WorldWideScience

Sample records for children 6-8 years

  1. Comorbidity and correlates of disruptive mood dysregulation disorder in 6-8-year-old children with ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulraney, Melissa; Schilpzand, Elizabeth J; Hazell, Philip; Nicholson, Jan M; Anderson, Vicki; Efron, Daryl; Silk, Timothy J; Sciberras, Emma

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to characterize the nature and impact of disruptive mood dysregulation disorder (DMDD) in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) including its co-occurrence with other comorbidities and its independent influence on daily functioning. Children with ADHD (6-8 years) were recruited through 43 Melbourne schools, using a 2-stage screening (parent and teacher Conners 3 ADHD index) and case-confirmation (Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children, Version IV; [DISC-IV]) procedure. Proxy DMDD diagnosis was confirmed via items from the oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and major depressive disorder modules of the DISC-IV. Outcome domains included comorbid mental health disorders, academic functioning, social functioning, child and family quality of life, parent mental health, and parenting behaviors. Unadjusted and adjusted linear and logistic regression were used to compare children with comorbid ADHD and DMDD and children with ADHD without DMDD. Thirty-nine out of 179 children (21.8 %) with ADHD had comorbid DMDD. Children with ADHD and DMDD had a high prevalence of ODD (89.7 %) and any anxiety disorder (41.0 %). Children with ADHD and DMDD had poorer self-control and elevated bullying behaviors than children with ADHD without DMDD. Children with ADHD and DMDD were similar to children with ADHD in the other domains measured when taking into account other comorbidities including ODD. One in five children with ADHD in their second year of formal schooling met criteria for DMDD. There was a very high diagnostic overlap with ODD; however, the use of a proxy DMDD diagnosis containing items from the ODD module of the DISC-IV may have artificially inflated the comorbidity rates. DMDD added to the burden of ADHD particularly in the area of social functioning. PMID:26122202

  2. Relationship between Executive Functioning and Symptoms of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Autism Spectrum Disorder in 6-8 Year Old Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neely, Rachel Jane; Green, Jessica Leigh; Sciberras, Emma; Hazell, Philip; Anderson, Vicki

    2016-01-01

    This study examined relationships between executive functioning (EF) and ADHD/ASD symptoms in 339 6-8 year-old children to characterise EF profiles associated with ADHD and ADHD + ASD. ADHD status was assessed using screening surveys and diagnostic interviews. ASD symptoms were measured using the Social Communication Questionnaire, and children…

  3. Peripheral bone mineral density and different intensities of physical activity in children 6-8 years old: the Copenhagen School Child Intervention study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasselstrøm, H; Karlsson, K M; Hansen, S E;

    2007-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the association between objectively measured habitual physical activity and calcaneal and forearm bone mineral density (BMD, g/cm(2)), one mechanically more loaded and one less loaded skeletal region, in children aged 6-8 years. BMD was measured in 297 boys and 265...... girls by peripheral dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in the forearm and calcaneus. An accelerometer registered the level of physical activity during 4 days (2 weekdays and the weekend). Weight, height, and skinfold thickness were measured. In order to establish thresholds (count . min(-1)) for bone......-stimulating physical activity, we evaluated different definitions of vigorous physical activity. The boys had 3.2% higher distal forearm bone mineral content (BMC, P physical activity and spent 14.6-19.0% more...

  4. Associations among different orofacial dysfunctions in 6-8 year olds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laine, M T; Pahkala, R H; Jaroma, S M; Qvarnström, M J

    1992-11-01

    Associations among several orofacial dysfunctions such as articulatory speech disorders, craniomandibular disorders (CMD) and problems in coordinating the orofacial muscles were examined in two groups of Finnish first-graders, i.e. children with and without speech disorders. In the whole sample of 287 subjects the mean age was 7.5 yr. A speech therapist diagnosed articulatory speech disorders and a phoniatrician examined the morphology and function of the articulators. Signs and symptoms of CMD, capacity for mandibular movement, and prevalence of occlusal interferences were examined by a dentist. Deviations in motor skills, but not in morphology of the articulators, were associated with speech disorders. The findings also suggested that capacity for mandibular movement, deviation of the jaw during maximal mouth opening and occlusal interferences were related to certain speech disorders among these 6-8 yr olds. Different orofacial dysfunctions appear to be associated with each other during growth.

  5. Influence of the training loading on the program paralympic junior sport school on the indexes of physical qualities of young tennis players 6-8 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loboda V.S.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Influence of the training loading is considered on the program paralympic junior sport school on the indexes of physical qualities of young tennis players 6-8 years. The aim of experiment was an exposure of dynamics of development of motive internalss of young tennis players during three years (6-8 years under the influence of the training loading on the program of children sport school. In experiment took part the group of initial preparation in an amount 25 children (boys. Research was conducted within the framework of the operative (employments, current (mezocycle and stage (annual planning of training process.

  6. Seven years of postseismic deformation following the 2003 Mw = 6.8 Zemmouri earthquake (Algeria) from InSAR time series

    KAUST Repository

    Cetin, Esra

    2012-05-28

    We study the postseismic surface deformation of the Mw 6.8, 2003 Zemmouri earthquake (northern Algeria) using the Multi-Temporal Small Baseline InSAR technique. InSAR time series obtained from 31 Envisat ASAR images from 2003 to 2010 reveal sub-cm coastline ground movements between Cap Matifou and Dellys. Two regions display subsidence at a maximum rate of 2 mm/yr in Cap Djenet and 3.5 mm/yr in Boumerdes. These regions correlate well with areas of maximum coseismic uplifts, and their association with two rupture segments. Inverse modeling suggest that subsidence in the areas of high coseismic uplift can be explained by afterslip on shallow sections (<5 km) of the fault above the areas of coseismic slip, in agreement with previous GPS observations. The earthquake impact on soft sediments and the ground water table southwest of the earthquake area, characterizes ground deformation of non-tectonic origin. The cumulative postseismic moment due to 7 years afterslip is equivalent to an Mw 6.3 earthquake. Therefore, the postseismic deformation and stress buildup has significant implications on the earthquake cycle models and recurrence intervals of large earthquakes in the Algiers area.

  7. Seven years of postseismic deformation following the 2003 Mw = 6.8 Zemmouri earthquake (Algeria) from InSAR time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetin, Esra; Meghraoui, Mustapha; Cakir, Ziyadin; Akoglu, Ahmet M.; Mimouni, Omar; Chebbah, Mouloud

    2012-05-01

    We study the postseismic surface deformation of the Mw 6.8, 2003 Zemmouri earthquake (northern Algeria) using the Multi-Temporal Small Baseline InSAR technique. InSAR time series obtained from 31 Envisat ASAR images from 2003 to 2010 reveal sub-cm coastline ground movements between Cap Matifou and Dellys. Two regions display subsidence at a maximum rate of 2 mm/yr in Cap Djenet and 3.5 mm/yr in Boumerdes. These regions correlate well with areas of maximum coseismic uplifts, and their association with two rupture segments. Inverse modeling suggest that subsidence in the areas of high coseismic uplift can be explained by afterslip on shallow sections (<5 km) of the fault above the areas of coseismic slip, in agreement with previous GPS observations. The earthquake impact on soft sediments and the ground water table southwest of the earthquake area, characterizes ground deformation of non-tectonic origin. The cumulative postseismic moment due to 7 years afterslip is equivalent to an Mw 6.3 earthquake. Therefore, the postseismic deformation and stress buildup has significant implications on the earthquake cycle models and recurrence intervals of large earthquakes in the Algiers area.

  8. Seven years of postseismic deformation following the 2003 Mw = 6.8 Zemmouri earthquake (Algeria) from InSAR time series

    OpenAIRE

    Cetin, Esra; Meghraoui, Mustapha; Cakir, Ziyadin; Mimouni, Omar; Chebbah, Mouloud

    2012-01-01

    [1] We study the postseismic surface deformation of the Mw 6.8, 2003 Zemmouri earthquake (northern Algeria) using the Multi-Temporal Small Baseline InSAR technique. InSAR time series obtained from 31 Envisat ASAR images from 2003 to 2010 reveal sub-cm coastline ground movements between Cap Matifou and Dellys. Two regions display subsidence at a maximum rate of 2 mm/yr in Cap Djenet and 3.5 mm/yr in Boumerdes. These regions correlate well with areas of maximum coseismic uplifts, and their asso...

  9. Assessing the Effectiveness of a Mathematics-Focused, Instructional Technology Program for Grades 6-8: A 5-Year Trend Analysis of NASA CONNECT(tm) Evaluation Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassman, Nanci A.; Perry, Jeannine B.; Giersch, Christopher E.; Lambert, Matthew A.; Pinelli, Thomas E.

    2004-01-01

    NASA CONNECT is a research-, inquiry, and standards-based, integrated mathematics, science, and technology series of 30-minute instructional distance learning (television and web-based) programs for students in grades 6 8. Respondents who evaluated the programs in the series over the first five seasons (1998-99 through 2002-03) reported that (1) they used the programs in the series; (2) the goals and objectives for the series were met; (3) the programs were aligned with the national mathematics, science, and technology standards; (4) the program content was developmentally appropriate for the grade level; and (5) the programs in the series enhanced and enriched the teaching of mathematics, science, and technology.

  10. Associations between indoor environmental factors and parental-reported autistic spectrum disorders in children 6-8 years of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsson, Malin; Weiss, Bernard; Janson, Staffan;

    2009-01-01

    , follow-up questionnaire (DBH-III) was distributed in 2005. The original survey collected information about the child, the family situation, practices such as smoking, allergic symptoms, type of residence, moisture-related problems, and type of flooring material, which included polyvinyl chloride (PVC...

  11. Clinical outcome 5 to 18 years after the Fontan operation performed on children younger than 5 years.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Robbers-Visser, D.; Kapusta, L.; Osch-Gevers, L. van; Strengers, J.L.; Boersma, E.; Rijke, Y.B. de; Boomsma, F.; Bogers, A.J.; Helbing, W.A.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study assessed clinical condition at midterm follow-up after total cavopulmonary connection for a functionally univentricular heart performed on children younger than 5 years. METHODS: Thirty-four Fontan patients (median age 10.4 years, range 6.8-20.7 years, 22 boys, median follow-up

  12. 43 CFR 6.8 - Foreign filing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Foreign filing. 6.8 Section 6.8 Public... Foreign filing. (a) By Government. (1) In every case where the employee has indicated pursuant to § 6.2(d... patent rights, the Government shall reserve an option to acquire assignment of all foreign...

  13. Geometry task sheets : grades 6-8

    CERN Document Server

    Rosenberg, Mary

    2009-01-01

    For grades 6-8, our Common Core State Standards-based resource meets the geometry concepts addressed by the NCTM standards and encourages the students to learn and review the concepts in unique ways. Each task sheet is organized around a central problem taken from real-life experiences of the students.

  14. Disk degeneration in 14 year old children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports low back symptoms of 1,500 school children (14 years old) evaluated with a questionnaire and with a standardized clinical examination. Forty children who complained of recurrent and/or persistent low back pain and 40 matching symptomless controls were randomly chosen to undergo MR imaging of the lumbar spine. Premature disk degeneration was seen in 25.5% of asymptomatic children and in 40% of those with low back pain. The difference was statistically not significant. Disk degeneration is a surprisingly frequent MR finding in symptomless children. Premature disk degeneration may be the cause of low back pain in some children but is not always symptomatic in childhood

  15. Stability and Change among High-Functioning Children with Pervasive Developmental Disorders: A 2-Year Outcome Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr, Elizabeth; Szatmari, Peter; Bryson, Susan; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie

    2003-01-01

    This study compared the 2-year outcomes of 68 children diagnosed with autism or Asperger syndrome at age 6-8 years in terms of symptoms from the Autism Diagnostic Interview. Significant differences were seen in the domains of social interaction, communication, and repetitive activities, with the Asperger group demonstrating fewer and/or less…

  16. Chinese children's respiratory diseases in 60 years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIN Qiang; SHEN Kun-ling

    2009-01-01

    @@ This year marks the 60th anniversary of the founding of the People's Republic of China. On this occasion, it is worthy to recall the past and look towards the future in order to do a better job in research and control of children's respiratory diseases.

  17. 44 CFR 6.8 - Subpoena and other legal demands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... other legal demands. Access to records in systems of records by subpoena or other legal process shall be... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Subpoena and other legal demands. 6.8 Section 6.8 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT...

  18. Developmental trends in speed accuracy trade-off in 6-10-year-old children performing rapid reciprocal and discrete aiming movements.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits-Engelsman, B.C.M.; Sugden, D.A.; Duysens, J.E.J.

    2006-01-01

    Cyclic tasks are performed better than discrete tasks in adults but it is unknown whether this advantage is present in children as well. Three age groups of participants (6, 8, and 10 years old) executed cyclic and discrete aiming movements to two differently sized target using a Fitts task to exami

  19. Preparation of 2,4,6,8,10,12-hexanitro-2,4,6,8,10,12-hexaazaisowurtzitane from 2,6,8,12-tetraacetyl 2,4,6,8,12-hexaazaisowurtzitane using Various Nitrating Agents (Short Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Mokhtari

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The 2,4,6,8,10,12-hexanitro-2,4,6,8,10,12-hexaazaisowurtzitane (HNIW, a high energy material with cage structure, is considered as the most powerful explosive today. It is usually prepared via nitration with concentrated nitric and sulphuric acid, but this technique pollutes the environment. In this study, HNIW was synthesised by nitration of 2,6,8,12-tetraacetyl 2,4,6,8,12-hexaazaisowurtzitane (TAIW various nitrating agents. Using this nitrating agent, the reaction eliminated use of concentrated sulphuric acid and was also environmental- friendly. Meanwhile, the effects of reaction temperature, time, and other factors on yield were studied. The structure of the compound was characterised by elemental analysis, Infrared, 1HNMR and MS.Defence Science Journal, 2011, 61(2, pp.171-173, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.61.606

  20. Similarity Predicts Liking in 3-Year-Old Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fawcett, Christine A.; Markson, Lori

    2010-01-01

    Two studies examined the influence of similarity on 3-year-old children's initial liking of their peers. Children were presented with pairs of childlike puppets who were either similar or dissimilar to them on a specified dimension and then were asked to choose one of the puppets to play with as a measure of liking. Children selected the puppet…

  1. Basic Facts about Low-Income Children: Children 12 through 17 Years, 2013. Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yang; Ekono, Mercedes; Skinner, Curtis

    2015-01-01

    Children under 18 years represent 23 percent of the population, but they comprise 33 percent of all people in poverty. Among all children, 44 percent live in low-income families and approximately one in every five (22 percent) live in poor families. Among our oldest children--adolescents age 12 through 17 years--41 percent live in low-income…

  2. Basic Facts about Low-Income Children: Children 6 through 11 Years, 2013. Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yang; Ekono, Mercedes; Skinner, Curtis

    2015-01-01

    Children under 18 years represent 23 percent of the population, but they comprise 33 percent of all people in poverty. Among all children, 44 percent live in low-income families and approximately one in every five (22 percent) live in poor families. Similarly, among children in middle childhood (age 6 through 11 years), 45 percent live in…

  3. Subdural effusions in children under two years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigated 161 children under 24 months of age by CT of the skull and reviewed the anamnestic and clinical history. 87 children showed subdural effusions, and 74 did not. There were 33 patients with other pathological findings in CT, and 41 had normal scans. Age and sex distribution as well as localization of the subdural effusions were consistent with the literature. The 87 children with subdural effusions represented 1,7% in a sample of about 5.000 CT scans. CT was the most reliable method for diagnosis of subdural effusions, compared to other techniques. There was a preponderance of small subdural effusions from 1 to 7 mm thickness (51%). Other CT abnormalities accompanying subdural effusions were found. Most frequently the interhemispheric sulcus was dilated and an internal hydrocephalus was present. Also in our group there were 7 anamnestical and 6 clinical symptoms highly diagnostic of subdural effusions. (orig.)

  4. Data analysis & probability drill sheets : grades 6-8

    CERN Document Server

    Forest, Chris

    2011-01-01

    For grades 6-8, our Common Core State Standards-based resource meets the data analysis & probability concepts addressed by the NCTM standards and encourages your students to review the concepts in unique ways. Each drill sheet contains warm-up and timed drill activities for the student to practice data analysis & probability concepts.

  5. COMPUTER EYE SYNDROME IN CHILDREN AGED 3 TO 6 YEARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krasina P. Valcheva

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To detect visual disturbances, major symptoms and relationship between them in children between the ages of 3 and 6 years, who spend some time in front of a computer. Material/Methods: In the present study 2823 children attending 23 kindergartens in the city of Pleven, were given inquiry cards. Those with completed questionnaires were examined for visual acuity and convergence. In cases with low vision the children were invited for a detailed eye examination in the Eye Clinic at the University Hospital "Dr George Stranski" - Pleven. Results: A total of 2332 children responded and were examined (1174 girls and 1158 boys. The age of children is from 3 to 6 years. We found 303 children with subjective complaints in a close work, 163 with low vision and 18 with impaired convergence. Regarding the duration of stay in front of a computer – 159 children stay over 3 hours a day in front of video display, 1228 children spend about 1 hour a day in front of a computer and 945 children do not play on a computer. Conclusion: Nowadays more and more children use computers for recreational purposes at home. From our study it became clear that preschool children overuse their stay in front of computer.

  6. Fecal Calprotectin in Healthy Children Aged 1-4 Years

    OpenAIRE

    Qingling Zhu; Feng Li; Junli Wang; Lixiao Shen; Xiaoyang Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Objective Calprotectin has been well emulated recently in adults as well as in children. The aim of this study was to assess fecal calprotectin concentrations in healthy children aged from 1 to 4 years. Methods Volunteers were enlisted from 3 nurseries. A brief questionnaire was used to ensure these children meet the inclusion criteria, and some clinical and sociodemographic factors were collected. Anthro software (version 3.1) was used to calculated Length-for-age Z-scores (LAZ), weight-for-...

  7. Risk factors for obesity in 6 to 12-year-old children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy Japutra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background The causes of obesity in children are multifactorial, including genetics, physiology, metabolism, psychology, socioeconomic status, lifestyle, and culture. Objective To assess for relationships between obesity in 6 to 12-year-old children and maternal nutritional status, maternal education, eating breakfast, eating fast food, physical activity, TV watching, and playing video games. Methods This case-control study included students of Sejahtera Public School aged 6 to 12 years. Questionnaires were distributed to their parents for data on maternal education, eating breakfast, eating fast food, physical activity, TV watching and playing video games. Maternal nutritional status was assessed by one of the researchers. Univariate analysis with Chi–square test was used to assess every risk factor. Those with a P value of <0.25 were subjected to multivariate analysis, performed using multiple logistic regression analysis. Results From June to July 2013, 60 obese children and 60 well-nourished children, as a control group, were enrolled in the study. Obese mothers tended to have obese children [odds ratio/OR 252.48; 95%CI 33.4 to 1908.4]. Children who ate fast food 6–8 times/week, had low physical activity, and watched TV more than 8 hours/week had significantly higher risk for obesity [OR 12.94, 95%CI 1.7 to 100.7; and OR 266.94, 95% CI 7.8 to 9137.7; OR 21.44, 95%CI 2.68 to 171.61; respectively]. Maternal education, eating breakfast, and playing video games were not significant risk factors for childhood obesity. Conclusion Maternal obesity, eating fast food 6-8 times per week, low physical activity and watching TV more than 8 hours/week are risk factors for childhood obesity. [Paediatr Indones. 2015;55:35-9.].

  8. Hippocampal sclerosis in children younger than 2 years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadom, Nadja [Children' s National Medical Center, Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Radiology, Washington, DC (United States); Tsuchida, Tammy; Gaillard, William D. [Children' s National Medical Center, Department of Neurology, Washington, DC (United States)

    2011-10-15

    Hippocampal sclerosis (HS) is rarely considered as a diagnosis in children younger than 2 years. To describe imaging features in conjunction with clinical information in patients with hippocampal sclerosis who are younger than 2 years. We retrospectively reviewed MR brain imaging and clinical information in five children in whom the diagnosis of HS was made both clinically and by MRI prior to 2 years of age. Imaging features establishing the diagnosis of hippocampal sclerosis were bright T2 signal and volume loss, while the internal architecture of the hippocampal formation was preserved in almost all children. Clinically, all children had an infectious trigger. It is necessary for radiologists to consider HS in children with certain clinical features to plan an MRI protocol that is appropriate for detection of hippocampal pathology. (orig.)

  9. Two-Year-Old Children Interpret Abstract, Purely Geometric Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler-Rhoades, Nathan; Carey, Susan C.; Spelke, Elizabeth S.

    2013-01-01

    In two experiments, 2.5-year-old children spontaneously used geometric information from 2D maps to locate objects in a 3D surface layout, without instruction or feedback. Children related maps to their corresponding layouts even though the maps differed from the layouts in size, mobility, orientation, dimensionality, and perspective, and even when…

  10. Geometry task & drill sheets : grades 6-8

    CERN Document Server

    Rosenberg, Mary

    2011-01-01

    For grades 6-8, our Common Core State Standards-based combined resource meets the geometry concepts addressed by the NCTM standards and encourages the students to review the concepts in unique ways. The task sheets introduce the mathematical concepts to the students around a central problem taken from real-life experiences, while the drill sheets provide warm-up and timed practice questions for the students to strengthen their procedural proficiency skills.

  11. Media use by children younger than 2 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ari

    2011-11-01

    In 1999, the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) issued a policy statement addressing media use in children. The purpose of that statement was to educate parents about the effects that media--both the amount and the content--may have on children. In one part of that statement, the AAP recommended that "pediatricians should urge parents to avoid television viewing for children under the age of two years." The wording of the policy specifically discouraged media use in this age group, although it is frequently misquoted by media outlets as no media exposure in this age group. The AAP believed that there were significantly more potential negative effects of media than positive ones for this age group and, thus, advised families to thoughtfully consider media use for infants. This policy statement reaffirms the 1999 statement with respect to media use in infants and children younger than 2 years and provides updated research findings to support it. This statement addresses (1) the lack of evidence supporting educational or developmental benefits for media use by children younger than 2 years, (2) the potential adverse health and developmental effects of media use by children younger than 2 years, and (3) adverse effects of parental media use (background media) on children younger than 2 years.

  12. Physical activity in Dublin children aged 7–9 years

    OpenAIRE

    Hussey, J; Gormley, J; Bell, C

    2001-01-01

    Objectives—To investigate the amount of regular activity and time spent in sedentary occupations in children aged 7–9 years. Sex differences in levels of activity and time and facilities for physical education at school were also examined.

  13. Tracheobronchial foreign body in children - 10 years experience

    OpenAIRE

    Balica, NC; Poenaru, M; Marin, AH; Iovanescu, G; Stefanescu, HE; Boia, ER; Doros, C

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Presentation of ENT Department - Timisoara 10 years experience of in the diagnosis and treatment of tracheobronchial foreign body in children. We studied 93 children, aged between 10 months and 8 years.Methods: The diagnosis of airways penetrating syndrome was established on history, clinical examination, cardiopulmonary X-ray, CT (virtual bronchoscopy) and rigid videotracheobronhoscopy. Foreign body removal was performed using pediatric Karl-Storz tracheobronhoscopy kit, unde...

  14. Missing: 100,000 Children a Year

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gary; Turbak; 周晓娟

    2002-01-01

    在决定刊发林小丫的来稿“Finding Missing Children,With Technology’sHelp”之后。编辑部决定在本栏目刊登Missing:100,000 Children a Year一文,该文选自《大学英语阅读文选》(1994年中国国际广播出版社出版)。两文有一定的时间差,但主题完全相同:美国的儿童失踪问题。两文互补,读者可知,儿童失踪问题,在美国已是“冰冻三尺”!这是一个滴血淌泪的主题。认识美国,对此主题不能不闻不问。文中的“原译”系该书原有之译,而“改译”则是周晓娟副教授之作。 我们所以安排“两译”,主要是为了让读者作“比读”,在比读中,学习翻译,提高译技。因为本栏目的目的之一就是设立一个学习翻译,切磋译技的舞台。 本刊今后将专门开设如此“比读”的专栏,更加贴近读者的学习需求,更加符合翻译学习的客观规律,以期在全国林立的英语学习刊物中独树一帜。】

  15. Fecal Calprotectin in Healthy Children Aged 1-4 Years.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingling Zhu

    Full Text Available Calprotectin has been well emulated recently in adults as well as in children. The aim of this study was to assess fecal calprotectin concentrations in healthy children aged from 1 to 4 years.Volunteers were enlisted from 3 nurseries. A brief questionnaire was used to ensure these children meet the inclusion criteria, and some clinical and sociodemographic factors were collected. Anthro software (version 3.1 was used to calculated Length-for-age Z-scores (LAZ, weight-for-age Z-scores (WAZ, and weight-for-length Z-scores (WLZ respectively. Fecal calprotectin was detected by a commercially available ELISA.In total 274 children were recruited, with age ranging from 1 to 4 years old. The median FC concentration was 83.19 μg/g [range 4.58 to 702.50 μg/g, interquartile range (IQR 14.69-419.45 μg/g] or 1.92 log10 μg/g (range 0.66 log10 to 2.85 log10 μg/g, IQR 1.17 log10-2.62 log10 μg/g. All of the children were divided into three groups, 1-2 years (12-24 months, 2-3 years (24-36 months, 3-4 years (36-48 months, with median FC concentrations 96.14 μg/g (1.98 log10 μg/g, 81.48 μg/g (1.91 log10 μg/g, 65.36 μg/g (1.82 log10 μg/g, respectively. There was similar FC level between boys and girls. FC concentrations showed a downward trend by the growing age groups. A statistic difference was found in FC concentrations among groups 1-2 years, 2-3 years and 3-4 years (P = 0.016. In inter-groups comparison, a significant difference was found between children aged 1-2 years and children aged 3-4 years (P = 0.007. A negative correlation trend was found between age and FC concentration (Spearman's rho = -0.167, P = 0.005 in all the participants. A simple correlation was performed among WLZ, WAZ, birth weight, or birth length with FC, and there was no correlation being observed.Children aged from 1 to 4 years old have lower FC concentrations compared with healthy infants (<1years, and higher FC concentrations when comparing with children older than 4

  16. AMBULATORY CARE - SENSITIVE CONDITIONS IN CHILDREN UNDER FIVE YEARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Aparecida Araújo Figueiredo

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective:analyzethe extent to which the incidence rate of primary care sensitivehospitalizations in children under five years is influenced by the percentage of coverage of theprimary care.Methods:This was a cross-sectional ecological study that combines coverage ofprimary careand theambulatorycare-sensitiveconditionsin 2000 and 2010. We used data from theHospital Information System (HIS and the Information System of Primary Care (SIAB.Results:The data revealed that the increased coverage providedprimary carereductionrateofhospitalization diseases studied. In 2000 the reduction was greater for gastroenteritis (51% inchildren under 01 years and 30% in children 01-04 years in 2010 for respiratory diseases (51% inchildren under 01years and 33% in children aged 01-04 years.Conclusion:we found an association between the coverage ofprimary careand admission rates, however seem to affect othervariables, suggesting the need for further studies.

  17. Antipsychotic Prescriptions for Children Aged 5 Years or Younger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lòpez-De Fede

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of antipsychotics in very young children is of concern given the lack of empirical evidence in their efficacy and long-term impact on children’s health. This study examined the prescription of antipsychotics among children aged ≤5 years enrolled in a state Medicaid program. Secondary data analysis was conducted using the Medicaid administrative data of a southeastern state. Using SAS 9.3, descriptive statistics were performed to examine socio-demographic characteristics, psychiatric diagnoses, off-label use, receipt of medications from multiple psychotropic drug classes, and receipt of non-pharmacologic psychiatric services among children aged ≤5 years who received antipsychotic prescriptions in calendar year (CY 2011. A total of 112 children in the target age group received antipsychotics in CY 2011, the most common prescription being risperidone. The most common listed psychiatric diagnosis was attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Two in five children received antipsychotics for off-label use. Three in four children also received medications from at least one other psychotropic drug class. More than half did not receive adjunct psychiatric services. State-level policies offering specific guidance and recommendations for antipsychotic use among very young children are urgently needed. Future research is warranted to examine long-term impact of such practices on children’s growth and development.

  18. Fifty Years After, Hidden Children Speak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Léa Marcou

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available “For fifty years, I have not spoken of my childhood years in France during the second world war. A hidden child, I lived under a false name amongst unknown people, being careful – as I had been taught – not to reveal, by a gesture or by a word, that I was Jewish. I knew I was in danger, still not understanding why and I was constantly afraid. I didn't know whether I would see again one day my parents from whom I had been suddenly taken away. Nonetheless what were my pains compared to those of...

  19. Magnesium metabolism in 4-year-old to 8-year-old children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnesium (Mg) is a key factor in bone health, but few studies have evaluated Mg intake or absorption and their relationship with bone mineral content (BMC) or bone mineral density (BMD) in children. We measured Mg intake, absorption, and urinary excretion in a group of children 4 to 8 years of age....

  20. Prediction of compliance with MRI procedures among children of ages 3 years to 12 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A number of children are unable to comply with an MRI procedure and require general anesthetic. However, we lack information about which factors are associated with MRI compliance in young children. To determine the strongest predictors of MRI compliance, focusing on variables that can be easily rated by patients' parents. A sample of 205 children ages 3-11 years (mean age 6.6 years) who were at risk of non-compliance were recruited from a children's hospital. Their parents completed a behavior assessment scale for children as well as a questionnaire that assessed their expectations of compliance and perception of their child's typical medical compliance. The children subsequently completed a mock MRI with an educational play therapist and a clinical MRI, with the quality of the scan scored by the MRI technologist. Overall, 88.3% of children complied with the clinical scan and achieved diagnostic images, with age unrelated to compliance in this well-prepared patient group. The strongest predictors of MRI compliance were parental expectations and ratings of how well the child typically copes with medical procedures. Non-compliance was related to child attention problems and to poor adaptability among children. A total of 64 preschool-age children (91.4%) and 110 school-age children (95.7%) were correctly classified as compliant or non-compliant based on these predictor variables. A child's temperament, medical experiences and parental expectations provide important information in predicting which children successfully comply with an MRI procedure and which require general anesthesia. Further study is needed to explore the utility of these variables in predicting compliance at sites that do not have access to an MRI simulator. (orig.)

  1. Prediction of compliance with MRI procedures among children of ages 3 years to 12 years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cahoon, Glenn D. [The Royal Children' s Hospital Melbourne, Medical Imaging Department, Parkville (Australia); Davison, Tanya E. [Monash University, Melbourne (Australia)

    2014-10-15

    A number of children are unable to comply with an MRI procedure and require general anesthetic. However, we lack information about which factors are associated with MRI compliance in young children. To determine the strongest predictors of MRI compliance, focusing on variables that can be easily rated by patients' parents. A sample of 205 children ages 3-11 years (mean age 6.6 years) who were at risk of non-compliance were recruited from a children's hospital. Their parents completed a behavior assessment scale for children as well as a questionnaire that assessed their expectations of compliance and perception of their child's typical medical compliance. The children subsequently completed a mock MRI with an educational play therapist and a clinical MRI, with the quality of the scan scored by the MRI technologist. Overall, 88.3% of children complied with the clinical scan and achieved diagnostic images, with age unrelated to compliance in this well-prepared patient group. The strongest predictors of MRI compliance were parental expectations and ratings of how well the child typically copes with medical procedures. Non-compliance was related to child attention problems and to poor adaptability among children. A total of 64 preschool-age children (91.4%) and 110 school-age children (95.7%) were correctly classified as compliant or non-compliant based on these predictor variables. A child's temperament, medical experiences and parental expectations provide important information in predicting which children successfully comply with an MRI procedure and which require general anesthesia. Further study is needed to explore the utility of these variables in predicting compliance at sites that do not have access to an MRI simulator. (orig.)

  2. Level of development of the physical components of social activity schoolchildren 10-11 years children summer camp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chovgan R.Ya.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to determine the level of physical health of schoolchildren. Material : the study involved 146 children aged 10-11 years. Results : the questions of children's health issues such: the state of development of physical qualities, cardiovascular and respiratory systems, the ratio of children to their own health, interest in physical education means in terms of the Camp. The characteristic of the state of physical health and adaptive capacity of the organism respondents. Found that 50.7 % of children had low, 42.5% - the average, 6.8% - a high level of physical activity. Daily physical fitness - 11.0 % 2-3 times a week - 26.0 % once a week, 18.5%, and sometimes - 44.5%. The health camp prefer morning gymnastics 89.0 % of students ; hiking 67.1 % physical training on interest - 63.7%. Conclusions : the identified leading and lagging physical qualities in children studied age group. Dominant over the other physical properties were agility and strength of the abdominal muscles. By lagging physical qualities include strength of arm and leg flexibility. A significant amount of children surveyed are not able to fulfill the standards of the State tests of Ukraine for its age-sex groups on a positive assessment.

  3. Liver transplantation in Greek children: 15 years experience

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    Dimitrios Takoudas

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Liver transplantation (LT is the only available live-saving procedure for children with irreversible liver failure. This paper reports our experience from the follow-up of 16 Greek children with end-stage liver failure who underwent a LT. Over a period of 15 years, 16 pediatric liver recipients received follow up after being subjected to OLT (orthotopic liver transplantation due to end-stage liver failure. Nine children initially presented with extrahepatic biliary atresia, 2 with acute liver failure after toxic mushroom ingestion, 2 with intrahepatic cholestasis, 2 with metabolic diseases and one with hepatoblastoma. Ten children received a liver transplant in the Organ Transplantation Unit of Aristotle University of Thessaloniki and the rest in other transplant centers. Three transplants came from a living-related donor and 13 from a deceased donor. Six children underwent immunosuppressive treatment with cyclo­sporine, mycophenolate mofetil and corticosteroids, and 7 with tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil and corticosteroids. Three out of 16 children died within the first month after the transplantation due to post-transplant complications. Three children presented with acute rejection and one with chronic organ rejection which was successfully managed. Five children presented with cytomegalovirus infection, 5 with Epstein-Barr virus, 2 with HSV1,2, 2 with ParvoB19 virus, 2 with varicella-zoster virus and one with C. Albicans infection. One child presented with upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage and one with small biliary paucity. A satisfying outcome was achieved in most cases, with good graft function, except for the patient with small biliary paucity who required re-transplantation. The long-term clinical course of liver transplanted children is good under the condition that they are attended in specialized centers.

  4. An Investigation of Attitudes of 6-8th Graders Towards Universal Values

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    Ender DURUALP

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to describe attitudes of 6-8th graders towards universal values and examine the impact of their age, gender, grade level, academic performance, parental level of education, and family income on their attitudes towards universal values. The population consisted of 6-8th graders being taught in primary schools in Çankırı, Turkey. The sample consisted of 361 students (203 girls, 158 boys randomly selected from Çankırı İsmet İnönü Elementary School located in Çankırı which attracts the highest number of students from each level of socioeconomic status. The sociodemographic data of children and their parents were collected through a “General Information Form”, and the data related to attitudes towards universal values were obtained by the “Attitude Towards Universal Values Scale” developed by Demir and Koç (2009. Data were analyzed through Kolmogorov-Smirnov, Mann-Whitney U, Kruskal-Wallis H tests, and Cronbach Alpha (α reliability coefficient. Results showed that girls (p>0.05, 8th graders, academically-talented children, those whose parents are university graduates, and those with a family income of minimum wage or more have more positive attitudes towards universal values (p<0.05.

  5. Assessing Executive Function components in 9 years old children

    OpenAIRE

    Sandra Reyes; Juan Pablo Barreyro; Irene Injoque-Ricle

    2014-01-01

    Executive Function (EF) is a multidimensional construct. It includes a set of abilities that allows to execute actions with a purpose, aimed to a goal, in an efficient way. The objective of this work is to explore some of the cognitive abilities that constitute a common factor for EF in 9 years-old children. The chosen instruments: Batería de Evaluación Neuropsicológica de la Función Ejecutiva en niños (ENFEN) (Battery of Neuropsychological Assessment for Executive Function in Children), alon...

  6. Estimated Risk of Developing Selected DSM-IV Disorders Among 5-Year-Old Children with Prenatal Cocaine Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, Connie E.; Xue, Lihua; Manjunath, Sudha; Culbertson, Jan C.; Accornero, Veronica H.; Anthony, James C.; Bandstra, Emmalee S.

    2016-01-01

    This study estimated childhood risk of developing selected DSM-IV Disorders, including Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD), and Separation Anxiety Disorder (SAD), in children with prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE). Children were enrolled prospectively at birth (n=476) with prenatal drug exposures documented by maternal interview, urine and meconium assays. Study participants included 400 African-American children from the birth cohort, 208 cocaine-exposed (CE) and 192 non-cocaine-exposed (NCE) who attended a 5-year follow-up assessment and whose caregiver completed the Computerized Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children. Under a generalized linear model (logistic link), Fisher’s exact methods were used to estimate the CE-associated relative risk (RR) of these disorders. Results indicated a modest but statistically robust elevation of ADHD risk associated with increasing levels of PCE (pEstimated cumulative incidence proportions among CE children were 2.9% for ADHD (vs 3.1% NCE); 1.4% for SAD (vs 1.6% NCE); and 4.3% for ODD (vs 6.8% NCE). Findings offer suggestive evidence of increased risk of ADHD (but not ODD or SAD) in relation to an increasing gradient of PCE during gestation.

  7. Family, children and teachers’ expectations about the first year of the nine-year Elementary School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Silva Ferreira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Pedagogical Master Plan, for the nine-year Elementary School, should consider the socio-cultural and educational conditions of the children in the community as a guide to improve the quality of education. According to MEC guidelines (BRAZIL, 2004, one should not restrict the development of the six year old children exclusively to learning how to read. We know that family involvement with the school life of their children, maintaining constant contact with teachers and satisfied with the educational work, brings significant effects on student’s learning (SCHEERENS; BOSKER, 1977; SCHEERENS , 2000. The current policy of MEC shows interest in mobilizing the involvement of the family and the school as a strategy for building an education of quality. This article discusses the results of a research that investigated the expectations of the involved actors (parents or guardians, children and teachers regarding the anticipation of the enrollment age into Elementary School and the differences and similarities of these actors expectations. Parents and children were interviewed in their homes, in order to observe the literacy environment, and the first year teachers. What we observed in most homes is that the literate environment does not go beyond those that are part of everyday life of all households. The families hope that the school promotes a better and decent future for their children, countering the “myth of parental omission” (LAIHRE, 2004, p. 334. They try to assist their children with their homework and they demonstrate difficulties with their academic tasks, including two mothers who said they were illiterate.

  8. Sudden cardiac death in children (1-18 years)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkel, Bo Gregers; Risgaard, Bjarke; Sadjadieh, Golnaz;

    2014-01-01

    AIMS: Hitherto, sudden cardiac death in children (SCDc)-defined as sudden cardiac death (SCD) in the 1-18 years old-has been incompletely described in the general population. Knowledge on incidence rates, causes of death and symptoms prior to death is sparse and has been affected by reporting....... A cardiac disease was known prior to death in 18% of all sudden unexpected death cases. In two-thirds of all sudden unexpected death cases no previous medical history was registered. Causes of death in autopsied cases were cardiac or unknown in 70%. Unexplained deaths, presumed to be a primary cardiac...... and referral bias. METHODS AND RESULTS: In a nationwide setting all deaths in children aged 1-18 years in Denmark in 2000-06 were included. To chart causes of death and incidence rates, death certificates and autopsy reports were collected and read. By additional use of the extensive healthcare registries...

  9. Skin test reactivity among Danish children measured 15 years apart

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, SF; Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli; Porsbjerg, C;

    2006-01-01

    test (SPT) positivity in Danish children has changed from 1986 to 2001. METHODS: Serial cross-sectional studies of two different random population samples of children aged 7 to 17 years of age, living in urban Copenhagen, Denmark, were performed 15 years apart. The first cohort was investigated in 1986...... (n = 527) and the second in 2001 (n = 480). Skin test reactivity to nine common aeroallergens was measured at both occasions. RESULTS: The prevalence of positive SPT to at least one allergen decreased from 24.1% in 1986 to 18.9% in 2001, (p = 0.05). We found a declining prevalence of sensitization...... to most allergens tested, statistically significant; however, only for mugwort and Alternaria iridis. Among subjects, who were sensitized to only one allergen, we found significantly fewer individuals with reactions to D. pteronyssinus and mugwort. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of atopic sensitization...

  10. [Clinical exam of children from 3 to 12 years].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourrillon, Antoine; Benoist, Grégoire

    2011-04-01

    The specific aims of clinical exams of children from 3 to 12 years of age are to assess: growth including weight and height, and body mass index (BMI) to prevent obesity, neurodevelopment both motor and intellectual including sensorial impairment to detect early learning disabilities, immunization adequacy by assessing routine schedule of vaccination and booster. The GP or paediatrician should cooperate with specialised services and nursery or primary schools to match the system of education to the needs of a given child, particularly in case of learning disabilities (normally, entry into kindergarden at 6 years of age).

  11. Development of Emotion Word Comprehension in Chinese Children from 2 to 13 Years Old: Relationships with Valence and Empathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanwei; Yu, Dongchuan

    2015-01-01

    Children's emotion word comprehension (EWC) has constantly received a great deal of attention in developmental science. However, since previous reports focused on only English emotion vocabulary, researchers thus far remained unclear as to the developmental trajectories of EWC (to Chinese emotion words) in Chinese children, let alone the cross-cultural difference of EWC in different languages (i.e., English V.S. Chinese). Furthermore, the influence of valence on EWC, as well as the interaction mechanism between EWC and empathy, has not been fully investigated. Finding answers to these research gaps has become the main motivation of the current study. For this purpose, a Chinese emotion vocabulary was first constructed to estimate EWC of Chinese children (ages 2-13 years old). Then, the valence of each emotion word was evaluated using the standard 9-point scale approach. After that, the Chinese children's EWC and empathy were measured in terms of parental ratings. Finally, all data collected were statistically analyzed to reveal the influence of the valence of EWC, the relation between EWC and empathy, and the cross-cultural difference of children's EWC between China and UK from the viewpoint of developmental science. The main results of the current study included the following: (i) EWC in general increased with age for Chinese children ages 2-13 years old, however, there was a dramatic increase during ages 6-8 years old; (ii) EWC of positive emotion words in general developed better than that of negative and neutral ones for Chinese children (ages 2-13 years old); and the disadvantage of EWC to negative emotion words over neutral ones was gradually observed with the increase of age, even though there were no significant differences between them from the beginning; (iii) EWC completely mediated the effect of age on empathy; and (iv) EWC of children in UK developed better than Chinese counterparts during the early childhood period (ages 4-6 years old), then Chinese

  12. Development of Emotion Word Comprehension in Chinese Children from 2 to 13 Years Old: Relationships with Valence and Empathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanwei; Yu, Dongchuan

    2015-01-01

    Children's emotion word comprehension (EWC) has constantly received a great deal of attention in developmental science. However, since previous reports focused on only English emotion vocabulary, researchers thus far remained unclear as to the developmental trajectories of EWC (to Chinese emotion words) in Chinese children, let alone the cross-cultural difference of EWC in different languages (i.e., English V.S. Chinese). Furthermore, the influence of valence on EWC, as well as the interaction mechanism between EWC and empathy, has not been fully investigated. Finding answers to these research gaps has become the main motivation of the current study. For this purpose, a Chinese emotion vocabulary was first constructed to estimate EWC of Chinese children (ages 2-13 years old). Then, the valence of each emotion word was evaluated using the standard 9-point scale approach. After that, the Chinese children's EWC and empathy were measured in terms of parental ratings. Finally, all data collected were statistically analyzed to reveal the influence of the valence of EWC, the relation between EWC and empathy, and the cross-cultural difference of children's EWC between China and UK from the viewpoint of developmental science. The main results of the current study included the following: (i) EWC in general increased with age for Chinese children ages 2-13 years old, however, there was a dramatic increase during ages 6-8 years old; (ii) EWC of positive emotion words in general developed better than that of negative and neutral ones for Chinese children (ages 2-13 years old); and the disadvantage of EWC to negative emotion words over neutral ones was gradually observed with the increase of age, even though there were no significant differences between them from the beginning; (iii) EWC completely mediated the effect of age on empathy; and (iv) EWC of children in UK developed better than Chinese counterparts during the early childhood period (ages 4-6 years old), then Chinese

  13. Development of Emotion Word Comprehension in Chinese Children from 2 to 13 Years Old: Relationships with Valence and Empathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanwei Li

    Full Text Available Children's emotion word comprehension (EWC has constantly received a great deal of attention in developmental science. However, since previous reports focused on only English emotion vocabulary, researchers thus far remained unclear as to the developmental trajectories of EWC (to Chinese emotion words in Chinese children, let alone the cross-cultural difference of EWC in different languages (i.e., English V.S. Chinese. Furthermore, the influence of valence on EWC, as well as the interaction mechanism between EWC and empathy, has not been fully investigated. Finding answers to these research gaps has become the main motivation of the current study. For this purpose, a Chinese emotion vocabulary was first constructed to estimate EWC of Chinese children (ages 2-13 years old. Then, the valence of each emotion word was evaluated using the standard 9-point scale approach. After that, the Chinese children's EWC and empathy were measured in terms of parental ratings. Finally, all data collected were statistically analyzed to reveal the influence of the valence of EWC, the relation between EWC and empathy, and the cross-cultural difference of children's EWC between China and UK from the viewpoint of developmental science. The main results of the current study included the following: (i EWC in general increased with age for Chinese children ages 2-13 years old, however, there was a dramatic increase during ages 6-8 years old; (ii EWC of positive emotion words in general developed better than that of negative and neutral ones for Chinese children (ages 2-13 years old; and the disadvantage of EWC to negative emotion words over neutral ones was gradually observed with the increase of age, even though there were no significant differences between them from the beginning; (iii EWC completely mediated the effect of age on empathy; and (iv EWC of children in UK developed better than Chinese counterparts during the early childhood period (ages 4-6 years old, then

  14. Modifiable diarrhoea risk factors in Egyptian children aged <5 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, A M; Mohammady, H El; Shabrawi, M El; Shabaan, S Y; Zekri, M Abou; Nassar, M; Salem, M E; Mostafa, M; Riddle, M S; Klena, J D; Messih, I A Abdel; Levin, S; Young, S Y N

    2013-12-01

    By conducting a case-control study in two university hospitals, we explored the association between modifiable risk behaviours and diarrhoea. Children aged bacterial pathogens using standard techniques and tested by ELISA to detect rotavirus and Cryptosporidium spp. Four hundred cases and controls were enrolled between 2007 and 2009. The strongest independent risk factors for diarrhoea were: presence of another household member with diarrhoea [matched odds ratio (mOR) 4.9, 95% CI 2.8-8.4] in the week preceding the survey, introduction to a new kind of food (mOR 3, 95% CI 1.7-5.4), and the child being cared for outside home (mOR 2.6, 95% CI 1.3-5.2). While these risk factors are not identifiable, in some age groups more easily modifiable risk factors were identified including: having no soap for handwashing (mOR 6.3, 95% CI 1.2-33.9) for children aged 7-12 months, and pacifier use (mOR 1.9, 95% CI 1.0-3.5) in children aged 0-6 months. In total, the findings of this study suggest that community-based interventions to improve practices related to sanitation and hygiene, handwashing and food could be utilized to reduce the burden of diarrhoea in Egyptian children aged <5 years. PMID:23433452

  15. Assessing Executive Function components in 9 years old children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Reyes

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Executive Function (EF is a multidimensional construct. It includes a set of abilities that allows to execute actions with a purpose, aimed to a goal, in an efficient way. The objective of this work is to explore some of the cognitive abilities that constitute a common factor for EF in 9 years-old children. The chosen instruments: Batería de Evaluación Neuropsicológica de la Función Ejecutiva en niños (ENFEN (Battery of Neuropsychological Assessment for Executive Function in Children, along with the Backward Digits Subtestfrom the WISC-III, were administered to 101 children from private schools of Buenos Aires State, Argentina. The ENFEN consists on EF tasks, including Phonological and Semantic Fluency, Trail Making Test versions for children (gray and colored sets, Interference Task, and Planning disc movements according to a model. An initial confirmatory factor analysis didn’t show significant fit indexes, being the Inhibitory control the variable with the lower and non significant factorial weight. A second model excluding the Inhibitory control measure was conducted, and it showed excellent fit indexes. Therefore, it can be concluded that at this age, some of the cognitive abilities included on the EF are: Phonological and Semantic Fluency, Sustained and Selective attention, Planning and Working memory; which is not the case for Inhibitory Control (measured by the Interference Task in the ENFEN.

  16. Leprosy among children under 15 years of age: literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Marcela Bahia Barretto de; Diniz, Lucia Martins

    2016-04-01

    Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae, representing a public health issue in some countries. Though more prevalent in adults, the detection of new cases in children under 15 years of age reveals an active circulation of bacillus, continued transmission and lack of disease control by the health system, as well as aiding in the monitoring of the endemic. Among patients under 15 years of age, the most affected age group is children between 10 and 14 years of age, although cases of patients of younger than 1 year of age have also been reported. Household contacts are the primary source of infection, given that caretakers, such as babysitters and others, must be considered in this scenario. Paucibacillary forms of the disease prevailed, especially borderline-tuberculoid leprosy, with a single lesion in exposed areas of the body representing the main clinical manifestation. Reactional states: Lepra reactions are rare, although some authors have reported high frequencies of this phenomenon, the most frequent of which is Type 1 Lepra Reaction. Peripheral nerve involvement has been described at alarming rates in some studies, which increases the chance of deformities, a serious problem, especially if one considers the age of these patients. The protective effect of BCG vaccination was found in some studies, but no consensus has been reached among different authors. Children must receive the same multidrug therapy regimen and the doses should, ideally, be calculated based on the child´s weight. Adverse reactions to this therapy are rare within this age group. This article aims to review epidemiological, clinical, and therapeutic aspects of leprosy in patients under 15 years of age.

  17. Leprosy among children under 15 years of age: literature review*

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Marcela Bahia Barretto; Diniz, Lucia Martins

    2016-01-01

    Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae, representing a public health issue in some countries. Though more prevalent in adults, the detection of new cases in children under 15 years of age reveals an active circulation of bacillus, continued transmission and lack of disease control by the health system, as well as aiding in the monitoring of the endemic. Among patients under 15 years of age, the most affected age group is children between 10 and 14 years of age, although cases of patients of younger than 1 year of age have also been reported. Household contacts are the primary source of infection, given that caretakers, such as babysitters and others, must be considered in this scenario. Paucibacillary forms of the disease prevailed, especially borderline-tuberculoid leprosy, with a single lesion in exposed areas of the body representing the main clinical manifestation. Reactional states: Lepra reactions are rare, although some authors have reported high frequencies of this phenomenon, the most frequent of which is Type 1 Lepra Reaction. Peripheral nerve involvement has been described at alarming rates in some studies, which increases the chance of deformities, a serious problem, especially if one considers the age of these patients. The protective effect of BCG vaccination was found in some studies, but no consensus has been reached among different authors. Children must receive the same multidrug therapy regimen and the doses should, ideally, be calculated based on the child´s weight. Adverse reactions to this therapy are rare within this age group. This article aims to review epidemiological, clinical, and therapeutic aspects of leprosy in patients under 15 years of age. PMID:27192519

  18. Uroflowmetry nomogram in Iranian children aged 7 to 14 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tajik Parvin

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As the voiding habits of Iranian children differs from other children because of some cultural and religious considerations, we aimed to establish normal reference values of urinary flow rates in Iranian children between 7 to 14 years of age. Methods Eight hundred and two uroflowmetry studies were performed on children with no history of a renal, urological, psychological or neurological disorder, between the ages 7 and 14. Five hundred twenty five studies from 192 girls and 335 boys were considered in this study excluding the staccato/interrupted voiding pattern or voided volume less than 20 ml. The voiding volume, the maximum and average urinary flow rates were extensively analyzed. Results The maximal and average urine flow rate nomograms were plotted for both girls and boys. Mean maximum urine flow rate was 19.9 (ml/sec for boys and 23.5 (ml/sec for girls with a mean voided volume of 142 (ml for boys and 147 (ml for girls. Flow rates showed a close association with voiding volume in both sexes. The maximum and average flow rates were higher in girls than in boys, and they showed a significant increase in flow rates with increasing age, where boys did not. The mean maximum urine flow rates (19.9 ml/sec for boys and 23.5 ml/sec for girls were found to be higher in this study than other studies. Conclusion Nomograms of maximal and average flow rates of girls and boys are presented in centile form, which can help the physician to evaluate the response to medical or surgical treatment and be useful for the screening of lower urinary tract disturbances in children, for a wide range of voided volumes.

  19. Otitis media with effusion in children younger than 1 year

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Cantisani Di Francesco

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To determine the prevalence of otitis media with effusion in children younger than 1 year and its association with the season of the year, artificial feeding, environmental and perinatal factors. Methods: Retrospective study of 184 randomly included medical records from a total of 982 healthy infants evaluated for hearing screening tests. Diagnosis of otitis media with effusion was based on otoscopy (amber-gold color, fluid level, handle of malleus position, type B tympanometric curves and absence of otoacoustic emissions. Incomplete medical records or those describing acute otitis media, upper respiratory tract infections on the assessment day or in the last 3 months, neuropathies and craniofacial anomalies were excluded. Data such as gestational age, birth weight, Apgar score, type of feeding and day care attendance were compared between children with and without otitis media with effusion through likelihood tests and multivariate analysis. Results: 25.3% of 184 infants had otitis media with bilateral effusion; 9.2% had unilateral. In infants with otitis media, the following were observed: chronological age of 9.6±1.7 months; gestational age >38 weeks in 43.4% and birth weight >2500g in 48.4%. Otitis media with effusion was associated with winter/fall, artificial feeding, Apgar score <7 and day care attendance. The multivariate analysis showed that artificial feeding is the factor most often associated to otitis media with effusion. Conclusions: Otitis media with effusion was found in about one third of children younger than 1 year and was mainly associated with artificial feeding.

  20. Acoustic Vocal Tract Model of One-year-old Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Vojnović

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The physical shape of vocal tract and its formant (resonant frequencies are directly related. The study of this functional connectivity is essential in speech therapy practice with children. Most of the perceived children’s speech anomalies can be explained on a physical level: malfunctioning movement of articulation organs. The current problem is that there is no enough data on the anatomical shape of children’s vocal tract to create its acoustic model. Classical techniques for vocal tract shape imaging (X-ray, magnetic resonance, etc. are not appropriate for children. One possibility is to start from the shape of the adult vocal tract and correct it based on anatomical, morphological and articulatory differences between children and adults. This paper presents a method for vocal tract shape estimation of the child aged one year. The initial shapes of the vocal tract refer to the Russian vowels spoken by an adult male. All the relevant anatomical and articulation parameters, that influence the formant frequencies, are analyzed. Finally, the hypothetical configurations of the children’s vocal tract, for the five vowels, are presented.

  1. Integral treatment of children with dyslexia - 40 years experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stošljević Miodrag

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Dyslexia represents a significant pediatric problem requiring prompt and appropriate treatment. Objective. The aim of this study was to examine the significance of integral rehabilitation approach in treating dyslexia of children. Methods. Objectives of the study were accomplished on a sample of 300 children, aged 11-15 years, with etiologically variable dyslexia. Results. The results gained from the integral treatment of children with dyslexia were more successful than those obtained from isolated logaoedic treatment, when compared in 10-15 examined variables; replacement of graphically similar letters (p=0.000, replacement of syllables (p=0.010, replacement of words - guessing (p=0.019, structural errors - displacement or insertion (p=0.038, adding letters and syllables (p=0.001, repeating of word parts (p=0.001, reading of a word in several wrong ways (p=0.001, omission of words and whole lines (p=0.000, returning to already read line (p=0.000, level of dyslexia (p=0.000. Conclusion. Dyslexia requires a multidisciplinary therapeutic approach in which integral rehabilitation treatment has an exceptionally large significance.

  2. 4,6,8-Triarylquinoline-3-carbaldehyde Derivatives: Synthesis and Photophysical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malose Jack Mphahlele

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Palladium catalyzed Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling of 6,8-dibromo-4-chloroquinoline-3-carbaldehyde with arylboronic and arylvinylboronic acid derivatives in the presence of potassium carbonate in aqueous dioxane afforded the corresponding 4,6,8-triarylquinoline-3-carbaldehydes, exclusively. These products were transformed into 4,6,8-triaryl-3-(4-fluorophenylamino-N-(quinolin-3-ylmethylenes and their 4,6,8-triaryl-quinoline-3-methanol derivatives. The absorption and emission spectra were measured for the 4,6,8-triarylquinoline-3-carbaldehydes and their derivatives in selected solvents of different polarity.

  3. Synthesis and Photophysical Property Studies of the 2,6,8-Triaryl-4-(phenylethynylquinazolines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malose Jack Mphahlele

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The 2-aryl-6,8-dibromo-4-chloroquinazolines derived from the 2-aryl-6,8-dibromoquinazolin-4(3H-ones were subjected to the Sonogashira cross-coupling with terminal acetylenes at room temperature to afford novel 2-aryl-6,8-dibromo-4-(alkynylquinazoline derivatives. Further transformation of the 2-aryl-6,8-dibromo-4-(phenylethynylquinazolines via Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling with arylboronic acids occurred without selectivity to afford the corresponding 2,6,8-triaryl-4-(phenylethynylquinazolines. The absorption and emission properties of these polysubstituted quinazolines were also determined.

  4. Physical activity level of school children of age 10-13 years

    OpenAIRE

    Ronghe, Dr. Rashmi N; Gotmare, Dr. Neha A; Kawishwar, Dr. Shraddha

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To assess physical activity level of school children of age 10-13 years.Objectives: To assess and grade physical activity level in children of age 10-13 years using Physical Activity Questionnaire for Children (PAQ-C) classified into: Light Physical activity; Moderate Physical activity; Moderate to vigorous Physical activity and High Physical activity.Methodology: This is Questionnaire based survey study which was conducted on 100 school going children of 10-13 years who were present on ...

  5. Magnesium metabolism in 4-year-old to 8-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Steven A; Chen, Zhensheng; Hawthorne, Keli M

    2014-01-01

    Magnesium (Mg) is a key factor in bone health, but few studies have evaluated Mg intake or absorption and their relationship with bone mineral content (BMC) or bone mineral density (BMD) in children. We measured Mg intake, absorption, and urinary excretion in a group of children 4 to 8 years of age. Mg absorption was determined using a dual-tracer stable isotope technique, with (25) Mg given intravenously and (26) Mg given orally. We found a small, but significantly greater Mg absorption efficiency (percentage absorption) in males than females (67% ± 12% versus 60% ± 8%, p = 0.02) but no difference in estimated net Mg retention (average of 37 mg/d in both males and females). Relating dietary Mg intake to estimated Mg retention showed that an intake of 133 mg/d, slightly above the current estimated average requirement (EAR) of 110 mg/d, led to a net average retention of 10 mg/d, the likely minimum growth-related need for this age group. Covariate analysis showed that Mg intake and total Mg absorption, but not calcium intake or total absorption were significantly associated with both total body BMC and BMD. These results suggest that usual Mg intakes in small children in the United States meet dietary requirements in most but not all children. Within the usual range of children's diets in the United States, dietary Mg intake and absorption may be important, relatively unrecognized factors in bone health.

  6. Leprosy in children under fifteen years in Brazil, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levantezi, Magda; Moreira, Tadiana; Sena Neto, Sebastião; De Jesus, Aline Ludmila

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study is to describe the occurrence of Hansen's disease in children under 15 years of age and to analyse the burden of disease in the same population in Brazil in 2011. This is a descriptive epidemiological study on the positive cases of Hansen's disease in minors below 15 years of age notified in Brazil. Data was collected from the Information System on Disease Notification for Hansen's disease cases, and the Brazilian Institute of Geographic Statistics for population data. The study's results showed that 2420 minors with Hansen's Disease in 2011 were distributed in 5565 cities, 692 cities registered the occurrence of 1-10 cases of the disease, a total of 1489 cases (61%); 35 cities showed 15 to 25 cases, 544 (22.5%); and eight cities notified 25 cases or more, totalling 87 cases (16%), therefore, about one third of the Hansen's disease cases in minors under 15 years in Brazil in the year of 2011 are concentrated in 43 Brazilian cities. PMID:25255615

  7. [Life style of children and obesity in a population of 5-year-old children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locard, E; Mamelle, N; Munoz, F; Miginiac, M; Billette, A; Rey, S

    1992-01-01

    The increasing level of childhood obesity has prompted some research into the early risk factors likely to lead to preventive measures. A case-control study was conducted of a five year-old population in the Rhône and Isère administrative "départements" of France during the children's first visit to primary school, with the participation of 327 obese children and 704 controls. Anthropometric data on the children since birth, together with data on their lifestyles, were collected in interviews with parents. "Family obesity" and "obesity at birth" were found to be closely related to the child's obesity at five years old (adjusted OR = 2.7 and 2.1 respectively). Of the environmental factors, the hypothesis tested paid specific attention to television viewing, snacks between meals and lack of sleep. These three variables were all found to be risk factors of obesity at five years old. However after allowing for parental obesity, the only remaining significant risk factor for obesity at five was lack of sleep (adjusted OR = 1.4). The pathogenic assumptions raised by these results are discussed.

  8. Perception and Production of Lexical Tones by 3-Year-Old, Mandarin-Speaking Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Puisan; Schwartz, Richard G.; Jenkins, James J.

    2005-01-01

    The present study investigated 3-year-old children's perception and production of Mandarin lexical tones in monosyllabic words. Thirteen 3-year-old, Mandarin-speaking children participated in the study. Tone perception was examined by a picture-pointing task, and tone production was investigated by picture naming. To compare children's productions…

  9. The Development of a Scale to Measure Empathy in 8- and 9-Year Old Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garton, Alison F.; Gringart, Eyal

    2005-01-01

    Empathy has been suggested to facilitate effective collaborative problem solving in children. The current study adapted the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI, Davis, 1980), a well-validated empathy measure for adults, for use with children aged 8 and 9 years. Four hundred and thirteen school children aged between 7;11 and 9;11 years completed…

  10. Cerebral MRI of very low birth weight children at 6 years of age compared with the findings at 1 year

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skranes, J.S. [Department of Pediatrics and Neonatal Medicine, University Hospital of Trondheim (Norway)]|[Department of Pediatrics, Central Hospital of Aust-Agder, Sykehusvn 1, N-4800 Arendal (Norway); Nilsen, G.; Smevik, O. [MR Center, Medical Section, University Hospital of Trondheim (Norway); Vik, T. [Department of Community Medicine and General Practice, University of Trondheim (Norway); Brubakk, A.M. [Department of Pediatrics and Neonatal Medicine, University Hospital of Trondheim (Norway)

    1998-06-01

    Background. We have previously reported the results of cerebral MRI examinations in an unselected year cohort of very low birth weight (VLBW) infants at one year of corrected age. Twenty-one (78 %) of 27 infants had abnormal myelination, mainly in the central occipital white matter (COWM) and in the centrum semiovale (CS), seen on T2-weighted images. Twelve infants had irregular and dilated lateral ventricles. We speculated whether these findings indicated perinatal periventricular leukomalacia (PVL). Only two infants had completely normal MRI at age 1 year. Objective. To determine whether the abnormal myelination seen at 1 year of age, was still present, either as delayed myelination or as gliosis caused by perinatal PVL. Materials and methods. In the present study, we report the results of follow-up cerebral MRI in 20 of these infants at 6 years of age. Results. Most of the children with MRI deviations at 1 year still had abnormalities at 6 years. Abnormal myelination in the central occipital white matter combined with abnormalities in the CS or with ventricular dilatation at age 1 year, presented as gliosis in 12 of 13 children at 6 years of age. Abnormalities solely in the COWM at age 1 year had normalised in two of five children and persisted as delayed myelination in three at age 6 years. Gliotic changes in periventricular white matter were found in 12 of 20 children (60 %). Areas most affected were the CS (11 children) and the COWM (9 children). Delayed myelination in COWM was found in six children (30 %), combined with gliosis in CS in three children. Twelve infants had ventricular dilatation both at 1 and 6 years of age. Conclusions. The MRI correlates of PVL, i. e. gliosis and ventricular dilatation, are common findings on cerebral MRI at 6 years of age in VLBW infants. (orig.) With 5 figs., 2 tabs., 18 refs.

  11. The Cultural and Linguistic Diversity of 3-Year-Old Children with Hearing Loss

    OpenAIRE

    Crowe, Kathryn; McLeod, Sharynne; Ching, Teresa Y.C.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the cultural and linguistic diversity of young children with hearing loss informs the provision of assessment, habilitation, and education services to both children and their families. Data describing communication mode, oral language use, and demographic characteristics were collected for 406 children with hearing loss and their caregivers when children were 3 years old. The data were from the Longitudinal Outcomes of Children with Hearing Impairment (LOCHI) study, a prospectiv...

  12. Skin problems in children under five years old at a rural hospital in Southern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel Ramos

    2016-07-01

    Conclusions: Skin problems, mainly scabies, impetigo, and eczema were common in young children attended at a rural hospital in Southern Ethiopia. Children under 5 years should be examined thoroughly to rule out skin diseases, especially scabies.

  13. Nutritional Transition in Children under Five Years and Women of Reproductive Age: A 15-Years Trend Analysis in Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Loret de Mola, Christian; Quispe, Renato; Valle, Giancarlo A.; Julio A. Poterico

    2014-01-01

    Background Rapid urbanization, increase in food availability, and changes in diet and lifestyle patterns have been changing nutritional profiles in developing nations. We aimed to describe nutritional changes in children under 5 years and women of reproductive age in Peru, during a 15-year period of rapid economic development and social policy enhancement. Materials and Methods Trend analyses of anthropometric measures in children of preschool age and women between 15–49 years, using the Peru...

  14. Knee function in 10-year-old children and adults with Generalised Joint Hypermobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul-Kristensen, Birgit; Hansen, Henrik; Simonsen, Erik B;

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: Knee function is reduced in patients with Benign Joint Hypermobility Syndrome. The aim was to study knee function in children and adults with Generalised Joint Hypermobility (GJH) and Non-GJH (NGJH)). MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a matched comparative study, 39 children and 36 adults (mean...... age children 10.2years; adults 40.3years) were included, comprising 19 children and 18 adults with GJH (Beighton =5/9; Beighton =4/9), minimum one hypermobile knee, no knee pain (children), and 20 children and 18 adults with NGJH (Beighton...

  15. Humoral Immunity to AAV-6, 8, and 9 in Normal and Dystrophic Dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Shin, Jin-Hong; Yue, Yongping; Smith, Bruce; Duan, Dongsheng

    2011-01-01

    Adeno-associated virus (AAV)-6, 8, and 9 are promising gene-delivery vectors for testing novel Duchenne muscular dystrophy gene therapy in the canine model. Humoral immunity greatly influences in vivo AAV transduction. However, neutralizing antibodies to AAV-6, 8, and 9 have not been systemically examined in normal and dystrophic dogs. To gain information on the seroprevalence of antibodies to AAV-6, 8, and 9, we measured neutralizing antibody titers using an in vitro transduction inhibition ...

  16. Mathematics Teachers’ Opinions about New Sub Learning Domains in Elementary Mathematics (6-8 Curriculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kürşat YENİLMEZ

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: There are mathematical behaviors in all levels from the preschool education to higher education programs. These behaviors are in mathematics curriculum as objectives. Elementary Mathematics (6-8th grades curriculum was developed in 2005 at last and applied gradually from the 6th grade in 2006-2007 academic year. Thematic approach was considered in regulating context in new mathematics curriculum and determined learning domains and sub learning domains. Some subjects were taken out and some new subjects were added in developing program studies. Patterns and relations in integers, translation, tessellations, structural drawings, transformation geometry, fractals, geometric movements, histogram, kinds of probability, standard deviation, combination, perspective drawings, intersections of objects, polyhedral objects, symmetries of geometric objects are some new subjects in mathematics (6-8th grades curriculum. Patterns and relations in integers and special number patterns are in Patterns and Relations in Algebra learning domain, translation, reflection, rotation, geometric movements and symmetries of geometric objects, tessellations and fractal, structural drawings, intersections of objects and polyhedral objects are in Geometry learning domain, histogram, kinds of probability, standard deviation, combination are in Probability and Statistics learning domain. The purpose of this study was to determine mathematics teachers’ opinions and qualifications about new sub learning domains in elementary mathematics (6-8th grades curriculum. The descriptive survey method was used in the study. The work group of the study consists of 27 mathematics teachers from primary schools in Tekirdağ. Data were collected by a questionnaire which has been developed by the researchers. The questionnaire has 9 open-ended and 17 close-ended questions. Open-ended questions were used to determine mathematics teachers’ views about new sub learning domains were

  17. 4,6,8-Triarylquinoline-3-carbaldehyde Derivatives: Synthesis and Photophysical Properties

    OpenAIRE

    Malose Jack Mphahlele; Adewale Olufunsho Adeloye

    2013-01-01

    Palladium catalyzed Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling of 6,8-dibromo-4-chloroquinoline-3-carbaldehyde with arylboronic and arylvinylboronic acid derivatives in the presence of potassium carbonate in aqueous dioxane afforded the corresponding 4,6,8-triarylquinoline-3-carbaldehydes, exclusively. These products were transformed into 4,6,8-triaryl-3-(4-fluorophenyl)amino)-N-(quinolin-3-yl)methylenes and their 4,6,8-triaryl-quinoline-3-methanol derivatives. The absorption and emission spectra were me...

  18. Resiliency: A Comparison of Construct Definitions Arising from Conversations with 9 Year Old - 12 Year Old Children and Their Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dryden, John; Johnson, Bruce; Howard, Sue; McGuire, Alex

    Much research has focused on the concept of resilience, which is defined as the process of, capacity for, or outcome of successful adaptation despite challenging circumstances. To examine resilience in school children, small group interviews were conducted with 9-12 year-old children (N=125) drawn from five primary schools in South Australia. The…

  19. Tracing Children's Vocabulary Development from Preschool through the School-Age Years: An 8-Year Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Shuang; Su, Mengmeng; Kang, Cuiping; Liu, Hongyun; Zhang, Yuping; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Tardif, Twila; Li, Hong; Liang, Weilan; Zhang, Zhixiang; Shu, Hua

    2015-01-01

    In this 8-year longitudinal study, we traced the vocabulary growth of Chinese children, explored potential precursors of vocabulary knowledge, and investigated how vocabulary growth predicted future reading skills. Two hundred and sixty-four (264) native Chinese children from Beijing were measured on a variety of reading and language tasks over…

  20. Facial mimicry in 6-7 year old children with disruptive behavior disorder and ADHD.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Deschamps

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Impairments in facial mimicry are considered a proxy for deficits in affective empathy and have been demonstrated in 10 year old children and in adolescents with disruptive behavior disorder (DBD. However, it is not known whether these impairments are already present at an earlier age. Emotional deficits have also been shown in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. AIMS: To examine facial mimicry in younger, 6-7 year old children with DBD and with ADHD. METHODS: Electromyographic (EMG activity in response to emotional facial expressions was recorded in 47 children with DBD, 18 children with ADHD and 35 healthy developing children. RESULTS: All groups displayed significant facial mimicry to the emotional expressions of other children. No group differences between children with DBD, children with ADHD and healthy developing children were found. In addition, no differences in facial mimicry were found between the clinical group (i.e., all children with a diagnosis and the typically developing group in an analysis with ADHD symptoms as a covariate, and no differences were found between the clinical children and the typically developing children with DBD symptoms as a covariate. CONCLUSION: Facial mimicry in children with DBD and ADHD throughout the first primary school years was unimpaired, in line with studies on empathy using other paradigms.

  1. Prevalence of overweight and obesity in Danish preschool children over a 10-year period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lone Marie; Hertel, Niels Thomas; Mølgaard, Christian;

    2012-01-01

    Aim:  To determine change in the prevalence of overweight and obesity in preschool children, over a 10-year period and to identify possible predictors of overweight in 5-year-old children. Methods:  Anthropometric data from birth and routine child health examinations at 3 and 5 years of age...... of preschool children, the average BMI and prevalence of overweight and obesity did not vary significantly during the 10-year period. No significant changes in mean birth weight were registered and mean BMI in the group of obese children did not increase. Overweight or obesity at 5 years was strongly...... associated with overweight and obesity at 3 years and with birth weight and gender. Conclusion:  The prevalence of overweight and obesity was observed to be stable over a decade in Danish preschool children without changes in mean BMI in the group of obese children. A strong association between overweight...

  2. The UP4FUN Intervention Effect on Breaking Up Sedentary Time in 10- to 12-Year-Old Belgian Children: The ENERGY-Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verloigne, Maïté; Berntsen, Sveinung; Ridgers, Nicola D; Cardon, Greet; Chinapaw, Mai; Altenburg, Teatske; Brug, Johannes; Bere, Elling; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Van Lippevelde, Wendy; Maes, Lea

    2015-05-01

    There are currently no studies available reporting intervention effects on breaking up children's sedentary time. This study examined the UP4FUN intervention effect on objectively measured number of breaks in sedentary time, number of sedentary bouts (≥ 10 mins) and total and average amount of time spent in those sedentary bouts among 10- to 12-year-old Belgian children. The total sample included 354 children (mean age: 10.9 ± 0.7 years; 59% girls) with valid ActiGraph accelerometer data at pre- and posttest. Only few and small intervention effects were found, namely on total time spent in sedentary bouts immediately after school hours (4-6PM; β = -3.51mins) and on average time spent in sedentary bouts before school hours (6-8.30AM; β = -4.83mins) and immediately after school hours in favor of children from intervention schools (β = -2.71mins). Unexpectedly, girls from intervention schools decreased the number of breaks during school hours (8.30AM-4PM; β = -23.45breaks) and increased the number of sedentary bouts on a weekend day (β = +0.90bouts), whereas girls in control schools showed an increase in number of breaks and a decrease in number of bouts. In conclusion, UP4FUN did not have a consistent or substantial effect on breaking up children's sedentary time and these data suggest that more intensive and longer lasting interventions are needed. PMID:25389211

  3. Children`s literature in the journal Ciciban after the year 2000

    OpenAIRE

    Jazbec, Tina

    2011-01-01

    In my undergraduate thesis there are various different definitions of the youth literature concept presented. Based on this we can behold, that the understanding of youth literature is not simple but very complex. I have decided to write my thesis »Youth literature in the children's magazine Ciciban after the year 2000« because I find the topic very interesting and useful to research and analyse. Also in my opinion it would be a very good starting point for working in class with pupils, b...

  4. Motor Competence Is Associated with Physical Fitness in Four- to Six-Year-Old Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigmundsson, Hermundur; Haga, Monika

    2016-01-01

    The health benefits of a physical active lifestyle and physical fitness from a young age are widely recognized as beneficial. This study examined the relationship between physical fitness and motor competence in children aged four- to six-years-old. A sample of 42 children (mean age 5.15 years, SD 0.56 year) participated in the study. To assess…

  5. 41 CFR 51-6.8 - Deletion of items from the Procurement List.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Deletion of items from the Procurement List. 51-6.8 Section 51-6.8 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to Public Contracts COMMITTEE FOR PURCHASE FROM PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED...

  6. MEDICAL AUDIT OF CHILDREN WITH AMBIGUOUS GENITALIA- REVIEW OF CHILDREN TREATED OVER 18 YEARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praburam P. M

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The survival of a newborn or a child presenting with ambiguous genitalia depends upon the timely diagnosis and institution of appropriate medical care. We undertook this study with the aim to determine if appropriate clinical and confirmatory diagnosis was arrived on time and if the treatment instituted was relevant and satisfactory. Methods: All children who were evaluated for ambiguous genitalia under the Department of Pediatric Endocrinology over the preceding 18 years were invited for a review. Data including time taken to make a clinical diagnosis, time taken to confirm the diagnosis, reasons for delay if any, and appropriateness of the sex assigned for rearing and treatment instituted were collected from the charts. Patients were evaluated for adequacy of response to treatment, compliance, problems encountered if any and subjective parental satisfaction. Results: A total of 165 children were diagnosed to have conditions with ambiguous genitalia and were called for a review. 33 children attended the review. 15 were being raised as boys and 18 as girls. 12 children had virilising congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH, 6 had cryptorchidism, 6 had hypospadias, 3 had complete and 1 had partial testicular feminisation, 2 had mixed gonadal dysgenesis (MGD, 2 had hypogonadism and 1 was a true hermaphrodite. An appropriate clinical diagnosis was made in 30childrenon the day one and a final confirmatory diagnosis was made within a month in 23. Conclusion: In most conditions presenting with ambiguous genitalia, a clinical and confirmatory diagnosis can be made in a short duration. Initiation of appropriate treatment results in favourable outcomes in terms of growth sexual identity and adaptation.

  7. Fever and feverish illness in children under five years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, Penny; Harrison, Maureen

    This article discusses the causes and management of fever in children. In line with guidance from the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence, it explores the importance of identifying children at risk of serious illness and those that can be managed safely at home. The article also identifies the skills and knowledge required by paediatric and general nurses working with children, alongside the need to offer parents guidance on antipyretics and how to care for their child at home.

  8. State of cognitive development in children 5-6 years of age with nutritional iron deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chechel V.V.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Features of the development of cognitive functions in children 5-6 years of age with iron deficiency (ID were studied and the relationship of the revealed features of iron deficiency degree was established. After clinical and laboratory examination 205 children aged 5-6 years, pupils of pre-school institutions were included in the study. The core group consisted of 155 children, including 105 children with latent iron deficiency (LID and 50 children with iron deficiency anemia (IDA I degree. The control group consisted of 50 healthy children. To study cognitive function, "Approximate comprehensive program of study of children's readiness for school" was used. A significant decrease of average data of all mental functions (perception, memory, language, thinking, ima¬gination in children 5-6 years old with ID, most pronounced in children with IDA was revealed. Indicators of cognitive functions correspond predominantly to a mild and moderate level of development in children with IDA, the average - in children with LID, good and high - in healthy children. There was a significant direct correlation between the level of cognitive functioning and the level of hemoglobin, serum iron and ferritin. The effect of iron deficiency on the development of indicators of cognitive function toward their reduce in preschool children was established. The level of cognitive functioning depends on the degree of iron deficiency.

  9. Comparison of serum zinc in children younger than 5 years old with febrile convulsion, children with seizures without fever and normal children

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Vahidi A; Mohammad Torabinejad; Marayam Shamspour; Niloofar Golmohammadi; Mohammad Heidari

    2014-01-01

    Background: Febrile seizures are the most common seizure disorder in children and have a good prognosis. Many theories about the role of neurotransmitters and trace elements in serum and cerebrospinal fluid are introduced as the pathogenesis of febrile seizures. Among these elements, the element can be noted. The purpose of this study to comparison of serum zinc in children younger than 5 years old with febrile convulsion, children with seizures without febrile and normal children. Methods...

  10. Coordination of precision grip in 2–6 years-old children with autism spectrum disorders compared to children developing typically and children with developmental disabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Fabian Jude David; Baranek, Grace T.; Chris eWiesen; Adrienne eMiao; Thorpe, Deborah E.

    2012-01-01

    Impaired motor coordination is prevalent in children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) and affects adaptive skills. Little is known about the development of motor patterns in young children with ASD between 2 and 6 years of age. The purpose of the current study was threefold: (1) to describe developmental correlates of motor coordination in children with ASD, (2) to identify the extent to which motor coordination deficits are unique to ASD by using a control group of children with other de...

  11. Self-Repair of Speech by Four-Year-Old Finnish Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salonen, Tuuli; Laakso, Minna

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine what four-year-old children repair in their speech. For this purpose, conversational self-repairs (N = 316) made by two typically developing Finnish-speaking children (aged 4 ; 8 and 4 ; 11) were examined. The data comprised eight hours of natural interactions videotaped at the children's homes. The tapes were…

  12. Functioning of 7-Year-Old Children Born at 32 to 35 Weeks' Gestational Age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cserjesi, R.; Van Braeckel, K.N.J.A.; Butcher, P.R.; Kerstjens, J.M.; Reijneveld, S.A.; Bouma, A.; Geuze, R.H.; Bos, A.F.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare neuropsychological functions in moderately preterm (32-35 weeks' gestation) and full-term children at the age of 7 years and identify gender differences. METHODS: Community-based prospective cohort study of 248 moderately preterm children (138 boys) and 130 full-term children (

  13. Attachment Stability in Children Aged 6 to 9 Years in Extended and Nuclear Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seven, Serdal; Ogelman, Hulya Gulay

    2012-01-01

    Research Findings: The main aim of this study was to identify whether the attachment security of children living in nuclear and extended families is stable from ages 6 to 9 years in a sample of Turkish children. In total, 54 children participated in the study, of whom 27 lived in nuclear families and the other 27 lived in extended families in Mus…

  14. Narrative Comprehension Skills in 5-Year-Old Children: Correlational Analysis and Comprehender Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potocki, Anna; Ecalle, Jean; Magnan, Annie

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed to examine whether a variety of cognitive and linguistic factors theoretically considered to be predictive of reading comprehension skills in elementary school children were also predictive of listening comprehension skills in 131 five-year-old children. The results showed that the predictors of young children's listening…

  15. Diarrhea in children less than two years of age with known HIV status in Kisumu, Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M. van Eijk; J.T. Brooks; P.M. Adcock; V. Garrett; M. Eberhard; D.H. Rosen; J.G. Ayisi; J.B. Ochieng; L. Kumar; J.R. Gentsch; B.L. Nahlen; E.D. Mintz; L. Slutsker

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To compare the frequency and etiology of diarrhea in children aged less than 2 years with known HIV status. Methods: This was a nested cohort study, whereby children were followed during monthly routine and unscheduled visits. The HIV status of children was determined with PCR. A stool cu

  16. Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders Who Do Not Develop Phrase Speech in the Preschool Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norrelgen, Fritjof; Fernell, Elisabeth; Eriksson, Mats; Hedvall, Asa; Persson, Clara; Sjölin, Maria; Gillberg, Christopher; Kjellmer, Liselotte

    2015-01-01

    There is uncertainty about the proportion of children with autism spectrum disorders who do not develop phrase speech during the preschool years. The main purpose of this study was to examine this ratio in a population-based community sample of children. The cohort consisted of 165 children (141 boys, 24 girls) with autism spectrum disorders aged…

  17. School functioning in 8- to 18-year-old children born after in vitro fertilization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagenaar, Karin; Ceelen, Manon; Weissenbruch, van Mirjam; Knol, Dirk; Delemarre-van de Waal, Henriette; Huisman, Jaap

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the school functioning of 8- to 18-year-old children born after in vitro fertilization (IVF). We compared 233 children born after IVF to 233 matched control children born spontaneously from parents with fertility problems on measures of education level, general c

  18. Collaborative Problem Solving in Five-Year-Old Children: Evidence of Social Facilitation and Social Loafing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arterberry, Martha E.; Cain, Kathleen M.; Chopko, Stephanie A.

    2007-01-01

    Children's problem solving while working by themselves or with a partner was investigated to explore whether young children are susceptible to social facilitation and social loafing. Five-year-olds were asked to complete easy or hard puzzles, either alone or with a partner. Half of the children were given instructions indicating that their…

  19. Five- to 8-Year-Old Emirati Children's and Their Teachers' Perceptions of War

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buldu, Mehmet

    2009-01-01

    This study examined 5- to 8-year-old Emirati children's and their teachers' perceptions of war. Data for this study were collected through drawings and semi-structured interviews. A phenomenological procedure was used to analyze the data. Younger children could not articulate the details of the specific nature of war. Many children defined war as…

  20. Children of Methadone-Maintained Mothers: Three-Year Follow-Up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Helen L.; And Others

    The physical and neurobehavioral findings at 3 years of age for 39 children born to mothers on methadone- maintenance and 23 children born to drug-free comparison mothers are reported. The methadone children had a higher incidence of head circumferences less than the third percentile, nystagmus/strabismus, and otitis media. No differences were…

  1. The Effects of Three Years of Piano Instruction on Children's Cognitive Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa-Giomi, Eugenia

    1999-01-01

    Examines the effects of 3 years of piano instruction on children's cognitive abilities. Finds that children's general cognitive and spatial abilities improved significantly, but those improvements were only temporary. Believes that the positive effects on the children's cognitive abilities were dependent upon their dedication to learning the…

  2. Maximum oxygen uptake and objectively measured physical activity in Danish children 6-7 years of age: the Copenhagen school child intervention study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eiberg, Stig; Hasselstrøm, Henriette; Grønfeldt, Vivian;

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: To provide normative data on maximum oxygen uptake (V·O2MAX) and physical activity in children 6-7 years of age and analyse the association between these variables. Methods: VO2MAX was measured in 366 boys (mean (SD) 6.8 (0.4) years of age) and 332 girls (6.7 (0.4) years of age) from...... preschool classes in two suburban communities in Copenhagen, during a progressive treadmill exercise. Habitual physical activity was measured with accelerometers. Results: Boys had higher VO2MAX both in absolute values (1.19 (0.18) v 1.06 (0.16) litres/min (+11%), p....5 (6.0) v 44.8 (5.6) ml/kg/min (+8%); pphysically active than girls (mean counts...

  3. How do parents of 4- to 5-year-old children perceive the weight of their children?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luttikhuis, H. G. M. Oude; Stolk, R. P.; Sauer, P. J. J.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: A heavier weight in adults is becoming the norm rather than an abnormal weight. Whether the same trend is happening in children is unknown. Objective: To assess the perception of the weight of 4- to 5-year-old children and the recognition of overweight by both parents. Design:

  4. Nutritional transition in children under five years and women of reproductive age: a 15-years trend analysis in Peru.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Loret de Mola

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rapid urbanization, increase in food availability, and changes in diet and lifestyle patterns have been changing nutritional profiles in developing nations. We aimed to describe nutritional changes in children under 5 years and women of reproductive age in Peru, during a 15-year period of rapid economic development and social policy enhancement. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Trend analyses of anthropometric measures in children of preschool age and women between 15-49 years, using the Peruvian National Demographic and Family Health Surveys (DHS from 1996 to 2011. WHO growth curves were used to define stunting, underweight, wasting and overweight in children 19 years, body mass index (BMI was analyzed both categorically and as a continuous variable. To statistically analyze the trends, we used regression models: Linear and Poisson for continuous and binary outcomes, respectively. RESULTS: We analyzed data from 123 642 women and 64 135 children, from 1996 to 2011. Decreases over time were evidenced for underweight (p<0.001, wasting (p<0.001, and stunting (p<0.001 in children under 5 y. This effect was particularly noted in urban settings. Overweight levels in children reduced (p<0.001, however this reduction stopped, in urban settings, since 2005 (∼12%. Anemia decreased in children and women (p<0.001; with higher reduction in urban (↓43% than in rural children (↓24%. BMI in women aged 15-19 years increased (p<0.001 across time, with noticeable BMI-curve shift in women older than 30 years. Moreover, obesity doubled during this period in women more than 19 y. CONCLUSION: Nutrition transition in Peru shows different patterns for urban and rural populations. Public policies should emphasize targeting both malnutrition conditions--undernutrition/stunting, overweight/obesity and anemia--considering age and place of residence in rapid developing societies like Peru.

  5. Oral cleanliness of 12-13-year-old and 15-year-old school children of Sunsari District, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yee R

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the oral cleanliness of school children in the District of Sunsari, Nepal. A multi-stage random sampling oral epidemiological survey was conducted in private and government, urban, rural town and rural village schools in 15 illakas of Sunsari District, Eastern Nepal. A total of 600, 12-13-year-old and 600 15-year-old school children were examined by trained examiners using the simplified oral hygiene index (OHI-S. The average age-group, debris and calculus index scores were combined to obtain the simplified oral hygiene index (OHI-S. The mean OHI-S scores were compared and evaluated using the parametric t-test for two independent samples. The mean OHI-S for urban 12-13-year-old school children was 0.98 compared to 1.34 for school children of rural towns and 1.44 for school children of rural villages and these differences in mean OHI-S were statistically significant ( P < 0.005. In the 15-year-old age group, urban school children had a mean OHI-S score of 1.00 compared to 1.37 for rural towns and 1.43 for rural villages. The variance in the mean OHI-S scores were statistically significant ( P < 0.005. The overall level of cleanliness in the school children surveyed was good. Children of urban schools had the lowest scores followed by school children from rural towns and then rural villages. When the mean OHI-S scores were compared with the DMFT scores, there was an inverse relationship between oral cleanliness and dental caries. Frequency of sugar consumption and the availability and affordability of fluoridated toothpaste may be important factors in the development of dental caries than oral cleanliness.

  6. Laparoscopic upper pole heminephroureterectomy in children: Seven-year experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Marte

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Minimally invasive surgery is the current approach to perform heminephroureterectomy (HN in children. This can be obtained through a transperitoneal (TP or a retroperitoneal approach. Here, we report our experience using a TP approach. Materials and Methods: From 2005 to 2014, 22 TP laparoscopic upper poles HN were performed at our institution. There were nine girls and 13 boys aged between 20 months and 6 years (mean age 3.9. Eight patients were diagnosed prenatally, 17 patients presented with urinary tract infection (UTI and three with vomiting and failure to thrive. The indication for HN was reflux nephropathy and UTI in non-functioning upper pole in 19 patients and cystic dysplasia in 1 patient. The surgical technique involved the following steps: Cystoscopic recognition; positioning of 3-4 trocar (right HN; identification of the kidney (detachment of the colon; isolation and low ligation of the dilated ureter; decrossing from renal vessels; section of the parenchyma by LigaSure; haemostasis with clips and LigaSure; drain. Results: The mean operative time was 154 min (range: 81-220 min. All patients were discharged from the 2 nd to 4 th day. Neither major complication nor conversion was recorded. 1 patient presented leakage of urine for 7 days from the drainage which resolved spontaneously. At ultrasound follow-up, 5 patients showed a secondary perirenal cyst, 2-5 cm diameter that resolved spontaneously. Conclusion: The results indicate that laparoscopic upper pole heminephrectomy is the treatment of choice in cases of non-functioning dilated lower segments of duplicated kidneys. The use of laparoscopic approach offers a good working space, a good visual control of the vessels and allows a very low isolation of the ureteral stump which counterbalance the peritoneal violation.

  7. BREASTFEEDING AND EARLY CHILDHOOD CARIES (ECC) SEVERITY OF CHILDREN UNDER THREE YEARS OLD IN DKI JAKARTA

    OpenAIRE

    Risqa Rina Darwita; Herwati Djoharnas; Febriana Setiawati Sugito

    2008-01-01

    The prevalence and severity of caries in children under three years old are constantly increasing. One of the cause is the increase consumption of cariogenic carbohydrate. Breast milk have buffer capacity that eventually able to prevent caries. The aims of this research are to discover the correlation between breastfeeding with the severity of Early Childhood Caries (ECC) in children under three years old, to provide information on prevalence and severity of caries in children under three yea...

  8. Bruxism and familiar functioning in school-age children between 5 and 11 years

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Lury Morales; Clotilde de la Caridad Mora Pérez; Ivelise Álvarez Rosa; Moraima Orbea González; Jeny Fernández Martínez; Jorge A. Rodriguez López

    2009-01-01

    Background: Bruxism, a common negative habit in children, is often linked with emotional conflicts, anxiety, stress, or frustration, which could be originated in the familiar environment. Objective: To characterize the familiar environment of children between 5 and 11 years suffering from bruxism. Methods: Analytical control-case design, developed from March to June, 2007, including children between 5 and 11 years from three urban elementary schools included in Health Area II of Cienfuegos mu...

  9. Facial Mimicry in 6-7 Year Old Children with Disruptive Behavior Disorder and ADHD

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Deschamps; Nicolette Munsters; Leon Kenemans; Dennis Schutter; Walter Matthys

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Impairments in facial mimicry are considered a proxy for deficits in affective empathy and have been demonstrated in 10 year old children and in adolescents with disruptive behavior disorder (DBD). However, it is not known whether these impairments are already present at an earlier age. Emotional deficits have also been shown in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). AIMS: To examine facial mimicry in younger, 6-7 year old children with DBD and with ADHD. M...

  10. Patterns of Attendance of Children Under 12 Years at School Dental Service in Western Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Lam, SPL; Baros, H; O’Grady, MJ; Kendall, GE; Messer, LB; Slack-Smith, LM

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the patterns of attendance at School Dental Service (SDS) and reasons for attendance (treatment or prevention) for children in the Perth Metropolitan Area, in particular investigating the first year of SDS attendance and attendance until the year the child turned 12. The first 150 SDS records located for children from the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study were used for this study. Patterns of attendance of children at SDS were described...

  11. Caries risk profiles in 2- to 6-year-old Greek children using the Cariogram

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kavvadia, Katerina; Agouropoulos, Andreas; Gizani, Sotiria;

    2012-01-01

    To assess the caries risk profiles in 2- to 6-year-old Greek children using a computer-based program and to evaluate the contribution of various risk factors.......To assess the caries risk profiles in 2- to 6-year-old Greek children using a computer-based program and to evaluate the contribution of various risk factors....

  12. Predictors of Reading Development in Deaf Children: A 3-Year Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyle, Fiona E.; Harris, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    The development of reading ability in a group of deaf children was followed over a 3-year period. A total of 29 deaf children (7-8 years of age at the first assessment) participated in the study, and every 12 months they were given a battery of literacy, cognitive, and language tasks. Earlier vocabulary and speechreading skills predicted…

  13. Determinants of developmental coordination disorder in 7-year-old children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faebo Larsen, Rikke; Hvas Mortensen, Laust; Martinussen, Torben;

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate early life determinants of developmental coordination disorder (DCD) in 7-year-old children.......The aim of this study was to investigate early life determinants of developmental coordination disorder (DCD) in 7-year-old children....

  14. Development of Inferencing Skills in 5 to 7 Year Old Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anne, V.; Ramasamy, K.

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated the development of inferencing in five to seven year old children. The subjects consisted of thirty typically developing children of five, six and seven years, distributed into three groups of ten. Four sets of material were prepared and for each two types of questions were constructed. The questions being of literal…

  15. Sustained Effects of Incredible Years as a Preventive Intervention in Preschool Children with Conduct Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posthumus, Jocelyne A.; Raaijmakers, Maartje A. J.; Maassen, Gerard H.; van Engeland, Herman; Matthys, Walter

    2012-01-01

    The present study evaluated preventive effects of the Incredible Years program for parents of preschool children who were at risk for a chronic pattern of conduct problems, in the Netherlands. In a matched control design, 72 parents of children with conduct problems received the Incredible Years program. These families (intervention group) were…

  16. Psychiatric disorders in Danish children aged 5-7 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elberling, Hanne; Linneberg, Allan; Ulrikka Rask, Charlotte;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Knowledge about the presentation of psychopathology in preschool age and associated risk factors is fundamental to preventive intervention before schooling. AIMS: To investigate the full spectrum of psychiatric diagnoses in general population children at the period of transition from ...

  17. Synthesis and Crystal Structure of 2,6,8,12-Tetraacetyl- 2,4,6,8,10,12-hexaazatetracyclo[5.5.0.05,9.03,11]dodecane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙成辉; 冯泽旺; 方涛; 赵信岐

    2005-01-01

    The title compound, 2,6,8,12-tetraacetyl-2,4,6,8,10,12-hexaazatetracyclo[5.5.0.05,9.03,11]dodecane (TAIW, C14H2oN6O4, Mr= 336.36), has been synthesized by hydrogenolysis debenzylation of tetraacetyldibenzylhexaazaisowurtzitane (TADB) and its crystal structure was determined to be monoclinic, space group C2/c with a = 28.193(6), b = 12.139(2), c = 17.678(4) (A), β= 97.44(3)°, V=5999(2) (A)3, Z= 16, Dc= 1.490 g/cm3, F(000) = 2848, μ(MoKα) = 0.112 mm-1, R = 0.0631 and wR =0.1586. X-ray investigations indicate that the molecule has different isomers and there exist intermolecular C-H…O hydrogen bonds in the crystal structure. The results of elemental analysis, IR and NMR spectroscopy are included.

  18. Pattern of Rheumatic Fever in Egyptian Children Younger Than 5 Years

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahim, L. A.; Fattouh, A. M.; Hamza, H. S.; Attia, W. A.

    2013-01-01

    Aims: Acute rheumatic fever (ARF) is common between 5-15 years, uncommon with different presentation 25 in children below 5 years. The aim of this study is to assess the frequency and characterize the pattern of 26 presentation of rheumatic fever (RF) in Egyptian children younger than 5 years. Study Design: Retrospective study. Place and Duration of the Study: Pediatric department, cardiology division, Cairo University Children’s Hospital, 5 years follow up. Methodology: We retrospectiv...

  19. [Prognosis of three-year-old children with developmental speech delay: reading and writing abilities at eight years of age].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koeda, T; Tomita, Y; Takeshita, K

    1990-05-01

    Of 1761 three-year-old children born in 1979-80 and lived at Yonago city, Japan, 28 (1.6%; 25 boys and girls) were diagnosed as developmental speech delay by two pediatric neurologists. Reading and writing skills were evaluated in twelve of the speech delayed children at 8 years by ITPA, Token test and their compositions. Their results showed that reading or writing skill was delayed in many of them, especially in those with behavioral disorders, such as hyperkinetic behavior and poor personal relationship at 3 years.

  20. Hydatid cyst in children: A 10-year experience from Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid Aslanabadi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hydatid disease is one of the major world-wide health problems especially in endemic countries. Due to lack of statistics about this disease, various aspects of hydatidosis in children in North-West of Iran have been studied in this study. Materials and Methods: We studied 59 children with hydatidosis referring Tabriz Children Hospital, Tabriz, Iran from 2001 up to 2011. We surveyed chief complaint of patients, number, size and location of cysts in children and also we studied cysts as if they are infected or ruptured or not. Results: Average age of 59 patients (32 [54.2%] males and 27 [45.8%] females was 7.93 ± 3.0. The most common chief complaints were cough and pain. Number of cysts was higher in females (2.00 ± 2.8 vs. 1.52 ± 1.0. The most common locations of cysts are lung and liver (52 patients; however, other organs had been also affected. Conclusions: Lung hydatidosis is more common than hepatic hydatidosis in children than adults and it is more frequent in males. Hydatid disease should be considered in differential diagnoses of liver and lung cystic lesions in children.

  1. Children's Judgments of Parental Fairness: An Indian Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laddu, Nandini; Kapadia, Shagufa

    2007-01-01

    The study examined children's moral reasoning with specific reference to adult interventions, across age and gender. Seventy-two children from the age groups 6-8 years and 10-12 years respectively were presented with two hypothetical vignettes pertaining to Piaget's justice framework of moral reasoning. Chi-square analysis and descriptive analysis…

  2. Effect of methyl substitution on optoelectronic properties of 1,3,6,8-tetraphenyl pyrenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIU Yanling

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Geometric structures of the ground states and excited states,frontier molecular orbitals,ionization potentials,electron affinities,reorganization energies,and absorption and emission spectra of three novel methyl-substituted 1,3,6,8-tetra-phenylpyrenes were studied theoretically by quantum-chemical methods,such as density functional theory (DFT.The results show that the position of methyl substituent on benzene ring has much effect on the optoelectronic properties of methyl-substituted 1,3,6,8-tetra-phenylpyrenes.Interestingly,the geometric structures and optoelectronic properties of the designed compound 1,3,6,8-tetra-p-tolylpyrene (TPPy are similar to those of 1,3,6,8-tetrakis(3,5-dimethylphenylpyrene (TDMPPy,which is worthy of being further researched.

  3. Participation in School Food and Nutrition Activities among Grade 6-8 Students in Vancouver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Teya A; Black, Jennifer L; Chapman, Gwen E; Velazquez, Cayley E; Rojas, Alejandro

    2016-07-01

    This study examined student-reported participation in school food and nutrition activities in Vancouver, British Columbia (BC), and whether engagement differed by gender and between elementary and secondary school students. A cross-sectional survey of grade 6-8 public school students (n = 937) from 20 elementary and 6 secondary schools assessed student-reported participation in a range of food and nutrition activities. Statistical analyses included descriptive statistics and multilevel logistic regression to examine associations between participation with gender and school type. Overall, food and nutrition activities examined in the 2011-2012 school year, including: food preparation (36%), choosing/tasting healthy foods (27%), learning about Canada's Food Guide (CFG) (45%), learning about foods grown in BC (35%), gardening (21%), composting (32%), and recycling (51%). Females were more likely to report recycling and learning about CFG and BC-grown foods (P more likely to report activities focused on working with or learning about food/nutrition (P food and nutrition experiences, participation in most activities remains relatively low, with few students exposed to multiple activities. Continued advocacy is needed from the dietetics community to improve student engagement in food and nutrition activities. PMID:27182726

  4. The cultural and linguistic diversity of 3-year-old children with hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowe, Kathryn; McLeod, Sharynne; Ching, Teresa Y C

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the cultural and linguistic diversity of young children with hearing loss informs the provision of assessment, habilitation, and education services to both children and their families. Data describing communication mode, oral language use, and demographic characteristics were collected for 406 children with hearing loss and their caregivers when children were 3 years old. The data were from the Longitudinal Outcomes of Children with Hearing Impairment (LOCHI) study, a prospective, population-based study of children with hearing loss in Australia. The majority of the 406 children used spoken English at home; however, 28 other languages also were spoken. Compared with their caregivers, the children in this study used fewer spoken languages and had higher rates of oral monolingualism. Few children used a spoken language other than English in their early education environment. One quarter of the children used sign to communicate at home and/or in their early education environment. No associations between caregiver hearing status and children's communication mode were identified. This exploratory investigation of the communication modes and languages used by young children with hearing loss and their caregivers provides an initial examination of the cultural and linguistic diversity and heritage language attrition of this population. The findings of this study have implications for the development of resources and the provision of early education services to the families of children with hearing loss, especially where the caregivers use a language that is not the lingua franca of their country of residence. PMID:22942315

  5. Prescribing Analysis for 2–5 Years Old Children in Bandung During Year 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ami A. Pratiwi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite the fact that irrational use of drugs will give medication errors effect or cause the unwanted side effects. The National Drug Policy (KONAS has developed drug policies that involve all stake-holders in Indonesia in order to minimize the irrational drug use. This study aims to analyze drug prescribing for 2–5 years old children in 14 pharmacies in Bandung during 2012. Approximately 2,195 prescription sheets from 14 pharmacies in Bandung were collected and analyzed by using prescribing indicators from the World Health Organization (WHO. We found an average number of 3.54 drugs in a prescription-sheet. We also found that 75% and 0% of all patients received antibiotics and injection, respectively. In particular, approximately 8% and 33% of all prescribed drugs were included in generic drug list and National List of Essential Medicines (DOEN, respectively. Based on data from the WHO and KONAS, it can be interpreted that the average number of drugs in a prescription-sheet is still high and the use of antibiotics is significantly higher compared to the use of antibiotics in other developing countries. Also, we summarized that the use of drugs according to generic drug list and DOEN are still low.

  6. Severe episodic viral wheeze in preschool children: High risk of asthma at age 5–10 years

    OpenAIRE

    Kappelle, Lucie; Brand, Paul L. P.

    2012-01-01

    In population studies, most children with episodic viral wheeze (EVW) become symptom free by 6 years. We studied the outcome of children with severe EVW, treated and followed up in hospital. We followed up 78 children

  7. Causes of Mortality in Newborns and Children Under 5 Years of Age in Northern Iran

    OpenAIRE

    FS Sharifi

    2002-01-01

    1- A survey of the causes of mortality in newborns and children under 5 years of age during 10 years (1988-1997) in northern Iran (Regions eastern and western bandpey, gatab and kolagarmahalleh in province babol) revealed following results: Average incidence of mortality in newborns and children under 5 years of age was 10.5 and 4 per thousand respectively. The most frequently encountered causes of death in children under 5 years of age were congenital anomalies (20.2%), infections (16.8%), p...

  8. Assessment of dental caries predictors in 6-year-old school children - results from 5-year retrospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masood Mohd

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This was a retrospective cohort study undertaken to assess the rate and pattern of dental caries development in 6-year-old school children followed-up for a period of 5 years, and to identify baseline risk factors that were associated with 5 years caries experience in Malaysian children. Methods This 5-years retrospective cohort study comprised primary school children initially aged 6 years in 2004. Caries experience of each child was recorded annually using World Health Organization criteria. The rates of dental caries were recorded in prevalence and incidence density of carious lesions from baseline to final examination. Risk assessment was done to assess relative risk for caries after 5 years in children with baseline caries status. Simple and multiple logistic regression analysis were performed to identify significant independent risk factors for caries. Results The sample consisted of 1830 school children. All components of DMFT showed significant differences between baseline and final examination. Filled teeth (FT component of the DMFT showed the greatest increases. Results revealed the initial baseline caries level in permanent dentition was a strong predictor for future caries after 5 years (RR=3.78, 95% CI=3.48-4.10, P0.001. Logistic regression analysis showed significant association between caries occurrence and residence (urban/rural (OR=1.80, Pp observed from baseline and after 5 years was 5.80 persons/100 person-year of observation. The rate of new caries-affected tooth (IDt in the period from baseline and after 5-years was 0.76 teeth/100 teeth-year of observation. Conclusion The majority of 12-year-old school children (70% were caries-free and most of the caries were concentrated in only a small proportion (30% of them. We found that the presence of caries in permanent teeth at the age of 6 years was a strong predictor of future caries development in this population. The strong evidence of early permanent teeth

  9. Voiding dysfunction in children aged five to 15 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karaklajić Dragana

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Voiding dysfunction in children was analyzed in 91 patients in a period from January 1st to October 1st 1998. Most of the patients had functional voiding disorder (92.31%, and only 7.69% manifested monosymptomatic night enuresis. The number of girls was bigger in the group of patients with voiding dysfunction while the boys were predominant in the group with mono-symptomatic nocturnal enuresis. More than a half of children with functional voiding disorder had repeated urinal infections (58.23%, incontinence (93.49%, need for urgent voiding (68.13%, and vesicoureteral reflux (47.61%. The most common type of voiding dysfunction was urge syndrome/urge incontinence. The incidence of dysfunctional voiding disorder was more often in children with scaring changes of kidney which were diagnosed by static scintigraphy.

  10. The relation of hearing loss degrees and oral stereognosis in 5-year-old children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyede Zohre Mousavi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Oral stereognosis is the ability to recognize the objects placed in the mouth; this plays a significant role in speech sounds production. Since the children with hearing loss have articulation disorders, this study aimed to clear the relation of hearing loss degrees and oral stereognosis in 5-year-old children.Methods: In this cross-sectional non-invasive study, 40 children of 5-year-old (30 children with different degrees of hearing loss and 10 normal children were involved. Oral steriognostic test was done for all of them and the Mann-Whitney U was used for statistical analysis.Results: There were significant differences between the mean of oral stereognostic ability between the normal children and the children with severe (p<0.01 or profound hearing loss (p=0.05. There was no significant difference between the mean of oral stereognostic ability among the children with moderate, severe and profound hearing loss compared with together. Besides, there was no significant difference between the mean of the time of diagnosis among all of hearing loss and normal children.Conclusion: The study shows that the children with moderate, severe and profound hearing loss have inefficient oral stereognosis in comparison with the normal children.

  11. Developing Resilient Children: After 100 Years of Montessori Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Meg

    2008-01-01

    In this millennium, educators are faced with a number of issues that Dr. Maria Montessori could not have predicted. Today, students are different from the children Dr. Montessori observed in her "Casa dei Bambini." They are influenced by technology in all its forms. Some suffer from medical problems such as complex food allergies, which wreak…

  12. A Social Relations Analysis of Children's Trust in Their Peers across the Early Years of School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betts, Lucy R.; Rotenberg, Ken J.

    2008-01-01

    Two hundred and five (103 female and 102 male) children enrolled in school years 1 and 2 in the UK (mean age 6 years 1 month at Time 1) were tested twice over a 1-year period. The children reported the promise keeping and secret keeping behaviours of classmates (all peers and same-gender peers) and provided friendship nominations (Time 2 only).…

  13. Sustained Effects of Incredible Years as a Preventive Intervention in Preschool Children with Conduct Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Posthumus, Jocelyne A.; Raaijmakers, Maartje A. J.; Maassen, Gerard H.; Van Engeland, Herman; Matthys, Walter

    2011-01-01

    The present study evaluated preventive effects of the Incredible Years program for parents of preschool children who were at risk for a chronic pattern of conduct problems, in the Netherlands. In a matched control design, 72 parents of children with conduct problems received the Incredible Years program. These families (intervention group) were compared with 72 families who received care as usual (control group). Two years after termination of the intervention, it appeared that observed and s...

  14. 6,8-Di-C-methyl-flavonoids with neuroprotective activities from Rhododendron fortunei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Yongji; Zeng, Hong; He, Meijun; Qian, Huiqin; Wu, Zhaodi; Luo, Zengwei; Xue, Yongbo; Yao, Guangmin; Zhang, Yonghui

    2016-07-01

    Six 6,8-di-C-methyl-flavonoids, (2R,3R)-6,8-di-C-methyl-5,7,4'-trihydroxyflavanonol 7-O-β-d-gluco-pyranoside (1), (2R,3R)-6,8-di-C-methyl-5,7,4'-trihydroxyflavanonol 7-O-β-d-xylopyranosyl(1→6)-β-d-glucopyranoside (2), 6,8-di-C-methylkaempferol 7-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (3), (2R)-farrerol (4a), (2R/2S)-farrerol 7-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (5), and (2R/2S)-farrerol 7-O-β-d-xylopyranosyl(1→6)-β-d-glucopyranoside (6), and four known analogues, farrerol (4b), (2R,3R)-6,8-di-C-methyldihydrokae-mpferol (7), 6,8-di-C-methylkaempferol 7-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (8), and 6,8-di-C-methylkaempferol (9), were isolated from the twigs and leaves of Rhododendron fortunei. The structures of compounds 1-9 were determined by spectroscopic analyses (HRESIMS, 1D and 2D NMR, and CD) and chemical methods. Compounds 1-9 were evaluated for their neuroprotective effects on the human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells apoptosis induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and amyloid β peptide (Aβ), respectively. Compounds 1-3 and 5-9 exhibited significant neuroprotective effects against H2O2-induced SH-SY5Y cell apoptosis, and compound 8 exhibited the strongest activity with a improvement of cell viability by about 30% at the concentration of 10μM. Compounds 1-9 showed significant neuroprotective effects against Aβ-induced SH-SY5Y cell apoptosis. PMID:27345941

  15. Separable sustained and selective attention factors are apparent in 5-year-old children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Underbjerg, Mette; George, Melanie S; Thorsen, Poul;

    2013-01-01

    In adults and older children, evidence consistent with relative separation between selective and sustained attention, superimposed upon generally positive inter-test correlations, has been reported. Here we examine whether this pattern is detectable in 5-year-old children from the healthy...... population. A new test battery (TEA-Ch(J)) was adapted from measures previously used with adults and older children and administered to 172 5-year-olds. Test-retest reliability was assessed in 60 children. Ninety-eight percent of the children managed to complete all measures. Discrimination of visual...... of attention at the age of 5 with the results reflecting a similar factor structure to that obtained in older children and adults. The results are discussed in light of contemporary models of attention function. Given the potential advantages of early intervention for attention difficulties, the findings...

  16. School functioning in 8- to 18-year-old children born after in vitro fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagenaar, Karin; Ceelen, Manon; van Weissenbruch, Mirjam M; Knol, Dirk L; Delemarre-van de Waal, Henriette A; Huisman, Jaap

    2008-11-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the school functioning of 8- to 18-year-old children born after in vitro fertilization (IVF). We compared 233 children born after IVF to 233 matched control children born spontaneously from parents with fertility problems on measures of education level, general cognitive ability, school performance (need for extra help, repeating a grade, special education), and rates of learning and developmental disorders. No differences were found between IVF and control children on these measures of school functioning. More than 60% of adolescents at secondary school attended high academic levels (with access to high school or university). We conclude that children and adolescents born after IVF show good academic achievement and general cognitive ability. They do not experience any more educational limitations than the naturally conceived children and adolescents of the control group. The tendency of reassuring school functioning already found in younger IVF children has been shown to continue at secondary school age.

  17. Clinical and paraclinical aspects of children's health ten years after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These investigations are devoted to the problem of medical consequences of Chernobyl catastrophe to the children's population of Ukraine. Concerning different reports, Chernobyl accident negatively influenced to the children health indexes. Astonishing fact is that among children under radiation action only 2,1% have no functional deflexions (I group of health) and 28% have chronical diseases with frequent aggravation. Our previous investigation in children evacuated from 30 km zone showed unfavourable changes in immune system. We have shown the data of investigation carried out in the frames of National Program ''Children of Chernobyl''. We have studied the morbidity, some immune functional characteristics and metabolism indexes in 2700 children aged 0-15 years, continually living within radiation contaminated territories. The results were compared with the control indexes, obtained during examination of 980 children from relatively ''clean'' regions. 15 refs, 5 figs, 1 tab

  18. The paediatric flat foot and general anthropometry in 140 Australian school children aged 7 - 10 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evans Angela M

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many studies have found a positive relationship between increased body weight and flat foot posture in children. Methods From a study population of 140 children aged seven to 10 years, a sample of 31 children with flat feet was identified by screening with the FPI-6. Basic anthropometric measures were compared between subjects with and without flat feet as designated. Results The results of this study, in contrast to many others, question the association of flat feet and heavy children. A significant relationship between foot posture and weight (FPI (L r = -0.186 (p Conclusions This study presents results which conflict with those of many previous investigations addressing the relationship between children's weight and foot posture. In contrast to previous studies, the implication of these results is that heavy children have less flat feet. Further investigation is warranted using a standardized approach to assessment and a larger sample of children to test this apparent contradiction.

  19. Profile and outcome of neuroblastoma with convertional chemotherapy in children older than one year: a 15-years experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Deepak; Marwaha, R K; Trehan, Amita; Rao, K L N; Gupta, Vishal

    2008-02-01

    The clinical profile and outcome of neuroblastoma in 103 children, older than one-year is presented. 74 had Stage IV, 27 Stage III and one patient each had Stage I or II disease. Treatment included chemotherapy followed by surgical resection/debulking. Radiotherapy was administered to those with residual tumor. Chemotherapy consisted of OPEC (vincristine, cyclophosphamide, cisplatin and etoposide). The caretakers of 54 (52.4%) children either did not opt for or defaulted therapy, whilst 3 patients died before chemotherapy could be initiated. Of the remaining 46 patients, the tumor progressed during therapy in 19 (41.3%). Relapse of disease was documented in 22 (47.8%) cases. Merely 4 (8.7%) children are disease free for a period of 16.5+/-6.7 months. Majority of children presented with advanced disease and the outcome was dismal with conventional non-myloablative chemotherapy. PMID:18310793

  20. English club for three to six year old Finnish speaking children

    OpenAIRE

    Viljanen, Jenni; Ripatti, Pia

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis was organizing an English club for three to six year old Finnish speaking children in a day care. Our goal was to introduce the English language to the children using music and picture supported methods. In addition we also hoped to inspire day care staff to utilize day care hours for pastime activities. We implemented this functional thesis through nine sessions, in which we organized five themes we would introduce to the children. Language showering was the me...

  1. Caries risk profiles in 2- to 6-year-old Greek children using the Cariogram

    OpenAIRE

    Kavvadia, Katerina; Agouropoulos, Andreas; Gizani, Sotiria; Papagiannouli, Lisa; Twetman, Svante

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess the caries risk profiles in 2- to 6-year-old Greek children using a computer-based program and to evaluate the contribution of various risk factors. Methods: The study group consisted of 814 preschool children. A questionnaire on family, demographic and socioeconomic factors, general health, oral hygiene and dietary behavior was completed by the parents. Children were examined for cavitated and white-spot lesions (WSL). Salivary mutans streptococci (MS) and buffer capacit...

  2. Influence of Young Children (3-6 years) on Organic Food Consumption in their Families

    OpenAIRE

    Freyer, B.; Haberkorn, A.

    2008-01-01

    Our interest was to analyse families with young children (3-6 years) to understand their consumption patterns of organic foods. To understand the influence of children on organic food consumption, as well as the role and impact of kindergarten, we studied the attitudes, habits and behaviour of 24 mothers and one couple through qualitative interviews. We found that children positively influence the consumption of organic food in the families, and that organic foods served in kindergartens is h...

  3. Effect of Metronidazole on Halitosis of 2 to 10 Years Old Children

    OpenAIRE

    Sayedi, Sayed Javad; Modaresi, Mohammad Reza; Saneian, Hosein

    2015-01-01

    Background: Regarding the fact that halitosis has social and personal aspects which can lead to social embarrassment and consequently low self-esteem and self-confidence in subjects suffering from the problem, especially children, its proper treatment is an important issue. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of metronidazole as a nonspecific antimicrobial agent in the treatment of halitosis in children. Materials and Methods: In this study, 2-10 years old children wi...

  4. Nutritional Status of Preschool (2-6 Years of Age) Children

    OpenAIRE

    MIDYAT, Levent; AKSIT, Sadık; GOKCE, Sule; YAGCI, Rasit Vural

    2011-01-01

    Early childhood is a critical life period because of its importance for supplying regular and adequate nutrition, and giving essential nutritional education to the children. In the present study, between January 2004 and March 2006, food consumption of 2- to 6-year-old children from different socioeconomic levels in Izmir was investigated. Anthropometric measurements of these 518 children were also recorded. SPSS 14.0 for Windows was used for statistical analysis. Total duration of breastfeed...

  5. Usual energy and macronutrient intakes in 2-9-year-old European children

    OpenAIRE

    Börnhorst, C.; Huybrechts, Inge; Hebestreit, A.; Krogh, V; De Decker, Annelies; Barba, G; Moreno, LA; Lissner, L; Tornaritis, M.; Loit, H-M; Molnár, D; Pigeot, I.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Valid estimates of population intakes are essential for monitoring trends as well as for nutritional interventions, but such data are rare in young children. In particular, the problem of misreporting in dietary data is usually not accounted for. Therefore, this study aims to provide accurate estimates of intake distributions in European children. DESIGN: Cross-sectional setting-based multi-centre study. SUBJECTS: A total of 9560 children aged 2-9 years from eight European co...

  6. Emotional Understanding and Color-Emotion Associations in Children Aged 7-8 Years

    OpenAIRE

    Pope, Debbie J.; Hannah Butler; Pamela Qualter

    2012-01-01

    An understanding of the development of emotional knowledge can help us determine how children perceive and interpret their surroundings and color-emotion associations are one measure of the expression of a child’s emotional interpretations. Emotional understanding and color-emotion associations were examined in a sample of UK school children, aged 7-8 years. Forty primary school children (mean age = 7.38; SD = 0.49) were administered color assessment and emotional understanding tasks, and...

  7. Functioning of 7-Year-Old Children Born at 32 to 35 Weeks' Gestational Age

    OpenAIRE

    Cserjesi, R.; Van Braeckel, K.N.J.A.; Butcher, P.R.; Kerstjens, J.M.; Reijneveld, S.A.; Bouma, A.; Geuze, R.H.; Bos, A.F

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare neuropsychological functions in moderately preterm (32-35 weeks' gestation) and full-term children at the age of 7 years and identify gender differences. METHODS: Community-based prospective cohort study of 248 moderately preterm children (138 boys) and 130 full-term children (58 boys). Neuropsychological tests included IQ, memory, attention, visual perception, motor skills, visuomotor skills, and parental report of executive functioning. RESULTS: The moderately preterm ...

  8. Prevalence of Malnutrition in Children under 6 Years in Sistan and Baluchestan Province, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Mansour Karajibani; Mahdeyeh Shaykhei; Farzaneh Montazerifar; Monir Eftekharenia

    2014-01-01

    Background: The present study was conducted in rural area of Sistan and Baluchestan province, south-east of Iran with aim of determine the prevalence of underweight, stunting, wasting, overweight and obesity among children. Materials and Methods: One thousand five hundred seventy Children were selected from all children less than 6 years covered by healthy and treatment centers of rural area in Sistan and Baluchestan province. Body weight and height were measured using standard methods. D...

  9. Predictors of Self-Reported Depression in Korean Children 9 to 12 Years of Age

    OpenAIRE

    Shin, Yun Mi; Cho, Hyun; Lim, Ki Young; Cho, Sun Mi

    2008-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationships among various psychosocial factors, behavior problems, and depressive symptoms reported by parents, and to investigate self-reported depression in Korean children using a community sample. Materials and Methods The sample consisted of 1279 children between 9 and 12 years of age. The children were evaluated using the Korean version of the Child Behavior Checklist (K-CBCL) and the Child Depression Inventory (CDI). Results The avera...

  10. Oral health status of 5 years and 12 years school going children in Chennai city - An epidemiological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahesh Kumar P

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available India, a developing country, faces many challenges in rendering oral health needs. The majority of Indian population resides in rural areas of which more than 40% constitute children. The purpose of this study was to assess the oral health status of 5 years and 12 years school going children in Chennai city. The study population consisted of 1200 school children of both the sexes (600 private and 600 corporation school children in 30 schools, which had been selected randomly. The survey is based on WHO, 1999 Oral Health Assessment, which has been modified by including gingival assessment, enamel opacities/ hypoplasia for 5 years. Evaluation of the oral health status of these children revealed, dental caries is the most prevalent disease affecting permanent teeth, more than primary teeth and more in corporation than in private schools, thereby, correlating with the socioeconomic status. It may be concluded that the greatest need of dental health education is at an early age including proper instruction of oral hygiene practices and school based preventive programs, which would help in improving preventive dental behaviour and attitude which is beneficial for life time.

  11. Children's Progress During the 2010-2011 LAUP Year.

    OpenAIRE

    Yange Xue; Sally Atkins-Burnett; Emily Moiduddin; Sharon Murphy; Artineh Samkian

    2012-01-01

    This issue brief describes children's development in the Los Angeles Universal Preschool program during 2010–2011. English-proficient students showed significant growth in early literacy skills from fall to spring, with their mean scores exceeding the national average. However, their vocabulary concepts and math skills were below the national average in spring. Language and math skills for English language learners continued to be below the national average, but literacy skills approached t...

  12. An overview on importance, synthetic strategies and studies of 2,4,6,8,10,12-hexanitro-2,4,6,8,10,12-hexaazaisowurtzitane (HNIW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Venkata Viswanath

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available 2,4,6,8,10,12-Hexanitro-2,4,6,8,10,12-hexaazaisowurtzitane (HNIW, commonly called as CL-20, is a high energy and high density material of keen interest to both commercial and scientific worlds due to its greater insensitivity (reduced sensitivity along with a positive high heat of formation, which is due to the azanitro groups attached to the skeleton of HNIW and its highly strained cage structure. It plays a remarkable role in modification and replacement of most of the propellant (gun and rocket preparations. In this report we present the comparative strategies involved in the syntheses of HNIW with respect to economical and environmental aspects. Various methods reported in the literature on the purification of the crude HNIW (α-HNIW to obtain ε-form of HNIW (high dense/more potential are consolidated. Understanding of the structure, morphology, energetics, thermal behavior and their modification to meet the applicability (decreased impact sensitivity determines the industrial application of HNIW. A compilation of the available literature on the aforementioned characteristic properties for obtaining a value added ε-HNIW is discussed here. This overview also reports the literature available on newer forms of HNIW including derivatives and cocrystals, which increase the performance of HNIW.

  13. Respiratory Viruses Associated Hospitalization among Children Aged <5 Years in Bangladesh: 2010-2014.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nusrat Homaira

    Full Text Available We combined hospital-based surveillance and health utilization survey data to estimate the incidence of respiratory viral infections associated hospitalization among children aged < 5 years in Bangladesh.Surveillance physicians collected respiratory specimens from children aged <5 years hospitalized with respiratory illness and residing in the primary hospital catchment areas. We tested respiratory specimens for respiratory syncytial virus, parainfluenza viruses, human metapneumovirus, influenza, adenovirus and rhinoviruses using rRT-PCR. During 2013, we conducted a health utilization survey in the primary catchment areas of the hospitals to determine the proportion of all hospitalizations for respiratory illness among children aged <5 years at the surveillance hospitals during the preceding 12 months. We estimated the respiratory virus-specific incidence of hospitalization by dividing the estimated number of hospitalized children with a laboratory confirmed infection with a respiratory virus by the population aged <5 years of the catchment areas and adjusted for the proportion of children who were hospitalized at the surveillance hospitals.We estimated that the annual incidence per 1000 children (95% CI of all cause associated respiratory hospitalization was 11.5 (10-12. The incidences per 1000 children (95% CI per year for respiratory syncytial virus, parainfluenza, adenovirus, human metapneumovirus and influenza infections were 3(2-3, 0.5(0.4-0.8, 0.4 (0.3-0.6, 0.4 (0.3-0.6, and 0.4 (0.3-0.6 respectively. The incidences per 1000 children (95%CI of rhinovirus-associated infections among hospitalized children were 5 (3-7, 2 (1-3, 1 (0.6-2, and 3 (2-4 in 2010, 2011, 2012 and 2013, respectively.Our data suggest that respiratory viruses are associated with a substantial burden of hospitalization in children aged <5 years in Bangladesh.

  14. Respiratory Viruses Associated Hospitalization among Children Aged <5 Years in Bangladesh: 2010-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homaira, Nusrat; Luby, Stephen P.; Hossain, Kamal; Islam, Kariul; Ahmed, Makhdum; Rahman, Mustafizur; Rahman, Ziaur; Paul, Repon C.; Bhuiyan, Mejbah Uddin; Brooks, W. Abdullah; Sohel, Badrul Munir; Banik, Kajal Chandra; Widdowson, Marc-Alain; Willby, Melisa; Rahman, Mahmudur; Bresee, Joseph; Ramirez, Katharine-Sturm; Azziz-Baumgartner, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    Background We combined hospital-based surveillance and health utilization survey data to estimate the incidence of respiratory viral infections associated hospitalization among children aged < 5 years in Bangladesh. Methods Surveillance physicians collected respiratory specimens from children aged <5 years hospitalized with respiratory illness and residing in the primary hospital catchment areas. We tested respiratory specimens for respiratory syncytial virus, parainfluenza viruses, human metapneumovirus, influenza, adenovirus and rhinoviruses using rRT-PCR. During 2013, we conducted a health utilization survey in the primary catchment areas of the hospitals to determine the proportion of all hospitalizations for respiratory illness among children aged <5 years at the surveillance hospitals during the preceding 12 months. We estimated the respiratory virus-specific incidence of hospitalization by dividing the estimated number of hospitalized children with a laboratory confirmed infection with a respiratory virus by the population aged <5 years of the catchment areas and adjusted for the proportion of children who were hospitalized at the surveillance hospitals. Results We estimated that the annual incidence per 1000 children (95% CI) of all cause associated respiratory hospitalization was 11.5 (10–12). The incidences per 1000 children (95% CI) per year for respiratory syncytial virus, parainfluenza, adenovirus, human metapneumovirus and influenza infections were 3(2–3), 0.5(0.4–0.8), 0.4 (0.3–0.6), 0.4 (0.3–0.6), and 0.4 (0.3–0.6) respectively. The incidences per 1000 children (95%CI) of rhinovirus-associated infections among hospitalized children were 5 (3–7), 2 (1–3), 1 (0.6–2), and 3 (2–4) in 2010, 2011, 2012 and 2013, respectively. Conclusion Our data suggest that respiratory viruses are associated with a substantial burden of hospitalization in children aged <5 years in Bangladesh. PMID:26840782

  15. Categorization of Regional and Foreign Accent in 5- to 7-Year-Old British Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floccia, Caroline; Butler, Joseph; Girard, Frederique; Goslin, Jeremy

    2009-01-01

    This study examines children's ability to detect accent-related information in connected speech. British English children aged 5 and 7 years old were asked to discriminate between their home accent from an Irish accent or a French accent in a sentence categorization task. Using a preliminary accent rating task with adult listeners, it was first…

  16. Treating Sexually Abused Children: 1 Year Follow-Up of a Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, J.A.; Mannarino, A.P.; Knudsen, K.

    2005-01-01

    Objective:: To measure the durability of improvement in response to two alternative treatments for sexually abused children. Method:: Eighty-two sexually abused children ages 8-15 years old and their primary caretakers were randomly assigned to trauma-focused cognitive-behavioral therapy (TF-CBT) or non-directive supportive therapy (NST) delivered…

  17. Clustering of Dietary Intake and Sedentary Behavior in 2-Year-Old Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gubbels, J.S.; Kremers, S.P.J.; Stafleu, A.; Dagnelie, P.C.; Vries, S.I.de; Vries, N.K.de; Thijs, C.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine clustering of energy balance-related behaviors (EBRBs) in young children. This is crucial because lifestyle habits are formed at an early age and track in later life. This study is the first to examine EBRB clustering in children as young as 2 years. Study design: Cross-section

  18. Children Treated for Nocturnal Enuresis: Characteristics and Trends over a 15-Year Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushnir, Jonathan; Kushnir, Baruch; Sadeh, Avi

    2013-01-01

    Background: Nocturnal Enuresis (NE) is one of the most prevalent childhood disorders and has significant negative psychosocial impact on the child and family. Objective: To assess the characteristics of children with NE and trends over a 15-year period. Methods: The study included 18,677 children [11,205 (60%) boys and 7,472 (40%) girls] referred…

  19. Children's Understanding of Communicative Intentions in the Middle of the Second Year of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aureli, Tiziana; Perucchini, Paola; Genco, Maria

    2009-01-01

    Two tasks were administered to 40 children aged from 16 to 20 months (mean age = 18;1), to evaluate children's understanding of declarative and informative intention [Behne, T., Carpenter, M., & Tomasello, M. (2005). One-year-olds comprehend the communicative intentions behind gestures in a hiding game. "Developmental Science", 8, 492-499;…

  20. Nutrition and mental development of 4-5-year old children on macrobiotic diets.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herens, M.C.; Dagnelie, P.C.; Kleber, R.J.; Mol, M.C.; Staveren, van W.A.

    1992-01-01

    Mental development of 4–5-year old children on macrobiotic diets (almost devoid of animal foods and fat) with long-term growth deficits, was studied using the Snijders-Oomen Non-verbal Intelligence (SON) scale. In addition, food consumption and behavioural style of the children, and family and paren

  1. Early Predictors of Biliteracy Development in Children in French Immersion: A 4-Year Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jared, Debra; Cormier, Pierre; Levy, Betty Ann; Wade-Woolley, Lesly

    2011-01-01

    English language predictors of English and French reading development were investigated in a group of 140 children who were enrolled in French immersion programs. Children were first tested in kindergarten, and their reading achievement was tested yearly in both English and French from Grades 1 to 3, with word-level and passage-level measures that…

  2. Musculoskeletal Complaints Among 11-Year-Old Children and Associated Factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulsegge, Gerben; van Oostrom, Sandra H.; Picavet, H. Susan J.; Twisk, Jos W. R.; Postma, Dirkje S.; Kerkhof, Marjan; Smit, Henriette A.; Wijga, Alet H.

    2011-01-01

    Musculoskeletal complaints (MSC) are common among children, often persist into adolescence, and increase the risk of MSC in adulthood. Knowledge regarding determinants of MSC among children is limited. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of MSC at age 11 years and to examine associ

  3. Development of Phonological Sensitivity in 2- to 5-Year- Old Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonigan, Christopher J.; Burgess, Stephen R.; Anthony, Jason L.; Barker, Theodore A.

    1998-01-01

    Phonological sensitivity was examined in 238 children ages two to five years from middle-to-upper-income families and 118 children from lower-income families across different levels of linguistic complexity. Overall, results indicated an increase in phonological sensitivity with age, as well as increasing stability and significant social class…

  4. Cultivating the Genius of Black Children: Strategies to Close the Achievement Gap in the Early Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Debra Ren-Etta

    2016-01-01

    There has been much attention given to the opportunity gap between white and minority students, especially African American children. Using research and years of experience "Cultivating the Genius of Black Children" is able to break down the cultural influences on learning style and provides a practical approach to helping Black children…

  5. Childhood obesity: the extent of the problem among 6-year-old Irish national school children.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Evans, D S

    2011-05-01

    Childhood obesity is rapidly increasing worldwide. In Ireland, the number of overweight children has trebled over the last decade. The study aimed to provide an assessment of the prevalence of obesity of 6-year-old children in one region of Ireland.

  6. Play Opportunities for School-Age Children, 6 to 14 Years of Age. Advisory Document.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canada Mortgage and Housing Corp., Ottawa (Ontario).

    Suggestions for the planning and design of playgrounds to meet the needs of children between 6 to 14 years of age living in medium- and high-density residential areas are offered in this document. The first and second chapters briefly focus on the child's right to play and present an overview of the developmental characteristics of children at…

  7. Parenting clinically anxious versus healthy control children aged 4-12 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.M. van der Sluis; F.J.A. van Steensel; S.M. Bögels

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated whether parenting behaviors differed between parents of 68 clinically anxious children and 106 healthy control children aged 4-12 years. The effects of parent gender, child gender and child age on parenting were explored. Mothers and fathers completed a questionnaire to asses

  8. Ten-Year Research Update Review: Psychiatric Problems in Children with Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plioplys, Sigita; Dunn, David W.; Caplan, Rochelle

    2007-01-01

    The research on epilepsy, a neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by seizures, psychopathology, cognitive, and linguistic problems among children in the age group of 0 to 18 years is reported. Early identification of children with epilepsy (CWE) and the development of multidisciplinary management strategies would advance relevant clinical…

  9. Behavioural skills in 7 year old children born post-term

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Annette Wind; Olsen, Jørn; Zhu, Jin Liang

    2014-01-01

    and their children. All singletons born in gestational week 39-45 were identified, and then restricted to children whose mothers filled out a Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (STQ) when they were seven years of age. The study population constituted 33842 singletons (21249 born at term and 12593 born post...

  10. Early Childhood Settings and Funded Two-Year-Old Children: Experiences from Four Settings in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phair, Heleanna; Davis, Geraldine

    2015-01-01

    In 2013 funding was introduced to support disadvantaged two-year-old children to attend early childhood settings in England. This study explores the experiences of four early childhood settings as they worked with these funded children for the first time. Using interviews and observations within the settings, findings demonstrate some adjustment…

  11. Improving Social Competence through Emotion Knowledge in 2-Year-Old Children: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giménez-Dasí, Marta; Fernández-Sánchez, Marta; Quintanilla, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings: The goal of this study was to determine the efficacy of an educational intervention program to improve emotion knowledge, emotion regulation, and social competence in 2-year-old Spanish children. This study makes two original contributions because there are no validated education programs for such young children and because it…

  12. 3-Year-Old Children Make Relevance Inferences in Indirect Verbal Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, Cornelia; Grassmann, Susanne; Tomasello, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Three studies investigated 3-year-old children's ability to determine a speaker's communicative intent when the speaker's overt utterance related to that intent only indirectly. Studies 1 and 2 examined children's comprehension of indirectly stated requests (e.g., "I find Xs good" can imply, in context, a request for…

  13. The Development of Falling Intonation in Young Children with Cochlear Implants: A 2-Year Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, David P.; Ertmer, David J.

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the development of intonation in 12 cochlear implant (CI) recipients. In a previously reported study of the first year of CI use, children who were implanted late (after 24 months) acquired intonation more rapidly than the younger participants. The older children's advantage is plausibly owing to their greater maturity.…

  14. Children's Development of Intonation during the First Year of Cochlear Implant Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, David P.; Ertmer, David J.

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the longitudinal development of intonation in 18 deaf children who received cochlear implants (CIs) before the age of 3 years and 12 infants with typical development (TD) who served as controls. At the time their implants were activated, the children with CIs ranged in age from 9 to 36 months. Cross-group comparisons were…

  15. Moral and Social Development: Teachers' Knowledge of Children's Learning and Teaching Strategies in the Early Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulton-Lewis, Gillian; Brownlee, Joanne; Walker, Sue; Cobb-Moore, Charlotte; Johansson, Eva

    2011-01-01

    The intention of the analysis in this paper was to determine, from interviews with 11 early years' teachers, what informed their knowledge of children's learning and teaching strategies regarding moral development. Overall, the analysis revealed four main categories: definitions of moral behaviour, understanding of children's learning, pedagogy…

  16. Consistency of sensory testing with 4- and 5-year-old children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liem, D.G.; Mars, M.; Graaf, de C.

    2004-01-01

    Rank-order and paired comparison tests are widely used methods to assess sensory perception of young children. Small age differences could, however, influence the ability of children to carry out such tasks. This study compared rank-order and paired comparison tests for consistency in 4- and 5-year-

  17. "My Family and Friends": Six- to Twelve-Year-Old Children's Perceptions of Social Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Molly; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Investigated perceptions of social support of 249 children of 6-12 years. Data indicated that subjective impressions about social support can be measured with reliability and validity and that children understand and care about the quality and differentiation of support. (RJC)

  18. Thermal detection thresholds in 5-year-old preterm born children; IQ does matter.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaf, J. de; Valkenburg, A.J.; Tibboel, D.; Dijk, M.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Experiencing pain at newborn age may have consequences on one's somatosensory perception later in life. Children's perception for cold and warm stimuli may be determined with the Thermal Sensory Analyzer (TSA) device by two different methods. AIM: This pilot study in 5-year-old children

  19. Dietary patterns on weekdays and weekend days in 4–14-year-old Danish children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rothausen, Berit Worm; Matthiessen, Jeppe; Andersen, L. F.;

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about dietary patterns on weekdays and weekend days in children, and the aim of the present study was to investigate 4–14-year-old children's dietary patterns specifically on weekdays (Monday–Thursday) and weekend days (Saturday–Sunday). Dietary data were derived from the Danish...

  20. Adult Children and Their Fathers: Relationship Changes 20 Years after Parental Divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrons, Constance R.; Tanner, Jennifer L.

    2003-01-01

    Examines adult children's reports of relationship changes with their fathers were 20 years after their parents' divorce. Findings indicated that most adult children felt that their relationships with their fathers had either improved or remained stable over time. Custody did not directly affect reported changes in the quality of their relationship…

  1. A Gender Comparison of the Cooperation of 4-Year-Old Children in Classroom Activity Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Genan T.; Hilton, Sterling C.; Wouden-Miller, Melissa

    2003-01-01

    This study examined the proportion of cooperative play in 4-year-old children across centers (housekeeping, block, manipulative, and computer) and gender in a natural classroom setting. Eighty-four white, middle-income children (41 boys and 43 girls, mean age = 55 months) were videotaped during free-play for 30 minutes per day for four weeks in…

  2. Dental treatment of fearful children using nitrous oxide. Part 4: Results after 2 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.S.J. Veerkamp; W.E. van Amerongen; RJ.M. Gruythuysen; J. Hoogstraten

    1993-01-01

    A group of highly fearful children were treated using behavioral management, or nitrous oxide and behavioral management. This article describes the childrens' fears during the first curative treatment one to two years after the first treatment phase, and to study whether the reduction in the child's

  3. Recommended Immunizations for Children from 7 Through 18 Years Old

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 13-15 Years 16-18 Years More information: Preteens and teens should get a flu vaccine every year. Preteens and teens should get one shot of Tdap ... cervical cancer and genital warts are spread during sex. Influenza (Can be prevented by annual flu vaccination) ...

  4. Deterioration and recovery of DAP IQ scores in the repeated assessment of the Naglieri draw-a-person (DAP) test in 6- to 12-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange-Küttner, Christiane; Küttner, Enno; Chromekova, Marta

    2014-03-01

    The study investigated whether mental age in children, as assessed by the IQ in the Draw-A-Person (DAP) test (Naglieri, 1988), can be improved by practice. In addition, it was tested whether children needed novel content to keep up their performance level during test repetition. The DAP test was given to 6-, 8-, 10-, and 12-year-old children (N = 80) 3 times. In addition, they drew a police figure 3 times, with task sequence counterbalanced. Repeated drawings resulted in significant omission of detail and deterioration of scores, but the novel task instruction temporarily recovered the IQ scores. This did not occur in the reverse sequence of the tasks, with the less specified DAP instruction given in the 2nd half of the drawing series. Furthermore, structural regressions in the human figure drawing could be observed in individual cases. However, 12-year-olds did not need the external introduction of novel content to maintain their IQ score. Correlations showed that this age group redefined their drawing plan on each repetition, and often created unique figures on each occasion, even if the instruction had stayed the same. PMID:24188151

  5. Production of didactic toys to children aged 3–6 years

    OpenAIRE

    Fajdiga, Ani

    2013-01-01

    The motivation for writing my diploma thesis titled Production of didactic toys to children aged 3–6 years came during arts and crafts course at the faculty when I made some didactic toys and took them to the kindergarten. There I observed how children eagerly examined the toys and asked me lots of questions about them with curiosity. Since there are not many good toys with which the children can play in the kindergarten, a thought sprang to mind that the children could acquire new knowledge ...

  6. Asthma in seven year old children: a report from the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Child Development Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sears, M R; Jones, D T; Silva, P A; Simpson, A; Williams, S M

    1982-08-11

    The prevalence of asthma between birth and seven years was determined by questionnaire in 875 children as part of the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Child Development Study. From the combinations of asthma and/or wheezing reported in association with bronchitis, hayfever, eczema and allergies, a diagnosis of certain or probable asthma was made in 12.6 percent of these children. A further 22.6 percent admitted to wheezing, but a diagnosis of asthma could not be made with any certainty. Bronchitis was reported frequently, usually associated with wheezing. Children with more obvious asthma showed a male preponderance and significant differences in body build and school attendance compared with asymptomatic children.

  7. Risk factors for children's receptive vocabulary development from four to eight years in the longitudinal study of Australian children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine L Taylor

    Full Text Available Receptive vocabulary develops rapidly in early childhood and builds the foundation for language acquisition and literacy. Variation in receptive vocabulary ability is associated with variation in children's school achievement, and low receptive vocabulary ability is a risk factor for under-achievement at school. In this study, bivariate and multivariate growth curve modelling was used to estimate trajectories of receptive vocabulary development in relation to a wide range of candidate child, maternal and family level influences on receptive vocabulary development from 4-8 years. The study sample comprised 4332 children from the first nationally representative Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (LSAC. Predictors were modeled as risk variables with the lowest level of risk as the reference category. In the multivariate model, risks for receptive vocabulary delay at 4 years, in order of magnitude, were: Maternal Non- English Speaking Background (NESB, low school readiness, child not read to at home, four or more siblings, low family income, low birthweight, low maternal education, maternal mental health distress, low maternal parenting consistency, and high child temperament reactivity. None of these risks were associated with a lower rate of growth from 4-8 years. Instead, maternal NESB, low school readiness and maternal mental health distress were associated with a higher rate of growth, although not sufficient to close the receptive vocabulary gap for children with and without these risks at 8 years. Socio-economic area disadvantage, was not a risk for low receptive vocabulary ability at 4 years but was the only risk associated with a lower rate of growth in receptive vocabulary ability. At 8 years, the gap between children with and without socio-economic area disadvantage was equivalent to eight months of receptive vocabulary growth. These results are consistent with other studies that have shown that social gradients in children

  8. Oral health status of 5 years and 12 years old school going children in rural Gurgaon, India: An epidemiological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meenu Mittal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Oral health is an essential component of health throughout life. Hardly any information is available on the oral health status of children in Gurgaon. Thus, the present study was conducted among 5-year-old and 12-years-old children in schools in rural Gurgaon. Materials and Methods: A total of 1003 children were examined of which 619 were in 5 years age group and 384 in 12 years group. The prevalence of dental caries was studied using dentition status and treatment needs index. For dental calculus criteria of Community Periodontal and for dental fluorosis Dean′s index was used. Results: In 5 years age group prevalence of dental caries was 68.5%, dental fluorosis was 22.5% and treatment needs were 63.7%. In 12 year age group prevalence of dental caries was 37.5%, dental fluorosis was 76.04%, highest community periodontal index score was 2, seen in 80.2% and overall treatment needs were 44.3%. Conclusion: Preventive approaches seem to be a viable alternative to tackle the overwhelming problem of dental caries and other oral diseases. Provision of oral health education in schools and school based preventive programs are important for improvement of this situation.

  9. DSM-IV Diagnoses and Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Children Before and 1 Year after Adenotonsillectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, James E.; Blunden, Sarah; Ruzicka, Deborah L.; Guire, Kenneth E.; Champine, Donna; Weatherly, Robert A.; Hodges, Elise K.; Giordani, Bruno J.; Chervin, Ronald D.

    2007-01-01

    DSM-IV criteria-based psychiatric diagnoses done in children before and one year after adenotonsillectomy are assessed to record any improvement in behavior. It is found that surgery might be associated with reduced behavioral morbidity.

  10. Academic Achievement Over Eight Years Among Children Who Met Modified Criteria for Attention-deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder at 4–6 Years of Age

    OpenAIRE

    Massetti, Greta M.; Lahey, Benjamin B.; Pelham, William E.; Loney, Jan; Ehrhardt, Ashley; Lee, Steve S.; Kipp, Heidi

    2007-01-01

    The predictive validity of symptom criteria for different subtypes of ADHD among children who were impaired in at least one setting in early childhood was examined. Academic achievement was assessed seven times over 8 years in 125 children who met symptom criteria for ADHD at 4–6 years of age and in 130 demographically-matched non-referred comparison children. When intelligence and other confounds were controlled, children who met modified criteria for the predominantly inattentive subtype of...

  11. Inhibited and Aggressive Preschool Children at 23 Years of Age: Personality and Social Transitions into Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asendorpf, Jens B.; Denissen, Jaap J. A.; van Aken, Marcel A. G.

    2008-01-01

    In a 19-year longitudinal study, the 15% most inhibited and the 15% most aggressive children at ages 4-6 years were followed up until age 23 years and were compared with controls who were below average in preschool inhibition or aggressiveness. As adults, inhibited boys and girls were judged as inhibited by their parents and showed a delay in…

  12. Sampling Survey of Disability in 0-6 Year-old Children in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUI ZHANG; XIN NA; SHAO-HUA GUO; ZHENG-LAI WU; SHAO-HUA BO; XI-TAN ZHANG; MIN LIU; ZHI-XIANG ZHANG; XIAO-LING YANG; SHU-RONG JI; HUA YAN; XIU-LI SUI

    2006-01-01

    Objective To investigate the current status of disabled children and prevalence of disabilities in children aged 0-6 years and their risk factors, and to provide scientific evidence for making relevant policies for disabled children. Methods In a community-based cross-sectional study, multi-phase, stratified, unequal proportional and cluster sampling was adopted to survey 60 124 children aged 0-6 years. All the investigated children were screened for disabilities, and those with positive screening tests were further diagnosed by various specialties. Results A total of 819 children were diagnosed as disabled with an overall prevalence of 1.362%, 0.155% for hearing disability, 0.160% for visual disability, 0.931% for intelligent disability, 0.424% for limb disability, and 0.101% for mental disability. Prevalence of disability in children was higher in rural areas, and in families with two or more children, low educational level or in divorced families. Conclusion The prevalence of disability can be reduced by economic development, improvement of health care and quality of population, as well as harmonious familial relationship, early prevention of disability, and preschool education for disabled children.

  13. Serum ferritin to detect iron deficiency in children below five years of age

    OpenAIRE

    Windy Saufia Apriyanti; Sutaryo; Sri Mulatsih

    2013-01-01

    Background Iron deficiency (ID) anemia impacts the cognitive and motor development of children until the age of 10 years, despite receiving iron therapy. Early detection of ID is recommended and serum ferritin has been proposed as an alternative indicator for ID detection. Objective To assess the diagnostic accuracy of serum ferritin for detecting ID in children below five years of age. Methods This cross-sectional, diagnostic study was conducted in primary health care centers in Yogy...

  14. Predictors of reading development in deaf children: A 3-year longitudinal study

    OpenAIRE

    Kyle, F. E.; Harris, M

    2010-01-01

    The development of reading ability in a group of deaf children was followed over a 3-year period. A total of 29 deaf children (7–8 years of age at the first assessment) participated in the study, and every 12 months they were given a battery of literacy, cognitive, and language tasks. Earlier vocabulary and speechreading skills predicted longitudinal growth in reading achievement. The relations between reading and the predictor variables showed developmental change. Earlier reading ability wa...

  15. Asthma at 8 years of age in children born by caesarean section.

    OpenAIRE

    Roduit, C.; Scholtens, S.; Jongste, de, J.C.; Wijga, A H; Gerritsen, J.; Postma, D. S.; Brunekreef, B; Hoekstra, M.O.; Aalberse, R; Smit, H. A.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Caesarean section might be a risk factor for asthma because of delayed microbial colonisation, but the association remains controversial. A study was undertaken to investigate prospectively whether children born by caesarean section are more at risk of having asthma in childhood and sensitisation at the age of 8 years, taking into account the allergic status of the parents. METHODS: 2917 children who participated in a birth cohort study were followed for 8 years. The definition of...

  16. Severe episodic viral wheeze in preschool children : High risk of asthma at age 5-10 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kappelle, Lucie; Brand, Paul L. P.

    2012-01-01

    In population studies, most children with episodic viral wheeze (EVW) become symptom free by 6 years. We studied the outcome of children with severe EVW, treated and followed up in hospital. We followed up 78 children <4 years, managed by paediatricians for severe EVW, to the age of 5-10 years. We r

  17. External Ear Resonant Amplitude and Frequency of 3-7 Year Old Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Hossein Zare

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To measure external ear resonant amplitude and frequency in children (3-7 years old and to compare with adult measures. Method and materials: The external ear resonance peak amplitude and frequency of 63 children 3-7 years old were recorded. All of the children had normal tympanogram and there was no cerumen in external auditory canal. 20 adult of 21-24 years old (10 male , 10 female were selected in order to compare with children that had normal tympanogram. The tests included : 1-otoscopy 2- tympanometry 3-microphone probe tube test. Results: The average of resonance peak frequency for children and adult is 4200 Hz and 3200 Hz , respectively. The resonance frequency of children had significantly diffrence with average of resonance frequency in adults. The average of resonance peak amplitude for children and adult is 17.70 dB and 17.17 dB , respectively. Conclusion: Resonant frequency and amplitude affect the hearing aid prescription and fitting process and calculating insertion gain; so, this measures seem should be considered in children hearing aid fitting.

  18. POSTTRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER AMONG INDONESIAN CHILDREN 5 YEARS AFTER THE TSUNAMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwantol; Faisal; Zulfa, Hendra

    2015-09-01

    Children are at risk for developing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) due to experiencing or living in a disaster area. The factors that increase the likelihood of a child developing PTSD need further clarification. We studied the factors associated with PTSD among children who experienced the tsunami in Sumatra, Indonesia. We conducted a cross sectional study in 2 subdistricts of Sumatra 5 years after experiencing a tsunami. Children aged 7-13 years were enrolled using stratified cluster sampling. A tsunami-modified version of The PsySTART Rapid Triage System was used to question children about their tsunami-specific traumatic experiences. Trauma symptoms were evaluated using the Trauma Symptom Checklist For Children (TSCC). The diagnosis of PTSD was made using the Child PTSD Symptom Scale (CPSS) and DSM-IV criteria. The data were analyzed with chi-square tests and multivariate logistic regression analysis with 95% confidence intervals (CI). A total of 262 children were enrolled in this study. The prevalence of PTSD in these children was 20.6%. On multivariate analysis, having experienced a delay in evacuation (PR = 4.5; 95% CI: 2.794-13.80; p PTSD 5 years after the tsunami. Children who experienced a traumatic event in which they were unable to escape or when there is a delay in evacuation are at risk of developing PTSD and need appropriate treatment.

  19. [Nutrition and nutritional status in infants and children of early years of life in Russian Federation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutel'ian, V A; Baturin, A K; Kon', I Ia; Safronova, A M; Keshabiants, E E; Starovoĭtov, M L; Gmoshinskaia, M V

    2010-01-01

    The study of the nutrition and the nutritional status children of the first year age and children earliest age were conducted on nationally representative surveys (2500 children, 2-24 months) the Institute of Nutrition, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences with the Institute of Sociology Russian of Academy of Sciences, Gerber Product Company and Nestle Company in 2006. The level the frequency of breast feeding had among children 1 m.--80%, 2-4 m.--70%, 4-6 m.--60%. The lowest body mass Z-scores were registered 0.5-5.0% among of children, the tendency of obesity increase in the age were registered from 1.6 to 13% of children. Calculations of chemical composition and energy value of actual nutrition have show according to the values requirements. PMID:21395107

  20. Deferasirox in Indian children with thalassemia major: 3 years experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayank Dhamija

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of the oral iron chelator deferasirox in treating transfusional hemosiderosis in a cohort of Indian children with thalassemia major with high iron load. Materials and Methods: The first 50 children (age 2-18 yrs with thalassemia major to commence deferasirox at our center were enrolled and followed up for a period of 36 months between April 2008 and March 2011. The dose of deferasirox was determined by their baseline serum ferritin and was adjusted to a maximum of 40 mg/kg/day depending on response. Ferritin levels, SGOT, SGPT, serum creatinine and urine albumin were regularly monitored. Results: Of the 50 patients, 76% documented a significant decline in serum ferritin ( P<0.05. Seven (14% patients had a stable ferritin whilst 5 patients (10% documented an increase over the study period. The mean serum ferritin at baseline, 12, 24 and 36 months was 4354, 3260, 3290 and 3042, respectively ( P<0.05. The median serum ferritin at the same time points was 3555, 2810, 2079 and 2271, respectively ( P<0.05. No severe toxicity was seen. Conclusions: Deferasirox, when given in doses ≥30 mg/kg, was found to be an effective and safe drug in reducing transfusional hemosiderosis. Thirty five (70% needed dose escalation upto 40 mg/kg/day. Fifteen (30%, however did not achieve a negative iron balance despite maximally permissible doses.

  1. The psychosocial effects of severe caries in 4-year-old children in Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Feitosa

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze the psychosocial effects of severe caries in 4-year-old children in Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil. The clinical examination was conducted by a single examiner in order to select children with severe caries and caries-free (kappa = 1. Of the 861 children examined, 77 (8.1% had severe caries and 225 (23.6% were caries-free. Data were collected by applying validated questionnaires answered by the parents or guardians. Most of the parents or guardians of children with severe caries reported that their children complained of toothache (72.7%, and a significant portion stated that their children had problems eating certain kinds of food (49.4% and missed school (26.0% because of their teeth. Most of the parents or guardians of children with severe caries (68.8% stated that oral health affects their children's life, while the same was stated by 9.8% of the parents or guardians of the caries-free children. Severe caries was found to have a negative impact on children's oral health-related quality of life.

  2. Dental caries and erosion status of 12-year-old Hong Kong children

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Shinan; Chau, Alex MH; Lo, Edward CM; Chu, Chun-Hung

    2014-01-01

    Background This study aimed to assess the dental caries and erosion status of 12-year-old Hong Kong children and study the determinants of dental caries and dental erosion of these children. Methods The survey was performed from 2011 to 2012 with ethics approval. Stratified random sampling was adopted to select 12-year-old children in 7 primary schools in Hong Kong. The participating parents were asked to complete a self-administered questionnaire concerning their children’s diet and oral hea...

  3. Cardiorespiratory fitness and body mass index values in 9-year-old rural Norwegian children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Resaland, G K; Mamen, A; Anderssen, S A;

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To describe cardiorespiratory fitness and body mass index (BMI) values in a representative population of 9-year-old Norwegian children in two rural communities and compare present values with previous findings. METHODS: Two hundred and fifty-nine 9-year-old children were invited, and 256......, children's BMI values seem to have increased substantially. This increase is most pronounced in girls. When assessing these differences using the PI, this increase is less marked. Comparing maximal oxygen uptake data with that in earlier Nordic studies, there is no evidence that fitness has declined among...

  4. Humoral immunity to AAV-6, 8, and 9 in normal and dystrophic dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jin-Hong; Yue, Yongping; Smith, Bruce; Duan, Dongsheng

    2012-03-01

    Adeno-associated virus (AAV)-6, 8, and 9 are promising gene-delivery vectors for testing novel Duchenne muscular dystrophy gene therapy in the canine model. Humoral immunity greatly influences in vivo AAV transduction. However, neutralizing antibodies to AAV-6, 8, and 9 have not been systemically examined in normal and dystrophic dogs. To gain information on the seroprevalence of antibodies to AAV-6, 8, and 9, we measured neutralizing antibody titers using an in vitro transduction inhibition assay. We examined 72 naive serum samples and 26 serum samples obtained from dogs that had received AAV gene transfer. Our data demonstrated that AAV-6 neutralizing antibody was the most prevalent antibody in dogs irrespective of age, gender, disease status (dystrophic or not), and prior parvovirus vaccination history. Surprisingly, high-level anti-AAV-6 antibody was detected at birth in newborn puppies. Further, a robust antibody response was induced in affected, but not normal newborn dogs following systemic AAV gene transfer. Taken together, our data have provided an important baseline on the seroprevalence of AAV-6, 8, and 9 neutralizing antibodies in normal and Duchenne muscular dystrophy dogs. These results will help guide translational AAV gene-therapy studies in dog models of muscular dystrophy. PMID:22040468

  5. International Space Station: 6-8 Hands-on Science and Math Lesson Plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Pat

    These lesson plans, designed for grades 6-8, have been developed to provide a guide to hands-on experience in science and math. They focus on an International Space Station and are designed for use with students working in groups. The three lesson plans highlighting the importance of the scientific method are: (1) International Space Station…

  6. Supporting English Language Learners in Math Class, Grades 6-8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melanese, Kathy; Chung, Luz; Forbes, Cheryl

    2011-01-01

    This new addition to Math Solutions "Supporting English Language Learners in Math Class series" offers a wealth of lessons and strategies for modifying grades 6-8 instruction. Section I presents an overview of teaching math to English learners: the research, the challenges, the linguistic demands of a math lesson, and specific strategies and…

  7. 36 CFR 6.8 - National Park Service solid waste responsibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL SITES IN UNITS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 6.8 National... solid waste disposal site except for waste generated by National Park Service activities. (b) The Superintendent of a unit where the National Park Service operates a solid waste disposal site will establish...

  8. Skin problems in children under five years old at a rural hospital in Southern Ethiopia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jose Manuel Ramos; Paula Moles-Poveda; Dalu Tessema; Mubarack Kedir; Gamadi Safayo; Abraham Tesfasmariam; Francisco Reyes; Isabel Belinch on

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To examine the prevalence of cutaneous disorders in children under 5 years old who attended a rural hospital in Southern Ethiopia. Methods: A prospective cross-sectional study was conducted from January 26 to February 20, 2015 in children under 5 years old who attended Gambo Rural Hospital in West Arsi of the Oromia Region, Ethiopia. Results: A total of 324 children were included (59.6%male) whose median age was 16.4 months. In total, 147 children [45.4%; 95% confidence interval (CI): 40.0%–50.8%] under 5 years had a skin problem, of which 101 (68.7%) consulted for that reason. The other 46 (31.3%) consulted for a general health problem and the dermatological condition was a secondary finding during the physical exploration. In 93 children (28.7%;95%CI:20%–33.8%), it was the main disease, and in 54 children (16.5%;95%CI:13.0%–21.1%) it was concomitant with other diseases. The most common dermatological disease was scabies (n=44, 13.6%;95%CI:10.3%–17.7%). Impetigo was diagnosed in 32 children (9.9%;95%CI:7.1%–13.3%), of which 23 (71.9%) had complicated impetigo. Nineteen children (5.9%;95%CI:3.8%–9.0%) had eczema, 10 (3.1%) had eczema associated to other conditions. The following most frequent skin problems were tinea (n = 9; 2.8%), infected wound and ulcer (n=7;2.2%), and burns (n=6;1.9%). Conclusions: Skin problems, mainly scabies, impetigo, and eczema were common in young children attended at a rural hospital in Southern Ethiopia. Children under 5 years should be examined thoroughly to rule out skin diseases, especially scabies.

  9. Chinese and Australian Year 3 Children's Conceptual Understanding of Science: A multiple comparative case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Ying; Colette Oliver, Mary; Venville, Grady Jane

    2012-04-01

    Children have formal science instruction from kindergarten in Australia and from Year 3 in China. The purpose of this research was to explore the impact that different approaches to primary science curricula in China and Australia have on children's conceptual understanding of science. Participants were Year 3 children from three schools of high, medium and low socio-economic status in Hunan Province, central south China (n = 135) and three schools of similar socio-economic status in Western Australia (n = 120). The students' understanding was assessed by a science quiz, developed from past Trends in Mathematics and Science Study science released items for primary children. In-depth interviews were carried out to further explore children's conceptual understanding of living things, the Earth and floating and sinking. The results revealed that Year 3 children from schools of similar socio-economic status in the two countries had similar conceptual understandings of life science, earth science and physical science. Further, in both countries, the higher the socio-economic status of the school, the better the students performed on the science quiz and in interviews. Some idiosyncratic strengths and weaknesses were observed, for example, Chinese Year 3 children showed relative strength in classification of living things, and Australian Year 3 children demonstrated better understanding of floating and sinking, but children in both countries were weak in applying and reasoning with complex concepts in the domain of earth science. The results raise questions about the value of providing a science curriculum in early childhood if it does not make any difference to students' conceptual understanding of science.

  10. The Growth Trend of 0–6 Years Children in Hamadan City , Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Omidi

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Today millions of children in the world have not got the appropriate growth. For this purpose, this study was performed to evaluate the growth process of children under 6 years old in Hamadan, in addition the surveying this process, the difference in growth of the children were compared and measured by the NCHS standard curve. This was a cross–sectional study that included the research section of 1700 children who was at the average ages of zero, 1, 3, 6, 9,12 months and 1.5 , 2 , 2.5 , 3 , 3.5 , 4 , 4.5 , 5 , 6 years . The selection standard of the children was the perfect physical health and without obvious mental retardation. Regarding the curved standard the results showed that the 50th percentile of boys and girls weight up to 4 and 6 months was increased. Then with increasing the age up to 6 years the weight gradually was decreased, that this weight deduction is closer to the 5th percentile of the standard in 18 and 24 months. The 50th percentile of the children height has been decreased from 9 months up to 6 years too, and the 50th percentile of the head circumference from 18 months up to 6 years of age, constantly and slightly decreased compare to the standard curve. The overall result show that breast feeding is enough for the children up to 6 months and satisfies the children needs. But the causes that decrease the children growth are the lack of mothers knowledge about preparing the supplemental foods and the time of beginning and also inappropriate pattern of nutrition at the time of breast feeding.

  11. Parenting clinically anxious versus healthy control children aged 4-12 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Sluis, C M; van Steensel, F J A; Bögels, S M

    2015-05-01

    This study investigated whether parenting behaviors differed between parents of 68 clinically anxious children and 106 healthy control children aged 4-12 years. The effects of parent gender, child gender and child age on parenting were explored. Mothers and fathers completed a questionnaire to assess parenting behaviors in for children hypothetically anxious situations. Results showed that parents of clinically anxious children reported more anxiety-enhancing parenting (reinforcement of dependency and punishment) as well as more positive parenting (positive reinforcement). For the clinical sample, fathers reported using more modeling/reassurance than mothers, and parents reported using more force with their 4-7-year-olds than with their 8-12-year-olds. No interaction effects were found for child gender with child anxiety status on parenting. Results indicate that for intervention, it is important to measure parenting behaviors, and to take into account father and mother differences and the age of the child. PMID:25819172

  12. Web-based Dietary Assessment for 8-11 Year Old School-children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biltoft-Jensen, Anja Pia

    Background and aim The potential health effects of a New Nordic Diet (NND) are to be tested in the Danish OPUS (Optimal well-being, development and health for Danish children through a healthy New Nordic Diet) School Meal study among 8-11- year-old school-children. Valid and reliable dietary...... a validated and suitable dietary assessment tool that could be used by 8-11-year-old Danish school children to assess dietary intake in the OPUS School Meal Study. The specific objectives were to develop a dietary assessment tool suitable for 8-11-year-old children feasible to be used in the OPUS School Meal...... Study (Paper 1), to validate the developed dietary assessment tool by a combination of validation methods in order to obtain information about the reporting accuracy including the acceptability, under-reporting and over-reporting, and repeatability of WebDASC (Paper 2), and the overall- and lunch...

  13. Mortality in Children Aged 0-9 Years: A Nationwide Cohort Study from Three Nordic Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Yongfu; Qin, Guoyou; Cnattingius, Sven;

    2016-01-01

    boys and girls decreased from 1.25 to 1.21 with the most prominent reduction in children aged 5–9 years (from 1.59 to 1.19). Neoplasms, diseases of the nervous system and transport accidents were the most frequent cause of death after the first year of life. These three leading causes of death declined...... comparing cause-specific mortality, and half of deaths from diseases of the nervous system occurred in infancy. Mortality rate due to transport accidents increased with age and was highest in boys aged 5–9 years. Conclusions Mortality rate in children aged 0–9 years has been decreasing with diminished...... difference between genders over the past decades. Our results suggest the importance of further research on mortality by causes of neoplasms, and causes of transport accidents—especially in children aged 5–9 years...

  14. Treatment of rectal prolapse in children with cow milk injection sclerotherapy:30-year experience

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mirko (Z)ganjer; Ante Cizmic; Irenej Cigit; Bo(z)idar (Z)upancic; Igor Bumci; Ljiljana Popovic; Antun Kljenak

    2008-01-01

    AIM:To evaluate the role and our experience of injecti-on sclerotherapy with cow milk in the treatment of rectal prolapse in children.METHODS:In the last 30 years (1976-2006) we made 100 injections of sclerotherapy with cow milk in 86 chil-dren.In this study we included children who failed to respond to conservative treatment and we perform ope-rative treatment.RESULTS:In our study we included 86 children and in all of the patients we perform cow milk injection sclerot-herapy.In 95.3% (82 children) of patients sclerotherapy was successful.In 4 (4.7%) patients we had recurrent rectal prolapse where we performed operative treatment.Below 4 years we had 62 children (72%) and 24 older children (28%).In children who needed operative trea-tment we performed Thiersch operation and without any complications.CONCLUSION:Injection sclerotherapy with cow milk for treatment rectal prolapse in children is a simple and effective treatment for rectal prolapse with minimal com-plications.

  15. Incidence of Acute Diarrhea Among Children Aged 0 - 1 Year in Southern Brazil, 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nascimento

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background The incidence rate of acute diarrheal disease in children is a health indicator, and the estimation of these data can help guide public health policies. Objectives The aim of this study was to estimate the incidence and risk factors for acute diarrheal disease in children aged 0 - 1 year. Patients and Methods An observational prospective cohort study was conducted on 210 children recruited at Hospital Nossa Senhora da Conceicao, in Tubarao, state of Santa Catarina, Brazil. Children born between July and September 2012 were followed up for 12 months. The presence of three or more liquid or loose stools during a 24-hour period was considered acute diarrhea. The categories of variables evaluated were comprised of sociodemographic characteristics (per capita income, maternal education, maternal age, access to medical care [public or private], and housing and living conditions [sanitation and hygiene, water supply, daycare attendance, and domestic animal] and characteristics of the child (gender, birth weight, and breastfeeding. Results The incidence of acute diarrhea among the 0 - 1-year-old children was 26.7 cases per 1,000 children per month. Independent risk factors for the occurrence of diarrhea were maternal age under 20 years and health care services provided by the Brazilian National Health System (SUS. Conclusions The high incidence density of diarrhea among the children recruited in this study indicates the need for educational programs directed at people who are involved in this issue.

  16. Development and verification of child observation sheet for 5-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, Keiko; Nagai, Toshisaburo; Okazaki, Shin; Kawajiri, Mie; Tomiwa, Kiyotaka

    2014-02-01

    The aim of the study was to develop a newly devised child observation sheet (COS-5) as a scoring sheet, based on the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS), for use in the developmental evaluation of 5-year-old children, especially focusing on children with autistic features, and to verify its validity. Seventy-six children were studied. The children were recruited among participants of the Japan Children's Cohort Study, a research program implemented by the Research Institute of Science and Technology for Society (RISTEX) from 2004 to 2009. The developmental evaluation procedure was performed by doctors, clinical psychologists, and public health nurses. The COS-5 was also partly based on the Kyoto Scale of Psychological Development 2001 (Kyoto Scale 2001). Further, the Developmental Disorders Screening Questionnaire for 5-Years-Olds, PDD-Autism Society Japan Rating Scale (PARS), doctor interview questions and neurological examination for 5-year-old children, and the Draw-a-Man Test (DAM) were used as evaluation scales. Eighteen (25.4%) children were rated as Suspected, including Suspected PDD, Suspected ADHD and Suspected MR. The COS-5 was suggested to be valid with favorable reliability (α=0.89) and correlation with other evaluation scales. The COS-5 may be useful, with the following advantages: it can be performed within a shorter time frame; it facilitates the maintenance of observation quality; it facilitates sharing information with other professions; and it is reliable to identify the autistic features of 5-year-old children. In order to verify its wider applications including the screening of infants (18months to 3years old) by adjusting the items of younger age, additional study is needed. PMID:23415454

  17. Examining Relative Age Effects in Fundamental Skill Proficiency in British Children Aged 6-11 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, Samantha; Cummings, Laura; Oxford, Samuel W; Duncan, Michael J

    2016-10-01

    Birch, S, Cummings, L, Oxford, SW, and Duncan, MJ. Examining relative age effects in fundamental skill proficiency in British children aged 6-11 years. J Strength Cond Res 30(10): 2809-2815, 2016-The relative age effect (RAE) suggests that there is a clustering of birth dates just after the cutoff used for sports selection in age-grouped sports and that in such circumstances, relatively older sportspeople may enjoy maturational and physical advantages over their younger peers. Few studies have examined this issue in nonselective groups of children, and none have examined whether there is evidence of any RAE in skill performance. The aim of this study was to assess whether there were differences in fundamental movement skill (FMS) proficiency within children placed in age groups according to the school year. Six FMS (sprint, side gallop, balance, jump, catch, and throw) were assessed in 539 school children (258 boys and 281 girls) aged 6-11 years (mean age ± SD = 7.7 ± 1.7 years). We examined differences in these FMS between gender groups and children born in different quarters of the year after controlling for age and body mass index (BMI). For balance, chronological age was significant as a covariate (p = 0.0001) with increases in age associated with increases in balance. Boys had significantly higher sprint mastery compared with girls (p = 0.012), and increased BMI was associated with poorer sprint mastery (p = 0.001). Boys had higher catching mastery than girls (p = 0.003), and children born in Q1 had significantly greater catching mastery than those born in Q2 (p = 0.015), Q3 (p = 0.019), and Q4 (p = 0.01). Results for throwing mastery also indicated higher mastery in boys compared with girls (p = 0.013) and that children born in Q1 had higher throwing proficiency than those born in Q4 (p = 0.038). These results are important if coaches are basing sport selection on measures of skilled performance, particularly in object-control skills. Categorizing children

  18. Prevalence of Generalised Joint Hypermobility, Artralgia and Motor Competence in 10-year old school children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Remvig, Lars; Kümmel, Christina; Halkjær-Kristensen, Jens;

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Diverging results exist for children regarding the relation between generalized joint hypermobility (GJH) and musculoskeletal complaints, as well as relations between GJH and insufficient motor development, and/or reduced physical activity level. The main purposes were to (1) survey...... the prevalence of GJH and of benign joint hypermobility syndrome (BJHS) in 10-year-old children, (2) compare children with and without GJH and BJHS regarding motor competence, physical activity, and musculoskeletal pain and injuries. Subjects and methods: All fourth-grade children in a Copenhagen municipality...... were invited to be clinically examined and tested for motor competence, and to answer a questionnaire about musculoskeletal pain, injuries, and physical activity. Results: The final cohort comprised 315 Caucasian children, 50.5% girls and 54% boys. GJH prevalence was 35.6, 16.8, or 11.1%, depending...

  19. Emotional Understanding and Color-Emotion Associations in Children Aged 7-8 Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debbie J. Pope

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An understanding of the development of emotional knowledge can help us determine how children perceive and interpret their surroundings and color-emotion associations are one measure of the expression of a child’s emotional interpretations. Emotional understanding and color-emotion associations were examined in a sample of UK school children, aged 7-8 years. Forty primary school children (mean age = 7.38; SD = 0.49 were administered color assessment and emotional understanding tasks, and an expressive vocabulary test. Results identified significant gender differences with girls providing more appropriate and higher quality expressions of emotional understanding than boys. Children were more able to link color to positive rather than negative emotions and significant gender differences in specific color preferences were observed. The implications of adult misinterpretations of color-emotion associations in young children are discussed.

  20. Oral hygiene risk indicators among 6- to 9-year-old Taiwanese aboriginal children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Hui-Ju; Huang, Shun-Te; Tsai, Chi-Cheng; Chiou, Meng-Jao; Liao, Cheng-Ta

    2014-05-01

    This study investigated the dental health status, dietary habits, oral hygiene levels, and caretaker risk indicators among Taiwanese children. This cross-sectional purposive sampling study included 256 aboriginal children, 6 to 9 years old, living in remote regions in southern Taiwan. Participants received dental examinations, and questionnaires were completed by caretakers. Data were analyzed using the χ(2) test, t test, and multiple logistic regressions. The deft (sum of decayed, extracted, and filled primary teeth) and defs (sum of the decayed, extracted, and filled primary dentition surfaces) indices were affected by the frequencies of drinking sweetened beverages (P = .0006) and daily toothbrushing (P = .0032). Caretakers' toothbrushing frequency was a significant predictor of children's oral hygiene status (P oral hygiene was 2.04 (P = .0184). Oral hygiene among aboriginal children in this study was inadequate. Caretakers' toothbrushing frequency and betel quid habit were significant predictors of poor children's oral hygiene.

  1. The effect of a peer on VO2 and game choice in 6–10 year old children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegmund, Lee A.; Naylor, Jonathan B.; Santo, Antonio S.; Barkley, Jacob E.

    2014-01-01

    Relative to sedentary video games (e.g., Playstation 2®), playing physically active video games (e.g., Nintendo Wii Sports Boxing®) significantly increases caloric expenditure in children. Studies have demonstrated that the presence of a peer increases physical activity in children. We sought to determine if children would expend more energy and find playing the “exergame” (Wii) more motivating than the sedentary video game (Playstation 2) when with a peer. Seventeen children (age 8.5 ± 0.4 years) rested, played the sedentary video game and “exergame” for 10 min each, in two conditions: one in which the children rested/played the games alone (alone condition) and another in which they played with a peer (peer condition). Oxygen consumption (VO2), and liking (visual analog scale) was assessed for each 10-min condition. After three 10-min resting/gaming conditions, motivation was assessed using a relative reinforcing value task in which children performed computer mouse presses to gain additional access for either the sedentary video game or “exergame.” VO2 was greater (p exergame” play (mean = 12.17 ± 4.1 ml·kg−1·min−1) vs. rest (mean = 5.14 ± 1.46 ml·kg−1·min−1) and the sedentary video game (mean = 5.83 ± 2.1 ml·kg−1·min−1). During the peer condition, there were no significant differences (p > 0.05) in VO2 relative to the alone condition. In an exploratory analysis boys exhibited a greater (p = 0.02) increase in VO2 from rest to “exergame” (Δ 9.0 ± 3.7 ml·kg−1·min−1), relative to girls (Δ 4.9 ± 2.9 ml·kg−1·min−1). Boys showed a significantly greater increase (p = 0.05) in VO2 from the resting condition to “exergame” in the presence of a peer (Δ 11.1 ± 5.3 ml·kg−1·min−1) vs. the alone condition (Δ 6.8 ± 3.1 ml·kg−1 ·min−1). Liking was significantly (p exergame” (7.7 ± 1.9 cm) and the sedentary video game (8.3 ± 1.3 cm) relative to rest (4.0 ± 2.8 cm). Motivation for

  2. Epidemiology of dental caries in Chandigarh school children and trends over the last 25 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goyal A

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of dental caries in 6, 9, 12 and 15-year-old school children of Chandigarh, selected on a randomized basis was evaluated using Moller′s criteria (1966 and correlated with the various risk factors. The mean deft was found to be 4.0 ± 3.6 in 6 year old and 4.61 ± 3.14 in 9 year old, whereas the mean DMFT in 12 and 15 year old was found to be 3.03 ± 2.52 and 3.82 ± 2.85 respectively. The high prevalence of dental caries in these children was attributed to the lack of use of fluoride toothpaste (80% children, lack of knowledge about etiology of dental caries (98% and frequency of sugar exposures up to more than five times per day (30%.

  3. Speech processing and production in two-year-old children acquiring isiXhosa: A tale of two children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Pascoe

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the speech processing and production of 2-year-old children acquiring isiXhosa in South Africa. Two children (2 years, 5 months; 2 years, 8 months are presented as single cases. Speech input processing, stored phonological knowledge and speech output are described, based on data from auditory discrimination, naming, and repetition tasks. Both children were approximating adult levels of accuracy in their speech output, although naming was constrained by vocabulary. Performance across tasks was variable: One child showed a relative strength with repetition, and experienced most difficulties with auditory discrimination. The other performed equally well in naming and repetition, and obtained 100% for her auditory task. There is limited data regarding typical development of isiXhosa, and the focus has mainly been on speech production. This exploratory study describes typical development of isiXhosa using a variety of tasks understood within a psycholinguistic framework. We describe some ways in which speech and language therapists can devise and carry out assessment with children in situations where few formal assessments exist, and also detail the challenges of such work.Keywords: psycholinguistic assessment; phonology; psycholinguistic framework; naming; repetition; auditory discrimination

  4. Speech processing and production in two-year-old children acquiring isiXhosa: A tale of two children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascoe, Michelle; Rossouw, Kate; Fish, Laura; Jansen, Charne; Manley, Natalie; Powell, Michelle; Rosen, Loren

    2016-05-20

    We investigated the speech processing and production of 2-year-old children acquiring isiXhosa in South Africa. Two children (2 years, 5 months; 2 years, 8 months) are presented as single cases. Speech input processing, stored phonological knowledge and speech output are described, based on data from auditory discrimination, naming, and repetition tasks. Both children were approximating adult levels of accuracy in their speech output, although naming was constrained by vocabulary. Performance across tasks was variable: One child showed a relative strength with repetition, and experienced most difficulties with auditory discrimination. The other performed equally well in naming and repetition, and obtained 100% for her auditory task. There is limited data regarding typical development of isiXhosa, and the focus has mainly been on speech production. This exploratory study describes typical development of isiXhosa using a variety of tasks understood within a psycholinguistic framework. We describe some ways in which speech and language therapists can devise and carry out assessment with children in situations where few formal assessments exist, and also detail the challenges of such work.

  5. Can early breastfeeding support increase the 6-8 week breastfeeding prevalence rate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Linda

    2014-05-01

    Breastfeeding has significant health benefits for mothers and babies and is an important strategy to reduce health inequalities (UNICEF, 2010). The Baby Friendly Initiative, a strategy to increase breastfeeding rates, has been adopted by the trust. In line with the trust's priorities, the health visiting team initiated a project to increase the 6-8 breastfeeding prevalence rates. Breastfeeding mothers in a defined project area were offered breastfeeding support in their homes within the first postnatal week. Although the results after six months did demonstrate an overall increase in the 6-8 week prevalence rate of 5%, the monthly figures where disappointingly inconsistent and it was difficult to attribute the rise to the increased support offered. Nevertheless, the feedback from mothers who received support demonstrated that it was valued and had a positive impact on their confidence to continue to breastfeed. PMID:24881195

  6. Incidence of influenza and associated illness in children aged 0-19 years : a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bueving, HJ; van der Wouden, JC; Berger, MY; Thomas, S

    2005-01-01

    A systematic review was conducted to estimate the incidence of influenza and concomitant morbidity and mortality in children from 0 to 19 years (0-19 years). Medline was searched for observational studies and placebo or non-treated arms of experimental studies providing occurrence rates of laborator

  7. Does Chess Training Affect Conceptual Development of Six-Year-Old Children in Turkey?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigirtmac, Ayperi Dikici

    2012-01-01

    Many studies propose that chess is a game requiring cognitive skills and has positive effects on mental development. In recent years, chess training has also been emphasised as important during the early childhood period. However, no studies have been done with six-year-old children. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether or not…

  8. Osteosynthesis of medial humeral epicondyle fractures in children. 8-year follow-up of 33 cases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duun, P S; Ravn, Pernille; Hansen, L B;

    1994-01-01

    33 children with a mean age of 12 (7-15) years had open reduction and osteosynthesis for a displaced fracture of the medial humeral epicondyle. 8 (2-15) years after the operation a clinical and radiographic examination was performed. 22/33 had a prominent scar. No patients had symptoms from...

  9. "Sounds of Intent in the Early Years": A Proposed Framework of Young Children's Musical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voyajolu, Angela; Ockelford, Adam

    2016-01-01

    "Sounds of Intent in the Early Years" explores the musical development of children from birth to five years of age. Observational evidence has been utilised together with key literature on musical development and core concepts of zygonic theory (Ockelford, 2013) to investigate the applicability of the original "Sounds of…

  10. Predicting an asthma exacerbation in children 2 to 5 years of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swern, A.S.; Tozzi, C.A.; Knorr, B.;

    2008-01-01

    could predict an asthma exacerbation in children 2 to 5 years of age. METHODS: Post hoc analyses were conducted on data collected in a study of 689 patients 2 to 5 years of age with asthma symptoms, randomly assigned to montelukast, 4 mg, or placebo daily for 12 weeks. During the study, 196 patients had...

  11. Development of an Age Band on the ManVis for 3-Year-Old Children with Visual Impairments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reimer, A M; Barsingerhorn, A D; Overvelde, A; Nijhuis-Van der Sanden, M W G; Boonstra, F N; Cox, R F A

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To compare fine motor performance of 3-year-old children with visual impairment with peers having normal vision, to provide reference scores for 3-year-old children with visual impairment on the ManuVis, and to assess inter-rater reliability. METHOD: 26 children with visual impairment (mean age

  12. Common Core Literacy Lesson Plans: Ready-to-Use Resources, 6-8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Lauren

    2013-01-01

    Schools nationwide are transitioning to the Common Core--our advice to you: Don't go it alone! Our new book, "Common Core Literacy Lesson Plans: Ready-to-Use Resources, 6-8," shows you that teaching the Common Core State Standards in the middle grades doesn't have to be intimidating! This easy-to-use guide meets the particular needs of middle…

  13. 2,6,8,12-四硝基-2,4,6,8,10,12-六氮杂异伍兹烷的合成及量子化学研究%Synthesis and Quantum Chemical Study on 2,6,8,12-Tetranitro-2,4,6,8,10,12-hexaazaisowurtzitane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玉川; 祁才; 孙成辉; 庞思平; 赵信岐

    2010-01-01

    以2,6,8,12-四乙酰基-2,4,6,8,10,12-六氮杂异伍兹烷(TAIW)为原料,经过三氟乙酸酐保护、硝化、脱保护等反应,制得了2,6,8,12-四硝基-2,4,6,8,10,12-六氮杂异伍兹烷(TNH_2IW); 用SnCl_2分步还原六硝基六氮杂异伍兹烷(HNIW,CL-20)也可制得TNH_2IW. 在DFT-B3LYP/6-31G*水平下求得了TNH_2IW的分子几何、电荷分布和热力学性质,计算了TNH_2IW的热容、熵等热力学参数,给出了这些参数和温度之间的函数关系.在不破坏笼形结构和硝基的原则下通过构建等键反应求得TNH_2IW的生成热为461 kJ·mol~(-1).计算表明TNH2IW的爆速为9.13 km·s~(-1), 爆压为38.9 GPa,爆轰性能高于TNT和RDX,与HMX相当.

  14. Five strands of math drills big book : grades 6-8

    CERN Document Server

    Reed, Nat; Forest, Chris

    2011-01-01

    For grades 6-8, our Common Core State Standards-based resource meets the five strands of math concepts addressed by the NCTM standards and encourages the students to review the concepts in unique ways. Included are warm-up and timed drill activities which will push the boundaries of critical thought and demonstrate to students the importance of mathematical problems in Number & Operations, Geometry, Measurement, Data Analysis & Probability and Algebra using real world situations.

  15. Clinical manifestations of chronic viral hepatitis С in children suffering for a one-year period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Churbakova О.V.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: the topical issue in medicine is currently considered to be the morbidity of chronic hepatitis in children. Material and methods. The article deals with the course of chronic hepatitis С in children with the light form of disease. The disease course has been from 6 months till 1 year. Results. According to the data of epidemiological anamneses (the analysis of the out-patient cards, previous discharges the possible way and prospective date of infection of majority of children and adolescents have been revealed. 68 children with Chronic Viral Hepatitis С at the age of from 7 months till 18 years have been under the study. Conclusion. General clinical, biochemical and instrumental methods of investigation have been carried out.

  16. The other-race effect in 3-year-old German and Cameroonian children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janina eSuhrke

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Recognizing individual faces is an important human ability that highly depends on experience. This is reflected in the so called other-race effect; adults are better at recognizing faces from their own ethnic group, while very young infants do not show this specialization yet. Two experiments examined whether 3-year-old children from two different cultural backgrounds show the other-race effect. In Experiment 1, German children (N = 41 were presented with a forced choice paradigm where they were asked to recognize female Caucasian or African faces. In Experiment 2, 3-year-olds from Cameroon (N = 66 participated in a similar task using the same stimulus material. In both cultures the other-race effect was present; children were better at recognizing individual faces from their own ethnic group. In addition, German children performed at a higher overall level of accuracy than Cameroonians. The results are discussed in relation to cultural aspects in particular.

  17. TV guide: two-year-old children learn to use video as a source of information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troseth, Georgene L

    2003-01-01

    Learning to use symbols is a challenge for young children even when the symbol in question (e.g., a live video image) is iconic and seems transparent to adults. This research examined the effect of experience on children's use of video-presented information. Two-year-old children saw themselves "live" on their family television for 2 weeks and then participated in an object-retrieval task. The children reliably used a live video presentation of an adult hiding a toy in an adjoining room to find the toy. Most also transferred what they learned to a task involving another symbol (pictures) that typically is very difficult for this age group. The results reveal flexibility in 2-year-olds' symbol use that follows from successful representation of a symbolic relation.

  18. Patch-test results in children and adolescents: systematic review of a 15-year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Dulcilea Ferraz; Goulart, Eugênio Marcos Andrade

    2016-01-01

    The number of studies on patch-test results in children and adolescents has gradually increased in recent years, thus stimulating reviews. This paper is a systematic review of a 15-year period devoted to studying the issue. Variations pertaining to the number and age groups of tested children and/or adolescents, the number of subjects with atopy/atopic dermatitis history, the quantity, type and concentrations of the tested substances, the test technique and type of data regarding clinical relevance, must all be considered in evaluating these studies, as they make it harder to formulate conclusions. The most common allergens in children were nickel, thimerosal, cobalt, fragrance, lanolin and neomycin. In adolescents, they were nickel, thimerosal, cobalt, fragrance, potassium dichromate, and Myroxylon pereirae. Knowledge of this matter aids health professionals in planning preventive programs aimed at improving children's quality of life and ensuring that their future prospects are not undermined.

  19. Features of the physical, psycho-physiological development and physical fitness of children 1-5 years

    OpenAIRE

    Коробейников, Георгий Валерьевич; Козина, Жаннета Леонидовна; Лахно, Елена Геннадиевна

    2011-01-01

    The results of the indicators of physical development, psycho-physiological capacity and physical fitness of children. The study involved 52 children aged 1-2 years, 3-4 years 56 children, 56 children 4-5 years. It is established that in the age group of children 4-5 years time, a simple reaction to an auditory stimulus following simple reaction time to visual stimulus. It is recommended to use parenting techniques that are integrally stimulate all the sensory systems. Pointed out that the so...

  20. Sociodemographic profile of speech and language delay up to six years of age in Indian children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham Binu, Raj Sunil, Stephenson Baburaj, Mohandas MK

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Speech and language is the most important skill for the child’s development and scholastic performance. Awareness of the delay is important in the programs for early identification. Purpose: to assess the prevalence of speech and language delay in children from age group 0 to six years of age. Methodology: The speech and language development of children coming in the well baby clinic and daily pediatric clinic of age group from birth to 6 years were evaluated using Language Evaluation Scale Trivandrum (LEST. The prevalence of speech and language delay in each age group was calculated and also analyzed in the sociodemograhic profile. Results: A total of 102 children were studied in which 13.7% had language delay. 18% had questionable language delay and 15.7% had suspect language delay. Though among language delay mixed type was more, children had more difficulty in doing expressive items. Language delay was also found to be more prevalent in males, single child, first born child and children of working mothers. Parental age, education or socioeconomic status was not found to be related to language delay. Conclusion: The 13.7% prevalence of language delay in the children indicates the need of early identification and for it a simple screening tool like LEST is a must during the routine evaluation of young children in pediatric clinics. Health care givers and parents should ensure that babies grow up in a language rich, nurturing and stimulating environment right from birth onwards.

  1. Daily physical activity and its relation to aerobic fitness in children aged 8-11 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencker, Magnus; Thorsson, Ola; Karlsson, Magnus K.;

    2006-01-01

    Abstract  A positive relationship between daily physical activity and aerobic fitness exists in adults. Studies in children have given conflicting results, possibly because of differences in methods used to assess daily physical activity and fitness. No study regarding daily physical activity...... and fitness in children has been published, where fitness has been assessed by direct measurement of maximum oxygen uptake and related to daily physical activity intensities by accelerometers. We examined 248 children (140 boys and 108 girls), aged 7.9-11.1 years. Maximum workload and maximal oxygen uptake...

  2. Acute poisoning in children; changes over the years, data of pediatric clinic department of toxicology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alije Keka

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: In our study drugs and house cleaning products are the most frequent agents causing accidental poisoning in children less than 5 years-old, this age of children is the most susceptible in terms of morbidity. Compared with the previous studies in Pediatric Clinic of Pristina, drugs are still the most frequent cause of acute poisoning in children; the number of poisoning with pesticides has fallen but has increased the number of poisoning with cleaning products. All preventive measures against poisoning should be taken including preventive strategies of education at national level especially in drug and household product storage.

  3. NEUROFEEDBACK AND EMG TRAINING COMBINING EFFICIENCY STUDY IN 6–9 YEARS OLD ADHD CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye. А. Sapina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The research goal was to study neurofeedback and EMG combining training efficiency in ADHD children.To achieve the goal three groups were compared before and after training and six months later. Experimental group included ADHD children 6–9 years old. It was divided into two: group A trained thetabeta ratio and muscle tension decrease simultaneously while group B trained only theta-beta ratio decrease. Control group included healthy children. The results showed significant effect of combined EEG and EMG training for self-control improvement, anxiety and muscle tension decrease in comparison with standard EEG training.

  4. Caries risk profile of 12 year old school children in an Indian city using Cariogram

    OpenAIRE

    Hebbal, Mamata; Ankola, Anil V.; Metgud, Sharada

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The present study was conducted with an aim to assess the caries profile of 12 year old Indian children using Cariogram. Study design: Hundred children were interviewed to record any illness, oral hygiene practices and fluoride exposure after obtaining a three day diet diary. Examination was done to record plaque and dental caries status. Stimulated saliva was collected and salivary flow rate, salivary buffering capacity, Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus were assessed. The i...

  5. EPIDEMIOLOGY OF UNDER - NUTRITION IN CHILDREN BETWEEN 0-5 YEARS FROM RURAL AREAS OF DEHRADUN

    OpenAIRE

    Megha Luthra; Surekha Kishore; Kajal Jain

    2010-01-01

    Background: Under nutrition is a major problem in India. This is a study conducted in rural catchment areas of Department of Community Medicine, SGRRMC, Dehradun to asses the same. Objectives: To find out prevalence of under nutrition in children in the age group of 0-5 years and also to study its epidemiological correlates. Methods :All registered children of RHTC Mothrowala during October to December2009 were studied. Detailed histories were taken & growth chartingwas done using growth ...

  6. Epidemiology of bronchial asthma in school children (10–16 years) in Srinagar

    OpenAIRE

    Uruj Altaf Qureshi; Sufoora Bilques; Inaam ul Haq; Muhammad Saleem Khan; Mariya Amin Qurieshi; Umar Amin Qureshi

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the epidemiological profile of asthma in school going children in Srinagar, Kashmir. Study design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Thirty-one schools with proportionate representation from both government and private schools as well as from primary, middle, and high schools. Participants: School children aged 10–16 years with equal representation of sex and all ages. Main Outcome Measure: Prevalence of current and past asthma. Methods and Results: After administering a m...

  7. Size at birth and blood pressure: cross sectional study in 8-11 year old children.

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, S J; Whincup, P.H.; Cook, D.G.; Papacosta, O; Walker, M.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify which patterns of fetal growth, represented by different measurements of size at birth, are associated with increased blood pressure in children aged 8-11 years. DESIGN AND SETTING: School based, cross sectional survey conducted in 10 towns in England and Wales in 1994. SUBJECTS: 3010 singleton children (response rate 75%) with physical measurements and information on birth weight from parental questionnaires. Hospital birth records were examined for 1573. MAIN OUTCOME ...

  8. Outcomes of 3-Year-Old Children With Hearing Loss and Different Types of Additional Disabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Cupples, Linda; Ching, Teresa Y. C.; Crowe, Kathryn; Seeto, Mark; Leigh, Greg; Street, Laura; Day, Julia; Marnane, Vivienne; Thomson, Jessica

    2013-01-01

    This research investigated the speech, language, and functional auditory outcomes of 119 3-year-old children with hearing loss and additional disabilities. Outcomes were evaluated using direct assessment and caregiver report. Multiple regressions revealed that type of additional disability and level of maternal education were significant predictors of language outcomes. Poorer outcomes were achieved in a combined group of children with autism, cerebral palsy, and/or developmental delay (DD) (...

  9. Nutrition disorder frequency in 5- to 9-year-old children from Colima, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Vásquez, Clemente; Trujillo-Hernández, Benjamín; Velasco-Rodríguez, Raymundo; Bautista-Hernández, Víctor Manuel

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS. The objectives were to determine nutrition disorder frequency, energy intake and type of nutrients in the diet of 5- to 9-year-old children from Colima, Mexico. MATERIAL AND METHODS. A populational survey was applied to 1992 children in the state of Colima, Mexico. The variables studied were weight, age, age-related weight, age-related height and body mass index (the last 3 expressed in percentiles). In a direct survey, parents provided information on all foods their...

  10. Total Fluoride Intake and Urinary Excretion in German Children Aged 3–6 Years

    OpenAIRE

    Haftenberger, Marjolein; Viergutz, Gabriele; Neumeister, Volker; Hetzer, Gisela

    2014-01-01

    There have only been few investigations comparing total fluoride intake and the fluoride proportion excreted in urine in pre–school children. In addition, the results of available studies are conflicting. Total fluoride intake was assessed in 11 healthy children aged 3–6 years on 2 consecutive days and urinary fluoride excretion was determined. The duplicate–diet approach was used for the assessment of fluoride intake from solid and liquid foods. Fluoride intake from toothbrushing was calcula...

  11. CORRELATION BETWEEN PENIS LENGTH AND ANTHOPOMETRY OF 5 YEAR OLD CHILDREN

    OpenAIRE

    Doddy Kurnia Indrawan; Bikin Suryawan; Lanang Sidiartha; Arimbawa *

    2013-01-01

    Short penis still a problem for parents. Penis lenght is associated with  weight and considered abnormal in obese children. The purpose of this study was to find out the correlation between penis length and the anthropometry children aged 5 years. A cross sectional study was conducted, at the Division of Endocrinology, Department of Child Health, Medical Faculty of Udayana University, Sanglah Hospital Denpasar, during October 2010, at TK Sayang Ibu Sanglah Hospital. The calculation of the sam...

  12. Prevalence of thyroid autoimmunity in children with celiac disease compared to healthy 12-year olds.

    OpenAIRE

    vanderPals, Maria; Ivarsson, Anneli; Norström, Fredrik; Högberg, Lotta; Svensson, Johan; Carlsson, Annelie

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. Studies have suggested a correlation between untreated celiac disease and risk for other autoimmune diseases. We investigated the prevalence of thyroid autoimmunity in 12-year-old children (i) with symptomatic celiac disease diagnosed and treated with a gluten-free diet, (ii) with screening-detected untreated celiac disease, and (iii) without celiac disease. Methods. Blood samples from 12632 children were collected. All celiac disease cases, previously diagnosed and newly screenin...

  13. Prevalence of Thyroid Autoimmunity in Children with Celiac Disease Compared to Healthy 12-Year Olds

    OpenAIRE

    Maria van der Pals; Anneli Ivarsson; Fredrik Norström; Lotta Högberg; Johan Svensson; Annelie Carlsson

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. Studies have suggested a correlation between untreated celiac disease and risk for other autoimmune diseases. We investigated the prevalence of thyroid autoimmunity in 12-year-old children (i) with symptomatic celiac disease diagnosed and treated with a gluten-free diet, (ii) with screening-detected untreated celiac disease, and (iii) without celiac disease. Methods. Blood samples from 12632 children were collected. All celiac disease cases, previously diagnosed and newly screenin...

  14. The best outcome for children in their early years is to have two working parents

    OpenAIRE

    McMunn, Anne

    2011-01-01

    The debate around the impacts that working parents have on their children’s development is long running and continuing. Commentators have raised concerns about working mothers especially resulting in children who are less well-behaved, do worse at school and are less healthy. Anne McMunn outlines the results of her research looking at the working habits of parents and the behaviour of children during their first five years.

  15. Determination of the functional status of vestibular apparatus at children aged 5-6 years old.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moiseenko E.K.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The physiological methods of determination of the functional state of vestibular analyzer are considered. The indexes of systole and diastole pressure, frequencies of heart-throbs, are chosen. Methods were used before and after standard vestibular irritation. Research was conducted on the base of child's preschool establishment. In it took part 120 children in age 5 - 6 years. Insufficient development of vestibular analyzer is set for children. Selected exercise for the improvement of spatial orientation and statodynamic stability.

  16. Diarrhea, pneumonia, and infectious disease mortality in children aged 5 to 14 years in India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaun K Morris

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Little is known about the causes of death in children in India after age five years. The objective of this study is to provide the first ever direct national and sub-national estimates of infectious disease mortality in Indian children aged 5 to 14 years. METHODS: A verbal autopsy based assessment of 3 855 deaths is children aged 5 to 14 years from a nationally representative survey of deaths occurring in 2001-03 in 1.1 million homes in India. RESULTS: Infectious diseases accounted for 58% of all deaths among children aged 5 to 14 years. About 18% of deaths were due to diarrheal diseases, 10% due to pneumonia, 8% due to central nervous system infections, 4% due to measles, and 12% due to other infectious diseases. Nationally, in 2005 about 59 000 and 34 000 children aged 5 to 14 years died from diarrheal diseases and pneumonia, corresponding to mortality of 24.1 and 13.9 per 100 000 respectively. Mortality was nearly 50% higher in girls than in boys for both diarrheal diseases and pneumonia. CONCLUSIONS: Approximately 60% of all deaths in this age group are due to infectious diseases and nearly half of these deaths are due to diarrheal diseases and pneumonia. Mortality in this age group from infectious diseases, and diarrhea in particular, is much higher than previously estimated.

  17. Gastrointestinal and liver infections in children undergoing antineoplastic chemotherapy in the years 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castagnola, Elio; Ruberto, Eliana; Guarino, Alfredo

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To review gastrointestinal and liver infections in children undergoing antineoplastic chemotherapy. To look at gut microflora features in oncology children. METHODS: We selected studies published after year 2000, excluding trials on transplanted pediatric patients. We searched English language publications in MEDLINE using the keywords: “gastrointestinal infection AND antineoplastic chemotherapy AND children”, “gastrointestinal infection AND oncology AND children”, “liver infection AND antineoplastic chemotherapy AND children”, “liver abscess AND chemotherapy AND child”, “neutropenic enterocolitis AND chemotherapy AND children”, “thyphlitis AND chemotherapy AND children”, “infectious diarrhea AND children AND oncology”, “abdominal pain AND infection AND children AND oncology”, “perianal sepsis AND children AND oncology”, “colonic pseudo-obstruction AND oncology AND child AND chemotherapy”, “microflora AND children AND malignancy”, “microbiota AND children AND malignancy”, “fungal flora AND children AND malignancy”. We also analysed evidence from several articles and book references. RESULTS: Gastrointestinal and liver infections represent a major cause of morbidity and mortality in children undergoing antineoplastic chemotherapy. Antineoplastic drugs cause immunosuppression in addition to direct toxicity, predisposing to infections, although the specific risk is variable according to disease and host features. Common pathogens potentially induce severe diseases whereas opportunistic microorganisms may attack vulnerable hosts. Clinical manifestations can be subtle and not specific. In addition, several conditions are rare and diagnostic process and treatments are not standardized. Diagnosis may be challenging, however early diagnosis is needed for quick and appropriate interventions. Interestingly, the source of infection in those children can be exogenous or endogenous. Indeed, mucosal damage may allow the

  18. Overweight: atherogenesis risk marker in children between 8 and 9 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Sabina Roméu

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Many significant health problems hold the attention of pediatricians, and even when there is an increased interest on premature atherosclerosis risk factors, it is still a field to be studied. Objectives: To determine differences in the emergence of atherogenesis risk factors in children between 8 and 9 years with normal weight and overweight. Methods: Analytic research, with case control design, developed in three primary schools belonging to the Clinic “Dr. Cecilio Ruiz de Zarate” in Cienfuegos. A group with overweight or obese children was formed and another control group selected by randomized simple sampling with normal weight children. Measurements of weight, height, waist circumference and blood pressure were performed. Parents were surveyed for data about children and family history. In overweight children, glucose and triglycerides were measured. To validate results, Chi-Squared test was used. To compare measurements, Mathn Whitney test was employed. Results: Overweight and obesity were associated with: male sex, with people, sedentary patients, and prenatal antecedents of overweight. 78% of overweight children had values of blood pressure higher than 90 percentile for their sex and height, contrasting with the 26% in normal weight children. Six children were diagnosed with metabolic syndrome.

  19. Ten-year-old children strategies in mental addition: A counting model account.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thevenot, Catherine; Barrouillet, Pierre; Castel, Caroline; Uittenhove, Kim

    2016-01-01

    For more than 30 years, it has been admitted that individuals from the age of 10 mainly retrieve the answer of simple additions from long-term memory, at least when the sum does not exceed 10. Nevertheless, recent studies challenge this assumption and suggest that expert adults use fast, compacted and unconscious procedures in order to solve very simple problems such as 3+2. If this is true, automated procedures should be rooted in earlier strategies and therefore observable in their non-compacted form in children. Thus, contrary to the dominant theoretical position, children's behaviors should not reflect retrieval. This is precisely what we observed in analyzing the responses times of a sample of 42 10-year-old children who solved additions with operands from 1 to 9. Our results converge towards the conclusion that 10-year-old children still use counting procedures in order to solve non-tie problems involving operands from 2 to 4. Moreover, these counting procedures are revealed whatever the expertise of children, who differ only in their speed of execution. Therefore and contrary to the dominant position in the literature according to which children's strategies evolve from counting to retrieval, the key change in development of mental addition solving appears to be a shift from slow to quick counting procedures.

  20. Comparison of Undernutrition Prevalence of Children under 5 Years in China between 2002 and 2013

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Dong Mei; ZHAO Li Yun; YANG Zhen Yu; CHANG Su Ying; YU Wen Tao; FANG Hong Yun; WANG Xun

    2016-01-01

    Objective To describe the undernutrition status of children under 5-year in China, and study the trend between 2002 and 2013. Methods The study was based on two national surveys. Undernutrition wasdetermined against WHOs 2006 growth standards.The prevalence in 2013 and 2002 was weighted by China sixth National Population Census (2010). The relationship between undernutrition and gender/age groups/different areas use weighted logistic regression. Results The results indicated the overall prevalence of stunting, underweight, and wasting of Chinese children under 5-year was 8.1%, 2.4%, and 1.9% in 2013, respectively. The prevalence of stunting was higher for children aged 12-47 month, while underweight was higher for children aged 48-59 month. The prevalence of undernutrition was higher in rural areas than in urban areas, especially in poor rural areas. There was a decline of stunting, underweight, and wastingbetween 2002 and 2013 among the children, with greater reduction in rural areas than in urban areas. Conclusion The prevalence of undernutrition of children under 5-year remains high in rural areas especially in poor rural areas in China. It is urgent totake action to control undernutrition in the vulnerable areas and subgroups.

  1. Features of tennis methods of teaching 5-6 years old children in the initial stages

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    Kurmaeva E.V.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : theoretical and methodological justification for the existing teaching methods tennis of 5-6 years old children. Material : 17 special analysis and scientific and methodological sources. Results : the features of the existing methods of teaching children at an early stage of training. The main theses of the existing methods: 1 the training process is carried out in the form of games; 2 the level of general physical preparedness level exceeds special; 3 The first two years of the children do not participate in official competitions; 4 education of children begins with " School Ball ", with a gradual transition to employment with racket and ball; 5 training is built on two levels: theoretical - each " part" in the form of pre- formation of a mental model of rational behavior, and practical - the formation of the ability to perform motor actions. Conclusions : it was found that the existing methods of constructing the training process for children 5-6 years do not account for their physiological characteristics, therefore proposed to use computer technology and animation, that will shorten the formation of motor skills of children.

  2. Transcranial Doppler sonography in children: Review of a seven-year experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirsch, Wolfgang; Hiebsch, Wolfgang; Teichler, Heike; SchlUeter, Andreas

    2002-06-01

    AIM: We report the use of transcranial Doppler sonography (TCD) examinations in children (mean age 12.7 years; range 0.5-18 years) without an open fontanelle, using TCD equipment with a 2 MHz pulse wave transducer. Our results over a 7-year period are described. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 858 children were referred from the paediatric outpatient department. All patients were divided into three groups according to the reason for referral. RESULTS: We found positive pathological results in the following: (1) headache and orthostatic dysregulation (0.4%, three out of 728); (2) acute neurological symptoms (5.4%, six out of 112); (3) other indications (22.2%, four out of 18). The positive predictive value of finding an abnormality was very low (0.50) . CONCLUSION: TCD examination is ineffective in children with non-specific headache or orthostatic dysregulation due to the specific limitations of this method. We found a higher percentage of abnormal results in children referred for other indications. However, since these children usually undergo MR imaging (and MR angiography, if necessary), in our opinion the TCD examination does not add any additional information. The value of TCD in children is not in the primary diagnosis of disease but in the follow up of known vascular processes (e.g. stenoses) or in chronic diseases including angiitis and sickle cell disease. Hirsch, W. et al. (2002)

  3. Internationally Adopted Children from Non-European Countries: General Development during the First Two Years in the Adoptive Family

    OpenAIRE

    Monica Dalen; Steinar Theie

    2012-01-01

    Internationally adopted children are often delayed in their development and demonstrate more behaviour problems than nonadopted children due to adverse preadoption circumstances. This is especially true for children adopted from Eastern European countries. Few studies have focused on children adopted from non-European countries. This paper presents results from an ongoing longitudinal study of 119 internationally adopted children from non-European countries during their first two years in Nor...

  4. Soil radon and electromagnetic anomalies before the Ileia(Greece) M6.8 earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolopoulos, D.; Vogiannis, E.; Louizi, A.; Zisos, A.

    2009-04-01

    Radon (222Rn) is a radioactive gas generated by the decay of the naturally occurring 238U series. It is considered very important from radiological point of view, since it accounts for more than half of the natural exposure of the general public. Radon has been used as trace gas in several studies of Earth, hydrogeology and atmosphere, due to its 3.82-day half-life (which allows migration at long distances) and its alpha decay (which enables low level of detection). It has been accounted in the search of earthquake precursors, volcanic processes, fluid circulation in karstic sources and in the study of natural ventilation of underground cavities. Radon anomalies impending great earthquakes have been observed in groundwater, thermal waters soil gas and in underground tunnels. Ileia is a very active tectonic site located in SW Greece, dominated by extensional active seismicity structures (e.g. Alfeios, Neda, Melpeia, Kiparissia-Aetos). Its instrumental and felt seismicity is very high, with more than 600 earthquakes of magnitude greater than 4.0 R in the last 100 years two of which occurred during the last 15 years and were very destructive (5.8 R on 26/3/93 and 6.8 R on 8/6/08 respectively). Hence, it is an area benefiting from the installation of a geophysical monitoring station, where radon exhalation associated with the accumulation or release of tectonic strain can be studied. In the aforementioned consensus, a station for the surveillance of soil radon has been installed in Kardamas Ileias, 3 km south from Amaliada which is the second highly populated city. The station consists of a high precision (calibration certified) active instrument (Alpha Guard-AG, Genitron Ltd.), equipped with an appropriate unit designed for pumping and measurement of radon in soil gas (Soil gas Unit, Genitron Ltd.). Soil radon is driven into AG via a 1-m probe (to minimize meteorological influences) and a 25-m radon proof 25-mm tube (to avoid simultaneous measurement of soil 220Rn

  5. Dietary intake in 6-year-old children from southern Poland: part 1 - energy and macronutrient intakes

    OpenAIRE

    Merkiel, Sylwia

    2014-01-01

    Background The studies on dietary intake in Polish children are sparse and the information about dietary intake in 6-year-olds in Europe is limited. The published studies on dietary intake in children rarely provide information on the intake of animal protein, plant protein and water. The purpose of the study was to analyse energy and macronutrient intakes in 6-year-old children from southern Poland. Methods The studied population comprised 120 children, 64 girls and 56 boys. Energy and macro...

  6. Nutrition profile of under-five year rural children and correlates of undernutrition in central India

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    Venkaiah Kodavalla

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: High prevalence of undernutrition in Madhya Pradesh contributing to high mortality and morbidities among young children. Aims & objectives: to assess prevalence of undernutrition and its co-relates among under 5 year children in Madhya Pradesh. Materials & Methods: It was a community based cross- sectional study carried out in all the districts of Madhya Pradesh, India using systematic random sampling. Results: A total of 22,895 children (Boys:12379, Girls:10516, mean age 26.1 months, SD 15.9, were covered. The overall prevalence of underweight, stunting and wasting was about 52%, 49% and 26% respectively. The prevalence was significantly (p<0.01 higher among boys as compared to girls. The risk of underweight, stunting and wasting was significantly higher among children belonging to SC+ST communities (OR: 1.36, 1.21 & 1.23 as compared to others, among children of illiterate parents and landless labourers (OR: 1.27, 1.32 & 1.15. The risk of stunting was significantly higher among children living in HHs without electricity (OR: 1.41 and HHs not using sanitary latrine (OR: 1.29. Similarly, the risk of wasting was significantly higher among households not having access to safe drinking water, mothers not cleaning their hands before feeding and among children with history of morbidity during preceding fortnight. Prevalence of underweight (28%, stunting (17% and wasting (34% was significantly (p<0.01 lower among children who were exclusively breast fed up to 6 months. Conclusions: Multiple risk factors are associated with childhood undernutrition and needs multi-pronged and multi-sector approach to tackle the problem. The results will help planners to develop and implement appropriate intervention strategies, for effective control and prevention of undernutrition among under-five year children in Madhya Pradesh

  7. Occupational exposure during pregnancy and the risk of hay fever in 7-year-old children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Berit Hvass; Thulstrup, Ane Marie; Hougaard, Karin Sørig;

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The prevalence of allergic diseases including hay fever has increased in the last decades, especially in Westernised countries. The aim of this study was to analyse whether occupational exposure during pregnancy is associated with development of hay fever in 7-year-old Danish children....... METHODS: A total of 42 696 women and their children from the Danish National Birth Cohort were categorised according to maternal occupational exposure. Exposure information was obtained by combining job title in pregnancy with a commonly used asthma Job Exposure Matrix. Information on hay fever...... in the child was obtained by an internet questionnaire at follow-up at 7 years of age. RESULTS: Adjusted logistic regression analyses showed no significant association between maternal occupational exposure during pregnancy and hay fever among the 7-year-old children. Stratifying for atopic status...

  8. Dynamic Characteristic Analysis of Spinal Motor Control Between 11- and 15-Year-Old Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Daniel H; Lau, Newman M

    2016-07-01

    Spinal motor control can provide substantial insight for the causes of spinal musculoskeletal disorders. Its dynamic characteristics however, have not been fully investigated. The objective of this study is to explore the dynamic characteristics of spinal motor control via the fractional Brownian motion mathematical technique. Spinal curvatures and repositioning errors of different spinal regions in 64 children age 11- or 15-years old during upright stance were measured and compared for the effects of age and gender. With the application of the fractional Brownian motion analytical technique to the changes of spinal curvatures, distinct persistent movement behaviors could be determined, which could be interpreted physiologically as open-loop behaviors. Moreover, it was found that the spinal motor control of 15-year-old children was better than that of 11-year-old children with smaller repositioning error and less curvature variability as well as shorter response time and smaller curvature deformation.

  9. Factors Affecting the IQ of Preterm Born Children of 4-6 Years Old

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    Shokofeh Radfar

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: This research was carry out with aim of study of factors affecting the IQ of children 4-6 years old born preterm. Materials and Methods: This analytical-cross sectional study was carried out on 102 premature children with age 4-6 years old during years 2004 to 2006. The tools used in this study were Wechsler intelligence scale for children and questioner including demographical characteristic. In this study we used t-test and spearman correlation and also SPSS-18 was used to analyze data. Results: In this study there was statistical relationship between normal child development and gestational age, birth weight, maternal education, multiple pregnancies, but there were not any statistical significant relationship between the history of preterm birth and child s gender, consanguinity parents, apgar, mother job. Conclusion: IQ in preterm babies who admitted in the NICU was lower than non-admitted preterm or term babies.

  10. Functional performance of school children diagnosed with developmental delay up to two years of age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dornelas, Lílian de Fátima; Magalhães, Lívia de Castro

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To compare the functional performance of students diagnosed with developmental delay (DD) up to two years of age with peers exhibiting typical development. Methods: Cross-sectional study with functional performance assessment of children diagnosed with DD up to two years of age compared to those with typical development at seven to eight years of age. Each group consisted of 45 children, selected by non-random sampling, evaluated for motor skills, quality of home environment, school participation and performance. ANOVA and the Binomial test for two proportions were used to assess differences between groups. Results: The group with DD had lower motor skills when compared to the typical group. While 66.7% of children in the typical group showed adequate school participation, receiving aid in cognitive and behavioral tasks similar to that offered to other children at the same level, only 22.2% of children with DD showed the same performance. Although 53.3% of the children with DD achieved an academic performance expected for the school level, there were limitations in some activities. Only two indicators of family environment, diversity and activities with parents at home, showed statistically significant difference between the groups, with advantage being shown for the typical group. Conclusions: Children with DD have persistent difficulties at school age, with motor deficit, restrictions in school activity performance and low participation in the school context, as well as significantly lower functional performance when compared to children without DD. A systematic monitoring of this population is recommended to identify needs and minimize future problems. PMID:26553573

  11. Functional performance of school children diagnosed with developmental delay up to two years of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lílian de Fátima Dornelas

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To compare the functional performance of students diagnosed with developmental delay (DD up to two years of age with peers exhibiting typical development. Methods: Cross-sectional study with functional performance assessment of children diagnosed with DD up to two years of age compared to those with typical development at seven to eight years of age. Each group consisted of 45 children, selected by non-random sampling, evaluated for motor skills, quality of home environment, school participation and performance. ANOVA and the Binomial test for two proportions were used to assess differences between groups. Results: The group with DD had lower motor skills when compared to the typical group. While 66.7% of children in the typical group showed adequate school participation, receiving aid in cognitive and behavioral tasks similar to that offered to other children at the same level, only 22.2% of children with DD showed the same performance. Although 53.3% of the children with DD achieved an academic performance expected for the school level, there were limitations in some activities. Only two indicators of family environment, diversity and activities with parents at home, showed statistically significant difference between the groups, with advantage being shown for the typical group. Conclusions: Children with DD have persistent difficulties at school age, with motor deficit, restrictions in school activity performance and low participation in the school context, as well as significantly lower functional performance when compared to children without DD. A systematic monitoring of this population is recommended to identify needs and minimize future problems.

  12. Prevalence of Malnutrition in Children under 6 Years in Sistan and Baluchestan Province, Iran

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    Mansour Karajibani

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The present study was conducted in rural area of Sistan and Baluchestan province, south-east of Iran with aim of determine the prevalence of underweight, stunting, wasting, overweight and obesity among children. Materials and Methods: One thousand five hundred seventy Children were selected from all children less than 6 years covered by healthy and treatment centers of rural area in Sistan and Baluchestan province. Body weight and height were measured using standard methods. Determination of malnutrition performed based on WHO, National Center for Health Statistics and Center for Disease Control and Prevention (NCHS and CDC standard. The indices nutritional status was assessed by Z- Score. Results: The result showed that, based on NCHS and WHO standard: 21.1% and 19.4%, 28.2% and 32.1%, 7.5% and 9.4% of children were underweight, stunted and wasted respectively. The peak of malnutrition based on stunting was more than underweight and wasting. According to CDC standard, the prevalence of underweight, overweight and obesity was 27.8%, 4.2% and 4.1% respectively. The most rate of overweight and obesity was 7.1% and 5% in children aged 3 years using CDC cut-off and also lowest rate of overweight and obesity were 1.5% and 0% in children aged 5 years. Conclusion: This study revealed, underweight, stunting and wasting represents different processes of malnutrition which have different risk factors. However, it might be replaced by overweight as children grow to adolescence. Nevertheless, overweight and obesity are not major problem in the children.

  13. Overweight among Four-Year-Old Children in Relation to Early Growth Characteristics and Socioeconomic Factors

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    Jörgen Thorn

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To assess early growth characteristics and socioeconomic factors of children in relation to body mass index (BMI and presence of overweight among four-year-old children. Methods. Two Child Health Centres (CHC participated in the study. They were selected to obtain two populations of children featuring divergent socio-economic characteristics. Growth data registered at the CHCs from birth to the 4-year check-up were recovered. Overweight was defined by the BMI cut-offs established by IOTF. BMI values expressed as BMI standard deviation score (BMISDS were used for analysis. Results. At the 4-year check-up, the BMISDS and the proportion of children with overweight (including the obese were significantly higher in the district with lower socio-economic status. High BMI at birth and low socio-economic status of the population in the CHC-district were shown to be independent determinants for overweight and BMISDS at four years of age. Conclusions. More research is needed to understand the mechanisms and how intervention programs should be designed in order to prevent the development of overweight and obesity in children.

  14. [Special considerations in children under five years with asthma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuevas Schacht, Francisco J; Cano Salas, Maria del Carmen

    2009-01-01

    Currently, clinical practice guidelines and international guidelines on diagnosis and management of asthma, including special considerations in patients under five years old, given the frequent respiratory morbidity associated with this age group and poor or no cooperation from the child for testing respiratory function, favoring the underdiagnosis, delaying treatment and affecting the proper assessment of severity, level of control, and adequate clinical response to treatment. That is why the proper understanding of the natural history and the different phenotypes in infants and toddlers, allow for functional and clinical considerations on the progression of asthma from early childhood to adulthood, being necessary to make a special deal considering personal and family history, symptoms and progression of comorbidities exist which in turn will classify, monitor and plan treatment to achieve and maintain control of the disease, so far as asthma is not cured but their control is achieved in most patients. The doctor-patient interaction, family, education, control of risk factors and comorbidities, assessment, treatment and monitoring of the development of asthma are the foundation for success in the management of asthmatic patients. PMID:20873059

  15. Physical activity levels and energy expenditure of 9-year-old – 12-year-old overweight and obese children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita E. Pienaar

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The high occurrence of overweight and obesity amongst children is a disturbing health problem worldwide. Possible causes of increasing childhood obesity are inactivity and energy imbalances. The aim of this study was to analyse the total energy expenditure (TEEand physical activity levels in 9-year-old – 12-year-old overweight and obese children during a weekday and a weekend day, as well as during a weekday morning and afternoon. Twenty-four 9-year-old – 12-year-old children (seven boys and 17 girls, of whom nine were overweight and 15 were obese, were selected from seven public primary schools for this study. Body mass index (BMI cut-off points were used to distinguish between overweight and obese. Each participant wore an ACTICAL™ monitor to determine their physical activity levels and TEE. It was found that the TEE of the children did not differ between a week day and a weekend day, although the TEE of the week day afternoon differed significantly from that of the weekday morning. Unlike the overweight children, none of the obese children met the requirements of 60 minutes of moderate-intensity physical activity per day. Strategies should be found to increase the activity levels of overweight and, especially, obese children, specifically during the mornings and over weekends.

    Opsomming

    Die hoë voorkoms van oorgewig en obesiteit onder kinders is wêreldwyd ’n kommerwekkende gesondheidsprobleem. Fisieke onaktiwiteit en energiewanbalanse word as moontlike oorsake van die probleem beskou. Die doel van hierdie studie was om die totale energieverbruik (TEV en fisieke-aktiwiteitsvlakke van 9-jarige – 12-jarige oorgewig- en obese kinders tydens ‘n totale weeksdag en naweekdag te ontleed, asook tydens die oggend en middag van ‘n weeksdag. Vier-en-twintig 9-jarige – 12-jarige kinders (sewe seuns en 17 dogters, waarvan nege oorgewig en 15 obees was, is uit sewe publieke laerskole vir die studie gekies

  16. Varicella vaccination coverage of children under two years of age in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reuss Annicka M

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since July 2004, routine varicella vaccination is recommended by the German Standing Vaccination Committee in Germany. Health Insurance Funds started to cover vaccination costs at different time points between 2004 and 2006 in the Federal States. Nationwide representative data on vaccination coverage against varicella of children under two years of age are not available. We aimed to determine varicella vaccination coverage in statutory health insured children under two years of age in twelve German Federal States using data from associations of statutory health insurance physicians (ASHIPs, in order to investigate the acceptance of the recommended routine varicella vaccination programme. Methods We analysed data on varicella vaccination from 13 of 17 ASHIPs of the years 2004 to 2007. The study population consisted of all statutory health insured children under two years of age born in 2004 (cohort 2004 or 2005 (cohort 2005 in one of the studied regions. Vaccination coverage was determined by the number of children vaccinated under 2 years of age within the study population. Results Varicella vaccination coverage of children under two years of age with either one dose of the monovalent varicella vaccine or two doses of the measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella vaccine increased from 34% (cohort 2004 to 51% (cohort 2005 in the studied regions (p Conclusions Our study shows increasing varicella vaccination coverage of young children, indicating a growing acceptance of the routine varicella vaccination programme by the parents and physicians. We recommend further monitoring of vaccination coverage using data from ASHIPs to investigate acceptance of the routine vaccination programmes over time.

  17. The role of phonological awareness and letter-sound knowledge in the reading development of children with intellectual disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sermier Dessemontet, Rachel; de Chambrier, Anne-Françoise

    2015-01-01

    Our study investigated if phonological awareness and letter-sound knowledge were predictors of reading progress in children with intellectual disabilities (ID) with unspecified etiology. An academic achievement test was administered to 129 children with mild or moderate ID when they were 6-8 years old, as well as one and two school years later. Findings indicated that phonological awareness and letter-sound knowledge at 6-8 years of age predicted progress in word and non-word reading after one school year and two school years after controlling for IQ, age, expressive vocabulary, spoken language, and type of placement. Phonological awareness and letter-sound knowledge at 6-8 years of age also predicted progress in reading comprehension after one school year and two school years. These findings suggest that training phonological awareness skills combined with explicit phonics instruction is important to foster reading progress in children with mild and moderate ID with unspecified etiology. PMID:25965277

  18. The role of phonological awareness and letter-sound knowledge in the reading development of children with intellectual disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sermier Dessemontet, Rachel; de Chambrier, Anne-Françoise

    2015-01-01

    Our study investigated if phonological awareness and letter-sound knowledge were predictors of reading progress in children with intellectual disabilities (ID) with unspecified etiology. An academic achievement test was administered to 129 children with mild or moderate ID when they were 6-8 years old, as well as one and two school years later. Findings indicated that phonological awareness and letter-sound knowledge at 6-8 years of age predicted progress in word and non-word reading after one school year and two school years after controlling for IQ, age, expressive vocabulary, spoken language, and type of placement. Phonological awareness and letter-sound knowledge at 6-8 years of age also predicted progress in reading comprehension after one school year and two school years. These findings suggest that training phonological awareness skills combined with explicit phonics instruction is important to foster reading progress in children with mild and moderate ID with unspecified etiology.

  19. Clinically significant behavior problems among young children 2 years after the Great East Japan Earthquake.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeo Fujiwara

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: On March 11, 2011, a massive undersea earthquake and tsunami struck East Japan. Few studies have investigated the impact of exposure to a natural disaster on preschool children. We investigated the association of trauma experiences during the Great East Japan Earthquake on clinically significant behavior problems among preschool children 2 years after the earthquake. METHOD: Participants were children who were exposed to the 2011 disaster at preschool age (affected area, n = 178; unaffected area, n = 82. Data were collected from September 2012 to June 2013 (around 2 years after the earthquake, thus participants were aged 5 to 8 years when assessed. Severe trauma exposures related to the earthquake (e.g., loss of family members were assessed by interview, and trauma events in the physical environment related to the earthquake (e.g. housing damage, and other trauma exposure before the earthquake, were assessed by questionnaire. Behavior problems were assessed by caregivers using the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL, which encompasses internalizing, externalizing, and total problems. Children who exceeded clinical cut-off of the CBCL were defined as having clinically significant behavior problems. RESULTS: Rates of internalizing, externalizing, and total problems in the affected area were 27.7%, 21.2%, and 25.9%, respectively. The rate ratio suggests that children who lost distant relatives or friends were 2.36 times more likely to have internalizing behavior problems (47.6% vs. 20.2%, 95% CI: 1.10-5.07. Other trauma experiences before the earthquake also showed significant positive association with internalizing, externalizing, and total behavior problems, which were not observed in the unaffected area. CONCLUSIONS: One in four children still had behavior problems even 2 years after the Great East Japan Earthquake. Children who had other trauma experiences before the earthquake were more likely to have behavior problems. These

  20. Cerebral Palsy in 1-12 Year Old Children in Southern Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Inaloo, Soroor; Pegah KATIBEH; GHASEMOF, Masroor

    2016-01-01

    Objective Cerebral palsy (CP) is a non-progressive CNS disorder due to an insult to the growing brain, usually occurring in the first two years of life. During the recent years, its etiology has been changed; perinatal and postnatal insults are not considered as its main causes in developed countries any more. The aim of this study was to evaluate the causes of CP in children in southern Iran. Materials & Methods Overall, 200 children with CP aged 1-12 yr old referring to Pediatric Neurology ...

  1. Traumatic brain injury in children in Denmark: a national 15-year study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, A; Teasdale, T W

    1998-01-01

    Demographic trends are reported concerning three types of traumatic brain injury (concussions, cranial fractures, and intracranial contusions/haemorrhages) among children in Denmark of ages up to and including 14 years, for a fifteen year period from 1979 through 1993. The data were derived from...... a national computer-based hospitalization register and include 49,594 children, of whom 60% were boys and 89% had suffered a concussion. Virtually all injuries were the result of accidents. A major finding was that there has been a general decline in the incidence of traumatic brain injuries, especially...

  2. Parental spanking of 1-year-old children and subsequent child protective services involvement✩

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Shawna J.; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Berger, Lawrence M.

    2014-01-01

    The majority of U.S. parents spank their children, often beginning when their children are very young. We examined families (N=2,788) who participated in a longitudinal community-based study of new births in urban areas. Prospective analyses examined whether spanking by the child's mother, father, or mother's current partner when the child was 1-year-old was associated with household CPS involvement between age 1 and age 5. Results indicated that 30% of 1-year-olds were spanked at least once ...

  3. Mental health and bullying in the United States among children aged 6 to 17 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedict, Frances Turcotte; Vivier, Patrick M; Gjelsvik, Annie

    2015-03-01

    This article examines the association between mental health disorders and being identified as a bully among children between the ages of 6 and 17 years. Data from the 2007 National Survey of Children's Health were examined. A total of 63,997 children had data for both parental reported mental health and bullying status. Bivariate analysis and logistic regression was performed to assess the association between mental health status and being identified as a bully with an age-stratified analysis and sub-analysis by type of mental health disorder. In 2007, 15.2% of U.S. children ages 6 to 17 years were identified as bullies by their parent or guardian. Children with a diagnosis of depression, anxiety, or depression had a threefold increased odds of being a bully. The diagnosis of depression is associated with a 3.31 increased odds (95% CI = [2.7, 4.07]) of being identified as a bully. Children with anxiety and attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) had similar odds. The diagnosis of a mental health disorder is strongly associated with being identified as a bully. In particular, depression, anxiety, and ADHD are strongly associated with being identified as a bully. These findings emphasize the importance of providing psychological support to not only victims of bullying but bullies as well. Understanding the risk profile of childhood bullies is essential in gaining a better grasp of this public health problem and in creating useful and appropriate resources and interventions to decrease bullying.

  4. Time knowledge acquisition in children aged 6 to 11 years and its relationship with numerical skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labrell, Florence; Mikaeloff, Yann; Perdry, Hervé; Dellatolas, Georges

    2016-03-01

    Acquisition of time knowledge (TK; the correct representation and use of time units) is linked to the development of numerical abilities, but this relationship has not been investigated in children. The current study examined the acquisition of TK and its association with numerical skills. A total of 105 children aged 6 to 11 years were interviewed with our Time Knowledge Questionnaire (TKQ), developed for purposes of this study, and the Zareki-R, a battery for the evaluation of number processing and mental calculation. The TKQ assessed conventional time knowledge (temporal orientation, temporal sequences, relationships between time units, and telling the time on a clock), estimation of longer durations related to birthday and life span, and estimation of the duration of the interview. Time knowledge increased with age, especially from 6 to 8 years, and was strongly linked to numerical skills. Regression analyses showed that four numerical components were implicated in TK: academic knowledge of numbers and number facts (e.g., reading Arabic numerals, mental calculation), number line estimation (e.g., correspondence between a number and a distance), contextual estimation (e.g., many/few leaves on a tree, children in a family), and numerical tasks involving verbal working memory (e.g., comparison of numbers presented orally). Numerical correlations with TK varied according to children's age; subtests based on academic knowledge of numbers, working memory, and number line estimation were linked with TK in the younger children, but only contextual estimation was associated with TK in the older children. PMID:26590852

  5. Bruxism and familiar functioning in school-age children between 5 and 11 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lury Morales

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bruxism, a common negative habit in children, is often linked with emotional conflicts, anxiety, stress, or frustration, which could be originated in the familiar environment. Objective: To characterize the familiar environment of children between 5 and 11 years suffering from bruxism. Methods: Analytical control-case design, developed from March to June, 2007, including children between 5 and 11 years from three urban elementary schools included in Health Area II of Cienfuegos municipality. All the children with bruxism were selected as cases and the controls were selected through pairing 2 to 1. The test FF-SIL was used to assess familiar functioning. Results: Bruxism was not associated with gender. There were significant differences between both groups regarding familiar functioning, in which affectivity and cohesion had higher results and harmony was less significant. Most of the studied families were functional or half-functional. Most of children with bruxism come from families with inadequate functioning; besides, dysfunctional and severely dysfunctional families and more frequent in the group of children with bruxism. Conclusion: In the studied sample, bruxism was associated, to a large extent, with inadequate familiar functioning.

  6. Disabled children (0-3 years) and integrated services--the impact of Early Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Alys; Temple, Bogusia; Davies, Linda; Parkinson, Gillian; Bolton, Joanna

    2008-05-01

    Early Support (ES) is the flagship government programme aimed at improving multi-agency working with, and supporting enhanced outcomes for, children with a disability 0-3 years and their families. This paper draws on results from the recently completed Department for Education and Skills commissioned national evaluation of ES involving 46 pathfinder projects throughout England. Data were collected by survey at two points in time (9 months apart), by focus groups with service providers and parents, and through secondary data analyses, including exploratory economic evaluation. This paper outlines some of the key findings pertaining to the relationship between integrated children's services and the impact of ES. As such, we address three concerns: what the evidence from ES can tell us about the relationships between universal and targeted provision within integrated children's service structures, the relationship between specific short-term initiatives and their longer-term sustainability within integrated children's services structures and the potential costs and benefits of ES looking forward to its implementation on a national basis within an integrated children's services environment. Although focused primarily on children with a disability in the early years, implications will be drawn for the implementation of Lead Professional Guidance and the Common Assessment Framework more generically.

  7. Dietary habits among children aged 8-9 years in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Lauria

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe dietary habits and related geographic and socio-demographic characteristics among children aged 8-9 years in Italy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data from the 2012 national nutritional surveillance system collected from children, parents and teachers, have been linked to determine the children's eating habits. Logistic regression analyses were used to investigate the association between incorrect dietary habits and their potential predictors. RESULTS: Of the 46 307 children, 8.6% skipped breakfast, 48.8% did not eat vegetables and 28.7% did not eat fruit daily, 64.8% ate an abundant mid-morning snack, 41.4% drank sugary beverages and 12.5% drank carbonated beverages at least once a day. Three or more incorrect habits were found in 43.9% of the children. Incorrect dietary habits were more common among children with lower socio-economic conditions, who were resident in the South of the country and who spent more time watching TV. CONCLUSION: In Italy, unhealthy dietary habits are common among children. The deficiencies identified may well be a harbinger of future public health problems.

  8. Gesture Frequency Linked Primarily to Story Length in 4-10-Year Old Children's Stories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicoladis, Elena; Marentette, Paula; Navarro, Samuel

    2016-04-01

    Previous studies have shown that older children gesture more while telling a story than younger children. This increase in gesture use has been attributed to increased story complexity. In adults, both narrative complexity and imagery predict gesture frequency. In this study, we tested the strength of three predictors of children's gesture use in a narrative context: age, narrative complexity (measured by discourse connectors), and use of imagery (measured by story length). French-, Spanish-, and English-speaking children between 4 and 10 years participated in this study. Including these three groups allows us to test for the generalizability of our results and for cross-linguistic differences in gesture frequency. All the children watched cartoons and retold the story. The results showed that the length of the story was a significant predictor of children's gesture rate while age and discourse connectors were not. There were no differences between language groups. One possible in interpretation of these results is that children's gesture frequency is strongly linked to activation of imagery.

  9. International Space Station Increment-6/8 Microgravity Environment Summary Report November 2002 to April 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jules, Kenol; Hrovat, Kenneth; Kelly, Eric; Reckart, Timothy

    2006-01-01

    This summary report presents the analysis results of some of the processed acceleration data measured aboard the International Space Station during the period of November 2002 to April 2004. Two accelerometer systems were used to measure the acceleration levels for the activities that took place during Increment-6/8. However, not all of the activities during that period were analyzed in order to keep the size of the report manageable. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration sponsors the Microgravity Acceleration Measurement System and the Space Acceleration Measurement System to support microgravity science experiments that require microgravity acceleration measurements. On April 19, 2001, both the Microgravity Acceleration Measurement System and the Space Acceleration Measurement System units were launched on STS-100 from the Kennedy Space Center for installation on the International Space Station. The Microgravity Acceleration Measurement System unit was flown to the station in support of science experiments requiring quasi-steady acceleration measurements, while the Space Acceleration Measurement System unit was flown to support experiments requiring vibratory acceleration measurement. Both acceleration systems are also used in support of the vehicle microgravity requirements verification as well as in support of the International Space Station support cadre. The International Space Station Increment-6/8 reduced gravity environment analysis presented in this report uses acceleration data collected by both sets of accelerometer systems: 1. The Microgravity Acceleration Measurement System, which consists of two sensors: the Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment Sensor Subsystem, a low frequency range sensor (up to 1 Hz), is used to characterize the quasi-steady environment for payloads and vehicle, and the High Resolution Accelerometer Package, which is used to characterize the vibratory environment up to 100 Hz. 2. The Space Acceleration Measurement

  10. Evidence of Bordetella pertussis infection in vaccinated 1-year-old Danish children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Linstow, Marie-Louise; Pontoppidan, Peter Lotko; von König, Carl-Heinz Wirsing;

    2010-01-01

    We measured IgA and IgG antibodies to pertussis toxin (PT) and filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA) in sera from 203 1-year-old children who had received one to three doses of a monocomponent PT toxoid vaccine. Ten children (5%) had IgA antibody to PT indicating recent infection; seven of these children...... had received three doses of vaccine. PT IgA responders did not have significantly longer coughing episodes than PT IgA non-responders. Since an IgA antibody response occurs in only approximately 50% of infected children, the actual infection rate in our cohort is estimated to approximately 10......%. The apparent high Bordetella pertussis infection rate in Danish infants suggests that the monocomponent PT toxoid vaccine used in Denmark has limited efficacy against B. pertussis infection. A prospective immunization study comparing a multi-component vaccine with the present monocomponent PT toxoid vaccine...

  11. Abdominal obesity status among Arora preschool children (2-5 years of Amritsar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Kaur

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Abdominal obesity is a state of excessive accumulation of central subcutaneous and visceral fat, has emerged as an important predictor for cardiovascular and metabolic risks in children and adolescents. Waist circumference is a highly sensitive and specific measure of abdominal obesity. Very few studies are available to the prevalence of abdominal obesity. Therefore in the present study an attempt has been made to report the prevalence of abdominal obesity among preschool children of Amritsar (Punjab. This study was undertaken among 1879 (949 boys and 930 girls Arora preschool children aged 2-5 years of Amritsar. Waist circumference was taken on each subjects using standard technique. Abdominal obesity was assessed by using waist circumference criterion of National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Present study revealed that abdominal obese were10.4% and 6.3% among boys and girls, respectively. The percentage prevalence of abdominal obesity was lower in the Amritsar children than other populations.

  12. Risk Factors for Knee Injuries in Children 8-15 Years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Junge, Tina; Runge, Lisbeth; Juul-Kristensen, Birgit;

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Knee injuries are frequent in children, with most studies reporting traumatic knee injuries. Evidence of risk factors for knee injuries in children is sparse. The purpose of this study was to report the extent of traumatic and overuse knee injuries in children and to evaluate...... intrinsic and extrinsic factors for risk of these injuries. METHODS: Weekly musculoskeletal pain, sport participation and sports type were reported by 1326 school children (8-15 years). Knee injuries were classified as traumatic or overuse. Multinomial logistic regression was used for analyses. RESULTS......: During the study period, 952 (15% traumatic, 85% overuse) knee injuries were diagnosed. Period prevalence for traumatic and overuse knee injuries were 0.8/1000 and 5.4/1000 sport participations, respectively. Participation in tumbling gymnastics was a risk factor for traumatic knee injuries (OR 2...

  13. Hyperventilation with cold versus dry air in 2- to 5-year-old children with asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kim G; Bisgaard, Hans

    2005-01-01

    UNLABELLED: Cold air challenge (CACh) has been shown to discriminate between children with asthma and healthy young children. Hyperventilation with dry room-temperature air is a simplified alternative. We compared responsiveness in young children with asthma between two standardized, single......-step protocols: dry air challenge (DACh) performed as 6 minutes of eucapnic hyperventilation with dry room-temperature air and CACh as 4 minutes of hyperventilation. Response was measured as specific airway resistance by whole-body plethysmography and expressed as change from baseline in numbers of within......-subject SDs (SDw). The challenge sequence was randomly assigned. A comparator challenge was performed 1 hour later if the first challenge gave a change of 3 SDw or more. Forty 2- to 5-year-old children with asthma were included. Responsiveness to cold versus dry air showed significant, but weak, correlation...

  14. Computer animated relaxation therapy in children between 7 and 13 years with tension-type headache

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tornoe, Birte; Skov, Liselotte

    2012-01-01

    participants and in Total Tenderness Score for children with frequent episodic tension-type headache. The children expressed a growing understanding of body reactions and an acquired ability to deactivate and regulate these reactions. Computer animated SEMG seems an applicable learning strategy for young......This pilot study evaluated the effect of computer animated relaxation therapy in children between 7 and 13 years with tension-type headache and the children's experiences with the therapy. The therapy consisted of an uncontrolled nine-session course in modified progressive relaxation therapy...... assisted by computer animated surface EMG provided from the trapezius muscles and with the physiotherapist as a participant observer. Outcome measures were (a) headache frequency and intensity, (b) pericranial tenderness, (c) tension patterns, and (d) evaluations assessed at baseline and at 3 months follow...

  15. Follow-up of extreme neonatal hyperbilirubinaemia in 5- to 10-year-old children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vandborg, Pernille Kure; Hansen, Bo Mølholm; Greisen, Gorm;

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate whether infants with neonatal hyperbilirubinaemia but without intermediate or advanced bilirubin encephalopathy develop long-term sequelae, with impairment of motor development, executive function, or hearing. METHOD: This nested double-cohort study included 167 exposed children...... spectrum disorder recorded in national registries. INTERPRETATION: No evidence was found of an increased risk of deficits in motor development, executive function, or hearing in children with extreme hyperbilirubinaemia who did not have intermediate or advanced bilirubin encephalopathy....... (107 males, 60 females) born in Denmark 2000 to 2005 at gestational age ≥35 weeks with a total serum bilirubin ≥450 μmol/L (26.3mg/dL) and 163 age-, sex-, and gestational age-matched unexposed children (103 males, 60 females). The children were examined at a mean age of 7.7 years (SD 1.7y) using...

  16. Prevalence of oral habits in 563 Nigerian preschool children age 3-5 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onyeaso, C O; Sote, E O

    2001-12-01

    One of the contributory factors in the establishment of occlusion is the child's oral habits. A limited amount of information is available on oral habits of pre-school children especially on Nigerian pre-school children. With an increasing interest in the early recognition of mal-occlusion and a corresponding emphasis on preventive procedures, more information on pre-school children may prove to be useful. This study revealed the prevalence of oral habits among 563 Nigerian pre-school children aged 3-5 years at 13.14%: 6.74% for males, 6.4%for females. The acquired data were tested with chi-square(chi2). The results indicate significant gender difference for tongue thrusting/sucking only (P=0.01) using the fisher's exact test. The relationship between digital sucking habit and mal-occlusion was very significant (P<0.01).

  17. Choroidal thickness in relation to birth parameters in 11- to 12-year-old children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xiao Q; Munkholm, Anja; Larsen, Michael;

    2015-01-01

    to -1] μm, P = 0.04) compared with appropriate for gestation children. Longer birth length was associated with a thicker subfoveal choroid (2 [1-4] μm/cm, P = 0.005). Macular choroidal thickness at 16 extrafoveal locations was measured in a subset of children and found to have the same associations......PURPOSE: To examine choroidal thickness in a population-based child cohort in relation to birth parameters. METHODS: The Copenhagen Child Cohort 2000 Eye Study examined 1406 children aged 11 to 12 years using enhanced depth imaging spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (EDI-OCT), ocular...... biometry and measurement of height, weight, refraction, and self-reported pubertal development status. Birth parameters were obtained from the Danish Medical Birth Registry. RESULTS: The subfoveal choroid in low birth weight children (

  18. Dental caries and treatment needs of children (6-10 years in rural Udaipur, Rajasthan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhar Vineet

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective : This study was done to examine caries prevalence and corresponding treatment needs in school children of rural areas of Udaipur, Rajasthan. Materials and Methods : A total of 750 children of rural areas in the age group of 6-10 years were examined, using WHO index, to record the prevalence of dental caries and treatment needs. The results were subjected to statistical analysis using chi square test. Results : Dental caries was found in 63.20% children, and 85.07% children needed dental treatment. The highest need was of one surface filling (85.73% followed by sealant (51.20%. Conclusion : Dental caries showed to be a significant health issue in the rural population requiring immediate attention.

  19. Nuclear Halo-Like Phenomena of 6,8He and Nuclear Short Range Correlation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Li-Juan; WU Qing; HE Xiao-Rong; MA Wei-Xing

    2004-01-01

    Based on the nuclear short range correlation in a halo-like nucleus, theoretical analysis of the experimental cross sections for small-angle elastic p-4,6,8He scattering at the energy of about 0.7 GeV has been performed in the framework of Glauber multiple scattering theory. Our theoretical calculations reproduce the corresponding experimental data quite successfully. These good agreements confirm that the nuclear halo-like phenomena may originate from the short range correlation between nucleons in a halo-like nucleus.

  20. Coexistence probability in the last passage percolation model is $6-8\\log2$

    CERN Document Server

    Coupier, David

    2010-01-01

    A competition model on $\\N^{2}$ between three clusters and governed by directed last passage percolation is considered. We prove that coexistence, i.e. the three clusters are simultaneously unbounded, occurs with probability $6-8\\log2$. When this happens, we also prove that the central cluster almost surely has a positive density on $\\N^{2}$. Our results rely on three couplings, allowing to link the competition interfaces (which represent the borderlines between the clusters) to some particles in the multi-TASEP, and on recent results about collision in the multi-TASEP.

  1. Synthesis of 6,8-dichloroquinolones utilizing new method and evaluation of their antibacterial activities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Several 6,8-dichloroquinolone analogues were synthesized from the key intermediate compound of 2,3,4,5-tetrachlorobenzene carbonyl chloride, which was obtained from the starting material of tetrachlorophthalic anhydride. Their in vitro antibacterial activities were evaluated. As a result of this study, compounds 21c and 21d were twofold more potent than ciprofloxacin (CPFX)and norfloxacin (NFLX) against Staphylococcus aureus-9, and with the same potent as CPFX and NFLX while against Escherichia coli-2, but were less potent than references in against Pseudomonas aeruginosa-17.

  2. Influence of microstructure on the formability of Al-Mg6.8 alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minov Boris G.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Formability of Al-Mg6.8 alloy has been evaluated experimentally in uniaxial tension and biaxial stretching. Three different structures developed after cold rolling and annealing in the range of temperature from 265 to 320 °C: (I recovered dual (a + β phase, (II recrystallized (a + β dual phase, and (III recrystallized a-Al single phase structure, were tested. Samples with recovered structure have shown a lower formability level than the samples with fully recrystallized structure. Formability level assessed through FLD and LDH value, has been a result of complex interaction between work hardening ability and strain rate sensitivity.

  3. Nuclear Halo-Like Phenomena of 6,8 He and Nuclear Short Range Correlation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOULi-Juan; WUQinq; HEXiao-Rong; MAWei-Xing

    2004-01-01

    Based on the nuclear short range correlation in a halo-like nucleus, theoretical analysis of the experimental cross sections for small-angle elastic p-4,6,8 He scattering at the energy of about 0.7 GeV has been performed in the framework of Glauber multiple scattering theory. Our theoretical calculations reproduce the corresponding experimental data quite successfully. These good agreements confirm that the nuclear halo-like phenomena may originate from the short range correlation between nucleons in a halo-like nucleus.

  4. CLINICO – EPIDEMIOLOGY OF U TI IN UNDER 5 YEARS OF AGE IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonali

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infections (UTIs are a common , potentially serious , and often occult bacterial infections of childhood . UTI is more frequent in females than males at all ages with the exception of the neonatal period . Urinary tract infections imply invasion of urinary tract by pathogens which may involve the upper or lower urinary tract depending on the infection in kidney , bladder and urethra . OBJECTIVES: To determine the incidence of UTI in febrile children be low 5years of age and to know the aetiological profile of UTI among the same group of children with fever . METHODS: This cross sectional observational study included all febrile children from one month to 5years of age , admitted in Pediatric ward in MGM Me dical College , Kishanganj , Bihar . RESULTS: Overall incidence rate of UTI in the present study was 6% with maximum incidence in children <2years of age . Among culture positive cases majority (50% grew E . coli . DMSA revealed renal cortical scarring in 42 . 8 5% cases following UTI . CONCLUSION: From the present study it can be concluded that UTI is a common bacterial infection in infant and children . Rapid evaluation and treatment of UTI is important to prevent renal parenchymal damage and renal scarring or ren al failure .

  5. Prevalence of epileptiform discharges in healthy 11- and 12-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Arthur C; Chau, Larissa; Arya, Kapil; Schneider, Margaret

    2016-09-01

    We sought to determine the prevalence of interictal epileptiform discharges (IEDs) in healthy 11- and 12-year-old children. Sixth grade students with no history of seizure, or neurologic or psychiatric disease, were enrolled in a longitudinal physical activity intervention study. Per study protocol, each student had two EEG recordings approximately 6months apart. Epileptiform discharges were present in 4 (2.9%) of 140 students: centrotemporal in three and generalized in one. In three children, the discharges were still present six months later. None of the children had developed seizures a minimum of one year after the second EEG. These results are consistent with those of two landmark European studies performed nearly a half century ago, before the modern era of digital EEG. Healthy 11- and 12-year-old children with no history of seizure may have centrotemporal or generalized epileptiform discharges on EEG, which can persist for at least 6months. Based on both our results and those of the two prior European studies, such discharges, if found incidentally in otherwise healthy children in this age group, should not prompt further evaluation or treatment.

  6. Prevalence of epileptiform discharges in healthy 11- and 12-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Arthur C; Chau, Larissa; Arya, Kapil; Schneider, Margaret

    2016-09-01

    We sought to determine the prevalence of interictal epileptiform discharges (IEDs) in healthy 11- and 12-year-old children. Sixth grade students with no history of seizure, or neurologic or psychiatric disease, were enrolled in a longitudinal physical activity intervention study. Per study protocol, each student had two EEG recordings approximately 6months apart. Epileptiform discharges were present in 4 (2.9%) of 140 students: centrotemporal in three and generalized in one. In three children, the discharges were still present six months later. None of the children had developed seizures a minimum of one year after the second EEG. These results are consistent with those of two landmark European studies performed nearly a half century ago, before the modern era of digital EEG. Healthy 11- and 12-year-old children with no history of seizure may have centrotemporal or generalized epileptiform discharges on EEG, which can persist for at least 6months. Based on both our results and those of the two prior European studies, such discharges, if found incidentally in otherwise healthy children in this age group, should not prompt further evaluation or treatment. PMID:27450305

  7. Meckels diverticulum in children: A 12 years experience in Amir-Kabir children's hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Pediatric; Acute abdomen; Meckel's diverticulum

    1999-01-01

    Meckels Diverticulum is the most common congenital anomaly of GI tract. Complications develop in about 4% of cases as an acute abdomen. During the last 12 years, 58 patients with Meckel's diverticulum were treated in Amir-Kabir children's hospital. The majority of our cases (84%, 49 from 58) were under 6 years of age, with boys outnumbering girls (4:1). Intestinal obstruction was the most common form of presentation, included 60% of symptomatic patients and lower GI bleeding was the...

  8. Tracing children's vocabulary development from preschool through the school-age years: an 8-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Shuang; Su, Mengmeng; Kang, Cuiping; Liu, Hongyun; Zhang, Yuping; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Tardif, Twila; Li, Hong; Liang, Weilan; Zhang, Zhixiang; Shu, Hua

    2015-01-01

    In this 8-year longitudinal study, we traced the vocabulary growth of Chinese children, explored potential precursors of vocabulary knowledge, and investigated how vocabulary growth predicted future reading skills. Two hundred and sixty-four (264) native Chinese children from Beijing were measured on a variety of reading and language tasks over 8 years. Between the ages of 4 to 10 years, they were administered tasks of vocabulary and related cognitive skills. At age 11, comprehensive reading skills, including character recognition, reading fluency, and reading comprehension were examined. Individual differences in vocabulary developmental profiles were estimated using the intercept-slope cluster method. Vocabulary development was then examined in relation to later reading outcomes. Three subgroups of lexical growth were classified, namely high-high (with a large initial vocabulary size and a fast growth rate), low-high (with a small initial vocabulary size and a fast growth rate) and low-low (with a small initial vocabulary size and a slow growth rate) groups. Low-high and low-low groups were distinguishable mostly through phonological skills, morphological skills and other reading-related cognitive skills. Childhood vocabulary development (using intercept and slope) explained subsequent reading skills. Findings suggest that language-related and reading-related cognitive skills differ among groups with different developmental trajectories of vocabulary, and the initial size and growth rate of vocabulary may be two predictors for later reading development. PMID:24962559

  9. Tracing children's vocabulary development from preschool through the school-age years: an 8-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Shuang; Su, Mengmeng; Kang, Cuiping; Liu, Hongyun; Zhang, Yuping; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Tardif, Twila; Li, Hong; Liang, Weilan; Zhang, Zhixiang; Shu, Hua

    2015-01-01

    In this 8-year longitudinal study, we traced the vocabulary growth of Chinese children, explored potential precursors of vocabulary knowledge, and investigated how vocabulary growth predicted future reading skills. Two hundred and sixty-four (264) native Chinese children from Beijing were measured on a variety of reading and language tasks over 8 years. Between the ages of 4 to 10 years, they were administered tasks of vocabulary and related cognitive skills. At age 11, comprehensive reading skills, including character recognition, reading fluency, and reading comprehension were examined. Individual differences in vocabulary developmental profiles were estimated using the intercept-slope cluster method. Vocabulary development was then examined in relation to later reading outcomes. Three subgroups of lexical growth were classified, namely high-high (with a large initial vocabulary size and a fast growth rate), low-high (with a small initial vocabulary size and a fast growth rate) and low-low (with a small initial vocabulary size and a slow growth rate) groups. Low-high and low-low groups were distinguishable mostly through phonological skills, morphological skills and other reading-related cognitive skills. Childhood vocabulary development (using intercept and slope) explained subsequent reading skills. Findings suggest that language-related and reading-related cognitive skills differ among groups with different developmental trajectories of vocabulary, and the initial size and growth rate of vocabulary may be two predictors for later reading development.

  10. Frequency of intrathoracic injuries in children younger than 3 years with rib fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research documents that among children admitted to trauma intensive care units the number of rib fractures sustained indicates the child's likelihood of having and severity of intrathoracic injury. This has been misused in court to argue that children with multiple rib fractures who lack intrathoracic injury have abnormal bone fragility rather than inflicted injury. To determine frequency of intrathoracic injuries in children younger than 3 years with rib fractures in cases of child abuse and accidental trauma. We conducted a retrospective review of rib fractures caused by documented abuse or accidents from 2003 to 2010 in children treated at Seattle Children's Hospital and Harborview Medical Center. A senior pediatric radiologist and radiology fellow independently reviewed the imaging. Children with bone demineralization were excluded. Descriptive and simple comparative statistics were used. Seventy-two percent (47/65) of infants and toddlers with rib fractures were abused. Abused children had more rib fractures than accidentally injured children (5.55 vs. 3.11, P = 0.012). However intrathoracic injuries as a whole (55.6% vs. 12.8%, P < 0.001) and individual types of intrathoracic injuries were more common with accidents. Rates of other thoracic cage injuries did not differ substantially (27.8% accidents vs. 12.8% abuse, P = 0.064). Intracranial and intra-abdominal injuries and skull fractures were equally frequent, but other extrathoracic fractures were more common with abuse (70.2% vs. 16.7%, P < 0.001). Abused infants and toddlers have fewer intrathoracic injuries but more rib fractures than accidentally injured peers. This likely reflects different injury mechanics. Lack of intrathoracic injuries in abused children with rib fractures does not imply bone fragility. (orig.)

  11. Training compliance control yields improved drawing in 5-11year old children with motor difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snapp-Childs, Winona; Shire, Katy; Hill, Liam; Mon-Williams, Mark; Bingham, Geoffrey P

    2016-08-01

    There are a large number of children with motor difficulties including those that have difficulty producing movements qualitatively well enough to improve in perceptuo-motor learning without intervention. We have developed a training method that supports active movement generation to allow improvement in a 3D tracing task requiring good compliance control. Previously, we tested a limited age range of children and found that training improved performance on the 3D tracing task and that the training transferred to a 2D drawing test. In the present study, school children (5-11years old) with motor difficulties were trained in the 3D tracing task and transfer to a 2D drawing task was tested. We used a cross-over design where half of the children received training on the 3D tracing task during the first training period and the other half of the children received training during the second training period. Given previous results, we predicted that younger children would initially show reduced performance relative to the older children, and that performance at all ages would improve with training. We also predicted that training would transfer to the 2D drawing task. However, the pre-training performance of both younger and older children was equally poor. Nevertheless, post-training performance on the 3D task was dramatically improved for both age groups and the training transferred to the 2D drawing task. Overall, this work contributes to a growing body of literature that demonstrates relatively preserved motor learning in children with motor difficulties and further demonstrates the importance of games in therapeutic interventions. PMID:27219739

  12. Frequency of intrathoracic injuries in children younger than 3 years with rib fractures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darling, Stephen E. [Kapiolani Children' s Hospital, The Department of Radiology, Honolulu, HI (United States); Done, Stephen L.; Friedman, Seth D. [Seattle Children' s Hospital, The Department' s of Radiology, Seattle, WA (United States); University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA (United States); Feldman, Kenneth W. [Seattle Children' s Hospital, Pediatrics, General Pediatrics Division, Seattle, WA (United States); Seattle Children' s Protection Program, Children' s Protection Program, M/S M2-10, Seattle, WA (United States); University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2014-10-15

    Research documents that among children admitted to trauma intensive care units the number of rib fractures sustained indicates the child's likelihood of having and severity of intrathoracic injury. This has been misused in court to argue that children with multiple rib fractures who lack intrathoracic injury have abnormal bone fragility rather than inflicted injury. To determine frequency of intrathoracic injuries in children younger than 3 years with rib fractures in cases of child abuse and accidental trauma. We conducted a retrospective review of rib fractures caused by documented abuse or accidents from 2003 to 2010 in children treated at Seattle Children's Hospital and Harborview Medical Center. A senior pediatric radiologist and radiology fellow independently reviewed the imaging. Children with bone demineralization were excluded. Descriptive and simple comparative statistics were used. Seventy-two percent (47/65) of infants and toddlers with rib fractures were abused. Abused children had more rib fractures than accidentally injured children (5.55 vs. 3.11, P = 0.012). However intrathoracic injuries as a whole (55.6% vs. 12.8%, P < 0.001) and individual types of intrathoracic injuries were more common with accidents. Rates of other thoracic cage injuries did not differ substantially (27.8% accidents vs. 12.8% abuse, P = 0.064). Intracranial and intra-abdominal injuries and skull fractures were equally frequent, but other extrathoracic fractures were more common with abuse (70.2% vs. 16.7%, P < 0.001). Abused infants and toddlers have fewer intrathoracic injuries but more rib fractures than accidentally injured peers. This likely reflects different injury mechanics. Lack of intrathoracic injuries in abused children with rib fractures does not imply bone fragility. (orig.)

  13. The growth status of North Korean refugee children and adolescents from 6 to 19 years of age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pak, Sunyoung

    2010-01-01

    This paper is a study of the growth status of 1406 North Korean refugee children and adolescents who were between 6 and 19 9 years of age at the time of their arrival in South Korea during the years 1995-2007 as compared with that of their South Korean peers Refugee children of 6 5 years of age were

  14. Probabilistic assessment of exposure to cosmetic products by French children aged 0-3 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ficheux, A S; Dornic, N; Bernard, A; Chevillotte, G; Roudot, A C

    2016-08-01

    Very few exposure data are available for children in Europe and worldwide. The aim of this study was to assess the exposure to cosmetic products used on children aged 0-3 years using recent consumption data generated for the French population. Exposure was assessed using a probabilistic method for 24 products including cleanser, skin care, fragrance, solar and bottom products. The exposure data obtained in this study for children aged 0-3 years were higher than the values fixed by the SCCS for all common products: liquid shampoo, face moisturizer cream, toothpaste, shower gel and body moisturizer cream. Exposure was assessed for the first time for many products such as sunscreens, Eau de toilette and massage products. These new French exposure values will be useful for safety assessors and for safety agencies. PMID:27255804

  15. Prognostic Predictors for Ambulation in Thai Children With Cerebral Palsy Aged 2 to 18 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeratisiroj, Orawan; Thawinchai, Nuanlaor; Siritaratiwat, Wantana; Buntragulpoontawee, Montana

    2015-11-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine prognostic predictors for ambulation among Thai children with cerebral palsy and identify their ambulatory status. A retrospective cohort study was performed at 6 special schools or hospitals for children with physical disabilities. The prognostic predictors for ambulation were analyzed by multivariable ordinal continuation ratio logistic regression. The 533 participants aged 2 to 18 years were divided into 3 groups: 186 with independent ambulation (Gross Motor Function Classification System [GMFCS I-II]), 71 with assisted ambulation (Gross Motor Function Classification System III), and 276 with nonambulation (Gross Motor Function Classification System IV-V). The significant positive predictors for ambulation were type of cerebral palsy (spastic diplegia, spastic hemiplegia, dyskinesia, ataxia, hypotonia, and mixed type), sitting independently at age 2 years, and eating independently. These predictors were used to develop clinical scoring for predicting the future ability to walk among Thai children with cerebral palsy.

  16. Spectral properties of new N, N'-bis-alkyl-1,4,6,8-naphthalenediimide complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Refat, M. S.; Grabchev, I.; Chovelon, J.-M.; Ivanova, G.

    2006-05-01

    The photophysical properties of two N, N'-bis-alkyl-1,4,6,8-naphthalenediimide (DCN1 and DCN2) have been studied in chloroform and N, N-dimethylformamide solvents. The ability of DCN2 in N, N-dimethylformamide to detect metal cations have been monitored by the fluorescence emission spectroscopy. It has been shown that the fluorescent intensity is very sensitive to the concentration of Fe 3+ cations. The reaction of iodine with N, N'-bis-alkyl-1,4,6,8-naphthalenediimide in chloroform solution have been investigated by spectrophotometric method. The results indicate the formation of two CT-complexes [(DCN1)I] +·I 3- and [(DCN2)I] +·I 3- at donor:acceptor molar ratio of 1:2. The [(DCN1)I] +·I 3- shows the characteristic absorptions of I 3- ion at 290 and 360 nm while the charge-transfer transition of [(DCN2)I] +·I 3- occurs at 310 nm. Three characteristic bands at the far infrared region in each iodine complex are observed around 135, 105 and 85 cm -1 due to νas (I-I), νs (I-I) and δ (I 3-), respectively with C2v symmetry. The values of the complex formation constant, K, and the absorptivity, ɛ have been calculated.

  17. CLASH: A Census of Magnified Star-Forming Galaxies at z ~ 6-8

    CERN Document Server

    Bradley, L D; Coe, D; Bouwens, R; Postman, M; Balestra, I; Grillo, C; Monna, A; Rosati, P; Seitz, S; Host, O; Lemze, D; Moustakas, J; Moustakas, L A; Shu, X; Zheng, W; Broadhurst, T; Carrasco, M; Jouvel, S; Koekemoer, A; Medezinski, E; Meneghetti, M; Nonino, M; Smit, R; Umetsu, K; Bartelmann, M; Benitez, N; Donahue, M; Ford, H; Infante, L; Jimenez-Teja, Y; Kelson, D; Lahav, O; Maoz, D; Melchior, P; Merten, J; Molino, A

    2013-01-01

    We utilize 16-band Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations of 18 lensing clusters obtained as part of the Cluster Lensing And Supernova survey with Hubble (CLASH) Multi-Cycle Treasury program to search for z~6-8 galaxies. We report the discovery of 206, 45, and 13 Lyman-break galaxy (LBG) candidates at z~6, z~7, and z~8, respectively, identified from purely photometric redshift selections. This large sample, representing nearly an order of magnitude increase in the number of magnified star-forming galaxies at z~6-8 presented to date, is unique in that we have observations in four WFC3/UVIS UV, seven ACS/WFC optical and all five WFC3/IR broad-band filters, which enable very accurate photometric redshift selections. We construct detailed lensing models for all 18 clusters (although some are preliminary) to estimate object magnifications and to identify two new multiply-lensed z >~ 6 candidates. The median magnifications for these 18 clusters are 4, 4, and 5 for the z~6, z~7, and z~8 samples, respectively, ove...

  18. The exposition of John 17:6-8: An exegetical exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.G. van der Merwe

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available This essay is an exegesis of Jn 17:6-8 aimed at gaining an understanding of what the Fourth Evangelist tries to emphasize and to communicate concerning the character and success of Jesus This essay is an exegesis of Jn 17:6-8 aimed at gaining an understanding of what the Fourth Evangelist tries to emphasize and to communicate concerning the character and success of Jesus’ earthly ministry. Firstly, a discourse analysis is conducted to point out the linguistic symmetric parallelism through which the Evangelist (1 emphasizes the success of Jesus’ ministry, (2 structures the principal components of Jesus’ ministry and the response of his disciples and (3 tries to explain the meaning of these components. Secondly, a theological exposition of these principal components is conducted, in respect of (1 Revelation: … (2 Obedience /Acceptance: … and (3 Faith: … ( earthly ministry. Firstly, a discourse analysis is conducted to point out the linguistic symmetric parallelism through which the Evangelist (1 emphasizes the success of Jesus’ ministry, (2 structures the principal components of Jesus’ ministry and the response of his disciples and (3 tries to explain the meaning of these components. Secondly, a theological exposition of these principal components is conducted, in respect of (1 Revelation: … (2 Obedience / Acceptance: … and (3 Faith: … (

  19. The Friendly Schools Friendly Families Programme: Three-Year Bullying Behaviour Outcomes in Primary School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Donna; Waters, Stacey; Pearce, Natasha; Shaw, Therese; Hall, Margaret; Erceg, Erin; Burns, Sharyn; Roberts, Clare; Hamilton, Greg

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This three-year group randomized controlled trial assessed whether a multi-age, multi-level bullying prevention and intervention with staff capacity building, can reduce bullying among primary school children. Methods: This study comprised two intervention and one comparison conditions. Student self-report data were collected from 2552…

  20. Developmental Norms of Children Aged 2 1/2-5 Years: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muralidharan, Rajalakshmi

    1969-01-01

    The purpose of this pilot study, aside from collection of developmental data on 38 nursery school children aged 2 1/2 to 5 years, was (1) to develop, modify and adapt the testing equipment used in Gesell's Developmental Schedule, in the field of motor, adaptive, language, and personal-social development; (2) to develop elaborate, exhaustive,…

  1. EVALUATION OF IRAN-DEFICIENCY ANEMIA BY SERUM FERRITIN ASSAY IN SEVE-YEAR-OLD CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Ghaemi

    1979-11-01

    Full Text Available Serum Ferritin (SF levels in 734 seven-year-old children was measured by a radioimmuno assay method, and its possible relation-ship with hemoglobin, hematocrit and MCHC was investigated. The results showed there was positive correlation between SF with hemo-globin, hematocrit and MCHC values.

  2. Physical Activity Patterns During School Recess: A Study in Children 6 to 10 Years Old

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Victor; Vasques, Catarina Margarida Silva; de Oliveira Pereira, Maria Beatriz Ferreira Leite

    2006-01-01

    The aims of this study were to characterize the spontaneous physical activity of children during school recess, and to estimate variation in physical activity associated with gender and age. A MTI actigraph (Model 7164) was used with a sample of 140 boys and 131 girls, 6 to 10 years of age. MTI counts were converted to METs using a regression…

  3. Different Types of Thinking of Seven-Year-Old Children and their Achievements in School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uszynska-Jarmoc, Janina

    2005-01-01

    The theoretical basis of the research was the conception of human intelligence of Sternberg. The aims of the study were: to determine the level of analytical thinking, creative thinking and practical thinking of seven-year-old children; to determine the relations between the level of analytical, practical and creative thinking and pupil's success…

  4. Working and Watching: Maternal Employment Status and Parents' Perceptions of their Three-Year Old Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronfenbrenner, Urie; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Investigates whether the hypothesis that the mother's work situation influences parents' perceptions of their three-year-old children can explain reported differences in effects of maternal employment on the child. The sample consisted of 152 white, two-parent families. Results support the generalization that maternal employment may entail both…

  5. Korean Children's Cultural Adjustment during Transition to the Early Years of School in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millar, Ngaire

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated Korean children's cultural adjustment during transition to South Australian junior primary school settings. Using case-study methodology to provide a sociocultural perspective, data were collected during interviews with a sample of South Korean international students aged five to eight years, their mothers and teachers. All…

  6. Children's Problems Predict Adults' "DSM-IV" Disorders across 24 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reef, Joni; van Meurs, Inge; Verhulst, Frank C.; van der Ende, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The goal of this study was to determine continuities of a broad range of psychopathology from childhood into middle adulthood in a general population sample across a 24-year follow-up. Method: In 1983, parent ratings of children's problems were collected with the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) in a general population sample of 2,076…

  7. Cognitive Components of a Mathematical Processing Network in 9-Year-Old Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szucs, Dénes; Devine, Amy; Soltesz, Fruzsina; Nobes, Alison; Gabriel, Florence

    2014-01-01

    We determined how various cognitive abilities, including several measures of a proposed domain-specific number sense, relate to mathematical competence in nearly 100 9-year-old children with normal reading skill. Results are consistent with an extended number processing network and suggest that important processing nodes of this network are…

  8. Pedagogical technology formation of ideas about the artistic image children 6-7 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetalana Ziryanova

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article reveals the stages of pedagogical technology of forming ideas about the artistic image in chil-dren 6–7 years based on the integration of expressive means of music and the visual arts in the context of the educational field of “artistic and aesthetic development”.

  9. Facial Mimicry in 6-7 Year Old Children with Disruptive Behavior Disorder and ADHD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deschamps, P.K.H.; Munsters, N.M.; Kenemans, J.L.; Schutter, D.J.L.G.; Matthys, W.C.H.J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Impairments in facial mimicry are considered a proxy for deficits in affective empathy and have been demonstrated in 10 year old children and in adolescents with disruptive behavior disorder (DBD). However, it is not known whether these impairments are already present at an earlier age.

  10. Paternal Psychosocial Characteristics and Corporal Punishment of Their 3-Year-Old Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Shawna J.; Perron, Brian E.; Taylor, Catherine A.; Guterman, Neil B.

    2011-01-01

    This study uses data from 2,309 biological fathers who participated in the Fragile Families and Child Well-Being Study (FFCWS) to examine associations between psychosocial characteristics and levels of corporal punishment (CP) toward their 3-year-old children over the past month. Results indicate that 61% of the fathers reported no CP over the…

  11. Quantitative muscle ultrasound and muscle force in healthy children: A 4-year follow-up study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, J.; Jansen, M; Janssen, H.; Raijmann, W.; Alfen, N. van; Pillen, S.

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: No longitudinal data on the normal development of muscle thickness (MT), quantitative muscle ultrasound echo intensity (EI), and muscle force (MF) in healthy children are yet available. METHODS: Reference values of MT, EI, and MF of 4 muscles from infancy to age 16 years were establish

  12. Portrayal of Life Form in Selected Biographies for Children Eight to Twelve Years of Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Shirley Lois

    This study describes and analyzes, in a critical literary manner, selected biographies for children eight to twelve years of age. Biographies of Jane Addams, Cesar Chavez, Mohandas Gandhi, Toyohiko Kagawa, Martin Luther King, Jr., and Albert Schweitzer are viewed from the perspective of a literary criterion based on the principles of design to…

  13. Oral health and dental behaviour in 11-year-old children of different ethnic groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verrips, G.H.; Frencken, J.E.; Kalsbeek, H.; Filedt Kok-Weimar, T.L.

    1993-01-01

    This investigation was first, to assess the oral health of 11-year-old children in four ethnic groups in Amsterdam; second, to assess their dental behaviour and third, to identify potential determinants of frequency of toothbrushing. Representative samples of 97 Surinamese, 209 Moroccan, 128 Turkish

  14. The Relation between 3-Year-Old Children's Skills and Their Hyperactivity, Inattention, and Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman-Weieneth, Julie L.; Harvey, Elizabeth A.; Youngwirth, Sara D.; Goldstein, Lauren H.

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the relation between 3-year-old children's (N = 280) symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, and aggression and their cognitive, motor, and preacademic skills. When the authors controlled for other types of attention and behavior problems, maternal ratings of hyperactivity and teacher ratings of inattention were uniquely and…

  15. One- to Three-Year-Old Children's Experience of Subjective Wellbeing in Day Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seland, Monica; Sandseter, Ellen Beate Hansen; Bratterud, Åse

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study on which this paper is based was to explore in which situations and contexts Norwegian 1-3-year-olds experience subjective wellbeing in day care. The data in this study was collected through qualitative phenomenological observations of 18 children, and an inductive process of analysis was conducted. The results show that…

  16. TV Guide: Two-Year-Old Children Learn To Use Video as a Source of Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troseth, Georgene L.

    2003-01-01

    Examined the effect of experience on children's use of video-presented information. Found that after seeing themselves "live" on their family television for 2 weeks, 2-year-olds reliably used a live video presentation of an adult hiding a toy to find the toy in an object-retrieval task. Most also transferred what they learned to a task involving…

  17. Montelukast reduces asthma exacerbations in 2- to 5-year-old children with intermittent asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Hans; Zielen, Stefen; Garcia-Garcia, María Luz;

    2005-01-01

    The PREVIA study was designed to investigate the role of montelukast, a leukotriene receptor antagonist, in the prevention of viral-induced asthma exacerbations in children aged 2 to 5 years with a history of intermittent asthma symptoms. The study was a 12-month multicenter, double-blind, parall...

  18. Psychopathic Traits and Physiological Responses to Aversive Stimuli in Children Aged 9-11 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pan; Baker, Laura A.; Gao, Yu; Raine, Adrian; Lozano, Dora Isabel

    2012-01-01

    Atypical electrodermal and cardiovascular response patterns in psychopathic individuals are thought to be biological indicators of fearless and disinhibition. This study investigated the relationship between psychopathic traits and these autonomic response patterns using a countdown task in 843 children (aged 9-10 years). Heart rate (HR) and…

  19. Recommendations for a trans-European dietary assessment method in children between 4 and 14 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, L. F.; Lioret, S.; Brants, H.;

    2011-01-01

    Background/Objectives: The main objective of European Food Consumption Validation (EFCOVAL)-child Project is to define and evaluate a trans-European methodology for undertaking national representative dietary surveys among children in the age group of 4-14 years. In the process of identifying the...

  20. Children under Five and Digital Technologies: Implications for Early Years Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palaiologou, Ioanna

    2016-01-01

    This project aimed to investigate the types of digital technologies children under the age of five are using at home and assess the possible implications for early years pedagogy. The research, carried out between 2010 and 2012, was based in four European countries: England, Greece, Malta and Luxemburg. A mixed methods approach was employed to…

  1. Methodological Implications of the Affect Revolution: A 35-Year Review of Emotion Regulation Assessment in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrian, Molly; Zeman, Janice; Veits, Gina

    2011-01-01

    This investigation analyzed the methods used over the past 35 years to study emotion regulation (ER) in children. Articles published from 1975 through 2010 were identified in 42 child clinical, developmental, and emotion psychology journals. Overall, 61.1% of published ER articles relied on one method and 23.6% used two methods. Analyses revealed…

  2. Early Years: Young Children Deserve the Best Possible Start in Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Leena

    2015-01-01

    That all young children should have the best possible start in life is a statement that tends to be met with universal agreement. This article, however, argues there are very many different kinds of ideologies that shape the kinds of "best starts" early years teachers should strive for at a time when childhood poverty is rising and when…

  3. Transfer Effects in Spelling from Transparent Greek to Opaque English in Seven-to-Ten-Year-Old Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niolaki, Georgia Z.; Masterson, Jackie

    2012-01-01

    The study investigated single-word spelling performance of 33 English- and 38 Greek-speaking monolingual children, and 46 English- and Greek-speaking bilingual children (age range from 6;7 to 10;1 years). The bilingual children were divided into two groups on the basis of their single-word reading and spelling performance in Greek. In line with…

  4. Analysing the Peer Relationships of Obese and Normal-Weight Preschool Children Aged between Five and Six Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seçer, Zarife; Gülay Ogelman, Hülya; Önder, Alev

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study is to reveal whether the peer relationships of preschool children who are determined to be obese, based on their body mass index (BMI), differentiate or not. The study was conducted within the frame of a relational survey model. A total of 114 five- to six-year-old children (57 normal-weight children and 57 obese…

  5. Teacher Ratings of Academic Achievement of Children between 6 and 12 Years Old from Intact and Non-Intact Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molepo, Lephodisa S.; Maunganidze, Levison; Mudhovozi, Pilot; Sodi, Tholene

    2010-01-01

    We investigated teacher ratings of the impact of parental divorce on academic achievement of children between 6 and 12 years old up to 12 months after their parents divorced. A purposive sample of 120 children attending four different primary schools in a small South African town took part in the study. One third (n = 40) of the children had…

  6. Supportive or Suggestive: Do Human Figure Drawings Help 5- to 7-Year-Old Children to Report Touch?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Deirdre A.; Pipe, Margaret-Ellen; Lewis, Charlie; Lamb, Michael E.; Orbach, Yael

    2007-01-01

    The authors examined the accuracy of information elicited from seventy-nine 5- to 7-year-old children about a staged event that included physical contact-touching. Four to six weeks later, children's recall for the event was assessed using an interview protocol analogous to those used in forensic investigations with children. Following the…

  7. Parental Influences on the Diets of 2-5-Year-Old Children: Systematic Review of Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Jacqueline; Sinn, Natalie; Campbell, Karen; Lynch, John

    2012-01-01

    During the early years, parents have a major influence on their children's diets, food choices and development of eating habits. However, research concerning the influence of parental feeding practices on young children's diets is limited. This paper presents a systematic review of intervention studies with parents of preschool children. The aim…

  8. Effects of Three Years of Piano Instruction on Children's Academic Achievement, School Performance and Self-Esteem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa-Giomi, Eugenia

    2004-01-01

    This study of the effects of three years of piano instruction is based on a sample of 117 fourth-grade children attending public schools in Montreal. The children had never participated in formal music instruction, did not have a piano at home, and their annual family income was below $40,000 Can. Children in the experimental group (n = 63)…

  9. A Study on the Effect of Aesthetic Education on the Development of Aesthetic Judgment of Six-Year-Old Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acer, Dilek; Omerodlu, Esra

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of aesthetic education on the development of aesthetic judgment of 6 year-old children. The sample of the study comprised 77 children selected randomly from state run primary schools from various socioeconomic levels in Ankara. The experiment group consisted of 22 children, the placebo group of…

  10. Extending supplementary feeding for children younger than 5 years with moderate acute malnutrition leads to lower relapse rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Children with moderate acute malnutrition (MAM) have a high rate of relapse and death in the year following recovery. In this pilot study, we evaluate the long-term benefits of an extended course of nutritional therapy for children with MAM. Rural Malawian children 6 to 59 months old with MAM, defin...

  11. Restricted Consonant Inventories of 2-Year-Old Finnish Children with a History of Recurrent Acute Otitis Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haapala, Sini; Niemitalo-Haapola, Elina; Raappana, Antti; Kujala, Tiia; Kujala, Teija; Jansson-Verkasalo, Eira

    2015-01-01

    Many children experience recurrent acute otitis media (RAOM) in early childhood. In a previous study, 2-year-old children with RAOM were shown to have immature neural patterns for speech sound discrimination. The present study further investigated the consonant inventories of these same children using natural speech samples. The results showed…

  12. Weaning initiation patterns and subsequent linear growth progression among children aged 2-4 years in India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Padmadas, S.S.; Hutter, I.; Willekens, F.J.C.

    2002-01-01

    Background Reliance on full breastfeeding alone for a longer time could have deleterious nutritional and health implications at later stages of children's lives. About 47% of children are weaned at age greater than or equal to6 months and more than 50% of children in India under 4 years are stunted.

  13. The Lights Pre-Project: Implementation of the Project Approach with Children under 3 Years of Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzegorzewska, Katarzyna; Konieczna-Blicharz, Jagoda

    2011-01-01

    A group of children 18 months to 3 years old and their parents studied lights in a preschool program at the Astrid Lindgren Institute for Early Childhood Development in Poland. The goal of the preschool program is to help children gain positive social experience through safe and interesting contact with a new group of children and adults in the…

  14. Rehabilitation outcomes in children with cerebral palsy during a 2 year period

    OpenAIRE

    İçağasıoğlu, Afitap; Mesci, Erkan; Yumusakhuylu, Yasemin; Turgut, Selin Turan; Murat, Sadiye

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] To observe motor and functional progress of children with cerebral palsy during 2 years. [Subjects and Methods] Pediatric cerebral palsy patients aged 3–15 years (n = 35/69) with 24-month follow-up at our outpatient cerebral palsy clinic were evaluated retrospectively. The distribution of cerebral palsy types was as follows: diplegia (n = 19), hemiplegia (n = 4), and quadriplegia (n = 12). Participants were divided into 3 groups according to their Gross Motor Functional Classificati...

  15. The Development of Skin Conductance Fear Conditioning in Children from Ages 3 to 8 Years

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Yu; Raine, Adrian; Venables, Peter H.; Dawson, Michael E.; Mednick, Sarnoff A.

    2010-01-01

    Although fear conditioning is an important psychological construct implicated in behavioral and emotional problems little is known about how it develops in early childhood. Using a differential, partial reinforcement conditioning paradigm, this longitudinal study assessed skin conductance conditioned responses in 200 children at ages 3, 4, 5, 6, and 8 years. Results demonstrated that in both boys and girls: (1) fear conditioning increased across age, particularly from ages 5 to 6 years, (2) t...

  16. The development and adjustment of 7-year-old children adopted in infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stams, G J; Juffer, F; Rispens, J; Hoksbergen, R A

    2000-11-01

    The present study (N = 159) provides evidence of an increased risk for behavior problems of infant-placed 7-year-old internationally, transracially adopted children in the Netherlands. However, parents reported more behavior problems for adopted boys than for adopted girls. Notably, about 30% of the adopted children were classified as clinical on the CBCL scale for total problems, which is a much larger percentage than the 10% found in the normative population. It was suggested that these results could be explained by the operation of multiple risk factors before and after adoption placement, e.g. the child's genetic disposition, pre-natal and pre-adoption care, or the child's cognitive understanding of adoption in middle childhood. Also, results suggest that maternal sensitive responsiveness in adoptive families declines in the transition from early to middle childhood. In contrast to the home setting, the adopted children showed favorable behavioral and socioemotional adjustment at school, while their academic achievement and intelligence were in the normal range or above average. In particular Korean children had high IQs: 31% of these children obtained an intelligence score above 120. It was suggested that adoptive parents seem to offer their children sufficient or even more than average cognitive stimulation. Furthermore, adopted girls scored higher in optimal ego-control, social competence, and peer group popularity than nonadopted girls from the general population: 30% of the adopted girls were rated as popular by their classmates, which compares favorably to the 13% found in the general school population. PMID:11099119

  17. Acceptance of Nordic snack bars in children aged 8–11 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Holmer

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: A health promoting diet is suggested to be tailored to regional circumstances to preserve the cultural diversity in eating habits, as well as contribute to more environmentally friendly eating. It may influence consumer acceptance, however, if the components of the diet differs considerably from their habitual food. Objective: This study aimed to investigate whether snack bars composed of Nordic ingredients were accepted by 8–11 year-old Danish (n=134 and Swedish (n=109 children.Design: A seven-point hedonic scale was used to measure the children's acceptance of five snack bars that varied in their composition of whole grains, berries and nuts. A preference rank ordering of the five bars was also performed. Results: The results showed that samples that were rated highest in liking and were most preferred in both countries were a kamut/pumpkin bar and an oat/cranberry bar. The sample with the lowest rating that was also least preferred was a pumpernickel/sea buckthorn bar. Flavour was the most important determinant of overall liking followed by texture, odour and appearance. Conclusions: Children's acceptances and preferences were highly influenced by the sensory characteristics of the bars, mainly flavour. In agreement with earlier studies, the novel food ingredients seemed to influence children's preferences. The Nordic snack bars may have a potential to be a snack option for Danish and Swedish school children, but repeated exposures to the products are recommended to increase children's acceptance.

  18. Musical training influences linguistic abilities in 8-year-old children: more evidence for brain plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Sylvain; Marques, Carlos; Santos, Andreia; Santos, Manuela; Castro, São Luís; Besson, Mireille

    2009-03-01

    We conducted a longitudinal study with 32 nonmusician children over 9 months to determine 1) whether functional differences between musician and nonmusician children reflect specific predispositions for music or result from musical training and 2) whether musical training improves nonmusical brain functions such as reading and linguistic pitch processing. Event-related brain potentials were recorded while 8-year-old children performed tasks designed to test the hypothesis that musical training improves pitch processing not only in music but also in speech. Following the first testing sessions nonmusician children were pseudorandomly assigned to music or to painting training for 6 months and were tested again after training using the same tests. After musical (but not painting) training, children showed enhanced reading and pitch discrimination abilities in speech. Remarkably, 6 months of musical training thus suffices to significantly improve behavior and to influence the development of neural processes as reflected in specific pattern of brain waves. These results reveal positive transfer from music to speech and highlight the influence of musical training. Finally, they demonstrate brain plasticity in showing that relatively short periods of training have strong consequences on the functional organization of the children's brain. PMID:18832336

  19. CFS in Children and Adolescent: Ten Years of Retrospective Clinical Evaluation

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    Irene Elgen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To estimate number of children being diagnosed with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS. Methods. For a period of 10 years (2002–2011 data from children being referred for fatigue symptoms were collected retrospectively. Results. Thirty-seven children were referred. Four were excluded due to incorrect coding. Six (18% patients received other diagnoses at the end of evaluation time. Of the 27 who received the diagnosis G93.3, four had a previous chronic illness, while 23 patients were previously healthy. All patients reported onset of fatigue symptom in relation to an infection, and all tested positive for IgG to either Epstein-Barr virus, cytomegalovirus or borrelia, indicating previous infection. There were 16 (59% boys among the 27 patients. The mean age at the debut of fatigue symptoms was 141 months (SD 30 for boys and 136 months (SD 31 for girls, respectively. Being underweight, defined as BMI < 17.5, was found in 12 (44% patients. Conclusion. An increasing number of children and adolescents are evaluated for CFS. The clinical assessment of children and adolescents with possible CFS need systematically evaluation. Nutritional status, possible eating disorder, and psychosocial issues need to be addressed and evaluated carefully. A multidisciplinary approach is essential when assessing CFS in children and adolescents. There is a need for European guidelines.

  20. TRAUMATIC HIP DISLOCATION IN CHILDREN YOUNGER THAN 3 YEARS : A SERIES OF 3 CASES

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    Navin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The musculoskeletal anatomy of children is qui te different from that of adults. The capsule, periosteum and other soft tissues surrounding the joints is very pliable and dislocations can occur even following trivial injuries . However dislocation occurring in a child population is a rare entity. There are a few case reports of hip dislocations in children < 3 years. We present here a series of 3 cases of paediatric hip dislocations which presented to us for management. The age of the children were between 24 - 27 months. Incidentally all 3 patients were b oys and all 3 were right sided dislocations. None of them had any associated fractures. Two of them had a fall from height and one child fell off a slide. All 3 patients presented within 5 hours following injury. Closed reduction under anaesthesia was perf ormed and post reduction the children were immobilized in a broom - stick plaster for 6 weeks. All children were followed up with serial x - rays and a MRI done immediately following reduction then at 6 and 18 months. There was no evidence of chondrolysis or a vascular necrosis in any of the children at the last follow - up. They all had full range of movements with no limitation of function. We conclude that with early recognition and early reduction of the hip within the golden period (6 hours the occurrence of complications can be prevented.

  1. Nutrition Status Of Children (1-6 Years In Slums Of Ghaziabad City

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    Garg S.K

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Research question : What are the nutritional problems of pre- school children in slums? Objectives: (i To assess the nutritional status of the children . (ii To find out the nutritional deficiency disorders in them (iii To study their dietary intake. Study design: Cross- sectional. Setting : Slums of Ghaziabad city. Participants :771 children (1-6 years. Study Variables : Age, sex, caste, ICDS beneficiary status, weight, nutritional deficiency disorders, dietary intake and supplementary nutrition. Statistical analysis : Simple proportions and Chi- square test. Results : A majority (58.2 % of children were having under nutrition of varying grades irrespective of their sex and caste but influenced by their age and ICDS beneficiary status. Anaemia, xerophthalmia and goitre were present in 14.7%, 1.6% and 0.6 % children respectively. Average daily dietary intake of energy & nutrients were lower than the recommended daily allowances (RDA. Conclusion: Regular nutritional supplementation along with adequate nutrition education would reduce the nutritional deficiency disorders among children.

  2. Where Is My Attention? Children's Metaknowledge Expressed through Drawings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzica, Sara; Pinto, Giuliana; Bigozzi, Lucia; Vezzani, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present research is to assess the developmental pattern of the metacognitive knowledge of attention in Italian primary school students. Data were collected from 95 pupils divided into two age groups: the first (6-8 years) and second primary school cycles (8-10 years). The children were asked to perform two specific thematic drawings…

  3. Prevalence and factors associated with preoperative anxiety in children aged 5-12 years

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    Louise Amália de Moura

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: to estimate the prevalence and factors associated with preoperative anxiety in children who wait for outpatient surgery. Method: cross-sectional analysis of baseline data of a prospective cohort study that investigates the predictors of postoperative pain in children aged 5-12 years submitted to inguinal and umbilical hernia repair. It was selected 210 children, which were interviewed in the preoperative holding area of a general hospital. Anxiety was evaluated using the modified Yale Preoperative Anxiety Scale (mYPAS. Sociodemographic and clinical variables were analyzed as exposure and anxiety (mYPAS final score>30 as outcome. Logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with preoperative anxiety. Results: forty-two percent (42.0% of children presented preoperative anxiety (CI95%: 35.7%-48.6%, with mean scores equal to 30.1 (SD=8.4. Factors associated with preoperative anxiety were: age group of 5-6 years (OR=2.28; p=0.007 and socioeconomic status classified as class C (OR=2.39; p=0.016. Conclusion: the evaluation of children who wait for outpatient surgery should be multidimensional and comprise information on age and socioeconomic status, in order to help in the identification and early treatment of preoperative anxiety.

  4. Prevalence and factors associated with preoperative anxiety in children aged 5-12 years 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moura, Louise Amália; Dias, Iohanna Maria Guimarães; Pereira, Lilian Varanda

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: to estimate the prevalence and factors associated with preoperative anxiety in children who wait for outpatient surgery. Method: cross-sectional analysis of baseline data of a prospective cohort study that investigates the predictors of postoperative pain in children aged 5-12 years submitted to inguinal and umbilical hernia repair. It was selected 210 children, which were interviewed in the preoperative holding area of a general hospital. Anxiety was evaluated using the modified Yale Preoperative Anxiety Scale (mYPAS). Sociodemographic and clinical variables were analyzed as exposure and anxiety (mYPAS final score>30) as outcome. Logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with preoperative anxiety. Results: forty-two percent (42.0%) of children presented preoperative anxiety (CI95%: 35.7%-48.6%), with mean scores equal to 30.1 (SD=8.4). Factors associated with preoperative anxiety were: age group of 5-6 years (OR=2.28; p=0.007) and socioeconomic status classified as class C (OR=2.39; p=0.016). Conclusion: the evaluation of children who wait for outpatient surgery should be multidimensional and comprise information on age and socioeconomic status, in order to help in the identification and early treatment of preoperative anxiety. PMID:27305179

  5. Changes in Growth Pattern after Adenotonsillectomy in Children under 12 Years Old

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    Farnaz Hashemian

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available "nThe aim of the present study was to determine the effects of adenotonsillectomy on height, weight and body mass index (BMI in children under 12 years old, with or without airway obstruction and evaluation of the risk of overweight in them. In this case-control study, 120 children with the age of 2-12 years old were studied; 60 children as case group who underwent adenotonsillectomy and 60 healthy children as control group. After collecting the data related to appetite status and sleep breathing disorder of the case group, height, weight and BMI have been measured for all children in two stages; preoperatively and 6 months later. Also in the case group, BMI percentiles, pre and postoperatively have been calculated. Patients with Low appetite in the initiation and at the end of the study in the case group were 80% and 8.3% respectively (P=0.01. Mean of height, weight and BMI variation after 6 months were significantly different between case and control groups (P<0.05. BMI percentiles in the case group preoperatively were: 20% underweight, 67% healthy weight, 10% at risk of over weight, 3% over weight. Postoperatively, after 6 months BMI percentiles in order of above frequency were: 10%, 57%, 22% and 11% (P=0.02. Analysis of the results showed that adenotonsillectomy can lead to increase of height, weight, BMI and appetite not only in the children with low weight due to airway obstruction but also in the normal weight and over weight children. Therefore risk of overweight should be mentioned as a probable undesirable outcome of adenotonsillectomy.

  6. PREVALENCE OF ANAEMIA AMONG CHILDREN AGED 12 YEARS AND YOUNGER IN NORTH EAST INDIA

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    Rajkumari Rupabati

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE Anaemia is one of the most important public health problem among children. The infants, preschool children, adolescents and pregnant women are at highest risk of nutritional anaemia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of anaemia and its correlation to age, gender, haemoglobin values and magnitude of anaemia among the children of North East India. METHODS A cross sectional study was conducted in a tertiary care hospital between October 2013 to September 2014. A total of 500 children in the age group 0 to 12 years were enrolled after obtaining written informed consent from the parents. Haemoglobin estimation was done by Sahli’s method using finger prick blood samples. As per WHO recommendation, haemoglobin values below 11 gm/dl was considered anaemic. Statistical data were analysed. RESULTS The overall prevalence of anaemia was 71.2% with males having 5.2%higher than females. The majority of age group comprises 1 to ≤5 years (36.0% and 83.3% of them were anaemic. The highest value of haemoglobin estimated was 14.8 gm/dl with the lowest value of 5.2 gm/dl. The mean haemoglobin level was 10.76±1.21 gm/dl. 53.4% children were mildly anaemic. Both male and female children were affected more with mild anaemia than other types of anaemia. CONCLUSION Our results suggest that all the children should be screened for anaemia irrespective of age and sex as the prevalence is high. Early intervention and appropriate measures should be taken to prevent from anaemia and its associated diseases.

  7. Cognition, Emotion and Behavior in Children with Tourette's Syndrome and Children with ADHD-Combined Subtype-A Two-Year Follow-Up Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovik, Kjell Tore; Plessen, Kerstin J; Cavanna, Andrea E;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This two-year follow-up study investigates the course of and association among measures of cognitive control, focused attention, decision-making and symptom severity (anxiety, depression and behavior) in children and adolescents with Tourette's Syndrome (TS) or Attention...... at T1 and T2. In the decision-making task, the children with TS (with or without comorbidities) preferred a safer strategy in selecting advantageous choices than the children with ADHD-C and the TDC at T2. Children with TS and children with ADHD-C showed higher symptoms of anxiety and depression...... for the TS subgroup without comorbidities. CONCLUSION: This study emphasizes the importance of addressing symptoms of anxiety and depression in children with TS or ADHD-C, identifying the effect of comorbidities in children with TS, and that children with TS or ADHD-C likely differ in their sensitivity...

  8. The relationship between dental caries and obesity among primary school children aged 5 to 14 years

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    Yao Yingshui

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Previous study revealed that the link between dental caries and obesity has been controversial. The purpose of this research is to investigate the association between dental caries and obesity among primary school children in Wannan area, China. Methods: A cross-sectional study was designed to collect the routine health screening data for primary school children aged 5-14 years inWannan area,China, Overweight and obesity status were determined using the International Obesity Task Force standard (IOTF BMI cut-off points. Caries status was recorded based on WHO recommendations. Results: Our results revealed that the overall caries prevalence of the subjects was 44.9%, Maximum number of caries affected children belonged to underweight and normal group, followed by overweight, and the least number was obesity. These differences were statistically significant (chi-square test, P < 0.001. Children with obesity were 1.908 times (OR =1.908; CI95%=1.750, 2.079 more likely have caries than children with underweight or health weight. Overweight children were 1.547 times (OR = 1.547; CI95% = 1.479, 1.618 more likely to have caries than children with underweight or health weight. After adjusted the gender and age, a statistically significant association was also observed between body mass index categories and caries. Conclusions: Obesity may have a significant effect on caries prevalence of primary school children in Wannan area, China. The importance of obesity should not only be emphasized with respect to general diseases but also with regard to carious lesions.

  9. Quality of Life in Under-14-Year-Old Children After Adenotonsillectomy

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    Fathollah Behnoud

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Tonsillectomy with or without adenoidectomy is one of the most frequent surgical procedures especially in children. Several indications and contraindications have been suggested for this procedure. The benefits and the negative results of this operation have been studied by different researchers; nevertheless, to date, it is still a common procedure. The main purpose of this study is to obtain extensive information on the outcomes of adenotonsillectomy, according to the patient's physical, emotional and behavioral changes and also on the overall changes in his/her quality of life (QOL. Materials and Methods: All the children, aged 1-14, referred to the Besat Hospital clinics (Hamadan, Iran between March 2008 and March 2009 were included in this study. Overall, 86 children with documented indications underwent adenotonsillectomy, and were followed up for one year.  Two modified standard questionnaires for QOL were completed before and one year after the tonsillectomy. Upon the completion of this two-year study, statistical analyses were performed, and the demographic data of the study groups were compared with those of a same-age group. Results: Changes were observed in five main complaints as follow: Acute Recurrent tonsillitis was present in 86 patients preoperatively, but in only three cases postoperatively (pharyngitis. Confirmed chronic sinusitis was present in 24 patients preoperatively, but only in three cases during the year after the surgery. Oral breathing was seen in 82 patients preoperatively, but only in one patient during the year after the surgery. Nocturnal snoring was seen in 83 children preoperatively, but in 25 cases during the year after the surgery. Halitosis was present in 71 patients, while and halitosis was seen in 27 during the year after the surgery. Conclusion: Overall, the majority of the parameters studied showed significant differences after surgery.

  10. A POPULATION BASED STUDY OF REFRACTIVE ERRORS IN CHILDREN AMONG AGE GROUP OF 7-15 YEARS

    OpenAIRE

    Dhanya; Pandu; Sujatha; Pallavi; Srinivas

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Refractive error is the most common cause of visual impairment around the world and the second leading cause of treatable blindness. Very early detection and treatment of visual impairment in children results in a reduction in the number of school children with poor sight being uncorrected. AIM To study the prevalence of uncorrected refractive errors among children of 7-15 years of age group. MATERIALS AND METHODS A total of 958 children of a...

  11. STUDY OF TITANIUM ELASTIC NAILING FOR FRACTURE SHAFT FEMUR IN CHILDREN BETWEEN 3 TO 13 YEARS OF AGE

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    Rajesh

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of Displaced diaphyseal femoral shaft fracture in children between 3 to 13 years is controversial. Various methods are available for treatment. Titanium elastic nailing is one of the methods for treatment of femur shaft fracture in children. In our study we have assessed the outcome of titanium elastic nailing for fracture shaft femur in children. We have found that titanium elastic nailing has excellent results in treatment of femur shaft fracture in children. Also it is less time consuming

  12. Effects of Presentation Format and List Length on Children's False Memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swannell, Ellen R.; Dewhurst, Stephen A.

    2013-01-01

    The effect of list length on children's false memories was investigated using list and story versions of the Deese/Roediger-McDermott procedure. Short (7 items) and long (14 items) sequences of semantic associates were presented to children aged 6, 8, and 10 years old either in lists or embedded within a story that emphasized the list theme.…

  13. Development in the Use and Understanding of Polite Forms in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nippold, Marilyn A.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Results of two studies with 60 children aged three, five, and seven, and 40 children aged four through 6.8, indicated that use and understanding of politeness at age three years seemed related to emerging ability to understand the perspective of another, and at later ages, to knowledge of social roles. (Author/MC)

  14. Twenty years a growing: gains in the intelligence test scores of Irish children over two decades

    OpenAIRE

    Carr, Alan.

    2001-01-01

    Using data from Gill and Byrt's 1972 standardization of the Ravens Standard Progressive Matrices (RSPM) on a national sample of Irish primary school children, O'Connor & Ruddle's 1987 survey of a large sample of school children in Clare and Jeffer's and Fitzgerald's 1989 survey of 9-12 year olds in a Dublin suburb, we found that over the period from 1972-1989 the mean gain in IQ points on the RSPM was approximately 9 IQ points. This gain of about 0.6 standard deviations in IQ points has occur...

  15. The incidence of cryptosporidiosis: a two-year prospective survey in a children's hospital.

    OpenAIRE

    Baxby, D.; Hart, C. A.

    1986-01-01

    A two-year prospective survey of patients with diarrhoea at a children's hospital detected 65 cases of cryptosporidiosis; 56 were index cases representing 1.4% of patients examined. There was a marked seasonal variation with fewer index cases in July-September (0.4-0.6%) than February-April (3-5%). All four adult cases were contacts of infected children and 21 (32%) of the patients were 12 months old or younger. Cryptosporidium was the fourth commonest diagnosed cause of gastroenteritis, the ...

  16. Maternal Recreational Exercise during Pregnancy in relation to Children's BMI at 7 Years of Age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou Andersen, Camilla; Juhl, Mette; Gamborg, Michael;

    2012-01-01

    Exposures during fetal life may have long-term health consequences including risk of childhood overweight. We investigated the associations between maternal recreational exercise during early and late pregnancy and the children's body mass index (BMI) and risk of overweight at 7 years. Data on 40...... was analyzed using multiple linear and logistic regression models. Recreational exercise across pregnancy was inversely related to children's BMI and risk of overweight, but all associations were mainly explained by smoking habits, socioeconomic status, and maternal pre-pregnancy BMI. Additionally, we did...

  17. Phonetic reduction in spontaneous speech by children aged 9-14 years

    OpenAIRE

    Tuomainen, O.; Lee, C.(Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan); Granlund, S.; Hazan, V. L.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of our study was to investigate whether children distinguish between ‘new’ and ‘given’ information via phonetic reduction in spontaneous speech in a similar way to adults. An interactive ‘spot the difference’ game was used to elicit spontaneous speech. Word duration, fundamental frequency and vowel formant frequencies in repeated content words relative to when they were mentioned for the first time were analysed in 96 children between 9-14 years of age. There were significant developm...

  18. Physical activity patterns during school recess : a study in children 6 to 10 years old

    OpenAIRE

    Lopes, Vítor P.; Vasques, Catarina; Pereira, Beatriz; Maia, José A. R.; Malina, Robert M.

    2006-01-01

    The aims of this study were to characterize the spontaneous physical activity of children during school recess, and to estimate variation in physical activity associated with gender and age. A MTI actigraph (Model 7164) was used with a sample of 140 boys and 131 girls, 6 to 10 years of age. MTI counts were converted to METs using a regression equation developed for children. The number and average duration of periods of activity by intensity were calculated for each child during a 30 minute r...

  19. Clinical characteristics and prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency in children less than two years of age

    OpenAIRE

    Yoon, Ji Hyun; Park, Cheong Soo; Seo, Ji Young; Choi, Yun Sun; AHN, YOUNG MIN

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the clinical characteristics of vitamin D deficiency and its association with iron deficiency anemia (IDA). Methods A total of 171 children aged less than two years underwent 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 tests between January 2007 and July 2009. The study was classified into two groups: normal and vitamin D insufficiency, by their vitamin 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 levels. Results In total, 120 children were in the normal group (mean age, body weight and heights 12.5±7.0, 9.3±0.9 kg and...

  20. Cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potentials in children with spastic cerebral palsy and normal children with 7-12 years of age

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    Nazila Akbarfahimi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Cervical vestibular-evoked myogenic potential (cVEMP is one of the diagnostic tests used in assessing vestibular function. Two aims of this study were to investigate implications of cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potential in children with spastic cerebral palsy (7-12 years, and to compare vestibular function in these children and normal children.Methods: In this cross-sectional study, myogenic potential was recorded in 31 children with spastic cerebral palsy (8 girls, 23 boys,7-12 years of age, with mean age of 8.77 years old and standard deviation of 1.52 years and 31 normal children (13 girls, 18 boys with mean age of 8.77 years and standard deviation of 1.52 years. Cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potential was recorded with 500 Hz tone burst. The recorded parameters included p13 and n23 latency, p13-n23 pick to pick amplitude, and threshold.Results: Myogenic Potential was recorded in 31 normal children. They had bilateral responses. In children with cerebral palsy, 21 children showed bilateral responses, 3 children had only right-sided responses, 8 children had only left-sided responses, and two children did not show any responses. The statistical significant differences were shown between the two groups in n23, p13-n23 pick to pick amplitude, and threshold (p<0.05.Conclusion: These findings showed that cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potential can be used in children with cerebral palsy. There were significant differences in myogenic potential parameters between the two groups. More studies are needed to investigate the causes of these differences.

  1. Four years follow-up of 101 children with melamine-related urinary stones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Li; Wen, Jian Guo; Wen, Jian Jun; Su, Zhi Qiang; Zhu, Wen; Huang, Chen Xu; Yu, Si Long; Guo, Zhan

    2013-06-01

    The melamine-contaminated milk powder incidence occurred in China in 2008. Many studies have been published regarding the epidemiology, clinical symptoms, diagnosis and treatment of melamine-related urinary stones. The objective of this study is to follow-up the effects of melamine-contaminated milk powder consumption on kidney and body growth in children with melamine-related urinary stones 4 years ago. One hundred and one children with melamine-related urinary stones were followed up by urinalysis, renal function tests and urinary ultrasonography. The data of body weight and height, clinical signs and complications were collected. Eighty normal children without the history of consuming melamine-contaminated milk powder were collected as controls. Eighty-one children with melamine-related urinary stones were successfully followed up. Of 45 cases with melamine-related urinary stones treated conservatively after discharge, 34 disappeared completely, 6 dissolved partially, 1 increased in size and 4 did not change at 4 years follow-up. The percentages of under-height and under-weight infants were significantly higher in melamine-related urinary stones group compared to the controls, respectively (p urinary stones on kidney and bladder was found at 4 years follow-up. However, whether or not melamine-related urinary stones had effect on body growth needs follow-up in future.

  2. Epistemology for Beginners: Two- to Five-Year-Old Children's Representation of Falsity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascaro, Olivier; Morin, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the ontogeny of human's naive concept of truth. Surprisingly, children find it hard to treat assertions as false before their fifth birthday. Yet, we show in six studies (N = 140) that human's concept of falsity develops early. Two-year-olds use truth-functional negation to exclude one term in an alternative (Study 1). Three-year-olds can evaluate discrepancies between the content of a representation and what it aims at representing (Study 2). They use this knowledge to treat beliefs and assertions as false (Study 3). Four-year-olds recognise the involutive nature of falsity ascriptions: they properly infer 'p' from 'It is not true that "It is not true that "p"' (Study 4), an inference that rests on second-order representations of representations. Controls confirm that children do not merely equate being mistaken with failing to achieve one's goal (Studies 5 and 6). These results demonstrate remarkable capacities to evaluate representations, and indicate that in the absence of formal training, young children develop the building blocks of a theory of truth and falsity-a naive epistemology. We suggest that children's difficulties in discarding false assertions need not reflect any conceptual lacuna, and may originate from their being trustful.

  3. Study on Rotavirus Infection and Its Genotyping in Children Below 5 Years in South West Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azaran, Azarakhsh; Makvandi, Manoochehr; Samarbafzadeh, Alireza; Neisi, Niloofar; Hoseinzadeh, Mohsen; Rasti, Mojtaba; Teymurirad, Majid; Teimoori, Ali; Varnaseri, Mehran; Makvandi, Kamyar

    2016-01-01

    Background Human rotaviruses are the most important agents for severe dehydrating diarrhea in children below 5 years old. Rotaviruses (RV) is a serious public health problem in developing and developed countries. Objectives The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of rotavirus infection and their genotypes in children younger than 5 years of age with acute diarrhea in Ahvaz, Iran. Materials and Methods For this study, 200 stool samples from children below 5 years of age with acute diarrhea were collected between October 2011 and March 2012. Initially all stool samples were tested for rotavirus antigen by ELISA, and positive samples were confirmed by RT-PCR targeting the VP6 rotavirus gene. Determination of rotavirus genotypes was carried out by performing RT-PCR for G and P types. Altogether, 15 samples were sequenced. Results Out of 200 stool samples, 100 (50%) had rotavirus antigen detected by ELISA and 73 (36.5%) were found positive by RT-PCR. Of the rotavirus strains identified, only 63 (86.3%) were positive for both VP7 and VP4 while 10 (13.7%) strains were found nontypeable. Rotavirus infection accounts for 36.5% of gastroenteritis cases in samples from symptomatic children. The most prevalent rotavirus genotypes were G1P [8] (80%) followed by G2P [4] (20%). Conclusions Our results suggest that group A rotavirus is a major pathogene of acute diarrhea in Ahvaz city. The genotypes circulating are similar with those of other countries. PMID:27307959

  4. Factors associated with vaccination coverage in children < 5 years in Angola

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    Manuel Falcão Saturnino de Oliveira

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To analyze vaccination coverage and factors associated with a complete immunization scheme in children < 5 years old. METHODS This cross-sectional household census survey evaluated 1,209 children < 5 years old living in Bom Jesus, Angola, in 2010. Data were obtained from interviews, questionnaires, child immunization histories, and maternal health histories. The statistical analysis used generalized linear models, in which the dependent variable followed a binary distribution (vaccinated, unvaccinated and the association function was logarithmic and had the children’s individual, familial, and socioeconomic factors as independent variables. RESULTS Vaccination coverage was 37.0%, higher in children < 1 year (55.0% and heterogeneous across neighborhoods; 52.0% of children of both sexes had no immunization records. The prevalence rate of vaccination significantly varied according to child age, mother’s level of education, family size, ownership of household appliances, and destination of domestic waste. CONCLUSIONS Vulnerable groups with vaccination coverage below recommended levels continue to be present. Some factors indicate inequalities that represent barriers to full immunization, indicating the need to implement more equitable policies. The knowledge of these factors contributes to planning immunization promotion measures that focus on the most vulnerable groups.

  5. Parental spanking of 1-year-old children and subsequent child protective services involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Shawna J; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Berger, Lawrence M

    2014-05-01

    The majority of U.S. parents spank their children, often beginning when their children are very young. We examined families (N=2,788) who participated in a longitudinal community-based study of new births in urban areas. Prospective analyses examined whether spanking by the child's mother, father, or mother's current partner when the child was 1-year-old was associated with household CPS involvement between age 1 and age 5. Results indicated that 30% of 1-year-olds were spanked at least once in the past month. Spanking at age 1 was associated with increased odds of subsequent CPS involvement (adjusted odds ratio=1.36, 95% CI [1.08, 1.71], pchildren, there was a 33% greater probability of subsequent CPS involvement for children who were spanked at age 1. Given the undesirable consequences of spanking children and a lack of empirical evidence to suggest positive effects of physical punishment, professionals who work with families should counsel parents not to spank infants and toddlers. For optimal benefits, efforts to educate parents regarding alternative forms of discipline should begin during the child's first year of life. PMID:24602690

  6. Epistemology for Beginners: Two- to Five-Year-Old Children's Representation of Falsity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Mascaro

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the ontogeny of human's naive concept of truth. Surprisingly, children find it hard to treat assertions as false before their fifth birthday. Yet, we show in six studies (N = 140 that human's concept of falsity develops early. Two-year-olds use truth-functional negation to exclude one term in an alternative (Study 1. Three-year-olds can evaluate discrepancies between the content of a representation and what it aims at representing (Study 2. They use this knowledge to treat beliefs and assertions as false (Study 3. Four-year-olds recognise the involutive nature of falsity ascriptions: they properly infer 'p' from 'It is not true that "It is not true that "p""' (Study 4, an inference that rests on second-order representations of representations. Controls confirm that children do not merely equate being mistaken with failing to achieve one's goal (Studies 5 and 6. These results demonstrate remarkable capacities to evaluate representations, and indicate that in the absence of formal training, young children develop the building blocks of a theory of truth and falsity-a naive epistemology. We suggest that children's difficulties in discarding false assertions need not reflect any conceptual lacuna, and may originate from their being trustful.

  7. The Development of Arabic Digit Knowledge in 4- to 7-Year-Old Children

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    Birgit Knudsen

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies indicate that Arabic digit knowledge rather than non-symbolic number knowledge is a key foundation for arithmetic proficiency at the start of a child’s mathematical career. We document the developmental trajectory of 4- to 7-year-olds’ proficiency in accessing magnitude information from Arabic digits in five tasks differing in magnitude manipulation requirements. Results showed that children from 5 years onwards accessed magnitude information implicitly and explicitly, but that 5-year-olds failed to access magnitude information explicitly when numerical magnitude was contrasted with physical magnitude. Performance across tasks revealed a clear developmental trajectory: children traverse from first knowing the cardinal values of number words to recognizing Arabic digits to knowing their cardinal values and, concurrently, their ordinal position. Correlational analyses showed a strong within-child consistency, demonstrating that this pattern is not only reflected in group differences but also in individual performance.

  8. Parental spanking of 1-year-old children and subsequent child protective services involvement✩

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Shawna J.; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Berger, Lawrence M.

    2015-01-01

    The majority of U.S. parents spank their children, often beginning when their children are very young. We examined families (N=2,788) who participated in a longitudinal community-based study of new births in urban areas. Prospective analyses examined whether spanking by the child's mother, father, or mother's current partner when the child was 1-year-old was associated with household CPS involvement between age 1 and age 5. Results indicated that 30% of 1-year-olds were spanked at least once in the past month. Spanking at age 1 was associated with increased odds of subsequent CPS involvement (adjusted odds ratio=1.36, 95% CI [1.08, 1.71], ppunishment, professionals who work with families should counsel parents not to spank infants and toddlers. For optimal benefits, efforts to educate parents regarding alternative forms of discipline should begin during the child's first year of life. PMID:24602690

  9. The Growth of Body Size and Somatotype of Javanese Children Age 4 to 20 Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TETRI WIDIYANI

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Growth of body size (body height and body weight and somatotype in 363 girls and 299 boys aged 4 to 20 years of ethnic Javanese lived in Magelang Regency Indonesia were studied cross-sectionally. Over half of them were categorized in the well-off family, therefore underweight or underfat prevalence in our subjects was low (14.3% but overweight and obesity prevalence was also low (14%. They were shorter and lighter than reference children from U.S., Japan and Yogyakarta but they improved when compared with those of the same ethnic of Bantul and with the different ethnic of rural India. There was a clear age-related change of their somatotype. At age 4 years, the physique of children subjects in both sexes is found to be mesomorph-endomorph. Thereafter it is transformed into ectomorphic-endomorph in girls and to mesomorph-ectomorph in boys at the age of 20 years. In girl subjects, the onset of puberty was characterized by an acceleration of endomorphy component at age 8 years. While in our boys it was characterized by an acceleration of ectomorphy since age 9 years. The different growth pattern of somatotype components showed that the use of BMI as an indicator of fatness in children should be reassessed.

  10. BREASTFEEDING AND EARLY CHILDHOOD CARIES (ECC SEVERITY OF CHILDREN UNDER THREE YEARS OLD IN DKI JAKARTA

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    Risqa Rina Darwita

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence and severity of caries in children under three years old are constantly increasing. One of the cause is the increase consumption of cariogenic carbohydrate. Breast milk have buffer capacity that eventually able to prevent caries. The aims of this research are to discover the correlation between breastfeeding with the severity of Early Childhood Caries (ECC in children under three years old, to provide information on prevalence and severity of caries in children under three years, and to explain factors influencing the incidence of ECC. This research designed cross sectionally and conducted upon 565 children aged 12-38 months, selected using multistage cluster random sampling. The ECC prevalence of children under three years in DKI Jakarta is 52.7%, with average score of def-t 2.85. Bivariate analysis showed that, variables which correlate with the level of ECC are; the way to deliver (p=0,012, frequency (p=0,002, duration (p=0,002, salivary buffer capacity (p=0.013, habitual consumption of sugary diet (p=0.005, child’s dental hygiene behavior (p=0.002, and mother’s education (p=0.001. Multivariate analysis showed that ECC can be explained by these variables: age, mother’s education, the way to deliver and frequency of breast milk complements/replacement of consumtions, child’s brushing habit, plaque pH, and salivary buffer capacity. Resulting determination coefficient 32.1%. There is no significant correlation between breastfeeding and the level of Early Childhood Caries (ECC. The role of protective qualities of breastfeeding are not shown because of bias in obtaining data influence the incidence of caries.

  11. Ten-year experience with the Swenson procedure in Nigerian children with Hirschsprung′s disease

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    Sowande Oludayo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hirschsprung′s disease (HD is a common cause of intestinal obstruction in children. Definitive treatments consist of excision of the aganglionic segment and anastomosing the normal colon to the anal remnant. The outcome of this approach in Nigerian children is not known. The aim of this study was to analyze the short to mid-term outcome of children who have undergone the Swenson Procedure (SPT as a treatment of HD over a period of 10 years. Patients and Methods: The clinical data of biopsy-proven cases of HD managed at the Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospital, Ile-Ife, Nigeria, between 1998 and 2007 were reviewed. Results: There were 33 children 28 were males and five were females (M 5.6: F = 1. The median age at presentation was eight months (range three days to 11 years. Eighteen (54.5% patients had primary pull-through without colostomy while 15 (45.5% patients had a two-staged operation. The operation was carried out at a median age of 14 months with a range of seven weeks to 11 years, four months. Twenty-one (64% of the patients were older than one year at the time of surgery. The level of aganglionosis was in the recto-sigmoid area in 30 (91% patients. The commonest post-SPT complication was intestinal obstruction from adhesions. Bowel opening varied from once daily to eight times daily, median thrice daily. Conclusion: The Swenson′s Procedure is an effective procedure in the treatment of HD in children in Ile Ife, Nigeria.

  12. Social competence of 3 to 5-year-old children born with low birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Komariah

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Low birth weight (LBW has long been used as an indicator of public health. Low birth weight is not a proxy for any dimension of other maternal or perinatal health outcomes. Low birth weight infants require special care, and have more chronic conditions, learning delays, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorders compared to infants of normal birth weight (NBW. Social competence is viewed as a primary component of healthy function and development and is an important predictor of academic and financial success.Objective To examine social competence of children aged 3-5 years born with low birth weight.Methods This cross-sectional study was undertaken in Palembang in 2012. Subjects consisted of children aged 3-5 years attended a preschool in the Seberang Ulu I District, Palembang, and were divided into two groups: low birth weight (LBW and normal birth weight (NBW. Social competence was assessed by observation and Interaction Rating Scale (IRS and Parenting Style questionnaire (PSQ. Chi-square analysis was used to compare social competence between the two groups. Multivariate regression logistic analysis was used to assess for the dominant factors that may affect a child’s social competence.Results Low birth weight children aged 3 to 5 years had a 1.435 times higher risk of low social competence compared to normal birth weight children of similar age. (RP 1.435; 95%CI 1.372 to 13.507; P=0.019. Multivariate regression logistic analysis revealed that parenting style was a dominant factor affecting social competence.Conclusion Social competence in 3 to 5-year-old children born with low birth weight is lower compared to those with normal birth weight.

  13. The Compatibility of Developed Mathematics Textbooks' Content in Saudi Arabia (Grades 6-8) with NCTM Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshehri, Mohammed Ali; Ali, Hassan Shawki

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the compatibility of developed mathematics textbooks' content (grades 6-8) in Saudi Arabia with NCTM standards in the areas of: number and operations, algebra, geometry, measurement, data analysis and probability. To achieve that goal, a list of (NCTM) standards for grades (6-8) were translated to Arabic language,…

  14. Developing appreciation for ambivalence: the understanding of concurrent conflicting desires in 4- to 7-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostad, Kristin; Pexman, Penny M

    2014-06-01

    The current experiment examined the development of children's ability to comprehend concurrent conflicting desires (i.e., both wanting and not wanting something at the same time). Participants were 4- to 7-year-old children and a group of undergraduate students (N = 20 in each age group). Results showed that the 6- and 7-year-old children understood concurrent conflicting desires at levels that were well above chance. There was evidence that even some of the 5-year-olds exhibited an emerging comprehension of conflicting desires. However, the 4-year-old children showed little ability to appreciate conflicting desire states. As such, children showed appreciation for conflicting desires at younger ages than suggested by previous research. In addition, significant relationships were observed between children's concurrent conflicting desire understanding and their theory of mind (ToM) and executive functioning (EF) skills, even after controlling for chronological and verbal age. PMID:24708406

  15. Features of the physical, psycho-physiological development and physical fitness of children 1-5 years

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    Korobeinikov Georgij Valer'evich

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The results of the indicators of physical development, psycho-physiological capacity and physical fitness of children. The study involved 52 children aged 1-2 years, 3-4 years 56 children, 56 children 4-5 years. It is established that in the age group of children 4-5 years time, a simple reaction to an auditory stimulus following simple reaction time to visual stimulus. It is recommended to use parenting techniques that are integrally stimulate all the sensory systems. Pointed out that the sound of children causes greater emotional response in comparison with the light signal. This reduces the latency time of reaction to an auditory stimulus.

  16. COMPETENCE AND BEHAVIORAL-PROBLEMS IN 6-YEAR-OLD TO 12-YEAR-OLD CHILDREN IN FLANDERS (BELGIUM) AND HOLLAND - A CROSS-NATIONAL COMPARISON

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    HELLINCKX, W; GRIETENS, H; VERHULST, F

    1994-01-01

    The Child Behavior Checklist (Achenbach, 1991) was used to obtain data on 1,120 Flemish and 1,122 Dutch children, ages 6 to 12 years. These data were analyzed in a cross-national comparison. Several small differences between nationalities were found for competence: Dutch children scored significantl

  17. SCREENING OF THE PSYCHICAL DISTURBANCES OF THE CHILDREN FROM 3 TO 6 YEARS OLD

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    P. CAKAROVA

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available The assurance of optimal physical and psychical development of the child is first-degree health care. Discovering the psychical disturbances in time and reasons that cause is a precondition for adequate treatment and prophylaxis.The objects of our study are 490 children from 3 to 6 years old. We used the screening test of McCuire J. and N. Nichman.We found a relatively high percent of children with psychical disturbances. They are noticed more often in the younger children. To specify psychical disturbances we made some additional studies. The early discovering of psychical disturbances gives the possibility for timely treatment and recovery of normal psychical state of child.

  18. Azithromycin for episodes with asthma-like symptoms in young children aged 1-3 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stokholm, Jakob; Chawes, Bo L; Vissing, Nadja H;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Bacteria and viruses are equally associated with the risk of acute episodes of asthma-like symptoms in young children, suggesting antibiotics as a potential treatment for such episodes. We aimed to assess the effect of azithromycin on the duration of respiratory episodes in young...... children with recurrent asthma-like symptoms, hypothesising that it reduces the duration of the symptomatic period. METHODS: In this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, we recruited children aged 1-3 years, who were diagnosed with recurrent asthma-like symptoms from the Copenhagen...... (respiratory frequency of ≥50 breaths per min; fever of ≥39°C; C-reactive protein concentration of ≥476·20 nmol/L [≥50 mg/L]). Each episode of asthma-like symptoms lasting at least 3 days was randomly allocated to a 3-day course of azithromycin oral solution of 10 mg/kg per day or placebo after thorough...

  19. Development and education of academically supernormal children in Mainland China in the last 35 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shi, Jiannong

    A sophisticated education system for academically gifted students at university, middle school and primary school levels has been developed since 1978. A statistics-based definition of academically supernormal children was suggested by Chinese psychologists. A series of experiments...... and investigation has been conducted on psychological development of academically supernormal children. Some principles, procedures, and steps of identification, as well as some principles and typical models of education were developed in Mainland China during the last twenty-four years. Dozens of experimental...... classes for academically gifted children at university, middle school and primary school levels have been set up in China since 1978. Hundreds of high ability students are benefited from the gifted education programs in China. Some essential issues about gifted education in China will be discussed...

  20. Use of the Griffiths Mental Scales in normal 2 year old Malaysian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, J J; Amar, H S; Ismail, R

    2001-09-01

    The Griffiths Scales for Mental Development were used to assess a group of 60 normal 2-year old Malaysian children (25 Indian, 23 Malay and 12 Chinese). The mean GQ was 104.2 (SD 9.3). This was significantly higher than the test mean of 100, p social, performance and practical reasoning subscales while they were significantly lower on the hand eye subscale and did not differ from the test mean on the hearing and speech subscale. There was a significant correlation between GQ and social class, r = -0.39, p < 0.05. Scores were lower than those currently obtained on British children, p < 0.001. Minor difficulties due to language and cultural factors arose over the interpretation of several items but with standardisation of these items the test is useful in Malaysian children.

  1. Use of the Griffiths Mental Scales in normal 2 year old Malaysian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, J J; Amar, H S; Ismail, R

    2001-09-01

    The Griffiths Scales for Mental Development were used to assess a group of 60 normal 2-year old Malaysian children (25 Indian, 23 Malay and 12 Chinese). The mean GQ was 104.2 (SD 9.3). This was significantly higher than the test mean of 100, p social, performance and practical reasoning subscales while they were significantly lower on the hand eye subscale and did not differ from the test mean on the hearing and speech subscale. There was a significant correlation between GQ and social class, r = -0.39, p < 0.05. Scores were lower than those currently obtained on British children, p < 0.001. Minor difficulties due to language and cultural factors arose over the interpretation of several items but with standardisation of these items the test is useful in Malaysian children. PMID:11732079

  2. Motor skills in children aged 7-10 years, diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whyatt, Caroline P; Craig, Cathy M

    2012-09-01

    This study used the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (M-ABC2) to assess motor skills in children aged 7-10 years with autism (n = 18) in comparison to two groups of age-matched typically developing children; a receptive vocabulary matched group (n = 19) and a nonverbal IQ matched group (n = 22). The results supported previous work, as indicated by a significant general motor impairment in the group with autism. However, sub-analysis of the M-ABC2 revealed that there were only 2 out of 8 subcomponent skills which showed universal significant specific deficits for the autism group; i.e. catching a ball and static balance. These results suggest that motor skill deficits associated with autism may not be pervasive but more apparent in activities demanding complex, interceptive actions or core balance ability.

  3. "Growth Chart Study in Children Under 5 Years Old in Rural Area of Khoramabad Province"

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    F Majlesi

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Growth chart is the best measure for weight monitoring of children. Most factors that affect child heath show their effect on child weight. This cross sectional and descriptive analytical study was achieved to estimate malnutrition prevalence and effective factors in children under 5 years old in rural area of Khoramabad province. 555 girls and 570 boys were chosen from health houses by cluster sampling. Data were gathered through questionnaires. verbal interviews and child weighing. Nutritional status was estimated via weight/age index and the data were analysed by chi-square test. The results show 7.7% malnutrition among the children in this area. Factors that influence the nutritional status were: Frequency of diarrhea and acute respiratory infection, birth weight, duration of breast feeding and milk formula.

  4. A STUDY ON LICHEN PLANUS IN CHILDREN

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    Neerja Puri

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Lichen planus is considered to be rare in children. However, it does not appear to be uncommon in Indian subcontinent. Aims: The study was undertaken to analyse the clinical profile of childhood lichen planus. Material and Methods: We selected 30 children with LP for the study. The children selected were below the age of 14 years of age. Results and Discussion: In our study, it was seen that that the maximum onset of disease was between 5-9 years of age and mean age of children with LP was 6.8 years. The commonest type of LP in children was classical LP seen in 60% children, followed by actinic LP in 20% children. LP hypertrophicus and linear LP were seen in 10% patients each. Nail changes were seen in 10% patients.

  5. Comparing Intelligence Quotient (IQ) Among 3 to 7-Year-Old Strabismic and Nonstrabismic Children in an Iranian Population

    OpenAIRE

    Ghaderpanah, Mahboubeh; Farrahi, Feraidoon; Khataminia, Gholamreza; Jahanbakhshi, Ahmad; Rezaei, Leila; Tashakori, Ashraf; Mahboubi, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed to compare the Intelligence Quotient (IQ) among 3 to 7-year-old strabismic and nonstrabismic children in an Iranian population. In this cross-sectional study, 108 preschool children with equal numbers of strabismic/non-strabismic disorder (age 3–7 years) were randomly selected from exceptional strabismus clinics of Ahvaz and were evaluated with the preschool and primary scale of intelligence versions of Wechsler (WPPSI). In the current study, 108 children were evaluate...

  6. A Comparative Study on Motor Skills in 5-Year-Old Children with Phonological and Phonetic Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Fatemeh Hasanati; Ahmad Reza Khatoonabadi; Mehdi Abdolvahab

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aim: Speech as a motor phenomenon requires repetitive and rapid function of articulatory organs performing extremely fine movements. Practice on motor skills results in facilitation in treatment progress of children with phonological disorders. The purpose of this study was to compare motor skills in 5-year-old children with phonological and phonetic disorders.Methods: Thirty-two children age 5 years, 16 with phonemical speech sound disorders and 16 with difficulty at a phoneti...

  7. Auditory-motor learning during speech production in 9-11-year-old children.

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    Douglas M Shiller

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hearing ability is essential for normal speech development, however the precise mechanisms linking auditory input and the improvement of speaking ability remain poorly understood. Auditory feedback during speech production is believed to play a critical role by providing the nervous system with information about speech outcomes that is used to learn and subsequently fine-tune speech motor output. Surprisingly, few studies have directly investigated such auditory-motor learning in the speech production of typically developing children. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the present study, we manipulated auditory feedback during speech production in a group of 9-11-year old children, as well as in adults. Following a period of speech practice under conditions of altered auditory feedback, compensatory changes in speech production and perception were examined. Consistent with prior studies, the adults exhibited compensatory changes in both their speech motor output and their perceptual representations of speech sound categories. The children exhibited compensatory changes in the motor domain, with a change in speech output that was similar in magnitude to that of the adults, however the children showed no reliable compensatory effect on their perceptual representations. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that 9-11-year-old children, whose speech motor and perceptual abilities are still not fully developed, are nonetheless capable of auditory-feedback-based sensorimotor adaptation, supporting a role for such learning processes in speech motor development. Auditory feedback may play a more limited role, however, in the fine-tuning of children's perceptual representations of speech sound categories.

  8. Deletion and Mutation of WWOX Exons 6-8 in Human Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    To examine the deletion and point mutation of WWOX (WW domain containing oxidoreductase) exons 6-8 in human non-small cell lung cancer and their possible relationship with pathological stages, tumor tissues and the corresponding normal tissues were obtained from 44 Chinese patients who had undergone surgery for non-small cell lung cancer. RNA was extracted from each sample and deletion and mutation of WWOX exons 6-8 were analyzed by RT-PCR and DNA sequencing. Our results showed that 28 of 44 (63.6 %) lung cancer samples showed loss of WWOX exons 6-8 transcript and the deletion was detected in only 3 of 44 (6.8 %) corresponding adjacent normal tissues (P<0.05). The transcript sequencing analyses of the 16 lung cancer samples without transcript loss of WWOX exons 6-8 revealed no difference from the sequence of GenBank. Moreover, the deletion of WWOX exons 6-8 was significantly higher in the smokers when compared with the non-smokers. It is also higher in the men and squamous carcinomas than in women and adenocarcinomas (P<0.05). The deletion, however, was not found to be associated with pathological stages of the tumors. Our study documented a high incidence of deletion of WWOX exons 6-8 in non-small cell lung cancer in Chinese patients and suggested that the frequent loss of WWOX exons 6-8 might play an important role in the tumorigenesis of non-small cell lung cancer in Chinese. WWOX exons 6-8 may serves as a candidate molecular target of smoking carcinogenesis, and point mutation is not a predominant way of alteration of WWOX exons 6-8.

  9. Resting energy expenditure and adiposity accretion among children with Down syndrome: a three year prospective study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Douglas L.; Parks, Elizabeth P.; Zemel, Babette S.; Shults, Justine; Stallings, Virginia A; Stettler, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    Background Children with Down syndrome (DS) have a higher prevalence of obesity than other children. Whether this increased risk for obesity is due to a lower resting energy expenditure (REE) is controversial. Our study assessed whether 1) the REE of children with DS adjusted for fat free mass (FFM) was lower than that of sibling controls and 2) the changes in fat mass (FM) over three years were associated with FFM-adjusted baseline REE. Methods This study used cross-sectional and prospective cohort designs. Four annual measurement visits were conducted with 28 children with DS and 35 sibling controls aged 3–10y. REE and serum thyroxine (T4) were measured at baseline. Anthropometry, skinfold thicknesses measures, and, in a subsample, dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) were used at each visit to calculate FM. Results Children with DS had significantly lower REE adjusted for FFM (−78 kcal/day, 95% CI: −133 to −27, p=0.003). The difference remained significant after adjustment for FM, sex, and African ancestry (−49 kcal/day, 95% CI: −94 to −4, p=0.03). In the longitudinal analysis, the baseline REE adjusted for baseline FFM was not predictive of FM accretion over time (p=0.8). Conclusion Children with DS have lower REE than sibling controls, but REE was not associated with changes in FM over time. The results suggest that the lower REE of children with DS does not explain their increased risk for obesity. PMID:23900244

  10. Acute poisoning in children; changes over the years, data of pediatric clinic department of toxicology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Keka Alije; Ramosaj A; Toro H; Azemi M; Baloku A; Sylaj B; Lenjani B; Kyseni K

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To present the frequency, etiology, changes over the years of acute poisoning in children admitted toPediatricClinic ofPristina and to determine the extent and characteristics of the problem, according to which related preventive measures can be taken.Methods:Retrospectively we have analyzed the epidemiology of accidental and suicidal poisonings in children hospitalization inPediatricClinicDepartment ofToxicology during the year2012. Our data we compared with data from previous studies on acute poisoning in children in the PediatricClinic conducted during the years1976-1985 and2001.Results:During the year2012, inPediatricClinic ofPristina5723 children were hospitalized,136 of them or2.3% were treated due to acute poisoning inDepartment ofToxicology,82 of them was boys and54 was girls, rate boys girls was1.5:1.The majority of cases101 or74.2% were under five years with peak age three and35% or25.7% were over five years.The most of the cases was accidentally97% and only 2.9% was suicidal and all of them were over the age of ten.Drugs were the most common agent causing the poisoning71(52.2%) followed by house cleaning products38(27.9%), food10(5.8%), pesticides7(5.14%), rare agent that caused poisoning were: narcotic substances, plant, heavy metals, alcohol, carbon monoxide, carburant.Poisoning occurred mostly in spring and the peak was observed inMay,(1.17% of all patients).January was the month of lowest rate of poisoning. During the years1976-1985, inPediatricClinic ofPristina900 children were hospitalized due to acute poisoning,44.11% were from drugs,15.88% from pesticides,65(7.2%), while during2001 in the unit care intensive were hospitalized66 children due to acute poisoning, among them51.5% were poisoning from drugs,30.03 from pesticides,12.2% from cleaning products.Conclusion:In our study drugs and house cleaning products are the most frequent agents causing accidental poisoning in children less than5 years-old, this age of children is the most

  11. Factors associated with the nutritional status of children less than 5 years of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Cristina Miglioli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To analyze if the nutritional status of children aged less than five years is related to the biological conditions of their mothers, environmental and socioeconomic factors, and access to health services and social programs.METHODS This cross-sectional population-based study analyzed 664 mothers and 790 children using canonical correlation analysis. Dependent variables were characteristics of the children (weight/age, height/age, BMI/age, hemoglobin, and retinol serum levels. Independent variables were those related to the mothers’ nutritional status (BMI, hemoglobin, and retinol serum levels, age, environmental and socioeconomic factors and access to health service and social programs. A < 0.05 significance level was adopted to select the interpreted canonical functions (CF and ± 0.40 as canonical load value of the analyzed variables.RESULTS Three canonical functions were selected, concentrating 89.9% of the variability of the relationship among the groups. In the first canonical function, weight/age (-0.73 and height/age (-0.99 of the children were directly related to the mother’s height (-0.82, prenatal appointments (-0.43, geographical area of the residence (-0.41, and household incomeper capita (-0.42. Inverse relationship between the variables related to the children and people/room (0.44 showed that the larger the number of people/room, the poorer their nutritional status. Rural residents were found to have the worse nutritional conditions. In the second canonical function, the BMI of the mother (-0.48 was related to BMI/age and retinol of the children, indicating that as women gained weight so did their children. Underweight women tended to have children with vitamin A deficiency. In the third canonical function, hemoglobin (-0.72 and retinol serum levels (-0.40 of the children were directly related to the mother’s hemoglobin levels (-0.43.CONCLUSIONS Mothers and children were associated concerning anemia, vitamin A

  12. Gait pattern in 9-11-year-old children with generalized joint hypermobility compared with controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolajsen, Helene; Larsen, Peter Kastmand; Simonsen, Erik Bruun;

    2013-01-01

    To study differences in gait patterns in 10-year-old children with Generalized Joint Hypermobility (GJH) and with no GJH (NGJH).......To study differences in gait patterns in 10-year-old children with Generalized Joint Hypermobility (GJH) and with no GJH (NGJH)....

  13. Individual and maternal determinants of self-reported dental health among Turkish school children aged 10-12 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cinar, A B; Kosku, N; Sandalli, N;

    2008-01-01

    To assess the influence of maternal and individual characteristics on self-reported dental health of Turkish school children aged 10-12 years with different socio-economic backgrounds.......To assess the influence of maternal and individual characteristics on self-reported dental health of Turkish school children aged 10-12 years with different socio-economic backgrounds....

  14. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for 4- to 7-Year-Old Children with Anxiety Disorders: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirshfeld-Becker, Dina R.; Masek, Bruce; Henin, Aude; Blakely, Lauren Raezer; Pollock-Wurman, Rachel A.; McQuade, Julia; DePetrillo, Lillian; Briesch, Jacquelyn; Ollendick, Thomas H.; Rosenbaum, Jerrold F.; Biederman, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To examine the efficacy of a developmentally appropriate parent-child cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) protocol for anxiety disorders in children ages 4-7 years. Method: Design: Randomized wait-list controlled trial. Conduct: Sixty-four children (53% female, mean age 5.4 years, 80% European American) with anxiety disorders were…

  15. Punishment and reward in parental discipline for children aged 5 to 6 years : prevalence and groups at risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theunissen, Meinou H. C.; Vogels, Anton G. C.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In this study we examined the use and predictors of different discipline practices by parents of children aged 5 to 6 years. METHODS: We obtained cross-sectional data for a nationally representative Dutch sample of children aged 5 to 6 years within the setting of routine well-child visits

  16. Whole-grain food consumption in Singaporean children aged 6-12 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neo, Jia En; Binte Mohamed Salleh, Saihah; Toh, Yun Xuan; How, Kesslyn Yan Ling; Tee, Mervin; Mann, Kay; Hopkins, Sinead; Thielecke, Frank; Seal, Chris J; Brownlee, Iain A

    2016-01-01

    Public health bodies in many countries are attempting to increase population-wide habitual consumption of whole grains. Limited data on dietary habits exist in Singaporean children. The present study therefore aimed to assess whole grain consumption patterns in Singaporean children and compare these with dietary intake, physical activity and health parameters. Dietary intake (assessed by duplicate, multipass, 24-h food recalls), physical activity (by questionnaire) and anthropometric measurements were collected from a cross-section of 561 Singaporean children aged 6-12 years. Intake of whole grains was evaluated using estimates of portion size and international food composition data. Only 38·3 % of participants reported consuming whole grains during the dietary data collection days. Median intake of whole grains in consumers was 15·3 (interquartile range 5·4-34·8) g/d. The most commonly consumed whole-grain food groups were rice (29·5 %), wholemeal bread (28·9 %) and ready-to-eat breakfast cereals (18·8 %). A significantly lower proportion of Malay children (seven out of fifty-eight; P foods is low at a population level and infrequent in Singaporean children. Future drives to increase whole-grain food consumption in this population are likely to require input from multiple stakeholders. PMID:27547396

  17. Molecular Epidemiology of Enteric Adenovirus Gastroenteritis in under-Five-Year-Old Children in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anahita Sanaei Dashti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Acute gastroenteritis is one of the major sources of morbidity and mortality among young children in developed and developing countries. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of human adenovirus- (HAdV- 40 and HAdV-41 in children hospitalized with gastroenteritis in five different health centers of Iran. Methods. In a cross-sectional epidemiological study, we studied 2682 fecal specimens that were collected from children under the age of 5 years in five educational and therapeutic pediatric centers in Iran from February 2012 to February 2013. Samples were tested for HAdV-40 and HAdV-41, using a specific pair of primers in polymerase chain reaction (PCR method. Results. HAdV-40 and HAdV-41 were detected in 132 (5.18% of the patients with diarrhea. A significantly higher prevalence of HAdV-40 and HAdV-41 (58.3% was observed in children under 12 months of age, compared to other age groups. The male to female ratio was 1.7. Conclusion. The results of this study demonstrated that HAdV-40 and HAdV-41 could be considered etiological agents for acute gastroenteritis among children in Iran. The PCR as a rapid test may increase the chance for a relatively mild course of the disease followed by a complete recovery and avoiding administration of unnecessary antibiotics.

  18. Dietary Patterns in Children Aged 2-4 years and Its Impact on Dietary Adequacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeida Alejo Cruz

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: the study of nutritional status in children is essential since this stage is characterized by rapid growth and development and acquisition of eating habits that will last for a lifetime. Objective: to determine the dietary patterns in children aged 2-4 years from the doctor’s offices 8 and 9 of the José Luis Chaviano University Teaching Polyclinic in Cienfuegos and their impact on the nutritional status and dietary adequacy. Methods: a descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in a universe of 87 patients from the doctor’s offices 8 and 9 of the José Luis Chaviano University Teaching Polyclinic in Cienfuegos, who underwent a nutritional assessment using anthropometric variables: weight for height and height for age. A survey of eating behaviors and another of 24 hours dietary recall were administered and processed through the CERES program. Results: all patients showed normal height, 82.75 % of children were classified as eutrophic, 4.60 % were obese and 3.45 % malnourished. Fried foods and bad eating habits in relation to consumption of vegetables predominated in the diet; most of the children received an excess of the recommended nutrients. Conclusion: there are deficiencies in eating behaviours. Diet is a matter of concern due to the high intake of energy, protein, fat and carbohydrates; iron intake was critical in most children.

  19. Response inhibition difficulties in preterm children aged 9-12 years: Relations with emotion and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Réveillon, Morgane; Borradori Tolsa, Cristina; Monnier, Maryline; Hüppi, Petra S; Barisnikov, Koviljka

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies with children have demonstrated inhibition difficulties associated with prematurity, but the question of potentially catching up with a delay in inhibition processes before adolescence still remains. Moreover, preterm adolescents are more at risk than their term-born peers for presenting behavioral problems such as emotional difficulties and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. In addition to examining response inhibition, this study addressed, for the first time, the impact of an emotional context on response inhibition abilities and its relation to behavioral problems in late school-aged preterm children. Fifty-eight preterm children aged 9-12 years were compared with 61 controls on two versions of a stop-signal task, the Delay Frustration Task, and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Results showed general difficulties in inhibiting a response, rather than a specific impact of emotional context in preterm children. Compared with controls, these children exhibited more and longer button presses in a delay situation, as well as faster go reaction times associated with lower probability of inhibition in the stop-signal tasks. These difficulties reflected impulsivity and were associated with higher hyperactivity/inattention and conduct problems. Additionally, intrauterine growth restriction was found to be an additional perinatal risk factor for hyperactivity/inattention symptoms. These findings suggest that remaining inhibition difficulties in the preterm population at preadolescence could reveal increasing behavioral issues. PMID:25569693

  20. Educational Intervention on Risk Factors Associated with Malocclusions in Five-year-old Children

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    Amarelys Morera Pérez

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: educational programs aimed at increasing knowledge on oral health and promoting proper oral hygiene habits allow controlling or limiting the development of dento-maxillofacial defects that lead to many aesthetic, functional and mental disorders.Objective: to assess the effectiveness of an educational intervention on risk factors associated with malocclusions in children aged five years. Methods: a quasi-experimental, before and after study was conducted in 67 children living in the Health Area number 2 in Cienfuegos municipality. Risk factors associated with malocclusions were identified, as well as the knowledge needs of the children and their parents. An educational program on risk factors associated with malocclusions was designed and implemented. Surveys were applied before and after the intervention. The variables studied included risk factors associated with malocclusions and the level of knowledge about them. Results: children and parents increased their knowledge about risk factors associated with malocclusions. Ninety four point three percent of the most common oral habits (tongue thrusting, finger-sucking and bottle feeding were eliminated. Conclusion: the intervention was effective since it raised the level of knowledge of the children and their parents and led to the elimination of a considerable number of modifiable risk factors associated with malocclusions.

  1. Procedural Metacognition and False Belief Understanding in 3- to 5-Year-Old Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Stéphane; Proust, Joëlle; Clément, Fabrice

    2015-01-01

    Some studies, so far limited in number, suggest the existence of procedural metacognition in young children, that is, the practical capacity to monitor and control one's own cognitive activity in a given task. The link between procedural metacognition and false belief understanding is currently under theoretical discussion. If data with primates seem to indicate that procedural metacognition and false belief understanding are not related, no study in developmental psychology has investigated this relation in young children. The present paper aims, first, to supplement the findings concerning young children's abilities to monitor and control their uncertainty (procedural metacognition) and, second, to explore the relation between procedural metacognition and false belief understanding. To examine this, 82 3- to 5-year-old children were presented with an opt-out task and with 3 false belief tasks. Results show that children can rely on procedural metacognition to evaluate their perceptual access to information, and that success in false belief tasks does not seem related to success in the task we used to evaluate procedural metacognition. These results are coherent with a procedural view of metacognition, and are discussed in the light of recent data from primatology and developmental psychology.

  2. Management of children with disorders of sex development:20-year experience in southern Thailand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Somchit Jaruratanasirikul; Vorapun Engchaun

    2014-01-01

    Background: Disorders of sex development (DSD) is a group of sexual differentiation disorders resulting in genital anomalies with defects in gonadal hormone synthesis and/or incomplete genital development. These conditions result in problems concerning the sex assignment of the child. This study aims to describe the clinical features, diagnosis and management of children with DSD in southern Thailand. Methods: The medical records of 117 pediatric patients diagnosed with DSD during the period of 1991- 2011 were retrospectively reviewed. Results: Disorders of sex development were categorized into 3 groups: sex chromosome abnormalities (53.0%), 46,XX DSD (29.9%) and 46,XY DSD (17.1%). The two most common etiologies of DSD were Turner syndrome (36.8%) and congenital adrenal hyperplasia (29.9%). Ambiguous genitalia/intersex was the main problem in 46,XX DSD (94%) and 46,XY DSD (100%). Sex reassignment was done in 5 children (4.3%) at age of 3-5 years: from male to female in 4 children (1 patient with congenital adrenal hyperplasia, 1 patient with 45,X/46,XY DSD, and 2 patients with 46,XX ovotesticular DSD) and from female to male in 1 patient with 46,XX ovotesticular DSD. Of the total 20 children with 46,XY DSD, 16 (80%) were raised as females. Conclusion: Management of DSD children has many aspects of concern. Sex assignment/reassignment depends on the phenotype (phallus size) of the external genitalia rather than the sex chromosome.

  3. Iodine prophylaxis in children population on the Wielkopolska Region area from year 1992 to 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: The aim of the study was to evaluate of efficiency of iodine prophylaxis based on obligatory model of salt ionization. Material and methods: The study included 1444 children from the rural and urban area, with the proportional sex and age (8 - 12 years ) distribution - 432 children in 1992 (before salt iodination), 558 children in 2000 and 454 children in 2005 (during salt iodination from 1996). Results: The prevalence of goiter detected in children population in 1992 was 40% (recount by current criteria), in 2005 was reduced to 6% (p < 0.01). Parallely, median of urinary iodine concentration increased from 44 mg/l in 1992 to 107 mg/l (p < 0.01) in 2005. The increase of incidence of autoimmunological thyroid diseases is observed, especially chronic thyroiditis. Conclusions: The study proves high efficiency of iodine prophylaxis in Wielkopolska Region, but it is still the area with mild iodine deficiency. Conclusions: The study proves high efficiency of iodine prophylaxis in Wielkopolska Region, but it is still the area with mild iodine deficiency. (author)

  4. Facial Emotion and Identity Processing Development in 5- to 15-Year-Old Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick eJohnston

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Most developmental studies of emotional face processing to date have focussed on infants and very young children. Additionally, studies that examine emotional face processing in older children do not distinguish development in emotion and identity face processing from more generic age-related cognitive improvement. In this study, we developed a paradigm that measures processing of facial expression in comparison to facial identity and complex visual stimuli. The three matching tasks were developed (i.e., facial emotion matching, facial identity matching and butterfly wing matching to include stimuli of similar level of discriminability and to be equated for task difficulty in earlier samples of young adults. Ninety two children aged 5 to 15 years and a new group of 24 young adults completed these three matching tasks. Young children were highly adept at the butterfly wing task relative to their performance on both face-related tasks. More importantly, in older children, development of facial emotion discrimination ability lagged behind that of facial identity discrimination.

  5. Traffic education for children 4-12 years old. [Previously known as: Traffic education of children 4-12 years old.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2007-01-01

    Traffic education for children is of the utmost importance as a basis for safe traffic participation; not only formal education at schools, but especially continuous education of children by parents. Since the brains of children have not yet developed completely, there is a limit to what children ca

  6. Access to oral health services in children under twelve years of age in Peru, 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akram Hernández-Vásquez

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to explore the patterns of dental health services access in children under twelve years of age in Peru. Data from 25,285 children under 12 years who participated in the Demographic and Family Health Survey of 2014 were reviewed. An exploratory spatial analysis was performed to project the proportions of children with access to dental health services, according to national regions, type of health service and urban or rural place of residence. The results show that of the total sample, 26.7% had access to dental health services in the last six months, 39.6% belonged to the age group 0-4 years, 40.6% lived in the Andean region and 58.3% lived in urban areas. The regions of Huancavelica, Apurimac, Ayacucho, Lima and Pasco had the highest percentages of access nationwide. In conclusion, there is low access to dental health services in the population under 12 years of age in Peru. The spatial distribution of access to dental health services allows regions to be identified and grouped according to similar access patterns, in order to better focus public health actions.

  7. Diarrhoeal disease morbidity in children below 5 years in urban slums of Delhi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatnagar, S; Dosajh, U

    1986-07-01

    To determine the magnitude of morbidity related to diarrhea among children under 5 years of age, a study was carried out in 4 slum areas of Delhi in May-June 1984. Of the 3645 children surveyed, 963 (26.4%) had suffered from 1 or more new episodes of diarrhea in the 2 weeks preceding the survey. This suggests a mean annual incidence of diarrhea in the slums of Delhi of 7.9 episodes/child, with an average duration of 3.9 days/episode. The mean episodes/child/year ranged from a low of 4.1 in Ballimaran to a high of 11.9 in the Seelampur slum. The incidence of diarrhea was highest in chldren 7-12 months of age (13.6 episodes/year). In 24.2% of the diarrhea episodes, the families sought no medical help. 54.5% of cases were treated by private practitioners, 21% were seen at hospitals, and 0.3% were treated with home remedies. Only 20.2% of mothers of children with diarrhea were familiar with oral rehydration therapy, despite the easy accessibility of information about this treatment in the slum areas. Among the mothers with knowledge of oral rehydration, 47.9% used it for all diarrhea episodes, 33.0% used it for selected episodes, and 19.1% had never used it. A higher incidence of diarrhea was found among children living in homes where unfiltered water from handpumps was used for drinking or where residents defecated in open fields. Children with grade 2 or 3 malnutrition also showed a higher incidence of diarrhea. Among the socioeconomic parameters, diarrhea was positively associated with low female income and illiteracy on the part of the mother. Finally, infants who were exclusively breastfed had a lower incidence of diarrhea than those who were receiving supplementary feedings.

  8. Influencing Factors in Nutrition Status of 6-12 Years Old Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siva Hamdani

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The nutrition status of school-age children is still poor while the need for balanced nutrition is very important for school children and this is because the public's attention to the nutritional needs only focuses in infants, toddlers, and pregnant women. According to data of Health Research (Riskesdas in 2010, the prevalence stunting in the age group of 6-12 years was 25.6%, underweight prevalence was 11.2% and overweight prevalence was accounted to 9.2%. This study aimed to determine the nutritional status of children by conducting crosssectional descriptive study with the analysis of invariance and bivariate (Chi square. The study was conducted at SDN 05 of grade 1-6 Sirnagalih Bogor with totaling 263 students aged 6-12 years old in November 2014 and assessed the nutritional status of students based on the z-score of the WHO / NCHS and reviewing the primary data (weight and height measurement and secondary data (data or documents and the identity taken from the student attendance. Nutritional status average of children in SDN 05 Sirnagalih was in normal nutritional status at approximately 68.2%. However, it still reflected some nutritional problems (very underweight, underweight and overweight, accounted for 31.8%. In underage group category, there was the nutritional status of malnourishment of 9-12 years age group with the highest number scored 37.5%. By gender, the malnourishment of boys acquired at most 34.9%. Based on parent education, malnourishment was found in students with less educated fathers; it was about 41.6%. Nutritional status of children based on the number of siblings in the family showed the nutritional status of malnourishment, showing by the number of brothers and sisters greater than two sisters and brothers that amounted to 57.9%.

  9. Serum ferritin to detect iron deficiency in children below five years of age

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    Windy Saufia Apriyanti

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Iron deficiency (ID anemia impacts the cognitive and motor development of children until the age of 10 years, despite receiving iron therapy. Early detection of ID is recommended and serum ferritin has been proposed as an alternative indicator for ID detection.Objective To assess the diagnostic accuracy of serum ferritin for detecting ID in children below five years of age.Methods This cross-sectional, diagnostic study was conducted in primary health care centers in Yogyakarta and Bantul. Hemoglobin (Hb, serum ferritin and soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR levels were performed on children aged 6–59 months. A sTfR level of ≥ 8.2 mg/L was used to define iron deficiency. The best cut off point for serum ferritin level use as a diagnostic tool was determined by receiver operator curve.Results The prevalence of ID was 32%. Mean hemoglobin levels in iron deficient and healthy children were 11.7 (SD 0.5 g/dL and 12.2 (SD 0.7 g/dL, respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value (PPV of serum ferritin (<12 ug/L were 17%, 93%, and 56%, respectively. Using a cut off of <32.4 ug/L, serum ferritin had sensitivity of 62.1% and specificity of 50.8%.Conclusions The diagnostic value of serum ferritin levels is modestly capable of detecting ID. Therefore, serum ferritin should not be used as an alternative indicator for detecting ID in children below five years of age.

  10. Serum ferritin to detect iron deficiency in children below five years of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Windy Saufia Apriyanti

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Iron deficiency (ID anemia impacts the cognitive and motor development of children until the age of 10 years, despite receiving iron therapy. Early detection of ID is recommended and serum ferritin has been proposed as an alternative indicator for ID detection. Objective To assess the diagnostic accuracy of serum ferritin for detecting ID in children below five years of age. Methods This cross-sectional, diagnostic study was conducted in primary health care centers in Yogyakarta and Bantul. Hemoglobin (Hb, serum ferritin and soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR levels were performed on children aged 6–59 months. A sTfR level of ≥ 8.2 mg/L was used to define iron deficiency. The best cut off point for serum ferritin level use as a diagnostic tool was determined by receiver operator curve. Results The prevalence of ID was 32%. Mean hemoglobin levels in iron deficient and healthy children were 11.7 (SD 0.5 g/dL and 12.2 (SD 0.7 g/dL, respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value (PPV of serum ferritin (<12 ug/L were 17%, 93%, and 56%, respectively. Using a cut off of <32.4 ug/L, serum ferritin had sensitivity of 62.1% and specificity of 50.8%. Conclusions The diagnostic value of serum ferritin levels is modestly capable of detecting ID. Therefore, serum ferritin should not be used as an alternative indicator for detecting ID in children below five years of age. [Paediatr Indones. 2013;53:150-4.].

  11. [Prospective assessment of children with pervasive developmental disorder after 2 years of day-hospital treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poinso, F; Dubois, B; Chatel, C; Viellard, M; Bastard-Rosset, D; Girardot, A-M; Grandgeorge, P; De Martino, S; Sokolowsky, M; Salle-Collemiche, X; Da Fonseca, D

    2013-01-01

    The treatment of children with pervasive developmental disorders (PDD) has not been systematically assessed in French day-care units. In this prospective study, 11 children with a diagnosis of PDD were followed up for 2years in a day-care unit in the Marseille university hospital. The treatment they received is based on an initial assessment by the "Centre Ressources Autisme" (CRA PACA) and further included a continued observation of the child and an assessment of the child's abilities and needs. This treatment used various therapeutic approaches 10h weekly and also included parental counseling and coordinated work with schools. Treatment in our day-care unit can be categorized as eclectic, non-intensive therapy. It is based on methods such as TEACCH (Treatment and Education of Autistic and related Communication handicapped Children), Floor Time Play, speech and language therapy, developmental therapy, and psychotherapy. International studies on intensive behavioral therapies suggest that this treatment is superior to non-behavioral and/or non-intensive treatment. They suggest its efficiency is due both to the nature of the treatment (behavioral) and to its intensity (more than 25h a week). In this study, the CRA diagnosed children using the ADI and ADOS. The 11 children (mean age, 3years 5months) were tested twice, with the Vineland and CARS scales. The first assessment was on admission to the day hospital and the second was 2years later. The results showed developmental progress with a mean increase of 13.5 months at the Vineland Scale, and a decrease of the autism severity score on the CARS. The treatment presented here proves to be efficient; if compared to similar results in international studies, we obtained better results than their eclectic intensive or non-intensive treatment comparison group.

  12. Gestational age and birth weight in relation to school performance of 10-year-old children: a follow-up study of children born after 32 completed weeks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Ida; Obel, Carsten; Hedegaard, Morten;

    2006-01-01

    after 32 completed weeks and birth weight in relation to the child's school performance at the age of 10 years. METHODS: We performed a follow-up study of 5319 children born between January 1990 and June 1992. We got the information on birth weight and gestational age from birth registration forms; when......BACKGROUND: Children born extremely premature (school performance than children born at term with a normal birth weight. Much less is known about children of higher gestational ages and birth weights. We studied gestational age...... the children were between 9 and 11 years of age, we gathered information about their school performance (reading, spelling, and arithmetic) from questionnaires completed by the parents and the children's primary school teachers. RESULTS: The association between birth weight and reading, as well as spelling...

  13. Vaccination coverage of children aged 4-12 years old in the prefecture of Evritania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yannis Getsios

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The last two decades a huge progress has taken place in the field of the primary prevention of infections and many new vaccines have been introduced in the compulsory vaccination program. There is evidence, however, that immunization coverage against some infectious diseases is not adequate. Aim: It was to investigate the level of immunization coverage of Greek and Immigrants' children aged 4-12 years old in the prefecture of Evritania regarding vaccines against pertussis-diphtheria-tetanus (DTaP, poliomyelitis (IPV and measles–mumps–rubella (MMR. Material and methods: The sample of the study consisted of the pupils of all nursing and elementary schools of the prefecture of Evritania , aged 4-12 years old. Children's personal Health Cards were used to evaluate the adequacy of vaccine doses. X2 was usedfor comparisons. Statistics was processed with SPPS 17.0. Results: The boys of the sample were 469 (51.9% and the girls 434 (48.1%. Full vaccination coverage with DTaP, MMR and IPV was 87.3%, 79.9%, and 97.6% respectively. No statistically significant differences were observed between Greek and Immigrants' children. Conclusion: Vaccination coverage against measles, mumps and rubella was inadequate. Immigrants' and Greek children are equally covered. Vaccination coverage with MMR is troublesome.

  14. SPEECH AND LANGUAGE ASSESSMENT USING LEST 0 TO 6 AMONG CHILDREN 0 TO 6 YEARS

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    Shiji K

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This descriptive study was conducted toassess the speech and language development anddelay among children 0 - 6 years.450 Children 0 - 6 years age groups were taken for the study . Each child was given the corresponding LEST and given a PASS if he or she had performed the test. Of the 450 children screened , 5.5 % had delay , 2.2 % had only questionable delay. Of the 25 children who had delay 15 (60% were males. There is strong hazardous association between sex and speech delay. Statistical test also shows that there is association between speech Delay and Sex i . e . , t he result is highly Statistically Significant , ( p< 0.005 . Hence males have more speech Delay than Females. LEST – this simple validatedor standardized scree ning tool will be useful for professionals to give early intervention. The Statistical method used is Chi - Square test. This test can be extrapolated to the general population. This test - LEST has been validated by Nair M.K.C et al.KEY WORDS : Speech delay , Language delay , LEST

  15. ORAL HEALTH STATUS OF 9 TO 12 YEAR OLD SCHOOL GOING CHILDREN IN URBAN MEERUT

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    Saurabh Sharma

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oral health is an integral part of general health. Oral Health status has a direct impact on general health and conversely, general health influences oral health. It has also become clear that causative and risk factors in oral diseases are often the same as those implicated in the major general diseases.Hence this study was done to estimate the prevalence, type and degree of oral diseases in the study area. Materials and Method: It is a cross- sectional study design conducted among schools in , Multan Nagar which is the field practice area of department of Community Medicine, SMC (Subharti Medical College, Meerut.A total of 534 school going children aged 9 to 12 years old were examined using standard WHO Oral Health Survey methods. Results: One third of the study population (34.3% had good oral hygiene according to oral hygiene index simplified. The overall prevalence of gingivitis among children was 53.4 percent.The prevalence of dental caries among 9 to 12 year old school going children was 60.1 %. The mean DMFT score of the study population was 0.89.The index study findings revealed a strong relationship between oral health status and socio economic status and mother’s educational status. Conclusion: The overall prevalence of dental caries was high in the study subjects.Mother’s educational status has a significant role in improving the oral health status of children.

  16. Four-year longitudinal impact evaluation of the Action for Children UK Neglect Project: outcomes for the children, families, Action for Children, and the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Tony; Murphy, Michael; Fallon, Debbie; Livesley, Joan; Devitt, Patric; McLoughlin, Moira; Cavanagh, Alison

    2014-08-01

    Neglect has a devastating impact on children and is the most pervasive form of child maltreatment in the United Kingdom. The study purpose was to establish outcomes for neglected children following structured assessment and intervention to ascertain what worked and why it worked. This prospective cohort study included 85 cases of neglected children under 8 years of age from 7 centers across the United Kingdom. Data were collected between 2008 and 2012 through serial quantitative recording of the level of concern about neglect. Serial review of qualitative case-file data was undertaken for detail of assessment, interventions, and evidence of outcomes for the child. Data analysis was undertaken by paired t-test, Chi Square, descriptive statics for categorical data, and, for narrative data, identification of recurring factors and patterns, with correlation of presenting factors, interventions, and outcomes. Paired t-test demonstrated significant decrease in overall Action for Children Assessment Tool scores between assessment (M=43.77, SD=11.09) and closing the case (M=35.47, SD=9.6, t(84)=6.77, pneglect was shown in 79% of cases, with only 21% showing no improvement. In 59% of cases, concern about neglect was removed completely. Use of the assessment tool fostered engagement by parents. The relationship between lack of parental engagement and children being taken into care was statistically significant, with a large effect size (χ(2) 10.66, df1, p=0.0001, OR=17.24). When parents refused or were unable to respond positively to the intervention, children benefited from an expedited move into care.

  17. Factors associated with stunted growth in children below 11 years of age in Antioquia, Colombia, 2004

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    Bibiana Andrea Castro

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore some factors associated to stunted growth in children below 11 years of age in the Department of Antioquia.Methodology: Cross-sectional study using the databases of alimentary and nutritional profiles in homes of Antioquia in 2004, based on a representative random sample of homes in the department (95% reliability and error margin of 3%. For this study, 100% of the records of children below 11 years of age were used. A model of generalized equations estimation was constructed for stunted growth classified by a Z score smaller than -2 standard deviation with respect to p 50 of the 1978 NCHS (Centro Nacional de Estadísticas de la Salud - National Center for Health Statistics. Data were analyzed using the GLIMMIX Procedure: SAS version 9.1.Results: We found 18.6% of the children with stunted growth, 75% of the homes with male head of household, 70% of heads of household with maximum 5 years of schooling; 47% of homes were nucleated bi-parental, and 40% extensive with a 5-member median per home; 56.4% poor per unsatisfied basic needs, and 80% in alimentary insecurity. The factors associated to stunted growth were: female gender, 1-5 years of age, head of household with less than 6 years of schooling, more than 5 people in the home, more than two household members under 7 years of age, coming from a poor home per unsatisfied basic needs, belonging to a sub-region different from Medellin, food availability of less than 30 different foods per week, no production of food, and head of household under 40 years of age.Conclusions: Herein, we show evidence of the magnitude of poverty and association of precarious socioeconomic conditions with stunted growth in Antioquia. The study shows the importance of considering the correlated nature of the data for the construction of the model.

  18. The relation between oral hygiene skills and the prevalence of dental caries among 4 - 6-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razmienė, Jaunė; Vanagas, Giedrius; Bendoraitienė, Eglė; Vyšniauskaitė, Aurelija

    2011-01-01

    AIM OF THE STUDY. To evaluate the tooth brushing skills and the prevalence of dental caries as well as its intensity in relation to oral hygiene skills among 4 - 6-year-old children. MATERIAL AND METHODS. The cross-sectional study was performed from November 16, 2009 to January 12, 2010. 235 children (4 - 6-year old) were randomly selected from kindergartens in Plungė and Jonava in Lithuania. The results of study were registered in the special forms prepared in accordance with the recommendations of WHO. Parents of the children were asked to fill in the questionnaires. RESULTS. The results of the study show that 91% (Plungė) and 90% (Jonava) of 4 - 6-year-old children have caries in their primary teeth. The prevalence of caries is different in relation to age: 78.7% of 4-year-old children, 97.3% of 5-year-old children, and 95.3% of 6-year-old children. The intensity of caries is as follows: 4.9 (SN=±4.9), 7.5 (SN=±4.5), and 8.2 (SN=±4.7). CONCLUSIONS. There is the high prevalence of caries, particularly of not treated forms, among 4 - 6-year-old children. The oral hygiene index is just satisfactory.

  19. Behaviors of children exposed to intimate partner violence before and 1 year after a treatment program for their mother.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarlane, Judith M; Groff, Janet Y; O'brien, Jennifer A; Watson, Kathy

    2005-02-01

    Children exposed to intimate partner violence against their mothers are at increased risk for emotional, behavior, physiological, cognitive, and social problems. To compare the behavioral functioning of children exposed to intimate partner violence before and 1 year after their mother received treatment, 206 Black, White, and Hispanic children, age 18 months to 18 years, were administered the Child Behavior Checklist. Behavior problems of all children significantly improved 1 year following treatment of their mother. When compared with a clinically referred sample of youngsters, scores of children of abused mothers were not significantly different before their mothers received treatment but most scores were significantly different after their mothers were treated. Screening and a treatment for abused women can have a positive effect on the behavior of their children. PMID:15812730

  20. Epidemiology of bronchial asthma in school children (10–16 years in Srinagar

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    Uruj Altaf Qureshi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To assess the epidemiological profile of asthma in school going children in Srinagar, Kashmir. Study design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Thirty-one schools with proportionate representation from both government and private schools as well as from primary, middle, and high schools. Participants: School children aged 10–16 years with equal representation of sex and all ages. Main Outcome Measure: Prevalence of current and past asthma. Methods and Results: After administering a modified pretested questionnaire, peak expiratory flow measurement was carried. Children who had asthma-like symptoms or positive family history of asthma or physician-labeled asthma were subjected to spirometry and bronchodilator reversibility. Out of 806 children, bronchial asthma was seen in 60 (prevalence of 7.4% which included 34 boys and 26 girls. Majority of asthmatic children (78.3% [n = 47] had probable asthma; 6.7% (n = 4 had definite asthma; and 15% (n = 9 had physician-diagnosed asthma. Majority of children had intermittent asthma (78.3% [n = 47]. Mild persistent asthma was seen in 12.7% (n = 7 and 10% (n = 6 had moderate persistent asthma. None of the children had severe persistent asthma. The prevalence of current asthma was 3.2% (n = 26. On univariate analysis, the factors found to be statistically significant were family history of asthma (odds ratio [OR] =8.174; confidence interval [CI] =4.403–15.178, seasonal cough (OR = 4.266; CI = 2.336–7.791, allergic rhinitis (OR = 2.877; CI = 1.414–5.852, atopic dermatitis (OR = 6.597; CI = 2.72–16.004, and obesity (OR = 6.074; CI = 2.308–18.034. On multivariate analysis, family history, seasonal cough, allergic rhinitis, atopic dermatitis, and obesity were found to be significant independent risk factors. Conclusions: Srinagar qualifies as a low prevalence area for bronchial asthma in the age group of 10–16 years. Majority of children had mild intermittent asthma resulting in under

  1. Epidemiology of bronchial asthma in school children (10–16 years) in Srinagar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Uruj Altaf; Bilques, Sufoora; ul Haq, Inaam; Khan, Muhammad Saleem; Qurieshi, Mariya Amin; Qureshi, Umar Amin

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the epidemiological profile of asthma in school going children in Srinagar, Kashmir. Study design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Thirty-one schools with proportionate representation from both government and private schools as well as from primary, middle, and high schools. Participants: School children aged 10–16 years with equal representation of sex and all ages. Main Outcome Measure: Prevalence of current and past asthma. Methods and Results: After administering a modified pretested questionnaire, peak expiratory flow measurement was carried. Children who had asthma-like symptoms or positive family history of asthma or physician-labeled asthma were subjected to spirometry and bronchodilator reversibility. Out of 806 children, bronchial asthma was seen in 60 (prevalence of 7.4%) which included 34 boys and 26 girls. Majority of asthmatic children (78.3% [n = 47]) had probable asthma; 6.7% (n = 4) had definite asthma; and 15% (n = 9) had physician-diagnosed asthma. Majority of children had intermittent asthma (78.3% [n = 47]). Mild persistent asthma was seen in 12.7% (n = 7) and 10% (n = 6) had moderate persistent asthma. None of the children had severe persistent asthma. The prevalence of current asthma was 3.2% (n = 26). On univariate analysis, the factors found to be statistically significant were family history of asthma (odds ratio [OR] =8.174; confidence interval [CI] =4.403–15.178), seasonal cough (OR = 4.266; CI = 2.336–7.791), allergic rhinitis (OR = 2.877; CI = 1.414–5.852), atopic dermatitis (OR = 6.597; CI = 2.72–16.004), and obesity (OR = 6.074; CI = 2.308–18.034). On multivariate analysis, family history, seasonal cough, allergic rhinitis, atopic dermatitis, and obesity were found to be significant independent risk factors. Conclusions: Srinagar qualifies as a low prevalence area for bronchial asthma in the age group of 10–16 years. Majority of children had mild intermittent asthma resulting in under diagnosis and

  2. Measles Antibody Titres In 0-5 Years Children At Aligarh

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    Kandpal S D

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Research Question: What is the level of measles antibodies in 0-5 year children? Objectives: 1.To assess the pattern of decline of maternal antibodies in 0-9 months infants. 2. To estimate the seropositivity for measles antibodies in vaccinated 9 months infants. Study design: Cross- sectional. Setting: Rural areas of District Aligarh, U.P. Participants: 456 children in the age group of 0-5 years. Statistical analysis: Percentages, correlation coefficient. Results: 1. In all the study subjects below 9 months of age, the transplacentally acquired maternal measles antibodies showed a linear decline with increase in age. Out of 202 study subjects who had been immunized against measles 195(96.50% were seropositive and 7(3.5% were seronegative for measles antibodies.

  3. A STUDY OF VISION SCREENING IN SCHOOL GOING CHILDREN OF 7-15 YEARS

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    Lakshmoji Naidu Kotipalli

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Good vision is key to a child’s physical development, success in school and overall well-being. It is essential to check children’s vision when they are first born and again during infancy, preschool and school years. AIM The aim of the study is to screen the vision in school going children to detect any refractive errors and to prevent permanent blindness in East Godavari district, AP. MATERIALS & METHODS This is a cross sectional study of 2887 school children among Government and Private Schools in the area of Rangaraya Medical College, Kakinada, over a period of 2 years. RESULTS The observations from the study were analysed and compared with the existing literature and the factors influencing the prevalence of refractive errors were studied. CONCLUSION The incidence of Refractive Errors in this study was found to be 7.34%. The present study also indicates that the school age represents high risk group for refractive errors.

  4. Reliability of squat and countermovement jump tests in children 6 to 8 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acero, Rafael Martin; Fernández-del Olmo, Miguel; Sánchez, Jose Andres; Otero, Xose Luis; Aguado, Xavier; Rodríguez, Ferran A

    2011-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the reliability of the squat jump test (SJ) and countermovement jump test (CMJ), in fifty-six children (30 girls and 26 boys) with ages ranging from 6 to 8 years. Each subject performed two evaluation sessions (T1, T2) with seven days between tests. The results show that the CMJ test has a high intratrial reproducibility in T1 and T2 measured through intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC ≥ 0.95). The ICC for the SJ test had a high value (0.99) only in T1. The variability for both tests among children under 9 years of age is higher than those reported for adult subjects in other studies. The intersession reliability was questionable with a high methodical error (ME= 9.86-15.1%, for the SJ and CMJ, respectively) and a significant worsening of the results of CMJ in T2 (p < .05).

  5. Effects of Head Start REDI on children's outcomes 1 year later in different kindergarten contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierman, Karen L; Nix, Robert L; Heinrichs, Brenda S; Domitrovich, Celene E; Gest, Scott D; Welsh, Janet A; Gill, Sukhdeep

    2014-01-01

    One year after participating in the Research-based, Developmentally Informed (REDI) intervention or "usual practice" Head Start, the learning and behavioral outcomes of 356 children (17% Hispanic, 25% African American; 54% girls; Mage  = 4.59 years at initial assessment) were assessed. In addition, their 202 kindergarten classrooms were evaluated on quality of teacher-student interactions, emphasis on reading instruction, and school-level student achievement. Hierarchical linear analyses revealed that the REDI intervention promoted kindergarten phonemic decoding skills, learning engagement, and competent social problem-solving skills, and reduced aggressive-disruptive behavior. Intervention effects on social competence and inattention were moderated by kindergarten context, with effects strongest when children entered schools with low student achievement. Implications are discussed for developmental models of school readiness and early educational programs.

  6. Internationally Adopted Children from Non-European Countries: General Development during the First Two Years in the Adoptive Family

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    Monica Dalen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Internationally adopted children are often delayed in their development and demonstrate more behaviour problems than nonadopted children due to adverse preadoption circumstances. This is especially true for children adopted from Eastern European countries. Few studies have focused on children adopted from non-European countries. This paper presents results from an ongoing longitudinal study of 119 internationally adopted children from non-European countries during their first two years in Norway. Several scales measuring different aspects of the children’s development are included in the study: communication and gross motor development, temperamental characteristics, and behaviour problems. The results show that internationally adopted children are delayed in their general development when they first arrive in their adoptive families. After two years the children have made significant progress in development. However, they still lag behind in communication and motor skills compared to non-adopted children. The temperamental characteristics seem very stable from time of adoption until two years after adoption. The children demonstrate a low frequency of behaviour problems. However, the behaviour problems have changed during the two years. At time of adoption they show more nonphysically challenging behaviour while after two years their physically challenging behaviour has increased.

  7. Cognitive components of a mathematical processing network in 9-year-old children

    OpenAIRE

    Szűcs, Dénes; Devine, Amy; Soltesz, Fruzsina; Nobes, Alison; Gabriel, Florence

    2014-01-01

    We determined how various cognitive abilities, including several measures of a proposed domain-specific number sense, relate to mathematical competence in nearly 100 9-year-old children with normal reading skill. Results are consistent with an extended number processing network and suggest that important processing nodes of this network are phonological processing, verbal knowledge, visuo-spatial short-term and working memory, spatial ability and general executive functioning. The model was h...

  8. Relatedness and Autonomy Aspects of Self-Concept in 8- to 12-Year-Old Children

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Cherie

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to look at age-associated changes in relatedness and autonomy in 8- to 12-year-olds. A psychosocial and attachment theory perspective was taken to help explain the integration of relatedness and autonomy issues. The influence of gender, parent involvement, and selected demographic variables was also considered. The sample included 94 children . This excluded those with single fathers or stepmothers. Instruments used were (a) the relatedness, autonomy, and parent ...

  9. Improvement of allocentric spatial memory resolution in children from 2 to 4 years of age

    OpenAIRE

    Ribordy Lambert, Farfalla; Lavenex, Pierre; Lavenex, Pamela Banta

    2016-01-01

    Allocentric spatial memory, the memory for locations coded in relation to objects comprising our environment, is a fundamental component of episodic memory and is dependent on the integrity of the hippocampal formation in adulthood. Previous research from different laboratories reported that basic allocentric spatial memory abilities are reliably observed in children after 2 years of age. Based on work performed in monkeys and rats, we had proposed that the functional maturation of direct ent...

  10. Assessment of the sexually abused female children admitted to a tertiary care hospital: Eight year experience

    OpenAIRE

    Mollamahmutoglu, Leyla; Uzunlar, Ozlem; Kahyaoglu, Inci; Ozyer, Sebnem; Besli, Mustafa; Karaca, Mujdegul

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To discuss the medical, social and legal characteristics of the child sexual abuse and to provide a perspective for gynecologists on this topic. Methods: A retrospective analysis was carried out of the medicolegal records of female children below the age of 18 referred to a tertiary teaching hospital and diagnosed as being exposed to sexual abuse within the family between the years of 2004 to 2012. Results: One hundred and thirty-nine cases were diagnosed as being exposed to sexual...

  11. Children of Treated Substance-abusing Mothers: A 10-year Prospective Study

    OpenAIRE

    Hser, Y.; Evans, E.; Li, L.; Metchik, A.; Messina, N

    2013-01-01

    The study examined children of substance-abusing mothers approximately 10 years after mothers’ admission to drug abuse treatment, and identified maternal characteristics that may be risk factors for child behavior problems on the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). Data were obtained from 396 mothers who were included in a sample consecutively admitted to 44 treatment programs in 13 California counties during 2000–2002. Addiction Severity Index was administered at both intake and follow-up. Each...

  12. Association between breakfast consumption and educational outcomes in 9–11-year-old children

    OpenAIRE

    Littlecott, Hannah J; Moore, Graham F.; Moore, Laurence; Lyons, Ronan A.; Murphy, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Objective Breakfast consumption has been consistently associated with health outcomes and cognitive functioning in schoolchildren. Evidence of direct links with educational outcomes remains equivocal. We aimed to examine the link between breakfast consumption in 9–11-year-old children and educational outcomes obtained 6–18 months later. Design Data on individual-level free school meal entitlement and educational outcomes (Statutory Assessment Tests (SATs) at Key Stage 2) were obtained via ...

  13. Empathy, estradiol and androgen levels in 9-year-old children

    OpenAIRE

    Pascual-Segastizábal, Eider; Azurmendi, Aitziber; Sánchez-Martín, José R.; Braza, Francisco; Carreras, María R.; José M. Muñoz; Braza, Paloma

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the possible relationship between circulating hormone levels (tes- tosterone, androstenedione and estradiol) and empathy, as well as to identify any possible gender differ- ences in this relationship. The subjects were 123 9-year-old Caucasian children (57 boys and 66 girls). Bryant’s Empathy Index was used to measure empathy. Hormone levels were measured using an enzyme immunoassay technique in saliva samples. The Kruskal–Wallis...

  14. Arthrographic study of the Wiberg's CE angle in cadavers of children under 3 years old

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forty hip arthrographies in cadavers of children under 3 years of age are presented. The articular relationships of the hip through the definition of the morphology of the proximal femoral epyphysis are evaluated. The location of point 'C' and the evaluation of 'CE' angle in this age group are related. The results of the arthrographic 'CE' osseous angle are compared with Salvati's method and with Massie and Howorth's method. (M.A.C.)

  15. GLOBAL STRATEGY FOR THE DIAGNOSIS AND MANAGEMENT OF ASTHMA IN CHILDREN 5 YEARS AND YOUNGER

    OpenAIRE

    Pedersen, Soren; Hurd, Suzanne; Lemanske, Robert; Becker, Allan; Zar, Heather; Sly, Peter; Soto-Quiroz, Manuel; Wong, Gary; Bateman, Eric

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Asthma is the most common chronic disease of childhood and the leading cause of childhood morbidity from chronic disease as measured by school absences, emergency department visits, and hospitalizations1. Many scientific advances have improved our understanding of asthma and our ability to manage and control it effectively. However, in children 5 years and younger, the clinical symptoms of asthma are variable and non-specific. Furthermore, neither airflow limitation nor...

  16. Psychopathic Traits and Physiological Responses to Aversive Stimuli in Children Aged 9–11 Years

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Pan; Baker, Laura A.; Gao, Yu; Raine, Adrian; Lozano, Dora Isabel

    2012-01-01

    Atypical eletrodermal and cardiovascular response patterns in psychopathic individuals are thought to be biological indicators of fearless and disinhibition. This study investigated the relationship between psychopathic traits and these autonomic response patterns using a count-down task in 843 children (aged 9–10 years). Heart rate (HR) and non-specific skin conductance responses (NS-SCRs) were recorded while participants anticipated and reacted to 105 dB signaled or unsignaled white-noise b...

  17. Outcome of left heart mechanical valve replacement in West African children - A 15-year retrospective study

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    Tamatey Martin

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The West African sub-region has poor health infrastructure. Mechanical valve replacement in children from such regions raises important postoperative concerns; among these, valve-related morbidity and complications of lifelong anticoagulation are foremost. Little is known about the long-term outcome of mechanical valve replacement in West Africa. We sought to determine the outcome of mechanical valve replacement of the left heart in children from this sub-region. Method We conducted a retrospective review of all consecutive left heart valve replacements in children ( Results One hundred and fourteen patients underwent mitral valve replacement (MVR, aortic valve replacement (AVR or mitral and aortic valve replacements (MAVR. Their ages ranged from 6-18 years (13.3 ± 3.1 years. All patients were in NYHA class III or IV. Median follow up was 9.1 years. MVR was performed in 91 (79.8% patients, AVR in 13 (11.4% and MAVR in 10 (8.8% patients. Tricuspid valve repair was performed concomitantly in 45 (39.5% patients. There were 6 (5.3% early deaths and 6 (5.3% late deaths. Preoperative left ventricular dysfunction (ejection fraction Conclusion Mechanical valve replacement in West African children has excellent outcomes in terms of mortality, valve-related events, and reoperation rate. Preoperative left ventricular dysfunction is the primary determinant of mortality within the first 2 years of valve replacement. The risk of valve-related complications is acceptably low. Anticoagulation is well tolerated with a very low risk of bleeding even in this socioeconomic setting.

  18. MARKET RESEARCH OF CARE GOODS FOR NEWBORNS AND FIRST YEAR CHILDREN

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    A. I. Ovod

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Comparative results of marketing research of care goods for newborns and first year children conducted in 2009 and 2014 showed that there were changes in the range of products and consumer preferences. The analysis revealed that the economic situation affected the determinants of choice in this category of goods and the location of purchasing. The findings should be considered by pharmaceutical companies in their procurement in order to improve their competitive position. 

  19. The relationships between anthropometric and motor measurements with 13 years old children

    OpenAIRE

    Nehat Rrudhani

    2015-01-01

    Developmental psychology studies the changes that occur to human body with age, consisting of the human body, the way of thinking, emotions, behaviour, relationships and human behaviours throughout life. Physical development has to do with changes that occur only in the human body (height, weight, changes in different organs of the body etc.). The aim of this research is to conclude the main characteristics of physical and motor development of children aged 13 years old. During the period of ...

  20. Predicting Caregiver-Reported Behavior Problems in Cocaine-Exposed Children at 3 Years

    OpenAIRE

    Warner, Tamara Duckworth; BEHNKE, MARYLOU; Hou, Wei; Garvan, Cynthia Wilson; WOBIE, KATHLEEN; Eyler, Fonda Davis

    2006-01-01

    Predictors of caregiver-reported behavior problems for 3-year-olds with prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE) and matched controls were examined using structural equation modeling. We tested whether PCE had a direct effect on child behavior problems in a model that included other prenatal drug exposure, child sex, caregiver depression, and the quality of the child’s home environment. The sample (N = 256) was drawn from a longitudinal, prospective study of children of (predominantly crack) cocaine-u...

  1. Interdental Spacing and Dental Caries in the Primary Dentition of 4-6 Year Old Children

    OpenAIRE

    G. Babu Kl; Nagarathna, J; Subramaniam, P.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: There are various risk factors which play an essential role in the multifactorial disease “dental caries.” Although absence of interdental spaces in the primary dentition may increase the risk of dental caries, not many studies have been carried out to assess this correlation. This study was performed to assess the relationship between interdental spacing and dental caries in primary dentition.Materials and Methods: Five hundred 4-6 year-old children were enrolled into this study. ...

  2. Problems of radiotherapy on the brain tumors in children less than two years of age

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyagami, Mitsusuke; Tsubokawa, Takashi (Nihon Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine); Nishimoto, Hiroshi; Ueno, Yuhichi

    1990-06-01

    Impaired growth and mental or developmental disturbance due to radiotherapy for 10 cases of brain tumors in the children ages less than 2 years old were evaluated. Six cases of brain tumor which did not involve the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, were followed more than 2 years after cranial or craniospinal irradiation. Four cases irradiated greater than 2900 rad to the whole brain all revealed markedly lower body heights than -2 SD of the medium. Growth impairment was found to be progressive over time, and markedly evident after 2 years following cranial or craniospinal radiotherapy. Somatomedin C in the blood was measured in 8 cases of brain tumors in childhood receiving radiotherapy. The measurement of Somatomedin C showed markedly low values measuring 0.19 to 0.54 U/ml (medium; 0.36 U/ml) in children having lower body height than -2 SD. Mental retardation or developmental disturbances were found in IQ or DQ tests in all of 5 infants or children younger than 2 years with brain tumors who got radiotherapy over 2900 rad to the whole brain. A case of craniopharyngioma, which had 5400 rad for tumor localization at the hypothalamus-pituitary axis and showed markedly low height, was given growth hormone and grew to normal height without distinct side effects. It was suggested that radiotherapy for brain tumors in infants or children should have special care in deciding the dose, field and time of radiation. If low height due to radiotherapy results, growth hormone therapy should be used for its treatment in childhood. (author).

  3. Influence of training mini-basketball in the first year of training at the level of the physical health of children 6–7 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena Mitova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to analyze the contemporary state of early specialization in sport, to find out its positive and negative influence on children`s organism on the basis of scientific and methodological literature, and also to carry out the control of the level of the health of the children aged 6–7 years old before training and after the first year of playing mini-basketball. Material and Methods: the study involved 60 children aged 6–7 years old, 22 – girls and 38 – boys, who were engaged in a section of mini-basketball in Sports Children and Youth Olympic school №5 in Dnipropetrovsk during 2013/2014 used the following research methods: theoretical analysis and compilation of scientific and methodical literature and the Internet, the method of analysis of documentary materials, pedagogical supervision, monitoring physical health of rapid assessment Apanasenko (1992, the method of mathematical statistics. Results: there was defined the level of physical health (according to rapid assessment by Apanasenko (1992 of the children aged 6–7 years old before and after the first year of mini-basketball training. Conclusion: the results of our study confirm the experts opinion that nonsufficient level of the physical health of children aged 6–7 years old before going in for sport and insignificant increase in performance after the first year of playing mini-basketball is related not only to the deterioration of environmental and socio-economic conditions of modern society but also to significant deficiencies in the sports training of children of different ages, which no longer meets the requirements of the present time and needs to be improved

  4. The Minimum Halo Mass for Star Formation at z = 6 - 8

    CERN Document Server

    Finlator, K; Oppenheimer, B D; Davé, R; Zackrisson, E; Livermore, R C; Finkelstein, S L; Thompson, R; Huang, S

    2016-01-01

    Recent analysis of strongly-lensed sources in the Hubble Frontier Fields indicates that the rest-frame UV luminosity function of galaxies at $z=$6--8 rises as a power law down to $M_\\mathrm{UV}=-15$, and possibly as faint as -12.5. We use predictions from a cosmological radiation hydrodynamic simulation to map these luminosities onto physical space, constraining the minimum dark matter halo mass and stellar mass that the Frontier Fields probe. While previously-published theoretical studies have suggested or assumed that early star formation was suppressed in halos less massive than $10^9$--$10^{11} M_\\odot$, we find that recent observations demand vigorous star formation in halos at least as massive as (3.1, 5.6, 10.5)$\\times10^9 M_\\odot$ at $z=(6,7,8)$. Likewise, we find that Frontier Fields observations probe down to stellar masses of (8.1, 18, 32)$\\times10^6 M_\\odot$; that is, they are observing the likely progenitors of analogues to Local Group dwarfs such as Pegasus and M32. Our simulations yield somewha...

  5. Incidence of thyroid cancer among children of the Ukraine in 1996 as compared to previous post-Chernobyl years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1996 a high incidence rate of thyroid cancer has persisted in Ukraine among children aged under 15 years, which averaged, according to preliminary data, 0.44 case per 100 thousand children's population. The geographical distribution of thyroid cancer cases in children of Ukraine is mainly related, as in previous years, with the most affected regions following the Chernobyl accident. The highest incidence of thyroid cancer (over 80%) was observed in those patients who were aged under 5 years at the moment of the accident, being the most radiosensitive age group. Among thyroid tumors removed in 1996, as in previous years, papillary carcinomas prevail, which are characterized by marked invasive properties. (author)

  6. Guaifenesin Pharmacokinetics Following Single-Dose Oral Administration in Children Aged 2 to 17 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Gary A; Solomon, Gail; Albrecht, Helmut H; Reitberg, Donald P; Guenin, Eric

    2016-07-01

    This study characterized guaifenesin pharmacokinetics in children aged 2 to 17 years (n = 40) who received a single oral dose of guaifenesin (age-based doses of 100-400 mg) 2 hours after breakfast. Plasma samples were obtained before and for 8 hours after dosing and analyzed for guaifenesin using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated using noncompartmental methods, relationships with age were assessed using linear regression, and dose proportionality was assessed on 95% confidence intervals. Based on the upper dose recommended in the monograph (for both children and adolescents), area under the curve from time zero to infinity and maximum plasma concentration both increased with age. However, when comparing the upper dose for children aged 2 to 11 years with the lower dose for adolescents aged 12 to 17 years, similar systemic exposure was observed. As expected due to increasing body size, oral clearance (CLo ) and terminal volume of distribution (Vz /F) increased with age. Due to a larger increase in Vz /F than CLo , an increase in terminal exponential half-life was also observed. Allometric scaling indicated no maturation-related changes in CLo and Vz /F. PMID:26632082

  7. POLYGON - A NEW FUNDAMENTAL MOVEMENT SKILLS TEST FOR 8 YEAR OLD CHILDREN: CONSTRUCTION AND VALIDATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frane Zuvela

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Inadequately adopted fundamental movement skills (FMS in early childhood may have a negative impact on the motor performance in later life (Gallahue and Ozmun, 2005. The need for an efficient FMS testing in Physical Education was recognized. The aim of this paper was to construct and validate a new FMS test for 8 year old children. Ninety-five 8 year old children were used for the testing. A total of 24 new FMS tasks were constructed and only the best representatives of movement areas entered into the final test product - FMS-POLYGON. The ICC showed high values for all 24 tasks (0.83-0.97 and the factorial analysis revealed the best representatives of each movement area that entered the FMS-POLYGON: tossing and catching the volleyball against a wall, running across obstacles, carrying the medicine balls, and straight running. The ICC for the FMS-POLYGON showed a very high result (0.98 and, therefore, confirmed the test's intra-rater reliability. Concurrent validity was tested with the use of the "Test of Gross Motor Development" (TGMD-2. Correlation analysis between the newly constructed FMS-POLYGON and the TGMD-2 revealed the coefficient of -0.82 which indicates a high correlation. In conclusion, the new test for FMS assessment proved to be a reliable and valid instrument for 8 year old children. Application of this test in schools is justified and could play an important factor in physical education and sport practice.

  8. Validity of an Athletic Skills Track among 6- to 12-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeboer, Joris; De Vries, Sanne; Krijger-Hombergen, Michiel; Wormhoudt, René; Drent, Annelies; Krabben, Kay; Savelsbergh, Geert

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the feasibility and validity of an Athletic Skills Track (AST) to assess fundamental movement skills among 6- to 12-year-old children in a physical education setting. Four hundred sixty-three Dutch children (211 girls, 252 boys) completed three tests: the Körperkoordinationstest für Kinder (KTK) and two Athletic Skills Tracks (AST-1, AST-2). The validity of AST-1 and AST-2 was examined by correlating the time (s) needed to complete the tracks and the KTK Motor Quotient (MQ). Overall, there was a low correlation between AST-1 and the KTK MQ (r = -0.474 (P year-olds. The results indicate that fundamental movement skills of 6- to 12-year-old children can be assessed with a quick, convenient and low-cost motor competence test in a physical education setting, i.e., an Athletic Skills Track. Future studies should further assess the reliability, discriminative ability and validity of age-specific versions of the AST.

  9. Bone age assessment for young children from newborn to 7-year-old using carpal bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Aifeng; Gertych, Arkadiusz; Liu, Brent J.; Huang, H. K.

    2007-03-01

    A computer-aided-diagnosis (CAD) method has been previously developed based on features extracted from phalangeal regions of interest (ROI) in a digital hand atlas, which can assess bone age of children from ages 7 to 18 accurately. Therefore, in order to assess the bone age of children in younger ages, the inclusion of carpal bones is necessary. In this paper, we developed and implemented a knowledge-based method for fully automatic carpal bone segmentation and morphological feature analysis. Fuzzy classification was then used to assess the bone age based on the selected features. Last year, we presented carpal bone segmentation algorithm. This year, research works on procedures after carpal bone segmentation including carpal bone identification, feature analysis and fuzzy system for bone age assessment is presented. This method has been successfully applied on all cases in which carpal bones have not overlapped. CAD results of total about 205 cases from the digital hand atlas were evaluated against subject chronological age as well as readings of two radiologists. It was found that the carpal ROI provides reliable information in determining the bone age for young children from newborn to 7-year-old.

  10. Epistemology for Beginners: Two- to Five-Year-Old Children's Representation of Falsity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascaro, Olivier; Morin, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the ontogeny of human’s naive concept of truth. Surprisingly, children find it hard to treat assertions as false before their fifth birthday. Yet, we show in six studies (N = 140) that human’s concept of falsity develops early. Two-year-olds use truth-functional negation to exclude one term in an alternative (Study 1). Three-year-olds can evaluate discrepancies between the content of a representation and what it aims at representing (Study 2). They use this knowledge to treat beliefs and assertions as false (Study 3). Four-year-olds recognise the involutive nature of falsity ascriptions: they properly infer ‘p’ from ‘It is not true that “It is not true that “p””‘ (Study 4), an inference that rests on second-order representations of representations. Controls confirm that children do not merely equate being mistaken with failing to achieve one’s goal (Studies 5 and 6). These results demonstrate remarkable capacities to evaluate representations, and indicate that in the absence of formal training, young children develop the building blocks of a theory of truth and falsity—a naive epistemology. We suggest that children’s difficulties in discarding false assertions need not reflect any conceptual lacuna, and may originate from their being trustful. PMID:26484675

  11. A Study of the Views of Teachers of First Year Infant School Children Concerning the Effects on the Language and Socialisation of Children Who Have Previously Attended Playgroups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Sinclair; Wheeler, T. J.

    This paper reports the findings of a survey to determine the effects, if any, that experience in playgroups had upon children of varying social class backgrounds in differing areas within the United Kingdom. The project aimed at answering two major questions: (1) Did teachers perceive differences in first year infant school children that they…

  12. Effects of continuous and intermittent exercise on executive function in children aged 8-10 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambrick, Danielle; Stoner, Lee; Grigg, Rebecca; Faulkner, James

    2016-09-01

    Understanding the effects of acute exercise on executive function in prepubescent children may be important for the enhancement of school performance. This study assessed the effect of an acute bout of continuous (CONT) or intermittent (INT), moderate-intensity treadmill exercise on executive function in young children. Twenty healthy children, mean (SD); age: 8.8 (0.8) years; height: 140 (9) cm; weight: 36 (11) kg; boys: n = 9, performed a graded-exercise test to determine maximal oxygen uptake, and two 15-min submaximal bouts of treadmill exercise; protocols were either CONT or INT. During CONT, participants ran at 90% of gas exchange threshold. During INT, participants performed six consecutive 2.5 min blocks of exercise, which were designed to reflect children's typical activity patterns, comprising 45 s at a heavy intensity, 33 s at a moderate intensity, 10 s at a severe intensity, and 62 s at a low intensity. Participants performed the Stroop task before the submaximal exercise bouts and after, at 1-, 15-, and 30-min intervals. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) measured cerebral perfusion and oxygenation. Regardless of condition, Stroop performance was improved at 1 min after compared to before, 54.9 (9.8) s versus 57.9 (11) s, respectively, p Stroop performance for INT only (49%, p exercise, of either an intermittent or continuous nature, improves executive function in children, and effects are maintained for ≤ 30 min following exercise cessation. Accordingly, it is recommended that children should engage in physical activity during periods of school recess. PMID:27314635

  13. Neighbourhood physical activity environments and adiposity in children and mothers: a three-year longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giles-Corti Billie

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although neighbourhood environments are often blamed for contributing to rising levels of obesity, current evidence is based predominantly on cross-sectional samples. This study examined associations between objectively-measured environmental characteristics of neighbourhoods and adiposity cross-sectionally and longitudinally over three years in children and their female carers. Methods Longitudinal study of 140 5-6 year-old and 269 10-12 year-old children and their female carers (n = 369. At baseline (2001 and follow-up (2004, height and weight were measured among children and self-reported among female carers, and were used to compute BMI z-scores and BMI, respectively. A Geographic Information System determined access to destinations (public open spaces, sports options, walking/cycling tracks, road connectivity (density of cul-de-sacs and intersections, proportion of 4-way intersections, length of 'access' paths (overpasses, access lanes, throughways between buildings and traffic exposure (length of 'busy' and 'local' roads within 800 m and 2 km of home. Univariate and multivariable linear regression analyses examined associations between environmental characteristics and BMI/BMI z-scores at baseline and change in BMI/BMI z-scores over the three years. Results Cross-sectionally, BMI z-score was inversely associated with length (km of access paths within 800 m (b = -0.50 and 2 km (b = -0.16 among younger and number of sport/recreation public open spaces (b = -0.14 and length (km of 'access' paths (b = -0.94 within 800 m and length of local roads within 2 km (b = -0.01 among older children. Among female carers, BMI was associated with length (km of walking/cycling tracks (b = 0.17 and busy roads (b = -0.34 within 800 m. Longitudinally, the proportion of intersections that were 4-way (b = -0.01 within 800 m of home was negatively associated with change in BMI z-score among younger children, while length (km of access paths (b

  14. An 11-year retrospective review of venlafaxine ingestion in children from the California Poison Control System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doroudgar, S; Perry, P J; Lackey, G D; Veselova, N G; Chuang, H M; Albertson, T E

    2016-07-01

    Venlafaxine is commonly used in the United States for approved and non-Food and Drug Administration-approved indications in adults. It is used off-label to treat children for psychiatric diagnoses. The aim of the study was to describe venlafaxine toxicities in children and to identify the venlafaxine dose per weight that correlates with toxicities. An 11-year retrospective study of venlafaxine ingestion in children was performed using the California Poison Control System (CPCS) database. Data was extracted from phone calls received by CPCS clinicians and follow-up phone calls made to assess the patient's progress in a health-care setting. Inclusion criteria were venlafaxine ingestion cases reported to CPCS between January 2001 and December 2011, children aged 20 years and under, venlafaxine as the only ingested substance, managed in a health-care facility, and followed to a known outcome. Two hundred sixty-two cases met the study criteria. Common presentations included gastrointestinal (14.9%), altered mental status (13.7%), and tachycardia (13.4%). The majority of the cases resulted in no effect (51.5%) or minor effect (19.9%). The average estimated dose per weight was 18.3 mg/kg in all patients and 64.5 mg/kg in those experiencing moderate-to-severe adverse effects. Seizures occurred in only 4 of the 262 cases at doses ranging from 1500 to 7500 mg. Although the estimated dose per weight exceeded 10 mg/kg for the majority of the cases, only 12 cases resulted in moderate or severe outcomes. The majority of venlafaxine ingestion cases in children resulted in either no clinical effects or minor clinical effects. PMID:26351291

  15. Manual control age and sex differences in 4 to 11 year old children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Flatters

    Full Text Available To what degree does being male or female influence the development of manual skills in pre-pubescent children? This question is important because of the emphasis placed on developing important new manual skills during this period of a child's education (e.g. writing, drawing, using computers. We investigated age and sex-differences in the ability of 422 children to control a handheld stylus. A task battery deployed using tablet PC technology presented interactive visual targets on a computer screen whilst simultaneously recording participant's objective kinematic responses, via their interactions with the on-screen stimuli using the handheld stylus. The battery required children use the stylus to: (i make a series of aiming movements, (ii trace a series of abstract shapes and (iii track a moving object. The tasks were not familiar to the children, allowing measurement of a general ability that might be meaningfully labelled 'manual control', whilst minimising culturally determined differences in experience (as much as possible. A reliable interaction between sex and age was found on the aiming task, with girls' movement times being faster than boys in younger age groups (e.g. 4-5 years but with this pattern reversing in older children (10-11 years. The improved performance in older boys on the aiming task is consistent with prior evidence of a male advantage for gross-motor aiming tasks, which begins to emerge during adolescence. A small but reliable sex difference was found in tracing skill, with girls showing a slightly higher level of performance than boys irrespective of age. There were no reliable sex differences between boys and girls on the tracking task. Overall, the findings suggest that prepubescent girls are more likely to have superior manual control abilities for performing novel tasks. However, these small population differences do not suggest that the sexes require different educational support whilst developing their manual

  16. Vaccination Coverage Among Children in Kindergarten - United States, 2014-15 School Year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seither, Ranee; Calhoun, Kayla; Knighton, Cynthia L; Mellerson, Jenelle; Meador, Seth; Tippins, Ashley; Greby, Stacie M; Dietz, Vance

    2015-08-28

    State and local jurisdictions require children to be vaccinated before starting school to maintain high vaccination coverage and protect schoolchildren from vaccine-preventable diseases. State vaccination requirements, which include school vaccination and exemption laws and health department regulations, permit medical exemptions for students with a medical contraindication to receiving a vaccine or vaccine component and may allow nonmedical exemptions for religious reasons or philosophic beliefs. To monitor state and national vaccination coverage and exemption levels among children attending kindergarten, CDC analyzes school vaccination data collected by federally funded state, local, and territorial immunization programs. This report describes vaccination coverage estimates in 49 states and the District of Columbia (DC) and vaccination exemption estimates in 46 states and DC that reported the number of children with at least one exemption among kindergartners during the 2014-15 school year. Median vaccination coverage* was 94.0% for 2 doses of measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine; 94.2% for the local requirements for diphtheria, tetanus, and acellular pertussis vaccine (DTaP); and 93.6% for 2 doses of varicella vaccine among the 39 states and DC with a 2-dose requirement. The median percentage of any exemptions† was 1.7%. Although statewide vaccination coverage among kindergartners was high during the 2014-15 school year, geographic pockets of low vaccination coverage and high exemption levels can place children at risk for vaccine-preventable diseases. Appropriate school vaccination coverage assessments can help immunization programs identify clusters of low coverage and develop partnerships with schools and communities to ensure that children are protected from vaccine-preventable diseases. PMID:26313471

  17. Vaccination Coverage Among Children in Kindergarten - United States, 2014-15 School Year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seither, Ranee; Calhoun, Kayla; Knighton, Cynthia L; Mellerson, Jenelle; Meador, Seth; Tippins, Ashley; Greby, Stacie M; Dietz, Vance

    2015-08-28

    State and local jurisdictions require children to be vaccinated before starting school to maintain high vaccination coverage and protect schoolchildren from vaccine-preventable diseases. State vaccination requirements, which include school vaccination and exemption laws and health department regulations, permit medical exemptions for students with a medical contraindication to receiving a vaccine or vaccine component and may allow nonmedical exemptions for religious reasons or philosophic beliefs. To monitor state and national vaccination coverage and exemption levels among children attending kindergarten, CDC analyzes school vaccination data collected by federally funded state, local, and territorial immunization programs. This report describes vaccination coverage estimates in 49 states and the District of Columbia (DC) and vaccination exemption estimates in 46 states and DC that reported the number of children with at least one exemption among kindergartners during the 2014-15 school year. Median vaccination coverage* was 94.0% for 2 doses of measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine; 94.2% for the local requirements for diphtheria, tetanus, and acellular pertussis vaccine (DTaP); and 93.6% for 2 doses of varicella vaccine among the 39 states and DC with a 2-dose requirement. The median percentage of any exemptions† was 1.7%. Although statewide vaccination coverage among kindergartners was high during the 2014-15 school year, geographic pockets of low vaccination coverage and high exemption levels can place children at risk for vaccine-preventable diseases. Appropriate school vaccination coverage assessments can help immunization programs identify clusters of low coverage and develop partnerships with schools and communities to ensure that children are protected from vaccine-preventable diseases.

  18. Clinical manifestations of atopy in children up to two years of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilić Nevenka

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Atopic diseases such as atopic dermatitis, allergic rhinitis and asthma have had increased prevalence during the past decade and nowadays occur in every third child in developed countries. The aim of the study was to determine frequency and type of atopic diseases at the age of two, as well as the importance the total IgE antibodies concentrations have in diagnosis and prognosis of the disease. Methods. The study involved 175 children up to two years of age. Allergy-like symptoms were found after surveying their parents and pediatric medical records. Using the fluorescence immunossay (FIA method, total IgE antibodies concentrations and specific IgE antibodies (Phadiatop infant were determined on an Immunocap 100 Dyagnostic System. Results. One or more allergy-like symptoms accounted for 57.7% of findings in children under the age of two, whilst in 19.4% the existence of IgE-related allergic diseases was found. Atopic diseases usually have clinical manifestations of atopic dermatitis (11.4%, IgE-bound wheezing/asthma (10.8% and food allergies (7.4%, and to much lesser extent those of allergic rhinitis (3.4% and urticaria (1.7%. The significantly higher total IgE antibodies concentrations were found in children with allergy-like symptoms (p < 0.0005 (cut-off 15.15 kU/L, sensitivity 76.5% specificity 71.6%. Conclusion. Almost 20% of two-year-old children have any of clinically manifested allergic diseases, with atopic dermatitis and IgE wheeze/asthma being predominant. The higher total IgE antibodies concentration is a good marker for sensitization in children with allergy-like symptoms.

  19. Behaviour at eight years in children with surgically corrected transposition: The Boston Circulatory Arrest Trial*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellinger, David C.; Newburger, Jane W.; Wypij, David; Kuban, Karl C. K.; duPlesssis, Adre J.; Rappaport, Leonard A.

    2016-01-01

    Uncertainty exists regarding the degree to which infants with congenitally malformed hearts are at risk of behavioural disorders in childhood. Data was collected as part of a randomized clinical trial involving 155 children with surgically corrected transposition (concordant atrioventricular and ventriculo-arterial connections or alignments). As infants, they underwent the arterial switch operation, involving deep hypothermia with predominantly total circulatory arrest or predominantly low-flow continuous cardiopulmonary bypass as the method of providing support to the vital organs. Parents completed the Child Behavior Checklist when the patients were aged 4 and 8 years, and the Connors’ Parent Rating Scale at the age of 8 years. When the children were aged 8, teachers completed the Teacher’s Report Form and the Connors’ Teacher Rating Scale. In the cohort as a whole, the frequencies of behavioural problems identified by both parents and teachers were elevated, particularly on the scales for competence of the Child Behavior Checklist, and the Adaptive scales of the Teacher’s Report Form. Approximately 1 in 5 patients had scores for Total Problem Behavior in the range of clinical concern on both the Child Behavior Checklist and the Teacher’s Report Form. Few differences were found, however, according to the method of operative treatment. Postoperative seizures were associated with social and attention problems. Children experiencing academic problems at the age of 8 showed a larger increase in behavioural problems between the ages of 4 and 8 than did children making adequate academic progress. Children with congenitally malformed hearts who underwent reparative surgery in infancy using a strategy of severe haemodilution and alpha stat are at increased risk of behavioural problems in middle childhood. PMID:19079812

  20. Caries prevalence and enamel defects in 5- and 10-year-old children with cleft lip and/or palate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundell, Anna Lena; Nilsson, Anna-Karin; Ullbro, Christer;

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of dental caries and enamel defects in 5- and 10-year-old Swedish children with cleft lip and/or palate (CL(P)) in comparison to non-cleft controls. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study group consisted of 139 children with CL(P) (80 subjects aged 5 years and 59...... prevalence of enamel defects was found in CL(P) children of both age groups and anterior permanent teeth were most commonly affected. CONCLUSIONS: Preschool children with cleft lip and/or palate seem to have more caries in the primary dentition than age-matched non-cleft controls. Enamel defects were more...

  1. Prevalence of anemia in children 1 to 12 years of age: results from a nationwide probabilistic survey in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Villalpando Salvador

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the epidemiology and analyze factors associated with iron deficiency anemia in a probabilistic sample of the Encuesta Nacional de Nutrición 1999 (ENN-99 [National Nutritional Survey 1999 (NNS-99]. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The sample included 8 111 children aged 1 to 12 years, and was nationaly representative by rural and urban strata and by four geographical regions. Capillary hemoglobin was measured using a portable photometer (HemoCue. The analysis of the determining factors of anemia was performed by odds ratios derived from a logistic regression model and multiple regression models. RESULTS: The prevalence of anemia was 50% in infants <2 years of age, with no significant differences between urban and rural strata or among regions. It varied between 14 and 22% in 6-11 year-old children and was higher in the South region and among the indigenous children. Dietary intake of iron was 50% of the recommended daily allowance in children <2 years of age, but not in older children. Phytate (»500-800 mg/d and tannin (»19 mg/d intakes were very high in children over 7 years of age. Hemoglobin was positively associated with nutritional status of children (p=0.01, socioeconomic status (p range 0.05-0.001, duration of lactation in children under 2 years of age (p=0.1, and iron and calcium intake (p=0.02, but not with folic acid or vitamin B12 intake. Hemoglobin was negatively associated with maternal education (p=0.01 in older children, but not in those under 2 years of age. CONCLUSIONS: We present evidence of an alarming national epidemic of anemia, particularly marked in children 12 to 24 months of age. The control of anemia should be considered as an urgent national concern given its grave consequences on the physical and mental development of these children and on their long-term health.

  2. Age and gender dependent development of Theory of Mind in 6- to 8-years old children

    OpenAIRE

    Cecilia Ines Calero; Mariano Sigman

    2013-01-01

    The ability to attribute different mental states to distinct individuals, or Theory of Mind (ToM), is widely believed to be developed mostly during preschool years. How different factors such as gender, number of siblings, or coarse personality traits affect this development is not entirely agreed upon. Here, we introduce a computerized version of the scaled ToM suite of tasks introduced by Wellman and Liu (2004), which allows us to meaningfully test ToM development on children 6 to 8-years o...

  3. Making of didactic toys with two- to four-year-old children

    OpenAIRE

    Vojnović, Sanja

    2015-01-01

    Diploma thesis Making of didactic toys with 2- to 4-year-old children is composed of theoretical and empirical part. In the theoretical part I presented general principles of child development and developmental characteristics of 2- to 4-year-olds. I defined the notion and type of play and toys plus presented their role in kindergarten. I also touched upon the significance of play in child development and the most common factors that affect child's play. At the end of theoretical part I inclu...

  4. Auditory Temporal Structure Processing in Dyslexia: Processing of Prosodic Phrase Boundaries Is Not Impaired in Children with Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiser, Eveline; Kjelgaard, Margaret; Christodoulou, Joanna A.; Cyr, Abigail; Gabrieli, John D. E.

    2014-01-01

    Reading disability in children with dyslexia has been proposed to reflect impairment in auditory timing perception. We investigated one aspect of timing perception--"temporal grouping"--as present in prosodic phrase boundaries of natural speech, in age-matched groups of children, ages 6-8 years, with and without dyslexia. Prosodic phrase…

  5. Global causes of diarrheal disease mortality in children <5 years of age: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio F Lanata

    Full Text Available Estimation of pathogen-specific causes of child diarrhea deaths is needed to guide vaccine development and other prevention strategies. We did a systematic review of articles published between 1990 and 2011 reporting at least one of 13 pathogens in children <5 years of age hospitalized with diarrhea. We included 2011 rotavirus data from the Rotavirus Surveillance Network coordinated by WHO. We excluded studies conducted during diarrhea outbreaks that did not discriminate between inpatient and outpatient cases, reporting nosocomial infections, those conducted in special populations, not done with adequate methods, and rotavirus studies in countries where the rotavirus vaccine was used. Age-adjusted median proportions for each pathogen were calculated and applied to 712 000 deaths due to diarrhea in children under 5 years for 2011, assuming that those observed among children hospitalized for diarrhea represent those causing child diarrhea deaths. 163 articles and WHO studies done in 31 countries were selected representing 286 inpatient studies. Studies seeking only one pathogen found higher proportions for some pathogens than studies seeking multiple pathogens (e.g. 39% rotavirus in 180 single-pathogen studies vs. 20% in 24 studies with 5-13 pathogens, p<0.0001. The percentage of episodes for which no pathogen could be identified was estimated to be 34%; the total of all age-adjusted percentages for pathogens and no-pathogen cases was 138%. Adjusting all proportions, including unknowns, to add to 100%, we estimated that rotavirus caused 197 000 [Uncertainty range (UR 110 000-295 000], enteropathogenic E. coli 79 000 (UR 31 000-146 000, calicivirus 71 000 (UR 39 000-113 000, and enterotoxigenic E. coli 42 000 (UR 20 000-76 000 deaths. Rotavirus, calicivirus, enteropathogenic and enterotoxigenic E. coli cause more than half of all diarrheal deaths in children <5 years in the world.

  6. [Weight concerns and dieting among 8 to 12-year-old children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Uwe; Schilke, Carolin; Strauss, Bernhard

    2005-07-01

    According to a recent study it could be shown that more than one third of female high school students and more than 20 % of male students in the age of 14 to 18 years indicated an impaired eating behaviour, expressed as a medium or high risk to develop eating disorders based upon the standardized Eating Attitudes Test (EAT) . The current study tested the prevalence of weight concerns and dieting as an indicator of problematic eating behaviour among younger children. 230 Thuringian female and male students in the 3 (rd) and 4 (th) year (between 8 and 12-years-old) as well as their parents were investigated using standardized and modified instruments. Weight and height were measured directly to determine the Body Mass Index (BMI) that was put into relation to some factors of potential influence such as parents, peers, media and eating behaviours. It could be shown that 42 % of the boys and 53 % of the girls preferred a thin ideal body image; 32 % of the children revealing normal weight expressed the wish to be thinner. 18 % of the boys and 19 % of the girls tried to lose weight at the time of the investigation. Dieting was influenced by the perceived (not actual) dieting behaviour of the parents. The BMI significantly predicted weight concerns: In total, 85 % of the overweight children but also 17 % of the children with normal weight were convinced to be overweight. The girls' eating behaviour was mostly influenced by the peers, the boys' behaviour by criticism of the parents. Generally, a significant influence of the media could be demonstrated. PMID:15986283

  7. Global strategy for the diagnosis and management of asthma in children 5 years and younger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Soren Erik; Hurd, Suzanne S; Lemanske, Robert F; Becker, Allan; Zar, Heather J; Sly, Peter D; Soto-Quiroz, Manuel; Wong, Gary; Bateman, Eric D

    2011-01-01

    Asthma is the most common chronic disease of childhood and the leading cause of childhood morbidity from chronic disease as measured by school absences, emergency department visits, and hospitalisation. During the past two decades, many scientific advances have improved our understanding of asthma and our ability to manage and control it effectively. However, in children 5 years and younger, the clinical symptoms of asthma are variable and non-specific. Furthermore, neither airflow limitation nor airway inflammation, the main pathologic hallmarks of the condition, can be assessed routinely in this age group. For this reason, to aid in the diagnosis of asthma in young children, a symptoms-only descriptive approach that includes the definition of various wheezing phenotypes has been recommended. In 1993, the Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) was implemented to develop a network of individuals, organizations, and public health officials to disseminate information about the care of patients with asthma while at the same time assuring a mechanism to incorporate the results of scientific investigations into asthma care. Since then, GINA has developed and regularly revised a Global Strategy for Asthma Management and Prevention. Publications based on the Global Strategy for Asthma Management and Prevention have been translated into many different languages to promote international collaboration and dissemination of information. In this report, Global Strategy for Asthma Management and Prevention in Children 5 Years and Younger, an effort has been made to present the special challenges that must be taken into account in managing asthma in children during the first 5 years of life, including difficulties with diagnosis, the efficacy and safety of drugs and drug delivery systems, and the lack of data on new therapies. Approaches to these issues will vary among populations in the world based on socioeconomic conditions, genetic diversity, cultural beliefs, and differences in

  8. Assessment of motor coordination and dexterity of six years old children: A psychometric analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olívia Souza Agostini

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Motor coordination of six-year-old children was examined using the Assessment of Motor Coordination and Dexterity, AMCD (Avaliação da Coordenação e Destreza Motora - ACOORDEM, in order to verify test-retest reliability and investigate whether motor performance is influenced by gender, type of school and residence location. Eighty-five children were evaluated, and their parents and teachers completed questionnaires. For test-retest reliability, the AMCD was repeated with 10 children. Mann-Whitney and chi-square tests identified significant influence of sex, type of school and residence location in just a few of the test items. The test-retest reliability was moderate in the items performance, and good to excellent in the majority of the questionnaires' items. We conclude that some items should be revised and normative tables for the identification of motor delay could be created considering only the age variable. Future studies should continue the process of validating the AMCD instrument with the assessment of younger children.

  9. Diarrhea Prevalence, Care, and Risk Factors Among Poor Children Under 5 Years of Age in Mesoamerica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombara, Danny V; Hernández, Bernardo; McNellan, Claire R; Desai, Sima S; Gagnier, Marielle C; Haakenstad, Annie; Johanns, Casey; Palmisano, Erin B; Ríos-Zertuche, Diego; Schaefer, Alexandra; Zúñiga-Brenes, Paola; Zyznieuski, Nicholas; Iriarte, Emma; Mokdad, Ali H

    2016-03-01

    Care practices and risk factors for diarrhea among impoverished communities across Mesoamerica are unknown. Using Salud Mesoamérica Initiative baseline data, collected 2011-2013, we assessed the prevalence of diarrhea, adherence to evidence-based treatment guidelines, and potential diarrhea correlates in poor and indigenous communities across Mesoamerica. This study surveyed 14,500 children under 5 years of age in poor areas of El Salvador, Guatemala, Mexico (Chiapas State), Nicaragua, and Panama. We compared diarrhea prevalence and treatment modalities using χ(2) tests and used multivariable Poisson regression models to calculate adjusted risk ratios (aRRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for potential correlates of diarrhea. The 2-week point prevalence of diarrhea was 13% overall, with significant differences between countries (P < 0.05). Approximately one-third of diarrheal children were given oral rehydration solution and less than 3% were given zinc. Approximately 18% were given much less to drink than usual or nothing to drink at all. Antimotility medication was given to 17% of diarrheal children, while antibiotics were inappropriately given to 36%. In a multivariable regression model, compared with children 0-5 months, those 6-23 months had a 49% increased risk for diarrhea (aRR = 1.49, 95% CI = 1.15, 1.95). Our results call for programs to examine and remedy low adherence to evidence-based treatment guidelines. PMID:26787152

  10. Teething and nutritional condition in children between 5 and 13 years.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clotilde de la Caridad Mora Pérez

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: During last decades it has become increasingly evident the importance of nutritional factors in the development and renovation of buccal tissues, particularly of teeth. Objective: To characterize permanent teething and its relation with nutritional factors in children between 5 and 13 years. Methods: Cross-sectional descriptive, observational study developed in a universe formed by 1003 children of Health Area II in Cienfuegos, out of which a sample of 330 children was selected. Data was collected from schools, regarding the teething age and nutritional status. Ponder and measurements were carried out. Results: The average teething age was lower for girls in both maxillary bones; teething sequence was 6,1,2,4,5,3,7 for the maxilla and 6,1,2,3,4,5,7 for the inferior maxillary bone. There was a prevalence of normal weight among girls, followed by thin and undernourished values. Among boy, there was a prevalence of obesity, overweight and normal weight in that order. Nutritional statuses of thin and undernourished were related with a delayed teething, mainly in the inferior maxillary bone. Permanent teething was delayed with regard to the national media. Conclusion: A clear relation was established between teething age and nutrition, mainly among thin and undernourished children.

  11. Epidemiology of invasive pneumococcal disease in Saudi Arabian children younger than 5years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almazrou, Yagob; Shibl, Atef M; Alkhlaif, Riyadh; Pirçon, Jean-Yves; Anis, Sameh; Kandeil, Walid; Hausdorff, William P

    2016-06-01

    This study evaluated the incidence, serotype distribution, and antimicrobial susceptibility of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in Saudi Arabian children. This multicenter, prospective, clinical surveillance study included children under 5years of age, residents of one of the seven study health areas, who were brought to a study hospital with suspicion of IPD. Bacterial isolates from sterile site samples, collected less than 24h after hospital visit/admission, were identified, serotyped, and tested for antibiotic susceptibility. Between June 2007 and January 2009, 631 episodes of suspected IPD were recorded, and 623 were included in the analysis. One child (0.2%) had previously received one dose of a pneumococcal vaccine. Forty-seven episodes were positive for Streptococcus pneumoniae and three for Haemophilus influenzae. The incidence of confirmed IPD cases was estimated to be 2.5-21.6 per 100,000 children (Vaccination of Saudi Arabian children with expanded-coverage conjugate pneumococcal vaccines containing serotypes 1 and 5 could have a substantial impact to prevent IPD in this population. PMID:26368823

  12. Improving executive function in childhood: evaluation of a training intervention for 5-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traverso, Laura; Viterbori, Paola; Usai, Maria Carmen

    2015-01-01

    Executive function (EF) refers to a set of higher order cognitive processes that control and modulate cognition under continuously changing and multiple task demands. EF plays a central role in early childhood, is associated and predictive of important cognitive achievements and has been recognized as a significant aspect of school readiness. This study examines the efficacy of a group based intervention for 5-year-old children that focuses on basic components of EF (working memory, inhibitory control, cognitive flexibility). The intervention included 12 sessions, lasted 1 month and used low-cost materials. Seventy-five children took part in the study. The results indicate that the children who attended the intervention outperformed controls in simple and more complex EF tasks. Specifically, these children exhibited increased abilities to delay gratification, to control on-going responses, to process and update information, and to manage high cognitive conflict. These results suggest the possibility that this intervention, which may be easily implemented in educational services, can promote EF during preschool period before the entrance in primary school.

  13. Ten years of work in Cuban Program to children from areas affected of Chernobyl accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In April of 2000 the Cuban program for specialised medical attention to children from areas affected by the radioactive contamination from the Chernobyl accident completed 10 years of work. In the program had been assisted more than 18 000 children and adults, among them 50 Brazilians related with the Goiania accident. A group of medical procedures and dosimetric, biomedical and psychological investigations have been carried out in the program. The main significant medical attention activities are the treatment of haematological disorders, among them, 120 leukaemia, the realisation of bone marrow transplants and the treatment of endocrinological and neoplasic illnesses. The dosimetric studies has allowed to create a database that accumulates information about internal contamination for 137Cs, internal, external, and total doses, of 7000 children. The analysis of the behaviour of all the medical information that is generated in the program in function of the contamination of the land and of the internal contamination of the children is also performed. The program has accumulated an experience of interest for physicians, psychologists and radiological emergencies experts.(author)

  14. Sugar consumption pattern of 13-year-old school children in Belgaum city, Karnataka

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    Hegde P

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine the sugar consumption pattern of the school children in Belgaum city and to organize for a diet-counseling program. Easy availability of sugar containing food and high consumption of these sweets if continued unabated, the dental caries among children would become a major public health problem. In this instance, Dietary counseling can be just appropriate to inhibit the carious process. 342 school children aged 13 years, from four schools in Belgaum city participated in the study. The pattern of sugar consumption was assessed using a 4-day diet diary. Analysis was done according to the method described by Nizel and Papas (Nutrition in clinical dentistry, 1989, 277 and the variables were: the sweet score, At meal sugar exposure (AMSE, Between meal sugar exposure (BMSE and Total sugar exposure (TSE. The mean, standard deviation and/or frequency were calculated for all variables. Student′s t-test was used to statistically analyze the gender difference. The mean + SD of the recorded variables were: sweet score 31 + 12.78/day, AMSE 0.88 + 0.33/day, BMSE 3.95 + 0.87/day, and TSE 4.83 + 0.96/day. No statistical significant gender difference with respect to the variables was observed. ′Tell Show And Do′ Diet counseling session will perhaps have a greater impact as compared to the most common strategy of simply exhorting the children to eat less sugar.

  15. The Age Peculiarities of 10 to 12 Year-Old School-children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. B. Badmayeva

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the problem of children’s development transformation from the standpoints of different authors. The changes in the age borders and childhood structure along with their causes are demonstrated. The childhood crisis is described, its place in the child’s development process identified. The author emphasizes the visible discord between the worlds of adults and children: being less involved in upbringing process nowadays, adults appear to be less exact in their attitude to children; their demands lack clearness and specificity. Both teachers and adults demonstrate helplessness and aloofness, which reflects in children’s consciousness and their attitude to adults, and results in the lost sense of responsibility, infantilism, egoism and moral emptiness of growing generation. The author carried out the comparative analysis of age peculiarities of middle class schoolchildren from comprehensive school. Three development stages were singled out for 10 to 12 year-olds: local caprices, rights understanding, and affirmative functional stage. The personality formation trends concerning the modern day school children are outlined, the external and internal factors determining this formation enumerated. The following influencing phenomena are mentioned, in particular: the essential socio-economic changes, fast spreading of mass-media and computer technologies, low level of parental motivation, replacement of the value-normative system (social anomie etc. The necessity of creating socio-pedagogic conditions relating to the age peculiarities of modern school children is substantiated. 

  16. The Age Peculiarities of 10 to 12 Year-Old School-children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. B. Badmayeva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the problem of children’s development transformation from the standpoints of different authors. The changes in the age borders and childhood structure along with their causes are demonstrated. The childhood crisis is described, its place in the child’s development process identified. The author emphasizes the visible discord between the worlds of adults and children: being less involved in upbringing process nowadays, adults appear to be less exact in their attitude to children; their demands lack clearness and specificity. Both teachers and adults demonstrate helplessness and aloofness, which reflects in children’s consciousness and their attitude to adults, and results in the lost sense of responsibility, infantilism, egoism and moral emptiness of growing generation. The author carried out the comparative analysis of age peculiarities of middle class schoolchildren from comprehensive school. Three development stages were singled out for 10 to 12 year-olds: local caprices, rights understanding, and affirmative functional stage. The personality formation trends concerning the modern day school children are outlined, the external and internal factors determining this formation enumerated. The following influencing phenomena are mentioned, in particular: the essential socio-economic changes, fast spreading of mass-media and computer technologies, low level of parental motivation, replacement of the value-normative system (social anomie etc. The necessity of creating socio-pedagogic conditions relating to the age peculiarities of modern school children is substantiated. 

  17. Improving executive function in childhood: evaluation of a training intervention for 5-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traverso, Laura; Viterbori, Paola; Usai, Maria Carmen

    2015-01-01

    Executive function (EF) refers to a set of higher order cognitive processes that control and modulate cognition under continuously changing and multiple task demands. EF plays a central role in early childhood, is associated and predictive of important cognitive achievements and has been recognized as a significant aspect of school readiness. This study examines the efficacy of a group based intervention for 5-year-old children that focuses on basic components of EF (working memory, inhibitory control, cognitive flexibility). The intervention included 12 sessions, lasted 1 month and used low-cost materials. Seventy-five children took part in the study. The results indicate that the children who attended the intervention outperformed controls in simple and more complex EF tasks. Specifically, these children exhibited increased abilities to delay gratification, to control on-going responses, to process and update information, and to manage high cognitive conflict. These results suggest the possibility that this intervention, which may be easily implemented in educational services, can promote EF during preschool period before the entrance in primary school. PMID:25983706

  18. Improving Executive Function in childhood: Evaluation of a training intervention for 5- year-old children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura eTraverso

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Executive function (EF refers to a set of higher order cognitive processes that control and modulate cognition under continuously changing and multiple task demands. EF plays a central role in early childhood, is associated and predictive of important cognitive achievements and has been recognized as a significant aspect of school readiness. This study examines the efficacy of a group based intervention for five-year-old children that focuses on basic components of EF (working memory, inhibitory control, cognitive flexibility. The intervention included 12 sessions, lasted one month and used low-cost materials. Seventy-five children took part in the study. The results indicate that the children who attended the intervention outperformed controls in simple and more complex EF tasks. Specifically, these children exhibited increased abilities to delay gratification, to control on-going responses, to process and update information and to manage high cognitive conflict. These results suggest the possibility that this intervention, which may be easily implemented in educational services, can promote EF during preschool period before the entrance in primary school.

  19. ASSESSMENT OF ORAL HYGIENE HABITS IN CHILDREN 6 TO 12 YEARS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliya Doichinova

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Oral hygiene is an essential element of health education programs for schoolchildren. AIM: The study aims to assess the skills when conducting oral hygiene of a group of schoolchildren and to conduct training in its rules. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study covers 30 children aged 6-12 years. The training was conducted by the methods of the visual pedagogy and implementation of the technique “Say, show, do”. The assessment of the oral-hygiene status was held by the simplified oral hygiene index-Greene & Vermillion. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The children do not have proper oral hygiene habits. The daily oral care is inadequate. The number of cleaned tooth surfaces during oral hygiene practice is small. Children have no developed proper oral hygiene skills, and brush only the vestibular surfaces of the teeth (80%, 13.3% the vestibular and the occlusal, and 6.7% only cover lingual surfaces too. The unsatisfactory oral hygiene status is also a result of using only one type of toothbrush movements. The improvement of children's health knowledge should play key role in correcting their oral hygiene technique.

  20. Safety of probiotics and synbiotics in children under 18 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Nieuwboer, M; Brummer, R J; Guarner, F; Morelli, L; Cabana, M; Claassen, E

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to systematically evaluate safety of probiotics and synbiotics in children ageing 0-18 years. This study is the third and final part in a safety trilogy and an update is provided using the most recent available clinical data (2008-2013) by means of the Common Terminology Clinical Adverse Events (CTCAE version 4.0) classification. Safety aspects are represented and related to number of participants per probiotic strain/culture, study duration, dosage, clinical condition and selected afflictions. Analysis of 74 clinical studies indicated that probiotic and/or synbiotic administration in children is safe with regard to the specific evaluated strains, dosages and duration. The population of children include healthy, immune compromised and obese subjects, as well as subjects with intestinal disorders, infections and inflammatory disorders. This study revealed no major safety concerns, as the adverse events (AEs) were unrelated, or not suspected to be related, to the probiotic or synbiotic product. In general the study products were well tolerated. Overall, AEs occurred more frequent in the control arm compared to children receiving probiotics and/or synbiotics. Furthermore, the results indicate inadequate reporting and classification of AEs in the majority of the studies. In addition, generalizability of conclusions are greatly limited by the inconsistent, imprecise and potentially incomplete reporting as well as the variation in probiotic strains, dosages, administration regimes, study populations and reported outcomes.