WorldWideScience

Sample records for children 6-8 years

  1. Analysis of dental casts of 6-8- and 12-year-old Kenyan children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanali, J; Odhiambo, J W

    2000-04-01

    Dental plaster casts of 97 6-8-year-old and 173 12-year-old Maasai, Kikuyu, and Kalenjin children were studied. The Kikuyu are Bantu, while Maasai and Kalenjin are Nilo-Hamitic subjects. The variables measured were palatal depth (PD) and length (PL); maxillary and mandibular anterior arc circumferences (AC1) and (AC2), respectively; posterior arc circumferences (PC1) and (PC2), inter-canine (CC1), and (CC2); inter-molar (MM1) and (MM2) distances, and mandibular length (ML). The data were analysed using SPSS package. The mean values of all the variables were generally higher in the males compared with the females and significant sex differences in the means (P Kalenjin. Ethnic and sex differences in the dental arches may be masked by anterior tooth positions that are influenced by the dento-alveolar complex and soft tissues. Corresponding mandibular and maxillary variables were strongly correlated and anterior and posterior arc circumferences were correlated with inter-canine and intermolar distances. Details of the norms for dental arch dimensions and changes with age may allow for appropriate assessment of dental occlusion and treatment planning for Kenyan children. PMID:10822886

  2. Comorbidity and correlates of disruptive mood dysregulation disorder in 6-8-year-old children with ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulraney, Melissa; Schilpzand, Elizabeth J; Hazell, Philip; Nicholson, Jan M; Anderson, Vicki; Efron, Daryl; Silk, Timothy J; Sciberras, Emma

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to characterize the nature and impact of disruptive mood dysregulation disorder (DMDD) in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) including its co-occurrence with other comorbidities and its independent influence on daily functioning. Children with ADHD (6-8 years) were recruited through 43 Melbourne schools, using a 2-stage screening (parent and teacher Conners 3 ADHD index) and case-confirmation (Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children, Version IV; [DISC-IV]) procedure. Proxy DMDD diagnosis was confirmed via items from the oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and major depressive disorder modules of the DISC-IV. Outcome domains included comorbid mental health disorders, academic functioning, social functioning, child and family quality of life, parent mental health, and parenting behaviors. Unadjusted and adjusted linear and logistic regression were used to compare children with comorbid ADHD and DMDD and children with ADHD without DMDD. Thirty-nine out of 179 children (21.8 %) with ADHD had comorbid DMDD. Children with ADHD and DMDD had a high prevalence of ODD (89.7 %) and any anxiety disorder (41.0 %). Children with ADHD and DMDD had poorer self-control and elevated bullying behaviors than children with ADHD without DMDD. Children with ADHD and DMDD were similar to children with ADHD in the other domains measured when taking into account other comorbidities including ODD. One in five children with ADHD in their second year of formal schooling met criteria for DMDD. There was a very high diagnostic overlap with ODD; however, the use of a proxy DMDD diagnosis containing items from the ODD module of the DISC-IV may have artificially inflated the comorbidity rates. DMDD added to the burden of ADHD particularly in the area of social functioning. PMID:26122202

  3. Associations between indoor environmental factors and parental-reported autistic spectrum disorders in children 6-8 years of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsson, Malin; Weiss, Bernard; Janson, Staffan;

    2009-01-01

    between properties of the indoor environment and asthma and allergy in young Swedish children. The larger project, The Dampness in Buildings and Health (DBH) Study, began in the year 2000 with a questionnaire distributed to parents of all children 1-6 years of age in one Swedish county (DBH-I). A second......, follow-up questionnaire (DBH-III) was distributed in 2005. The original survey collected information about the child, the family situation, practices such as smoking, allergic symptoms, type of residence, moisture-related problems, and type of flooring material, which included polyvinyl chloride (PVC......, airway symptoms of wheezing and physician-diagnosed asthma in the baseline investigation (2000) were associated with ASD 5 years later. Results from the second phase of the DBH-study (DBH-II) indicate PVC flooring to be one important source of airborne phthalates indoors, and that asthma and allergy...

  4. DYNAMICS DEVELOPMENT OF THE STATIC BODY BALANCE FOR CHILDREN AT AGE OF 6-8 YEARS OLD HAVING TRAINED ARTISTIC GYMNASTICS

    OpenAIRE

    Sztetner-roszkowska, Anna; Roszkowski, Leszek; Niznikowski, Tomasz

    2007-01-01

    Above presented research is concentrated on the main issue related with dynamics development of the static body balance for children at age of 6-8 years old having trained artistic gymnastics as well as to proof influence of specifically designed exercise programme by the author programme, called "The school of the move" in case of dynamics development of the static body balance for children that took part in this research. The comperesence of the results before (that has been done by means o...

  5. Influence of the training loading on the program paralympic junior sport school on the indexes of physical qualities of young tennis players 6-8 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loboda V.S.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Influence of the training loading is considered on the program paralympic junior sport school on the indexes of physical qualities of young tennis players 6-8 years. The aim of experiment was an exposure of dynamics of development of motive internalss of young tennis players during three years (6-8 years under the influence of the training loading on the program of children sport school. In experiment took part the group of initial preparation in an amount 25 children (boys. Research was conducted within the framework of the operative (employments, current (mezocycle and stage (annual planning of training process.

  6. Dietary factors and their associations with socioeconomic background in Finnish girls and boys 6-8 years of age - the PANIC Study

    OpenAIRE

    Lakka, Timo Antero; Eloranta, Aino-Maija; Lindi, Virpi; Schwab, Ursula; Kiiskinen, Sanna; Kalinkin, Mirjam; Lakka, Hanna-Maaria

    2011-01-01

    Abstract OBJECTIVES. To study nutrient intake, food consumption and meal pattern and their associations with socioeconomic background in Finnish children. METHODS. The subjects were a population sample of 424 children (211 girls, 213 boys) 6-8 years of age. Nutrient intake and meal pattern were measured by food records, and food intake and socioeconomic characteristics were assessed by questionnaires. RESULTS. Intakes of saturated fat, sucrose and salt were higher and intakes...

  7. Do 6-8 year old girls with central precocious puberty need routine brain imaging?

    OpenAIRE

    Kaplowitz, Paul B

    2016-01-01

    Background The subject of whether all girls with central precocious puberty (CPP) require brain imaging is controversial. Findings A review of the major papers concerning this topic published since 1994 was conducted looking primarily at the frequency of occult intracranial lesions, particularly brain tumors, in girls with CPP. While CNS abnormalities are frequently noted (8–15 %), the proportion of previously unknown findings requiring intervention in 6–8 year old girls is very small, in the...

  8. Seven years of postseismic deformation following the 2003 Mw = 6.8 Zemmouri earthquake (Algeria) from InSAR time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetin, Esra; Meghraoui, Mustapha; Cakir, Ziyadin; Akoglu, Ahmet M.; Mimouni, Omar; Chebbah, Mouloud

    2012-05-01

    We study the postseismic surface deformation of the Mw 6.8, 2003 Zemmouri earthquake (northern Algeria) using the Multi-Temporal Small Baseline InSAR technique. InSAR time series obtained from 31 Envisat ASAR images from 2003 to 2010 reveal sub-cm coastline ground movements between Cap Matifou and Dellys. Two regions display subsidence at a maximum rate of 2 mm/yr in Cap Djenet and 3.5 mm/yr in Boumerdes. These regions correlate well with areas of maximum coseismic uplifts, and their association with two rupture segments. Inverse modeling suggest that subsidence in the areas of high coseismic uplift can be explained by afterslip on shallow sections (<5 km) of the fault above the areas of coseismic slip, in agreement with previous GPS observations. The earthquake impact on soft sediments and the ground water table southwest of the earthquake area, characterizes ground deformation of non-tectonic origin. The cumulative postseismic moment due to 7 years afterslip is equivalent to an Mw 6.3 earthquake. Therefore, the postseismic deformation and stress buildup has significant implications on the earthquake cycle models and recurrence intervals of large earthquakes in the Algiers area.

  9. Seven years of postseismic deformation following the 2003 Mw = 6.8 Zemmouri earthquake (Algeria) from InSAR time series

    KAUST Repository

    Cetin, Esra

    2012-05-28

    We study the postseismic surface deformation of the Mw 6.8, 2003 Zemmouri earthquake (northern Algeria) using the Multi-Temporal Small Baseline InSAR technique. InSAR time series obtained from 31 Envisat ASAR images from 2003 to 2010 reveal sub-cm coastline ground movements between Cap Matifou and Dellys. Two regions display subsidence at a maximum rate of 2 mm/yr in Cap Djenet and 3.5 mm/yr in Boumerdes. These regions correlate well with areas of maximum coseismic uplifts, and their association with two rupture segments. Inverse modeling suggest that subsidence in the areas of high coseismic uplift can be explained by afterslip on shallow sections (<5 km) of the fault above the areas of coseismic slip, in agreement with previous GPS observations. The earthquake impact on soft sediments and the ground water table southwest of the earthquake area, characterizes ground deformation of non-tectonic origin. The cumulative postseismic moment due to 7 years afterslip is equivalent to an Mw 6.3 earthquake. Therefore, the postseismic deformation and stress buildup has significant implications on the earthquake cycle models and recurrence intervals of large earthquakes in the Algiers area.

  10. Seven years of postseismic deformation following the 2003 Mw = 6.8 Zemmouri earthquake (Algeria) from InSAR time series

    OpenAIRE

    Cetin, Esra; Meghraoui, Mustapha; Cakir, Ziyadin; Mimouni, Omar; Chebbah, Mouloud

    2012-01-01

    [1] We study the postseismic surface deformation of the Mw 6.8, 2003 Zemmouri earthquake (northern Algeria) using the Multi-Temporal Small Baseline InSAR technique. InSAR time series obtained from 31 Envisat ASAR images from 2003 to 2010 reveal sub-cm coastline ground movements between Cap Matifou and Dellys. Two regions display subsidence at a maximum rate of 2 mm/yr in Cap Djenet and 3.5 mm/yr in Boumerdes. These regions correlate well with areas of maximum coseismic uplifts, and their asso...

  11. Assessing the Effectiveness of a Mathematics-Focused, Instructional Technology Program for Grades 6-8: A 5-Year Trend Analysis of NASA CONNECT(tm) Evaluation Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassman, Nanci A.; Perry, Jeannine B.; Giersch, Christopher E.; Lambert, Matthew A.; Pinelli, Thomas E.

    2004-01-01

    NASA CONNECT is a research-, inquiry, and standards-based, integrated mathematics, science, and technology series of 30-minute instructional distance learning (television and web-based) programs for students in grades 6 8. Respondents who evaluated the programs in the series over the first five seasons (1998-99 through 2002-03) reported that (1) they used the programs in the series; (2) the goals and objectives for the series were met; (3) the programs were aligned with the national mathematics, science, and technology standards; (4) the program content was developmentally appropriate for the grade level; and (5) the programs in the series enhanced and enriched the teaching of mathematics, science, and technology.

  12. The Canadian Assessment of Physical Literacy: methods for children in grades 4 to 6 (8 to 12 years)

    OpenAIRE

    Longmuir, Patricia E; Boyer, Charles; Lloyd, Meghann; Yang, Yan; Boiarskaia, Elena; Zhu, Weimo; Tremblay, Mark S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Physical literacy is described as the motivation, confidence, physical competence, knowledge and understanding to value and engage in a physically active lifestyle. As such, it is expected that those who have greater physical literacy would be more likely to obtain the health benefits offered by habitual physical activity. A theoretical model and assessment battery, the Canadian Assessment of Physical Literacy (CAPL), for the assessment of childhood physical literacy had been propo...

  13. Clinical outcome 5 to 18 years after the Fontan operation performed on children younger than 5 years.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Robbers-Visser, D.; Kapusta, L.; Osch-Gevers, L. van; Strengers, J.L.; Boersma, E.; Rijke, Y.B. de; Boomsma, F.; Bogers, A.J.; Helbing, W.A.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study assessed clinical condition at midterm follow-up after total cavopulmonary connection for a functionally univentricular heart performed on children younger than 5 years. METHODS: Thirty-four Fontan patients (median age 10.4 years, range 6.8-20.7 years, 22 boys, median follow-up

  14. 43 CFR 6.8 - Foreign filing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Foreign filing. 6.8 Section 6.8 Public... Foreign filing. (a) By Government. (1) In every case where the employee has indicated pursuant to § 6.2(d... patent rights, the Government shall reserve an option to acquire assignment of all foreign...

  15. Tooth brushing skills for the children aged 3-11 years

    OpenAIRE

    Das U; Singhal P

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of this study was to evaluate tooth brushing management and ability of children in relation to age and gender. Materials and Methods: The study population consisted of 45 children, who attended Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry at V.S Dental College and Hospital Bangalore. Children were divided into three groups according to age: Group I: 3-5 years, Group II: 6-8 years, and Group III: 9-11 years. Each child selected his/her favorite toothbrush and...

  16. Disk degeneration in 14 year old children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports low back symptoms of 1,500 school children (14 years old) evaluated with a questionnaire and with a standardized clinical examination. Forty children who complained of recurrent and/or persistent low back pain and 40 matching symptomless controls were randomly chosen to undergo MR imaging of the lumbar spine. Premature disk degeneration was seen in 25.5% of asymptomatic children and in 40% of those with low back pain. The difference was statistically not significant. Disk degeneration is a surprisingly frequent MR finding in symptomless children. Premature disk degeneration may be the cause of low back pain in some children but is not always symptomatic in childhood

  17. Geometry task sheets : grades 6-8

    CERN Document Server

    Rosenberg, Mary

    2009-01-01

    For grades 6-8, our Common Core State Standards-based resource meets the geometry concepts addressed by the NCTM standards and encourages the students to learn and review the concepts in unique ways. Each task sheet is organized around a central problem taken from real-life experiences of the students.

  18. Stability and Change among High-Functioning Children with Pervasive Developmental Disorders: A 2-Year Outcome Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr, Elizabeth; Szatmari, Peter; Bryson, Susan; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie

    2003-01-01

    This study compared the 2-year outcomes of 68 children diagnosed with autism or Asperger syndrome at age 6-8 years in terms of symptoms from the Autism Diagnostic Interview. Significant differences were seen in the domains of social interaction, communication, and repetitive activities, with the Asperger group demonstrating fewer and/or less…

  19. Peripheral bone mineral density and different intensities of physical activity in children 6-8 years old: the Copenhagen School Child Intervention study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasselstrøm, H; Karlsson, K M; Hansen, S E;

    2007-01-01

    -stimulating physical activity, we evaluated different definitions of vigorous physical activity. The boys had 3.2% higher distal forearm bone mineral content (BMC, P < 0.001) and 4.5% higher distal forearm BMD (P < 0.001) than the girls. They also carried out 9.7% more daily physical activity and spent 14.6-19.0% more...... with intense physical activity above all the chosen cut-off points (all P < 0.05). The beta value for mean count . min(-1) physical activity was significantly lower than that for all the chosen cut-off points of vigorous activity both for calcaneal and distal forearm BMD. This study suggests that both...

  20. Student-Teacher Relationship Stability across Early School Years for Children with Intellectual Disability or Typical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blacher, Jan; Baker, Bruce L.; Eisenhower, Abbey S.

    2009-01-01

    Student-teacher relationships of 37 children with moderate to borderline intellectual disability and 61 with typical cognitive development were assessed from child ages 6-8 years. Student-teacher relationship quality was moderately stable for the typical development group, but less so for the intellectual disability group. At each assessment these…

  1. Developmental trends in speed accuracy trade-off in 6-10-year-old children performing rapid reciprocal and discrete aiming movements.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits-Engelsman, B.C.M.; Sugden, D.A.; Duysens, J.E.J.

    2006-01-01

    Cyclic tasks are performed better than discrete tasks in adults but it is unknown whether this advantage is present in children as well. Three age groups of participants (6, 8, and 10 years old) executed cyclic and discrete aiming movements to two differently sized target using a Fitts task to exami

  2. Similarity Predicts Liking in 3-Year-Old Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fawcett, Christine A.; Markson, Lori

    2010-01-01

    Two studies examined the influence of similarity on 3-year-old children's initial liking of their peers. Children were presented with pairs of childlike puppets who were either similar or dissimilar to them on a specified dimension and then were asked to choose one of the puppets to play with as a measure of liking. Children selected the puppet…

  3. Tooth brushing skills for the children aged 3-11 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Das U

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The objective of this study was to evaluate tooth brushing management and ability of children in relation to age and gender. Materials and Methods: The study population consisted of 45 children, who attended Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry at V.S Dental College and Hospital Bangalore. Children were divided into three groups according to age: Group I: 3-5 years, Group II: 6-8 years, and Group III: 9-11 years. Each child selected his/her favorite toothbrush and brushed his/her teeth under supervision of one instructor. The grip type during tooth brushing was recorded on a videotape and duration of tooth brushing also was noted. The data were analyzed in relation to the age and gender using the chi-square test. ANOVA was used to find if there is any significant difference between the mean brushing times in the different groups. Results: The results of statistical analysis showed that in all cases P> 0.05 for grip preferences and P < 0.001 between age groups 3-5 years and 9-11 years with respect to the mean brushing time. Conclusion: The required manual dexterity for tooth brushing was present in younger age groups.

  4. Infantile Amnesia across the Years: A 2-Year Follow-Up of Children's Earliest Memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Carole; Warren, Kelly L.; Short, Megan M.

    2011-01-01

    Although infantile amnesia has been investigated for many years in adults, only recently has it been investigated in children. This study was a 2-year follow-up and extension of an earlier study. Children (4-13 years old) were asked initially and 2 years later for their earliest 3 memories. At follow-up, their age at the time of these memories…

  5. Basic Facts about Low-Income Children: Children 12 through 17 Years, 2013. Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yang; Ekono, Mercedes; Skinner, Curtis

    2015-01-01

    Children under 18 years represent 23 percent of the population, but they comprise 33 percent of all people in poverty. Among all children, 44 percent live in low-income families and approximately one in every five (22 percent) live in poor families. Among our oldest children--adolescents age 12 through 17 years--41 percent live in low-income…

  6. Basic Facts about Low-Income Children: Children 6 through 11 Years, 2013. Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yang; Ekono, Mercedes; Skinner, Curtis

    2015-01-01

    Children under 18 years represent 23 percent of the population, but they comprise 33 percent of all people in poverty. Among all children, 44 percent live in low-income families and approximately one in every five (22 percent) live in poor families. Similarly, among children in middle childhood (age 6 through 11 years), 45 percent live in…

  7. Basic Facts about Low-Income Children: Children under 6 Years, 2013. Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yang; Ekono, Mercedes; Skinner, Curtis

    2015-01-01

    Children under 18 years represent 23 percent of the population, but they comprise 33 percent of all people in poverty. Among all children, 44 percent live in low-income families and approximately one in every five (22 percent) live in poor families. Young children under age 6 years appear to be particularly vulnerable, with 48 percent living in…

  8. Basic Facts about Low-Income Children: Children under 3 Years, 2013. Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yang; Ekono, Mercedes; Skinner, Curtis

    2015-01-01

    Children under 18 years represent 23 percent of the population, but they comprise 33 percent of all people in poverty. Among all children, 44 percent live in low-income families and approximately one in every five (22 percent) live in poor families. Our very youngest children--infants and toddlers under age 3 years--appear to be particularly…

  9. Preparation of 2,4,6,8,10,12-hexanitro-2,4,6,8,10,12-hexaazaisowurtzitane from 2,6,8,12-tetraacetyl 2,4,6,8,12-hexaazaisowurtzitane using Various Nitrating Agents (Short Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Mokhtari

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The 2,4,6,8,10,12-hexanitro-2,4,6,8,10,12-hexaazaisowurtzitane (HNIW, a high energy material with cage structure, is considered as the most powerful explosive today. It is usually prepared via nitration with concentrated nitric and sulphuric acid, but this technique pollutes the environment. In this study, HNIW was synthesised by nitration of 2,6,8,12-tetraacetyl 2,4,6,8,12-hexaazaisowurtzitane (TAIW various nitrating agents. Using this nitrating agent, the reaction eliminated use of concentrated sulphuric acid and was also environmental- friendly. Meanwhile, the effects of reaction temperature, time, and other factors on yield were studied. The structure of the compound was characterised by elemental analysis, Infrared, 1HNMR and MS.Defence Science Journal, 2011, 61(2, pp.171-173, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.61.606

  10. Subdural effusions in children under two years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigated 161 children under 24 months of age by CT of the skull and reviewed the anamnestic and clinical history. 87 children showed subdural effusions, and 74 did not. There were 33 patients with other pathological findings in CT, and 41 had normal scans. Age and sex distribution as well as localization of the subdural effusions were consistent with the literature. The 87 children with subdural effusions represented 1,7% in a sample of about 5.000 CT scans. CT was the most reliable method for diagnosis of subdural effusions, compared to other techniques. There was a preponderance of small subdural effusions from 1 to 7 mm thickness (51%). Other CT abnormalities accompanying subdural effusions were found. Most frequently the interhemispheric sulcus was dilated and an internal hydrocephalus was present. Also in our group there were 7 anamnestical and 6 clinical symptoms highly diagnostic of subdural effusions. (orig.)

  11. Parents' Perspectives: Children's Use of Technology in the Early Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formby, Susie

    2014-01-01

    Technology is playing an increasingly large role in children's reading, writing and daily lives. In the last year use of tablet computers by five to 15-year-olds has increased three-fold (14% to 42%) and 28% of three to four-year-olds use a tablet computer. However, little attention has been paid to the impact of new technologies on children's…

  12. Risk factors for obesity in 6 to 12-year-old children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy Japutra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background The causes of obesity in children are multifactorial, including genetics, physiology, metabolism, psychology, socioeconomic status, lifestyle, and culture. Objective To assess for relationships between obesity in 6 to 12-year-old children and maternal nutritional status, maternal education, eating breakfast, eating fast food, physical activity, TV watching, and playing video games. Methods This case-control study included students of Sejahtera Public School aged 6 to 12 years. Questionnaires were distributed to their parents for data on maternal education, eating breakfast, eating fast food, physical activity, TV watching and playing video games. Maternal nutritional status was assessed by one of the researchers. Univariate analysis with Chi–square test was used to assess every risk factor. Those with a P value of <0.25 were subjected to multivariate analysis, performed using multiple logistic regression analysis. Results From June to July 2013, 60 obese children and 60 well-nourished children, as a control group, were enrolled in the study. Obese mothers tended to have obese children [odds ratio/OR 252.48; 95%CI 33.4 to 1908.4]. Children who ate fast food 6–8 times/week, had low physical activity, and watched TV more than 8 hours/week had significantly higher risk for obesity [OR 12.94, 95%CI 1.7 to 100.7; and OR 266.94, 95% CI 7.8 to 9137.7; OR 21.44, 95%CI 2.68 to 171.61; respectively]. Maternal education, eating breakfast, and playing video games were not significant risk factors for childhood obesity. Conclusion Maternal obesity, eating fast food 6-8 times per week, low physical activity and watching TV more than 8 hours/week are risk factors for childhood obesity. [Paediatr Indones. 2015;55:35-9.].

  13. Rituals among children aged from two to three years

    OpenAIRE

    Terčelj, Mateja

    2013-01-01

    In this diploma thesis, titled 'Rituals Among Children Aged From Two to Three Years', I have tried to describe the concept of dance, its beginnings and evolution, while the thesis mostly revolves around dance education of pre-school children. I have presented the characteristics of dance education, motive and dancing growth of a pre-school child, the relaxing function of movement, consideration of educational principles, methods of dance education, basic dance education for children up to age...

  14. Fecal Calprotectin in Healthy Children Aged 1-4 Years

    OpenAIRE

    Qingling Zhu; Feng Li; Junli Wang; Lixiao Shen; Xiaoyang Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Objective Calprotectin has been well emulated recently in adults as well as in children. The aim of this study was to assess fecal calprotectin concentrations in healthy children aged from 1 to 4 years. Methods Volunteers were enlisted from 3 nurseries. A brief questionnaire was used to ensure these children meet the inclusion criteria, and some clinical and sociodemographic factors were collected. Anthro software (version 3.1) was used to calculated Length-for-age Z-scores (LAZ), weight-for-...

  15. Clinical effects in children irradiated prenatally: 11 year survey results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 11 years-long survey results indicated the amount of children increase with disconcordant development signs, thyroid structure and function disorders both with that of somatic status. Majority of blood and immune system quality and quantity parameters deviations been present during the ''acute iodine period'' among children exposed to acute irradiation gradually reached the control level. The hemopoetic and immunocompetent system function substantial deviations are continued being registered among children born in zone of radionuclide contamination. (author)

  16. Family, children and teachers’ expectations about the first year of the nine-year Elementary School

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The Pedagogical Master Plan, for the nine-year Elementary School, should consider the socio-cultural and educational conditions of the children in the community as a guide to improve the quality of education. According to MEC guidelines (BRAZIL, 2004), one should not restrict the development of the six year old children exclusively to learning how to read. We know that family involvement with the school life of their children, maintaining constant contact with teachers and satisfied with the ...

  17. Hippocampal sclerosis in children younger than 2 years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadom, Nadja [Children' s National Medical Center, Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Radiology, Washington, DC (United States); Tsuchida, Tammy; Gaillard, William D. [Children' s National Medical Center, Department of Neurology, Washington, DC (United States)

    2011-10-15

    Hippocampal sclerosis (HS) is rarely considered as a diagnosis in children younger than 2 years. To describe imaging features in conjunction with clinical information in patients with hippocampal sclerosis who are younger than 2 years. We retrospectively reviewed MR brain imaging and clinical information in five children in whom the diagnosis of HS was made both clinically and by MRI prior to 2 years of age. Imaging features establishing the diagnosis of hippocampal sclerosis were bright T2 signal and volume loss, while the internal architecture of the hippocampal formation was preserved in almost all children. Clinically, all children had an infectious trigger. It is necessary for radiologists to consider HS in children with certain clinical features to plan an MRI protocol that is appropriate for detection of hippocampal pathology. (orig.)

  18. Two-Year-Old Children Interpret Abstract, Purely Geometric Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler-Rhoades, Nathan; Carey, Susan C.; Spelke, Elizabeth S.

    2013-01-01

    In two experiments, 2.5-year-old children spontaneously used geometric information from 2D maps to locate objects in a 3D surface layout, without instruction or feedback. Children related maps to their corresponding layouts even though the maps differed from the layouts in size, mobility, orientation, dimensionality, and perspective, and even when…

  19. Physical activity in Dublin children aged 7–9 years

    OpenAIRE

    Hussey, J; Gormley, J; Bell, C

    2001-01-01

    Objectives—To investigate the amount of regular activity and time spent in sedentary occupations in children aged 7–9 years. Sex differences in levels of activity and time and facilities for physical education at school were also examined.

  20. Persistent renal cortical scintigram defects in children 2 years after urinary tract infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Renal cortical scintigraphic studies challenge the role of vesicoureteric reflux in renal scar development, emphasizing instead the part played by acute pyelonephritis. Objective: To determine the prevalence of renal cortical defects in a child cohort 2 years after the child's first diagnosed urinary tract infection and to analyze the relationship of these defects with acute illness variables, primary vesicoureteric reflux and recurrent infections. Materials and methods: In a prospective cohort study, 193 children younger than 5 years with their first proven urinary tract infection underwent renal sonography, voiding cystourethrogram, and renal cortical scintigraphy within 15 days of diagnosis. Two years later, 150 of the 193 children, or 77.7%, had a further renal cortical scintigram, including 75, or 86.2%, of the 87 children who had acute scintigraphic defects. The relationship of cortical defects to age, gender, pre-treatment symptom duration, hospitalization, presence and grade of vesicoureteric reflux, and recurrent urinary tract infections was evaluated. Results: Overall, 20 of the 150 (13.3%; 95% confidence interval (CI) 8.3, 19.8) children had persistent defects 2 years after infection. This included 20 of 75 (26.7%; 95% CI 17.1, 38.1) with initially abnormal scintigrams. No new defects were detected. Although acute defects were more common in the young, those with persistent defects were older (median ages 16.4 vs. 6.8 months, P=0.004) than those with transient abnormalities. After adjustment for age, persistent defects were no longer associated with gender and were not predicted by acute illness variables, primary vesicoureteric reflux or recurrent infections. (orig.)

  1. Tracheobronchial foreign body in children - 10 years experience

    OpenAIRE

    Balica, NC; Poenaru, M; Marin, AH; Iovanescu, G; Stefanescu, HE; Boia, ER; Doros, C

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Presentation of ENT Department - Timisoara 10 years experience of in the diagnosis and treatment of tracheobronchial foreign body in children. We studied 93 children, aged between 10 months and 8 years.Methods: The diagnosis of airways penetrating syndrome was established on history, clinical examination, cardiopulmonary X-ray, CT (virtual bronchoscopy) and rigid videotracheobronhoscopy. Foreign body removal was performed using pediatric Karl-Storz tracheobronhoscopy kit, unde...

  2. Data analysis & probability drill sheets : grades 6-8

    CERN Document Server

    Forest, Chris

    2011-01-01

    For grades 6-8, our Common Core State Standards-based resource meets the data analysis & probability concepts addressed by the NCTM standards and encourages your students to review the concepts in unique ways. Each drill sheet contains warm-up and timed drill activities for the student to practice data analysis & probability concepts.

  3. Missing: 100,000 Children a Year

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gary; Turbak; 周晓娟

    2002-01-01

    在决定刊发林小丫的来稿“Finding Missing Children,With Technology’sHelp”之后。编辑部决定在本栏目刊登Missing:100,000 Children a Year一文,该文选自《大学英语阅读文选》(1994年中国国际广播出版社出版)。两文有一定的时间差,但主题完全相同:美国的儿童失踪问题。两文互补,读者可知,儿童失踪问题,在美国已是“冰冻三尺”!这是一个滴血淌泪的主题。认识美国,对此主题不能不闻不问。文中的“原译”系该书原有之译,而“改译”则是周晓娟副教授之作。 我们所以安排“两译”,主要是为了让读者作“比读”,在比读中,学习翻译,提高译技。因为本栏目的目的之一就是设立一个学习翻译,切磋译技的舞台。 本刊今后将专门开设如此“比读”的专栏,更加贴近读者的学习需求,更加符合翻译学习的客观规律,以期在全国林立的英语学习刊物中独树一帜。】

  4. Fecal Calprotectin in Healthy Children Aged 1-4 Years.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingling Zhu

    Full Text Available Calprotectin has been well emulated recently in adults as well as in children. The aim of this study was to assess fecal calprotectin concentrations in healthy children aged from 1 to 4 years.Volunteers were enlisted from 3 nurseries. A brief questionnaire was used to ensure these children meet the inclusion criteria, and some clinical and sociodemographic factors were collected. Anthro software (version 3.1 was used to calculated Length-for-age Z-scores (LAZ, weight-for-age Z-scores (WAZ, and weight-for-length Z-scores (WLZ respectively. Fecal calprotectin was detected by a commercially available ELISA.In total 274 children were recruited, with age ranging from 1 to 4 years old. The median FC concentration was 83.19 μg/g [range 4.58 to 702.50 μg/g, interquartile range (IQR 14.69-419.45 μg/g] or 1.92 log10 μg/g (range 0.66 log10 to 2.85 log10 μg/g, IQR 1.17 log10-2.62 log10 μg/g. All of the children were divided into three groups, 1-2 years (12-24 months, 2-3 years (24-36 months, 3-4 years (36-48 months, with median FC concentrations 96.14 μg/g (1.98 log10 μg/g, 81.48 μg/g (1.91 log10 μg/g, 65.36 μg/g (1.82 log10 μg/g, respectively. There was similar FC level between boys and girls. FC concentrations showed a downward trend by the growing age groups. A statistic difference was found in FC concentrations among groups 1-2 years, 2-3 years and 3-4 years (P = 0.016. In inter-groups comparison, a significant difference was found between children aged 1-2 years and children aged 3-4 years (P = 0.007. A negative correlation trend was found between age and FC concentration (Spearman's rho = -0.167, P = 0.005 in all the participants. A simple correlation was performed among WLZ, WAZ, birth weight, or birth length with FC, and there was no correlation being observed.Children aged from 1 to 4 years old have lower FC concentrations compared with healthy infants (<1years, and higher FC concentrations when comparing with children older than 4

  5. AMBULATORY CARE - SENSITIVE CONDITIONS IN CHILDREN UNDER FIVE YEARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Aparecida Araújo Figueiredo

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective:analyzethe extent to which the incidence rate of primary care sensitivehospitalizations in children under five years is influenced by the percentage of coverage of theprimary care.Methods:This was a cross-sectional ecological study that combines coverage ofprimary careand theambulatorycare-sensitiveconditionsin 2000 and 2010. We used data from theHospital Information System (HIS and the Information System of Primary Care (SIAB.Results:The data revealed that the increased coverage providedprimary carereductionrateofhospitalization diseases studied. In 2000 the reduction was greater for gastroenteritis (51% inchildren under 01 years and 30% in children 01-04 years in 2010 for respiratory diseases (51% inchildren under 01years and 33% in children aged 01-04 years.Conclusion:we found an association between the coverage ofprimary careand admission rates, however seem to affect othervariables, suggesting the need for further studies.

  6. Fifty Years After, Hidden Children Speak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Léa Marcou

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available “For fifty years, I have not spoken of my childhood years in France during the second world war. A hidden child, I lived under a false name amongst unknown people, being careful – as I had been taught – not to reveal, by a gesture or by a word, that I was Jewish. I knew I was in danger, still not understanding why and I was constantly afraid. I didn't know whether I would see again one day my parents from whom I had been suddenly taken away. Nonetheless what were my pains compared to those of...

  7. 36 CFR 6.8 - National Park Service solid waste responsibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... will ensure full compliance with regulations at 40 CFR part 244, Solid Waste Management Guidelines For..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL SITES IN UNITS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 6.8 National Park Service solid waste responsibilities. (a) Beginning one year after January 23, 1995,...

  8. Magnesium metabolism in 4-year-old to 8-year-old children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnesium (Mg) is a key factor in bone health, but few studies have evaluated Mg intake or absorption and their relationship with bone mineral content (BMC) or bone mineral density (BMD) in children. We measured Mg intake, absorption, and urinary excretion in a group of children 4 to 8 years of age....

  9. Geometry task & drill sheets : grades 6-8

    CERN Document Server

    Rosenberg, Mary

    2011-01-01

    For grades 6-8, our Common Core State Standards-based combined resource meets the geometry concepts addressed by the NCTM standards and encourages the students to review the concepts in unique ways. The task sheets introduce the mathematical concepts to the students around a central problem taken from real-life experiences, while the drill sheets provide warm-up and timed practice questions for the students to strengthen their procedural proficiency skills.

  10. Determination and Evaluation of Flexibility at 7 Years Old Children

    OpenAIRE

    Mitevski, Orce; Popeska, Biljana; Mitevska Petruseva, Katerina

    2014-01-01

    Development, evaluation and estimation of motor abilities are one of the basic issues of PE teaching process and important component in determination of the efficiency of PE curricula. Flexibility as one of the determinants of human motor space and is highly related with motor effectiveness in children at early school age. In this paper, we shortly elaborated the theoretic and practical aspects of manifestation, evaluation and assessment of flexibility in 7 years old children and possibiliti...

  11. Children's Communication Checklist (CCC) scores in 11-year-old children with communication impairments

    OpenAIRE

    Botting, N.

    2004-01-01

    Background: The pragmatic skills of children with communication disorders and their assessment are currently an issue for speech and language therapy and educational placement. Aims: To explore whether different subgroups of children with communication disorders score differently on the Children’s Communication Checklist (CCC; Bishop, 1998) and how they compare to published normative data. Methods and procedures: A sample of 161 eleven year old children with a history of communication d...

  12. Psychiatric disorders in Danish children aged 5-7 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elberling, Hanne; Linneberg, Allan; Ulrikka Rask, Charlotte;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Knowledge about the presentation of psychopathology in preschool age and associated risk factors is fundamental to preventive intervention before schooling. AIMS: To investigate the full spectrum of psychiatric diagnoses in general population children at the period of transition from...... preschool to school. METHODS: A sample of 1585 children from the Copenhagen Child Cohort, CCC2000 aged 5-7 years was assessed using the Development and Well-Being Assessment (DAWBA) with diagnostic classification by experienced clinicians. Perinatal, sociodemographic and socio-economic data was obtained...... of opportunity" for prevention. In the earliest postnatal years, prevention should target families at socio-economic risk; and in the years before schooling, intervention should focus on children with symptoms of PDD, HD, and behavioural disorders....

  13. Basic Facts about Low-Income Children: Children under 18 Years, 2013. Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yang; Ekono, Mercedes; Skinner, Curtis

    2015-01-01

    Children under 18 years represent 23 percent of the population, but they comprise 33 percent of all people in poverty. Among all children, 44 percent live in low-income families and approximately one in every five (22 percent) live in poor families. Being a child in a low-income or poor family does not happen by chance. Parental education and…

  14. Assessment of caries prevalence among children below 5 years old

    OpenAIRE

    Prabhu, Poornima; Rajajee, K. T. S. S.; Sudheer, K. A.; Jesudass, G.

    2014-01-01

    Context: In the current scenario of developing countries, dental caries has been a long-standing challenge in the oral health issue and still on the rise. Aim: The aim of the following study is to estimate the caries prevalence in the primary dentition among children below 5 years of age. Meterials and Methods: Study population included both boys and girls below 5 years old attending KGF Dental College and Hospital, Karnataka. A simple random sampling method was used. A total of 672 children ...

  15. Prediction of compliance with MRI procedures among children of ages 3 years to 12 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A number of children are unable to comply with an MRI procedure and require general anesthetic. However, we lack information about which factors are associated with MRI compliance in young children. To determine the strongest predictors of MRI compliance, focusing on variables that can be easily rated by patients' parents. A sample of 205 children ages 3-11 years (mean age 6.6 years) who were at risk of non-compliance were recruited from a children's hospital. Their parents completed a behavior assessment scale for children as well as a questionnaire that assessed their expectations of compliance and perception of their child's typical medical compliance. The children subsequently completed a mock MRI with an educational play therapist and a clinical MRI, with the quality of the scan scored by the MRI technologist. Overall, 88.3% of children complied with the clinical scan and achieved diagnostic images, with age unrelated to compliance in this well-prepared patient group. The strongest predictors of MRI compliance were parental expectations and ratings of how well the child typically copes with medical procedures. Non-compliance was related to child attention problems and to poor adaptability among children. A total of 64 preschool-age children (91.4%) and 110 school-age children (95.7%) were correctly classified as compliant or non-compliant based on these predictor variables. A child's temperament, medical experiences and parental expectations provide important information in predicting which children successfully comply with an MRI procedure and which require general anesthesia. Further study is needed to explore the utility of these variables in predicting compliance at sites that do not have access to an MRI simulator. (orig.)

  16. Prediction of compliance with MRI procedures among children of ages 3 years to 12 years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cahoon, Glenn D. [The Royal Children' s Hospital Melbourne, Medical Imaging Department, Parkville (Australia); Davison, Tanya E. [Monash University, Melbourne (Australia)

    2014-10-15

    A number of children are unable to comply with an MRI procedure and require general anesthetic. However, we lack information about which factors are associated with MRI compliance in young children. To determine the strongest predictors of MRI compliance, focusing on variables that can be easily rated by patients' parents. A sample of 205 children ages 3-11 years (mean age 6.6 years) who were at risk of non-compliance were recruited from a children's hospital. Their parents completed a behavior assessment scale for children as well as a questionnaire that assessed their expectations of compliance and perception of their child's typical medical compliance. The children subsequently completed a mock MRI with an educational play therapist and a clinical MRI, with the quality of the scan scored by the MRI technologist. Overall, 88.3% of children complied with the clinical scan and achieved diagnostic images, with age unrelated to compliance in this well-prepared patient group. The strongest predictors of MRI compliance were parental expectations and ratings of how well the child typically copes with medical procedures. Non-compliance was related to child attention problems and to poor adaptability among children. A total of 64 preschool-age children (91.4%) and 110 school-age children (95.7%) were correctly classified as compliant or non-compliant based on these predictor variables. A child's temperament, medical experiences and parental expectations provide important information in predicting which children successfully comply with an MRI procedure and which require general anesthesia. Further study is needed to explore the utility of these variables in predicting compliance at sites that do not have access to an MRI simulator. (orig.)

  17. Symbolic number: The integration of magnitude and spatial representations in children aged 6 to 8 years.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SoniaWhite

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The process of learning symbolic Arabic digits in early childhood requires that magnitude and spatial information integrates with the concept of symbolic digits. Previous research has separately investigated the development of automatic access to magnitude and spatial information from symbolic digits. However, developmental trajectories of symbolic number knowledge cannot be fully understood when considering components in isolation. In view of this, we have synthesized the existing lines of research and tested the use of both magnitude and spatial information with the same sample of British children in Years 1, 2 and 3 (6-8 years of age. The physical judgment task of the numerical Stroop paradigm (NSP demonstrated that automatic access to magnitude was present from Year 1 and the distance effect signaled that a refined processing of numerical information had developed. Additionally, a parity judgment task showed that the onset of the Spatial-Numerical Association of Response Codes (SNARC effect occurs in Year 2. These findings uncover the developmental timeline of how magnitude and spatial representations integrate with symbolic number knowledge during early learning of Arabic digits and resolve inconsistencies between previous developmental and experimental research lines.

  18. Level of development of the physical components of social activity schoolchildren 10-11 years children summer camp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chovgan R.Ya.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to determine the level of physical health of schoolchildren. Material : the study involved 146 children aged 10-11 years. Results : the questions of children's health issues such: the state of development of physical qualities, cardiovascular and respiratory systems, the ratio of children to their own health, interest in physical education means in terms of the Camp. The characteristic of the state of physical health and adaptive capacity of the organism respondents. Found that 50.7 % of children had low, 42.5% - the average, 6.8% - a high level of physical activity. Daily physical fitness - 11.0 % 2-3 times a week - 26.0 % once a week, 18.5%, and sometimes - 44.5%. The health camp prefer morning gymnastics 89.0 % of students ; hiking 67.1 % physical training on interest - 63.7%. Conclusions : the identified leading and lagging physical qualities in children studied age group. Dominant over the other physical properties were agility and strength of the abdominal muscles. By lagging physical qualities include strength of arm and leg flexibility. A significant amount of children surveyed are not able to fulfill the standards of the State tests of Ukraine for its age-sex groups on a positive assessment.

  19. High prevalence of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia among Mozambican children <5 years of age admitted to hospital with clinical severe pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanaspa, M; O'Callaghan-Gordo, C; Machevo, S; Madrid, L; Nhampossa, T; Acácio, S; de la Horra, C; Friaza, V; Campano, E; Alonso, P L; Calderón, E J; Roca, A; Bassat, Q

    2015-11-01

    We aimed to describe Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP) prevalence and features in children from sub-Saharan Africa and to investigate PCP-associated risk factors. During 2006-2007 we used molecular methods to test children younger than 5 years old admitted with severe pneumonia to a hospital in southern Mozambique for Pneumocystis infection. We recruited 834 children. PCP prevalence was 6.8% and HIV prevalence was 25.7%. The in-hospital and delayed mortality were significantly higher among children with PCP (20.8% vs. 10.2%, p 0.021, and 11.5% vs. 3.6%, p 0.044, respectively). Clinical features were mostly overlapping between the two groups. Independent risk factors for PCP were age less than a year (odds ratio (OR) 6.34, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.86-21.65), HIV infection (OR 2.99, 95% CI 1.16-7.70), grunting (OR 2.64, 95% CI 1.04-6.73) and digital clubbing (OR 10.75, 95% CI 1.21-95.56). PCP is a common and life-threatening cause of severe pneumonia in Mozambican children. Mother-to-child HIV transmission prevention should be strengthened. Better diagnostic tools are needed. PMID:26231980

  20. Liver transplantation in Greek children: 15 years experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios Takoudas

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Liver transplantation (LT is the only available live-saving procedure for children with irreversible liver failure. This paper reports our experience from the follow-up of 16 Greek children with end-stage liver failure who underwent a LT. Over a period of 15 years, 16 pediatric liver recipients received follow up after being subjected to OLT (orthotopic liver transplantation due to end-stage liver failure. Nine children initially presented with extrahepatic biliary atresia, 2 with acute liver failure after toxic mushroom ingestion, 2 with intrahepatic cholestasis, 2 with metabolic diseases and one with hepatoblastoma. Ten children received a liver transplant in the Organ Transplantation Unit of Aristotle University of Thessaloniki and the rest in other transplant centers. Three transplants came from a living-related donor and 13 from a deceased donor. Six children underwent immunosuppressive treatment with cyclo­sporine, mycophenolate mofetil and corticosteroids, and 7 with tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil and corticosteroids. Three out of 16 children died within the first month after the transplantation due to post-transplant complications. Three children presented with acute rejection and one with chronic organ rejection which was successfully managed. Five children presented with cytomegalovirus infection, 5 with Epstein-Barr virus, 2 with HSV1,2, 2 with ParvoB19 virus, 2 with varicella-zoster virus and one with C. Albicans infection. One child presented with upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage and one with small biliary paucity. A satisfying outcome was achieved in most cases, with good graft function, except for the patient with small biliary paucity who required re-transplantation. The long-term clinical course of liver transplanted children is good under the condition that they are attended in specialized centers.

  1. Social Effectiveness Therapy for Children: Five Years Later

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beidel, Deborah C.; Turner, Samuel M.; Young, Brennan J.

    2006-01-01

    Social Effectiveness Therapy for Children (SET-C) is a comprehensive behavioral treatment combining social skills training, peer generalization experiences, and individualized in vivo exposure for the treatment of social phobia in youth. SET-C results in positive treatment outcome and its effects are maintained at least 3 years later. In this…

  2. 1,3,6,8-Tetraethynylpyrene and 1,3,6,8-tetrakis (trimethylsilylethynyl) pyrene: Photophysical properties in homogeneous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The photophysical properties of two new tetra substituted derivatives of pyrene: 1,3,6,8-tetraethynylpyrene (TEP) and 1,3,6,8-tetrakis(trimethylsilylethynyl)pyrene (TEP-TMS) have been studied. Studies were done with respect to mirror image symmetry in the absorption and emission spectra and permissive or forbidden nature of S0-S1 transition, solvent sensitivity of the first and third vibronic bands and fluorescence anisotropy. Both the derivatives exhibited a strongly allowed S0-S1 transition, high fluorescence quantum yield, shorter fluorescence lifetime compared to pyrene and invariance of the vibronic band intensity ratio to solvent polarity. The behavior of the two pyrene derivatives validates the hypothesis 'solvent polarity mediates vibronic coupling and therefore the emission band intensities, for forbidden S0-S1 transitions'. The trimethylsilyl derivative (TEP-TMS) was characterized by a strong fluorescence in solid state. The tetraethynyl derivative (TEP) showed high fluorescence anisotropy comparable to the well-known anisotropy probe DPH in glycerol at 0 deg. C. The fluorescence intensities of TEP and TEP-TMS did not show any significant change in the temperature ranger 0-40 deg. C for a low viscous solvent like ethanol and in the range 0-60 deg. C in glycerol. Unlike pyrene, no excimer emission was observed even up to 10-3 M for TEP and TEP-TMS

  3. Assessing Executive Function components in 9 years old children

    OpenAIRE

    Sandra Reyes; Juan Pablo Barreyro; Irene Injoque-Ricle

    2014-01-01

    Executive Function (EF) is a multidimensional construct. It includes a set of abilities that allows to execute actions with a purpose, aimed to a goal, in an efficient way. The objective of this work is to explore some of the cognitive abilities that constitute a common factor for EF in 9 years-old children. The chosen instruments: Batería de Evaluación Neuropsicológica de la Función Ejecutiva en niños (ENFEN) (Battery of Neuropsychological Assessment for Executive Function in Children), alon...

  4. Assessment of dental caries predictors in 6-year-old school children - results from 5-year retrospective cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Masood Mohd; Yusof Norashikin; Hassan Mohamed Ibrahim; Jaafar Nasruddin

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background This was a retrospective cohort study undertaken to assess the rate and pattern of dental caries development in 6-year-old school children followed-up for a period of 5 years, and to identify baseline risk factors that were associated with 5 years caries experience in Malaysian children. Methods This 5-years retrospective cohort study comprised primary school children initially aged 6 years in 2004. Caries experience of each child was recorded annually using World Health O...

  5. An Investigation of Attitudes of 6-8th Graders Towards Universal Values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ender DURUALP

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to describe attitudes of 6-8th graders towards universal values and examine the impact of their age, gender, grade level, academic performance, parental level of education, and family income on their attitudes towards universal values. The population consisted of 6-8th graders being taught in primary schools in Çankırı, Turkey. The sample consisted of 361 students (203 girls, 158 boys randomly selected from Çankırı İsmet İnönü Elementary School located in Çankırı which attracts the highest number of students from each level of socioeconomic status. The sociodemographic data of children and their parents were collected through a “General Information Form”, and the data related to attitudes towards universal values were obtained by the “Attitude Towards Universal Values Scale” developed by Demir and Koç (2009. Data were analyzed through Kolmogorov-Smirnov, Mann-Whitney U, Kruskal-Wallis H tests, and Cronbach Alpha (α reliability coefficient. Results showed that girls (p>0.05, 8th graders, academically-talented children, those whose parents are university graduates, and those with a family income of minimum wage or more have more positive attitudes towards universal values (p<0.05.

  6. Family, children and teachers’ expectations about the first year of the nine-year Elementary School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Silva Ferreira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Pedagogical Master Plan, for the nine-year Elementary School, should consider the socio-cultural and educational conditions of the children in the community as a guide to improve the quality of education. According to MEC guidelines (BRAZIL, 2004, one should not restrict the development of the six year old children exclusively to learning how to read. We know that family involvement with the school life of their children, maintaining constant contact with teachers and satisfied with the educational work, brings significant effects on student’s learning (SCHEERENS; BOSKER, 1977; SCHEERENS , 2000. The current policy of MEC shows interest in mobilizing the involvement of the family and the school as a strategy for building an education of quality. This article discusses the results of a research that investigated the expectations of the involved actors (parents or guardians, children and teachers regarding the anticipation of the enrollment age into Elementary School and the differences and similarities of these actors expectations. Parents and children were interviewed in their homes, in order to observe the literacy environment, and the first year teachers. What we observed in most homes is that the literate environment does not go beyond those that are part of everyday life of all households. The families hope that the school promotes a better and decent future for their children, countering the “myth of parental omission” (LAIHRE, 2004, p. 334. They try to assist their children with their homework and they demonstrate difficulties with their academic tasks, including two mothers who said they were illiterate.

  7. Skin test reactivity among Danish children measured 15 years apart

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, SF; Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli; Porsbjerg, C;

    2006-01-01

    test (SPT) positivity in Danish children has changed from 1986 to 2001. METHODS: Serial cross-sectional studies of two different random population samples of children aged 7 to 17 years of age, living in urban Copenhagen, Denmark, were performed 15 years apart. The first cohort was investigated in 1986...... (n = 527) and the second in 2001 (n = 480). Skin test reactivity to nine common aeroallergens was measured at both occasions. RESULTS: The prevalence of positive SPT to at least one allergen decreased from 24.1% in 1986 to 18.9% in 2001, (p = 0.05). We found a declining prevalence of sensitization...... to most allergens tested, statistically significant; however, only for mugwort and Alternaria iridis. Among subjects, who were sensitized to only one allergen, we found significantly fewer individuals with reactions to D. pteronyssinus and mugwort. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of atopic sensitization...

  8. Sudden cardiac death in children (1-18 years)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkel, Bo Gregers; Risgaard, Bjarke; Sadjadieh, Golnaz;

    2014-01-01

    AIMS: Hitherto, sudden cardiac death in children (SCDc)-defined as sudden cardiac death (SCD) in the 1-18 years old-has been incompletely described in the general population. Knowledge on incidence rates, causes of death and symptoms prior to death is sparse and has been affected by reporting and...... referral bias. METHODS AND RESULTS: In a nationwide setting all deaths in children aged 1-18 years in Denmark in 2000-06 were included. To chart causes of death and incidence rates, death certificates and autopsy reports were collected and read. By additional use of the extensive healthcare registries in...... Denmark, we were also able to investigate prior disease and symptoms. During the 7-year study period there was an average of 1.11 million persons aged 1-18 years. There were a total of 1504 deaths (214 deaths per year) from 7.78 million person-years. A total of 114 (7.5%) were sudden and unexpected. A...

  9. The National Children's Study: a 21-year prospective study of 100,000 American children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landrigan, Philip J; Trasande, Leonardo; Thorpe, Lorna E; Gwynn, Charon; Lioy, Paul J; D'Alton, Mary E; Lipkind, Heather S; Swanson, James; Wadhwa, Pathik D; Clark, Edward B; Rauh, Virginia A; Perera, Frederica P; Susser, Ezra

    2006-11-01

    Prospective, multiyear epidemiologic studies have proven to be highly effective in discovering preventable risk factors for chronic disease. Investigations such as the Framingham Heart Study have produced blueprints for disease prevention and saved millions of lives and billions of dollars. To discover preventable environmental risk factors for disease in children, the US Congress directed the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, through the Children's Health Act of 2000, to conduct the National Children's Study. The National Children's Study is hypothesis-driven and will seek information on environmental risks and individual susceptibility factors for asthma, birth defects, dyslexia, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, autism, schizophrenia, and obesity, as well as for adverse birth outcomes. It will be conducted in a nationally representative, prospective cohort of 100,000 US-born children. Children will be followed from conception to 21 years of age. Environmental exposures (chemical, physical, biological, and psychosocial) will be assessed repeatedly during pregnancy and throughout childhood in children's homes, schools, and communities. Chemical assays will be performed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and banks of biological and environmental samples will be established for future analyses. Genetic material will be collected on each mother and child and banked to permit study of gene-environment interactions. Recruitment is scheduled to begin in 2007 at 7 Vanguard Sites and will extend to 105 sites across the United States. The National Children's Study will generate multiple satellite studies that explore methodologic issues, etiologic questions, and potential interventions. It will provide training for the next generation of researchers and practitioners in environmental pediatrics and will link to planned and ongoing prospective birth cohort studies in other nations. Data from the National Children's Study will

  10. Development of Emotion Word Comprehension in Chinese Children from 2 to 13 Years Old: Relationships with Valence and Empathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanwei Li

    Full Text Available Children's emotion word comprehension (EWC has constantly received a great deal of attention in developmental science. However, since previous reports focused on only English emotion vocabulary, researchers thus far remained unclear as to the developmental trajectories of EWC (to Chinese emotion words in Chinese children, let alone the cross-cultural difference of EWC in different languages (i.e., English V.S. Chinese. Furthermore, the influence of valence on EWC, as well as the interaction mechanism between EWC and empathy, has not been fully investigated. Finding answers to these research gaps has become the main motivation of the current study. For this purpose, a Chinese emotion vocabulary was first constructed to estimate EWC of Chinese children (ages 2-13 years old. Then, the valence of each emotion word was evaluated using the standard 9-point scale approach. After that, the Chinese children's EWC and empathy were measured in terms of parental ratings. Finally, all data collected were statistically analyzed to reveal the influence of the valence of EWC, the relation between EWC and empathy, and the cross-cultural difference of children's EWC between China and UK from the viewpoint of developmental science. The main results of the current study included the following: (i EWC in general increased with age for Chinese children ages 2-13 years old, however, there was a dramatic increase during ages 6-8 years old; (ii EWC of positive emotion words in general developed better than that of negative and neutral ones for Chinese children (ages 2-13 years old; and the disadvantage of EWC to negative emotion words over neutral ones was gradually observed with the increase of age, even though there were no significant differences between them from the beginning; (iii EWC completely mediated the effect of age on empathy; and (iv EWC of children in UK developed better than Chinese counterparts during the early childhood period (ages 4-6 years old, then

  11. Modifiable diarrhoea risk factors in Egyptian children aged <5 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, A M; Mohammady, H El; Shabrawi, M El; Shabaan, S Y; Zekri, M Abou; Nassar, M; Salem, M E; Mostafa, M; Riddle, M S; Klena, J D; Messih, I A Abdel; Levin, S; Young, S Y N

    2013-12-01

    By conducting a case-control study in two university hospitals, we explored the association between modifiable risk behaviours and diarrhoea. Children aged bacterial pathogens using standard techniques and tested by ELISA to detect rotavirus and Cryptosporidium spp. Four hundred cases and controls were enrolled between 2007 and 2009. The strongest independent risk factors for diarrhoea were: presence of another household member with diarrhoea [matched odds ratio (mOR) 4.9, 95% CI 2.8-8.4] in the week preceding the survey, introduction to a new kind of food (mOR 3, 95% CI 1.7-5.4), and the child being cared for outside home (mOR 2.6, 95% CI 1.3-5.2). While these risk factors are not identifiable, in some age groups more easily modifiable risk factors were identified including: having no soap for handwashing (mOR 6.3, 95% CI 1.2-33.9) for children aged 7-12 months, and pacifier use (mOR 1.9, 95% CI 1.0-3.5) in children aged 0-6 months. In total, the findings of this study suggest that community-based interventions to improve practices related to sanitation and hygiene, handwashing and food could be utilized to reduce the burden of diarrhoea in Egyptian children aged <5 years. PMID:23433452

  12. Assessing Executive Function components in 9 years old children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Reyes

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Executive Function (EF is a multidimensional construct. It includes a set of abilities that allows to execute actions with a purpose, aimed to a goal, in an efficient way. The objective of this work is to explore some of the cognitive abilities that constitute a common factor for EF in 9 years-old children. The chosen instruments: Batería de Evaluación Neuropsicológica de la Función Ejecutiva en niños (ENFEN (Battery of Neuropsychological Assessment for Executive Function in Children, along with the Backward Digits Subtestfrom the WISC-III, were administered to 101 children from private schools of Buenos Aires State, Argentina. The ENFEN consists on EF tasks, including Phonological and Semantic Fluency, Trail Making Test versions for children (gray and colored sets, Interference Task, and Planning disc movements according to a model. An initial confirmatory factor analysis didn’t show significant fit indexes, being the Inhibitory control the variable with the lower and non significant factorial weight. A second model excluding the Inhibitory control measure was conducted, and it showed excellent fit indexes. Therefore, it can be concluded that at this age, some of the cognitive abilities included on the EF are: Phonological and Semantic Fluency, Sustained and Selective attention, Planning and Working memory; which is not the case for Inhibitory Control (measured by the Interference Task in the ENFEN.

  13. Uroflowmetry nomogram in Iranian children aged 7 to 14 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tajik Parvin

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As the voiding habits of Iranian children differs from other children because of some cultural and religious considerations, we aimed to establish normal reference values of urinary flow rates in Iranian children between 7 to 14 years of age. Methods Eight hundred and two uroflowmetry studies were performed on children with no history of a renal, urological, psychological or neurological disorder, between the ages 7 and 14. Five hundred twenty five studies from 192 girls and 335 boys were considered in this study excluding the staccato/interrupted voiding pattern or voided volume less than 20 ml. The voiding volume, the maximum and average urinary flow rates were extensively analyzed. Results The maximal and average urine flow rate nomograms were plotted for both girls and boys. Mean maximum urine flow rate was 19.9 (ml/sec for boys and 23.5 (ml/sec for girls with a mean voided volume of 142 (ml for boys and 147 (ml for girls. Flow rates showed a close association with voiding volume in both sexes. The maximum and average flow rates were higher in girls than in boys, and they showed a significant increase in flow rates with increasing age, where boys did not. The mean maximum urine flow rates (19.9 ml/sec for boys and 23.5 ml/sec for girls were found to be higher in this study than other studies. Conclusion Nomograms of maximal and average flow rates of girls and boys are presented in centile form, which can help the physician to evaluate the response to medical or surgical treatment and be useful for the screening of lower urinary tract disturbances in children, for a wide range of voided volumes.

  14. Six Year Refractive Change among White Children and Young Adults: Evidence for Significant Increase in Myopia among White UK Children

    OpenAIRE

    McCullough, Sara J.; O’Donoghue, Lisa; Saunders, Kathryn J

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine six-year spherical refractive error change among white children and young adults in the UK and evaluate differences in refractive profiles between contemporary Australian children and historical UK data. Design Population-based prospective study. Participants The Northern Ireland Childhood Errors of Refraction (NICER) study Phase 1 examined 1068 children in two cohorts aged 6–7 years and 12–13 years. Prospective data for six-year follow-up (Phase 3) are available for 21...

  15. Integral treatment of children with dyslexia - 40 years experience

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    Stošljević Miodrag

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Dyslexia represents a significant pediatric problem requiring prompt and appropriate treatment. Objective. The aim of this study was to examine the significance of integral rehabilitation approach in treating dyslexia of children. Methods. Objectives of the study were accomplished on a sample of 300 children, aged 11-15 years, with etiologically variable dyslexia. Results. The results gained from the integral treatment of children with dyslexia were more successful than those obtained from isolated logaoedic treatment, when compared in 10-15 examined variables; replacement of graphically similar letters (p=0.000, replacement of syllables (p=0.010, replacement of words - guessing (p=0.019, structural errors - displacement or insertion (p=0.038, adding letters and syllables (p=0.001, repeating of word parts (p=0.001, reading of a word in several wrong ways (p=0.001, omission of words and whole lines (p=0.000, returning to already read line (p=0.000, level of dyslexia (p=0.000. Conclusion. Dyslexia requires a multidisciplinary therapeutic approach in which integral rehabilitation treatment has an exceptionally large significance.

  16. Liver Hydatid Cyst in Children (A 14-year Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Rouzrokh

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective:Hydatid disease is still an important health hazard in the world. This disease is a parasitic infestation which is endemic in many sheep and cattle raising areas such as in Iran. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical appearance, diagnosis, and treatment of liver hydatid cyst in children. Methods:This retrospective study evaluated 100 patients who were referred to Mofid Childrens Hospital with liver hydatid cyst from March 1996 to March 2010. Medical records of 1 to 14 year old patients who had definitive liver hydatid cyst were included and analysis of variables such as age, gender, symptoms, diagnostic investigation, operative technique, hospital stay, mortality, morbidity and outcome of treatment were evaluated. Findings:The patients consisted of 54 boys (54% and 46 (46% girls with an age range of 1-14 years (mean 11.8±4.6. The incidence rate increased by age. The patients had totally 110 cysts, right pulmonary lobe 81 (73% cysts and left side had 29 (27%. Abdominal mass was the most common (50% symptom. Abdominal sonography gave correct diagnosis in 94 (94% patients. Conservative surgical treatment was carried out in 98 children. Two patients were treated medically as the cysts were small and calcified. The most common complication was wound infection in 3 cases. Mean length of hospitalization was 9 days. In 100% of our patients the type of parasite was Echinoccocus granulosus. The morbidity rate was 12%   (prolonging external catheter drainage in 12 patients. There was only one (1% mortality and 2 (2% recurrences. Conclusion:Due to the less invasive and high accuracy of liver sonography in diagnosis of hydatid cyst, we recommend it as the method of choice for the diagnosis in endemic regions. Surgery is the method of choice for treatment.

  17. Liver Hydatid Cyst in Children (A 14-year Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Mirshemirani

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective:Hydatid disease is still an important health hazard in the world. This disease is a parasitic infestation which is endemic in many sheep and cattle raising areas such as in Iran. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical appearance, diagnosis, and treatment of liver hydatid cyst in children.Methods:This retrospective study evaluated 100 patients who were referred to Mofid Children's Hospital with liver hydatid cyst from March 1996 to March 2010. Medical records of 1 to 14 year old patients who had definitive liver hydatid cyst were included and analysis of variables such as age, gender, symptoms, diagnostic investigation, operative technique, hospital stay, mortality, morbidity and outcome of treatment were evaluated.Findings:The patients consisted of 54 boys (54% and 46 (46% girls with an age range of 1-14 years (mean 11.8�4.6. The incidence rate increased by age. The patients had totally 110 cysts, right pulmonary lobe 81 (73% cysts and left side had 29 (27%. Abdominal mass was the most common (50% symptom. Abdominal sonography gave correct diagnosis in 94 (94% patients. Conservative surgical treatment was carried out in 98 children. Two patients were treated medically as the cysts were small and calcified. The most common complication was wound infection in 3 cases. Mean length of hospitalization was 9 days. In 100% of our patients the type of parasite was Echinoccocus granulosus. The morbidity rate was 12% (prolonging external catheter drainage in 12 patients. There was only one (1% mortality and 2 (2% recurrences.Conclusion:Due to the less invasive and high accuracy of liver sonography in diagnosis of hydatid cyst, we recommend it as the method of choice for the diagnosis in endemic regions. Surgery is the method of choice for treatment.

  18. Hearing Screening in Children from 40 years Ago to Now

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Daneshmandan

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Hearing is a key sense in human communication development and communication is the basic need for learning Speech is the best way of communication and speech development is impeded by hearing loss. Hearing loss compromises optimal development and personal achievement because language and communication serve as the foundations for learning and also normal child development delay in the acquisition of these skills affect literacy academic achievement and personal and social development. The studies show that auditory deprivation specially in critical period of the brain development (first year of life results in considerable changes in cochlear nuclei of the brain stem Therefore, early detection of hearing loss in children has been a long standing clinical priority in audiology. In this article we have reviewed 60 years effort for early detection of hearing loss and finally. emphasiz that the basic assumption of new born hearing screening is early intervention. Early detection followed by early intervention will result in near normal speech achievement in these children which meaiis personal and social independence in life. In other words early intervention maximizes the benefits the child the family and the society will receive.

  19. Physical activity level of school children of age 10-13 years

    OpenAIRE

    Ronghe, Dr. Rashmi N; Gotmare, Dr. Neha A; Kawishwar, Dr. Shraddha

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To assess physical activity level of school children of age 10-13 years.Objectives: To assess and grade physical activity level in children of age 10-13 years using Physical Activity Questionnaire for Children (PAQ-C) classified into: Light Physical activity; Moderate Physical activity; Moderate to vigorous Physical activity and High Physical activity.Methodology: This is Questionnaire based survey study which was conducted on 100 school going children of 10-13 years who were present on ...

  20. Leprosy in children under fifteen years in Brazil, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levantezi, Magda; Moreira, Tadiana; Sena Neto, Sebastião; De Jesus, Aline Ludmila

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study is to describe the occurrence of Hansen's disease in children under 15 years of age and to analyse the burden of disease in the same population in Brazil in 2011. This is a descriptive epidemiological study on the positive cases of Hansen's disease in minors below 15 years of age notified in Brazil. Data was collected from the Information System on Disease Notification for Hansen's disease cases, and the Brazilian Institute of Geographic Statistics for population data. The study's results showed that 2420 minors with Hansen's Disease in 2011 were distributed in 5565 cities, 692 cities registered the occurrence of 1-10 cases of the disease, a total of 1489 cases (61%); 35 cities showed 15 to 25 cases, 544 (22.5%); and eight cities notified 25 cases or more, totalling 87 cases (16%), therefore, about one third of the Hansen's disease cases in minors under 15 years in Brazil in the year of 2011 are concentrated in 43 Brazilian cities. PMID:25255615

  1. The Development of a Scale to Measure Empathy in 8- and 9-Year Old Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garton, Alison F.; Gringart, Eyal

    2005-01-01

    Empathy has been suggested to facilitate effective collaborative problem solving in children. The current study adapted the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI, Davis, 1980), a well-validated empathy measure for adults, for use with children aged 8 and 9 years. Four hundred and thirteen school children aged between 7;11 and 9;11 years completed…

  2. Chinese and Australian Year 3 Children's Conceptual Understanding of Science: A Multiple Comparative Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Ying; Oliver, Mary Colette; Venville, Grady Jane

    2012-01-01

    Children have formal science instruction from kindergarten in Australia and from Year 3 in China. The purpose of this research was to explore the impact that different approaches to primary science curricula in China and Australia have on children's conceptual understanding of science. Participants were Year 3 children from three schools of high,…

  3. Intracranial tumors in children less than 2 years of age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We analyzed the characteristic CT findings in twelve cases of intracranial tumors in children under 2 years of age. The histological classification of them was as follows: 2 were teratomas, 3 ependymoma and ependymoblastomas, 2 medulloblastomas, 2 craniopharyngiomas, and 3 were other gliomas, including a pontine glioma. 1. Ten cases were located along the central neural axis. The supratentorial/infratentorial ratio became nearly equal at each age before and after the first year. 2. With regard to tumor size, approximately 70 % out of the brain tumors were more than 5 cm in diameter; especially, four cases had diameters of more than 7 cm. In the case of the teratomas, the cranial cavity was filled with several nodular tumors of varying densities. On admission, an ependymoblastoma in the posterior fossa had already invaded the pineal region. 3. Hydrocephalus was a frequent finding except for the two craniopharyngiomas and the pontine glioma. Some demonstrated an eminent ventricular collapse and a displacement of the midline structures because of the large size of the tumor masses. 4. The malignant gliomas had less peritumoral edemas in proportion to the large sizes of the tumor masses. The prognosis of some brain tumors in our cases less than 2 years of age was extremely poor, but an aggressive approach to them with surgical treatment, irradiation, and adjuvant chemotherapy may improve their chances of survival. (author)

  4. Cerebral MRI of very low birth weight children at 6 years of age compared with the findings at 1 year

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background. We have previously reported the results of cerebral MRI examinations in an unselected year cohort of very low birth weight (VLBW) infants at one year of corrected age. Twenty-one (78 %) of 27 infants had abnormal myelination, mainly in the central occipital white matter (COWM) and in the centrum semiovale (CS), seen on T2-weighted images. Twelve infants had irregular and dilated lateral ventricles. We speculated whether these findings indicated perinatal periventricular leukomalacia (PVL). Only two infants had completely normal MRI at age 1 year. Objective. To determine whether the abnormal myelination seen at 1 year of age, was still present, either as delayed myelination or as gliosis caused by perinatal PVL. Materials and methods. In the present study, we report the results of follow-up cerebral MRI in 20 of these infants at 6 years of age. Results. Most of the children with MRI deviations at 1 year still had abnormalities at 6 years. Abnormal myelination in the central occipital white matter combined with abnormalities in the CS or with ventricular dilatation at age 1 year, presented as gliosis in 12 of 13 children at 6 years of age. Abnormalities solely in the COWM at age 1 year had normalised in two of five children and persisted as delayed myelination in three at age 6 years. Gliotic changes in periventricular white matter were found in 12 of 20 children (60 %). Areas most affected were the CS (11 children) and the COWM (9 children). Delayed myelination in COWM was found in six children (30 %), combined with gliosis in CS in three children. Twelve infants had ventricular dilatation both at 1 and 6 years of age. Conclusions. The MRI correlates of PVL, i. e. gliosis and ventricular dilatation, are common findings on cerebral MRI at 6 years of age in VLBW infants. (orig.)

  5. The Cultural and Linguistic Diversity of 3-Year-Old Children with Hearing Loss

    OpenAIRE

    Crowe, Kathryn; McLeod, Sharynne; Ching, Teresa Y.C.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the cultural and linguistic diversity of young children with hearing loss informs the provision of assessment, habilitation, and education services to both children and their families. Data describing communication mode, oral language use, and demographic characteristics were collected for 406 children with hearing loss and their caregivers when children were 3 years old. The data were from the Longitudinal Outcomes of Children with Hearing Impairment (LOCHI) study, a prospectiv...

  6. 4,6,8-Triarylquinoline-3-carbaldehyde Derivatives: Synthesis and Photophysical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malose Jack Mphahlele

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Palladium catalyzed Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling of 6,8-dibromo-4-chloroquinoline-3-carbaldehyde with arylboronic and arylvinylboronic acid derivatives in the presence of potassium carbonate in aqueous dioxane afforded the corresponding 4,6,8-triarylquinoline-3-carbaldehydes, exclusively. These products were transformed into 4,6,8-triaryl-3-(4-fluorophenylamino-N-(quinolin-3-ylmethylenes and their 4,6,8-triaryl-quinoline-3-methanol derivatives. The absorption and emission spectra were measured for the 4,6,8-triarylquinoline-3-carbaldehydes and their derivatives in selected solvents of different polarity.

  7. Assistance fund for Chernobyl children: 11 year assistance in development of Ukrainian child hospitals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fund has large statistics of health conditions in children born in post-Chernobyl period. This statistics indicates a considerable increase of health anomalies in children. The highest level of oncological diseases was observed 5 years after Chernobyl accident

  8. Nutritional Transition in Children under Five Years and Women of Reproductive Age: A 15-Years Trend Analysis in Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Loret de Mola, Christian; Quispe, Renato; Valle, Giancarlo A.; Julio A. Poterico

    2014-01-01

    Background Rapid urbanization, increase in food availability, and changes in diet and lifestyle patterns have been changing nutritional profiles in developing nations. We aimed to describe nutritional changes in children under 5 years and women of reproductive age in Peru, during a 15-year period of rapid economic development and social policy enhancement. Materials and Methods Trend analyses of anthropometric measures in children of preschool age and women between 15–49 years, using the Peru...

  9. SPEECH AND LANGUAGE ASSESSMENT USING LEST 0 TO 6 AMONG CHILDREN 0 TO 6 YEARS

    OpenAIRE

    Shiji K.

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT: This descriptive study was conducted toassess the speech and language development anddelay among children 0 - 6 years.450 Children 0 - 6 years age groups were taken for the study . Each child was given the corresponding LEST and given a PASS if he or she had performed the test. Of the 450 children screened , 5.5 % had delay , 2.2 % had only questionable delay. Of the 25 children who had delay 15 (60%) were male...

  10. Facial mimicry in 6-7 year old children with disruptive behavior disorder and ADHD.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Deschamps

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Impairments in facial mimicry are considered a proxy for deficits in affective empathy and have been demonstrated in 10 year old children and in adolescents with disruptive behavior disorder (DBD. However, it is not known whether these impairments are already present at an earlier age. Emotional deficits have also been shown in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. AIMS: To examine facial mimicry in younger, 6-7 year old children with DBD and with ADHD. METHODS: Electromyographic (EMG activity in response to emotional facial expressions was recorded in 47 children with DBD, 18 children with ADHD and 35 healthy developing children. RESULTS: All groups displayed significant facial mimicry to the emotional expressions of other children. No group differences between children with DBD, children with ADHD and healthy developing children were found. In addition, no differences in facial mimicry were found between the clinical group (i.e., all children with a diagnosis and the typically developing group in an analysis with ADHD symptoms as a covariate, and no differences were found between the clinical children and the typically developing children with DBD symptoms as a covariate. CONCLUSION: Facial mimicry in children with DBD and ADHD throughout the first primary school years was unimpaired, in line with studies on empathy using other paradigms.

  11. Tracing Children's Vocabulary Development from Preschool through the School-Age Years: An 8-Year Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Shuang; Su, Mengmeng; Kang, Cuiping; Liu, Hongyun; Zhang, Yuping; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Tardif, Twila; Li, Hong; Liang, Weilan; Zhang, Zhixiang; Shu, Hua

    2015-01-01

    In this 8-year longitudinal study, we traced the vocabulary growth of Chinese children, explored potential precursors of vocabulary knowledge, and investigated how vocabulary growth predicted future reading skills. Two hundred and sixty-four (264) native Chinese children from Beijing were measured on a variety of reading and language tasks over…

  12. The UP4FUN Intervention Effect on Breaking Up Sedentary Time in 10- to 12-Year-Old Belgian Children: The ENERGY-Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verloigne, Maïté; Berntsen, Sveinung; Ridgers, Nicola D; Cardon, Greet; Chinapaw, Mai; Altenburg, Teatske; Brug, Johannes; Bere, Elling; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Van Lippevelde, Wendy; Maes, Lea

    2015-05-01

    There are currently no studies available reporting intervention effects on breaking up children's sedentary time. This study examined the UP4FUN intervention effect on objectively measured number of breaks in sedentary time, number of sedentary bouts (≥ 10 mins) and total and average amount of time spent in those sedentary bouts among 10- to 12-year-old Belgian children. The total sample included 354 children (mean age: 10.9 ± 0.7 years; 59% girls) with valid ActiGraph accelerometer data at pre- and posttest. Only few and small intervention effects were found, namely on total time spent in sedentary bouts immediately after school hours (4-6PM; β = -3.51mins) and on average time spent in sedentary bouts before school hours (6-8.30AM; β = -4.83mins) and immediately after school hours in favor of children from intervention schools (β = -2.71mins). Unexpectedly, girls from intervention schools decreased the number of breaks during school hours (8.30AM-4PM; β = -23.45breaks) and increased the number of sedentary bouts on a weekend day (β = +0.90bouts), whereas girls in control schools showed an increase in number of breaks and a decrease in number of bouts. In conclusion, UP4FUN did not have a consistent or substantial effect on breaking up children's sedentary time and these data suggest that more intensive and longer lasting interventions are needed. PMID:25389211

  13. Children`s literature in the journal Ciciban after the year 2000

    OpenAIRE

    Jazbec, Tina

    2011-01-01

    In my undergraduate thesis there are various different definitions of the youth literature concept presented. Based on this we can behold, that the understanding of youth literature is not simple but very complex. I have decided to write my thesis »Youth literature in the children's magazine Ciciban after the year 2000« because I find the topic very interesting and useful to research and analyse. Also in my opinion it would be a very good starting point for working in class with pupils, b...

  14. Motor Competence Is Associated with Physical Fitness in Four- to Six-Year-Old Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigmundsson, Hermundur; Haga, Monika

    2016-01-01

    The health benefits of a physical active lifestyle and physical fitness from a young age are widely recognized as beneficial. This study examined the relationship between physical fitness and motor competence in children aged four- to six-years-old. A sample of 42 children (mean age 5.15 years, SD 0.56 year) participated in the study. To assess…

  15. Oral health in pre-school children with asthma - followed from 3 to 6 years

    OpenAIRE

    Stensson, Malin; Wendt, Lill-Kari; Koch, Göran; Oldaeus, Göran; Nilsson, Mats; Birkhed, Dowen

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate caries and its determinants in preschool children with and without asthma, followed from 3 to 6 years. METHODS AND SUBJECTS: Caries, plaque, and gingivitis were examined at 3 and 6 years of age in 64 asthmatic children and 50 matched, healthy control children. Furthermore, at 6 years radiographic examination and saliva sampling were conducted. The parents were interviewed about various oral health-related factors. RESULTS: Initial caries inc...

  16. MEDICAL AUDIT OF CHILDREN WITH AMBIGUOUS GENITALIA- REVIEW OF CHILDREN TREATED OVER 18 YEARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praburam P. M

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The survival of a newborn or a child presenting with ambiguous genitalia depends upon the timely diagnosis and institution of appropriate medical care. We undertook this study with the aim to determine if appropriate clinical and confirmatory diagnosis was arrived on time and if the treatment instituted was relevant and satisfactory. Methods: All children who were evaluated for ambiguous genitalia under the Department of Pediatric Endocrinology over the preceding 18 years were invited for a review. Data including time taken to make a clinical diagnosis, time taken to confirm the diagnosis, reasons for delay if any, and appropriateness of the sex assigned for rearing and treatment instituted were collected from the charts. Patients were evaluated for adequacy of response to treatment, compliance, problems encountered if any and subjective parental satisfaction. Results: A total of 165 children were diagnosed to have conditions with ambiguous genitalia and were called for a review. 33 children attended the review. 15 were being raised as boys and 18 as girls. 12 children had virilising congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH, 6 had cryptorchidism, 6 had hypospadias, 3 had complete and 1 had partial testicular feminisation, 2 had mixed gonadal dysgenesis (MGD, 2 had hypogonadism and 1 was a true hermaphrodite. An appropriate clinical diagnosis was made in 30childrenon the day one and a final confirmatory diagnosis was made within a month in 23. Conclusion: In most conditions presenting with ambiguous genitalia, a clinical and confirmatory diagnosis can be made in a short duration. Initiation of appropriate treatment results in favourable outcomes in terms of growth sexual identity and adaptation.

  17. Comparison of serum zinc in children younger than 5 years old with febrile convulsion, children with seizures without fever and normal children

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Vahidi A; Mohammad Torabinejad; Marayam Shamspour; Niloofar Golmohammadi; Mohammad Heidari

    2014-01-01

    Background: Febrile seizures are the most common seizure disorder in children and have a good prognosis. Many theories about the role of neurotransmitters and trace elements in serum and cerebrospinal fluid are introduced as the pathogenesis of febrile seizures. Among these elements, the element can be noted. The purpose of this study to comparison of serum zinc in children younger than 5 years old with febrile convulsion, children with seizures without febrile and normal children. Methods...

  18. Coordination of precision grip in 2–6 years-old children with autism spectrum disorders compared to children developing typically and children with developmental disabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Fabian Jude David; Baranek, Grace T.; Chris eWiesen; Adrienne eMiao; Thorpe, Deborah E.

    2012-01-01

    Impaired motor coordination is prevalent in children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) and affects adaptive skills. Little is known about the development of motor patterns in young children with ASD between 2 and 6 years of age. The purpose of the current study was threefold: (1) to describe developmental correlates of motor coordination in children with ASD, (2) to identify the extent to which motor coordination deficits are unique to ASD by using a control group of children with other de...

  19. State of cognitive development in children 5-6 years of age with nutritional iron deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chechel V.V.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Features of the development of cognitive functions in children 5-6 years of age with iron deficiency (ID were studied and the relationship of the revealed features of iron deficiency degree was established. After clinical and laboratory examination 205 children aged 5-6 years, pupils of pre-school institutions were included in the study. The core group consisted of 155 children, including 105 children with latent iron deficiency (LID and 50 children with iron deficiency anemia (IDA I degree. The control group consisted of 50 healthy children. To study cognitive function, "Approximate comprehensive program of study of children's readiness for school" was used. A significant decrease of average data of all mental functions (perception, memory, language, thinking, ima¬gination in children 5-6 years old with ID, most pronounced in children with IDA was revealed. Indicators of cognitive functions correspond predominantly to a mild and moderate level of development in children with IDA, the average - in children with LID, good and high - in healthy children. There was a significant direct correlation between the level of cognitive functioning and the level of hemoglobin, serum iron and ferritin. The effect of iron deficiency on the development of indicators of cognitive function toward their reduce in preschool children was established. The level of cognitive functioning depends on the degree of iron deficiency.

  20. Functioning of 7-Year-Old Children Born at 32 to 35 Weeks' Gestational Age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cserjesi, R.; Van Braeckel, K.N.J.A.; Butcher, P.R.; Kerstjens, J.M.; Reijneveld, S.A.; Bouma, A.; Geuze, R.H.; Bos, A.F.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare neuropsychological functions in moderately preterm (32-35 weeks' gestation) and full-term children at the age of 7 years and identify gender differences. METHODS: Community-based prospective cohort study of 248 moderately preterm children (138 boys) and 130 full-term children (

  1. Collaborative Problem Solving in Five-Year-Old Children: Evidence of Social Facilitation and Social Loafing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arterberry, Martha E.; Cain, Kathleen M.; Chopko, Stephanie A.

    2007-01-01

    Children's problem solving while working by themselves or with a partner was investigated to explore whether young children are susceptible to social facilitation and social loafing. Five-year-olds were asked to complete easy or hard puzzles, either alone or with a partner. Half of the children were given instructions indicating that their…

  2. Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders Who Do Not Develop Phrase Speech in the Preschool Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norrelgen, Fritjof; Fernell, Elisabeth; Eriksson, Mats; Hedvall, Asa; Persson, Clara; Sjölin, Maria; Gillberg, Christopher; Kjellmer, Liselotte

    2015-01-01

    There is uncertainty about the proportion of children with autism spectrum disorders who do not develop phrase speech during the preschool years. The main purpose of this study was to examine this ratio in a population-based community sample of children. The cohort consisted of 165 children (141 boys, 24 girls) with autism spectrum disorders aged…

  3. Attachment Stability in Children Aged 6 to 9 Years in Extended and Nuclear Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seven, Serdal; Ogelman, Hulya Gulay

    2012-01-01

    Research Findings: The main aim of this study was to identify whether the attachment security of children living in nuclear and extended families is stable from ages 6 to 9 years in a sample of Turkish children. In total, 54 children participated in the study, of whom 27 lived in nuclear families and the other 27 lived in extended families in Mus…

  4. Five- to 8-Year-Old Emirati Children's and Their Teachers' Perceptions of War

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buldu, Mehmet

    2009-01-01

    This study examined 5- to 8-year-old Emirati children's and their teachers' perceptions of war. Data for this study were collected through drawings and semi-structured interviews. A phenomenological procedure was used to analyze the data. Younger children could not articulate the details of the specific nature of war. Many children defined war as…

  5. Children of Methadone-Maintained Mothers: Three-Year Follow-Up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Helen L.; And Others

    The physical and neurobehavioral findings at 3 years of age for 39 children born to mothers on methadone- maintenance and 23 children born to drug-free comparison mothers are reported. The methadone children had a higher incidence of head circumferences less than the third percentile, nystagmus/strabismus, and otitis media. No differences were…

  6. Outcomes for Drug-Exposed Children Four Years Post-Adoption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Richard P.; Needell, Barbara

    1996-01-01

    Prenatally drug-exposed and not drug-exposed children adopted as infants and older children were compared four years after adoption on a range of outcome indicators. Drug-exposed and not drug-exposed children were alike on most outcome indicators, and parental satisfaction with the adoption was high and equivalent for parents of both groups. (TJQ)

  7. Trajectories of Resilience during Dyadic Task Performance among Children Six to Seven Years of Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mykkänen, Arttu; Kronqvist, Eeva-Liisa; Järvelä, Sanna

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to analyse resilience displayed by young children in dyadic task performance situations. Data were collected by videotaping children (aged six to seven years; N?=?40) during a geometrical task performance. Results describe ways in which children confronted the challenges during task performance, and the order in which the…

  8. Diarrhea in children less than two years of age with known HIV status in Kisumu, Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M. van Eijk; J.T. Brooks; P.M. Adcock; V. Garrett; M. Eberhard; D.H. Rosen; J.G. Ayisi; J.B. Ochieng; L. Kumar; J.R. Gentsch; B.L. Nahlen; E.D. Mintz; L. Slutsker

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To compare the frequency and etiology of diarrhea in children aged less than 2 years with known HIV status. Methods: This was a nested cohort study, whereby children were followed during monthly routine and unscheduled visits. The HIV status of children was determined with PCR. A stool cu

  9. The Effects of Three Years of Piano Instruction on Children's Cognitive Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa-Giomi, Eugenia

    1999-01-01

    Examines the effects of 3 years of piano instruction on children's cognitive abilities. Finds that children's general cognitive and spatial abilities improved significantly, but those improvements were only temporary. Believes that the positive effects on the children's cognitive abilities were dependent upon their dedication to learning the…

  10. [Electrical burns in children. 3 years of case histories].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caneira, E; Serafim, Z; Duarte, R; Leal, M J

    1996-01-01

    The Burn Unit of Dona Estefânia Hospital admitted a total of 454 patients from January 1992 to January 1995, 24 of these patients suffered from electric shock. Of these 24 patients 3 suffered burns in the mouth, 15 in one or both hands and 6 multiple burns. In 19 patients the burns were up to 1%. A description is made of 5 cases, male children between the ages of 9 and 13 years, which were deemed severe. The incidents occurred outdoors with different voltages and in activities considered of ludic or experimental nature: two on the roof of a house, two with railway cables and one with an electrical cable in a port zone. The burnt areas vary between 4% and 70%, all of them 2nd and 3rd degree, with hospitalization lasting from 36 to 116 days. In addition to early and coordinated medical and rehabilitative treatment, according to individual needs, a description is also made of the cutaneous sequelae (deforming cicatrices, bridles), neurologic and psychologic sequelae, with emphasis on a patient who underwent amputation of the lower left leg and 4th and 5th ranges of the right foot. It was concluded that measures should be taken in education and legislation to prevent these accidents. Relevance is given to the need for a multidisciplinary team and specialized center for the treatment of these patients. PMID:9254529

  11. Humoral Immunity to AAV-6, 8, and 9 in Normal and Dystrophic Dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Shin, Jin-Hong; Yue, Yongping; Smith, Bruce; Duan, Dongsheng

    2011-01-01

    Adeno-associated virus (AAV)-6, 8, and 9 are promising gene-delivery vectors for testing novel Duchenne muscular dystrophy gene therapy in the canine model. Humoral immunity greatly influences in vivo AAV transduction. However, neutralizing antibodies to AAV-6, 8, and 9 have not been systemically examined in normal and dystrophic dogs. To gain information on the seroprevalence of antibodies to AAV-6, 8, and 9, we measured neutralizing antibody titers using an in vitro transduction inhibition ...

  12. Color-Object Interference in Young Children: A Stroop Effect in Children 31/2-61/2 Years Old

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prevor, M.B.; Diamond, A.

    2005-01-01

    The Stroop color-word task cannot be administered to children who are unable to read. However, our color-object Stroop task can. One hundred and sixty-eight children of 31/2-61/2 years (50% female; 24 children at each 6-month interval) were shown line drawings of familiar objects in a color that was congruent (e.g., an orange carrot), incongruent…

  13. 4,6,8-Triarylquinoline-3-carbaldehyde Derivatives: Synthesis and Photophysical Properties

    OpenAIRE

    Malose Jack Mphahlele; Adewale Olufunsho Adeloye

    2013-01-01

    Palladium catalyzed Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling of 6,8-dibromo-4-chloroquinoline-3-carbaldehyde with arylboronic and arylvinylboronic acid derivatives in the presence of potassium carbonate in aqueous dioxane afforded the corresponding 4,6,8-triarylquinoline-3-carbaldehydes, exclusively. These products were transformed into 4,6,8-triaryl-3-(4-fluorophenyl)amino)-N-(quinolin-3-yl)methylenes and their 4,6,8-triaryl-quinoline-3-methanol derivatives. The absorption and emission spectra were me...

  14. Enterococcal Infections in Children: Results of a 8 Year Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solmaz Çelebi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Enterococci have become a leading cause of nosocomial infection. These microorganisms are normal inhabitants of the human gastrointestinal tract. The aim of this study was to evaluate the enterococcal infection in children. Material and Methods: All patients with enterococcal infection between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2007 were included in this study. Our study is a retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data. American Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria were used as standard definitions for nosocomial infections.Results: Enterococcus spp. infections were diagnosed in 164 of the 15.558 patients hospitalized in our center between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2007 (overall incidence, 10.5 per 1,000 admissions. During the study period, a total of 209 Enterococcus spp. isolates were recovered from sterile body site cultures. Seventy-seven percent of enterococcal infections were nosocomial. The mean age of patients was 53.1±61.5 months (9 days-17 years and 56% were male. The most common species of enterococci causing clinical infection were Enterococcus faecalis (55.5%, Enterococcus faecium (42.1% and Enterococcus durans (2.4%. Most of the Enterococcus spp. (44.5% were isolated from urine, followed by blood (19.5%, peritoneal fluid (14.6%, cerebrospinal fluid (12.1% and catheter segment (4.8%. Vancomycin resistance was seen in 2.4 percent of Enterococcus spp., all of which were E. faecium. The most frequently seen enterococcal infections were urinary tract infections (32.3%, neonatal sepsis (22%, sepsis (14.6%, peritonitis (11.5% and shunt meningitis (10.3%. Previous therapy with broad-spectrum antibiotics, underlying disease and prolonged hospitalization were commonly seen in patients with enterococcal infections. The mortality rate was found as 3.6% of all children with enterococcal infections.Conclusions: The two most common species of enterococci causing clinical infection were E. faecalis (55

  15. How do parents of 4- to 5-year-old children perceive the weight of their children?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luttikhuis, H. G. M. Oude; Stolk, R. P.; Sauer, P. J. J.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: A heavier weight in adults is becoming the norm rather than an abnormal weight. Whether the same trend is happening in children is unknown. Objective: To assess the perception of the weight of 4- to 5-year-old children and the recognition of overweight by both parents. Design:

  16. Nutritional transition in children under five years and women of reproductive age: a 15-years trend analysis in Peru.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Loret de Mola

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rapid urbanization, increase in food availability, and changes in diet and lifestyle patterns have been changing nutritional profiles in developing nations. We aimed to describe nutritional changes in children under 5 years and women of reproductive age in Peru, during a 15-year period of rapid economic development and social policy enhancement. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Trend analyses of anthropometric measures in children of preschool age and women between 15-49 years, using the Peruvian National Demographic and Family Health Surveys (DHS from 1996 to 2011. WHO growth curves were used to define stunting, underweight, wasting and overweight in children 19 years, body mass index (BMI was analyzed both categorically and as a continuous variable. To statistically analyze the trends, we used regression models: Linear and Poisson for continuous and binary outcomes, respectively. RESULTS: We analyzed data from 123 642 women and 64 135 children, from 1996 to 2011. Decreases over time were evidenced for underweight (p<0.001, wasting (p<0.001, and stunting (p<0.001 in children under 5 y. This effect was particularly noted in urban settings. Overweight levels in children reduced (p<0.001, however this reduction stopped, in urban settings, since 2005 (∼12%. Anemia decreased in children and women (p<0.001; with higher reduction in urban (↓43% than in rural children (↓24%. BMI in women aged 15-19 years increased (p<0.001 across time, with noticeable BMI-curve shift in women older than 30 years. Moreover, obesity doubled during this period in women more than 19 y. CONCLUSION: Nutrition transition in Peru shows different patterns for urban and rural populations. Public policies should emphasize targeting both malnutrition conditions--undernutrition/stunting, overweight/obesity and anemia--considering age and place of residence in rapid developing societies like Peru.

  17. Specific airway resistance, interrupter resistance, and respiratory impedance in healthy children aged 2-7 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klug, B; Bisgaard, H

    1998-01-01

    We report data on respiratory function in healthy children aged 2-7 years in whom we measured respiratory resistance by the interrupter technique (Rint); total respiratory impedance (Zrs), respiratory resistance (Rrs), and reactance (Xrs) by the impulse oscillation technique; and specific airway...... resistance (sRaw) by a modified procedure method in the whole body plethysmograph. Measurements were attempted in 151 children and were successfully obtained in 121 children with a mean (SD) age of 5.3 (1.5) years; no measurements were possible in 30 children (mean age 3 (0.9) years). The repeatability of...

  18. Care for overweight children attending the 5-year preventive child health examination in general practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Merethe Kousgaard; Christensen, Bo; Søndergaard, Jens

    2013-01-01

    -assessed overweight at the 5-year preventive child health examination (PCHE).Results. Out of 1135 children attending the 5-year PCHE, 171 were assessed overweight by the GP. According to the Danish body mass index (kg/m(2)) growth charts, 147 children were overweight. The GPs addressed their concern about the child...... cases.Conclusion. Various care activities were carried out for most children with GP-assessed overweight at the 5-year PCHE. However, the GP did not raise concern about the child's weight with the parents in almost one third of the children. It seems that there is a potential for improving the...

  19. Oral cleanliness of 12-13-year-old and 15-year-old school children of Sunsari District, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yee R

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the oral cleanliness of school children in the District of Sunsari, Nepal. A multi-stage random sampling oral epidemiological survey was conducted in private and government, urban, rural town and rural village schools in 15 illakas of Sunsari District, Eastern Nepal. A total of 600, 12-13-year-old and 600 15-year-old school children were examined by trained examiners using the simplified oral hygiene index (OHI-S. The average age-group, debris and calculus index scores were combined to obtain the simplified oral hygiene index (OHI-S. The mean OHI-S scores were compared and evaluated using the parametric t-test for two independent samples. The mean OHI-S for urban 12-13-year-old school children was 0.98 compared to 1.34 for school children of rural towns and 1.44 for school children of rural villages and these differences in mean OHI-S were statistically significant ( P < 0.005. In the 15-year-old age group, urban school children had a mean OHI-S score of 1.00 compared to 1.37 for rural towns and 1.43 for rural villages. The variance in the mean OHI-S scores were statistically significant ( P < 0.005. The overall level of cleanliness in the school children surveyed was good. Children of urban schools had the lowest scores followed by school children from rural towns and then rural villages. When the mean OHI-S scores were compared with the DMFT scores, there was an inverse relationship between oral cleanliness and dental caries. Frequency of sugar consumption and the availability and affordability of fluoridated toothpaste may be important factors in the development of dental caries than oral cleanliness.

  20. Laparoscopic upper pole heminephroureterectomy in children: Seven-year experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Marte

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Minimally invasive surgery is the current approach to perform heminephroureterectomy (HN in children. This can be obtained through a transperitoneal (TP or a retroperitoneal approach. Here, we report our experience using a TP approach. Materials and Methods: From 2005 to 2014, 22 TP laparoscopic upper poles HN were performed at our institution. There were nine girls and 13 boys aged between 20 months and 6 years (mean age 3.9. Eight patients were diagnosed prenatally, 17 patients presented with urinary tract infection (UTI and three with vomiting and failure to thrive. The indication for HN was reflux nephropathy and UTI in non-functioning upper pole in 19 patients and cystic dysplasia in 1 patient. The surgical technique involved the following steps: Cystoscopic recognition; positioning of 3-4 trocar (right HN; identification of the kidney (detachment of the colon; isolation and low ligation of the dilated ureter; decrossing from renal vessels; section of the parenchyma by LigaSure; haemostasis with clips and LigaSure; drain. Results: The mean operative time was 154 min (range: 81-220 min. All patients were discharged from the 2 nd to 4 th day. Neither major complication nor conversion was recorded. 1 patient presented leakage of urine for 7 days from the drainage which resolved spontaneously. At ultrasound follow-up, 5 patients showed a secondary perirenal cyst, 2-5 cm diameter that resolved spontaneously. Conclusion: The results indicate that laparoscopic upper pole heminephrectomy is the treatment of choice in cases of non-functioning dilated lower segments of duplicated kidneys. The use of laparoscopic approach offers a good working space, a good visual control of the vessels and allows a very low isolation of the ureteral stump which counterbalance the peritoneal violation.

  1. BREASTFEEDING AND EARLY CHILDHOOD CARIES (ECC) SEVERITY OF CHILDREN UNDER THREE YEARS OLD IN DKI JAKARTA

    OpenAIRE

    Risqa Rina Darwita; Herwati Djoharnas; Febriana Setiawati Sugito

    2008-01-01

    The prevalence and severity of caries in children under three years old are constantly increasing. One of the cause is the increase consumption of cariogenic carbohydrate. Breast milk have buffer capacity that eventually able to prevent caries. The aims of this research are to discover the correlation between breastfeeding with the severity of Early Childhood Caries (ECC) in children under three years old, to provide information on prevalence and severity of caries in children under three yea...

  2. Thyroid hormones and BMI in obese children: One year follow up results

    OpenAIRE

    Ekinci, Ferhat; Uzuner, Arzu; Demet, Merder Coşkun; Turgut, Bilge; TOSUN, Niyazi

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between thyroid hormone levels and obesity, lipid levels and weight changes.Patients and Methods: Five to eleven year old normal weight, overweight and obese children underwent measurements of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (fT4), lipid profile and autoimmune thyroid antibodies. Children with high TSH were reevaluated one year later without any intervention.Results: Three hundred children (126 obese, 74 o...

  3. Patterns of Attendance of Children Under 12 Years at School Dental Service in Western Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Lam, SPL; Baros, H; O’Grady, MJ; Kendall, GE; Messer, LB; Slack-Smith, LM

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the patterns of attendance at School Dental Service (SDS) and reasons for attendance (treatment or prevention) for children in the Perth Metropolitan Area, in particular investigating the first year of SDS attendance and attendance until the year the child turned 12. The first 150 SDS records located for children from the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study were used for this study. Patterns of attendance of children at SDS were described...

  4. Facial Mimicry in 6-7 Year Old Children with Disruptive Behavior Disorder and ADHD

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Deschamps; Nicolette Munsters; Leon Kenemans; Dennis Schutter; Walter Matthys

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Impairments in facial mimicry are considered a proxy for deficits in affective empathy and have been demonstrated in 10 year old children and in adolescents with disruptive behavior disorder (DBD). However, it is not known whether these impairments are already present at an earlier age. Emotional deficits have also been shown in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). AIMS: To examine facial mimicry in younger, 6-7 year old children with DBD and with ADHD. M...

  5. Bruxism and familiar functioning in school-age children between 5 and 11 years

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Lury Morales; Clotilde de la Caridad Mora Pérez; Ivelise Álvarez Rosa; Moraima Orbea González; Jeny Fernández Martínez; Jorge A. Rodriguez López

    2009-01-01

    Background: Bruxism, a common negative habit in children, is often linked with emotional conflicts, anxiety, stress, or frustration, which could be originated in the familiar environment. Objective: To characterize the familiar environment of children between 5 and 11 years suffering from bruxism. Methods: Analytical control-case design, developed from March to June, 2007, including children between 5 and 11 years from three urban elementary schools included in Health Area II of Cienfuegos mu...

  6. Effects of a Full-Day Preschool Program on 4-Year-Old Children

    OpenAIRE

    Yves Herry; Claire Maltais; Katherine Thompson

    2007-01-01

    This study explored the effects of a full-day preschool program on 4-year-old children. The study compared the development of a group of children (N = 403) who attended the preschool program on a half-day basis during the 1999-2000 school year (the last year the half-day program was in place) with the development of a group of children (N = 418) who attended the program on a full-day basis during the 2000-2001 school year (the inaugural year of the full-day program). The instruments used in t...

  7. 41 CFR 51-6.8 - Deletion of items from the Procurement List.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Deletion of items from the Procurement List. 51-6.8 Section 51-6.8 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to Public Contracts COMMITTEE FOR PURCHASE FROM PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED...

  8. Urine interleukin-6 and interleukin-8 in children with acute pyelonephritis, relation to DMSA scintigraphy in the acute phase and at 1-year follow-up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tullus, K. [Dept. of Pedriatics, St. Goeran`s Children`s Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Fituri, O. [Dept. of Pedriatics, St. Goeran`s Children`s Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Linne, T. [Dept. of Pedriatics, St. Goeran`s Children`s Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Escobar-Billing, R. [Dept. of Pedriatics Radiology, St. Goeran`s Children`s Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Wikstad, I. [Dept. of Pedriatics Radiology, St. Goeran`s Children`s Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Karlsson, A. [Dept. of Hospital Physics, St. Goeran`s Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Burman, L.G. [Dept. of Bacteriology, Swedish Inst. of Infectious Disease Control, Stockholm (Sweden); Wretlind, B. [Dept. of Bacteriology, Huddinge Hospital, Huddinge (Sweden); Brauner, A. [Dept. of Bacteriology, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1994-11-01

    The relationship between urine interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-8 (IL-8)/creatinine quotients and {sup 99m}Tc-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) scintigraphy, performed within 10 days of acute first-time pyelonephritis and after 1 year, was studied in 41 children. The urine IL-6 and IL-8/creatinine quotients were also related to the urine N-acetyl-{beta}-D-glucosaminidase (NAG) and albumin/creatinine quotients. Presence of DMSA uptake defects, reflecting local inflammation, in children in the acute phase of pyelonephritis, were associated with elevated urine IL-6/creatinine quotients (median 27 pg/{mu}mol); in children without DMSA changes there was no increase in quotients (median non-detectable) (P<0.05). Persistent DMSA changes at the 1-year follow-up, probably reflecting renal scarring, were only seen in children with increased urine IL-6/creatinine quotients in the acute phase (P<0.01). No correlation was found between urine IL-8 and DMSA uptake defects. Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) at 6-8 weeks did not correlate with the urine cytokine levels in the acute phase. The urine excretion of NAG and albumin, reflecting renal dysfunction, was associated with values of both urine IL-6 and IL-8/creatinine quotients, but not with DMSA defects or VUR. Thus, the initial urine IL-6/creatinine quotients might be used as an indicator of risk for persistent renal damage in acute pyelonephritis. (orig.)

  9. Speech Characteristics of 8-Year-Old Children: Findings from a Prospective Population Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wren, Yvonne; McLeod, Sharynne; White, Paul; Miller, Laura L.; Roulstone, Sue

    2013-01-01

    Speech disorder that continues into middle childhood is rarely studied compared with speech disorder in the early years. Speech production in single words, connected speech and nonword repetition was assessed for 7390 eight-year-old children within the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). The majority (n=6399) had typical…

  10. Reference values for acoustic rhinometry in children from 4 to 13 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Straszek, Sune; Moeller, Alexander; Hall, Graham L;

    2008-01-01

    reference range for nasal volumes and minimum cross-sectional areas (MCA) in healthy non-decongested children aged 4 to 13 years. Methods: 256 primary school children (mean 7.95 years, range 3.8 - 13.1 ys, 123m/133f) were measured by acoustic rhinometry. Variables were MCA (first, second and absolute...

  11. Sustained Effects of Incredible Years as a Preventive Intervention in Preschool Children with Conduct Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posthumus, Jocelyne A.; Raaijmakers, Maartje A. J.; Maassen, Gerard H.; van Engeland, Herman; Matthys, Walter

    2012-01-01

    The present study evaluated preventive effects of the Incredible Years program for parents of preschool children who were at risk for a chronic pattern of conduct problems, in the Netherlands. In a matched control design, 72 parents of children with conduct problems received the Incredible Years program. These families (intervention group) were…

  12. Caries risk profiles in 2- to 6-year-old Greek children using the Cariogram

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kavvadia, Katerina; Agouropoulos, Andreas; Gizani, Sotiria; Papagiannouli, Lisa; Twetman, Svante

    2012-01-01

    To assess the caries risk profiles in 2- to 6-year-old Greek children using a computer-based program and to evaluate the contribution of various risk factors.......To assess the caries risk profiles in 2- to 6-year-old Greek children using a computer-based program and to evaluate the contribution of various risk factors....

  13. Predictors of Reading Development in Deaf Children: A 3-Year Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyle, Fiona E.; Harris, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    The development of reading ability in a group of deaf children was followed over a 3-year period. A total of 29 deaf children (7-8 years of age at the first assessment) participated in the study, and every 12 months they were given a battery of literacy, cognitive, and language tasks. Earlier vocabulary and speechreading skills predicted…

  14. Hydatid cyst in children: A 10-year experience from Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid Aslanabadi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hydatid disease is one of the major world-wide health problems especially in endemic countries. Due to lack of statistics about this disease, various aspects of hydatidosis in children in North-West of Iran have been studied in this study. Materials and Methods: We studied 59 children with hydatidosis referring Tabriz Children Hospital, Tabriz, Iran from 2001 up to 2011. We surveyed chief complaint of patients, number, size and location of cysts in children and also we studied cysts as if they are infected or ruptured or not. Results: Average age of 59 patients (32 [54.2%] males and 27 [45.8%] females was 7.93 ± 3.0. The most common chief complaints were cough and pain. Number of cysts was higher in females (2.00 ± 2.8 vs. 1.52 ± 1.0. The most common locations of cysts are lung and liver (52 patients; however, other organs had been also affected. Conclusions: Lung hydatidosis is more common than hepatic hydatidosis in children than adults and it is more frequent in males. Hydatid disease should be considered in differential diagnoses of liver and lung cystic lesions in children.

  15. Developmental potential in the first 5 years for children in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grantham-McGregor, Sally; Cheung, Yin Bun; Cueto, Santiago; Glewwe, Paul; Richter, Linda; Strupp, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    Many children younger than 5 years in developing countries are exposed to multiple risks, including poverty, malnutrition, poor health, and unstimulating home environments, which detrimentally affect their cognitive, motor, and social-emotional development. There are few national statistics on the development of young children in developing countries. We therefore identified two factors with available worldwide data--the prevalence of early childhood stunting and the number of people living in absolute poverty--to use as indicators of poor development. We show that both indicators are closely associated with poor cognitive and educational performance in children and use them to estimate that over 200 million children under 5 years are not fulfilling their developmental potential. Most of these children live in south Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. These disadvantaged children are likely to do poorly in school and subsequently have low incomes, high fertility, and provide poor care for their children, thus contributing to the intergenerational transmission of poverty. PMID:17208643

  16. Pattern of Rheumatic Fever in Egyptian Children Younger Than 5 Years

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahim, L. A.; Fattouh, A. M.; Hamza, H. S.; Attia, W. A.

    2013-01-01

    Aims: Acute rheumatic fever (ARF) is common between 5-15 years, uncommon with different presentation 25 in children below 5 years. The aim of this study is to assess the frequency and characterize the pattern of 26 presentation of rheumatic fever (RF) in Egyptian children younger than 5 years. Study Design: Retrospective study. Place and Duration of the Study: Pediatric department, cardiology division, Cairo University Children’s Hospital, 5 years follow up. Methodology: We retrospectiv...

  17. Prevalence of overweight and obesity in Danish preschool children over a 10-year period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lone Marie; Hertel, Niels Thomas; Mølgaard, Christian;

    2012-01-01

    Aim:  To determine change in the prevalence of overweight and obesity in preschool children, over a 10-year period and to identify possible predictors of overweight in 5-year-old children. Methods:  Anthropometric data from birth and routine child health examinations at 3 and 5 years of age...... performed in general practice were collected in 5580 children from two Funen birth cohorts (1992 and 2001, respectively) representing 48% of the total population at similar age. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was classified using the IOTF definitions. Results:  In a Danish representative survey...... of preschool children, the average BMI and prevalence of overweight and obesity did not vary significantly during the 10-year period. No significant changes in mean birth weight were registered and mean BMI in the group of obese children did not increase. Overweight or obesity at 5 years was strongly...

  18. Prevalence and Factors Associated with Anemia Among Children Under 5 Years of Age--Uganda, 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Manoj P; Yoon, Steven S

    2015-09-01

    Anemia in children under 5 years of age, defined by the World Health Organization as a hemoglobin concentration anemia among children under five in Uganda was 72% in 2006. The 2009 Uganda Malaria Indicator Survey was conducted in late 2009 and revealed that over 60% of children less than 5 years of age were anemic and that over half of children tested positive for malaria via a rapid diagnostic test. Children with concomitant malaria infection, and in households without any type of mosquito net were more likely to be anemic, confirming that children under 5 years, are vulnerable to both the threat of malaria and anemia and the beneficial effect of malaria prevention tools. However, prevention and treatment of other factors associated with the etiology of anemia (e.g., iron deficiency) are likely necessary to combat the toll of anemia in Uganda. PMID:26055748

  19. The cultural and linguistic diversity of 3-year-old children with hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowe, Kathryn; McLeod, Sharynne; Ching, Teresa Y C

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the cultural and linguistic diversity of young children with hearing loss informs the provision of assessment, habilitation, and education services to both children and their families. Data describing communication mode, oral language use, and demographic characteristics were collected for 406 children with hearing loss and their caregivers when children were 3 years old. The data were from the Longitudinal Outcomes of Children with Hearing Impairment (LOCHI) study, a prospective, population-based study of children with hearing loss in Australia. The majority of the 406 children used spoken English at home; however, 28 other languages also were spoken. Compared with their caregivers, the children in this study used fewer spoken languages and had higher rates of oral monolingualism. Few children used a spoken language other than English in their early education environment. One quarter of the children used sign to communicate at home and/or in their early education environment. No associations between caregiver hearing status and children's communication mode were identified. This exploratory investigation of the communication modes and languages used by young children with hearing loss and their caregivers provides an initial examination of the cultural and linguistic diversity and heritage language attrition of this population. The findings of this study have implications for the development of resources and the provision of early education services to the families of children with hearing loss, especially where the caregivers use a language that is not the lingua franca of their country of residence. PMID:22942315

  20. Diarrhea Caused by Rotavirus in Children Less than 5 Years of Age in Hanoi, Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Trung Vu; Le Van, Phung; Le Huy, Chinh; Weintraub, Andrej

    2004-01-01

    Group A rotaviruses are the major cause of diarrhea in young children worldwide. From March 2001 to April 2002, 836 children less than 5 years of age were investigated in Hanoi, Vietnam. This included 587 children with diarrhea and 249 age-matched controls. Group A rotavirus was identified in 46.7% of the children with diarrhea and 3.6% of the controls, which was a significant difference. Within the diarrhea group, the highest prevalence was seen in children from 13 to 24 months of age, and t...

  1. Severe episodic viral wheeze in preschool children: High risk of asthma at age 5–10 years

    OpenAIRE

    Kappelle, Lucie; Brand, Paul L. P.

    2012-01-01

    In population studies, most children with episodic viral wheeze (EVW) become symptom free by 6 years. We studied the outcome of children with severe EVW, treated and followed up in hospital. We followed up 78 children

  2. Causes of Mortality in Newborns and Children Under 5 Years of Age in Northern Iran

    OpenAIRE

    FS Sharifi

    2002-01-01

    1- A survey of the causes of mortality in newborns and children under 5 years of age during 10 years (1988-1997) in northern Iran (Regions eastern and western bandpey, gatab and kolagarmahalleh in province babol) revealed following results: Average incidence of mortality in newborns and children under 5 years of age was 10.5 and 4 per thousand respectively. The most frequently encountered causes of death in children under 5 years of age were congenital anomalies (20.2%), infections (16.8%), p...

  3. The ego under observation : childpsychiatric study of 40 three year old low birthweight children and 40 three year old full term and normal birthweight children

    OpenAIRE

    De Raeymaecker, Dirk

    1981-01-01

    textabstractThis comparative child-psychiatric study of a group of three-year-old children of low birth weight and a control group of full-term children had its origins in the co-operation which exists between the department of paediatrics and the department of child psychiatry in Sophia Children's Hospital in Rotterdam. Thanks to an increasing paediatric competence which finds expression in the highly specialized neonatal intensive care unit, the low-birth-weight child has an ever better pro...

  4. Mental Health Outcomes of Cocaine-Exposed Children at 6 Years of Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linares, Teresa J.; Singer, Lynn T.; Kirchner, H. Lester; Short, Elizabeth J.; Min, Meeyoung O.; Hussey, Patrick; Minnes, Sonia

    2008-01-01

    Objective To assess 6-year-old cocaine- and noncocaine-exposed children's mental health outcomes controlling for potential confounders. Methods The sample consisted of 322 children [169 cocaine exposed (CE) and 153 noncocaine exposed (NCE)] enrolled in a longitudinal study since birth. At age 6, children were assessed for mental health symptoms using the Dominic Interactive (DI), a child self-report measure, and the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), a caregiver report of behavioral problems. Results CE children were more likely to self-report symptoms in the probable clinical range for oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In contrast, prenatal cocaine exposure was not related to child behavior based on the CBCL. After control for exposure, CE children in adoptive or foster care were rated as having more problems with aggression, externalizing behaviors, and total behavioral problems than NCE children and CE children in maternal or relative care. Also, CE children in adoptive or foster care self-reported more externalizing symptoms than CE children in maternal or relative care and NCE children. Findings could not be attributed to caregiver intelligence or depressive symptoms, or to the quality of the home environment. Conclusions CE children report more symptoms of ODD and ADHD than nonexposed children. Adoptive or foster caregivers rated their CE children as having more behavioral problems than did maternal or relative caregivers of CE children or parents of NCE children. Although further studies are needed to understand the basis for the more negative ratings by adoptive or foster caregivers of their CE children, the self-report of CE children indicates a need for psychological interventions. PMID:15802608

  5. Voiding dysfunction in children aged five to 15 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karaklajić Dragana

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Voiding dysfunction in children was analyzed in 91 patients in a period from January 1st to October 1st 1998. Most of the patients had functional voiding disorder (92.31%, and only 7.69% manifested monosymptomatic night enuresis. The number of girls was bigger in the group of patients with voiding dysfunction while the boys were predominant in the group with mono-symptomatic nocturnal enuresis. More than a half of children with functional voiding disorder had repeated urinal infections (58.23%, incontinence (93.49%, need for urgent voiding (68.13%, and vesicoureteral reflux (47.61%. The most common type of voiding dysfunction was urge syndrome/urge incontinence. The incidence of dysfunctional voiding disorder was more often in children with scaring changes of kidney which were diagnosed by static scintigraphy.

  6. Assessment of dental caries predictors in 6-year-old school children - results from 5-year retrospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masood Mohd

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This was a retrospective cohort study undertaken to assess the rate and pattern of dental caries development in 6-year-old school children followed-up for a period of 5 years, and to identify baseline risk factors that were associated with 5 years caries experience in Malaysian children. Methods This 5-years retrospective cohort study comprised primary school children initially aged 6 years in 2004. Caries experience of each child was recorded annually using World Health Organization criteria. The rates of dental caries were recorded in prevalence and incidence density of carious lesions from baseline to final examination. Risk assessment was done to assess relative risk for caries after 5 years in children with baseline caries status. Simple and multiple logistic regression analysis were performed to identify significant independent risk factors for caries. Results The sample consisted of 1830 school children. All components of DMFT showed significant differences between baseline and final examination. Filled teeth (FT component of the DMFT showed the greatest increases. Results revealed the initial baseline caries level in permanent dentition was a strong predictor for future caries after 5 years (RR=3.78, 95% CI=3.48-4.10, P0.001. Logistic regression analysis showed significant association between caries occurrence and residence (urban/rural (OR=1.80, Pp observed from baseline and after 5 years was 5.80 persons/100 person-year of observation. The rate of new caries-affected tooth (IDt in the period from baseline and after 5-years was 0.76 teeth/100 teeth-year of observation. Conclusion The majority of 12-year-old school children (70% were caries-free and most of the caries were concentrated in only a small proportion (30% of them. We found that the presence of caries in permanent teeth at the age of 6 years was a strong predictor of future caries development in this population. The strong evidence of early permanent teeth

  7. Mathematics Teachers’ Opinions about New Sub Learning Domains in Elementary Mathematics (6-8 Curriculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kürşat YENİLMEZ

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: There are mathematical behaviors in all levels from the preschool education to higher education programs. These behaviors are in mathematics curriculum as objectives. Elementary Mathematics (6-8th grades curriculum was developed in 2005 at last and applied gradually from the 6th grade in 2006-2007 academic year. Thematic approach was considered in regulating context in new mathematics curriculum and determined learning domains and sub learning domains. Some subjects were taken out and some new subjects were added in developing program studies. Patterns and relations in integers, translation, tessellations, structural drawings, transformation geometry, fractals, geometric movements, histogram, kinds of probability, standard deviation, combination, perspective drawings, intersections of objects, polyhedral objects, symmetries of geometric objects are some new subjects in mathematics (6-8th grades curriculum. Patterns and relations in integers and special number patterns are in Patterns and Relations in Algebra learning domain, translation, reflection, rotation, geometric movements and symmetries of geometric objects, tessellations and fractal, structural drawings, intersections of objects and polyhedral objects are in Geometry learning domain, histogram, kinds of probability, standard deviation, combination are in Probability and Statistics learning domain. The purpose of this study was to determine mathematics teachers’ opinions and qualifications about new sub learning domains in elementary mathematics (6-8th grades curriculum. The descriptive survey method was used in the study. The work group of the study consists of 27 mathematics teachers from primary schools in Tekirdağ. Data were collected by a questionnaire which has been developed by the researchers. The questionnaire has 9 open-ended and 17 close-ended questions. Open-ended questions were used to determine mathematics teachers’ views about new sub learning domains were

  8. The relation of hearing loss degrees and oral stereognosis in 5-year-old children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyede Zohre Mousavi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Oral stereognosis is the ability to recognize the objects placed in the mouth; this plays a significant role in speech sounds production. Since the children with hearing loss have articulation disorders, this study aimed to clear the relation of hearing loss degrees and oral stereognosis in 5-year-old children.Methods: In this cross-sectional non-invasive study, 40 children of 5-year-old (30 children with different degrees of hearing loss and 10 normal children were involved. Oral steriognostic test was done for all of them and the Mann-Whitney U was used for statistical analysis.Results: There were significant differences between the mean of oral stereognostic ability between the normal children and the children with severe (p<0.01 or profound hearing loss (p=0.05. There was no significant difference between the mean of oral stereognostic ability among the children with moderate, severe and profound hearing loss compared with together. Besides, there was no significant difference between the mean of the time of diagnosis among all of hearing loss and normal children.Conclusion: The study shows that the children with moderate, severe and profound hearing loss have inefficient oral stereognosis in comparison with the normal children.

  9. Longitudinal changes in individual symptoms across the preschool years in children with ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Elizabeth A; Lugo-Candelas, Claudia I; Breaux, Rosanna P

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined trajectories of individual Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.) symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) across the preschool years in children with ADHD. It also evaluated whether preschool symptoms vary in their ability to discriminate children who later meet criteria for ADHD from typically developing children. ADHD and ODD symptoms were assessed annually in 75 ethnically diverse children (46 boys) who presented with behavior problems at age 3 and met criteria for ADHD 3 years later, and in 51 typically developing children (26 boys). Children with ADHD generally exhibited stable levels of hyperactivity/impulsivity but increases in several symptoms of inattention. Most ADHD symptoms showed at least fair utility in discriminating children with and without ADHD; however, 3 symptoms of inattention (carelessness, losing things, and forgetfulness) and 1 symptom of hyperactivity/impulsivity (blurting out answers) had relatively poor utility. These symptoms demonstrated only somewhat greater utility at age 4, but by the age of 5 were better able to classify children. Children with ADHD exhibited increases in several ODD symptoms, including symptoms related to negative affect. Although most symptoms of hyperactivity/impulsivity appear to extend well down to age 3, more developmentally appropriate symptoms of inattention may be required to develop more sensitive assessments for 3- and 4-year-old children. PMID:24697647

  10. Cultural differences in visual object recognition in 3-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwabara, Megumi; Smith, Linda B

    2016-07-01

    Recent research indicates that culture penetrates fundamental processes of perception and cognition. Here, we provide evidence that these influences begin early and influence how preschool children recognize common objects. The three tasks (N=128) examined the degree to which nonface object recognition by 3-year-olds was based on individual diagnostic features versus more configural and holistic processing. Task 1 used a 6-alternative forced choice task in which children were asked to find a named category in arrays of masked objects where only three diagnostic features were visible for each object. U.S. children outperformed age-matched Japanese children. Task 2 presented pictures of objects to children piece by piece. U.S. children recognized the objects given fewer pieces than Japanese children, and the likelihood of recognition increased for U.S. children, but not Japanese children, when the piece added was rated by both U.S. and Japanese adults as highly defining. Task 3 used a standard measure of configural progressing, asking the degree to which recognition of matching pictures was disrupted by the rotation of one picture. Japanese children's recognition was more disrupted by inversion than was that of U.S. children, indicating more configural processing by Japanese than U.S. children. The pattern suggests early cross-cultural differences in visual processing; findings that raise important questions about how visual experiences differ across cultures and about universal patterns of cognitive development. PMID:26985576

  11. Developing Resilient Children: After 100 Years of Montessori Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Meg

    2008-01-01

    In this millennium, educators are faced with a number of issues that Dr. Maria Montessori could not have predicted. Today, students are different from the children Dr. Montessori observed in her "Casa dei Bambini." They are influenced by technology in all its forms. Some suffer from medical problems such as complex food allergies, which wreak…

  12. Sustained Effects of Incredible Years as a Preventive Intervention in Preschool Children with Conduct Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Posthumus, Jocelyne A.; Raaijmakers, Maartje A. J.; Maassen, Gerard H.; Van Engeland, Herman; Matthys, Walter

    2011-01-01

    The present study evaluated preventive effects of the Incredible Years program for parents of preschool children who were at risk for a chronic pattern of conduct problems, in the Netherlands. In a matched control design, 72 parents of children with conduct problems received the Incredible Years program. These families (intervention group) were compared with 72 families who received care as usual (control group). Two years after termination of the intervention, it appeared that observed and s...

  13. Clinical and paraclinical aspects of children's health ten years after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These investigations are devoted to the problem of medical consequences of Chernobyl catastrophe to the children's population of Ukraine. Concerning different reports, Chernobyl accident negatively influenced to the children health indexes. Astonishing fact is that among children under radiation action only 2,1% have no functional deflexions (I group of health) and 28% have chronical diseases with frequent aggravation. Our previous investigation in children evacuated from 30 km zone showed unfavourable changes in immune system. We have shown the data of investigation carried out in the frames of National Program ''Children of Chernobyl''. We have studied the morbidity, some immune functional characteristics and metabolism indexes in 2700 children aged 0-15 years, continually living within radiation contaminated territories. The results were compared with the control indexes, obtained during examination of 980 children from relatively ''clean'' regions. 15 refs, 5 figs, 1 tab

  14. The speed of information processing of 9- to 13-year-old intellectually gifted children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Xiaoju; Dan, Zhou; Shi, Jiannong

    2013-02-01

    In general, intellectually gifted children perform better than non-gifted children across many domains. The present validation study investigated the speed with which intellectually gifted children process information. 184 children, ages 9 to 13 years old (91 gifted, M age = 10.9 yr., SD = 1.8; 93 non-gifted children, M age = 11.0 yr., SD = 1.7) were tested individually on three information processing tasks: an inspection time task, a choice reaction time task, an abstract matching task. Intellectually gifted children outperformed their non-gifted peers on all three tasks obtaining shorter reaction time and doing so with greater accuracy. The findings supported the validity of the information processing speed in identifying intellectually gifted children. PMID:23654024

  15. Synthesis and Crystal Structure of 2,6,8,12-Tetraacetyl- 2,4,6,8,10,12-hexaazatetracyclo[5.5.0.05,9.03,11]dodecane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙成辉; 冯泽旺; 方涛; 赵信岐

    2005-01-01

    The title compound, 2,6,8,12-tetraacetyl-2,4,6,8,10,12-hexaazatetracyclo[5.5.0.05,9.03,11]dodecane (TAIW, C14H2oN6O4, Mr= 336.36), has been synthesized by hydrogenolysis debenzylation of tetraacetyldibenzylhexaazaisowurtzitane (TADB) and its crystal structure was determined to be monoclinic, space group C2/c with a = 28.193(6), b = 12.139(2), c = 17.678(4) (A), β= 97.44(3)°, V=5999(2) (A)3, Z= 16, Dc= 1.490 g/cm3, F(000) = 2848, μ(MoKα) = 0.112 mm-1, R = 0.0631 and wR =0.1586. X-ray investigations indicate that the molecule has different isomers and there exist intermolecular C-H…O hydrogen bonds in the crystal structure. The results of elemental analysis, IR and NMR spectroscopy are included.

  16. Profile and outcome of neuroblastoma with convertional chemotherapy in children older than one year: a 15-years experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Deepak; Marwaha, R K; Trehan, Amita; Rao, K L N; Gupta, Vishal

    2008-02-01

    The clinical profile and outcome of neuroblastoma in 103 children, older than one-year is presented. 74 had Stage IV, 27 Stage III and one patient each had Stage I or II disease. Treatment included chemotherapy followed by surgical resection/debulking. Radiotherapy was administered to those with residual tumor. Chemotherapy consisted of OPEC (vincristine, cyclophosphamide, cisplatin and etoposide). The caretakers of 54 (52.4%) children either did not opt for or defaulted therapy, whilst 3 patients died before chemotherapy could be initiated. Of the remaining 46 patients, the tumor progressed during therapy in 19 (41.3%). Relapse of disease was documented in 22 (47.8%) cases. Merely 4 (8.7%) children are disease free for a period of 16.5+/-6.7 months. Majority of children presented with advanced disease and the outcome was dismal with conventional non-myloablative chemotherapy. PMID:18310793

  17. Caries risk profiles in 2- to 6-year-old Greek children using the Cariogram

    OpenAIRE

    Kavvadia, Katerina; Agouropoulos, Andreas; Gizani, Sotiria; Papagiannouli, Lisa; Twetman, Svante

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess the caries risk profiles in 2- to 6-year-old Greek children using a computer-based program and to evaluate the contribution of various risk factors. Methods: The study group consisted of 814 preschool children. A questionnaire on family, demographic and socioeconomic factors, general health, oral hygiene and dietary behavior was completed by the parents. Children were examined for cavitated and white-spot lesions (WSL). Salivary mutans streptococci (MS) and buffer capacit...

  18. Nutritional Status of Preschool (2-6 Years of Age) Children

    OpenAIRE

    MIDYAT, Levent; AKSIT, Sadık; GOKCE, Sule; YAGCI, Rasit Vural

    2011-01-01

    Early childhood is a critical life period because of its importance for supplying regular and adequate nutrition, and giving essential nutritional education to the children. In the present study, between January 2004 and March 2006, food consumption of 2- to 6-year-old children from different socioeconomic levels in Izmir was investigated. Anthropometric measurements of these 518 children were also recorded. SPSS 14.0 for Windows was used for statistical analysis. Total duration of breastfeed...

  19. Usual energy and macronutrient intakes in 2-9-year-old European children

    OpenAIRE

    Börnhorst, C.; Huybrechts, Inge; Hebestreit, A.; Krogh, V; De Decker, Annelies; Barba, G; Moreno, LA; Lissner, L; Tornaritis, M.; Loit, H-M; Molnár, D; Pigeot, I.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Valid estimates of population intakes are essential for monitoring trends as well as for nutritional interventions, but such data are rare in young children. In particular, the problem of misreporting in dietary data is usually not accounted for. Therefore, this study aims to provide accurate estimates of intake distributions in European children. DESIGN: Cross-sectional setting-based multi-centre study. SUBJECTS: A total of 9560 children aged 2-9 years from eight European co...

  20. Emotional Understanding and Color-Emotion Associations in Children Aged 7-8 Years

    OpenAIRE

    Pope, Debbie J.; Hannah Butler; Pamela Qualter

    2012-01-01

    An understanding of the development of emotional knowledge can help us determine how children perceive and interpret their surroundings and color-emotion associations are one measure of the expression of a child’s emotional interpretations. Emotional understanding and color-emotion associations were examined in a sample of UK school children, aged 7-8 years. Forty primary school children (mean age = 7.38; SD = 0.49) were administered color assessment and emotional understanding tasks, and...

  1. Perinatal Risk Factors for Feeding and Eating Disorders in Children Aged 0 to 3 Years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvelplund, Carolina; Hansen, Bo Mølholm; Koch, Susanne Vinkel;

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the incidence, age at diagnosis, and associations between perinatal risk factors of feeding and eating disorders (FED) diagnosed at hospital in children aged 0 to 3 years. METHODS: A nationwide cohort of 901 227 children was followed until 48 months of age in the national...... in the clinical management of young children with persistent problems of feeding, eating, and weight faltering....

  2. Mental Disorders in Five Year Old Children With or Without Developmental Delay: Focus on ADHD

    OpenAIRE

    Baker, Bruce L.; Neece, Cameron L.; Fenning, Rachel M.; Crnic, Keith A.; Blacher, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Epidemiological studies of children and adolescents with intellectual disability have found 30–50% exhibiting clinically significant behavior problems. Few studies, however, have assessed young children, included a cognitively typical comparison group, assessed for specific disorders, and/or studied family correlates of diagnosis. We assessed 236 5-year old children, 95 with developmental delay (DD) and 141 with typical development (TD), for clinical diagnoses using a structured interview. Ev...

  3. Influence of Young Children (3-6 years) on Organic Food Consumption in their Families

    OpenAIRE

    Freyer, B.; Haberkorn, A.

    2008-01-01

    Our interest was to analyse families with young children (3-6 years) to understand their consumption patterns of organic foods. To understand the influence of children on organic food consumption, as well as the role and impact of kindergarten, we studied the attitudes, habits and behaviour of 24 mothers and one couple through qualitative interviews. We found that children positively influence the consumption of organic food in the families, and that organic foods served in kindergartens is h...

  4. Dientamoeba fragilis prevalence coincides with gastrointestinal symptoms in children less than 11 years old in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ögren, J; Dienus, O; Löfgren, S; Einemo, I-M; Iveroth, P; Matussek, A

    2015-10-01

    Dientamoeba fragilis is a protozoan with a debated role in gastrointestinal (GI) disease. Although correlated to GI symptoms, no virulence factors have been described. In this study, we evaluated the cause of GI symptoms in children at two schools, with children aged 1 to 10 years, in the county of Jönköping, Sweden. D. fragilis infection correlated to GI symptoms in children and Enterobius vermicularis correlated to D. fragilis infection. PMID:26173693

  5. Effect of Metronidazole on Halitosis of 2 to 10 Years Old Children

    OpenAIRE

    Sayedi, Sayed Javad; Modaresi, Mohammad Reza; Saneian, Hosein

    2015-01-01

    Background: Regarding the fact that halitosis has social and personal aspects which can lead to social embarrassment and consequently low self-esteem and self-confidence in subjects suffering from the problem, especially children, its proper treatment is an important issue. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of metronidazole as a nonspecific antimicrobial agent in the treatment of halitosis in children. Materials and Methods: In this study, 2-10 years old children wi...

  6. Functioning of 7-Year-Old Children Born at 32 to 35 Weeks' Gestational Age

    OpenAIRE

    Cserjesi, R.; Van Braeckel, K.N.J.A.; Butcher, P.R.; Kerstjens, J.M.; Reijneveld, S.A.; Bouma, A.; Geuze, R.H.; Bos, A.F

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare neuropsychological functions in moderately preterm (32-35 weeks' gestation) and full-term children at the age of 7 years and identify gender differences. METHODS: Community-based prospective cohort study of 248 moderately preterm children (138 boys) and 130 full-term children (58 boys). Neuropsychological tests included IQ, memory, attention, visual perception, motor skills, visuomotor skills, and parental report of executive functioning. RESULTS: The moderately preterm ...

  7. Prevalence of Malnutrition in Children under 6 Years in Sistan and Baluchestan Province, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Mansour Karajibani; Mahdeyeh Shaykhei; Farzaneh Montazerifar; Monir Eftekharenia

    2014-01-01

    Background: The present study was conducted in rural area of Sistan and Baluchestan province, south-east of Iran with aim of determine the prevalence of underweight, stunting, wasting, overweight and obesity among children. Materials and Methods: One thousand five hundred seventy Children were selected from all children less than 6 years covered by healthy and treatment centers of rural area in Sistan and Baluchestan province. Body weight and height were measured using standard methods. D...

  8. English club for three to six year old Finnish speaking children

    OpenAIRE

    Viljanen, Jenni; Ripatti, Pia

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis was organizing an English club for three to six year old Finnish speaking children in a day care. Our goal was to introduce the English language to the children using music and picture supported methods. In addition we also hoped to inspire day care staff to utilize day care hours for pastime activities. We implemented this functional thesis through nine sessions, in which we organized five themes we would introduce to the children. Language showering was the me...

  9. Foot loading patterns in normal weight, overweight and obese children aged 7 to 11 years

    OpenAIRE

    Cousins, Stephen D; Morrison, Stewart C; Drechsler, Wendy I

    2013-01-01

    Background Childhood obesity is thought to predispose to structural foot changes and altered foot function. Little is currently understood about whether similar changes occur in overweight children. The aim of this study was determine foot loading characteristics in obese, overweight and normal weight children aged 7 to 11 years during level walking. Methods Dynamic plantar pressures were measured in 22 obese, 22 overweight and 56 normal weight children recruited from local primary and second...

  10. Predictors of Self-Reported Depression in Korean Children 9 to 12 Years of Age

    OpenAIRE

    Shin, Yun Mi; Cho, Hyun; Lim, Ki Young; Cho, Sun Mi

    2008-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationships among various psychosocial factors, behavior problems, and depressive symptoms reported by parents, and to investigate self-reported depression in Korean children using a community sample. Materials and Methods The sample consisted of 1279 children between 9 and 12 years of age. The children were evaluated using the Korean version of the Child Behavior Checklist (K-CBCL) and the Child Depression Inventory (CDI). Results The avera...

  11. Effect of methyl substitution on optoelectronic properties of 1,3,6,8-tetraphenyl pyrenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIU Yanling

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Geometric structures of the ground states and excited states,frontier molecular orbitals,ionization potentials,electron affinities,reorganization energies,and absorption and emission spectra of three novel methyl-substituted 1,3,6,8-tetra-phenylpyrenes were studied theoretically by quantum-chemical methods,such as density functional theory (DFT.The results show that the position of methyl substituent on benzene ring has much effect on the optoelectronic properties of methyl-substituted 1,3,6,8-tetra-phenylpyrenes.Interestingly,the geometric structures and optoelectronic properties of the designed compound 1,3,6,8-tetra-p-tolylpyrene (TPPy are similar to those of 1,3,6,8-tetrakis(3,5-dimethylphenylpyrene (TDMPPy,which is worthy of being further researched.

  12. Cephalometric norms for the upper airway of 12-year-old Chinese children

    OpenAIRE

    Gu, Min; McGrath, Colman PJ; Wong, Ricky WK; Hägg, Urban; Yang, Yanqi

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To establish cephalometric norms for the upper airway of 12-year-old Chinese children, and to assess these norms with regard to gender, age, ethnicity and other craniofacial structures. METHODS: Lateral cephalograms were obtained from a random sample of 425 12-year-old Chinese children (224 boys and 201 girls) to establish the Chinese norms, and from a matched group of 108 12-year-old Caucasian children (61 boys and 47 girls) as an ethnic comparison. Published data on the upper air...

  13. Prevalence of dental caries among 5-13-year-old children of Mangalore city

    OpenAIRE

    Sudha P; Bhasin S; Anegundi R

    2005-01-01

    A study of prevalence of dental caries was undertaken in 5-13-year-old children from Mangalore city. A total of 524 children were examined. The sample consisted of 193, 160, and 171 children in the 5-7, 8-10 and 11-13 years of age group, respectively. Dental caries was examined visually and observations were recorded. Silness and L φe plaque index, L φe and Silness gingival index were used to record the periodontal status. The prevalence of dental caries was highest in 5-7-year-age ...

  14. Children's Progress During the 2010-2011 LAUP Year.

    OpenAIRE

    Yange Xue; Sally Atkins-Burnett; Emily Moiduddin; Sharon Murphy; Artineh Samkian

    2012-01-01

    This issue brief describes children's development in the Los Angeles Universal Preschool program during 2010–2011. English-proficient students showed significant growth in early literacy skills from fall to spring, with their mean scores exceeding the national average. However, their vocabulary concepts and math skills were below the national average in spring. Language and math skills for English language learners continued to be below the national average, but literacy skills approached t...

  15. Respiratory Viruses Associated Hospitalization among Children Aged <5 Years in Bangladesh: 2010-2014.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nusrat Homaira

    Full Text Available We combined hospital-based surveillance and health utilization survey data to estimate the incidence of respiratory viral infections associated hospitalization among children aged < 5 years in Bangladesh.Surveillance physicians collected respiratory specimens from children aged <5 years hospitalized with respiratory illness and residing in the primary hospital catchment areas. We tested respiratory specimens for respiratory syncytial virus, parainfluenza viruses, human metapneumovirus, influenza, adenovirus and rhinoviruses using rRT-PCR. During 2013, we conducted a health utilization survey in the primary catchment areas of the hospitals to determine the proportion of all hospitalizations for respiratory illness among children aged <5 years at the surveillance hospitals during the preceding 12 months. We estimated the respiratory virus-specific incidence of hospitalization by dividing the estimated number of hospitalized children with a laboratory confirmed infection with a respiratory virus by the population aged <5 years of the catchment areas and adjusted for the proportion of children who were hospitalized at the surveillance hospitals.We estimated that the annual incidence per 1000 children (95% CI of all cause associated respiratory hospitalization was 11.5 (10-12. The incidences per 1000 children (95% CI per year for respiratory syncytial virus, parainfluenza, adenovirus, human metapneumovirus and influenza infections were 3(2-3, 0.5(0.4-0.8, 0.4 (0.3-0.6, 0.4 (0.3-0.6, and 0.4 (0.3-0.6 respectively. The incidences per 1000 children (95%CI of rhinovirus-associated infections among hospitalized children were 5 (3-7, 2 (1-3, 1 (0.6-2, and 3 (2-4 in 2010, 2011, 2012 and 2013, respectively.Our data suggest that respiratory viruses are associated with a substantial burden of hospitalization in children aged <5 years in Bangladesh.

  16. Respiratory Viruses Associated Hospitalization among Children Aged <5 Years in Bangladesh: 2010-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homaira, Nusrat; Luby, Stephen P.; Hossain, Kamal; Islam, Kariul; Ahmed, Makhdum; Rahman, Mustafizur; Rahman, Ziaur; Paul, Repon C.; Bhuiyan, Mejbah Uddin; Brooks, W. Abdullah; Sohel, Badrul Munir; Banik, Kajal Chandra; Widdowson, Marc-Alain; Willby, Melisa; Rahman, Mahmudur; Bresee, Joseph; Ramirez, Katharine-Sturm; Azziz-Baumgartner, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    Background We combined hospital-based surveillance and health utilization survey data to estimate the incidence of respiratory viral infections associated hospitalization among children aged < 5 years in Bangladesh. Methods Surveillance physicians collected respiratory specimens from children aged <5 years hospitalized with respiratory illness and residing in the primary hospital catchment areas. We tested respiratory specimens for respiratory syncytial virus, parainfluenza viruses, human metapneumovirus, influenza, adenovirus and rhinoviruses using rRT-PCR. During 2013, we conducted a health utilization survey in the primary catchment areas of the hospitals to determine the proportion of all hospitalizations for respiratory illness among children aged <5 years at the surveillance hospitals during the preceding 12 months. We estimated the respiratory virus-specific incidence of hospitalization by dividing the estimated number of hospitalized children with a laboratory confirmed infection with a respiratory virus by the population aged <5 years of the catchment areas and adjusted for the proportion of children who were hospitalized at the surveillance hospitals. Results We estimated that the annual incidence per 1000 children (95% CI) of all cause associated respiratory hospitalization was 11.5 (10–12). The incidences per 1000 children (95% CI) per year for respiratory syncytial virus, parainfluenza, adenovirus, human metapneumovirus and influenza infections were 3(2–3), 0.5(0.4–0.8), 0.4 (0.3–0.6), 0.4 (0.3–0.6), and 0.4 (0.3–0.6) respectively. The incidences per 1000 children (95%CI) of rhinovirus-associated infections among hospitalized children were 5 (3–7), 2 (1–3), 1 (0.6–2), and 3 (2–4) in 2010, 2011, 2012 and 2013, respectively. Conclusion Our data suggest that respiratory viruses are associated with a substantial burden of hospitalization in children aged <5 years in Bangladesh. PMID:26840782

  17. Moral and Social Development: Teachers' Knowledge of Children's Learning and Teaching Strategies in the Early Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulton-Lewis, Gillian; Brownlee, Joanne; Walker, Sue; Cobb-Moore, Charlotte; Johansson, Eva

    2011-01-01

    The intention of the analysis in this paper was to determine, from interviews with 11 early years' teachers, what informed their knowledge of children's learning and teaching strategies regarding moral development. Overall, the analysis revealed four main categories: definitions of moral behaviour, understanding of children's learning, pedagogy…

  18. Musculoskeletal Complaints Among 11-Year-Old Children and Associated Factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulsegge, Gerben; van Oostrom, Sandra H.; Picavet, H. Susan J.; Twisk, Jos W. R.; Postma, Dirkje S.; Kerkhof, Marjan; Smit, Henriette A.; Wijga, Alet H.

    2011-01-01

    Musculoskeletal complaints (MSC) are common among children, often persist into adolescence, and increase the risk of MSC in adulthood. Knowledge regarding determinants of MSC among children is limited. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of MSC at age 11 years and to examine associ

  19. DRAWING SKILLS IN CHILDREN WITH NEURODEVELOPMENTAL DELAY AGED 2-5 YEARS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morović, Maja Lang; Matijević, Valentina; Divljaković, Kristina; Kraljević, Marija; Dimić, Zdenka

    2015-06-01

    In typically developing children, drawing development occurs in stages from uncontrolled strokes to complex drawing. In this study, we examined drawing development in children with neurodevelopmental delay (NDD). In order to do so, we observed the influence of age, intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) and gender on the development of drawing skills. The sample consisted of 52 children with NDD, aged 2 years and 6 months to 5 years. All children were hospitalized for multidisciplinary team monitoring and developmental support. The evaluation of drawing development was administered by giving each child a blank A4 paper and the instruction to draw anything they wanted. All of the drawings were scored satisfactory or unsatisfactory. Descriptive statistics was employed on all relevant data to show results in frequencies and percentages. In order to determine differences between groups, the χ2-test was administered. The results showed greatest difference in drawing in children aged from 3 years to 3 years and 11 months. Children with lower IVH had better drawing scores than children with higher IVH levels. According to gender dissimilarities, a difference was found showing girls to have better drawing skills than boys. All study results pointed to the importance of early rehabilitation and continuous structured work with children with NDD. PMID:26415307

  20. Treating Sexually Abused Children: 1 Year Follow-Up of a Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, J.A.; Mannarino, A.P.; Knudsen, K.

    2005-01-01

    Objective:: To measure the durability of improvement in response to two alternative treatments for sexually abused children. Method:: Eighty-two sexually abused children ages 8-15 years old and their primary caretakers were randomly assigned to trauma-focused cognitive-behavioral therapy (TF-CBT) or non-directive supportive therapy (NST) delivered…

  1. Cultivating the Genius of Black Children: Strategies to Close the Achievement Gap in the Early Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Debra Ren-Etta

    2016-01-01

    There has been much attention given to the opportunity gap between white and minority students, especially African American children. Using research and years of experience "Cultivating the Genius of Black Children" is able to break down the cultural influences on learning style and provides a practical approach to helping Black children…

  2. Self-Concept of Gifted Children Aged 9 to 13 Years Old

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jiannong; Li, Ying; Zhang, Xingli

    2008-01-01

    Ninety-four gifted children and 200 nongifted children (aged 9 to 13 years old) were involved in the present study. Their self-concept was assessed by the Revised Song-Hattie Self-Concept Inventory (Zhou & He, 1996). Academic self-concepts pertaining to abilities, school achievements, and grade concepts and nonacademic self-concepts pertaining to…

  3. Words, Shape, Visual Search and Visual Working Memory in 3-Year-Old Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vales, Catarina; Smith, Linda B.

    2015-01-01

    Do words cue children's visual attention, and if so, what are the relevant mechanisms? Across four experiments, 3-year-old children (N = 163) were tested in visual search tasks in which targets were cued with only a visual preview versus a visual preview and a spoken name. The experiments were designed to determine whether labels facilitated…

  4. Ten-Year Research Update Review: Psychiatric Problems in Children with Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plioplys, Sigita; Dunn, David W.; Caplan, Rochelle

    2007-01-01

    The research on epilepsy, a neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by seizures, psychopathology, cognitive, and linguistic problems among children in the age group of 0 to 18 years is reported. Early identification of children with epilepsy (CWE) and the development of multidisciplinary management strategies would advance relevant clinical…

  5. Childhood obesity: the extent of the problem among 6-year-old Irish national school children.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Evans, D S

    2011-05-01

    Childhood obesity is rapidly increasing worldwide. In Ireland, the number of overweight children has trebled over the last decade. The study aimed to provide an assessment of the prevalence of obesity of 6-year-old children in one region of Ireland.

  6. Nutrition and mental development of 4-5-year old children on macrobiotic diets.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herens, M.C.; Dagnelie, P.C.; Kleber, R.J.; Mol, M.C.; Staveren, van W.A.

    1992-01-01

    Mental development of 4–5-year old children on macrobiotic diets (almost devoid of animal foods and fat) with long-term growth deficits, was studied using the Snijders-Oomen Non-verbal Intelligence (SON) scale. In addition, food consumption and behavioural style of the children, and family and paren

  7. Improving Children's Lives, Transforming the Future--25 Years of Child Rights in South Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    UNICEF, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Despite rapid economic growth in South Asia, strong inequalities persist and children pay a heavy price. This publication examines latest trends and data on children in the eight countries of the region. It highlights what has been achieved in the 25 years since the adoption of the Convention on the Rights of the Child--and what remains to be done.

  8. Early Predictors of Biliteracy Development in Children in French Immersion: A 4-Year Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jared, Debra; Cormier, Pierre; Levy, Betty Ann; Wade-Woolley, Lesly

    2011-01-01

    English language predictors of English and French reading development were investigated in a group of 140 children who were enrolled in French immersion programs. Children were first tested in kindergarten, and their reading achievement was tested yearly in both English and French from Grades 1 to 3, with word-level and passage-level measures that…

  9. Far Away from the Tigers: A Year in the Classroom with Internationally Adopted Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katch, Jane

    2011-01-01

    Over the past three decades, more than a quarter of a million children have become citizens of the United States through international adoption. Kindergarten teacher Jane Katch recently found herself with three such children in her class: Katya, born in Russia, Jasper, from Cambodia, and Caleb, from Romania. Each child had spent early years in an…

  10. Language Outcomes at 12 Years for Children Exposed Prenatally to Cocaine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Barbara A.; Minnes, Sonia; Short, Elizabeth J.; Min, Meeyoung O.; Wu, Miaoping; Lang, Adelaide; Weishampel, Paul; Singer, Lynn T.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors aimed to examine the long-term effects of prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE) on the language development of 12-year-old children using a prospective design, controlling for confounding prenatal drug exposure and environmental factors. Method: Children who were exposed to cocaine in utero (PCE; "n" = 183)…

  11. Play Opportunities for School-Age Children, 6 to 14 Years of Age. Advisory Document.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canada Mortgage and Housing Corp., Ottawa (Ontario).

    Suggestions for the planning and design of playgrounds to meet the needs of children between 6 to 14 years of age living in medium- and high-density residential areas are offered in this document. The first and second chapters briefly focus on the child's right to play and present an overview of the developmental characteristics of children at…

  12. Recovering from 30 Years of War: Refugee Women and Children in Angola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Women's Commission for Refugee Women and Children, New York, NY.

    After 30 years of war, Angola faces the challenge of creating a civil society. This report presents key findings of a visit to Angola, December 1-13, 1996, by the Women's Commission for Refugee Women and Children. The report describes conditions facing women and children affected by war in Angola, addresses the return process of refugees from…

  13. Development of Phonological Sensitivity in 2- to 5-Year- Old Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonigan, Christopher J.; Burgess, Stephen R.; Anthony, Jason L.; Barker, Theodore A.

    1998-01-01

    Phonological sensitivity was examined in 238 children ages two to five years from middle-to-upper-income families and 118 children from lower-income families across different levels of linguistic complexity. Overall, results indicated an increase in phonological sensitivity with age, as well as increasing stability and significant social class…

  14. The Development of Falling Intonation in Young Children with Cochlear Implants: A 2-Year Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, David P.; Ertmer, David J.

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the development of intonation in 12 cochlear implant (CI) recipients. In a previously reported study of the first year of CI use, children who were implanted late (after 24 months) acquired intonation more rapidly than the younger participants. The older children's advantage is plausibly owing to their greater maturity.…

  15. Children's Development of Intonation during the First Year of Cochlear Implant Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, David P.; Ertmer, David J.

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the longitudinal development of intonation in 18 deaf children who received cochlear implants (CIs) before the age of 3 years and 12 infants with typical development (TD) who served as controls. At the time their implants were activated, the children with CIs ranged in age from 9 to 36 months. Cross-group comparisons were…

  16. Food Safety Knowledge and Behaviours of Children (5-7 Years)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eves, Anita; Bielby, Gill; Egan, Bernadette; Lumbers, Margaret; Raats, Monique; Adams, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to determine knowledge of food hygiene amongst young children (5-7 years), and facilitators and barriers to application of knowledge. Few studies exist that explore the knowledge and attitudes of young children towards food hygiene. This is an important age group, as it is a time when attitudes and…

  17. "My Family and Friends": Six- to Twelve-Year-Old Children's Perceptions of Social Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Molly; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Investigated perceptions of social support of 249 children of 6-12 years. Data indicated that subjective impressions about social support can be measured with reliability and validity and that children understand and care about the quality and differentiation of support. (RJC)

  18. THE INTERPLAY OF SOME EGO FUNCTIONS IN SIX YEAR OLD CHILDREN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LOVINGER, SOPHIE L.

    IN A PROGRAM DESIGNED TO INVESTIGATE THE RELATIONSHIPS AMONG SELF-CONCEPT, SENSE-OF-COMPETENCE, READING ACHIEVEMENT, AND DEPENDENCE IN KINDERGARTEN AND FIRST GRADE CHILDREN, 110 MIDDLE CLASS, WHITE KINDERGARTEN CHILDREN FROM THE NEW YORK CITY AREA WERE TESTED AND RATED DURING THEIR KINDERGARTEN AND FIRST GRADE YEARS. THE TESTS AND RATING SCALES…

  19. Clustering of Dietary Intake and Sedentary Behavior in 2-Year-Old Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gubbels, J.S.; Kremers, S.P.J.; Stafleu, A.; Dagnelie, P.C.; Vries, S.I.de; Vries, N.K.de; Thijs, C.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine clustering of energy balance-related behaviors (EBRBs) in young children. This is crucial because lifestyle habits are formed at an early age and track in later life. This study is the first to examine EBRB clustering in children as young as 2 years. Study design: Cross-section

  20. A Gender Comparison of the Cooperation of 4-Year-Old Children in Classroom Activity Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Genan T.; Hilton, Sterling C.; Wouden-Miller, Melissa

    2003-01-01

    This study examined the proportion of cooperative play in 4-year-old children across centers (housekeeping, block, manipulative, and computer) and gender in a natural classroom setting. Eighty-four white, middle-income children (41 boys and 43 girls, mean age = 55 months) were videotaped during free-play for 30 minutes per day for four weeks in…

  1. Children Treated for Nocturnal Enuresis: Characteristics and Trends over a 15-Year Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushnir, Jonathan; Kushnir, Baruch; Sadeh, Avi

    2013-01-01

    Background: Nocturnal Enuresis (NE) is one of the most prevalent childhood disorders and has significant negative psychosocial impact on the child and family. Objective: To assess the characteristics of children with NE and trends over a 15-year period. Methods: The study included 18,677 children [11,205 (60%) boys and 7,472 (40%) girls] referred…

  2. Recommended Immunizations for Children from 7 Through 18 Years Old

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 13-15 Years 16-18 Years More information: Preteens and teens should get a flu vaccine every year. Preteens and teens should get one shot of Tdap ... cervical cancer and genital warts are spread during sex. Influenza (Can be prevented by annual flu vaccination) ...

  3. Prevalence of Generalised Joint Hypermobility, Artralgia and Motor Competence in 10-year old school children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Remvig, Lars; Kümmel, Christina; Halkjær-Kristensen, Jens;

    2011-01-01

    prevalence of GJH and of benign joint hypermobility syndrome (BJHS) in 10-year-old children, (2) compare children with and without GJH and BJHS regarding motor competence, physical activity, and musculoskeletal pain and injuries. Subjects and methods: All fourth-grade children in a Copenhagen municipality......Objectives: Diverging results exist for children regarding the relation between generalized joint hypermobility (GJH) and musculoskeletal complaints, as well as relations between GJH and insufficient motor development, and/or reduced physical activity level. The main purposes were to (1) survey the...

  4. Risk factors for children's receptive vocabulary development from four to eight years in the longitudinal study of Australian children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine L Taylor

    Full Text Available Receptive vocabulary develops rapidly in early childhood and builds the foundation for language acquisition and literacy. Variation in receptive vocabulary ability is associated with variation in children's school achievement, and low receptive vocabulary ability is a risk factor for under-achievement at school. In this study, bivariate and multivariate growth curve modelling was used to estimate trajectories of receptive vocabulary development in relation to a wide range of candidate child, maternal and family level influences on receptive vocabulary development from 4-8 years. The study sample comprised 4332 children from the first nationally representative Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (LSAC. Predictors were modeled as risk variables with the lowest level of risk as the reference category. In the multivariate model, risks for receptive vocabulary delay at 4 years, in order of magnitude, were: Maternal Non- English Speaking Background (NESB, low school readiness, child not read to at home, four or more siblings, low family income, low birthweight, low maternal education, maternal mental health distress, low maternal parenting consistency, and high child temperament reactivity. None of these risks were associated with a lower rate of growth from 4-8 years. Instead, maternal NESB, low school readiness and maternal mental health distress were associated with a higher rate of growth, although not sufficient to close the receptive vocabulary gap for children with and without these risks at 8 years. Socio-economic area disadvantage, was not a risk for low receptive vocabulary ability at 4 years but was the only risk associated with a lower rate of growth in receptive vocabulary ability. At 8 years, the gap between children with and without socio-economic area disadvantage was equivalent to eight months of receptive vocabulary growth. These results are consistent with other studies that have shown that social gradients in children

  5. DSM-IV Diagnoses and Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Children Before and 1 Year after Adenotonsillectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, James E.; Blunden, Sarah; Ruzicka, Deborah L.; Guire, Kenneth E.; Champine, Donna; Weatherly, Robert A.; Hodges, Elise K.; Giordani, Bruno J.; Chervin, Ronald D.

    2007-01-01

    DSM-IV criteria-based psychiatric diagnoses done in children before and one year after adenotonsillectomy are assessed to record any improvement in behavior. It is found that surgery might be associated with reduced behavioral morbidity.

  6. Oral health status of 5 years and 12 years old school going children in rural Gurgaon, India: An epidemiological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meenu Mittal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Oral health is an essential component of health throughout life. Hardly any information is available on the oral health status of children in Gurgaon. Thus, the present study was conducted among 5-year-old and 12-years-old children in schools in rural Gurgaon. Materials and Methods: A total of 1003 children were examined of which 619 were in 5 years age group and 384 in 12 years group. The prevalence of dental caries was studied using dentition status and treatment needs index. For dental calculus criteria of Community Periodontal and for dental fluorosis Dean′s index was used. Results: In 5 years age group prevalence of dental caries was 68.5%, dental fluorosis was 22.5% and treatment needs were 63.7%. In 12 year age group prevalence of dental caries was 37.5%, dental fluorosis was 76.04%, highest community periodontal index score was 2, seen in 80.2% and overall treatment needs were 44.3%. Conclusion: Preventive approaches seem to be a viable alternative to tackle the overwhelming problem of dental caries and other oral diseases. Provision of oral health education in schools and school based preventive programs are important for improvement of this situation.

  7. Sampling Survey of Disability in 0-6 Year-old Children in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUI ZHANG; XIN NA; SHAO-HUA GUO; ZHENG-LAI WU; SHAO-HUA BO; XI-TAN ZHANG; MIN LIU; ZHI-XIANG ZHANG; XIAO-LING YANG; SHU-RONG JI; HUA YAN; XIU-LI SUI

    2006-01-01

    Objective To investigate the current status of disabled children and prevalence of disabilities in children aged 0-6 years and their risk factors, and to provide scientific evidence for making relevant policies for disabled children. Methods In a community-based cross-sectional study, multi-phase, stratified, unequal proportional and cluster sampling was adopted to survey 60 124 children aged 0-6 years. All the investigated children were screened for disabilities, and those with positive screening tests were further diagnosed by various specialties. Results A total of 819 children were diagnosed as disabled with an overall prevalence of 1.362%, 0.155% for hearing disability, 0.160% for visual disability, 0.931% for intelligent disability, 0.424% for limb disability, and 0.101% for mental disability. Prevalence of disability in children was higher in rural areas, and in families with two or more children, low educational level or in divorced families. Conclusion The prevalence of disability can be reduced by economic development, improvement of health care and quality of population, as well as harmonious familial relationship, early prevention of disability, and preschool education for disabled children.

  8. Academic Achievement Over Eight Years Among Children Who Met Modified Criteria for Attention-deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder at 4–6 Years of Age

    OpenAIRE

    Massetti, Greta M.; Lahey, Benjamin B.; Pelham, William E.; Loney, Jan; Ehrhardt, Ashley; Lee, Steve S.; Kipp, Heidi

    2007-01-01

    The predictive validity of symptom criteria for different subtypes of ADHD among children who were impaired in at least one setting in early childhood was examined. Academic achievement was assessed seven times over 8 years in 125 children who met symptom criteria for ADHD at 4–6 years of age and in 130 demographically-matched non-referred comparison children. When intelligence and other confounds were controlled, children who met modified criteria for the predominantly inattentive subtype of...

  9. Asthma at 8 years of age in children born by caesarean section.

    OpenAIRE

    Roduit, C.; Scholtens, S.; Jongste, de, J.C.; Wijga, A H; Gerritsen, J.; Postma, D. S.; Brunekreef, B; Hoekstra, M.O.; Aalberse, R; Smit, H. A.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Caesarean section might be a risk factor for asthma because of delayed microbial colonisation, but the association remains controversial. A study was undertaken to investigate prospectively whether children born by caesarean section are more at risk of having asthma in childhood and sensitisation at the age of 8 years, taking into account the allergic status of the parents. METHODS: 2917 children who participated in a birth cohort study were followed for 8 years. The definition of...

  10. Patch-test results in children and adolescents: systematic review of a 15-year period*

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues, Dulcilea Ferraz; Goulart, Eugênio Marcos Andrade

    2016-01-01

    The number of studies on patch-test results in children and adolescents has gradually increased in recent years, thus stimulating reviews. This paper is a systematic review of a 15-year period devoted to studying the issue. Variations pertaining to the number and age groups of tested children and/or adolescents, the number of subjects with atopy/atopic dermatitis history, the quantity, type and concentrations of the tested substances, the test technique and type of data regarding clinical rel...

  11. Executive Functioning at Ages 5 and 7 Years in Children with Prenatal Cocaine Exposure

    OpenAIRE

    EYLER, FONDA DAVIS; Warner, Tamara Duckworth; Behnke, Marylou; Hou, Wei; WOBIE, KATHLEEN; Garvan, Cynthia Wilson

    2009-01-01

    This prospective longitudinal study evaluated the effect of prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE) on executive functioning in 5- and 7-year-old children. In total, 154 pregnant cocaine users, identified by urine toxicology and structured interviews, were matched to 154 nonusers. Children were assessed by certified masked evaluators, and caregivers were interviewed by experienced staff during home visits. In approximately 90% of the surviving sample tested at ages 5 and 7 years, structural equation ...

  12. Acoustic, perceptual and physiological studies of ten-year-old children's voices

    OpenAIRE

    McAllister, Anita

    1997-01-01

    Acoustic, Perceptual and Physiological Studies of Ten-Year-Old Children's Voices by Anita McAllisler Dissertation from the Department of Logopedics and Phonialrics, Karolinska Institute. Huddinge University Hospital, and from the Department of Speech Music and Hearing, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH). Stockholm The aim of the present investigation was to study hoarseness and its perceptual, acoustic and physiological characteristics in ten-year-old children's ...

  13. Sociodemographic profile of speech and language delay up to six years of age in Indian children

    OpenAIRE

    Abraham Binu, Raj Sunil, Stephenson Baburaj, Mohandas MK

    2014-01-01

    Background: Speech and language is the most important skill for the child’s development and scholastic performance. Awareness of the delay is important in the programs for early identification. Purpose: to assess the prevalence of speech and language delay in children from age group 0 to six years of age. Methodology: The speech and language development of children coming in the well baby clinic and daily pediatric clinic of age group from birth to 6 years were evaluated using Language Evalua...

  14. PREVALENCE AND AETIOLOGICAL FACTORS OF URINARY TRACT INFECTION IN FEBRILE CHILDREN 2 MONTHS TO 2 YEARS

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed, MR; Adarsh

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To determine the prevalence of urinary tract infection and etiological factors in recurrent urinary tract infections in febrile children, 2 months to 2 years of age. METHODS It was a hospital-based cross-sectional study conducted in the OPD of a tertiary care teaching hospital; 239 children between the ages of 2 months to 2 years with fever of more than 5 days were evaluated for UTI. Those who have >5 pus cells in urine analysis, urine culture was done....

  15. Serum ferritin to detect iron deficiency in children below five years of age

    OpenAIRE

    Windy Saufia Apriyanti; Sutaryo; Sri Mulatsih

    2013-01-01

    Background Iron deficiency (ID) anemia impacts the cognitive and motor development of children until the age of 10 years, despite receiving iron therapy. Early detection of ID is recommended and serum ferritin has been proposed as an alternative indicator for ID detection. Objective To assess the diagnostic accuracy of serum ferritin for detecting ID in children below five years of age. Methods This cross-sectional, diagnostic study was conducted in primary health care centers in Yogy...

  16. Predictors of reading development in deaf children: A 3-year longitudinal study

    OpenAIRE

    Kyle, F. E.; Harris, M

    2010-01-01

    The development of reading ability in a group of deaf children was followed over a 3-year period. A total of 29 deaf children (7–8 years of age at the first assessment) participated in the study, and every 12 months they were given a battery of literacy, cognitive, and language tasks. Earlier vocabulary and speechreading skills predicted longitudinal growth in reading achievement. The relations between reading and the predictor variables showed developmental change. Earlier reading ability wa...

  17. External Ear Resonant Amplitude and Frequency of 3-7 Year Old Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Hossein Zare

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To measure external ear resonant amplitude and frequency in children (3-7 years old and to compare with adult measures. Method and materials: The external ear resonance peak amplitude and frequency of 63 children 3-7 years old were recorded. All of the children had normal tympanogram and there was no cerumen in external auditory canal. 20 adult of 21-24 years old (10 male , 10 female were selected in order to compare with children that had normal tympanogram. The tests included : 1-otoscopy 2- tympanometry 3-microphone probe tube test. Results: The average of resonance peak frequency for children and adult is 4200 Hz and 3200 Hz , respectively. The resonance frequency of children had significantly diffrence with average of resonance frequency in adults. The average of resonance peak amplitude for children and adult is 17.70 dB and 17.17 dB , respectively. Conclusion: Resonant frequency and amplitude affect the hearing aid prescription and fitting process and calculating insertion gain; so, this measures seem should be considered in children hearing aid fitting.

  18. Severe episodic viral wheeze in preschool children : High risk of asthma at age 5-10 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kappelle, Lucie; Brand, Paul L. P.

    2012-01-01

    In population studies, most children with episodic viral wheeze (EVW) become symptom free by 6 years. We studied the outcome of children with severe EVW, treated and followed up in hospital. We followed up 78 children <4 years, managed by paediatricians for severe EVW, to the age of 5-10 years. We r

  19. Deferasirox in Indian children with thalassemia major: 3 years experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayank Dhamija

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of the oral iron chelator deferasirox in treating transfusional hemosiderosis in a cohort of Indian children with thalassemia major with high iron load. Materials and Methods: The first 50 children (age 2-18 yrs with thalassemia major to commence deferasirox at our center were enrolled and followed up for a period of 36 months between April 2008 and March 2011. The dose of deferasirox was determined by their baseline serum ferritin and was adjusted to a maximum of 40 mg/kg/day depending on response. Ferritin levels, SGOT, SGPT, serum creatinine and urine albumin were regularly monitored. Results: Of the 50 patients, 76% documented a significant decline in serum ferritin ( P<0.05. Seven (14% patients had a stable ferritin whilst 5 patients (10% documented an increase over the study period. The mean serum ferritin at baseline, 12, 24 and 36 months was 4354, 3260, 3290 and 3042, respectively ( P<0.05. The median serum ferritin at the same time points was 3555, 2810, 2079 and 2271, respectively ( P<0.05. No severe toxicity was seen. Conclusions: Deferasirox, when given in doses ≥30 mg/kg, was found to be an effective and safe drug in reducing transfusional hemosiderosis. Thirty five (70% needed dose escalation upto 40 mg/kg/day. Fifteen (30%, however did not achieve a negative iron balance despite maximally permissible doses.

  20. Separable sustained and selective attention factors are apparent in 5-year-old children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Underbjerg, Mette; George, Melanie S; Thorsen, Poul;

    2013-01-01

    In adults and older children, evidence consistent with relative separation between selective and sustained attention, superimposed upon generally positive inter-test correlations, has been reported. Here we examine whether this pattern is detectable in 5-year-old children from the healthy...... population. A new test battery (TEA-Ch(J)) was adapted from measures previously used with adults and older children and administered to 172 5-year-olds. Test-retest reliability was assessed in 60 children. Ninety-eight percent of the children managed to complete all measures. Discrimination of visual and...... auditory stimuli were good. In a factor analysis, the two TEA-Ch(J) selective attention tasks (one visual, one auditory) loaded onto a common factor and diverged from the two sustained attention tasks (one auditory, one motor), which shared a common loading on the second factor. This pattern, which...

  1. The psychosocial effects of severe caries in 4-year-old children in Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Feitosa

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze the psychosocial effects of severe caries in 4-year-old children in Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil. The clinical examination was conducted by a single examiner in order to select children with severe caries and caries-free (kappa = 1. Of the 861 children examined, 77 (8.1% had severe caries and 225 (23.6% were caries-free. Data were collected by applying validated questionnaires answered by the parents or guardians. Most of the parents or guardians of children with severe caries reported that their children complained of toothache (72.7%, and a significant portion stated that their children had problems eating certain kinds of food (49.4% and missed school (26.0% because of their teeth. Most of the parents or guardians of children with severe caries (68.8% stated that oral health affects their children's life, while the same was stated by 9.8% of the parents or guardians of the caries-free children. Severe caries was found to have a negative impact on children's oral health-related quality of life.

  2. Temporal Generalization in 3- to 8-Year-Old Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Droit-Volet, Sylvie; Clement, Angelique; Wearden, John

    2001-01-01

    Tested 3-, 5-, and 8-year-olds on temporal generalization with visual stimuli. Found increasing sharpness of generalization gradient with increasing age, and change from symmetrical to adult-like asymmetrical generalization gradients among 8-year-olds. Theoretical models attributed changes to increasing precision of the reference memory with…

  3. Dental caries and erosion status of 12-year-old Hong Kong children

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Shinan; Chau, Alex MH; Lo, Edward CM; Chu, Chun-Hung

    2014-01-01

    Background This study aimed to assess the dental caries and erosion status of 12-year-old Hong Kong children and study the determinants of dental caries and dental erosion of these children. Methods The survey was performed from 2011 to 2012 with ethics approval. Stratified random sampling was adopted to select 12-year-old children in 7 primary schools in Hong Kong. The participating parents were asked to complete a self-administered questionnaire concerning their children’s diet and oral hea...

  4. Skin problems in children under five years old at a rural hospital in Southern Ethiopia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jose Manuel Ramos; Paula Moles-Poveda; Dalu Tessema; Mubarack Kedir; Gamadi Safayo; Abraham Tesfasmariam; Francisco Reyes; Isabel Belinch on

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To examine the prevalence of cutaneous disorders in children under 5 years old who attended a rural hospital in Southern Ethiopia. Methods: A prospective cross-sectional study was conducted from January 26 to February 20, 2015 in children under 5 years old who attended Gambo Rural Hospital in West Arsi of the Oromia Region, Ethiopia. Results: A total of 324 children were included (59.6%male) whose median age was 16.4 months. In total, 147 children [45.4%; 95% confidence interval (CI): 40.0%–50.8%] under 5 years had a skin problem, of which 101 (68.7%) consulted for that reason. The other 46 (31.3%) consulted for a general health problem and the dermatological condition was a secondary finding during the physical exploration. In 93 children (28.7%;95%CI:20%–33.8%), it was the main disease, and in 54 children (16.5%;95%CI:13.0%–21.1%) it was concomitant with other diseases. The most common dermatological disease was scabies (n=44, 13.6%;95%CI:10.3%–17.7%). Impetigo was diagnosed in 32 children (9.9%;95%CI:7.1%–13.3%), of which 23 (71.9%) had complicated impetigo. Nineteen children (5.9%;95%CI:3.8%–9.0%) had eczema, 10 (3.1%) had eczema associated to other conditions. The following most frequent skin problems were tinea (n = 9; 2.8%), infected wound and ulcer (n=7;2.2%), and burns (n=6;1.9%). Conclusions: Skin problems, mainly scabies, impetigo, and eczema were common in young children attended at a rural hospital in Southern Ethiopia. Children under 5 years should be examined thoroughly to rule out skin diseases, especially scabies.

  5. Six Year Refractive Change among White Children and Young Adults: Evidence for Significant Increase in Myopia among White UK Children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara J McCullough

    Full Text Available To determine six-year spherical refractive error change among white children and young adults in the UK and evaluate differences in refractive profiles between contemporary Australian children and historical UK data.Population-based prospective study.The Northern Ireland Childhood Errors of Refraction (NICER study Phase 1 examined 1068 children in two cohorts aged 6-7 years and 12-13 years. Prospective data for six-year follow-up (Phase 3 are available for 212 12-13 year olds and 226 18-20 year olds in each cohort respectively.Cycloplegic refractive error was determined using binocular open-field autorefraction (Shin-Nippon NVision-K 5001, cyclopentolate 1%. Participants were defined by spherical equivalent refraction (SER as myopic SER ≤-0.50D, emmetropic -0.50Dyears (1.9% and 12-13 years (14.6% (p<0.001 but not between 12-13 and 18-20 years (16.4% to 18.6%, p = 0.51. The estimated annual incidence of myopia was 2.2% and 0.7% for the younger and older cohorts respectively. There were significantly more myopic children in the UK at age 12-13 years in the NICER study (16.4% than reported in Australia (4.4% (p<0.001. However by 17 years the proportion of myopia neared equivalence in the two populations (NICER 18.6%, Australia 17.7%, p = 0.75. The proportion of myopic children aged 12-13 years in the present study (2006-2008 was 16.4%, significantly greater than that reported for children aged 10-16 years in the 1960's (7.2%, p = 0.01. The proportion of hyperopes in the younger NICER cohort decreased significantly over the six year period (from 21.7% to 14.2%, p = 0.04. Hyperopes with SER ≥+3.50D in both NICER age cohorts demonstrated persistent hyperopia.The incidence and proportion of myopia are relatively low in this contemporary white UK population in comparison to other worldwide studies. The proportion of

  6. The Growth Trend of 0–6 Years Children in Hamadan City , Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Omidi

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Today millions of children in the world have not got the appropriate growth. For this purpose, this study was performed to evaluate the growth process of children under 6 years old in Hamadan, in addition the surveying this process, the difference in growth of the children were compared and measured by the NCHS standard curve. This was a cross–sectional study that included the research section of 1700 children who was at the average ages of zero, 1, 3, 6, 9,12 months and 1.5 , 2 , 2.5 , 3 , 3.5 , 4 , 4.5 , 5 , 6 years . The selection standard of the children was the perfect physical health and without obvious mental retardation. Regarding the curved standard the results showed that the 50th percentile of boys and girls weight up to 4 and 6 months was increased. Then with increasing the age up to 6 years the weight gradually was decreased, that this weight deduction is closer to the 5th percentile of the standard in 18 and 24 months. The 50th percentile of the children height has been decreased from 9 months up to 6 years too, and the 50th percentile of the head circumference from 18 months up to 6 years of age, constantly and slightly decreased compare to the standard curve. The overall result show that breast feeding is enough for the children up to 6 months and satisfies the children needs. But the causes that decrease the children growth are the lack of mothers knowledge about preparing the supplemental foods and the time of beginning and also inappropriate pattern of nutrition at the time of breast feeding.

  7. Chinese and Australian Year 3 Children's Conceptual Understanding of Science: A multiple comparative case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Ying; Colette Oliver, Mary; Venville, Grady Jane

    2012-04-01

    Children have formal science instruction from kindergarten in Australia and from Year 3 in China. The purpose of this research was to explore the impact that different approaches to primary science curricula in China and Australia have on children's conceptual understanding of science. Participants were Year 3 children from three schools of high, medium and low socio-economic status in Hunan Province, central south China (n = 135) and three schools of similar socio-economic status in Western Australia (n = 120). The students' understanding was assessed by a science quiz, developed from past Trends in Mathematics and Science Study science released items for primary children. In-depth interviews were carried out to further explore children's conceptual understanding of living things, the Earth and floating and sinking. The results revealed that Year 3 children from schools of similar socio-economic status in the two countries had similar conceptual understandings of life science, earth science and physical science. Further, in both countries, the higher the socio-economic status of the school, the better the students performed on the science quiz and in interviews. Some idiosyncratic strengths and weaknesses were observed, for example, Chinese Year 3 children showed relative strength in classification of living things, and Australian Year 3 children demonstrated better understanding of floating and sinking, but children in both countries were weak in applying and reasoning with complex concepts in the domain of earth science. The results raise questions about the value of providing a science curriculum in early childhood if it does not make any difference to students' conceptual understanding of science.

  8. Epidemiology of dental caries in Chandigarh school children and trends over the last 25 years

    OpenAIRE

    Goyal A; Gauba K; Chawla H; Kaur M; Kapur A

    2007-01-01

    The prevalence of dental caries in 6, 9, 12 and 15-year-old school children of Chandigarh, selected on a randomized basis was evaluated using Moller′s criteria (1966) and correlated with the various risk factors. The mean deft was found to be 4.0 ± 3.6 in 6 year old and 4.61 ± 3.14 in 9 year old, whereas the mean DMFT in 12 and 15 year old was found to be 3.03 ± 2.52 and 3.82 ± 2.85 respectively. The high prevalence of dental caries in these children was att...

  9. Parenting clinically anxious versus healthy control children aged 4-12 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Sluis, C M; van Steensel, F J A; Bögels, S M

    2015-05-01

    This study investigated whether parenting behaviors differed between parents of 68 clinically anxious children and 106 healthy control children aged 4-12 years. The effects of parent gender, child gender and child age on parenting were explored. Mothers and fathers completed a questionnaire to assess parenting behaviors in for children hypothetically anxious situations. Results showed that parents of clinically anxious children reported more anxiety-enhancing parenting (reinforcement of dependency and punishment) as well as more positive parenting (positive reinforcement). For the clinical sample, fathers reported using more modeling/reassurance than mothers, and parents reported using more force with their 4-7-year-olds than with their 8-12-year-olds. No interaction effects were found for child gender with child anxiety status on parenting. Results indicate that for intervention, it is important to measure parenting behaviors, and to take into account father and mother differences and the age of the child. PMID:25819172

  10. Ten Years Later: Locating and Interviewing Children of Drug Abusers

    OpenAIRE

    Haggerty, Kevin P.; Fleming, Charles B.; Catalano, Richard F.; Petrie, Renee S.; Rubin, Ronald J.; Grassley, Mary H.

    2007-01-01

    Longitudinal studies require high follow-up rates in order to maintain statistical power, reduce bias, and enhance the generalizability of results. This study reports on locating and survey completion for a 10-year follow-up of the Focus on Families project, an investigation of 130 families headed by parents who were enrolled in methadone treatment for opiate addiction. Despite having no contact with participants in the study for at least 10 years, the project successfully located nearly 99% ...

  11. Prevalence of dental caries among 5-13-year-old children of Mangalore city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudha P

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available A study of prevalence of dental caries was undertaken in 5-13-year-old children from Mangalore city. A total of 524 children were examined. The sample consisted of 193, 160, and 171 children in the 5-7, 8-10 and 11-13 years of age group, respectively. Dental caries was examined visually and observations were recorded. Silness and L φe plaque index, L φe and Silness gingival index were used to record the periodontal status. The prevalence of dental caries was highest in 5-7-year-age group compared to 8-10 years and 11-13 years age groups. The increasing prevalence of dental caries needs dental health programmes, which target the specific segments of the population.

  12. Obstacle crossing in 7-9-year-old children with Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hao-Ling; Yu, Wan-Hui; Yeh, Hsiu-Chen

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate obstacle crossing in 7-9-year-old children with Down syndrome (DS). Fifteen children with DS, age- and gender-matched with 15 typically developing (TD) children, were recruited to walk and cross obstacles with heights of 10%, 20% and 30% of their leg lengths. End-point and kinematic variables of obstacle crossing were obtained using a three-dimensional motion analysis system. The results showed that children with DS tend to adopt a lower speed and larger step width when they perceive instability. Moreover, unlike TD children, children with DS adopt a pelvic strategy (i.e., greater pelvic leading-side listing and forward rotation) to achieve a higher leading toe clearance with a longer step length, presumably for safety reasons. This pelvic strategy increased the frontal plane motion of the whole leg and trunk, and thus possibly stability, during obstacle crossing. However, this strategy may be inefficient. Trailing toe clearance did not differ significantly between two groups. The results of this study suggest that children with DS tend to use inefficient and conservative strategies for obstacle crossing. Knowledge of both end-point and kinematic control of obstacle crossing in children with DS is useful for understanding the mechanisms of obstacle-related falls. Moreover, obstacle crossing can be used as a task-oriented rehabilitation program for children with DS. PMID:26619373

  13. Incidence of Acute Diarrhea Among Children Aged 0 - 1 Year in Southern Brazil, 2012

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    Nascimento

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background The incidence rate of acute diarrheal disease in children is a health indicator, and the estimation of these data can help guide public health policies. Objectives The aim of this study was to estimate the incidence and risk factors for acute diarrheal disease in children aged 0 - 1 year. Patients and Methods An observational prospective cohort study was conducted on 210 children recruited at Hospital Nossa Senhora da Conceicao, in Tubarao, state of Santa Catarina, Brazil. Children born between July and September 2012 were followed up for 12 months. The presence of three or more liquid or loose stools during a 24-hour period was considered acute diarrhea. The categories of variables evaluated were comprised of sociodemographic characteristics (per capita income, maternal education, maternal age, access to medical care [public or private], and housing and living conditions [sanitation and hygiene, water supply, daycare attendance, and domestic animal] and characteristics of the child (gender, birth weight, and breastfeeding. Results The incidence of acute diarrhea among the 0 - 1-year-old children was 26.7 cases per 1,000 children per month. Independent risk factors for the occurrence of diarrhea were maternal age under 20 years and health care services provided by the Brazilian National Health System (SUS. Conclusions The high incidence density of diarrhea among the children recruited in this study indicates the need for educational programs directed at people who are involved in this issue.

  14. The effect of a peer on VO2 and game choice in 6–10 year old children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegmund, Lee A.; Naylor, Jonathan B.; Santo, Antonio S.; Barkley, Jacob E.

    2014-01-01

    Relative to sedentary video games (e.g., Playstation 2®), playing physically active video games (e.g., Nintendo Wii Sports Boxing®) significantly increases caloric expenditure in children. Studies have demonstrated that the presence of a peer increases physical activity in children. We sought to determine if children would expend more energy and find playing the “exergame” (Wii) more motivating than the sedentary video game (Playstation 2) when with a peer. Seventeen children (age 8.5 ± 0.4 years) rested, played the sedentary video game and “exergame” for 10 min each, in two conditions: one in which the children rested/played the games alone (alone condition) and another in which they played with a peer (peer condition). Oxygen consumption (VO2), and liking (visual analog scale) was assessed for each 10-min condition. After three 10-min resting/gaming conditions, motivation was assessed using a relative reinforcing value task in which children performed computer mouse presses to gain additional access for either the sedentary video game or “exergame.” VO2 was greater (p exergame” play (mean = 12.17 ± 4.1 ml·kg−1·min−1) vs. rest (mean = 5.14 ± 1.46 ml·kg−1·min−1) and the sedentary video game (mean = 5.83 ± 2.1 ml·kg−1·min−1). During the peer condition, there were no significant differences (p > 0.05) in VO2 relative to the alone condition. In an exploratory analysis boys exhibited a greater (p = 0.02) increase in VO2 from rest to “exergame” (Δ 9.0 ± 3.7 ml·kg−1·min−1), relative to girls (Δ 4.9 ± 2.9 ml·kg−1·min−1). Boys showed a significantly greater increase (p = 0.05) in VO2 from the resting condition to “exergame” in the presence of a peer (Δ 11.1 ± 5.3 ml·kg−1·min−1) vs. the alone condition (Δ 6.8 ± 3.1 ml·kg−1 ·min−1). Liking was significantly (p exergame” (7.7 ± 1.9 cm) and the sedentary video game (8.3 ± 1.3 cm) relative to rest (4.0 ± 2.8 cm). Motivation for

  15. Emotional Understanding and Color-Emotion Associations in Children Aged 7-8 Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debbie J. Pope

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An understanding of the development of emotional knowledge can help us determine how children perceive and interpret their surroundings and color-emotion associations are one measure of the expression of a child’s emotional interpretations. Emotional understanding and color-emotion associations were examined in a sample of UK school children, aged 7-8 years. Forty primary school children (mean age = 7.38; SD = 0.49 were administered color assessment and emotional understanding tasks, and an expressive vocabulary test. Results identified significant gender differences with girls providing more appropriate and higher quality expressions of emotional understanding than boys. Children were more able to link color to positive rather than negative emotions and significant gender differences in specific color preferences were observed. The implications of adult misinterpretations of color-emotion associations in young children are discussed.

  16. Post-event information affects children's autobiographical memory after one year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    London, Kamala; Bruck, Maggie; Melnyk, Laura

    2009-08-01

    In two experiments, we examined whether post-event information (PEI) about true and false events persisted in children's reports after approximately 1 year. In Experiment 1, 4- to 6-year-olds were given PEI and then were given memory tests 2 weeks and 15 months later. Although PEI appeared in free recall at the initial testing, it decreased substantially by the long-term test. In contrast, on recognition tasks the children showed facilitation and misinformation effects at initial and follow-up tests. Experiment 2 replicated lasting misinformation and facilitation effects in recognition memory among 4- to 9-year-olds who were tested after 1-week and 10-month delays. We conclude that true and false reminders about an experienced event continue to affect children's memory approximately 1 year later. PMID:18679779

  17. Epidemiology of dental caries in Chandigarh school children and trends over the last 25 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goyal A

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of dental caries in 6, 9, 12 and 15-year-old school children of Chandigarh, selected on a randomized basis was evaluated using Moller′s criteria (1966 and correlated with the various risk factors. The mean deft was found to be 4.0 ± 3.6 in 6 year old and 4.61 ± 3.14 in 9 year old, whereas the mean DMFT in 12 and 15 year old was found to be 3.03 ± 2.52 and 3.82 ± 2.85 respectively. The high prevalence of dental caries in these children was attributed to the lack of use of fluoride toothpaste (80% children, lack of knowledge about etiology of dental caries (98% and frequency of sugar exposures up to more than five times per day (30%.

  18. Does Chess Training Affect Conceptual Development of Six-Year-Old Children in Turkey?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigirtmac, Ayperi Dikici

    2012-01-01

    Many studies propose that chess is a game requiring cognitive skills and has positive effects on mental development. In recent years, chess training has also been emphasised as important during the early childhood period. However, no studies have been done with six-year-old children. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether or not…

  19. Incidence of influenza and associated illness in children aged 0-19 years : a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bueving, HJ; van der Wouden, JC; Berger, MY; Thomas, S

    2005-01-01

    A systematic review was conducted to estimate the incidence of influenza and concomitant morbidity and mortality in children from 0 to 19 years (0-19 years). Medline was searched for observational studies and placebo or non-treated arms of experimental studies providing occurrence rates of laborator

  20. "Sounds of Intent in the Early Years": A Proposed Framework of Young Children's Musical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voyajolu, Angela; Ockelford, Adam

    2016-01-01

    "Sounds of Intent in the Early Years" explores the musical development of children from birth to five years of age. Observational evidence has been utilised together with key literature on musical development and core concepts of zygonic theory (Ockelford, 2013) to investigate the applicability of the original "Sounds of…

  1. Osteosynthesis of medial humeral epicondyle fractures in children. 8-year follow-up of 33 cases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duun, P S; Ravn, Pernille; Hansen, L B; Buron, B

    1994-01-01

    33 children with a mean age of 12 (7-15) years had open reduction and osteosynthesis for a displaced fracture of the medial humeral epicondyle. 8 (2-15) years after the operation a clinical and radiographic examination was performed. 22/33 had a prominent scar. No patients had symptoms from the...

  2. Intellectual Characteristics of Diabetic Children at Diagnosis and One Year Later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovet, Joanne F.; And Others

    A longitudinal investigation of neurocognitive function was conducted on 63 newly diagnosed pediatric patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) at onset of illness and 1-year post diagnosis. The results at diagnosis, when the children were ages 4 months to 12 years, revealed no differences compared to sibling controls, nor any…

  3. Occupational exposure during pregnancy and the risk of hay fever in 7-year-old children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Berit Hvass; Thulstrup, Ane Marie; Hougaard, Karin Sørig; Skadhauge, Lars Rauff; Hansen, Kirsten Skamstrup; Schlünssen, Vivi

    2013-01-01

    child was obtained by an internet questionnaire at follow-up at 7 years of age. RESULTS: Adjusted logistic regression analyses showed no significant association between maternal occupational exposure during pregnancy and hay fever among the 7-year-old children. Stratifying for atopic status in the...

  4. Development of an Age Band on the ManVis for 3-Year-Old Children with Visual Impairments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reimer, A M; Barsingerhorn, A D; Overvelde, A; Nijhuis-Van der Sanden, M W G; Boonstra, F N; Cox, R F A

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To compare fine motor performance of 3-year-old children with visual impairment with peers having normal vision, to provide reference scores for 3-year-old children with visual impairment on the ManuVis, and to assess inter-rater reliability. METHOD: 26 children with visual impairment (mean age

  5. An Investigation of Emotional Skills of Six-Year-Old Children Attending Nursery School According to Some Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durmusoglu-Saltali, Neslihan; Arslan, Emel

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is for the emotional skills of six-year-old children attending nursery school according to some variables. The participants were 306 (135 girls and 171 boys) six-year-old children attending nursery school. Data were collected from Assessment of Children's Emotional Skills and personal information form. In order to analyze…

  6. Lung function in 6 years old children born very preterm and fed different diets post discharge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftlund, Line Hedegaard; Agertoft, Lone; Halken, Susanne; Zachariassen, Gitte

    ≤ 32 weeks. From hospital discharge to 4 month corrected age, the children received three different types of nutrition: A: Human milk (HM) B: HM enriched with fortifier (HMF) C: Preterm formula (PF). At the age of 6 years, the children performed an occlusion test (Rocc) and a lung resistance test...... airway resistance was within normal range for all children no mater post discharge nutrition. And there was a tendency towards a lower airway resistance among infants fed with formula or nutrient enriched human milk compared to infants fed exclusively human milk post discharge....... lung function and the possible risk of developing asthma among 6 year old children born very preterm. Method: A prospective, randomized, interventional multicentre study on nutrition of a preterm birth cohort has been established and described previously. The inclusion criteria were gestational age...

  7. Clinical manifestations of chronic viral hepatitis С in children suffering for a one-year period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Churbakova О.V.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: the topical issue in medicine is currently considered to be the morbidity of chronic hepatitis in children. Material and methods. The article deals with the course of chronic hepatitis С in children with the light form of disease. The disease course has been from 6 months till 1 year. Results. According to the data of epidemiological anamneses (the analysis of the out-patient cards, previous discharges the possible way and prospective date of infection of majority of children and adolescents have been revealed. 68 children with Chronic Viral Hepatitis С at the age of from 7 months till 18 years have been under the study. Conclusion. General clinical, biochemical and instrumental methods of investigation have been carried out.

  8. Patch-test results in children and adolescents: systematic review of a 15-year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Dulcilea Ferraz; Goulart, Eugênio Marcos Andrade

    2016-02-01

    The number of studies on patch-test results in children and adolescents has gradually increased in recent years, thus stimulating reviews. This paper is a systematic review of a 15-year period devoted to studying the issue. Variations pertaining to the number and age groups of tested children and/or adolescents, the number of subjects with atopy/atopic dermatitis history, the quantity, type and concentrations of the tested substances, the test technique and type of data regarding clinical relevance, must all be considered in evaluating these studies, as they make it harder to formulate conclusions. The most common allergens in children were nickel, thimerosal, cobalt, fragrance, lanolin and neomycin. In adolescents, they were nickel, thimerosal, cobalt, fragrance, potassium dichromate, and Myroxylon pereirae. Knowledge of this matter aids health professionals in planning preventive programs aimed at improving children's quality of life and ensuring that their future prospects are not undermined. PMID:26982781

  9. Patch-test results in children and adolescents: systematic review of a 15-year period*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Dulcilea Ferraz; Goulart, Eugênio Marcos Andrade

    2016-01-01

    The number of studies on patch-test results in children and adolescents has gradually increased in recent years, thus stimulating reviews. This paper is a systematic review of a 15-year period devoted to studying the issue. Variations pertaining to the number and age groups of tested children and/or adolescents, the number of subjects with atopy/atopic dermatitis history, the quantity, type and concentrations of the tested substances, the test technique and type of data regarding clinical relevance, must all be considered in evaluating these studies, as they make it harder to formulate conclusions. The most common allergens in children were nickel, thimerosal, cobalt, fragrance, lanolin and neomycin. In adolescents, they were nickel, thimerosal, cobalt, fragrance, potassium dichromate, and Myroxylon pereirae. Knowledge of this matter aids health professionals in planning preventive programs aimed at improving children's quality of life and ensuring that their future prospects are not undermined. PMID:26982781

  10. The other-race effect in 3-year-old German and Cameroonian children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janina eSuhrke

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Recognizing individual faces is an important human ability that highly depends on experience. This is reflected in the so called other-race effect; adults are better at recognizing faces from their own ethnic group, while very young infants do not show this specialization yet. Two experiments examined whether 3-year-old children from two different cultural backgrounds show the other-race effect. In Experiment 1, German children (N = 41 were presented with a forced choice paradigm where they were asked to recognize female Caucasian or African faces. In Experiment 2, 3-year-olds from Cameroon (N = 66 participated in a similar task using the same stimulus material. In both cultures the other-race effect was present; children were better at recognizing individual faces from their own ethnic group. In addition, German children performed at a higher overall level of accuracy than Cameroonians. The results are discussed in relation to cultural aspects in particular.

  11. Humoral immunity to AAV-6, 8, and 9 in normal and dystrophic dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jin-Hong; Yue, Yongping; Smith, Bruce; Duan, Dongsheng

    2012-03-01

    Adeno-associated virus (AAV)-6, 8, and 9 are promising gene-delivery vectors for testing novel Duchenne muscular dystrophy gene therapy in the canine model. Humoral immunity greatly influences in vivo AAV transduction. However, neutralizing antibodies to AAV-6, 8, and 9 have not been systemically examined in normal and dystrophic dogs. To gain information on the seroprevalence of antibodies to AAV-6, 8, and 9, we measured neutralizing antibody titers using an in vitro transduction inhibition assay. We examined 72 naive serum samples and 26 serum samples obtained from dogs that had received AAV gene transfer. Our data demonstrated that AAV-6 neutralizing antibody was the most prevalent antibody in dogs irrespective of age, gender, disease status (dystrophic or not), and prior parvovirus vaccination history. Surprisingly, high-level anti-AAV-6 antibody was detected at birth in newborn puppies. Further, a robust antibody response was induced in affected, but not normal newborn dogs following systemic AAV gene transfer. Taken together, our data have provided an important baseline on the seroprevalence of AAV-6, 8, and 9 neutralizing antibodies in normal and Duchenne muscular dystrophy dogs. These results will help guide translational AAV gene-therapy studies in dog models of muscular dystrophy. PMID:22040468

  12. The Relation between Contingency Preference and Imitation in 6-8-Month-Old Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein-Radukic, Sarah; Zmyj, Norbert

    2016-01-01

    Detecting self-generated actions and imitating other-generated actions are important abilities in order to interact with others. The relationship between these domains was investigated in 6-8-month-old infants. In a contingency-preference task, infants observed their own legs on a real-time and a delayed video display. In an imitation task, the…

  13. Supporting English Language Learners in Math Class, Grades 6-8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melanese, Kathy; Chung, Luz; Forbes, Cheryl

    2011-01-01

    This new addition to Math Solutions "Supporting English Language Learners in Math Class series" offers a wealth of lessons and strategies for modifying grades 6-8 instruction. Section I presents an overview of teaching math to English learners: the research, the challenges, the linguistic demands of a math lesson, and specific strategies and…

  14. Sociodemographic profile of speech and language delay up to six years of age in Indian children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham Binu, Raj Sunil, Stephenson Baburaj, Mohandas MK

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Speech and language is the most important skill for the child’s development and scholastic performance. Awareness of the delay is important in the programs for early identification. Purpose: to assess the prevalence of speech and language delay in children from age group 0 to six years of age. Methodology: The speech and language development of children coming in the well baby clinic and daily pediatric clinic of age group from birth to 6 years were evaluated using Language Evaluation Scale Trivandrum (LEST. The prevalence of speech and language delay in each age group was calculated and also analyzed in the sociodemograhic profile. Results: A total of 102 children were studied in which 13.7% had language delay. 18% had questionable language delay and 15.7% had suspect language delay. Though among language delay mixed type was more, children had more difficulty in doing expressive items. Language delay was also found to be more prevalent in males, single child, first born child and children of working mothers. Parental age, education or socioeconomic status was not found to be related to language delay. Conclusion: The 13.7% prevalence of language delay in the children indicates the need of early identification and for it a simple screening tool like LEST is a must during the routine evaluation of young children in pediatric clinics. Health care givers and parents should ensure that babies grow up in a language rich, nurturing and stimulating environment right from birth onwards.

  15. A STUDY OF EFFECTIVE FACTORS ON PERSISTENT DIARRHEA IN UNDER FIVE YEARS OLD CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Batebi

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available To determine the effective factors on persistent diarrhea in under five year old children (UN5, a total of 1341 subjects were selected between cases referred to Sanandaj children hospital for diarrhea in the period between 1st June and 22nd October 1994. The children were questioned for prolongation of diarrheal episode after 14 days of its onset. The investigation showed that the duration of diarrhea was prolonged for fourteen days and more in 103 out of 1341 children (7.7%. In other words, 92.3% of children recovered before 14th days. The incidence of persistent diarrhea was usually greatest during the first year of life (P=0.00. Duration of diarrheal episode in children who were breast fed is shorter than in those who were not breast fed (P=0.00. Inappropriate use of antibiotic may favor the over growth of pathogenic or commensal bacteria in the proximal intestine to persistent diarrhea. Diarrhea became persistent 4 times more in children whose stool was mucus or bloody at the onset than those with water stool (P=0.00.

  16. Fitness levels in school going children of 8-14 years from Udupi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavitha Raja

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Childhood fitness is an emerging area of concern as prevalence of childhood obesity is rising. Indian studies, have identified decreased fitness levels and increased obesity in urban children. However, studies incorporating a comprehensive fitness evaluation are unavailable. In order to establish appropriate school fitness programs, baseline fitness levels in the target children is essential. Aims: The aim of this study is to evaluate health and performance related fitness levels of school going children between the ages of 8 and 14 years old. Settings and Design: Schools from Udupi Taluk, observational design. Materials and Methods: Fitness testing battery adapted from Presidential fitness challenge. Statistical Analysis Used: Descriptive statistics, parametric tests of comparison, and correlation were carried out using Pearson′s correlation coefficient. Results: Children were divided into age groups consisting of 1 year age intervals. Reference values are guidelines given by President′s challenge. Children who scored 25-32 points were considered as very fit; 17-24 as being adequately fit and 8-16 as unfit. Children from vernacular schools were more fit than those from English medium schools, with boys doing better (P = 0.01. Conclusions: From the results of this study, we can conclude that basic levels of health-related fitness are low among school children of Udupi Taluk, Karnataka.

  17. Features of the physical, psycho-physiological development and physical fitness of children 1-5 years

    OpenAIRE

    Коробейников, Георгий Валерьевич; Козина, Жаннета Леонидовна; Лахно, Елена Геннадиевна

    2011-01-01

    The results of the indicators of physical development, psycho-physiological capacity and physical fitness of children. The study involved 52 children aged 1-2 years, 3-4 years 56 children, 56 children 4-5 years. It is established that in the age group of children 4-5 years time, a simple reaction to an auditory stimulus following simple reaction time to visual stimulus. It is recommended to use parenting techniques that are integrally stimulate all the sensory systems. Pointed out that the so...

  18. Gastrointestinal and liver infections in children undergoing antineoplastic chemotherapy in the years 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castagnola, Elio; Ruberto, Eliana; Guarino, Alfredo

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To review gastrointestinal and liver infections in children undergoing antineoplastic chemotherapy. To look at gut microflora features in oncology children. METHODS: We selected studies published after year 2000, excluding trials on transplanted pediatric patients. We searched English language publications in MEDLINE using the keywords: “gastrointestinal infection AND antineoplastic chemotherapy AND children”, “gastrointestinal infection AND oncology AND children”, “liver infection AND antineoplastic chemotherapy AND children”, “liver abscess AND chemotherapy AND child”, “neutropenic enterocolitis AND chemotherapy AND children”, “thyphlitis AND chemotherapy AND children”, “infectious diarrhea AND children AND oncology”, “abdominal pain AND infection AND children AND oncology”, “perianal sepsis AND children AND oncology”, “colonic pseudo-obstruction AND oncology AND child AND chemotherapy”, “microflora AND children AND malignancy”, “microbiota AND children AND malignancy”, “fungal flora AND children AND malignancy”. We also analysed evidence from several articles and book references. RESULTS: Gastrointestinal and liver infections represent a major cause of morbidity and mortality in children undergoing antineoplastic chemotherapy. Antineoplastic drugs cause immunosuppression in addition to direct toxicity, predisposing to infections, although the specific risk is variable according to disease and host features. Common pathogens potentially induce severe diseases whereas opportunistic microorganisms may attack vulnerable hosts. Clinical manifestations can be subtle and not specific. In addition, several conditions are rare and diagnostic process and treatments are not standardized. Diagnosis may be challenging, however early diagnosis is needed for quick and appropriate interventions. Interestingly, the source of infection in those children can be exogenous or endogenous. Indeed, mucosal damage may allow the

  19. Acute poisoning in children; changes over the years, data of pediatric clinic department of toxicology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alije Keka

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: In our study drugs and house cleaning products are the most frequent agents causing accidental poisoning in children less than 5 years-old, this age of children is the most susceptible in terms of morbidity. Compared with the previous studies in Pediatric Clinic of Pristina, drugs are still the most frequent cause of acute poisoning in children; the number of poisoning with pesticides has fallen but has increased the number of poisoning with cleaning products. All preventive measures against poisoning should be taken including preventive strategies of education at national level especially in drug and household product storage.

  20. NEUROFEEDBACK AND EMG TRAINING COMBINING EFFICIENCY STUDY IN 6–9 YEARS OLD ADHD CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye. А. Sapina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The research goal was to study neurofeedback and EMG combining training efficiency in ADHD children.To achieve the goal three groups were compared before and after training and six months later. Experimental group included ADHD children 6–9 years old. It was divided into two: group A trained thetabeta ratio and muscle tension decrease simultaneously while group B trained only theta-beta ratio decrease. Control group included healthy children. The results showed significant effect of combined EEG and EMG training for self-control improvement, anxiety and muscle tension decrease in comparison with standard EEG training.

  1. Consumer Socialization of Children: A Retrospective Look at Twenty-Five Years of Research.

    OpenAIRE

    John, Deborah Roedder

    1999-01-01

    Twenty-five years of consumer socialization research have yielded an impressive set of findings. The purpose of our article is to review these findings and assess what we know about children's development as consumers. Our focus is on the developmental sequence characterizing the growth of consumer knowledge, skills, and values as children mature throughout childhood and adolescence. In doing so, we present a conceptual framework for understanding consumer socialization as a series of stages,...

  2. Caries risk profile of 12 year old school children in an Indian city using Cariogram

    OpenAIRE

    Hebbal, Mamata; Ankola, Anil V.; Metgud, Sharada

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The present study was conducted with an aim to assess the caries profile of 12 year old Indian children using Cariogram. Study design: Hundred children were interviewed to record any illness, oral hygiene practices and fluoride exposure after obtaining a three day diet diary. Examination was done to record plaque and dental caries status. Stimulated saliva was collected and salivary flow rate, salivary buffering capacity, Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus were assessed. The i...

  3. Effects of bombing after five years: Development of early maladaptive cognitive schemas in children

    OpenAIRE

    Nikoloski-Končar Nataša; Zotović Marija; Hautekèete Marc

    2006-01-01

    The main aim of the study is to examine effects of bombing on development of early maladaptive schemas in children who live in directly bombed towns in comparison with children who live in towns not directly exposed to bombing. The subjects were twelve years old at the moment of testing (February 2005) meaning that they were at the age of seven during the bombing. Additional aim was to examine gender differences in development of early maladaptive schemas. The theory of Young (1990) provided ...

  4. Risk factors for obesity in 6 to 12-year-old children

    OpenAIRE

    Andy Japutra; Eddy Fadlyana; Anggraini Alam

    2015-01-01

    Background The causes of obesity in children are multifactorial, including genetics, physiology, metabolism, psychology, socioeconomic status, lifestyle, and culture. Objective To assess for relationships between obesity in 6 to 12-year-old children and maternal nutritional status, maternal education, eating breakfast, eating fast food, physical activity, TV watching, and playing video games. Methods This case-control study included students of Sejahtera Public School aged 6 to 12 yea...

  5. Total Fluoride Intake and Urinary Excretion in German Children Aged 3–6 Years

    OpenAIRE

    Haftenberger, Marjolein; Viergutz, Gabriele; Neumeister, Volker; Hetzer, Gisela

    2014-01-01

    There have only been few investigations comparing total fluoride intake and the fluoride proportion excreted in urine in pre–school children. In addition, the results of available studies are conflicting. Total fluoride intake was assessed in 11 healthy children aged 3–6 years on 2 consecutive days and urinary fluoride excretion was determined. The duplicate–diet approach was used for the assessment of fluoride intake from solid and liquid foods. Fluoride intake from toothbrushing was calcula...

  6. CORRELATION BETWEEN PENIS LENGTH AND ANTHOPOMETRY OF 5 YEAR OLD CHILDREN

    OpenAIRE

    Doddy Kurnia Indrawan; Bikin Suryawan; Lanang Sidiartha; Arimbawa *

    2013-01-01

    Short penis still a problem for parents. Penis lenght is associated with  weight and considered abnormal in obese children. The purpose of this study was to find out the correlation between penis length and the anthropometry children aged 5 years. A cross sectional study was conducted, at the Division of Endocrinology, Department of Child Health, Medical Faculty of Udayana University, Sanglah Hospital Denpasar, during October 2010, at TK Sayang Ibu Sanglah Hospital. The calculation of the sam...

  7. Nutrition disorder frequency in 5- to 9-year-old children from Colima, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Vásquez, Clemente; Trujillo-Hernández, Benjamín; Velasco-Rodríguez, Raymundo; Bautista-Hernández, Víctor Manuel

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS. The objectives were to determine nutrition disorder frequency, energy intake and type of nutrients in the diet of 5- to 9-year-old children from Colima, Mexico. MATERIAL AND METHODS. A populational survey was applied to 1992 children in the state of Colima, Mexico. The variables studied were weight, age, age-related weight, age-related height and body mass index (the last 3 expressed in percentiles). In a direct survey, parents provided information on all foods their...

  8. Familial Contribution to Chinese American Children's Self-Regulated Learning during the Early School Years

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Shuheng

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation examined how Chinese American children's everyday family experiences contributed to their self-regulated learning during the early school years. A total of 154 immigrant Chinese parents participated in this study and completed nine sets of multi-point rating questionnaires on a secured website. A series of analysis of covariance and hierarchical regressions were performed. Results provided the first empirical evidence that children's participation in family rituals and routi...

  9. Prevalence of thyroid autoimmunity in children with celiac disease compared to healthy 12-year olds.

    OpenAIRE

    vanderPals, Maria; Ivarsson, Anneli; Norström, Fredrik; Högberg, Lotta; Svensson, Johan; Carlsson, Annelie

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. Studies have suggested a correlation between untreated celiac disease and risk for other autoimmune diseases. We investigated the prevalence of thyroid autoimmunity in 12-year-old children (i) with symptomatic celiac disease diagnosed and treated with a gluten-free diet, (ii) with screening-detected untreated celiac disease, and (iii) without celiac disease. Methods. Blood samples from 12632 children were collected. All celiac disease cases, previously diagnosed and newly screenin...

  10. Prevalence of Thyroid Autoimmunity in Children with Celiac Disease Compared to Healthy 12-Year Olds

    OpenAIRE

    Maria van der Pals; Anneli Ivarsson; Fredrik Norström; Lotta Högberg; Johan Svensson; Annelie Carlsson

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. Studies have suggested a correlation between untreated celiac disease and risk for other autoimmune diseases. We investigated the prevalence of thyroid autoimmunity in 12-year-old children (i) with symptomatic celiac disease diagnosed and treated with a gluten-free diet, (ii) with screening-detected untreated celiac disease, and (iii) without celiac disease. Methods. Blood samples from 12632 children were collected. All celiac disease cases, previously diagnosed and newly screenin...

  11. The relationship between dental caries and obesity among primary school children aged 5 to 14 years

    OpenAIRE

    Yao Yingshui; Ren Xiaohua; Song Xiuli; He Lianping; Jin Yuelong; Chen Yan; Lu Wei; Guo Daoxia; Ding Lingling; Tang Hui; Wei Ningkai; Qiu Shenwei; Li Chaopin

    2014-01-01

    Background: Previous study revealed that the link between dental caries and obesity has been controversial. The purpose of this research is to investigate the association between dental caries and obesity among primary school children in Wannan area, China. Methods: A cross-sectional study was designed to collect the routine health screening data for primary school children aged 5-14 years inWannan area,China, Overweight and obesity status were determined using the International Obesity Task ...

  12. Determination of the functional status of vestibular apparatus at children aged 5-6 years old.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moiseenko E.K.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The physiological methods of determination of the functional state of vestibular analyzer are considered. The indexes of systole and diastole pressure, frequencies of heart-throbs, are chosen. Methods were used before and after standard vestibular irritation. Research was conducted on the base of child's preschool establishment. In it took part 120 children in age 5 - 6 years. Insufficient development of vestibular analyzer is set for children. Selected exercise for the improvement of spatial orientation and statodynamic stability.

  13. PSYCHOBIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF PRENATAL GLUCOCORTCOID EXPOSURE IN 10-YEAR-OLD-CHILDREN

    OpenAIRE

    UlrikeEhlert; RolandZimmermann

    2012-01-01

    Background: Prenatal stress seems to have long-lasting effects on biological and psychological processes of the offspring. However, to date, there have been no studies investigating the effects of prenatal glucocorticoid exposure on psychological, endocrine, and autonomic responses to a standardized psychosocial stress test in children. Methods: A sample of 115 healthy, ten-year-old children was examined. The Glucocorticoids+Tocolytics group was characterized by tocolytic treatment of the ...

  14. Epidemiology of bronchial asthma in school children (10–16 years) in Srinagar

    OpenAIRE

    Uruj Altaf Qureshi; Sufoora Bilques; Inaam ul Haq; Muhammad Saleem Khan; Mariya Amin Qurieshi; Umar Amin Qureshi

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the epidemiological profile of asthma in school going children in Srinagar, Kashmir. Study design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Thirty-one schools with proportionate representation from both government and private schools as well as from primary, middle, and high schools. Participants: School children aged 10–16 years with equal representation of sex and all ages. Main Outcome Measure: Prevalence of current and past asthma. Methods and Results: After administering a m...

  15. The education of children of 6–7 years of media representations of musical expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetalana Ziryanova

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The author presents the analysis of art, music and pedagogical literature in the aspect of formation of no-tions about the means of musical expression among 6–7-year old children, which provide an understanding of the artistic image of a musical composition. The particular attention is paid to the orientation of children in a holistic perception of the whole complex musical and language means.

  16. Lung function in white children aged 4 to 19 years: I--Spirometry.

    OpenAIRE

    M. Rosenthal; Bain, S. H.; Cramer, D.; Helms, P; Denison, D.; Bush, A; Warner, J O

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--A study was performed to produce reference standards for spirometric lung function in white children and to calculate standard deviation scores adjusted for gender and pubertal stage. METHODS--A cross sectional study was made of 772 white children aged 4.6 to 18.8 years (455 male) tested on an OHIO 840 spirometer and assessed anthropometrically and pubertally. RESULTS--Before puberty there was a linear increase in all lung function measurements with height. During puberty a sudden ...

  17. Occlusal characteristics in 3-year-old children – results of a birth cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Wagner, Yvonne; Heinrich-Weltzien, Roswitha

    2015-01-01

    Background Aim of this prospective study was to determine prevalence of malocclusion and associated risk factors in 3-year-old Thuringian children. Methods Subjects (n = 377) were participants in a regional oral health programme, a birth cohort study with the aim to prevent caries (German Clinical Trials Register DRKS00003438). Children received continuous dental care since birth. Occlusal characteristics (overjet, overbite, anterior open bite, canine relationship and posterior crossbite) wer...

  18. The best outcome for children in their early years is to have two working parents

    OpenAIRE

    McMunn, Anne

    2011-01-01

    The debate around the impacts that working parents have on their children’s development is long running and continuing. Commentators have raised concerns about working mothers especially resulting in children who are less well-behaved, do worse at school and are less healthy. Anne McMunn outlines the results of her research looking at the working habits of parents and the behaviour of children during their first five years.

  19. Outcomes of 3-Year-Old Children With Hearing Loss and Different Types of Additional Disabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Cupples, Linda; Ching, Teresa Y. C.; Crowe, Kathryn; Seeto, Mark; Leigh, Greg; Street, Laura; Day, Julia; Marnane, Vivienne; Thomson, Jessica

    2013-01-01

    This research investigated the speech, language, and functional auditory outcomes of 119 3-year-old children with hearing loss and additional disabilities. Outcomes were evaluated using direct assessment and caregiver report. Multiple regressions revealed that type of additional disability and level of maternal education were significant predictors of language outcomes. Poorer outcomes were achieved in a combined group of children with autism, cerebral palsy, and/or developmental delay (DD) (...

  20. Anemia in children under five years old in Eastern Cuba, 2005-2011

    OpenAIRE

    Gisela M. Pita; Santa Jiménez; Beatriz Basabe; René G. García; Consuelo Macías; Lisette Selva; Clarisa Hernández; Margarita Cruz; Roxana Herrera; Regla O'Farrill; Isabel Calderius; Karelia Paulí; Moraima Leyva; Caridad Arocha; Dania Herrera

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Anemia is the main nutritional problem in Cuban preschool children, prompting several interventions to prevent and control it. An enhanced national strategy was established in 2008, and particular attention paid to the eastern provinces, the region with greatest challenges in social determinants of health. OBJECTIVE Determine anemia prevalence in children aged 6-59 months in Cuba's five eastern provinces in three separate years within a decade, as well as association of anemia wi...

  1. EPIDEMIOLOGY OF UNDER - NUTRITION IN CHILDREN BETWEEN 0-5 YEARS FROM RURAL AREAS OF DEHRADUN

    OpenAIRE

    Megha Luthra; Surekha Kishore; Kajal Jain

    2010-01-01

    Background: Under nutrition is a major problem in India. This is a study conducted in rural catchment areas of Department of Community Medicine, SGRRMC, Dehradun to asses the same. Objectives: To find out prevalence of under nutrition in children in the age group of 0-5 years and also to study its epidemiological correlates. Methods :All registered children of RHTC Mothrowala during October to December2009 were studied. Detailed histories were taken & growth chartingwas done using growth ...

  2. Traumatic Dental Injuries Among 12-15-Year-Old-School Children in Panchkula

    OpenAIRE

    Chopra, Amandeep; Lakhanpal, Manav; Rao, NC; Gupta, Nidhi; Vashisth, Shelja

    2014-01-01

    Background: Traumatic dental injury (TDI) in children and adolescents has become one of the most serious dental public health problems. Despite such a high prevalence of dental trauma, very less attention has been paid to TDI, its etiology, and prevention. Objectives: To determine the prevalence of anterior tooth traumatic dental injuries in 12-15-year-old school children of Panchkula district, India, and to find any correlation with the cause, gender, extent of overbite as well as over-jet, ...

  3. Diarrhea, pneumonia, and infectious disease mortality in children aged 5 to 14 years in India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaun K Morris

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Little is known about the causes of death in children in India after age five years. The objective of this study is to provide the first ever direct national and sub-national estimates of infectious disease mortality in Indian children aged 5 to 14 years. METHODS: A verbal autopsy based assessment of 3 855 deaths is children aged 5 to 14 years from a nationally representative survey of deaths occurring in 2001-03 in 1.1 million homes in India. RESULTS: Infectious diseases accounted for 58% of all deaths among children aged 5 to 14 years. About 18% of deaths were due to diarrheal diseases, 10% due to pneumonia, 8% due to central nervous system infections, 4% due to measles, and 12% due to other infectious diseases. Nationally, in 2005 about 59 000 and 34 000 children aged 5 to 14 years died from diarrheal diseases and pneumonia, corresponding to mortality of 24.1 and 13.9 per 100 000 respectively. Mortality was nearly 50% higher in girls than in boys for both diarrheal diseases and pneumonia. CONCLUSIONS: Approximately 60% of all deaths in this age group are due to infectious diseases and nearly half of these deaths are due to diarrheal diseases and pneumonia. Mortality in this age group from infectious diseases, and diarrhea in particular, is much higher than previously estimated.

  4. Metamemory prediction accuracy for simple prospective and retrospective memory tasks in 5-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvavilashvili, Lia; Ford, Ruth M

    2014-11-01

    It is well documented that young children greatly overestimate their performance on tests of retrospective memory (RM), but the current investigation is the first to examine children's prediction accuracy for prospective memory (PM). Three studies were conducted, each testing a different group of 5-year-olds. In Study 1 (N=46), participants were asked to predict their success in a simple event-based PM task (remembering to convey a message to a toy mole if they encountered a particular picture during a picture-naming activity). Before naming the pictures, children listened to either a reminder story or a neutral story. Results showed that children were highly accurate in their PM predictions (78% accuracy) and that the reminder story appeared to benefit PM only in children who predicted they would remember the PM response. In Study 2 (N=80), children showed high PM prediction accuracy (69%) regardless of whether the cue was specific or general and despite typical overoptimism regarding their performance on a 10-item RM task using item-by-item prediction. Study 3 (N=35) showed that children were prone to overestimate RM even when asked about their ability to recall a single item-the mole's unusual name. In light of these findings, we consider possible reasons for children's impressive PM prediction accuracy, including the potential involvement of future thinking in performance predictions and PM. PMID:24698432

  5. Internationally Adopted Children from Non-European Countries: General Development during the First Two Years in the Adoptive Family

    OpenAIRE

    Monica Dalen; Steinar Theie

    2012-01-01

    Internationally adopted children are often delayed in their development and demonstrate more behaviour problems than nonadopted children due to adverse preadoption circumstances. This is especially true for children adopted from Eastern European countries. Few studies have focused on children adopted from non-European countries. This paper presents results from an ongoing longitudinal study of 119 internationally adopted children from non-European countries during their first two years in Nor...

  6. Comparison of Undernutrition Prevalence of Children under 5 Years in China between 2002 and 2013

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Dong Mei; ZHAO Li Yun; YANG Zhen Yu; CHANG Su Ying; YU Wen Tao; FANG Hong Yun; WANG Xun

    2016-01-01

    Objective To describe the undernutrition status of children under 5-year in China, and study the trend between 2002 and 2013. Methods The study was based on two national surveys. Undernutrition wasdetermined against WHOs 2006 growth standards.The prevalence in 2013 and 2002 was weighted by China sixth National Population Census (2010). The relationship between undernutrition and gender/age groups/different areas use weighted logistic regression. Results The results indicated the overall prevalence of stunting, underweight, and wasting of Chinese children under 5-year was 8.1%, 2.4%, and 1.9% in 2013, respectively. The prevalence of stunting was higher for children aged 12-47 month, while underweight was higher for children aged 48-59 month. The prevalence of undernutrition was higher in rural areas than in urban areas, especially in poor rural areas. There was a decline of stunting, underweight, and wastingbetween 2002 and 2013 among the children, with greater reduction in rural areas than in urban areas. Conclusion The prevalence of undernutrition of children under 5-year remains high in rural areas especially in poor rural areas in China. It is urgent totake action to control undernutrition in the vulnerable areas and subgroups.

  7. PREVALENCE AND AETIOLOGICAL FACTORS OF URINARY TRACT INFECTION IN FEBRILE CHILDREN 2 MONTHS TO 2 YEARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES To determine the prevalence of urinary tract infection and etiological factors in recurrent urinary tract infections in febrile children, 2 months to 2 years of age. METHODS It was a hospital-based cross-sectional study conducted in the OPD of a tertiary care teaching hospital; 239 children between the ages of 2 months to 2 years with fever of more than 5 days were evaluated for UTI. Those who have >5 pus cells in urine analysis, urine culture was done. Children with recurrent UTI were evaluated by abdominal ultrasonogram, MCU and DMSA scan. RESULTS Total number of children studied were 239, prevalence of urinary tract infection was 11.3%, 2-6 months of age (18.75% and 7-12 months of age (14.14%. E. coli constituted 62.96%. Among children with recurrent urinary tract infection, pyelonephritic changes in DMSA scan were present in 4 (36.3% and VUR was present in 2 (16% in MCU. CONCLUSIONS Urinary tract infection is a significant problem to be looked for in febrile children 2 months to 2 years. In recurrent UTI, any underlying problems like VUR should be considered and evaluated.

  8. Transcranial Doppler sonography in children: Review of a seven-year experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirsch, Wolfgang; Hiebsch, Wolfgang; Teichler, Heike; SchlUeter, Andreas

    2002-06-01

    AIM: We report the use of transcranial Doppler sonography (TCD) examinations in children (mean age 12.7 years; range 0.5-18 years) without an open fontanelle, using TCD equipment with a 2 MHz pulse wave transducer. Our results over a 7-year period are described. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 858 children were referred from the paediatric outpatient department. All patients were divided into three groups according to the reason for referral. RESULTS: We found positive pathological results in the following: (1) headache and orthostatic dysregulation (0.4%, three out of 728); (2) acute neurological symptoms (5.4%, six out of 112); (3) other indications (22.2%, four out of 18). The positive predictive value of finding an abnormality was very low (0.50) . CONCLUSION: TCD examination is ineffective in children with non-specific headache or orthostatic dysregulation due to the specific limitations of this method. We found a higher percentage of abnormal results in children referred for other indications. However, since these children usually undergo MR imaging (and MR angiography, if necessary), in our opinion the TCD examination does not add any additional information. The value of TCD in children is not in the primary diagnosis of disease but in the follow up of known vascular processes (e.g. stenoses) or in chronic diseases including angiitis and sickle cell disease. Hirsch, W. et al. (2002)

  9. Features of tennis methods of teaching 5-6 years old children in the initial stages

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    Kurmaeva E.V.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : theoretical and methodological justification for the existing teaching methods tennis of 5-6 years old children. Material : 17 special analysis and scientific and methodological sources. Results : the features of the existing methods of teaching children at an early stage of training. The main theses of the existing methods: 1 the training process is carried out in the form of games; 2 the level of general physical preparedness level exceeds special; 3 The first two years of the children do not participate in official competitions; 4 education of children begins with " School Ball ", with a gradual transition to employment with racket and ball; 5 training is built on two levels: theoretical - each " part" in the form of pre- formation of a mental model of rational behavior, and practical - the formation of the ability to perform motor actions. Conclusions : it was found that the existing methods of constructing the training process for children 5-6 years do not account for their physiological characteristics, therefore proposed to use computer technology and animation, that will shorten the formation of motor skills of children.

  10. Sonography in Children with Acute Abdominal Pain: 5 Years Experience in Only Children Medical Center in Khorasan

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    S. A. Alamdaran

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Objective: acute abdominal pain is one important dilemma in pediatric patients. The purpose of this paper is to present our experience about diagnostic value of sonography in children with acute abdominal pain."nPatients and Methods: During a period of 5 years (march 2002 to march 2007; we studied clinical, sonographical and surgical data of more than 5000 children with acute abdominal pain in only children medical center in khorasan at Dr. Sheikh Children hospital."nResults: Approximately in more than 90% children with acute abdominal pain, mesenteric lymphadenitis [enlarged mesenteric lymph nodes (≥4mm and/or mural thickening of the terminal ileum (≥8mm] and gastroenteritis (enlarged mesenteric lymph nodes with generalize thickened bowel wall were sonographic diagnosis. In all this patients, sonographic diagnosis was documented with clinical course and outcome, except in three that pelvic appendicitis was final surgical diagnosis. "nAppendicitis, intussusception and bowel obstruction [mainly due to inflammatory or tumoral mass] were uncommon causes. The rare sonographic diagnoses were peritonitis in 8, malrotation (abnormal mesenteric vessels position in 3, pancratitis in 3, diaphragmatic hernia with gastric volvulus (abnormal mesenteric vessels position in 2, ovarian torsion in 2, pylonephritis in 1, mechel diveticulitis in 1. Final clinical and surgical diagnosis in three patients with peritonitis diagnosis was gastroenteritis. In children with acute abdominal pain, there was normal sonography report only in few cases. "nConclusion: common and uncommon causes of acute abdominal pain in children are limited and in almost all of these patients, sonographic diagnosis is completely reliable.

  11. Clinical characteristics and prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency in children less than two years of age

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    Ji Hyun Yoon

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : To evaluate the clinical characteristics of vitamin D deficiency and its association with iron deficiency anemia (IDA. Methods : A total of 171 children aged less than two years underwent 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 tests between January 2007 and July 2009. The study was classified into two groups: normal and vitamin D insufficiency, by their vitamin 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 levels. Results : In total, 120 children were in the normal group (mean age, body weight and heights 12.5±7.0, 9.3±0.9 kg and 76.8±1.1 cm, and 51 children in the vitamin D insufficiency group (9.9±5.4 months, 9.0±0.9 kg and 75.1±0.9 cm. Vitamin D insufficiency was most commonly diagnosed in the spring (44%. The proportion of complete breast-feeding was higher in the insufficiency (92%, and 25.5% of the children in the deficient group also experienced IDA compared that 12% of normal group. Ten children in the insufficiency group experienced bony changes. Six children received calcitriol medication in the normal group, in whom the mean vitamin 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 level increased from 39.6±14.6 ng/mL (pre-medication to 41.8±17.2 ng/mL (post-medication, and 13 in the insufficiency group, in whom the mean vitamin 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 increased from 20.7±7.0 ng/ mL to a mean post-treatment level of 43.7±23.8 ng/mL. Conclusion : This study demonstrated that approximately 30% of children aged ?#178; years experienced vitamin D insufficiency associated with subclinical rickets. Many children also experienced concurrent IDA. Guidelines for vitamin D supplement in such children must therefore be established.

  12. Dietary intake in 6-year-old children from southern Poland: part 1 - energy and macronutrient intakes

    OpenAIRE

    Merkiel, Sylwia

    2014-01-01

    Background The studies on dietary intake in Polish children are sparse and the information about dietary intake in 6-year-olds in Europe is limited. The published studies on dietary intake in children rarely provide information on the intake of animal protein, plant protein and water. The purpose of the study was to analyse energy and macronutrient intakes in 6-year-old children from southern Poland. Methods The studied population comprised 120 children, 64 girls and 56 boys. Energy and macro...

  13. The role of phonological awareness and letter-sound knowledge in the reading development of children with intellectual disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sermier Dessemontet, Rachel; de Chambrier, Anne-Françoise

    2015-01-01

    Our study investigated if phonological awareness and letter-sound knowledge were predictors of reading progress in children with intellectual disabilities (ID) with unspecified etiology. An academic achievement test was administered to 129 children with mild or moderate ID when they were 6-8 years old, as well as one and two school years later. Findings indicated that phonological awareness and letter-sound knowledge at 6-8 years of age predicted progress in word and non-word reading after one school year and two school years after controlling for IQ, age, expressive vocabulary, spoken language, and type of placement. Phonological awareness and letter-sound knowledge at 6-8 years of age also predicted progress in reading comprehension after one school year and two school years. These findings suggest that training phonological awareness skills combined with explicit phonics instruction is important to foster reading progress in children with mild and moderate ID with unspecified etiology. PMID:25965277

  14. Factors Affecting the IQ of Preterm Born Children of 4-6 Years Old

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    Shokofeh Radfar

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: This research was carry out with aim of study of factors affecting the IQ of children 4-6 years old born preterm. Materials and Methods: This analytical-cross sectional study was carried out on 102 premature children with age 4-6 years old during years 2004 to 2006. The tools used in this study were Wechsler intelligence scale for children and questioner including demographical characteristic. In this study we used t-test and spearman correlation and also SPSS-18 was used to analyze data. Results: In this study there was statistical relationship between normal child development and gestational age, birth weight, maternal education, multiple pregnancies, but there were not any statistical significant relationship between the history of preterm birth and child s gender, consanguinity parents, apgar, mother job. Conclusion: IQ in preterm babies who admitted in the NICU was lower than non-admitted preterm or term babies.

  15. Functional performance of school children diagnosed with developmental delay up to two years of age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dornelas, Lílian de Fátima; Magalhães, Lívia de Castro

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To compare the functional performance of students diagnosed with developmental delay (DD) up to two years of age with peers exhibiting typical development. Methods: Cross-sectional study with functional performance assessment of children diagnosed with DD up to two years of age compared to those with typical development at seven to eight years of age. Each group consisted of 45 children, selected by non-random sampling, evaluated for motor skills, quality of home environment, school participation and performance. ANOVA and the Binomial test for two proportions were used to assess differences between groups. Results: The group with DD had lower motor skills when compared to the typical group. While 66.7% of children in the typical group showed adequate school participation, receiving aid in cognitive and behavioral tasks similar to that offered to other children at the same level, only 22.2% of children with DD showed the same performance. Although 53.3% of the children with DD achieved an academic performance expected for the school level, there were limitations in some activities. Only two indicators of family environment, diversity and activities with parents at home, showed statistically significant difference between the groups, with advantage being shown for the typical group. Conclusions: Children with DD have persistent difficulties at school age, with motor deficit, restrictions in school activity performance and low participation in the school context, as well as significantly lower functional performance when compared to children without DD. A systematic monitoring of this population is recommended to identify needs and minimize future problems. PMID:26553573

  16. Functional performance of school children diagnosed with developmental delay up to two years of age

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    Lílian de Fátima Dornelas

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To compare the functional performance of students diagnosed with developmental delay (DD up to two years of age with peers exhibiting typical development. Methods: Cross-sectional study with functional performance assessment of children diagnosed with DD up to two years of age compared to those with typical development at seven to eight years of age. Each group consisted of 45 children, selected by non-random sampling, evaluated for motor skills, quality of home environment, school participation and performance. ANOVA and the Binomial test for two proportions were used to assess differences between groups. Results: The group with DD had lower motor skills when compared to the typical group. While 66.7% of children in the typical group showed adequate school participation, receiving aid in cognitive and behavioral tasks similar to that offered to other children at the same level, only 22.2% of children with DD showed the same performance. Although 53.3% of the children with DD achieved an academic performance expected for the school level, there were limitations in some activities. Only two indicators of family environment, diversity and activities with parents at home, showed statistically significant difference between the groups, with advantage being shown for the typical group. Conclusions: Children with DD have persistent difficulties at school age, with motor deficit, restrictions in school activity performance and low participation in the school context, as well as significantly lower functional performance when compared to children without DD. A systematic monitoring of this population is recommended to identify needs and minimize future problems.

  17. Prevalence of Malnutrition in Children under 6 Years in Sistan and Baluchestan Province, Iran

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    Mansour Karajibani

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The present study was conducted in rural area of Sistan and Baluchestan province, south-east of Iran with aim of determine the prevalence of underweight, stunting, wasting, overweight and obesity among children. Materials and Methods: One thousand five hundred seventy Children were selected from all children less than 6 years covered by healthy and treatment centers of rural area in Sistan and Baluchestan province. Body weight and height were measured using standard methods. Determination of malnutrition performed based on WHO, National Center for Health Statistics and Center for Disease Control and Prevention (NCHS and CDC standard. The indices nutritional status was assessed by Z- Score. Results: The result showed that, based on NCHS and WHO standard: 21.1% and 19.4%, 28.2% and 32.1%, 7.5% and 9.4% of children were underweight, stunted and wasted respectively. The peak of malnutrition based on stunting was more than underweight and wasting. According to CDC standard, the prevalence of underweight, overweight and obesity was 27.8%, 4.2% and 4.1% respectively. The most rate of overweight and obesity was 7.1% and 5% in children aged 3 years using CDC cut-off and also lowest rate of overweight and obesity were 1.5% and 0% in children aged 5 years. Conclusion: This study revealed, underweight, stunting and wasting represents different processes of malnutrition which have different risk factors. However, it might be replaced by overweight as children grow to adolescence. Nevertheless, overweight and obesity are not major problem in the children.

  18. [Food avoidance emotional disorder in 3 to 10-year-old children: a clinical reality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goëb, J-L; Azcona, B; Troussier, F; Malka, J; Giniès, J-L; Duverger, P

    2005-09-01

    We underline the clinical importance of a specific eating disorder in 3 to 10 years old children, when the majority of the works about the prepubertal eating disorders focus either on the period just preceding adolescence (often between 10 and 13 years), or on the second half of the first year of the baby. Within the eating disorders described in the literature, we compare the clinical presentation of most of these 3 to 10 years old children with the food avoidance emotional disorder described during adolescence. These problems of eating behaviour (various selective eating with or without provoked vomiting) are ignored for a long time in these young children because of quite a satisfactory growth, but these children are often seen in emergency rooms because of a brutally complete eating refusal. Therapeutic consultations allow these children to express their fears about diseases, poisoning and death, for themselves or for their close relations, in particular the mother, without endangering their body. The early recognition and care of these difficulties of conciliation between the body and the thoughts impose a narrow collaboration between paediatric and psychiatric staffs. PMID:15979861

  19. Children with autism spectrum disorders who do not develop phrase speech in the preschool years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norrelgen, Fritjof; Fernell, Elisabeth; Eriksson, Mats; Hedvall, Åsa; Persson, Clara; Sjölin, Maria; Gillberg, Christopher; Kjellmer, Liselotte

    2015-11-01

    There is uncertainty about the proportion of children with autism spectrum disorders who do not develop phrase speech during the preschool years. The main purpose of this study was to examine this ratio in a population-based community sample of children. The cohort consisted of 165 children (141 boys, 24 girls) with autism spectrum disorders aged 4-6 years followed longitudinally over 2 years during which time they had received intervention at a specialized autism center. In this study, data collected at the 2-year follow-up were used. Three categories of expressive language were defined: nonverbal, minimally verbal, and phrase speech. Data from the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales-II were used to classify expressive language. A secondary objective of the study was to analyze factors that might be linked to verbal ability, namely, child age, cognitive level, autism subtype and severity of core autism symptoms, developmental regression, epilepsy or other medical conditions, and intensity of intervention. The proportion of children who met the criteria for nonverbal, minimally verbal, and phrase speech were 15%, 10%, and 75%, respectively. The single most important factor linked to expressive language was the child's cognitive level, and all children classified as being nonverbal or minimally verbal had intellectual disability. PMID:25488002

  20. [Special considerations in children under five years with asthma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuevas Schacht, Francisco J; Cano Salas, Maria del Carmen

    2009-01-01

    Currently, clinical practice guidelines and international guidelines on diagnosis and management of asthma, including special considerations in patients under five years old, given the frequent respiratory morbidity associated with this age group and poor or no cooperation from the child for testing respiratory function, favoring the underdiagnosis, delaying treatment and affecting the proper assessment of severity, level of control, and adequate clinical response to treatment. That is why the proper understanding of the natural history and the different phenotypes in infants and toddlers, allow for functional and clinical considerations on the progression of asthma from early childhood to adulthood, being necessary to make a special deal considering personal and family history, symptoms and progression of comorbidities exist which in turn will classify, monitor and plan treatment to achieve and maintain control of the disease, so far as asthma is not cured but their control is achieved in most patients. The doctor-patient interaction, family, education, control of risk factors and comorbidities, assessment, treatment and monitoring of the development of asthma are the foundation for success in the management of asthmatic patients. PMID:20873059

  1. [Empathy in children aged 10 to 12 years].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garaigordobil, Maite; García de Galdeano, Patricia

    2006-05-01

    The objectives of this research were: 1) to determine whether there were differences in empathy according to gender; 2) to analyze the relationships between empathy and social behaviour, self-concept, emotional stability, social interaction strategies, capacity to analyze emotions, intelligence, and creativity; and 3) to identify predicting variables of empathy. The sample consisted of 139 participants aged 10 to 12 years. ANOVA results showed gender differences in empathy, with significantly higher scores in females. Pearson coefficients suggest that participants with high empathy showed many positive social behaviours (prosocial, assertive, consideration, self-control, leadership), few negative social behaviors (passive, aggressive, antisocial, withdrawal) and many assertive strategies of social interaction; that they were named as prosocial classmates; and that they had high self-concept, high capacity to analyze negative emotions, high emotional stability and many behaviors and traits of creative personality. Multiple regression analyses permitted identification of the following predicting variables of empathy: high level of prosocial behaviour, low level of aggressive behaviour and high self-concept. PMID:17296029

  2. Correlates of children`s physical activity : a study of six-year olds

    OpenAIRE

    Smalø, Esther

    2015-01-01

    Physical activity is a central component of a healthy lifestyle among young people, in addition to potentially playing a vital role in their social and mental adjustment. Lack of physical activity may contribute to the development of health problems in children, and these health problems often track into adulthood. Children’s surroundings are filled with technological advances which are meant to increase efficiency and productivity, but which at the same time may reduce physical activity. Man...

  3. Varicella vaccination coverage of children under two years of age in Germany

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    Reuss Annicka M

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since July 2004, routine varicella vaccination is recommended by the German Standing Vaccination Committee in Germany. Health Insurance Funds started to cover vaccination costs at different time points between 2004 and 2006 in the Federal States. Nationwide representative data on vaccination coverage against varicella of children under two years of age are not available. We aimed to determine varicella vaccination coverage in statutory health insured children under two years of age in twelve German Federal States using data from associations of statutory health insurance physicians (ASHIPs, in order to investigate the acceptance of the recommended routine varicella vaccination programme. Methods We analysed data on varicella vaccination from 13 of 17 ASHIPs of the years 2004 to 2007. The study population consisted of all statutory health insured children under two years of age born in 2004 (cohort 2004 or 2005 (cohort 2005 in one of the studied regions. Vaccination coverage was determined by the number of children vaccinated under 2 years of age within the study population. Results Varicella vaccination coverage of children under two years of age with either one dose of the monovalent varicella vaccine or two doses of the measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella vaccine increased from 34% (cohort 2004 to 51% (cohort 2005 in the studied regions (p Conclusions Our study shows increasing varicella vaccination coverage of young children, indicating a growing acceptance of the routine varicella vaccination programme by the parents and physicians. We recommend further monitoring of vaccination coverage using data from ASHIPs to investigate acceptance of the routine vaccination programmes over time.

  4. Physical activity levels and energy expenditure of 9-year-old – 12-year-old overweight and obese children

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    Anita E. Pienaar

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The high occurrence of overweight and obesity amongst children is a disturbing health problem worldwide. Possible causes of increasing childhood obesity are inactivity and energy imbalances. The aim of this study was to analyse the total energy expenditure (TEEand physical activity levels in 9-year-old – 12-year-old overweight and obese children during a weekday and a weekend day, as well as during a weekday morning and afternoon. Twenty-four 9-year-old – 12-year-old children (seven boys and 17 girls, of whom nine were overweight and 15 were obese, were selected from seven public primary schools for this study. Body mass index (BMI cut-off points were used to distinguish between overweight and obese. Each participant wore an ACTICAL™ monitor to determine their physical activity levels and TEE. It was found that the TEE of the children did not differ between a week day and a weekend day, although the TEE of the week day afternoon differed significantly from that of the weekday morning. Unlike the overweight children, none of the obese children met the requirements of 60 minutes of moderate-intensity physical activity per day. Strategies should be found to increase the activity levels of overweight and, especially, obese children, specifically during the mornings and over weekends.

    Opsomming

    Die hoë voorkoms van oorgewig en obesiteit onder kinders is wêreldwyd ’n kommerwekkende gesondheidsprobleem. Fisieke onaktiwiteit en energiewanbalanse word as moontlike oorsake van die probleem beskou. Die doel van hierdie studie was om die totale energieverbruik (TEV en fisieke-aktiwiteitsvlakke van 9-jarige – 12-jarige oorgewig- en obese kinders tydens ‘n totale weeksdag en naweekdag te ontleed, asook tydens die oggend en middag van ‘n weeksdag. Vier-en-twintig 9-jarige – 12-jarige kinders (sewe seuns en 17 dogters, waarvan nege oorgewig en 15 obees was, is uit sewe publieke laerskole vir die studie gekies

  5. Clinically significant behavior problems among young children 2 years after the Great East Japan Earthquake.

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    Takeo Fujiwara

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: On March 11, 2011, a massive undersea earthquake and tsunami struck East Japan. Few studies have investigated the impact of exposure to a natural disaster on preschool children. We investigated the association of trauma experiences during the Great East Japan Earthquake on clinically significant behavior problems among preschool children 2 years after the earthquake. METHOD: Participants were children who were exposed to the 2011 disaster at preschool age (affected area, n = 178; unaffected area, n = 82. Data were collected from September 2012 to June 2013 (around 2 years after the earthquake, thus participants were aged 5 to 8 years when assessed. Severe trauma exposures related to the earthquake (e.g., loss of family members were assessed by interview, and trauma events in the physical environment related to the earthquake (e.g. housing damage, and other trauma exposure before the earthquake, were assessed by questionnaire. Behavior problems were assessed by caregivers using the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL, which encompasses internalizing, externalizing, and total problems. Children who exceeded clinical cut-off of the CBCL were defined as having clinically significant behavior problems. RESULTS: Rates of internalizing, externalizing, and total problems in the affected area were 27.7%, 21.2%, and 25.9%, respectively. The rate ratio suggests that children who lost distant relatives or friends were 2.36 times more likely to have internalizing behavior problems (47.6% vs. 20.2%, 95% CI: 1.10-5.07. Other trauma experiences before the earthquake also showed significant positive association with internalizing, externalizing, and total behavior problems, which were not observed in the unaffected area. CONCLUSIONS: One in four children still had behavior problems even 2 years after the Great East Japan Earthquake. Children who had other trauma experiences before the earthquake were more likely to have behavior problems. These

  6. Parental spanking of 1-year-old children and subsequent child protective services involvement✩

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Shawna J.; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Berger, Lawrence M.

    2014-01-01

    The majority of U.S. parents spank their children, often beginning when their children are very young. We examined families (N=2,788) who participated in a longitudinal community-based study of new births in urban areas. Prospective analyses examined whether spanking by the child's mother, father, or mother's current partner when the child was 1-year-old was associated with household CPS involvement between age 1 and age 5. Results indicated that 30% of 1-year-olds were spanked at least once ...

  7. Reliability of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire in Japanese Preschool Children Aged 4–6 Years

    OpenAIRE

    ,

    2014-01-01

    Background The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) has been widely used as a brief behavioral screening. The aim of this study was to examine the internal consistency and test-retest reliability of the 3- to 4-year-old version of the SDQ (SDQ 3–4) in Japanese preschool children. Methods The SDQ 3–4 was administered to 754 parents who had 4- to 6-year-old children attending kindergartens or childcare centers in Wako City, Japan, at 2 different times (Time 1 and Time 2) over a 2-week...

  8. Cerebral Palsy in 1-12 Year Old Children in Southern Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Inaloo, Soroor; Pegah KATIBEH; GHASEMOF, Masroor

    2016-01-01

    Objective Cerebral palsy (CP) is a non-progressive CNS disorder due to an insult to the growing brain, usually occurring in the first two years of life. During the recent years, its etiology has been changed; perinatal and postnatal insults are not considered as its main causes in developed countries any more. The aim of this study was to evaluate the causes of CP in children in southern Iran. Materials & Methods Overall, 200 children with CP aged 1-12 yr old referring to Pediatric Neurology ...

  9. ESWL Treatment of Urinary Stones in Children – The Overview of 14 Years of Experience

    OpenAIRE

    Kuveždić, Hrvoje; Tucak, Antun; Perić, Nikica; Prlić, Damir; Zorić, Ivan; Galić, Radoslav

    2003-01-01

    Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) treatment has been used at Department of Urology, University Hospital »Osijek«, Croatia, since July 1988. Until December 2001 seven thousand and eight hundred patients underwent ESWL for urinary stones, 68 of them were children (0.87%). Sixty-eight children aged 4 to 15 years (average 10.14 years) underwent ESWL. They were treated for the total of 91 stones: 35 (38.46%) caliceal, 23 (25.27%) in pyelon, 7 (7.69%) in pyeloureteric segm...

  10. Bruxism and familiar functioning in school-age children between 5 and 11 years

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    Ana Lury Morales

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bruxism, a common negative habit in children, is often linked with emotional conflicts, anxiety, stress, or frustration, which could be originated in the familiar environment. Objective: To characterize the familiar environment of children between 5 and 11 years suffering from bruxism. Methods: Analytical control-case design, developed from March to June, 2007, including children between 5 and 11 years from three urban elementary schools included in Health Area II of Cienfuegos municipality. All the children with bruxism were selected as cases and the controls were selected through pairing 2 to 1. The test FF-SIL was used to assess familiar functioning. Results: Bruxism was not associated with gender. There were significant differences between both groups regarding familiar functioning, in which affectivity and cohesion had higher results and harmony was less significant. Most of the studied families were functional or half-functional. Most of children with bruxism come from families with inadequate functioning; besides, dysfunctional and severely dysfunctional families and more frequent in the group of children with bruxism. Conclusion: In the studied sample, bruxism was associated, to a large extent, with inadequate familiar functioning.

  11. Dietary habits among children aged 8-9 years in Italy

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    Laura Lauria

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe dietary habits and related geographic and socio-demographic characteristics among children aged 8-9 years in Italy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data from the 2012 national nutritional surveillance system collected from children, parents and teachers, have been linked to determine the children's eating habits. Logistic regression analyses were used to investigate the association between incorrect dietary habits and their potential predictors. RESULTS: Of the 46 307 children, 8.6% skipped breakfast, 48.8% did not eat vegetables and 28.7% did not eat fruit daily, 64.8% ate an abundant mid-morning snack, 41.4% drank sugary beverages and 12.5% drank carbonated beverages at least once a day. Three or more incorrect habits were found in 43.9% of the children. Incorrect dietary habits were more common among children with lower socio-economic conditions, who were resident in the South of the country and who spent more time watching TV. CONCLUSION: In Italy, unhealthy dietary habits are common among children. The deficiencies identified may well be a harbinger of future public health problems.

  12. Can early breastfeeding support increase the 6-8 week breastfeeding prevalence rate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Linda

    2014-05-01

    Breastfeeding has significant health benefits for mothers and babies and is an important strategy to reduce health inequalities (UNICEF, 2010). The Baby Friendly Initiative, a strategy to increase breastfeeding rates, has been adopted by the trust. In line with the trust's priorities, the health visiting team initiated a project to increase the 6-8 breastfeeding prevalence rates. Breastfeeding mothers in a defined project area were offered breastfeeding support in their homes within the first postnatal week. Although the results after six months did demonstrate an overall increase in the 6-8 week prevalence rate of 5%, the monthly figures where disappointingly inconsistent and it was difficult to attribute the rise to the increased support offered. Nevertheless, the feedback from mothers who received support demonstrated that it was valued and had a positive impact on their confidence to continue to breastfeed. PMID:24881195

  13. Five strands of math drills big book : grades 6-8

    CERN Document Server

    Reed, Nat; Forest, Chris

    2011-01-01

    For grades 6-8, our Common Core State Standards-based resource meets the five strands of math concepts addressed by the NCTM standards and encourages the students to review the concepts in unique ways. Included are warm-up and timed drill activities which will push the boundaries of critical thought and demonstrate to students the importance of mathematical problems in Number & Operations, Geometry, Measurement, Data Analysis & Probability and Algebra using real world situations.

  14. Young Children's Environmental Attitudes and Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Gary W.; Brauchle, Gernot; Haq, Aliya; Stecker, Rachel; Wong, Kimberly; Shapiro, Elan

    2007-01-01

    Two reliable and valid instruments to assess first- and second-grade children's (N = 100, M = 6.8 years) environmental attitudes and behaviors are presented. A series of games derived primarily from dimensions of the new ecological paradigm theory of environmental attitudes are described for the assessment of environmental attitudes. The games…

  15. CLINICO – EPIDEMIOLOGY OF U TI IN UNDER 5 YEARS OF AGE IN CHILDREN

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    Sonali

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infections (UTIs are a common , potentially serious , and often occult bacterial infections of childhood . UTI is more frequent in females than males at all ages with the exception of the neonatal period . Urinary tract infections imply invasion of urinary tract by pathogens which may involve the upper or lower urinary tract depending on the infection in kidney , bladder and urethra . OBJECTIVES: To determine the incidence of UTI in febrile children be low 5years of age and to know the aetiological profile of UTI among the same group of children with fever . METHODS: This cross sectional observational study included all febrile children from one month to 5years of age , admitted in Pediatric ward in MGM Me dical College , Kishanganj , Bihar . RESULTS: Overall incidence rate of UTI in the present study was 6% with maximum incidence in children <2years of age . Among culture positive cases majority (50% grew E . coli . DMSA revealed renal cortical scarring in 42 . 8 5% cases following UTI . CONCLUSION: From the present study it can be concluded that UTI is a common bacterial infection in infant and children . Rapid evaluation and treatment of UTI is important to prevent renal parenchymal damage and renal scarring or ren al failure .

  16. Meckels diverticulum in children: A 12 years experience in Amir-Kabir children's hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Pediatric; Acute abdomen; Meckel's diverticulum

    1999-01-01

    Meckels Diverticulum is the most common congenital anomaly of GI tract. Complications develop in about 4% of cases as an acute abdomen. During the last 12 years, 58 patients with Meckel's diverticulum were treated in Amir-Kabir children's hospital. The majority of our cases (84%, 49 from 58) were under 6 years of age, with boys outnumbering girls (4:1). Intestinal obstruction was the most common form of presentation, included 60% of symptomatic patients and lower GI bleeding was the...

  17. Frequency of intrathoracic injuries in children younger than 3 years with rib fractures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darling, Stephen E. [Kapiolani Children' s Hospital, The Department of Radiology, Honolulu, HI (United States); Done, Stephen L.; Friedman, Seth D. [Seattle Children' s Hospital, The Department' s of Radiology, Seattle, WA (United States); University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA (United States); Feldman, Kenneth W. [Seattle Children' s Hospital, Pediatrics, General Pediatrics Division, Seattle, WA (United States); Seattle Children' s Protection Program, Children' s Protection Program, M/S M2-10, Seattle, WA (United States); University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2014-10-15

    Research documents that among children admitted to trauma intensive care units the number of rib fractures sustained indicates the child's likelihood of having and severity of intrathoracic injury. This has been misused in court to argue that children with multiple rib fractures who lack intrathoracic injury have abnormal bone fragility rather than inflicted injury. To determine frequency of intrathoracic injuries in children younger than 3 years with rib fractures in cases of child abuse and accidental trauma. We conducted a retrospective review of rib fractures caused by documented abuse or accidents from 2003 to 2010 in children treated at Seattle Children's Hospital and Harborview Medical Center. A senior pediatric radiologist and radiology fellow independently reviewed the imaging. Children with bone demineralization were excluded. Descriptive and simple comparative statistics were used. Seventy-two percent (47/65) of infants and toddlers with rib fractures were abused. Abused children had more rib fractures than accidentally injured children (5.55 vs. 3.11, P = 0.012). However intrathoracic injuries as a whole (55.6% vs. 12.8%, P < 0.001) and individual types of intrathoracic injuries were more common with accidents. Rates of other thoracic cage injuries did not differ substantially (27.8% accidents vs. 12.8% abuse, P = 0.064). Intracranial and intra-abdominal injuries and skull fractures were equally frequent, but other extrathoracic fractures were more common with abuse (70.2% vs. 16.7%, P < 0.001). Abused infants and toddlers have fewer intrathoracic injuries but more rib fractures than accidentally injured peers. This likely reflects different injury mechanics. Lack of intrathoracic injuries in abused children with rib fractures does not imply bone fragility. (orig.)

  18. Training compliance control yields improved drawing in 5-11year old children with motor difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snapp-Childs, Winona; Shire, Katy; Hill, Liam; Mon-Williams, Mark; Bingham, Geoffrey P

    2016-08-01

    There are a large number of children with motor difficulties including those that have difficulty producing movements qualitatively well enough to improve in perceptuo-motor learning without intervention. We have developed a training method that supports active movement generation to allow improvement in a 3D tracing task requiring good compliance control. Previously, we tested a limited age range of children and found that training improved performance on the 3D tracing task and that the training transferred to a 2D drawing test. In the present study, school children (5-11years old) with motor difficulties were trained in the 3D tracing task and transfer to a 2D drawing task was tested. We used a cross-over design where half of the children received training on the 3D tracing task during the first training period and the other half of the children received training during the second training period. Given previous results, we predicted that younger children would initially show reduced performance relative to the older children, and that performance at all ages would improve with training. We also predicted that training would transfer to the 2D drawing task. However, the pre-training performance of both younger and older children was equally poor. Nevertheless, post-training performance on the 3D task was dramatically improved for both age groups and the training transferred to the 2D drawing task. Overall, this work contributes to a growing body of literature that demonstrates relatively preserved motor learning in children with motor difficulties and further demonstrates the importance of games in therapeutic interventions. PMID:27219739

  19. Frequency of intrathoracic injuries in children younger than 3 years with rib fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research documents that among children admitted to trauma intensive care units the number of rib fractures sustained indicates the child's likelihood of having and severity of intrathoracic injury. This has been misused in court to argue that children with multiple rib fractures who lack intrathoracic injury have abnormal bone fragility rather than inflicted injury. To determine frequency of intrathoracic injuries in children younger than 3 years with rib fractures in cases of child abuse and accidental trauma. We conducted a retrospective review of rib fractures caused by documented abuse or accidents from 2003 to 2010 in children treated at Seattle Children's Hospital and Harborview Medical Center. A senior pediatric radiologist and radiology fellow independently reviewed the imaging. Children with bone demineralization were excluded. Descriptive and simple comparative statistics were used. Seventy-two percent (47/65) of infants and toddlers with rib fractures were abused. Abused children had more rib fractures than accidentally injured children (5.55 vs. 3.11, P = 0.012). However intrathoracic injuries as a whole (55.6% vs. 12.8%, P < 0.001) and individual types of intrathoracic injuries were more common with accidents. Rates of other thoracic cage injuries did not differ substantially (27.8% accidents vs. 12.8% abuse, P = 0.064). Intracranial and intra-abdominal injuries and skull fractures were equally frequent, but other extrathoracic fractures were more common with abuse (70.2% vs. 16.7%, P < 0.001). Abused infants and toddlers have fewer intrathoracic injuries but more rib fractures than accidentally injured peers. This likely reflects different injury mechanics. Lack of intrathoracic injuries in abused children with rib fractures does not imply bone fragility. (orig.)

  20. Tracing children's vocabulary development from preschool through the school-age years: an 8-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Shuang; Su, Mengmeng; Kang, Cuiping; Liu, Hongyun; Zhang, Yuping; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Tardif, Twila; Li, Hong; Liang, Weilan; Zhang, Zhixiang; Shu, Hua

    2015-01-01

    In this 8-year longitudinal study, we traced the vocabulary growth of Chinese children, explored potential precursors of vocabulary knowledge, and investigated how vocabulary growth predicted future reading skills. Two hundred and sixty-four (264) native Chinese children from Beijing were measured on a variety of reading and language tasks over 8 years. Between the ages of 4 to 10 years, they were administered tasks of vocabulary and related cognitive skills. At age 11, comprehensive reading skills, including character recognition, reading fluency, and reading comprehension were examined. Individual differences in vocabulary developmental profiles were estimated using the intercept-slope cluster method. Vocabulary development was then examined in relation to later reading outcomes. Three subgroups of lexical growth were classified, namely high-high (with a large initial vocabulary size and a fast growth rate), low-high (with a small initial vocabulary size and a fast growth rate) and low-low (with a small initial vocabulary size and a slow growth rate) groups. Low-high and low-low groups were distinguishable mostly through phonological skills, morphological skills and other reading-related cognitive skills. Childhood vocabulary development (using intercept and slope) explained subsequent reading skills. Findings suggest that language-related and reading-related cognitive skills differ among groups with different developmental trajectories of vocabulary, and the initial size and growth rate of vocabulary may be two predictors for later reading development. PMID:24962559

  1. The growth status of North Korean refugee children and adolescents from 6 to 19 years of age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pak, Sunyoung

    2010-01-01

    This paper is a study of the growth status of 1406 North Korean refugee children and adolescents who were between 6 and 19 9 years of age at the time of their arrival in South Korea during the years 1995-2007 as compared with that of their South Korean peers Refugee children of 6 5 years of age were

  2. Dental caries experience, tooth surface distribution and associated factors in 6- and 13- year- old school children from Davangere, India

    OpenAIRE

    Basha, Sakeenabi; Swamy, Hiremath Shivalinga

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of the present study was to investigate the caries experience and patterns in a sample of 6- and 13- year old school children and to estimate the contributing roles of the likely risk indicators. Study design: Data were obtained from 400 (196, 6-year old and 204, 13-year old) school children. A questionnaire was sent to the children parents to measure socioeconomic, socio-demographic, and behavioral variables. Dental caries detection was performed according to the Wo...

  3. Probabilistic assessment of exposure to cosmetic products by French children aged 0-3 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ficheux, A S; Dornic, N; Bernard, A; Chevillotte, G; Roudot, A C

    2016-08-01

    Very few exposure data are available for children in Europe and worldwide. The aim of this study was to assess the exposure to cosmetic products used on children aged 0-3 years using recent consumption data generated for the French population. Exposure was assessed using a probabilistic method for 24 products including cleanser, skin care, fragrance, solar and bottom products. The exposure data obtained in this study for children aged 0-3 years were higher than the values fixed by the SCCS for all common products: liquid shampoo, face moisturizer cream, toothpaste, shower gel and body moisturizer cream. Exposure was assessed for the first time for many products such as sunscreens, Eau de toilette and massage products. These new French exposure values will be useful for safety assessors and for safety agencies. PMID:27255804

  4. Where Is My Attention? Children's Metaknowledge Expressed through Drawings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzica, Sara; Pinto, Giuliana; Bigozzi, Lucia; Vezzani, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present research is to assess the developmental pattern of the metacognitive knowledge of attention in Italian primary school students. Data were collected from 95 pupils divided into two age groups: the first (6-8 years) and second primary school cycles (8-10 years). The children were asked to perform two specific thematic drawings…

  5. Recommendations for a trans-European dietary assessment method in children between 4 and 14 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, L. F.; Lioret, S.; Brants, H.;

    2011-01-01

    Background/Objectives: The main objective of European Food Consumption Validation (EFCOVAL)-child Project is to define and evaluate a trans-European methodology for undertaking national representative dietary surveys among children in the age group of 4-14 years. In the process of identifying the...

  6. The Friendly Schools Friendly Families Programme: Three-Year Bullying Behaviour Outcomes in Primary School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Donna; Waters, Stacey; Pearce, Natasha; Shaw, Therese; Hall, Margaret; Erceg, Erin; Burns, Sharyn; Roberts, Clare; Hamilton, Greg

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This three-year group randomized controlled trial assessed whether a multi-age, multi-level bullying prevention and intervention with staff capacity building, can reduce bullying among primary school children. Methods: This study comprised two intervention and one comparison conditions. Student self-report data were collected from 2552…

  7. Psychopathic Traits and Physiological Responses to Aversive Stimuli in Children Aged 9-11 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pan; Baker, Laura A.; Gao, Yu; Raine, Adrian; Lozano, Dora Isabel

    2012-01-01

    Atypical electrodermal and cardiovascular response patterns in psychopathic individuals are thought to be biological indicators of fearless and disinhibition. This study investigated the relationship between psychopathic traits and these autonomic response patterns using a countdown task in 843 children (aged 9-10 years). Heart rate (HR) and…

  8. The Relation between 3-Year-Old Children's Skills and Their Hyperactivity, Inattention, and Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman-Weieneth, Julie L.; Harvey, Elizabeth A.; Youngwirth, Sara D.; Goldstein, Lauren H.

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the relation between 3-year-old children's (N = 280) symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, and aggression and their cognitive, motor, and preacademic skills. When the authors controlled for other types of attention and behavior problems, maternal ratings of hyperactivity and teacher ratings of inattention were uniquely and…

  9. Children under Five and Digital Technologies: Implications for Early Years Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palaiologou, Ioanna

    2016-01-01

    This project aimed to investigate the types of digital technologies children under the age of five are using at home and assess the possible implications for early years pedagogy. The research, carried out between 2010 and 2012, was based in four European countries: England, Greece, Malta and Luxemburg. A mixed methods approach was employed to…

  10. Psychiatric Disorders in Extremely Preterm Children: Longitudinal Finding at Age 11 Years in the EPICure Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Samantha; Hollis, Chris; Kochhar, Puja; Hennessy, Enid; Wolke, Dieter; Marlow, Neil

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the prevalence and risk factors for psychiatric disorders in extremely preterm children. Method: All babies born less than 26 weeks gestation in the United Kingdom and Ireland from March through December 1995 were recruited to the EPICure Study. Of 307 survivors at 11 years of age, 219 (71%) were assessed alongside 153…

  11. Children's Problems Predict Adults' "DSM-IV" Disorders across 24 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reef, Joni; van Meurs, Inge; Verhulst, Frank C.; van der Ende, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The goal of this study was to determine continuities of a broad range of psychopathology from childhood into middle adulthood in a general population sample across a 24-year follow-up. Method: In 1983, parent ratings of children's problems were collected with the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) in a general population sample of 2,076…

  12. Cognitive Components of a Mathematical Processing Network in 9-Year-Old Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szucs, Dénes; Devine, Amy; Soltesz, Fruzsina; Nobes, Alison; Gabriel, Florence

    2014-01-01

    We determined how various cognitive abilities, including several measures of a proposed domain-specific number sense, relate to mathematical competence in nearly 100 9-year-old children with normal reading skill. Results are consistent with an extended number processing network and suggest that important processing nodes of this network are…

  13. Pedagogical technology formation of ideas about the artistic image children 6-7 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetalana Ziryanova

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article reveals the stages of pedagogical technology of forming ideas about the artistic image in chil-dren 6–7 years based on the integration of expressive means of music and the visual arts in the context of the educational field of “artistic and aesthetic development”.

  14. Paternal Psychosocial Characteristics and Corporal Punishment of Their 3-Year-Old Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Shawna J.; Perron, Brian E.; Taylor, Catherine A.; Guterman, Neil B.

    2011-01-01

    This study uses data from 2,309 biological fathers who participated in the Fragile Families and Child Well-Being Study (FFCWS) to examine associations between psychosocial characteristics and levels of corporal punishment (CP) toward their 3-year-old children over the past month. Results indicate that 61% of the fathers reported no CP over the…

  15. Facial Mimicry in 6-7 Year Old Children with Disruptive Behavior Disorder and ADHD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deschamps, Peter; Munsters, Nicolette; Kenemans, Leon; Schutter, Dennis; Matthys, Walter

    2014-01-01

    Background: Impairments in facial mimicry are considered a proxy for deficits in affective empathy and have been demonstrated in 10 year old children and in adolescents with disruptive behavior disorder (DBD). However, it is not known whether these impairments are already present at an earlier age.

  16. Methodological Implications of the Affect Revolution: A 35-Year Review of Emotion Regulation Assessment in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrian, Molly; Zeman, Janice; Veits, Gina

    2011-01-01

    This investigation analyzed the methods used over the past 35 years to study emotion regulation (ER) in children. Articles published from 1975 through 2010 were identified in 42 child clinical, developmental, and emotion psychology journals. Overall, 61.1% of published ER articles relied on one method and 23.6% used two methods. Analyses revealed…

  17. Korean Children's Cultural Adjustment during Transition to the Early Years of School in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millar, Ngaire

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated Korean children's cultural adjustment during transition to South Australian junior primary school settings. Using case-study methodology to provide a sociocultural perspective, data were collected during interviews with a sample of South Korean international students aged five to eight years, their mothers and teachers. All…

  18. EVALUATION OF IRAN-DEFICIENCY ANEMIA BY SERUM FERRITIN ASSAY IN SEVE-YEAR-OLD CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Ghaemi

    1979-11-01

    Full Text Available Serum Ferritin (SF levels in 734 seven-year-old children was measured by a radioimmuno assay method, and its possible relation-ship with hemoglobin, hematocrit and MCHC was investigated. The results showed there was positive correlation between SF with hemo-globin, hematocrit and MCHC values.

  19. Different Types of Thinking of Seven-Year-Old Children and their Achievements in School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uszynska-Jarmoc, Janina

    2005-01-01

    The theoretical basis of the research was the conception of human intelligence of Sternberg. The aims of the study were: to determine the level of analytical thinking, creative thinking and practical thinking of seven-year-old children; to determine the relations between the level of analytical, practical and creative thinking and pupil's success…

  20. Working and Watching: Maternal Employment Status and Parents' Perceptions of their Three-Year Old Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronfenbrenner, Urie; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Investigates whether the hypothesis that the mother's work situation influences parents' perceptions of their three-year-old children can explain reported differences in effects of maternal employment on the child. The sample consisted of 152 white, two-parent families. Results support the generalization that maternal employment may entail both…

  1. One- to Three-Year-Old Children's Experience of Subjective Wellbeing in Day Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seland, Monica; Sandseter, Ellen Beate Hansen; Bratterud, Åse

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study on which this paper is based was to explore in which situations and contexts Norwegian 1-3-year-olds experience subjective wellbeing in day care. The data in this study was collected through qualitative phenomenological observations of 18 children, and an inductive process of analysis was conducted. The results show that…

  2. Effectiveness of Multipurpose Unit Early Classroom Intervention Program for 4-5-Year-Old Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celebioglu Morkoc, Ozlem; Aktan Acar, Ebru

    2014-01-01

    This research examined the effectiveness of Multipurpose Unit Early Classroom Intervention Program (MUECIP) prepared for 4-5-year-old (48-60 months) children whose development is at risk because of their families' socioeconomic conditions. The research adopted a preliminary test-final test control group trial model. The research participants…

  3. "Evil Cats" and "Jelly Floods": Young Children's Collective Constructions of Digital Art Making in the Early Years Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakr, Mona; Connelly, Vince; Wild, Mary

    2016-01-01

    Digital technologies have the potential to offer new opportunities for children's expressive arts practices. Although adult expectations surround and shape children's visual art making on paper in the early years classroom, such expectations are not so established in relation to digital art making. So how do children make sense of digital art…

  4. Extending supplementary feeding for children younger than 5 years with moderate acute malnutrition leads to lower relapse rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Children with moderate acute malnutrition (MAM) have a high rate of relapse and death in the year following recovery. In this pilot study, we evaluate the long-term benefits of an extended course of nutritional therapy for children with MAM. Rural Malawian children 6 to 59 months old with MAM, defin...

  5. Parental Influences on the Diets of 2-5-Year-Old Children: Systematic Review of Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Jacqueline; Sinn, Natalie; Campbell, Karen; Lynch, John

    2012-01-01

    During the early years, parents have a major influence on their children's diets, food choices and development of eating habits. However, research concerning the influence of parental feeding practices on young children's diets is limited. This paper presents a systematic review of intervention studies with parents of preschool children. The aim…

  6. Transfer Effects in Spelling from Transparent Greek to Opaque English in Seven-to-Ten-Year-Old Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niolaki, Georgia Z.; Masterson, Jackie

    2012-01-01

    The study investigated single-word spelling performance of 33 English- and 38 Greek-speaking monolingual children, and 46 English- and Greek-speaking bilingual children (age range from 6;7 to 10;1 years). The bilingual children were divided into two groups on the basis of their single-word reading and spelling performance in Greek. In line with…

  7. Effects of Three Years of Piano Instruction on Children's Academic Achievement, School Performance and Self-Esteem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa-Giomi, Eugenia

    2004-01-01

    This study of the effects of three years of piano instruction is based on a sample of 117 fourth-grade children attending public schools in Montreal. The children had never participated in formal music instruction, did not have a piano at home, and their annual family income was below $40,000 Can. Children in the experimental group (n = 63)…

  8. Restricted Consonant Inventories of 2-Year-Old Finnish Children with a History of Recurrent Acute Otitis Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haapala, Sini; Niemitalo-Haapola, Elina; Raappana, Antti; Kujala, Tiia; Kujala, Teija; Jansson-Verkasalo, Eira

    2015-01-01

    Many children experience recurrent acute otitis media (RAOM) in early childhood. In a previous study, 2-year-old children with RAOM were shown to have immature neural patterns for speech sound discrimination. The present study further investigated the consonant inventories of these same children using natural speech samples. The results showed…

  9. Rehabilitation outcomes in children with cerebral palsy during a 2 year period

    OpenAIRE

    İçağasıoğlu, Afitap; Mesci, Erkan; Yumusakhuylu, Yasemin; Turgut, Selin Turan; Murat, Sadiye

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] To observe motor and functional progress of children with cerebral palsy during 2 years. [Subjects and Methods] Pediatric cerebral palsy patients aged 3–15 years (n = 35/69) with 24-month follow-up at our outpatient cerebral palsy clinic were evaluated retrospectively. The distribution of cerebral palsy types was as follows: diplegia (n = 19), hemiplegia (n = 4), and quadriplegia (n = 12). Participants were divided into 3 groups according to their Gross Motor Functional Classificati...

  10. The Development of Skin Conductance Fear Conditioning in Children from Ages 3 to 8 Years

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Yu; Raine, Adrian; Venables, Peter H.; Dawson, Michael E.; Mednick, Sarnoff A.

    2010-01-01

    Although fear conditioning is an important psychological construct implicated in behavioral and emotional problems little is known about how it develops in early childhood. Using a differential, partial reinforcement conditioning paradigm, this longitudinal study assessed skin conductance conditioned responses in 200 children at ages 3, 4, 5, 6, and 8 years. Results demonstrated that in both boys and girls: (1) fear conditioning increased across age, particularly from ages 5 to 6 years, (2) t...

  11. TRAUMATIC HIP DISLOCATION IN CHILDREN YOUNGER THAN 3 YEARS : A SERIES OF 3 CASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The musculoskeletal anatomy of children is qui te different from that of adults. The capsule, periosteum and other soft tissues surrounding the joints is very pliable and dislocations can occur even following trivial injuries . However dislocation occurring in a child population is a rare entity. There are a few case reports of hip dislocations in children < 3 years. We present here a series of 3 cases of paediatric hip dislocations which presented to us for management. The age of the children were between 24 - 27 months. Incidentally all 3 patients were b oys and all 3 were right sided dislocations. None of them had any associated fractures. Two of them had a fall from height and one child fell off a slide. All 3 patients presented within 5 hours following injury. Closed reduction under anaesthesia was perf ormed and post reduction the children were immobilized in a broom - stick plaster for 6 weeks. All children were followed up with serial x - rays and a MRI done immediately following reduction then at 6 and 18 months. There was no evidence of chondrolysis or a vascular necrosis in any of the children at the last follow - up. They all had full range of movements with no limitation of function. We conclude that with early recognition and early reduction of the hip within the golden period (6 hours the occurrence of complications can be prevented.

  12. Nutrition Status Of Children (1-6 Years In Slums Of Ghaziabad City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garg S.K

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Research question : What are the nutritional problems of pre- school children in slums? Objectives: (i To assess the nutritional status of the children . (ii To find out the nutritional deficiency disorders in them (iii To study their dietary intake. Study design: Cross- sectional. Setting : Slums of Ghaziabad city. Participants :771 children (1-6 years. Study Variables : Age, sex, caste, ICDS beneficiary status, weight, nutritional deficiency disorders, dietary intake and supplementary nutrition. Statistical analysis : Simple proportions and Chi- square test. Results : A majority (58.2 % of children were having under nutrition of varying grades irrespective of their sex and caste but influenced by their age and ICDS beneficiary status. Anaemia, xerophthalmia and goitre were present in 14.7%, 1.6% and 0.6 % children respectively. Average daily dietary intake of energy & nutrients were lower than the recommended daily allowances (RDA. Conclusion: Regular nutritional supplementation along with adequate nutrition education would reduce the nutritional deficiency disorders among children.

  13. Musical training influences linguistic abilities in 8-year-old children: more evidence for brain plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Sylvain; Marques, Carlos; Santos, Andreia; Santos, Manuela; Castro, São Luís; Besson, Mireille

    2009-03-01

    We conducted a longitudinal study with 32 nonmusician children over 9 months to determine 1) whether functional differences between musician and nonmusician children reflect specific predispositions for music or result from musical training and 2) whether musical training improves nonmusical brain functions such as reading and linguistic pitch processing. Event-related brain potentials were recorded while 8-year-old children performed tasks designed to test the hypothesis that musical training improves pitch processing not only in music but also in speech. Following the first testing sessions nonmusician children were pseudorandomly assigned to music or to painting training for 6 months and were tested again after training using the same tests. After musical (but not painting) training, children showed enhanced reading and pitch discrimination abilities in speech. Remarkably, 6 months of musical training thus suffices to significantly improve behavior and to influence the development of neural processes as reflected in specific pattern of brain waves. These results reveal positive transfer from music to speech and highlight the influence of musical training. Finally, they demonstrate brain plasticity in showing that relatively short periods of training have strong consequences on the functional organization of the children's brain. PMID:18832336

  14. Acceptance of Nordic snack bars in children aged 8–11 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Holmer

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: A health promoting diet is suggested to be tailored to regional circumstances to preserve the cultural diversity in eating habits, as well as contribute to more environmentally friendly eating. It may influence consumer acceptance, however, if the components of the diet differs considerably from their habitual food. Objective: This study aimed to investigate whether snack bars composed of Nordic ingredients were accepted by 8–11 year-old Danish (n=134 and Swedish (n=109 children.Design: A seven-point hedonic scale was used to measure the children's acceptance of five snack bars that varied in their composition of whole grains, berries and nuts. A preference rank ordering of the five bars was also performed. Results: The results showed that samples that were rated highest in liking and were most preferred in both countries were a kamut/pumpkin bar and an oat/cranberry bar. The sample with the lowest rating that was also least preferred was a pumpernickel/sea buckthorn bar. Flavour was the most important determinant of overall liking followed by texture, odour and appearance. Conclusions: Children's acceptances and preferences were highly influenced by the sensory characteristics of the bars, mainly flavour. In agreement with earlier studies, the novel food ingredients seemed to influence children's preferences. The Nordic snack bars may have a potential to be a snack option for Danish and Swedish school children, but repeated exposures to the products are recommended to increase children's acceptance.

  15. The development and adjustment of 7-year-old children adopted in infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stams, G J; Juffer, F; Rispens, J; Hoksbergen, R A

    2000-11-01

    The present study (N = 159) provides evidence of an increased risk for behavior problems of infant-placed 7-year-old internationally, transracially adopted children in the Netherlands. However, parents reported more behavior problems for adopted boys than for adopted girls. Notably, about 30% of the adopted children were classified as clinical on the CBCL scale for total problems, which is a much larger percentage than the 10% found in the normative population. It was suggested that these results could be explained by the operation of multiple risk factors before and after adoption placement, e.g. the child's genetic disposition, pre-natal and pre-adoption care, or the child's cognitive understanding of adoption in middle childhood. Also, results suggest that maternal sensitive responsiveness in adoptive families declines in the transition from early to middle childhood. In contrast to the home setting, the adopted children showed favorable behavioral and socioemotional adjustment at school, while their academic achievement and intelligence were in the normal range or above average. In particular Korean children had high IQs: 31% of these children obtained an intelligence score above 120. It was suggested that adoptive parents seem to offer their children sufficient or even more than average cognitive stimulation. Furthermore, adopted girls scored higher in optimal ego-control, social competence, and peer group popularity than nonadopted girls from the general population: 30% of the adopted girls were rated as popular by their classmates, which compares favorably to the 13% found in the general school population. PMID:11099119

  16. Evaluation of a Deductive Procedure to Teach Grammatical Inflections to Children with Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finestack, Lizbeth H.; Fey, Marc E.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the learning effects of a deductive language-teaching procedure when teaching a novel gender agreement verb inflection to children with language impairment. Method: Thirty-two 6-8-year-old children with language impairment were randomly assigned to either a deductive (N = 16) or an inductive (N = 16) treatment group. In the…

  17. Effects of Presentation Format and List Length on Children's False Memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swannell, Ellen R.; Dewhurst, Stephen A.

    2013-01-01

    The effect of list length on children's false memories was investigated using list and story versions of the Deese/Roediger-McDermott procedure. Short (7 items) and long (14 items) sequences of semantic associates were presented to children aged 6, 8, and 10 years old either in lists or embedded within a story that emphasized the list theme.…

  18. Summer treatment program for children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: Japanese experience in 5 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Yushiro; Mukasa, Akiko; Anai, Chizuru; Honda, Yuko; Kunisaki, Chie; Koutaki, Junichi; Tada, Yahuhiro; Egami, Chiyomi; Kodama, Naoko; Nakashima, Masayuki; Nagamitsu, Shin-ichiro; Matsuishi, Toyojiro

    2011-03-01

    In 2005 we established the first American-style summer treatment program (STP) for children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) located outside North America. This program was based on methods established by professor Pelham and has been used in a number of studies and at a number of sites in the USA. A total of 137 children diagnosed with ADHD, ranging in age from 6 to 12 years, participated in at least one of five annual summer treatment programs in Kurume city, Japan, during 2005-2009. The duration of the STP was 2 weeks in 2005, 2008, and 2009; 3 weeks in 2006 and 2007. A set of evidence-based behavioral modification techniques comprising the STP behavioral program (e.g., point system, daily report card, positive reinforcement, time out) was used. We also assessed the cognitive function of individual children before and after STP using the CogState(R) batteries. Every year, regardless of the duration of the STP, most children showed positive behavioral changes in multiple domains of functioning, demonstrated by significant improvement in points earned daily, which reflect behavior frequencies. Cognitive functions, particularly the rate of anticipatory errors in executive function, significantly improved after the STP, suggesting that STP has positive effects not only on behavioral aspects but also on some cognitive functions. Further studies are necessary to confirm this finding by studying sequential cognitive function of age-matched children who do not attend STP. PMID:20934284

  19. Prevalence and factors associated with preoperative anxiety in children aged 5-12 years 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moura, Louise Amália; Dias, Iohanna Maria Guimarães; Pereira, Lilian Varanda

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: to estimate the prevalence and factors associated with preoperative anxiety in children who wait for outpatient surgery. Method: cross-sectional analysis of baseline data of a prospective cohort study that investigates the predictors of postoperative pain in children aged 5-12 years submitted to inguinal and umbilical hernia repair. It was selected 210 children, which were interviewed in the preoperative holding area of a general hospital. Anxiety was evaluated using the modified Yale Preoperative Anxiety Scale (mYPAS). Sociodemographic and clinical variables were analyzed as exposure and anxiety (mYPAS final score>30) as outcome. Logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with preoperative anxiety. Results: forty-two percent (42.0%) of children presented preoperative anxiety (CI95%: 35.7%-48.6%), with mean scores equal to 30.1 (SD=8.4). Factors associated with preoperative anxiety were: age group of 5-6 years (OR=2.28; p=0.007) and socioeconomic status classified as class C (OR=2.39; p=0.016). Conclusion: the evaluation of children who wait for outpatient surgery should be multidimensional and comprise information on age and socioeconomic status, in order to help in the identification and early treatment of preoperative anxiety. PMID:27305179

  20. Self-reported quality of life of 8-12-year-old children with cerebral palsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dickinson, Heather O; Parkinson, Kathryn N; Ravens-Sieberer, Ulrike;

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Little is known about the quality of life (QoL) of disabled children. We describe self-reported QoL of children with cerebral palsy, factors that influence it, and how it compares with QoL of the general population. METHODS: 1174 children aged 8-12 years were randomly selected from...... eight population-based registers of children with cerebral palsy in six European countries and 743 (63%) agreed to participate; one further region recruited 75 children from multiple sources. Researchers visited these 818 children. 318 (39%) with severe intellectual impairment could not self-report; 500...... cerebral palsy had similar QoL to children in the general population in all domains except schooling, in which evidence was equivocal, and physical wellbeing, in which comparison was not possible. INTERPRETATION: Parents can be reassured that most children aged 8-12 years with cerebral palsy will have...

  1. Questionnaire-based case finding of celiac disease in a population of 8- to 9-year-old children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftedal, Peter; Hansen, Dorte Gilså; Nielsen, Christian;

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Antibody screenings and diagnosis of celiac disease (CD) among children with type 1 diabetes have suggested that a considerable proportion of children with CD may, in fact, have preclinical (undiagnosed) symptoms. We aimed to test if a questionnaire would lead to significant case finding...... in an unselected population of 8- to 9-year-old children. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study population included 9880 children aged 8 to 9 years. Before the study, 13 children from the study population were known to have CD. We developed a questionnaire on the basis of 5 simple items suggestive of CD...... and mailed the questionnaire to the families of all children in the study population who resided in the County of Funen, Denmark. In total, 7029 respondents returned the questionnaire (70%); among them, 2835 children had 1 or more symptoms. These children were invited for a blood test to determine...

  2. Changes in Growth Pattern after Adenotonsillectomy in Children under 12 Years Old

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farnaz Hashemian

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available "nThe aim of the present study was to determine the effects of adenotonsillectomy on height, weight and body mass index (BMI in children under 12 years old, with or without airway obstruction and evaluation of the risk of overweight in them. In this case-control study, 120 children with the age of 2-12 years old were studied; 60 children as case group who underwent adenotonsillectomy and 60 healthy children as control group. After collecting the data related to appetite status and sleep breathing disorder of the case group, height, weight and BMI have been measured for all children in two stages; preoperatively and 6 months later. Also in the case group, BMI percentiles, pre and postoperatively have been calculated. Patients with Low appetite in the initiation and at the end of the study in the case group were 80% and 8.3% respectively (P=0.01. Mean of height, weight and BMI variation after 6 months were significantly different between case and control groups (P<0.05. BMI percentiles in the case group preoperatively were: 20% underweight, 67% healthy weight, 10% at risk of over weight, 3% over weight. Postoperatively, after 6 months BMI percentiles in order of above frequency were: 10%, 57%, 22% and 11% (P=0.02. Analysis of the results showed that adenotonsillectomy can lead to increase of height, weight, BMI and appetite not only in the children with low weight due to airway obstruction but also in the normal weight and over weight children. Therefore risk of overweight should be mentioned as a probable undesirable outcome of adenotonsillectomy.

  3. The relationship between dental caries and obesity among primary school children aged 5 to 14 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Yingshui

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Previous study revealed that the link between dental caries and obesity has been controversial. The purpose of this research is to investigate the association between dental caries and obesity among primary school children in Wannan area, China. Methods: A cross-sectional study was designed to collect the routine health screening data for primary school children aged 5-14 years inWannan area,China, Overweight and obesity status were determined using the International Obesity Task Force standard (IOTF BMI cut-off points. Caries status was recorded based on WHO recommendations. Results: Our results revealed that the overall caries prevalence of the subjects was 44.9%, Maximum number of caries affected children belonged to underweight and normal group, followed by overweight, and the least number was obesity. These differences were statistically significant (chi-square test, P < 0.001. Children with obesity were 1.908 times (OR =1.908; CI95%=1.750, 2.079 more likely have caries than children with underweight or health weight. Overweight children were 1.547 times (OR = 1.547; CI95% = 1.479, 1.618 more likely to have caries than children with underweight or health weight. After adjusted the gender and age, a statistically significant association was also observed between body mass index categories and caries. Conclusions: Obesity may have a significant effect on caries prevalence of primary school children in Wannan area, China. The importance of obesity should not only be emphasized with respect to general diseases but also with regard to carious lesions.

  4. STUDY OF TITANIUM ELASTIC NAILING FOR FRACTURE SHAFT FEMUR IN CHILDREN BETWEEN 3 TO 13 YEARS OF AGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of Displaced diaphyseal femoral shaft fracture in children between 3 to 13 years is controversial. Various methods are available for treatment. Titanium elastic nailing is one of the methods for treatment of femur shaft fracture in children. In our study we have assessed the outcome of titanium elastic nailing for fracture shaft femur in children. We have found that titanium elastic nailing has excellent results in treatment of femur shaft fracture in children. Also it is less time consuming

  5. Dental Health Status in 3-5 Year Old Kindergarten Children in Tehran-Iran in 2003

    OpenAIRE

    M. Ghandahari-Motlagh; Zeraati, H

    2005-01-01

    Statement of Problem: Assessing oral hygiene in children plays an important role in determining the health status of communities and evaluating national health promotion programs. In 1997 in Geneva, international organizations agreed on the global goal of achieving a minimum of 90% caries free teeth in 5 year old children.Purpose: This study was aimed to assess the oral health status in Iranian children.Materials and Methods: Among kindergarten children residing in the capital of Iran,Tehran,...

  6. A POPULATION BASED STUDY OF REFRACTIVE ERRORS IN CHILDREN AMONG AGE GROUP OF 7-15 YEARS

    OpenAIRE

    Dhanya; Pandu; Sujatha; Pallavi; Srinivas

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Refractive error is the most common cause of visual impairment around the world and the second leading cause of treatable blindness. Very early detection and treatment of visual impairment in children results in a reduction in the number of school children with poor sight being uncorrected. AIM To study the prevalence of uncorrected refractive errors among children of 7-15 years of age group. MATERIALS AND METHODS A total of 958 children of a...

  7. Comparison of the refractive error changes among young children in ten years interval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-Yan Li

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To compare the optometric examination results of myopic young children between those diagnosed in the period from 1998 to 2000 and those diagnosed in the period from 2008 to 2010; and to find out the causes of myopia and factors that worsen the condition, and suggest methods of its prevention and treatment.METHODS: This study was a retrospective case study. We randomly selected sample from out-patient department register of cases and divided them into two main groups, ‘ten year before group'(TYBG(1998/2000 year casesand ‘ten years later group'(2008/2010 year cases(TYLG. Each group was further subdivided into three sub-groups by age: under-six years old children group(CG, seven-twelve years old primary-school group(PSGand thirteen-eighteen years old middle-school group(MSG. The optometric examination results were statistically analyzed.RESULTS: The difference of the mean dioptre between the TYBG and TYLG was strongly statistically significant, also forward-lead trend of age when children suffered from myopia was found(P0.01. There was a significant increase of dioptre among PSG and MSG in TYLG compared to TYBG(PCONCLUSION: Our study shows that the age of getting myopia was forward lead, the dioptre increases by 1.00 degree and the prevalence of myopia is increasing gradually. This situation may due to the modern life style and changes of living standard of the population. Therefore, prevention of myopia should concentrate more on younger children at kindergarten and primary school stage students.

  8. Quality of Life in Under-14-Year-Old Children After Adenotonsillectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fathollah Behnoud

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Tonsillectomy with or without adenoidectomy is one of the most frequent surgical procedures especially in children. Several indications and contraindications have been suggested for this procedure. The benefits and the negative results of this operation have been studied by different researchers; nevertheless, to date, it is still a common procedure. The main purpose of this study is to obtain extensive information on the outcomes of adenotonsillectomy, according to the patient's physical, emotional and behavioral changes and also on the overall changes in his/her quality of life (QOL. Materials and Methods: All the children, aged 1-14, referred to the Besat Hospital clinics (Hamadan, Iran between March 2008 and March 2009 were included in this study. Overall, 86 children with documented indications underwent adenotonsillectomy, and were followed up for one year.  Two modified standard questionnaires for QOL were completed before and one year after the tonsillectomy. Upon the completion of this two-year study, statistical analyses were performed, and the demographic data of the study groups were compared with those of a same-age group. Results: Changes were observed in five main complaints as follow: Acute Recurrent tonsillitis was present in 86 patients preoperatively, but in only three cases postoperatively (pharyngitis. Confirmed chronic sinusitis was present in 24 patients preoperatively, but only in three cases during the year after the surgery. Oral breathing was seen in 82 patients preoperatively, but only in one patient during the year after the surgery. Nocturnal snoring was seen in 83 children preoperatively, but in 25 cases during the year after the surgery. Halitosis was present in 71 patients, while and halitosis was seen in 27 during the year after the surgery. Conclusion: Overall, the majority of the parameters studied showed significant differences after surgery.

  9. Cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potentials in children with spastic cerebral palsy and normal children with 7-12 years of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazila Akbarfahimi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Cervical vestibular-evoked myogenic potential (cVEMP is one of the diagnostic tests used in assessing vestibular function. Two aims of this study were to investigate implications of cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potential in children with spastic cerebral palsy (7-12 years, and to compare vestibular function in these children and normal children.Methods: In this cross-sectional study, myogenic potential was recorded in 31 children with spastic cerebral palsy (8 girls, 23 boys,7-12 years of age, with mean age of 8.77 years old and standard deviation of 1.52 years and 31 normal children (13 girls, 18 boys with mean age of 8.77 years and standard deviation of 1.52 years. Cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potential was recorded with 500 Hz tone burst. The recorded parameters included p13 and n23 latency, p13-n23 pick to pick amplitude, and threshold.Results: Myogenic Potential was recorded in 31 normal children. They had bilateral responses. In children with cerebral palsy, 21 children showed bilateral responses, 3 children had only right-sided responses, 8 children had only left-sided responses, and two children did not show any responses. The statistical significant differences were shown between the two groups in n23, p13-n23 pick to pick amplitude, and threshold (p<0.05.Conclusion: These findings showed that cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potential can be used in children with cerebral palsy. There were significant differences in myogenic potential parameters between the two groups. More studies are needed to investigate the causes of these differences.

  10. Maternal Recreational Exercise during Pregnancy in relation to Children's BMI at 7 Years of Age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou Andersen, Camilla; Juhl, Mette; Gamborg, Michael;

    2012-01-01

    Exposures during fetal life may have long-term health consequences including risk of childhood overweight. We investigated the associations between maternal recreational exercise during early and late pregnancy and the children's body mass index (BMI) and risk of overweight at 7 years. Data on 40...... analyzed using multiple linear and logistic regression models. Recreational exercise across pregnancy was inversely related to children's BMI and risk of overweight, but all associations were mainly explained by smoking habits, socioeconomic status, and maternal pre-pregnancy BMI. Additionally, we did not...

  11. Phonetic reduction in spontaneous speech by children aged 9-14 years

    OpenAIRE

    Tuomainen, O.; Lee, C.(Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan); Granlund, S.; Hazan, V. L.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of our study was to investigate whether children distinguish between ‘new’ and ‘given’ information via phonetic reduction in spontaneous speech in a similar way to adults. An interactive ‘spot the difference’ game was used to elicit spontaneous speech. Word duration, fundamental frequency and vowel formant frequencies in repeated content words relative to when they were mentioned for the first time were analysed in 96 children between 9-14 years of age. There were significant developm...

  12. Choroidal thickness in relation to birth parameters in 11- to 12-year-old children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xiao Q; Munkholm, Anja; Larsen, Michael;

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: To examine choroidal thickness in a population-based child cohort in relation to birth parameters. METHODS: The Copenhagen Child Cohort 2000 Eye Study examined 1406 children aged 11 to 12 years using enhanced depth imaging spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (EDI-OCT), ocular...... weight children (2500-4500 g, n = 1194, mean 361 ± 78 μm), the difference being -37 (CI95 -60 to -15) μm, P = 0.001 after adjusting for age, sex, height, Tanner stage by sex, axial length, anterior chamber depth, and spherical equivalent refractive error. The subfoveal choroid in high birth weight...

  13. Twenty years a growing: gains in the intelligence test scores of Irish children over two decades

    OpenAIRE

    Carr, Alan.

    2001-01-01

    Using data from Gill and Byrt's 1972 standardization of the Ravens Standard Progressive Matrices (RSPM) on a national sample of Irish primary school children, O'Connor & Ruddle's 1987 survey of a large sample of school children in Clare and Jeffer's and Fitzgerald's 1989 survey of 9-12 year olds in a Dublin suburb, we found that over the period from 1972-1989 the mean gain in IQ points on the RSPM was approximately 9 IQ points. This gain of about 0.6 standard deviations in IQ points has occur...

  14. The incidence of cryptosporidiosis: a two-year prospective survey in a children's hospital.

    OpenAIRE

    Baxby, D.; Hart, C. A.

    1986-01-01

    A two-year prospective survey of patients with diarrhoea at a children's hospital detected 65 cases of cryptosporidiosis; 56 were index cases representing 1.4% of patients examined. There was a marked seasonal variation with fewer index cases in July-September (0.4-0.6%) than February-April (3-5%). All four adult cases were contacts of infected children and 21 (32%) of the patients were 12 months old or younger. Cryptosporidium was the fourth commonest diagnosed cause of gastroenteritis, the ...

  15. Genetic risk factors of disc degeneration among 12-14-year-old Danish children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskola, Pasi J.; Kjær, Per; Daavittila, Iita M.;

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to examine the associations between eleven putative predisposing single nucleotide polymorphisms (COL9A3, COL11A2, IL1A, IL1B, IL6 and VDR) and early disc degeneration (DD). The population consisted of 12 to 14-year-old Danish children (N=352). DD was...... evaluated from magnetic resonance im- ages (MRI). We analysed the association between DD and single nucleotide polymorphisms or haplotypes using logis- tic regression analyses. Of the 352 children studied, 73 boys and 81 girls had no MRI changes, while 30 boys and 36 girls had lumbar DD. Among girls, IL1A...

  16. Physical activity patterns during school recess : a study in children 6 to 10 years old

    OpenAIRE

    Lopes, Vítor P.; Vasques, Catarina; Pereira, Beatriz; Maia, José A. R.; Malina, Robert M.

    2006-01-01

    The aims of this study were to characterize the spontaneous physical activity of children during school recess, and to estimate variation in physical activity associated with gender and age. A MTI actigraph (Model 7164) was used with a sample of 140 boys and 131 girls, 6 to 10 years of age. MTI counts were converted to METs using a regression equation developed for children. The number and average duration of periods of activity by intensity were calculated for each child during a 30 minute r...

  17. Clinical characteristics and prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency in children less than two years of age

    OpenAIRE

    Yoon, Ji Hyun; Park, Cheong Soo; Seo, Ji Young; Choi, Yun Sun; AHN, YOUNG MIN

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the clinical characteristics of vitamin D deficiency and its association with iron deficiency anemia (IDA). Methods A total of 171 children aged less than two years underwent 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 tests between January 2007 and July 2009. The study was classified into two groups: normal and vitamin D insufficiency, by their vitamin 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 levels. Results In total, 120 children were in the normal group (mean age, body weight and heights 12.5±7.0, 9.3±0.9 kg and...

  18. International Space Station Increment-6/8 Microgravity Environment Summary Report November 2002 to April 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jules, Kenol; Hrovat, Kenneth; Kelly, Eric; Reckart, Timothy

    2006-01-01

    This summary report presents the analysis results of some of the processed acceleration data measured aboard the International Space Station during the period of November 2002 to April 2004. Two accelerometer systems were used to measure the acceleration levels for the activities that took place during Increment-6/8. However, not all of the activities during that period were analyzed in order to keep the size of the report manageable. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration sponsors the Microgravity Acceleration Measurement System and the Space Acceleration Measurement System to support microgravity science experiments that require microgravity acceleration measurements. On April 19, 2001, both the Microgravity Acceleration Measurement System and the Space Acceleration Measurement System units were launched on STS-100 from the Kennedy Space Center for installation on the International Space Station. The Microgravity Acceleration Measurement System unit was flown to the station in support of science experiments requiring quasi-steady acceleration measurements, while the Space Acceleration Measurement System unit was flown to support experiments requiring vibratory acceleration measurement. Both acceleration systems are also used in support of the vehicle microgravity requirements verification as well as in support of the International Space Station support cadre. The International Space Station Increment-6/8 reduced gravity environment analysis presented in this report uses acceleration data collected by both sets of accelerometer systems: 1. The Microgravity Acceleration Measurement System, which consists of two sensors: the Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment Sensor Subsystem, a low frequency range sensor (up to 1 Hz), is used to characterize the quasi-steady environment for payloads and vehicle, and the High Resolution Accelerometer Package, which is used to characterize the vibratory environment up to 100 Hz. 2. The Space Acceleration Measurement

  19. A 5-Year Investigation of Children's Adaptive Functioning Following Conformal Radiation Therapy for Localized Ependymoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Conformal and intensity modulated radiation therapies have the potential to preserve cognitive outcomes in children with ependymoma; however, functional behavior remains uninvestigated. This longitudinal investigation prospectively examined intelligence quotient (IQ) and adaptive functioning during the first 5 years after irradiation in children diagnosed with ependymoma. Methods and Materials: The study cohort consisted of 123 children with intracranial ependymoma. Mean age at irradiation was 4.60 years (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.85-5.35). Serial neurocognitive evaluations, including an age-appropriate IQ measure and the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS), were completed before irradiation, 6 months after treatment, and annually for 5 years. A total of 579 neurocognitive evaluations were included in these analyses. Results: Baseline IQ and VABS were below normative means (P<.05), although within the average range. Linear mixed models revealed stable IQ and VABS across the follow-up period, except for the VABS Communication Index, which declined significantly (P=.015). Annual change in IQ (−.04 points) did not correlate with annual change in VABS (−.90 to +.44 points). Clinical factors associated with poorer baseline performance (P<.05) included preirradiation chemotherapy, cerebrospinal fluid shunt placement, number and extent of surgical resections, and younger age at treatment. No clinical factors significantly affected the rate of change in scores. Conclusions: Conformal and intensity modulated radiation therapies provided relative sparing of functional outcomes including IQ and adaptive behaviors, even in very young children. Communication skills remained vulnerable and should be the target of preventive and rehabilitative interventions.

  20. Epistemology for Beginners: Two- to Five-Year-Old Children's Representation of Falsity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Mascaro

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the ontogeny of human's naive concept of truth. Surprisingly, children find it hard to treat assertions as false before their fifth birthday. Yet, we show in six studies (N = 140 that human's concept of falsity develops early. Two-year-olds use truth-functional negation to exclude one term in an alternative (Study 1. Three-year-olds can evaluate discrepancies between the content of a representation and what it aims at representing (Study 2. They use this knowledge to treat beliefs and assertions as false (Study 3. Four-year-olds recognise the involutive nature of falsity ascriptions: they properly infer 'p' from 'It is not true that "It is not true that "p""' (Study 4, an inference that rests on second-order representations of representations. Controls confirm that children do not merely equate being mistaken with failing to achieve one's goal (Studies 5 and 6. These results demonstrate remarkable capacities to evaluate representations, and indicate that in the absence of formal training, young children develop the building blocks of a theory of truth and falsity-a naive epistemology. We suggest that children's difficulties in discarding false assertions need not reflect any conceptual lacuna, and may originate from their being trustful.

  1. Parental spanking of 1-year-old children and subsequent child protective services involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Shawna J; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Berger, Lawrence M

    2014-05-01

    The majority of U.S. parents spank their children, often beginning when their children are very young. We examined families (N=2,788) who participated in a longitudinal community-based study of new births in urban areas. Prospective analyses examined whether spanking by the child's mother, father, or mother's current partner when the child was 1-year-old was associated with household CPS involvement between age 1 and age 5. Results indicated that 30% of 1-year-olds were spanked at least once in the past month. Spanking at age 1 was associated with increased odds of subsequent CPS involvement (adjusted odds ratio=1.36, 95% CI [1.08, 1.71], pchildren, there was a 33% greater probability of subsequent CPS involvement for children who were spanked at age 1. Given the undesirable consequences of spanking children and a lack of empirical evidence to suggest positive effects of physical punishment, professionals who work with families should counsel parents not to spank infants and toddlers. For optimal benefits, efforts to educate parents regarding alternative forms of discipline should begin during the child's first year of life. PMID:24602690

  2. Factors associated with vaccination coverage in children < 5 years in Angola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Falcão Saturnino de Oliveira

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To analyze vaccination coverage and factors associated with a complete immunization scheme in children < 5 years old. METHODS This cross-sectional household census survey evaluated 1,209 children < 5 years old living in Bom Jesus, Angola, in 2010. Data were obtained from interviews, questionnaires, child immunization histories, and maternal health histories. The statistical analysis used generalized linear models, in which the dependent variable followed a binary distribution (vaccinated, unvaccinated and the association function was logarithmic and had the children’s individual, familial, and socioeconomic factors as independent variables. RESULTS Vaccination coverage was 37.0%, higher in children < 1 year (55.0% and heterogeneous across neighborhoods; 52.0% of children of both sexes had no immunization records. The prevalence rate of vaccination significantly varied according to child age, mother’s level of education, family size, ownership of household appliances, and destination of domestic waste. CONCLUSIONS Vulnerable groups with vaccination coverage below recommended levels continue to be present. Some factors indicate inequalities that represent barriers to full immunization, indicating the need to implement more equitable policies. The knowledge of these factors contributes to planning immunization promotion measures that focus on the most vulnerable groups.

  3. Influence of microstructure on the formability of Al-Mg6.8 alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minov Boris G.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Formability of Al-Mg6.8 alloy has been evaluated experimentally in uniaxial tension and biaxial stretching. Three different structures developed after cold rolling and annealing in the range of temperature from 265 to 320 °C: (I recovered dual (a + β phase, (II recrystallized (a + β dual phase, and (III recrystallized a-Al single phase structure, were tested. Samples with recovered structure have shown a lower formability level than the samples with fully recrystallized structure. Formability level assessed through FLD and LDH value, has been a result of complex interaction between work hardening ability and strain rate sensitivity.

  4. Anomalous decrease in groundwater radon before the Taiwan M6.8 Chengkung earthquake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On December 10, 2003, an earthquake of magnitude (M) 6.8, the strongest since 1951, occurred near the Chengkung area in eastern Taiwan. Approximately 65 d prior to the 2003 Chengkung earthquake, precursory changes in the groundwater radon concentration were observed at the Antung radon-monitoring station located 20 km from the epicenter. The radon anomaly was a decrease from a background level of 28.9 Bq L-1 to a minimum of 12.2 Bq L-1. Observations at the Antung hot spring suggest that the groundwater radon, when observed under suitable geological conditions, can be a sensitive tracer for strain changes in the crust preceding an earthquake

  5. Coexistence probability in the last passage percolation model is $6-8\\log2$

    CERN Document Server

    Coupier, David

    2010-01-01

    A competition model on $\\N^{2}$ between three clusters and governed by directed last passage percolation is considered. We prove that coexistence, i.e. the three clusters are simultaneously unbounded, occurs with probability $6-8\\log2$. When this happens, we also prove that the central cluster almost surely has a positive density on $\\N^{2}$. Our results rely on three couplings, allowing to link the competition interfaces (which represent the borderlines between the clusters) to some particles in the multi-TASEP, and on recent results about collision in the multi-TASEP.

  6. Synthesis of 6,8-dichloroquinolones utilizing new method and evaluation of their antibacterial activities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Several 6,8-dichloroquinolone analogues were synthesized from the key intermediate compound of 2,3,4,5-tetrachlorobenzene carbonyl chloride, which was obtained from the starting material of tetrachlorophthalic anhydride. Their in vitro antibacterial activities were evaluated. As a result of this study, compounds 21c and 21d were twofold more potent than ciprofloxacin (CPFX)and norfloxacin (NFLX) against Staphylococcus aureus-9, and with the same potent as CPFX and NFLX while against Escherichia coli-2, but were less potent than references in against Pseudomonas aeruginosa-17.

  7. Parental spanking of 1-year-old children and subsequent child protective services involvement✩

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Shawna J.; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Berger, Lawrence M.

    2015-01-01

    The majority of U.S. parents spank their children, often beginning when their children are very young. We examined families (N=2,788) who participated in a longitudinal community-based study of new births in urban areas. Prospective analyses examined whether spanking by the child's mother, father, or mother's current partner when the child was 1-year-old was associated with household CPS involvement between age 1 and age 5. Results indicated that 30% of 1-year-olds were spanked at least once in the past month. Spanking at age 1 was associated with increased odds of subsequent CPS involvement (adjusted odds ratio=1.36, 95% CI [1.08, 1.71], ppunishment, professionals who work with families should counsel parents not to spank infants and toddlers. For optimal benefits, efforts to educate parents regarding alternative forms of discipline should begin during the child's first year of life. PMID:24602690

  8. The Growth of Body Size and Somatotype of Javanese Children Age 4 to 20 Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TETRI WIDIYANI

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Growth of body size (body height and body weight and somatotype in 363 girls and 299 boys aged 4 to 20 years of ethnic Javanese lived in Magelang Regency Indonesia were studied cross-sectionally. Over half of them were categorized in the well-off family, therefore underweight or underfat prevalence in our subjects was low (14.3% but overweight and obesity prevalence was also low (14%. They were shorter and lighter than reference children from U.S., Japan and Yogyakarta but they improved when compared with those of the same ethnic of Bantul and with the different ethnic of rural India. There was a clear age-related change of their somatotype. At age 4 years, the physique of children subjects in both sexes is found to be mesomorph-endomorph. Thereafter it is transformed into ectomorphic-endomorph in girls and to mesomorph-ectomorph in boys at the age of 20 years. In girl subjects, the onset of puberty was characterized by an acceleration of endomorphy component at age 8 years. While in our boys it was characterized by an acceleration of ectomorphy since age 9 years. The different growth pattern of somatotype components showed that the use of BMI as an indicator of fatness in children should be reassessed.

  9. Ten-year experience with the Swenson procedure in Nigerian children with Hirschsprung′s disease

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    Sowande Oludayo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hirschsprung′s disease (HD is a common cause of intestinal obstruction in children. Definitive treatments consist of excision of the aganglionic segment and anastomosing the normal colon to the anal remnant. The outcome of this approach in Nigerian children is not known. The aim of this study was to analyze the short to mid-term outcome of children who have undergone the Swenson Procedure (SPT as a treatment of HD over a period of 10 years. Patients and Methods: The clinical data of biopsy-proven cases of HD managed at the Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospital, Ile-Ife, Nigeria, between 1998 and 2007 were reviewed. Results: There were 33 children 28 were males and five were females (M 5.6: F = 1. The median age at presentation was eight months (range three days to 11 years. Eighteen (54.5% patients had primary pull-through without colostomy while 15 (45.5% patients had a two-staged operation. The operation was carried out at a median age of 14 months with a range of seven weeks to 11 years, four months. Twenty-one (64% of the patients were older than one year at the time of surgery. The level of aganglionosis was in the recto-sigmoid area in 30 (91% patients. The commonest post-SPT complication was intestinal obstruction from adhesions. Bowel opening varied from once daily to eight times daily, median thrice daily. Conclusion: The Swenson′s Procedure is an effective procedure in the treatment of HD in children in Ile Ife, Nigeria.

  10. Social competence of 3 to 5-year-old children born with low birth weight

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    Nurul Komariah

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Low birth weight (LBW has long been used as an indicator of public health. Low birth weight is not a proxy for any dimension of other maternal or perinatal health outcomes. Low birth weight infants require special care, and have more chronic conditions, learning delays, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorders compared to infants of normal birth weight (NBW. Social competence is viewed as a primary component of healthy function and development and is an important predictor of academic and financial success. Objective To examine social competence of children aged 3-5 years born with low birth weight. Methods This cross-sectional study was undertaken in Palembang in 2012. Subjects consisted of children aged 3-5 years attended a preschool in the Seberang Ulu I District, Palembang, and were divided into two groups: low birth weight (LBW and normal birth weight (NBW. Social competence was assessed by observation and Interaction Rating Scale (IRS and Parenting Style questionnaire (PSQ. Chi-square analysis was used to compare social competence between the two groups. Multivariate regression logistic analysis was used to assess for the dominant factors that may affect a child’s social competence. Results Low birth weight children aged 3 to 5 years had a 1.435 times higher risk of low social competence compared to normal birth weight children of similar age. (RP 1.435; 95%CI 1.372 to 13.507; P=0.019. Multivariate regression logistic analysis revealed that parenting style was a dominant factor affecting social competence. Conclusion Social competence in 3 to 5-year-old children born with low birth weight is lower compared to those with normal birth weight. [Paediatr Indones. 2015;55:158-63.].

  11. BREASTFEEDING AND EARLY CHILDHOOD CARIES (ECC SEVERITY OF CHILDREN UNDER THREE YEARS OLD IN DKI JAKARTA

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    Risqa Rina Darwita

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence and severity of caries in children under three years old are constantly increasing. One of the cause is the increase consumption of cariogenic carbohydrate. Breast milk have buffer capacity that eventually able to prevent caries. The aims of this research are to discover the correlation between breastfeeding with the severity of Early Childhood Caries (ECC in children under three years old, to provide information on prevalence and severity of caries in children under three years, and to explain factors influencing the incidence of ECC. This research designed cross sectionally and conducted upon 565 children aged 12-38 months, selected using multistage cluster random sampling. The ECC prevalence of children under three years in DKI Jakarta is 52.7%, with average score of def-t 2.85. Bivariate analysis showed that, variables which correlate with the level of ECC are; the way to deliver (p=0,012, frequency (p=0,002, duration (p=0,002, salivary buffer capacity (p=0.013, habitual consumption of sugary diet (p=0.005, child’s dental hygiene behavior (p=0.002, and mother’s education (p=0.001. Multivariate analysis showed that ECC can be explained by these variables: age, mother’s education, the way to deliver and frequency of breast milk complements/replacement of consumtions, child’s brushing habit, plaque pH, and salivary buffer capacity. Resulting determination coefficient 32.1%. There is no significant correlation between breastfeeding and the level of Early Childhood Caries (ECC. The role of protective qualities of breastfeeding are not shown because of bias in obtaining data influence the incidence of caries.

  12. Features of the physical, psycho-physiological development and physical fitness of children 1-5 years

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    Korobeinikov Georgij Valer'evich

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The results of the indicators of physical development, psycho-physiological capacity and physical fitness of children. The study involved 52 children aged 1-2 years, 3-4 years 56 children, 56 children 4-5 years. It is established that in the age group of children 4-5 years time, a simple reaction to an auditory stimulus following simple reaction time to visual stimulus. It is recommended to use parenting techniques that are integrally stimulate all the sensory systems. Pointed out that the sound of children causes greater emotional response in comparison with the light signal. This reduces the latency time of reaction to an auditory stimulus.

  13. Developing appreciation for ambivalence: the understanding of concurrent conflicting desires in 4- to 7-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostad, Kristin; Pexman, Penny M

    2014-06-01

    The current experiment examined the development of children's ability to comprehend concurrent conflicting desires (i.e., both wanting and not wanting something at the same time). Participants were 4- to 7-year-old children and a group of undergraduate students (N = 20 in each age group). Results showed that the 6- and 7-year-old children understood concurrent conflicting desires at levels that were well above chance. There was evidence that even some of the 5-year-olds exhibited an emerging comprehension of conflicting desires. However, the 4-year-old children showed little ability to appreciate conflicting desire states. As such, children showed appreciation for conflicting desires at younger ages than suggested by previous research. In addition, significant relationships were observed between children's concurrent conflicting desire understanding and their theory of mind (ToM) and executive functioning (EF) skills, even after controlling for chronological and verbal age. PMID:24708406

  14. Developmental Dynamics between Children's Externalizing Problems, Task-Avoidant Behavior, and Academic Performance in Early School Years: A 4-Year Follow-Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metsäpelto, Riitta-Leena; Pakarinen, Eija; Kiuru, Noona; Poikkeus, Anna-Maija; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2015-01-01

    This longitudinal study investigated the associations among children's externalizing problems, task-avoidant behavior, and academic performance in early school years. The participants were 586 children (43% girls, 57% boys). Data pertaining to externalizing problems (teacher ratings) and task-avoidant behaviors (mother and teacher ratings) were…

  15. SCREENING OF THE PSYCHICAL DISTURBANCES OF THE CHILDREN FROM 3 TO 6 YEARS OLD

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    P. CAKAROVA

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available The assurance of optimal physical and psychical development of the child is first-degree health care. Discovering the psychical disturbances in time and reasons that cause is a precondition for adequate treatment and prophylaxis.The objects of our study are 490 children from 3 to 6 years old. We used the screening test of McCuire J. and N. Nichman.We found a relatively high percent of children with psychical disturbances. They are noticed more often in the younger children. To specify psychical disturbances we made some additional studies. The early discovering of psychical disturbances gives the possibility for timely treatment and recovery of normal psychical state of child.

  16. Effects of bombing after five years: Development of early maladaptive cognitive schemas in children

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    Nikoloski-Končar Nataša

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the study is to examine effects of bombing on development of early maladaptive schemas in children who live in directly bombed towns in comparison with children who live in towns not directly exposed to bombing. The subjects were twelve years old at the moment of testing (February 2005 meaning that they were at the age of seven during the bombing. Additional aim was to examine gender differences in development of early maladaptive schemas. The theory of Young (1990 provided framework for the study. According to the theory, early maladaptive cognitive schemas, which present basis for psychological disorder later in life, begin to develop in childhood in connection with traumatic experiences and/or other aversive circumstances. The results showed that the early maladaptive schemas are more frequent in children from directly exposed towns; and in male subjects comparing with females.

  17. Web-based Dietary Assessment for 8-11 Year Old School-children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biltoft-Jensen, Anja Pia

    DASC the children’s school lunch was photographed and weighed before and after lunch. During the week after the baseline food- and activity recording fasting blood samples were taken. The acceptability of WebDASC was assessed with a questionnaire. Energy intake (EI) estimated with WebDASC was evaluated......Background and aim The potential health effects of a New Nordic Diet (NND) are to be tested in the Danish OPUS (Optimal well-being, development and health for Danish children through a healthy New Nordic Diet) School Meal study among 8-11- year-old school-children. Valid and reliable dietary...... assessment methods are essential for identifying how eating habits may change in response to the intervention and for identifying the impact of the children’s dietary habits on their health and weight status. Several challenges are connected to collecting dietary data from children including their cognitive...

  18. Development and education of academically supernormal children in Mainland China in the last 35 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shi, Jiannong

    A sophisticated education system for academically gifted students at university, middle school and primary school levels has been developed since 1978. A statistics-based definition of academically supernormal children was suggested by Chinese psychologists. A series of experiments and...... investigation has been conducted on psychological development of academically supernormal children. Some principles, procedures, and steps of identification, as well as some principles and typical models of education were developed in Mainland China during the last twenty-four years. Dozens of experimental...... classes for academically gifted children at university, middle school and primary school levels have been set up in China since 1978. Hundreds of high ability students are benefited from the gifted education programs in China. Some essential issues about gifted education in China will be discussed in this...

  19. "Growth Chart Study in Children Under 5 Years Old in Rural Area of Khoramabad Province"

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    F Majlesi

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Growth chart is the best measure for weight monitoring of children. Most factors that affect child heath show their effect on child weight. This cross sectional and descriptive analytical study was achieved to estimate malnutrition prevalence and effective factors in children under 5 years old in rural area of Khoramabad province. 555 girls and 570 boys were chosen from health houses by cluster sampling. Data were gathered through questionnaires. verbal interviews and child weighing. Nutritional status was estimated via weight/age index and the data were analysed by chi-square test. The results show 7.7% malnutrition among the children in this area. Factors that influence the nutritional status were: Frequency of diarrhea and acute respiratory infection, birth weight, duration of breast feeding and milk formula.

  20. Use of the Griffiths Mental Scales in normal 2 year old Malaysian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, J J; Amar, H S; Ismail, R

    2001-09-01

    The Griffiths Scales for Mental Development were used to assess a group of 60 normal 2-year old Malaysian children (25 Indian, 23 Malay and 12 Chinese). The mean GQ was 104.2 (SD 9.3). This was significantly higher than the test mean of 100, p social, performance and practical reasoning subscales while they were significantly lower on the hand eye subscale and did not differ from the test mean on the hearing and speech subscale. There was a significant correlation between GQ and social class, r = -0.39, p < 0.05. Scores were lower than those currently obtained on British children, p < 0.001. Minor difficulties due to language and cultural factors arose over the interpretation of several items but with standardisation of these items the test is useful in Malaysian children. PMID:11732079

  1. A Comparative Study on Motor Skills in 5-Year-Old Children with Phonological and Phonetic Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Fatemeh Hasanati; Ahmad Reza Khatoonabadi; Mehdi Abdolvahab

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aim: Speech as a motor phenomenon requires repetitive and rapid function of articulatory organs performing extremely fine movements. Practice on motor skills results in facilitation in treatment progress of children with phonological disorders. The purpose of this study was to compare motor skills in 5-year-old children with phonological and phonetic disorders.Methods: Thirty-two children age 5 years, 16 with phonemical speech sound disorders and 16 with difficulty at a phoneti...

  2. Cholesteatoma in Danish children - A national study of changes in the incidence rate over 34 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Djurhuus, Bjarki Ditlev; Skytthe, Axel; Christensen, Kaare; Faber, Christian Emil

    2015-01-01

    was examined using Poisson regression analysis, while the cumulative incidence proportion was estimated using life-tables. RESULTS: A total of 5850 cases of surgically treated middle ear cholesteatoma distributed among 3874 children aged 0-15 years were identified. From 1977 to 2002 the age...... of 5.4% (95% CI 3.2-7.5%). Age-specific incidence rates were at maximum around the age of 9 years during the whole period. The estimated cumulative incidence proportion at age 16 years based on the 2010 age-specific incidence rates was 0.16% (95% CI 0.09-0.32%) compared with 0.20% (95% CI 0...

  3. The exposition of John 17:6-8: An exegetical exercise

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    D.G. van der Merwe

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available This essay is an exegesis of Jn 17:6-8 aimed at gaining an understanding of what the Fourth Evangelist tries to emphasize and to communicate concerning the character and success of Jesus This essay is an exegesis of Jn 17:6-8 aimed at gaining an understanding of what the Fourth Evangelist tries to emphasize and to communicate concerning the character and success of Jesus’ earthly ministry. Firstly, a discourse analysis is conducted to point out the linguistic symmetric parallelism through which the Evangelist (1 emphasizes the success of Jesus’ ministry, (2 structures the principal components of Jesus’ ministry and the response of his disciples and (3 tries to explain the meaning of these components. Secondly, a theological exposition of these principal components is conducted, in respect of (1 Revelation: … (2 Obedience /Acceptance: … and (3 Faith: … ( earthly ministry. Firstly, a discourse analysis is conducted to point out the linguistic symmetric parallelism through which the Evangelist (1 emphasizes the success of Jesus’ ministry, (2 structures the principal components of Jesus’ ministry and the response of his disciples and (3 tries to explain the meaning of these components. Secondly, a theological exposition of these principal components is conducted, in respect of (1 Revelation: … (2 Obedience / Acceptance: … and (3 Faith: … (

  4. CLASH: A Census of Magnified Star-Forming Galaxies at z ~ 6-8

    CERN Document Server

    Bradley, L D; Coe, D; Bouwens, R; Postman, M; Balestra, I; Grillo, C; Monna, A; Rosati, P; Seitz, S; Host, O; Lemze, D; Moustakas, J; Moustakas, L A; Shu, X; Zheng, W; Broadhurst, T; Carrasco, M; Jouvel, S; Koekemoer, A; Medezinski, E; Meneghetti, M; Nonino, M; Smit, R; Umetsu, K; Bartelmann, M; Benitez, N; Donahue, M; Ford, H; Infante, L; Jimenez-Teja, Y; Kelson, D; Lahav, O; Maoz, D; Melchior, P; Merten, J; Molino, A

    2013-01-01

    We utilize 16-band Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations of 18 lensing clusters obtained as part of the Cluster Lensing And Supernova survey with Hubble (CLASH) Multi-Cycle Treasury program to search for z~6-8 galaxies. We report the discovery of 206, 45, and 13 Lyman-break galaxy (LBG) candidates at z~6, z~7, and z~8, respectively, identified from purely photometric redshift selections. This large sample, representing nearly an order of magnitude increase in the number of magnified star-forming galaxies at z~6-8 presented to date, is unique in that we have observations in four WFC3/UVIS UV, seven ACS/WFC optical and all five WFC3/IR broad-band filters, which enable very accurate photometric redshift selections. We construct detailed lensing models for all 18 clusters (although some are preliminary) to estimate object magnifications and to identify two new multiply-lensed z >~ 6 candidates. The median magnifications for these 18 clusters are 4, 4, and 5 for the z~6, z~7, and z~8 samples, respectively, ove...

  5. Spectral properties of new N, N'-bis-alkyl-1,4,6,8-naphthalenediimide complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Refat, M. S.; Grabchev, I.; Chovelon, J.-M.; Ivanova, G.

    2006-05-01

    The photophysical properties of two N, N'-bis-alkyl-1,4,6,8-naphthalenediimide (DCN1 and DCN2) have been studied in chloroform and N, N-dimethylformamide solvents. The ability of DCN2 in N, N-dimethylformamide to detect metal cations have been monitored by the fluorescence emission spectroscopy. It has been shown that the fluorescent intensity is very sensitive to the concentration of Fe 3+ cations. The reaction of iodine with N, N'-bis-alkyl-1,4,6,8-naphthalenediimide in chloroform solution have been investigated by spectrophotometric method. The results indicate the formation of two CT-complexes [(DCN1)I] +·I 3- and [(DCN2)I] +·I 3- at donor:acceptor molar ratio of 1:2. The [(DCN1)I] +·I 3- shows the characteristic absorptions of I 3- ion at 290 and 360 nm while the charge-transfer transition of [(DCN2)I] +·I 3- occurs at 310 nm. Three characteristic bands at the far infrared region in each iodine complex are observed around 135, 105 and 85 cm -1 due to νas (I-I), νs (I-I) and δ (I 3-), respectively with C2v symmetry. The values of the complex formation constant, K, and the absorptivity, ɛ have been calculated.

  6. Factors associated with the nutritional status of children less than 5 years of age

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    Teresa Cristina Miglioli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To analyze if the nutritional status of children aged less than five years is related to the biological conditions of their mothers, environmental and socioeconomic factors, and access to health services and social programs.METHODS This cross-sectional population-based study analyzed 664 mothers and 790 children using canonical correlation analysis. Dependent variables were characteristics of the children (weight/age, height/age, BMI/age, hemoglobin, and retinol serum levels. Independent variables were those related to the mothers’ nutritional status (BMI, hemoglobin, and retinol serum levels, age, environmental and socioeconomic factors and access to health service and social programs. A < 0.05 significance level was adopted to select the interpreted canonical functions (CF and ± 0.40 as canonical load value of the analyzed variables.RESULTS Three canonical functions were selected, concentrating 89.9% of the variability of the relationship among the groups. In the first canonical function, weight/age (-0.73 and height/age (-0.99 of the children were directly related to the mother’s height (-0.82, prenatal appointments (-0.43, geographical area of the residence (-0.41, and household incomeper capita (-0.42. Inverse relationship between the variables related to the children and people/room (0.44 showed that the larger the number of people/room, the poorer their nutritional status. Rural residents were found to have the worse nutritional conditions. In the second canonical function, the BMI of the mother (-0.48 was related to BMI/age and retinol of the children, indicating that as women gained weight so did their children. Underweight women tended to have children with vitamin A deficiency. In the third canonical function, hemoglobin (-0.72 and retinol serum levels (-0.40 of the children were directly related to the mother’s hemoglobin levels (-0.43.CONCLUSIONS Mothers and children were associated concerning anemia, vitamin A

  7. Acute poisoning in children; changes over the years, data of pediatric clinic department of toxicology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Keka Alije; Ramosaj A; Toro H; Azemi M; Baloku A; Sylaj B; Lenjani B; Kyseni K

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To present the frequency, etiology, changes over the years of acute poisoning in children admitted toPediatricClinic ofPristina and to determine the extent and characteristics of the problem, according to which related preventive measures can be taken.Methods:Retrospectively we have analyzed the epidemiology of accidental and suicidal poisonings in children hospitalization inPediatricClinicDepartment ofToxicology during the year2012. Our data we compared with data from previous studies on acute poisoning in children in the PediatricClinic conducted during the years1976-1985 and2001.Results:During the year2012, inPediatricClinic ofPristina5723 children were hospitalized,136 of them or2.3% were treated due to acute poisoning inDepartment ofToxicology,82 of them was boys and54 was girls, rate boys girls was1.5:1.The majority of cases101 or74.2% were under five years with peak age three and35% or25.7% were over five years.The most of the cases was accidentally97% and only 2.9% was suicidal and all of them were over the age of ten.Drugs were the most common agent causing the poisoning71(52.2%) followed by house cleaning products38(27.9%), food10(5.8%), pesticides7(5.14%), rare agent that caused poisoning were: narcotic substances, plant, heavy metals, alcohol, carbon monoxide, carburant.Poisoning occurred mostly in spring and the peak was observed inMay,(1.17% of all patients).January was the month of lowest rate of poisoning. During the years1976-1985, inPediatricClinic ofPristina900 children were hospitalized due to acute poisoning,44.11% were from drugs,15.88% from pesticides,65(7.2%), while during2001 in the unit care intensive were hospitalized66 children due to acute poisoning, among them51.5% were poisoning from drugs,30.03 from pesticides,12.2% from cleaning products.Conclusion:In our study drugs and house cleaning products are the most frequent agents causing accidental poisoning in children less than5 years-old, this age of children is the most

  8. Molecular Epidemiology of Enteric Adenovirus Gastroenteritis in under-Five-Year-Old Children in Iran

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    Anahita Sanaei Dashti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Acute gastroenteritis is one of the major sources of morbidity and mortality among young children in developed and developing countries. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of human adenovirus- (HAdV- 40 and HAdV-41 in children hospitalized with gastroenteritis in five different health centers of Iran. Methods. In a cross-sectional epidemiological study, we studied 2682 fecal specimens that were collected from children under the age of 5 years in five educational and therapeutic pediatric centers in Iran from February 2012 to February 2013. Samples were tested for HAdV-40 and HAdV-41, using a specific pair of primers in polymerase chain reaction (PCR method. Results. HAdV-40 and HAdV-41 were detected in 132 (5.18% of the patients with diarrhea. A significantly higher prevalence of HAdV-40 and HAdV-41 (58.3% was observed in children under 12 months of age, compared to other age groups. The male to female ratio was 1.7. Conclusion. The results of this study demonstrated that HAdV-40 and HAdV-41 could be considered etiological agents for acute gastroenteritis among children in Iran. The PCR as a rapid test may increase the chance for a relatively mild course of the disease followed by a complete recovery and avoiding administration of unnecessary antibiotics.

  9. Facial Emotion and Identity Processing Development in 5- to 15-Year-Old Children

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    Patrick eJohnston

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Most developmental studies of emotional face processing to date have focussed on infants and very young children. Additionally, studies that examine emotional face processing in older children do not distinguish development in emotion and identity face processing from more generic age-related cognitive improvement. In this study, we developed a paradigm that measures processing of facial expression in comparison to facial identity and complex visual stimuli. The three matching tasks were developed (i.e., facial emotion matching, facial identity matching and butterfly wing matching to include stimuli of similar level of discriminability and to be equated for task difficulty in earlier samples of young adults. Ninety two children aged 5 to 15 years and a new group of 24 young adults completed these three matching tasks. Young children were highly adept at the butterfly wing task relative to their performance on both face-related tasks. More importantly, in older children, development of facial emotion discrimination ability lagged behind that of facial identity discrimination.

  10. Management of children with disorders of sex development:20-year experience in southern Thailand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Somchit Jaruratanasirikul; Vorapun Engchaun

    2014-01-01

    Background: Disorders of sex development (DSD) is a group of sexual differentiation disorders resulting in genital anomalies with defects in gonadal hormone synthesis and/or incomplete genital development. These conditions result in problems concerning the sex assignment of the child. This study aims to describe the clinical features, diagnosis and management of children with DSD in southern Thailand. Methods: The medical records of 117 pediatric patients diagnosed with DSD during the period of 1991- 2011 were retrospectively reviewed. Results: Disorders of sex development were categorized into 3 groups: sex chromosome abnormalities (53.0%), 46,XX DSD (29.9%) and 46,XY DSD (17.1%). The two most common etiologies of DSD were Turner syndrome (36.8%) and congenital adrenal hyperplasia (29.9%). Ambiguous genitalia/intersex was the main problem in 46,XX DSD (94%) and 46,XY DSD (100%). Sex reassignment was done in 5 children (4.3%) at age of 3-5 years: from male to female in 4 children (1 patient with congenital adrenal hyperplasia, 1 patient with 45,X/46,XY DSD, and 2 patients with 46,XX ovotesticular DSD) and from female to male in 1 patient with 46,XX ovotesticular DSD. Of the total 20 children with 46,XY DSD, 16 (80%) were raised as females. Conclusion: Management of DSD children has many aspects of concern. Sex assignment/reassignment depends on the phenotype (phallus size) of the external genitalia rather than the sex chromosome.

  11. Iodine prophylaxis in children population on the Wielkopolska Region area from year 1992 to 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: The aim of the study was to evaluate of efficiency of iodine prophylaxis based on obligatory model of salt ionization. Material and methods: The study included 1444 children from the rural and urban area, with the proportional sex and age (8 - 12 years ) distribution - 432 children in 1992 (before salt iodination), 558 children in 2000 and 454 children in 2005 (during salt iodination from 1996). Results: The prevalence of goiter detected in children population in 1992 was 40% (recount by current criteria), in 2005 was reduced to 6% (p < 0.01). Parallely, median of urinary iodine concentration increased from 44 mg/l in 1992 to 107 mg/l (p < 0.01) in 2005. The increase of incidence of autoimmunological thyroid diseases is observed, especially chronic thyroiditis. Conclusions: The study proves high efficiency of iodine prophylaxis in Wielkopolska Region, but it is still the area with mild iodine deficiency. Conclusions: The study proves high efficiency of iodine prophylaxis in Wielkopolska Region, but it is still the area with mild iodine deficiency. (author)

  12. Response inhibition difficulties in preterm children aged 9-12 years: Relations with emotion and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Réveillon, Morgane; Borradori Tolsa, Cristina; Monnier, Maryline; Hüppi, Petra S; Barisnikov, Koviljka

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies with children have demonstrated inhibition difficulties associated with prematurity, but the question of potentially catching up with a delay in inhibition processes before adolescence still remains. Moreover, preterm adolescents are more at risk than their term-born peers for presenting behavioral problems such as emotional difficulties and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. In addition to examining response inhibition, this study addressed, for the first time, the impact of an emotional context on response inhibition abilities and its relation to behavioral problems in late school-aged preterm children. Fifty-eight preterm children aged 9-12 years were compared with 61 controls on two versions of a stop-signal task, the Delay Frustration Task, and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Results showed general difficulties in inhibiting a response, rather than a specific impact of emotional context in preterm children. Compared with controls, these children exhibited more and longer button presses in a delay situation, as well as faster go reaction times associated with lower probability of inhibition in the stop-signal tasks. These difficulties reflected impulsivity and were associated with higher hyperactivity/inattention and conduct problems. Additionally, intrauterine growth restriction was found to be an additional perinatal risk factor for hyperactivity/inattention symptoms. These findings suggest that remaining inhibition difficulties in the preterm population at preadolescence could reveal increasing behavioral issues. PMID:25569693

  13. [A three years follow-up study on the blood pressures of 6111 children in Chengdu].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J Y

    1989-04-01

    This paper reports the results of a follow-up study in blood pressures of 6111 children for 3 years in Chengdu city and the villages around. It was showed that the blood pressure for both the city and village children were elevated in overall with age. Among the city children, the rate of BP-rising varied in different periods of childhood and that of girls above 13 was not significant. Among village children, the rate of BP-rising for both male and female comparison to that of urban ones were significant (P less than 0.01). A comparison of BP-rising between these two groups revealed no significant differences. This result might be due to the rapid increase of body weight for the village children. It was demonstrated that heart rate, body weight and body height are the factors affecting blood pressure of which heart rate is something essential and is the test parameter for blood pressure research. PMID:2736619

  14. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for 4- to 7-Year-Old Children with Anxiety Disorders: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirshfeld-Becker, Dina R.; Masek, Bruce; Henin, Aude; Blakely, Lauren Raezer; Pollock-Wurman, Rachel A.; McQuade, Julia; DePetrillo, Lillian; Briesch, Jacquelyn; Ollendick, Thomas H.; Rosenbaum, Jerrold F.; Biederman, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To examine the efficacy of a developmentally appropriate parent-child cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) protocol for anxiety disorders in children ages 4-7 years. Method: Design: Randomized wait-list controlled trial. Conduct: Sixty-four children (53% female, mean age 5.4 years, 80% European American) with anxiety disorders were…

  15. Stability in Parents' Causal Attributions for Their Children's Academic Performance: A Nine-Year Follow-Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enlund, Emmi; Aunola, Kaisa; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the interindividual stability and mean-level changes in parents' causal attributions for their children's academic performance across a 9-year period from the first year in primary school (Grade 1, age 7) to the end of lower secondary school (Grade 9, age 16). In all, 212 children participated in the study. The results…

  16. One-Year Follow-Up of Combined Parent and Child Intervention for Young Children with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster-Stratton, Carolyn; Reid, M. Jamila; Beauchaine, Theodore P.

    2013-01-01

    Efficacies of the Incredible Years (IY) interventions are well-established in children with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) but not among those with a primary diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We sought to evaluate 1-year follow-up outcomes among young children with ADHD who were treated with the IY interventions.…

  17. Punishment and reward in parental discipline for children aged 5 to 6 years : prevalence and groups at risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theunissen, Meinou H. C.; Vogels, Anton G. C.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In this study we examined the use and predictors of different discipline practices by parents of children aged 5 to 6 years. METHODS: We obtained cross-sectional data for a nationally representative Dutch sample of children aged 5 to 6 years within the setting of routine well-child visits

  18. Gait pattern in 9-11-year-old children with generalized joint hypermobility compared with controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolajsen, Helene; Larsen, Peter Kastmand; Simonsen, Erik Bruun;

    2013-01-01

    To study differences in gait patterns in 10-year-old children with Generalized Joint Hypermobility (GJH) and with no GJH (NGJH).......To study differences in gait patterns in 10-year-old children with Generalized Joint Hypermobility (GJH) and with no GJH (NGJH)....

  19. Individual and maternal determinants of self-reported dental health among Turkish school children aged 10-12 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cinar, A B; Kosku, N; Sandalli, N;

    2008-01-01

    To assess the influence of maternal and individual characteristics on self-reported dental health of Turkish school children aged 10-12 years with different socio-economic backgrounds.......To assess the influence of maternal and individual characteristics on self-reported dental health of Turkish school children aged 10-12 years with different socio-economic backgrounds....

  20. Rotavirus gastroenteritis in children under 5 years in the Kingdom of Bahrain: hospital-based surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Musawi M

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Muna Al Musawi,1 Hassan Zainaldeen,2 Fakrudeen Shafi,3 Sameh Anis,4 Rodrigo DeAntonio51Public Health Directorate, Ministry of Health, Manama, the Kingdom of Bahrain; 2Pediatric Department, Salmaniya Medical Complex, the Kingdom of Bahrain, Manama; 3GlaxoSmithKline Pharmaceuticals, Bangalore, India; 4GlaxoSmithKline Pharmaceuticals, Middle East and North Africa; 5GlaxoSmithKline Vaccines, Wavre, BelgiumPurpose: Rotavirus (RV is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in children under 5 years of age worldwide. This study assessed the role of RV as a cause of gastroenteritis (GE-associated hospitalization in children, generating baseline information to evaluate the potential impact of the RV vaccine in reducing RVGE disease burden in the Kingdom of Bahrain.Methods: This single, pediatric hospital-based surveillance study was conducted over a period of 12 months beginning April 1, 2006. A total of 314 children aged under 5 years and hospitalized due to GE were enrolled in the study, following collection of written informed consent from parents/guardians. Stool samples were tested for the presence of RV using enzyme immunoassay, and a random subset of RV-positive samples was further genotyped using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and reverse hybridization assay.Results: Of 314 enrolled children, 239 were included in the final analysis. RV was detected in 107 children (44.8%, mostly in the 6–23 months age group (82/107; 76.6%. RVGE occurred throughout the year, with the highest proportion occurring during April (26/42; 61.9%. G1P[8] was the most commonly detected RV strain (10/17; 58.8% in the limited number of samples analyzed. Vomiting and severe RVGE were more commonly observed in RV-positive than RV-negative children before hospitalization (P = 0.0008 and 0.0204, respectively.Conclusion: In our study, RV accounted for over 40% of GE-associated hospitalizations and particularly affected children under 2 years of age. These

  1. Spontaneous vesicoureteral reflux resolution in children: A ten-year single-centre experience

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    Peer Wildbrett

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim: To evaluate the spontaneous resolution rate in infants and young children with vesicoureteral reflux (VUR. Patients and Methods: Paediatric patients with VUR treated in our hospital from January 2000 to December 2010 were retrospectively analyzed. Only patients with pretreatment and follow-up voiding cystourethrogram were included into the study. Treatment success was defined as complete VUR resolution. Results: The resolution rate for infants less than 1 year of age was 38.6% (17 of 44 renal units. Renal units with mild-moderate VUR (I-III had a resolution rate of 40% (12 of 30 renal units compared to 35.7% (5 of 14 renal units with severe grade (IV-V VUR. The resolution rate for children over 1 year of age was 39,1% (9 of 23 renal units. Renal units with mild-moderate VUR (I-III had a resolution rate of 42.9% (9 of 21 renal units compared to 0% (0 of 2 renal units with severe grade (IV-V VUR. Conclusion: Infants less than 1 year of age with nonsymptomatic, mild, moderate or severe VUR have a spontaneous resolution rate of more than 35% and therefore should receive a primary conservative therapy. Children over 1 year of age with nonsymptomatic mild-moderate VUR (I-III have a spontaneous resolution rate of about 40% and should receive primary conservative treatment as well.

  2. Mortality in Children Aged 0-9 Years: A Nationwide Cohort Study from Three Nordic Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Yongfu; Qin, Guoyou; Cnattingius, Sven;

    2016-01-01

    mortality rates were compared by age, gender, cause of death, and calendar periods. Among the 7,105,962 children, there were 48,299 deaths during study period. From 1981–1985 to 2001–2005, all-cause mortality rates were reduced by between 34% and 62% at different ages. Overall mortality rate ratio between...... boys and girls decreased from 1.25 to 1.21 with the most prominent reduction in children aged 5–9 years (from 1.59 to 1.19). Neoplasms, diseases of the nervous system and transport accidents were the most frequent cause of death after the first year of life. These three leading causes of death declined...... when comparing cause-specific mortality, and half of deaths from diseases of the nervous system occurred in infancy. Mortality rate due to transport accidents increased with age and was highest in boys aged 5–9 years. Conclusions Mortality rate in children aged 0–9 years has been decreasing with...

  3. Serum ferritin to detect iron deficiency in children below five years of age

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    Windy Saufia Apriyanti

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Iron deficiency (ID anemia impacts the cognitive and motor development of children until the age of 10 years, despite receiving iron therapy. Early detection of ID is recommended and serum ferritin has been proposed as an alternative indicator for ID detection. Objective To assess the diagnostic accuracy of serum ferritin for detecting ID in children below five years of age. Methods This cross-sectional, diagnostic study was conducted in primary health care centers in Yogyakarta and Bantul. Hemoglobin (Hb, serum ferritin and soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR levels were performed on children aged 6–59 months. A sTfR level of ≥ 8.2 mg/L was used to define iron deficiency. The best cut off point for serum ferritin level use as a diagnostic tool was determined by receiver operator curve. Results The prevalence of ID was 32%. Mean hemoglobin levels in iron deficient and healthy children were 11.7 (SD 0.5 g/dL and 12.2 (SD 0.7 g/dL, respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value (PPV of serum ferritin (<12 ug/L were 17%, 93%, and 56%, respectively. Using a cut off of <32.4 ug/L, serum ferritin had sensitivity of 62.1% and specificity of 50.8%. Conclusions The diagnostic value of serum ferritin levels is modestly capable of detecting ID. Therefore, serum ferritin should not be used as an alternative indicator for detecting ID in children below five years of age. [Paediatr Indones. 2013;53:150-4.].

  4. Influencing Factors in Nutrition Status of 6-12 Years Old Children

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    Siva Hamdani

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The nutrition status of school-age children is still poor while the need for balanced nutrition is very important for school children and this is because the public's attention to the nutritional needs only focuses in infants, toddlers, and pregnant women. According to data of Health Research (Riskesdas in 2010, the prevalence stunting in the age group of 6-12 years was 25.6%, underweight prevalence was 11.2% and overweight prevalence was accounted to 9.2%. This study aimed to determine the nutritional status of children by conducting crosssectional descriptive study with the analysis of invariance and bivariate (Chi square. The study was conducted at SDN 05 of grade 1-6 Sirnagalih Bogor with totaling 263 students aged 6-12 years old in November 2014 and assessed the nutritional status of students based on the z-score of the WHO / NCHS and reviewing the primary data (weight and height measurement and secondary data (data or documents and the identity taken from the student attendance. Nutritional status average of children in SDN 05 Sirnagalih was in normal nutritional status at approximately 68.2%. However, it still reflected some nutritional problems (very underweight, underweight and overweight, accounted for 31.8%. In underage group category, there was the nutritional status of malnourishment of 9-12 years age group with the highest number scored 37.5%. By gender, the malnourishment of boys acquired at most 34.9%. Based on parent education, malnourishment was found in students with less educated fathers; it was about 41.6%. Nutritional status of children based on the number of siblings in the family showed the nutritional status of malnourishment, showing by the number of brothers and sisters greater than two sisters and brothers that amounted to 57.9%.

  5. Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior in Preterm-Born 7-Year Old Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, John; Watkins, W. John; Kotecha, Sarah J.; Kotecha, Sailesh

    2016-01-01

    Background Previous studies of preterm-born children (<37 weeks’ gestation) have demonstrated decrements in lung function, exercise capacity, and increased respiratory symptoms compared to their term-born peers. However, it is unclear if these children have decreased levels of physical activity (PA) and increased sedentary behavior as a consequence of this increased respiratory morbidity. We therefore compared objectively measured PA in 7-year old preterm-born children with those born at term. Methods Children in the Millennium Cohort Study underwent assessment of PA at 7 years of age using accelerometry. 6422/12781 (50%) provided valid accelerometry and had gestational age data. A series of general linear models adjusted for confounders investigated the association between gestational age and levels of Total PA (average accelerometer counts per minute over the period of the recording), Moderate-to-Vigorous PA (MVPA) and sedentary behavior. Mediation analysis was performed to specifically investigate whether the observed association of gestational age on PA was mediated by respiratory symptoms. Results PA data were available for 79, 119, 275 and 5949 children born at 25–32, 33–34, 35–36 and 37–43 weeks’ gestation respectively. Boys born at ≤32 weeks’ gestation had modest but statistically significant reductions in MVPA when compared to term controls. This equated to a reduction of 9 minutes per day. No differences were found for Total PA or sedentary behavior. The association between gestational age and MVPA was not mediated by respiratory symptoms. In females, there was no association between gestational age and any measure of PA or sedentary behavior. Conclusions Boys born at ≤32 weeks’ gestation took part in less MVPA than their term-born peers at 7 years of age. The differences were modest, but equated to a reduction of over 1 hour per week. Since PA levels have been shown to decline during childhood and adolescence, this vulnerable group

  6. SPEECH AND LANGUAGE ASSESSMENT USING LEST 0 TO 6 AMONG CHILDREN 0 TO 6 YEARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiji K

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This descriptive study was conducted toassess the speech and language development anddelay among children 0 - 6 years.450 Children 0 - 6 years age groups were taken for the study . Each child was given the corresponding LEST and given a PASS if he or she had performed the test. Of the 450 children screened , 5.5 % had delay , 2.2 % had only questionable delay. Of the 25 children who had delay 15 (60% were males. There is strong hazardous association between sex and speech delay. Statistical test also shows that there is association between speech Delay and Sex i . e . , t he result is highly Statistically Significant , ( p< 0.005 . Hence males have more speech Delay than Females. LEST – this simple validatedor standardized scree ning tool will be useful for professionals to give early intervention. The Statistical method used is Chi - Square test. This test can be extrapolated to the general population. This test - LEST has been validated by Nair M.K.C et al.KEY WORDS : Speech delay , Language delay , LEST

  7. Maternal Recreational Exercise during Pregnancy in relation to Children's BMI at 7 Years of Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schou Andersen, Camilla; Juhl, Mette; Gamborg, Michael; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Nohr, Ellen Aagaard

    2012-01-01

    Exposures during fetal life may have long-term health consequences including risk of childhood overweight. We investigated the associations between maternal recreational exercise during early and late pregnancy and the children's body mass index (BMI) and risk of overweight at 7 years. Data on 40,280 mother-child pairs from the Danish National Birth Cohort was used. Self-reported information about exercise was obtained from telephone interviews around gestational weeks 16 and 30. Children's weight and height were reported in a 7-year follow-up and used to calculate BMI and overweight status. Data was analyzed using multiple linear and logistic regression models. Recreational exercise across pregnancy was inversely related to children's BMI and risk of overweight, but all associations were mainly explained by smoking habits, socioeconomic status, and maternal pre-pregnancy BMI. Additionally, we did not find exercise intensity or changes in exercise habits in pregnancy related to the children's BMI or risk of overweight. PMID:22548089

  8. Vaccination coverage of children aged 4-12 years old in the prefecture of Evritania

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    Yannis Getsios

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The last two decades a huge progress has taken place in the field of the primary prevention of infections and many new vaccines have been introduced in the compulsory vaccination program. There is evidence, however, that immunization coverage against some infectious diseases is not adequate. Aim: It was to investigate the level of immunization coverage of Greek and Immigrants' children aged 4-12 years old in the prefecture of Evritania regarding vaccines against pertussis-diphtheria-tetanus (DTaP, poliomyelitis (IPV and measles–mumps–rubella (MMR. Material and methods: The sample of the study consisted of the pupils of all nursing and elementary schools of the prefecture of Evritania , aged 4-12 years old. Children's personal Health Cards were used to evaluate the adequacy of vaccine doses. X2 was usedfor comparisons. Statistics was processed with SPPS 17.0. Results: The boys of the sample were 469 (51.9% and the girls 434 (48.1%. Full vaccination coverage with DTaP, MMR and IPV was 87.3%, 79.9%, and 97.6% respectively. No statistically significant differences were observed between Greek and Immigrants' children. Conclusion: Vaccination coverage against measles, mumps and rubella was inadequate. Immigrants' and Greek children are equally covered. Vaccination coverage with MMR is troublesome.

  9. DPT Vaccination Complications in Children up to 6 Years of Age in Tehran

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    N Hadjizadeh

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The expanded global use of vaccines has led to eradication of some contagious diseases in children. This should not lead to forget the fact that these vaccines can be associated by complications and side effects. We studied 450 children, who had received DPT vaccine at the age of under 6 years. 2 to 7 days after the DPT injection we could not observe any seriously dangerous complication, although 82.4% of the children had general and 83% local complications. Fever with a frequency of 73% was the most frequency observed general complication, this was followed by lethargy, loss of appetite, and persisted crying. The most frequency observed local complication consisted of pain at the site of injection with 63% of cases followed by swelling, erythema and induration. By increasing age, local swelling and erythema increases (P<0.001 and induration decreases (P<0.001. General complications decreases with increasing age and vaccinations, which is especially remarkable in 2 to 7 year old children (5th vaccination.

  10. Longitudinal study of growth of children with unilateral cleft lip and palate: 2 to 10 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Ilza Lazarini; Nackashi, John; Borgo, Hilton Coimbra; Martinelli, Angela Patrícia Menezes Cardoso; de Souza, Luiz; Dutka, Jeniffer de Cássia Rillo; Williams, William N; Pegoraro-Krook, Maria Inês

    2015-03-01

    Objective : To study the growth of children with complete unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP) from 2 to 10 years of age and to assess whether growth varied from that of children without UCLP (typical children). Design : Physical growth was one of the outcome measures of a National Institutes of Health-sponsored longitudinal, prospective clinical trial conducted by the University of Florida and the University of São Paulo. Setting : Hospital of Rehabilitation of Craniofacial Anomalies, University of São Paulo (HRAC-USP), Bauru, Brazil. Main Outcome Measures : Height and weight were prospectively measured for 360 healthy children with UCLP who were nonsyndromic, belonged to median socioeconomic status, and received health care at HRAC-USP. To compare growth of children with UCLP to that of typical children, growth curves for UCLP were developed and compared with World Health Organization curves for 2006 and 2007, which were used as reference for typical children. Third-degree polynomials were used to explain the relationship of length and weight with age. Confidence limits of 95% were used for the mean curve using the statistic Z ~ N (0,1). Results : Children with UCLP from 2 to 10 years old presented height and weight growth curves similar to those of typical children for both genders. Conclusion : Children with UCLP from 2 to 10 years old presented physical growth similar to that of typical children. PMID:24810484

  11. Cognition, Emotion and Behavior in Children with Tourette’s Syndrome and Children with ADHD-Combined Subtype—A Two-Year Follow-Up Study

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Objective This two-year follow-up study investigates the course of and association among measures of cognitive control, focused attention, decision-making and symptom severity (anxiety, depression and behavior) in children and adolescents with Tourette’s Syndrome (TS) or Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder-Combined subtype (ADHD-C). Method 19 children with TS, 33 with ADHD-C, and 50 typically developing children (TDC) were examined with a battery of psychometric measures and rating fo...

  12. Cognition, Emotion and Behavior in Children with Tourette's Syndrome and Children with ADHD-Combined Subtype-A Two-Year Follow-Up Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kjell Tore Hovik

    Full Text Available This two-year follow-up study investigates the course of and association among measures of cognitive control, focused attention, decision-making and symptom severity (anxiety, depression and behavior in children and adolescents with Tourette's Syndrome (TS or Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder-Combined subtype (ADHD-C.19 children with TS, 33 with ADHD-C, and 50 typically developing children (TDC were examined with a battery of psychometric measures and rating forms at baseline and two-years later.All three groups improved likewise in measures of cognitive control over time, whereas only the TDC improved in focused attention. The group of children with TS with comorbidities performed more similar to the children with ADHD-C in cognitive control at T1 and T2, whereas the children with TS without comorbidities performed more similar to the TDC in cognitive control at T1 and T2. In the decision-making task, the children with TS (with or without comorbidities preferred a safer strategy in selecting advantageous choices than the children with ADHD-C and the TDC at T2. Children with TS and children with ADHD-C showed higher symptoms of anxiety and depression and more problems with emotional control compared with TDC at both time points. Finally, children with ADHD-C self-reported more depression symptoms than those with TS at both assessments. For the TS group, safer decision-making was related to better emotional control, and this relationship was stronger for the TS subgroup without comorbidities.This study emphasizes the importance of addressing symptoms of anxiety and depression in children with TS or ADHD-C, identifying the effect of comorbidities in children with TS, and that children with TS or ADHD-C likely differ in their sensitivity to reinforcement contingencies.

  13. Cognition, Emotion and Behavior in Children with Tourette’s Syndrome and Children with ADHD-Combined Subtype—A Two-Year Follow-Up Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovik, Kjell Tore; Plessen, Kerstin J.; Cavanna, Andrea E.; Skogli, Erik Winther; Andersen, Per Normann; Øie, Merete

    2015-01-01

    Objective This two-year follow-up study investigates the course of and association among measures of cognitive control, focused attention, decision-making and symptom severity (anxiety, depression and behavior) in children and adolescents with Tourette’s Syndrome (TS) or Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder-Combined subtype (ADHD-C). Method 19 children with TS, 33 with ADHD-C, and 50 typically developing children (TDC) were examined with a battery of psychometric measures and rating forms at baseline and two-years later. Results All three groups improved likewise in measures of cognitive control over time, whereas only the TDC improved in focused attention. The group of children with TS with comorbidities performed more similar to the children with ADHD-C in cognitive control at T1 and T2, whereas the children with TS without comorbidities performed more similar to the TDC in cognitive control at T1 and T2. In the decision-making task, the children with TS (with or without comorbidities) preferred a safer strategy in selecting advantageous choices than the children with ADHD-C and the TDC at T2. Children with TS and children with ADHD-C showed higher symptoms of anxiety and depression and more problems with emotional control compared with TDC at both time points. Finally, children with ADHD-C self-reported more depression symptoms than those with TS at both assessments. For the TS group, safer decision-making was related to better emotional control, and this relationship was stronger for the TS subgroup without comorbidities. Conclusion This study emphasizes the importance of addressing symptoms of anxiety and depression in children with TS or ADHD-C, identifying the effect of comorbidities in children with TS, and that children with TS or ADHD-C likely differ in their sensitivity to reinforcement contingencies. PMID:26673612

  14. Behaviors of children exposed to intimate partner violence before and 1 year after a treatment program for their mother.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarlane, Judith M; Groff, Janet Y; O'brien, Jennifer A; Watson, Kathy

    2005-02-01

    Children exposed to intimate partner violence against their mothers are at increased risk for emotional, behavior, physiological, cognitive, and social problems. To compare the behavioral functioning of children exposed to intimate partner violence before and 1 year after their mother received treatment, 206 Black, White, and Hispanic children, age 18 months to 18 years, were administered the Child Behavior Checklist. Behavior problems of all children significantly improved 1 year following treatment of their mother. When compared with a clinically referred sample of youngsters, scores of children of abused mothers were not significantly different before their mothers received treatment but most scores were significantly different after their mothers were treated. Screening and a treatment for abused women can have a positive effect on the behavior of their children. PMID:15812730

  15. Epidemiology of bronchial asthma in school children (10–16 years) in Srinagar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Uruj Altaf; Bilques, Sufoora; ul Haq, Inaam; Khan, Muhammad Saleem; Qurieshi, Mariya Amin; Qureshi, Umar Amin

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the epidemiological profile of asthma in school going children in Srinagar, Kashmir. Study design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Thirty-one schools with proportionate representation from both government and private schools as well as from primary, middle, and high schools. Participants: School children aged 10–16 years with equal representation of sex and all ages. Main Outcome Measure: Prevalence of current and past asthma. Methods and Results: After administering a modified pretested questionnaire, peak expiratory flow measurement was carried. Children who had asthma-like symptoms or positive family history of asthma or physician-labeled asthma were subjected to spirometry and bronchodilator reversibility. Out of 806 children, bronchial asthma was seen in 60 (prevalence of 7.4%) which included 34 boys and 26 girls. Majority of asthmatic children (78.3% [n = 47]) had probable asthma; 6.7% (n = 4) had definite asthma; and 15% (n = 9) had physician-diagnosed asthma. Majority of children had intermittent asthma (78.3% [n = 47]). Mild persistent asthma was seen in 12.7% (n = 7) and 10% (n = 6) had moderate persistent asthma. None of the children had severe persistent asthma. The prevalence of current asthma was 3.2% (n = 26). On univariate analysis, the factors found to be statistically significant were family history of asthma (odds ratio [OR] =8.174; confidence interval [CI] =4.403–15.178), seasonal cough (OR = 4.266; CI = 2.336–7.791), allergic rhinitis (OR = 2.877; CI = 1.414–5.852), atopic dermatitis (OR = 6.597; CI = 2.72–16.004), and obesity (OR = 6.074; CI = 2.308–18.034). On multivariate analysis, family history, seasonal cough, allergic rhinitis, atopic dermatitis, and obesity were found to be significant independent risk factors. Conclusions: Srinagar qualifies as a low prevalence area for bronchial asthma in the age group of 10–16 years. Majority of children had mild intermittent asthma resulting in under diagnosis and

  16. Epidemiology of bronchial asthma in school children (10–16 years in Srinagar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uruj Altaf Qureshi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To assess the epidemiological profile of asthma in school going children in Srinagar, Kashmir. Study design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Thirty-one schools with proportionate representation from both government and private schools as well as from primary, middle, and high schools. Participants: School children aged 10–16 years with equal representation of sex and all ages. Main Outcome Measure: Prevalence of current and past asthma. Methods and Results: After administering a modified pretested questionnaire, peak expiratory flow measurement was carried. Children who had asthma-like symptoms or positive family history of asthma or physician-labeled asthma were subjected to spirometry and bronchodilator reversibility. Out of 806 children, bronchial asthma was seen in 60 (prevalence of 7.4% which included 34 boys and 26 girls. Majority of asthmatic children (78.3% [n = 47] had probable asthma; 6.7% (n = 4 had definite asthma; and 15% (n = 9 had physician-diagnosed asthma. Majority of children had intermittent asthma (78.3% [n = 47]. Mild persistent asthma was seen in 12.7% (n = 7 and 10% (n = 6 had moderate persistent asthma. None of the children had severe persistent asthma. The prevalence of current asthma was 3.2% (n = 26. On univariate analysis, the factors found to be statistically significant were family history of asthma (odds ratio [OR] =8.174; confidence interval [CI] =4.403–15.178, seasonal cough (OR = 4.266; CI = 2.336–7.791, allergic rhinitis (OR = 2.877; CI = 1.414–5.852, atopic dermatitis (OR = 6.597; CI = 2.72–16.004, and obesity (OR = 6.074; CI = 2.308–18.034. On multivariate analysis, family history, seasonal cough, allergic rhinitis, atopic dermatitis, and obesity were found to be significant independent risk factors. Conclusions: Srinagar qualifies as a low prevalence area for bronchial asthma in the age group of 10–16 years. Majority of children had mild intermittent asthma resulting in under

  17. Factors associated with stunted growth in children below 11 years of age in Antioquia, Colombia, 2004

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    Bibiana Andrea Castro

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore some factors associated to stunted growth in children below 11 years of age in the Department of Antioquia.Methodology: Cross-sectional study using the databases of alimentary and nutritional profiles in homes of Antioquia in 2004, based on a representative random sample of homes in the department (95% reliability and error margin of 3%. For this study, 100% of the records of children below 11 years of age were used. A model of generalized equations estimation was constructed for stunted growth classified by a Z score smaller than -2 standard deviation with respect to p 50 of the 1978 NCHS (Centro Nacional de Estadísticas de la Salud - National Center for Health Statistics. Data were analyzed using the GLIMMIX Procedure: SAS version 9.1.Results: We found 18.6% of the children with stunted growth, 75% of the homes with male head of household, 70% of heads of household with maximum 5 years of schooling; 47% of homes were nucleated bi-parental, and 40% extensive with a 5-member median per home; 56.4% poor per unsatisfied basic needs, and 80% in alimentary insecurity. The factors associated to stunted growth were: female gender, 1-5 years of age, head of household with less than 6 years of schooling, more than 5 people in the home, more than two household members under 7 years of age, coming from a poor home per unsatisfied basic needs, belonging to a sub-region different from Medellin, food availability of less than 30 different foods per week, no production of food, and head of household under 40 years of age.Conclusions: Herein, we show evidence of the magnitude of poverty and association of precarious socioeconomic conditions with stunted growth in Antioquia. The study shows the importance of considering the correlated nature of the data for the construction of the model.

  18. Response to montelukast among subgroups of children aged 2 to 14 years with asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Katie A; Arduino, Jean Marie; Santanello, Nancy C;

    2003-01-01

    characteristics, such as family history of asthma, personal history of allergy, frequency of asthma symptoms, eosinophilia, and concomitant use of inhaled corticosteroids or cromolyn. We examined the stratum-specific effects of montelukast on the percentage of days without asthma, change in percent predicted FEV......BACKGROUND: Determining who responds to asthma therapies, particularly leukotriene modifiers, continues to be explored. OBJECTIVE: We sought to identify patient characteristics predictive of response to montelukast. METHODS: We used data from 2 clinical trials in which children with asthma received...... either montelukast or placebo. Symptoms, beta-agonist use, and unanticipated health resource use caused by asthma were recorded in validated daily diaries for children 2 to 5 (n = 689) and 6 to 14 (n = 336) years old. We defined primary end points of days without asthma in 2- to 5-year-old patients (24...

  19. Montelukast reduces asthma exacerbations in 2- to 5-year-old children with intermittent asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Hans; Zielen, Stefen; Garcia-Garcia, María Luz;

    2005-01-01

    The PREVIA study was designed to investigate the role of montelukast, a leukotriene receptor antagonist, in the prevention of viral-induced asthma exacerbations in children aged 2 to 5 years with a history of intermittent asthma symptoms. The study was a 12-month multicenter, double-blind, parallel......-group study of patients with asthma exacerbations associated with respiratory infections and minimal symptoms between episodes. Patients were randomized to receive oral montelukast 4 or 5 mg (depending on age) (n = 278) or placebo (n = 271) once per day for 12 months. Caregivers recorded children's symptoms......, beta-agonist use, and health care resource use in a diary card. Over 12 months of therapy, montelukast significantly reduced the rate of asthma exacerbations by 31.9% compared with placebo. The average rate of exacerbation episodes per patient was 1.60 episodes per year on montelukast compared with 2...

  20. Measles Antibody Titres In 0-5 Years Children At Aligarh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kandpal S D

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Research Question: What is the level of measles antibodies in 0-5 year children? Objectives: 1.To assess the pattern of decline of maternal antibodies in 0-9 months infants. 2. To estimate the seropositivity for measles antibodies in vaccinated 9 months infants. Study design: Cross- sectional. Setting: Rural areas of District Aligarh, U.P. Participants: 456 children in the age group of 0-5 years. Statistical analysis: Percentages, correlation coefficient. Results: 1. In all the study subjects below 9 months of age, the transplacentally acquired maternal measles antibodies showed a linear decline with increase in age. Out of 202 study subjects who had been immunized against measles 195(96.50% were seropositive and 7(3.5% were seronegative for measles antibodies.

  1. Internationally Adopted Children from Non-European Countries: General Development during the First Two Years in the Adoptive Family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Dalen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Internationally adopted children are often delayed in their development and demonstrate more behaviour problems than nonadopted children due to adverse preadoption circumstances. This is especially true for children adopted from Eastern European countries. Few studies have focused on children adopted from non-European countries. This paper presents results from an ongoing longitudinal study of 119 internationally adopted children from non-European countries during their first two years in Norway. Several scales measuring different aspects of the children’s development are included in the study: communication and gross motor development, temperamental characteristics, and behaviour problems. The results show that internationally adopted children are delayed in their general development when they first arrive in their adoptive families. After two years the children have made significant progress in development. However, they still lag behind in communication and motor skills compared to non-adopted children. The temperamental characteristics seem very stable from time of adoption until two years after adoption. The children demonstrate a low frequency of behaviour problems. However, the behaviour problems have changed during the two years. At time of adoption they show more nonphysically challenging behaviour while after two years their physically challenging behaviour has increased.

  2. Outcome of left heart mechanical valve replacement in West African children - A 15-year retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamatey Martin

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The West African sub-region has poor health infrastructure. Mechanical valve replacement in children from such regions raises important postoperative concerns; among these, valve-related morbidity and complications of lifelong anticoagulation are foremost. Little is known about the long-term outcome of mechanical valve replacement in West Africa. We sought to determine the outcome of mechanical valve replacement of the left heart in children from this sub-region. Method We conducted a retrospective review of all consecutive left heart valve replacements in children ( Results One hundred and fourteen patients underwent mitral valve replacement (MVR, aortic valve replacement (AVR or mitral and aortic valve replacements (MAVR. Their ages ranged from 6-18 years (13.3 ± 3.1 years. All patients were in NYHA class III or IV. Median follow up was 9.1 years. MVR was performed in 91 (79.8% patients, AVR in 13 (11.4% and MAVR in 10 (8.8% patients. Tricuspid valve repair was performed concomitantly in 45 (39.5% patients. There were 6 (5.3% early deaths and 6 (5.3% late deaths. Preoperative left ventricular dysfunction (ejection fraction Conclusion Mechanical valve replacement in West African children has excellent outcomes in terms of mortality, valve-related events, and reoperation rate. Preoperative left ventricular dysfunction is the primary determinant of mortality within the first 2 years of valve replacement. The risk of valve-related complications is acceptably low. Anticoagulation is well tolerated with a very low risk of bleeding even in this socioeconomic setting.

  3. Assessment of the sexually abused female children admitted to a tertiary care hospital: Eight year experience

    OpenAIRE

    Mollamahmutoglu, Leyla; Uzunlar, Ozlem; Kahyaoglu, Inci; Ozyer, Sebnem; Besli, Mustafa; Karaca, Mujdegul

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To discuss the medical, social and legal characteristics of the child sexual abuse and to provide a perspective for gynecologists on this topic. Methods: A retrospective analysis was carried out of the medicolegal records of female children below the age of 18 referred to a tertiary teaching hospital and diagnosed as being exposed to sexual abuse within the family between the years of 2004 to 2012. Results: One hundred and thirty-nine cases were diagnosed as being exposed to sexual...

  4. Problems of radiotherapy on the brain tumors in children less than two years of age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Impaired growth and mental or developmental disturbance due to radiotherapy for 10 cases of brain tumors in the children ages less than 2 years old were evaluated. Six cases of brain tumor which did not involve the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, were followed more than 2 years after cranial or craniospinal irradiation. Four cases irradiated greater than 2900 rad to the whole brain all revealed markedly lower body heights than -2 SD of the medium. Growth impairment was found to be progressive over time, and markedly evident after 2 years following cranial or craniospinal radiotherapy. Somatomedin C in the blood was measured in 8 cases of brain tumors in childhood receiving radiotherapy. The measurement of Somatomedin C showed markedly low values measuring 0.19 to 0.54 U/ml (medium; 0.36 U/ml) in children having lower body height than -2 SD. Mental retardation or developmental disturbances were found in IQ or DQ tests in all of 5 infants or children younger than 2 years with brain tumors who got radiotherapy over 2900 rad to the whole brain. A case of craniopharyngioma, which had 5400 rad for tumor localization at the hypothalamus-pituitary axis and showed markedly low height, was given growth hormone and grew to normal height without distinct side effects. It was suggested that radiotherapy for brain tumors in infants or children should have special care in deciding the dose, field and time of radiation. If low height due to radiotherapy results, growth hormone therapy should be used for its treatment in childhood. (author)

  5. MARKET RESEARCH OF CARE GOODS FOR NEWBORNS AND FIRST YEAR CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Ovod

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Comparative results of marketing research of care goods for newborns and first year children conducted in 2009 and 2014 showed that there were changes in the range of products and consumer preferences. The analysis revealed that the economic situation affected the determinants of choice in this category of goods and the location of purchasing. The findings should be considered by pharmaceutical companies in their procurement in order to improve their competitive position. 

  6. Association between breakfast consumption and educational outcomes in 9–11-year-old children

    OpenAIRE

    Littlecott, Hannah J; Moore, Graham F.; Moore, Laurence; Lyons, Ronan A.; Murphy, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Objective Breakfast consumption has been consistently associated with health outcomes and cognitive functioning in schoolchildren. Evidence of direct links with educational outcomes remains equivocal. We aimed to examine the link between breakfast consumption in 9–11-year-old children and educational outcomes obtained 6–18 months later. Design Data on individual-level free school meal entitlement and educational outcomes (Statutory Assessment Tests (SATs) at Key Stage 2) were obtained via ...

  7. Psychopathic Traits and Physiological Responses to Aversive Stimuli in Children Aged 9–11 Years

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Pan; Baker, Laura A.; Gao, Yu; Raine, Adrian; Lozano, Dora Isabel

    2012-01-01

    Atypical eletrodermal and cardiovascular response patterns in psychopathic individuals are thought to be biological indicators of fearless and disinhibition. This study investigated the relationship between psychopathic traits and these autonomic response patterns using a count-down task in 843 children (aged 9–10 years). Heart rate (HR) and non-specific skin conductance responses (NS-SCRs) were recorded while participants anticipated and reacted to 105 dB signaled or unsignaled white-noise b...

  8. Empathy, estradiol and androgen levels in 9-year-old children

    OpenAIRE

    Pascual-Segastizábal, Eider; Azurmendi, Aitziber; Sánchez-Martín, José R.; Braza, Francisco; Carreras, María R.; José M. Muñoz; Braza, Paloma

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the possible relationship between circulating hormone levels (tes- tosterone, androstenedione and estradiol) and empathy, as well as to identify any possible gender differ- ences in this relationship. The subjects were 123 9-year-old Caucasian children (57 boys and 66 girls). Bryant’s Empathy Index was used to measure empathy. Hormone levels were measured using an enzyme immunoassay technique in saliva samples. The Kruskal–Wallis...

  9. Arthrographic study of the Wiberg's CE angle in cadavers of children under 3 years old

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forty hip arthrographies in cadavers of children under 3 years of age are presented. The articular relationships of the hip through the definition of the morphology of the proximal femoral epyphysis are evaluated. The location of point 'C' and the evaluation of 'CE' angle in this age group are related. The results of the arthrographic 'CE' osseous angle are compared with Salvati's method and with Massie and Howorth's method. (M.A.C.)

  10. Predictors of dental rehabilitation in children aged 3–12 years

    OpenAIRE

    Gopinath, Vellore Kannan; Awad, Manal A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the proportion of completed treatments and to study the factors affecting the full mouth dental rehabilitation in pediatric patients treated by undergraduate students at the College of Dental Medicine Teaching Clinics, University of Sharjah. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study was conducted on 270 children aged less than 12 years (mean age 7.6, SD 2.04). Comprehensive dental rehabilitation reports of child patients that were completed...

  11. Relatedness and Autonomy Aspects of Self-Concept in 8- to 12-Year-Old Children

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Cherie

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to look at age-associated changes in relatedness and autonomy in 8- to 12-year-olds. A psychosocial and attachment theory perspective was taken to help explain the integration of relatedness and autonomy issues. The influence of gender, parent involvement, and selected demographic variables was also considered. The sample included 94 children . This excluded those with single fathers or stepmothers. Instruments used were (a) the relatedness, autonomy, and parent ...

  12. Urinary fluoride excretion by children 4-6 years old in a south Texas community

    OpenAIRE

    Baez Ramon J.; Baez Martha X.; Marthaler Thomas M.

    2000-01-01

    This study evaluated urinary fluoride excretion by school children 4-6 years old who were living in a south Texas rural community that had concentrations of fluoride in drinking water supplies generally around the optimal level. We took supervised collections of urine samples in the morning and afternoon at school, and parents of the participating students collected nocturnal samples. We recorded the beginning and end times of the three collection periods and then determined the urinary volum...

  13. Children of Treated Substance-abusing Mothers: A 10-year Prospective Study

    OpenAIRE

    Hser, Y.; Evans, E.; Li, L.; Metchik, A.; Messina, N

    2013-01-01

    The study examined children of substance-abusing mothers approximately 10 years after mothers’ admission to drug abuse treatment, and identified maternal characteristics that may be risk factors for child behavior problems on the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). Data were obtained from 396 mothers who were included in a sample consecutively admitted to 44 treatment programs in 13 California counties during 2000–2002. Addiction Severity Index was administered at both intake and follow-up. Each...

  14. GLOBAL STRATEGY FOR THE DIAGNOSIS AND MANAGEMENT OF ASTHMA IN CHILDREN 5 YEARS AND YOUNGER

    OpenAIRE

    Pedersen, Soren; Hurd, Suzanne; Lemanske, Robert; Becker, Allan; Zar, Heather; Sly, Peter; Soto-Quiroz, Manuel; Wong, Gary; Bateman, Eric

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Asthma is the most common chronic disease of childhood and the leading cause of childhood morbidity from chronic disease as measured by school absences, emergency department visits, and hospitalizations1. Many scientific advances have improved our understanding of asthma and our ability to manage and control it effectively. However, in children 5 years and younger, the clinical symptoms of asthma are variable and non-specific. Furthermore, neither airflow limitation nor...

  15. Correlation between psychomotor profile and logical mathematical performance in children 4 to 8 year

    OpenAIRE

    Luz Mery Noguera Machacón; Yaneth Herazo Beltrán; José Armando Vidarte Claros

    2013-01-01

    Objective: to determine the correlation between the psychomotor profile and mathematicalperformance in children between 4 and 8 years. Materials and methods: Cross-sectional studyin 389 in male and female students of 8 public educational institutions of the Barranquilla cityand Puerto Colombia municipality. Psychomotor Profile was evaluated through Vítor Da Fonsecabattery and logical mathematical performance by grade point average during the period ofthe measurement. We calculated the arithme...

  16. Development of Speech Intelligibility Measurement Test for 3 to 5 Years Old Normal Children

    OpenAIRE

    Fatemeh Hoseyni; Zahra Agha Rasouli; Farhad Torabi Nezhad; Sara Heydari

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aim: Speech intelligibility is defined as a measure of effectiveness of understanding speech. It has many applications such as nomination of speech disorder intensity. Different methods and speech tasks have been designed for assessment of speech intelligibility amongst which word identification tasks have high validity. This study aimed to provide a test to measure speech intelligibility among children aged 3 to 5 years old.Methods: Many words were collected and content validi...

  17. [Respiratory tract infections in children treated on an outpatient basis for a year].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karkowski, M K

    1993-09-01

    On the basis of doctor's work record an analysis was done of respiratory tract diseases in children treated in the Paediatric Division of the Regional outpatient Clinic of the Railway Health Service in Elblag in 1991. Respiratory tract infections accounted for 24.17% attendance (255.42% in July and 53.62% in March). Despite periodicity, high morbidity persisted over the whole year. PMID:7975596

  18. Interdental Spacing and Dental Caries in the Primary Dentition of 4-6 Year Old Children

    OpenAIRE

    G. Babu Kl; Nagarathna, J; Subramaniam, P.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: There are various risk factors which play an essential role in the multifactorial disease “dental caries.” Although absence of interdental spaces in the primary dentition may increase the risk of dental caries, not many studies have been carried out to assess this correlation. This study was performed to assess the relationship between interdental spacing and dental caries in primary dentition.Materials and Methods: Five hundred 4-6 year-old children were enrolled into this study. ...

  19. Predicting Caregiver-Reported Behavior Problems in Cocaine-Exposed Children at 3 Years

    OpenAIRE

    Warner, Tamara Duckworth; BEHNKE, MARYLOU; Hou, Wei; Garvan, Cynthia Wilson; WOBIE, KATHLEEN; Eyler, Fonda Davis

    2006-01-01

    Predictors of caregiver-reported behavior problems for 3-year-olds with prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE) and matched controls were examined using structural equation modeling. We tested whether PCE had a direct effect on child behavior problems in a model that included other prenatal drug exposure, child sex, caregiver depression, and the quality of the child’s home environment. The sample (N = 256) was drawn from a longitudinal, prospective study of children of (predominantly crack) cocaine-u...

  20. Overweight: atherogenesis risk marker in children between 8 and 9 years

    OpenAIRE

    Beatriz Sabina Roméu; Margarita Rosa Romeu Escobar; Juan José Apolinaire Pennini

    2008-01-01

    Background: Many significant health problems hold the attention of pediatricians, and even when there is an increased interest on premature atherosclerosis risk factors, it is still a field to be studied. Objectives: To determine differences in the emergence of atherogenesis risk factors in children between 8 and 9 years with normal weight and overweight. Methods: Analytic research, with case control design, developed in three primary schools belonging to the Clinic “Dr. Cecilio Ruiz de Zarat...

  1. Auditory Temporal Structure Processing in Dyslexia: Processing of Prosodic Phrase Boundaries Is Not Impaired in Children with Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiser, Eveline; Kjelgaard, Margaret; Christodoulou, Joanna A.; Cyr, Abigail; Gabrieli, John D. E.

    2014-01-01

    Reading disability in children with dyslexia has been proposed to reflect impairment in auditory timing perception. We investigated one aspect of timing perception--"temporal grouping"--as present in prosodic phrase boundaries of natural speech, in age-matched groups of children, ages 6-8 years, with and without dyslexia. Prosodic phrase…

  2. The Compatibility of Developed Mathematics Textbooks' Content in Saudi Arabia (Grades 6-8) with NCTM Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshehri, Mohammed Ali; Ali, Hassan Shawki

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the compatibility of developed mathematics textbooks' content (grades 6-8) in Saudi Arabia with NCTM standards in the areas of: number and operations, algebra, geometry, measurement, data analysis and probability. To achieve that goal, a list of (NCTM) standards for grades (6-8) were translated to Arabic language,…

  3. Influence of training mini-basketball in the first year of training at the level of the physical health of children 6–7 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena Mitova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to analyze the contemporary state of early specialization in sport, to find out its positive and negative influence on children`s organism on the basis of scientific and methodological literature, and also to carry out the control of the level of the health of the children aged 6–7 years old before training and after the first year of playing mini-basketball. Material and Methods: the study involved 60 children aged 6–7 years old, 22 – girls and 38 – boys, who were engaged in a section of mini-basketball in Sports Children and Youth Olympic school №5 in Dnipropetrovsk during 2013/2014 used the following research methods: theoretical analysis and compilation of scientific and methodical literature and the Internet, the method of analysis of documentary materials, pedagogical supervision, monitoring physical health of rapid assessment Apanasenko (1992, the method of mathematical statistics. Results: there was defined the level of physical health (according to rapid assessment by Apanasenko (1992 of the children aged 6–7 years old before and after the first year of mini-basketball training. Conclusion: the results of our study confirm the experts opinion that nonsufficient level of the physical health of children aged 6–7 years old before going in for sport and insignificant increase in performance after the first year of playing mini-basketball is related not only to the deterioration of environmental and socio-economic conditions of modern society but also to significant deficiencies in the sports training of children of different ages, which no longer meets the requirements of the present time and needs to be improved

  4. An Analysis of the Effects of Communication Skills Training Provided to the Mothers of Six-Year-Old Children on the Social Skills of Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erbay, Filiz; Arslan, Emel; Cagdas, Aysel

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to analyze the effects of communication skills training program provided to the mothers on the social skills of their children. The study uses pre- and post- tests control group design. Experiment and control groups consisted of a total of 30 six-year-old children who were enrolled in nursery school. Experiment group consisted of…

  5. Incidence of thyroid cancer among children of the Ukraine in 1996 as compared to previous post-Chernobyl years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1996 a high incidence rate of thyroid cancer has persisted in Ukraine among children aged under 15 years, which averaged, according to preliminary data, 0.44 case per 100 thousand children's population. The geographical distribution of thyroid cancer cases in children of Ukraine is mainly related, as in previous years, with the most affected regions following the Chernobyl accident. The highest incidence of thyroid cancer (over 80%) was observed in those patients who were aged under 5 years at the moment of the accident, being the most radiosensitive age group. Among thyroid tumors removed in 1996, as in previous years, papillary carcinomas prevail, which are characterized by marked invasive properties. (author)

  6. Geometrical structures and probable dissociation channels of CrPm+ (m=2, 4, 6, 8) clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A density functional theory study on the geometrical structures and probable dissociation channels of CrPm+ (m=2, 4, 6, 8) clusters has been performed. Our results reveal that the tetrahedral P4 structure and linear P2 structure are two stable units in CrPm+ clusters relatively. The lowest energy structures of CrPm+ clusters are constructed by bonding Cr with P4 unit or P2 unit. The bond between Cr and P4 unit or P2 unit is much weaker than the bond between P atoms in P4 or P2 unit. The most probable dissociation channel for CrP8+ cluster is the detachment of P4 unit or P2 unit. Our conclusions are consistent with the previous laser photodissociation experiments.

  7. MAXILLARY GROWTH PATTERNS IN ROMANIAN CHILDREN WITH CLEFT PALATE DURING THE FIRST 6 YEARS OF LIFE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana-Gabriela Halitchi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to visualize, evaluate and measure the maxillary growth in patients with cleft palate and to identify the reactive morphological pattern that could be identified from the dimensional changes produced along the first six years of life, maxillary impressions were made in two groups of study, by means of standard trays and silicone impression materials. The maxillary casts resulted had been 3D scanned at Multinr, in Sf. Gheorghe. The study was carried on a number of 34 patients with cleft palate, 16 boys and 18 girls, with ages between 2 months and 6 years, operated by the same surgical team in “St. Mary” University Children Hospital of Iaşi, as well as on 60 normal children. Bivariate Student’s t test established statistically significant negative differences between the mean values of the anterior and posterior width of the maxillary alveolar arch, positive non significant differences for the length and positive differences for the depth of the dehiscent palate in the experimental group, comparatively with normal children. Cleft palate patients have narrowed and shorter maxillary alveolar arch and flattened palate. At least therapeutically, the cleft palate group, operated at different ages, from 2 to 4 years, could not react like other groups of study from important European Cleft Centers and benefit from a good residual growth.

  8. Guaifenesin Pharmacokinetics Following Single-Dose Oral Administration in Children Aged 2 to 17 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Gary A; Solomon, Gail; Albrecht, Helmut H; Reitberg, Donald P; Guenin, Eric

    2016-07-01

    This study characterized guaifenesin pharmacokinetics in children aged 2 to 17 years (n = 40) who received a single oral dose of guaifenesin (age-based doses of 100-400 mg) 2 hours after breakfast. Plasma samples were obtained before and for 8 hours after dosing and analyzed for guaifenesin using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated using noncompartmental methods, relationships with age were assessed using linear regression, and dose proportionality was assessed on 95% confidence intervals. Based on the upper dose recommended in the monograph (for both children and adolescents), area under the curve from time zero to infinity and maximum plasma concentration both increased with age. However, when comparing the upper dose for children aged 2 to 11 years with the lower dose for adolescents aged 12 to 17 years, similar systemic exposure was observed. As expected due to increasing body size, oral clearance (CLo ) and terminal volume of distribution (Vz /F) increased with age. Due to a larger increase in Vz /F than CLo , an increase in terminal exponential half-life was also observed. Allometric scaling indicated no maturation-related changes in CLo and Vz /F. PMID:26632082

  9. Effects of continuous and intermittent exercise on executive function in children aged 8-10 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambrick, Danielle; Stoner, Lee; Grigg, Rebecca; Faulkner, James

    2016-09-01

    Understanding the effects of acute exercise on executive function in prepubescent children may be important for the enhancement of school performance. This study assessed the effect of an acute bout of continuous (CONT) or intermittent (INT), moderate-intensity treadmill exercise on executive function in young children. Twenty healthy children, mean (SD); age: 8.8 (0.8) years; height: 140 (9) cm; weight: 36 (11) kg; boys: n = 9, performed a graded-exercise test to determine maximal oxygen uptake, and two 15-min submaximal bouts of treadmill exercise; protocols were either CONT or INT. During CONT, participants ran at 90% of gas exchange threshold. During INT, participants performed six consecutive 2.5 min blocks of exercise, which were designed to reflect children's typical activity patterns, comprising 45 s at a heavy intensity, 33 s at a moderate intensity, 10 s at a severe intensity, and 62 s at a low intensity. Participants performed the Stroop task before the submaximal exercise bouts and after, at 1-, 15-, and 30-min intervals. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) measured cerebral perfusion and oxygenation. Regardless of condition, Stroop performance was improved at 1 min after compared to before, 54.9 (9.8) s versus 57.9 (11) s, respectively, p Stroop performance for INT only (49%, p exercise, of either an intermittent or continuous nature, improves executive function in children, and effects are maintained for ≤ 30 min following exercise cessation. Accordingly, it is recommended that children should engage in physical activity during periods of school recess. PMID:27314635

  10. Breastfeeding and dietary variety among preterm children aged 1-3 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husk, Jesse S; Keim, Sarah A

    2016-04-01

    Among infants born at term, breastfeeding is associated with increased dietary variety in childhood. Preterm birth can limit early feeding options while simultaneously increasing risk for negative health outcomes that could benefit from dietary-based preventative measures. We assessed whether breastfeeding is associated with increased dietary variety at 1-3 years amongst children born preterm. We analyzed baseline data from two clinical trials investigating cognitive development after fatty-acid supplementation for 10-39 month-old children born before 35 weeks gestation (n = 189). At baseline, mothers reported breastfeeding history and completed a 161-item food-frequency questionnaire for their child. Dietary variety was assessed via 3 measures: (1) proportion items consumed at least once per month, (2) servings of a given item consumed relative to total monthly food servings, (3) daily probability of consuming a given item. Overall, 88% of children were ever breastfed (median duration = 89 days, range = 0-539), and 48% of children were ever exclusively breastfed (median duration = 59 days, range = 3-240). Exclusive breastfeeding duration was associated with dietary variety increases of 0.9% (95% CI = 0.1-1.7) for vegetables, 1.6% (95% CI = 0.2-3.0) for meat/fish, and 1.3% (95% CI = 0.2-2.4) for grain/starch, for each additional month of exclusive breastfeeding after adjustment for key confounders. Correspondingly, the variety of sweets consumed decreased by 1.2% (CI: -2.1, -0.3) per month of any breastfeeding after adjustment. These results are consistent with those in children born at term, and if causal, could provide additional support for exclusive breastfeeding to improve diet and health in children born preterm. PMID:26792771

  11. POLYGON - A NEW FUNDAMENTAL MOVEMENT SKILLS TEST FOR 8 YEAR OLD CHILDREN: CONSTRUCTION AND VALIDATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frane Zuvela

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Inadequately adopted fundamental movement skills (FMS in early childhood may have a negative impact on the motor performance in later life (Gallahue and Ozmun, 2005. The need for an efficient FMS testing in Physical Education was recognized. The aim of this paper was to construct and validate a new FMS test for 8 year old children. Ninety-five 8 year old children were used for the testing. A total of 24 new FMS tasks were constructed and only the best representatives of movement areas entered into the final test product - FMS-POLYGON. The ICC showed high values for all 24 tasks (0.83-0.97 and the factorial analysis revealed the best representatives of each movement area that entered the FMS-POLYGON: tossing and catching the volleyball against a wall, running across obstacles, carrying the medicine balls, and straight running. The ICC for the FMS-POLYGON showed a very high result (0.98 and, therefore, confirmed the test's intra-rater reliability. Concurrent validity was tested with the use of the "Test of Gross Motor Development" (TGMD-2. Correlation analysis between the newly constructed FMS-POLYGON and the TGMD-2 revealed the coefficient of -0.82 which indicates a high correlation. In conclusion, the new test for FMS assessment proved to be a reliable and valid instrument for 8 year old children. Application of this test in schools is justified and could play an important factor in physical education and sport practice.

  12. CLASH: A census of magnified star-forming galaxies at z ∼ 6-8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, L. D.; Coe, D.; Postman, M.; Koekemoer, A. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Zitrin, A.; Carrasco, M. [Institut für Theoretische Astrophysik, Zentrum für Astronomie, Institut für Theoretische Astrophysik, Albert-Ueberle-Str. 2, D-29120 Heidelberg (Germany); Bouwens, R. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, Leiden (Netherlands); Balestra, I. [INAF/Osservatorio Astronomico di Trieste, via G.B. Tiepolo 11, I-34143 Trieste (Italy); Grillo, C.; Host, O. [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Mariesvej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Monna, A.; Seitz, S. [University Observatory Munich, Scheinerstrasse 1, D-81679 Munich (Germany); Rosati, P. [ESO-European Southern Observatory, D-85748 Garching bei München (Germany); Lemze, D.; Zheng, W. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Moustakas, J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Siena College, 515 Loudon Road, Loudonville, NY 12211 (United States); Moustakas, L. A. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Shu, X. [Department of Astronomy, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Broadhurst, T. [Department of Theoretical Physics and History of Science, University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU, PO Box 644, E-48080 Bilbao (Spain); Jouvel, S. [Institut de Ciéncies de l' Espai (IEEC-CSIC), E-08193 Bellaterra (Barcelona) (Spain); and others

    2014-09-01

    We utilize 16 band Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations of 18 lensing clusters obtained as part of the Cluster Lensing And Supernova survey with Hubble (CLASH) Multi-Cycle Treasury program to search for z ∼ 6-8 galaxies. We report the discovery of 204, 45, and 13 Lyman-break galaxy candidates at z ∼ 6, z ∼ 7, and z ∼ 8, respectively, identified from purely photometric redshift selections. This large sample, representing nearly an order of magnitude increase in the number of magnified star-forming galaxies at z ∼ 6-8 presented to date, is unique in that we have observations in four WFC3/UVIS UV, seven ACS/WFC optical, and all five WFC3/IR broadband filters, which enable very accurate photometric redshift selections. We construct detailed lensing models for 17 of the 18 clusters to estimate object magnifications and to identify two new multiply lensed z ≳ 6 candidates. The median magnifications over the 17 clusters are 4, 4, and 5 for the z ∼ 6, z ∼ 7, and z ∼ 8 samples, respectively, over an average area of 4.5 arcmin{sup 2} per cluster. We compare our observed number counts with expectations based on convolving 'blank' field UV luminosity functions through our cluster lens models and find rough agreement down to ∼27 mag, where we begin to suffer significant incompleteness. In all three redshift bins, we find a higher number density at brighter observed magnitudes than the field predictions, empirically demonstrating for the first time the enhanced efficiency of lensing clusters over field surveys. Our number counts also are in general agreement with the lensed expectations from the cluster models, especially at z ∼ 6, where we have the best statistics.

  13. An 11-year retrospective review of venlafaxine ingestion in children from the California Poison Control System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doroudgar, S; Perry, P J; Lackey, G D; Veselova, N G; Chuang, H M; Albertson, T E

    2016-07-01

    Venlafaxine is commonly used in the United States for approved and non-Food and Drug Administration-approved indications in adults. It is used off-label to treat children for psychiatric diagnoses. The aim of the study was to describe venlafaxine toxicities in children and to identify the venlafaxine dose per weight that correlates with toxicities. An 11-year retrospective study of venlafaxine ingestion in children was performed using the California Poison Control System (CPCS) database. Data was extracted from phone calls received by CPCS clinicians and follow-up phone calls made to assess the patient's progress in a health-care setting. Inclusion criteria were venlafaxine ingestion cases reported to CPCS between January 2001 and December 2011, children aged 20 years and under, venlafaxine as the only ingested substance, managed in a health-care facility, and followed to a known outcome. Two hundred sixty-two cases met the study criteria. Common presentations included gastrointestinal (14.9%), altered mental status (13.7%), and tachycardia (13.4%). The majority of the cases resulted in no effect (51.5%) or minor effect (19.9%). The average estimated dose per weight was 18.3 mg/kg in all patients and 64.5 mg/kg in those experiencing moderate-to-severe adverse effects. Seizures occurred in only 4 of the 262 cases at doses ranging from 1500 to 7500 mg. Although the estimated dose per weight exceeded 10 mg/kg for the majority of the cases, only 12 cases resulted in moderate or severe outcomes. The majority of venlafaxine ingestion cases in children resulted in either no clinical effects or minor clinical effects. PMID:26351291

  14. False belief understanding and "cool" inhibitory control in 3-and 4-years-old Italian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellagamba, Francesca; Addessi, Elsa; Focaroli, Valentina; Pecora, Giulia; Maggiorelli, Valentina; Pace, Beatrice; Paglieri, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    During preschool years, major developments occur in both executive function and theory of mind (ToM), and several studies have demonstrated a correlation between these processes. Research on the development of inhibitory control (IC) has distinguished between more cognitive, "cool" aspects of self-control, measured by conflict tasks, that require inhibiting an habitual response to generate an arbitrary one, and "hot," affective aspects, such as affective decision making, measured by delay tasks, that require inhibition of a prepotent response. The aim of this study was to investigate the relations between 3- and 4-year-olds' performance on a task measuring false belief understanding, the most widely used index of ToM in preschoolers, and three tasks measuring cognitive versus affective aspects of IC. To this end, we tested 101 Italian preschool children in four tasks: (a) the Unexpected Content False Belief task, (b) the Conflict task (a simplified version of the Day-Night Stroop task), (c) the Delay task, and (d) the Delay Choice task. Children's receptive vocabulary was assessed by the Peabody Picture Vocabulary test. Children's performance in the False Belief task was significantly related only to performance in the Conflict task, controlling for vocabulary and age. Importantly, children's performance in the Conflict task did not significantly correlate with their performance in the Delay task or in the Delay Choice task, suggesting that these tasks measure different components of IC. The dissociation between the Conflict and the Delay tasks may indicate that monitoring and regulating a cool process (as flexible categorization) may involve different abilities than monitoring and regulating a hot process (not touching an available and highly attractive stimulus or choosing between a smaller immediate option and a larger delayed one). Moreover, our findings support the view that "cool" aspects of IC and ToM are interrelated, extending to an Italian sample of

  15. Vaccination Coverage Among Children in Kindergarten - United States, 2014-15 School Year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seither, Ranee; Calhoun, Kayla; Knighton, Cynthia L; Mellerson, Jenelle; Meador, Seth; Tippins, Ashley; Greby, Stacie M; Dietz, Vance

    2015-08-28

    State and local jurisdictions require children to be vaccinated before starting school to maintain high vaccination coverage and protect schoolchildren from vaccine-preventable diseases. State vaccination requirements, which include school vaccination and exemption laws and health department regulations, permit medical exemptions for students with a medical contraindication to receiving a vaccine or vaccine component and may allow nonmedical exemptions for religious reasons or philosophic beliefs. To monitor state and national vaccination coverage and exemption levels among children attending kindergarten, CDC analyzes school vaccination data collected by federally funded state, local, and territorial immunization programs. This report describes vaccination coverage estimates in 49 states and the District of Columbia (DC) and vaccination exemption estimates in 46 states and DC that reported the number of children with at least one exemption among kindergartners during the 2014-15 school year. Median vaccination coverage* was 94.0% for 2 doses of measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine; 94.2% for the local requirements for diphtheria, tetanus, and acellular pertussis vaccine (DTaP); and 93.6% for 2 doses of varicella vaccine among the 39 states and DC with a 2-dose requirement. The median percentage of any exemptions† was 1.7%. Although statewide vaccination coverage among kindergartners was high during the 2014-15 school year, geographic pockets of low vaccination coverage and high exemption levels can place children at risk for vaccine-preventable diseases. Appropriate school vaccination coverage assessments can help immunization programs identify clusters of low coverage and develop partnerships with schools and communities to ensure that children are protected from vaccine-preventable diseases. PMID:26313471

  16. Clinical manifestations of atopy in children up to two years of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilić Nevenka

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Atopic diseases such as atopic dermatitis, allergic rhinitis and asthma have had increased prevalence during the past decade and nowadays occur in every third child in developed countries. The aim of the study was to determine frequency and type of atopic diseases at the age of two, as well as the importance the total IgE antibodies concentrations have in diagnosis and prognosis of the disease. Methods. The study involved 175 children up to two years of age. Allergy-like symptoms were found after surveying their parents and pediatric medical records. Using the fluorescence immunossay (FIA method, total IgE antibodies concentrations and specific IgE antibodies (Phadiatop infant were determined on an Immunocap 100 Dyagnostic System. Results. One or more allergy-like symptoms accounted for 57.7% of findings in children under the age of two, whilst in 19.4% the existence of IgE-related allergic diseases was found. Atopic diseases usually have clinical manifestations of atopic dermatitis (11.4%, IgE-bound wheezing/asthma (10.8% and food allergies (7.4%, and to much lesser extent those of allergic rhinitis (3.4% and urticaria (1.7%. The significantly higher total IgE antibodies concentrations were found in children with allergy-like symptoms (p < 0.0005 (cut-off 15.15 kU/L, sensitivity 76.5% specificity 71.6%. Conclusion. Almost 20% of two-year-old children have any of clinically manifested allergic diseases, with atopic dermatitis and IgE wheeze/asthma being predominant. The higher total IgE antibodies concentration is a good marker for sensitization in children with allergy-like symptoms.

  17. Behaviour at eight years in children with surgically corrected transposition: The Boston Circulatory Arrest Trial*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellinger, David C.; Newburger, Jane W.; Wypij, David; Kuban, Karl C. K.; duPlesssis, Adre J.; Rappaport, Leonard A.

    2016-01-01

    Uncertainty exists regarding the degree to which infants with congenitally malformed hearts are at risk of behavioural disorders in childhood. Data was collected as part of a randomized clinical trial involving 155 children with surgically corrected transposition (concordant atrioventricular and ventriculo-arterial connections or alignments). As infants, they underwent the arterial switch operation, involving deep hypothermia with predominantly total circulatory arrest or predominantly low-flow continuous cardiopulmonary bypass as the method of providing support to the vital organs. Parents completed the Child Behavior Checklist when the patients were aged 4 and 8 years, and the Connors’ Parent Rating Scale at the age of 8 years. When the children were aged 8, teachers completed the Teacher’s Report Form and the Connors’ Teacher Rating Scale. In the cohort as a whole, the frequencies of behavioural problems identified by both parents and teachers were elevated, particularly on the scales for competence of the Child Behavior Checklist, and the Adaptive scales of the Teacher’s Report Form. Approximately 1 in 5 patients had scores for Total Problem Behavior in the range of clinical concern on both the Child Behavior Checklist and the Teacher’s Report Form. Few differences were found, however, according to the method of operative treatment. Postoperative seizures were associated with social and attention problems. Children experiencing academic problems at the age of 8 showed a larger increase in behavioural problems between the ages of 4 and 8 than did children making adequate academic progress. Children with congenitally malformed hearts who underwent reparative surgery in infancy using a strategy of severe haemodilution and alpha stat are at increased risk of behavioural problems in middle childhood. PMID:19079812

  18. Assessment of Iron Overload in Homozygous and Heterozygous Beta Thalassemic Children below 5 Years of Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhiraj J. Trivedi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Thalassemia is a genetic disease having 3-7% carrier rate in Indians. It is transfusion dependent anemia having high risk of iron overloading. A clinical symptom of iron overload becomes detectable in second decade causing progressive liver, heart and endocrine glands damage. There is a need to assess iron overload in thalassemics below 5 years of age to protect them from complications at later age of life. Aims and objectives: Present study was undertaken to estimate serum iron status and evaluate serum transferrin saturation in both homozygous & heterozygous form of thalassemia as an index of iron overload among children of one to five years of age. Materials and Methods: Clinically diagnosed thirty cases of β thalassemia major & thirty cases of β thalassemia minor having severe anemia, hepatospleenomegaly and between 1 year to 5 years of age were included in study group and same age matched healthy controls were included in the study. RBC indices and HbA, HbA2 and HbF were estimated along with serum iron & serum Total Iron Binding Capacity (TIBC and serum transferrin levels. Results: Significant difference was observed in hemoglobin levels between control and both beta thalassemia groups. Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV and Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin (MCH values were reduced. Hemoglobin electrophoresis showed the elevated levels of HbF and HbA2 in both beta thalassemia groups. Among serum iron parameters, serum iron, TIBC and transferrin saturation were elevated whereas serum transferrin levels were low in thalassemia major in children below 5 years of age. Conclusion: Although clinical symptoms of iron overload have been absent in thalassemic children below five years of age, biochemical iron overloading has started at much lower age which is of great concern.

  19. Prevalence of anemia in children 1 to 12 years of age: results from a nationwide probabilistic survey in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Villalpando Salvador

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the epidemiology and analyze factors associated with iron deficiency anemia in a probabilistic sample of the Encuesta Nacional de Nutrición 1999 (ENN-99 [National Nutritional Survey 1999 (NNS-99]. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The sample included 8 111 children aged 1 to 12 years, and was nationaly representative by rural and urban strata and by four geographical regions. Capillary hemoglobin was measured using a portable photometer (HemoCue. The analysis of the determining factors of anemia was performed by odds ratios derived from a logistic regression model and multiple regression models. RESULTS: The prevalence of anemia was 50% in infants <2 years of age, with no significant differences between urban and rural strata or among regions. It varied between 14 and 22% in 6-11 year-old children and was higher in the South region and among the indigenous children. Dietary intake of iron was 50% of the recommended daily allowance in children <2 years of age, but not in older children. Phytate (»500-800 mg/d and tannin (»19 mg/d intakes were very high in children over 7 years of age. Hemoglobin was positively associated with nutritional status of children (p=0.01, socioeconomic status (p range 0.05-0.001, duration of lactation in children under 2 years of age (p=0.1, and iron and calcium intake (p=0.02, but not with folic acid or vitamin B12 intake. Hemoglobin was negatively associated with maternal education (p=0.01 in older children, but not in those under 2 years of age. CONCLUSIONS: We present evidence of an alarming national epidemic of anemia, particularly marked in children 12 to 24 months of age. The control of anemia should be considered as an urgent national concern given its grave consequences on the physical and mental development of these children and on their long-term health.

  20. Ten years of democracy: attitudes and identity among some South African school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlyn Dyers

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Ten years into South Africa’s democracy, how do school children feel about themselves as part of specific groups, and what is the role of language in their socio-cultural identities? This paper looks at the ways in which two groups of fourteen-year-old Xhosa-speaking and mixed-race ‘Coloured’ South African secondary school learners in a new housing area near Cape Town negotiate their identities through language in a context of rapid social change. It analyses their beliefs and attitudes about the languages and speech communities to which they are exposed.

  1. Age and gender dependent development of Theory of Mind in 6- to 8-years old children

    OpenAIRE

    Cecilia Ines Calero; Mariano Sigman

    2013-01-01

    The ability to attribute different mental states to distinct individuals, or Theory of Mind (ToM), is widely believed to be developed mostly during preschool years. How different factors such as gender, number of siblings, or coarse personality traits affect this development is not entirely agreed upon. Here, we introduce a computerized version of the scaled ToM suite of tasks introduced by Wellman and Liu (2004), which allows us to meaningfully test ToM development on children 6 to 8-years o...

  2. Deletion and Mutation of WWOX Exons 6-8 in Human Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    To examine the deletion and point mutation of WWOX (WW domain containing oxidoreductase) exons 6-8 in human non-small cell lung cancer and their possible relationship with pathological stages, tumor tissues and the corresponding normal tissues were obtained from 44 Chinese patients who had undergone surgery for non-small cell lung cancer. RNA was extracted from each sample and deletion and mutation of WWOX exons 6-8 were analyzed by RT-PCR and DNA sequencing. Our results showed that 28 of 44 (63.6 %) lung cancer samples showed loss of WWOX exons 6-8 transcript and the deletion was detected in only 3 of 44 (6.8 %) corresponding adjacent normal tissues (P<0.05). The transcript sequencing analyses of the 16 lung cancer samples without transcript loss of WWOX exons 6-8 revealed no difference from the sequence of GenBank. Moreover, the deletion of WWOX exons 6-8 was significantly higher in the smokers when compared with the non-smokers. It is also higher in the men and squamous carcinomas than in women and adenocarcinomas (P<0.05). The deletion, however, was not found to be associated with pathological stages of the tumors. Our study documented a high incidence of deletion of WWOX exons 6-8 in non-small cell lung cancer in Chinese patients and suggested that the frequent loss of WWOX exons 6-8 might play an important role in the tumorigenesis of non-small cell lung cancer in Chinese. WWOX exons 6-8 may serves as a candidate molecular target of smoking carcinogenesis, and point mutation is not a predominant way of alteration of WWOX exons 6-8.

  3. Maternal child-feeding practices and dietary inadequacy of 4-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durão, Catarina; Andreozzi, Valeska; Oliveira, Andreia; Moreira, Pedro; Guerra, António; Barros, Henrique; Lopes, Carla

    2015-09-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the association between maternal perceived responsibility and child-feeding practices and dietary inadequacy of 4-year-old children. We studied 4122 mothers and children enrolled in the population-based birth cohort - Generation XXI (Porto, Portugal). Mothers self-completed the Child Feeding Questionnaire and a scale on covert and overt control, and answered to a food frequency questionnaire in face-to-face interviews. Using dietary guidelines for preschool children, adequacy intervals were defined: fruit and vegetables (F&V) 4-7 times/day; dairy 3-5 times/day; meat and eggs 5-10 times/week; fish 2-4 times/week. Inadequacy was considered as below or above these cut-points. For energy-dense micronutrient-poor foods and beverages (EDF), a tolerable limit was defined (<6 times/week). Associations between maternal perceived responsibility and child-feeding practices (restriction, monitoring, pressure to eat, overt and covert control) and children's diet were examined by logistic regression models. After adjustment for maternal BMI, education, and diet, and children's characteristics (sex, BMI z-scores), restriction, monitoring, overt and covert control were associated with 11-18% lower odds of F&V consumption below the interval defined as adequate. Overt control was also associated with 24% higher odds of their consumption above it. Higher perceived responsibility was associated with higher odds of children consuming F&V and dairy above recommendations. Pressure to eat was positively associated with consumption of dairy above the adequate interval. Except for pressure to eat, maternal practices were associated with 14-27% lower odds of inadequate consumption of EDF. In conclusion, children whose mothers had higher levels of covert control, monitoring, and restriction were less likely to consume F&V below recommendations and EDF above tolerable limits. Higher overt control and pressure to eat were associated, respectively, with higher

  4. Diarrhea Prevalence, Care, and Risk Factors Among Poor Children Under 5 Years of Age in Mesoamerica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombara, Danny V; Hernández, Bernardo; McNellan, Claire R; Desai, Sima S; Gagnier, Marielle C; Haakenstad, Annie; Johanns, Casey; Palmisano, Erin B; Ríos-Zertuche, Diego; Schaefer, Alexandra; Zúñiga-Brenes, Paola; Zyznieuski, Nicholas; Iriarte, Emma; Mokdad, Ali H

    2016-03-01

    Care practices and risk factors for diarrhea among impoverished communities across Mesoamerica are unknown. Using Salud Mesoamérica Initiative baseline data, collected 2011-2013, we assessed the prevalence of diarrhea, adherence to evidence-based treatment guidelines, and potential diarrhea correlates in poor and indigenous communities across Mesoamerica. This study surveyed 14,500 children under 5 years of age in poor areas of El Salvador, Guatemala, Mexico (Chiapas State), Nicaragua, and Panama. We compared diarrhea prevalence and treatment modalities using χ(2) tests and used multivariable Poisson regression models to calculate adjusted risk ratios (aRRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for potential correlates of diarrhea. The 2-week point prevalence of diarrhea was 13% overall, with significant differences between countries (P < 0.05). Approximately one-third of diarrheal children were given oral rehydration solution and less than 3% were given zinc. Approximately 18% were given much less to drink than usual or nothing to drink at all. Antimotility medication was given to 17% of diarrheal children, while antibiotics were inappropriately given to 36%. In a multivariable regression model, compared with children 0-5 months, those 6-23 months had a 49% increased risk for diarrhea (aRR = 1.49, 95% CI = 1.15, 1.95). Our results call for programs to examine and remedy low adherence to evidence-based treatment guidelines. PMID:26787152

  5. Teething and nutritional condition in children between 5 and 13 years.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clotilde de la Caridad Mora Pérez

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: During last decades it has become increasingly evident the importance of nutritional factors in the development and renovation of buccal tissues, particularly of teeth. Objective: To characterize permanent teething and its relation with nutritional factors in children between 5 and 13 years. Methods: Cross-sectional descriptive, observational study developed in a universe formed by 1003 children of Health Area II in Cienfuegos, out of which a sample of 330 children was selected. Data was collected from schools, regarding the teething age and nutritional status. Ponder and measurements were carried out. Results: The average teething age was lower for girls in both maxillary bones; teething sequence was 6,1,2,4,5,3,7 for the maxilla and 6,1,2,3,4,5,7 for the inferior maxillary bone. There was a prevalence of normal weight among girls, followed by thin and undernourished values. Among boy, there was a prevalence of obesity, overweight and normal weight in that order. Nutritional statuses of thin and undernourished were related with a delayed teething, mainly in the inferior maxillary bone. Permanent teething was delayed with regard to the national media. Conclusion: A clear relation was established between teething age and nutrition, mainly among thin and undernourished children.

  6. Epidemiology of invasive pneumococcal disease in Saudi Arabian children younger than 5years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almazrou, Yagob; Shibl, Atef M; Alkhlaif, Riyadh; Pirçon, Jean-Yves; Anis, Sameh; Kandeil, Walid; Hausdorff, William P

    2016-06-01

    This study evaluated the incidence, serotype distribution, and antimicrobial susceptibility of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in Saudi Arabian children. This multicenter, prospective, clinical surveillance study included children under 5years of age, residents of one of the seven study health areas, who were brought to a study hospital with suspicion of IPD. Bacterial isolates from sterile site samples, collected less than 24h after hospital visit/admission, were identified, serotyped, and tested for antibiotic susceptibility. Between June 2007 and January 2009, 631 episodes of suspected IPD were recorded, and 623 were included in the analysis. One child (0.2%) had previously received one dose of a pneumococcal vaccine. Forty-seven episodes were positive for Streptococcus pneumoniae and three for Haemophilus influenzae. The incidence of confirmed IPD cases was estimated to be 2.5-21.6 per 100,000 children (Vaccination of Saudi Arabian children with expanded-coverage conjugate pneumococcal vaccines containing serotypes 1 and 5 could have a substantial impact to prevent IPD in this population. PMID:26368823

  7. Improving executive function in childhood: evaluation of a training intervention for 5-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traverso, Laura; Viterbori, Paola; Usai, Maria Carmen

    2015-01-01

    Executive function (EF) refers to a set of higher order cognitive processes that control and modulate cognition under continuously changing and multiple task demands. EF plays a central role in early childhood, is associated and predictive of important cognitive achievements and has been recognized as a significant aspect of school readiness. This study examines the efficacy of a group based intervention for 5-year-old children that focuses on basic components of EF (working memory, inhibitory control, cognitive flexibility). The intervention included 12 sessions, lasted 1 month and used low-cost materials. Seventy-five children took part in the study. The results indicate that the children who attended the intervention outperformed controls in simple and more complex EF tasks. Specifically, these children exhibited increased abilities to delay gratification, to control on-going responses, to process and update information, and to manage high cognitive conflict. These results suggest the possibility that this intervention, which may be easily implemented in educational services, can promote EF during preschool period before the entrance in primary school. PMID:25983706

  8. Improving Executive Function in childhood: Evaluation of a training intervention for 5- year-old children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura eTraverso

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Executive function (EF refers to a set of higher order cognitive processes that control and modulate cognition under continuously changing and multiple task demands. EF plays a central role in early childhood, is associated and predictive of important cognitive achievements and has been recognized as a significant aspect of school readiness. This study examines the efficacy of a group based intervention for five-year-old children that focuses on basic components of EF (working memory, inhibitory control, cognitive flexibility. The intervention included 12 sessions, lasted one month and used low-cost materials. Seventy-five children took part in the study. The results indicate that the children who attended the intervention outperformed controls in simple and more complex EF tasks. Specifically, these children exhibited increased abilities to delay gratification, to control on-going responses, to process and update information and to manage high cognitive conflict. These results suggest the possibility that this intervention, which may be easily implemented in educational services, can promote EF during preschool period before the entrance in primary school.

  9. The Age Peculiarities of 10 to 12 Year-Old School-children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. B. Badmayeva

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the problem of children’s development transformation from the standpoints of different authors. The changes in the age borders and childhood structure along with their causes are demonstrated. The childhood crisis is described, its place in the child’s development process identified. The author emphasizes the visible discord between the worlds of adults and children: being less involved in upbringing process nowadays, adults appear to be less exact in their attitude to children; their demands lack clearness and specificity. Both teachers and adults demonstrate helplessness and aloofness, which reflects in children’s consciousness and their attitude to adults, and results in the lost sense of responsibility, infantilism, egoism and moral emptiness of growing generation. The author carried out the comparative analysis of age peculiarities of middle class schoolchildren from comprehensive school. Three development stages were singled out for 10 to 12 year-olds: local caprices, rights understanding, and affirmative functional stage. The personality formation trends concerning the modern day school children are outlined, the external and internal factors determining this formation enumerated. The following influencing phenomena are mentioned, in particular: the essential socio-economic changes, fast spreading of mass-media and computer technologies, low level of parental motivation, replacement of the value-normative system (social anomie etc. The necessity of creating socio-pedagogic conditions relating to the age peculiarities of modern school children is substantiated. 

  10. The Age Peculiarities of 10 to 12 Year-Old School-children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. B. Badmayeva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the problem of children’s development transformation from the standpoints of different authors. The changes in the age borders and childhood structure along with their causes are demonstrated. The childhood crisis is described, its place in the child’s development process identified. The author emphasizes the visible discord between the worlds of adults and children: being less involved in upbringing process nowadays, adults appear to be less exact in their attitude to children; their demands lack clearness and specificity. Both teachers and adults demonstrate helplessness and aloofness, which reflects in children’s consciousness and their attitude to adults, and results in the lost sense of responsibility, infantilism, egoism and moral emptiness of growing generation. The author carried out the comparative analysis of age peculiarities of middle class schoolchildren from comprehensive school. Three development stages were singled out for 10 to 12 year-olds: local caprices, rights understanding, and affirmative functional stage. The personality formation trends concerning the modern day school children are outlined, the external and internal factors determining this formation enumerated. The following influencing phenomena are mentioned, in particular: the essential socio-economic changes, fast spreading of mass-media and computer technologies, low level of parental motivation, replacement of the value-normative system (social anomie etc. The necessity of creating socio-pedagogic conditions relating to the age peculiarities of modern school children is substantiated. 

  11. Sugar consumption pattern of 13-year-old school children in Belgaum city, Karnataka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hegde P

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine the sugar consumption pattern of the school children in Belgaum city and to organize for a diet-counseling program. Easy availability of sugar containing food and high consumption of these sweets if continued unabated, the dental caries among children would become a major public health problem. In this instance, Dietary counseling can be just appropriate to inhibit the carious process. 342 school children aged 13 years, from four schools in Belgaum city participated in the study. The pattern of sugar consumption was assessed using a 4-day diet diary. Analysis was done according to the method described by Nizel and Papas (Nutrition in clinical dentistry, 1989, 277 and the variables were: the sweet score, At meal sugar exposure (AMSE, Between meal sugar exposure (BMSE and Total sugar exposure (TSE. The mean, standard deviation and/or frequency were calculated for all variables. Student′s t-test was used to statistically analyze the gender difference. The mean + SD of the recorded variables were: sweet score 31 + 12.78/day, AMSE 0.88 + 0.33/day, BMSE 3.95 + 0.87/day, and TSE 4.83 + 0.96/day. No statistical significant gender difference with respect to the variables was observed. ′Tell Show And Do′ Diet counseling session will perhaps have a greater impact as compared to the most common strategy of simply exhorting the children to eat less sugar.

  12. Ten years of work in Cuban Program to children from areas affected of Chernobyl accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In April of 2000 the Cuban program for specialised medical attention to children from areas affected by the radioactive contamination from the Chernobyl accident completed 10 years of work. In the program had been assisted more than 18 000 children and adults, among them 50 Brazilians related with the Goiania accident. A group of medical procedures and dosimetric, biomedical and psychological investigations have been carried out in the program. The main significant medical attention activities are the treatment of haematological disorders, among them, 120 leukaemia, the realisation of bone marrow transplants and the treatment of endocrinological and neoplasic illnesses. The dosimetric studies has allowed to create a database that accumulates information about internal contamination for 137Cs, internal, external, and total doses, of 7000 children. The analysis of the behaviour of all the medical information that is generated in the program in function of the contamination of the land and of the internal contamination of the children is also performed. The program has accumulated an experience of interest for physicians, psychologists and radiological emergencies experts.(author)

  13. Assessment of motor coordination and dexterity of six years old children: A psychometric analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olívia Souza Agostini

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Motor coordination of six-year-old children was examined using the Assessment of Motor Coordination and Dexterity, AMCD (Avaliação da Coordenação e Destreza Motora - ACOORDEM, in order to verify test-retest reliability and investigate whether motor performance is influenced by gender, type of school and residence location. Eighty-five children were evaluated, and their parents and teachers completed questionnaires. For test-retest reliability, the AMCD was repeated with 10 children. Mann-Whitney and chi-square tests identified significant influence of sex, type of school and residence location in just a few of the test items. The test-retest reliability was moderate in the items performance, and good to excellent in the majority of the questionnaires' items. We conclude that some items should be revised and normative tables for the identification of motor delay could be created considering only the age variable. Future studies should continue the process of validating the AMCD instrument with the assessment of younger children.

  14. [Weight concerns and dieting among 8 to 12-year-old children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Uwe; Schilke, Carolin; Strauss, Bernhard

    2005-07-01

    According to a recent study it could be shown that more than one third of female high school students and more than 20 % of male students in the age of 14 to 18 years indicated an impaired eating behaviour, expressed as a medium or high risk to develop eating disorders based upon the standardized Eating Attitudes Test (EAT) . The current study tested the prevalence of weight concerns and dieting as an indicator of problematic eating behaviour among younger children. 230 Thuringian female and male students in the 3 (rd) and 4 (th) year (between 8 and 12-years-old) as well as their parents were investigated using standardized and modified instruments. Weight and height were measured directly to determine the Body Mass Index (BMI) that was put into relation to some factors of potential influence such as parents, peers, media and eating behaviours. It could be shown that 42 % of the boys and 53 % of the girls preferred a thin ideal body image; 32 % of the children revealing normal weight expressed the wish to be thinner. 18 % of the boys and 19 % of the girls tried to lose weight at the time of the investigation. Dieting was influenced by the perceived (not actual) dieting behaviour of the parents. The BMI significantly predicted weight concerns: In total, 85 % of the overweight children but also 17 % of the children with normal weight were convinced to be overweight. The girls' eating behaviour was mostly influenced by the peers, the boys' behaviour by criticism of the parents. Generally, a significant influence of the media could be demonstrated. PMID:15986283

  15. An epidemiological, clinical and genetic survey of Neurofibromatosis type 1 in children under sixteen years of age

    OpenAIRE

    McKeever, Karl; Shepherd, Charles W; Crawford, Hilda; Morrison, Patrick J.

    2008-01-01

    Aim To identify all cases of Neurofibromatosis type 1 in Northern Ireland under 16 years of age, document age, modes of presentation and any complications that occurred. Methods All cases of Neurofibromatosis type 1 in children less than 16 years of age were identified from the records in the Department of Medical Genetics. From the records and by direct contact with the patient's parents the relevant clinical information was obtained. Results Seventy-five children aged sixteen years or less ...

  16. Gestational age and birth weight in relation to school performance of 10-year-old children: a follow-up study of children born after 32 completed weeks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Ida; Obel, Carsten; Hedegaard, Morten;

    2006-01-01

    spelling and arithmetic disabilities, showed a graded relationship, with children who weighed <2500 g having the highest risks. Even children who weighed between 3000 and 3499 g had an increased risk of all 3 learning disabilities compared with children who weighed between 3500 and 4000 g. This association...... persisted after adjustment for potential cofounders and when the analyses were restricted to children born at term (39-40 weeks of gestation), suggesting that the association could not be explained by a low gestational age. Compared with children born at term, reading and spelling difficulties were more...... often found among children born at gestational age 33 to 36 weeks and 37 to 38 weeks, whereas there was no relation between gestational age and arithmetic difficulties. CONCLUSIONS: Gestational age and birth weight were associated with school performance in the 10-year-old child and the association...

  17. Cognition, Emotion and Behavior in Children with Tourette's Syndrome and Children with ADHD-Combined Subtype-A Two-Year Follow-Up Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovik, Kjell Tore; Plessen, Kerstin J; Cavanna, Andrea E;

    2015-01-01

    more problems with emotional control compared with TDC at both time points. Finally, children with ADHD-C self-reported more depression symptoms than those with TS at both assessments. For the TS group, safer decision-making was related to better emotional control, and this relationship was stronger......OBJECTIVE: This two-year follow-up study investigates the course of and association among measures of cognitive control, focused attention, decision-making and symptom severity (anxiety, depression and behavior) in children and adolescents with Tourette's Syndrome (TS) or Attention...... at T1 and T2. In the decision-making task, the children with TS (with or without comorbidities) preferred a safer strategy in selecting advantageous choices than the children with ADHD-C and the TDC at T2. Children with TS and children with ADHD-C showed higher symptoms of anxiety and depression and...

  18. Children's judgements about pain at age 8-10 years: do extremely low birthweight (< or = 1000 g) children differ from full birthweight peers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunau, R E; Whitfield, M F; Petrie, J

    1998-05-01

    Children's judgements about pain at age 8-10 years were examined comparing two groups of children who had experienced different exposure to nociceptive procedures in the neonatal period: extremely low birthweight (ELBW) or = 2500 g (N = 37). The 24 pictures that comprise the Pediatric Pain Inventory, depicting events in four settings: medical, recreational, daily living, and psychosocial, were used as the pain stimuli. The subjects rated pain intensity using the Color Analog Scale and pain affect using the Facial Affective Scale. Child IQ and maternal education were statistically adjusted in group comparisons. Pain intensity and pain affect related to activities of daily living and recreation were significantly higher than psychosocial and medically related pain on both scales in both groups of children. Although the two groups of children did not differ overall in their perceptions of pain intensity or affect, the ELBW children rated medical pain intensity significantly higher than psychosocial pain, unlike the FBW group. Also, duration of neonatal intensive care unit stay for the ELBW children was related to increased pain affect ratings in recreational and daily living settings. Despite altered response to pain in the early years reported by parents, on the whole at 8-10 years of age ELBW children judged pain in pictures similarly to their term peers. However, differences were evident, which suggests that studies are needed of biobehavioural reactivity to pain beyond infancy, as well as research into beliefs, attitudes, and perceptions about pain during the course of childhood in formerly ELBW children. PMID:9599786

  19. Epidemiological study of traumatic dental injuries in 5- to 6-year-old Brazilian children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Oliveira BERTI

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring traumatic dental injury (TDI in primary teeth through epidemiological cross-sectional surveys provides descriptive information relevant to the development of public policies focused on the prevention of such injuries for the target population. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of TDI in 5- to 6-year-old Brazilian children and its association with biological and socioeconomic factors. A total of 684 children aged 5 to 6 years old, from 11 public schools in the city of Barueri (Brazil were evaluated. Clinical examinations were carried out in the schools, by two trained and calibrated examiners. Gauze and a mouth mirror were used for the examinations. The reported TDIs were classified according to the Andreasen (2007 criteria for primary teeth. The results showed that 52.3% of the children had TDI. Enamel fracture (63.4% was the most frequently observed sign of TDI, and the most affected teeth were the primary maxillary central incisors (26.9% maxillary right central incisor and 24% maxillary left central incisor. There was no association between the presence of TDI and biological or socioeconomic factors. In conclusion, the prevalence of TDI was high and had no statistically significant association with biological and socioeconomic factors.

  20. Acute Glomerulonephritis: A 7 Years Follow up of Children in Center of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Akhavan Sepahi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Acute glomerulonephritis (AGN is a type of renal disease which indicates the inflammation of glomerulus and nephrons. This study was carried on 94 children, <15 years old with the diagnosis of AGN who were admitted to Qom and Yazd's hospitals between 2000 and 2006. Data were collected using hospital records on admission, progression notes and outpatient follow up. Among 94 patients, 55.3% were male and 44.6% were female. Mean age of patients was 8.2±2.7 years old. Acute post streptococcal glomerulonephritis (APSGN was reported in 92.5%, membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis in 4.2%, hemolytic uremic syndrome in 2.1% and IgA nephropathy in 1.06%. There was no significant differences between GN types and gender (P=0.54. Clinical manifestation included edema in 68.8%, oliguria in 36.3%, gross hematuria in 69.1%, HTN in 61.7% and anuria in 1.06%. Microscopic hematuria was detected in all patients. In the time of follow up none of patients had hypertension, 3.1% had proteinuria and 6.3% had microscopic hematuria. APSGN is the most common causes of AGN in Qom and Yazd's children. Early diagnosis and treatment of APSGN may protect children from long term morbidity and mortality and improve quality of life.