Aged 3–6 Years

    OpenAIRE

    Haftenberger, Marjolein; Viergutz, Gabriele; Neumeister, Volker; Hetzer, Gisela

    2014-01-01

    There have only been few investigations comparing total fluoride intake and the fluoride proportion excreted in urine in pre–school children. In addition, the results of available studies are conflicting. Total fluoride intake was assessed in 11 healthy children aged 3–6 years on 2 consecutive days and urinary fluoride excretion was determined. The duplicate–diet approach was used for the assessment of fluoride intake from solid and liquid foods. Fluoride intake from toothbrushing was calcula...

  1. Asthma at 8 years of age in children born by caesarean section.

    OpenAIRE

    Roduit, C.; Scholtens, S.; Jongste, de, J.C.; Wijga, A H; Gerritsen, J.; Postma, D. S.; Brunekreef, B; Hoekstra, M.O.; Aalberse, R; Smit, H. A.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Caesarean section might be a risk factor for asthma because of delayed microbial colonisation, but the association remains controversial. A study was undertaken to investigate prospectively whether children born by caesarean section are more at risk of having asthma in childhood and sensitisation at the age of 8 years, taking into account the allergic status of the parents. METHODS: 2917 children who participated in a birth cohort study were followed for 8 years. The definition of...

  2. Effects of a preterm birth: : Kinematics, lateralization and cognitive function in school-aged children

    OpenAIRE

    Dahlström, Carolin; Nygård, Malin

    2014-01-01

    Premature birth is a well-known risk factor for deviations in neurodevelopment. The aim of this study was to investigate possible long-term effects of preterm birth. Associations was to be investigated between preterm birth and kinematics, lateralization and cognitive function among 40 children born preterm (PT) compared to 48 age-matched children born full-term (FT). Kinematics was registered by a goal-directed task (pressing buttons in sequences, uni- or bimanually). Cognitive function was ...

  3. Patterns of anxiety symptoms in toddlers and preschool-age children: Evidence of early differentiation

    OpenAIRE

    Mian, Nicholas D.; Godoy, Leandra; Briggs-Gowan, Margaret J.; Alice S. Carter

    2011-01-01

    The degree to which young children’s anxiety symptoms differentiate according to diagnostic groupings is under-studied, especially in children below the age of 4 years. Theoretical (confirmatory factor analysis, CFA) and statistical (exploratory factor analysis, EFA) analytical methods were employed to test the hypothesis that anxiety symptoms among 2–3-year-old children from a non-clinical, representative sample would differentiate in a manner consistent with current diagnostic nosology. Anx...

  4. Sedentary lifestyle and passive leisure in Czech school-aged children

    OpenAIRE

    Zdeněk Hamřík; Kalman Michal; Daniela Bobáková; Sigmund Erik

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sedentary behaviour and an insufficient level of physical activity in children are the key factors leading to physically inactive behaviour in adulthood associated with the growing prevalence of mass non-communicable diseases in the population of the Czech Republic. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to analyze sedentary lifestyle, focusing on passive leisure (time spent watching television and using computer) in school-aged children in the Czech Republic. METHODS: To determine...

  5. PALME: a preventive parental training program for single mothers with preschool aged children

    OpenAIRE

    Franz, Matthias; Weihrauch, Lonja; Schäfer, Ralf

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Aim Single mothers are exposed to various psychosocial risks. They suffer more frequently from chronic diseases, depression and elevated stress levels. These risk factors also have an impact on their children, who more often display adaptation or behaviour problems. Thus, an efficient parental training program designed for the needs and problems of single mothers and their preschool-aged children was targeted for development. The concept of PALME...

  6. Determination of the functional status of vestibular apparatus at children aged 5-6 years old.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moiseenko E.K.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The physiological methods of determination of the functional state of vestibular analyzer are considered. The indexes of systole and diastole pressure, frequencies of heart-throbs, are chosen. Methods were used before and after standard vestibular irritation. Research was conducted on the base of child's preschool establishment. In it took part 120 children in age 5 - 6 years. Insufficient development of vestibular analyzer is set for children. Selected exercise for the improvement of spatial orientation and statodynamic stability.

  7. [Self-reported Anxiety and Regulation Strategies in Primary School-age Children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Yvonne; Kolmorgen, Katja; Andreas, Anna; Köppe, Claudia; von Klitzing, Kai; Klein, Annette M

    2015-01-01

    We examined the self-reported anxiety in different situations (social anxiety, cognitive fears, fears of injury) and the use of regulation strategies (problem orientation, problem avoidance and seeking social support) in a sample of N=175 primary school children (mean age 8 years 4 months). At time of recruitment we oversampled for children with internalizing symptoms. In addition, mothers rated the overall anxiety of their children. According to their mothers 14.3% of the children showed anxiety symptoms in an abnormal range which is comparable to prevalence rates of children from population samples. 19.4% of the children described themselves as being anxious in an abnormal range. The correlations between different measures of children's self-reported anxieties were low to moderate. We found no significant correlations between mothers' and children's reports. The higher children's self-reported overall and cognitive anxiety, the more frequently they reported seeking social support in frightening situations. Girls reported more frequently pm cognitive fears than boys. Regarding regulation strategies we found that boys reported more problem orientation than girls whereas girls reported more social support seeking than boys. The results are discussed and practical implications are outlined.

  8. Social Interactions of School-Aged Children With CFA: Mothers' Perspectives and Advice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Tovah P; Pope, Alice; Abbott, Rebecca

    2014-05-01

    Objective : To learn about (1) mothers' perspectives on their children's social experiences and (2) how mothers interpret social situations and provide guidance to their children in challenging situations. Design : This was a qualitative study analyzing narratives. Mothers participated in a semistructured interview; mothers and their children participated in a social coaching task involving responses to hypothetical situations. Transcripts of audio recordings were used to create thematic coding categories, and transcripts were reviewed and coded. Setting : Children were patients at a reconstructive plastic surgery center in an urban hospital and medical school; families were recruited from a regional support group associated with the hospital. Participants : Mothers of nine children with congenital craniofacial anomalies, aged 9 to 14 years. Main Outcome Measures : Thematic narrative coding categories, focusing on mothers' perspectives on children's actual social experiences (from the interview) and mothers' advice and interpretations regarding challenging hypothetical social tasks (from the coaching task). Results : In the interviews, mothers reported positive and negative social experiences for their children. Multiple approaches were used by mothers to interpret social interactions experienced by children (interview) and hypothetical social situations (coaching task). These included consideration of situational factors, motivations of others, and factors within own child. Mothers' hypothetical advice was often prosocial, including concrete strategies to resolve conflict, to plan ways to avoid problems, to foster self-reliance, and to avoid hurtful situations. Conclusions : Mothers showed active interest and concern in their children's peer relationships and were thoughtful in devising strategies to successfully manage potential social challenges. PMID:24003837

  9. Growth curve analyses of the relationship between early maternal age and children's mathematics and reading performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, D Diego

    2015-03-01

    Regarding the methods used to examine the early maternal age-child academic outcomes relationship, the extant literature has tended to examine change using statistical analyses that fail to appreciate that individuals vary in their rates of growth. Of the one study I have been able to find that employs a true growth model to estimate this relationship, the authors only controlled for characteristics of the maternal household after family formation; confounding background factors of mothers that might select them into early childbearing, a possible source of bias, were ignored. The authors' findings nonetheless suggested an inverse relationship between early maternal age, i.e., a first birth between the ages of 13 and 17, and Canadian adolescents' mean math performance at age 10. Early maternal age was not related to the linear slope of age. To elucidate whether the early maternal age-child academic outcomes association, treated in a growth context, is consistent with this finding, the present study built on it using US data and explored children's mathematics and reading trajectories from age 5 on. Its unique contribution is that it further explicitly controlled for maternal background factors and employed a three-level growth model with repeated measures of children nested within their mothers. Though the strength of the relationship varied between mean initial academic performance and mean academic growth, results confirmed that early maternal age was negatively related to children's mathematics and reading achievement, net of post-teen first birth child-specific and maternal household factors. Once maternal background factors were included, there was no statistically significant relationship between early maternal age and either children's mean initial mathematics and reading scores or their mean mathematics and reading growth. PMID:25592941

  10. Fecal calprotectin concentrations in healthy children aged 1-18 months.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Li

    Full Text Available Fecal calprotectin (FC is an established biomarker of gut inflammation. The aim of this study was to evaluate FC concentrations in healthy children between 1 and 18 months of age.Healthy children aged 1-18 months were enrolled in this study at the Department of Children's Health Care in Shanghai, China. Children's stool samples were collected and analyzed, and FC concentration was determined using a commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. The children's weights and lengths were measured. Parents were asked to complete a brief questionnaire regarding several clinical and sociodemographic factors.The FC concentrations were unevenly distributed; the median FC concentration was 174.3 μg/g (range: 6.0-1097.7 μg/g or 2.241 log10 μg/g (range: 0.775-3.041 log10 μg/g for all 288 children. The children were divided into several age groups: 1-3 months, 3-6 months, 6-9 months, 9-12 months and 12-18 months. The median FC concentrations for these age groups were 375.2 μg/g (2.574 log10 μg/g, 217.9 μg/g (2.338 log10 μg/g, 127.7 μg/g (2.106 log10 μg/g, 96.1 μg/g (1.983 log10 μg/g and 104.2 μg/g (2.016 log10 μg/g, respectively. A significant correlation between age and FC concentration was found (r=-0.490, p4 years.

  11. Peanut allergy in Mexican children: what is the effect of age at first consumption?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedolla Barajas, Martín; Alcala-Padilla, Guadalupe; Morales Romero, Jaime; Camacho Fregoso, Jupiter; Rivera Mejía, Víctor

    2016-02-01

    Studies suggest that children who start solid foods early are at risk for developing food allergies. Herein, we evaluated the effects of the introduction of peanuts to the diets of children on emerging peanut allergies. Children with allergic rhinitis and asthma were enrolled in the present study and evaluated in four stages. In the first stage, a clinical history was completed for all participants. In the second stage, skin tests were conducted to detect the sensitization to peanuts. In the third stage, the parents were interviewed about the peanut-eating habits of their children. In the fourth stage, children with a convincing history of allergy or a positive peanut skin test result were subjected to an open oral food challenge (OOFC). Three hundred children in four groups were included, 58.2% of the subjects were male, and the mean age was 7.3±3.9 years. The median age of first exposure to peanuts in patients with peanut allergies was greater than that in children without peanut allergies (2 years versus 1 year; p=0.009). The multivariate analysis, including only those children subjected to the OOFC, revealed that the consumption of peanuts after the age of ≥2 years is a risk factor for developing a peanut allergy (odds ratio=8.0, 95% confidence interval 1.3-50.0, p=0.026). The results of the present study showed that the late introduction of peanuts to children increases the risk of developing a peanut allergy. PMID:26996112

  12. Neuropsychological Impairment in School-Aged Children Born to Mothers With Gestational Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolaños, Lourdes; Matute, Esmeralda; Ramírez-Dueñas, María de Lourdes; Zarabozo, Daniel

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether school-aged children born to mothers with gestational diabetes show delays in their neuropsychological development. Several key neuropsychological characteristics of 32 children aged 7 to 9 years born to mothers with gestational diabetes were examined by comparing their performance on cognitive tasks to that of 28 children aged 8 to 10 years whose mothers had glucose levels within normal limits during pregnancy. The gestational diabetes group showed low performance on graphic, spatial, and bimanual skills and a higher presence of soft neurologic signs. Lower scores for general intellectual level and the working memory index were also evident. Our results suggest that gestational diabetes is associated with mild cognitive impairment. PMID:25814475

  13. Daytime Secretion of Salivary Cortisol and Alpha-Amylase in Preschool-Aged Children with Autism and Typically Developing Children

    OpenAIRE

    Kidd, Sharon A.; Corbett, Blythe A.; Granger, Douglas A.; Boyce, W. Thomas; Anders, Thomas F.; Tager, Ira B

    2012-01-01

    We examined daytime salivary cortisol and salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) secretion levels and variability in preschool-aged children with autism (AUT) and typically developing children (TYP). Fifty-two subjects (26 AUT and 26 TYP) were enrolled. Salivary samples were obtained at waking, midday, and bedtime on two consecutive days at three phases (baseline, 3 months later, 6 months later). There were modest increases in waking cortisol and sAA levels in AUT relative to TYP, but the increases wer...

  14. Mental health and bullying in the United States among children aged 6 to 17 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedict, Frances Turcotte; Vivier, Patrick M; Gjelsvik, Annie

    2015-03-01

    This article examines the association between mental health disorders and being identified as a bully among children between the ages of 6 and 17 years. Data from the 2007 National Survey of Children's Health were examined. A total of 63,997 children had data for both parental reported mental health and bullying status. Bivariate analysis and logistic regression was performed to assess the association between mental health status and being identified as a bully with an age-stratified analysis and sub-analysis by type of mental health disorder. In 2007, 15.2% of U.S. children ages 6 to 17 years were identified as bullies by their parent or guardian. Children with a diagnosis of depression, anxiety, or depression had a threefold increased odds of being a bully. The diagnosis of depression is associated with a 3.31 increased odds (95% CI = [2.7, 4.07]) of being identified as a bully. Children with anxiety and attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) had similar odds. The diagnosis of a mental health disorder is strongly associated with being identified as a bully. In particular, depression, anxiety, and ADHD are strongly associated with being identified as a bully. These findings emphasize the importance of providing psychological support to not only victims of bullying but bullies as well. Understanding the risk profile of childhood bullies is essential in gaining a better grasp of this public health problem and in creating useful and appropriate resources and interventions to decrease bullying.

  15. Time knowledge acquisition in children aged 6 to 11 years and its relationship with numerical skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labrell, Florence; Mikaeloff, Yann; Perdry, Hervé; Dellatolas, Georges

    2016-03-01

    Acquisition of time knowledge (TK; the correct representation and use of time units) is linked to the development of numerical abilities, but this relationship has not been investigated in children. The current study examined the acquisition of TK and its association with numerical skills. A total of 105 children aged 6 to 11 years were interviewed with our Time Knowledge Questionnaire (TKQ), developed for purposes of this study, and the Zareki-R, a battery for the evaluation of number processing and mental calculation. The TKQ assessed conventional time knowledge (temporal orientation, temporal sequences, relationships between time units, and telling the time on a clock), estimation of longer durations related to birthday and life span, and estimation of the duration of the interview. Time knowledge increased with age, especially from 6 to 8 years, and was strongly linked to numerical skills. Regression analyses showed that four numerical components were implicated in TK: academic knowledge of numbers and number facts (e.g., reading Arabic numerals, mental calculation), number line estimation (e.g., correspondence between a number and a distance), contextual estimation (e.g., many/few leaves on a tree, children in a family), and numerical tasks involving verbal working memory (e.g., comparison of numbers presented orally). Numerical correlations with TK varied according to children's age; subtests based on academic knowledge of numbers, working memory, and number line estimation were linked with TK in the younger children, but only contextual estimation was associated with TK in the older children. PMID:26590852

  16. Comparative Study of Multimodal and Pharmacological Therapy in Treating School Aged Children with ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Bogdana MILEA

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, one of the most commonly diagnosed psychiatric disorders among school aged children, continues to create disputes between specialists, upon the best treatment to be used. The herby study aims to bring forward some differences that may exist between the efficacy of the multimodal treatment compared to the drug treatment of ADHD. The novelty component of this study, unfolded February 2010-July 2012, is that the children, their parents and also their teachers were included in the multimodality treatment. The children included in this research (n=63, aged 6-14 and ADHD diagnosed, were randomly assigned in two groups. In the medication (Med group (n=32 the children only received the specific pharmacological treatment (Atomoxetine or Methylphenidate, and for the multimodality (MM group (n=31 the therapy included psychosocial interventions besides the drug therapy. All children were evaluated, both pre and post intervention, with the Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment – ASEBA, for the 6-18 aged category. We have compared the influence of therapy on the core symptoms, on the adaptive functionality and academic performance and on the competences and social functioning of the children in the two groups. The multimodal intervention proved to be more effective (p<0.05 than medication alone, firstly in ameliorating the child’s social behavior in both family and school environment, than in what concerns the main ADHD symptoms. The children’s academic performance was little impacted by either of the two therapies.

  17. Homework schedule: an important factor associated with shorter sleep duration among Chinese school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shenghui; Yang, Qian; Chen, Zhe; Jin, Xingming; Jiang, Fan; Shen, Xiaoming

    2014-09-01

    This study was designed to examine the hypothesis that homework schedule has adverse impacts on Chinese children's sleep-wake habits and sleep duration. A random sample of 19,299 children aged 5.08 to 11.99 years old participated in a large, cross-sectional survey. A parent-administered questionnaire was completed to quantify children's homework schedule and sleep behaviors. Generally, it was demonstrated that more homework schedule was significantly associated with later bedtime, later wake time, and shorter sleep duration. Among all sleep variables, bedtime and sleep duration during weekdays appeared to be most affected by homework schedule, especially homework schedule during weekdays. PMID:24256420

  18. Daily physical activity and its relation to aerobic fitness in children aged 8-11 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencker, Magnus; Thorsson, Ola; Karlsson, Magnus K.;

    2006-01-01

    Abstract  A positive relationship between daily physical activity and aerobic fitness exists in adults. Studies in children have given conflicting results, possibly because of differences in methods used to assess daily physical activity and fitness. No study regarding daily physical activity...... and fitness in children has been published, where fitness has been assessed by direct measurement of maximum oxygen uptake and related to daily physical activity intensities by accelerometers. We examined 248 children (140 boys and 108 girls), aged 7.9-11.1 years. Maximum workload and maximal oxygen uptake...

  19. CLINICO – EPIDEMIOLOGY OF U TI IN UNDER 5 YEARS OF AGE IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonali

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infections (UTIs are a common , potentially serious , and often occult bacterial infections of childhood . UTI is more frequent in females than males at all ages with the exception of the neonatal period . Urinary tract infections imply invasion of urinary tract by pathogens which may involve the upper or lower urinary tract depending on the infection in kidney , bladder and urethra . OBJECTIVES: To determine the incidence of UTI in febrile children be low 5years of age and to know the aetiological profile of UTI among the same group of children with fever . METHODS: This cross sectional observational study included all febrile children from one month to 5years of age , admitted in Pediatric ward in MGM Me dical College , Kishanganj , Bihar . RESULTS: Overall incidence rate of UTI in the present study was 6% with maximum incidence in children <2years of age . Among culture positive cases majority (50% grew E . coli . DMSA revealed renal cortical scarring in 42 . 8 5% cases following UTI . CONCLUSION: From the present study it can be concluded that UTI is a common bacterial infection in infant and children . Rapid evaluation and treatment of UTI is important to prevent renal parenchymal damage and renal scarring or ren al failure .

  20. Development of fear acquisition and extinction in children: effects of age and anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanovic, Tanja; Nylocks, Karin Maria; Gamwell, Kaitlyn L; Smith, Ami; Davis, Telsie A; Norrholm, Seth Davin; Bradley, Bekh

    2014-09-01

    Development of anxiety disorders is associated with neurobiological changes in areas that are a critical part of the fear neurocircuitry. Fear conditioning paradigms can offer insight into the mechanisms underlying the neurobiological ontogeny of anxiety. A small number of studies have focused on the effects of age and anxiety separately in school age children. The present study aimed to investigate these effects in 8-13 year old children with higher and lower trait anxiety. We examined differential fear conditioning and extinction using skin conductance responses and fear-potentiated startle in 60 children recruited from a low-income urban population. The results indicated that children under 10 years of age show poor discrimination of conditioned stimuli, and that anxiety increases fear responses during fear acquisition. After controlling for age and trauma exposure, fear-potentiated startle to the safety cue predicted child anxiety levels suggesting that impaired safety signal learning may be a risk factor for anxiety disorders in adulthood. Identifying risk phenotypes in children may provide opportunities for early intervention and prevention of illness.

  1. Emergent literacy profiles of preschool-age children with specific language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabell, Sonia Q; Lomax, Richard G; Justice, Laura M; Breit-Smith, Allison; Skibbe, Lori E; McGinty, Anita S

    2010-12-01

    The primary aim of the present study was to explore the heterogeneity of emergent literacy skills among preschool-age children with specific language impairment (SLI) through examination of profiles of performance. Fifty-nine children with SLI were assessed on a battery of emergent literacy skills (i.e., alphabet knowledge, print concepts, emergent writing, rhyme awareness) and oral language skills (i.e., receptive/expressive vocabulary and grammar). Cluster analysis techniques identified three emergent literacy profiles: (1) Highest Emergent Literacy, Strength in Alphabet Knowledge; (2) Average Emergent Literacy, Strength in Print Concepts; and (3) Lowest Emergent Literacy across Skills. After taking into account the contribution of child age, receptive and expressive language skills made a small contribution to the prediction of profile membership. The present findings, which may be characterized as exploratory given the relatively modest sample size, suggest that preschool-age children with SLI display substantial individual differences with regard to their emergent literacy skills and that these differences cannot be fully determined by children's age or oral language performance. Replication of the present findings with a larger sample of children is needed.

  2. Health maintenance in school-aged children: Part II. Counseling recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Margaret; Locke, Amy B; Skye, Eric P

    2011-03-15

    School-aged children (kindergarten through early adolescence) are establishing patterns of behavior that may last a lifetime; therefore, it is important to counsel these patients about healthy lifestyle practices during well-child examinations. Children and families should be advised to eat a diet high in fruits, vegetables, whole grains, low-fat or nonfat dairy products, beans, fish, and lean meats, while limiting sugar, fast food, and highly processed foods. Children should engage in at least 60 minutes per day of moderate to vigorous physical activity, and screen time (e.g., television, computer, video games) should be limited to no more than one to two hours of quality programming daily. Most school-aged children require 11 hours of sleep per night. Decreased sleep is associated with behavioral issues, decreased concentration at school, and obesity. Children should brush their teeth twice per day with a toothpaste containing fluoride. Unintentional injury is the leading cause of death in this age group in the United States, and families should be counseled on traffic, water, sports, and firearm safety. Because high-risk behaviors may start in early adolescence, many experts recommend screening for tobacco, alcohol, and drug use beginning at 11 years of age. Sexually active adolescents should be counseled on protecting against sexually transmitted infections, and should be screened for these infections if indicated. PMID:21404979

  3. INCIDENCE OF STUTTERING IN SCHOOL-AGE CHILDREN WITH DOWN SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevzeta SALIHOVIĆ

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study was to examine the incidence (frequency and stuttering severity in the school-age children with Down syndrome. The sample was consisted of 37 school-age children with Down syndrome, both male and female. The study was conducted in the following institutions: Institute of Special Education and Rehabilitation for Children with Intellectual Disabilities "Mjedenica"; Centre for Education, Training and Employment of Mentally Retarded Children, Children with Autism and Cerebral palsy "Vladimir Nazor" in Sarajevo; Primary School of Special Education „Zenica“; Primary school "Kovačići" Sarajevo; "Association of United Civic Actions – DUGA" in Sarajevo; and The Association "Be my friend" in Ilijaš. All of the subjects were individually examined. The results showed that 13,51 % of the children with Down syndrome stuttered, and the total result of stuttering severity indicates a moderate stuttering. These results show that children with Down syndrome should be enrolled intensively in speech therapy in order to help them overcome their stuttering, to facilitate their everyday communication and to teach them how to cope with stuttering.

  4. Consonant acquisition in the Malay language: a cross-sectional study of preschool aged Malay children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phoon, Hooi San; Abdullah, Anna Christina; Lee, Lay Wah; Murugaiah, Puvaneswary

    2014-05-01

    To date, there has been little research done on phonological acquisition in the Malay language of typically developing Malay-speaking children. This study serves to fill this gap by providing a systematic description of Malay consonant acquisition in a large cohort of preschool-aged children between 4- and 6-years-old. In the study, 326 Malay-dominant speaking children were assessed using a picture naming task that elicited 53 single words containing all the primary consonants in Malay. Two main analyses were conducted to study their consonant acquisition: (1) age of customary and mastery production of consonants; and (2) consonant accuracy. Results revealed that Malay children acquired all the syllable-initial and syllable-final consonants before 4;06-years-old, with the exception of syllable-final /s/, /h/ and /l/ which were acquired after 5;06-years-old. The development of Malay consonants increased gradually from 4- to 6 years old, with female children performing better than male children. The accuracy of consonants based on manner of articulation showed that glides, affricates, nasals, and stops were higher than fricatives and liquids. In general, syllable-initial consonants were more accurate than syllable-final consonants while consonants in monosyllabic and disyllabic words were more accurate than polysyllabic words. These findings will provide significant information for speech-language pathologists for assessing Malay-speaking children and designing treatment objectives that reflect the course of phonological development in Malay.

  5. Radiological Findings in Children with Acute Pneumonia: Age More Important Than Infectious Agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate whether radiological findings and healing time in children with pneumonia are correlated to etiologic agent. Material and Methods: A total of 346 children with radiologically verified acute pneumonia, and with accomplished serological tests for bacteria and viruses, were included in the study. Five etiological groups were analysed: children with bacterial etiology only, with viral etiology only, with mixed bacterial and viral etiology, with Mycoplasma only, and children with no etiology. Results: The chest films of each etiological group were analysed and the findings were correlated to the children's age. The radiological findings did not differ between the etiological groups. Radiological findings correlated significantly with the patient's age. The radiological healing frequency at check-up X-ray was found to be significantly lower in children with mixed bacterial and viral etiology compared to children in each of the other groups and to the material as a whole. Conclusion: Conclusions about the etiology could not be drawn from the chest X-ray findings

  6. Radiological Findings in Children with Acute Pneumonia: Age More Important Than Infectious Agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahlgren, H.; Mortensson, W.; Eriksson, M.; Finkel, Y.; Forsgren, M.; Leinonen, M. [Astrid Lindgren' s Children' s Hospital, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden). Depts. of Pediatric Radiology and Pediatrics

    2005-07-01

    Purpose: To evaluate whether radiological findings and healing time in children with pneumonia are correlated to etiologic agent. Material and Methods: A total of 346 children with radiologically verified acute pneumonia, and with accomplished serological tests for bacteria and viruses, were included in the study. Five etiological groups were analysed: children with bacterial etiology only, with viral etiology only, with mixed bacterial and viral etiology, with Mycoplasma only, and children with no etiology. Results: The chest films of each etiological group were analysed and the findings were correlated to the children's age. The radiological findings did not differ between the etiological groups. Radiological findings correlated significantly with the patient's age. The radiological healing frequency at check-up X-ray was found to be significantly lower in children with mixed bacterial and viral etiology compared to children in each of the other groups and to the material as a whole. Conclusion: Conclusions about the etiology could not be drawn from the chest X-ray findings.

  7. Autobiographical memory specificity among preschool-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuttall, Amy K; Valentino, Kristin; Comas, Michelle; McNeill, Anne T; Stey, Paul C

    2014-07-01

    Overgeneral memory refers to difficulty retrieving specific autobiographical memories and is consistently associated with depression and/or trauma. The present study developed a downward extension of the Autobiographical Memory Test (AMT; Williams & Broadbent, 1986) given the need to document normative developmental changes in ability to retrieve specific memories among preschoolers. Confirmatory factor analysis and item response theory demonstrated that the AMT-Preschool Version maintained the same underlying 1-factor structure as the original. Additionally, the present study determined that child age was associated with increased specificity. Inhibitory control was evaluated as a potential mediator. Although age was related to inhibition, inhibition was unrelated to memory specificity. This finding adds to research suggesting that behavioral inhibition is unrelated to overgeneral memory among youth. PMID:24842462

  8. Parents' barriers and strategies to promote healthy eating among school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nepper, Martha J; Chai, Weiwen

    2016-08-01

    The home environment is considered one of the most important settings in regards to the development of healthy eating habits among children. The primary purpose of this study was to explore parents' barriers and strategies in promoting healthy eating in the home. The secondary objective was to determine whether the barriers and strategies parents had were different between healthy weight and overweight/obese school-age children. Semi-structured individual interviews with 14 parents of healthy weight and 11 parents of overweight/obese children (6-12 years) were conducted in family homes from August 2014 to March 2015. Transcripts were recorded and codes and themes were verified by the research team and one qualitative expert. Themes emerging from both parents of healthy weight and overweight/obese children were: 1) Parents are busy and strapped for time; 2) Cost is a barrier in providing healthy food, but parents are resourceful; 3) Children ask for junk food regularly, but parents have strategies to manage; 4) Picky eaters are a challenge but parents know they have to overcome this barrier; and 5) Early exposure to unhealthy eating influences children's food choices but strategies can help. However, parents of overweight/obese children felt a lack of support from their spouses/partners for healthy eating in the home, which was not expressed among parents of healthy weight children. Additionally, barriers and strategies were similar among parents of children from different age groups [6-9 years vs. 10-12 years (pre-adolescents)]. Our results suggest while parents faced some challenges in promoting healthy eating in the home, they utilized several strategies to overcome these barriers, which are valuable for direct intervention to improve home food environment and manage children's weight. PMID:27090341

  9. CT identification of abdominal injuries in abused pre-school-age children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilmes, Melissa A.; Hernanz-Schulman, Marta; Kan, J.H. [Vanderbilt Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Nashville, TN (United States); Greeley, Christopher S. [University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Department of Pediatrics, Houston, TX (United States); Piercey, Lisa M. [Vanderbilt Children' s Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, Nashville, TN (United States); Yu, Chang [Vanderbilt University, Department of Biostatistics, Nashville, TN (United States)

    2011-05-15

    Although the abdominopelvic CT findings of abdominal trauma in children have been described, little has been written about the subset of children who are victims of abuse. Our purpose is to describe abdominopelvic injuries in abused pre-school-age children as identified on CT. An IRB-approved retrospective review of our institutional child abuse registry was performed. Searching a 14-year period, we identified 84 children {<=} 5 years of age with medically diagnosed abuse who underwent CT. We reviewed imaging studies, operative reports, autopsy findings and patient outcomes. Consensus review of the CT examinations was performed by CAQ-certified pediatric radiologists, and findings were categorized as normal or by injury types (solid organ versus bowel). The injuries were analyzed in light of existing literature on pediatric accidental and non-accidental injuries. Of the 84 children, 35 (41.7%) had abdominal injuries. Abdominal injuries included liver (15), bowel (13), mesentery (4), spleen (6), kidneys (7), pancreas (4) and adrenal glands (3). Of these children, 26% (9/35) required surgical intervention for bowel, mesenteric and pancreatic injuries. Another 9/35 children died, not as a result of abdominal injuries but as a direct result of inflicted intracranial injuries. Our data indicate that abdominal injuries in abused children present in a pattern similar to that of children with accidental abdominal trauma, underscoring the need for vigilance and correlative historical and clinical data to identify victims of abuse. Mortality in abused children with intra-abdominal injury was frequently related to concomitant head injury. (orig.)

  10. Parents' barriers and strategies to promote healthy eating among school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nepper, Martha J; Chai, Weiwen

    2016-08-01

    The home environment is considered one of the most important settings in regards to the development of healthy eating habits among children. The primary purpose of this study was to explore parents' barriers and strategies in promoting healthy eating in the home. The secondary objective was to determine whether the barriers and strategies parents had were different between healthy weight and overweight/obese school-age children. Semi-structured individual interviews with 14 parents of healthy weight and 11 parents of overweight/obese children (6-12 years) were conducted in family homes from August 2014 to March 2015. Transcripts were recorded and codes and themes were verified by the research team and one qualitative expert. Themes emerging from both parents of healthy weight and overweight/obese children were: 1) Parents are busy and strapped for time; 2) Cost is a barrier in providing healthy food, but parents are resourceful; 3) Children ask for junk food regularly, but parents have strategies to manage; 4) Picky eaters are a challenge but parents know they have to overcome this barrier; and 5) Early exposure to unhealthy eating influences children's food choices but strategies can help. However, parents of overweight/obese children felt a lack of support from their spouses/partners for healthy eating in the home, which was not expressed among parents of healthy weight children. Additionally, barriers and strategies were similar among parents of children from different age groups [6-9 years vs. 10-12 years (pre-adolescents)]. Our results suggest while parents faced some challenges in promoting healthy eating in the home, they utilized several strategies to overcome these barriers, which are valuable for direct intervention to improve home food environment and manage children's weight.

  11. CT identification of abdominal injuries in abused pre-school-age children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although the abdominopelvic CT findings of abdominal trauma in children have been described, little has been written about the subset of children who are victims of abuse. Our purpose is to describe abdominopelvic injuries in abused pre-school-age children as identified on CT. An IRB-approved retrospective review of our institutional child abuse registry was performed. Searching a 14-year period, we identified 84 children ≤ 5 years of age with medically diagnosed abuse who underwent CT. We reviewed imaging studies, operative reports, autopsy findings and patient outcomes. Consensus review of the CT examinations was performed by CAQ-certified pediatric radiologists, and findings were categorized as normal or by injury types (solid organ versus bowel). The injuries were analyzed in light of existing literature on pediatric accidental and non-accidental injuries. Of the 84 children, 35 (41.7%) had abdominal injuries. Abdominal injuries included liver (15), bowel (13), mesentery (4), spleen (6), kidneys (7), pancreas (4) and adrenal glands (3). Of these children, 26% (9/35) required surgical intervention for bowel, mesenteric and pancreatic injuries. Another 9/35 children died, not as a result of abdominal injuries but as a direct result of inflicted intracranial injuries. Our data indicate that abdominal injuries in abused children present in a pattern similar to that of children with accidental abdominal trauma, underscoring the need for vigilance and correlative historical and clinical data to identify victims of abuse. Mortality in abused children with intra-abdominal injury was frequently related to concomitant head injury. (orig.)

  12. Structure of physical, psycho-physiological development and physical preparedness of children of preschool age

    OpenAIRE

    Козина, Жаннета Леонидовна; Лахно, Елена Геннадиевна; Москалец, Татьяна Валентинована

    2011-01-01

    The results of determination of structure of physical development are resulted, psycho-physiological possibilities and physical preparedness of children of age-dependent groups, 1-2, 3-4 and 4-5 years. It is set that development of children from 1 to 5 years takes place getertimely. There is a considerable role of indexes in the initial probed age-dependent period (1-2 years) there is a considerable role of indexes of physical development in development of physical qualities and psycho-physio...

  13. Structure of physical, psycho-physiological development and physical preparedness of children of preschool age.

    OpenAIRE

    Kozina Zh.L.; Lakhno E.G.; Moskalets T.V.

    2011-01-01

    The results of determination of structure of physical development are resulted, psycho-physiological possibilities and physical preparedness of children of age-dependent groups, 1-2, 3-4 and 4-5 years. It is set that development of children from 1 to 5 years takes place getertimely. There is a considerable role of indexes in the initial probed age-dependent period (1-2 years) there is a considerable role of indexes of physical development in development of physical qualities and psycho-physio...

  14. Preschool-aged children recognize ambivalence: emerging identification of concurrent conflicting desires

    OpenAIRE

    Rostad, Kristin; Penny M Pexman

    2015-01-01

    We examined the ability of preschool-aged children to identify conflicting, or ambivalent, desire states (e.g., “I want to go to the birthday party because there will be cake, but I also don’t want to go because I’m having fun playing at home”). Participants were 4- and 5-year-old children, and a group of undergraduate students (n = 20 in each age group). They were presented with 14 scenarios involving both “single desire” and “dual desire” states, including both approach (i.e., “want”) and a...

  15. Sleep and Television and Computer Habits of Swedish School-Age Children

    OpenAIRE

    Garmy, Pernilla; Nyberg, Per; Jakobsson, Ulf

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate sleep, television and computer habits and enjoyment and feelings of tiredness in school of school-age children and adolescents in Sweden. An instrument found to be valid and reliable here was distributed to 3,011 children aged 6, 7, 10, 14, and 16 years. Those sleeping less than the median length of time reported a significantly lower degree of enjoyment of school. Short sleep was found to be associated with having a bedroom TV, spending more than 2 hr...

  16. Effect of backpack position on foot weight distribution of school-aged children

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Kyung; Kim, Chang Ju; Oh, Duck-Won

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] In the present study, we aimed to determine the effects of backpack position on foot weight distribution of standing school-aged children. [Subjects] Thirty school-aged children volunteered to participate in this study. [Methods] The subjects randomly performed four types of carrying a backpack: no backpack (condition-1), carrying a backpack at C7 (condition-2), carrying a backpack at 10 cm below C7 (condition-3), and carrying a backpack at 20 cm below C7 (condition-4). [Results] St...

  17. Clinical characteristics and prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency in children less than two years of age

    OpenAIRE

    Yoon, Ji Hyun; Park, Cheong Soo; Seo, Ji Young; Choi, Yun Sun; AHN, YOUNG MIN

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the clinical characteristics of vitamin D deficiency and its association with iron deficiency anemia (IDA). Methods A total of 171 children aged less than two years underwent 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 tests between January 2007 and July 2009. The study was classified into two groups: normal and vitamin D insufficiency, by their vitamin 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 levels. Results In total, 120 children were in the normal group (mean age, body weight and heights 12.5±7.0, 9.3±0.9 kg and...

  18. Guaifenesin Pharmacokinetics Following Single-Dose Oral Administration in Children Aged 2 to 17 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Gary A; Solomon, Gail; Albrecht, Helmut H; Reitberg, Donald P; Guenin, Eric

    2016-07-01

    This study characterized guaifenesin pharmacokinetics in children aged 2 to 17 years (n = 40) who received a single oral dose of guaifenesin (age-based doses of 100-400 mg) 2 hours after breakfast. Plasma samples were obtained before and for 8 hours after dosing and analyzed for guaifenesin using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated using noncompartmental methods, relationships with age were assessed using linear regression, and dose proportionality was assessed on 95% confidence intervals. Based on the upper dose recommended in the monograph (for both children and adolescents), area under the curve from time zero to infinity and maximum plasma concentration both increased with age. However, when comparing the upper dose for children aged 2 to 11 years with the lower dose for adolescents aged 12 to 17 years, similar systemic exposure was observed. As expected due to increasing body size, oral clearance (CLo ) and terminal volume of distribution (Vz /F) increased with age. Due to a larger increase in Vz /F than CLo , an increase in terminal exponential half-life was also observed. Allometric scaling indicated no maturation-related changes in CLo and Vz /F. PMID:26632082

  19. Factors associated with medication adherence in school-aged children with asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy H.Y. Chan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Adherence to preventive asthma treatment is poor, particularly in children, yet the factors associated with adherence in this age group are not well understood. Adherence was monitored electronically over 6 months in school-aged children who attended a regional emergency department in New Zealand for an asthma exacerbation and were prescribed twice-daily inhaled corticosteroids. Participants completed questionnaires including assessment of family demographics, asthma responsibility and learning style. Multivariable analysis of factors associated with adherence was conducted. 101 children (mean (range age 8.9 (6–15 years, 51% male participated. Median (interquartile range preventer adherence was 30% (17–48% of prescribed. Four explanatory factors were identified: female sex (+12% adherence, Asian ethnicity (+19% adherence, living in a smaller household (−3.0% adherence per person in the household, and younger age at diagnosis (+2.7% for every younger year of diagnosis (all p<0.02. In school-aged children attending the emergency department for asthma, males and non-Asian ethnic groups were at high risk for poor inhaled corticosteroid adherence and may benefit most from intervention. Four factors explained a small proportion of adherence behaviour indicating the difficulty in identifying adherence barriers. Further research is recommended in other similar populations.

  20. Sedentary lifestyle and passive leisure in Czech school-aged children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdeněk Hamřík

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sedentary behaviour and an insufficient level of physical activity in children are the key factors leading to physically inactive behaviour in adulthood associated with the growing prevalence of mass non-communicable diseases in the population of the Czech Republic. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to analyze sedentary lifestyle, focusing on passive leisure (time spent watching television and using computer in school-aged children in the Czech Republic. METHODS: To determine the time spent watching television and using computer, data of a randomly selected set of 11 to 15 year old elementary school children in the Czech Republic (n = 4425 was used. Research data collection was conducted within an international research project Health Behaviour in School Aged Children in June 2010. For statistical processing of results and identification of differences between various age groups of girls and boys, logistic regression analysis in SPSS Statistics 20 programme was used. RESULTS: More than 55% of girls and 60% of boys spend over 2 hours a day in a working week in front of the TV, DVD, video; most of the time was recorded for 13 year old respondents. While playing games on the PC or Playstation occupies more than 2 hours per day for more than a half of boys, for girls more typical is "chatting", "surfing the Internet" or "e-mailing". With age, the proportion of children who spend 2 or more hours a day using computer increases. CONCLUSIONS: The problem of an increasing level of sedentary behaviour in children in their leisure should be addressed together with interventions aimed at increasing the levels of physical activity in children in the national, regional and local policies to encourage physical activity and health in the Czech Republic.

  1. Articulation of speech sounds of Serbian language in children aged six to eight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihajlović Biljana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Phonetic and phonological system of the healthy members of one linguistic community is fully formed around 8 years of age. The auditory and articulatory habits are established with age and tend to be more difficult to be upgraded and completed later. Material and Methods. The research was done as a cross-sectional study, conducted at the preschool institution “Radosno detinjstvo” and primary school “Branko Radičević” in Novi Sad. It included 66 children of both genders, aged 6 to 8. The quality of articulation was determined according to the Global Articulation Test by working with each child individually. Results. In each individual vowel, plosive, nasal, lateral and fricative, the quality of articulation was statistically significantly better in the first graders compared to the preschool children (p<0.01. In each affricate, except for the sound /ć/, the quality of articulation was statistically significantly better in the first graders than in the preschool children (p<0.01. The quality of articulation of all speech sounds was statistically significantly better in the first graders than in the preschool children (p<0.01. Discussion and Conclusion. The most common disorder of articulation is distortion, while only substitution and substitution associated with distortion are less common. Omission does not occur in children from 6 to 8 years of age. Girls have slightly better quality of articulation. The articulatory disorders are more common in preschool children than in children who are in the first grade of primary school. The most commonly mispronounced sounds belong to the group of affricates and fricatives.

  2. PREVALENCE OF ANAEMIA AMONG CHILDREN AGED 12 YEARS AND YOUNGER IN NORTH EAST INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajkumari Rupabati

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE Anaemia is one of the most important public health problem among children. The infants, preschool children, adolescents and pregnant women are at highest risk of nutritional anaemia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of anaemia and its correlation to age, gender, haemoglobin values and magnitude of anaemia among the children of North East India. METHODS A cross sectional study was conducted in a tertiary care hospital between October 2013 to September 2014. A total of 500 children in the age group 0 to 12 years were enrolled after obtaining written informed consent from the parents. Haemoglobin estimation was done by Sahli’s method using finger prick blood samples. As per WHO recommendation, haemoglobin values below 11 gm/dl was considered anaemic. Statistical data were analysed. RESULTS The overall prevalence of anaemia was 71.2% with males having 5.2%higher than females. The majority of age group comprises 1 to ≤5 years (36.0% and 83.3% of them were anaemic. The highest value of haemoglobin estimated was 14.8 gm/dl with the lowest value of 5.2 gm/dl. The mean haemoglobin level was 10.76±1.21 gm/dl. 53.4% children were mildly anaemic. Both male and female children were affected more with mild anaemia than other types of anaemia. CONCLUSION Our results suggest that all the children should be screened for anaemia irrespective of age and sex as the prevalence is high. Early intervention and appropriate measures should be taken to prevent from anaemia and its associated diseases.

  3. Analysis of Educational App roaches of Gifted Children in Preschool Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojca Jedlovčnik

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Research Question (RQ: How to approach the education of gifted children in preschool age to take advantage of all their natural potentials?Purpose:The aim of the research study was to categorize appropriate educational methods that can be used for gifted children in preschool age and to show that the classical form of punishment in such cases is not appropriate and effective. In addition, the purpose of this study is to inform all educators and parents of gifted children on the most appropriate approach that should be used with a gifted child and how to promote their talent and not suppressed it.Method:A qualitative method was used that used the interview approach with the application of the seven steps rule.Results:The study showed that gifted children in preschool age need a specialized approach to education and to punish such a child canlead to the inhibition of his/her abilities.Organization:The study will help educators that work with gifted children.Society:The research presents to parents and society the difficulties thatthey might encounter with gifted children in preschool age in cases where they do not establish an appropriate relationship.Originality:This research study examines the issue of gifted children’s reaction to punishment. Such studies are not common and are original in its method and sample.Limitations/Future Research:The study here is restricted to two cases of gifted children.A further direction of research would be to include more examples andexplore the various viewpoints of educators.

  4. Narrative Performance of Gifted African American School-Aged Children From Low-Income Backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study investigated classroom differences in the narrative performance of school-age African American English (AAE)-speaking children in gifted and general education classrooms. Method Forty-three children, Grades 2–5, each generated fictional narratives in response to the book Frog, Where Are You? (Mayer, 1969). Differences in performance on traditional narrative measures (total number of communication units [C-units], number of different words, and mean length of utterance in words) and on AAE production (dialect density measure) between children in gifted and general education classrooms were examined. Results There were no classroom-based differences in total number of C-units, number of different words, and mean length of utterance in words. Children in gifted education classrooms produced narratives with lower dialect density than did children in general educated classrooms. Direct logistic regression assessed whether narrative dialect density measure scores offered additional information about giftedness beyond scores on the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test–Fourth Edition (Dunn & Dunn, 2007), a standard measure of language ability. Results indicated that a model with only Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test–Fourth Edition scores best discriminated children in the 2 classrooms. Conclusion African American children across gifted and general education classrooms produce fictional narratives of similar length, lexical diversity, and syntax complexity. However, African American children in gifted education classrooms may produce lower rates of AAE and perform better on standard measures of vocabulary than those in general education classrooms. PMID:25409770

  5. Influences of age and anxiety on processing of emotional information in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinholdt-Dunne, Marie Louise; Mogg, Karin; Esbjørn, Barbara Hoff;

    Anxiety disorders are among the most common psychiatric disturbances in childhood (Costello 2003). Theorists suggest that information-processing biases for emotional information play an important role in the development of anxiety disorders (Kendall & Ronan, 1990), and that development/age affects...... was assessed using an emotional Stroop paradigm with angry, happy and neutral faces. Trait anxiety was measured using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children (STAI-C; Spielberger et al., 1983). There were four groups of schoolchildren (N = 67, aged 7 - 14) divided by median splits on trait anxiety...... (below vs above 31 on STAI-C) and age (below vs above 10.75 years). Results revealed a significant Age x Trait anxiety x Type of emotional face interaction effect on interference scores, indicating an interference effect of angry faces (relative to neutral faces) in younger children with moderate levels...

  6. Structure of physical, psycho-physiological development and physical preparedness of children of preschool age.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozina Zh.L.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The results of determination of structure of physical development are resulted, psycho-physiological possibilities and physical preparedness of children of age-dependent groups, 1-2, 3-4 and 4-5 years. It is set that development of children from 1 to 5 years takes place getertimely. There is a considerable role of indexes in the initial probed age-dependent period (1-2 years there is a considerable role of indexes of physical development in development of physical qualities and psycho-physiological possibilities. In age 3-4 the role of level of development of physical qualities and psycho-physiological possibilities increases in the structure of complex preparedness, and in an age-dependent period 4-5 years again there is an increase of role of physical development with the maintain of role of physical preparedness and psycho-physiological possibilities.

  7. Age-related changes of muscle and plasma amino acids in healthy children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammarqvist, Folke; Angsten, Gertrud; Meurling, Staffan; Andersson, Kerstin; Wernerman, Jan

    2010-07-01

    The aim of the study was to explore if changes in muscle and plasma amino acid concentrations developed during growth and differed from levels seen in adults. The gradient and concentrations of free amino acids in muscle and plasma were investigated in relation to age in metabolic healthy children. Plasma and specimens from the abdominal muscle were obtained during elective surgery. The children were grouped into three groups (group 1: amino acids analysed increased with age, namely taurine, aspartate, threonine, alanine, valine, isoleucine, leucine, histidine, as well as the total sums of branched chain amino acids (BCAA), basic amino acids (BAA) and total sum of amino acids (P amino acids correlated with age (P < 0.05). These results indicate that there is an age dependency of the amino acid pattern in skeletal muscle and plasma during growth.

  8. Fecal Calprotectin Concentrations in Healthy Children Aged 1-18 Months

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feng; Ma, Jingqiu; Geng, Shanshan; Wang, Junli; Liu, Jinrong; Zhang, Jie; Sheng, Xiaoyang

    2015-01-01

    Objective Fecal calprotectin (FC) is an established biomarker of gut inflammation. The aim of this study was to evaluate FC concentrations in healthy children between 1 and 18 months of age. Methods Healthy children aged 1-18 months were enrolled in this study at the Department of Children's Health Care in Shanghai, China. Children’s stool samples were collected and analyzed, and FC concentration was determined using a commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The children's weights and lengths were measured. Parents were asked to complete a brief questionnaire regarding several clinical and sociodemographic factors. Results The FC concentrations were unevenly distributed; the median FC concentration was 174.3 μg/g (range: 6.0-1097.7 μg/g) or 2.241 log10 μg/g (range: 0.775-3.041 log10 μg/g) for all 288 children. The children were divided into several age groups: 1-3 months, 3-6 months, 6-9 months, 9-12 months and 12-18 months. The median FC concentrations for these age groups were 375.2 μg/g (2.574 log10 μg/g), 217.9 μg/g (2.338 log10 μg/g), 127.7 μg/g (2.106 log10 μg/g), 96.1 μg/g (1.983 log10 μg/g) and 104.2 μg/g (2.016 log10 μg/g), respectively. A significant correlation between age and FC concentration was found (r=-0.490, p4 years. PMID:25742018

  9. Varicella vaccination coverage of children under two years of age in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reuss Annicka M

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since July 2004, routine varicella vaccination is recommended by the German Standing Vaccination Committee in Germany. Health Insurance Funds started to cover vaccination costs at different time points between 2004 and 2006 in the Federal States. Nationwide representative data on vaccination coverage against varicella of children under two years of age are not available. We aimed to determine varicella vaccination coverage in statutory health insured children under two years of age in twelve German Federal States using data from associations of statutory health insurance physicians (ASHIPs, in order to investigate the acceptance of the recommended routine varicella vaccination programme. Methods We analysed data on varicella vaccination from 13 of 17 ASHIPs of the years 2004 to 2007. The study population consisted of all statutory health insured children under two years of age born in 2004 (cohort 2004 or 2005 (cohort 2005 in one of the studied regions. Vaccination coverage was determined by the number of children vaccinated under 2 years of age within the study population. Results Varicella vaccination coverage of children under two years of age with either one dose of the monovalent varicella vaccine or two doses of the measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella vaccine increased from 34% (cohort 2004 to 51% (cohort 2005 in the studied regions (p Conclusions Our study shows increasing varicella vaccination coverage of young children, indicating a growing acceptance of the routine varicella vaccination programme by the parents and physicians. We recommend further monitoring of vaccination coverage using data from ASHIPs to investigate acceptance of the routine vaccination programmes over time.

  10. Elevated manganese and cognitive performance in school-aged children and their mothers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Growing evidence suggests that excess manganese (Mn) in children is associated with neurobehavioral impairments. In Brazil, elevated hair Mn concentrations were reported in children living near a ferro-manganese alloy plant. Objectives: We investigated these children's and caregivers' cognitive function in relation to bioindicators of Mn exposure. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, the WISC-III was administered to 83 children aged between 6 and 12 years; the Raven Progressive Matrix was administered to the primary caregivers (94% mothers), who likewise responded to a questionnaire on socio demographics and birth history. Mn in hair (MnH) and blood (MnB) and blood lead (PbB) were measured by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS). Results: Children's mean MnB and MnH were 8.2 μg/L (2.7-23.4) and 5.83 μg/g (0.1-86.68), respectively. Mean maternal MnH was 3.50 μg/g (0.10-77.45) and correlated to children's MnH (rho=0.294, p=0.010). Children's MnH was negatively related to Full-Scale Intelligence Quotient (IQ) and Verbal IQ; β coefficients for MnH were -5.78 (95% CI -10.71 to -0.21) and -6.72 (-11.81 to -0.63), adjusted for maternal education and nutritional status. Maternal MnH was negatively associated with performance on the Raven's (β=-2.69, 95% CI -5.43 to 0.05), adjusted for education years, family income and age. Conclusions: These findings confirm that high MnH in children is associated with poorer cognitive performance, especially in the verbal domain. Primary caregiver's IQ is likewise associated to Mn exposure, suggesting that, in this situation, children's cognition may be affected directly and indirectly by Mn exposure.

  11. Associations between adenotonsillar hypertrophy, age, and obesity in children with obstructive sleep apnea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun-Tai Kang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the contributions of adenoid and tonsil size to childhood obstructive sleep apnea (OSA and the interactions between adenotonsillar hypertrophy, age, and obesity in children with OSA. METHODS: In total, 495 symptomatic patients were recruited. The patients were assigned to four groups according to age: toddler (age 1-3, n=42, preschool (age 3-6, n=164, school (age 6-12, n=200, and adolescence (age 12-18, n=89. All subjects had tonsil size graded by otolaryngologists, adenoid size determined on lateral radiographs (Fujioka method, and a full-night polysomnography. The apnea-hypopnea index (AHI, adenoid size, and tonsil size were compared in obese and non-obese children in the four age groups. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence interval (CI of adenotonsillar hypertrophy and OSA risk were estimated by multi-logistic regression. RESULTS: The AHI was positively related to tonsil grade (r=0.33, p <0.001 and adenoid size (r=0.24, p <0.01 in all patients. Tonsil grade was positively related to AHI in all four age groups. Adenoid size was positively related to AHI in the toddler, preschool, school groups, but not in the adolescent group (r=0.11, p=0.37. Tonsil grade and adenoid size were both positively related to AHI in obese and non-obese children. In the regression model, obesity (OR=2.89; 95% CI 1.47-5.68, tonsillar hypertrophy (OR=3.15; 95% CI 2.04-4.88, and adenoidal hypertrophy (OR=1.89; 95% CI 1.19-3.00 significantly increased OSA risk. CONCLUSIONS: Adenotonsillar hypertrophy and obesity are the major determinants of OSA in children. However, the influence of adenoid size decreases in adolescence.

  12. ASSESSING THE ANTHROPOMETRIC, SOMATOTYPE AND SOME PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS OF FEMALE CHILDREN AGED BETWEEN 8 &10

    OpenAIRE

    AYAN, Vedat

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the study is to assess the relationship between the anthropometric, somatotype and some performance characteristics of female children aged between 8–10. In this study 1777 volunteer secondary school female students, at the age of 9±1, from Ankara, participated in the subject group.In our study 11 anthropometric measurements including skinfold thickness, circumference and width measurements etc. were taken. Of performance characteristics, vertical jump test and 20 m short distance ...

  13. FEATURES OF ETIOLOGIC SPECTRUM OF ALERGIC RINITY FOR CHILDREN DEPENDING ON SEX AND AGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asheulov OM

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In this work there are presented the results of allergy testings of children suffering from alergic rinity. The aim of this study was the specification of casually significant allergen depending on sex and age. Results of testing are processed by a method of the mathematiical analysis, raised in nomograms according to which, considering the nosological entity of disease, sex and age of a patient, it is possible to define causally significant allergen.

  14. Sex differences in the intellectual functioning of early school-aged children in rural China

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Chao; Zhu, Ni; Zeng, Lingxia; Dang, Shaonong; Zhou, Jing; Kang, Yijun; Yang, Yang; Yan, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Background Gender disparities in China are concentrated in poor rural areas and among poor households. The difference in intelligence between boys and girls is less clear in rural China. The purpose of this paper was to assess sex differences in the intellectual function of early school-aged children in rural China. Methods One thousand seven hundred forty four early school-aged offspring of women who had participated in a prenatal supplementation trial with different combinations of micronut...

  15. Systematic review of sedentary behaviour and health indicators in school-aged children and youth

    OpenAIRE

    Goldfield Gary; Colley Rachel C; Larouche Richard; Saunders Travis J; Kho Michelle E; LeBlanc Allana G; Tremblay Mark S; Gorber Sarah

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Accumulating evidence suggests that, independent of physical activity levels, sedentary behaviours are associated with increased risk of cardio-metabolic disease, all-cause mortality, and a variety of physiological and psychological problems. Therefore, the purpose of this systematic review is to determine the relationship between sedentary behaviour and health indicators in school-aged children and youth aged 5-17 years. Online databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE and PsycINFO), personal libr...

  16. Systematic review of sedentary behaviour and health indicators in school-aged children and youth

    OpenAIRE

    Tremblay, Mark S.; LeBlanc, Allana G; Kho, Michelle E.; Saunders, Travis J.; Larouche, Richard; Colley, Rachel C; Goldfield, Gary; Gorber, Sarah Connor

    2011-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that, independent of physical activity levels, sedentary behaviours are associated with increased risk of cardio-metabolic disease, all-cause mortality, and a variety of physiological and psychological problems. Therefore, the purpose of this systematic review is to determine the relationship between sedentary behaviour and health indicators in school-aged children and youth aged 5-17 years. Online databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE and PsycINFO), personal libraries and...

  17. Aerobic Fitness, Micronutrient Status, and Academic Achievement in Indian School-Aged Children

    OpenAIRE

    Desai, Ishaan K.; Kurpad, Anura V; Chomitz, Virginia R.; Tinku Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Aerobic fitness has been shown to have several beneficial effects on child health. However, research on its relationship with academic performance has been limited, particularly in developing countries and among undernourished populations. This study examined the association between aerobic fitness and academic achievement in clinically healthy but nutritionally compromised Indian school-aged children and assessed whether micronutrient status affects this association. 273 participants, aged 7...

  18. What to consider when coaching children in the age of 7 to 17 : - a practical guidebook

    OpenAIRE

    Taferner, Georg Franz

    2012-01-01

    Around the world people of all ages participate in different type of leisure sport, single sport, events or team sport. Usually children start in the age of four to six to get interested in sport. Once interested, they join a sports team, club or organization, where they learn the chosen sport from the very beginning. Very often parents or former athletes, who just quit their active career, but still want to stay with the sport, work as coaches, especially in lower level clubs....

  19. Differential development of visual attention skills in school-age children

    OpenAIRE

    Dye, Matthew W. G.; Bavelier, Daphne

    2009-01-01

    Children aged 7–17 years and adults aged 18–22 years were tested on three aspects of visual attention: the ability to distribute visual attention across the field to search for a target, the time required for attention to recover from being directed towards a target, and the number of objects to which attention can be simultaneously allocated. The data suggested different developmental trajectories for these components of visual attention within the same set of participants. This suggests tha...

  20. Development of kinesthetic-motor and auditory-motor representations in school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagerer, Florian A; Clark, Jane E

    2015-07-01

    In two experiments using a center-out task, we investigated kinesthetic-motor and auditory-motor integrations in 5- to 12-year-old children and young adults. In experiment 1, participants moved a pen on a digitizing tablet from a starting position to one of three targets (visuo-motor condition), and then to one of four targets without visual feedback of the movement. In both conditions, we found that with increasing age, the children moved faster and straighter, and became less variable in their feedforward control. Higher control demands for movements toward the contralateral side were reflected in longer movement times and decreased spatial accuracy across all age groups. When feedforward control relies predominantly on kinesthesia, 7- to 10-year-old children were more variable, indicating difficulties in switching between feedforward and feedback control efficiently during that age. An inverse age progression was found for directional endpoint error; larger errors increasing with age likely reflect stronger functional lateralization for the dominant hand. In experiment 2, the same visuo-motor condition was followed by an auditory-motor condition in which participants had to move to acoustic targets (either white band or one-third octave noise). Since in the latter directional cues come exclusively from transcallosally mediated interaural time differences, we hypothesized that auditory-motor representations would show age effects. The results did not show a clear age effect, suggesting that corpus callosum functionality is sufficient in children to allow them to form accurate auditory-motor maps already at a young age.

  1. Influence of broadcasting on Aggressive Behaviour of Younger School-Aged Children

    OpenAIRE

    RAJNOVÁ, Zuzana

    2011-01-01

    The thesis is aimed at influence of broadcasting on the level of aggressive behaviour of younger school-aged children. The basic concepts are explained in general terms; the basic way aggressive behaviour and mass media can be divided is given; psyche of a younger school-aged child is explained; television violence, its forms and both negative and positive effects and health consequences of excessive television-watching are described and prevention of adverse ffects of TV programmes on childr...

  2. Screen Time and Sleep among School-Aged Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Hale, Lauren; Guan, Stanford

    2014-01-01

    We systematically examined and updated the scientific literature on the association between screen time (e.g., television, computers, video games, and mobile devices) and sleep outcomes among school-aged children and adolescents. We reviewed 67 studies published from 1999 to early 2014. We found that screen time is adversely associated with sleep outcomes (primarily shortened duration and delayed timing) in 90% of studies. Some of the results varied by type of screen exposure, age of particip...

  3. Soil-transmitted helminth infections in Nigerian children aged 0-25 months

    OpenAIRE

    HOLLAND, CELIA; Jackson, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    PUBLISHED The objective of this cross-sectional study was to determine the prevalence and intensity of soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) in children aged 0?25 months and to identify the associated risk factors for Ascaris lumbricoides infections. The study was conducted in three villages outside Ile-Ife, Osun state, Nigeria in May/June 2005. Stool samples (369) were processed by formol-ether concentration. Ascaris lumbricoides (12.2%) was the dominant infection. Age, father's occupation an...

  4. Potential Consequences of Abandonment in Preschool-Age: Neuropsychological Findings in Institutionalized Children

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    Juan F. Cardona

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Several longitudinal studies had shown that early deprivation and institutionalization during the first six months of life affects the emotional, cognitive, social and neurophysiologic development. Nevertheless, our understanding of possible similar effects of delayed institutionalization, in preschool-age remains unclear to this day. The goal of this study is to evaluate the cognitive performance of institutionalized children with history of preschool-age physical abandonment.

  5. Effects of Age, Walking Speed, and Body Composition on Pedometer Accuracy in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, J. Scott; Schofield, Grant; Duncan, Elizabeth K.; Hinckson, Erica A.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of age group, walking speed, and body composition on the accuracy of pedometer-determined step counts in children. Eighty-five participants (43 boys, 42 girls), ages 5-7 and 9-11 years, walked on a treadmill for two-minute bouts at speeds of 42, 66, and 90 m[middle dot]min[superscript -1]…

  6. Testing Educational Tools to Demonstrate Returns to Work for Children Aging Out of the SSI-Disabled Children Program

    OpenAIRE

    Richard V. Burkhauser; Daly, Mary C.

    2011-01-01

    A substantial fraction of children receiving Supplemental Security Income benefits for disability (SSI-child) transition directly onto the SSI-adult program at age 18 without attempting to enter the labor market. Once this transition is complete, very few attempt to work while receiving SSI-adult benefits. The MDRC SSA Youth Transition Demonstration (YTD) Project report (2008) identified lack of information about financial incentives/disincentives as a potential barrier to work for these yout...

  7. Cyberbullying and Primary-School Aged Children: The Psychological Literature and the Challenge for Sociology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesley-Anne Ey

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Cyberbullying is an international issue for schools, young people and their families. Whilst many research domains have explored this phenomenon, and bullying more generally, the majority of reported studies appear in the psychological and educational literatures, where bullying, and more recently, cyberbullying has been examined primarily at the individual level: amongst adolescents and young people, with a focus on the definition, its prevalence, behaviours, and impact. There also is growing evidence that younger children are increasingly accessing technology and engaging with social media, yet there is limited research dedicated to this younger age group. The purpose of this paper is to report on a systematic literature review from the psychological and educational research domains related to this younger age group, to inform future research across the disciplines. Younger children require different methods of engagement. This review highlights the methodological challenges associated with this age group present in the psychological literature, and argues for a greater use of sociological, child-centred approaches to data collection. This review examined studies published in English, between 2009 and 2014, and conducted with children aged 5–12 years, about their experiences with cyberbullying. Searches were conducted on seven key databases using keywords associated with cyberbullying and age of children. A Google Scholar search also examined published and unpublished reports. A total of 966 articles and reports were retrieved. A random peer review process was employed to establish inter-rater reliability and veracity of the review. Findings revealed 38 studies reported specifically on children aged 5–12 years. The dominant focus of these articles was on prevalence of cyberbullying, established through survey methodology. Few studies noted impacts, understanding and behaviours or engaged children’s independent voice. This review

  8. The Growth of Body Size and Somatotype of Javanese Children Age 4 to 20 Years

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    TETRI WIDIYANI

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Growth of body size (body height and body weight and somatotype in 363 girls and 299 boys aged 4 to 20 years of ethnic Javanese lived in Magelang Regency Indonesia were studied cross-sectionally. Over half of them were categorized in the well-off family, therefore underweight or underfat prevalence in our subjects was low (14.3% but overweight and obesity prevalence was also low (14%. They were shorter and lighter than reference children from U.S., Japan and Yogyakarta but they improved when compared with those of the same ethnic of Bantul and with the different ethnic of rural India. There was a clear age-related change of their somatotype. At age 4 years, the physique of children subjects in both sexes is found to be mesomorph-endomorph. Thereafter it is transformed into ectomorphic-endomorph in girls and to mesomorph-ectomorph in boys at the age of 20 years. In girl subjects, the onset of puberty was characterized by an acceleration of endomorphy component at age 8 years. While in our boys it was characterized by an acceleration of ectomorphy since age 9 years. The different growth pattern of somatotype components showed that the use of BMI as an indicator of fatness in children should be reassessed.

  9. Learning Disabilities in Extremely Low Birth Weight Children and Neurodevelopmental Profiles at Preschool Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squarza, Chiara; Picciolini, Odoardo; Gardon, Laura; Giannì, Maria L; Murru, Alessandra; Gangi, Silvana; Cortinovis, Ivan; Milani, Silvano; Mosca, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    At school age extremely low birth weight (ELBW) and extremely low gestational age (ELGAN) children are more likely to show Learning Disabilities (LDs) and difficulties in emotional regulation. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence of LDs at school age and to detect neurodevelopmental indicators of risk for LDs at preschool ages in a cohort of ELBW/ELGAN children with broadly average intelligence. All consecutively newborns 2001-2006 admitted to the same Institution entered the study. Inclusion criteria were BW emotional/attention difficulties. Children with LDs scored significantly lower in the Griffiths Locomotor and Language subscales at 2 years of corrected age and in the Personal-social, Performance and Practical Reasoning subscales at 5 years of chronological age. Our findings suggest that, among the early developmental indicators of adverse school outcome, there is a poor motor experimentation, language delay, and personal-social immaturity. Cognitive rigidity and poor ability to manage practical situations also affect academic attainment. Timely detection of these early indicators of risk is crucial to assist the transition to school.

  10. Anxiety and Attentional Bias in Preschool-Aged Children: An Eyetracking Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, Helen F; Hudson, Jennifer L; Williams, Tracey; Morris, Talia; Lazarus, Rebecca S; Byrow, Yulisha

    2015-08-01

    Extensive research has examined attentional bias for threat in anxious adults and school-aged children but it is unclear when this anxiety-related bias is first established. This study uses eyetracking technology to assess attentional bias in a sample of 83 children aged 3 or 4 years. Of these, 37 (19 female) met criteria for an anxiety disorder and 46 (30 female) did not. Gaze was recorded during a free-viewing task with angry-neutral face pairs presented for 1250 ms. There was no indication of between-group differences in threat bias, with both anxious and non-anxious groups showing vigilance for angry faces as well as longer dwell times to angry over neutral faces. Importantly, however, the anxious participants spent significantly less time looking at the faces overall, when compared to the non-anxious group. The results suggest that both anxious and non-anxious preschool-aged children preferentially attend to threat but that anxious children may be more avoidant of faces than non-anxious children. PMID:25434325

  11. Estimation of physical and mental development of children of the senior pre-school age

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    Pasichnyk V.M.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work is conducted physical and mental development of children of the senior preschool age. In the experiment, 90 children took part in the fifth year of life, among which 55 boys and 35 girls. It is noted that the children surveyed rate the physical development of the index corresponds to level - above the average. It was determined that the parameters of the functional state of preschool age children meet the age norm. It is revealed that in determining physical performance among boys set a good level, and satisfactory in girls. It is established that the results of physical fitness of boys is slightly higher than in girls. It was found that the diagnosis of the level of mental development in children fifth year of life, the average productivity and stability of attention, visual and auditory memory, visual-imagery and visual-thinking, and perception of speech correspond to the average level, and cognitive processes such as switching and distribution attention, imagination - a low level.

  12. Prevalence and factors associated with preoperative anxiety in children aged 5-12 years

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    Louise Amália de Moura

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: to estimate the prevalence and factors associated with preoperative anxiety in children who wait for outpatient surgery. Method: cross-sectional analysis of baseline data of a prospective cohort study that investigates the predictors of postoperative pain in children aged 5-12 years submitted to inguinal and umbilical hernia repair. It was selected 210 children, which were interviewed in the preoperative holding area of a general hospital. Anxiety was evaluated using the modified Yale Preoperative Anxiety Scale (mYPAS. Sociodemographic and clinical variables were analyzed as exposure and anxiety (mYPAS final score>30 as outcome. Logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with preoperative anxiety. Results: forty-two percent (42.0% of children presented preoperative anxiety (CI95%: 35.7%-48.6%, with mean scores equal to 30.1 (SD=8.4. Factors associated with preoperative anxiety were: age group of 5-6 years (OR=2.28; p=0.007 and socioeconomic status classified as class C (OR=2.39; p=0.016. Conclusion: the evaluation of children who wait for outpatient surgery should be multidimensional and comprise information on age and socioeconomic status, in order to help in the identification and early treatment of preoperative anxiety.

  13. Prevalence and factors associated with preoperative anxiety in children aged 5-12 years 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moura, Louise Amália; Dias, Iohanna Maria Guimarães; Pereira, Lilian Varanda

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: to estimate the prevalence and factors associated with preoperative anxiety in children who wait for outpatient surgery. Method: cross-sectional analysis of baseline data of a prospective cohort study that investigates the predictors of postoperative pain in children aged 5-12 years submitted to inguinal and umbilical hernia repair. It was selected 210 children, which were interviewed in the preoperative holding area of a general hospital. Anxiety was evaluated using the modified Yale Preoperative Anxiety Scale (mYPAS). Sociodemographic and clinical variables were analyzed as exposure and anxiety (mYPAS final score>30) as outcome. Logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with preoperative anxiety. Results: forty-two percent (42.0%) of children presented preoperative anxiety (CI95%: 35.7%-48.6%), with mean scores equal to 30.1 (SD=8.4). Factors associated with preoperative anxiety were: age group of 5-6 years (OR=2.28; p=0.007) and socioeconomic status classified as class C (OR=2.39; p=0.016). Conclusion: the evaluation of children who wait for outpatient surgery should be multidimensional and comprise information on age and socioeconomic status, in order to help in the identification and early treatment of preoperative anxiety. PMID:27305179

  14. School-Aged Children and Adult Language Production in an Indonesian TV Show

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kisno

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to find out the language produced by the school-aged children and the adult in a TV show. The study was carried out applying descriptive qualitative research design. The data for this research included the conversations between an adult (the host and three school-aged children. The data analysis procedures included- observing the video, transcribing the conversation, identifying the linguistics and non-linguistics features of the utterances, categorizing the language produced by the children and the adult, and interpreting the result of the analysis. The findings of data analysis showed that the five-year-old children produced one-word and two-word utterances rather than longer sentences. In contrast, the seven-year-old child produced longer sentences rather than one-word or two-word utterances. On the other hand, the host applied different ways and modified the way she produced language (‘caregiver speech’ or ‘motherese’ such as using exclamation, using gestures, using complimenting words, using intimate pronouns, and using direct instruction. The results obtained indicated that the school-aged children and the adult have their own ways in producing language in a TV show in Indonesia.

  15. Reduced genetic influence on childhood obesity in small for gestational age children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Dug Yeo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Children born small-for-gestational-age (SGA are at increased risk of developing obesity and metabolic diseases later in life, a risk which is magnified if followed by accelerated postnatal growth. We investigated whether common gene variants associated with adult obesity were associated with increased postnatal growth, as measured by BMI z-score, in children born SGA and appropriate for gestational age (AGA in the Auckland Birthweight Collaborative. Methods A total of 37 candidate SNPs were genotyped on 547 European children (228 SGA and 319 AGA. Repeated measures of BMI (z-score were used for assessing obesity status, and results were corrected for multiple testing using the false discovery rate. Results SGA children had a lower BMI z-score than non-SGA children at assessment age 3.5, 7 and 11 years. We confirmed 27 variants within 14 obesity risk genes to be individually associated with increasing early childhood BMI, predominantly in those born AGA. Conclusions Genetic risk variants are less important in influencing early childhood BMI in those born SGA than in those born AGA, suggesting that non-genetic or environmental factors may be more important in influencing childhood BMI in those born SGA.

  16. Change with age in regression construction of fat percentage for BMI in school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Katsunori; Mishima, Takaaki; Watanabe, Eiji; Seki, Kazuyoshi

    2011-01-01

    In this study, curvilinear regression was applied to the relationship between BMI and body fat percentage, and an analysis was done to see whether there are characteristic changes in that curvilinear regression from elementary to middle school. Then, by simultaneously investigating the changes with age in BMI and body fat percentage, the essential differences in BMI and body fat percentage were demonstrated. The subjects were 789 boys and girls (469 boys, 320 girls) aged 7.5 to 14.5 years from all parts of Japan who participated in regular sports activities. Body weight, total body water (TBW), soft lean mass (SLM), body fat percentage, and fat mass were measured with a body composition analyzer (Tanita BC-521 Inner Scan), using segmental bioelectrical impedance analysis & multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis. Height was measured with a digital height measurer. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated as body weight (km) divided by the square of height (m). The results for the validity of regression polynomials of body fat percentage against BMI showed that, for both boys and girls, first-order polynomials were valid in all school years. With regard to changes with age in BMI and body fat percentage, the results showed a temporary drop at 9 years in the aging distance curve in boys, followed by an increasing trend. Peaks were seen in the velocity curve at 9.7 and 11.9 years, but the MPV was presumed to be at 11.9 years. Among girls, a decreasing trend was seen in the aging distance curve, which was opposite to the changes in the aging distance curve for body fat percentage.

  17. Change with age in regression construction of fat percentage for BMI in school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Katsunori; Mishima, Takaaki; Watanabe, Eiji; Seki, Kazuyoshi

    2011-01-01

    In this study, curvilinear regression was applied to the relationship between BMI and body fat percentage, and an analysis was done to see whether there are characteristic changes in that curvilinear regression from elementary to middle school. Then, by simultaneously investigating the changes with age in BMI and body fat percentage, the essential differences in BMI and body fat percentage were demonstrated. The subjects were 789 boys and girls (469 boys, 320 girls) aged 7.5 to 14.5 years from all parts of Japan who participated in regular sports activities. Body weight, total body water (TBW), soft lean mass (SLM), body fat percentage, and fat mass were measured with a body composition analyzer (Tanita BC-521 Inner Scan), using segmental bioelectrical impedance analysis & multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis. Height was measured with a digital height measurer. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated as body weight (km) divided by the square of height (m). The results for the validity of regression polynomials of body fat percentage against BMI showed that, for both boys and girls, first-order polynomials were valid in all school years. With regard to changes with age in BMI and body fat percentage, the results showed a temporary drop at 9 years in the aging distance curve in boys, followed by an increasing trend. Peaks were seen in the velocity curve at 9.7 and 11.9 years, but the MPV was presumed to be at 11.9 years. Among girls, a decreasing trend was seen in the aging distance curve, which was opposite to the changes in the aging distance curve for body fat percentage. PMID:21483178

  18. Assessment of bone age in prepubertal healthy Korean children: Comparison among the Korean standard bone age chart, Greulich-Pyle method, and Tanner-Whitehouse method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To compare the reliability of the Greulich-Pyle (GP) method, Tanner-Whitehouse 3 (TW3) method and Korean standard bone age chart (KS) in the evaluation of bone age of prepubertal healthy Korean children. Left hand-wrist radiographs of 212 prepubertal healthy Korean children aged 7 to 12 years, obtained for the evaluation of the traumatic injury in emergency department, were analyzed by two observers. Bone age was estimated using the GP method, TW3 method and KS, and was calculated in months. The correlation between bone age measured by each method and chronological age of each child was analyzed using Pearson correlation coefficient, scatterplot. The three methods were compared using one-way analysis of variance. Significant correlations were found between chronological age and bone age estimated by all three methods in whole group and in each gender (R2 ranged from 0.87 to 0.9, p < 0.01). Although bone age estimated by KS was slightly closer to chronological age than those estimated by the GP and TW3 methods, the difference between three methods was not statistically significant (p > 0.01). The KS, GP, and TW3 methods show good reliability in the evaluation of bone age of prepubertal healthy Korean children without significant difference between them. Any are useful for evaluation of bone age in prepubertal healthy Korean children.

  19. Assessment of bone age in prepubertal healthy Korean children: Comparison among the Korean standard bone age chart, Greulich-Pyle method, and Tanner-Whitehouse method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim Jeong Rye; Lee, Young Seok; Yu, Jee Suk [Dankook University Hospital, Cheonan(Korea, Republic of)

    2015-02-15

    To compare the reliability of the Greulich-Pyle (GP) method, Tanner-Whitehouse 3 (TW3) method and Korean standard bone age chart (KS) in the evaluation of bone age of prepubertal healthy Korean children. Left hand-wrist radiographs of 212 prepubertal healthy Korean children aged 7 to 12 years, obtained for the evaluation of the traumatic injury in emergency department, were analyzed by two observers. Bone age was estimated using the GP method, TW3 method and KS, and was calculated in months. The correlation between bone age measured by each method and chronological age of each child was analyzed using Pearson correlation coefficient, scatterplot. The three methods were compared using one-way analysis of variance. Significant correlations were found between chronological age and bone age estimated by all three methods in whole group and in each gender (R2 ranged from 0.87 to 0.9, p < 0.01). Although bone age estimated by KS was slightly closer to chronological age than those estimated by the GP and TW3 methods, the difference between three methods was not statistically significant (p > 0.01). The KS, GP, and TW3 methods show good reliability in the evaluation of bone age of prepubertal healthy Korean children without significant difference between them. Any are useful for evaluation of bone age in prepubertal healthy Korean children.

  20. Habitual Snoring in school-aged children: environmental and biological predictors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Shenghu

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Habitual snoring, a prominent symptom of sleep-disordered breathing, is an important indicator for a number of health problems in children. Compared to adults, large epidemiological studies on childhood habitual snoring and associated predisposing factors are extremely scarce. The present study aimed to assess the prevalence and associated factors of habitual snoring among Chinese school-aged children. Methods A random sample of 20,152 children aged 5.08 to 11.99 years old participated in a cross-sectional survey, which was conducted in eight cities of China. Parent-administrated questionnaires were used to collect information on children's snoring frequency and the possible correlates. Results The prevalence of habitual snoring was 12.0% (14.5% for boys vs. 9.5% for girls in our sampled children. Following factors were associated with an increased risk for habitual snoring: lower family income (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 1.46, lower father's education (OR = 1.38 and 1.14 for middle school or under and high school of educational level, respectively, breastfeeding duration Conclusion The prevalence of habitual snoring in Chinese children was similar to that observed in other countries. The potential predisposing factors covered socioeconomic characteristics, environmental exposures, chronic health problems, and family susceptibility. Compared to socioeconomic status and family susceptibility, environmental exposures and chronic health problems had greater impact, indicating childhood habitual snoring could be partly prevented by health promotion and environmental intervention.

  1. Communicative profile of children who entered in primary school after the age of five -

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jáima Pinheiro de Oliveira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To characterize the communicative behaviors of children who entered in Primary School after the age of five. Methods: It was a descriptive study, held in a city at the countryside of Parana state (Brazil, in the years 2007 and 2008, in both school and home environments. Twelve children of both genders joined in the study, with age ranging from five years and two months to six years, besides their mothers and respective teachers. Interviews were conducted with mothers and a questionnaire for teachers. Afterwards, observations of the communication of children in school and home environments were conducted. Data analysis focused on those relevant to children’s development and school performance, trying to determine their communicative profile in school and home environments, from protocols regarding the indicators of communication means and functions. Results: The results indicated the presence of a child with poor general health, with complications from the pregnancy period, with motor and language delays and low school performance. It was also observed that all children used verbal means to communicate and the highest frequency of communicative functions appeared in home environment, indicating an important aspect to be considered in the stimulation of communication of these children. Conclusion: Data from this study showed that the children benefited more of contexts planned with family interlocutors.

  2. Communicative profile of children who entered in primary school after the age of five

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Zaboroski

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To characterize the communicative behaviors of children who entered in Primary School after the age of five. Methods: It was a descriptive study, held in a city at the countryside of Parana state (Brazil, in the years 2007 and 2008, in both school and home environments. Twelve children of both genders joined in the study, with age ranging from five years and two months to six years, besides their mothers and respective teachers. Interviews were conducted with mothers and a questionnaire for teachers. Afterwards, observations of the communication of children in school and home environments were conducted. Data analysis focused on those relevant to children’s development and school performance, trying to determine their communicative profile in school and home environments, from protocols regarding the indicators of communication means and functions. Results: The results indicated the presence of a child with poor general health, with complications from the pregnancy period, with motor and language delays and low school performance. It was also observed that all children used verbal means to communicate and the highest frequency of communicative functions appeared in home environment, indicating an important aspect to be considered in the stimulation of communication of these children. Conclusion: Data from this study showed that the children benefited more of contexts planned with family interlocutors.

  3. Observing Interactions between Children and Adolescents and their Parents: The Effects of Anxiety Disorder and Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waite, Polly; Creswell, Cathy

    2015-08-01

    Parental behaviors, most notably overcontrol, lack of warmth and expressed anxiety, have been implicated in models of the development and maintenance of anxiety disorders in children and young people. Theories of normative development have proposed that different parental responses are required to support emotional development in childhood and adolescence, yet age has not typically been taken into account in studies of parenting and anxiety disorders. In order to identify whether associations between anxiety disorder status and parenting differ in children and adolescents, we compared observed behaviors of parents of children (7-10 years) and adolescents (13-16 years) with and without anxiety disorders (n = 120), while they undertook a series of mildly anxiety-provoking tasks. Parents of adolescents showed significantly lower levels of expressed anxiety, intrusiveness and warm engagement than parents of children. Furthermore, offspring age moderated the association between anxiety disorder status and parenting behaviors. Specifically, parents of adolescents with anxiety disorders showed higher intrusiveness and lower warm engagement than parents of non-anxious adolescents. A similar relationship between these parenting behaviors and anxiety disorder status was not observed among parents of children. The findings suggest that theoretical accounts of the role of parental behaviors in anxiety disorders in children and adolescents should distinguish between these different developmental periods. Further experimental research to establish causality, however, would be required before committing additional resources to targeting parenting factors within treatment.

  4. Summer camp and self-esteem of school-age inner-city children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Readdick, Christine A; Schaller, G Robert

    2005-08-01

    The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that a session of summer camp would increase the self-esteem of economically disadvantaged, school-age children from New York's inner-city neighborhoods. This study was conducted at a small, coeducational residential summer camp in the Pocono Mountains designed for children ages 6-12 years from low-income areas of New York City. During each of four 12-day sessions, the Piers-Harris Children's Self-concept Scale was administered as a pretest and posttest to a sample of 68 children (36 boys and 32 girls; 33 African American, 34 Hispanic, and 1 Asian) of 742 attending camp for the sumnmer. Children scored significantly higher on the measure of self-esteem at the end of camp than at the beginning. Positive descriptions and ratings of self on popularity increased significantly. Observations and interviews with children suggested physical and social environmental features, such as contact with nature and having the same counselor as a previous year, may support self-esteem. Findings are discussed within a framework for biophilia, an innate urge to affiliate with nature which unfolds from earliest childhood on.

  5. An epidemiological, clinical and genetic survey of Neurofibromatosis type 1 in children under sixteen years of age

    OpenAIRE

    McKeever, Karl; Shepherd, Charles W; Crawford, Hilda; Morrison, Patrick J.

    2008-01-01

    Aim To identify all cases of Neurofibromatosis type 1 in Northern Ireland under 16 years of age, document age, modes of presentation and any complications that occurred. Methods All cases of Neurofibromatosis type 1 in children less than 16 years of age were identified from the records in the Department of Medical Genetics. From the records and by direct contact with the patient's parents the relevant clinical information was obtained. Results Seventy-five children aged sixteen years or less ...

  6. Probabilistic assessment of exposure to cosmetic products by French children aged 0-3 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ficheux, A S; Dornic, N; Bernard, A; Chevillotte, G; Roudot, A C

    2016-08-01

    Very few exposure data are available for children in Europe and worldwide. The aim of this study was to assess the exposure to cosmetic products used on children aged 0-3 years using recent consumption data generated for the French population. Exposure was assessed using a probabilistic method for 24 products including cleanser, skin care, fragrance, solar and bottom products. The exposure data obtained in this study for children aged 0-3 years were higher than the values fixed by the SCCS for all common products: liquid shampoo, face moisturizer cream, toothpaste, shower gel and body moisturizer cream. Exposure was assessed for the first time for many products such as sunscreens, Eau de toilette and massage products. These new French exposure values will be useful for safety assessors and for safety agencies. PMID:27255804

  7. False memories in children and adults: age, distinctiveness, and subjective experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghetti, Simona; Qin, Jianjian; Goodman, Gail S

    2002-09-01

    This study investigated developmental trends associated with the Deese/Roediger-McDermott false-memory effect, the role of distinctive information in false-memory formation, and participants' subjective experience of true and false memories. Children (5- and 7-year-olds) and adults studied lists of semantically associated words. Half of the participants studied words alone, and half studied words accompanied by pictures. There were significant age differences in recall (5-year-olds evinced more false memories than did adults) but not in recognition of critical lures. Distinctive information reduced false memory for all age groups. Younger children provided with distinctive information, and older children and adults regardless of whether they viewed distinctive information, expressed higher levels of confidence in true than in false memories. Source attributions did not significantly differ between true and false memories. Implications for theories of false memory and memory development are discussed. PMID:12220049

  8. Prognostic Predictors for Ambulation in Thai Children With Cerebral Palsy Aged 2 to 18 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeratisiroj, Orawan; Thawinchai, Nuanlaor; Siritaratiwat, Wantana; Buntragulpoontawee, Montana

    2015-11-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine prognostic predictors for ambulation among Thai children with cerebral palsy and identify their ambulatory status. A retrospective cohort study was performed at 6 special schools or hospitals for children with physical disabilities. The prognostic predictors for ambulation were analyzed by multivariable ordinal continuation ratio logistic regression. The 533 participants aged 2 to 18 years were divided into 3 groups: 186 with independent ambulation (Gross Motor Function Classification System [GMFCS I-II]), 71 with assisted ambulation (Gross Motor Function Classification System III), and 276 with nonambulation (Gross Motor Function Classification System IV-V). The significant positive predictors for ambulation were type of cerebral palsy (spastic diplegia, spastic hemiplegia, dyskinesia, ataxia, hypotonia, and mixed type), sitting independently at age 2 years, and eating independently. These predictors were used to develop clinical scoring for predicting the future ability to walk among Thai children with cerebral palsy.

  9. Piagetian Conservation Tasks in Ghanaian Children: the Role of Geographical Location, Gender and Age Differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn AmaAssan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated the influence of geographical location, gender and age on the performance of Piagetian Conservation tasks. Four conservation tasks; conservation of liquid, length, substance amount and number respectively were administered to children [4-6 years] from rural and urban Ghana and their performance on each task were recorded. Results indicated that there were no significant relationships among the performance of Piagetian conservation tasks and geographical location. Similar trends were noted in the performance of gender and age differences on Piagetian conservation tasks. Nonetheless, older children performed better on the conservation of liquid in a glass than younger children. Based on the results, both quantities and perceptual comparisons can be applied in future studies to examine some possible variations in children’s cognitive development.

  10. Motor skills in children aged 7-10 years, diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whyatt, Caroline P; Craig, Cathy M

    2012-09-01

    This study used the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (M-ABC2) to assess motor skills in children aged 7-10 years with autism (n = 18) in comparison to two groups of age-matched typically developing children; a receptive vocabulary matched group (n = 19) and a nonverbal IQ matched group (n = 22). The results supported previous work, as indicated by a significant general motor impairment in the group with autism. However, sub-analysis of the M-ABC2 revealed that there were only 2 out of 8 subcomponent skills which showed universal significant specific deficits for the autism group; i.e. catching a ball and static balance. These results suggest that motor skill deficits associated with autism may not be pervasive but more apparent in activities demanding complex, interceptive actions or core balance ability.

  11. Maternal rigidity in infancy and level of intelligence at school age in children born preterm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Butcher, P.R.; Wijnberg-Williams, B.J; Hegemann, N; Stremmelaar, E.F; Schoemaker, M.M.; Van der Meere, J.J.; Bambang Oetomo, S

    2004-01-01

    Forty-four children who had been born preterm and their mothers participated in the follow-up study. At 3 and 14 months (corrected age) cognitive development was assessed using the BOS 2-30, the Dutch version of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development. The BOS yields measures of mental and motor dev

  12. Piagetian Conservation Tasks in Ghanaian Children: The Role of Geographical Location, Gender and Age Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assan, Evelyn Ama; Sarfo, Jacob Owusu

    2015-01-01

    The study investigated the influence of geographical location, gender and age on the performance of Piagetian Conservation tasks. Four conservation tasks; conservation of liquid, length, substance amount and number respectively were administered to children [4-6 years] from rural and urban Ghana and their performance on each task were recorded.…

  13. Functional Impairments at School Age of Children With Necrotizing Enterocolitis or Spontaneous Intestinal Perforation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roze, Elise; Ta, B.D.; van der Ree, Meike H.; Tanis, Jozien C.; van Braeckel, Koenraad N. J. A.; Hulscher, Jan B. F.; Bos, Arend F.

    2011-01-01

    We aimed to determine motor, cognitive, and behavioral outcome at school age of children who had either necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) or spontaneous intestinal perforation (SIP). This case-control study included infants with NEC Bell's stage IIA onward, infants with SIP, and matched controls (1996

  14. Age Differences in Children's Memory of Information about Aggressive, Socially Withdrawn, and Prosociable Boys and Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukowski, William M.

    1990-01-01

    In two studies, second and sixth graders heard descriptions of hypothetical boys and girls who were either aggressive, socially withdrawn, or prosociable. Subjects' memories of items in the descriptions were assessed. Results indicated that school-age and early adolescent children's recall of information about a peer is affected by the peer's…

  15. Classification Accuracy of Nonword Repetition when Used with Preschool-Age Spanish-Speaking Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiberson, Mark; Rodriguez, Barbara L.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the present study was to (a) describe and compare the nonword repetition (NWR) performance of preschool-age Spanish-speaking children (3- to 5-year-olds) with and without language impairment (LI) across 2 scoring approaches and (b) to contrast the classification accuracy of a Spanish NWR task when item-level and percentage…

  16. Obesity-Related Hormones in Low-Income Preschool-Age Children: Implications for School Readiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Alison L.; Lumeng, Carey N.; Delproposto, Jennifer; Florek, Brian; Wendorf, Kristin; Lumeng, Julie C.

    2013-01-01

    Mechanisms underlying socioeconomic disparities in school readiness and health outcomes, particularly obesity, among preschool-aged children are complex and poorly understood. Obesity can induce changes in proteins in the circulation that contribute to the negative impact of obesity on health; such changes may relate to cognitive and emotion…

  17. The Impact of Nutrition, Sedentary Behaviour and Lifestyle on School-Age Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantea-Stoian Anca

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims. Diet and lifestyle in school-age children have a particularly large impact on health, as well as various consequences in future. The objective of this papers it to assess the relationship between lifestyle and daily diet and the effects of an unhealthy diet. Material and Methods. An observational cohort study was conducted in Bucharest, in three schools and one high school on 100 children, between 2011 and 2013. The criterion for inclusion was the appropriate age (school-age. The protocol consisted in clinical examination, body mass index (BMI calculation, questions about diet, physical activity and time spent watching television (TV. Results. Most children do not respect a schedule of meals and snacks (78%. Unhealthy diet (fast food, carbonated beverages, chocolate registered higher preferences. Mean TV time was 2.32 hours/day (SD=1.92 and a strong evidence on relationship between age and number of hours allocated to TV was discovered (p< .01. Four percent of children were found to be under the 5th percentile (underweight, 18% between 85th and 95th percentile (overweight and 14% above 95th percentile (obesity. Conclusions. A sedentary life in this case was mainly determined by the time spent daily in front of the television rather than lack of exercise.

  18. Age-related changes in error processing in young children: A school-based investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennie K. Grammer

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Growth in executive functioning (EF skills play a role children's academic success, and the transition to elementary school is an important time for the development of these abilities. Despite this, evidence concerning the development of the ERP components linked to EF, including the error-related negativity (ERN and the error positivity (Pe, over this period is inconclusive. Data were recorded in a school setting from 3- to 7-year-old children (N = 96, mean age = 5 years 11 months as they performed a Go/No-Go task. Results revealed the presence of the ERN and Pe on error relative to correct trials at all age levels. Older children showed increased response inhibition as evidenced by faster, more accurate responses. Although developmental changes in the ERN were not identified, the Pe increased with age. In addition, girls made fewer mistakes and showed elevated Pe amplitudes relative to boys. Based on a representative school-based sample, findings indicate that the ERN is present in children as young as 3, and that development can be seen in the Pe between ages 3 and 7. Results varied as a function of gender, providing insight into the range of factors associated with developmental changes in the complex relations between behavioral and electrophysiological measures of error processing.

  19. Developmental Norms of Children Aged 2 1/2-5 Years: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muralidharan, Rajalakshmi

    1969-01-01

    The purpose of this pilot study, aside from collection of developmental data on 38 nursery school children aged 2 1/2 to 5 years, was (1) to develop, modify and adapt the testing equipment used in Gesell's Developmental Schedule, in the field of motor, adaptive, language, and personal-social development; (2) to develop elaborate, exhaustive,…

  20. BMI percentile-for-age overestimates adiposity in early compared with late maturing pubertal children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Kaspar; Juul, Anders

    2015-01-01

    .041) was found with early compared with late maturation, despite similar BIA-estimated body fat percentage (BIA-BF%). Neither BMI nor BIA-BF% differed for a given stage of maturation. BMI percentile-for-age and prevalence of overweight/obesity were higher in the early compared with late matured pubertal children...

  1. SNAP Participation in Preschool-Aged Children and Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Shannon; Alexander, Jeffrey L.; Ewing, Helen; Whetzel, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    Background: An increased prevalence of overweight and obesity for adults on government-funded nutrition assistance, such as the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP), has been observed; however, this association among preschool-aged children is not well understood. Longitudinal research designs tracking changes in body mass…

  2. Lexical and Phrasal Prominence Patterns in School-Aged Children's Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shport, Irina A.; Redford, Melissa A.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the integration of word- and phrase-level prominences in speech produced by twenty-five school-aged children (6;2 to 7;3) and twenty-five adults. Participants produced disyllabic number words in a straight count condition and in two phrasal conditions, namely, a stress clash and non-clash phrasal context. Duration and…

  3. An Evaluation of the Aberrant Behavior Checklist for Children under Age 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Jonathan D.; Huete, John M.; Fodstad, Jill C.; Chin, Michelle D.; Kurtz, Patricia F.

    2013-01-01

    Severe problem behaviors such as self-injury and aggression are frequently observed in young children under age 5 with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD). Although early identification of problem behavior is critical to effective intervention, there are few standardized measures available that identify severe problem behavior in…

  4. Maternal age of menarche is not associated with asthma or atopy in prepubertal children

    OpenAIRE

    Maitra, A; Sherriff, A.; Northstone, K; Strachan, D; the, A; Henderson, A.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Maternal sex hormones in pregnancy can theoretically influence the developing fetal immune system and modulate the subsequent development of atopic disorders. Early onset of menarche has been linked to increased oestrogen levels in adult women. A study was undertaken to examine the association between early onset menarche in pregnant women and asthma and atopic status of their children at 7 years of age.

  5. Antisocial Behavior, Psychopathology and Functional Impairment: Association with Sex and Age in Clinical Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera, Juan; Ezpeleta, Lourdes; Granero, Roser; de la Osa, Nuria

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence, degree of association and differential effect, by sex and age, of conduct disorder symptoms on psychopathology and functioning. Participants included 680 Spanish children and adolescents between 8 and 17 years and their parents, attending to psychiatric outpatient consultation. Data were obtained through…

  6. Extension/suppression of allowance for dependent children aged 18 and above - REMINDER

    CERN Multimedia

    Social and Statutory conditions

    2004-01-01

    Members of the personnel with dependent children aged 18 or above (or reaching 18 during the 2004/2005 school year) have received a QUESTIONNAIRE in July. If this questionnaire has not been completed and returned yet, they are requested to do so WITHOUT DELAY. The deadline was 10 September. Social and Statutory conditions Human Resources Department Tel. 72862-74474

  7. REMINDER: Extension/suppression of allowance for dependent children aged 18 and above

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Members of the personnel with dependent children aged 18 or above (or reaching 18 during the 2003/2004 school year) received a QUESTIONNAIRE in July. If this questionnaire has not yet been completed and returned, they are requested to do so without delay. The deadline was 12 September. Human Resources Division Tel. 72862-74474

  8. REMINDER EXTENSION/SUPPRESSION OF ALLOWANCE FOR DEPENDENT CHILDREN AGED 18 AND ABOVE

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2002-01-01

    Members of the personnel with dependent children aged 18 or above (or reaching 18 during the 2002/2003 school year) received a QUESTIONNAIRE in July. If this questionnaire has not been completed and returned yet, they are requested to do so WITHOUT DELAY. The deadline was 13 September.   Human Resources Division Tel. 72862-74474

  9. Age, Gender, and Training in Children's Performance of Piaget's Horizontality Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parameswaran, Gowri

    2003-01-01

    Presents a study in which children (n=600), ages five to nine, completed Jean Piaget's horizontality task using a square water bottle. Finds a significant sex difference in the pretest performance of the horizontality task beginning with eight year olds. Includes references. (CMK)

  10. Portrayal of Life Form in Selected Biographies for Children Eight to Twelve Years of Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Shirley Lois

    This study describes and analyzes, in a critical literary manner, selected biographies for children eight to twelve years of age. Biographies of Jane Addams, Cesar Chavez, Mohandas Gandhi, Toyohiko Kagawa, Martin Luther King, Jr., and Albert Schweitzer are viewed from the perspective of a literary criterion based on the principles of design to…

  11. Reminder EXTENSION/SUPPRESSION OF ALLOWANCE FOR DEPENDENT CHILDREN AGED 18 AND ABOVE

    CERN Multimedia

    Conditions Sociales et Statutaires; Tél. 72862-74474; Social and Statutory conditions; Human Resources Division; Tel. 72862-74474

    2000-01-01

    Members of the personnel with dependent children aged 18 or above (or reaching 18 during the 2000/2001 school year) have received a QUESTIONNAIRE in July . If this questionnaire has not been completed and returned, they are requested to do so IMMEDIATELY.

  12. REMINDER EXTENSION/SUPPRESSION OF ALLOWANCE FOR DEPENDENT CHILDREN AGED 18 AND ABOVE

    CERN Multimedia

    Social and Statutory conditions; Tel. 72862-74474

    2001-01-01

    Members of the personnel with dependent children aged 18 or above (or reaching 18 during the 2001/2002 school year) have received a QUESTIONNAIRE in July. If this questionnaire has not been completed and returned yet, they are requested to do so IMMEDIATELY.

  13. The influence of newborn hearing screening on the age at cochlear implantation in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammers, Marc J W; Jansen, Thijs T G; Grolman, Wilko; Lenarz, Thomas; Versnel, Huib; Van Zanten, Gijsbert A.; Topsakal, Vedat; Lesinski-Schiedat, Anke

    2015-01-01

    Objectives/Hypothesis To evaluate the influence of the introduction of newborn hearing screening programs on the age at cochlear implantation in children. Study Design Retrospective, multicenter cohort study. Methods All 1,299 pediatric cochlear implant users who received their implants before the a

  14. The Effect of Gestational Age on Symptom Severity in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movsas, Tammy Z.; Paneth, Nigel

    2012-01-01

    Between 2006 and 2010, two research-validated instruments, Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ) and Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) were filled out online by 4,188 mothers of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) children, aged 4-21, as part of voluntary parental participation in a large web-based registry. Univariate and multivariate linear…

  15. Functional impairments at school age of preterm born children with late-onset sepsis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Ree, Meike; Tanis, Jozien C.; Van Braeckel, Koenraad N. J. A.; Bos, Arend F.; Roze, Elise

    2011-01-01

    Background: Late-onset sepsis is a relatively common complication particularly of preterm birth that affects approximately a quarter of very low birth weight infants. Aim: We aimed to determine the motor, cognitive, and behavioural outcome at school age of preterm children with late-onset sepsis com

  16. Age and Gender Differences in Children's and Adolescents' Adaptation to Sexual Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feiring, Candice; Lewis, Michael; Taska, Lynn

    1999-01-01

    Interviews with 96 children and 73 adolescents following sexual abuse found significant age and sex differences. Adolescents reported a higher level of depressive symptoms, negative reactions by others, and lower levels of self-esteem, social support, and sexual anxiety. Girls reported higher levels of intrusive thoughts, hyperarousal, sexual…

  17. Overt and Relational Aggression in Russian Nursery-School-Age Children: Parenting Style and Marital Linkages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Craig H.; Nelson, David A.; Robinson, Clyde C.; Olsen, Susanne Frost; McNeilly-Choque, Mary Kay

    1998-01-01

    Maternal and paternal parenting styles and marital interactions linked to childhood aggressive behavior in Western psychological literature were measured in 207 ethnic Russian families of nursery-school-age children. Results corroborated and extended findings from Western samples. Greater marital conflict (for boys only), greater maternal…

  18. Psychopathic Traits and Physiological Responses to Aversive Stimuli in Children Aged 9-11 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pan; Baker, Laura A.; Gao, Yu; Raine, Adrian; Lozano, Dora Isabel

    2012-01-01

    Atypical electrodermal and cardiovascular response patterns in psychopathic individuals are thought to be biological indicators of fearless and disinhibition. This study investigated the relationship between psychopathic traits and these autonomic response patterns using a countdown task in 843 children (aged 9-10 years). Heart rate (HR) and…

  19. The Development of Skin Conductance Fear Conditioning in Children from Ages 3 to 8 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yu; Raine, Adrian; Venables, Peter H.; Dawson, Michael E.; Mednick, Sarnoff A.

    2010-01-01

    Although fear conditioning is an important psychological construct implicated in behavioral and emotional problems, little is known about how it develops in early childhood. Using a differential, partial reinforcement conditioning paradigm, this longitudinal study assessed skin conductance conditioned responses in 200 children at ages 3, 4, 5, 6,…

  20. Comparisons of Levels and Predictors of Mothers' and Fathers' Engagement with Their Preschool-Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoppe-Sullivan, Sarah J.; Kotila, Letitia E.; Jia, Rongfang; Lang, Sarah N.; Bower, Daniel J.

    2013-01-01

    Self-report data from 112 two-parent families were used to compare levels and predictors of four types of mothers' and fathers' engagement with their preschool-aged children: socialisation, didactic, caregiving, and physical play. Mothers were more involved than fathers in socialisation, didactic, and caregiving, whereas fathers were more involved…

  1. Glucose metabolism in children: influence of age, fasting, and infectious diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.C.W.R. Zijlmans; A.A.M.W. van Kempen; M.J. Serlie; H.P. Sauerwein

    2009-01-01

    This review describes the occurrence of hypoglycemia in young children as a common and serious complication that needs to be avoided because of the high risk of brain damage and mortality. Young age, fasting, and severe infectious disease are considered important risk factors. The limited data on th

  2. Children with Differing Developmental Trajectories of Prelinguistic Communication Skills: Language and Working Memory at Age 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Määttä, Sira; Laakso, Marja-Leena; Tolvanen, Asko; Ahonen, Timo; Aro, Tuija

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: In this article, the authors examine the developmental continuity from prelinguistic communication to kindergarten age in language and working memory capacity. Method: Following work outlining 6 groups of children with different trajectories of early communication development (ECD; Määttä, Laakso, Tolvanen, Ahonen, & Aro, 2012), the…

  3. A Systematic Review of Common Physiotherapy Interventions in School-Aged Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Liz; Baker, Richard; Harvey, Adrienne

    2010-01-01

    This systematic review focused on the common conventional physiotherapy interventions used with children with cerebral palsy (CP), aged 4 to 18 years, and critically appraised the recent evidence of each of these interventions using the Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine Levels of Evidence. The search strategy yielded 34 articles after…

  4. Dental age estimation of growing children by measurement of open apices: A Malaysian formula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cugati, Navaneetha; Kumaresan, Ramesh; Srinivasan, Balamanikanda; Karthikeyan, Priyadarshini

    2015-01-01

    Background: Age estimation is of prime importance in forensic science and clinical dentistry. Age estimation based on teeth development is one reliable approach. Many radiographic methods are proposed on the Western population for estimating dental age, and a similar assessment was found to be inadequate in Malaysian population. Hence, this study aims at formulating a regression model for dental age estimation in Malaysian children population using Cameriere's method. Materials and Methods: Orthopantomographs of 421 Malaysian children aged between 5 and 16 years involving all the three ethnic origins were digitalized and analyzed using Cameriere's method of age estimation. The subjects’ age was modeled as a function of the morphological variables, gender (g), ethnicity, sum of normalized open apices (s), number of tooth with completed root formation (N0) and the first-order interaction between s and N0. Results: The variables that contributed significantly to the fit were included in the regression model, yielding the following formula: Age = 11.368-0.345g + 0.553No -1.096s - 0.380s.No, where g is a variable, 1 for males and 2 for females. The equation explained 87.1% of total deviance. Conclusion: The results obtained insist on reframing the original Cameriere's formula to suit the population of the nation specifically. Further studies are to be conducted to evaluate the applicability of this formula on a larger sample size. PMID:26816464

  5. Dental age estimation of growing children by measurement of open apices: A Malaysian formula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navaneetha Cugati

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Age estimation is of prime importance in forensic science and clinical dentistry. Age estimation based on teeth development is one reliable approach. Many radiographic methods are proposed on the Western population for estimating dental age, and a similar assessment was found to be inadequate in Malaysian population. Hence, this study aims at formulating a regression model for dental age estimation in Malaysian children population using Cameriere′s method. Materials and Methods: Orthopantomographs of 421 Malaysian children aged between 5 and 16 years involving all the three ethnic origins were digitalized and analyzed using Cameriere′s method of age estimation. The subjects′ age was modeled as a function of the morphological variables, gender (g, ethnicity, sum of normalized open apices (s, number of tooth with completed root formation (N 0 and the first-order interaction between s and N 0 . Results: The variables that contributed significantly to the fit were included in the regression model, yielding the following formula: Age = 11.368-0.345g + 0.553N o -1.096s - 0.380s.N o , where g is a variable, 1 for males and 2 for females. The equation explained 87.1% of total deviance. Conclusion: The results obtained insist on reframing the original Cameriere′s formula to suit the population of the nation specifically. Further studies are to be conducted to evaluate the applicability of this formula on a larger sample size.

  6. Academic performance and intelligence scores of primary school-aged children with sickle cell anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezenwosu, Osita; Emodi, Ifeoma; Ikefuna, Anthony; Chukwu, Barth

    2013-11-01

    Children with sickle cell anemia (SCA) are faced with complications which may interfere with their educational activities including academic performance. Reports on their academic performance are mainly from developed countries and the results have been inconsistent. This study aimed to determine the academic performance of primary school-aged children with SCA in Nigeria and compare findings with a group of controls. Ninety children with SCA aged 5-11 years were consecutively recruited at the SCA clinic of UNTH Enugu and their age- and sex-matched normal classmates were enrolled as controls. Academic performance of the children with SCA was studied using the overall scores achieved in the three term examinations in the preceding academic year (2009/2010), while their intelligence quotient (IQ) was determined using the Draw-A-Person Test. The findings were compared with that of 90 controls. The mean overall academic score of the children with SCA of 62.71 ± 19.43% was similar to 67.47 ± 16.42% in the controls (P = .077). However, a significantly higher number of children with SCA (32.2% vs. 16.7% of the controls; P = .015) scored below 50%, thus, had poor performance. The mean IQ of the subjects (91.41 ±16.61%) was similar to that of the controls (95.56 ±17.31%, P = .103). However, more SCA patients had lower IQ scores than controls though not statistically significant (P = 0.083). The overall academic performance of children with SCA, therefore, compares favorably with that of controls although there is a higher prevalence of poor performance among them.

  7. Neurobehavioral outcomes of school-age children born preterm: a preliminary study in the Arabic community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed M.J. Alqahtani

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Preterm survivors from the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU are considered as high risk group for some neurobehavioral impairments such as cognitive disabilities, developmental delays, social/emotional limitations, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, and academic difficulties. Objective: The current study aimed to investigate the neurobehavioral outcome of premature infants in Saudi Arabia at the school age.Methods: At the school age, preterm children (range 23-29 weeks or ≤ 1.52 kg born from April, 2006 through September, 2008, and who were admitted following birth to a NICU, were evaluated with several neurobehavioral tools. Results: This study includes 53 preterm children, who were followed up at the chronological age that ranged from 6.4-8.0 years. The results of the neurobehavioral assessments showed in general normal social adaptive levels and cognitive abilities, with mean total score of about 91.0 and 90.0, respectively. The prevalence of ADHD among preterm children was high, with result of 34.0% for the inattentive type and 11.3% for the hyperactive/impulsive type. None of the preterm children repeats a grade, but 22.6% utilize a form of special educational supports. Some of the preterm children showed poor school performance in reading skills, writing skills and mathematics skills, with percentages of 26.4%, 28.3% and 15.1%, respectively.Conclusions: The present results emphasize that preterm children are a group of high-risk children who need regular follow-up to track the developmental conditions and to provide the early developmental intervention for optimal outcome.

  8. Final reminder - Extension/suppression of allowance for dependent children aged 20 to 25

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2007-01-01

    Members of the personnel with dependent children aged 20 to 25 (or reaching 20 during the 2007/2008 school year), for whom an allowance for dependent children is paid, must provide the School fees service as soon as possible with a: SCHOOL CERTIFICATE Unless we receive, by November 30, 2007 at the latest, a school certificate or similar written proof (contract of work placement, sandwich courses or apprenticeship) covering your child / children for the school year 2007/2008, we will be obliged to stop payment of the allowance for dependent children as well as affiliation to the health insurance retroactively as of July 1, 2007. School fees service (33-1-017) HR/SPS-SER Tel. 72862

  9. REMINDER - extension/suppression of allowance for dependent children aged 20 to 25

    CERN Document Server

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    Members of the personnel with dependent children aged 20 to 25 (or reaching 20 during the 2008/2009 school year), for whom an allowance for dependent children is paid, must provide the School fees service with a: SCHOOL CERTIFICATE Unless we receive, by 31 October 2008 at the latest, a school certificate or similar written proof (contract of work placement, sandwich courses or apprenticeship) covering your child / children for the school year 2008/2009, we will be obliged to stop payment of the allowance for dependent children as well as affiliation to the health insurance retroactively as of 1 July 2008. School fees service (33-1-017) HR/SPS-SER Tel. 72862

  10. REMINDER - Extension/suppression of allowance for dependent children aged 20 to 25

    CERN Document Server

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    Members of the personnel with dependent children aged 20 to 25 (or reaching 20 during the 2008/2009 school year), for whom an allowance for dependent children is paid, must provide the School Fees service with a: SCHOOL CERTIFICATE Unless we receive, by 31 October, 2008 at the latest, a school certificate or similar written proof (contract of work placement, sandwich course or apprenticeship) covering your child / children for the school year 2008/2009, we will be obliged to stop payment of the allowance for dependent children as well as affiliation to the health insurance scheme retroactively as of1st July 2008. School fees service (33-1-017) HR/SPS-SER Tel. 72862

  11. Final reminder - Extension/suppression of allowance for dependent children aged 20 to 25

    CERN Document Server

    HR Department

    2007-01-01

    Members of the personnel with dependent children aged 20 to 25 (or reaching 20 during the 2007/2008 school year), for whom an allowance for dependent children is paid, must provide the School Fees service as soon as possible with a: SCHOOL CERTIFICATE Unless we receive, by November 30, 2007 at the latest, a school certificate or similar written proof (contract of work placement, sandwich courses or apprenticeship) covering your child / children for the school year 2007/2008, we will be obliged to stop payment of the allowance for dependent children as well as affiliation to the health insurance scheme retroactively as of 1 July 2007. School Fees service (33-1-017) HR/SPS-SER Tel. 72862

  12. Prevalence of oral habits in 563 Nigerian preschool children age 3-5 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onyeaso, C O; Sote, E O

    2001-12-01

    One of the contributory factors in the establishment of occlusion is the child's oral habits. A limited amount of information is available on oral habits of pre-school children especially on Nigerian pre-school children. With an increasing interest in the early recognition of mal-occlusion and a corresponding emphasis on preventive procedures, more information on pre-school children may prove to be useful. This study revealed the prevalence of oral habits among 563 Nigerian pre-school children aged 3-5 years at 13.14%: 6.74% for males, 6.4%for females. The acquired data were tested with chi-square(chi2). The results indicate significant gender difference for tongue thrusting/sucking only (P=0.01) using the fisher's exact test. The relationship between digital sucking habit and mal-occlusion was very significant (P<0.01).

  13. Validation of an age-modified caries risk assessment program (Cariogram) in preschool children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holgerson, Pernilla Lif; Twetman, Svante; Stecksèn-Blicks, Christina

    2009-01-01

    of sugar. The majority of the children who changed category displayed a lowered risk at 7 years. The intervention program seemed to impair the predictive abilities of Cariogram. CONCLUSION: A modified Cariogram applied on preschool children was not particularly useful in identifying high caries risk......OBJECTIVES: (i) To validate caries risk profiles assessed with a computer program against actual caries development in preschool children, (ii) to study the possible impact of a preventive program on the risk profiles, and (iii) to compare the individual risk profiles longitudinally. MATERIAL...... AND METHODS: Caries risk was assessed in 125 two-year-old children invited to participate in a 2-year caries-preventive trial with xylitol tablets. At 7 years of age, 103 were available for follow-up, 48 from the former intervention group and 55 from the control group. At baseline and after 5 years, 7...

  14. REMINDER - Extension/suppression of allowance for dependent children aged 20 to 25

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2010-01-01

    Members of the personnel with dependent children aged 20 to 25 (or reaching 20 during the 2010/2011 school year), for whom an allowance for dependent children is currently paid, are invited to provide the Education Fees Service with a: SCHOOL CERTIFICATE Unless we receive, by 31 October 2010 at the latest, a school certificate or similar written proof (work placement contract, evidence of sandwich courses or apprenticeship) covering your child / children for the school year 2010/2011, we will be obliged to stop payment of the allowance for dependent children as well as membership of the health insurance scheme at the appropriate date, retroactively if necessary. Education Fees Service HR/SPS-SER Tel. 72862 / 71421

  15. REMINDER - Extension/suppression of allowance for dependent children aged 20 to 25

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2010-01-01

    Members of the personnel with dependent children aged 20 to 25 (or reaching 20 during the 2010/2011 school year), for whom an allowance for dependent children is currently paid, are invited to provide the Education fees service with a: SCHOOL CERTIFICATE Unless we receive, by October 31, 2010 at the latest, a school certificate or similar written proof (contract of work placement, sandwich courses or apprenticeship) covering your child / children for the school year 2010/2011, we will be obliged to stop payment of the allowance for dependent children as well as affiliation to the health insurance at the appropriate date and retroactively if necessary. Education fees service HR/SPS-SER Tel. 72862 / 71421

  16. Reminder: extension/suppression of allowance for dependent children aged 20 to 25

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    Members of the personnel with dependent children aged 20 to 25 (or reaching 20 during the 2013/2014 school year), for whom an allowance for dependent children is currently paid, are invited to provide the Education Fees service with a SCHOOL CERTIFICATE.   Unless we receive, by October 31, 2013 at the latest, a school certificate or similar written proof (contract of work placement, sandwich course or apprenticeship) covering your child / children for the school year 2013/2014, we will be obliged to stop payment of the allowance for dependent children as well as affiliation to the health insurance at the appropriate date and retroactively if necessary.   Education fees service HR/CB-B Mailbox C20000 schoolfees.service@cern.ch Tel.: 72862 / 71421

  17. Reminder - Extension/suppression of allowance for dependent children aged 20 to 25

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2011-01-01

    Members of the personnel with dependent children aged 20 to 25 (or reaching 20 during the 2011/2012 school year), for whom an allowance for dependent children is currently paid, are invited to provide the Education Fees Service with a: SCHOOL CERTIFICATE Unless we receive, by 31 October 2011 at the latest, a school certificate or similar written proof (contract of work placement, sandwich courses or apprenticeship) covering your child / children for the school year 2011/2012, we will be obliged to stop payment of the allowance for dependent children as well as affiliation to the health insurance at the appropriate date and retroactively if necessary. Education Fees Service Mailbox C20000 schoolfees.service@cern.ch Tel. 72862 / 71421

  18. REMINDER: Extension/suppression of allowance for dependent children aged 20 to 25

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    Members of the personnel with dependent children aged 20 to 25 (or reaching 20 during the 2012/2013 school year), for whom an allowance for dependent children is currently paid, are invited to provide the Education fees service with a   SCHOOL CERTIFICATE.   Unless we receive, by October 31, 2012 at the latest, a school certificate or similar written proof (contract of work placement, sandwich courses or apprenticeship) covering your child / children for the school year 2012/2013, we will be obliged to stop payment of the allowance for dependent children as well as affiliation to the health insurance at the appropriate date and retroactively if necessary.   Education fees service HR/CB-B Mailbox C20000 schoolfees.service@cern.ch Tel. 72862 / 71421

  19. Food selectivity in children with and without an autism spectrum disorder: investigation of diagnosis and age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beighley, Jennifer S; Matson, Johnny L; Rieske, Robert D; Adams, Hilary L

    2013-10-01

    Feeding problems are common in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), with food selectivity being the most frequently reported. Selectivity based on type and/or texture of food is of concern in those with ASD. Variations in symptom presentation of food selectivity in children with different autism spectrum diagnoses across childhood have not often been investigated. Parent-report of food selectivity was examined in 525 children age 2-18 years diagnosed with autistic disorder, PDD-NOS, Asperger's disorder, atypical development, and typical development using information garnered from the Autism Spectrum Disorder-Comorbidity for Children (ASD-CC), a tool to assess emotional issues and comorbid psychopathology. Individuals with an ASD were reported to have significantly more food selectivity than both the atypically developing group and the typically developing group. In addition, the ASD groups, when looked at together, showed a decrease in food selectivity across childhood with significant decrease in the Asperger's disorder group. PMID:23948127

  20. The reliability of the Greulich-Pyle method in bone age determination among Australian children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bone age (BA) determination in skeletally immature children has been used as a measurement of growth for many years. The Greulich-Pyle (G&P) method of estimating BA is most commonly used. The standards used within this atlas were compiled from research conducted on normal white children in the United States, during the 1930s. The applicability of G&P beyond populations similar to its own can be variable. The aim of this study was to determine the accuracy of G&P in BA determination among Australian children. Hand X-rays of children under the age of 18, investigated for trauma, were recruited. Mean differences between BA, according to the standards of G&P, and chronological age (CA) were compared among all patients and subgroups according to age, gender and left versus right hand. Between January and December 2010, 654 children underwent hand X-rays, 406 of these were included (276 males and 130 females). Overall BA was 2.2 months less than CA (P-value=0.005). BA of males and females was estimated to be 1.5 months (P-value=0.142) and 3.7 months (P-value=0.002) less than their CA respectively. No statistically significant difference was identified with intra-observer (P-value=0.846) and inter-observer interpretations (P-value=0.102). Our results show that the standards of G&P are an accurate means of BA determination in Australian children.

  1. Exposure to mercury among Spanish preschool children: trend from birth to age four.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llop, Sabrina; Murcia, Mario; Aguinagalde, Xabier; Vioque, Jesus; Rebagliato, Marisa; Cases, Amparo; Iñiguez, Carmen; Lopez-Espinosa, Maria-Jose; Amurrio, Ascensión; Navarrete-Muñoz, Eva María; Ballester, Ferran

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe the total hair mercury concentrations and their determinants in preschool Spanish children, as well as to explore the trend in mercury exposure from birth to the age four. This evolution has been scarcely studied in other birth cohort studies. The study population was 580 four year old children participating in the INMA (i.e. Childhood and Environment) birth cohort study in Valencia (2008-2009). Total mercury concentration at age four was measured in hair samples by atomic absorption spectrometry. Fish consumption and other covariates were obtained by questionnaire. Multivariate linear regression models were conducted in order to explore the association between mercury exposure and fish consumption, socio-demographic characteristics and prenatal exposure to mercury. The geometric mean was 1.10 µg/g (95%CI: 1.02, 1.19). Nineteen percent of children had mercury concentrations above the equivalent to the Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake proposed by WHO. Mercury concentration was associated with increasing maternal age, fish consumption and cord blood mercury levels, as well as decreasing parity. Children whose mothers worked had higher mercury levels than those with non working mothers. Swordfish, lean fish and canned fish were the fish categories most associated with hair mercury concentrations. We observed a decreasing trend in mercury concentrations between birth and age four. In conclusion, the children participating in this study had high hair mercury concentrations compared to reported studies on children from other European countries and similar to other countries with high fish consumption. The INMA study design allows the evaluation of the exposure to mercury longitudinally and enables this information to be used for biomonitoring purposes and dietary recommendations. PMID:24747554

  2. Salivary Cortisol, Socioemotional Functioning, and Academic Performance in Anxious and Non-Anxious Children of Elementary and Middle School Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathewson, Karen J.; Miskovic, Vladimir; Cunningham, Charles E.; McHolm, Angela E.; Boyle, Michael H.; Schmidt, Louis A.

    2012-01-01

    Research Findings: Individual and contextual variables were examined in relation to children's ability to cope with socioemotional and academic challenges in a sample of typically developing (n = 51) and anxious (n = 72) children of elementary and middle school age. Anxious children had greater social difficulties than controls and showed…

  3. Development of an Age Band on the ManVis for 3-Year-Old Children with Visual Impairments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reimer, A M; Barsingerhorn, A D; Overvelde, A; Nijhuis-Van der Sanden, M W G; Boonstra, F N; Cox, R F A

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To compare fine motor performance of 3-year-old children with visual impairment with peers having normal vision, to provide reference scores for 3-year-old children with visual impairment on the ManuVis, and to assess inter-rater reliability. METHOD: 26 children with visual impairment (mean age

  4. Severe episodic viral wheeze in preschool children : High risk of asthma at age 5-10 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kappelle, Lucie; Brand, Paul L. P.

    2012-01-01

    In population studies, most children with episodic viral wheeze (EVW) become symptom free by 6 years. We studied the outcome of children with severe EVW, treated and followed up in hospital. We followed up 78 children <4 years, managed by paediatricians for severe EVW, to the age of 5-10 years. We r

  5. Children's Assessments of Corporal Punishment and Other Disciplinary Practices: The Role of Age, Race, SES, and Exposure to Spanking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vittrup, Brigitte; Holden, George W.

    2010-01-01

    African-American and Anglo-American children's assessments of four disciplinary methods (spanking, reasoning, withdrawing privileges, and time-out) were investigated with 108 children ages 6-10 years old and one of their parents. Children watched videos depicting a child being disciplined and then rated each discipline method. Reasoning was rated…

  6. The Effect of Social and Isolate Toys on the Social Interactions of Preschool-Aged Children in a Naturalistic Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallam, Michael; Rettig, Michael

    A total of 26 handicapped and nonhandicapped preschool children between 3 and 5 years of age were grouped into play groups of three or four children and observed playing in the groups over a 7-week period. Children were provided with toys that were identified as social, such as dolls or wooden building blocks, or isolate, such as puzzles and…

  7. Young Children's Drawings of Plant Life: A Study Concerning the Use of Colours and Its Relationship with Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarroel, José Domingo

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the drawings that elementary grade school children make on the subject of plant life. More specifically, the pictorial elements drawn by children are analysed together with their colour choices and the size of coloured surfaces. Furthermore, the results are put into perspective with the age of the children in the sample. The…

  8. Weaning initiation patterns and subsequent linear growth progression among children aged 2-4 years in India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Padmadas, S.S.; Hutter, I.; Willekens, F.J.C.

    2002-01-01

    Background Reliance on full breastfeeding alone for a longer time could have deleterious nutritional and health implications at later stages of children's lives. About 47% of children are weaned at age greater than or equal to6 months and more than 50% of children in India under 4 years are stunted.

  9. Dietary habits among children aged 8-9 years in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Lauria

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe dietary habits and related geographic and socio-demographic characteristics among children aged 8-9 years in Italy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data from the 2012 national nutritional surveillance system collected from children, parents and teachers, have been linked to determine the children's eating habits. Logistic regression analyses were used to investigate the association between incorrect dietary habits and their potential predictors. RESULTS: Of the 46 307 children, 8.6% skipped breakfast, 48.8% did not eat vegetables and 28.7% did not eat fruit daily, 64.8% ate an abundant mid-morning snack, 41.4% drank sugary beverages and 12.5% drank carbonated beverages at least once a day. Three or more incorrect habits were found in 43.9% of the children. Incorrect dietary habits were more common among children with lower socio-economic conditions, who were resident in the South of the country and who spent more time watching TV. CONCLUSION: In Italy, unhealthy dietary habits are common among children. The deficiencies identified may well be a harbinger of future public health problems.

  10. The relationship between dental caries and obesity among primary school children aged 5 to 14 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Yingshui

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Previous study revealed that the link between dental caries and obesity has been controversial. The purpose of this research is to investigate the association between dental caries and obesity among primary school children in Wannan area, China. Methods: A cross-sectional study was designed to collect the routine health screening data for primary school children aged 5-14 years inWannan area,China, Overweight and obesity status were determined using the International Obesity Task Force standard (IOTF BMI cut-off points. Caries status was recorded based on WHO recommendations. Results: Our results revealed that the overall caries prevalence of the subjects was 44.9%, Maximum number of caries affected children belonged to underweight and normal group, followed by overweight, and the least number was obesity. These differences were statistically significant (chi-square test, P < 0.001. Children with obesity were 1.908 times (OR =1.908; CI95%=1.750, 2.079 more likely have caries than children with underweight or health weight. Overweight children were 1.547 times (OR = 1.547; CI95% = 1.479, 1.618 more likely to have caries than children with underweight or health weight. After adjusted the gender and age, a statistically significant association was also observed between body mass index categories and caries. Conclusions: Obesity may have a significant effect on caries prevalence of primary school children in Wannan area, China. The importance of obesity should not only be emphasized with respect to general diseases but also with regard to carious lesions.

  11. Current trends and age-based differences of unintentional injury in Japanese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Natsuki; Honda, Chikako; Nagata, Satoko

    2016-05-23

    Unintentional injury in children is a worldwide public health problem, as it increases the health burden and is a leading cause of death among children. It is important to understand the differences between different age groups of children in regard to unintentional injury, in order to effectively implement child safety education. The present study aimed to determine the current trends of unintentional injury in children, and to identify the differences between different age groups of children with regard to unintentional injury. We identified 1,521 children who attended an 18-month health checkup (18-month group), and 1,368 children who attended a 36-month health checkup (36-month group), between January 1, 2014 and December 31, 2014. The rate of hospital visits associated with unintentional injury was 10.6% (161/1,521) in the 18-month group, and 13.1% (180/1,368) in the 36-month group. In both groups, present/past illness was associated with hospital visits, and in the 36-month group, hospital visits were more common in boys than in girls. The number of unintentional injuries that occurred outdoors was higher in the 36-month group than in the 18-month group. Unintentional injuries resulting from accidental ingestion and falls were more common in the 18-month group, while unintentional injuries resulting from turning over were more common in the 36-month group. In conclusion, the number of hospital visits for unintentional injury might be higher, and the number of preventive actions taken by mothers might be lower, among children attending the 36-month health checkup than among those attending the 18-month health checkup. PMID:27020119

  12. Infection by Intestinal Parasites, Stunting and Anemia in School-Aged Children from Southern Angola.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinamene Oliveira

    Full Text Available Intestinal parasites are responsible for morbidity in children worldwide, especially in low income countries. In the present study we determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites and explore its association with anemia and stunting in school-aged children.A cross-sectional study was conducted from September to October 2010 enrolling 328 children attending the primary school in Lubango, the second largest city after the capital Luanda. Stool samples were collected for parasite detection through microscopy and molecular identification of Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba dispar. Stunting was assessed using the z-scores of height for age and hemoglobin concentration was determined using a portable hemoglobin analyzing system.The global prevalence of pathogenic intestinal parasites was 44.2%, the most common being Ascaris lumbricoides (22.0%, Giardia lamblia (20.1% and Hymenolepis nana (8.8%. Molecular detection revealed that 13.1% of the children carried E. dispar and 0.3% were infected with E. histolytica. The prevalence of stunting (mild to severe was 41.5%. Stunting was more frequent in older children (p = 0.006, OR = 1.886, while anemia was more frequent in younger children (p = 0.005, OR = 2.210. The prevalence of anemia was 21.6%, and we found a significant association with infection by H. nana (p = 0.031, OR = 2.449.This is one of the few published studies reporting intestinal parasites infection, nutritional status and anemia in children from Angola. Furthermore, the present work highlights the importance of regular intestinal parasites screening in children.

  13. Corporal punishment and children's externalizing problems: a cross-sectional study of Tanzanian primary school aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecker, Tobias; Hermenau, Katharin; Isele, Dorothea; Elbert, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    The adverse effect of harsh corporal punishment on mental health and psychosocial functioning in children has been repeatedly suggested by studies in industrialized countries. Nevertheless, corporal punishment has remained common practice not only in many homes, but is also regularly practiced in schools, particularly in low-income countries, as a measure to maintain discipline. Proponents of corporal punishment have argued that the differences in culture and industrial development might also be reflected in a positive relationship between the use of corporal punishment and improving behavioral problems in low-income nations. In the present study we assessed the occurrence of corporal punishment at home and in school in Tanzanian primary school students. We also examined the association between corporal punishment and externalizing problems. The 409 children (52% boys) from grade 2 to 7 had a mean age of 10.49 (SD=1.89) years. Nearly all children had experienced corporal punishment at some point during their lifetime both in family and school contexts. Half of the respondents reported having experienced corporal punishment within the last year from a family member. A multiple sequential regression analysis revealed that corporal punishment by parents or by caregivers was positively related to children's externalizing problems. The present study provides evidence that Tanzanian children of primary school age are frequently exposed to extreme levels of corporal punishment, with detrimental consequences for externalizing behavior. Our findings emphasize the need to inform parents, teachers and governmental organizations, especially in low-income countries, about the adverse consequences of using corporal punishment be it at home or at school.

  14. Corporal punishment and children's externalizing problems: a cross-sectional study of Tanzanian primary school aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecker, Tobias; Hermenau, Katharin; Isele, Dorothea; Elbert, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    The adverse effect of harsh corporal punishment on mental health and psychosocial functioning in children has been repeatedly suggested by studies in industrialized countries. Nevertheless, corporal punishment has remained common practice not only in many homes, but is also regularly practiced in schools, particularly in low-income countries, as a measure to maintain discipline. Proponents of corporal punishment have argued that the differences in culture and industrial development might also be reflected in a positive relationship between the use of corporal punishment and improving behavioral problems in low-income nations. In the present study we assessed the occurrence of corporal punishment at home and in school in Tanzanian primary school students. We also examined the association between corporal punishment and externalizing problems. The 409 children (52% boys) from grade 2 to 7 had a mean age of 10.49 (SD=1.89) years. Nearly all children had experienced corporal punishment at some point during their lifetime both in family and school contexts. Half of the respondents reported having experienced corporal punishment within the last year from a family member. A multiple sequential regression analysis revealed that corporal punishment by parents or by caregivers was positively related to children's externalizing problems. The present study provides evidence that Tanzanian children of primary school age are frequently exposed to extreme levels of corporal punishment, with detrimental consequences for externalizing behavior. Our findings emphasize the need to inform parents, teachers and governmental organizations, especially in low-income countries, about the adverse consequences of using corporal punishment be it at home or at school. PMID:24360761

  15. Blood Lead Levels Among Children Aged <6 Years - Flint, Michigan, 2013-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Chinaro; Yard, Ellen; Dignam, Timothy; Buchanan, Sharunda; Condon, Suzanne; Brown, Mary Jean; Raymond, Jaime; Rogers, Helen Schurz; Sarisky, John; de Castro, Rey; Arias, Ileana; Breysse, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    During April 25, 2014-October 15, 2015, approximately 99,000 residents of Flint, Michigan, were affected by changes in drinking water quality after their water source was switched from the Detroit Water Authority (DWA), sourced from Lake Huron, to the Flint Water System (FWS), sourced from the Flint River.* Because corrosion control was not used at the FWS water treatment plant, the levels of lead in Flint tap water increased over time. Adverse health effects are associated with lead exposure (1). On January 2, 2015, a water advisory was issued because of detection of high levels of trihalomethanes, byproducts of disinfectants.(†)(,)(§) Studies conducted by local and national investigators detected an increase in the prevalence of blood lead levels (BLLs) ≥5 µg/dL (the CDC reference level) among children aged water lead levels after the water source switch (3). On October 16, 2015, the Flint water source was switched back to DWA, and residents were instructed to use filtered tap water for cooking and drinking. During that time, pregnant and breastfeeding women and children aged water.(¶) To assess the impact on BLLs of consuming contaminated drinking water, CDC examined the distribution of BLLs ≥5 µg/dL among children aged water source. This analysis enabled determination of whether the odds of having BLLs ≥5 µg/dL before the switch differed from the odds during the switch to FWS (before and after the January 2, 2015, water advisory was issued), and after the switch back to DWA. Overall, among 9,422 blood lead tests in children aged water advisory) than during the period before the water switch to FWS. Although unrelated to lead in the water, the water advisory likely reduced tap water consumption and increased consumption of bottled water. Characterizing exposure to lead contaminated drinking water among children aged <6 years living in Flint can help guide appropriate interventions. PMID:27359350

  16. T-lymphocyte subsets in West African children: impact of age, sex, and season

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lisse, I M; Aaby, P; Whittle, H;

    1997-01-01

    determinants of T-lymphocyte subset levels. METHODS: A total of 803 healthy West African children younger than 6 years were included in the three community studies of T-lymphocyte subsets among twins and singletons, after measles infection and after measles immunization. We used the immunoalkaline phosphatase...... method to determine T-lymphocyte subsets. RESULTS: We found differences by age, sex, and season, whereas there were no significant differences by birth order, twinning, or ethnic group. The CD4+ percentage declined from birth to age 2 years, at which time it started to increase to higher levels at age 4...

  17. Age-dependent lower or higher levels of hair mercury in autistic children than in healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majewska, Maria Dorota; Urbanowicz, Ewa; Rok-Bujko, Paulina; Namyslowska, Irena; Mierzejewski, Paweł

    2010-01-01

    An association between autism and early life exposure to mercury is a hotly debated issue. In this study, 91 autistic Polish children, male and female, 3-4 and 7-9 years old, were compared to 75 age- and sex-matched healthy children with respect to: demographic, perinatal, clinical and developmental measures, parental age, birth order, morphometric measures, vaccination history, and hair mercury content. In demographic and perinatal measures there were no consistent differences between the autistic and control groups. Autistic children had a significantly greater prevalence of adverse reactions after vaccinations and abnormal development than controls. Between 45 and 80% of autistic children experienced developmental regress. Autistic children significantly differed from healthy peers in the concentrations of mercury in hair: younger autistics had lower levels, while older - higher levels than their respective controls. The results suggest that autistic children differ from healthy children in metabolism of mercury, which seems to change with age.

  18. The oral core vocabulary of typically developing English-speaking school-aged children: implications for AAC practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boenisch, Jens; Soto, Gloria

    2015-03-01

    This study analyzes the core vocabulary used by typically developing school-aged English-speaking children in the United States while participating in a variety of school activities. The language of typically developing children, some of whom spoke English as a second language was recorded, transcribed and analyzed to identify the most frequently used words across samples. An inventory of oral core vocabulary of typically developing school-aged children resulted from this analysis. This inventory can be used as a source list for vocabulary selection for school-aged children with AAC needs. Implications for vocabulary selection are discussed.

  19. Target-distractor similarity has a larger impact on visual search in school-age children than spacing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huurneman, B.; Boonstra, F.N.

    2015-01-01

    In typically developing children, crowding decreases with increasing age. The influence of target-distractor similarity with respect to orientation and element spacing on visual search performance was investigated in 29 school-age children with normal vision (4- to 6-year-olds [N = 16], 7- to 8-year

  20. Individual and maternal determinants of self-reported dental health among Turkish school children aged 10-12 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cinar, A B; Kosku, N; Sandalli, N;

    2008-01-01

    To assess the influence of maternal and individual characteristics on self-reported dental health of Turkish school children aged 10-12 years with different socio-economic backgrounds.......To assess the influence of maternal and individual characteristics on self-reported dental health of Turkish school children aged 10-12 years with different socio-economic backgrounds....

  1. The growth status of North Korean refugee children and adolescents from 6 to 19 years of age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pak, Sunyoung

    2010-01-01

    This paper is a study of the growth status of 1406 North Korean refugee children and adolescents who were between 6 and 19 9 years of age at the time of their arrival in South Korea during the years 1995-2007 as compared with that of their South Korean peers Refugee children of 6 5 years of age were

  2. Punishment and reward in parental discipline for children aged 5 to 6 years : prevalence and groups at risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theunissen, Meinou H. C.; Vogels, Anton G. C.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In this study we examined the use and predictors of different discipline practices by parents of children aged 5 to 6 years. METHODS: We obtained cross-sectional data for a nationally representative Dutch sample of children aged 5 to 6 years within the setting of routine well-child visits

  3. Intensive Behavioral Intervention for School-Aged Children with Autism: Una Breccia nel Muro (UBM)--A Comprehensive Behavioral Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fava, Leonardo; Vicari, Stefano; Valeri, Giovanni; D'Elia, Lidia; Arima, Serena; Strauss, Kristin

    2012-01-01

    Although, reviews and outcome research supports empirical evidence for Early Intensive Behavior Intervention in pre-scholars, intensive behavioral service provision for school-aged children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are less subject to research studies. In order to provide effective behavioral interventions for school-aged children it…

  4. Do cherished children age successfully? Longitudinal findings from the Veterans Affairs Normative Aging Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Lewina O; Aldwin, Carolyn M; Kubzansky, Laura D; Chen, Edith; Mroczek, Daniel K; Wang, Joyce M; Spiro, Avron

    2015-12-01

    Although early adversity has been linked to worse mental and physical health in adulthood, few studies have investigated the pathways through which positive and negative dimensions of early experiences can jointly influence psychological well-being in later life. This study examined: (a) profiles of early experiences across multiple domains, (b) the relations of these profiles to hedonic and eudaimonic well-being in later life, and (c) whether midlife social support mediated these relations. We first conducted latent class analysis of early experiences using data from 1,076 men in the VA Normative Aging Study who completed the Childhood Experiences Scale (age: M = 69, SD = 7). Analyses yielded 3 profiles of early experiences, labeled as cherished (strong support and some losses), harshly disciplined (harsh parental discipline, low positive reinforcement, and nonnormative stressors), and ordinary (few stressors and low parental attention). Next, we applied structural equation modeling to data on a subset of this sample assessed 7 years later on hedonic and eudaimonic well-being (n = 496; age: M = 76, SD = 7). In general, the cherished group reported stronger qualitative social support in midlife than the harshly disciplined and ordinary groups, which in turn was related to greater hedonic (life satisfaction, positive affect) and eudaimonic (competence, positive relations with others) well-being in later life. The cherished group also reported higher autonomy than the ordinary group, but this association was independent of midlife social support. Our findings suggest that experiencing adversity in the context of a nurturing early environment can promote successful aging through the maintenance of supportive relationships in midlife. PMID:26436456

  5. Demirjian's system for estimating the dental age of northeastern Brazilian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, Maria Cristina Germano; Martins, Maria da Gloria Almeida; Germano, Francisco Alcides; Brandão Neto, Jose; da Silva, Carlos Antonio Bruno

    2010-07-15

    Since Demirjian's system of estimating dental maturity was first described, many researchers from different countries have tested its accuracy among diverse populations. Some of these studies have pointed out a need to determine population-specific standards. In Brazil, the Northeast region is the one that most suffers the negative impact of exodus, specially related to the increase of abandoned children in the cities. The aim of this study was to test the accuracy of Demirjian's system for assessing the dental maturity of northeastern Brazilian children, so as to present a scale for maturity score conversion into dental age developed specifically for this population. This could be used for forensic, anthropological and legal matters, and also as a model for other countries attempting to formulate their own conversion scales. Panoramic radiographs of 1,491 children (821 females and 670 males), aged 7 to 13 years, from Ceará state, northeast Brazil, were assessed by a single observer to determine dental age (DA) according to Demirjian's system. The mean percentage of intra-observer agreement was 86.6%, with a mean Cohen's Kappa coefficient of 0.67 (substantial agreement). The DA was compared by paired t-test to subjects' chronological age (CA). The differences between CA and DA in all age groups were statistically significant (psystem in this population, justified the determination of specific scores for dental maturity assessment.

  6. Nutrient Intakes and Vegetable and White Potato Consumption by Children Aged 1 to 3 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storey, Maureen L; Anderson, Patricia A

    2016-01-01

    In 2020, for the first time, the Dietary Guidelines for Americans will include recommendations for children from birth to age 24 mo. We examined average nutrient intakes as well as total vegetable and white potato (WP) consumption among children aged 1-3 y using day 1 dietary data from the NHANES 2009-2012 and the Food Patterns Equivalents Database 2009-2012. Appropriate survey weights were used to calculate average daily consumption of total vegetables and WPs, which included French-fried potatoes and chips, for boys and girls aged 1-3 y. We calculated mean intakes of selected nutrients of concern, including vitamin D, potassium, dietary fiber (DF), and calcium. We also examined intakes of selected nutrients by major food group. Average intakes of most nutrients, including calcium, by children aged 1-3 y exceeded Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs). However, average intakes of potassium, DF, and vitamin D were 67%, 55%, and 49% of DRIs, respectively. Mean total vegetable intake was less than the recommendation of 1 cup/d. Boys and girls aged 1-3 y consumed an average of 0.58 cup equivalents of total vegetables on the day of the survey, which included 0.16 cups of WPs. Average vegetable consumption and mean intakes of potassium, DF, and vitamin D were far below recommendations. The consumption of all vegetables, particularly those that are excellent sources of potassium and DF, such as potatoes, should be encouraged. PMID:26773032

  7. Exposure to mercury among Spanish preschool children: Trend from birth to age four

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Llop, Sabrina, E-mail: llop_sab@gva.es [Foundation for the Promotion of Health and Biomedical Research in the Valencian Region, FISABIO-Public Health, Av. Catalunya 21, 46020 Valencia (Spain); Spanish Consortium for Research on Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Madrid (Spain); Murcia, Mario [Spanish Consortium for Research on Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Madrid (Spain); Foundation for the Promotion of Health and Biomedical Research in the Valencian Region, FISABIO-Public Health, Av. Catalunya 21, 46020 Valencia (Spain); Aguinagalde, Xabier [Laboratorio de Salud Pública de Alava, Santiago 11, 01002 Vitoria Gasteiz (Spain); Vioque, Jesus [Spanish Consortium for Research on Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Madrid (Spain); Universidad Miguel Hernandez, Avenida de Alicante KM 87, 03550 Sant Joan d´Alacant (Spain); Rebagliato, Marisa [Spanish Consortium for Research on Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Madrid (Spain); Medicine Department, Jaume I University, Av. Vicent Sos Baynat, s/n, 12071 Castelló de la Plana (Spain); Cases, Amparo [Foundation for the Promotion of Health and Biomedical Research in the Valencian Region, FISABIO-Public Health, Av. Catalunya 21, 46020 Valencia (Spain); Iñiguez, Carmen; Lopez-Espinosa, Maria-Jose [Foundation for the Promotion of Health and Biomedical Research in the Valencian Region, FISABIO-Public Health, Av. Catalunya 21, 46020 Valencia (Spain); Spanish Consortium for Research on Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Madrid (Spain); Amurrio, Ascensión [Laboratorio de Salud Pública de Alava, Santiago 11, 01002 Vitoria Gasteiz (Spain); María Navarrete-Muñoz, Eva [Spanish Consortium for Research on Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Madrid (Spain); Universidad Miguel Hernandez, Avenida de Alicante KM 87, 03550 Sant Joan d´Alacant (Spain); and others

    2014-07-15

    The purpose of this study is to describe the total hair mercury concentrations and their determinants in preschool Spanish children, as well as to explore the trend in mercury exposure from birth to the age four. This evolution has been scarcely studied in other birth cohort studies. The study population was 580 four year old children participating in the INMA (i.e. Childhood and Environment) birth cohort study in Valencia (2008–2009). Total mercury concentration at age four was measured in hair samples by atomic absorption spectrometry. Fish consumption and other covariates were obtained by questionnaire. Multivariate linear regression models were conducted in order to explore the association between mercury exposure and fish consumption, socio-demographic characteristics and prenatal exposure to mercury. The geometric mean was 1.10 µg/g (95%CI: 1.02, 1.19). Nineteen percent of children had mercury concentrations above the equivalent to the Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake proposed by WHO. Mercury concentration was associated with increasing maternal age, fish consumption and cord blood mercury levels, as well as decreasing parity. Children whose mothers worked had higher mercury levels than those with non working mothers. Swordfish, lean fish and canned fish were the fish categories most associated with hair mercury concentrations. We observed a decreasing trend in mercury concentrations between birth and age four. In conclusion, the children participating in this study had high hair mercury concentrations compared to reported studies on children from other European countries and similar to other countries with high fish consumption. The INMA study design allows the evaluation of the exposure to mercury longitudinally and enables this information to be used for biomonitoring purposes and dietary recommendations. - Highlights: • The geometric mean of hair Hg concentrations was 1.10 µg/g. • 19% of children had Hg concentrations above the RfD proposed by

  8. Exposure to mercury among Spanish preschool children: Trend from birth to age four

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study is to describe the total hair mercury concentrations and their determinants in preschool Spanish children, as well as to explore the trend in mercury exposure from birth to the age four. This evolution has been scarcely studied in other birth cohort studies. The study population was 580 four year old children participating in the INMA (i.e. Childhood and Environment) birth cohort study in Valencia (2008–2009). Total mercury concentration at age four was measured in hair samples by atomic absorption spectrometry. Fish consumption and other covariates were obtained by questionnaire. Multivariate linear regression models were conducted in order to explore the association between mercury exposure and fish consumption, socio-demographic characteristics and prenatal exposure to mercury. The geometric mean was 1.10 µg/g (95%CI: 1.02, 1.19). Nineteen percent of children had mercury concentrations above the equivalent to the Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake proposed by WHO. Mercury concentration was associated with increasing maternal age, fish consumption and cord blood mercury levels, as well as decreasing parity. Children whose mothers worked had higher mercury levels than those with non working mothers. Swordfish, lean fish and canned fish were the fish categories most associated with hair mercury concentrations. We observed a decreasing trend in mercury concentrations between birth and age four. In conclusion, the children participating in this study had high hair mercury concentrations compared to reported studies on children from other European countries and similar to other countries with high fish consumption. The INMA study design allows the evaluation of the exposure to mercury longitudinally and enables this information to be used for biomonitoring purposes and dietary recommendations. - Highlights: • The geometric mean of hair Hg concentrations was 1.10 µg/g. • 19% of children had Hg concentrations above the RfD proposed by

  9. Assessment of Single-Word Production for Children under Three Years of Age: Comparison of Children with and without Cleft Palate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy J. Scherer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. This study reports comparative phonological assessment results for children with cleft lip and/or palate (CLP to typically developing peers using an evaluation tool for early phonological skills. Methods. Children without clefts (NC = noncleft and 24 children with CLP, ages of 18–36 months, were evaluated using the Profile of Early Expressive Phonological Skills (PEEPSs [1]. Children interacted with toy manipulatives to elicit a representative sample of target English consonants and syllable structures that are typically acquired by children between 18 and 27 months of age. Results. Results revealed significant differences between the two groups with regard to measures of consonant inventory, place of articulation, manner of production, accuracy, and error patterns. Syllable structure did not indicate differences, with the exception of initial consonant clusters. Conclusions. findings provide support for PEEPS as a viable option for single-word assessment of children with CLP prior to 3 years of age.

  10. Behavioral and emotional problems reported by parents of children ages 6 to 16 in 31 societies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rescorla, L.; Achenbach, T.; Ivanova, M.Y.;

    2007-01-01

    This study compared parents' ratings of behavioral and emotional problems on the Child Behavior Checklist (Achenbach, 1991; Achenbach & Rescorla, 2001) for general population samples of children ages 6 to 16 from 31 societies (N = 55,508). Effect sizes for society ranged from .03 to .14. Effect...... sizes for gender were ≤ .01, with girls generally scoring higher on Internalizing problems and boys generally scoring higher on Externalizing problems. Effect sizes for age were ≤ .01 and varied across types of problems. Total Problems scores for 19 of 31 societies were within 1 SD of the overall mean...... of 22.5. Bisociety correlations for mean item scores averaged .74. The findings indicate that parents' reports of children's problems were similar in many ways across highly diverse societies. Nonetheless, effect sizes for society were larger than those for gender and age, indicating the need to take...

  11. The Influence of the Home Learning Environment on Preschool Children's Informal Mathematical Development: Variation by Age and Socioeconomic Status

    OpenAIRE

    DeFlorio, Lydia Laurene

    2011-01-01

    In the United States, children from families of lower socioeconomic status (SES) generally enter kindergarten with significantly less mathematical knowledge than children from families of middle SES. Research reveals that this discrepancy is present, although to a lesser degree, at age three years, the age many children enter preschool for the first time (Starkey & Klein, 2008). This mixed-methods correlational study explores relationships between elements of the home learning environment and...

  12. SOCIODEMOGRAPHIC CORRELATES OF MALNUTRITION AMONG SCHOOL AGED CHILDREN IN AN URBAN SLUM IN INDIA: A CROSS SECTIONAL STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Ranu; Santosh; Anil Bindhu

    2015-01-01

    Children in the age group of 5 - 14 years are regarded as of school age. 1 A recent estimate (1996 - 2005), in developing world, states that approximately 146 million children are underweight, 39% of whom live in India. 2 Malnutrition comprises of both under nutrition as well as over nutrition. While under nutrition in children has a lways been of high magnitude in developing countries ,over weight and obesity is also increasing in prev...

  13. Crowding in central vision in normally sighted and visually impaired [corrected] children aged 4 to 8 years: the influence of age and test design.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huurneman, B.; Boonstra, F.N.; Cillessen, A.H.; Rens, G. van; Cox, R.F.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS: To investigate crowding ratios in children with a visual impairment due to ocular disease (n = 58) and normally sighted children (n = 75) aged 4 to 8 years using several variants of two clinically available tests with different optotype spacing (fixed or proportional to the optotype

  14. Crowding in Central Vision in Normally Sighted and Visually Impared Children Aged 4 to 8 Years: The Influence of Age and Test Design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huurneman, B.; Boonstra, F.N.; Cillessen, A.H.N.; Cox, R.F.A.; Rens, G.H.M.B. van

    2012-01-01

    Background/aims: To investigate crowding ratios in children with a visual impairment due to ocular disease (n = 58) and normally sighted children (n = 75) aged 4 to 8 years using several variants of two clinically available tests with different optotype spacing (fixed or proportional to the optotype

  15. COMPARISON OF THE TOOTH BRUSHING HABITS OF PRIMARY SCHOOL AGE CHILDREN AND THEIR PARENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceren Damla Özbek

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: As they grow, children develop their attitude and behavior related to tooth brushing by taking their parents’ oral-dental health behavior as an example. The purpose of this study was to assess whether there was a similarity in tooth brushing between primary school-age children and their parents presenting to the Department of Oral, Dental and Jaw Diseases and Surgery and the Department of Pedodontics, School of Dental Medicine, Istanbul University. Patients and Methods: The study included 126 children and their parents, as totally 252 subjects. The data on oral hygiene of the subjects were obtained using a questionnaire form including questions on the qualitative-quantitative tooth brushing habits of the children and their parents and the socio-demographic characteristics of their families. Results: In most of the cases, there was a similarity between children and their parents in terms of frequency of dentist visits, the therapy they underwent in their last dentist visit, the cause of caries, the frequency of tooth brushing, the material used for oral hygiene, the duration of tooth brushing, method of tooth brushing, and tooth sites most brushed, which showed a significant association between children and their parents (p<0.01. Conclusion: Correct knowledge given to the children by their families will positively affect the oral-dental health of the children. Thus, firstly, correct knowledge should be given to the parents so that they can successfully carry out their responsibility in being the correct model for their children in oral-dental health.

  16. Prevalence of elimination dysfunction, among primary school age children in Sari

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Basiri,

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBackground and Purpose: Elimination dysfunction is referred to have various difficulties in urination and defecation, such as urinary frequency, delayed with difficulty in voiding or defecation. The prevalence of elimination dysfunction has been varied in different studies, as 21% of children experience elimination dysfunction during their childhood period. Presently, there are no studies pertaining to this difficulty in our country. Therefore, we carried out a descriptive study in primary schools from the Sari Township, regarding voiding and defecation dysfunction among children, and also we identified the epidemiology of the disease, in order to solve problems by implementing teaching programs and screening methods.Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was done on Primary school age students in the Sari Township, during 2007 through 2008. Considering the prevalence of elimination dysfunction (15-25%, confidence coefficient 95%, SE 10%, and the sample size of 2,200 were randomly and equally selected from different parts of the township among the two-sex groups. A standard questionnaire including demographic characteristics and 10 questions on voiding status, in addition to 19 questions regarding defecation status was prepared. Questionnaires were distributed to the students by responsible school personnel and then referred to parents for completion. Data was analyzed by SPSS software and descriptive statistics (Frequency, Mean, and Standard Deviation. Chi Square test (χ² and Student T-test were used to compare the Means. P<0.05 was considered significant.Results: Of 2201 primary school age students, 48.7% were girls. The mean age was 8.96±1.43 year. Voiding and defecation dysfunction was reported in 38.4% and 29% of the cases respectively. There was no significant relationship between prevalence of voiding dysfunction and other factors such as mean age, sex and level of education; however, there was a significant

  17. Obesity prevalence among low-income, preschool-aged children - United States, 1998-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-24

    Childhood obesity continues to be a leading public health concern that disproportionately affects low-income and minority children. Children who are obese in their preschool years are more likely to be obese in adolescence and adulthood and to develop diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, asthma, and sleep apnea. One of the Healthy People 2010 objectives (19-3) is to reduce to 5% the proportion of children and adolescents who are obese. CDC's Pediatric Nutrition Surveillance System (PedNSS) is the only source of nationally compiled obesity surveillance data obtained at the state and local level for low-income, preschool-aged children participating in federally funded health and nutrition programs. To describe progress in reducing childhood obesity, CDC examined trends and current prevalence in obesity using PedNSS data submitted by participating states, territories, and Indian tribal organizations during 1998-2008. The findings indicated that obesity prevalence among low-income, preschool-aged children increased steadily from 12.4% in 1998 to 14.5% in 2003, but subsequently remained essentially the same, with a 14.6% prevalence in 2008. Reducing childhood obesity will require effective prevention strategies that focus on environments and policies promoting physical activity and a healthy diet for families, child care centers, and communities.

  18. Dietary Patterns in Children Aged 2-4 years and Its Impact on Dietary Adequacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeida Alejo Cruz

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: the study of nutritional status in children is essential since this stage is characterized by rapid growth and development and acquisition of eating habits that will last for a lifetime. Objective: to determine the dietary patterns in children aged 2-4 years from the doctor’s offices 8 and 9 of the José Luis Chaviano University Teaching Polyclinic in Cienfuegos and their impact on the nutritional status and dietary adequacy. Methods: a descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in a universe of 87 patients from the doctor’s offices 8 and 9 of the José Luis Chaviano University Teaching Polyclinic in Cienfuegos, who underwent a nutritional assessment using anthropometric variables: weight for height and height for age. A survey of eating behaviors and another of 24 hours dietary recall were administered and processed through the CERES program. Results: all patients showed normal height, 82.75 % of children were classified as eutrophic, 4.60 % were obese and 3.45 % malnourished. Fried foods and bad eating habits in relation to consumption of vegetables predominated in the diet; most of the children received an excess of the recommended nutrients. Conclusion: there are deficiencies in eating behaviours. Diet is a matter of concern due to the high intake of energy, protein, fat and carbohydrates; iron intake was critical in most children.

  19. Response inhibition difficulties in preterm children aged 9-12 years: Relations with emotion and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Réveillon, Morgane; Borradori Tolsa, Cristina; Monnier, Maryline; Hüppi, Petra S; Barisnikov, Koviljka

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies with children have demonstrated inhibition difficulties associated with prematurity, but the question of potentially catching up with a delay in inhibition processes before adolescence still remains. Moreover, preterm adolescents are more at risk than their term-born peers for presenting behavioral problems such as emotional difficulties and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. In addition to examining response inhibition, this study addressed, for the first time, the impact of an emotional context on response inhibition abilities and its relation to behavioral problems in late school-aged preterm children. Fifty-eight preterm children aged 9-12 years were compared with 61 controls on two versions of a stop-signal task, the Delay Frustration Task, and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Results showed general difficulties in inhibiting a response, rather than a specific impact of emotional context in preterm children. Compared with controls, these children exhibited more and longer button presses in a delay situation, as well as faster go reaction times associated with lower probability of inhibition in the stop-signal tasks. These difficulties reflected impulsivity and were associated with higher hyperactivity/inattention and conduct problems. Additionally, intrauterine growth restriction was found to be an additional perinatal risk factor for hyperactivity/inattention symptoms. These findings suggest that remaining inhibition difficulties in the preterm population at preadolescence could reveal increasing behavioral issues. PMID:25569693

  20. Luminance- and texture-defined information processing in school-aged children with autism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica B Rivest

    Full Text Available According to the complexity-specific hypothesis, the efficacy with which individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD process visual information varies according to the extensiveness of the neural network required to process stimuli. Specifically, adults with ASD are less sensitive to texture-defined (or second-order information, which necessitates the implication of several cortical visual areas. Conversely, the sensitivity to simple, luminance-defined (or first-order information, which mainly relies on primary visual cortex (V1 activity, has been found to be either superior (static material or intact (dynamic material in ASD. It is currently unknown if these autistic perceptual alterations are present in childhood. In the present study, behavioural (threshold and electrophysiological measures were obtained for static luminance- and texture-defined gratings presented to school-aged children with ASD and compared to those of typically developing children. Our behavioural and electrophysiological (P140 results indicate that luminance processing is likely unremarkable in autistic children. With respect to texture processing, there was no significant threshold difference between groups. However, unlike typical children, autistic children did not show reliable enhancements of brain activity (N230 and P340 in response to texture-defined gratings relative to luminance-defined gratings. This suggests reduced efficiency of neuro-integrative mechanisms operating at a perceptual level in autism. These results are in line with the idea that visual atypicalities mediated by intermediate-scale neural networks emerge before or during the school-age period in autism.

  1. Differences between Estimation and Real Performance in School-Age Children: Fundamental Movement Skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Almeida

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Observations in studies of estimation compared to actual performance in motor skills revealed that children are not always accurate and have a tendency to overestimate the maximum distance at which an action can be performed. The relationship between estimated and real motor competences was analyzed for several tasks: standing long jump (SLJ, throwing and kicking, and walking backwards (WB on a balance beam. Children were asked to predict their maximum distance prior to performing those tasks. Participants were 303 children (160 boys, which were between 6 and 10 years of age (M=8.63, SD=1.16. Children’s estimations were compared with their real performance to determine their accuracy. Absolute error (|real performance − estimation| and error tendency, that is, the direction of the error (overestimation, accuracy, and underestimation bias, were calculated. Children had a tendency to overestimate their performance and were more conservative in the WB task, a noncommon action. In general, it is possible to conclude that children, in the studied age span, tend to overestimate their performance, particularly in familiar skills. This fact may be determinant to the development of their motor competences, since they are more likely to engage and persist in motor tasks, but it might also be a problem in terms of child safety because it could increase the occurrence of unintended injuries.

  2. Nutritional condition of school age children. Clinic, anthropo-medical and alimentary assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Esther González Hermida

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: the study of children´s growth in an appropriate indicator of children health condition and should be used as one of the basis in the practice of preventive medicine. Objective: to determine the nutritional al condition of children of third and sixth grade of elementary schools of Health Area V of Cienfuegos Municipality. Methods: descriptive, observational, cross-sectional and relational study of 445 school age children from 4 elementary schools. A clinic assessment was carried out along with an anthropo-medical evaluation. A qualitative survey was developed to assess the frequency of consumption of different alimentary groups. Results: the relation weight/height in the two genders presents a prevalence of normal weight; undernourishment is more common among females, overweight is more usual among boys and obesity can be found in both genders. The variable weight/age showed one bad-nutrition (for defect among females, there was a prevalence of bad-nutrition for excess in both genders. There were no children with height under the third percentile, with prevalence of boys and girls tall and very tall. Bronchial asthma was the most common disease. Conclusions: Food consumption in general, taking into account frequency and kind of food, is not the appropriate. There is a relation between positive clinical findings and the anthropometric assessment of weight/height.

  3. A POPULATION BASED STUDY OF REFRACTIVE ERRORS IN CHILDREN AMONG AGE GROUP OF 7-15 YEARS

    OpenAIRE

    Dhanya; Pandu; Sujatha; Pallavi; Srinivas

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Refractive error is the most common cause of visual impairment around the world and the second leading cause of treatable blindness. Very early detection and treatment of visual impairment in children results in a reduction in the number of school children with poor sight being uncorrected. AIM To study the prevalence of uncorrected refractive errors among children of 7-15 years of age group. MATERIALS AND METHODS A total of 958 children of a...

  4. Height for age z score and cognitive function are associated with Academic performance among school children aged 8–11 years old

    OpenAIRE

    Haile, Demewoz; Nigatu, Dabere; Gashaw, Ketema; Demelash, Habtamu

    2016-01-01

    Background Academic achievement of school age children can be affected by several factors such as nutritional status, demographics, and socioeconomic factors. Though evidence about the magnitude of malnutrition is well established in Ethiopia, there is a paucity of evidence about the association of nutritional status with academic performance among the nation’s school age children. Hence, this study aimed to determine how nutritional status and cognitive function are associated with academic ...

  5. The Age Peculiarities of 10 to 12 Year-Old School-children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. B. Badmayeva

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the problem of children’s development transformation from the standpoints of different authors. The changes in the age borders and childhood structure along with their causes are demonstrated. The childhood crisis is described, its place in the child’s development process identified. The author emphasizes the visible discord between the worlds of adults and children: being less involved in upbringing process nowadays, adults appear to be less exact in their attitude to children; their demands lack clearness and specificity. Both teachers and adults demonstrate helplessness and aloofness, which reflects in children’s consciousness and their attitude to adults, and results in the lost sense of responsibility, infantilism, egoism and moral emptiness of growing generation. The author carried out the comparative analysis of age peculiarities of middle class schoolchildren from comprehensive school. Three development stages were singled out for 10 to 12 year-olds: local caprices, rights understanding, and affirmative functional stage. The personality formation trends concerning the modern day school children are outlined, the external and internal factors determining this formation enumerated. The following influencing phenomena are mentioned, in particular: the essential socio-economic changes, fast spreading of mass-media and computer technologies, low level of parental motivation, replacement of the value-normative system (social anomie etc. The necessity of creating socio-pedagogic conditions relating to the age peculiarities of modern school children is substantiated. 

  6. The Age Peculiarities of 10 to 12 Year-Old School-children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. B. Badmayeva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the problem of children’s development transformation from the standpoints of different authors. The changes in the age borders and childhood structure along with their causes are demonstrated. The childhood crisis is described, its place in the child’s development process identified. The author emphasizes the visible discord between the worlds of adults and children: being less involved in upbringing process nowadays, adults appear to be less exact in their attitude to children; their demands lack clearness and specificity. Both teachers and adults demonstrate helplessness and aloofness, which reflects in children’s consciousness and their attitude to adults, and results in the lost sense of responsibility, infantilism, egoism and moral emptiness of growing generation. The author carried out the comparative analysis of age peculiarities of middle class schoolchildren from comprehensive school. Three development stages were singled out for 10 to 12 year-olds: local caprices, rights understanding, and affirmative functional stage. The personality formation trends concerning the modern day school children are outlined, the external and internal factors determining this formation enumerated. The following influencing phenomena are mentioned, in particular: the essential socio-economic changes, fast spreading of mass-media and computer technologies, low level of parental motivation, replacement of the value-normative system (social anomie etc. The necessity of creating socio-pedagogic conditions relating to the age peculiarities of modern school children is substantiated. 

  7. Handwriting performance of preterm children at school age: a literature review

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    Julie Souza de Medeiros Rocha

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: At school age, handwriting is on of the most important tasks among the fine motor activities. Good handwriting performance contributes to the child´s school performance. As prematurity impacts on motor development, it may influence handwriting. Objective: To review the specific literature and investigate whether there are differences in handwriting performance at school age between children born preterm and full term. Method: A search was performed in the Capes electronic database, in English and Portuguese, comprising the time period between January 2000 and June 2012. Articles were selected according to the inclusion criteria; the sample, objectives, instruments utilized and outcomes were analyzed. Results: Six articles were included in the study. Data analysis indicates that children born prematurely present poorer handwriting performance and a handicap in the underlying handwriting mechanisms when compared with full term infants. Conclusion: Preterm children without obvious neurological impairment are at increased risk for problems in handwriting development at school age. The small number of recent studies on this topic indicates a need for further research, as well as the development of standardized resources for the motor and handwriting assessment of Brazilian children.

  8. The state of oral health in children at the age of 12 in Montenegro

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    Đuričković Mirjana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Oral health is very important for the function and the quality of human life. The aim of this study was to determine the spread of caries on the permanent teeth, the state of health of the periodontium and the state of oral hygiene in the children at the age of 12 in Montenegro. Methods. The research was carried out within 2006 and included 455 primary school pupils of both sex, the age of 12 in the northern, midlle and southern area of Montenegro. The parameters used to estimate oral health condition were: mean number of decayed, missing, and filled teeth due to caries (DMFT, Significant Caries Index (SiC, Community Periodontal Index of Treatment Needs (CPITN, presence of sealants, and to estimate oral hygiene condition: Debris Index (Green-Vermillion and Calculus Index (Green. A dental team clinically examined all the subjects in line with World Health Organization (WHO methodology and criteria. All chosen children from the sample were checked by the standard dental diagnostic equipment (plane dental mirror, dental, standard CPITN periodontal probe under the artificial light on the dry teeth, on the dental chair. Results. The average value of Index DMFT at 12-year-old in Montenegro was 3.43. On average, 88.35% of the examined children had dental caries. The SiC Index was 6.35. Among the examined children, 11.9% had at least one tooth with a fissure sealant. The healty periodontium had 64% of the 12-year-old children. The average value of Debris Index was 1.086, and the average value of Calculus Index was 0.6508. Conclusion. Oral health condition in children at the age of 12 in Montenegro does not satisfy. Thus the importance of the modern preventive measures and programmes should be emphasized and applied through the system of primary oral protection and intensively promote oral health.

  9. Subcutaneous Immunoglobulin Replacement Therapy with Hizentra® is Safe and Effective in Children Less Than 5 Years of Age

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, Niraj C.; Gallagher, Joel L.; Ochs, Hans D.; Prescott Atkinson, Thomas; Wahlstrom, Justin; Dorsey, Morna; Bonilla, Francisco A.; Heimall, Jennifer; Kobrynski, Lisa; Morris, David; Haddad, Elie

    2015-01-01

    Background Hizentra® (IGSC 20 %) is a 20 % liquid IgG product approved for subcutaneous administration in adults and children 2 years of age and older who have primary immunodeficiency disease (PIDD). There is limited information about the use of IGSC 20 % in very young children including those less than 5 years of age. Methods A retrospective chart review involved 88 PIDD infants and children less than 5 years of age who received Hizentra®. Results The mean age at the start of Hizentra® was ...

  10. Manual control age and sex differences in 4 to 11 year old children.

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    Ian Flatters

    Full Text Available To what degree does being male or female influence the development of manual skills in pre-pubescent children? This question is important because of the emphasis placed on developing important new manual skills during this period of a child's education (e.g. writing, drawing, using computers. We investigated age and sex-differences in the ability of 422 children to control a handheld stylus. A task battery deployed using tablet PC technology presented interactive visual targets on a computer screen whilst simultaneously recording participant's objective kinematic responses, via their interactions with the on-screen stimuli using the handheld stylus. The battery required children use the stylus to: (i make a series of aiming movements, (ii trace a series of abstract shapes and (iii track a moving object. The tasks were not familiar to the children, allowing measurement of a general ability that might be meaningfully labelled 'manual control', whilst minimising culturally determined differences in experience (as much as possible. A reliable interaction between sex and age was found on the aiming task, with girls' movement times being faster than boys in younger age groups (e.g. 4-5 years but with this pattern reversing in older children (10-11 years. The improved performance in older boys on the aiming task is consistent with prior evidence of a male advantage for gross-motor aiming tasks, which begins to emerge during adolescence. A small but reliable sex difference was found in tracing skill, with girls showing a slightly higher level of performance than boys irrespective of age. There were no reliable sex differences between boys and girls on the tracking task. Overall, the findings suggest that prepubescent girls are more likely to have superior manual control abilities for performing novel tasks. However, these small population differences do not suggest that the sexes require different educational support whilst developing their manual

  11. Spirometric reference values for Hopi Native American children ages 4-13 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnall, David A; Nelson, Arnold G; Hearon, Christopher M; Interpreter, Christina; Kanuho, Verdell

    2016-04-01

    Spirometry is the most important tool in diagnosing pulmonary disease and is the most frequently performed pulmonary function test. Respiratory disease is also one of the greatest causes for morbidity and mortality on the Hopi Nation, but no specific reference equations exist for this unique population. The purpose of this study was to determine if population reference equations were necessary for these children and, if needed, to create new age and race-specific pulmonary nomograms for Hopi children. Two hundred and ninety-two healthy children, ages 4-13 years, attending Hopi Nation elementary schools in Arizona, were asked to perform spirometry for a full battery of pulmonary volumes and capacities of which the following were analyzed: forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV1 ), FEV1 % (FEV1 /FVC), FEF25-75% and peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR). Spirometric data from Navajo children living in the same geographical region as the Hopi children were compared as well as spirometric data from common reference values used for other ethnic groups in the USA. Spirometry tests from 165 girls and 127 boys met American Thoracic Society quality control standards. We found that the natural log of height, body mass and age were significant predictors of FEV1 , FVC, and FEF25-75% in the gender-specific models and that lung function values all increased with height and age as expected. The predictions using the equations derived for Navajo, Caucasian, Mexican-American, African-American youth were significantly different (P ≤ 0.05) from the predictions derived from the Hopi equations for all of the variables across both genders, with the exceptions of Hopi versus Navajo FEV1 /FVC in the males and Hopi versus Caucasians FEF25-75% in the females. Thus it would appear for this population important to have specific formulae to provide more accurate reference values.

  12. Spirometric reference values for Hopi Native American children ages 4-13 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnall, David A; Nelson, Arnold G; Hearon, Christopher M; Interpreter, Christina; Kanuho, Verdell

    2016-04-01

    Spirometry is the most important tool in diagnosing pulmonary disease and is the most frequently performed pulmonary function test. Respiratory disease is also one of the greatest causes for morbidity and mortality on the Hopi Nation, but no specific reference equations exist for this unique population. The purpose of this study was to determine if population reference equations were necessary for these children and, if needed, to create new age and race-specific pulmonary nomograms for Hopi children. Two hundred and ninety-two healthy children, ages 4-13 years, attending Hopi Nation elementary schools in Arizona, were asked to perform spirometry for a full battery of pulmonary volumes and capacities of which the following were analyzed: forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV1 ), FEV1 % (FEV1 /FVC), FEF25-75% and peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR). Spirometric data from Navajo children living in the same geographical region as the Hopi children were compared as well as spirometric data from common reference values used for other ethnic groups in the USA. Spirometry tests from 165 girls and 127 boys met American Thoracic Society quality control standards. We found that the natural log of height, body mass and age were significant predictors of FEV1 , FVC, and FEF25-75% in the gender-specific models and that lung function values all increased with height and age as expected. The predictions using the equations derived for Navajo, Caucasian, Mexican-American, African-American youth were significantly different (P ≤ 0.05) from the predictions derived from the Hopi equations for all of the variables across both genders, with the exceptions of Hopi versus Navajo FEV1 /FVC in the males and Hopi versus Caucasians FEF25-75% in the females. Thus it would appear for this population important to have specific formulae to provide more accurate reference values. PMID:26584469

  13. Serum ferritin to detect iron deficiency in children below five years of age

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    Windy Saufia Apriyanti

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Iron deficiency (ID anemia impacts the cognitive and motor development of children until the age of 10 years, despite receiving iron therapy. Early detection of ID is recommended and serum ferritin has been proposed as an alternative indicator for ID detection.Objective To assess the diagnostic accuracy of serum ferritin for detecting ID in children below five years of age.Methods This cross-sectional, diagnostic study was conducted in primary health care centers in Yogyakarta and Bantul. Hemoglobin (Hb, serum ferritin and soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR levels were performed on children aged 6–59 months. A sTfR level of ≥ 8.2 mg/L was used to define iron deficiency. The best cut off point for serum ferritin level use as a diagnostic tool was determined by receiver operator curve.Results The prevalence of ID was 32%. Mean hemoglobin levels in iron deficient and healthy children were 11.7 (SD 0.5 g/dL and 12.2 (SD 0.7 g/dL, respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value (PPV of serum ferritin (<12 ug/L were 17%, 93%, and 56%, respectively. Using a cut off of <32.4 ug/L, serum ferritin had sensitivity of 62.1% and specificity of 50.8%.Conclusions The diagnostic value of serum ferritin levels is modestly capable of detecting ID. Therefore, serum ferritin should not be used as an alternative indicator for detecting ID in children below five years of age.

  14. Serum ferritin to detect iron deficiency in children below five years of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Windy Saufia Apriyanti

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Iron deficiency (ID anemia impacts the cognitive and motor development of children until the age of 10 years, despite receiving iron therapy. Early detection of ID is recommended and serum ferritin has been proposed as an alternative indicator for ID detection. Objective To assess the diagnostic accuracy of serum ferritin for detecting ID in children below five years of age. Methods This cross-sectional, diagnostic study was conducted in primary health care centers in Yogyakarta and Bantul. Hemoglobin (Hb, serum ferritin and soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR levels were performed on children aged 6–59 months. A sTfR level of ≥ 8.2 mg/L was used to define iron deficiency. The best cut off point for serum ferritin level use as a diagnostic tool was determined by receiver operator curve. Results The prevalence of ID was 32%. Mean hemoglobin levels in iron deficient and healthy children were 11.7 (SD 0.5 g/dL and 12.2 (SD 0.7 g/dL, respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value (PPV of serum ferritin (<12 ug/L were 17%, 93%, and 56%, respectively. Using a cut off of <32.4 ug/L, serum ferritin had sensitivity of 62.1% and specificity of 50.8%. Conclusions The diagnostic value of serum ferritin levels is modestly capable of detecting ID. Therefore, serum ferritin should not be used as an alternative indicator for detecting ID in children below five years of age. [Paediatr Indones. 2013;53:150-4.].

  15. E-safety and Web 2.0 for children aged 11-16

    OpenAIRE

    Sharples, Mike; Graber, Rebecca; Harrison, Colin; Logan, Kit

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports findings from a survey and interviews with children aged 11–16 years, teachers and parents on their attitudes to e-safety in relation to social networking and media creation (Web 2.0) and their practices at school and at home. The results showed that 74% of the children surveyed have used social network (SN) sites and that a substantial minority regularly interact socially online with people they have not met face-to-face. Online interaction forms a different, although over...

  16. FINAL REMINDER - Extension/suppression of allowance for dependent children aged 18 to 25

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2006-01-01

    Members of the personnel with dependent children aged 18 to 25 (or reaching 18 during the 2006/2007 school year), for whom an allowance for dependent children is paid, must provide the School fees service as soon as possible with a: SCHOOL CERTIFICATE If we have not received this certificate by November 30, 2006 at the latest, the child allowance will be withdrawn retroactively as from July 1, 2006. School fees service (33-1-017) Organization, Procedures and Services Human Resources Department Tel. 72862

  17. Internet for the Youngest: Computer Usage and Web Design for the Early School Age Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Vučković

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we will talk about the Web usage practices and Web page design aimed at children of an early elementary school age. Learning about differences in understanding and using the Web should aid in the development of Web content for children. Thus research in opinions, practices and needs of the Internet's youngest users should today be considered a must, also in order to provide a better education about those topics. Data was collected through the field research in an elementary school in Zagreb. 90 students answered the questionnaire and additional 12 students were randomly selected for the interview.

  18. Phonetic reduction in spontaneous speech by children aged 9-14 years

    OpenAIRE

    Tuomainen, O.; Lee, C.(Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan); Granlund, S.; Hazan, V. L.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of our study was to investigate whether children distinguish between ‘new’ and ‘given’ information via phonetic reduction in spontaneous speech in a similar way to adults. An interactive ‘spot the difference’ game was used to elicit spontaneous speech. Word duration, fundamental frequency and vowel formant frequencies in repeated content words relative to when they were mentioned for the first time were analysed in 96 children between 9-14 years of age. There were significant developm...

  19. Effects of a self-esteem intervention program on school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalgas-Pelish, Peggy

    2006-01-01

    Self-esteem is essential for school-aged children's optimum health. High self-esteem is linked to increased school performance, improved health, and productive behavior. This study reports on the effects of a four-lesson self-esteem enhancement program for six groups of 5th and 6th grade children (N=98). The interactive lessons dealt with an overview of self-esteem, media influences, hiding emotions, and changes in self-esteem. Using a pre-test/ post-test design, Coopersmith's Self-Esteem Inventory (SEI) was used to measure self-esteem. The self-esteem subscales dealing with general and social areas were found to significantly increase over time (pself-esteem score. Mean scores showed that children who had friends had more significant changes than those who did not have friends. Children with lower socioeconomic status had lower scores at both the pre and post testing with significance in the general and social subscales. No significance was found related to racial group, family make-up, or the number of household chores or activities. This study supports the effectiveness of a self-esteem enhancement program for girls, those children with friends, and those in lower socioeconomic status. Future research is needed to understand what contributes to the self-esteem of children who report that they do not have friends. PMID:16927727

  20. Children'S experience of three types of cartoon at two age levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björkqvist, K; Lagerspetz, K

    1985-01-01

    Three cartoons were shown to 87 children at two age levels: 5-6 years, and 9 years. The children's experience was assessed in interviews. The younger children experienced the cartoons in a fragmentary manner and not as a continuous story, understood less of the cartoons, and tended to base their moral judgements of a character's behaviour on whether or not they identified with that character. Six months later, the younger children remembered best those scenes that had made them the most anxious earlier. A subgroup of children with abundant aggressive fantasies had a lower level of moral reasoning than the other children, preferred violent scenes, became less anxious while watching them and tended to give illogical explanations for the behaviour of the cartoon characters. The degree of anxiety provoked by a cartoon depended not on the amount of explicit violence shown but on the way the violence was presented. One cartoon, which contained no explicit violence, was considered the most frightening one due to its sound effects. PMID:25825063

  1. Association of ADHD symptoms severity with higher paternal and lower maternal age of a clinical sample of children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Ghanizadeh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the association of father's and mother's age with the severity of inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity. Participants are 470 children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD diagnosed according to DSM-IV diagnostic criteria. Moreover, parents reported the severity of ADHD symptoms through completing ADHD checklist. Mother's and father's age was associated with the score of hyperactivity/impulsivity. Lower father's age and advanced maternal age are associated with higher severity of hyperactivity/impulsivity in children and adolescents with ADHD. None of mothers' and fathers' age is associated with ADHD inattentiveness severity in children. Maternal and paternal education levels are not associated with ADHD severity. Older mothers and younger fathers have ADHD children with higher hyperactivity/impulsivity severity. It should be investigated whether the father's and mother's age are risk factors for ADHD.

  2. The age transformations of thyroid size at the children and teenagers from the Slavgorod's area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Statistical data processing of the screen investigates of 1638 children and teenagers from the Slavgorod's area of the Mogilev Region is conducted. Ultrasonic diagnostics was used to determine the quantitative objective laws of the thyroid gland volume changes depending on age of the surveyed persons. It was used the method of the standard statistical analysis of data, which was received with the screen survey of the healthy children and children from contamination region. Thyroid gland biometrics was conducted by the Toshiba SSA-240A ultrasonic scanner by Brunn et al. technique. Linear dependence of total volume, volume of a left and right share of the thyroid gland from age and floor surveyed was established. Comparison this results with data, received from 'clean' regions, as well as in Germany and Sweden too, permits to expand representation about age changes of the thyroid gland volume and leads to a conclusion, that the increase of the thyroid gland volume at teenagers in the most degree is defined by iodine insufficiency. For girls the thyroid gland volume are more, than for boys in all age groups, and it was detected excess of volume of a right share in comparison with volume of a left share, which is more expressed at girls too

  3. Elevated cortisol during play is associated with age and social engagement in children with autism

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    Corbett Blythe A

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The hallmark characteristic of autism is impaired reciprocal social interaction. While children find social interaction stress-reducing, many children with autism may find social interaction stress-inducing. The current study was designed to examine stress responsivity as measured by cortisol by comparing children with autism to neurotypical peers during an ecologically valid 20-minute playground paradigm. Methods The experiment involved sets of three children: a child with autism, a neurotypical child, and a confederate. Participants included 45 prepubescent males between 8 and 12 years of age (21 with autism and 24 neurotypical children. Results Children with autism showed fewer initiations (χ²(1 = 4.03, P = 0.044, rejected initiations from others more (χ²(1 = 7.10, P = 0.008 and spent less time interacting during motor (F(1,43 = 16.7, P = 0.0002 and cooperative (F(1,43 = 14.78, P = 0.0004 play. Repeated measures analysis of the cortisol values revealed a significant model (χ²(4 = 22.76, P P = 0.006 and cooperative (χ²(3 = 8.24, P = 0.04 play as well as reduced nonverbal social skills during motor (χ²(1 = 5.52, P = 0.018 and cooperative play (χ²(1 = 4.53, P = 0.033. Conclusions Overall, children with autism engaged in fewer social overtures and spent less time interacting than typically developing peers during play. The peer interaction paradigm resulted in significantly higher levels of cortisol in many children with autism. Distinct patterns emerged within the autism group based on developmental (older, biological (cortisol responder and behavioral patterns (peripheral group interaction. The enhanced cortisol response was observed in children who voluntarily engaged in interaction; thus, it does not support the notion of a response to social threat. Rather, it appears to reflect attendant metabolic preparedness and enhanced arousal from engaging socially. The data suggest that many children with autism

  4. Insomnia in school-age children with Asperger syndrome or high-functioning autism

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    Smedje Hans

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Asperger syndrome (AS and high-functioning autism (HFA are pervasive developmental disorders (PDD in individuals of normal intelligence. Childhood AS/HFA is considered to be often associated with disturbed sleep, in particular with difficulties initiating and/or maintaining sleep (insomnia. However, studies about the topic are still scarce. The present study investigated childhood AS/HFA regarding a wide range of parent reported sleep-wake behaviour, with a particular focus on insomnia. Methods Thirty-two 8–12 yr old children with AS/HFA were compared with 32 age and gender matched typically developing children regarding sleep and associated behavioural characteristics. Several aspects of sleep-wake behaviour including insomnia were surveyed using a structured paediatric sleep questionnaire in which parents reported their children's sleep patterns for the previous six months. Recent sleep patterns were monitored by use of a one-week sleep diary and actigraphy. Behavioural characteristics were surveyed by use of information gleaned from parent and teacher-ratings in the High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Screening Questionnaire, and in the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Results Parent-reported difficulties initiating sleep and daytime sleepiness were more common in children with AS/HFA than in controls, and 10/32 children with AS/HFA (31.2% but none of the controls fulfilled our definition of paediatric insomnia. The parent-reported insomnia corresponded to the findings obtained by actigraphy. Children with insomnia had also more parent-reported autistic and emotional symptoms, and more teacher-reported emotional and hyperactivity symptoms than those children without insomnia. Conclusion Parental reports indicate that in childhood AS/HFA insomnia is a common and distressing symptom which is frequently associated with coexistent behaviour problems. Identification and treatment of sleep problems need to be a routine

  5. Development of social functioning and communication in school-aged (5-9 years) children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Schie, Petra E M; Siebes, Renate C; Dallmeijer, Annet J; Schuengel, Carlo; Smits, Dirk-Wouter; Gorter, Jan Willem; Becher, Jules G

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to examine determinants of the course and level of social functioning and communication in school-aged children with cerebral palsy (CP) over a 2-year period. A clinic-based sample of 5 and 7 years old children with CP (n=108; 72 males; mean age 6 y 3 mo, SD 12 mo; Gross Motor Function Classification System (GFMCS) level I-V) was followed longitudinally in three yearly assessments. Social functioning and communication were measured with the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS). Data were analyzed with generalized estimated equations. The results showed that social function followed a course of progressive restrictions over time in non-ambulatory children with CP aged 5-9 compared to children who could walk with or without walking aids. Overall lower levels of social functioning were found in children with GMFCS V, epilepsy, speech problems, lower intellectual capacity and older age at baseline. For communication more restrictions over time were found in children with lower intellectual capacity. Children with GMFCS V, speech problems and older age at baseline had overall greater restrictions in communication. It was concluded that motor functioning and intellectual ability can be used to identify children at risk for progressive restrictions in social functioning and communication. For children with CP and social and communicative restrictions, multidisciplinary assessment and treatment may be indicated to counteract an unfavorable development.

  6. PERKEMBANGAN ANAK USIA 6-24 BUL AN DI WILAYAH KERJA PUSKESMAS ANDALAS KECAMATAN PADANG TIMUR PADANG

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    Indah Gemala

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Prevalensi gizi kurus dan sangat kurus berdasarkan indeks berat badan menurut tinggi badan pada balita masih cukup tinggi di Kota Padang. Status gizi kurang pada balita terutama usia kritis, yaitu 6-24 bulan berdampak pada perkembangan balita. Perkembangan anak juga dipengaruhi oleh pola asuh, status kesehatan dan pekerjaan ibu. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahuiperkembangan anak usia 6-24 bidan dan faktor paling dominan berhubungan dengan perkembangan anak tersebut. Studi cross sectional dilakukan pada 96 anak sebagai sampel. Data dikumpulkan melalui wawancara menggunakan kuesioner terstruktur dan pengukuran antropometri. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan perkembangan anak meragukan masih cukup tinggi, 29,2% dengan kondisi gizi kurus. Pola asuh kurang baik dan ibu bekerja meningkatkan risiko perkembangan meragukan pada anak, dengan OR masing-masing 4,8 dan 4,7. Untuk itu perlu diperhatikan pola asuh anak terutama ibu yang bekerja untuk mencegah perkembangan anak yang kurang baik.

  7. [Parenting style in Spanish parents with children aged 6 to 14].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Geta, Petra María

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to establish which parenting style of Spanish families is associated with optimum children's outcomes. A random Spanish sample of 1,103 parents of children and teenagers from 6 to 14 years of age, of whom 47% were females, reported on their child-rearing practices. Families were classified into 1 of 4 groups (authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent, or neglectful) based on the parents' answers. Socialization outcomes were 6 indicators of interpersonal relationship quality, 9 indicators of psychological adjustment, 7 indicators of personal competence, and 12 indicators of behavior problems. Results showed that indulgent and authoritative parenting styles were associated with better outcomes than authoritarian and neglectful parenting. Overall, our results supported the idea that, in Spain, the optimum parenting style is the indulgent one, as scores in the four sets of socialization outcomes among children and teenagers from indulgent families were always equal to, or even better than, the authoritative parenting style.

  8. Azithromycin for episodes with asthma-like symptoms in young children aged 1-3 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stokholm, Jakob; Chawes, Bo L; Vissing, Nadja H;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Bacteria and viruses are equally associated with the risk of acute episodes of asthma-like symptoms in young children, suggesting antibiotics as a potential treatment for such episodes. We aimed to assess the effect of azithromycin on the duration of respiratory episodes in young...... children with recurrent asthma-like symptoms, hypothesising that it reduces the duration of the symptomatic period. METHODS: In this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, we recruited children aged 1-3 years, who were diagnosed with recurrent asthma-like symptoms from the Copenhagen...... (respiratory frequency of ≥50 breaths per min; fever of ≥39°C; C-reactive protein concentration of ≥476·20 nmol/L [≥50 mg/L]). Each episode of asthma-like symptoms lasting at least 3 days was randomly allocated to a 3-day course of azithromycin oral solution of 10 mg/kg per day or placebo after thorough...

  9. Overt and relational aggression in Russian nursery-school-age children: parenting style and marital linkages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, C H; Nelson, D A; Robinson, C C; Olsen, S F; McNeilly-Choque, M K

    1998-07-01

    Maternal and paternal parenting styles and marital interactions linked to childhood aggressive behavior as described in Western psychological literature were measured in an ethnic Russian sample of 207 families of nursery-school-age children. Results corroborated and extended findings from Western samples. Maternal and paternal coercion, lack of responsiveness, and psychological control (for mothers only) were significantly correlated with children's overt aggression with peers. Less responsiveness (for mothers and fathers) and maternal coercion positively correlated with relational aggression. Some of these associations differed for boys versus girls. Marital conflict was also linked to more overt and relational aggression for boys. When entered into the same statistical model, more marital conflict (for boys only), more maternal coercion, and less paternal responsiveness were found to be the most important contributors to overt and relational aggression in younger Russian children. PMID:9681260

  10. [Parenting style in Spanish parents with children aged 6 to 14].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Geta, Petra María

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to establish which parenting style of Spanish families is associated with optimum children's outcomes. A random Spanish sample of 1,103 parents of children and teenagers from 6 to 14 years of age, of whom 47% were females, reported on their child-rearing practices. Families were classified into 1 of 4 groups (authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent, or neglectful) based on the parents' answers. Socialization outcomes were 6 indicators of interpersonal relationship quality, 9 indicators of psychological adjustment, 7 indicators of personal competence, and 12 indicators of behavior problems. Results showed that indulgent and authoritative parenting styles were associated with better outcomes than authoritarian and neglectful parenting. Overall, our results supported the idea that, in Spain, the optimum parenting style is the indulgent one, as scores in the four sets of socialization outcomes among children and teenagers from indulgent families were always equal to, or even better than, the authoritative parenting style. PMID:22748726

  11. The status of immune and vegetative nerve system in children at the early age with sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dulfuza Rabbimova

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The study explores features of the immune status and justifies the role of the autonomic nervous system in the pathogenesis of sepsis in infants. We observed 172 children in early age; the study group included 135 children with sepsis (septicemic and septicopyemic types. Compared group comprised 37 patients with local types of infection (uncomplicated pneumonias, pyelonephritis, pseudofurunculosis, and others; and control group included 20 healthy children. Significant violations of adaptive-compensatory features with deep disturbances in the regulatory system were revealed in septic patients. Changes in the indexes of cardiointervalography such as decreasing of the mode (MO, increasing of the mode amplitude (AMO and significant increasing of the tension index (TI testified on increasing of sympathetic-adrenergic effects.

  12. A study of language development and affecting factors in children aged 5 to 27 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muluk, Nuray Bayar; Bayoğlu, Birgül; Anlar, Banu

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a study to assess the factors that affect language development in infants and toddlers using data obtained during developmental screening. Our study group consisted of 505 children-244 (48.3%) boys and 261 (51.7%) girls, aged 5 to 27 months. The children were divided into four age groups: group 1, which we designated as the "6 months" group (age range: 5 to 7 mo); group 2, designated as the "12 months" group (11 to 13 mo); group 3, designated as the "18 months" group (17 to 19 mo); and group 4, designated as the "24 months" group (23 to 27 mo). In addition to demographic data, we compiled data using the Denver II Developmental Screening Test, as well as neurologic examination findings and medical histories. At 6 months, the social item "Works for toy out of reach" was positively related to all language development items. Two gross motor development items-"Pull to sit, no head lag" and "Lifts chest with arm support"-were related to the "Turns to sound" and "Turns to voice" items, respectively. Overall, children whose mothers had higher education levels and who were living in higher socioeconomic areas showed significantly greater language development, as did boys, specifically. At 12 months, higher maternal ages, some gross motor development items, and some social items were related to better language development, and children living in higher socioeconomic areas had a significantly increased ability to pass the "4 words other than mama/dada" item. At 18 months, the ability of girls to pass the "4 words other than mama/dada" item increased, and children who passed the "4 words other than mama/dada" item did not pass the "Throws ball" gross motor item. At 24 months, children whose mothers were older had better "Combines 2 words" and "Speech half intelligible" items, girls had better "Comprehends prepositions (such as under/above)" skills, and boys had better "Shows 4 parts of doll" skills. We conclude that language items appear to change together with

  13. Reasons for Drop out of Immunization in Children Aged Between 0-12 Months in Diyarbakir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulhan Yigitalp

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In this study, vaccination dropout reasons in children aged between 0-12 months was investigated. METHODS: A survey was carried out at eight primary health centers in the city center of Diyarbakir and also at three primary health centers, each in separate village. In collecting data, the records of “the form 012 records” (the card for the registration of vaccination that were available at eight primary health centers. The children who were droped out vaccination were accepted as the cases of the survey. Through those records, 350 children aged between 1,5 and 5 years, who remained droped out, were reached by-house-to-house visits. As the control group, for each droped out child one fully immunized child selected by the same method. The children were selected from the neighborhood of the same medical center and also of the same age group. Information about the mothers were collected by face-to-face- interviews. The features of underimmunized and fully immunized children were compared through the charts of frequency. Chi-square analysis was applied for the comparisons of the two group. For the factors that were considered to have effect on droping out, the odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated. RESULTS: In the survey, it was seen that 62,3% of the mothers and 13,4% of the fathers of the underimmunized children were illiterate. It was also found that being the eighth child increased the risk of the underimmunization 6,07 (%95 CI:2,85-13,09 folds in comparison to the first child. In fully immunized children, vaccination card application was better than droped out children. Having vaccination at home increases the risk of underimmunization . CONCLUSION: We concluded that mother’s education level, order of child, consoling after vaccination, giving vaccine card, home visits for vaccination were the factors related with vaccination dropout. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2008; 7(4.000: 277-284

  14. Correlation between high-risk pregnancy and developmental delay in children aged 4–60 months

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saba Amiri

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The future development of children is considered more than ever now due to the advances in medical knowledge and thus the increase in survival rates of high-risk infants. This study investigated the correlation between high-risk pregnancy and developmental delay in children aged 4–60 months. Methods: This descriptive study was conducted on 401 mothers and their children (4–60 months who visited health service centers affiliated to Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Iran, in 2011. Sampling was carried out in several stages, and the Ages and Stage Questionnaire was completed by the participants. Data were analyzed with SPSS 18 software and independent t-test; Mann-Whitney and logistic-regression tests were used. Results: The average age of children in the low-risk pregnancy group was 22±16 months, and that in the high-risk pregnancy group was 18.9±14.8 months. The majority of children were female (53.1%. The prevalence of high-risk pregnancies was 80.5%, and the prevalence of developmental delay was 18.7%. Multiple pregnancies, low birth weight, habitual abortions, maternal medical disorders in pregnancy, and gestational diabetes had significant correlations with developmental delay in children (P<0.04. In the logistic model, male gender, low birth weight, family marriage, and maternal medical disorders during pregnancy showed significant correlations with developmental delay in children (P<0.05. Additionally, abnormal body mass index (BMI and social and economic status showed probability values close to the significance level (P = 0.05, whereas other high-risk pregnancy variables had no correlation with developmental delay in children. A correlation between high-risk pregnancy and developmental delay (P = 0.002 and fine motor delay was observed (P = 0.02, but no correlation was observed between high-risk pregnancy and other developmental domains. Conclusion: This study showed that some high-risk pregnancy variables had a

  15. Determinants of suboptimal complementary feeding practices among children aged 6-23 months in seven francophone West African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issaka, Abukari I; Agho, Kingsley E; Page, Andrew N; Burns, Penelope L; Stevens, Garry J; Dibley, Michael J

    2015-10-01

    Suboptimal complementary feeding practices play a crucial role in the health and development of children. The objective of this research paper was to identify factors associated with suboptimal complementary feeding practices among children aged 6-23 months in seven francophone West African countries, namely, Benin, Burkina Faso, Cote d'Ivoire, Guinea, Mali, Niger and Senegal. This study covered 22 376 children aged 6-23 months from the seven countries surveyed (Benin: 3732 children; Burkina Faso: 4205 children; Cote d'Ivoire: 2109 children, Guinea: 1944 children, Mali: 3798 children, Niger: 3451 children and Senegal: 3137 children). The most recent Demographic and Health Survey datasets of the various countries were used as data sources. A set of individual-, household- and community-level factors were used to examine the four complementary feeding indicators. Multivariate analysis revealed that the youngest age bracket (6-11 months) of children, administrative/geographical region, mother's limited or non-access to the mass media, mothers' lack of contact with a health facility, rural residence, poor households and non-working mothers were the main factors associated with suboptimal complementary feeding in the countries surveyed. Our findings highlight the need to consider broader social, cultural and economic factors when designing child nutritional interventions. PMID:26364790

  16. Passive smoking as a risk factor of anemia in young children aged 0–35 months in Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Rathavuth; Betancourt, Jose A; Ruiz-Beltran, Martin

    2007-01-01

    Background Passive smoking unfavorably affects pregnancy, child birth and child health. Passive smoking associates with still-birth, premature birth as well as acute respiratory infection, asthma, disorder in red blood cell metabolism in children. This study examined the effects of passive smoking on anemia in young children in Jordan. Methods The analysis based on the information from 740 children aged 0–35 months that were tested for hemoglobin levels included in the 2002 Jordan Population and Family Health Survey. This study used multivariate logistic regression method to analyze the effect of passive smoking on anemia in young children in Jordan, controlling for a number of risk factors and confounding factors for anemia. Results Results indicated that independent of other risk factors and confounding factors, anemia in young children was strongly positively associated with exposure to passive smoking from both parents (OR= 2.99, p < 0.01). Severely undernourished children were at higher risk of anemia independent of passive smoking and other risk factors (OR= 5.29, p < 0.05). Children age 24–35 months, children born to mothers age 35–49, and children lived in households with a hygienic toilet facility were less likely to suffer from anemia. Conclusion Passive smoking from both parents was strongly positively associated with anemia in young children in Jordan independent of other risk factors and confounding factors. The results support the importance of smoking prevention during and after pregnancy that prevent childhood anemia and others morbidities in young children. PMID:17425780

  17. Lifestyle, quality of life, nutritional status and headache in school-aged children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamila Castro

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Headache has been described as a factor with significant negative impact on the quality of life of school-aged children with a high risk of developing in chronic and persistent form in adulthood. Among other headache associated triggers or aggravating factors, lifestyle and obesity has been investigated, but results are still conflicting. Objective: To evaluate the prevalence of headache in school-aged children and its relationship to anthropometric characteristics, lifestyle, and quality of life. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in six schools located in two cities in southern Brazil, involving 750 students aged 7 to 14 years. Information was collected on sociodemographic characteristics, clinical variables (presence of headache and menarche, anthropometric data, lifestyle, and quality of life. Results: A total of 185 (24.7% students reported having headache crises in the last 3 months. Among students aged 10 to 14 years, presence of headache was associated with female sex, affecting 32.2% of girls vs. 23.3% of boys (p = 0.042, chi-square test. Anthropometric parameters (data on overweight/obesity were consistent with national prevalence rates, and there was no association between Body Mass Index (BMI and headache. Regarding lifestyle, 2.0% of students reported smoking and 1.6% consuming alcohol occasionally, and neither was associated with headache. Quality of life, especially aspects of social life, appeared to be affected by the presence of headache. Conclusion: This study found a high prevalence of headache in school-aged children, which was associated with female students aged 10-14 years and quality of life.

  18. Prevalence of anemia in children 1 to 12 years of age: results from a nationwide probabilistic survey in Mexico

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    Villalpando Salvador

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the epidemiology and analyze factors associated with iron deficiency anemia in a probabilistic sample of the Encuesta Nacional de Nutrición 1999 (ENN-99 [National Nutritional Survey 1999 (NNS-99]. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The sample included 8 111 children aged 1 to 12 years, and was nationaly representative by rural and urban strata and by four geographical regions. Capillary hemoglobin was measured using a portable photometer (HemoCue. The analysis of the determining factors of anemia was performed by odds ratios derived from a logistic regression model and multiple regression models. RESULTS: The prevalence of anemia was 50% in infants <2 years of age, with no significant differences between urban and rural strata or among regions. It varied between 14 and 22% in 6-11 year-old children and was higher in the South region and among the indigenous children. Dietary intake of iron was 50% of the recommended daily allowance in children <2 years of age, but not in older children. Phytate (»500-800 mg/d and tannin (»19 mg/d intakes were very high in children over 7 years of age. Hemoglobin was positively associated with nutritional status of children (p=0.01, socioeconomic status (p range 0.05-0.001, duration of lactation in children under 2 years of age (p=0.1, and iron and calcium intake (p=0.02, but not with folic acid or vitamin B12 intake. Hemoglobin was negatively associated with maternal education (p=0.01 in older children, but not in those under 2 years of age. CONCLUSIONS: We present evidence of an alarming national epidemic of anemia, particularly marked in children 12 to 24 months of age. The control of anemia should be considered as an urgent national concern given its grave consequences on the physical and mental development of these children and on their long-term health.

  19. Frequency of Allergic Rhinitis in School-age Children (7-18 Years in Tehran

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    Bahram Mirsaid Ghazi

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Allergic Rhinitis (AR is one of the most common allergic disorders of child¬hood.In order to determine the frequency of AR among school-age children, a cross-sectional study was performed.One thousand, nine hundred and thirty-two children (931 boys and 1001 girls, aged 7-18 years, from 30 systematic randomly selected schools of Tehran, the capital of Iran, were investigated in this study. Screening was made on the basis of the questionnaire according to International Study of Asthma and Aller¬gies in Childhood protocol. Diagnosis was confirmed by history and physical examination.Four hundred and fifty-five (240 boys and 215 girls out of 1932 screened children had AR (23.5%. Seasonal AR and perennial forms were detected in 329 and 126 cases, respectively. The symptoms of seasonal AR were noted at spring (68.7%, summer (15.8%, and fall and winter (15.5%. The total preva¬lence of asthma was 3.5% according to questionnaire, which was lower than the prevalence (7.2% in the AR subjects. The prevalence of cutaneous allergy also was 35.8% in children with AR. The positive history of atopy (AR, asthma, or cutaneous allergy in the first degree relatives was detected in 47.9% in AR cases. Moreover, the history of contact with animals was positive in 35.4% of cases withAR.AR is common among school-age children in Tehran. Coincidence of AR with asthma or cutaneous allergy is significant. Family history of allergy and his¬tory of contact with animals and cockroaches are important risk factors in the incidence of AR.

  20. Do sex and age affect strategic behavior and inequity aversion in children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno-Guerra, Nereida; Leiva, David; Colell, Montserrat; Call, Josep

    2016-10-01

    The ultimatum game is commonly used to explore fairness in adults in bargaining situations. Although the changes in responses that occur during development have been investigated in children, the results have been mixed. Whereas some studies show that proposers offer more when they grow older, others indicate the opposite. Moreover, these studies are outcome-based and leave intentions out of the scene, although intentions play a relevant role in daily life. The mini-ultimatum game offers the opportunity to test both outcomes and intentions, but one major obstacle for accurately pinpointing developmental transitions in strategic behavior and inequity aversion so far has been the multiple confounds that have plagued previous studies, including different methods, small sample sizes, and reduced age differences. We administered an anonymous direct-method one-shot mini-ultimatum game to 478 6- and 10-year-old children. Strategic behavior was present at 10 years of age; older participants matched more accurately what responders would accept than younger participants. However, this was true only for older girls. No sex differences were detected in younger children. No age group seemed to consider the proposer's intentions given that the rejections of the default option were not significant across conditions. Both disadvantageous and advantageous inequity aversions were present in 6-year-olds. However, older children exhibited significantly more disadvantageous inequity aversion than younger children. This contrast made the pattern of rejection of 6-year-olds look more similar to the pattern of rejection found in adults. No sex differences were found in responders' behavior. PMID:27372561