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Sample records for children 6-8 years

  1. Associations between indoor environmental factors and parental-reported autistic spectrum disorders in children 6-8 years of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsson, Malin; Weiss, Bernard; Janson, Staffan

    2009-01-01

    ). The 2005 survey, based on the same children, now 6-8 years of age, also asked if, during the intervening period, the child had been diagnosed with Autism, Asperger's syndrome, or Tourette's syndrome. From a total of 4779 eligible children, 72 (60 boys, 12 girls) were identified with parentally reported...

  2. Comorbidity and correlates of disruptive mood dysregulation disorder in 6-8-year-old children with ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulraney, Melissa; Schilpzand, Elizabeth J; Hazell, Philip; Nicholson, Jan M; Anderson, Vicki; Efron, Daryl; Silk, Timothy J; Sciberras, Emma

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to characterize the nature and impact of disruptive mood dysregulation disorder (DMDD) in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) including its co-occurrence with other comorbidities and its independent influence on daily functioning. Children with ADHD (6-8 years) were recruited through 43 Melbourne schools, using a 2-stage screening (parent and teacher Conners 3 ADHD index) and case-confirmation (Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children, Version IV; [DISC-IV]) procedure. Proxy DMDD diagnosis was confirmed via items from the oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and major depressive disorder modules of the DISC-IV. Outcome domains included comorbid mental health disorders, academic functioning, social functioning, child and family quality of life, parent mental health, and parenting behaviors. Unadjusted and adjusted linear and logistic regression were used to compare children with comorbid ADHD and DMDD and children with ADHD without DMDD. Thirty-nine out of 179 children (21.8 %) with ADHD had comorbid DMDD. Children with ADHD and DMDD had a high prevalence of ODD (89.7 %) and any anxiety disorder (41.0 %). Children with ADHD and DMDD had poorer self-control and elevated bullying behaviors than children with ADHD without DMDD. Children with ADHD and DMDD were similar to children with ADHD in the other domains measured when taking into account other comorbidities including ODD. One in five children with ADHD in their second year of formal schooling met criteria for DMDD. There was a very high diagnostic overlap with ODD; however, the use of a proxy DMDD diagnosis containing items from the ODD module of the DISC-IV may have artificially inflated the comorbidity rates. DMDD added to the burden of ADHD particularly in the area of social functioning.

  3. Associations between indoor environmental factors and parental-reported autistic spectrum disorders in children 6-8 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Malin; Weiss, Bernard; Janson, Staffan; Sundell, Jan; Bornehag, Carl-Gustav

    2009-09-01

    Potential contributions of environmental chemicals and conditions to the etiology of Autism Spectrum Disorders are the subject of considerable current research and speculation. The present paper describes the results of a study undertaken as part of a larger project devoted to the connection between properties of the indoor environment and asthma and allergy in young Swedish children. The larger project, The Dampness in Buildings and Health (DBH) Study, began in the year 2000 with a questionnaire distributed to parents of all children 1-6 years of age in one Swedish county (DBH-I). A second, follow-up questionnaire (DBH-III) was distributed in 2005. The original survey collected information about the child, the family situation, practices such as smoking, allergic symptoms, type of residence, moisture-related problems, and type of flooring material, which included polyvinyl chloride (PVC). The 2005 survey, based on the same children, now 6-8 years of age, also asked if, during the intervening period, the child had been diagnosed with Autism, Asperger's syndrome, or Tourette's syndrome. From a total of 4779 eligible children, 72 (60 boys, 12 girls) were identified with parentally reported autism spectrum disorder. A random sample of 10 such families confirmed that the diagnoses had been made by medical professionals, in accordance with the Swedish system for monitoring children's health. An analysis of the associations between indoor environmental variables in 2000 as well as other background factors and the ASD diagnosis indicated five statistically significant variables: (1) maternal smoking; (2) male sex; (3) economic problems in the family; (4) condensation on windows, a proxy for low ventilation rate in the home; (5) PVC flooring, especially in the parents' bedroom. In addition, airway symptoms of wheezing and physician-diagnosed asthma in the baseline investigation (2000) were associated with ASD 5 years later. Results from the second phase of the DBH

  4. Relationship between Executive Functioning and Symptoms of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Autism Spectrum Disorder in 6-8 Year Old Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neely, Rachel Jane; Green, Jessica Leigh; Sciberras, Emma; Hazell, Philip; Anderson, Vicki

    2016-01-01

    This study examined relationships between executive functioning (EF) and ADHD/ASD symptoms in 339 6-8 year-old children to characterise EF profiles associated with ADHD and ADHD + ASD. ADHD status was assessed using screening surveys and diagnostic interviews. ASD symptoms were measured using the Social Communication Questionnaire, and children…

  5. Eating behaviour is associated with eating frequency and food consumption in 6-8 year-old children: The Physical Activity and Nutrition in Children (PANIC) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalkanen, H; Lindi, V; Schwab, U; Kiiskinen, S; Venäläinen, T; Karhunen, L; Lakka, T A; Eloranta, A M

    2017-03-15

    The association between eating behaviour and dietary factors has been studied narrowly in children. Therefore, we investigated whether eating frequency and food consumption are influenced by eating behaviour in a population sample of 406 children aged 6-8 years. We assessed features of eating behaviour by the Children's Eating Behaviour Questionnaire and dietary factors by a 4-day food record. The results showed that enjoyment of food was directly associated with a number of main meals (p = 0.041) and consumption of vegetables (p = 0.041), cheese (p = 0.005), and meat (p = 0.002). Food responsiveness was directly associated with consumption of fruit and berries (p = 0.013) and meat (p = 0.016). Desire to drink was directly associated with consumption of fat-containing milk (p = 0.002) and inversely associated with consumption of skimmed milk (p = 0.001). Food fussiness was inversely associated with a number of main meals (p = 0.013) and consumption of vegetables (p consumption of vegetables (p = 0.031), cheese (p = 0.010), and meat (p consumption of candies and chocolate (p = 0.026). Slowness in eating was inversely associated with consumption of meat (p = 0.018). Where sex differences existed the associations tended to be observed mostly in girls but not in boys. Our study shows that enjoyment of food and food responsiveness are directly associated with consumption of protein-rich foods and vegetables, fruit and berries, whereas food fussiness and satiety responsiveness are inversely associated with consumption of these foods. Assessment of eating behaviour can help in identifying children with various dietary needs.

  6. Peripheral bone mineral density and different intensities of physical activity in children 6-8 years old: the Copenhagen School Child Intervention study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasselstrøm, H; Karlsson, K M; Hansen, S E

    2007-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the association between objectively measured habitual physical activity and calcaneal and forearm bone mineral density (BMD, g/cm(2)), one mechanically more loaded and one less loaded skeletal region, in children aged 6-8 years. BMD was measured in 297 boys and 265...... girls by peripheral dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in the forearm and calcaneus. An accelerometer registered the level of physical activity during 4 days (2 weekdays and the weekend). Weight, height, and skinfold thickness were measured. In order to establish thresholds (count . min(-1)) for bone......-stimulating physical activity, we evaluated different definitions of vigorous physical activity. The boys had 3.2% higher distal forearm bone mineral content (BMC, P physical activity and spent 14.6-19.0% more...

  7. Evaluation of retention of pit and fissure sealants placed with and without air abrasion pretreatment in 6-8 year old children – An in vivo study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Mridula

    2017-01-01

    Background The success of pit and fissure sealants is directly related to their retention. The purpose of this study was to assess and compare the retention of pit and fissure sealants placed using acid etch alone and a combination of air abrasion and acid etch techniques. Material and Methods 50 subjects aged 6-8 years were included in the study. Primary second molars and permanent first molars were sealed in all four quadrants using split mouth design. The right maxillary and mandibular molars (Group A) were treated by acid etching alone while the left maxillary and mandibular molars (Group B) were pretreated with air abrasion followed by acid etching before application of pit and fissure sealant. Retention of sealants was checked using Simonsen’s criteria of sealant retention after three and six months of sealant application. Results There was no significant difference in retention of sealants in Group A and Group B (p0.05). Maxillary molars showed superior retention compared to mandibular molars, which was statistically significant at both three and six months (p<0.05). Conclusions Combining air abrasion pretreatment with subsequent acid etching did not result in statistically significant difference in sealant retention compared to acid etching alone in both primary and permanent molars after 3 and 6 months follow up. An additional air abrasion pretreatment step can be avoided in pediatric patients when placing sealants and the procedure can be completed faster with better behavior management using acid etching alone. Key words:Pit and fissure sealant, acid etching, air abrasion. PMID:28210438

  8. Analysis of specialist opinions about the problem of selection in the game of football for children 6-8 years of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin BRÎNDESCU

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The general trend worldwide is a pronounced decrease in the age at which sport performance begins. An early debut in the performance sport requires an early specialization and hence special efforts of the athlete, not just physical (the body has the ability to regenerate, but also of a mental nature. In this study I wanted to obtain the experts opinions on the main aspects of selection for the age studied, namely: selection criteria, methods of encouragement, stimulation and improvement, the overall state of the selection phenomenon organized for children of small age. Sports training professionals appreciate that the future belongs to technicians and athletes able to create new patterns, superior to those present, favoring the creation of highly efficient motor structures in order to obtain success in sports.

  9. Analysis of specialist opinions about the problem of selection in the game of football for children 6-8 years of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin Brîndescu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The general trend worldwide is a pronounced decrease in the age at which sport performance begins. An early debut in the performance sport requires an early specialization and hence special efforts of the athlete, not just physical (the body has the ability to regenerate, but also of a mental nature. In this study I wanted to obtain the experts opinions on the main aspects of selection for the age studied, namely: selection criteria, methods of encouragement, stimulation and improvement, the overall state of the selection phenomenon organized for children of small age. Sports training professionals appreciate that the future belongs to technicians and athletes able to create new patterns, superior to those present, favoring the creation of highly efficient motor structures in order to obtain success in sports.

  10. Associations among different orofacial dysfunctions in 6-8 year olds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laine, M T; Pahkala, R H; Jaroma, S M; Qvarnström, M J

    1992-11-01

    Associations among several orofacial dysfunctions such as articulatory speech disorders, craniomandibular disorders (CMD) and problems in coordinating the orofacial muscles were examined in two groups of Finnish first-graders, i.e. children with and without speech disorders. In the whole sample of 287 subjects the mean age was 7.5 yr. A speech therapist diagnosed articulatory speech disorders and a phoniatrician examined the morphology and function of the articulators. Signs and symptoms of CMD, capacity for mandibular movement, and prevalence of occlusal interferences were examined by a dentist. Deviations in motor skills, but not in morphology of the articulators, were associated with speech disorders. The findings also suggested that capacity for mandibular movement, deviation of the jaw during maximal mouth opening and occlusal interferences were related to certain speech disorders among these 6-8 yr olds. Different orofacial dysfunctions appear to be associated with each other during growth.

  11. Influence of the training loading on the program paralympic junior sport school on the indexes of physical qualities of young tennis players 6-8 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loboda V.S.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Influence of the training loading is considered on the program paralympic junior sport school on the indexes of physical qualities of young tennis players 6-8 years. The aim of experiment was an exposure of dynamics of development of motive internalss of young tennis players during three years (6-8 years under the influence of the training loading on the program of children sport school. In experiment took part the group of initial preparation in an amount 25 children (boys. Research was conducted within the framework of the operative (employments, current (mezocycle and stage (annual planning of training process.

  12. Long-term validity of biological markers of psychopathy and criminal recidivism: follow-up 6-8 years after forensic psychiatric investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stalenheim, E Gunilla

    2004-01-01

    This study is a follow-up investigation of a forensic psychiatric sub-population 6-8 years after forensic psychiatric evaluation. The aim was to examine the long-term validity of biological markers of psychopathy and antisocial behavior over time. Data on criminal records were obtained at follow-up from the National Council for Crime Prevention. Basic data included findings of psychiatric and psychological assessments, as well as values for serum triiodothyronine (T3) and free thyroxin (FT4), and platelet monoamine oxidase (MAO) activity, all obtained during the forensic psychiatric examination. Criminal recidivists at follow-up had higher serum T3 levels than non-recidivists, and much higher values than normal controls, while their levels of free T4 were lower. The T3 levels in criminal recidivists correlated to psychopathy- and aggression-related personality traits as measured by the Karolinska Scale of Personality. In violent recidivists, a remarkably high correlation was noted between T3 levels and Irritability and Detachment, traits that have previously been linked to the dopaminergic system. Stepwise multiple regression analyses confirmed the relationships of T3 levels and platelet MAO activity with personality traits in criminal recidivists. The predictive validity of biological markers of psychopathy, T3 and platelet MAO, measured during forensic psychiatric investigation, is stable over time. The results indicate chronic alterations of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis in this group of subjects.

  13. Seven years of postseismic deformation following the 2003 Mw = 6.8 Zemmouri earthquake (Algeria) from InSAR time series

    KAUST Repository

    Cetin, Esra

    2012-05-28

    We study the postseismic surface deformation of the Mw 6.8, 2003 Zemmouri earthquake (northern Algeria) using the Multi-Temporal Small Baseline InSAR technique. InSAR time series obtained from 31 Envisat ASAR images from 2003 to 2010 reveal sub-cm coastline ground movements between Cap Matifou and Dellys. Two regions display subsidence at a maximum rate of 2 mm/yr in Cap Djenet and 3.5 mm/yr in Boumerdes. These regions correlate well with areas of maximum coseismic uplifts, and their association with two rupture segments. Inverse modeling suggest that subsidence in the areas of high coseismic uplift can be explained by afterslip on shallow sections (<5 km) of the fault above the areas of coseismic slip, in agreement with previous GPS observations. The earthquake impact on soft sediments and the ground water table southwest of the earthquake area, characterizes ground deformation of non-tectonic origin. The cumulative postseismic moment due to 7 years afterslip is equivalent to an Mw 6.3 earthquake. Therefore, the postseismic deformation and stress buildup has significant implications on the earthquake cycle models and recurrence intervals of large earthquakes in the Algiers area.

  14. Percutaneous Ethanol Sclerotherapy of Symptomatic Nodules Is Effective and Safe in Pregnant Women: A Study of 13 Patients with an Average Follow-Up of 6.8 Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamas Solymosi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Because of the increased risk of surgery, thyroid nodules causing compression signs and/or hyperthyroidism are concerning during pregnancy. Patients and Methods. Six patients with nontoxic cystic, four with nontoxic solid, and three with overt hyperthyroidism caused by toxic nodules were treated with percutaneous ethanol injection therapy (PEI. An average of 0.68 mL ethanol per 1 mL nodule volume was administered. Mean number of PEI treatments for patients was 2.9. Success was defined as the shrinkage of the nodule by more than 50% of the pretreatment volume (V0 and the normalization of TSH and FT4 levels. The average V0 was 15.3 mL. Short-term success was measured prior to labor, whereas long-term success was determined during the final follow-up (an average of 6.8 years. Results. The pressure symptoms decreased in all but one patient after PEI and did not worsen until delivery. The PEI was successful in 11 (85% and 7 (54% patients at short-term and long-term follow-up, respectively. Three patients underwent repeat PEI which was successful in 2 patients. Conclusions. PEI is a safe tool and seems to have good short-term results in treating selected symptomatic pregnant patients. Long-term success may require repeat PEI.

  15. 激素治疗6.8年后的心血管疾病结局心脏与雌/孕激素替代治疗研究随访(HERSⅡ)%Cardiovascular Disease Outcomes During 6.8 Years of Hormone Therapy Heart and Estrogen/Progestin Replacement Study Follow-up (HERS Ⅱ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Deborah Grady; Steven Khan; L.Kristin Newby; David Waters; Eric Vittinghoff; Nanette Wenger; David Herrington; Vera Bittner; Roger Blumenthal; Michael Davidson; Mark Hlatky; Judith Hsia; Stephen Hulley; Alan Herd

    2003-01-01

    素组妇女较低的冠心病事件率,在进一步随诊期间,并未持续存在.在6.8年后,激素治疗并不能降低冠心病妇女心血管病事件的风险.绝经后激素治疗不应用于降低冠心病妇女发生冠心病事件的危险.

  16. An epidemiological investigation on dental caries of children aged 6-8 in Huzhou%湖州市6~8岁儿童龋患流行病学调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王进涛; 钟良军; 史芳川; 张琼; 张蕾

    2013-01-01

    Objective To understand the caries prevalence of children aged from 6 to 8 years in Huzhou,and to provide reference for children's dental care.Methods A stratified multi-stage randomly sampling design was applied.According to the criteria recommended by the WHO and The Third National Oral Health Investigation,520 primary school children aged from 6 to 8years were clinically examined.The mean dmft and the prevalence of dental caries were calculated.Results The prevalence of dental caries and mean dmft score 520 subjects were 72.52% and 3.35 respectively.The prevalence of dental caries and mean dmft of children aged 7-8 higher than that of ones aged 6-7,there were statistically significant difference(P<0.05).There was no significant difference of caries prevalence between male and female(P>0.05).The prevalence of dental caries were 79.27% and 66.42% in rural area and city area,and the mean dmft score were 3.78 and 2.95.The prevalence of dental caries and mean dmft score in rural area were significantly higher than that in city area(P<0.05).The prevalence of dental caries and mean dmft in deciduous teeth were statistically significant difference in different age groups(P<0.05).However,there were no significant difference in permanent teeth (P>0.05).Conclusion The caries prevalence of children in Huzhou is not optimistic.Oral cavity health education should be pay attention.The preventive measure of dental caries should be enhanced to lower the caries of children.%目的 了解湖州市6~8岁儿童龋齿的患病情况,为积极制定儿童口腔保健方案提供参考.方法 采用多阶段分层随机抽样方法,根据世界卫生组织“口腔健康调查基本方法”和国家卫生部“第三次全国口腔健康流行病学调查方案”,对湖州市520名儿童患龋率和龋均等指标进行统计分析.结果 520例受检者的患龋率和龋均分别为72.52%和3.35.7~8岁组儿童患龋率和龋均高于6~7岁组,差异

  17. Epileptiform activity in the electroencephalogram of 6-year-old children of women with epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Unnikrishnan Krishnan Syam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To study the epileptiform discharges (EDs in the electroencephalogram (EEG of 6-8-year-old children of women with epilepsy (WWE. Materials and Methods: All children born to women with epilepsy and prospectively followed up through the Kerala Registry of Epilepsy and Pregnancy (KREP, aged 6-8 years, were invited (n = 532. Out of the 254 children who responded, clinical evaluations and a 30-min digital 18 channel EEG were completed in 185 children. Results: Of the 185 children examined, 37 (20% children (19 males, 18 females had ED in their EEG. The EDs were generalized in 7 children, and focal in 30 children. The EDs were present in the sleep record only of 16 (43% children and in the awake record only of 6 (16% children. Out of the 94 children for whom seizure history was available, 7 children (7.4% had seizures (neonatal seizures: 4, febrile seizure: 1, and single nonfebrile seizure: 2 and none had history of epilepsy or recurrent nonfebrile seizures. The odds ratio (OR for occurrence of ED in the EEG was significantly higher for children of WWE [OR = 3.5, 95% confidence interval (CI 2.3-6.0] when compared to the published data for age-matched children of mothers without epilepsy. There was no association between the occurrence of ED and the children′s maternal characteristics [epilepsy syndrome, seizures during pregnancy, maternal intelligence quotient (IQ] or the children′s characteristics [antenatal exposure to specific antiepileptic drugs (AEDs, birth weight, malformations, IQ]. Conclusion: Children of WWE have a higher risk of epileptiform activity in their EEG when compared to healthy children in the community though none had recurrent seizures.

  18. Disabled Children Face Bullying Throughout School Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/news/fullstory_162772.html Disabled Children Face Bullying Throughout School Years More must be done to ... 29, 2016 WEDNESDAY, Dec. 28, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Bullying is a problem that affects almost all students ...

  19. The association between malaria parasitaemia, erythrocyte polymorphisms, malnutrition and anaemia in children less than 10 years in Senegal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tine, Roger C K; Ndiaye, Magatte; Hansson, Helle Holm;

    2012-01-01

    -talassaemia.RESULTS:Three hundred and fifty two children 5 years (aOR=0.03, 95%CI0.01-0.08]). Stratified by age group, anaemia was significantly associated with stunting in children less than 5 years (aOR=3.1 95%CI1.4 -- 6.8]), with, sickle cell disorders (aOR=3.5 95%CI 1.4 -- 9.0]), alpha-thalassemia (or=2.4 95%CI1...

  20. Chinese children's respiratory diseases in 60 years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIN Qiang; SHEN Kun-ling

    2009-01-01

    @@ This year marks the 60th anniversary of the founding of the People's Republic of China. On this occasion, it is worthy to recall the past and look towards the future in order to do a better job in research and control of children's respiratory diseases.

  1. Hearing screenings on children under three years at risk of hearing impairment.

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    Marcelino Lizano Rabelo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of newborn hearing screenings on infants under three years at risk of hearing impairment at Paediatric Hospital of Sancti Spíritus¸on from 2008 to 2010. All children at risk of hearing impairment were tested by an auditory brainstem response (ABR for the positive diagnosis of hearing impairment. Results: Over the period, 398 infants were screened, among whom 36 (8,98% were diagnosed as deaf or hard of hearing. twenty seven children (6,8% had a sensorineural hearing impairment, The most important risk factors for sensorineural hearing loss were: severe birth asphyxia; mechanic ventilation, and antibiotics.Conclusion: Our hearing screening on infants at risk allowed 36 children diagnosed as hearing impairment, all of then received early management.

  2. 44 CFR 6.8 - Subpoena and other legal demands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... other legal demands. Access to records in systems of records by subpoena or other legal process shall be... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Subpoena and other legal demands. 6.8 Section 6.8 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT...

  3. Feeding patterns and diet -- children 6 months to 2 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000713.htm Feeding patterns and diet - children 6 months to 2 ... development Can help prevent childhood obesity Alternative names Feeding children 6 months to 2 years; Diet - age ...

  4. Similarity Predicts Liking in 3-Year-Old Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fawcett, Christine A.; Markson, Lori

    2010-01-01

    Two studies examined the influence of similarity on 3-year-old children's initial liking of their peers. Children were presented with pairs of childlike puppets who were either similar or dissimilar to them on a specified dimension and then were asked to choose one of the puppets to play with as a measure of liking. Children selected the puppet…

  5. Tooth brushing skills for the children aged 3-11 years

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    Das U

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The objective of this study was to evaluate tooth brushing management and ability of children in relation to age and gender. Materials and Methods: The study population consisted of 45 children, who attended Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry at V.S Dental College and Hospital Bangalore. Children were divided into three groups according to age: Group I: 3-5 years, Group II: 6-8 years, and Group III: 9-11 years. Each child selected his/her favorite toothbrush and brushed his/her teeth under supervision of one instructor. The grip type during tooth brushing was recorded on a videotape and duration of tooth brushing also was noted. The data were analyzed in relation to the age and gender using the chi-square test. ANOVA was used to find if there is any significant difference between the mean brushing times in the different groups. Results: The results of statistical analysis showed that in all cases P> 0.05 for grip preferences and P < 0.001 between age groups 3-5 years and 9-11 years with respect to the mean brushing time. Conclusion: The required manual dexterity for tooth brushing was present in younger age groups.

  6. Military Children from Birth to Five Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osofsky, Joy D.; Chartrand, Molinda M.

    2013-01-01

    Because most research on military families has focused on children who are old enough to go to school, we know the least about the youngest and perhaps most vulnerable children in these families. Some of what we do know, however, is worrisome--for example, multiple deployments, which many families have experienced during the wars in Iraq and…

  7. Children's Diurnal Cortisol Activity during the First Year of School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Pei-Jung; Lamb, Michael E.; Kappler, Gregor; Ahnert, Lieselotte

    2017-01-01

    The present study examined 4- to 5-year-old British children's diurnal cortisol activity during their first year of school. The children's cortisol was measured before enrollment (baseline), upon enrollment, and both 3 and 6 months after enrollment. On each day, cortisol was sampled four times, providing information about the diurnal amount of…

  8. Basic Facts about Low-Income Children: Children 12 through 17 Years, 2013. Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yang; Ekono, Mercedes; Skinner, Curtis

    2015-01-01

    Children under 18 years represent 23 percent of the population, but they comprise 33 percent of all people in poverty. Among all children, 44 percent live in low-income families and approximately one in every five (22 percent) live in poor families. Among our oldest children--adolescents age 12 through 17 years--41 percent live in low-income…

  9. Basic Facts about Low-Income Children: Children 6 through 11 Years, 2013. Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yang; Ekono, Mercedes; Skinner, Curtis

    2015-01-01

    Children under 18 years represent 23 percent of the population, but they comprise 33 percent of all people in poverty. Among all children, 44 percent live in low-income families and approximately one in every five (22 percent) live in poor families. Similarly, among children in middle childhood (age 6 through 11 years), 45 percent live in…

  10. Basic Facts about Low-Income Children: Children under 3 Years, 2013. Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yang; Ekono, Mercedes; Skinner, Curtis

    2015-01-01

    Children under 18 years represent 23 percent of the population, but they comprise 33 percent of all people in poverty. Among all children, 44 percent live in low-income families and approximately one in every five (22 percent) live in poor families. Our very youngest children--infants and toddlers under age 3 years--appear to be particularly…

  11. Basic Facts about Low-Income Children: Children under 6 Years, 2013. Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yang; Ekono, Mercedes; Skinner, Curtis

    2015-01-01

    Children under 18 years represent 23 percent of the population, but they comprise 33 percent of all people in poverty. Among all children, 44 percent live in low-income families and approximately one in every five (22 percent) live in poor families. Young children under age 6 years appear to be particularly vulnerable, with 48 percent living in…

  12. Data analysis & probability drill sheets : grades 6-8

    CERN Document Server

    Forest, Chris

    2011-01-01

    For grades 6-8, our Common Core State Standards-based resource meets the data analysis & probability concepts addressed by the NCTM standards and encourages your students to review the concepts in unique ways. Each drill sheet contains warm-up and timed drill activities for the student to practice data analysis & probability concepts.

  13. The People of South Asia [Grades 6-8].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, George; And Others

    A resource book for grades 6-8 contains materials to enrich a unit on South Asia. Material is divided into 13 sections. Sections 1-4 outline the rationale, goals, and objectives of the unit. Emphasis is placed on providing background for the understanding of South Asian cultural groups in the United States. Ten objectives are listed, including the…

  14. COMPUTER EYE SYNDROME IN CHILDREN AGED 3 TO 6 YEARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krasina P. Valcheva

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To detect visual disturbances, major symptoms and relationship between them in children between the ages of 3 and 6 years, who spend some time in front of a computer. Material/Methods: In the present study 2823 children attending 23 kindergartens in the city of Pleven, were given inquiry cards. Those with completed questionnaires were examined for visual acuity and convergence. In cases with low vision the children were invited for a detailed eye examination in the Eye Clinic at the University Hospital "Dr George Stranski" - Pleven. Results: A total of 2332 children responded and were examined (1174 girls and 1158 boys. The age of children is from 3 to 6 years. We found 303 children with subjective complaints in a close work, 163 with low vision and 18 with impaired convergence. Regarding the duration of stay in front of a computer – 159 children stay over 3 hours a day in front of video display, 1228 children spend about 1 hour a day in front of a computer and 945 children do not play on a computer. Conclusion: Nowadays more and more children use computers for recreational purposes at home. From our study it became clear that preschool children overuse their stay in front of computer.

  15. Parents' Perspectives: Children's Use of Technology in the Early Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formby, Susie

    2014-01-01

    Technology is playing an increasingly large role in children's reading, writing and daily lives. In the last year use of tablet computers by five to 15-year-olds has increased three-fold (14% to 42%) and 28% of three to four-year-olds use a tablet computer. However, little attention has been paid to the impact of new technologies on children's…

  16. Geometry task & drill sheets : grades 6-8

    CERN Document Server

    Rosenberg, Mary

    2011-01-01

    For grades 6-8, our Common Core State Standards-based combined resource meets the geometry concepts addressed by the NCTM standards and encourages the students to review the concepts in unique ways. The task sheets introduce the mathematical concepts to the students around a central problem taken from real-life experiences, while the drill sheets provide warm-up and timed practice questions for the students to strengthen their procedural proficiency skills.

  17. Risk factors for obesity in 6 to 12-year-old children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy Japutra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background The causes of obesity in children are multifactorial, including genetics, physiology, metabolism, psychology, socioeconomic status, lifestyle, and culture. Objective To assess for relationships between obesity in 6 to 12-year-old children and maternal nutritional status, maternal education, eating breakfast, eating fast food, physical activity, TV watching, and playing video games. Methods This case-control study included students of Sejahtera Public School aged 6 to 12 years. Questionnaires were distributed to their parents for data on maternal education, eating breakfast, eating fast food, physical activity, TV watching and playing video games. Maternal nutritional status was assessed by one of the researchers. Univariate analysis with Chi–square test was used to assess every risk factor. Those with a P value of <0.25 were subjected to multivariate analysis, performed using multiple logistic regression analysis. Results From June to July 2013, 60 obese children and 60 well-nourished children, as a control group, were enrolled in the study. Obese mothers tended to have obese children [odds ratio/OR 252.48; 95%CI 33.4 to 1908.4]. Children who ate fast food 6–8 times/week, had low physical activity, and watched TV more than 8 hours/week had significantly higher risk for obesity [OR 12.94, 95%CI 1.7 to 100.7; and OR 266.94, 95% CI 7.8 to 9137.7; OR 21.44, 95%CI 2.68 to 171.61; respectively]. Maternal education, eating breakfast, and playing video games were not significant risk factors for childhood obesity. Conclusion Maternal obesity, eating fast food 6-8 times per week, low physical activity and watching TV more than 8 hours/week are risk factors for childhood obesity. [Paediatr Indones. 2015;55:35-9.].

  18. Risk factors for obesity in 6 to 12-year-old children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy Japutra

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background The causes of obesity in children are multifactorial, including genetics, physiology, metabolism, psychology, socioeconomic status, lifestyle, and culture. Objective To assess for relationships between obesity in 6 to 12-year-old children and maternal nutritional status, maternal education, eating breakfast, eating fast food, physical activity, TV watching, and playing video games. Methods This case-control study included students of Sejahtera Public School aged 6 to 12 years. Questionnaires were distributed to their parents for data on maternal education, eating breakfast, eating fast food, physical activity, TV watching and playing video games. Maternal nutritional status was assessed by one of the researchers. Univariate analysis with Chi–square test was used to assess every risk factor. Those with a P value of <0.25 were subjected to multivariate analysis, performed using multiple logistic regression analysis. Results From June to July 2013, 60 obese children and 60 wellnourished children, as a control group, were enrolled in the study. Obese mothers tended to have obese children [odds ratio/OR 252.48; 95%CI 33.4 to 1908.4]. Children who ate fast food 6–8 times/week, had low physical activity, and watched TV more than 8 hours/week had significantly higher risk for obesity [OR 12.94, 95%CI 1.7 to 100.7; and OR 266.94, 95% CI 7.8 to 9137.7; OR 21.44, 95%CI 2.68 to 171.61; respectively]. Maternal education, eating breakfast, and playing video games were not significant risk factors for childhood obesity. Conclusion Maternal obesity, eating fast food 6-8 times per week, low physical activity and watching TV more than 8 hours/ week are risk factors for childhood obesity.

  19. 36 CFR 6.8 - National Park Service solid waste responsibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL SITES IN UNITS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 6.8 National Park Service solid waste responsibilities. (a) Beginning one year after January 23, 1995, a Superintendent will not permit or allow a person to dispose of solid waste at a National Park Service...

  20. Investigating Early Years Teachers' Understanding and Response to Children's Preconceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kambouri, Maria

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on young children's scientific preconceptions and discusses teachers' identification of these preconceptions when teaching science in the early years, on which research is still limited. This paper is based on the theoretical framework of constructivism and it defines preconceptions as children's erroneous concepts prior to…

  1. Media use by children younger than 2 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ari

    2011-11-01

    In 1999, the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) issued a policy statement addressing media use in children. The purpose of that statement was to educate parents about the effects that media--both the amount and the content--may have on children. In one part of that statement, the AAP recommended that "pediatricians should urge parents to avoid television viewing for children under the age of two years." The wording of the policy specifically discouraged media use in this age group, although it is frequently misquoted by media outlets as no media exposure in this age group. The AAP believed that there were significantly more potential negative effects of media than positive ones for this age group and, thus, advised families to thoughtfully consider media use for infants. This policy statement reaffirms the 1999 statement with respect to media use in infants and children younger than 2 years and provides updated research findings to support it. This statement addresses (1) the lack of evidence supporting educational or developmental benefits for media use by children younger than 2 years, (2) the potential adverse health and developmental effects of media use by children younger than 2 years, and (3) adverse effects of parental media use (background media) on children younger than 2 years.

  2. Persistent renal cortical scintigram defects in children 2 years after urinary tract infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ditchfield, Michael R.; Cook, David J.; Campo, John F. de [Department of Radiology, Royal Children' s Hospital, 3052, Parkville, Victoria (Australia); Grimwood, Keith [Department of General Paediatrics, Royal Children' s Hospital, 3052, Parkville, Victoria (Australia); Department of Paediatrics, University of Melbourne, Melbourne (Australia); Powell, Harley R.; Gulati, Sanjeev [Department of Nephrology, Royal Children' s Hospital, 3052, Parkville, Victoria (Australia); Sloane, Robert [Department of General Paediatrics, Royal Children' s Hospital, 3052, Parkville, Victoria (Australia)

    2004-06-01

    Background: Renal cortical scintigraphic studies challenge the role of vesicoureteric reflux in renal scar development, emphasizing instead the part played by acute pyelonephritis. Objective: To determine the prevalence of renal cortical defects in a child cohort 2 years after the child's first diagnosed urinary tract infection and to analyze the relationship of these defects with acute illness variables, primary vesicoureteric reflux and recurrent infections. Materials and methods: In a prospective cohort study, 193 children younger than 5 years with their first proven urinary tract infection underwent renal sonography, voiding cystourethrogram, and renal cortical scintigraphy within 15 days of diagnosis. Two years later, 150 of the 193 children, or 77.7%, had a further renal cortical scintigram, including 75, or 86.2%, of the 87 children who had acute scintigraphic defects. The relationship of cortical defects to age, gender, pre-treatment symptom duration, hospitalization, presence and grade of vesicoureteric reflux, and recurrent urinary tract infections was evaluated. Results: Overall, 20 of the 150 (13.3%; 95% confidence interval (CI) 8.3, 19.8) children had persistent defects 2 years after infection. This included 20 of 75 (26.7%; 95% CI 17.1, 38.1) with initially abnormal scintigrams. No new defects were detected. Although acute defects were more common in the young, those with persistent defects were older (median ages 16.4 vs. 6.8 months, P=0.004) than those with transient abnormalities. After adjustment for age, persistent defects were no longer associated with gender and were not predicted by acute illness variables, primary vesicoureteric reflux or recurrent infections. (orig.)

  3. Fecal Calprotectin in Healthy Children Aged 1-4 Years.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingling Zhu

    Full Text Available Calprotectin has been well emulated recently in adults as well as in children. The aim of this study was to assess fecal calprotectin concentrations in healthy children aged from 1 to 4 years.Volunteers were enlisted from 3 nurseries. A brief questionnaire was used to ensure these children meet the inclusion criteria, and some clinical and sociodemographic factors were collected. Anthro software (version 3.1 was used to calculated Length-for-age Z-scores (LAZ, weight-for-age Z-scores (WAZ, and weight-for-length Z-scores (WLZ respectively. Fecal calprotectin was detected by a commercially available ELISA.In total 274 children were recruited, with age ranging from 1 to 4 years old. The median FC concentration was 83.19 μg/g [range 4.58 to 702.50 μg/g, interquartile range (IQR 14.69-419.45 μg/g] or 1.92 log10 μg/g (range 0.66 log10 to 2.85 log10 μg/g, IQR 1.17 log10-2.62 log10 μg/g. All of the children were divided into three groups, 1-2 years (12-24 months, 2-3 years (24-36 months, 3-4 years (36-48 months, with median FC concentrations 96.14 μg/g (1.98 log10 μg/g, 81.48 μg/g (1.91 log10 μg/g, 65.36 μg/g (1.82 log10 μg/g, respectively. There was similar FC level between boys and girls. FC concentrations showed a downward trend by the growing age groups. A statistic difference was found in FC concentrations among groups 1-2 years, 2-3 years and 3-4 years (P = 0.016. In inter-groups comparison, a significant difference was found between children aged 1-2 years and children aged 3-4 years (P = 0.007. A negative correlation trend was found between age and FC concentration (Spearman's rho = -0.167, P = 0.005 in all the participants. A simple correlation was performed among WLZ, WAZ, birth weight, or birth length with FC, and there was no correlation being observed.Children aged from 1 to 4 years old have lower FC concentrations compared with healthy infants (<1years, and higher FC concentrations when comparing with children older than 4

  4. AMBULATORY CARE - SENSITIVE CONDITIONS IN CHILDREN UNDER FIVE YEARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Aparecida Araújo Figueiredo

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective:analyzethe extent to which the incidence rate of primary care sensitivehospitalizations in children under five years is influenced by the percentage of coverage of theprimary care.Methods:This was a cross-sectional ecological study that combines coverage ofprimary careand theambulatorycare-sensitiveconditionsin 2000 and 2010. We used data from theHospital Information System (HIS and the Information System of Primary Care (SIAB.Results:The data revealed that the increased coverage providedprimary carereductionrateofhospitalization diseases studied. In 2000 the reduction was greater for gastroenteritis (51% inchildren under 01 years and 30% in children 01-04 years in 2010 for respiratory diseases (51% inchildren under 01years and 33% in children aged 01-04 years.Conclusion:we found an association between the coverage ofprimary careand admission rates, however seem to affect othervariables, suggesting the need for further studies.

  5. Antipsychotic Prescriptions for Children Aged 5 Years or Younger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lòpez-De Fede

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of antipsychotics in very young children is of concern given the lack of empirical evidence in their efficacy and long-term impact on children’s health. This study examined the prescription of antipsychotics among children aged ≤5 years enrolled in a state Medicaid program. Secondary data analysis was conducted using the Medicaid administrative data of a southeastern state. Using SAS 9.3, descriptive statistics were performed to examine socio-demographic characteristics, psychiatric diagnoses, off-label use, receipt of medications from multiple psychotropic drug classes, and receipt of non-pharmacologic psychiatric services among children aged ≤5 years who received antipsychotic prescriptions in calendar year (CY 2011. A total of 112 children in the target age group received antipsychotics in CY 2011, the most common prescription being risperidone. The most common listed psychiatric diagnosis was attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Two in five children received antipsychotics for off-label use. Three in four children also received medications from at least one other psychotropic drug class. More than half did not receive adjunct psychiatric services. State-level policies offering specific guidance and recommendations for antipsychotic use among very young children are urgently needed. Future research is warranted to examine long-term impact of such practices on children’s growth and development.

  6. Fifty Years After, Hidden Children Speak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Léa Marcou

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available “For fifty years, I have not spoken of my childhood years in France during the second world war. A hidden child, I lived under a false name amongst unknown people, being careful – as I had been taught – not to reveal, by a gesture or by a word, that I was Jewish. I knew I was in danger, still not understanding why and I was constantly afraid. I didn't know whether I would see again one day my parents from whom I had been suddenly taken away. Nonetheless what were my pains compared to those of...

  7. Magnesium metabolism in 4-year-old to 8-year-old children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnesium (Mg) is a key factor in bone health, but few studies have evaluated Mg intake or absorption and their relationship with bone mineral content (BMC) or bone mineral density (BMD) in children. We measured Mg intake, absorption, and urinary excretion in a group of children 4 to 8 years of age....

  8. The association between malaria parasitaemia, erythrocyte polymorphisms, malnutrition and anaemia in children less than 10 years in Senegal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tine, Roger C K; Ndiaye, Magatte; Hansson, Helle Holm

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Malaria and anaemia (Haemoglobin= 11 g/dl. For each participant, a physical examination was done and anthropometric data collected prior to a biological assessment which included: malaria parasitaemia infection, intestinal worm carriage, G6PD deficiency, sickle cell disorders, and alpha......-talassaemia.RESULTS:Three hundred and fifty two children 5 years (aOR=0.03, 95%CI0.01-0.08]). Stratified by age group, anaemia was significantly associated with stunting in children less than 5 years (aOR=3.1 95%CI1.4 -- 6.8]), with, sickle cell disorders (aOR=3.5 95%CI 1.4 -- 9.0]), alpha-thalassemia (or=2.4 95%CI1...

  9. Prediction of compliance with MRI procedures among children of ages 3 years to 12 years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cahoon, Glenn D. [The Royal Children' s Hospital Melbourne, Medical Imaging Department, Parkville (Australia); Davison, Tanya E. [Monash University, Melbourne (Australia)

    2014-10-15

    A number of children are unable to comply with an MRI procedure and require general anesthetic. However, we lack information about which factors are associated with MRI compliance in young children. To determine the strongest predictors of MRI compliance, focusing on variables that can be easily rated by patients' parents. A sample of 205 children ages 3-11 years (mean age 6.6 years) who were at risk of non-compliance were recruited from a children's hospital. Their parents completed a behavior assessment scale for children as well as a questionnaire that assessed their expectations of compliance and perception of their child's typical medical compliance. The children subsequently completed a mock MRI with an educational play therapist and a clinical MRI, with the quality of the scan scored by the MRI technologist. Overall, 88.3% of children complied with the clinical scan and achieved diagnostic images, with age unrelated to compliance in this well-prepared patient group. The strongest predictors of MRI compliance were parental expectations and ratings of how well the child typically copes with medical procedures. Non-compliance was related to child attention problems and to poor adaptability among children. A total of 64 preschool-age children (91.4%) and 110 school-age children (95.7%) were correctly classified as compliant or non-compliant based on these predictor variables. A child's temperament, medical experiences and parental expectations provide important information in predicting which children successfully comply with an MRI procedure and which require general anesthesia. Further study is needed to explore the utility of these variables in predicting compliance at sites that do not have access to an MRI simulator. (orig.)

  10. Pica in under- 6 year old kindergarten children in Bushehr

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    fatemeh Khosravizadegan

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pica is an eating disorder typically defined as the persistent eating of nonnutritive substances for a period of at least 1 month, without an association with an aversion to food. This behavior should be developmentally inappropriate, and not a culturally sanctioned practice. Pica is more prevalent in underdeveloped and low socioeconomic areas. In this study under 6-year old kindergarten children of Bushehr were evaluated. Methods: In a cross sectional study, 256 under 6-year old kindergarten children were evaluated in Bushehr in 2001. The necessary information regarding pica characteristics was given to the parents and teachers. The questionnaires were completed by the parents and teachers, and the suspects were assessed a second time. A more complete history and psychiatric examination was done to confirm the diagnosis of pica according to DSM IV (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders IV in these children. Results: A total of 256 children including 123 girls (48% and 133 boys (52% were evaluated. Pica was diagnosed in 67 of these children (26.2%. The most prevalent age for pica was 12-18 months (27 persons, 40.2% and 18-24 months (20 persons, 29.8%. Pica was significantly associated with sex (being a girl and positive family history. Conclusion: Pica is prevalent in kindergarten children in Bushehr. Educating parents and teachers seems to be necessary.

  11. Basic Facts about Low-Income Children: Children under 18 Years, 2013. Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yang; Ekono, Mercedes; Skinner, Curtis

    2015-01-01

    Children under 18 years represent 23 percent of the population, but they comprise 33 percent of all people in poverty. Among all children, 44 percent live in low-income families and approximately one in every five (22 percent) live in poor families. Being a child in a low-income or poor family does not happen by chance. Parental education and…

  12. Liver transplantation in Greek children: 15 years experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios Takoudas

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Liver transplantation (LT is the only available live-saving procedure for children with irreversible liver failure. This paper reports our experience from the follow-up of 16 Greek children with end-stage liver failure who underwent a LT. Over a period of 15 years, 16 pediatric liver recipients received follow up after being subjected to OLT (orthotopic liver transplantation due to end-stage liver failure. Nine children initially presented with extrahepatic biliary atresia, 2 with acute liver failure after toxic mushroom ingestion, 2 with intrahepatic cholestasis, 2 with metabolic diseases and one with hepatoblastoma. Ten children received a liver transplant in the Organ Transplantation Unit of Aristotle University of Thessaloniki and the rest in other transplant centers. Three transplants came from a living-related donor and 13 from a deceased donor. Six children underwent immunosuppressive treatment with cyclo­sporine, mycophenolate mofetil and corticosteroids, and 7 with tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil and corticosteroids. Three out of 16 children died within the first month after the transplantation due to post-transplant complications. Three children presented with acute rejection and one with chronic organ rejection which was successfully managed. Five children presented with cytomegalovirus infection, 5 with Epstein-Barr virus, 2 with HSV1,2, 2 with ParvoB19 virus, 2 with varicella-zoster virus and one with C. Albicans infection. One child presented with upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage and one with small biliary paucity. A satisfying outcome was achieved in most cases, with good graft function, except for the patient with small biliary paucity who required re-transplantation. The long-term clinical course of liver transplanted children is good under the condition that they are attended in specialized centers.

  13. Level of development of the physical components of social activity schoolchildren 10-11 years children summer camp

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    Chovgan R.Ya.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to determine the level of physical health of schoolchildren. Material : the study involved 146 children aged 10-11 years. Results : the questions of children's health issues such: the state of development of physical qualities, cardiovascular and respiratory systems, the ratio of children to their own health, interest in physical education means in terms of the Camp. The characteristic of the state of physical health and adaptive capacity of the organism respondents. Found that 50.7 % of children had low, 42.5% - the average, 6.8% - a high level of physical activity. Daily physical fitness - 11.0 % 2-3 times a week - 26.0 % once a week, 18.5%, and sometimes - 44.5%. The health camp prefer morning gymnastics 89.0 % of students ; hiking 67.1 % physical training on interest - 63.7%. Conclusions : the identified leading and lagging physical qualities in children studied age group. Dominant over the other physical properties were agility and strength of the abdominal muscles. By lagging physical qualities include strength of arm and leg flexibility. A significant amount of children surveyed are not able to fulfill the standards of the State tests of Ukraine for its age-sex groups on a positive assessment.

  14. An Investigation of Attitudes of 6-8th Graders Towards Universal Values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ender DURUALP

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to describe attitudes of 6-8th graders towards universal values and examine the impact of their age, gender, grade level, academic performance, parental level of education, and family income on their attitudes towards universal values. The population consisted of 6-8th graders being taught in primary schools in Çankırı, Turkey. The sample consisted of 361 students (203 girls, 158 boys randomly selected from Çankırı İsmet İnönü Elementary School located in Çankırı which attracts the highest number of students from each level of socioeconomic status. The sociodemographic data of children and their parents were collected through a “General Information Form”, and the data related to attitudes towards universal values were obtained by the “Attitude Towards Universal Values Scale” developed by Demir and Koç (2009. Data were analyzed through Kolmogorov-Smirnov, Mann-Whitney U, Kruskal-Wallis H tests, and Cronbach Alpha (α reliability coefficient. Results showed that girls (p>0.05, 8th graders, academically-talented children, those whose parents are university graduates, and those with a family income of minimum wage or more have more positive attitudes towards universal values (p<0.05.

  15. Computing Education in Children's Early Years: A Call for Debate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manches, Andrew; Plowman, Lydia

    2017-01-01

    International changes in policy and curricula (notably recent developments in England) have led to a focus on the role of computing education in the early years. As interest in the potential of computing education has increased, there has been a proliferation of programming tools designed for young children. While these changes are broadly to be…

  16. Morbidity Caused by Accidents in Children under Five Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariela Dorta Figueredo

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Accidents or unintentional injuries are a global health problem. In addition, they are considered as one of the leading causes of morbidity in children. Objective: To describe the morbidity caused by accidents in children under the age of five years in the V Health Area in Cienfuegos. Methods: A descriptive study was conducted in Area V Polyclinic, Cienfuegos, aimed at analyzing the morbidity caused by accidents (from June to November 2008 in children from zero to five years who belonged to consultations 3, 4, 23 and 25 of that health area. The demographic variables, type of accident, cause, place of occurrence, adult presence at the time of the accident, request for medical assistance, as well as risk factors were analyzed. Results: 40.2% of the population studied had accidents and the accident frequency rate reached 48.2%. Children aged two, three and less than one year were the most affected as well as males. Falls, burns and foreign body aspiration were the most frequent accidents, occurring mostly at home. Conclusions: Unfortunately adults are not doing everything possible to reduce the occurrence of accidents. They need to be more active in the child vigilance and the elimination of potential triggering factors of the accident.

  17. Family, children and teachers’ expectations about the first year of the nine-year Elementary School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Silva Ferreira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Pedagogical Master Plan, for the nine-year Elementary School, should consider the socio-cultural and educational conditions of the children in the community as a guide to improve the quality of education. According to MEC guidelines (BRAZIL, 2004, one should not restrict the development of the six year old children exclusively to learning how to read. We know that family involvement with the school life of their children, maintaining constant contact with teachers and satisfied with the educational work, brings significant effects on student’s learning (SCHEERENS; BOSKER, 1977; SCHEERENS , 2000. The current policy of MEC shows interest in mobilizing the involvement of the family and the school as a strategy for building an education of quality. This article discusses the results of a research that investigated the expectations of the involved actors (parents or guardians, children and teachers regarding the anticipation of the enrollment age into Elementary School and the differences and similarities of these actors expectations. Parents and children were interviewed in their homes, in order to observe the literacy environment, and the first year teachers. What we observed in most homes is that the literate environment does not go beyond those that are part of everyday life of all households. The families hope that the school promotes a better and decent future for their children, countering the “myth of parental omission” (LAIHRE, 2004, p. 334. They try to assist their children with their homework and they demonstrate difficulties with their academic tasks, including two mothers who said they were illiterate.

  18. Estimated Risk of Developing Selected DSM-IV Disorders Among 5-Year-Old Children with Prenatal Cocaine Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, Connie E.; Xue, Lihua; Manjunath, Sudha; Culbertson, Jan C.; Accornero, Veronica H.; Anthony, James C.; Bandstra, Emmalee S.

    2016-01-01

    This study estimated childhood risk of developing selected DSM-IV Disorders, including Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD), and Separation Anxiety Disorder (SAD), in children with prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE). Children were enrolled prospectively at birth (n=476) with prenatal drug exposures documented by maternal interview, urine and meconium assays. Study participants included 400 African-American children from the birth cohort, 208 cocaine-exposed (CE) and 192 non-cocaine-exposed (NCE) who attended a 5-year follow-up assessment and whose caregiver completed the Computerized Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children. Under a generalized linear model (logistic link), Fisher’s exact methods were used to estimate the CE-associated relative risk (RR) of these disorders. Results indicated a modest but statistically robust elevation of ADHD risk associated with increasing levels of PCE (pEstimated cumulative incidence proportions among CE children were 2.9% for ADHD (vs 3.1% NCE); 1.4% for SAD (vs 1.6% NCE); and 4.3% for ODD (vs 6.8% NCE). Findings offer suggestive evidence of increased risk of ADHD (but not ODD or SAD) in relation to an increasing gradient of PCE during gestation.

  19. Skin test reactivity among Danish children measured 15 years apart

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, SF; Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli; Porsbjerg, C;

    2006-01-01

    test (SPT) positivity in Danish children has changed from 1986 to 2001. METHODS: Serial cross-sectional studies of two different random population samples of children aged 7 to 17 years of age, living in urban Copenhagen, Denmark, were performed 15 years apart. The first cohort was investigated in 1986...... (n = 527) and the second in 2001 (n = 480). Skin test reactivity to nine common aeroallergens was measured at both occasions. RESULTS: The prevalence of positive SPT to at least one allergen decreased from 24.1% in 1986 to 18.9% in 2001, (p = 0.05). We found a declining prevalence of sensitization...... to most allergens tested, statistically significant; however, only for mugwort and Alternaria iridis. Among subjects, who were sensitized to only one allergen, we found significantly fewer individuals with reactions to D. pteronyssinus and mugwort. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of atopic sensitization...

  20. Sudden cardiac death in children (1-18 years)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkel, Bo Gregers; Risgaard, Bjarke; Sadjadieh, Golnaz

    2014-01-01

    AIMS: Hitherto, sudden cardiac death in children (SCDc)-defined as sudden cardiac death (SCD) in the 1-18 years old-has been incompletely described in the general population. Knowledge on incidence rates, causes of death and symptoms prior to death is sparse and has been affected by reporting...... and referral bias. METHODS AND RESULTS: In a nationwide setting all deaths in children aged 1-18 years in Denmark in 2000-06 were included. To chart causes of death and incidence rates, death certificates and autopsy reports were collected and read. By additional use of the extensive healthcare registries...... in Denmark, we were also able to investigate prior disease and symptoms. During the 7-year study period there was an average of 1.11 million persons aged 1-18 years. There were a total of 1504 deaths (214 deaths per year) from 7.78 million person-years. A total of 114 (7.5%) were sudden and unexpected...

  1. [Clinical exam of children from 3 to 12 years].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourrillon, Antoine; Benoist, Grégoire

    2011-04-01

    The specific aims of clinical exams of children from 3 to 12 years of age are to assess: growth including weight and height, and body mass index (BMI) to prevent obesity, neurodevelopment both motor and intellectual including sensorial impairment to detect early learning disabilities, immunization adequacy by assessing routine schedule of vaccination and booster. The GP or paediatrician should cooperate with specialised services and nursery or primary schools to match the system of education to the needs of a given child, particularly in case of learning disabilities (normally, entry into kindergarden at 6 years of age).

  2. Development of Emotion Word Comprehension in Chinese Children from 2 to 13 Years Old: Relationships with Valence and Empathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanwei; Yu, Dongchuan

    2015-01-01

    Children's emotion word comprehension (EWC) has constantly received a great deal of attention in developmental science. However, since previous reports focused on only English emotion vocabulary, researchers thus far remained unclear as to the developmental trajectories of EWC (to Chinese emotion words) in Chinese children, let alone the cross-cultural difference of EWC in different languages (i.e., English V.S. Chinese). Furthermore, the influence of valence on EWC, as well as the interaction mechanism between EWC and empathy, has not been fully investigated. Finding answers to these research gaps has become the main motivation of the current study. For this purpose, a Chinese emotion vocabulary was first constructed to estimate EWC of Chinese children (ages 2-13 years old). Then, the valence of each emotion word was evaluated using the standard 9-point scale approach. After that, the Chinese children's EWC and empathy were measured in terms of parental ratings. Finally, all data collected were statistically analyzed to reveal the influence of the valence of EWC, the relation between EWC and empathy, and the cross-cultural difference of children's EWC between China and UK from the viewpoint of developmental science. The main results of the current study included the following: (i) EWC in general increased with age for Chinese children ages 2-13 years old, however, there was a dramatic increase during ages 6-8 years old; (ii) EWC of positive emotion words in general developed better than that of negative and neutral ones for Chinese children (ages 2-13 years old); and the disadvantage of EWC to negative emotion words over neutral ones was gradually observed with the increase of age, even though there were no significant differences between them from the beginning; (iii) EWC completely mediated the effect of age on empathy; and (iv) EWC of children in UK developed better than Chinese counterparts during the early childhood period (ages 4-6 years old), then Chinese

  3. Development of Emotion Word Comprehension in Chinese Children from 2 to 13 Years Old: Relationships with Valence and Empathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanwei Li

    Full Text Available Children's emotion word comprehension (EWC has constantly received a great deal of attention in developmental science. However, since previous reports focused on only English emotion vocabulary, researchers thus far remained unclear as to the developmental trajectories of EWC (to Chinese emotion words in Chinese children, let alone the cross-cultural difference of EWC in different languages (i.e., English V.S. Chinese. Furthermore, the influence of valence on EWC, as well as the interaction mechanism between EWC and empathy, has not been fully investigated. Finding answers to these research gaps has become the main motivation of the current study. For this purpose, a Chinese emotion vocabulary was first constructed to estimate EWC of Chinese children (ages 2-13 years old. Then, the valence of each emotion word was evaluated using the standard 9-point scale approach. After that, the Chinese children's EWC and empathy were measured in terms of parental ratings. Finally, all data collected were statistically analyzed to reveal the influence of the valence of EWC, the relation between EWC and empathy, and the cross-cultural difference of children's EWC between China and UK from the viewpoint of developmental science. The main results of the current study included the following: (i EWC in general increased with age for Chinese children ages 2-13 years old, however, there was a dramatic increase during ages 6-8 years old; (ii EWC of positive emotion words in general developed better than that of negative and neutral ones for Chinese children (ages 2-13 years old; and the disadvantage of EWC to negative emotion words over neutral ones was gradually observed with the increase of age, even though there were no significant differences between them from the beginning; (iii EWC completely mediated the effect of age on empathy; and (iv EWC of children in UK developed better than Chinese counterparts during the early childhood period (ages 4-6 years old, then

  4. Assessing Executive Function components in 9 years old children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Reyes

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Executive Function (EF is a multidimensional construct. It includes a set of abilities that allows to execute actions with a purpose, aimed to a goal, in an efficient way. The objective of this work is to explore some of the cognitive abilities that constitute a common factor for EF in 9 years-old children. The chosen instruments: Batería de Evaluación Neuropsicológica de la Función Ejecutiva en niños (ENFEN (Battery of Neuropsychological Assessment for Executive Function in Children, along with the Backward Digits Subtestfrom the WISC-III, were administered to 101 children from private schools of Buenos Aires State, Argentina. The ENFEN consists on EF tasks, including Phonological and Semantic Fluency, Trail Making Test versions for children (gray and colored sets, Interference Task, and Planning disc movements according to a model. An initial confirmatory factor analysis didn’t show significant fit indexes, being the Inhibitory control the variable with the lower and non significant factorial weight. A second model excluding the Inhibitory control measure was conducted, and it showed excellent fit indexes. Therefore, it can be concluded that at this age, some of the cognitive abilities included on the EF are: Phonological and Semantic Fluency, Sustained and Selective attention, Planning and Working memory; which is not the case for Inhibitory Control (measured by the Interference Task in the ENFEN.

  5. Late Established Mutans Streptococci in Children over 3 Years Old

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    Mitsugi Okada

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Acquisition of mutans streptococci has been reported to most commonly occur at approximately 26 months of age. In the present study, we detected Streptococcus mutans and S. sobrinus using polymerase chain reaction (PCR assays in children, then re-examined the subjects to determine the time of acquisition of these bacteria over a 1-year period. The subjects were 57 children ranging in age from 3 to 5 years old, each with primary dentition. Plaque samples were collected from all erupted tooth sites using a sterile toothbrush. PCR assays were performed to detect the targeted mutans streptococci at the beginning of the study (baseline and after 1 year. At the baseline examination, the prevalence of S. mutans and S. sobrinus was 61.4% and 54.4%, respectively, in all subjects, of whom 14 (24.6% were positive for S. mutans alone, 10 (17.5% for S. sobrinus alone, and 21 (36.8% for both S. mutans and S. sobrinus, with 12 (21.1% negative for both. After 1 year, 4 of 22 (18.2% subjects newly had acquired S. mutans and 15 of 26 (57.7% had aquired S. sobrinus, while 5 (8.8% remained negative for both bacteria. The age of the first positive S. mutans finding ranged from 49 to 71 months, while that for S. sobrinus ranged from 49 to 81 months old. Our results suggest that S. sobrinus becomes established later than S. mutans in the oral cavities of children over the age of 3 years old.

  6. Leprosy among children under 15 years of age: literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Marcela Bahia Barretto de; Diniz, Lucia Martins

    2016-04-01

    Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae, representing a public health issue in some countries. Though more prevalent in adults, the detection of new cases in children under 15 years of age reveals an active circulation of bacillus, continued transmission and lack of disease control by the health system, as well as aiding in the monitoring of the endemic. Among patients under 15 years of age, the most affected age group is children between 10 and 14 years of age, although cases of patients of younger than 1 year of age have also been reported. Household contacts are the primary source of infection, given that caretakers, such as babysitters and others, must be considered in this scenario. Paucibacillary forms of the disease prevailed, especially borderline-tuberculoid leprosy, with a single lesion in exposed areas of the body representing the main clinical manifestation. Reactional states: Lepra reactions are rare, although some authors have reported high frequencies of this phenomenon, the most frequent of which is Type 1 Lepra Reaction. Peripheral nerve involvement has been described at alarming rates in some studies, which increases the chance of deformities, a serious problem, especially if one considers the age of these patients. The protective effect of BCG vaccination was found in some studies, but no consensus has been reached among different authors. Children must receive the same multidrug therapy regimen and the doses should, ideally, be calculated based on the child´s weight. Adverse reactions to this therapy are rare within this age group. This article aims to review epidemiological, clinical, and therapeutic aspects of leprosy in patients under 15 years of age.

  7. Leprosy among children under 15 years of age: literature review*

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Marcela Bahia Barretto; Diniz, Lucia Martins

    2016-01-01

    Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae, representing a public health issue in some countries. Though more prevalent in adults, the detection of new cases in children under 15 years of age reveals an active circulation of bacillus, continued transmission and lack of disease control by the health system, as well as aiding in the monitoring of the endemic. Among patients under 15 years of age, the most affected age group is children between 10 and 14 years of age, although cases of patients of younger than 1 year of age have also been reported. Household contacts are the primary source of infection, given that caretakers, such as babysitters and others, must be considered in this scenario. Paucibacillary forms of the disease prevailed, especially borderline-tuberculoid leprosy, with a single lesion in exposed areas of the body representing the main clinical manifestation. Reactional states: Lepra reactions are rare, although some authors have reported high frequencies of this phenomenon, the most frequent of which is Type 1 Lepra Reaction. Peripheral nerve involvement has been described at alarming rates in some studies, which increases the chance of deformities, a serious problem, especially if one considers the age of these patients. The protective effect of BCG vaccination was found in some studies, but no consensus has been reached among different authors. Children must receive the same multidrug therapy regimen and the doses should, ideally, be calculated based on the child´s weight. Adverse reactions to this therapy are rare within this age group. This article aims to review epidemiological, clinical, and therapeutic aspects of leprosy in patients under 15 years of age. PMID:27192519

  8. LIVER TRANSPLANTATION IN CHILDREN: SIX-YEAR EXPERIENCE ANALYSIS

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    S. V. Gautier

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Over the past few decades in Russia and other countries there has been signifi cant progress in the development of liver transplantation in children. It became possible to operate recipients with very low body mass, to perform transplant from cadaveric and living donors with incompatible blood type, as well as to perform single-step transplantation of liver with kidney or pancreas in patients with combined diseases.Aim: to investigate the 6-year experience of liver transplantation in children in V.I. Shumakov Federal Research Center of Transplantology and Artifi cial Organs.Materials and methods. From May 2008 to June 2014 304 liver transplantswere performed in 297 children aged from 3 months to 17 years with body mass 4 to 32 kg. 241 living donor liver left lateral section transplants (including 2 in conjunction with kidney, 8 left lobe (including 1 in conjunction with kidney, 40 right lobe liver transplants (including 1 in conjunction with kidney, and 9 cadaveric whole liver transplants (including 1 case of simultaneous liver and pancreas transplantation and 6 split liver transplants (4 – split left lateral section transplantations and 2 extended right lobe liver grafts were achieved.41 of these patients received a graft from AB0 – incompatible donors.Results. A retrospective evaluation of surgical technique and analysis of results were carried out. Early mortality was 8.1%, 1-year survival rate – 86.4%, 5-year survival rate – 78.8%.Conclusion. These results suggest the prospects of this procedure for pediatrictransplantation and require further investigation and promotion approaches in medical and social public.

  9. Spirometry in an unselected group of 6-year-old children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, Henrik Fomsgaard; Eller, Esben; Bindslev-Jensen, Carsten;

    2008-01-01

    This study presents reference equations for spirometric parameters in 6-year-old children and evaluates the ability of spirometry to discriminate healthy children from children with asthma. Baseline spirometry and respiratory symptoms were assessed in 404 children participating in a longitudinal...... in Delta FEV1(mean) between healthy children and children with asthma (3.1% vs. 6.1%, P Spirometry including bronchodilator measurements was demonstrated...... to be feasible in 6-year-old children and reference values were determined. Spirometry aids the diagnosis of asthma in young children, but knowledge on sensitivity and specificity of these measurements is a prerequisite....

  10. [Acute osteomyelitis and septic arthritis in children: one year experience].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timsit, S; Pannier, S; Glorion, C; Chéron, G

    2005-01-01

    To describe bacteriologic epidemiology of bone and joint infections, a total of 52 osteomyelitis, 52 arthritis and 20 osteoarthritis of children aged one month to 15 years during a one-year period (2001) were included in a retrospective unicentric review. The mean age was 3,9 +/-3,6 years. Fever and pain were the most common clinical symptoms. The site of infection was single in 95%, involving lower extremities in 80%. Bone scintigraphy was abnormal in 71% of osteomyelitis. Positive cultures was obtained in 29% of all cases (blood cultures: 20%, aspiration cultures: 29%), but in 42% of cases which have both blood and aspiration cultures. Thirty-six bacteria were identified: 19 Staphylococcus (14 aureus), ten Streptococcus (four pneumoniae), three Salmonella, three Kingella kingae, one Moraxella. All the isolates were susceptible to the empiric antibiotic therapy. Outcome was good in 100% of osteomyelitis and in 96% of arthritis.

  11. Otitis media with effusion in children younger than 1 year

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Francesco, Renata Cantisani; Barros, Vivian Boschesi; Ramos, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To determine the prevalence of otitis media with effusion in children younger than 1 year and its association with the season of the year, artificial feeding, environmental and perinatal factors. Methods: Retrospective study of 184 randomly included medical records from a total of 982 healthy infants evaluated for hearing screening tests. Diagnosis of otitis media with effusion was based on otoscopy (amber-gold color, fluid level, handle of malleus position), type B tympanometric curves and absence of otoacoustic emissions. Incomplete medical records or those describing acute otitis media, upper respiratory tract infections on the assessment day or in the last 3 months, neuropathies and craniofacial anomalies were excluded. Data such as gestational age, birth weight, Apgar score, type of feeding and day care attendance were compared between children with and without otitis media with effusion through likelihood tests and multivariate analysis. Results: 25.3% of 184 infants had otitis media with bilateral effusion; 9.2% had unilateral. In infants with otitis media, the following were observed: chronological age of 9.6±1.7 months; gestational age >38 weeks in 43.4% and birth weight >2500g in 48.4%. Otitis media with effusion was associated with winter/fall, artificial feeding, Apgar score <7 and day care attendance. The multivariate analysis showed that artificial feeding is the factor most often associated to otitis media with effusion. Conclusions: Otitis media with effusion was found in about one third of children younger than 1 year and was mainly associated with artificial feeding. PMID:26559603

  12. Otitis media with effusion in children younger than 1 year

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Cantisani Di Francesco

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To determine the prevalence of otitis media with effusion in children younger than 1 year and its association with the season of the year, artificial feeding, environmental and perinatal factors. Methods: Retrospective study of 184 randomly included medical records from a total of 982 healthy infants evaluated for hearing screening tests. Diagnosis of otitis media with effusion was based on otoscopy (amber-gold color, fluid level, handle of malleus position, type B tympanometric curves and absence of otoacoustic emissions. Incomplete medical records or those describing acute otitis media, upper respiratory tract infections on the assessment day or in the last 3 months, neuropathies and craniofacial anomalies were excluded. Data such as gestational age, birth weight, Apgar score, type of feeding and day care attendance were compared between children with and without otitis media with effusion through likelihood tests and multivariate analysis. Results: 25.3% of 184 infants had otitis media with bilateral effusion; 9.2% had unilateral. In infants with otitis media, the following were observed: chronological age of 9.6±1.7 months; gestational age >38 weeks in 43.4% and birth weight >2500g in 48.4%. Otitis media with effusion was associated with winter/fall, artificial feeding, Apgar score <7 and day care attendance. The multivariate analysis showed that artificial feeding is the factor most often associated to otitis media with effusion. Conclusions: Otitis media with effusion was found in about one third of children younger than 1 year and was mainly associated with artificial feeding.

  13. Integral treatment of children with dyslexia - 40 years experience

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    Stošljević Miodrag

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Dyslexia represents a significant pediatric problem requiring prompt and appropriate treatment. Objective. The aim of this study was to examine the significance of integral rehabilitation approach in treating dyslexia of children. Methods. Objectives of the study were accomplished on a sample of 300 children, aged 11-15 years, with etiologically variable dyslexia. Results. The results gained from the integral treatment of children with dyslexia were more successful than those obtained from isolated logaoedic treatment, when compared in 10-15 examined variables; replacement of graphically similar letters (p=0.000, replacement of syllables (p=0.010, replacement of words - guessing (p=0.019, structural errors - displacement or insertion (p=0.038, adding letters and syllables (p=0.001, repeating of word parts (p=0.001, reading of a word in several wrong ways (p=0.001, omission of words and whole lines (p=0.000, returning to already read line (p=0.000, level of dyslexia (p=0.000. Conclusion. Dyslexia requires a multidisciplinary therapeutic approach in which integral rehabilitation treatment has an exceptionally large significance.

  14. Acoustic Vocal Tract Model of One-year-old Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Vojnović

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The physical shape of vocal tract and its formant (resonant frequencies are directly related. The study of this functional connectivity is essential in speech therapy practice with children. Most of the perceived children’s speech anomalies can be explained on a physical level: malfunctioning movement of articulation organs. The current problem is that there is no enough data on the anatomical shape of children’s vocal tract to create its acoustic model. Classical techniques for vocal tract shape imaging (X-ray, magnetic resonance, etc. are not appropriate for children. One possibility is to start from the shape of the adult vocal tract and correct it based on anatomical, morphological and articulatory differences between children and adults. This paper presents a method for vocal tract shape estimation of the child aged one year. The initial shapes of the vocal tract refer to the Russian vowels spoken by an adult male. All the relevant anatomical and articulation parameters, that influence the formant frequencies, are analyzed. Finally, the hypothetical configurations of the children’s vocal tract, for the five vowels, are presented.

  15. Severity of Diarrhea and Malnutrition among Under Five-Year-Old Children in Rural Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Ferdous, Farzana; Sumon K. Das; Ahmed, Shahnawaz; Farzana, Fahmida D.; Latham, Jonathan R.; Chisti, Mohammod J.; Ud-Din, Abu I. M. S.; Ishrat J Azmi; Talukder, Kaisar A.; Faruque, Abu S.G.

    2013-01-01

    Enteric pathogens are commonly associated with diarrhea among malnourished children. This study aimed to determine the association between the severity of diarrheal illnesses and malnutrition among under 5-year-old children. During 2010 and 2011, we studied 2,324 under 5-year-old diarrheal children with mild disease (MD) and moderate-to-severe disease (MSD) attending a hospital in Bangladesh. Children with MSD were more likely to be malnourished compared with children with MD (35% versus 24%,...

  16. Synthesis and Photophysical Property Studies of the 2,6,8-Triaryl-4-(phenylethynylquinazolines

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    Malose Jack Mphahlele

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The 2-aryl-6,8-dibromo-4-chloroquinazolines derived from the 2-aryl-6,8-dibromoquinazolin-4(3H-ones were subjected to the Sonogashira cross-coupling with terminal acetylenes at room temperature to afford novel 2-aryl-6,8-dibromo-4-(alkynylquinazoline derivatives. Further transformation of the 2-aryl-6,8-dibromo-4-(phenylethynylquinazolines via Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling with arylboronic acids occurred without selectivity to afford the corresponding 2,6,8-triaryl-4-(phenylethynylquinazolines. The absorption and emission properties of these polysubstituted quinazolines were also determined.

  17. Prevalence of mutans streptococci in one-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grindefjord, M; Dahllof, G; Wikner, S; Hojer, B; Modeer, T

    1991-10-01

    Colonization with mutans streptococci was studied in 1095 1-year-old children living in suburban Stockholm. During a scheduled vaccination appointment at a child health centre, a bacterial sample was obtained from the child's tongue and a structured questionnaire was completed by the accompanying parent. Six percent of the subjects were colonized with mutans streptococci. The variables most strongly correlated with presence of mutans streptococci were: non-Swedish background, consumption of sugar-containing beverages at night and total consumption of sugar-containing beverages. The results indicate that, by the age of 1 year, maternally influenced behaviour patterns such as dietary habits that may predispose to early colonization of mutans streptococci are already established. Such early colonization with mutans streptococci may predict high caries risk in the primary dentition.

  18. Liver Hydatid Cyst in Children (A 14-year Review

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    Mohsen Rouzrokh

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective:Hydatid disease is still an important health hazard in the world. This disease is a parasitic infestation which is endemic in many sheep and cattle raising areas such as in Iran. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical appearance, diagnosis, and treatment of liver hydatid cyst in children. Methods:This retrospective study evaluated 100 patients who were referred to Mofid Childrens Hospital with liver hydatid cyst from March 1996 to March 2010. Medical records of 1 to 14 year old patients who had definitive liver hydatid cyst were included and analysis of variables such as age, gender, symptoms, diagnostic investigation, operative technique, hospital stay, mortality, morbidity and outcome of treatment were evaluated. Findings:The patients consisted of 54 boys (54% and 46 (46% girls with an age range of 1-14 years (mean 11.8±4.6. The incidence rate increased by age. The patients had totally 110 cysts, right pulmonary lobe 81 (73% cysts and left side had 29 (27%. Abdominal mass was the most common (50% symptom. Abdominal sonography gave correct diagnosis in 94 (94% patients. Conservative surgical treatment was carried out in 98 children. Two patients were treated medically as the cysts were small and calcified. The most common complication was wound infection in 3 cases. Mean length of hospitalization was 9 days. In 100% of our patients the type of parasite was Echinoccocus granulosus. The morbidity rate was 12%   (prolonging external catheter drainage in 12 patients. There was only one (1% mortality and 2 (2% recurrences. Conclusion:Due to the less invasive and high accuracy of liver sonography in diagnosis of hydatid cyst, we recommend it as the method of choice for the diagnosis in endemic regions. Surgery is the method of choice for treatment.

  19. Magnesium metabolism in 4-year-old to 8-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Steven A; Chen, Zhensheng; Hawthorne, Keli M

    2014-01-01

    Magnesium (Mg) is a key factor in bone health, but few studies have evaluated Mg intake or absorption and their relationship with bone mineral content (BMC) or bone mineral density (BMD) in children. We measured Mg intake, absorption, and urinary excretion in a group of children 4 to 8 years of age. Mg absorption was determined using a dual-tracer stable isotope technique, with (25) Mg given intravenously and (26) Mg given orally. We found a small, but significantly greater Mg absorption efficiency (percentage absorption) in males than females (67% ± 12% versus 60% ± 8%, p = 0.02) but no difference in estimated net Mg retention (average of 37 mg/d in both males and females). Relating dietary Mg intake to estimated Mg retention showed that an intake of 133 mg/d, slightly above the current estimated average requirement (EAR) of 110 mg/d, led to a net average retention of 10 mg/d, the likely minimum growth-related need for this age group. Covariate analysis showed that Mg intake and total Mg absorption, but not calcium intake or total absorption were significantly associated with both total body BMC and BMD. These results suggest that usual Mg intakes in small children in the United States meet dietary requirements in most but not all children. Within the usual range of children's diets in the United States, dietary Mg intake and absorption may be important, relatively unrecognized factors in bone health.

  20. [Pneumococcal meningitis in children under 15 years of age in Misiones (Argentina). Sixteen year's epidemiological surveillance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenón, Sandra L; Salvi Grabulosa, Marcelo C; Regueira, Mabel M; Fossati, María S; von Specht, Martha H

    2014-01-01

    We report the results of pneumococcal meningitis surveillance conducted at the Provincial Pediatric Hospital of Posadas, Misiones (Argentina), before the conjugate vaccine was introduced into the national vaccination schedule. Between January 1994 and December 2009, 167 cases of Streptococcus pneumoniae meningitis were diagnosed in children aged 1 month to 15 years. The attack rate/100,000 children ranged from 19.2 (1997) to 4.3 (2009), with a mean of 10.6 and a tendency to decrease (y=-0.689x+16.52). The number of cases per 100,000 children decreased from 146.6 to 34.8 and particularly involved the group of children aged 1 to 11 months (94/167, 56%). Thirty point seven percent (30.7%) (46/150) of the isolates were resistant to penicillin whereas 16.7% (25/150) were non-susceptible to cefotaxime. β-lactam resistance increased as from 1997 and began to decline in 2005. Nineteen serotypes were detected; type 14 was predominant and accounted for 32% (40/125). Eighty four point eight percent (84.8%) of the isolates were circumscribed to nine serotypes: 14, 5, 1, 7F, 18C, 6B, 9N, 9V and 4. Theoretical coverage for patients aged 2 years was 84.1% (74/88) and 83.8% (31/37) for the 10-valent vaccine and 89.8 % (79/88) and 83.8% (31/37) for the 13-valent vaccine respectively. Penicillin resistance was restricted to 8 serotypes (14, 6B, 6A, 9V, 4, 23B, 19A1) and nonsusceptibility to cefotaxime was circumscribed to 3 serotypes (14, 9V and 1). This study will allow to evaluate the impact of the implementation of conjugate vaccines on our area.

  1. Connecticut Children's Medical Center multi-year branding campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botvin, J

    2000-01-01

    As the only children's hospital in the state, Connecticut Children's Medical Center was challenged by the inherent complacency of parents. It met the challenge through a multi-level marketing effort which included television and radio, community outreach and strong media relations. By emphasizing the unique nature of children, the campaign affirms the need for a specialized children's health center.

  2. [Life style of children and obesity in a population of 5-year-old children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locard, E; Mamelle, N; Munoz, F; Miginiac, M; Billette, A; Rey, S

    1992-01-01

    The increasing level of childhood obesity has prompted some research into the early risk factors likely to lead to preventive measures. A case-control study was conducted of a five year-old population in the Rhône and Isère administrative "départements" of France during the children's first visit to primary school, with the participation of 327 obese children and 704 controls. Anthropometric data on the children since birth, together with data on their lifestyles, were collected in interviews with parents. "Family obesity" and "obesity at birth" were found to be closely related to the child's obesity at five years old (adjusted OR = 2.7 and 2.1 respectively). Of the environmental factors, the hypothesis tested paid specific attention to television viewing, snacks between meals and lack of sleep. These three variables were all found to be risk factors of obesity at five years old. However after allowing for parental obesity, the only remaining significant risk factor for obesity at five was lack of sleep (adjusted OR = 1.4). The pathogenic assumptions raised by these results are discussed.

  3. Perception and Production of Lexical Tones by 3-Year-Old, Mandarin-Speaking Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Puisan; Schwartz, Richard G.; Jenkins, James J.

    2005-01-01

    The present study investigated 3-year-old children's perception and production of Mandarin lexical tones in monosyllabic words. Thirteen 3-year-old, Mandarin-speaking children participated in the study. Tone perception was examined by a picture-pointing task, and tone production was investigated by picture naming. To compare children's productions…

  4. Skin problems in children under five years old at a rural hospital in Southern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel Ramos

    2016-07-01

    Conclusions: Skin problems, mainly scabies, impetigo, and eczema were common in young children attended at a rural hospital in Southern Ethiopia. Children under 5 years should be examined thoroughly to rule out skin diseases, especially scabies.

  5. Portion size variably affects food intake of 6-year-old and 4-year-old children in Kunming, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Lindsey; Conroy, Katharine; Wen, Hongmei; Rui, Li; Humphries, Debbie

    2013-10-01

    Age and portion size have been found to influence food intake in American children but have not been examined in an international context. This study evaluated the association between age and the effects of portion size on the food intake of kindergarteners in Kunming, China. Using a within-subjects crossover design in a classroom setting, 173 children in two age groups, mean age 4.2 years and 6.1 years, were served a predefined reference, small (-30%) and large (+30%) portion of rice, vegetables, and a protein source during lunchtime over three consecutive days. Each portion was weighed before and after the meal to determine amount of food consumed. Linear mixed modeling, controlling for repeated measures and clustering by classroom, was used to compare food intake under small and large portion size conditions to the reference portion. Children ate significantly less food when served small portions. When served a large portion, 6-year-old children increased food intake while 4-year-old children decreased food intake in comparison to the reference portion. Findings indicate that portion size affects food intake in Chinese children 4-6-years old. Older children show larger increases in food intake with increased portion size than do younger children.

  6. Nutritional status survey of children with autism and typically developing children aged 4-6 years in Heilongjiang Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Caihong; Xia, Wei; Zhao, Yan; Li, Nannan; Zhao, Dong; Wu, Lijie

    2013-01-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disability that may affect nutritional management of children with autism. This study aimed to compare the nutritional status of children with autism with that of typically developing children (aged 4-6 years) in China. Nutritional status was assessed by means of nutritional data, anthropometric data, biochemical assessment, physical examination for nutrient deficiencies and providing a questionnaire to parents. A total of fifty-three children with autism and fifty-three typically developing children were enrolled in this study. The parents were asked to complete the questionnaire regarding the eating behaviour and gastrointestinal symptoms of their children. They were also asked to provide a 3 d food diary. Children with autism exhibited several abnormalities in terms of eating behaviour and gastrointestinal symptoms. The levels of vitamins A and B6, Zn and Ca intakes were autism group were significantly higher than those in the control group. Serum Zn level was less than the normal reference range in both the groups. Serum Ca, vitamin A and folate levels in children with autism were significantly lower when compared with children without autism. According to the anthropometric data, the mean BMI, weight-for-height Z-score (Z WH) and BMI for age Z-score (Z BMIA) of children with autism were significantly higher than those of the typically developing children. Thus, nutritional inadequacies were observed in children with autism and typically developing children in China, which were, however, more pronounced among children with autism.

  7. Knee function in 10-year-old children and adults with Generalised Joint Hypermobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul-Kristensen, Birgit; Hansen, Henrik; Simonsen, Erik B;

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: Knee function is reduced in patients with Benign Joint Hypermobility Syndrome. The aim was to study knee function in children and adults with Generalised Joint Hypermobility (GJH) and Non-GJH (NGJH)). MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a matched comparative study, 39 children and 36 adults (mean...... age children 10.2years; adults 40.3years) were included, comprising 19 children and 18 adults with GJH (Beighton =5/9; Beighton =4/9), minimum one hypermobile knee, no knee pain (children), and 20 children and 18 adults with NGJH (Beighton...

  8. Tracing Children's Vocabulary Development from Preschool through the School-Age Years: An 8-Year Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Shuang; Su, Mengmeng; Kang, Cuiping; Liu, Hongyun; Zhang, Yuping; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Tardif, Twila; Li, Hong; Liang, Weilan; Zhang, Zhixiang; Shu, Hua

    2015-01-01

    In this 8-year longitudinal study, we traced the vocabulary growth of Chinese children, explored potential precursors of vocabulary knowledge, and investigated how vocabulary growth predicted future reading skills. Two hundred and sixty-four (264) native Chinese children from Beijing were measured on a variety of reading and language tasks over…

  9. Fever and feverish illness in children under five years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, Penny; Harrison, Maureen

    This article discusses the causes and management of fever in children. In line with guidance from the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence, it explores the importance of identifying children at risk of serious illness and those that can be managed safely at home. The article also identifies the skills and knowledge required by paediatric and general nurses working with children, alongside the need to offer parents guidance on antipyretics and how to care for their child at home.

  10. State of cognitive development in children 5-6 years of age with nutritional iron deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chechel V.V.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Features of the development of cognitive functions in children 5-6 years of age with iron deficiency (ID were studied and the relationship of the revealed features of iron deficiency degree was established. After clinical and laboratory examination 205 children aged 5-6 years, pupils of pre-school institutions were included in the study. The core group consisted of 155 children, including 105 children with latent iron deficiency (LID and 50 children with iron deficiency anemia (IDA I degree. The control group consisted of 50 healthy children. To study cognitive function, "Approximate comprehensive program of study of children's readiness for school" was used. A significant decrease of average data of all mental functions (perception, memory, language, thinking, ima¬gination in children 5-6 years old with ID, most pronounced in children with IDA was revealed. Indicators of cognitive functions correspond predominantly to a mild and moderate level of development in children with IDA, the average - in children with LID, good and high - in healthy children. There was a significant direct correlation between the level of cognitive functioning and the level of hemoglobin, serum iron and ferritin. The effect of iron deficiency on the development of indicators of cognitive function toward their reduce in preschool children was established. The level of cognitive functioning depends on the degree of iron deficiency.

  11. MEDICAL AUDIT OF CHILDREN WITH AMBIGUOUS GENITALIA- REVIEW OF CHILDREN TREATED OVER 18 YEARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praburam P. M

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The survival of a newborn or a child presenting with ambiguous genitalia depends upon the timely diagnosis and institution of appropriate medical care. We undertook this study with the aim to determine if appropriate clinical and confirmatory diagnosis was arrived on time and if the treatment instituted was relevant and satisfactory. Methods: All children who were evaluated for ambiguous genitalia under the Department of Pediatric Endocrinology over the preceding 18 years were invited for a review. Data including time taken to make a clinical diagnosis, time taken to confirm the diagnosis, reasons for delay if any, and appropriateness of the sex assigned for rearing and treatment instituted were collected from the charts. Patients were evaluated for adequacy of response to treatment, compliance, problems encountered if any and subjective parental satisfaction. Results: A total of 165 children were diagnosed to have conditions with ambiguous genitalia and were called for a review. 33 children attended the review. 15 were being raised as boys and 18 as girls. 12 children had virilising congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH, 6 had cryptorchidism, 6 had hypospadias, 3 had complete and 1 had partial testicular feminisation, 2 had mixed gonadal dysgenesis (MGD, 2 had hypogonadism and 1 was a true hermaphrodite. An appropriate clinical diagnosis was made in 30childrenon the day one and a final confirmatory diagnosis was made within a month in 23. Conclusion: In most conditions presenting with ambiguous genitalia, a clinical and confirmatory diagnosis can be made in a short duration. Initiation of appropriate treatment results in favourable outcomes in terms of growth sexual identity and adaptation.

  12. [Electrical burns in children. 3 years of case histories].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caneira, E; Serafim, Z; Duarte, R; Leal, M J

    1996-01-01

    The Burn Unit of Dona Estefânia Hospital admitted a total of 454 patients from January 1992 to January 1995, 24 of these patients suffered from electric shock. Of these 24 patients 3 suffered burns in the mouth, 15 in one or both hands and 6 multiple burns. In 19 patients the burns were up to 1%. A description is made of 5 cases, male children between the ages of 9 and 13 years, which were deemed severe. The incidents occurred outdoors with different voltages and in activities considered of ludic or experimental nature: two on the roof of a house, two with railway cables and one with an electrical cable in a port zone. The burnt areas vary between 4% and 70%, all of them 2nd and 3rd degree, with hospitalization lasting from 36 to 116 days. In addition to early and coordinated medical and rehabilitative treatment, according to individual needs, a description is also made of the cutaneous sequelae (deforming cicatrices, bridles), neurologic and psychologic sequelae, with emphasis on a patient who underwent amputation of the lower left leg and 4th and 5th ranges of the right foot. It was concluded that measures should be taken in education and legislation to prevent these accidents. Relevance is given to the need for a multidisciplinary team and specialized center for the treatment of these patients.

  13. Narrative Comprehension Skills in 5-Year-Old Children: Correlational Analysis and Comprehender Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potocki, Anna; Ecalle, Jean; Magnan, Annie

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed to examine whether a variety of cognitive and linguistic factors theoretically considered to be predictive of reading comprehension skills in elementary school children were also predictive of listening comprehension skills in 131 five-year-old children. The results showed that the predictors of young children's listening…

  14. Five- to 8-Year-Old Emirati Children's and Their Teachers' Perceptions of War

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buldu, Mehmet

    2009-01-01

    This study examined 5- to 8-year-old Emirati children's and their teachers' perceptions of war. Data for this study were collected through drawings and semi-structured interviews. A phenomenological procedure was used to analyze the data. Younger children could not articulate the details of the specific nature of war. Many children defined war as…

  15. Children of Methadone-Maintained Mothers: Three-Year Follow-Up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Helen L.; And Others

    The physical and neurobehavioral findings at 3 years of age for 39 children born to mothers on methadone- maintenance and 23 children born to drug-free comparison mothers are reported. The methadone children had a higher incidence of head circumferences less than the third percentile, nystagmus/strabismus, and otitis media. No differences were…

  16. Self-Repair of Speech by Four-Year-Old Finnish Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salonen, Tuuli; Laakso, Minna

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine what four-year-old children repair in their speech. For this purpose, conversational self-repairs (N = 316) made by two typically developing Finnish-speaking children (aged 4 ; 8 and 4 ; 11) were examined. The data comprised eight hours of natural interactions videotaped at the children's homes. The tapes were…

  17. School functioning in 8- to 18-year-old children born after in vitro fertilization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagenaar, Karin; Ceelen, Manon; Weissenbruch, van Mirjam; Knol, Dirk; Delemarre-van de Waal, Henriette; Huisman, Jaap

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the school functioning of 8- to 18-year-old children born after in vitro fertilization (IVF). We compared 233 children born after IVF to 233 matched control children born spontaneously from parents with fertility problems on measures of education level, general c

  18. Learning Benefits of Self-Controlled Knowledge of Results in 10-Year-Old Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiviacowsky, Suzete; Wulf, Gabriele; Laroque de Medeiros, Franklin; Kaefer, Angelica; Tani, Go

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine whether the learning benefits of self-controlled knowledge of results (KR) would generalize to children. Specifically, the authors chose 10-year-old children representative of late childhood. The authors used a task that required the children to toss beanbags at a target. One group received KR…

  19. Diarrhea in children less than two years of age with known HIV status in Kisumu, Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eijk, A.M.; Brooks, J.T.; Adcock, P.M.; Garrett, V.; Eberhard, M.; Rosen, D.H.; Ayisi, J.G.; Ochieng, J.B.; Kumar, L.; Gentsch, J.R.; Nahlen, B.L.; Mintz, E.D.; Slutsker, L.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To compare the frequency and etiology of diarrhea in children aged less than 2 years with known HIV status. Methods: This was a nested cohort study, whereby children were followed during monthly routine and unscheduled visits. The HIV status of children was determined with PCR. A stool cu

  20. Functioning of 7-Year-Old Children Born at 32 to 35 Weeks' Gestational Age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cserjesi, R.; Van Braeckel, K.N.J.A.; Butcher, P.R.; Kerstjens, J.M.; Reijneveld, S.A.; Bouma, A.; Geuze, R.H.; Bos, A.F.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare neuropsychological functions in moderately preterm (32-35 weeks' gestation) and full-term children at the age of 7 years and identify gender differences. METHODS: Community-based prospective cohort study of 248 moderately preterm children (138 boys) and 130 full-term children (

  1. Injury patterns in children with frequent emergency department visits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, B

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To compare injury patterns in children with many and few emergency department (ED) visits in order to reveal the causes for the frequent visits. METHODS: Three cohorts of Danish children (total 579 721 children) were followed for three years when their ages were 0-2, 6-8, and 12...

  2. Mathematics Teachers’ Opinions about New Sub Learning Domains in Elementary Mathematics (6-8 Curriculum

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    Kürşat YENİLMEZ

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: There are mathematical behaviors in all levels from the preschool education to higher education programs. These behaviors are in mathematics curriculum as objectives. Elementary Mathematics (6-8th grades curriculum was developed in 2005 at last and applied gradually from the 6th grade in 2006-2007 academic year. Thematic approach was considered in regulating context in new mathematics curriculum and determined learning domains and sub learning domains. Some subjects were taken out and some new subjects were added in developing program studies. Patterns and relations in integers, translation, tessellations, structural drawings, transformation geometry, fractals, geometric movements, histogram, kinds of probability, standard deviation, combination, perspective drawings, intersections of objects, polyhedral objects, symmetries of geometric objects are some new subjects in mathematics (6-8th grades curriculum. Patterns and relations in integers and special number patterns are in Patterns and Relations in Algebra learning domain, translation, reflection, rotation, geometric movements and symmetries of geometric objects, tessellations and fractal, structural drawings, intersections of objects and polyhedral objects are in Geometry learning domain, histogram, kinds of probability, standard deviation, combination are in Probability and Statistics learning domain. The purpose of this study was to determine mathematics teachers’ opinions and qualifications about new sub learning domains in elementary mathematics (6-8th grades curriculum. The descriptive survey method was used in the study. The work group of the study consists of 27 mathematics teachers from primary schools in Tekirdağ. Data were collected by a questionnaire which has been developed by the researchers. The questionnaire has 9 open-ended and 17 close-ended questions. Open-ended questions were used to determine mathematics teachers’ views about new sub learning domains were

  3. Severity of diarrhea and malnutrition among under five-year-old children in rural Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferdous, Farzana; Das, Sumon K; Ahmed, Shahnawaz; Farzana, Fahmida D; Latham, Jonathan R; Chisti, Mohammod J; Ud-Din, Abu I M S; Azmi, Ishrat J; Talukder, Kaisar A; Faruque, Abu S G

    2013-08-01

    Enteric pathogens are commonly associated with diarrhea among malnourished children. This study aimed to determine the association between the severity of diarrheal illnesses and malnutrition among under 5-year-old children. During 2010 and 2011, we studied 2,324 under 5-year-old diarrheal children with mild disease (MD) and moderate-to-severe disease (MSD) attending a hospital in Bangladesh. Children with MSD were more likely to be malnourished compared with children with MD (35% versus 24%, P household income (1.71 [1.42, 2.07]). Childhood malnutrition was associated with dysentery and dehydrating diarrhea.

  4. Maximum oxygen uptake and objectively measured physical activity in Danish children 6-7 years of age: the Copenhagen school child intervention study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eiberg, Stig; Hasselstrøm, Henriette; Grønfeldt, Vivian

    2005-01-01

    preschool classes in two suburban communities in Copenhagen, during a progressive treadmill exercise. Habitual physical activity was measured with accelerometers. Results: Boys had higher VO2MAX both in absolute values (1.19 (0.18) v 1.06 (0.16) litres/min (+11%), p... +9.4%, pactive. The difference in physical activity between the sexes was higher when sustained activity of higher intensity was compared. Conclusions: VO2MAX is higher in boys than girls (+11%), even when......Objectives: To provide normative data on maximum oxygen uptake (V·O2MAX) and physical activity in children 6-7 years of age and analyse the association between these variables. Methods: VO2MAX was measured in 366 boys (mean (SD) 6.8 (0.4) years of age) and 332 girls (6.7 (0.4) years of age) from...

  5. Nasometry cooperation in children 4-6 years of age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heijden, P.; Hobbel, H. H. F.; van der Laan, B. F. A. M.; Korsten-Meijer, A. G. W.; Goorhuis-Brouwer, S. M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Hypernasality is a common problem in cleft care. It should be treated before the age of six, because of the impact it can have on speech sound development in young children. An objective method of nasalance evaluation is nasometry. Cooperation of young children, by nature, differs over ti

  6. Patterns of language and auditory dysfunction in 6-year-old children with epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Selassie, Gunilla Rejnö-Habte; Olsson, Ingrid; Jennische, Margareta

    2009-01-01

    In a previous study we reported difficulty with expressive language and visuoperceptual ability in preschool children with epilepsy and otherwise normal development. The present study analysed speech and language dysfunction for each individual in relation to epilepsy variables, ear preference, and intelligence in these children and described their auditory function. Twenty 6-year-old children with epilepsy (14 females, 6 males; mean age 6:5 y, range 6 y–6 y 11 mo) and 30 reference children w...

  7. Balance and motor coordination are not fully developed in 7 years old blind children

    OpenAIRE

    Navarro,Andréa Sanchez; Fukujima, Marcia Maiumi [UNIFESP; Fontes,Sissy Veloso; Matas, Sandro Luiz de Andrade [UNIFESP; Prado,Gilmar Fernandes do

    2004-01-01

    Visually impaired children show difficulties in recognizing their own bodies, objects around then and the spatial parameters that are essential for independent movement. This study analyzes the neuro-psychomotor development of a group of congenitally visually impaired children as compared to children with normal sight. We have evaluated two groups of seven-year-olds by means of neurological evolution examination (NEE). The group studied comprised 20 blind children and the control group compri...

  8. Nutritional transition in children under five years and women of reproductive age: a 15-years trend analysis in Peru.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Loret de Mola

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rapid urbanization, increase in food availability, and changes in diet and lifestyle patterns have been changing nutritional profiles in developing nations. We aimed to describe nutritional changes in children under 5 years and women of reproductive age in Peru, during a 15-year period of rapid economic development and social policy enhancement. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Trend analyses of anthropometric measures in children of preschool age and women between 15-49 years, using the Peruvian National Demographic and Family Health Surveys (DHS from 1996 to 2011. WHO growth curves were used to define stunting, underweight, wasting and overweight in children 19 years, body mass index (BMI was analyzed both categorically and as a continuous variable. To statistically analyze the trends, we used regression models: Linear and Poisson for continuous and binary outcomes, respectively. RESULTS: We analyzed data from 123 642 women and 64 135 children, from 1996 to 2011. Decreases over time were evidenced for underweight (p<0.001, wasting (p<0.001, and stunting (p<0.001 in children under 5 y. This effect was particularly noted in urban settings. Overweight levels in children reduced (p<0.001, however this reduction stopped, in urban settings, since 2005 (∼12%. Anemia decreased in children and women (p<0.001; with higher reduction in urban (↓43% than in rural children (↓24%. BMI in women aged 15-19 years increased (p<0.001 across time, with noticeable BMI-curve shift in women older than 30 years. Moreover, obesity doubled during this period in women more than 19 y. CONCLUSION: Nutrition transition in Peru shows different patterns for urban and rural populations. Public policies should emphasize targeting both malnutrition conditions--undernutrition/stunting, overweight/obesity and anemia--considering age and place of residence in rapid developing societies like Peru.

  9. How do parents of 4- to 5-year-old children perceive the weight of their children?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luttikhuis, H. G. M. Oude; Stolk, R. P.; Sauer, P. J. J.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: A heavier weight in adults is becoming the norm rather than an abnormal weight. Whether the same trend is happening in children is unknown. Objective: To assess the perception of the weight of 4- to 5-year-old children and the recognition of overweight by both parents. Design:

  10. Oral cleanliness of 12-13-year-old and 15-year-old school children of Sunsari District, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yee R

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the oral cleanliness of school children in the District of Sunsari, Nepal. A multi-stage random sampling oral epidemiological survey was conducted in private and government, urban, rural town and rural village schools in 15 illakas of Sunsari District, Eastern Nepal. A total of 600, 12-13-year-old and 600 15-year-old school children were examined by trained examiners using the simplified oral hygiene index (OHI-S. The average age-group, debris and calculus index scores were combined to obtain the simplified oral hygiene index (OHI-S. The mean OHI-S scores were compared and evaluated using the parametric t-test for two independent samples. The mean OHI-S for urban 12-13-year-old school children was 0.98 compared to 1.34 for school children of rural towns and 1.44 for school children of rural villages and these differences in mean OHI-S were statistically significant ( P < 0.005. In the 15-year-old age group, urban school children had a mean OHI-S score of 1.00 compared to 1.37 for rural towns and 1.43 for rural villages. The variance in the mean OHI-S scores were statistically significant ( P < 0.005. The overall level of cleanliness in the school children surveyed was good. Children of urban schools had the lowest scores followed by school children from rural towns and then rural villages. When the mean OHI-S scores were compared with the DMFT scores, there was an inverse relationship between oral cleanliness and dental caries. Frequency of sugar consumption and the availability and affordability of fluoridated toothpaste may be important factors in the development of dental caries than oral cleanliness.

  11. Laparoscopic upper pole heminephroureterectomy in children: Seven-year experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Marte

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Minimally invasive surgery is the current approach to perform heminephroureterectomy (HN in children. This can be obtained through a transperitoneal (TP or a retroperitoneal approach. Here, we report our experience using a TP approach. Materials and Methods: From 2005 to 2014, 22 TP laparoscopic upper poles HN were performed at our institution. There were nine girls and 13 boys aged between 20 months and 6 years (mean age 3.9. Eight patients were diagnosed prenatally, 17 patients presented with urinary tract infection (UTI and three with vomiting and failure to thrive. The indication for HN was reflux nephropathy and UTI in non-functioning upper pole in 19 patients and cystic dysplasia in 1 patient. The surgical technique involved the following steps: Cystoscopic recognition; positioning of 3-4 trocar (right HN; identification of the kidney (detachment of the colon; isolation and low ligation of the dilated ureter; decrossing from renal vessels; section of the parenchyma by LigaSure; haemostasis with clips and LigaSure; drain. Results: The mean operative time was 154 min (range: 81-220 min. All patients were discharged from the 2 nd to 4 th day. Neither major complication nor conversion was recorded. 1 patient presented leakage of urine for 7 days from the drainage which resolved spontaneously. At ultrasound follow-up, 5 patients showed a secondary perirenal cyst, 2-5 cm diameter that resolved spontaneously. Conclusion: The results indicate that laparoscopic upper pole heminephrectomy is the treatment of choice in cases of non-functioning dilated lower segments of duplicated kidneys. The use of laparoscopic approach offers a good working space, a good visual control of the vessels and allows a very low isolation of the ureteral stump which counterbalance the peritoneal violation.

  12. The association between malaria parasitaemia, erythrocyte polymorphisms, malnutrition and anaemia in children less than 10 years in Senegal: a case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tine Roger CK

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria and anaemia (Haemoglobin Methods Study participants were randomly selected from a list of children who participated in a survey in December 2010. Children aged from 1 to 10 years with haemoglobin level below 11 g/dl represented cases (anaemic children. Control participants were eligible if of same age group and their haemoglobin level was >= 11 g/dl. For each participant, a physical examination was done and anthropometric data collected prior to a biological assessment which included: malaria parasitaemia infection, intestinal worm carriage, G6PD deficiency, sickle cell disorders, and alpha-talassaemia. Results Three hundred and fifty two children 5 years (aOR=0.03, 95%CI[0.01-0.08]. Stratified by age group, anaemia was significantly associated with stunting in children less than 5 years (aOR=3.1 95%CI[1.4 – 6.8], with, sickle cell disorders (aOR=3.5 95%CI [1.4 – 9.0], alpha-thalassemia (or=2.4 95%CI[1.1–5.3] and stunting (aOR=3.6 95%CI [1.6–8.2] for children above 5 years. No association was found between G6PD deficiency, intestinal worm carriage and children’s gender. Conclusion Malaria parasitaemia, stunting and haemoglobin genetic disorders represented the major causes of anaemia among study participants. Anaemia control in this area could be achieved by developing integrated interventions targeting both malaria and malnutrition.

  13. Development of Inferencing Skills in 5 to 7 Year Old Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anne, V.; Ramasamy, K.

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated the development of inferencing in five to seven year old children. The subjects consisted of thirty typically developing children of five, six and seven years, distributed into three groups of ten. Four sets of material were prepared and for each two types of questions were constructed. The questions being of literal…

  14. Caries risk profiles in 2- to 6-year-old Greek children using the Cariogram

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kavvadia, Katerina; Agouropoulos, Andreas; Gizani, Sotiria

    2012-01-01

    To assess the caries risk profiles in 2- to 6-year-old Greek children using a computer-based program and to evaluate the contribution of various risk factors.......To assess the caries risk profiles in 2- to 6-year-old Greek children using a computer-based program and to evaluate the contribution of various risk factors....

  15. Determinants of developmental coordination disorder in 7-year-old children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faebo Larsen, Rikke; Hvas Mortensen, Laust; Martinussen, Torben;

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate early life determinants of developmental coordination disorder (DCD) in 7-year-old children.......The aim of this study was to investigate early life determinants of developmental coordination disorder (DCD) in 7-year-old children....

  16. Speech Characteristics of 8-Year-Old Children: Findings from a Prospective Population Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wren, Yvonne; McLeod, Sharynne; White, Paul; Miller, Laura L.; Roulstone, Sue

    2013-01-01

    Speech disorder that continues into middle childhood is rarely studied compared with speech disorder in the early years. Speech production in single words, connected speech and nonword repetition was assessed for 7390 eight-year-old children within the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). The majority (n=6399) had typical…

  17. Participation in School Food and Nutrition Activities among Grade 6-8 Students in Vancouver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Teya A; Black, Jennifer L; Chapman, Gwen E; Velazquez, Cayley E; Rojas, Alejandro

    2016-09-01

    This study examined student-reported participation in school food and nutrition activities in Vancouver, British Columbia (BC), and whether engagement differed by gender and between elementary and secondary school students. A cross-sectional survey of grade 6-8 public school students (n = 937) from 20 elementary and 6 secondary schools assessed student-reported participation in a range of food and nutrition activities. Statistical analyses included descriptive statistics and multilevel logistic regression to examine associations between participation with gender and school type. Overall, students reported engaging in most of the food and nutrition activities examined in the 2011-2012 school year, including: food preparation (36%), choosing/tasting healthy foods (27%), learning about Canada's Food Guide (CFG) (45%), learning about foods grown in BC (35%), gardening (21%), composting (32%), and recycling (51%). Females were more likely to report recycling and learning about CFG and BC-grown foods (P students were more likely to report activities focused on working with or learning about food/nutrition (P students in food and nutrition experiences, participation in most activities remains relatively low, with few students exposed to multiple activities. Continued advocacy is needed from the dietetics community to improve student engagement in food and nutrition activities.

  18. Hydatid cyst in children: A 10-year experience from Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid Aslanabadi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hydatid disease is one of the major world-wide health problems especially in endemic countries. Due to lack of statistics about this disease, various aspects of hydatidosis in children in North-West of Iran have been studied in this study. Materials and Methods: We studied 59 children with hydatidosis referring Tabriz Children Hospital, Tabriz, Iran from 2001 up to 2011. We surveyed chief complaint of patients, number, size and location of cysts in children and also we studied cysts as if they are infected or ruptured or not. Results: Average age of 59 patients (32 [54.2%] males and 27 [45.8%] females was 7.93 ± 3.0. The most common chief complaints were cough and pain. Number of cysts was higher in females (2.00 ± 2.8 vs. 1.52 ± 1.0. The most common locations of cysts are lung and liver (52 patients; however, other organs had been also affected. Conclusions: Lung hydatidosis is more common than hepatic hydatidosis in children than adults and it is more frequent in males. Hydatid disease should be considered in differential diagnoses of liver and lung cystic lesions in children.

  19. Prescribing Analysis for 2–5 Years Old Children in Bandung During Year 2012

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    Ami A. Pratiwi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite the fact that irrational use of drugs will give medication errors effect or cause the unwanted side effects. The National Drug Policy (KONAS has developed drug policies that involve all stake-holders in Indonesia in order to minimize the irrational drug use. This study aims to analyze drug prescribing for 2–5 years old children in 14 pharmacies in Bandung during 2012. Approximately 2,195 prescription sheets from 14 pharmacies in Bandung were collected and analyzed by using prescribing indicators from the World Health Organization (WHO. We found an average number of 3.54 drugs in a prescription-sheet. We also found that 75% and 0% of all patients received antibiotics and injection, respectively. In particular, approximately 8% and 33% of all prescribed drugs were included in generic drug list and National List of Essential Medicines (DOEN, respectively. Based on data from the WHO and KONAS, it can be interpreted that the average number of drugs in a prescription-sheet is still high and the use of antibiotics is significantly higher compared to the use of antibiotics in other developing countries. Also, we summarized that the use of drugs according to generic drug list and DOEN are still low.

  20. Assessment of dental caries predictors in 6-year-old school children - results from 5-year retrospective cohort study

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    Masood Mohd

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This was a retrospective cohort study undertaken to assess the rate and pattern of dental caries development in 6-year-old school children followed-up for a period of 5 years, and to identify baseline risk factors that were associated with 5 years caries experience in Malaysian children. Methods This 5-years retrospective cohort study comprised primary school children initially aged 6 years in 2004. Caries experience of each child was recorded annually using World Health Organization criteria. The rates of dental caries were recorded in prevalence and incidence density of carious lesions from baseline to final examination. Risk assessment was done to assess relative risk for caries after 5 years in children with baseline caries status. Simple and multiple logistic regression analysis were performed to identify significant independent risk factors for caries. Results The sample consisted of 1830 school children. All components of DMFT showed significant differences between baseline and final examination. Filled teeth (FT component of the DMFT showed the greatest increases. Results revealed the initial baseline caries level in permanent dentition was a strong predictor for future caries after 5 years (RR=3.78, 95% CI=3.48-4.10, P0.001. Logistic regression analysis showed significant association between caries occurrence and residence (urban/rural (OR=1.80, Pp observed from baseline and after 5 years was 5.80 persons/100 person-year of observation. The rate of new caries-affected tooth (IDt in the period from baseline and after 5-years was 0.76 teeth/100 teeth-year of observation. Conclusion The majority of 12-year-old school children (70% were caries-free and most of the caries were concentrated in only a small proportion (30% of them. We found that the presence of caries in permanent teeth at the age of 6 years was a strong predictor of future caries development in this population. The strong evidence of early permanent teeth

  1. Lexical Development in Mandarin-English Bilingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Li; Lu, Ying; Kan, Pui Fong

    2011-01-01

    Two groups of Mandarin-English bilingual children (3-5-year-olds, 6-8-year-olds) participated in a picture identification task and a picture naming task in both languages. Results revealed age-related growth in English, but not Mandarin vocabulary. Composite vocabulary was larger than either single-language vocabulary in the younger children but…

  2. Voiding dysfunction in children aged five to 15 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karaklajić Dragana

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Voiding dysfunction in children was analyzed in 91 patients in a period from January 1st to October 1st 1998. Most of the patients had functional voiding disorder (92.31%, and only 7.69% manifested monosymptomatic night enuresis. The number of girls was bigger in the group of patients with voiding dysfunction while the boys were predominant in the group with mono-symptomatic nocturnal enuresis. More than a half of children with functional voiding disorder had repeated urinal infections (58.23%, incontinence (93.49%, need for urgent voiding (68.13%, and vesicoureteral reflux (47.61%. The most common type of voiding dysfunction was urge syndrome/urge incontinence. The incidence of dysfunctional voiding disorder was more often in children with scaring changes of kidney which were diagnosed by static scintigraphy.

  3. A 6 year Geohelminth infection profile of children at high altitude in Western Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VS Binu

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Geohelminth infections are a major problem of children from the developing countries. Children with these infections suffer from developmental impairments and other serious illnesses. This study aimed to measure the prevalence of geohelminth infection, infection intensity as well as the change in the intensity in children from Western Nepal over years. Methods This 6-year hospital based prospective study at the Manipal Teaching Hospital, Pokhara included children ( Results The overall prevalence in hospital - attending children was 9.2% with 7.6% in preschool (0 – 5 y and 11.0% in school-age (6 – 15 y children, and in community 17.7% with 14.8% in pre-school and 20.5% in school-age children. Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Ancylostoma deodenale and Strongyloides stercoralis were the common geohelminths with a gradual decrease in worm load over the years. School-age children were found to be significantly more prone to geohelminth infection as compared to preschool children, but no statistical difference was detected by gender, district as well as season. Conclusion This heavy infection of geohelminths in children should be corrected by appropriate medication and maintaining strict personal hygiene. Health education, clean water, good sewage management and a congenial environment should be ensured to minimise infection.

  4. The relation of hearing loss degrees and oral stereognosis in 5-year-old children

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    Seyede Zohre Mousavi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Oral stereognosis is the ability to recognize the objects placed in the mouth; this plays a significant role in speech sounds production. Since the children with hearing loss have articulation disorders, this study aimed to clear the relation of hearing loss degrees and oral stereognosis in 5-year-old children.Methods: In this cross-sectional non-invasive study, 40 children of 5-year-old (30 children with different degrees of hearing loss and 10 normal children were involved. Oral steriognostic test was done for all of them and the Mann-Whitney U was used for statistical analysis.Results: There were significant differences between the mean of oral stereognostic ability between the normal children and the children with severe (p<0.01 or profound hearing loss (p=0.05. There was no significant difference between the mean of oral stereognostic ability among the children with moderate, severe and profound hearing loss compared with together. Besides, there was no significant difference between the mean of the time of diagnosis among all of hearing loss and normal children.Conclusion: The study shows that the children with moderate, severe and profound hearing loss have inefficient oral stereognosis in comparison with the normal children.

  5. Developing Resilient Children: After 100 Years of Montessori Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Meg

    2008-01-01

    In this millennium, educators are faced with a number of issues that Dr. Maria Montessori could not have predicted. Today, students are different from the children Dr. Montessori observed in her "Casa dei Bambini." They are influenced by technology in all its forms. Some suffer from medical problems such as complex food allergies, which wreak…

  6. Television Commercial Preferences of Children Aged 3-6 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurtsever Kilicgun, Muge

    2016-01-01

    Problem Statement: When children watch television, they are exposed to commercial advertisements whose general purpose is to make a positive impression on viewers about a commodity or service in order to drive the sales of that commodity or service. Due to their voiced and moving images, their setup and characters, and their being short and…

  7. Recommended Immunizations for Children from 7 Through 18 Years Old

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... jaw, fever, muscle aches, tiredness, abdominal pain, and loss of appetite. Severe complications for children who get mumps are uncom- mon, but can include meningitis (infection of the covering of the brain and spinal cord), encephalitis ... hearing loss, or swelling of the testes, which rarely results ...

  8. An overview on importance, synthetic strategies and studies of 2,4,6,8,10,12-hexanitro-2,4,6,8,10,12-hexaazaisowurtzitane (HNIW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Venkata Viswanath

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available 2,4,6,8,10,12-Hexanitro-2,4,6,8,10,12-hexaazaisowurtzitane (HNIW, commonly called as CL-20, is a high energy and high density material of keen interest to both commercial and scientific worlds due to its greater insensitivity (reduced sensitivity along with a positive high heat of formation, which is due to the azanitro groups attached to the skeleton of HNIW and its highly strained cage structure. It plays a remarkable role in modification and replacement of most of the propellant (gun and rocket preparations. In this report we present the comparative strategies involved in the syntheses of HNIW with respect to economical and environmental aspects. Various methods reported in the literature on the purification of the crude HNIW (α-HNIW to obtain ε-form of HNIW (high dense/more potential are consolidated. Understanding of the structure, morphology, energetics, thermal behavior and their modification to meet the applicability (decreased impact sensitivity determines the industrial application of HNIW. A compilation of the available literature on the aforementioned characteristic properties for obtaining a value added ε-HNIW is discussed here. This overview also reports the literature available on newer forms of HNIW including derivatives and cocrystals, which increase the performance of HNIW.

  9. 10-Formyl-2,4,6,8,12-pentanitro-2,4,6,8,10,12-hexaazatetracyclo[5.5.0.05,9.03,11]dodecane acetone solvate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huaxiong Chen

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C7H7N11O11·C3H6O, consisting of one molecule of 10-formyl-2,4,6,8,12-pentanitro-2,4,6,8,10,12-hexaazatetracyclo[5.5.0.05,9.03,11]dodecane (pentanitromonoformylhexaazaisowurtzitane, PNMFIW and one acetone solvent molecule, is a member of the caged hexaazaisowurtzitane family. PNMFIW has a cage structure which is constructed from one six-membered and two five-membered rings which are linked by a C—C bond, thus creating two seven-membered rings. In the PNMFIW molecule, one formyl group is bonded to the N heteroatom of the six-membered cycle, and five nitro groups are appended to other five N heteroatom of the caged structure. The acetone solvent molecule is arranged beside a five-membered plane of PNMFIW with an O atom and an H atom close (with respect to the sum of the van der Waals radii to the neighbouring nitro O atom [O...O = 2.957 (3 and 2.852 (3 Å; O... H = 2.692 (2, 2.526 (3 and 2.432 (3 Å].

  10. Profile and outcome of neuroblastoma with convertional chemotherapy in children older than one year: a 15-years experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Deepak; Marwaha, R K; Trehan, Amita; Rao, K L N; Gupta, Vishal

    2008-02-01

    The clinical profile and outcome of neuroblastoma in 103 children, older than one-year is presented. 74 had Stage IV, 27 Stage III and one patient each had Stage I or II disease. Treatment included chemotherapy followed by surgical resection/debulking. Radiotherapy was administered to those with residual tumor. Chemotherapy consisted of OPEC (vincristine, cyclophosphamide, cisplatin and etoposide). The caretakers of 54 (52.4%) children either did not opt for or defaulted therapy, whilst 3 patients died before chemotherapy could be initiated. Of the remaining 46 patients, the tumor progressed during therapy in 19 (41.3%). Relapse of disease was documented in 22 (47.8%) cases. Merely 4 (8.7%) children are disease free for a period of 16.5+/-6.7 months. Majority of children presented with advanced disease and the outcome was dismal with conventional non-myloablative chemotherapy.

  11. The paediatric flat foot and general anthropometry in 140 Australian school children aged 7 - 10 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evans Angela M

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many studies have found a positive relationship between increased body weight and flat foot posture in children. Methods From a study population of 140 children aged seven to 10 years, a sample of 31 children with flat feet was identified by screening with the FPI-6. Basic anthropometric measures were compared between subjects with and without flat feet as designated. Results The results of this study, in contrast to many others, question the association of flat feet and heavy children. A significant relationship between foot posture and weight (FPI (L r = -0.186 (p Conclusions This study presents results which conflict with those of many previous investigations addressing the relationship between children's weight and foot posture. In contrast to previous studies, the implication of these results is that heavy children have less flat feet. Further investigation is warranted using a standardized approach to assessment and a larger sample of children to test this apparent contradiction.

  12. School functioning in 8- to 18-year-old children born after in vitro fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagenaar, Karin; Ceelen, Manon; van Weissenbruch, Mirjam M; Knol, Dirk L; Delemarre-van de Waal, Henriette A; Huisman, Jaap

    2008-11-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the school functioning of 8- to 18-year-old children born after in vitro fertilization (IVF). We compared 233 children born after IVF to 233 matched control children born spontaneously from parents with fertility problems on measures of education level, general cognitive ability, school performance (need for extra help, repeating a grade, special education), and rates of learning and developmental disorders. No differences were found between IVF and control children on these measures of school functioning. More than 60% of adolescents at secondary school attended high academic levels (with access to high school or university). We conclude that children and adolescents born after IVF show good academic achievement and general cognitive ability. They do not experience any more educational limitations than the naturally conceived children and adolescents of the control group. The tendency of reassuring school functioning already found in younger IVF children has been shown to continue at secondary school age.

  13. Five-year-old children's tuning-in and negotiation strategies in an immunization situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harder, Maria; Christensson, Kyllike; Coyne, Imelda; Söderbäck, Maja

    2011-06-01

    In this article, we have explored 5-year-old children's expressions when they as actors took part in an immunization situation in the Primary Child Health Care (PCHC) service in Sweden. Although children's health and development are the main concern in the PCHC service, their perspectives in such a setting have not been explored fully. To capture children's perspectives we used a hermeneutic design and video observations. The findings revealed children as competent and active participants, contributing to the construction of the PCHC situation in mutuality with the nurse and the parent. The conceptualization of children's expressions and actions revealed how they influenced and dealt with a PCHC situation by using strategies of tuning-in, affirmative negotiation, and delaying negotiation. Understanding children's actions will assist nurses to act with sensitivity when they encounter and support children.

  14. Oral health status of 5 years and 12 years school going children in Chennai city - An epidemiological study

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    Mahesh Kumar P

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available India, a developing country, faces many challenges in rendering oral health needs. The majority of Indian population resides in rural areas of which more than 40% constitute children. The purpose of this study was to assess the oral health status of 5 years and 12 years school going children in Chennai city. The study population consisted of 1200 school children of both the sexes (600 private and 600 corporation school children in 30 schools, which had been selected randomly. The survey is based on WHO, 1999 Oral Health Assessment, which has been modified by including gingival assessment, enamel opacities/ hypoplasia for 5 years. Evaluation of the oral health status of these children revealed, dental caries is the most prevalent disease affecting permanent teeth, more than primary teeth and more in corporation than in private schools, thereby, correlating with the socioeconomic status. It may be concluded that the greatest need of dental health education is at an early age including proper instruction of oral hygiene practices and school based preventive programs, which would help in improving preventive dental behaviour and attitude which is beneficial for life time.

  15. Prevalence and factors associated with preoperative anxiety in children aged 5-12 years

    OpenAIRE

    Louise Amália de Moura; Iohanna Maria Guimarães Dias; Lilian Varanda Pereira

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: to estimate the prevalence and factors associated with preoperative anxiety in children who wait for outpatient surgery. Method: cross-sectional analysis of baseline data of a prospective cohort study that investigates the predictors of postoperative pain in children aged 5-12 years submitted to inguinal and umbilical hernia repair. It was selected 210 children, which were interviewed in the preoperative holding area of a general hospital. Anxiety was evaluated using the...

  16. Loss of control eating disorder in children age 12 years and younger: proposed research criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Marcus, Marsha D; Yanovski, Susan Z; Yanovski, Jack A

    2008-08-01

    Binge eating is common in middle childhood (6-12 years) and often presents in concert with disordered eating attitudes, emotional distress, overweight and adiposity. Binge eating is also predictive of excessive weight gain and is associated with energy intake. However, few children meet DSM-IV-TR criteria for binge eating disorder, thereby making treatment recommendations a challenge. We propose criteria for a new diagnosis, Loss of Control Eating Disorder in Children age 12 years and younger, for further study. The criteria put forward are a revision of Marcus and Kalarchian's [Marcus, M.D., & Kalarchian, M.A. (2003). Binge eating in children and adolescents. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 34 Suppl, S47-S57.] provisional binge eating disorder research criteria for children 14 years and younger, and are based upon the evolving literature in children with binge and loss of control eating episodes. A rationale for the new criteria set is provided, and future research directions are proposed.

  17. The health level in children under 6 years Commune 20 Santiago de Cali (2014

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    Lina María García Zapata

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: A series of projects aimed to reducing morbidity and mortality rates on children below 6 years old, in Commune 20 of Cali, Colombia. Material and methods: A cross-sectional study based on a random sample of 114 children less than six years old, were examined before Primary Health Care interventions were applied. Results: 65% of the children ages were between 3 and 4 years old, 81.65 are mestizos and 51% live in nuclear families. The prevalence of initial carious lesions and cavitated as ICDAS criteria was 67.54% (95%CI 58.8-76, 27%, the proportion of healthy children was 32.45%, and 33% of the children were overweight. Conclusions: The baseline health conditions in this population are consistent with health situation analysis for the paediatric population of Cali. 

  18. Position of the American Dietetic Association: Dietary guidance for healthy children ages 2 to 11 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicklas, Thersea; Johnson, Rachel

    2004-04-01

    It is the position of the American Dietetic Association that children ages 2 to 11 years should achieve optimal physical and cognitive development, attain a healthy weight, enjoy food, and reduce the risk of chronic disease through appropriate eating habits and participation in regular physical activity. The health status of American children has generally improved over the past three decades. However, the number of children who are overweight has more than doubled among 2- to 5-year-old children and more than tripled among 6- to 11-year-old children, which has major health consequences. This increase in childhood overweight has broadened the focus of dietary guidance to address children's over consumption of energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods and beverages and physical activity patterns. Health promotion will help reduce diet-related risks of chronic degenerative diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, cancer, obesity, and osteoporosis. This position paper reviews what US children are eating and explores trends in food and nutrient intakes as well as the impact of school meals on children's diets. Dietary recommendations and guidelines and the benefits of physical activity are also discussed. The roles of parents and caregivers in influencing the development of healthy eating behaviors are highlighted. The American Dietetic Association works with other allied health and food industry professionals to translate dietary recommendations and guidelines into achievable, healthful messages. Specific recommendations to improve the nutritional well-being of children are provided for dietetics professionals, parents, and caregivers.

  19. Respiratory Viruses Associated Hospitalization among Children Aged <5 Years in Bangladesh: 2010-2014.

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    Nusrat Homaira

    Full Text Available We combined hospital-based surveillance and health utilization survey data to estimate the incidence of respiratory viral infections associated hospitalization among children aged < 5 years in Bangladesh.Surveillance physicians collected respiratory specimens from children aged <5 years hospitalized with respiratory illness and residing in the primary hospital catchment areas. We tested respiratory specimens for respiratory syncytial virus, parainfluenza viruses, human metapneumovirus, influenza, adenovirus and rhinoviruses using rRT-PCR. During 2013, we conducted a health utilization survey in the primary catchment areas of the hospitals to determine the proportion of all hospitalizations for respiratory illness among children aged <5 years at the surveillance hospitals during the preceding 12 months. We estimated the respiratory virus-specific incidence of hospitalization by dividing the estimated number of hospitalized children with a laboratory confirmed infection with a respiratory virus by the population aged <5 years of the catchment areas and adjusted for the proportion of children who were hospitalized at the surveillance hospitals.We estimated that the annual incidence per 1000 children (95% CI of all cause associated respiratory hospitalization was 11.5 (10-12. The incidences per 1000 children (95% CI per year for respiratory syncytial virus, parainfluenza, adenovirus, human metapneumovirus and influenza infections were 3(2-3, 0.5(0.4-0.8, 0.4 (0.3-0.6, 0.4 (0.3-0.6, and 0.4 (0.3-0.6 respectively. The incidences per 1000 children (95%CI of rhinovirus-associated infections among hospitalized children were 5 (3-7, 2 (1-3, 1 (0.6-2, and 3 (2-4 in 2010, 2011, 2012 and 2013, respectively.Our data suggest that respiratory viruses are associated with a substantial burden of hospitalization in children aged <5 years in Bangladesh.

  20. Children's physical play in the group 1−2 years

    OpenAIRE

    Bevc, Mateja

    2012-01-01

    In my thesis I wanted to present a variety of physical games or activities and their importance for the child's physical-motor development. The theoretical part is divided into five parts. In the first part, a few words about what is a game, its creation, its definition and nature. The second section describes motor development, factors of movement, children's physical activity, classification of motion ... The following part is abour dance, dance education, development of dance abilitie...

  1. Clustering of Dietary Intake and Sedentary Behavior in 2-Year-Old Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gubbels, J.S.; Kremers, S.P.J.; Stafleu, A.; Dagnelie, P.C.; Vries, S.I.de; Vries, N.K.de; Thijs, C.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine clustering of energy balance-related behaviors (EBRBs) in young children. This is crucial because lifestyle habits are formed at an early age and track in later life. This study is the first to examine EBRB clustering in children as young as 2 years. Study design: Cross-section

  2. Comparing 9 to 10 Years Old Children's Performance in Tennis and Physical Fitness Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olcucu, Burcin

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study is to determine the degree of performance-related physical coordination of elementary education children (male and female) that play tennis according to their age and gender and to investigate the relationship between their motor ability tests and performances. A total of 210 children tennis players (9 to 10 years; 105 males…

  3. Improving Social Competence through Emotion Knowledge in 2-Year-Old Children: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giménez-Dasí, Marta; Fernández-Sánchez, Marta; Quintanilla, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings: The goal of this study was to determine the efficacy of an educational intervention program to improve emotion knowledge, emotion regulation, and social competence in 2-year-old Spanish children. This study makes two original contributions because there are no validated education programs for such young children and because it…

  4. Recovering from 30 Years of War: Refugee Women and Children in Angola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Women's Commission for Refugee Women and Children, New York, NY.

    After 30 years of war, Angola faces the challenge of creating a civil society. This report presents key findings of a visit to Angola, December 1-13, 1996, by the Women's Commission for Refugee Women and Children. The report describes conditions facing women and children affected by war in Angola, addresses the return process of refugees from…

  5. Improving Children's Lives, Transforming the Future--25 Years of Child Rights in South Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    UNICEF, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Despite rapid economic growth in South Asia, strong inequalities persist and children pay a heavy price. This publication examines latest trends and data on children in the eight countries of the region. It highlights what has been achieved in the 25 years since the adoption of the Convention on the Rights of the Child--and what remains to be done.

  6. Children Treated for Nocturnal Enuresis: Characteristics and Trends over a 15-Year Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushnir, Jonathan; Kushnir, Baruch; Sadeh, Avi

    2013-01-01

    Background: Nocturnal Enuresis (NE) is one of the most prevalent childhood disorders and has significant negative psychosocial impact on the child and family. Objective: To assess the characteristics of children with NE and trends over a 15-year period. Methods: The study included 18,677 children [11,205 (60%) boys and 7,472 (40%) girls] referred…

  7. Ten-Year Research Update Review: Psychiatric Problems in Children with Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plioplys, Sigita; Dunn, David W.; Caplan, Rochelle

    2007-01-01

    The research on epilepsy, a neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by seizures, psychopathology, cognitive, and linguistic problems among children in the age group of 0 to 18 years is reported. Early identification of children with epilepsy (CWE) and the development of multidisciplinary management strategies would advance relevant clinical…

  8. A Measure of Inspection Time in 4-Year-Old Children: The Benny Bee IT Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Sarah E.; Turley, Christopher; Nettelbeck, Ted; Burns, Nicholas R.

    2009-01-01

    Inspection time (IT) measures speed of information processing without the confounding influence of motor speed. While IT has been found to relate to cognitive abilities in adults and older children, no measure of IT has been validated for use with children younger than 6 years. This study examined the validity of a new measure of IT for preschool…

  9. Culture and diet among Chinese American children aged 9–13 years: A qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study examined Chinese American children's behaviors, food preferences, and cultural influences on their diet. Qualitative individual interviews were conducted with twenty-five Chinese American children aged 9-13 years in community centers and Chinese schools in Houston, TX using constructs fro...

  10. Early Childhood Settings and Funded Two-Year-Old Children: Experiences from Four Settings in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phair, Heleanna; Davis, Geraldine

    2015-01-01

    In 2013 funding was introduced to support disadvantaged two-year-old children to attend early childhood settings in England. This study explores the experiences of four early childhood settings as they worked with these funded children for the first time. Using interviews and observations within the settings, findings demonstrate some adjustment…

  11. 3-Year-Old Children Make Relevance Inferences in Indirect Verbal Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, Cornelia; Grassmann, Susanne; Tomasello, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Three studies investigated 3-year-old children's ability to determine a speaker's communicative intent when the speaker's overt utterance related to that intent only indirectly. Studies 1 and 2 examined children's comprehension of indirectly stated requests (e.g., "I find Xs good" can imply, in context, a request for…

  12. Subfoveal choroidal thickness in 1323 children aged 11-12 years and association with puberty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xiao Qiang; Jeppesen, Pia; Larsen, Michael;

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate subfoveal choroidal thickness and ocular and systemic associated factors in a population-based cohort of children. Methods: Cross-sectional, observational study where 1323 healthy 11 and 12 year-old children were examined with enhanced-depth imaging spectral domain optical...

  13. Musculoskeletal Complaints Among 11-Year-Old Children and Associated Factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulsegge, Gerben; van Oostrom, Sandra H.; Picavet, H. Susan J.; Twisk, Jos W. R.; Postma, Dirkje S.; Kerkhof, Marjan; Smit, Henriette A.; Wijga, Alet H.

    2011-01-01

    Musculoskeletal complaints (MSC) are common among children, often persist into adolescence, and increase the risk of MSC in adulthood. Knowledge regarding determinants of MSC among children is limited. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of MSC at age 11 years and to examine associ

  14. Effect of Rearing Environment on the Feeding Pattern of under Two Years Old Nigerian Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asekun-Olarinmoye, Esther Olufunmilayo; Lawoyin, Taiwo Olubanke; Asekun-Olarinmoye, Ifeoluwapo Oyebola

    2011-01-01

    With economic pressures on families increasing, more women are working outside the home leaving their children in day care centres. In a community-based, descriptive cross-sectional study, the feeding pattern in two groups of children under two years old, cared for in two different rearing environments: home environment and day care centres, was…

  15. Cultivating the Genius of Black Children: Strategies to Close the Achievement Gap in the Early Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Debra Ren-Etta

    2016-01-01

    There has been much attention given to the opportunity gap between white and minority students, especially African American children. Using research and years of experience "Cultivating the Genius of Black Children" is able to break down the cultural influences on learning style and provides a practical approach to helping Black children…

  16. Treating Sexually Abused Children: 1 Year Follow-Up of a Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, J.A.; Mannarino, A.P.; Knudsen, K.

    2005-01-01

    Objective:: To measure the durability of improvement in response to two alternative treatments for sexually abused children. Method:: Eighty-two sexually abused children ages 8-15 years old and their primary caretakers were randomly assigned to trauma-focused cognitive-behavioral therapy (TF-CBT) or non-directive supportive therapy (NST) delivered…

  17. Categorization of Regional and Foreign Accent in 5- to 7-Year-Old British Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floccia, Caroline; Butler, Joseph; Girard, Frederique; Goslin, Jeremy

    2009-01-01

    This study examines children's ability to detect accent-related information in connected speech. British English children aged 5 and 7 years old were asked to discriminate between their home accent from an Irish accent or a French accent in a sentence categorization task. Using a preliminary accent rating task with adult listeners, it was first…

  18. Early Predictors of Biliteracy Development in Children in French Immersion: A 4-Year Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jared, Debra; Cormier, Pierre; Levy, Betty Ann; Wade-Woolley, Lesly

    2011-01-01

    English language predictors of English and French reading development were investigated in a group of 140 children who were enrolled in French immersion programs. Children were first tested in kindergarten, and their reading achievement was tested yearly in both English and French from Grades 1 to 3, with word-level and passage-level measures that…

  19. Parenting clinically anxious versus healthy control children aged 4-12 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Sluis, C.M.; van Steensel, F.J.A.; Bögels, S.M.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated whether parenting behaviors differed between parents of 68 clinically anxious children and 106 healthy control children aged 4-12 years. The effects of parent gender, child gender and child age on parenting were explored. Mothers and fathers completed a questionnaire to asses

  20. Thermal detection thresholds in 5-year-old preterm born children; IQ does matter.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaf, J. de; Valkenburg, A.J.; Tibboel, D.; Dijk, M.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Experiencing pain at newborn age may have consequences on one's somatosensory perception later in life. Children's perception for cold and warm stimuli may be determined with the Thermal Sensory Analyzer (TSA) device by two different methods. AIM: This pilot study in 5-year-old children

  1. Eating Problems at Age 6 Years in a Whole Population Sample of Extremely Preterm Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samara, Muthanna; Johnson, Samantha; Lamberts, Koen; Marlow, Neil; Wolke, Dieter

    2010-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of eating problems and their association with neurological and behavioural disabilities and growth among children born extremely preterm (EPC) at age 6 years. Method: A standard questionnaire about eating was completed by parents of 223 children (125 males [56.1%], 98 females [43.9%])…

  2. Children's Understanding of Communicative Intentions in the Middle of the Second Year of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aureli, Tiziana; Perucchini, Paola; Genco, Maria

    2009-01-01

    Two tasks were administered to 40 children aged from 16 to 20 months (mean age = 18;1), to evaluate children's understanding of declarative and informative intention [Behne, T., Carpenter, M., & Tomasello, M. (2005). One-year-olds comprehend the communicative intentions behind gestures in a hiding game. "Developmental Science", 8, 492-499;…

  3. Childhood obesity: the extent of the problem among 6-year-old Irish national school children.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Evans, D S

    2011-05-01

    Childhood obesity is rapidly increasing worldwide. In Ireland, the number of overweight children has trebled over the last decade. The study aimed to provide an assessment of the prevalence of obesity of 6-year-old children in one region of Ireland.

  4. Moral and Social Development: Teachers' Knowledge of Children's Learning and Teaching Strategies in the Early Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulton-Lewis, Gillian; Brownlee, Joanne; Walker, Sue; Cobb-Moore, Charlotte; Johansson, Eva

    2011-01-01

    The intention of the analysis in this paper was to determine, from interviews with 11 early years' teachers, what informed their knowledge of children's learning and teaching strategies regarding moral development. Overall, the analysis revealed four main categories: definitions of moral behaviour, understanding of children's learning, pedagogy…

  5. Social conformity persists at least one day in 6-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Sai; Yu, Rongjun

    2016-12-21

    Humans have a tendency to forgo their own attitudes or beliefs in order to better align with the interests of a majority, a behavioral process known as conformity. Social conformity has been widely studied among adults and adolescents, whereas experimental studies on the impact of peer influence among young children have been relatively limited. The current study aims to investigate both short-term and sustained conforming behaviors among children in situations of relatively low social pressure. Forty-one children aged 5 to 6 years rated the attractiveness of 90 faces presented serially followed by witnessing a group rating in the absence of peers. Subsequently, second judgement was made after 30 minutes (Experiment 1). Results show that 6-year-old children tended to conform to their peers when group ratings differed from their own ratings, while younger children did not. In Experiment 2, children were required to make the second judgment one day after exposure to group ratings. Similarly, children aged 6 years exhibited a sustained conformity effect even after one day. Our findings suggest that 6-year-old children spontaneously change their private opinions under implicit social influence from peers.

  6. Adult Children and Their Fathers: Relationship Changes 20 Years after Parental Divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrons, Constance R.; Tanner, Jennifer L.

    2003-01-01

    Examines adult children's reports of relationship changes with their fathers were 20 years after their parents' divorce. Findings indicated that most adult children felt that their relationships with their fathers had either improved or remained stable over time. Custody did not directly affect reported changes in the quality of their relationship…

  7. DSM-IV Diagnoses and Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Children Before and 1 Year after Adenotonsillectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, James E.; Blunden, Sarah; Ruzicka, Deborah L.; Guire, Kenneth E.; Champine, Donna; Weatherly, Robert A.; Hodges, Elise K.; Giordani, Bruno J.; Chervin, Ronald D.

    2007-01-01

    DSM-IV criteria-based psychiatric diagnoses done in children before and one year after adenotonsillectomy are assessed to record any improvement in behavior. It is found that surgery might be associated with reduced behavioral morbidity.

  8. Preventing Dental Caries in Children from Birth Through Age Five Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it might mean for you. What are dental caries? Dental caries, also known as tooth decay, occurs when bacteria ... May 2014 Task Force FINAL Recommendation | 1 Preventing Dental Caries in Children from Birth Through Age Five Years ...

  9. Asthma in seven year old children: a report from the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Child Development Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sears, M R; Jones, D T; Silva, P A; Simpson, A; Williams, S M

    1982-08-11

    The prevalence of asthma between birth and seven years was determined by questionnaire in 875 children as part of the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Child Development Study. From the combinations of asthma and/or wheezing reported in association with bronchitis, hayfever, eczema and allergies, a diagnosis of certain or probable asthma was made in 12.6 percent of these children. A further 22.6 percent admitted to wheezing, but a diagnosis of asthma could not be made with any certainty. Bronchitis was reported frequently, usually associated with wheezing. Children with more obvious asthma showed a male preponderance and significant differences in body build and school attendance compared with asymptomatic children.

  10. Local and Global Processing in Blind and Sighted Children in a Naming and Drawing Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puspitawati, Ira; Jebrane, Ahmed; Vinter, Annie

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the spatial analysis of tactile hierarchical patterns in 110 early-blind children aged 6-8 to 16-18 years, as compared to 90 blindfolded sighted children, in a naming and haptic drawing task. The results revealed that regardless of visual status, young children predominantly produced local responses in both tasks, whereas…

  11. Supporting English Language Learners in Math Class, Grades 6-8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melanese, Kathy; Chung, Luz; Forbes, Cheryl

    2011-01-01

    This new addition to Math Solutions "Supporting English Language Learners in Math Class series" offers a wealth of lessons and strategies for modifying grades 6-8 instruction. Section I presents an overview of teaching math to English learners: the research, the challenges, the linguistic demands of a math lesson, and specific strategies and…

  12. It's All Connected: The Power of Proportional Reasoning to Understand Mathematics Concepts, Gr. 6-8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitman, Carmen

    2011-01-01

    "It's All Connected" provides teachers of mathematics the support they need to improve their instruction. This in-demand collection of lessons for grades 6-8 explores proportionality, proportional relationships, and proportional reasoning, acknowledging that the ability to reason proportionally is crucial in the middle school mathematics…

  13. International Space Station: 6-8 Hands-on Science and Math Lesson Plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Pat

    These lesson plans, designed for grades 6-8, have been developed to provide a guide to hands-on experience in science and math. They focus on an International Space Station and are designed for use with students working in groups. The three lesson plans highlighting the importance of the scientific method are: (1) International Space Station…

  14. Inhibited and Aggressive Preschool Children at 23 Years of Age: Personality and Social Transitions into Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asendorpf, Jens B.; Denissen, Jaap J. A.; van Aken, Marcel A. G.

    2008-01-01

    In a 19-year longitudinal study, the 15% most inhibited and the 15% most aggressive children at ages 4-6 years were followed up until age 23 years and were compared with controls who were below average in preschool inhibition or aggressiveness. As adults, inhibited boys and girls were judged as inhibited by their parents and showed a delay in…

  15. Risk factors for children's receptive vocabulary development from four to eight years in the longitudinal study of Australian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Catherine L; Christensen, Daniel; Lawrence, David; Mitrou, Francis; Zubrick, Stephen R

    2013-01-01

    Receptive vocabulary develops rapidly in early childhood and builds the foundation for language acquisition and literacy. Variation in receptive vocabulary ability is associated with variation in children's school achievement, and low receptive vocabulary ability is a risk factor for under-achievement at school. In this study, bivariate and multivariate growth curve modelling was used to estimate trajectories of receptive vocabulary development in relation to a wide range of candidate child, maternal and family level influences on receptive vocabulary development from 4-8 years. The study sample comprised 4332 children from the first nationally representative Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (LSAC). Predictors were modeled as risk variables with the lowest level of risk as the reference category. In the multivariate model, risks for receptive vocabulary delay at 4 years, in order of magnitude, were: Maternal Non- English Speaking Background (NESB), low school readiness, child not read to at home, four or more siblings, low family income, low birthweight, low maternal education, maternal mental health distress, low maternal parenting consistency, and high child temperament reactivity. None of these risks were associated with a lower rate of growth from 4-8 years. Instead, maternal NESB, low school readiness and maternal mental health distress were associated with a higher rate of growth, although not sufficient to close the receptive vocabulary gap for children with and without these risks at 8 years. Socio-economic area disadvantage, was not a risk for low receptive vocabulary ability at 4 years but was the only risk associated with a lower rate of growth in receptive vocabulary ability. At 8 years, the gap between children with and without socio-economic area disadvantage was equivalent to eight months of receptive vocabulary growth. These results are consistent with other studies that have shown that social gradients in children's developmental outcomes

  16. Risk factors for children's receptive vocabulary development from four to eight years in the longitudinal study of Australian children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine L Taylor

    Full Text Available Receptive vocabulary develops rapidly in early childhood and builds the foundation for language acquisition and literacy. Variation in receptive vocabulary ability is associated with variation in children's school achievement, and low receptive vocabulary ability is a risk factor for under-achievement at school. In this study, bivariate and multivariate growth curve modelling was used to estimate trajectories of receptive vocabulary development in relation to a wide range of candidate child, maternal and family level influences on receptive vocabulary development from 4-8 years. The study sample comprised 4332 children from the first nationally representative Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (LSAC. Predictors were modeled as risk variables with the lowest level of risk as the reference category. In the multivariate model, risks for receptive vocabulary delay at 4 years, in order of magnitude, were: Maternal Non- English Speaking Background (NESB, low school readiness, child not read to at home, four or more siblings, low family income, low birthweight, low maternal education, maternal mental health distress, low maternal parenting consistency, and high child temperament reactivity. None of these risks were associated with a lower rate of growth from 4-8 years. Instead, maternal NESB, low school readiness and maternal mental health distress were associated with a higher rate of growth, although not sufficient to close the receptive vocabulary gap for children with and without these risks at 8 years. Socio-economic area disadvantage, was not a risk for low receptive vocabulary ability at 4 years but was the only risk associated with a lower rate of growth in receptive vocabulary ability. At 8 years, the gap between children with and without socio-economic area disadvantage was equivalent to eight months of receptive vocabulary growth. These results are consistent with other studies that have shown that social gradients in children

  17. Severe episodic viral wheeze in preschool children : High risk of asthma at age 5-10 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kappelle, Lucie; Brand, Paul L. P.

    2012-01-01

    In population studies, most children with episodic viral wheeze (EVW) become symptom free by 6 years. We studied the outcome of children with severe EVW, treated and followed up in hospital. We followed up 78 children <4 years, managed by paediatricians for severe EVW, to the age of 5-10 years. We r

  18. Total Body Fat Content versus BMI in 4-Year-Old Healthy Swedish Children

    OpenAIRE

    Elisabet Forsum; Eva Flinke Carlsson; Hanna Henriksson; Pontus Henriksson; Marie Löf

    2013-01-01

    Childhood overweight and obesity, a worldwide problem, is generally identified using BMI (body mass index). However, this application of BMI has been little investigated in children below 5 years of age due to a lack of appropriate methods to assess body composition. Therefore, we used air displacement plethysmography (ADP) to study 4.4-year old boys and girls since this method is accurate in young children if they accept the requirements of the measurement. The purpose was to analyze the rel...

  19. Communication Skills Development of Musical Lessons for Children up to Three Years

    OpenAIRE

    Kušnere, Sandija

    2015-01-01

    The paper will be made theoretical and empirical research. The aim of the paper – to explore the musical lessons communication skills development for children up to tree years. The theoretical part of the paper will be based on scientific research in Latvian, Russian and European literature. In theory will be studied music lessons and musical diversity component applications to improve the communication skills of children up to three years. The empirical part will be described in musical acti...

  20. Formant frequencies of Malay vowels produced by Malay children aged between 7 and 12 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, Hua-Nong; Zourmand, Alireza; Chia, See-Yan; Yong, Boon-Fei; Abdul Hamid, Badrulzaman

    2012-09-01

    The formant frequencies of Malaysian Malay children have not been well studied. This article investigates the first four formant frequencies of sustained vowels in 360 Malay children aged between 7 and 12 years using acoustical analysis. Generally, Malay female children had higher formant frequencies than those of their male counterparts. However, no significant differences in all four formant frequencies were observed between the Malay male and female children in most of the vowels and age groups. Significant differences in all formant frequencies were found across the Malay vowels in both Malay male and female children for all age groups except for F4 in female children aged 12 years. Generally, the Malaysian Malay children showed a nonsystematic decrement in formant frequencies with age. Low levels of significant differences in formant frequencies were observed across the age groups in most of the vowels for F1, F3, and F4 in Malay male children and F1 and F4 in Malay female children.

  1. Sampling Survey of Disability in 0-6 Year-old Children in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUI ZHANG; XIN NA; SHAO-HUA GUO; ZHENG-LAI WU; SHAO-HUA BO; XI-TAN ZHANG; MIN LIU; ZHI-XIANG ZHANG; XIAO-LING YANG; SHU-RONG JI; HUA YAN; XIU-LI SUI

    2006-01-01

    Objective To investigate the current status of disabled children and prevalence of disabilities in children aged 0-6 years and their risk factors, and to provide scientific evidence for making relevant policies for disabled children. Methods In a community-based cross-sectional study, multi-phase, stratified, unequal proportional and cluster sampling was adopted to survey 60 124 children aged 0-6 years. All the investigated children were screened for disabilities, and those with positive screening tests were further diagnosed by various specialties. Results A total of 819 children were diagnosed as disabled with an overall prevalence of 1.362%, 0.155% for hearing disability, 0.160% for visual disability, 0.931% for intelligent disability, 0.424% for limb disability, and 0.101% for mental disability. Prevalence of disability in children was higher in rural areas, and in families with two or more children, low educational level or in divorced families. Conclusion The prevalence of disability can be reduced by economic development, improvement of health care and quality of population, as well as harmonious familial relationship, early prevention of disability, and preschool education for disabled children.

  2. POSTTRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER AMONG INDONESIAN CHILDREN 5 YEARS AFTER THE TSUNAMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwantol; Faisal; Zulfa, Hendra

    2015-09-01

    Children are at risk for developing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) due to experiencing or living in a disaster area. The factors that increase the likelihood of a child developing PTSD need further clarification. We studied the factors associated with PTSD among children who experienced the tsunami in Sumatra, Indonesia. We conducted a cross sectional study in 2 subdistricts of Sumatra 5 years after experiencing a tsunami. Children aged 7-13 years were enrolled using stratified cluster sampling. A tsunami-modified version of The PsySTART Rapid Triage System was used to question children about their tsunami-specific traumatic experiences. Trauma symptoms were evaluated using the Trauma Symptom Checklist For Children (TSCC). The diagnosis of PTSD was made using the Child PTSD Symptom Scale (CPSS) and DSM-IV criteria. The data were analyzed with chi-square tests and multivariate logistic regression analysis with 95% confidence intervals (CI). A total of 262 children were enrolled in this study. The prevalence of PTSD in these children was 20.6%. On multivariate analysis, having experienced a delay in evacuation (PR = 4.5; 95% CI: 2.794-13.80; p PTSD 5 years after the tsunami. Children who experienced a traumatic event in which they were unable to escape or when there is a delay in evacuation are at risk of developing PTSD and need appropriate treatment.

  3. External Ear Resonant Amplitude and Frequency of 3-7 Year Old Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Hossein Zare

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To measure external ear resonant amplitude and frequency in children (3-7 years old and to compare with adult measures. Method and materials: The external ear resonance peak amplitude and frequency of 63 children 3-7 years old were recorded. All of the children had normal tympanogram and there was no cerumen in external auditory canal. 20 adult of 21-24 years old (10 male , 10 female were selected in order to compare with children that had normal tympanogram. The tests included : 1-otoscopy 2- tympanometry 3-microphone probe tube test. Results: The average of resonance peak frequency for children and adult is 4200 Hz and 3200 Hz , respectively. The resonance frequency of children had significantly diffrence with average of resonance frequency in adults. The average of resonance peak amplitude for children and adult is 17.70 dB and 17.17 dB , respectively. Conclusion: Resonant frequency and amplitude affect the hearing aid prescription and fitting process and calculating insertion gain; so, this measures seem should be considered in children hearing aid fitting.

  4. Parental-reported health anxiety symptoms in 5- to 7-year-old children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rask, Charlotte Ulrikka; Elberling, Hanne; Skovgaard, Anne Mette

    2012-01-01

    . METHODS: Parents of 1323 children (49.7% boys), recruited from the birth cohort: Copenhagen Child Cohort CCC 2000, completed questionnaires regarding their child's HAS, and physical and mental health. Associations were examined using multiple logistic regression analyses adjusted for concurrent chronic...... in childhood with onset as early as preschool age. However, little research has addressed health anxiety in children. In the present study we explored parental-reported health anxiety symptoms (HAS) and their association with physical and mental health in a population-based sample of 5- to 7-year-old children...... physical disease. RESULTS: HAS were present in 17.6% and present 'a lot' (categorized as considerable HAS) in 2.4% of the children. Children with considerable HAS demonstrated more physical health problems and internalizing disorders than children with no or non-considerable HAS, but in the majority (71...

  5. Psychiatric disorders in Danish children aged 5-7 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elberling, Hanne; Linneberg, Allan; Ulrikka Rask, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    and emotional disorder and behavioural disorder. Teenage mothers, single parents and low household income the first two years after the child's birth were associated with a three-to fourfold increased risk of psychiatric disorder in the child at age 5-7 years. CONCLUSION: The study results point to two "windows...

  6. Deferasirox in Indian children with thalassemia major: 3 years experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayank Dhamija

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of the oral iron chelator deferasirox in treating transfusional hemosiderosis in a cohort of Indian children with thalassemia major with high iron load. Materials and Methods: The first 50 children (age 2-18 yrs with thalassemia major to commence deferasirox at our center were enrolled and followed up for a period of 36 months between April 2008 and March 2011. The dose of deferasirox was determined by their baseline serum ferritin and was adjusted to a maximum of 40 mg/kg/day depending on response. Ferritin levels, SGOT, SGPT, serum creatinine and urine albumin were regularly monitored. Results: Of the 50 patients, 76% documented a significant decline in serum ferritin ( P<0.05. Seven (14% patients had a stable ferritin whilst 5 patients (10% documented an increase over the study period. The mean serum ferritin at baseline, 12, 24 and 36 months was 4354, 3260, 3290 and 3042, respectively ( P<0.05. The median serum ferritin at the same time points was 3555, 2810, 2079 and 2271, respectively ( P<0.05. No severe toxicity was seen. Conclusions: Deferasirox, when given in doses ≥30 mg/kg, was found to be an effective and safe drug in reducing transfusional hemosiderosis. Thirty five (70% needed dose escalation upto 40 mg/kg/day. Fifteen (30%, however did not achieve a negative iron balance despite maximally permissible doses.

  7. Deferasirox in Indian children with thalassemia major: 3 years experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhamija, Mayank; Mahajan, Amita; Kalra, Manas; Virmani, Anju

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of the oral iron chelator deferasirox in treating transfusional hemosiderosis in a cohort of Indian children with thalassemia major with high iron load. Materials and Methods: The first 50 children (age 2-18 yrs) with thalassemia major to commence deferasirox at our center were enrolled and followed up for a period of 36 months between April 2008 and March 2011. The dose of deferasirox was determined by their baseline serum ferritin and was adjusted to a maximum of 40 mg/kg/day depending on response. Ferritin levels, SGOT, SGPT, serum creatinine and urine albumin were regularly monitored. Results: Of the 50 patients, 76% documented a significant decline in serum ferritin (P<0.05). Seven (14%) patients had a stable ferritin whilst 5 patients (10%) documented an increase over the study period. The mean serum ferritin at baseline, 12, 24 and 36 months was 4354, 3260, 3290 and 3042, respectively (P<0.05). The median serum ferritin at the same time points was 3555, 2810, 2079 and 2271, respectively (P<0.05). No severe toxicity was seen. Conclusions: Deferasirox, when given in doses ≥30 mg/kg, was found to be an effective and safe drug in reducing transfusional hemosiderosis. Thirty five (70%) needed dose escalation upto 40 mg/kg/day. Fifteen (30%), however did not achieve a negative iron balance despite maximally permissible doses. PMID:23878481

  8. Predicting an asthma exacerbation in children 2 to 5 years of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swern, A.S.; Tozzi, C.A.; Knorr, B.;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Asthma exacerbations in young children are prevalent. Identification of symptoms or other factors that are precursors of asthma exacerbations would be useful for early treatment and prevention. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether diary symptoms and beta2-agonist use before an exacerbation...... could predict an asthma exacerbation in children 2 to 5 years of age. METHODS: Post hoc analyses were conducted on data collected in a study of 689 patients 2 to 5 years of age with asthma symptoms, randomly assigned to montelukast, 4 mg, or placebo daily for 12 weeks. During the study, 196 patients had...... an asthma exacerbation was a strong predictor of an exacerbation in children Udgivelsesdato: 2008/12...

  9. EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDY OF MALOCCLUSIONS OF 5 AND 6 YEARS OLD CHILDREN FROM NORTHEASTERN REGION OF BULGARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radosveta S. Andreeva

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A malocclusion is a misalignment of teeth or incorrect relation between the teeth of the two dental arches. The aim of this presentation is to show the percentage of the children with malocclusions and comparison between children with mild and severe malocclusions from rural and urban regions Materials and methods: 1200 children between 5 and 6 years old from North-eastern Bulgaria (600 urban and 600 rural were examined. WHO standards were applied and the data was collected in WHO statistic forms, which were modified accordingly. The children were divided in 3 groups-healthy, with mild and with severe malocclusions according to Angles classification. Results: More than a half of the urban children are healthy – 51,5% and the biggest percentage of the malocclusions are mild – 31,3%, only 17,2% have severe malocclusions. The rural children are without malocclusions – 23,8% and – 39,2% of them are with severe orthodontic deformations. Relative shares of children with malocclusions from the urban – 48,5% and rural regions – 76,2% The relative share of the healthy children from both urban and rural regions is 37,7%. The relative share of the children with malocclusions from urban and rural regions is 62,3%. Conclusion: A little percent of the rural children are without malocclusions and more of them are with severe ones. We suggest that specialist have to work on better prevention in these regions.

  10. Skin problems in children under five years old at a rural hospital in Southern Ethiopia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jose Manuel Ramos; Paula Moles-Poveda; Dalu Tessema; Mubarack Kedir; Gamadi Safayo; Abraham Tesfasmariam; Francisco Reyes; Isabel Belinch on

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To examine the prevalence of cutaneous disorders in children under 5 years old who attended a rural hospital in Southern Ethiopia. Methods: A prospective cross-sectional study was conducted from January 26 to February 20, 2015 in children under 5 years old who attended Gambo Rural Hospital in West Arsi of the Oromia Region, Ethiopia. Results: A total of 324 children were included (59.6%male) whose median age was 16.4 months. In total, 147 children [45.4%; 95% confidence interval (CI): 40.0%–50.8%] under 5 years had a skin problem, of which 101 (68.7%) consulted for that reason. The other 46 (31.3%) consulted for a general health problem and the dermatological condition was a secondary finding during the physical exploration. In 93 children (28.7%;95%CI:20%–33.8%), it was the main disease, and in 54 children (16.5%;95%CI:13.0%–21.1%) it was concomitant with other diseases. The most common dermatological disease was scabies (n=44, 13.6%;95%CI:10.3%–17.7%). Impetigo was diagnosed in 32 children (9.9%;95%CI:7.1%–13.3%), of which 23 (71.9%) had complicated impetigo. Nineteen children (5.9%;95%CI:3.8%–9.0%) had eczema, 10 (3.1%) had eczema associated to other conditions. The following most frequent skin problems were tinea (n = 9; 2.8%), infected wound and ulcer (n=7;2.2%), and burns (n=6;1.9%). Conclusions: Skin problems, mainly scabies, impetigo, and eczema were common in young children attended at a rural hospital in Southern Ethiopia. Children under 5 years should be examined thoroughly to rule out skin diseases, especially scabies.

  11. Skin problems in children under five years old at a rural hospital in Southern Ethiopia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    José Manuel Ramos; Paula Molés-Poveda; Dalu Tessema; Mubarack Kedir; Gamadi Safayo; Abraham Tesfasmariam; Francisco Reyes; Isabel Belinchón

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To examine the prevalence of cutaneous disorders in children under 5 years old who attended a rural hospital in Southern Ethiopia.Methods: A prospective cross-sectional study was conducted from January 26 to February 20, 2015 in children under 5 years old who attended Gambo Rural Hospital in West Arsi of the Oromia Region, Ethiopia.Results: A total of 324 children were included(59.6% male) whose median age was 16.4months. In total, 147 children [45.4%; 95% confidence interval(CI): 40.0%–50.8%]under 5 years had a skin problem, of which 101(68.7%) consulted for that reason. The other 46(31.3%) consulted for a general health problem and the dermatological condition was a secondary finding during the physical exploration. In 93 children(28.7%; 95% CI:20%–33.8%), it was the main disease, and in 54 children(16.5%; 95% CI: 13.0%–21.1%)it was concomitant with other diseases. The most common dermatological disease was scabies(n = 44, 13.6%; 95% CI: 10.3%–17.7%). Impetigo was diagnosed in 32 children(9.9%; 95% CI: 7.1%–13.3%), of which 23(71.9%) had complicated impetigo. Nineteen children(5.9%; 95% CI: 3.8%–9.0%) had eczema, 10(3.1%) had eczema associated to other conditions. The following most frequent skin problems were tinea(n = 9; 2.8%),infected wound and ulcer(n = 7; 2.2%), and burns(n = 6; 1.9%).Conclusions: Skin problems, mainly scabies, impetigo, and eczema were common in young children attended at a rural hospital in Southern Ethiopia. Children under 5 years should be examined thoroughly to rule out skin diseases, especially scabies.

  12. The Growth Trend of 0–6 Years Children in Hamadan City , Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Omidi

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Today millions of children in the world have not got the appropriate growth. For this purpose, this study was performed to evaluate the growth process of children under 6 years old in Hamadan, in addition the surveying this process, the difference in growth of the children were compared and measured by the NCHS standard curve. This was a cross–sectional study that included the research section of 1700 children who was at the average ages of zero, 1, 3, 6, 9,12 months and 1.5 , 2 , 2.5 , 3 , 3.5 , 4 , 4.5 , 5 , 6 years . The selection standard of the children was the perfect physical health and without obvious mental retardation. Regarding the curved standard the results showed that the 50th percentile of boys and girls weight up to 4 and 6 months was increased. Then with increasing the age up to 6 years the weight gradually was decreased, that this weight deduction is closer to the 5th percentile of the standard in 18 and 24 months. The 50th percentile of the children height has been decreased from 9 months up to 6 years too, and the 50th percentile of the head circumference from 18 months up to 6 years of age, constantly and slightly decreased compare to the standard curve. The overall result show that breast feeding is enough for the children up to 6 months and satisfies the children needs. But the causes that decrease the children growth are the lack of mothers knowledge about preparing the supplemental foods and the time of beginning and also inappropriate pattern of nutrition at the time of breast feeding.

  13. Parenting clinically anxious versus healthy control children aged 4-12 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Sluis, C M; van Steensel, F J A; Bögels, S M

    2015-05-01

    This study investigated whether parenting behaviors differed between parents of 68 clinically anxious children and 106 healthy control children aged 4-12 years. The effects of parent gender, child gender and child age on parenting were explored. Mothers and fathers completed a questionnaire to assess parenting behaviors in for children hypothetically anxious situations. Results showed that parents of clinically anxious children reported more anxiety-enhancing parenting (reinforcement of dependency and punishment) as well as more positive parenting (positive reinforcement). For the clinical sample, fathers reported using more modeling/reassurance than mothers, and parents reported using more force with their 4-7-year-olds than with their 8-12-year-olds. No interaction effects were found for child gender with child anxiety status on parenting. Results indicate that for intervention, it is important to measure parenting behaviors, and to take into account father and mother differences and the age of the child.

  14. Separable sustained and selective attention factors are apparent in 5-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underbjerg, Mette; George, Melanie S; Thorsen, Poul; Kesmodel, Ulrik S; Mortensen, Erik L; Manly, Tom

    2013-01-01

    In adults and older children, evidence consistent with relative separation between selective and sustained attention, superimposed upon generally positive inter-test correlations, has been reported. Here we examine whether this pattern is detectable in 5-year-old children from the healthy population. A new test battery (TEA-Ch(J)) was adapted from measures previously used with adults and older children and administered to 172 5-year-olds. Test-retest reliability was assessed in 60 children. Ninety-eight percent of the children managed to complete all measures. Discrimination of visual and auditory stimuli were good. In a factor analysis, the two TEA-Ch(J) selective attention tasks (one visual, one auditory) loaded onto a common factor and diverged from the two sustained attention tasks (one auditory, one motor), which shared a common loading on the second factor. This pattern, which suggests that the tests are indeed sensitive to underlying attentional capacities, was supported by the relationships between the TEA-Ch(J) factors and Test of Everyday Attention for Children subtests in the older children in the sample. It is possible to gain convincing performance-based estimates of attention at the age of 5 with the results reflecting a similar factor structure to that obtained in older children and adults. The results are discussed in light of contemporary models of attention function. Given the potential advantages of early intervention for attention difficulties, the findings are of clinical as well as theoretical interest.

  15. Point Vowel Duration in Children with Hearing Aids and Cochlear Implants at 4 and 5 Years of Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandam, Mark; Ide-Helvie, Dana; Moeller, Mary Pat

    2011-01-01

    This work investigates the developmental aspects of the duration of point vowels in children with normal hearing compared with those with hearing aids and cochlear implants at 4 and 5 years of age. Younger children produced longer vowels than older children, and children with hearing loss (HL) produced longer and more variable vowels than their…

  16. Incidence of Acute Diarrhea Among Children Aged 0 - 1 Year in Southern Brazil, 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nascimento

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background The incidence rate of acute diarrheal disease in children is a health indicator, and the estimation of these data can help guide public health policies. Objectives The aim of this study was to estimate the incidence and risk factors for acute diarrheal disease in children aged 0 - 1 year. Patients and Methods An observational prospective cohort study was conducted on 210 children recruited at Hospital Nossa Senhora da Conceicao, in Tubarao, state of Santa Catarina, Brazil. Children born between July and September 2012 were followed up for 12 months. The presence of three or more liquid or loose stools during a 24-hour period was considered acute diarrhea. The categories of variables evaluated were comprised of sociodemographic characteristics (per capita income, maternal education, maternal age, access to medical care [public or private], and housing and living conditions [sanitation and hygiene, water supply, daycare attendance, and domestic animal] and characteristics of the child (gender, birth weight, and breastfeeding. Results The incidence of acute diarrhea among the 0 - 1-year-old children was 26.7 cases per 1,000 children per month. Independent risk factors for the occurrence of diarrhea were maternal age under 20 years and health care services provided by the Brazilian National Health System (SUS. Conclusions The high incidence density of diarrhea among the children recruited in this study indicates the need for educational programs directed at people who are involved in this issue.

  17. Investigation of the Mitochondrial ATPase 6/8 and tRNALys Genes Mutations in Autism

    OpenAIRE

    Sepideh Dadgar; Zahra-Soheila Soheili; Omid Aryani; Massoud Houshmand; Fahimeh Piryaei

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Autism results from developmental factors that affect many or all functional brain systems. Brain is one of tissues which are crucially in need of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Autism is noticeably affected by mitochondrial dysfunction which impairs energy metabolism. Considering mutations within ATPase 6, ATPase 8 and tRNALys genes, associated with different neural diseases, and the main role of ATPase 6/8 in energy generation, we decided to investigate mutations on these mtDNA-en...

  18. Five strands of math drills big book : grades 6-8

    CERN Document Server

    Reed, Nat; Forest, Chris

    2011-01-01

    For grades 6-8, our Common Core State Standards-based resource meets the five strands of math concepts addressed by the NCTM standards and encourages the students to review the concepts in unique ways. Included are warm-up and timed drill activities which will push the boundaries of critical thought and demonstrate to students the importance of mathematical problems in Number & Operations, Geometry, Measurement, Data Analysis & Probability and Algebra using real world situations.

  19. Common Core Literacy Lesson Plans: Ready-to-Use Resources, 6-8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Lauren

    2013-01-01

    Schools nationwide are transitioning to the Common Core--our advice to you: Don't go it alone! Our new book, "Common Core Literacy Lesson Plans: Ready-to-Use Resources, 6-8," shows you that teaching the Common Core State Standards in the middle grades doesn't have to be intimidating! This easy-to-use guide meets the particular needs of middle…

  20. Ten Years Later: Locating and Interviewing Children of Drug Abusers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haggerty, Kevin P.; Fleming, Charles B.; Catalano, Richard F.; Petrie, Renee S.; Rubin, Ronald J.; Grassley, Mary H.

    2008-01-01

    Longitudinal studies require high follow-up rates in order to maintain statistical power, reduce bias, and enhance the generalizability of results. This study reports on locating and survey completion for a 10-year follow-up of the Focus on Families project, an investigation of 130 families headed by parents who were enrolled in methadone…

  1. Development and verification of child observation sheet for 5-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, Keiko; Nagai, Toshisaburo; Okazaki, Shin; Kawajiri, Mie; Tomiwa, Kiyotaka

    2014-02-01

    The aim of the study was to develop a newly devised child observation sheet (COS-5) as a scoring sheet, based on the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS), for use in the developmental evaluation of 5-year-old children, especially focusing on children with autistic features, and to verify its validity. Seventy-six children were studied. The children were recruited among participants of the Japan Children's Cohort Study, a research program implemented by the Research Institute of Science and Technology for Society (RISTEX) from 2004 to 2009. The developmental evaluation procedure was performed by doctors, clinical psychologists, and public health nurses. The COS-5 was also partly based on the Kyoto Scale of Psychological Development 2001 (Kyoto Scale 2001). Further, the Developmental Disorders Screening Questionnaire for 5-Years-Olds, PDD-Autism Society Japan Rating Scale (PARS), doctor interview questions and neurological examination for 5-year-old children, and the Draw-a-Man Test (DAM) were used as evaluation scales. Eighteen (25.4%) children were rated as Suspected, including Suspected PDD, Suspected ADHD and Suspected MR. The COS-5 was suggested to be valid with favorable reliability (α=0.89) and correlation with other evaluation scales. The COS-5 may be useful, with the following advantages: it can be performed within a shorter time frame; it facilitates the maintenance of observation quality; it facilitates sharing information with other professions; and it is reliable to identify the autistic features of 5-year-old children. In order to verify its wider applications including the screening of infants (18months to 3years old) by adjusting the items of younger age, additional study is needed.

  2. Osteosynthesis of medial humeral epicondyle fractures in children. 8-year follow-up of 33 cases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duun, P S; Ravn, Pernille; Hansen, L B;

    1994-01-01

    33 children with a mean age of 12 (7-15) years had open reduction and osteosynthesis for a displaced fracture of the medial humeral epicondyle. 8 (2-15) years after the operation a clinical and radiographic examination was performed. 22/33 had a prominent scar. No patients had symptoms from...

  3. Traumatic brain injury in children in Denmark: a national 15-year study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, A; Teasdale, T W

    1998-01-01

    Demographic trends are reported concerning three types of traumatic brain injury (concussions, cranial fractures, and intracranial contusions/haemorrhages) among children in Denmark of ages up to and including 14 years, for a fifteen year period from 1979 through 1993. The data were derived from ...

  4. Does Chess Training Affect Conceptual Development of Six-Year-Old Children in Turkey?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigirtmac, Ayperi Dikici

    2012-01-01

    Many studies propose that chess is a game requiring cognitive skills and has positive effects on mental development. In recent years, chess training has also been emphasised as important during the early childhood period. However, no studies have been done with six-year-old children. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether or not…

  5. The Assessment of Metacognition in Children Aged 4-16 Years: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gascoine, Louise; Higgins, Steve; Wall, Kate

    2017-01-01

    This article presents the results of a systematic review of methods that have been used to measure or assess metacognition in children aged 4-16 years over a 20-year period (1992-2012). It includes an overview of the types of tool and methods used linked with the ages of the participants targeted and how metacognition and associated concepts are…

  6. Obesity and asthma in 11-12 year old New Zealand children in 1989 and 2000

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wickens, K; Barry, D; Friezema, A; Rhodius, R; Bone, N; Purdie, G; Crane, J

    2005-01-01

    Background: There has been a concurrent increase in the prevalence of obesity and asthma in recent years in New Zealand and other countries. Methods: Two cross sectional surveys performed in 1989 and 2000 were used to test this association in children of mean age 11.7 years. Body mass index (BMI) wa

  7. Meal-Skipping Behaviors and Body Fat in 6-Year-Old Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.I. Wijtzes (Anne); W. Jansen (Wilma); S.H. Bouthoorn (Selma); F.J. van Lenthe (Frank); O.H. Franco (Oscar); A. Hofman (Albert); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent W. V.); H. Raat (Hein)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractObjective To assess the prospective associations of breakfast, lunch, and dinner skipping at age 4 years with body fat (ie, percent fat mass, body mass index [BMI], and weight status) at age 6 years. Study design Data were analyzed from 5913 children participating in the Generation R Stu

  8. Emotional Understanding and Color-Emotion Associations in Children Aged 7-8 Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debbie J. Pope

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An understanding of the development of emotional knowledge can help us determine how children perceive and interpret their surroundings and color-emotion associations are one measure of the expression of a child’s emotional interpretations. Emotional understanding and color-emotion associations were examined in a sample of UK school children, aged 7-8 years. Forty primary school children (mean age = 7.38; SD = 0.49 were administered color assessment and emotional understanding tasks, and an expressive vocabulary test. Results identified significant gender differences with girls providing more appropriate and higher quality expressions of emotional understanding than boys. Children were more able to link color to positive rather than negative emotions and significant gender differences in specific color preferences were observed. The implications of adult misinterpretations of color-emotion associations in young children are discussed.

  9. Parental involvement in the development of children's reading skill: a five-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sénéchal, Monique; LeFevre, Jo-Anne

    2002-01-01

    This article presents the findings of the final phase of a 5-year longitudinal study with 168 middle- and upper middle-class children in which the complex relations among early home literacy experiences, subsequent receptive language and emergent literacy skills, and reading achievement were examined. Results showed that children's exposure to books was related to the development of vocabulary and listening comprehension skills, and that these language skills were directly related to children's reading in grade 3. In contrast, parent involvement in teaching children about reading and writing words was related to the development of early literacy skills. Early literacy skills directly predicted word reading at the end of grade 1 and indirectly predicted reading in grade 3. Word reading at the end of grade 1 predicted reading comprehension in grade 3. Thus, the various pathways that lead to fluent reading have their roots in different aspects of children's early experiences.

  10. Oral hygiene risk indicators among 6- to 9-year-old Taiwanese aboriginal children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Hui-Ju; Huang, Shun-Te; Tsai, Chi-Cheng; Chiou, Meng-Jao; Liao, Cheng-Ta

    2014-05-01

    This study investigated the dental health status, dietary habits, oral hygiene levels, and caretaker risk indicators among Taiwanese children. This cross-sectional purposive sampling study included 256 aboriginal children, 6 to 9 years old, living in remote regions in southern Taiwan. Participants received dental examinations, and questionnaires were completed by caretakers. Data were analyzed using the χ(2) test, t test, and multiple logistic regressions. The deft (sum of decayed, extracted, and filled primary teeth) and defs (sum of the decayed, extracted, and filled primary dentition surfaces) indices were affected by the frequencies of drinking sweetened beverages (P = .0006) and daily toothbrushing (P = .0032). Caretakers' toothbrushing frequency was a significant predictor of children's oral hygiene status (P oral hygiene was 2.04 (P = .0184). Oral hygiene among aboriginal children in this study was inadequate. Caretakers' toothbrushing frequency and betel quid habit were significant predictors of poor children's oral hygiene.

  11. Epidemiology of dental caries in Chandigarh school children and trends over the last 25 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goyal A

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of dental caries in 6, 9, 12 and 15-year-old school children of Chandigarh, selected on a randomized basis was evaluated using Moller′s criteria (1966 and correlated with the various risk factors. The mean deft was found to be 4.0 ± 3.6 in 6 year old and 4.61 ± 3.14 in 9 year old, whereas the mean DMFT in 12 and 15 year old was found to be 3.03 ± 2.52 and 3.82 ± 2.85 respectively. The high prevalence of dental caries in these children was attributed to the lack of use of fluoride toothpaste (80% children, lack of knowledge about etiology of dental caries (98% and frequency of sugar exposures up to more than five times per day (30%.

  12. Soil radon and electromagnetic anomalies before the Ileia(Greece) M6.8 earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolopoulos, D.; Vogiannis, E.; Louizi, A.; Zisos, A.

    2009-04-01

    Radon (222Rn) is a radioactive gas generated by the decay of the naturally occurring 238U series. It is considered very important from radiological point of view, since it accounts for more than half of the natural exposure of the general public. Radon has been used as trace gas in several studies of Earth, hydrogeology and atmosphere, due to its 3.82-day half-life (which allows migration at long distances) and its alpha decay (which enables low level of detection). It has been accounted in the search of earthquake precursors, volcanic processes, fluid circulation in karstic sources and in the study of natural ventilation of underground cavities. Radon anomalies impending great earthquakes have been observed in groundwater, thermal waters soil gas and in underground tunnels. Ileia is a very active tectonic site located in SW Greece, dominated by extensional active seismicity structures (e.g. Alfeios, Neda, Melpeia, Kiparissia-Aetos). Its instrumental and felt seismicity is very high, with more than 600 earthquakes of magnitude greater than 4.0 R in the last 100 years two of which occurred during the last 15 years and were very destructive (5.8 R on 26/3/93 and 6.8 R on 8/6/08 respectively). Hence, it is an area benefiting from the installation of a geophysical monitoring station, where radon exhalation associated with the accumulation or release of tectonic strain can be studied. In the aforementioned consensus, a station for the surveillance of soil radon has been installed in Kardamas Ileias, 3 km south from Amaliada which is the second highly populated city. The station consists of a high precision (calibration certified) active instrument (Alpha Guard-AG, Genitron Ltd.), equipped with an appropriate unit designed for pumping and measurement of radon in soil gas (Soil gas Unit, Genitron Ltd.). Soil radon is driven into AG via a 1-m probe (to minimize meteorological influences) and a 25-m radon proof 25-mm tube (to avoid simultaneous measurement of soil 220Rn

  13. The development of categorical perception of Mandarin tones in four- to seven-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fei; Peng, Gang; Yan, Nan; Wang, Lan

    2016-12-05

    To track the course of development in children's fine-grained perception of Mandarin tones, the present study explored how categorical perception (CP) of Mandarin tones emerges along age among 70 four- to seven-year-old children and 16 adults. Prominent discrimination peaks were found for both the child and the adult groups, and they were well aligned with the corresponding identification crossovers. Moreover, six-year-olds showed a much narrower width (i.e. a sharper slope) compared to younger children, and have already acquired adult-like identification competence of Mandarin high-level and mid-rising tones. Although the ability to discriminate within-category tone pairs did not change, the between-category discrimination accuracies were positively correlated with chronological ages among child participants. We assume that the perceptual refinement of Mandarin tones in young children may be driven by an accumulation of perceptual development from the tonal information of the ambient sound input.

  14. Fitness and Health Effects of Frequent Intense Training in 8-10-Year Old Danish Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Malte Nejst

    Physical activity for children has been much debated in recent years. Everyone has seemed to agree that it is important for children to exercise for the sake of physiological health, but cognitive functions and psycho-social behaviour are now also considered to be affected by physical activity. I...... other aspects of using small sided ball games in schools as part of physical education.......) compared to children active in other sports. Paper III and IV described the long-term training effects of frequent intense small-sided ball games (SSG), interval running (IT) and circuit strength training (CST) for 8-10-year-old school children. Analysis of baseline-to-10-months change scores showed...

  15. Perinatal Risk Factors for Feeding and Eating Disorders in Children Aged 0 to 3 Years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvelplund, Carolina; Hansen, Bo Mølholm; Koch, Susanne Vinkel

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the incidence, age at diagnosis, and associations between perinatal risk factors of feeding and eating disorders (FED) diagnosed at hospital in children aged 0 to 3 years. METHODS: A nationwide cohort of 901 227 children was followed until 48 months of age in the national...... registers from 1997 to 2010. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) for FED diagnosis according to the International Classification of Diseases and associations with perinatal risk factors. RESULTS: A total of 1365 children (53% girls) were diagnosed.......19-1.50). CONCLUSIONS: FED in referred children aged 0 to 3 years are associated with perinatal adversities, female gender, maternal smoking in pregnancy, being firstborn, and having immigrant parents. The results suggest complex causal mechanisms of FED and underscore the need for a multidisciplinary approach...

  16. Patch-test results in children and adolescents: systematic review of a 15-year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Dulcilea Ferraz; Goulart, Eugênio Marcos Andrade

    2016-01-01

    The number of studies on patch-test results in children and adolescents has gradually increased in recent years, thus stimulating reviews. This paper is a systematic review of a 15-year period devoted to studying the issue. Variations pertaining to the number and age groups of tested children and/or adolescents, the number of subjects with atopy/atopic dermatitis history, the quantity, type and concentrations of the tested substances, the test technique and type of data regarding clinical relevance, must all be considered in evaluating these studies, as they make it harder to formulate conclusions. The most common allergens in children were nickel, thimerosal, cobalt, fragrance, lanolin and neomycin. In adolescents, they were nickel, thimerosal, cobalt, fragrance, potassium dichromate, and Myroxylon pereirae. Knowledge of this matter aids health professionals in planning preventive programs aimed at improving children's quality of life and ensuring that their future prospects are not undermined.

  17. Speech processing and production in two-year-old children acquiring isiXhosa: A tale of two children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascoe, Michelle; Rossouw, Kate; Fish, Laura; Jansen, Charne; Manley, Natalie; Powell, Michelle; Rosen, Loren

    2016-05-20

    We investigated the speech processing and production of 2-year-old children acquiring isiXhosa in South Africa. Two children (2 years, 5 months; 2 years, 8 months) are presented as single cases. Speech input processing, stored phonological knowledge and speech output are described, based on data from auditory discrimination, naming, and repetition tasks. Both children were approximating adult levels of accuracy in their speech output, although naming was constrained by vocabulary. Performance across tasks was variable: One child showed a relative strength with repetition, and experienced most difficulties with auditory discrimination. The other performed equally well in naming and repetition, and obtained 100% for her auditory task. There is limited data regarding typical development of isiXhosa, and the focus has mainly been on speech production. This exploratory study describes typical development of isiXhosa using a variety of tasks understood within a psycholinguistic framework. We describe some ways in which speech and language therapists can devise and carry out assessment with children in situations where few formal assessments exist, and also detail the challenges of such work.

  18. Speech processing and production in two-year-old children acquiring isiXhosa: A tale of two children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Pascoe

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the speech processing and production of 2-year-old children acquiring isiXhosa in South Africa. Two children (2 years, 5 months; 2 years, 8 months are presented as single cases. Speech input processing, stored phonological knowledge and speech output are described, based on data from auditory discrimination, naming, and repetition tasks. Both children were approximating adult levels of accuracy in their speech output, although naming was constrained by vocabulary. Performance across tasks was variable: One child showed a relative strength with repetition, and experienced most difficulties with auditory discrimination. The other performed equally well in naming and repetition, and obtained 100% for her auditory task. There is limited data regarding typical development of isiXhosa, and the focus has mainly been on speech production. This exploratory study describes typical development of isiXhosa using a variety of tasks understood within a psycholinguistic framework. We describe some ways in which speech and language therapists can devise and carry out assessment with children in situations where few formal assessments exist, and also detail the challenges of such work.Keywords: psycholinguistic assessment; phonology; psycholinguistic framework; naming; repetition; auditory discrimination

  19. Diarrhea, pneumonia, and infectious disease mortality in children aged 5 to 14 years in India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaun K Morris

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Little is known about the causes of death in children in India after age five years. The objective of this study is to provide the first ever direct national and sub-national estimates of infectious disease mortality in Indian children aged 5 to 14 years. METHODS: A verbal autopsy based assessment of 3 855 deaths is children aged 5 to 14 years from a nationally representative survey of deaths occurring in 2001-03 in 1.1 million homes in India. RESULTS: Infectious diseases accounted for 58% of all deaths among children aged 5 to 14 years. About 18% of deaths were due to diarrheal diseases, 10% due to pneumonia, 8% due to central nervous system infections, 4% due to measles, and 12% due to other infectious diseases. Nationally, in 2005 about 59 000 and 34 000 children aged 5 to 14 years died from diarrheal diseases and pneumonia, corresponding to mortality of 24.1 and 13.9 per 100 000 respectively. Mortality was nearly 50% higher in girls than in boys for both diarrheal diseases and pneumonia. CONCLUSIONS: Approximately 60% of all deaths in this age group are due to infectious diseases and nearly half of these deaths are due to diarrheal diseases and pneumonia. Mortality in this age group from infectious diseases, and diarrhea in particular, is much higher than previously estimated.

  20. [Factors associated with malnutrition in children aged under five years in Lubumbashi (DRC)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukatay, Abdon W M; Kalenga, Prosper M K; Dramaix, Michèle; Hennart, Philippe; Schirvel, Carole; Kabamba, Lydia M; Kabyla, Benjamin I; Donnen, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    Nutritional status of children is a global indicator of children's well-being and, indirectly, of the community's well-being. The first objective of this work is to assess the nutritional status of children under five years-old living in a suburb of the city of Lubumbashi, DR Congo, at the end of the 1998-2003 armed conflict. The second objective aims to identify some predictors of malnutrition. A multivariate logistic regression was applied to the results of a cross-sectional survey of 1963 children from selected households. In addition to the anthropometric variables, living conditions were also used. We observed 33.5% stunted growth and 3.8% emaciation. After logistic regression, a low maternal educational level (less than 7 years), the absence of a drinking water tap available in the house or yard, male gender, and age of children ( > 11 months) were all significantly associated with increased risk of stunted growth. Moreover, decreased appetite, diarrhea and age of children ( < 12 months) were significant predictors of emaciation. Compared to the classification of the World Health Organization, our results indicate that the prevalence of stunting is high and the prevalence of emaciation is low. Interventions against malnutrition should consider the various predictors discussed in this study in order to reduce mortality and morbidity in children and contribute to their well-being.

  1. Sociodemographic profile of speech and language delay up to six years of age in Indian children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham Binu, Raj Sunil, Stephenson Baburaj, Mohandas MK

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Speech and language is the most important skill for the child’s development and scholastic performance. Awareness of the delay is important in the programs for early identification. Purpose: to assess the prevalence of speech and language delay in children from age group 0 to six years of age. Methodology: The speech and language development of children coming in the well baby clinic and daily pediatric clinic of age group from birth to 6 years were evaluated using Language Evaluation Scale Trivandrum (LEST. The prevalence of speech and language delay in each age group was calculated and also analyzed in the sociodemograhic profile. Results: A total of 102 children were studied in which 13.7% had language delay. 18% had questionable language delay and 15.7% had suspect language delay. Though among language delay mixed type was more, children had more difficulty in doing expressive items. Language delay was also found to be more prevalent in males, single child, first born child and children of working mothers. Parental age, education or socioeconomic status was not found to be related to language delay. Conclusion: The 13.7% prevalence of language delay in the children indicates the need of early identification and for it a simple screening tool like LEST is a must during the routine evaluation of young children in pediatric clinics. Health care givers and parents should ensure that babies grow up in a language rich, nurturing and stimulating environment right from birth onwards.

  2. Evaluation of Serum Zinc Level in Children Under 5 Years with Malnutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GR Soleimani

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Zinc deficiency decreases appetite, stunts the growth and increases incidence of infection and if zinc deficiency persists it may cause short stature and delay in puberty. The aim of this research is to specify the level of serum zinc in children with growth disorder and weight gaining. Methods : This cross sectional descriptive study was done on 460 children under 5 years who were underweight. After doing necessary examinations and recording the information, 5 cc of blood was drawn from children. The samples were sent to the chemistry college of S&B university and serum zinc levels were measured by spectrometry method of atomic absorption. The obtained information was analyzed using SPSS software and Fisher test. Results : In this research on 460 children, 232 (50.43% were boys and 228 (49.56 % were girls. The average age was 2.5 years. Zinc deficiency was confirmed in 89.3 % of children who had mild malnutrition and all of children who had moderate or severe malnutrition had zinc deficiency. Conclusion : This research indicated that serum zinc levels in most of children with malnutrition was less than standard , and the more severe the malnutrition, the lower the serum zinc levels will be. 100% of the girls and 85.77% of the boys had zinc deficiency.

  3. Occlusal characteristics in 3-year-old children – results of a birth cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Wagner, Yvonne; Heinrich-Weltzien, Roswitha

    2015-01-01

    Background Aim of this prospective study was to determine prevalence of malocclusion and associated risk factors in 3-year-old Thuringian children. Methods Subjects (n = 377) were participants in a regional oral health programme, a birth cohort study with the aim to prevent caries (German Clinical Trials Register DRKS00003438). Children received continuous dental care since birth. Occlusal characteristics (overjet, overbite, anterior open bite, canine relationship and posterior crossbite) wer...

  4. Determination of the functional status of vestibular apparatus at children aged 5-6 years old.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moiseenko E.K.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The physiological methods of determination of the functional state of vestibular analyzer are considered. The indexes of systole and diastole pressure, frequencies of heart-throbs, are chosen. Methods were used before and after standard vestibular irritation. Research was conducted on the base of child's preschool establishment. In it took part 120 children in age 5 - 6 years. Insufficient development of vestibular analyzer is set for children. Selected exercise for the improvement of spatial orientation and statodynamic stability.

  5. Hypoadiponectinemia in overweight children contributes to a negative metabolic risk profile 6 years later

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kynde, Iben; Heitmann, Berit L; Bygbjerg, Ib C;

    2009-01-01

    -density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio, serum triglycerides, systolic blood pressure, and the reciprocal value of fitness (maximum watts per kilogram). Overweight was defined using international classification of body mass index cutoff points for children. Plasma adiponectin, leptin, interleukin-8, and hepatocyte...... adiponectin at baseline was inversely associated with metabolic risk score 6 years later (P = .04). In childhood, both hypoadiponectinemia and hyperleptinemia accompany a negative metabolic risk profile. In addition, circulating plasma adiponectin may be a useful biomarker to identify overweight children...

  6. Educational Intervention on Risk Factors Associated with Malocclusions in Five-year-old Children

    OpenAIRE

    Amarelys Morera Pérez; Nora Sexto Delgado; Boris Yanes Tarancón; Anabel Casanova Lezcano

    2016-01-01

    Background: educational programs aimed at increasing knowledge on oral health and promoting proper oral hygiene habits allow controlling or limiting the development of dento-maxillofacial defects that lead to many aesthetic, functional and mental disorders.Objective: to assess the effectiveness of an educational intervention on risk factors associated with malocclusions in children aged five years. Methods: a quasi-experimental, before and after study was conducted in 67 children living in th...

  7. Metamemory prediction accuracy for simple prospective and retrospective memory tasks in 5-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvavilashvili, Lia; Ford, Ruth M

    2014-11-01

    It is well documented that young children greatly overestimate their performance on tests of retrospective memory (RM), but the current investigation is the first to examine children's prediction accuracy for prospective memory (PM). Three studies were conducted, each testing a different group of 5-year-olds. In Study 1 (N=46), participants were asked to predict their success in a simple event-based PM task (remembering to convey a message to a toy mole if they encountered a particular picture during a picture-naming activity). Before naming the pictures, children listened to either a reminder story or a neutral story. Results showed that children were highly accurate in their PM predictions (78% accuracy) and that the reminder story appeared to benefit PM only in children who predicted they would remember the PM response. In Study 2 (N=80), children showed high PM prediction accuracy (69%) regardless of whether the cue was specific or general and despite typical overoptimism regarding their performance on a 10-item RM task using item-by-item prediction. Study 3 (N=35) showed that children were prone to overestimate RM even when asked about their ability to recall a single item-the mole's unusual name. In light of these findings, we consider possible reasons for children's impressive PM prediction accuracy, including the potential involvement of future thinking in performance predictions and PM.

  8. Association between maternal socioeconomic factors and nutritional outcomes in children under 5 years of age,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiane Géa-Horta

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To estimate the association between maternal socioeconomic factors and the occurrence of nutritional outcomes in children under five years of age in a representative sample of the Brazilian population. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study that evaluated data from the latest National Survey of Children and Women's Demographics and Health, carried out in Brazil in 2006-2007. Maternal employment and maternal level of schooling were the main exposures. The following nutritional outcomes in children were considered: height/age 2SD for overweight. Generalized estimating equations (GEE were utilized as the regression method. Results: After adjustments, it was observed that children whose mothers had low level of schooling had a higher chance of having short stature (OR = 3.97, 95% CI, 1.23-12.80 and children whose mothers worked outside the home were more likely to have excess weight (OR = 1.57, 95% CI, 1.02-2.42. Maternal employment was not associated with short stature in children (OR = 1.09, 95% CI, 0.67-1.77. Conclusion: Maternal level of schooling was associated with short stature in children and maternal employment with overweight, indicating the need to take into account the socioeconomic factors when proposing programs and strategies aimed at health and nutrition improvement of children, considering inter-sectoral interventions.

  9. Overweight: atherogenesis risk marker in children between 8 and 9 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Sabina Roméu

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Many significant health problems hold the attention of pediatricians, and even when there is an increased interest on premature atherosclerosis risk factors, it is still a field to be studied. Objectives: To determine differences in the emergence of atherogenesis risk factors in children between 8 and 9 years with normal weight and overweight. Methods: Analytic research, with case control design, developed in three primary schools belonging to the Clinic “Dr. Cecilio Ruiz de Zarate” in Cienfuegos. A group with overweight or obese children was formed and another control group selected by randomized simple sampling with normal weight children. Measurements of weight, height, waist circumference and blood pressure were performed. Parents were surveyed for data about children and family history. In overweight children, glucose and triglycerides were measured. To validate results, Chi-Squared test was used. To compare measurements, Mathn Whitney test was employed. Results: Overweight and obesity were associated with: male sex, with people, sedentary patients, and prenatal antecedents of overweight. 78% of overweight children had values of blood pressure higher than 90 percentile for their sex and height, contrasting with the 26% in normal weight children. Six children were diagnosed with metabolic syndrome.

  10. Comparison of Undernutrition Prevalence of Children under 5 Years in China between 2002 and 2013

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Dong Mei; ZHAO Li Yun; YANG Zhen Yu; CHANG Su Ying; YU Wen Tao; FANG Hong Yun; WANG Xun

    2016-01-01

    Objective To describe the undernutrition status of children under 5-year in China, and study the trend between 2002 and 2013. Methods The study was based on two national surveys. Undernutrition wasdetermined against WHOs 2006 growth standards.The prevalence in 2013 and 2002 was weighted by China sixth National Population Census (2010). The relationship between undernutrition and gender/age groups/different areas use weighted logistic regression. Results The results indicated the overall prevalence of stunting, underweight, and wasting of Chinese children under 5-year was 8.1%, 2.4%, and 1.9% in 2013, respectively. The prevalence of stunting was higher for children aged 12-47 month, while underweight was higher for children aged 48-59 month. The prevalence of undernutrition was higher in rural areas than in urban areas, especially in poor rural areas. There was a decline of stunting, underweight, and wastingbetween 2002 and 2013 among the children, with greater reduction in rural areas than in urban areas. Conclusion The prevalence of undernutrition of children under 5-year remains high in rural areas especially in poor rural areas in China. It is urgent totake action to control undernutrition in the vulnerable areas and subgroups.

  11. Transcranial Doppler sonography in children: Review of a seven-year experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirsch, Wolfgang; Hiebsch, Wolfgang; Teichler, Heike; SchlUeter, Andreas

    2002-06-01

    AIM: We report the use of transcranial Doppler sonography (TCD) examinations in children (mean age 12.7 years; range 0.5-18 years) without an open fontanelle, using TCD equipment with a 2 MHz pulse wave transducer. Our results over a 7-year period are described. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 858 children were referred from the paediatric outpatient department. All patients were divided into three groups according to the reason for referral. RESULTS: We found positive pathological results in the following: (1) headache and orthostatic dysregulation (0.4%, three out of 728); (2) acute neurological symptoms (5.4%, six out of 112); (3) other indications (22.2%, four out of 18). The positive predictive value of finding an abnormality was very low (0.50) . CONCLUSION: TCD examination is ineffective in children with non-specific headache or orthostatic dysregulation due to the specific limitations of this method. We found a higher percentage of abnormal results in children referred for other indications. However, since these children usually undergo MR imaging (and MR angiography, if necessary), in our opinion the TCD examination does not add any additional information. The value of TCD in children is not in the primary diagnosis of disease but in the follow up of known vascular processes (e.g. stenoses) or in chronic diseases including angiitis and sickle cell disease. Hirsch, W. et al. (2002)

  12. Total body fat content versus BMI in 4-year-old healthy Swedish children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsum, Elisabet; Flinke Carlsson, Eva; Henriksson, Hanna; Henriksson, Pontus; Löf, Marie

    2013-01-01

    Childhood overweight and obesity, a worldwide problem, is generally identified using BMI (body mass index). However, this application of BMI has been little investigated in children below 5 years of age due to a lack of appropriate methods to assess body composition. Therefore, we used air displacement plethysmography (ADP) to study 4.4-year old boys and girls since this method is accurate in young children if they accept the requirements of the measurement. The purpose was to analyze the relationship between BMI and body fat in these children. Body composition was assessed in 76 (43 boys, 33 girls) of the 84 children brought to the measurement session. Boys and girls contained 25.2 ± 4.7 and 26.8 ± 4.0% body fat, respectively. BMI-based cut-offs for overweight could not effectively identify children with a high body fat content. There was a significant (P BMI and body fat (%). In conclusion, requirements associated with a successful assessment of body composition by means of ADP were accepted by most 4-year-olds. Furthermore, BMI-based cut-offs for overweight did not effectively identify children with a high body fatness and BMI explained only a small proportion of the variation in body fat (%) in this age group.

  13. Ten-year-old children strategies in mental addition: A counting model account.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thevenot, Catherine; Barrouillet, Pierre; Castel, Caroline; Uittenhove, Kim

    2016-01-01

    For more than 30 years, it has been admitted that individuals from the age of 10 mainly retrieve the answer of simple additions from long-term memory, at least when the sum does not exceed 10. Nevertheless, recent studies challenge this assumption and suggest that expert adults use fast, compacted and unconscious procedures in order to solve very simple problems such as 3+2. If this is true, automated procedures should be rooted in earlier strategies and therefore observable in their non-compacted form in children. Thus, contrary to the dominant theoretical position, children's behaviors should not reflect retrieval. This is precisely what we observed in analyzing the responses times of a sample of 42 10-year-old children who solved additions with operands from 1 to 9. Our results converge towards the conclusion that 10-year-old children still use counting procedures in order to solve non-tie problems involving operands from 2 to 4. Moreover, these counting procedures are revealed whatever the expertise of children, who differ only in their speed of execution. Therefore and contrary to the dominant position in the literature according to which children's strategies evolve from counting to retrieval, the key change in development of mental addition solving appears to be a shift from slow to quick counting procedures.

  14. Features of tennis methods of teaching 5-6 years old children in the initial stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurmaeva E.V.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : theoretical and methodological justification for the existing teaching methods tennis of 5-6 years old children. Material : 17 special analysis and scientific and methodological sources. Results : the features of the existing methods of teaching children at an early stage of training. The main theses of the existing methods: 1 the training process is carried out in the form of games; 2 the level of general physical preparedness level exceeds special; 3 The first two years of the children do not participate in official competitions; 4 education of children begins with " School Ball ", with a gradual transition to employment with racket and ball; 5 training is built on two levels: theoretical - each " part" in the form of pre- formation of a mental model of rational behavior, and practical - the formation of the ability to perform motor actions. Conclusions : it was found that the existing methods of constructing the training process for children 5-6 years do not account for their physiological characteristics, therefore proposed to use computer technology and animation, that will shorten the formation of motor skills of children.

  15. Cancer incidence and survival among children and adolescents in Israel during the years 1998 to 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinowicz, Ron; Barchana, Micha; Liphshiz, Irena; Futerman, Boris; Linn, Shai; Weyl-Ben-Arush, Myriam

    2012-08-01

    Our goal was to describe childhood cancer incidence and survival in Israel and to identify demographic and epidemiologic variations among children and adolescents with cancer. We used data from the Israel National Cancer Registry to examine the incidence and survival of pediatric cancer in Israeli children aged 0 to 19 years, diagnosed during the years 1998 to 2007. Cases were analyzed according to sex, age, ethnicity, and geographic region. Among the 4255 cases of childhood cancer, there was a total age-adjusted incidence rate of 172.4 per million for children aged 0 to 19 years and 153.4 per million for children aged 0 to 14 years. The incidence rate for boys was higher than for girls (192.5 and 153.3, respectively) and higher for Jewish children than for Arab children (177.6 and 156.8, respectively). The largest groups were leukemias (22%), lymphomas (20.2%), and central nervous system tumors (17.4%). The number of new cases increased each year, but the incidence rate remained steady. The survival probability updated to December 2008 was estimated and the 5-year survival was calculated for the new cases until the end of 2003. The overall survival at 5 years was 80.8%, with 72.8% for the Arabic population and 83.2% for the Jewish population, and depended on the diagnosis. Incidence and survival in childhood cancer in Israel is at the same medium level compared with other parts of the world. This study may set the basis for investigating the genetic and environmental factors that cause pediatric cancer in Israel, delineating the genetic basis for ethnic origin disparities in survival.

  16. Gingivitis and plaque scores of 8- to 11-year-old Burmese children following participation in a 2-year school-based toothbrushing programme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosema, N.A.M.; van Palenstein Helderman, W.H.; van der Weijden, G.A.

    2012-01-01

    Aim:  The present study assessed whether gingivitis and plaque scores of 8- to 11-year-old school children who participated in a SBTB programme for 2 years were lower than those of children who did not participate in the programme. Material and methods:  The present study was performed using an exam

  17. Gingivitis and plaque scores of 8- to 11-year-old Burmese children following participation in a 2-year school-based toothbrushing programme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosema, N.A.; Palenstein Helderman, W.H. van; Weijden, G.A. van der

    2012-01-01

    AIM: The present study assessed whether gingivitis and plaque scores of 8- to 11-year-old school children who participated in a SBTB programme for 2 years were lower than those of children who did not participate in the programme. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The present study was performed using an examin

  18. Academic Achievement over 8 Years among Children Who Met Modified Criteria for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder at 4-6 Years of Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massetti, Greta M.; Lahey, Benjamin B.; Pelham, William E.; Loney, Jan; Ehrhardt, Ashley; Lee, Steve S.; Kipp, Heidi

    2008-01-01

    The predictive validity of symptom criteria for different subtypes of ADHD among children who were impaired in at least one setting in early childhood was examined. Academic achievement was assessed seven times over 8 years in 125 children who met symptom criteria for ADHD at 4-6 years of age and in 130 demographically-matched non-referred…

  19. Dynamic Characteristic Analysis of Spinal Motor Control Between 11- and 15-Year-Old Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Daniel H; Lau, Newman M

    2016-07-01

    Spinal motor control can provide substantial insight for the causes of spinal musculoskeletal disorders. Its dynamic characteristics however, have not been fully investigated. The objective of this study is to explore the dynamic characteristics of spinal motor control via the fractional Brownian motion mathematical technique. Spinal curvatures and repositioning errors of different spinal regions in 64 children age 11- or 15-years old during upright stance were measured and compared for the effects of age and gender. With the application of the fractional Brownian motion analytical technique to the changes of spinal curvatures, distinct persistent movement behaviors could be determined, which could be interpreted physiologically as open-loop behaviors. Moreover, it was found that the spinal motor control of 15-year-old children was better than that of 11-year-old children with smaller repositioning error and less curvature variability as well as shorter response time and smaller curvature deformation.

  20. Factors Affecting the IQ of Preterm Born Children of 4-6 Years Old

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shokofeh Radfar

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: This research was carry out with aim of study of factors affecting the IQ of children 4-6 years old born preterm. Materials and Methods: This analytical-cross sectional study was carried out on 102 premature children with age 4-6 years old during years 2004 to 2006. The tools used in this study were Wechsler intelligence scale for children and questioner including demographical characteristic. In this study we used t-test and spearman correlation and also SPSS-18 was used to analyze data. Results: In this study there was statistical relationship between normal child development and gestational age, birth weight, maternal education, multiple pregnancies, but there were not any statistical significant relationship between the history of preterm birth and child s gender, consanguinity parents, apgar, mother job. Conclusion: IQ in preterm babies who admitted in the NICU was lower than non-admitted preterm or term babies.

  1. Occupational exposure during pregnancy and the risk of hay fever in 7-year-old children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Berit Hvass; Thulstrup, Ane Marie; Hougaard, Karin Sørig;

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The prevalence of allergic diseases including hay fever has increased in the last decades, especially in Westernised countries. The aim of this study was to analyse whether occupational exposure during pregnancy is associated with development of hay fever in 7-year-old Danish children....... METHODS: A total of 42 696 women and their children from the Danish National Birth Cohort were categorised according to maternal occupational exposure. Exposure information was obtained by combining job title in pregnancy with a commonly used asthma Job Exposure Matrix. Information on hay fever...... in the child was obtained by an internet questionnaire at follow-up at 7 years of age. RESULTS: Adjusted logistic regression analyses showed no significant association between maternal occupational exposure during pregnancy and hay fever among the 7-year-old children. Stratifying for atopic status...

  2. Physical activity levels and energy expenditure of 9-year-old – 12-year-old overweight and obese children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita E. Pienaar

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The high occurrence of overweight and obesity amongst children is a disturbing health problem worldwide. Possible causes of increasing childhood obesity are inactivity and energy imbalances. The aim of this study was to analyse the total energy expenditure (TEEand physical activity levels in 9-year-old – 12-year-old overweight and obese children during a weekday and a weekend day, as well as during a weekday morning and afternoon. Twenty-four 9-year-old – 12-year-old children (seven boys and 17 girls, of whom nine were overweight and 15 were obese, were selected from seven public primary schools for this study. Body mass index (BMI cut-off points were used to distinguish between overweight and obese. Each participant wore an ACTICAL™ monitor to determine their physical activity levels and TEE. It was found that the TEE of the children did not differ between a week day and a weekend day, although the TEE of the week day afternoon differed significantly from that of the weekday morning. Unlike the overweight children, none of the obese children met the requirements of 60 minutes of moderate-intensity physical activity per day. Strategies should be found to increase the activity levels of overweight and, especially, obese children, specifically during the mornings and over weekends.

    Opsomming

    Die hoë voorkoms van oorgewig en obesiteit onder kinders is wêreldwyd ’n kommerwekkende gesondheidsprobleem. Fisieke onaktiwiteit en energiewanbalanse word as moontlike oorsake van die probleem beskou. Die doel van hierdie studie was om die totale energieverbruik (TEV en fisieke-aktiwiteitsvlakke van 9-jarige – 12-jarige oorgewig- en obese kinders tydens ‘n totale weeksdag en naweekdag te ontleed, asook tydens die oggend en middag van ‘n weeksdag. Vier-en-twintig 9-jarige – 12-jarige kinders (sewe seuns en 17 dogters, waarvan nege oorgewig en 15 obees was, is uit sewe publieke laerskole vir die studie gekies

  3. [Food avoidance emotional disorder in 3 to 10-year-old children: a clinical reality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goëb, J-L; Azcona, B; Troussier, F; Malka, J; Giniès, J-L; Duverger, P

    2005-09-01

    We underline the clinical importance of a specific eating disorder in 3 to 10 years old children, when the majority of the works about the prepubertal eating disorders focus either on the period just preceding adolescence (often between 10 and 13 years), or on the second half of the first year of the baby. Within the eating disorders described in the literature, we compare the clinical presentation of most of these 3 to 10 years old children with the food avoidance emotional disorder described during adolescence. These problems of eating behaviour (various selective eating with or without provoked vomiting) are ignored for a long time in these young children because of quite a satisfactory growth, but these children are often seen in emergency rooms because of a brutally complete eating refusal. Therapeutic consultations allow these children to express their fears about diseases, poisoning and death, for themselves or for their close relations, in particular the mother, without endangering their body. The early recognition and care of these difficulties of conciliation between the body and the thoughts impose a narrow collaboration between paediatric and psychiatric staffs.

  4. Overweight among Four-Year-Old Children in Relation to Early Growth Characteristics and Socioeconomic Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörgen Thorn

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To assess early growth characteristics and socioeconomic factors of children in relation to body mass index (BMI and presence of overweight among four-year-old children. Methods. Two Child Health Centres (CHC participated in the study. They were selected to obtain two populations of children featuring divergent socio-economic characteristics. Growth data registered at the CHCs from birth to the 4-year check-up were recovered. Overweight was defined by the BMI cut-offs established by IOTF. BMI values expressed as BMI standard deviation score (BMISDS were used for analysis. Results. At the 4-year check-up, the BMISDS and the proportion of children with overweight (including the obese were significantly higher in the district with lower socio-economic status. High BMI at birth and low socio-economic status of the population in the CHC-district were shown to be independent determinants for overweight and BMISDS at four years of age. Conclusions. More research is needed to understand the mechanisms and how intervention programs should be designed in order to prevent the development of overweight and obesity in children.

  5. Prevalence of Malnutrition in Children under 6 Years in Sistan and Baluchestan Province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansour Karajibani

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The present study was conducted in rural area of Sistan and Baluchestan province, south-east of Iran with aim of determine the prevalence of underweight, stunting, wasting, overweight and obesity among children. Materials and Methods: One thousand five hundred seventy Children were selected from all children less than 6 years covered by healthy and treatment centers of rural area in Sistan and Baluchestan province. Body weight and height were measured using standard methods. Determination of malnutrition performed based on WHO, National Center for Health Statistics and Center for Disease Control and Prevention (NCHS and CDC standard. The indices nutritional status was assessed by Z- Score. Results: The result showed that, based on NCHS and WHO standard: 21.1% and 19.4%, 28.2% and 32.1%, 7.5% and 9.4% of children were underweight, stunted and wasted respectively. The peak of malnutrition based on stunting was more than underweight and wasting. According to CDC standard, the prevalence of underweight, overweight and obesity was 27.8%, 4.2% and 4.1% respectively. The most rate of overweight and obesity was 7.1% and 5% in children aged 3 years using CDC cut-off and also lowest rate of overweight and obesity were 1.5% and 0% in children aged 5 years. Conclusion: This study revealed, underweight, stunting and wasting represents different processes of malnutrition which have different risk factors. However, it might be replaced by overweight as children grow to adolescence. Nevertheless, overweight and obesity are not major problem in the children.

  6. Functional performance of school children diagnosed with developmental delay up to two years of age

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    Lílian de Fátima Dornelas

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To compare the functional performance of students diagnosed with developmental delay (DD up to two years of age with peers exhibiting typical development. Methods: Cross-sectional study with functional performance assessment of children diagnosed with DD up to two years of age compared to those with typical development at seven to eight years of age. Each group consisted of 45 children, selected by non-random sampling, evaluated for motor skills, quality of home environment, school participation and performance. ANOVA and the Binomial test for two proportions were used to assess differences between groups. Results: The group with DD had lower motor skills when compared to the typical group. While 66.7% of children in the typical group showed adequate school participation, receiving aid in cognitive and behavioral tasks similar to that offered to other children at the same level, only 22.2% of children with DD showed the same performance. Although 53.3% of the children with DD achieved an academic performance expected for the school level, there were limitations in some activities. Only two indicators of family environment, diversity and activities with parents at home, showed statistically significant difference between the groups, with advantage being shown for the typical group. Conclusions: Children with DD have persistent difficulties at school age, with motor deficit, restrictions in school activity performance and low participation in the school context, as well as significantly lower functional performance when compared to children without DD. A systematic monitoring of this population is recommended to identify needs and minimize future problems.

  7. Functional performance of school children diagnosed with developmental delay up to two years of age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dornelas, Lílian de Fátima; Magalhães, Lívia de Castro

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To compare the functional performance of students diagnosed with developmental delay (DD) up to two years of age with peers exhibiting typical development. Methods: Cross-sectional study with functional performance assessment of children diagnosed with DD up to two years of age compared to those with typical development at seven to eight years of age. Each group consisted of 45 children, selected by non-random sampling, evaluated for motor skills, quality of home environment, school participation and performance. ANOVA and the Binomial test for two proportions were used to assess differences between groups. Results: The group with DD had lower motor skills when compared to the typical group. While 66.7% of children in the typical group showed adequate school participation, receiving aid in cognitive and behavioral tasks similar to that offered to other children at the same level, only 22.2% of children with DD showed the same performance. Although 53.3% of the children with DD achieved an academic performance expected for the school level, there were limitations in some activities. Only two indicators of family environment, diversity and activities with parents at home, showed statistically significant difference between the groups, with advantage being shown for the typical group. Conclusions: Children with DD have persistent difficulties at school age, with motor deficit, restrictions in school activity performance and low participation in the school context, as well as significantly lower functional performance when compared to children without DD. A systematic monitoring of this population is recommended to identify needs and minimize future problems. PMID:26553573

  8. Nuclear Halo-Like Phenomena of 6,8He and Nuclear Short Range Correlation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Li-Juan; WU Qing; HE Xiao-Rong; MA Wei-Xing

    2004-01-01

    Based on the nuclear short range correlation in a halo-like nucleus, theoretical analysis of the experimental cross sections for small-angle elastic p-4,6,8He scattering at the energy of about 0.7 GeV has been performed in the framework of Glauber multiple scattering theory. Our theoretical calculations reproduce the corresponding experimental data quite successfully. These good agreements confirm that the nuclear halo-like phenomena may originate from the short range correlation between nucleons in a halo-like nucleus.

  9. The Asymmetric CFT Landscape in D=4,6,8 with Extended Supersymmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Blumenhagen, Ralph; Plauschinn, Erik

    2016-01-01

    We study asymmetric simple-current extensions of Gepner models in dimensions $D=4,6,8$ with at least eight supercharges in the right-moving sector. The models obtained in an extensive stochastic computer search belong to a small number of different classes. These classes can be categorized as dimensional reductions, asymmetric orbifolds with $(-1)^{F_L}$, extra gauge enhancement and as coming from the super Higgs-effect. Models in the latter class are particularly interesting, as they may correspond to non-geometric flux compactifications.

  10. Synthesis of 6,8-dichloroquinolones utilizing new method and evaluation of their antibacterial activities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Several 6,8-dichloroquinolone analogues were synthesized from the key intermediate compound of 2,3,4,5-tetrachlorobenzene carbonyl chloride, which was obtained from the starting material of tetrachlorophthalic anhydride. Their in vitro antibacterial activities were evaluated. As a result of this study, compounds 21c and 21d were twofold more potent than ciprofloxacin (CPFX)and norfloxacin (NFLX) against Staphylococcus aureus-9, and with the same potent as CPFX and NFLX while against Escherichia coli-2, but were less potent than references in against Pseudomonas aeruginosa-17.

  11. Nuclear Halo-Like Phenomena of 6,8 He and Nuclear Short Range Correlation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOULi-Juan; WUQinq; HEXiao-Rong; MAWei-Xing

    2004-01-01

    Based on the nuclear short range correlation in a halo-like nucleus, theoretical analysis of the experimental cross sections for small-angle elastic p-4,6,8 He scattering at the energy of about 0.7 GeV has been performed in the framework of Glauber multiple scattering theory. Our theoretical calculations reproduce the corresponding experimental data quite successfully. These good agreements confirm that the nuclear halo-like phenomena may originate from the short range correlation between nucleons in a halo-like nucleus.

  12. Varicella vaccination coverage of children under two years of age in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reuss Annicka M

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since July 2004, routine varicella vaccination is recommended by the German Standing Vaccination Committee in Germany. Health Insurance Funds started to cover vaccination costs at different time points between 2004 and 2006 in the Federal States. Nationwide representative data on vaccination coverage against varicella of children under two years of age are not available. We aimed to determine varicella vaccination coverage in statutory health insured children under two years of age in twelve German Federal States using data from associations of statutory health insurance physicians (ASHIPs, in order to investigate the acceptance of the recommended routine varicella vaccination programme. Methods We analysed data on varicella vaccination from 13 of 17 ASHIPs of the years 2004 to 2007. The study population consisted of all statutory health insured children under two years of age born in 2004 (cohort 2004 or 2005 (cohort 2005 in one of the studied regions. Vaccination coverage was determined by the number of children vaccinated under 2 years of age within the study population. Results Varicella vaccination coverage of children under two years of age with either one dose of the monovalent varicella vaccine or two doses of the measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella vaccine increased from 34% (cohort 2004 to 51% (cohort 2005 in the studied regions (p Conclusions Our study shows increasing varicella vaccination coverage of young children, indicating a growing acceptance of the routine varicella vaccination programme by the parents and physicians. We recommend further monitoring of vaccination coverage using data from ASHIPs to investigate acceptance of the routine vaccination programmes over time.

  13. School screening and point prevalence of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis in 4000 Norwegian children aged 12 years

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    Brox Jens

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background School screening for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS is discussed. The aim of the present study was to describe the point prevalence of AIS and to evaluate the effectiveness of school screening in 12-year- old children. Methods Community nurses and physical therapists in the Southern Health region of Norway including about 12000 school children aged 12 years were invited to participate. All participating community nurses and physical therapists fulfilled an educational course to improve their knowledge about AIS and learn the screening procedure including the Adam Forward Bending Test and measurement of gibbus using a scoliometer. Results Sub-regions including 4000 school children participated. The prevalence of idiopathic scoliosis defined as a positive Adam Forward Bending Test, gibbus > 7° and primary major curve on radiographs > 10°, was 0.55%. Five children (0.13% had a major curve > 20°. Bracing was not indicated in any child; all children were post menarche; four had Risser sign of 4, and one with Risser 1 did not have curve progression > 5° at later follow-up. In one of these 5 children however, the major curve progressed to 45° within 7 months after screening and the girl was operated. Conclusion The point prevalence of AIS in 12- year old children is in agreement or slightly lower than previous studies. The screening model employed demonstrates acceptable sensitivity and specificity and low referral rates. Screening at the age of 12 years only was not effective for detecting patients with indication for brace treatment.

  14. Imitation of suprasegmental patterns by five-year-old children with adequate and inadequate articulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadden, B B; Asp, C W; Tonkovich, J D; Mason, D

    1980-08-01

    Ten five-year-old children with adequate articulation skills and 10 five-year-old children with inadequate articulation skills were administered the Templin-Darley Test of Articulation and the Test of Rhythm and Intonation Patterns (TRIP). Differences between the adequate and inadequate groups in terms of the mean percentage correct and the correlations between TRIP and Templin-Darley Test scores within groups were statistically nonsignificant. Item analysis revealed no differences between groups in the pattern of performance on the three subtests of the TRIP or on specific test items. The possible effects of therapy enrollment on suprasegmental test performance are discussed, and future research needs are suggested.

  15. Bruxism and familiar functioning in school-age children between 5 and 11 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lury Morales

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bruxism, a common negative habit in children, is often linked with emotional conflicts, anxiety, stress, or frustration, which could be originated in the familiar environment. Objective: To characterize the familiar environment of children between 5 and 11 years suffering from bruxism. Methods: Analytical control-case design, developed from March to June, 2007, including children between 5 and 11 years from three urban elementary schools included in Health Area II of Cienfuegos municipality. All the children with bruxism were selected as cases and the controls were selected through pairing 2 to 1. The test FF-SIL was used to assess familiar functioning. Results: Bruxism was not associated with gender. There were significant differences between both groups regarding familiar functioning, in which affectivity and cohesion had higher results and harmony was less significant. Most of the studied families were functional or half-functional. Most of children with bruxism come from families with inadequate functioning; besides, dysfunctional and severely dysfunctional families and more frequent in the group of children with bruxism. Conclusion: In the studied sample, bruxism was associated, to a large extent, with inadequate familiar functioning.

  16. Mental health and bullying in the United States among children aged 6 to 17 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedict, Frances Turcotte; Vivier, Patrick M; Gjelsvik, Annie

    2015-03-01

    This article examines the association between mental health disorders and being identified as a bully among children between the ages of 6 and 17 years. Data from the 2007 National Survey of Children's Health were examined. A total of 63,997 children had data for both parental reported mental health and bullying status. Bivariate analysis and logistic regression was performed to assess the association between mental health status and being identified as a bully with an age-stratified analysis and sub-analysis by type of mental health disorder. In 2007, 15.2% of U.S. children ages 6 to 17 years were identified as bullies by their parent or guardian. Children with a diagnosis of depression, anxiety, or depression had a threefold increased odds of being a bully. The diagnosis of depression is associated with a 3.31 increased odds (95% CI = [2.7, 4.07]) of being identified as a bully. Children with anxiety and attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) had similar odds. The diagnosis of a mental health disorder is strongly associated with being identified as a bully. In particular, depression, anxiety, and ADHD are strongly associated with being identified as a bully. These findings emphasize the importance of providing psychological support to not only victims of bullying but bullies as well. Understanding the risk profile of childhood bullies is essential in gaining a better grasp of this public health problem and in creating useful and appropriate resources and interventions to decrease bullying.

  17. Disabled children (0-3 years) and integrated services--the impact of Early Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Alys; Temple, Bogusia; Davies, Linda; Parkinson, Gillian; Bolton, Joanna

    2008-05-01

    Early Support (ES) is the flagship government programme aimed at improving multi-agency working with, and supporting enhanced outcomes for, children with a disability 0-3 years and their families. This paper draws on results from the recently completed Department for Education and Skills commissioned national evaluation of ES involving 46 pathfinder projects throughout England. Data were collected by survey at two points in time (9 months apart), by focus groups with service providers and parents, and through secondary data analyses, including exploratory economic evaluation. This paper outlines some of the key findings pertaining to the relationship between integrated children's services and the impact of ES. As such, we address three concerns: what the evidence from ES can tell us about the relationships between universal and targeted provision within integrated children's service structures, the relationship between specific short-term initiatives and their longer-term sustainability within integrated children's services structures and the potential costs and benefits of ES looking forward to its implementation on a national basis within an integrated children's services environment. Although focused primarily on children with a disability in the early years, implications will be drawn for the implementation of Lead Professional Guidance and the Common Assessment Framework more generically.

  18. Dietary habits among children aged 8-9 years in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Lauria

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe dietary habits and related geographic and socio-demographic characteristics among children aged 8-9 years in Italy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data from the 2012 national nutritional surveillance system collected from children, parents and teachers, have been linked to determine the children's eating habits. Logistic regression analyses were used to investigate the association between incorrect dietary habits and their potential predictors. RESULTS: Of the 46 307 children, 8.6% skipped breakfast, 48.8% did not eat vegetables and 28.7% did not eat fruit daily, 64.8% ate an abundant mid-morning snack, 41.4% drank sugary beverages and 12.5% drank carbonated beverages at least once a day. Three or more incorrect habits were found in 43.9% of the children. Incorrect dietary habits were more common among children with lower socio-economic conditions, who were resident in the South of the country and who spent more time watching TV. CONCLUSION: In Italy, unhealthy dietary habits are common among children. The deficiencies identified may well be a harbinger of future public health problems.

  19. The exposition of John 17:6-8: An exegetical exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.G. van der Merwe

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available This essay is an exegesis of Jn 17:6-8 aimed at gaining an understanding of what the Fourth Evangelist tries to emphasize and to communicate concerning the character and success of Jesus This essay is an exegesis of Jn 17:6-8 aimed at gaining an understanding of what the Fourth Evangelist tries to emphasize and to communicate concerning the character and success of Jesus’ earthly ministry. Firstly, a discourse analysis is conducted to point out the linguistic symmetric parallelism through which the Evangelist (1 emphasizes the success of Jesus’ ministry, (2 structures the principal components of Jesus’ ministry and the response of his disciples and (3 tries to explain the meaning of these components. Secondly, a theological exposition of these principal components is conducted, in respect of (1 Revelation: … (2 Obedience /Acceptance: … and (3 Faith: … ( earthly ministry. Firstly, a discourse analysis is conducted to point out the linguistic symmetric parallelism through which the Evangelist (1 emphasizes the success of Jesus’ ministry, (2 structures the principal components of Jesus’ ministry and the response of his disciples and (3 tries to explain the meaning of these components. Secondly, a theological exposition of these principal components is conducted, in respect of (1 Revelation: … (2 Obedience / Acceptance: … and (3 Faith: … (

  20. CLASH: A Census of Magnified Star-Forming Galaxies at z ~ 6-8

    CERN Document Server

    Bradley, L D; Coe, D; Bouwens, R; Postman, M; Balestra, I; Grillo, C; Monna, A; Rosati, P; Seitz, S; Host, O; Lemze, D; Moustakas, J; Moustakas, L A; Shu, X; Zheng, W; Broadhurst, T; Carrasco, M; Jouvel, S; Koekemoer, A; Medezinski, E; Meneghetti, M; Nonino, M; Smit, R; Umetsu, K; Bartelmann, M; Benitez, N; Donahue, M; Ford, H; Infante, L; Jimenez-Teja, Y; Kelson, D; Lahav, O; Maoz, D; Melchior, P; Merten, J; Molino, A

    2013-01-01

    We utilize 16-band Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations of 18 lensing clusters obtained as part of the Cluster Lensing And Supernova survey with Hubble (CLASH) Multi-Cycle Treasury program to search for z~6-8 galaxies. We report the discovery of 206, 45, and 13 Lyman-break galaxy (LBG) candidates at z~6, z~7, and z~8, respectively, identified from purely photometric redshift selections. This large sample, representing nearly an order of magnitude increase in the number of magnified star-forming galaxies at z~6-8 presented to date, is unique in that we have observations in four WFC3/UVIS UV, seven ACS/WFC optical and all five WFC3/IR broad-band filters, which enable very accurate photometric redshift selections. We construct detailed lensing models for all 18 clusters (although some are preliminary) to estimate object magnifications and to identify two new multiply-lensed z >~ 6 candidates. The median magnifications for these 18 clusters are 4, 4, and 5 for the z~6, z~7, and z~8 samples, respectively, ove...

  1. The role of phonological awareness and letter-sound knowledge in the reading development of children with intellectual disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sermier Dessemontet, Rachel; de Chambrier, Anne-Françoise

    2015-01-01

    Our study investigated if phonological awareness and letter-sound knowledge were predictors of reading progress in children with intellectual disabilities (ID) with unspecified etiology. An academic achievement test was administered to 129 children with mild or moderate ID when they were 6-8 years old, as well as one and two school years later. Findings indicated that phonological awareness and letter-sound knowledge at 6-8 years of age predicted progress in word and non-word reading after one school year and two school years after controlling for IQ, age, expressive vocabulary, spoken language, and type of placement. Phonological awareness and letter-sound knowledge at 6-8 years of age also predicted progress in reading comprehension after one school year and two school years. These findings suggest that training phonological awareness skills combined with explicit phonics instruction is important to foster reading progress in children with mild and moderate ID with unspecified etiology.

  2. Functional somatic symptoms in 5-7 year old children: assessment, prevalence and co-occurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rask, Charlotte Ulrikka

    2012-11-01

    Medically unexplained or functional somatic symptoms (FSS) in children constitute a major clinical problem. However, research data on FSS in young children are few, and epidemiological studies are hampered by lack of good standardised measures. The present thesis consists of two studies: In study one, we developed two measures to assess FSS in young children. The first measure is a parent interview, the Soma Assessment Interview (SAI), to assess the 1-year prevalence and associated impairment caused by FSS. The interview can be performed by lay interviewers and subsequently rated clinically by physicians. A preliminary validation showed a good agreement on FSS recognition between two clinical raters (kappa = 0.86), a good concurrent validity with independent measures of physical complaints and a good discrimination on the prevalence of FSS between a community sample and clinical samples. The second measure is a systematic medical record review of FSS in paediatric patients: the Medical Record Review for Functional Somatic Symptoms in Children (MRFC). Our findings suggest that the MRFC allows identification of subgroups of paediatric patients with multisymptomatic FSS and long-term and/or impairing FSS and it may prove useful for case finding in clinical and epidemiological research. In study two, we investigated the parent-reported FSS and their impairment in a population-based sample of Danish 5-7-year-old children. We used the SAI as the main measure. Data from 1,327 children from The Copenhagen Child Cohort 2000 were analysed. Impairing symptoms were defined as FSS causing substantial discomfort, impairment of everyday life, absence from daycare or school and/or health care seeking. We found that FSS are common in this age group with a 1-year prevalence of 23.2%. Different pain complaints, i.e. limb pain, abdominal pain and headache, were the most prevalent types of FSS. A subgroup of children with impairing FSS (4.4%) was identified. These children were more

  3. Evidence of Bordetella pertussis infection in vaccinated 1-year-old Danish children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Linstow, Marie-Louise; Pontoppidan, Peter Lotko; von König, Carl-Heinz Wirsing

    2010-01-01

    We measured IgA and IgG antibodies to pertussis toxin (PT) and filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA) in sera from 203 1-year-old children who had received one to three doses of a monocomponent PT toxoid vaccine. Ten children (5%) had IgA antibody to PT indicating recent infection; seven of these children...... had received three doses of vaccine. PT IgA responders did not have significantly longer coughing episodes than PT IgA non-responders. Since an IgA antibody response occurs in only approximately 50% of infected children, the actual infection rate in our cohort is estimated to approximately 10......%. The apparent high Bordetella pertussis infection rate in Danish infants suggests that the monocomponent PT toxoid vaccine used in Denmark has limited efficacy against B. pertussis infection. A prospective immunization study comparing a multi-component vaccine with the present monocomponent PT toxoid vaccine...

  4. Choroidal thickness in relation to birth parameters in 11- to 12-year-old children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xiao Q; Munkholm, Anja; Larsen, Michael;

    2015-01-01

    to -1] μm, P = 0.04) compared with appropriate for gestation children. Longer birth length was associated with a thicker subfoveal choroid (2 [1-4] μm/cm, P = 0.005). Macular choroidal thickness at 16 extrafoveal locations was measured in a subset of children and found to have the same associations......PURPOSE: To examine choroidal thickness in a population-based child cohort in relation to birth parameters. METHODS: The Copenhagen Child Cohort 2000 Eye Study examined 1406 children aged 11 to 12 years using enhanced depth imaging spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (EDI-OCT), ocular...... biometry and measurement of height, weight, refraction, and self-reported pubertal development status. Birth parameters were obtained from the Danish Medical Birth Registry. RESULTS: The subfoveal choroid in low birth weight children (

  5. Prevalence of oral habits in 563 Nigerian preschool children age 3-5 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onyeaso, C O; Sote, E O

    2001-12-01

    One of the contributory factors in the establishment of occlusion is the child's oral habits. A limited amount of information is available on oral habits of pre-school children especially on Nigerian pre-school children. With an increasing interest in the early recognition of mal-occlusion and a corresponding emphasis on preventive procedures, more information on pre-school children may prove to be useful. This study revealed the prevalence of oral habits among 563 Nigerian pre-school children aged 3-5 years at 13.14%: 6.74% for males, 6.4%for females. The acquired data were tested with chi-square(chi2). The results indicate significant gender difference for tongue thrusting/sucking only (P=0.01) using the fisher's exact test. The relationship between digital sucking habit and mal-occlusion was very significant (P<0.01).

  6. Follow-up of extreme neonatal hyperbilirubinaemia in 5- to 10-year-old children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vandborg, Pernille Kure; Hansen, Bo Moelholm; Greisen, Gorm;

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate whether infants with neonatal hyperbilirubinaemia but without intermediate or advanced bilirubin encephalopathy develop long-term sequelae, with impairment of motor development, executive function, or hearing. METHOD: This nested double-cohort study included 167 exposed children...... spectrum disorder recorded in national registries. INTERPRETATION: No evidence was found of an increased risk of deficits in motor development, executive function, or hearing in children with extreme hyperbilirubinaemia who did not have intermediate or advanced bilirubin encephalopathy....... (107 males, 60 females) born in Denmark 2000 to 2005 at gestational age ≥35 weeks with a total serum bilirubin ≥450 μmol/L (26.3mg/dL) and 163 age-, sex-, and gestational age-matched unexposed children (103 males, 60 females). The children were examined at a mean age of 7.7 years (SD 1.7y) using...

  7. Separable sustained and selective attention factors are apparent in 5-year-old children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Underbjerg, Mette; George, Melanie S; Thorsen, Poul

    2013-01-01

    In adults and older children, evidence consistent with relative separation between selective and sustained attention, superimposed upon generally positive inter-test correlations, has been reported. Here we examine whether this pattern is detectable in 5-year-old children from the healthy...... and auditory stimuli were good. In a factor analysis, the two TEA-Ch(J) selective attention tasks (one visual, one auditory) loaded onto a common factor and diverged from the two sustained attention tasks (one auditory, one motor), which shared a common loading on the second factor. This pattern, which...... suggests that the tests are indeed sensitive to underlying attentional capacities, was supported by the relationships between the TEA-Ch(J) factors and Test of Everyday Attention for Children subtests in the older children in the sample. It is possible to gain convincing performance-based estimates...

  8. Abdominal obesity status among Arora preschool children (2-5 years of Amritsar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Kaur

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Abdominal obesity is a state of excessive accumulation of central subcutaneous and visceral fat, has emerged as an important predictor for cardiovascular and metabolic risks in children and adolescents. Waist circumference is a highly sensitive and specific measure of abdominal obesity. Very few studies are available to the prevalence of abdominal obesity. Therefore in the present study an attempt has been made to report the prevalence of abdominal obesity among preschool children of Amritsar (Punjab. This study was undertaken among 1879 (949 boys and 930 girls Arora preschool children aged 2-5 years of Amritsar. Waist circumference was taken on each subjects using standard technique. Abdominal obesity was assessed by using waist circumference criterion of National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Present study revealed that abdominal obese were10.4% and 6.3% among boys and girls, respectively. The percentage prevalence of abdominal obesity was lower in the Amritsar children than other populations.

  9. Computer animated relaxation therapy in children between 7 and 13 years with tension-type headache

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tornoe, Birte; Skov, Liselotte

    2012-01-01

    This pilot study evaluated the effect of computer animated relaxation therapy in children between 7 and 13 years with tension-type headache and the children's experiences with the therapy. The therapy consisted of an uncontrolled nine-session course in modified progressive relaxation therapy...... assisted by computer animated surface EMG provided from the trapezius muscles and with the physiotherapist as a participant observer. Outcome measures were (a) headache frequency and intensity, (b) pericranial tenderness, (c) tension patterns, and (d) evaluations assessed at baseline and at 3 months follow...... participants and in Total Tenderness Score for children with frequent episodic tension-type headache. The children expressed a growing understanding of body reactions and an acquired ability to deactivate and regulate these reactions. Computer animated SEMG seems an applicable learning strategy for young...

  10. Dental caries and treatment needs of children (6-10 years in rural Udaipur, Rajasthan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhar Vineet

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective : This study was done to examine caries prevalence and corresponding treatment needs in school children of rural areas of Udaipur, Rajasthan. Materials and Methods : A total of 750 children of rural areas in the age group of 6-10 years were examined, using WHO index, to record the prevalence of dental caries and treatment needs. The results were subjected to statistical analysis using chi square test. Results : Dental caries was found in 63.20% children, and 85.07% children needed dental treatment. The highest need was of one surface filling (85.73% followed by sealant (51.20%. Conclusion : Dental caries showed to be a significant health issue in the rural population requiring immediate attention.

  11. Prevalence of epileptiform discharges in healthy 11- and 12-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Arthur C; Chau, Larissa; Arya, Kapil; Schneider, Margaret

    2016-09-01

    We sought to determine the prevalence of interictal epileptiform discharges (IEDs) in healthy 11- and 12-year-old children. Sixth grade students with no history of seizure, or neurologic or psychiatric disease, were enrolled in a longitudinal physical activity intervention study. Per study protocol, each student had two EEG recordings approximately 6months apart. Epileptiform discharges were present in 4 (2.9%) of 140 students: centrotemporal in three and generalized in one. In three children, the discharges were still present six months later. None of the children had developed seizures a minimum of one year after the second EEG. These results are consistent with those of two landmark European studies performed nearly a half century ago, before the modern era of digital EEG. Healthy 11- and 12-year-old children with no history of seizure may have centrotemporal or generalized epileptiform discharges on EEG, which can persist for at least 6months. Based on both our results and those of the two prior European studies, such discharges, if found incidentally in otherwise healthy children in this age group, should not prompt further evaluation or treatment.

  12. CLINICO – EPIDEMIOLOGY OF U TI IN UNDER 5 YEARS OF AGE IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonali

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infections (UTIs are a common , potentially serious , and often occult bacterial infections of childhood . UTI is more frequent in females than males at all ages with the exception of the neonatal period . Urinary tract infections imply invasion of urinary tract by pathogens which may involve the upper or lower urinary tract depending on the infection in kidney , bladder and urethra . OBJECTIVES: To determine the incidence of UTI in febrile children be low 5years of age and to know the aetiological profile of UTI among the same group of children with fever . METHODS: This cross sectional observational study included all febrile children from one month to 5years of age , admitted in Pediatric ward in MGM Me dical College , Kishanganj , Bihar . RESULTS: Overall incidence rate of UTI in the present study was 6% with maximum incidence in children <2years of age . Among culture positive cases majority (50% grew E . coli . DMSA revealed renal cortical scarring in 42 . 8 5% cases following UTI . CONCLUSION: From the present study it can be concluded that UTI is a common bacterial infection in infant and children . Rapid evaluation and treatment of UTI is important to prevent renal parenchymal damage and renal scarring or ren al failure .

  13. Tracing children's vocabulary development from preschool through the school-age years: an 8-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Shuang; Su, Mengmeng; Kang, Cuiping; Liu, Hongyun; Zhang, Yuping; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Tardif, Twila; Li, Hong; Liang, Weilan; Zhang, Zhixiang; Shu, Hua

    2015-01-01

    In this 8-year longitudinal study, we traced the vocabulary growth of Chinese children, explored potential precursors of vocabulary knowledge, and investigated how vocabulary growth predicted future reading skills. Two hundred and sixty-four (264) native Chinese children from Beijing were measured on a variety of reading and language tasks over 8 years. Between the ages of 4 to 10 years, they were administered tasks of vocabulary and related cognitive skills. At age 11, comprehensive reading skills, including character recognition, reading fluency, and reading comprehension were examined. Individual differences in vocabulary developmental profiles were estimated using the intercept-slope cluster method. Vocabulary development was then examined in relation to later reading outcomes. Three subgroups of lexical growth were classified, namely high-high (with a large initial vocabulary size and a fast growth rate), low-high (with a small initial vocabulary size and a fast growth rate) and low-low (with a small initial vocabulary size and a slow growth rate) groups. Low-high and low-low groups were distinguishable mostly through phonological skills, morphological skills and other reading-related cognitive skills. Childhood vocabulary development (using intercept and slope) explained subsequent reading skills. Findings suggest that language-related and reading-related cognitive skills differ among groups with different developmental trajectories of vocabulary, and the initial size and growth rate of vocabulary may be two predictors for later reading development.

  14. CLINICAL PROFILE AND OUTCOME OF URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS IN CHILDREN AGED 1 - 12 YEARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manohar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Urinary tract is a common site of infection in the pediatric population. Unlike generally benign course of urinary tract infection (UTI in the adult population, UTI in the pediatric population is well recognized as a cause of acute morbidity and chronic medical conditions like hypertension and renal insufficiency in adulthood. As a result, it is crucial to have a clear understanding of clinical profile of UTI in children. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: 1. to study the clinical presentation of UTI in children. 2. To identify the common microorganisms causing UTI in children. 3. To evaluate the risk factors for UTI in children. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: Hospital based prospective study conducted from October 2010 to September 2011 in Department of Pediatrics at S.V.R.R Gov ernment General Hospital, a tertiary care hospital affiliated to S.V . Medical College, Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh. METHODS AND MATERIAL: INCLUSION CRITERIA: All children in the age group of 1 to12 years admitted in hospital with a probable urinary tract inf ection and later confirmed by a positive urine culture. EXCLUSION CRITERIA: Those children who received partial treatment with antibiotics prior to admission and those with any neurological abnormality of urinary bladder. Informed written consent was taken from parents of children and data was collected in pre - designed pro - forma. RESULTS: Significant pyuria was present in all patients. Most common organisms isolated on urine culture were Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Both were sensitive to thi rd generation Cephalosporins, Piperacillin - Tazobacta m and Amikacin. VUR was a significant risk factor for UTI (P1year, UTI is much more common in girls than boys. Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae are the most common organisms causing UTI in children. Ultrasound examination of abdomen is a sensitive test to detect. Vesicoureteral reflux is a common predisposing factor for UTI in both boys and girls.

  15. The growth status of North Korean refugee children and adolescents from 6 to 19 years of age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pak, Sunyoung

    2010-01-01

    This paper is a study of the growth status of 1406 North Korean refugee children and adolescents who were between 6 and 19 9 years of age at the time of their arrival in South Korea during the years 1995-2007 as compared with that of their South Korean peers Refugee children of 6 5 years of age were

  16. Frequency of intrathoracic injuries in children younger than 3 years with rib fractures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darling, Stephen E. [Kapiolani Children' s Hospital, The Department of Radiology, Honolulu, HI (United States); Done, Stephen L.; Friedman, Seth D. [Seattle Children' s Hospital, The Department' s of Radiology, Seattle, WA (United States); University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA (United States); Feldman, Kenneth W. [Seattle Children' s Hospital, Pediatrics, General Pediatrics Division, Seattle, WA (United States); Seattle Children' s Protection Program, Children' s Protection Program, M/S M2-10, Seattle, WA (United States); University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2014-10-15

    Research documents that among children admitted to trauma intensive care units the number of rib fractures sustained indicates the child's likelihood of having and severity of intrathoracic injury. This has been misused in court to argue that children with multiple rib fractures who lack intrathoracic injury have abnormal bone fragility rather than inflicted injury. To determine frequency of intrathoracic injuries in children younger than 3 years with rib fractures in cases of child abuse and accidental trauma. We conducted a retrospective review of rib fractures caused by documented abuse or accidents from 2003 to 2010 in children treated at Seattle Children's Hospital and Harborview Medical Center. A senior pediatric radiologist and radiology fellow independently reviewed the imaging. Children with bone demineralization were excluded. Descriptive and simple comparative statistics were used. Seventy-two percent (47/65) of infants and toddlers with rib fractures were abused. Abused children had more rib fractures than accidentally injured children (5.55 vs. 3.11, P = 0.012). However intrathoracic injuries as a whole (55.6% vs. 12.8%, P < 0.001) and individual types of intrathoracic injuries were more common with accidents. Rates of other thoracic cage injuries did not differ substantially (27.8% accidents vs. 12.8% abuse, P = 0.064). Intracranial and intra-abdominal injuries and skull fractures were equally frequent, but other extrathoracic fractures were more common with abuse (70.2% vs. 16.7%, P < 0.001). Abused infants and toddlers have fewer intrathoracic injuries but more rib fractures than accidentally injured peers. This likely reflects different injury mechanics. Lack of intrathoracic injuries in abused children with rib fractures does not imply bone fragility. (orig.)

  17. Etiology and audiological outcomes at 3 years for 364 children in Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Henrik M Dahl

    Full Text Available Hearing loss is an etiologically heterogeneous trait with differences in the age of onset, severity and site of lesion. It is caused by a combination of genetic and/or environmental factors. A longitudinal study to examine the efficacy of early intervention for improving child outcomes is ongoing in Australia. To determine the cause of hearing loss in these children we undertook molecular testing of perinatal "Guthrie" blood spots of children whose hearing loss was either detected via newborn hearing screening or detected later in infancy. We analyzed the GJB2 and SLC26A4 genes for the presence of mutations, screened for the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA A1555G mutation, and screened for congenital CMV infection in DNA isolated from dried newborn blood spots. Results were obtained from 364 children. We established etiology for 60% of children. One or two known GJB2 mutations were present in 82 children. Twenty-four children had one or two known SLC26A4 mutations. GJB2 or SLC26A4 changes with unknown consequences on hearing were found in 32 children. The A1555G mutation was found in one child, and CMV infection was detected in 28 children. Auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder was confirmed in 26 children whose DNA evaluations were negative. A secondary objective was to investigate the relationship between etiology and audiological outcomes over the first 3 years of life. Regression analysis was used to investigate the relationship between hearing levels and etiology. Data analysis does not support the existence of differential effects of etiology on degree of hearing loss or on progressiveness of hearing loss.

  18. Training compliance control yields improved drawing in 5-11year old children with motor difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snapp-Childs, Winona; Shire, Katy; Hill, Liam; Mon-Williams, Mark; Bingham, Geoffrey P

    2016-08-01

    There are a large number of children with motor difficulties including those that have difficulty producing movements qualitatively well enough to improve in perceptuo-motor learning without intervention. We have developed a training method that supports active movement generation to allow improvement in a 3D tracing task requiring good compliance control. Previously, we tested a limited age range of children and found that training improved performance on the 3D tracing task and that the training transferred to a 2D drawing test. In the present study, school children (5-11years old) with motor difficulties were trained in the 3D tracing task and transfer to a 2D drawing task was tested. We used a cross-over design where half of the children received training on the 3D tracing task during the first training period and the other half of the children received training during the second training period. Given previous results, we predicted that younger children would initially show reduced performance relative to the older children, and that performance at all ages would improve with training. We also predicted that training would transfer to the 2D drawing task. However, the pre-training performance of both younger and older children was equally poor. Nevertheless, post-training performance on the 3D task was dramatically improved for both age groups and the training transferred to the 2D drawing task. Overall, this work contributes to a growing body of literature that demonstrates relatively preserved motor learning in children with motor difficulties and further demonstrates the importance of games in therapeutic interventions.

  19. Cardiorespiratory fitness and body mass index values in 9-year-old rural Norwegian children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Resaland, G K; Mamen, A; Anderssen, S A

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To describe cardiorespiratory fitness and body mass index (BMI) values in a representative population of 9-year-old Norwegian children in two rural communities and compare present values with previous findings. METHODS: Two hundred and fifty-nine 9-year-old children were invited, and 256...... and 16.8% of the girls were classified as overweight, and 1.6% of the boys and 6.9% of the girls as obese. Mean age, body mass, height and Ponderal index were not significantly different between sexes. Girls had a higher BMI than boys (p = 0.05). CONCLUSION: Compared to earlier Norwegian studies......, children's BMI values seem to have increased substantially. This increase is most pronounced in girls. When assessing these differences using the PI, this increase is less marked. Comparing maximal oxygen uptake data with that in earlier Nordic studies, there is no evidence that fitness has declined among...

  20. Probabilistic assessment of exposure to cosmetic products by French children aged 0-3 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ficheux, A S; Dornic, N; Bernard, A; Chevillotte, G; Roudot, A C

    2016-08-01

    Very few exposure data are available for children in Europe and worldwide. The aim of this study was to assess the exposure to cosmetic products used on children aged 0-3 years using recent consumption data generated for the French population. Exposure was assessed using a probabilistic method for 24 products including cleanser, skin care, fragrance, solar and bottom products. The exposure data obtained in this study for children aged 0-3 years were higher than the values fixed by the SCCS for all common products: liquid shampoo, face moisturizer cream, toothpaste, shower gel and body moisturizer cream. Exposure was assessed for the first time for many products such as sunscreens, Eau de toilette and massage products. These new French exposure values will be useful for safety assessors and for safety agencies.

  1. Prognostic Predictors for Ambulation in Thai Children With Cerebral Palsy Aged 2 to 18 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeratisiroj, Orawan; Thawinchai, Nuanlaor; Siritaratiwat, Wantana; Buntragulpoontawee, Montana

    2015-11-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine prognostic predictors for ambulation among Thai children with cerebral palsy and identify their ambulatory status. A retrospective cohort study was performed at 6 special schools or hospitals for children with physical disabilities. The prognostic predictors for ambulation were analyzed by multivariable ordinal continuation ratio logistic regression. The 533 participants aged 2 to 18 years were divided into 3 groups: 186 with independent ambulation (Gross Motor Function Classification System [GMFCS I-II]), 71 with assisted ambulation (Gross Motor Function Classification System III), and 276 with nonambulation (Gross Motor Function Classification System IV-V). The significant positive predictors for ambulation were type of cerebral palsy (spastic diplegia, spastic hemiplegia, dyskinesia, ataxia, hypotonia, and mixed type), sitting independently at age 2 years, and eating independently. These predictors were used to develop clinical scoring for predicting the future ability to walk among Thai children with cerebral palsy.

  2. Polychlorinated biphenyl exposure and glucose metabolism in Danish children aged 9 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tina K; Timmermann, Clara Amalie Gade; Rossing, Laura I;

    2014-01-01

    and participants: A total of 771 healthy Danish third grade school children aged 8-10 years in the municipality of Odense were recruited in 1997 through a two-stage cluster sampling from 25 different schools stratified according to location and socioeconomic character; 509 (9.7±0.8 years, 53% girls) had adequate......Context: Human exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) has been associated to type 2 diabetes in adults. Objectives: To determine whether concurrent serum PCB concentration was associated with markers of glucose metabolism in healthy children. Design: Cross-sectional study. Settings......-DDE. Conclusion: A strong inverse association between serum insulin and PCB exposure was found while fasting plasma glucose remained within the expected narrow range. Our findings suggest that PCB may not exert effect through decreased peripheral insulin sensitivity, as seen in obese and low fit children...

  3. Maternal Recreational Exercise during Pregnancy in relation to Children's BMI at 7 Years of Age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou Andersen, Camilla; Juhl, Mette; Gamborg, Michael;

    2012-01-01

    was analyzed using multiple linear and logistic regression models. Recreational exercise across pregnancy was inversely related to children's BMI and risk of overweight, but all associations were mainly explained by smoking habits, socioeconomic status, and maternal pre-pregnancy BMI. Additionally, we did......,280 mother-child pairs from the Danish National Birth Cohort was used. Self-reported information about exercise was obtained from telephone interviews around gestational weeks 16 and 30. Children's weight and height were reported in a 7-year follow-up and used to calculate BMI and overweight status. Data......Exposures during fetal life may have long-term health consequences including risk of childhood overweight. We investigated the associations between maternal recreational exercise during early and late pregnancy and the children's body mass index (BMI) and risk of overweight at 7 years. Data on 40...

  4. Partial-year insurance coverage and the health care utilization of children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leininger, Lindsey Jeanne

    2009-02-01

    A large literature examines the effects of health insurance on the health care utilization of children; however, most existing studies conceptualize coverage as a point-in-time measure rather than as a dynamic phenomenon. The major contribution of this article is its provision of estimates on the relationship between the duration of coverage over the course of a calendar year and health care utilization among children. Using child-level fixed-effects regression, we find that an incremental uninsured month is associated with a 0.7 percentage point decline in the probability of receiving a visit over the course of a year and a 3% decrease in the number of visits received. Children with intrayear coverage losses are more likely than those with continuous coverage to lose their usual source of care, which serves as a potential mechanism through which short gaps in coverage may lead to longer-term decrements in utilization.

  5. Reference values for serum creatinine in children younger than 1 year of age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Boer (Dirk); Y.B. de Rijke (Yolanda); W.C.J. Hop (Wim); K. Cransberg (Karlien); E.M. Dorresteijn (Eiske)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractReliable reference values of enzymatically assayed serum creatinine categorized in small age intervals are lacking in young children. The aim of this study was to determine reference values for serum creatinine during the first year of life and study the influence of gender, weight and h

  6. Recommendations for a trans-European dietary assessment method in children between 4 and 14 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, L. F.; Lioret, S.; Brants, H.

    2011-01-01

    Background/Objectives: The main objective of European Food Consumption Validation (EFCOVAL)-child Project is to define and evaluate a trans-European methodology for undertaking national representative dietary surveys among children in the age group of 4-14 years. In the process of identifying the...

  7. One- to Three-Year-Old Children's Experience of Subjective Wellbeing in Day Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seland, Monica; Sandseter, Ellen Beate Hansen; Bratterud, Åse

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study on which this paper is based was to explore in which situations and contexts Norwegian 1-3-year-olds experience subjective wellbeing in day care. The data in this study was collected through qualitative phenomenological observations of 18 children, and an inductive process of analysis was conducted. The results show that…

  8. Oral health and dental behaviour in 11-year-old children of different ethnic groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verrips, G.H.; Frencken, J.E.; Kalsbeek, H.; Filedt Kok-Weimar, T.L.

    1993-01-01

    This investigation was first, to assess the oral health of 11-year-old children in four ethnic groups in Amsterdam; second, to assess their dental behaviour and third, to identify potential determinants of frequency of toothbrushing. Representative samples of 97 Surinamese, 209 Moroccan, 128 Turkish

  9. A Review of Literature Pertinent to a Needs Assessment of Children Five to Twelve Years Old.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balk, David

    Literature relevant to the needs assessment of children 5 to 12 years of age is reviewed and variables demonstrated to be factors in healthy or deviant behavior are identified. Problems addressed in the review of literature range from school maladjustment through social deviancy to schizophrenia. Five categories of studies are considered: (1)…

  10. Children under Five and Digital Technologies: Implications for Early Years Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palaiologou, Ioanna

    2016-01-01

    This project aimed to investigate the types of digital technologies children under the age of five are using at home and assess the possible implications for early years pedagogy. The research, carried out between 2010 and 2012, was based in four European countries: England, Greece, Malta and Luxemburg. A mixed methods approach was employed to…

  11. Hyperventilation with cold versus dry air in 2- to 5-year-old children with asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kim G; Bisgaard, Hans

    2005-01-01

    -subject SDs (SDw). The challenge sequence was randomly assigned. A comparator challenge was performed 1 hour later if the first challenge gave a change of 3 SDw or more. Forty 2- to 5-year-old children with asthma were included. Responsiveness to cold versus dry air showed significant, but weak, correlation...... (r(2) = 0.34, p

  12. The Friendly Schools Friendly Families Programme: Three-Year Bullying Behaviour Outcomes in Primary School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Donna; Waters, Stacey; Pearce, Natasha; Shaw, Therese; Hall, Margaret; Erceg, Erin; Burns, Sharyn; Roberts, Clare; Hamilton, Greg

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This three-year group randomized controlled trial assessed whether a multi-age, multi-level bullying prevention and intervention with staff capacity building, can reduce bullying among primary school children. Methods: This study comprised two intervention and one comparison conditions. Student self-report data were collected from 2552…

  13. Factors increasing the caries risk of second primary molars in 5-year-old Dutch children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elfrink, Marlies E C; Schuller, Annemarie A; Veerkamp, Jaap S J; Poorterman, Jan H G; Moll, Henriette A; ten Cate, Bob J M

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Caries is still a prevalent condition in 5-year-old children. At present, knowledge regarding some aetiological factors, like deciduous molar hypomineralization (DMH), is limited. AIM: To investigate aetiological factors both directly and indirectly associated with caries in second prima

  14. Educational Attainment of 10-Year-Old Children with Treated and Untreated Visual Defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart-Brown, Sarah; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Children with visual impairments who participated in a 10-year survey were compared with peers on measures of intelligence, reading, mathematics, and sporting ability. Results are consistent with earlier findings of increased intelligence among Ss with myopia and slightly reduced intelligence among Ss with amblyopia. It was concluded that the…

  15. Children's Problems Predict Adults' "DSM-IV" Disorders across 24 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reef, Joni; van Meurs, Inge; Verhulst, Frank C.; van der Ende, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The goal of this study was to determine continuities of a broad range of psychopathology from childhood into middle adulthood in a general population sample across a 24-year follow-up. Method: In 1983, parent ratings of children's problems were collected with the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) in a general population sample of 2,076…

  16. Paternal Psychosocial Characteristics and Corporal Punishment of Their 3-Year-Old Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Shawna J.; Perron, Brian E.; Taylor, Catherine A.; Guterman, Neil B.

    2011-01-01

    This study uses data from 2,309 biological fathers who participated in the Fragile Families and Child Well-Being Study (FFCWS) to examine associations between psychosocial characteristics and levels of corporal punishment (CP) toward their 3-year-old children over the past month. Results indicate that 61% of the fathers reported no CP over the…

  17. Suitability of School Textbooks for 5 to 7 Year Old Children with Colour Vision Deficiencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrents, Aurora; Bofill, Francesc; Cardona, Genis

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the present study was to determine, through colorimetric analysis, whether school textbooks for children aged 5 to 7 years contained tasks requiring normal colour vision discrimination for their resolution. In addition, the performance of a group of observers with diverse colour vision deficiencies was evaluated while…

  18. A 7-Year Longitudinal Follow-Up of Intellectual Development in Children with Congenital Hemiplegia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Monge, Sibylle; Boudia, Baya; Ritz, Annie; Abbas-Chorfa, Fatima; Rabilloud, Muriel; Iwaz, Jean; Berard, Carole

    2009-01-01

    Aims: Our aim was to examine intellectual development in children with congenital hemiplegia from early childhood to adolescence. Method: Full-scale IQ (FIQ), Verbal IQ (VIQ), and Performance IQ (PIQ) scores were measured in 32 participants (19 males, 13 females) with congenital hemiplegia at mean ages of 4 years 6 months (SD 7mo; 31…

  19. Developmental Norms of Children Aged 2 1/2-5 Years: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muralidharan, Rajalakshmi

    1969-01-01

    The purpose of this pilot study, aside from collection of developmental data on 38 nursery school children aged 2 1/2 to 5 years, was (1) to develop, modify and adapt the testing equipment used in Gesell's Developmental Schedule, in the field of motor, adaptive, language, and personal-social development; (2) to develop elaborate, exhaustive,…

  20. Methodological Implications of the Affect Revolution: A 35-Year Review of Emotion Regulation Assessment in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrian, Molly; Zeman, Janice; Veits, Gina

    2011-01-01

    This investigation analyzed the methods used over the past 35 years to study emotion regulation (ER) in children. Articles published from 1975 through 2010 were identified in 42 child clinical, developmental, and emotion psychology journals. Overall, 61.1% of published ER articles relied on one method and 23.6% used two methods. Analyses revealed…

  1. Frontal Electroencephalogram Activation Asymmetry, Emotional Intelligence, and Externalizing Behaviors in 10-Year-Old Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santesso, L. Diane; Dana, L. Reker; Schmidt, Louis A.; Segalowitz, Sidney J.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the relations among resting frontal brain electrical activity (EEG) (hypothesized to reflect a predisposition to positive versus negative affect and ability to regulate emotions), emotional intelligence, and externalizing behaviors in a sample of non-clinical 10-year-old children. We found that boys…

  2. Wakefulness (Not Sleep) Promotes Generalization of Word Learning in 2.5-Year-Old Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werchan, Denise M.; Gómez, Rebecca L.

    2014-01-01

    Sleep enhances generalization in adults, but this has not been examined in toddlers. This study examined the impact of napping versus wakefulness on the generalization of word learning in toddlers when the contextual background changes during learning. Thirty 2.5-year-old children (M = 32.94, SE = 0.46) learned labels for novel categories of…

  3. Quantitative muscle ultrasound and muscle force in healthy children: A 4-year follow-up study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, J.; Jansen, M; Janssen, H.; Raijmann, W.; Alfen, N. van; Pillen, S.

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: No longitudinal data on the normal development of muscle thickness (MT), quantitative muscle ultrasound echo intensity (EI), and muscle force (MF) in healthy children are yet available. METHODS: Reference values of MT, EI, and MF of 4 muscles from infancy to age 16 years were establish

  4. Facial Mimicry in 6-7 Year Old Children with Disruptive Behavior Disorder and ADHD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deschamps, Peter; Munsters, Nicolette; Kenemans, Leon; Schutter, Dennis; Matthys, Walter

    2014-01-01

    Background: Impairments in facial mimicry are considered a proxy for deficits in affective empathy and have been demonstrated in 10 year old children and in adolescents with disruptive behavior disorder (DBD). However, it is not known whether these impairments are already present at an earlier age.

  5. Portrayal of Life Form in Selected Biographies for Children Eight to Twelve Years of Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Shirley Lois

    This study describes and analyzes, in a critical literary manner, selected biographies for children eight to twelve years of age. Biographies of Jane Addams, Cesar Chavez, Mohandas Gandhi, Toyohiko Kagawa, Martin Luther King, Jr., and Albert Schweitzer are viewed from the perspective of a literary criterion based on the principles of design to…

  6. Teacher identification of children at risk for language impairment in the first year of school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoniazzi, Diana; Snow, Pamela; Dickson-Swift, Virginia

    2010-06-01

    While the first 3 years of formal schooling have obvious importance for the transition to literacy, it must be remembered that learning to read is a linguistically-based task that draws heavily on mastery of key oral-language skills such as phonemic and morphological awareness, vocabulary development, and early syntax. In order to support the transition to literacy, and because oral language competence is important in its own right, it is vital that early-years teachers are skilled at identifying children who may be at risk of oral language impairment. In this study, 15 teachers completed the Children's Communication Checklist (second edition) on children in their first year of school (n = 149), and ratings were compared with results of screening using the Clinical Examination of Language Fundamentals Screening Test (fourth edition). Teacher ratings showed poor sensitivity and specificity in identifying children whose oral language skills require further investigation. Results are discussed in the light of recommendations for teacher pre-service education, SLP advocacy for oral language competence as a life-long determinant of health, issues in screening during the early years of school, and implications for further research.

  7. Physical Activity Patterns During School Recess: A Study in Children 6 to 10 Years Old

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Victor; Vasques, Catarina Margarida Silva; de Oliveira Pereira, Maria Beatriz Ferreira Leite

    2006-01-01

    The aims of this study were to characterize the spontaneous physical activity of children during school recess, and to estimate variation in physical activity associated with gender and age. A MTI actigraph (Model 7164) was used with a sample of 140 boys and 131 girls, 6 to 10 years of age. MTI counts were converted to METs using a regression…

  8. The Effects of Folk Dance Training on 5-6 Years Children's Physical and Social Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biber, Kazim

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the effects of folk dance training on 5-6 year old Pre-school children's physical and social development. The experimental design with an experimental and control group was used in accordance with the quantitative research methods in this research. The research has been conducted with the participation of 40…

  9. Development of Allocentric Spatial Memory Abilities in Children from 18 months to 5 Years of Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribordy, Farfalla; Jabes, Adeline; Lavenex, Pamela Banta; Lavenex, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Episodic memories for autobiographical events that happen in unique spatiotemporal contexts are central to defining who we are. Yet, before 2 years of age, children are unable to form or store episodic memories for recall later in life, a phenomenon known as infantile amnesia. Here, we studied the development of allocentric spatial memory, a…

  10. Self-Controlled Feedback in 10-Year-Old Children: Higher Feedback Frequencies Enhance Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiviacowsky, Suzete; Wulf, Gabriele; de Medeiros, Franklin Laroque; Kaefer, Angelica; Wally, Raquel

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine whether learning in 10-year-old children--that is, the age group for which the Chiviacowsky et al. (2006) study found benefits of self-controlled knowledge of results (KR)--would differ depending on the frequency of feedback they chose. The authors surmised that a relatively high feedback frequency…

  11. Early Years: Young Children Deserve the Best Possible Start in Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Leena

    2015-01-01

    That all young children should have the best possible start in life is a statement that tends to be met with universal agreement. This article, however, argues there are very many different kinds of ideologies that shape the kinds of "best starts" early years teachers should strive for at a time when childhood poverty is rising and when…

  12. Restricted Consonant Inventories of 2-Year-Old Finnish Children with a History of Recurrent Acute Otitis Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haapala, Sini; Niemitalo-Haapola, Elina; Raappana, Antti; Kujala, Tiia; Kujala, Teija; Jansson-Verkasalo, Eira

    2015-01-01

    Many children experience recurrent acute otitis media (RAOM) in early childhood. In a previous study, 2-year-old children with RAOM were shown to have immature neural patterns for speech sound discrimination. The present study further investigated the consonant inventories of these same children using natural speech samples. The results showed…

  13. Exemplifications of the Tragic Mode in Selected Realistic Fiction for Eight-to-Twelve-Year-Old Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingston, Carolyn Tietje

    The purpose of this study was to discover whether tragedy exists in realistic fiction for eight-to-12-year-old children and, if so, to present selected exemplifications of this mode. The study assumed that children should be exposed to the tragic sense of life in their literature, and the child psychologists and critics of children's books who…

  14. Transfer Effects in Spelling from Transparent Greek to Opaque English in Seven-to-Ten-Year-Old Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niolaki, Georgia Z.; Masterson, Jackie

    2012-01-01

    The study investigated single-word spelling performance of 33 English- and 38 Greek-speaking monolingual children, and 46 English- and Greek-speaking bilingual children (age range from 6;7 to 10;1 years). The bilingual children were divided into two groups on the basis of their single-word reading and spelling performance in Greek. In line with…

  15. Is gluten challenge really necessary for the diagnosis of coeliac disease in children younger than age 2 years?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolters, V.M.; Nadort, van de C.; Gerritsen, S.; Kneepkens, C.M.F.; Kate, F.W. ten; Gijsbers, C.F.M.; Schweizer, J.J.; Nikkels, P.G.J.; Benninga, M.A.; Houwen, R.H.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In the diagnosis of coeliac disease (CD), gluten challenge is recommended for children under the age of 2 years at initial biopsy. The aim of the study was to investigate the diagnostic yield of gluten challenge in this group of children. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We included children aged 2

  16. A Study on the Effect of Aesthetic Education on the Development of Aesthetic Judgment of Six-Year-Old Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acer, Dilek; Omerodlu, Esra

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of aesthetic education on the development of aesthetic judgment of 6 year-old children. The sample of the study comprised 77 children selected randomly from state run primary schools from various socioeconomic levels in Ankara. The experiment group consisted of 22 children, the placebo group of…

  17. Parental Influences on the Diets of 2-5-Year-Old Children: Systematic Review of Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Jacqueline; Sinn, Natalie; Campbell, Karen; Lynch, John

    2012-01-01

    During the early years, parents have a major influence on their children's diets, food choices and development of eating habits. However, research concerning the influence of parental feeding practices on young children's diets is limited. This paper presents a systematic review of intervention studies with parents of preschool children. The aim…

  18. Analysing the Peer Relationships of Obese and Normal-Weight Preschool Children Aged between Five and Six Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seçer, Zarife; Gülay Ogelman, Hülya; Önder, Alev

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study is to reveal whether the peer relationships of preschool children who are determined to be obese, based on their body mass index (BMI), differentiate or not. The study was conducted within the frame of a relational survey model. A total of 114 five- to six-year-old children (57 normal-weight children and 57 obese…

  19. Effects of Three Years of Piano Instruction on Children's Academic Achievement, School Performance and Self-Esteem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa-Giomi, Eugenia

    2004-01-01

    This study of the effects of three years of piano instruction is based on a sample of 117 fourth-grade children attending public schools in Montreal. The children had never participated in formal music instruction, did not have a piano at home, and their annual family income was below $40,000 Can. Children in the experimental group (n = 63)…

  20. Supportive or Suggestive: Do Human Figure Drawings Help 5- to 7-Year-Old Children to Report Touch?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Deirdre A.; Pipe, Margaret-Ellen; Lewis, Charlie; Lamb, Michael E.; Orbach, Yael

    2007-01-01

    The authors examined the accuracy of information elicited from seventy-nine 5- to 7-year-old children about a staged event that included physical contact-touching. Four to six weeks later, children's recall for the event was assessed using an interview protocol analogous to those used in forensic investigations with children. Following the…

  1. Social Adjustment, Academic Adjustment, and the Ability to Identify Emotion in Facial Expressions of 7-Year-Old Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodfellow, Stephanie; Nowicki, Stephen, Jr.

    2009-01-01

    The authors aimed to examine the possible association between (a) accurately reading emotion in facial expressions and (b) social and academic competence among elementary school-aged children. Participants were 840 7-year-old children who completed a test of the ability to read emotion in facial expressions. Teachers rated children's social and…

  2. Weaning initiation patterns and subsequent linear growth progression among children aged 2-4 years in India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Padmadas, S.S.; Hutter, I.; Willekens, F.J.C.

    2002-01-01

    Background Reliance on full breastfeeding alone for a longer time could have deleterious nutritional and health implications at later stages of children's lives. About 47% of children are weaned at age greater than or equal to6 months and more than 50% of children in India under 4 years are stunted.

  3. Teacher Ratings of Academic Achievement of Children between 6 and 12 Years Old from Intact and Non-Intact Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molepo, Lephodisa S.; Maunganidze, Levison; Mudhovozi, Pilot; Sodi, Tholene

    2010-01-01

    We investigated teacher ratings of the impact of parental divorce on academic achievement of children between 6 and 12 years old up to 12 months after their parents divorced. A purposive sample of 120 children attending four different primary schools in a small South African town took part in the study. One third (n = 40) of the children had…

  4. Coseismic source model of the 2003 Mw 6.8 Chengkung earthquake, Taiwan, determined from GPS measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ching, K.-E.; Rau, R.-J.; Zeng, Y.

    2007-01-01

    A coseismic source model of the 2003 Mw 6.8 Chengkung, Taiwan, earthquake was well determined with 213 GPS stations, providing a unique opportunity to study the characteristics of coseismic displacements of a high-angle buried reverse fault. Horizontal coseismic displacements show fault-normal shortening across the fault trace. Displacements on the hanging wall reveal fault-parallel and fault-normal lengthening. The largest horizontal and vertical GPS displacements reached 153 and 302 mm, respectively, in the middle part of the network. Fault geometry and slip distribution were determined by inverting GPS data using a three-dimensional (3-D) layered-elastic dislocation model. The slip is mainly concentrated within a 44 ?? 14 km slip patch centered at 15 km depth with peak amplitude of 126.6 cm. Results from 3-D forward-elastic model tests indicate that the dome-shaped folding on the hanging wall is reproduced with fault dips greater than 40??. Compared with the rupture area and average slip from slow slip earthquakes and a compilation of finite source models of 18 earthquakes, the Chengkung earthquake generated a larger rupture area and a lower stress drop, suggesting lower than average friction. Hence the Chengkung earthquake seems to be a transitional example between regular and slow slip earthquakes. The coseismic source model of this event indicates that the Chihshang fault is divided into a creeping segment in the north and the locked segment in the south. An average recurrence interval of 50 years for a magnitude 6.8 earthquake was estimated for the southern fault segment. Copyright 2007 by the American Geophysical Union.

  5. Normative voice range profiles in vocally trained and untrained children aged between 7 and 10 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Berit; Zumtobel, Michaela; Prettenhofer, Walter; Aichstill, Birgitta; Jocher, Werner

    2010-03-01

    Only limited data on normal vocal constitution and vocal capabilities in school-aged children are available. To take better care of children's voices, it might be helpful to know voice ranges and limits of not only vocally trained but also vocally untrained children. Goal of this study was the evaluation of singing voice capabilities of vocally healthy children with different social and vocal/musical backgrounds using voice range profile measurements (VRP). VRP percentiles that reflect constitutional aspects were suggested. In this cross-sectional study, 186 children (aged between seven and 10 years), attending five schools, were included. VRP measurements were performed under field conditions. Interviews and questionnaires regarding vocal strain and vocal training were applied; the answers were used for classification of singing activity and vocal training (KLASAK). All children reached a mean singing voice range of at least two octaves. By using the answers of interviews and questionnaires, the children could be classified according to vocal strain and vocal training. The groups showed no significant differences regarding VRP measurements. In the following step, percentiles were calculated. Twenty-five percent of all children (P25) reached a minimum voice range of almost two octaves, namely, 22 semitones (ST) from 220 to 784 Hz with soft and loud singing. Half of the children (P50) had a voice range of 24 ST (2 octaves), while soft singing and a larger voice range of 26 ST while loud singing. The measurements of third quartile (P75) revealed that 25% of children have even a larger voice range than 29 dB (from 196 Hz/g to 1047 Hz/c3) and can sing at most frequencies louder than 90 dB. P90 demonstrated that 10% of the children can sing even lower or higher than the frequency range between 196 Hz/g and 1319 Hz/e3 analyzed. The voice range seems not to be constrained by social but by voice/musical background: children of vocally/musically encouraged schools had wider

  6. An unusual binodal (6,8)-connected 3D supramolecular network with twofold self-penetration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    A dicarboxylate ligand,5-carboxyl-1-carboxymethyl-2-oxidopyridinium (H2L),was utilized to form four complexes with the general formula [M(HL)2(H2O)]·2H2O,M = CuII (1),ZnII (2),MnII (3),CdII (4).The crystals were isomorphous,belonging to the monoclinic C2/c space group.They were constructed from 1D chains and further linked by hydrogen bonds into a novel binodal (6,8)-connected 3D supramolecular network with twofold self-penetration.Photoluminescence studies revealed that complexes 2-4 displayed intense structure-related fluorescent emission bands.

  7. Acceptance of Nordic snack bars in children aged 8–11 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Holmer

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: A health promoting diet is suggested to be tailored to regional circumstances to preserve the cultural diversity in eating habits, as well as contribute to more environmentally friendly eating. It may influence consumer acceptance, however, if the components of the diet differs considerably from their habitual food. Objective: This study aimed to investigate whether snack bars composed of Nordic ingredients were accepted by 8–11 year-old Danish (n=134 and Swedish (n=109 children.Design: A seven-point hedonic scale was used to measure the children's acceptance of five snack bars that varied in their composition of whole grains, berries and nuts. A preference rank ordering of the five bars was also performed. Results: The results showed that samples that were rated highest in liking and were most preferred in both countries were a kamut/pumpkin bar and an oat/cranberry bar. The sample with the lowest rating that was also least preferred was a pumpernickel/sea buckthorn bar. Flavour was the most important determinant of overall liking followed by texture, odour and appearance. Conclusions: Children's acceptances and preferences were highly influenced by the sensory characteristics of the bars, mainly flavour. In agreement with earlier studies, the novel food ingredients seemed to influence children's preferences. The Nordic snack bars may have a potential to be a snack option for Danish and Swedish school children, but repeated exposures to the products are recommended to increase children's acceptance.

  8. CFS in Children and Adolescent: Ten Years of Retrospective Clinical Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Elgen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To estimate number of children being diagnosed with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS. Methods. For a period of 10 years (2002–2011 data from children being referred for fatigue symptoms were collected retrospectively. Results. Thirty-seven children were referred. Four were excluded due to incorrect coding. Six (18% patients received other diagnoses at the end of evaluation time. Of the 27 who received the diagnosis G93.3, four had a previous chronic illness, while 23 patients were previously healthy. All patients reported onset of fatigue symptom in relation to an infection, and all tested positive for IgG to either Epstein-Barr virus, cytomegalovirus or borrelia, indicating previous infection. There were 16 (59% boys among the 27 patients. The mean age at the debut of fatigue symptoms was 141 months (SD 30 for boys and 136 months (SD 31 for girls, respectively. Being underweight, defined as BMI < 17.5, was found in 12 (44% patients. Conclusion. An increasing number of children and adolescents are evaluated for CFS. The clinical assessment of children and adolescents with possible CFS need systematically evaluation. Nutritional status, possible eating disorder, and psychosocial issues need to be addressed and evaluated carefully. A multidisciplinary approach is essential when assessing CFS in children and adolescents. There is a need for European guidelines.

  9. Nutrition Status Of Children (1-6 Years In Slums Of Ghaziabad City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garg S.K

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Research question : What are the nutritional problems of pre- school children in slums? Objectives: (i To assess the nutritional status of the children . (ii To find out the nutritional deficiency disorders in them (iii To study their dietary intake. Study design: Cross- sectional. Setting : Slums of Ghaziabad city. Participants :771 children (1-6 years. Study Variables : Age, sex, caste, ICDS beneficiary status, weight, nutritional deficiency disorders, dietary intake and supplementary nutrition. Statistical analysis : Simple proportions and Chi- square test. Results : A majority (58.2 % of children were having under nutrition of varying grades irrespective of their sex and caste but influenced by their age and ICDS beneficiary status. Anaemia, xerophthalmia and goitre were present in 14.7%, 1.6% and 0.6 % children respectively. Average daily dietary intake of energy & nutrients were lower than the recommended daily allowances (RDA. Conclusion: Regular nutritional supplementation along with adequate nutrition education would reduce the nutritional deficiency disorders among children.

  10. TRAUMATIC HIP DISLOCATION IN CHILDREN YOUNGER THAN 3 YEARS : A SERIES OF 3 CASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The musculoskeletal anatomy of children is qui te different from that of adults. The capsule, periosteum and other soft tissues surrounding the joints is very pliable and dislocations can occur even following trivial injuries . However dislocation occurring in a child population is a rare entity. There are a few case reports of hip dislocations in children < 3 years. We present here a series of 3 cases of paediatric hip dislocations which presented to us for management. The age of the children were between 24 - 27 months. Incidentally all 3 patients were b oys and all 3 were right sided dislocations. None of them had any associated fractures. Two of them had a fall from height and one child fell off a slide. All 3 patients presented within 5 hours following injury. Closed reduction under anaesthesia was perf ormed and post reduction the children were immobilized in a broom - stick plaster for 6 weeks. All children were followed up with serial x - rays and a MRI done immediately following reduction then at 6 and 18 months. There was no evidence of chondrolysis or a vascular necrosis in any of the children at the last follow - up. They all had full range of movements with no limitation of function. We conclude that with early recognition and early reduction of the hip within the golden period (6 hours the occurrence of complications can be prevented.

  11. Prevalence and factors associated with preoperative anxiety in children aged 5-12 years

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    Louise Amália de Moura

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: to estimate the prevalence and factors associated with preoperative anxiety in children who wait for outpatient surgery. Method: cross-sectional analysis of baseline data of a prospective cohort study that investigates the predictors of postoperative pain in children aged 5-12 years submitted to inguinal and umbilical hernia repair. It was selected 210 children, which were interviewed in the preoperative holding area of a general hospital. Anxiety was evaluated using the modified Yale Preoperative Anxiety Scale (mYPAS. Sociodemographic and clinical variables were analyzed as exposure and anxiety (mYPAS final score>30 as outcome. Logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with preoperative anxiety. Results: forty-two percent (42.0% of children presented preoperative anxiety (CI95%: 35.7%-48.6%, with mean scores equal to 30.1 (SD=8.4. Factors associated with preoperative anxiety were: age group of 5-6 years (OR=2.28; p=0.007 and socioeconomic status classified as class C (OR=2.39; p=0.016. Conclusion: the evaluation of children who wait for outpatient surgery should be multidimensional and comprise information on age and socioeconomic status, in order to help in the identification and early treatment of preoperative anxiety.

  12. Prevalence and factors associated with preoperative anxiety in children aged 5-12 years 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moura, Louise Amália; Dias, Iohanna Maria Guimarães; Pereira, Lilian Varanda

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: to estimate the prevalence and factors associated with preoperative anxiety in children who wait for outpatient surgery. Method: cross-sectional analysis of baseline data of a prospective cohort study that investigates the predictors of postoperative pain in children aged 5-12 years submitted to inguinal and umbilical hernia repair. It was selected 210 children, which were interviewed in the preoperative holding area of a general hospital. Anxiety was evaluated using the modified Yale Preoperative Anxiety Scale (mYPAS). Sociodemographic and clinical variables were analyzed as exposure and anxiety (mYPAS final score>30) as outcome. Logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with preoperative anxiety. Results: forty-two percent (42.0%) of children presented preoperative anxiety (CI95%: 35.7%-48.6%), with mean scores equal to 30.1 (SD=8.4). Factors associated with preoperative anxiety were: age group of 5-6 years (OR=2.28; p=0.007) and socioeconomic status classified as class C (OR=2.39; p=0.016). Conclusion: the evaluation of children who wait for outpatient surgery should be multidimensional and comprise information on age and socioeconomic status, in order to help in the identification and early treatment of preoperative anxiety. PMID:27305179

  13. Nine-year-old children use norm-based coding to visually represent facial expression.

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    Burton, Nichola; Jeffery, Linda; Skinner, Andrew L; Benton, Christopher P; Rhodes, Gillian

    2013-10-01

    Children are less skilled than adults at making judgments about facial expression. This could be because they have not yet developed adult-like mechanisms for visually representing faces. Adults are thought to represent faces in a multidimensional face-space, and have been shown to code the expression of a face relative to the norm or average face in face-space. Norm-based coding is economical and adaptive, and may be what makes adults more sensitive to facial expression than children. This study investigated the coding system that children use to represent facial expression. An adaptation aftereffect paradigm was used to test 24 adults and 18 children (9 years 2 months to 9 years 11 months old). Participants adapted to weak and strong antiexpressions. They then judged the expression of an average expression. Adaptation created aftereffects that made the test face look like the expression opposite that of the adaptor. Consistent with the predictions of norm-based but not exemplar-based coding, aftereffects were larger for strong than weak adaptors for both age groups. Results indicate that, like adults, children's coding of facial expressions is norm-based.

  14. An ERP study of conflict monitoring in 4-8-year old children: associations with temperament.

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    Buss, Kristin A; Dennis, Tracy A; Brooker, Rebecca J; Sippel, Lauren M

    2011-04-01

    Although there is great interest in identifying the neural correlates of cognitive processes that create risk for psychopathology, there is a paucity of research in young children. One event-related potential (ERP), the N2, is thought to index conflict monitoring and has been linked cognitive and affective risk factors for anxiety. Most of this research, however, has been conducted with adults, adolescents, and older children, but not with younger children. To address this gap, the current study examined 26 4-8-year-olds, who completed a cued flanker task while EEG was continuously recorded. We assessed whether the N2 was detectable in this group of young children and examined associations between the N2 and factors reflecting affective risk (e.g., reduced executive attention, temperamental effortful control, and temperamental surgency). We documented an N2 effect (greater N2 amplitude to incongruent versus congruent flankers), but only in children older than 6 years of age. Increases in the N2 effect were associated with less efficient executive attention and lower temperamental effortful control. We discuss the implications of these findings and consider how they may inform future studies on biomarkers for cognitive and affective risk factors for anxiety.

  15. Changes in Growth Pattern after Adenotonsillectomy in Children under 12 Years Old

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    Farnaz Hashemian

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of adenotonsillectomy on height, weight and body mass index (BMI in children under 12 years old, with or without airway obstruction and evaluation of the risk of overweight in them. In this case-control study, 120 children with the age of 2-12 years old were studied; 60 children as case group who underwent adenotonsillectomy and 60 healthy children as control group. After collecting the data related to appetite status and sleep breathing disorder of the case group, height, weight and BMI have been measured for all children in two stages; preoperatively and 6 months later. Also in the case group, BMI percentiles, pre and postoperatively have been calculated. Patients with Low appetite in the initiation and at the end of the study in the case group were 80% and 8.3% respectively (P=0.01. Mean of height, weight and BMI variation after 6 months were significantly different between case and control groups (P

  16. Food consumption of children younger than 6 years according to the degree of food processing

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    Ediana Volz Neitzke Karnopp

    Full Text Available Abstract: Objective: To evaluate food intake according to the degree of processing, stratified by family income and age, in a representative sample of children younger than 6 years in the city of Pelotas, RS, Brazil. Methods: Cross-sectional population-based study carried out with 770 children aged 0-72 months of age living in the urban area of Pelotas. The dietary intake of children was assessed by 24-h recall administered to mothers or guardians. The energy intake was estimated and each food item was classified according to the food processing degree. Food consumption was stratified by age (younger than 24 months; 24 months or older and associations between quintiles of family income and relative contribution of each food to total energy were performed by linear regression. The Wald test was applied to test linear trend across groups. Results: The mean energy intake was 1725.7 kcal/day. The mean contribution of processed and ultraprocessed foods was 19.7% among children younger than 24 months and 37% in those aged 24 months or older, while the mean consumption of natural and minimally processed food was 61% and 44%, respectively. Among children aged 24 months or older, a greater consumption of canned foods, cheese and sweets was observed as family income quintiles increased, while breads were more consumed by those children belonging to the lower income quintiles. Conclusion: A high caloric contribution of ultraprocessed foods in detriment to a lower consumption of natural and minimally processed foods was observed in the diet of children younger than 6 years.

  17. Changes in Growth Pattern after Adenotonsillectomy in Children under 12 Years Old

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    Farnaz Hashemian

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available "nThe aim of the present study was to determine the effects of adenotonsillectomy on height, weight and body mass index (BMI in children under 12 years old, with or without airway obstruction and evaluation of the risk of overweight in them. In this case-control study, 120 children with the age of 2-12 years old were studied; 60 children as case group who underwent adenotonsillectomy and 60 healthy children as control group. After collecting the data related to appetite status and sleep breathing disorder of the case group, height, weight and BMI have been measured for all children in two stages; preoperatively and 6 months later. Also in the case group, BMI percentiles, pre and postoperatively have been calculated. Patients with Low appetite in the initiation and at the end of the study in the case group were 80% and 8.3% respectively (P=0.01. Mean of height, weight and BMI variation after 6 months were significantly different between case and control groups (P<0.05. BMI percentiles in the case group preoperatively were: 20% underweight, 67% healthy weight, 10% at risk of over weight, 3% over weight. Postoperatively, after 6 months BMI percentiles in order of above frequency were: 10%, 57%, 22% and 11% (P=0.02. Analysis of the results showed that adenotonsillectomy can lead to increase of height, weight, BMI and appetite not only in the children with low weight due to airway obstruction but also in the normal weight and over weight children. Therefore risk of overweight should be mentioned as a probable undesirable outcome of adenotonsillectomy.

  18. Quality of Life in Under-14-Year-Old Children After Adenotonsillectomy

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    Fathollah Behnoud

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Tonsillectomy with or without adenoidectomy is one of the most frequent surgical procedures especially in children. Several indications and contraindications have been suggested for this procedure. The benefits and the negative results of this operation have been studied by different researchers; nevertheless, to date, it is still a common procedure. The main purpose of this study is to obtain extensive information on the outcomes of adenotonsillectomy, according to the patient's physical, emotional and behavioral changes and also on the overall changes in his/her quality of life (QOL. Materials and Methods: All the children, aged 1-14, referred to the Besat Hospital clinics (Hamadan, Iran between March 2008 and March 2009 were included in this study. Overall, 86 children with documented indications underwent adenotonsillectomy, and were followed up for one year.  Two modified standard questionnaires for QOL were completed before and one year after the tonsillectomy. Upon the completion of this two-year study, statistical analyses were performed, and the demographic data of the study groups were compared with those of a same-age group. Results: Changes were observed in five main complaints as follow: Acute Recurrent tonsillitis was present in 86 patients preoperatively, but in only three cases postoperatively (pharyngitis. Confirmed chronic sinusitis was present in 24 patients preoperatively, but only in three cases during the year after the surgery. Oral breathing was seen in 82 patients preoperatively, but only in one patient during the year after the surgery. Nocturnal snoring was seen in 83 children preoperatively, but in 25 cases during the year after the surgery. Halitosis was present in 71 patients, while and halitosis was seen in 27 during the year after the surgery. Conclusion: Overall, the majority of the parameters studied showed significant differences after surgery.

  19. The relationship between dental caries and obesity among primary school children aged 5 to 14 years

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    Yao Yingshui

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Previous study revealed that the link between dental caries and obesity has been controversial. The purpose of this research is to investigate the association between dental caries and obesity among primary school children in Wannan area, China. Methods: A cross-sectional study was designed to collect the routine health screening data for primary school children aged 5-14 years inWannan area,China, Overweight and obesity status were determined using the International Obesity Task Force standard (IOTF BMI cut-off points. Caries status was recorded based on WHO recommendations. Results: Our results revealed that the overall caries prevalence of the subjects was 44.9%, Maximum number of caries affected children belonged to underweight and normal group, followed by overweight, and the least number was obesity. These differences were statistically significant (chi-square test, P < 0.001. Children with obesity were 1.908 times (OR =1.908; CI95%=1.750, 2.079 more likely have caries than children with underweight or health weight. Overweight children were 1.547 times (OR = 1.547; CI95% = 1.479, 1.618 more likely to have caries than children with underweight or health weight. After adjusted the gender and age, a statistically significant association was also observed between body mass index categories and caries. Conclusions: Obesity may have a significant effect on caries prevalence of primary school children in Wannan area, China. The importance of obesity should not only be emphasized with respect to general diseases but also with regard to carious lesions.

  20. Maternal child-feeding practices and dietary inadequacy of 4-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durão, Catarina; Andreozzi, Valeska; Oliveira, Andreia; Moreira, Pedro; Guerra, António; Barros, Henrique; Lopes, Carla

    2015-09-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the association between maternal perceived responsibility and child-feeding practices and dietary inadequacy of 4-year-old children. We studied 4122 mothers and children enrolled in the population-based birth cohort - Generation XXI (Porto, Portugal). Mothers self-completed the Child Feeding Questionnaire and a scale on covert and overt control, and answered to a food frequency questionnaire in face-to-face interviews. Using dietary guidelines for preschool children, adequacy intervals were defined: fruit and vegetables (F&V) 4-7 times/day; dairy 3-5 times/day; meat and eggs 5-10 times/week; fish 2-4 times/week. Inadequacy was considered as below or above these cut-points. For energy-dense micronutrient-poor foods and beverages (EDF), a tolerable limit was defined (feeding practices (restriction, monitoring, pressure to eat, overt and covert control) and children's diet were examined by logistic regression models. After adjustment for maternal BMI, education, and diet, and children's characteristics (sex, BMI z-scores), restriction, monitoring, overt and covert control were associated with 11-18% lower odds of F&V consumption below the interval defined as adequate. Overt control was also associated with 24% higher odds of their consumption above it. Higher perceived responsibility was associated with higher odds of children consuming F&V and dairy above recommendations. Pressure to eat was positively associated with consumption of dairy above the adequate interval. Except for pressure to eat, maternal practices were associated with 14-27% lower odds of inadequate consumption of EDF. In conclusion, children whose mothers had higher levels of covert control, monitoring, and restriction were less likely to consume F&V below recommendations and EDF above tolerable limits. Higher overt control and pressure to eat were associated, respectively, with higher possibility of children consuming F&V and dairy above recommendations.

  1. Childhood health in Jamaica: changing patterns in health conditions of children 0-14 years

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    Paul Andrew Bourne

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The new thrust by WHO is healthy life expectancy. Therefore, health must be more than morbidity. It is within this framework that a study on childhood health in Jamaica is of vital importance. Aims: This study 1 expands the health literature in Jamaica and by extension the Caribbean, 2 will aid public health practitioners with research findings upon which they are able to further improve the quality of life of children, 3 investigates the age at with children in Jamaica become influenced by particular chronic diseases and 4 assesses the subjective wellbeing of children. Methods: The current study extracted a sample of 8,373 and 2,104 children 0-14 years from two surveys collected jointly by the Planning Institute of Jamaica and the Statistics Institute of Jamaica for 2002 and 2007 respectively. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect the data. Results: Ninety-one percent of children in Jamaica, for 2007, reported good health. The number of children who had diarrhea fell by 84.2% in 2007 over 2002, and a similar reduction was observed for those with asthma (42.1% in 2002 and 19.7% in 2007. Another critical finding was that 1.2% of children, in 2007, had diabetes mellitus compared to none in 2002. Conclusion: Public health now has an epidemiological profile of health conditions of children and the demographic shifts which are occurring and this can be used for effective management and planning of the new health reality of the Jamaican child.

  2. Childhood health in Jamaica: changing patterns in health conditions of children 0-14 years

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    Paul Andrew Bourne

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The new thrust by WHO is healthy life expectancy. Therefore, health must be more than morbidity. It is within this framework that a study on childhood health in Jamaica is of vital importance. Aims: This study 1 expands the health literature in Jamaica and by extension the Caribbean, 2 will aid public health practitioners with research findings upon which they are able to further improve the quality of life of children, 3 investigates the age at with children in Jamaica become influenced by particular chronic diseases and 4 assesses the subjective wellbeing of children. Methods: The current study extracted a sample of 8,373 and 2,104 children 0-14 years from two surveys collected jointly by the Planning Institute of Jamaica and the Statistics Institute of Jamaica for 2002 and 2007 respectively. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect the data. Results: Ninety-one percent of children in Jamaica, for 2007, reported good health. The number of children who had diarrhea fell by 84.2% in 2007 over 2002, and a similar reduction was observed for those with asthma (42.1% in 2002 and 19.7% in 2007. Another critical finding was that 1.2% of children, in 2007, had diabetes mellitus compared to none in 2002. Conclusion: Public health now has an epidemiological profile of health conditions of children and the demographic shifts which are occurring and this can be used for effective management and planning of the new health reality of the Jamaican child.

  3. The Compatibility of Developed Mathematics Textbooks' Content in Saudi Arabia (Grades 6-8) with NCTM Standards

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    Alshehri, Mohammed Ali; Ali, Hassan Shawki

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the compatibility of developed mathematics textbooks' content (grades 6-8) in Saudi Arabia with NCTM standards in the areas of: number and operations, algebra, geometry, measurement, data analysis and probability. To achieve that goal, a list of (NCTM) standards for grades (6-8) were translated to Arabic language,…

  4. Where Is My Attention? Children's Metaknowledge Expressed through Drawings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzica, Sara; Pinto, Giuliana; Bigozzi, Lucia; Vezzani, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present research is to assess the developmental pattern of the metacognitive knowledge of attention in Italian primary school students. Data were collected from 95 pupils divided into two age groups: the first (6-8 years) and second primary school cycles (8-10 years). The children were asked to perform two specific thematic drawings…

  5. Factors associated with vaccination coverage in children < 5 years in Angola

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    Manuel Falcão Saturnino de Oliveira

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To analyze vaccination coverage and factors associated with a complete immunization scheme in children < 5 years old. METHODS This cross-sectional household census survey evaluated 1,209 children < 5 years old living in Bom Jesus, Angola, in 2010. Data were obtained from interviews, questionnaires, child immunization histories, and maternal health histories. The statistical analysis used generalized linear models, in which the dependent variable followed a binary distribution (vaccinated, unvaccinated and the association function was logarithmic and had the children’s individual, familial, and socioeconomic factors as independent variables. RESULTS Vaccination coverage was 37.0%, higher in children < 1 year (55.0% and heterogeneous across neighborhoods; 52.0% of children of both sexes had no immunization records. The prevalence rate of vaccination significantly varied according to child age, mother’s level of education, family size, ownership of household appliances, and destination of domestic waste. CONCLUSIONS Vulnerable groups with vaccination coverage below recommended levels continue to be present. Some factors indicate inequalities that represent barriers to full immunization, indicating the need to implement more equitable policies. The knowledge of these factors contributes to planning immunization promotion measures that focus on the most vulnerable groups.

  6. Emergence and Persistence of Overweight and Obesity in 7- to 11-Year-Old Children

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    Naomi C. Bartle

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: After dramatic rises in paediatric obesity, the critical period for obesity onset may now be pre-adolescence. Methods: We monitored adiposity over 4 years in 400 children aged 7-9 years recruited from schools in London. Weight, height, waist circumference (WC and fat mass were measured annually. Weight status was defined using International Obesity Task Force (IOTF criteria, and standardised scores and percentiles used British 1990 reference data. Results: BMI, WC and fat mass index all tracked strongly over time (average correlation for BMI = 0.95. Emergence of obesity was relatively uncommon: only 2% of the total sample increased from overweight to obese over the 4-year period, and this was nearly matched by the 1.3% that reduced from obese to overweight. However, more children (6% moved from healthy weight to overweight than the reverse direction (2%. There were greater absolute gains in adiposity in children with higher baseline weight status, but this was disguised in analyses using standardised scores. Obesity was not an emergent trait in middle childhood, but rates were already high and, in absolute terms, adiposity increased more in overweight and obese than healthy weight children. Conclusion: These results highlight the need for active management of obesity in middle childhood.

  7. Four years follow-up of 101 children with melamine-related urinary stones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Li; Wen, Jian Guo; Wen, Jian Jun; Su, Zhi Qiang; Zhu, Wen; Huang, Chen Xu; Yu, Si Long; Guo, Zhan

    2013-06-01

    The melamine-contaminated milk powder incidence occurred in China in 2008. Many studies have been published regarding the epidemiology, clinical symptoms, diagnosis and treatment of melamine-related urinary stones. The objective of this study is to follow-up the effects of melamine-contaminated milk powder consumption on kidney and body growth in children with melamine-related urinary stones 4 years ago. One hundred and one children with melamine-related urinary stones were followed up by urinalysis, renal function tests and urinary ultrasonography. The data of body weight and height, clinical signs and complications were collected. Eighty normal children without the history of consuming melamine-contaminated milk powder were collected as controls. Eighty-one children with melamine-related urinary stones were successfully followed up. Of 45 cases with melamine-related urinary stones treated conservatively after discharge, 34 disappeared completely, 6 dissolved partially, 1 increased in size and 4 did not change at 4 years follow-up. The percentages of under-height and under-weight infants were significantly higher in melamine-related urinary stones group compared to the controls, respectively (p urinary stones on kidney and bladder was found at 4 years follow-up. However, whether or not melamine-related urinary stones had effect on body growth needs follow-up in future.

  8. Epistemology for Beginners: Two- to Five-Year-Old Children's Representation of Falsity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascaro, Olivier; Morin, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the ontogeny of human's naive concept of truth. Surprisingly, children find it hard to treat assertions as false before their fifth birthday. Yet, we show in six studies (N = 140) that human's concept of falsity develops early. Two-year-olds use truth-functional negation to exclude one term in an alternative (Study 1). Three-year-olds can evaluate discrepancies between the content of a representation and what it aims at representing (Study 2). They use this knowledge to treat beliefs and assertions as false (Study 3). Four-year-olds recognise the involutive nature of falsity ascriptions: they properly infer 'p' from 'It is not true that "It is not true that "p"' (Study 4), an inference that rests on second-order representations of representations. Controls confirm that children do not merely equate being mistaken with failing to achieve one's goal (Studies 5 and 6). These results demonstrate remarkable capacities to evaluate representations, and indicate that in the absence of formal training, young children develop the building blocks of a theory of truth and falsity-a naive epistemology. We suggest that children's difficulties in discarding false assertions need not reflect any conceptual lacuna, and may originate from their being trustful.

  9. The Growth of Body Size and Somatotype of Javanese Children Age 4 to 20 Years

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    TETRI WIDIYANI

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Growth of body size (body height and body weight and somatotype in 363 girls and 299 boys aged 4 to 20 years of ethnic Javanese lived in Magelang Regency Indonesia were studied cross-sectionally. Over half of them were categorized in the well-off family, therefore underweight or underfat prevalence in our subjects was low (14.3% but overweight and obesity prevalence was also low (14%. They were shorter and lighter than reference children from U.S., Japan and Yogyakarta but they improved when compared with those of the same ethnic of Bantul and with the different ethnic of rural India. There was a clear age-related change of their somatotype. At age 4 years, the physique of children subjects in both sexes is found to be mesomorph-endomorph. Thereafter it is transformed into ectomorphic-endomorph in girls and to mesomorph-ectomorph in boys at the age of 20 years. In girl subjects, the onset of puberty was characterized by an acceleration of endomorphy component at age 8 years. While in our boys it was characterized by an acceleration of ectomorphy since age 9 years. The different growth pattern of somatotype components showed that the use of BMI as an indicator of fatness in children should be reassessed.

  10. The Development of Arabic Digit Knowledge in 4- to 7-Year-Old Children

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    Birgit Knudsen

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies indicate that Arabic digit knowledge rather than non-symbolic number knowledge is a key foundation for arithmetic proficiency at the start of a child’s mathematical career. We document the developmental trajectory of 4- to 7-year-olds’ proficiency in accessing magnitude information from Arabic digits in five tasks differing in magnitude manipulation requirements. Results showed that children from 5 years onwards accessed magnitude information implicitly and explicitly, but that 5-year-olds failed to access magnitude information explicitly when numerical magnitude was contrasted with physical magnitude. Performance across tasks revealed a clear developmental trajectory: children traverse from first knowing the cardinal values of number words to recognizing Arabic digits to knowing their cardinal values and, concurrently, their ordinal position. Correlational analyses showed a strong within-child consistency, demonstrating that this pattern is not only reflected in group differences but also in individual performance.

  11. EVALUATION OF PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT DYNAMICS IN MODERN CHILDREN 7-8 YEARS OF AGE

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    Grebneva, N.N.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The article contains the results of comparative evaluation of children’s physical development level (7-8 years old over a twelve-year period (1999-2012. The study revealed drastic decrease in the number of children with average (normal level of physical development and its disharmony, which is mainly caused by excessive body weight. Increase in body weight depends on the sex: the indicators among girls are twice as high as same indicators for boys. It is assumed that decrease in physical development level of modern children 7-8 years of age is caused by nutritional inferiority, irrational nutrition and decline in physical activity, particularly due to the start formal schooling.

  12. Cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potentials in children with spastic cerebral palsy and normal children with 7-12 years of age

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    Nazila Akbarfahimi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Cervical vestibular-evoked myogenic potential (cVEMP is one of the diagnostic tests used in assessing vestibular function. Two aims of this study were to investigate implications of cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potential in children with spastic cerebral palsy (7-12 years, and to compare vestibular function in these children and normal children.Methods: In this cross-sectional study, myogenic potential was recorded in 31 children with spastic cerebral palsy (8 girls, 23 boys,7-12 years of age, with mean age of 8.77 years old and standard deviation of 1.52 years and 31 normal children (13 girls, 18 boys with mean age of 8.77 years and standard deviation of 1.52 years. Cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potential was recorded with 500 Hz tone burst. The recorded parameters included p13 and n23 latency, p13-n23 pick to pick amplitude, and threshold.Results: Myogenic Potential was recorded in 31 normal children. They had bilateral responses. In children with cerebral palsy, 21 children showed bilateral responses, 3 children had only right-sided responses, 8 children had only left-sided responses, and two children did not show any responses. The statistical significant differences were shown between the two groups in n23, p13-n23 pick to pick amplitude, and threshold (p<0.05.Conclusion: These findings showed that cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potential can be used in children with cerebral palsy. There were significant differences in myogenic potential parameters between the two groups. More studies are needed to investigate the causes of these differences.

  13. Developmental Dynamics between Children's Externalizing Problems, Task-Avoidant Behavior, and Academic Performance in Early School Years: A 4-Year Follow-Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metsäpelto, Riitta-Leena; Pakarinen, Eija; Kiuru, Noona; Poikkeus, Anna-Maija; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2015-01-01

    This longitudinal study investigated the associations among children's externalizing problems, task-avoidant behavior, and academic performance in early school years. The participants were 586 children (43% girls, 57% boys). Data pertaining to externalizing problems (teacher ratings) and task-avoidant behaviors (mother and teacher ratings) were…

  14. COMPETENCE AND BEHAVIORAL-PROBLEMS IN 6-YEAR-OLD TO 12-YEAR-OLD CHILDREN IN FLANDERS (BELGIUM) AND HOLLAND - A CROSS-NATIONAL COMPARISON

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    HELLINCKX, W; GRIETENS, H; VERHULST, F

    1994-01-01

    The Child Behavior Checklist (Achenbach, 1991) was used to obtain data on 1,120 Flemish and 1,122 Dutch children, ages 6 to 12 years. These data were analyzed in a cross-national comparison. Several small differences between nationalities were found for competence: Dutch children scored significantl

  15. Deletion and Mutation of WWOX Exons 6-8 in Human Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    To examine the deletion and point mutation of WWOX (WW domain containing oxidoreductase) exons 6-8 in human non-small cell lung cancer and their possible relationship with pathological stages, tumor tissues and the corresponding normal tissues were obtained from 44 Chinese patients who had undergone surgery for non-small cell lung cancer. RNA was extracted from each sample and deletion and mutation of WWOX exons 6-8 were analyzed by RT-PCR and DNA sequencing. Our results showed that 28 of 44 (63.6 %) lung cancer samples showed loss of WWOX exons 6-8 transcript and the deletion was detected in only 3 of 44 (6.8 %) corresponding adjacent normal tissues (P<0.05). The transcript sequencing analyses of the 16 lung cancer samples without transcript loss of WWOX exons 6-8 revealed no difference from the sequence of GenBank. Moreover, the deletion of WWOX exons 6-8 was significantly higher in the smokers when compared with the non-smokers. It is also higher in the men and squamous carcinomas than in women and adenocarcinomas (P<0.05). The deletion, however, was not found to be associated with pathological stages of the tumors. Our study documented a high incidence of deletion of WWOX exons 6-8 in non-small cell lung cancer in Chinese patients and suggested that the frequent loss of WWOX exons 6-8 might play an important role in the tumorigenesis of non-small cell lung cancer in Chinese. WWOX exons 6-8 may serves as a candidate molecular target of smoking carcinogenesis, and point mutation is not a predominant way of alteration of WWOX exons 6-8.

  16. Social competence of 3 to 5-year-old children born with low birth weight

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    Nurul Komariah

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Low birth weight (LBW has long been used as an indicator of public health. Low birth weight is not a proxy for any dimension of other maternal or perinatal health outcomes. Low birth weight infants require special care, and have more chronic conditions, learning delays, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorders compared to infants of normal birth weight (NBW. Social competence is viewed as a primary component of healthy function and development and is an important predictor of academic and financial success.Objective To examine social competence of children aged 3-5 years born with low birth weight.Methods This cross-sectional study was undertaken in Palembang in 2012. Subjects consisted of children aged 3-5 years attended a preschool in the Seberang Ulu I District, Palembang, and were divided into two groups: low birth weight (LBW and normal birth weight (NBW. Social competence was assessed by observation and Interaction Rating Scale (IRS and Parenting Style questionnaire (PSQ. Chi-square analysis was used to compare social competence between the two groups. Multivariate regression logistic analysis was used to assess for the dominant factors that may affect a child’s social competence.Results Low birth weight children aged 3 to 5 years had a 1.435 times higher risk of low social competence compared to normal birth weight children of similar age. (RP 1.435; 95%CI 1.372 to 13.507; P=0.019. Multivariate regression logistic analysis revealed that parenting style was a dominant factor affecting social competence.Conclusion Social competence in 3 to 5-year-old children born with low birth weight is lower compared to those with normal birth weight.

  17. Ten-year experience with the Swenson procedure in Nigerian children with Hirschsprung′s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sowande Oludayo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hirschsprung′s disease (HD is a common cause of intestinal obstruction in children. Definitive treatments consist of excision of the aganglionic segment and anastomosing the normal colon to the anal remnant. The outcome of this approach in Nigerian children is not known. The aim of this study was to analyze the short to mid-term outcome of children who have undergone the Swenson Procedure (SPT as a treatment of HD over a period of 10 years. Patients and Methods: The clinical data of biopsy-proven cases of HD managed at the Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospital, Ile-Ife, Nigeria, between 1998 and 2007 were reviewed. Results: There were 33 children 28 were males and five were females (M 5.6: F = 1. The median age at presentation was eight months (range three days to 11 years. Eighteen (54.5% patients had primary pull-through without colostomy while 15 (45.5% patients had a two-staged operation. The operation was carried out at a median age of 14 months with a range of seven weeks to 11 years, four months. Twenty-one (64% of the patients were older than one year at the time of surgery. The level of aganglionosis was in the recto-sigmoid area in 30 (91% patients. The commonest post-SPT complication was intestinal obstruction from adhesions. Bowel opening varied from once daily to eight times daily, median thrice daily. Conclusion: The Swenson′s Procedure is an effective procedure in the treatment of HD in children in Ile Ife, Nigeria.

  18. BREASTFEEDING AND EARLY CHILDHOOD CARIES (ECC SEVERITY OF CHILDREN UNDER THREE YEARS OLD IN DKI JAKARTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Risqa Rina Darwita

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence and severity of caries in children under three years old are constantly increasing. One of the cause is the increase consumption of cariogenic carbohydrate. Breast milk have buffer capacity that eventually able to prevent caries. The aims of this research are to discover the correlation between breastfeeding with the severity of Early Childhood Caries (ECC in children under three years old, to provide information on prevalence and severity of caries in children under three years, and to explain factors influencing the incidence of ECC. This research designed cross sectionally and conducted upon 565 children aged 12-38 months, selected using multistage cluster random sampling. The ECC prevalence of children under three years in DKI Jakarta is 52.7%, with average score of def-t 2.85. Bivariate analysis showed that, variables which correlate with the level of ECC are; the way to deliver (p=0,012, frequency (p=0,002, duration (p=0,002, salivary buffer capacity (p=0.013, habitual consumption of sugary diet (p=0.005, child’s dental hygiene behavior (p=0.002, and mother’s education (p=0.001. Multivariate analysis showed that ECC can be explained by these variables: age, mother’s education, the way to deliver and frequency of breast milk complements/replacement of consumtions, child’s brushing habit, plaque pH, and salivary buffer capacity. Resulting determination coefficient 32.1%. There is no significant correlation between breastfeeding and the level of Early Childhood Caries (ECC. The role of protective qualities of breastfeeding are not shown because of bias in obtaining data influence the incidence of caries.

  19. Features of the physical, psycho-physiological development and physical fitness of children 1-5 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korobeinikov Georgij Valer'evich

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The results of the indicators of physical development, psycho-physiological capacity and physical fitness of children. The study involved 52 children aged 1-2 years, 3-4 years 56 children, 56 children 4-5 years. It is established that in the age group of children 4-5 years time, a simple reaction to an auditory stimulus following simple reaction time to visual stimulus. It is recommended to use parenting techniques that are integrally stimulate all the sensory systems. Pointed out that the sound of children causes greater emotional response in comparison with the light signal. This reduces the latency time of reaction to an auditory stimulus.

  20. Visual Perception of ADHD Children with Sensory Processing Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aim of the present study was to investigate the visual perception difference between ADHD children with and without sensory processing disorder, and the relationship between sensory processing and visual perception of the children with ADHD. Methods Participants were 47 outpatients, aged 6-8 years, diagnosed with ADHD. After excluding those who met exclusion criteria, 38 subjects were clustered into two groups, ADHD children with and without sensory processing disorder (SPD), us...

  1. Cholesteatoma in Danish children - A national study of changes in the incidence rate over 34 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Djurhuus, Bjarki Ditlev; Skytthe, Axel; Christensen, Kaare;

    2015-01-01

    was examined using Poisson regression analysis, while the cumulative incidence proportion was estimated using life-tables. RESULTS: A total of 5850 cases of surgically treated middle ear cholesteatoma distributed among 3874 children aged 0-15 years were identified. From 1977 to 2002 the age...... of 5.4% (95% CI 3.2-7.5%). Age-specific incidence rates were at maximum around the age of 9 years during the whole period. The estimated cumulative incidence proportion at age 16 years based on the 2010 age-specific incidence rates was 0.16% (95% CI 0.09-0.32%) compared with 0.20% (95% CI 0...

  2. Effects of Presentation Format and List Length on Children's False Memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swannell, Ellen R.; Dewhurst, Stephen A.

    2013-01-01

    The effect of list length on children's false memories was investigated using list and story versions of the Deese/Roediger-McDermott procedure. Short (7 items) and long (14 items) sequences of semantic associates were presented to children aged 6, 8, and 10 years old either in lists or embedded within a story that emphasized the list theme.…

  3. Development in the Use and Understanding of Polite Forms in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nippold, Marilyn A.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Results of two studies with 60 children aged three, five, and seven, and 40 children aged four through 6.8, indicated that use and understanding of politeness at age three years seemed related to emerging ability to understand the perspective of another, and at later ages, to knowledge of social roles. (Author/MC)

  4. Daily physical activity and its relation to aerobic fitness in children aged 8-11 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencker, Magnus; Thorsson, Ola; Karlsson, Magnus K.;

    2006-01-01

    Abstract  A positive relationship between daily physical activity and aerobic fitness exists in adults. Studies in children have given conflicting results, possibly because of differences in methods used to assess daily physical activity and fitness. No study regarding daily physical activity...... and fitness in children has been published, where fitness has been assessed by direct measurement of maximum oxygen uptake and related to daily physical activity intensities by accelerometers. We examined 248 children (140 boys and 108 girls), aged 7.9-11.1 years. Maximum workload and maximal oxygen uptake...... (VO2PEAK) by indirect calorimetry were measured during a maximum bicycle ergometer exercise test. Exercise capacity was adjusted for body mass and (body mass)2/3. Daily physical activity was evaluated by accelerometers, worn around the waist for 4 days. Mean accelerometer counts and time spent...

  5. Distribution of malocclusion types in 7-9-year-old Iranian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danaie, S M; Asadi, Z; Salehi, P

    2006-01-01

    This study assessed the malocclusion types, very severe crowding and need for serial extraction among a random sample of 7-9-year-old children in Shiraz, Islamic Republic of Iran. Of the 3776 children 30.6% had normal occlusion, 47.4% class I malocclusion, 13.7% class II division 1 malocclusion (male/female ratio 3:2), 1.0% class II division 2 malocclusion (male/female ratio 3:1) and 2.1% class III malocclusion. Among the children examined, 47.9% had crowding problems and 14.7% of them had class I malocclusion with very severe crowding-more girls (17.3%) than boys (12.1%). No correlation was observed between the types of malocclusion and family size, parents' occupation or level of education.

  6. Development and education of academically supernormal children in Mainland China in the last 35 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shi, Jiannong

    A sophisticated education system for academically gifted students at university, middle school and primary school levels has been developed since 1978. A statistics-based definition of academically supernormal children was suggested by Chinese psychologists. A series of experiments...... classes for academically gifted children at university, middle school and primary school levels have been set up in China since 1978. Hundreds of high ability students are benefited from the gifted education programs in China. Some essential issues about gifted education in China will be discussed...... and investigation has been conducted on psychological development of academically supernormal children. Some principles, procedures, and steps of identification, as well as some principles and typical models of education were developed in Mainland China during the last twenty-four years. Dozens of experimental...

  7. Motor skills in children aged 7-10 years, diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whyatt, Caroline P; Craig, Cathy M

    2012-09-01

    This study used the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (M-ABC2) to assess motor skills in children aged 7-10 years with autism (n = 18) in comparison to two groups of age-matched typically developing children; a receptive vocabulary matched group (n = 19) and a nonverbal IQ matched group (n = 22). The results supported previous work, as indicated by a significant general motor impairment in the group with autism. However, sub-analysis of the M-ABC2 revealed that there were only 2 out of 8 subcomponent skills which showed universal significant specific deficits for the autism group; i.e. catching a ball and static balance. These results suggest that motor skill deficits associated with autism may not be pervasive but more apparent in activities demanding complex, interceptive actions or core balance ability.

  8. Malnutrition among 3 to 5 Years Old Children in Baghdad City, Iraq: A Cross-sectional Study

    OpenAIRE

    Ghazi, Hasanain Faisal; Mustafa, Jamsiah; Aljunid, Syed; Isa, Zaleha Md; AbdalQader, Mohammed A

    2013-01-01

    The unstable geopolitical situation in Iraq since 2003 still affects the health of people, especially children. Several factors may indirectly affect a child's nutritional status. The main aim of this study was to identify factors contributing to malnutrition among 3 to 5 years old children in Baghdad city, Iraq. Two hundred twenty children aged 3 to 5 years were chosen randomly from four kindergartens in Baghdad city according to the cross-sectional design. The nutritional status of the chil...

  9. The Effect of Menstrual Health Education Conducted with Peer Education Method to Adolescent Girls in 6-8 Classes on Information and Behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Zehra Golbasi; Gulbahtiyar Doganer; Nuriye Erbas

    2012-01-01

    Aim: Research was conducted as a experimental study in order to determine the effect of menstrual health education conducted with peer education to adolescent girls in 6-8 classes on information and behaviors. Method: The study was made in Primary School of Regional Girl Boarding. Working group consisted of 202 students responded completely pre-test and post-test from 214 female students studying in this school in 2008-2009 academic year. Data were collected by Personal Information Form, Mens...

  10. Stability in Parents' Causal Attributions for Their Children's Academic Performance: A Nine-Year Follow-Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enlund, Emmi; Aunola, Kaisa; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the interindividual stability and mean-level changes in parents' causal attributions for their children's academic performance across a 9-year period from the first year in primary school (Grade 1, age 7) to the end of lower secondary school (Grade 9, age 16). In all, 212 children participated in the study. The results…

  11. Early detection of psychosocial problems in children aged 5 to 6 years by preventive child healthcare: Has it improved?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theunissen, M.H.C.; Vogels, A.G.C.; Reijneveld, S.A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess whether the quality of identification of psychosocial problems by preventive child healthcare professionals (CHPs) in children aged 5-6 years has improved after a series of nationwide interventions. Study design: We analyzed data about 8440 children aged 5-6 years who were asses

  12. Punishment and reward in parental discipline for children aged 5 to 6 years: prevalence and groups at risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theunissen, M.H.C.; Vogels, A.G.C.; Reijneveld, S.A.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In this study we examined the use and predictors of different discipline practices by parents of children aged 5 to 6 years. METHODS: We obtained cross-sectional data for a nationally representative Dutch sample of children aged 5 to 6 years within the setting of routine well-child visits

  13. Punishment and reward in parental discipline for children aged 5 to 6 years : prevalence and groups at risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theunissen, Meinou H. C.; Vogels, Anton G. C.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In this study we examined the use and predictors of different discipline practices by parents of children aged 5 to 6 years. METHODS: We obtained cross-sectional data for a nationally representative Dutch sample of children aged 5 to 6 years within the setting of routine well-child visits

  14. Individual and maternal determinants of self-reported dental health among Turkish school children aged 10-12 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cinar, A B; Kosku, N; Sandalli, N;

    2008-01-01

    To assess the influence of maternal and individual characteristics on self-reported dental health of Turkish school children aged 10-12 years with different socio-economic backgrounds.......To assess the influence of maternal and individual characteristics on self-reported dental health of Turkish school children aged 10-12 years with different socio-economic backgrounds....

  15. Gait pattern in 9-11-year-old children with generalized joint hypermobility compared with controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolajsen, Helene; Larsen, Peter Kastmand; Simonsen, Erik Bruun;

    2013-01-01

    To study differences in gait patterns in 10-year-old children with Generalized Joint Hypermobility (GJH) and with no GJH (NGJH).......To study differences in gait patterns in 10-year-old children with Generalized Joint Hypermobility (GJH) and with no GJH (NGJH)....

  16. Waist circumference percentiles among Turkish children under the age of 6 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatipoglu, Nihal; Mazicioglu, M Mumtaz; Poyrazoglu, Serpil; Borlu, Arda; Horoz, Duygu; Kurtoglu, Selim

    2013-01-01

    Waist circumference, a proxy measure of abdominal obesity, is associated with cardio-metabolic risk factors in childhood and adolescence. Although there are numerous studies about waist circumference percentiles in children, only a few studies cover preschool children. The aim of this study was to develop age- and gender-specific waist circumference smoothed reference curves in Turkish preschool children to determine abdominal obesity prevalence and to compare them with reference curves obtained from different countries. The design of the study was cross-sectional. A total of 2,947 children (1,471 boys and 1,476 girls) aged 0-6 years were included in the study. The subjects were divided according to their gender. Waist circumference was measured by using a standardized procedure. The age- and gender-specific waist circumference reference curves were constructed and smoothed with LMS method. The reference values of waist circumference, including 3rd, 10th 25th, 50th, 75th, 90th, and 97th percentiles, and standard deviations were given for preschool children. Waist circumference values increased with age, and there were differences between genders. The prevalence of abdominal obesity was calculated as 10.1 % for boys and 10.7 % for girls. Having compared our data with two other countries' data, we found that our waist circumference data were significantly lower. This is the first cross-sectional study for age- and gender-specific references of 0- to 6-year-old Turkish children. The gender- and age-specific waist circumference percentiles can be used to determine the risk of central obesity.

  17. Auditory-motor learning during speech production in 9-11-year-old children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas M Shiller

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hearing ability is essential for normal speech development, however the precise mechanisms linking auditory input and the improvement of speaking ability remain poorly understood. Auditory feedback during speech production is believed to play a critical role by providing the nervous system with information about speech outcomes that is used to learn and subsequently fine-tune speech motor output. Surprisingly, few studies have directly investigated such auditory-motor learning in the speech production of typically developing children. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the present study, we manipulated auditory feedback during speech production in a group of 9-11-year old children, as well as in adults. Following a period of speech practice under conditions of altered auditory feedback, compensatory changes in speech production and perception were examined. Consistent with prior studies, the adults exhibited compensatory changes in both their speech motor output and their perceptual representations of speech sound categories. The children exhibited compensatory changes in the motor domain, with a change in speech output that was similar in magnitude to that of the adults, however the children showed no reliable compensatory effect on their perceptual representations. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that 9-11-year-old children, whose speech motor and perceptual abilities are still not fully developed, are nonetheless capable of auditory-feedback-based sensorimotor adaptation, supporting a role for such learning processes in speech motor development. Auditory feedback may play a more limited role, however, in the fine-tuning of children's perceptual representations of speech sound categories.

  18. Acute poisoning in children; changes over the years, data of pediatric clinic department of toxicology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Keka Alije; Ramosaj A; Toro H; Azemi M; Baloku A; Sylaj B; Lenjani B; Kyseni K

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To present the frequency, etiology, changes over the years of acute poisoning in children admitted toPediatricClinic ofPristina and to determine the extent and characteristics of the problem, according to which related preventive measures can be taken.Methods:Retrospectively we have analyzed the epidemiology of accidental and suicidal poisonings in children hospitalization inPediatricClinicDepartment ofToxicology during the year2012. Our data we compared with data from previous studies on acute poisoning in children in the PediatricClinic conducted during the years1976-1985 and2001.Results:During the year2012, inPediatricClinic ofPristina5723 children were hospitalized,136 of them or2.3% were treated due to acute poisoning inDepartment ofToxicology,82 of them was boys and54 was girls, rate boys girls was1.5:1.The majority of cases101 or74.2% were under five years with peak age three and35% or25.7% were over five years.The most of the cases was accidentally97% and only 2.9% was suicidal and all of them were over the age of ten.Drugs were the most common agent causing the poisoning71(52.2%) followed by house cleaning products38(27.9%), food10(5.8%), pesticides7(5.14%), rare agent that caused poisoning were: narcotic substances, plant, heavy metals, alcohol, carbon monoxide, carburant.Poisoning occurred mostly in spring and the peak was observed inMay,(1.17% of all patients).January was the month of lowest rate of poisoning. During the years1976-1985, inPediatricClinic ofPristina900 children were hospitalized due to acute poisoning,44.11% were from drugs,15.88% from pesticides,65(7.2%), while during2001 in the unit care intensive were hospitalized66 children due to acute poisoning, among them51.5% were poisoning from drugs,30.03 from pesticides,12.2% from cleaning products.Conclusion:In our study drugs and house cleaning products are the most frequent agents causing accidental poisoning in children less than5 years-old, this age of children is the most

  19. Resting energy expenditure and adiposity accretion among children with Down syndrome: a three year prospective study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Douglas L.; Parks, Elizabeth P.; Zemel, Babette S.; Shults, Justine; Stallings, Virginia A; Stettler, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    Background Children with Down syndrome (DS) have a higher prevalence of obesity than other children. Whether this increased risk for obesity is due to a lower resting energy expenditure (REE) is controversial. Our study assessed whether 1) the REE of children with DS adjusted for fat free mass (FFM) was lower than that of sibling controls and 2) the changes in fat mass (FM) over three years were associated with FFM-adjusted baseline REE. Methods This study used cross-sectional and prospective cohort designs. Four annual measurement visits were conducted with 28 children with DS and 35 sibling controls aged 3–10y. REE and serum thyroxine (T4) were measured at baseline. Anthropometry, skinfold thicknesses measures, and, in a subsample, dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) were used at each visit to calculate FM. Results Children with DS had significantly lower REE adjusted for FFM (−78 kcal/day, 95% CI: −133 to −27, p=0.003). The difference remained significant after adjustment for FM, sex, and African ancestry (−49 kcal/day, 95% CI: −94 to −4, p=0.03). In the longitudinal analysis, the baseline REE adjusted for baseline FFM was not predictive of FM accretion over time (p=0.8). Conclusion Children with DS have lower REE than sibling controls, but REE was not associated with changes in FM over time. The results suggest that the lower REE of children with DS does not explain their increased risk for obesity. PMID:23900244

  20. Whole-grain food consumption in Singaporean children aged 6-12 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neo, Jia En; Binte Mohamed Salleh, Saihah; Toh, Yun Xuan; How, Kesslyn Yan Ling; Tee, Mervin; Mann, Kay; Hopkins, Sinead; Thielecke, Frank; Seal, Chris J; Brownlee, Iain A

    2016-01-01

    Public health bodies in many countries are attempting to increase population-wide habitual consumption of whole grains. Limited data on dietary habits exist in Singaporean children. The present study therefore aimed to assess whole grain consumption patterns in Singaporean children and compare these with dietary intake, physical activity and health parameters. Dietary intake (assessed by duplicate, multipass, 24-h food recalls), physical activity (by questionnaire) and anthropometric measurements were collected from a cross-section of 561 Singaporean children aged 6-12 years. Intake of whole grains was evaluated using estimates of portion size and international food composition data. Only 38·3 % of participants reported consuming whole grains during the dietary data collection days. Median intake of whole grains in consumers was 15·3 (interquartile range 5·4-34·8) g/d. The most commonly consumed whole-grain food groups were rice (29·5 %), wholemeal bread (28·9 %) and ready-to-eat breakfast cereals (18·8 %). A significantly lower proportion of Malay children (seven out of fifty-eight; P whole grains than children of other ethnicities. Only 6 % of all children consumed the amount of whole grains most commonly associated with improved health outcomes (48 g/d). There was no relationship between whole grain consumption patterns and BMI, waist circumference or physical activity but higher whole grain intake was associated with increased fruit, vegetable and dairy product consumption (P whole grain foods is low at a population level and infrequent in Singaporean children. Future drives to increase whole-grain food consumption in this population are likely to require input from multiple stakeholders.

  1. Management of children with disorders of sex development:20-year experience in southern Thailand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Somchit Jaruratanasirikul; Vorapun Engchaun

    2014-01-01

    Background: Disorders of sex development (DSD) is a group of sexual differentiation disorders resulting in genital anomalies with defects in gonadal hormone synthesis and/or incomplete genital development. These conditions result in problems concerning the sex assignment of the child. This study aims to describe the clinical features, diagnosis and management of children with DSD in southern Thailand. Methods: The medical records of 117 pediatric patients diagnosed with DSD during the period of 1991- 2011 were retrospectively reviewed. Results: Disorders of sex development were categorized into 3 groups: sex chromosome abnormalities (53.0%), 46,XX DSD (29.9%) and 46,XY DSD (17.1%). The two most common etiologies of DSD were Turner syndrome (36.8%) and congenital adrenal hyperplasia (29.9%). Ambiguous genitalia/intersex was the main problem in 46,XX DSD (94%) and 46,XY DSD (100%). Sex reassignment was done in 5 children (4.3%) at age of 3-5 years: from male to female in 4 children (1 patient with congenital adrenal hyperplasia, 1 patient with 45,X/46,XY DSD, and 2 patients with 46,XX ovotesticular DSD) and from female to male in 1 patient with 46,XX ovotesticular DSD. Of the total 20 children with 46,XY DSD, 16 (80%) were raised as females. Conclusion: Management of DSD children has many aspects of concern. Sex assignment/reassignment depends on the phenotype (phallus size) of the external genitalia rather than the sex chromosome.

  2. Facial Emotion and Identity Processing Development in 5- to 15-Year-Old Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick eJohnston

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Most developmental studies of emotional face processing to date have focussed on infants and very young children. Additionally, studies that examine emotional face processing in older children do not distinguish development in emotion and identity face processing from more generic age-related cognitive improvement. In this study, we developed a paradigm that measures processing of facial expression in comparison to facial identity and complex visual stimuli. The three matching tasks were developed (i.e., facial emotion matching, facial identity matching and butterfly wing matching to include stimuli of similar level of discriminability and to be equated for task difficulty in earlier samples of young adults. Ninety two children aged 5 to 15 years and a new group of 24 young adults completed these three matching tasks. Young children were highly adept at the butterfly wing task relative to their performance on both face-related tasks. More importantly, in older children, development of facial emotion discrimination ability lagged behind that of facial identity discrimination.

  3. Feasibility of transcranial direct current stimulation use in children aged 5 to 12 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Agnes Carvalho; Magnavita, Guilherme Moreira; Allegro, Juleilda Valéria Brasil Nunes; Neto, Carlos Eduardo Borges Passos; Lucena, Rita de Cássia Saldanha; Fregni, Felipe

    2014-10-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation is a noninvasive brain stimulation technique that has been studied for the treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders in adults, with minimal side effects. The objective of this study is to report the feasibility, tolerability, and the short-term adverse effects of transcranial direct current stimulation in children from 5 to 12 years of age. It is a naturalistic study of 14 children who underwent 10 sessions of transcranial direct current stimulation as an alternative, off-label, and open-label treatment for various languages disorders. Frequency, intensity, adverse effects, and perception of improvement reported by parents were collected. The main side effects detected were tingling (28.6%) and itching (28.6%), acute mood changes (42.9%), and irritability (35.7%). Transcranial direct current stimulation is a feasible and tolerable technique in children, although studies regarding plastic and cognitive changes in children are needed to confirm its safety. In conclusion, this is a naturalistic report in which we considered transcranial direct current stimulation as feasible in children.

  4. Educational Intervention on Risk Factors Associated with Malocclusions in Five-year-old Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amarelys Morera Pérez

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: educational programs aimed at increasing knowledge on oral health and promoting proper oral hygiene habits allow controlling or limiting the development of dento-maxillofacial defects that lead to many aesthetic, functional and mental disorders.Objective: to assess the effectiveness of an educational intervention on risk factors associated with malocclusions in children aged five years. Methods: a quasi-experimental, before and after study was conducted in 67 children living in the Health Area number 2 in Cienfuegos municipality. Risk factors associated with malocclusions were identified, as well as the knowledge needs of the children and their parents. An educational program on risk factors associated with malocclusions was designed and implemented. Surveys were applied before and after the intervention. The variables studied included risk factors associated with malocclusions and the level of knowledge about them. Results: children and parents increased their knowledge about risk factors associated with malocclusions. Ninety four point three percent of the most common oral habits (tongue thrusting, finger-sucking and bottle feeding were eliminated. Conclusion: the intervention was effective since it raised the level of knowledge of the children and their parents and led to the elimination of a considerable number of modifiable risk factors associated with malocclusions.

  5. Prenatal Cocaine Exposure Alters Cortisol Stress Reactivity in 11 Year Old Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Barry M.; LaGasse, Linda L.; Shankaran, Seetha; Bada, Henrietta S.; Bauer, Charles R.; Lin, Richard; Das, Abhik; Higgins, Rosemary

    2011-01-01

    Objective Determine the association between prenatal cocaine exposure and postnatal environmental adversity on salivary cortisol stress reactivity in school aged children. Study design Subjects included 743 11 year old children (n=320 cocaine exposed; 423 comparison) followed since birth in a longitudinal prospective multisite study. Saliva samples were collected to measure cortisol at baseline and after a standardized procedure to induce psychological stress. Children were divided into those who showed an increase in cortisol from baseline to post stress and those who showed a decrease or blunted cortisol response. Covariates measured included site, birthweight, maternal pre and postnatal use of alcohol, tobacco or marijuana, social class, changes in caretakers, maternal depression and psychological symptoms, domestic and community violence, child abuse and quality of the home. Results With adjustment for confounding variables, cortisol reactivity to stress was more likely to be blunted in children with prenatal cocaine exposure. Cocaine exposed children exposed to domestic violence showed the strongest effects. Conclusion The combination of prenatal cocaine exposure and an adverse postnatal environment could down regulate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) resulting in the blunted cortisol response to stress possibly increasing risk for later psychopathology and adult disease. PMID:20400094

  6. Food assistance programmes are indirectly associated with anaemia status in children <5 years old in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamah-Levy, Teresa; Méndez-Gómez-Humarán, Ignacio; Gaona-Pineda, Elsa B; Cuevas-Nasu, Lucia; Villalpando, Salvador

    2016-09-01

    Anaemia in children is a public health concern in Mexico; Federal food assistance programmes are being implemented to prevent it. We undertook this research to investigate the indirect association between food assistance programmes (FAP) and anaemia through dietary and socio-economic conditions of beneficiary children. A structural equation model (SEM) was constructed to assess associations among FAP, dietary and socio-economic conditions, as well as anaemia. A cross-sectional comparative study was conducted based on a sample of 1214 households with children Prospera and rescue from malnutrition with amaranth (RMA) and a comparison group in San Luis Potosí, Mexico. The SEM and a decomposition effect analysis revealed the existence of a significant indirect association of FAP on the prevalence of anaemia via dietary and socio-economic conditions in children under 5 years old. The Prospera assistance programme showed a significant indirect positive association with the prevalence of anaemia (standard coefficient=0·027, P<0·031), and the RMA programme showed a significant indirect negative association with the prevalence of anaemia (standard coefficient=-0·029, P=0·047). There was a direct association between FAP and dietary and socio-economic conditions. FAP could indirectly modify the prevalence of anaemia in young children with a direct improvement on dietary and socio-economic conditions. The unexpected finding of the association between RMA, dietary and socio-economic conditions and the prevalence of anaemia reflects differences in the focus of the programmes.

  7. Procedural Metacognition and False Belief Understanding in 3- to 5-Year-Old Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Stéphane; Proust, Joëlle; Clément, Fabrice

    2015-01-01

    Some studies, so far limited in number, suggest the existence of procedural metacognition in young children, that is, the practical capacity to monitor and control one's own cognitive activity in a given task. The link between procedural metacognition and false belief understanding is currently under theoretical discussion. If data with primates seem to indicate that procedural metacognition and false belief understanding are not related, no study in developmental psychology has investigated this relation in young children. The present paper aims, first, to supplement the findings concerning young children's abilities to monitor and control their uncertainty (procedural metacognition) and, second, to explore the relation between procedural metacognition and false belief understanding. To examine this, 82 3- to 5-year-old children were presented with an opt-out task and with 3 false belief tasks. Results show that children can rely on procedural metacognition to evaluate their perceptual access to information, and that success in false belief tasks does not seem related to success in the task we used to evaluate procedural metacognition. These results are coherent with a procedural view of metacognition, and are discussed in the light of recent data from primatology and developmental psychology.

  8. Reference limits and behaviour of serum transferrin receptor in children 6-10 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danise, P; Maconi, M; Morelli, G; Di Palma, A; Rescigno, G; Esposito, C; Avino, D; Talento, B

    2008-08-01

    Serum transferrin receptor (sTfR) originates mostly from erythroblasts and lesser from reticulocytes. The usefulness of sTfR has been implicated in several clinical situations, mainly as a marker of accelerated erythropoiesis or iron deficiency. The assessment of sTfR may be useful in the period of rapid growth during infancy, childhood and adolescence. We evaluated sTfR and the other quantitative and qualitative parameters of the erythropoiesis (Hb, MCV, CHr, Ret-He) and of the iron storage (serum ferritin, sTfR/ferritin index) in a total of 916 children aged 6-10 years. Children were divided into three groups: (A) healthy children, (B) with storage iron deficiency (serum ferritin 3.3). We determined reference intervals by sex and by age in healthy children. sTfR showed a slight but statistically significant age related increase but did not show significant sex differences. We compared sTfR and the other parameters investigated in the three groups of children. sTfR is not a decisive parameter that can be utilized alone in discriminating the border-line situations between normal and pathologic ones but can help in completing the panel of tests in iron deficiency and in thalassaemia Beta trait carriers.

  9. Facial emotion and identity processing development in 5- to 15-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Patrick J; Kaufman, Jordy; Bajic, Julie; Sercombe, Alicia; Michie, Patricia T; Karayanidis, Frini

    2011-01-01

    Most developmental studies of emotional face processing to date have focused on infants and very young children. Additionally, studies that examine emotional face processing in older children do not distinguish development in emotion and identity face processing from more generic age-related cognitive improvement. In this study, we developed a paradigm that measures processing of facial expression in comparison to facial identity and complex visual stimuli. The three matching tasks were developed (i.e., facial emotion matching, facial identity matching, and butterfly wing matching) to include stimuli of similar level of discriminability and to be equated for task difficulty in earlier samples of young adults. Ninety-two children aged 5-15 years and a new group of 24 young adults completed these three matching tasks. Young children were highly adept at the butterfly wing task relative to their performance on both face-related tasks. More importantly, in older children, development of facial emotion discrimination ability lagged behind that of facial identity discrimination.

  10. Contrastive voicing acquisition in 2-year-old children: Preliminary data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitchcock, Elaine R.; Koenig, Laura L.

    2004-05-01

    Earlier studies using voice-onset time (VOT) as the acoustic marker of contrastive voicing acquisition in English have differed widely in method and statistical procedures. Research in this area has shown three primary patterns of voicing acquisition for English stop consonants. One report indicates children demonstrate discrete voicing categories with adult-like VOT values as early as 2 years old. Other reports suggest a subperceptual distinction of the voicing contrast, followed by an exaggerated voicing contrast with evidence of more adult-like discrete categories by 3 years old. Still other reports suggest no distinction between the voicing categories until approximately 3 years. This work investigates voicing acquisition in three typically developing, English-speaking 2-year-old children. The subjects were recorded every 2 weeks for 4-6 months. Approximately 15-20 tokens were elicited for four target utterances containing initial /b p t d/. Frequency distribution, measures of central tendency, and skewness will be calculated for every recording session of each child. Discussion will focus on the development of contrastive VOT categories and their stability over time. These data will contribute to our understanding of laryngeal timing for English stop consonants in young children.

  11. Access to oral health services in children under twelve years of age in Peru, 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akram Hernández-Vásquez

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to explore the patterns of dental health services access in children under twelve years of age in Peru. Data from 25,285 children under 12 years who participated in the Demographic and Family Health Survey of 2014 were reviewed. An exploratory spatial analysis was performed to project the proportions of children with access to dental health services, according to national regions, type of health service and urban or rural place of residence. The results show that of the total sample, 26.7% had access to dental health services in the last six months, 39.6% belonged to the age group 0-4 years, 40.6% lived in the Andean region and 58.3% lived in urban areas. The regions of Huancavelica, Apurimac, Ayacucho, Lima and Pasco had the highest percentages of access nationwide. In conclusion, there is low access to dental health services in the population under 12 years of age in Peru. The spatial distribution of access to dental health services allows regions to be identified and grouped according to similar access patterns, in order to better focus public health actions.

  12. Exposure to urban air pollution and bone health in clinically healthy six-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian; Mora-Tiscareño, Antonieta; Francolira, Maricela; Torres-Jardón, Ricardo; Peña-Cruz, Bernardo; Palacios-López, Carolina; Zhu, Hongtu; Kong, Linglong; Mendoza-Mendoza, Nicolás; Montesinoscorrea, Hortencia; Romero, Lina; Valencia-Salazar, Gildardo; Kavanaugh, Michael; Frenk, Silvestre

    2013-01-01

    Air pollution induces systemic inflammation, as well as respiratory, myocardial and brain inflammation in children. Peak bone mass is influenced by environmental factors. We tested the hypothesis that six-year-olds with lifetime exposures to urban air pollution will have alterations in inflammatory markers and bone mineral density (BMD) as opposed to low-polluted city residents when matched for BMI, breast feeding history, skin phototype, age, sex and socioeconomic status. This pilot study included 20 children from Mexico City (MC) (6.17 years ± 0.63 years) and 15 controls (6.27 years ± 0.76 years). We performed full paediatric examinations, a history of outdoor exposures, seven-day dietary recalls, serum inflammatory markers and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Children in MC had significantly higher concentrations of IL-6 (p=0.001), marked reductions in total blood neutrophils (p= 0.0002) and an increase in monocytes (p=0.005). MC children also had an insufficient Vitamin D intake and spent less time outdoors than controls (p<0.001) in an environment characterized by decreased UV light, with ozone and fine particulates concentrations above standard values. There were no significant differences between the cohorts in DXA Z scores. The impact of systemic inflammation, vitamin D insufficiency, air pollution, urban violence and poverty may have long-term bone detrimental outcomes in exposed paediatric populations as they grow older, increasing the risk of low bone mass and osteoporosis. The selection of reference populations for DXA must take into account air pollution exposures.

  13. MVPA Is Associated with Lower Weight Gain in 8–10 Year Old Children: A Prospective Study with 1 Year Follow-Up

    OpenAIRE

    Abigail Fisher; Claire Hill; Laura Webber; Lisa Purslow; Jane Wardle

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies relating physical activity (PA) to weight gain in children have produced mixed results, although there is some evidence for stronger associations with more intense physical activities. The present study tested the hypothesis that weight gain over one year in 8-10 year olds would be more strongly predicted by moderate and vigorous physical activity (MVPA) than total physical activity (total PA) or sedentary behaviour. METHODOLOGY: Participants were 280 children taking part ...

  14. Traffic education for children 4-12 years old. [Previously known as: Traffic education of children 4-12 years old.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2007-01-01

    Traffic education for children is of the utmost importance as a basis for safe traffic participation; not only formal education at schools, but especially continuous education of children by parents. Since the brains of children have not yet developed completely, there is a limit to what children ca

  15. [Prospective assessment of children with pervasive developmental disorder after 2 years of day-hospital treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poinso, F; Dubois, B; Chatel, C; Viellard, M; Bastard-Rosset, D; Girardot, A-M; Grandgeorge, P; De Martino, S; Sokolowsky, M; Salle-Collemiche, X; Da Fonseca, D

    2013-01-01

    The treatment of children with pervasive developmental disorders (PDD) has not been systematically assessed in French day-care units. In this prospective study, 11 children with a diagnosis of PDD were followed up for 2years in a day-care unit in the Marseille university hospital. The treatment they received is based on an initial assessment by the "Centre Ressources Autisme" (CRA PACA) and further included a continued observation of the child and an assessment of the child's abilities and needs. This treatment used various therapeutic approaches 10h weekly and also included parental counseling and coordinated work with schools. Treatment in our day-care unit can be categorized as eclectic, non-intensive therapy. It is based on methods such as TEACCH (Treatment and Education of Autistic and related Communication handicapped Children), Floor Time Play, speech and language therapy, developmental therapy, and psychotherapy. International studies on intensive behavioral therapies suggest that this treatment is superior to non-behavioral and/or non-intensive treatment. They suggest its efficiency is due both to the nature of the treatment (behavioral) and to its intensity (more than 25h a week). In this study, the CRA diagnosed children using the ADI and ADOS. The 11 children (mean age, 3years 5months) were tested twice, with the Vineland and CARS scales. The first assessment was on admission to the day hospital and the second was 2years later. The results showed developmental progress with a mean increase of 13.5 months at the Vineland Scale, and a decrease of the autism severity score on the CARS. The treatment presented here proves to be efficient; if compared to similar results in international studies, we obtained better results than their eclectic intensive or non-intensive treatment comparison group.

  16. Diarrhoeal disease morbidity in children below 5 years in urban slums of Delhi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatnagar, S; Dosajh, U

    1986-07-01

    To determine the magnitude of morbidity related to diarrhea among children under 5 years of age, a study was carried out in 4 slum areas of Delhi in May-June 1984. Of the 3645 children surveyed, 963 (26.4%) had suffered from 1 or more new episodes of diarrhea in the 2 weeks preceding the survey. This suggests a mean annual incidence of diarrhea in the slums of Delhi of 7.9 episodes/child, with an average duration of 3.9 days/episode. The mean episodes/child/year ranged from a low of 4.1 in Ballimaran to a high of 11.9 in the Seelampur slum. The incidence of diarrhea was highest in chldren 7-12 months of age (13.6 episodes/year). In 24.2% of the diarrhea episodes, the families sought no medical help. 54.5% of cases were treated by private practitioners, 21% were seen at hospitals, and 0.3% were treated with home remedies. Only 20.2% of mothers of children with diarrhea were familiar with oral rehydration therapy, despite the easy accessibility of information about this treatment in the slum areas. Among the mothers with knowledge of oral rehydration, 47.9% used it for all diarrhea episodes, 33.0% used it for selected episodes, and 19.1% had never used it. A higher incidence of diarrhea was found among children living in homes where unfiltered water from handpumps was used for drinking or where residents defecated in open fields. Children with grade 2 or 3 malnutrition also showed a higher incidence of diarrhea. Among the socioeconomic parameters, diarrhea was positively associated with low female income and illiteracy on the part of the mother. Finally, infants who were exclusively breastfed had a lower incidence of diarrhea than those who were receiving supplementary feedings.

  17. Investigation of the Mitochondrial ATPase 6/8 and tRNALys Genes Mutations in Autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sepideh Dadgar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Autism results from developmental factors that affect many or all functional brain systems. Brain is one of tissues which are crucially in need of adenosine triphosphate (ATP. Autism is noticeably affected by mitochondrial dysfunction which impairs energy metabolism. Considering mutations within ATPase 6, ATPase 8 and tRNALys genes, associated with different neural diseases, and the main role of ATPase 6/8 in energy generation, we decided to investigate mutations on these mtDNA-encoded genes to reveal their roles in autism pathogenesis.Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, mutation analysis for the mentioned genes were performed in a cohort of 24 unrelated patients with idiopathic autism by employing amplicon sequencing of mtDNA fragments.Results: In this study, 12 patients (50% showed point mutations that represent a significant correlation between autism and mtDNA variations. Most of the identified substitutions (55.55% were observed on MT-ATP6, altering some conserved amino acids to other ones which could potentially affect ATPase 6 function. Mutations causing amino acid replacement denote involvement of mtDNA genes, especially ATPase 6 in autism pathogenesis.Conclusion: MtDNA mutations in relation with autism could be remarkable to realize an understandable mechanism of pathogenesis in order to achieve therapeutic solutions.

  18. The Minimum Halo Mass for Star Formation at z = 6 - 8

    CERN Document Server

    Finlator, K; Oppenheimer, B D; Davé, R; Zackrisson, E; Livermore, R C; Finkelstein, S L; Thompson, R; Huang, S

    2016-01-01

    Recent analysis of strongly-lensed sources in the Hubble Frontier Fields indicates that the rest-frame UV luminosity function of galaxies at $z=$6--8 rises as a power law down to $M_\\mathrm{UV}=-15$, and possibly as faint as -12.5. We use predictions from a cosmological radiation hydrodynamic simulation to map these luminosities onto physical space, constraining the minimum dark matter halo mass and stellar mass that the Frontier Fields probe. While previously-published theoretical studies have suggested or assumed that early star formation was suppressed in halos less massive than $10^9$--$10^{11} M_\\odot$, we find that recent observations demand vigorous star formation in halos at least as massive as (3.1, 5.6, 10.5)$\\times10^9 M_\\odot$ at $z=(6,7,8)$. Likewise, we find that Frontier Fields observations probe down to stellar masses of (8.1, 18, 32)$\\times10^6 M_\\odot$; that is, they are observing the likely progenitors of analogues to Local Group dwarfs such as Pegasus and M32. Our simulations yield somewha...

  19. The minimum halo mass for star formation at z = 6-8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finlator, Kristian; Prescott, Moire K. M.; Oppenheimer, B. D.; Davé, Romeel; Zackrisson, E.; Livermore, R. C.; Finkelstein, S. L.; Thompson, Robert; Huang, Shuiyao

    2017-01-01

    Recent analysis of strongly lensed sources in the Hubble Frontier Fields indicates that the rest-frame UV luminosity function of galaxies at z = 6-8 rises as a power law down to MUV = -15, and possibly as faint as -12.5. We use predictions from a cosmological radiation hydrodynamic simulation to map these luminosities on to physical space, constraining the minimum dark matter halo mass and stellar mass that the Frontier Fields probe. While previously published theoretical studies have suggested or assumed that early star formation was suppressed in haloes less massive than 109-1011 M⊙, we find that recent observations demand vigorous star formation in haloes at least as massive as (3.1, 5.6, 10.5) × 109 M⊙ at z = (6, 7, 8). Likewise, we find that Frontier Fields observations probe down to stellar masses of (8.1, 18, 32) × 106 M⊙: that is, they are observing the likely progenitors of analogues to Local Group dwarfs such as Pegasus and M32. Our simulations yield somewhat different constraints than two complementary models that have been invoked in similar analyses, emphasizing the need for further observational constraints on the galaxy-halo connection.

  20. A STUDY ON LICHEN PLANUS IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neerja Puri

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Lichen planus is considered to be rare in children. However, it does not appear to be uncommon in Indian subcontinent. Aims: The study was undertaken to analyse the clinical profile of childhood lichen planus. Material and Methods: We selected 30 children with LP for the study. The children selected were below the age of 14 years of age. Results and Discussion: In our study, it was seen that that the maximum onset of disease was between 5-9 years of age and mean age of children with LP was 6.8 years. The commonest type of LP in children was classical LP seen in 60% children, followed by actinic LP in 20% children. LP hypertrophicus and linear LP were seen in 10% patients each. Nail changes were seen in 10% patients.

  1. Vaccination coverage of children aged 4-12 years old in the prefecture of Evritania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yannis Getsios

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The last two decades a huge progress has taken place in the field of the primary prevention of infections and many new vaccines have been introduced in the compulsory vaccination program. There is evidence, however, that immunization coverage against some infectious diseases is not adequate. Aim: It was to investigate the level of immunization coverage of Greek and Immigrants' children aged 4-12 years old in the prefecture of Evritania regarding vaccines against pertussis-diphtheria-tetanus (DTaP, poliomyelitis (IPV and measles–mumps–rubella (MMR. Material and methods: The sample of the study consisted of the pupils of all nursing and elementary schools of the prefecture of Evritania , aged 4-12 years old. Children's personal Health Cards were used to evaluate the adequacy of vaccine doses. X2 was usedfor comparisons. Statistics was processed with SPPS 17.0. Results: The boys of the sample were 469 (51.9% and the girls 434 (48.1%. Full vaccination coverage with DTaP, MMR and IPV was 87.3%, 79.9%, and 97.6% respectively. No statistically significant differences were observed between Greek and Immigrants' children. Conclusion: Vaccination coverage against measles, mumps and rubella was inadequate. Immigrants' and Greek children are equally covered. Vaccination coverage with MMR is troublesome.

  2. ORAL HEALTH STATUS OF 9 TO 12 YEAR OLD SCHOOL GOING CHILDREN IN URBAN MEERUT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh Sharma

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oral health is an integral part of general health. Oral Health status has a direct impact on general health and conversely, general health influences oral health. It has also become clear that causative and risk factors in oral diseases are often the same as those implicated in the major general diseases.Hence this study was done to estimate the prevalence, type and degree of oral diseases in the study area. Materials and Method: It is a cross- sectional study design conducted among schools in , Multan Nagar which is the field practice area of department of Community Medicine, SMC (Subharti Medical College, Meerut.A total of 534 school going children aged 9 to 12 years old were examined using standard WHO Oral Health Survey methods. Results: One third of the study population (34.3% had good oral hygiene according to oral hygiene index simplified. The overall prevalence of gingivitis among children was 53.4 percent.The prevalence of dental caries among 9 to 12 year old school going children was 60.1 %. The mean DMFT score of the study population was 0.89.The index study findings revealed a strong relationship between oral health status and socio economic status and mother’s educational status. Conclusion: The overall prevalence of dental caries was high in the study subjects.Mother’s educational status has a significant role in improving the oral health status of children.

  3. [Sodium cromoglycate in the treatment of food hypersensitivity in children under 3 years of age].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zur, E; Kaczmarski, M

    2001-09-01

    Dietary elimination is a treatment of first choice in food hypersensitivity. Such therapy is not always enough to stop the disease and introduction of pharmacological treatment is necessary. In prevention and long term treatment antiallergic drugs are recommended. The aim of the study was to assess efficacy and safety of oral sodium cromoglycate in treatment of food hypersensitivity in the youngest children. In our study we examined: the group of 25 children aged 6 months-3 years treated with oral cromolyn sodium during the period 4-20 weeks and 29 children aged 6 months-3 years treated with ketotifen. Symptoms from skin, digestive and respiratory tract, behaviour status were evaluated for drugs efficacy. Cromolyn and ketotifen effected a significant decrease in total symptoms score. The treatment was well tolerated. No serious side effects were noted. The incidents of skin rash, disquiet during the night, diarrhoea and urticaria were only 8 percent. Sodium cromoglycate is safe and effective drug in treatment of food allergy in children; specially in symptoms from gastrointestinal tract and multi-organs allergy.

  4. Children of treated substance-abusing mothers: a 10-year prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hser, Y-I; Evans, E; Li, L; Metchik-Gaddis, A; Messina, N

    2014-04-01

    This study examined children of substance-abusing mothers approximately 10 years after mothers' admission to drug abuse treatment, and identified maternal characteristics that may be risk factors for child behavior problems on the Child Behavior Checklist. Data were obtained from 396 mothers who were included in a sample consecutively admitted to 44 treatment programs in 13 California counties during 2000-2002. The Addiction Severity Index was administered at both intake and follow-up. Each mother reported on one child 6-17 years of age. All of the children had been exposed to drugs, either in utero or postnatally. At follow-up about 22% of the children demonstrated borderline or clinical range problem behaviors. Child behavior problems were related significantly to the mothers' ethnicity (lower among Hispanics relative to white), and problem severity in family/social relationship and mental health, marginally related to her prior medical/health problem, and not related to severity of alcohol, drug, legal and employment problems. Assisting mothers to address their family/social relationship and psychological problems may have an added value to prevent or reduce behavioral problems of their children.

  5. Cognition, Emotion and Behavior in Children with Tourette's Syndrome and Children with ADHD-Combined Subtype-A Two-Year Follow-Up Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovik, Kjell Tore; Plessen, Kerstin J; Cavanna, Andrea E

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This two-year follow-up study investigates the course of and association among measures of cognitive control, focused attention, decision-making and symptom severity (anxiety, depression and behavior) in children and adolescents with Tourette's Syndrome (TS) or Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity...... Disorder-Combined subtype (ADHD-C). METHOD: 19 children with TS, 33 with ADHD-C, and 50 typically developing children (TDC) were examined with a battery of psychometric measures and rating forms at baseline and two-years later. RESULTS: All three groups improved likewise in measures of cognitive control...... over time, whereas only the TDC improved in focused attention. The group of children with TS with comorbidities performed more similar to the children with ADHD-C in cognitive control at T1 and T2, whereas the children with TS without comorbidities performed more similar to the TDC in cognitive control...

  6. Gestational age and birth weight in relation to school performance of 10-year-old children: a follow-up study of children born after 32 completed weeks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Ida; Obel, Carsten; Hedegaard, Morten

    2006-01-01

    the children were between 9 and 11 years of age, we gathered information about their school performance (reading, spelling, and arithmetic) from questionnaires completed by the parents and the children's primary school teachers. RESULTS: The association between birth weight and reading, as well as spelling......BACKGROUND: Children born extremely premature (birth weight (children born at term with a normal birth weight. Much less is known about children of higher gestational ages and birth weights. We studied gestational age...... after 32 completed weeks and birth weight in relation to the child's school performance at the age of 10 years. METHODS: We performed a follow-up study of 5319 children born between January 1990 and June 1992. We got the information on birth weight and gestational age from birth registration forms; when...

  7. Factors associated with stunted growth in children below 11 years of age in Antioquia, Colombia, 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bibiana Andrea Castro

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore some factors associated to stunted growth in children below 11 years of age in the Department of Antioquia.Methodology: Cross-sectional study using the databases of alimentary and nutritional profiles in homes of Antioquia in 2004, based on a representative random sample of homes in the department (95% reliability and error margin of 3%. For this study, 100% of the records of children below 11 years of age were used. A model of generalized equations estimation was constructed for stunted growth classified by a Z score smaller than -2 standard deviation with respect to p 50 of the 1978 NCHS (Centro Nacional de Estadísticas de la Salud - National Center for Health Statistics. Data were analyzed using the GLIMMIX Procedure: SAS version 9.1.Results: We found 18.6% of the children with stunted growth, 75% of the homes with male head of household, 70% of heads of household with maximum 5 years of schooling; 47% of homes were nucleated bi-parental, and 40% extensive with a 5-member median per home; 56.4% poor per unsatisfied basic needs, and 80% in alimentary insecurity. The factors associated to stunted growth were: female gender, 1-5 years of age, head of household with less than 6 years of schooling, more than 5 people in the home, more than two household members under 7 years of age, coming from a poor home per unsatisfied basic needs, belonging to a sub-region different from Medellin, food availability of less than 30 different foods per week, no production of food, and head of household under 40 years of age.Conclusions: Herein, we show evidence of the magnitude of poverty and association of precarious socioeconomic conditions with stunted growth in Antioquia. The study shows the importance of considering the correlated nature of the data for the construction of the model.

  8. Factors associated with stunted growth in children below 11 years of age in Antioquia, Colombia, 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bibiana Andrea Castro

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore some factors associated to stunted growth in children below 11 years of age in the Department of Antioquia. Methodology: Cross-sectional study using the databases of alimentary and nutritional profiles in homes of Antioquia in 2004, based on a representative random sample of homes in the department (95% reliability and error margin of 3%. For this study, 100% of the records of children below 11 years of age were used. A model of generalized equations estimation was constructed for stunted growth classified by a Z score smaller than -2 standard deviation with respect to p 50 of the 1978 NCHS (Centro Nacional de Estadísticas de la Salud -  National Center for Health Statistics. Data were analyzed using the GLIMMIX Procedure: SAS version 9.1. Results: We found 18.6% of the children with stunted growth, 75% of the homes with male head of household, 70% of heads of household with maximum 5 years of schooling; 47% of homes were nucleated bi-parental, and 40% extensive with a 5-member median per home; 56.4% poor per unsatisfied basic needs, and 80% in alimentary insecurity. The factors associated to stunted growth were: female gender, 1-5 years of age, head of household with less than 6 years of schooling, more than 5 people in the home, more than two household members under 7 years of age, coming from a poor home per unsatisfied basic needs, belonging to a sub-region different from Medellin, food availability of less than 30 different foods per week, no production of food, and head of household under 40 years of age. Conclusions: Herein, we show evidence of the magnitude of poverty and association of precarious socioeconomic conditions with stunted growth in Antioquia. The study shows the importance of considerin

  9. Adiponectin and leptin trajectories in Mexican-American children from birth to 9 years of age.

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    Vitaly Volberg

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To address molecular mechanisms underlying obesity development, we examined patterns of critical metabolism-related hormones, adiponectin and leptin (adipokines, over childhood. SUBJECTS AND DESIGN: Plasma adiponectin and leptin were measured in 80 Mexican-American children at birth and again at 2, 5, and 9 years from the ongoing prospective cohort followed by the Center for the Health Assessment of Mothers and Children of Salinas (CHAMACOS. We used a mixture modeling approach to identify patterns in adipokine trajectories from birth to 9 years. RESULTS: Leptin was positively related to child body size within all ages, however adiponectin had inverse and weaker associations with BMI at 2, 5, and 9 years. Correlations between adipokine levels over the 0-2, 2-5, and 5-9-year periods increased for both leptin (r = 0.06, 0.31 and 0.62 and adiponectin (r = 0.25, 0.41 and 0.46. Our mixture modeling approach identified three trajectory clusters for both leptin (1L [slowly-rising], 2L [rapidly-rising], and 3L [stable] and adiponectin (1A [steep-dropping and rebounding], 2A [moderately-dropping], and 3A [stable]. While leptin groups were most separated over the 2-9-year period, adiponectin trajectories displayed greatest heterogeneity from birth to 2 years. Children in the rapidly-rising 2L group had highest BMI and waist circumference at 9 years. Further, children with greater birth weight had increased odds of belonging to this high risk group (OR = 1.21 95% CI 1.03, 1.43, compared to stable group 3L. Children whose mothers consumed more sugar-sweetened beverages during pregnancy were at risk of being in the steep-dropping 1A group (OR = 1.08, 95% CI 1.01, 1.17, compared to stable group 3A. CONCLUSION: Our results highlight developmental differences in leptin and adiponectin over the childhood period. Leptin closely reflects child body size however factors affecting adiponectin and long-term consequences of its changes over infancy need to

  10. The relation between oral hygiene skills and the prevalence of dental caries among 4 - 6-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razmienė, Jaunė; Vanagas, Giedrius; Bendoraitienė, Eglė; Vyšniauskaitė, Aurelija

    2011-01-01

    AIM OF THE STUDY. To evaluate the tooth brushing skills and the prevalence of dental caries as well as its intensity in relation to oral hygiene skills among 4 - 6-year-old children. MATERIAL AND METHODS. The cross-sectional study was performed from November 16, 2009 to January 12, 2010. 235 children (4 - 6-year old) were randomly selected from kindergartens in Plungė and Jonava in Lithuania. The results of study were registered in the special forms prepared in accordance with the recommendations of WHO. Parents of the children were asked to fill in the questionnaires. RESULTS. The results of the study show that 91% (Plungė) and 90% (Jonava) of 4 - 6-year-old children have caries in their primary teeth. The prevalence of caries is different in relation to age: 78.7% of 4-year-old children, 97.3% of 5-year-old children, and 95.3% of 6-year-old children. The intensity of caries is as follows: 4.9 (SN=±4.9), 7.5 (SN=±4.5), and 8.2 (SN=±4.7). CONCLUSIONS. There is the high prevalence of caries, particularly of not treated forms, among 4 - 6-year-old children. The oral hygiene index is just satisfactory.

  11. Measles Antibody Titres In 0-5 Years Children At Aligarh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kandpal S D

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Research Question: What is the level of measles antibodies in 0-5 year children? Objectives: 1.To assess the pattern of decline of maternal antibodies in 0-9 months infants. 2. To estimate the seropositivity for measles antibodies in vaccinated 9 months infants. Study design: Cross- sectional. Setting: Rural areas of District Aligarh, U.P. Participants: 456 children in the age group of 0-5 years. Statistical analysis: Percentages, correlation coefficient. Results: 1. In all the study subjects below 9 months of age, the transplacentally acquired maternal measles antibodies showed a linear decline with increase in age. Out of 202 study subjects who had been immunized against measles 195(96.50% were seropositive and 7(3.5% were seronegative for measles antibodies.

  12. Effects of Head Start REDI on children's outcomes 1 year later in different kindergarten contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierman, Karen L; Nix, Robert L; Heinrichs, Brenda S; Domitrovich, Celene E; Gest, Scott D; Welsh, Janet A; Gill, Sukhdeep

    2014-01-01

    One year after participating in the Research-based, Developmentally Informed (REDI) intervention or "usual practice" Head Start, the learning and behavioral outcomes of 356 children (17% Hispanic, 25% African American; 54% girls; Mage  = 4.59 years at initial assessment) were assessed. In addition, their 202 kindergarten classrooms were evaluated on quality of teacher-student interactions, emphasis on reading instruction, and school-level student achievement. Hierarchical linear analyses revealed that the REDI intervention promoted kindergarten phonemic decoding skills, learning engagement, and competent social problem-solving skills, and reduced aggressive-disruptive behavior. Intervention effects on social competence and inattention were moderated by kindergarten context, with effects strongest when children entered schools with low student achievement. Implications are discussed for developmental models of school readiness and early educational programs.

  13. Azithromycin for episodes with asthma-like symptoms in young children aged 1-3 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stokholm, Jakob; Chawes, Bo L; Vissing, Nadja H;

    2016-01-01

    Prospective Studies on Asthma in Childhood 2010 cohort; a birth cohort consisting of the general Danish population of Zealand, including Copenhagen. Exclusion criteria were macrolide allergy, heart, liver, neurological, and kidney disease, and, before each treatment, one or more clinical signs of pneumonia...... children with recurrent asthma-like symptoms, hypothesising that it reduces the duration of the symptomatic period. METHODS: In this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, we recruited children aged 1-3 years, who were diagnosed with recurrent asthma-like symptoms from the Copenhagen...... masked until the youngest child turned 3 years of age and throughout the data validation and analysis phases. The primary outcome was duration of the respiratory episode after treatment, verified by prospective daily diaries and analysed with Poisson regression. Analyses were per protocol (excluding...

  14. Reliability of squat and countermovement jump tests in children 6 to 8 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acero, Rafael Martin; Fernández-del Olmo, Miguel; Sánchez, Jose Andres; Otero, Xose Luis; Aguado, Xavier; Rodríguez, Ferran A

    2011-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the reliability of the squat jump test (SJ) and countermovement jump test (CMJ), in fifty-six children (30 girls and 26 boys) with ages ranging from 6 to 8 years. Each subject performed two evaluation sessions (T1, T2) with seven days between tests. The results show that the CMJ test has a high intratrial reproducibility in T1 and T2 measured through intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC ≥ 0.95). The ICC for the SJ test had a high value (0.99) only in T1. The variability for both tests among children under 9 years of age is higher than those reported for adult subjects in other studies. The intersession reliability was questionable with a high methodical error (ME= 9.86-15.1%, for the SJ and CMJ, respectively) and a significant worsening of the results of CMJ in T2 (p < .05).

  15. Malnutrition and its risk factors among children 1-7 years old in rural Malaysian communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norhayati, M; Noorhayati, M I; Mohammod, C G; Oothuman, P; Azizi, O; Fatimah, A; Fatmah, M S

    1997-12-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the nutritional status of children aged 1-7 years in Malaysian rural communities and to identify its risk factors. In all, 221 children were assessed using anthropometric measurements, dietary questionnaires and other tools. Weight-for-age, height-for-age, weight-for-height were analysed. Based on the NCHS standards, the overall prevalence of underweight, stunting and wasting was 46.2%, 18.1% and 30.3% respectively. Almost one-third of the 1-2 years old groups were malnourished. Univariate analysis identified household income £ MR750.00 as a significant risk factor of stunting and wasting.

  16. Epidemiology of bronchial asthma in school children (10–16 years in Srinagar

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    Uruj Altaf Qureshi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To assess the epidemiological profile of asthma in school going children in Srinagar, Kashmir. Study design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Thirty-one schools with proportionate representation from both government and private schools as well as from primary, middle, and high schools. Participants: School children aged 10–16 years with equal representation of sex and all ages. Main Outcome Measure: Prevalence of current and past asthma. Methods and Results: After administering a modified pretested questionnaire, peak expiratory flow measurement was carried. Children who had asthma-like symptoms or positive family history of asthma or physician-labeled asthma were subjected to spirometry and bronchodilator reversibility. Out of 806 children, bronchial asthma was seen in 60 (prevalence of 7.4% which included 34 boys and 26 girls. Majority of asthmatic children (78.3% [n = 47] had probable asthma; 6.7% (n = 4 had definite asthma; and 15% (n = 9 had physician-diagnosed asthma. Majority of children had intermittent asthma (78.3% [n = 47]. Mild persistent asthma was seen in 12.7% (n = 7 and 10% (n = 6 had moderate persistent asthma. None of the children had severe persistent asthma. The prevalence of current asthma was 3.2% (n = 26. On univariate analysis, the factors found to be statistically significant were family history of asthma (odds ratio [OR] =8.174; confidence interval [CI] =4.403–15.178, seasonal cough (OR = 4.266; CI = 2.336–7.791, allergic rhinitis (OR = 2.877; CI = 1.414–5.852, atopic dermatitis (OR = 6.597; CI = 2.72–16.004, and obesity (OR = 6.074; CI = 2.308–18.034. On multivariate analysis, family history, seasonal cough, allergic rhinitis, atopic dermatitis, and obesity were found to be significant independent risk factors. Conclusions: Srinagar qualifies as a low prevalence area for bronchial asthma in the age group of 10–16 years. Majority of children had mild intermittent asthma resulting in under

  17. Influence of training mini-basketball in the first year of training at the level of the physical health of children 6–7 years

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    Olena Mitova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to analyze the contemporary state of early specialization in sport, to find out its positive and negative influence on children`s organism on the basis of scientific and methodological literature, and also to carry out the control of the level of the health of the children aged 6–7 years old before training and after the first year of playing mini-basketball. Material and Methods: the study involved 60 children aged 6–7 years old, 22 – girls and 38 – boys, who were engaged in a section of mini-basketball in Sports Children and Youth Olympic school №5 in Dnipropetrovsk during 2013/2014 used the following research methods: theoretical analysis and compilation of scientific and methodical literature and the Internet, the method of analysis of documentary materials, pedagogical supervision, monitoring physical health of rapid assessment Apanasenko (1992, the method of mathematical statistics. Results: there was defined the level of physical health (according to rapid assessment by Apanasenko (1992 of the children aged 6–7 years old before and after the first year of mini-basketball training. Conclusion: the results of our study confirm the experts opinion that nonsufficient level of the physical health of children aged 6–7 years old before going in for sport and insignificant increase in performance after the first year of playing mini-basketball is related not only to the deterioration of environmental and socio-economic conditions of modern society but also to significant deficiencies in the sports training of children of different ages, which no longer meets the requirements of the present time and needs to be improved

  18. Four-year longitudinal impact evaluation of the Action for Children UK Neglect Project: outcomes for the children, families, Action for Children, and the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Tony; Murphy, Michael; Fallon, Debbie; Livesley, Joan; Devitt, Patric; McLoughlin, Moira; Cavanagh, Alison

    2014-08-01

    Neglect has a devastating impact on children and is the most pervasive form of child maltreatment in the United Kingdom. The study purpose was to establish outcomes for neglected children following structured assessment and intervention to ascertain what worked and why it worked. This prospective cohort study included 85 cases of neglected children under 8 years of age from 7 centers across the United Kingdom. Data were collected between 2008 and 2012 through serial quantitative recording of the level of concern about neglect. Serial review of qualitative case-file data was undertaken for detail of assessment, interventions, and evidence of outcomes for the child. Data analysis was undertaken by paired t-test, Chi Square, descriptive statics for categorical data, and, for narrative data, identification of recurring factors and patterns, with correlation of presenting factors, interventions, and outcomes. Paired t-test demonstrated significant decrease in overall Action for Children Assessment Tool scores between assessment (M=43.77, SD=11.09) and closing the case (M=35.47, SD=9.6, t(84)=6.77, pneglect was shown in 79% of cases, with only 21% showing no improvement. In 59% of cases, concern about neglect was removed completely. Use of the assessment tool fostered engagement by parents. The relationship between lack of parental engagement and children being taken into care was statistically significant, with a large effect size (χ(2) 10.66, df1, p=0.0001, OR=17.24). When parents refused or were unable to respond positively to the intervention, children benefited from an expedited move into care.

  19. Overweight: atherogenesis risk marker in children between 8 and 9 years

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Background: Many significant health problems hold the attention of pediatricians, and even when there is an increased interest on premature atherosclerosis risk factors, it is still a field to be studied. Objectives: To determine differences in the emergence of atherogenesis risk factors in children between 8 and 9 years with normal weight and overweight. Methods: Analytic research, with case control design, developed in three primary schools belonging to the Clinic “Dr. Cecilio Ruiz de Zarat...

  20. MARKET RESEARCH OF CARE GOODS FOR NEWBORNS AND FIRST YEAR CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Ovod

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Comparative results of marketing research of care goods for newborns and first year children conducted in 2009 and 2014 showed that there were changes in the range of products and consumer preferences. The analysis revealed that the economic situation affected the determinants of choice in this category of goods and the location of purchasing. The findings should be considered by pharmaceutical companies in their procurement in order to improve their competitive position. 

  1. Association between breakfast consumption and educational outcomes in 9–11-year-old children

    OpenAIRE

    Littlecott, Hannah J; Moore, Graham F; Moore, Laurence; Lyons, Ronan A.; Murphy, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Objective Breakfast consumption has been consistently associated with health outcomes and cognitive functioning in schoolchildren. Evidence of direct links with educational outcomes remains equivocal. We aimed to examine the link between breakfast consumption in 9–11-year-old children and educational outcomes obtained 6–18 months later.\\ud Design Data on individual-level free school meal entitlement and educational outcomes (Statutory Assessment Tests (SATs) at Key Stage 2) were obtained via ...

  2. Visual spatial cue use for guiding orientation in two-to-three-year-old children

    OpenAIRE

    Danielle evan den Brink; Gabriele eJanzen

    2013-01-01

    In spatial development representations of the environment and the use of spatial cues change over time. To date, the influence of individual differences in skills relevant for orientation and navigation has not received much attention. The current study investigated orientation abilities on the basis of visual spatial cues in two-to-three-year-old children, and assessed factors that possibly influence spatial task performance. Thirty-month and 35-month-olds performed an on-screen Virtual Real...

  3. Outcome of left heart mechanical valve replacement in West African children - A 15-year retrospective study

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    Tamatey Martin

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The West African sub-region has poor health infrastructure. Mechanical valve replacement in children from such regions raises important postoperative concerns; among these, valve-related morbidity and complications of lifelong anticoagulation are foremost. Little is known about the long-term outcome of mechanical valve replacement in West Africa. We sought to determine the outcome of mechanical valve replacement of the left heart in children from this sub-region. Method We conducted a retrospective review of all consecutive left heart valve replacements in children ( Results One hundred and fourteen patients underwent mitral valve replacement (MVR, aortic valve replacement (AVR or mitral and aortic valve replacements (MAVR. Their ages ranged from 6-18 years (13.3 ± 3.1 years. All patients were in NYHA class III or IV. Median follow up was 9.1 years. MVR was performed in 91 (79.8% patients, AVR in 13 (11.4% and MAVR in 10 (8.8% patients. Tricuspid valve repair was performed concomitantly in 45 (39.5% patients. There were 6 (5.3% early deaths and 6 (5.3% late deaths. Preoperative left ventricular dysfunction (ejection fraction Conclusion Mechanical valve replacement in West African children has excellent outcomes in terms of mortality, valve-related events, and reoperation rate. Preoperative left ventricular dysfunction is the primary determinant of mortality within the first 2 years of valve replacement. The risk of valve-related complications is acceptably low. Anticoagulation is well tolerated with a very low risk of bleeding even in this socioeconomic setting.

  4. POLYGON - A NEW FUNDAMENTAL MOVEMENT SKILLS TEST FOR 8 YEAR OLD CHILDREN: CONSTRUCTION AND VALIDATION

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    Frane Zuvela

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Inadequately adopted fundamental movement skills (FMS in early childhood may have a negative impact on the motor performance in later life (Gallahue and Ozmun, 2005. The need for an efficient FMS testing in Physical Education was recognized. The aim of this paper was to construct and validate a new FMS test for 8 year old children. Ninety-five 8 year old children were used for the testing. A total of 24 new FMS tasks were constructed and only the best representatives of movement areas entered into the final test product - FMS-POLYGON. The ICC showed high values for all 24 tasks (0.83-0.97 and the factorial analysis revealed the best representatives of each movement area that entered the FMS-POLYGON: tossing and catching the volleyball against a wall, running across obstacles, carrying the medicine balls, and straight running. The ICC for the FMS-POLYGON showed a very high result (0.98 and, therefore, confirmed the test's intra-rater reliability. Concurrent validity was tested with the use of the "Test of Gross Motor Development" (TGMD-2. Correlation analysis between the newly constructed FMS-POLYGON and the TGMD-2 revealed the coefficient of -0.82 which indicates a high correlation. In conclusion, the new test for FMS assessment proved to be a reliable and valid instrument for 8 year old children. Application of this test in schools is justified and could play an important factor in physical education and sport practice.

  5. Validity of an Athletic Skills Track among 6- to 12-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeboer, Joris; De Vries, Sanne; Krijger-Hombergen, Michiel; Wormhoudt, René; Drent, Annelies; Krabben, Kay; Savelsbergh, Geert

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the feasibility and validity of an Athletic Skills Track (AST) to assess fundamental movement skills among 6- to 12-year-old children in a physical education setting. Four hundred sixty-three Dutch children (211 girls, 252 boys) completed three tests: the Körperkoordinationstest für Kinder (KTK) and two Athletic Skills Tracks (AST-1, AST-2). The validity of AST-1 and AST-2 was examined by correlating the time (s) needed to complete the tracks and the KTK Motor Quotient (MQ). Overall, there was a low correlation between AST-1 and the KTK MQ (r = -0.474 (P year-olds. The results indicate that fundamental movement skills of 6- to 12-year-old children can be assessed with a quick, convenient and low-cost motor competence test in a physical education setting, i.e., an Athletic Skills Track. Future studies should further assess the reliability, discriminative ability and validity of age-specific versions of the AST.

  6. Clinical evaluation of buccal mucosal lesions in hospitalized children from 3 to 12 years-old

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    Silvana Amado Libério

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the presence of oral mucosa alterations in children from 3 to 12 year of age, hospitalized in the period from January to May 2004. Methods: A clinical evaluation was made of the oral mucosa alterations in 165 hospitalized children from 3 to 12 of age, in the period from January to May 2004, of both genders, interned in the three wings of the mother and child ospital “Hospital Universitário Materno Infantil” of the Federal University of Maranhão.Results: The most frequent alterations were encrusted tongue (61.82%, pseudomembranous candidiasis (5.45% and recurrent herpeticinfection (3.64%, no difference being found with regard to their presence in the age groups (3 to 6 years of age and 7 to 12 years ofage, however, boys were more affected (85.90% than girls (71.26%.Conclusion: Of the 165 children examined, 78.18% exhibited alterations and in certain cases, more than one alteration was observed at the time of the exam.

  7. MAXILLARY GROWTH PATTERNS IN ROMANIAN CHILDREN WITH CLEFT PALATE DURING THE FIRST 6 YEARS OF LIFE

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    Liliana-Gabriela Halitchi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to visualize, evaluate and measure the maxillary growth in patients with cleft palate and to identify the reactive morphological pattern that could be identified from the dimensional changes produced along the first six years of life, maxillary impressions were made in two groups of study, by means of standard trays and silicone impression materials. The maxillary casts resulted had been 3D scanned at Multinr, in Sf. Gheorghe. The study was carried on a number of 34 patients with cleft palate, 16 boys and 18 girls, with ages between 2 months and 6 years, operated by the same surgical team in “St. Mary” University Children Hospital of Iaşi, as well as on 60 normal children. Bivariate Student’s t test established statistically significant negative differences between the mean values of the anterior and posterior width of the maxillary alveolar arch, positive non significant differences for the length and positive differences for the depth of the dehiscent palate in the experimental group, comparatively with normal children. Cleft palate patients have narrowed and shorter maxillary alveolar arch and flattened palate. At least therapeutically, the cleft palate group, operated at different ages, from 2 to 4 years, could not react like other groups of study from important European Cleft Centers and benefit from a good residual growth.

  8. Bone age assessment for young children from newborn to 7-year-old using carpal bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Aifeng; Gertych, Arkadiusz; Liu, Brent J.; Huang, H. K.

    2007-03-01

    A computer-aided-diagnosis (CAD) method has been previously developed based on features extracted from phalangeal regions of interest (ROI) in a digital hand atlas, which can assess bone age of children from ages 7 to 18 accurately. Therefore, in order to assess the bone age of children in younger ages, the inclusion of carpal bones is necessary. In this paper, we developed and implemented a knowledge-based method for fully automatic carpal bone segmentation and morphological feature analysis. Fuzzy classification was then used to assess the bone age based on the selected features. Last year, we presented carpal bone segmentation algorithm. This year, research works on procedures after carpal bone segmentation including carpal bone identification, feature analysis and fuzzy system for bone age assessment is presented. This method has been successfully applied on all cases in which carpal bones have not overlapped. CAD results of total about 205 cases from the digital hand atlas were evaluated against subject chronological age as well as readings of two radiologists. It was found that the carpal ROI provides reliable information in determining the bone age for young children from newborn to 7-year-old.

  9. The first camps in Turkey for asthmatic children: six years' experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oneş, Ulker; Sapan, Nihat; Yazicioğlu, Mehtap; Güler, Nermin; Tamay, Zeynep; Somer, Ayper; Canitez, Yakup

    2005-01-01

    The first asthma camp in Turkey was organized for one week in Iznik in September 1996. The camps were continued annually around the same time of the year in 1997, 1998, 2000, and in the consecutive years thereafter. The camp includes educational, sports and social activities. Children's knowledge about asthma and their attitudes towards physical and social activities were evaluated by a questionnaire. Pulmonary function tests were performed on the first and last day of the camp. There was no statistically significant difference between the mean spirometric values of the first and last day of the camp in spite of a vigorous physical and social program. Children enhanced their skills and knowledge about asthma and gained self-confidence in participating in sportive and social activities during the camp program. They did not experience any emergency room visit in the following year. In conclusion, a summer camping experience is very beneficial for asthmatic children in terms of both self-education and social and physical participation.

  10. Assessment of Iron Overload in Homozygous and Heterozygous Beta Thalassemic Children below 5 Years of Age

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    Dhiraj J. Trivedi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Thalassemia is a genetic disease having 3-7% carrier rate in Indians. It is transfusion dependent anemia having high risk of iron overloading. A clinical symptom of iron overload becomes detectable in second decade causing progressive liver, heart and endocrine glands damage. There is a need to assess iron overload in thalassemics below 5 years of age to protect them from complications at later age of life. Aims and objectives: Present study was undertaken to estimate serum iron status and evaluate serum transferrin saturation in both homozygous & heterozygous form of thalassemia as an index of iron overload among children of one to five years of age. Materials and Methods: Clinically diagnosed thirty cases of β thalassemia major & thirty cases of β thalassemia minor having severe anemia, hepatospleenomegaly and between 1 year to 5 years of age were included in study group and same age matched healthy controls were included in the study. RBC indices and HbA, HbA2 and HbF were estimated along with serum iron & serum Total Iron Binding Capacity (TIBC and serum transferrin levels. Results: Significant difference was observed in hemoglobin levels between control and both beta thalassemia groups. Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV and Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin (MCH values were reduced. Hemoglobin electrophoresis showed the elevated levels of HbF and HbA2 in both beta thalassemia groups. Among serum iron parameters, serum iron, TIBC and transferrin saturation were elevated whereas serum transferrin levels were low in thalassemia major in children below 5 years of age. Conclusion: Although clinical symptoms of iron overload have been absent in thalassemic children below five years of age, biochemical iron overloading has started at much lower age which is of great concern.

  11. Neighbourhood physical activity environments and adiposity in children and mothers: a three-year longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giles-Corti Billie

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although neighbourhood environments are often blamed for contributing to rising levels of obesity, current evidence is based predominantly on cross-sectional samples. This study examined associations between objectively-measured environmental characteristics of neighbourhoods and adiposity cross-sectionally and longitudinally over three years in children and their female carers. Methods Longitudinal study of 140 5-6 year-old and 269 10-12 year-old children and their female carers (n = 369. At baseline (2001 and follow-up (2004, height and weight were measured among children and self-reported among female carers, and were used to compute BMI z-scores and BMI, respectively. A Geographic Information System determined access to destinations (public open spaces, sports options, walking/cycling tracks, road connectivity (density of cul-de-sacs and intersections, proportion of 4-way intersections, length of 'access' paths (overpasses, access lanes, throughways between buildings and traffic exposure (length of 'busy' and 'local' roads within 800 m and 2 km of home. Univariate and multivariable linear regression analyses examined associations between environmental characteristics and BMI/BMI z-scores at baseline and change in BMI/BMI z-scores over the three years. Results Cross-sectionally, BMI z-score was inversely associated with length (km of access paths within 800 m (b = -0.50 and 2 km (b = -0.16 among younger and number of sport/recreation public open spaces (b = -0.14 and length (km of 'access' paths (b = -0.94 within 800 m and length of local roads within 2 km (b = -0.01 among older children. Among female carers, BMI was associated with length (km of walking/cycling tracks (b = 0.17 and busy roads (b = -0.34 within 800 m. Longitudinally, the proportion of intersections that were 4-way (b = -0.01 within 800 m of home was negatively associated with change in BMI z-score among younger children, while length (km of access paths (b

  12. Breastfeeding and dietary variety among preterm children aged 1-3 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husk, Jesse S; Keim, Sarah A

    2016-04-01

    Among infants born at term, breastfeeding is associated with increased dietary variety in childhood. Preterm birth can limit early feeding options while simultaneously increasing risk for negative health outcomes that could benefit from dietary-based preventative measures. We assessed whether breastfeeding is associated with increased dietary variety at 1-3 years amongst children born preterm. We analyzed baseline data from two clinical trials investigating cognitive development after fatty-acid supplementation for 10-39 month-old children born before 35 weeks gestation (n = 189). At baseline, mothers reported breastfeeding history and completed a 161-item food-frequency questionnaire for their child. Dietary variety was assessed via 3 measures: (1) proportion items consumed at least once per month, (2) servings of a given item consumed relative to total monthly food servings, (3) daily probability of consuming a given item. Overall, 88% of children were ever breastfed (median duration = 89 days, range = 0-539), and 48% of children were ever exclusively breastfed (median duration = 59 days, range = 3-240). Exclusive breastfeeding duration was associated with dietary variety increases of 0.9% (95% CI = 0.1-1.7) for vegetables, 1.6% (95% CI = 0.2-3.0) for meat/fish, and 1.3% (95% CI = 0.2-2.4) for grain/starch, for each additional month of exclusive breastfeeding after adjustment for key confounders. Correspondingly, the variety of sweets consumed decreased by 1.2% (CI: -2.1, -0.3) per month of any breastfeeding after adjustment. These results are consistent with those in children born at term, and if causal, could provide additional support for exclusive breastfeeding to improve diet and health in children born preterm.

  13. Prevalence of anemia in children 1 to 12 years of age: results from a nationwide probabilistic survey in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Villalpando Salvador

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the epidemiology and analyze factors associated with iron deficiency anemia in a probabilistic sample of the Encuesta Nacional de Nutrición 1999 (ENN-99 [National Nutritional Survey 1999 (NNS-99]. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The sample included 8 111 children aged 1 to 12 years, and was nationaly representative by rural and urban strata and by four geographical regions. Capillary hemoglobin was measured using a portable photometer (HemoCue. The analysis of the determining factors of anemia was performed by odds ratios derived from a logistic regression model and multiple regression models. RESULTS: The prevalence of anemia was 50% in infants <2 years of age, with no significant differences between urban and rural strata or among regions. It varied between 14 and 22% in 6-11 year-old children and was higher in the South region and among the indigenous children. Dietary intake of iron was 50% of the recommended daily allowance in children <2 years of age, but not in older children. Phytate (»500-800 mg/d and tannin (»19 mg/d intakes were very high in children over 7 years of age. Hemoglobin was positively associated with nutritional status of children (p=0.01, socioeconomic status (p range 0.05-0.001, duration of lactation in children under 2 years of age (p=0.1, and iron and calcium intake (p=0.02, but not with folic acid or vitamin B12 intake. Hemoglobin was negatively associated with maternal education (p=0.01 in older children, but not in those under 2 years of age. CONCLUSIONS: We present evidence of an alarming national epidemic of anemia, particularly marked in children 12 to 24 months of age. The control of anemia should be considered as an urgent national concern given its grave consequences on the physical and mental development of these children and on their long-term health.

  14. Comparison of Health-Related Quality of Life among 10- to 12-Year-Old Children with Chronic Illnesses and Healthy Children: The Parents' Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svavarsdottir, Erla Kolbrun; Orlygsdottir, Brynja

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate mothers' and fathers' perception of their child's health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among 10- to 12-year-old Icelandic children with or without chronic health condition or illness. A total of 912 Icelandic parents (510 mothers and 402 fathers) and 480 children (209 boys and 271 girls) participated in…

  15. A Study of the Views of Teachers of First Year Infant School Children Concerning the Effects on the Language and Socialisation of Children Who Have Previously Attended Playgroups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Sinclair; Wheeler, T. J.

    This paper reports the findings of a survey to determine the effects, if any, that experience in playgroups had upon children of varying social class backgrounds in differing areas within the United Kingdom. The project aimed at answering two major questions: (1) Did teachers perceive differences in first year infant school children that they…

  16. Vaccination Coverage Among Children in Kindergarten - United States, 2014-15 School Year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seither, Ranee; Calhoun, Kayla; Knighton, Cynthia L; Mellerson, Jenelle; Meador, Seth; Tippins, Ashley; Greby, Stacie M; Dietz, Vance

    2015-08-28

    State and local jurisdictions require children to be vaccinated before starting school to maintain high vaccination coverage and protect schoolchildren from vaccine-preventable diseases. State vaccination requirements, which include school vaccination and exemption laws and health department regulations, permit medical exemptions for students with a medical contraindication to receiving a vaccine or vaccine component and may allow nonmedical exemptions for religious reasons or philosophic beliefs. To monitor state and national vaccination coverage and exemption levels among children attending kindergarten, CDC analyzes school vaccination data collected by federally funded state, local, and territorial immunization programs. This report describes vaccination coverage estimates in 49 states and the District of Columbia (DC) and vaccination exemption estimates in 46 states and DC that reported the number of children with at least one exemption among kindergartners during the 2014-15 school year. Median vaccination coverage* was 94.0% for 2 doses of measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine; 94.2% for the local requirements for diphtheria, tetanus, and acellular pertussis vaccine (DTaP); and 93.6% for 2 doses of varicella vaccine among the 39 states and DC with a 2-dose requirement. The median percentage of any exemptions† was 1.7%. Although statewide vaccination coverage among kindergartners was high during the 2014-15 school year, geographic pockets of low vaccination coverage and high exemption levels can place children at risk for vaccine-preventable diseases. Appropriate school vaccination coverage assessments can help immunization programs identify clusters of low coverage and develop partnerships with schools and communities to ensure that children are protected from vaccine-preventable diseases.

  17. Manual control age and sex differences in 4 to 11 year old children.

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    Ian Flatters

    Full Text Available To what degree does being male or female influence the development of manual skills in pre-pubescent children? This question is important because of the emphasis placed on developing important new manual skills during this period of a child's education (e.g. writing, drawing, using computers. We investigated age and sex-differences in the ability of 422 children to control a handheld stylus. A task battery deployed using tablet PC technology presented interactive visual targets on a computer screen whilst simultaneously recording participant's objective kinematic responses, via their interactions with the on-screen stimuli using the handheld stylus. The battery required children use the stylus to: (i make a series of aiming movements, (ii trace a series of abstract shapes and (iii track a moving object. The tasks were not familiar to the children, allowing measurement of a general ability that might be meaningfully labelled 'manual control', whilst minimising culturally determined differences in experience (as much as possible. A reliable interaction between sex and age was found on the aiming task, with girls' movement times being faster than boys in younger age groups (e.g. 4-5 years but with this pattern reversing in older children (10-11 years. The improved performance in older boys on the aiming task is consistent with prior evidence of a male advantage for gross-motor aiming tasks, which begins to emerge during adolescence. A small but reliable sex difference was found in tracing skill, with girls showing a slightly higher level of performance than boys irrespective of age. There were no reliable sex differences between boys and girls on the tracking task. Overall, the findings suggest that prepubescent girls are more likely to have superior manual control abilities for performing novel tasks. However, these small population differences do not suggest that the sexes require different educational support whilst developing their manual

  18. Clinical manifestations of atopy in children up to two years of age

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    Ilić Nevenka

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Atopic diseases such as atopic dermatitis, allergic rhinitis and asthma have had increased prevalence during the past decade and nowadays occur in every third child in developed countries. The aim of the study was to determine frequency and type of atopic diseases at the age of two, as well as the importance the total IgE antibodies concentrations have in diagnosis and prognosis of the disease. Methods. The study involved 175 children up to two years of age. Allergy-like symptoms were found after surveying their parents and pediatric medical records. Using the fluorescence immunossay (FIA method, total IgE antibodies concentrations and specific IgE antibodies (Phadiatop infant were determined on an Immunocap 100 Dyagnostic System. Results. One or more allergy-like symptoms accounted for 57.7% of findings in children under the age of two, whilst in 19.4% the existence of IgE-related allergic diseases was found. Atopic diseases usually have clinical manifestations of atopic dermatitis (11.4%, IgE-bound wheezing/asthma (10.8% and food allergies (7.4%, and to much lesser extent those of allergic rhinitis (3.4% and urticaria (1.7%. The significantly higher total IgE antibodies concentrations were found in children with allergy-like symptoms (p < 0.0005 (cut-off 15.15 kU/L, sensitivity 76.5% specificity 71.6%. Conclusion. Almost 20% of two-year-old children have any of clinically manifested allergic diseases, with atopic dermatitis and IgE wheeze/asthma being predominant. The higher total IgE antibodies concentration is a good marker for sensitization in children with allergy-like symptoms.

  19. Kinetic Requirements for the Measurement of Mesospheric Water Vapor at 6.8 (microns) under Non-LTE Conditions

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    Zhou, Daniel K.; Mlynczak, Martin G.; Lopez-Puertas, Manuel; Russell, James M., III

    1999-01-01

    We present accuracy requirements for specific kinetic parameters used to calculate the populations and vibrational temperatures of the H2O(010) and H2O(020) states in the terrestrial mesosphere. The requirements are based on rigorous simulations of the retrieval of mesospheric water vapor profiles from measurements of water vapor infrared emission made by limb scanning instruments on orbiting satellites. Major improvements in the rate constants that describe vibration-to- vibration exchange between the H2O(010) and 02(1) states are required in addition to improved specification of the rate of quenching Of O2(1) by atomic oxygen (0). It is also necessary to more accurately determine the yield of vibrationally excited O2(l) resulting from ozone photolysis. A contemporary measurement of the rate of quenching of H2O(010) by N2 and O2 is also desirable. These rates are either highly uncertain or have never before been measured at atmospheric temperatures. The suggested improvements are necessary for the interpretation of water vapor emission measurements at 6.8 microns to be made from a new spaceflight experiment in less than 2 years. The approach to retrieving water vapor under non-LTE conditions is also presented.

  20. Tooth wear in the deciduous dentition of 5-7-year-old children: risk factors.

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    Gatou, Tarsitsa; Mamai-Homata, Eleni

    2012-06-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the distribution and severity of tooth wear in deciduous dentition and its relationship with possible risk factors. A stratified cluster sample of 243 5-7-year-old children was examined using the tooth wear index of Smith and Knight, and their exposure to intrinsic and extrinsic risk factors was retrospectively investigated through a structured questionnaire. The severity of wear was quantitatively estimated by the number of surfaces with affected dentine and by the cumulative score of the sextants, based on the Basic Erosive Wear Examination scoring system. Only 1.6% of the children were tooth wear free, whereas 45.6% had moderate to severe wear involving dentine. Maxillary canines were the most affected teeth (83.2%), and occlusal/incisal the most affected surfaces (52.7%). The likelihood of tooth wear involving dentine was greater in boys than girls (OR = 1.72), in immigrants than in Greeks (OR = 1.93), and in 6- and 7-year olds than in 5-year olds (OR = 2.78 to 2.93). After adjustment for age, gender, and nationality, exposure to several dietary factors and especially to soft drinks was found to significantly affect the prevalence (OR = 1.27) and the severity of tooth wear. Every additional serving/week of consumption of soft drinks increases the number of surfaces with dentine affected by 0.03 per year (p children with the higher prevalence and severity of tooth wear had an average exposure to soft drinks of 10 servings/week for a duration of 4 years. The cumulative score of sextants was better predicted by the assessed risk factors, in comparison with the number of surfaces with affected dentine. Tooth wear is a common condition in children, related both to the physiological process of aging of dentition and to the erosive effect of dietary factors. Strategies to reduce the intake of soft drinks in children are expected to have multiple benefits preventing tooth wear in childhood and in later life, as well as many other

  1. ADHD symptoms in children aged 5 to 15 years in Zhabei District, Shanghai

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    Wen-Lan Jin

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: The prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD and its related factors remains unclear in Shanghai.The aim of this study was to investigate the positive rates of ADHD symptoms and the associated factors in a sample of children aged 5 to 15 years in Zhabei District, Shanghai. Methods: The participants were selected by cluster-stratified sampling of the general information and responses gathered from questionnaires on ADHD symptoms. The questionnaires examined summed up to 9,627. The positive rates of inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity symptoms and the socio-demographic factors were compared. Results: The positive rates of most ADHD symptoms decreased with age. Children between 5 and 7 years and between 7 and 9 years exhibited the highest ADHD positive rates. Boys showed a higher positive rate of ADHD symptoms compared to girls. Children who were local residents showed a higher rate than nonlocal residents and those of other nationalities. This might be related to the integration of immigrants and those belonging to lower socioeconomic classes. The positive rates of ADHD symptoms decreased with the educational level of the parents, while the parents'; level of education was associated with the severity of the ADHD symptoms. Problems of inattention were more common than problems of hyperactivity, as indicated by the positive rates. Conclusions: The improper educational guidance of ineffective parents, as well as simple and crude attitudes to education, may place children in such a conflicting state, gradually creating psychological problems and resulting in a lack of self-confidence and ADHD.

  2. Global strategy for the diagnosis and management of asthma in children 5 years and younger.

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    Pedersen, Soren Erik; Hurd, Suzanne S; Lemanske, Robert F; Becker, Allan; Zar, Heather J; Sly, Peter D; Soto-Quiroz, Manuel; Wong, Gary; Bateman, Eric D

    2011-01-01

    Asthma is the most common chronic disease of childhood and the leading cause of childhood morbidity from chronic disease as measured by school absences, emergency department visits, and hospitalisation. During the past two decades, many scientific advances have improved our understanding of asthma and our ability to manage and control it effectively. However, in children 5 years and younger, the clinical symptoms of asthma are variable and non-specific. Furthermore, neither airflow limitation nor airway inflammation, the main pathologic hallmarks of the condition, can be assessed routinely in this age group. For this reason, to aid in the diagnosis of asthma in young children, a symptoms-only descriptive approach that includes the definition of various wheezing phenotypes has been recommended. In 1993, the Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) was implemented to develop a network of individuals, organizations, and public health officials to disseminate information about the care of patients with asthma while at the same time assuring a mechanism to incorporate the results of scientific investigations into asthma care. Since then, GINA has developed and regularly revised a Global Strategy for Asthma Management and Prevention. Publications based on the Global Strategy for Asthma Management and Prevention have been translated into many different languages to promote international collaboration and dissemination of information. In this report, Global Strategy for Asthma Management and Prevention in Children 5 Years and Younger, an effort has been made to present the special challenges that must be taken into account in managing asthma in children during the first 5 years of life, including difficulties with diagnosis, the efficacy and safety of drugs and drug delivery systems, and the lack of data on new therapies. Approaches to these issues will vary among populations in the world based on socioeconomic conditions, genetic diversity, cultural beliefs, and differences in

  3. Effect of Giardia infection on growth and psychomotor development of children aged 0-5 years.

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    Simsek, Z; Zeyrek, F Yildiz; Kurcer, M A

    2004-04-01

    Giardiasis, an intestinal protozoan infection caused by Giardia intestinalis, is common in southeastern Anatolia, Turkey. In this cross-sectional survey, to investigate the role of giardiasis on growth and psychomotor development, we studied 160 children aged 0-5 years. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire, anthropometry, Ankara Developmental Screening Inventory, and laboratory analysis of fecal samples. The results showed that 50 per cent of the subjects were infected with at least one pathogen of intestinal parasitic infections. Giardia intestinalis was the most frequent pathogenic parasite. Giardia-infected children had a risk for stunted (OR = 7.67, 95 per cent CI = 2.25-26.16; p = 0.001) and poor psychomotor development (OR = 2.68, 95 per cent CI = 1.09-6.58; p = 0.030). The data indicate that Giardia intestinalis infection has an adverse impact on child linear growth and psychomotor development. In the primary healthcare centers, during the programme of the monitoring growth and developmental status of children, following children in terms of Giardia, diagnosis and treatment will have a positive effect on child health.

  4. Blood Lead Levels Among Children Aged <6 Years - Flint, Michigan, 2013-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Chinaro; Yard, Ellen; Dignam, Timothy; Buchanan, Sharunda; Condon, Suzanne; Brown, Mary Jean; Raymond, Jaime; Rogers, Helen Schurz; Sarisky, John; de Castro, Rey; Arias, Ileana; Breysse, Patrick

    2016-07-01

    During April 25, 2014-October 15, 2015, approximately 99,000 residents of Flint, Michigan, were affected by changes in drinking water quality after their water source was switched from the Detroit Water Authority (DWA), sourced from Lake Huron, to the Flint Water System (FWS), sourced from the Flint River.* Because corrosion control was not used at the FWS water treatment plant, the levels of lead in Flint tap water increased over time. Adverse health effects are associated with lead exposure (1). On January 2, 2015, a water advisory was issued because of detection of high levels of trihalomethanes, byproducts of disinfectants.(†)(,)(§) Studies conducted by local and national investigators detected an increase in the prevalence of blood lead levels (BLLs) ≥5 µg/dL (the CDC reference level) among children aged lead levels after the water source switch (3). On October 16, 2015, the Flint water source was switched back to DWA, and residents were instructed to use filtered tap water for cooking and drinking. During that time, pregnant and breastfeeding women and children aged lead tests in children aged lead in the water, the water advisory likely reduced tap water consumption and increased consumption of bottled water. Characterizing exposure to lead contaminated drinking water among children aged <6 years living in Flint can help guide appropriate interventions.

  5. The Age Peculiarities of 10 to 12 Year-Old School-children

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    B. B. Badmayeva

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the problem of children’s development transformation from the standpoints of different authors. The changes in the age borders and childhood structure along with their causes are demonstrated. The childhood crisis is described, its place in the child’s development process identified. The author emphasizes the visible discord between the worlds of adults and children: being less involved in upbringing process nowadays, adults appear to be less exact in their attitude to children; their demands lack clearness and specificity. Both teachers and adults demonstrate helplessness and aloofness, which reflects in children’s consciousness and their attitude to adults, and results in the lost sense of responsibility, infantilism, egoism and moral emptiness of growing generation. The author carried out the comparative analysis of age peculiarities of middle class schoolchildren from comprehensive school. Three development stages were singled out for 10 to 12 year-olds: local caprices, rights understanding, and affirmative functional stage. The personality formation trends concerning the modern day school children are outlined, the external and internal factors determining this formation enumerated. The following influencing phenomena are mentioned, in particular: the essential socio-economic changes, fast spreading of mass-media and computer technologies, low level of parental motivation, replacement of the value-normative system (social anomie etc. The necessity of creating socio-pedagogic conditions relating to the age peculiarities of modern school children is substantiated. 

  6. The Age Peculiarities of 10 to 12 Year-Old School-children

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    B. B. Badmayeva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the problem of children’s development transformation from the standpoints of different authors. The changes in the age borders and childhood structure along with their causes are demonstrated. The childhood crisis is described, its place in the child’s development process identified. The author emphasizes the visible discord between the worlds of adults and children: being less involved in upbringing process nowadays, adults appear to be less exact in their attitude to children; their demands lack clearness and specificity. Both teachers and adults demonstrate helplessness and aloofness, which reflects in children’s consciousness and their attitude to adults, and results in the lost sense of responsibility, infantilism, egoism and moral emptiness of growing generation. The author carried out the comparative analysis of age peculiarities of middle class schoolchildren from comprehensive school. Three development stages were singled out for 10 to 12 year-olds: local caprices, rights understanding, and affirmative functional stage. The personality formation trends concerning the modern day school children are outlined, the external and internal factors determining this formation enumerated. The following influencing phenomena are mentioned, in particular: the essential socio-economic changes, fast spreading of mass-media and computer technologies, low level of parental motivation, replacement of the value-normative system (social anomie etc. The necessity of creating socio-pedagogic conditions relating to the age peculiarities of modern school children is substantiated. 

  7. Teething and nutritional condition in children between 5 and 13 years.

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    Clotilde de la Caridad Mora Pérez

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: During last decades it has become increasingly evident the importance of nutritional factors in the development and renovation of buccal tissues, particularly of teeth. Objective: To characterize permanent teething and its relation with nutritional factors in children between 5 and 13 years. Methods: Cross-sectional descriptive, observational study developed in a universe formed by 1003 children of Health Area II in Cienfuegos, out of which a sample of 330 children was selected. Data was collected from schools, regarding the teething age and nutritional status. Ponder and measurements were carried out. Results: The average teething age was lower for girls in both maxillary bones; teething sequence was 6,1,2,4,5,3,7 for the maxilla and 6,1,2,3,4,5,7 for the inferior maxillary bone. There was a prevalence of normal weight among girls, followed by thin and undernourished values. Among boy, there was a prevalence of obesity, overweight and normal weight in that order. Nutritional statuses of thin and undernourished were related with a delayed teething, mainly in the inferior maxillary bone. Permanent teething was delayed with regard to the national media. Conclusion: A clear relation was established between teething age and nutrition, mainly among thin and undernourished children.

  8. Depressed mood and speech in Chilean mothers of 5½-year-old children.

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    Clark, Katy M; Su, Jing; Kaciroti, Niko; Castillo, Marcela; Millan, Rebeca; Rule, Heather; Lozoff, Besty

    2010-01-01

    Previous research on maternal speech and depression has focused almost exclusively on how depressed mothers talk to their infants and toddlers in the U.S. and U.K., two English-speaking countries. This study considered how depressed Spanish-speaking mothers from a Latin American country talk about their preschool-age children. Five-minute speech samples were provided by 178 Chilean mothers who were asked to talk about their 5½-year-old children to a project psychologist. Maternal depressive symptomatology was measured by the Spanish-language version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). In multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA), higher maternal depressed mood showed statistically significant associations with the following maternal speech characteristics: more criticisms, less laughter, fewer medium pauses, less positive satisfaction with the child's behavior or characteristics, a rating of a negative overall relationship with the child, and more crying (suggestive trend). A structural equation model confirmed these findings and found an indirect effect between laughter and criticisms: mothers with higher depressed mood who laughed less criticized their children less. The findings illustrate that depressed mood adversely affects how a group of Chilean mothers speak about their children.

  9. Temporally selective attention supports speech processing in 3- to 5-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astheimer, Lori B; Sanders, Lisa D

    2012-01-01

    Recent event-related potential (ERP) evidence demonstrates that adults employ temporally selective attention to preferentially process the initial portions of words in continuous speech. Doing so is an effective listening strategy since word-initial segments are highly informative. Although the development of this process remains unexplored, directing attention to word onsets may be important for speech processing in young children who would otherwise be overwhelmed by the rapidly changing acoustic signals that constitute speech. We examined the use of temporally selective attention in 3- to 5-year-old children listening to stories by comparing ERPs elicited by attention probes presented at four acoustically matched times relative to word onsets: concurrently with a word onset, 100 ms before, 100 ms after, and at random control times. By 80 ms, probes presented at and after word onsets elicited a larger negativity than probes presented before word onsets or at control times. The latency and distribution of this effect is similar to temporally and spatially selective attention effects measured in adults and, despite differences in polarity, spatially selective attention effects measured in children. These results indicate that, like adults, preschool aged children modulate temporally selective attention to preferentially process the initial portions of words in continuous speech.

  10. Primary Antimicrobial Susceptibility Changes in Children with Helicobacter pylori Infection over 13 Years in Northern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gismondi, Pierpacifico; Maffini, Valentina; Bizzarri, Barbara; Fornaroli, Fabiola; Madia, Carmen; Salerno, Antonino; Cangelosi, A. Marta; de'Angelis, Gian Luigi

    2015-01-01

    The eradication therapy of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is still a challenge for gastroenterologists. One of the main causes of failure in H. pylori eradication is the antibiotic resistance mainly to clarithromycin. Culture from biopsies is maybe the most used method among the antimicrobial susceptibility techniques. In this study, we compared the antimicrobial susceptibility changes in children with H. pylori infection over 13 years and we confirmed that clarithromycin resistance has been increased (16% versus 26%) though with no statistically signficant value. Therefore, clarithromycin should not be used in empiric treatment of H. pylori eradication therapy in children, but its use should be limited only to children with known antimicrobial susceptibility. On the other hand, metronidazole resistance has decreased over this time period in statistically significant manner (56% versus 33%, p = 0.014). Furthermore, ampicillin resistance has been confirmed to be very rare (3% versus 0%) in children with H. pylori infection. In conclusion, in H. pylori infection, if we do not know the antibiotic susceptibility of patients, we should recommend an eradication therapy based on the local distribution of antibiotic resistance rates trying to limit the therapeutic failures. PMID:26064096

  11. THE INFORMATION-COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY IN THE HOME ENVIRONMENT OF FOUR-YEAR-OLD PRESCHOOL CHILDREN

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    Jurka Lepičnik Vodopivec

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, preschool children live in an era of information-communication technologies (ICT. There exist various definitions of ICT. For the purposes of our research we thus used a broader definition of ICT, which stretches beyond mobiles and computers, and includes a variety of everyday technologies. Children already encounter them in their family environment. We wanted to find out which ICT children use the most, how they access them and if ICT has any influence on their development. Our sample consisted of 130 parents of four-year-old children who visit kindergarten. We were interested in the adults' – parents' influence and in the influence of the children’s gender on the access to and usage of ICT. We similarly wanted to know if these are influenced by the toy industry market and family values. A part of the research is also dedicated to the ICT’s influence on the perception of childhood and a plausible occurrence of the digital divide.

  12. ASSESSMENT OF ORAL HYGIENE HABITS IN CHILDREN 6 TO 12 YEARS.

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    Liliya Doichinova

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Oral hygiene is an essential element of health education programs for schoolchildren. AIM: The study aims to assess the skills when conducting oral hygiene of a group of schoolchildren and to conduct training in its rules. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study covers 30 children aged 6-12 years. The training was conducted by the methods of the visual pedagogy and implementation of the technique “Say, show, do”. The assessment of the oral-hygiene status was held by the simplified oral hygiene index-Greene & Vermillion. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The children do not have proper oral hygiene habits. The daily oral care is inadequate. The number of cleaned tooth surfaces during oral hygiene practice is small. Children have no developed proper oral hygiene skills, and brush only the vestibular surfaces of the teeth (80%, 13.3% the vestibular and the occlusal, and 6.7% only cover lingual surfaces too. The unsatisfactory oral hygiene status is also a result of using only one type of toothbrush movements. The improvement of children's health knowledge should play key role in correcting their oral hygiene technique.

  13. Traumatic tooth injuries to primary teeth of children aged 0-3 years.

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    Avşar, Aysun; Topaloglu, Bengi

    2009-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze data according to gender, age, cause, number of traumatized teeth, type of tooth and trauma, from the records of traumatized children (0-3 years) referred to the Ondokuz Mayis University, Dental Faculty, Department of Pedodontics in middle Black Sea region of Turkey. A total of 563 boys and girls participated in the study. Traumatic dental injuries were recorded using the classification of the World Health Organization modified slightly by Andreasen & Andreasen. Traumatic dental injuries were identified in 17.4% of the children. The largest percentage of injuries were in the 13-18 months old children with no significant gender differences (P > 0.05). Periodontal tissue injuries were the most common (84.7%) with no statistical difference between different ages or gender (P > 0.05). The main etiological factor of traumatic dental injury was falls (73.5%) and it was not different between age and gender (P > 0.05). The maxillary central incisors were involved in a higher percentage of traumatic injuries (98%), with no differences between the right and the left sides (P > 0.05). Treatment was sought for 37.4% of children within 1-7 days. It is suggested that parents should be informed about prevention of traumatic injuries and to contact a dentist immediately.

  14. Improving executive function in childhood: evaluation of a training intervention for 5-year-old children.

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    Traverso, Laura; Viterbori, Paola; Usai, Maria Carmen

    2015-01-01

    Executive function (EF) refers to a set of higher order cognitive processes that control and modulate cognition under continuously changing and multiple task demands. EF plays a central role in early childhood, is associated and predictive of important cognitive achievements and has been recognized as a significant aspect of school readiness. This study examines the efficacy of a group based intervention for 5-year-old children that focuses on basic components of EF (working memory, inhibitory control, cognitive flexibility). The intervention included 12 sessions, lasted 1 month and used low-cost materials. Seventy-five children took part in the study. The results indicate that the children who attended the intervention outperformed controls in simple and more complex EF tasks. Specifically, these children exhibited increased abilities to delay gratification, to control on-going responses, to process and update information, and to manage high cognitive conflict. These results suggest the possibility that this intervention, which may be easily implemented in educational services, can promote EF during preschool period before the entrance in primary school.

  15. The relation between spatial perspective taking and inhibitory control in 6-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frick, Andrea; Baumeler, Denise

    2016-07-01

    Developmental research on spatial perspective taking has shown that young children are able to solve perspective-taking problems under favorable circumstances, but they have difficulties succeeding in classic tasks involving a conflict between one's own perspective and that of another observer. To date, little is known about the reasons for young children's difficulties in dealing with incongruent perspectives. Based on the assumption that one's own perspective has to be ignored to imagine someone else's perspective, it was investigated whether perspective taking is related to inhibitory control in 6-year-olds (N = 140). An adapted version of the 'Fruit Stroop task', appropriate for preschool children, was used to assess inhibitory control. Perspective taking was assessed using the 'Perspective-Taking Test for Children'. Other spatial and nonspatial abilities were assessed to investigate the specificity of the relation. Results showed a significant correlation between perspective taking and inhibitory control, even when controlled for age, verbal-IQ, and socio-economic status. However, no significant correlations between inhibition and other spatial abilities were found, indicating a specific relation between inhibition and perspective taking. A linear regression analysis showed that, even after accounting for effects of control variables as well as other mental transformation abilities, inhibition accounted for a significant part of the variance in perspective-taking performance. The present findings provide valuable information on what contributes to individual differences in perspective taking, which is an important aspect of everyday cognition and bears relevance for reasoning in technical domains.

  16. Safety of probiotics and synbiotics in children under 18 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Nieuwboer, M; Brummer, R J; Guarner, F; Morelli, L; Cabana, M; Claassen, E

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to systematically evaluate safety of probiotics and synbiotics in children ageing 0-18 years. This study is the third and final part in a safety trilogy and an update is provided using the most recent available clinical data (2008-2013) by means of the Common Terminology Clinical Adverse Events (CTCAE version 4.0) classification. Safety aspects are represented and related to number of participants per probiotic strain/culture, study duration, dosage, clinical condition and selected afflictions. Analysis of 74 clinical studies indicated that probiotic and/or synbiotic administration in children is safe with regard to the specific evaluated strains, dosages and duration. The population of children include healthy, immune compromised and obese subjects, as well as subjects with intestinal disorders, infections and inflammatory disorders. This study revealed no major safety concerns, as the adverse events (AEs) were unrelated, or not suspected to be related, to the probiotic or synbiotic product. In general the study products were well tolerated. Overall, AEs occurred more frequent in the control arm compared to children receiving probiotics and/or synbiotics. Furthermore, the results indicate inadequate reporting and classification of AEs in the majority of the studies. In addition, generalizability of conclusions are greatly limited by the inconsistent, imprecise and potentially incomplete reporting as well as the variation in probiotic strains, dosages, administration regimes, study populations and reported outcomes.

  17. Bacterial Infection Complicating Varicella Infection: A 10-Year Review of Hospitalized Children

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    Golda Milo-Manson

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available An increased incidence of Streptococci pyogenes (group A streptococcus [GAS] infections and rheumatic fever has been reported over the past decade. The present study was conducted to determine whether a similar increase in such infections was observed after varicella, an infection previously shown to be associated with a high incidence of streptococcal infections. The charts of all children admitted with chickenpox to the Hospital for Sick Children in Toronto, Ontario from January 1, 1980 to December 31, 1989 were reviewed. Immunocompromised children and those hospitalized for another reason who had an incidental diagnosis of chickenpox were excluded. Twenty-five cases with bacterial infection complicating chickenpox were compared with 103 patients without secondary infection. No statistically significant differences were observed for age, gender, duration of illness prior to hospitalization or duration of hospitalization in the two groups. GAS was the most frequent isolate in the cases, followed by Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Haemophilus influenzae. The types of infection were significantly different for GAS compared with other organisms, with a predominance of skin infections in the former group (χ2 analysis, P<0.05. No increase in the incidence of GAS infections was observed over time. This study confirms the importance of GAS infections in patients with varicella, but no increase was observed in hospitalized children during the 10-year study period.

  18. Hydration Deficit in 9- to 11-Year-Old Egyptian Children

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    Zaghloul Gouda MD

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background. Children who drink too little to meet their daily water requirements are likely to become dehydrated, and even mild dehydration can negatively affect health. This is even more important in Middle-Eastern countries where high temperatures increase the risk of dehydration. We assessed morning hydration status in a sample of 519 Egyptian schoolchildren (9-11 years old. Methods. Children completed a questionnaire on breakfast intakes and collected a urine sample after breakfast. Breakfast food and fluid nutritional composition was analyzed and urine osmolality was measured using osmometry. Results. The mean urine osmolality of children was 814 mOsmol/kg: >800 mOsmol/kg (57% and >1000 mOsmol/kg (24.7%. Furthermore, the results showed that a total water intake of less than 400 mL was associated with a significant higher risk of dehydration. Surprisingly, 63% of the children skipped breakfast. Conclusions. The results showed that a majority of Egyptian schoolchildren arrive at school with a hydration deficit. These results highlight the fact that there is a need to educate schoolchildren about the importance of having a breakfast and adequate hydration.

  19. MICROBIOLOGICAL STUDY OF ACUTE OTITIS MEDIA IN CHILDREN AGED 2 MONTHS TO 18 YEARS

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    Ramakrishna Pai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute Suppurative Otitis media (ASOM is one of the diseases that causedeath in children below the age of 5 years. The pathogens causing otitis media (OM vary from region to region. Both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria are responsible f or OM. So this study was conducted to know the aerobic bacterial pathogens causing OM and their susceptibility pattern in children below 18 years attending a rural tertiary health care center in north Kerala . MATERIALS AND METHODS : A total of 75 patients in pediatric age group 2 months to 18 years clinically havingASOM , were included in the study . Ear discharge was collected using sterile cotton swabs and processed accordingly. RESULTS : A total of 75 patients aged 2 months to 18 years with discharging ears wer e included in the study. Among them , forty one (54.7% were males and thirty four (45.3% were females. Forty five children were below years. Sixty five (86.6% had unilateral ear discharge. Among the 75 ear swabs cultured , 66 (88% had aerobic bacteria is olated. S.aureus was themost common isolate accounting to 32(47% followed by P.aeruoginosa 19(27.9%. It was observed that most of the Staphylococcus aureusisolates were resistant to p en i cillins and first generation cephalosporins while Pseudomonas aerugi nosa to fluoroquinolones. CONCLUSION : Since there is reduced susceptibility of the pathogens isolated to first and second line antibacterials it is necessary to use these antibacterials judiciously and in the right dosage

  20. [20 years' experience in the treatment of children with terminal renal insufficiency in Yugoslavia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peco-Antić, A; Popović-Rolović, M; Jovanović, O; Marsenić, O; Babić, D; Kostić, M; Kruscić, O; Culić, D; Trajković, D

    2000-01-01

    The first specialized haemodialysis (HD) paediatric centre in former Yugoslavia was established at the University Children's Hospital in Belgrade in January 1980. A total of 194 children (F: 98, M: 96), aged less than 19 years (10.12 +/- 4.23), were treated for renal replacement therapy (RRT) over 20 years. Average annual incidence rate was 1.59 per million of child population (pmcp) aged less than 19 years for the period 1980-1990 (former Yugoslavia) and 2.85 pmcp aged less than 19 years for the period 1990-2000 (present Yugoslavia). Reflux nephropathy was the most frequent underlying disease and accounted for 37.06% of total cases, while other primary renal diseases were: glomerulonephritis (GN) 17.26%, cystic/hereditary familial nephropathy 12.69%, congenital disease 11.68%, interstitial nephritis 5.58%, non-recovered tubular necrosis 3.55%, secondary GN 1.52% and 10.66% remained with doubtful diagnosis. HD was the first RRT in 84.02%, peritoneal dialysis (PD) in 14.43% and pre-emptive transplantation in 1.55% of all patients. A total of 53 patients (27.3% of total terminal renal failure (TRF) patients) received 56 kidney transplants (58.93% live related, 37.50% cadaveric, 3.57% live-non related). Actual survival in RRT was 64.53% 5 in years; 51.68% in 10 and 48.23% in 15 years. Patient survival in HD was significantly better over the last ten-year period than in the first ten-year period (35.88% vs. 75.75%; p Yugoslavia.

  1. Final report on the safety assessment of PEG-6, -8, and -20 sorbitan beeswax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanigan, R S; Yamarik, T A

    2001-01-01

    Polyethylene Glycol (PEG)-6, -8, and -20 Sorbitan Beeswax are ethoxylated derivatives of Beeswax that function as surfactants in cosmetic formulations. Only PEG-20 Sorbitan Beeswax is currently reported to be used, at concentrations up to 11%. Few data on the PEGs Sorbitan Beeswax ingredients were available. This safety assessment relied upon the available data from previous safety assessments of Beeswax, Synthetic Beeswax, Sorbitan Esters, PEGs, and PEG Sorbitan fatty acid esters, also known as Polysorbates. The ester linkage of PEG Sorbitan fatty acid esters was hydrolyzed after oral administration, and the PEG Sorbitan moiety was poorly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. Sorbitan Stearate was hydrolyzed to stearic acid and anhydrides of sorbitol in the rat. PEGs are readily absorbed through damaged skin and are associated with contact dermatitis and systemic toxicity in burn patients. PEGs were not sensitizing to normal skin. PEGs did not cause reproductive toxicity, nor were tested PEGs mutagenic or carcinogenic. Sorbitol was not a reproductive or developmental toxin in multigenerational studies in rats. Neither Beeswax nor Synthetic Beeswax produced significant acute animal toxicity, ocular irritation, skin irritation, or skin sensitization. Polysorbates produced no acute or long-term effects, were generally not irritating or sensitizing, and were noncarcinogenic, although studies did demonstrate enhancement of the activity of chemical carcinogens. Sorbitan fatty acid esters were relatively nontoxic via ingestion, generally were not skin irritants or sensitizers, and were not mutagenic or carcinogenic. Sorbitan Laurate was a cocarcinogen in a mouse skin-painting study. PEG-6 Sorbitan Beeswax delivered via a stomach tube was nontoxic in rats in acute studies. Undiluted PEG-6 Sorbitan Beeswax was nonirritating to the eyes of rabbits and was non-irritating to intact and abraded skin of rabbits. PEG-20 Sorbitan Beeswax was only minimally irritating to

  2. The Effectiveness of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for Children with Chronic Pain (CHACT on the Function of 7 to 12 Year-Old children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheila Ghomian

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for Children with Chronic Pain (CHACT on the function of 7 to 12 year-old children. Thus, the basic problem of the current study is whether CHACT can improve the function level of 7 to 12 year-old children with chronic pain? Method: According to the criteria of chronic pain, a number of children with chronic pain were selected by available sampling method from specialty and subspecialty pediatric hospitals of Tehran. Then, among the children, 20 children who according to their parents prepared to participate in this study and met the inclusion criteria, were selected. They were placed in the experimental group (n = 10 and control group (n = 10. The child and parent versions of Function Disability Inventory (FDI were answered by children and parents in both groups at the pre-test, post-test, first and second follow-up. Result: The result showed that the experimental group compared with the control group showed significant change in function in multiple stages. These changes continued after the treatment, first and secondary follow-up. Conclusion: Regarding the impact of CHACT on the function of children with chronic pain, it can be said that this protocol can be used in clinical fields, especially in the area of improving the function that appears that is one of the most vulnerable areas that children with chronic pain are faced with it.

  3. Auditory Temporal Structure Processing in Dyslexia: Processing of Prosodic Phrase Boundaries Is Not Impaired in Children with Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiser, Eveline; Kjelgaard, Margaret; Christodoulou, Joanna A.; Cyr, Abigail; Gabrieli, John D. E.

    2014-01-01

    Reading disability in children with dyslexia has been proposed to reflect impairment in auditory timing perception. We investigated one aspect of timing perception--"temporal grouping"--as present in prosodic phrase boundaries of natural speech, in age-matched groups of children, ages 6-8 years, with and without dyslexia. Prosodic phrase…

  4. Developmental Coordination Disorder in children with specific language impairment : Co-morbidity and impact on quality of life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flapper, Boudien C.T.; Schoemaker, Marina M.

    2013-01-01

    Co-morbidity of Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) in children with specific language impairment (SLI) and the impact of DCD on quality-of-life (QOL) was investigated in 65 5-8 year old children with SLI (43 boys, age 6.8 +/- 0.8; 22 girls, age 6.6 +/- 0.8). The prevalence of DCD was assessed

  5. Cerebral Palsy in 1-12 Year Old Children in Southern Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    INALOO, Soroor; KATIBEH, Pegah; GHASEMOF, Masroor

    2016-01-01

    Objective Cerebral palsy (CP) is a non-progressive CNS disorder due to an insult to the growing brain, usually occurring in the first two years of life. During the recent years, its etiology has been changed; perinatal and postnatal insults are not considered as its main causes in developed countries any more. The aim of this study was to evaluate the causes of CP in children in southern Iran. Materials & Methods Overall, 200 children with CP aged 1-12 yr old referring to Pediatric Neurology Clinic affiliated to Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran between 2012 and 2013 were enrolled. In addition, 200 healthy age and sex-matched children were considered as the control group. Exclusion criteria were isolated movement disorders with no other evidence of CP, progressive neurologic disorders, metabolic disorders, and incomplete or uncertain past history. After collecting the data on pregnancy period, prenatal history and past medical problems, they were analyzed with appropriate statistical methods. Results Maternal age, medical problems during pregnancy period, route of delivery, head circumference at birth, neonatal admission, neonatal jaundice, and prematurity were the main risk factors for CP. Discussion The distribution of risk factors of CP is different from that of developed countries in our region. Pre- and peri-natal etiologies are still among the common causes of CP in Iran. PMID:27057186

  6. Reference values for acoustic rhinometry in children from 4 to 13 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Straszek, Sune; Moeller, Alexander; Hall, Graham L

    2008-01-01

    a reference range for nasal volumes and minimum cross-sectional areas (MCA) in healthy non-decongested children aged 4 to 13 years. Methods: 256 primary school children (mean 7.95 years, range 3.8 - 13.1 ys, 123m/133f) were measured by acoustic rhinometry. Variables were MCA (first, second and absolute...... minimum) and nasal volumes from 0 to 4 (Vol0-4), 0 to 5 (Vol0-5), 1 to 4 (Vol1-4) and 2 to 5 (Vol2-5) cm into the nasal cavity. Height and weight were measured and atopic status determined by skin prick test. Age and current and past respiratory health were recorded from a questionnaire. Results...... nasal patency. Conclusion: This paper presents the presently most extensive reference material for AR inm non-decongested pre-pubescent healthy children. The presented reference material will facilitate the interpretation and evaluation of future and present epidemiological studies based on AR...

  7. Acute Glomerulonephritis: A 7 Years Follow up of Children in Center of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Akhavan Sepahi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Acute glomerulonephritis (AGN is a type of renal disease which indicates the inflammation of glomerulus and nephrons. This study was carried on 94 children, <15 years old with the diagnosis of AGN who were admitted to Qom and Yazd's hospitals between 2000 and 2006. Data were collected using hospital records on admission, progression notes and outpatient follow up. Among 94 patients, 55.3% were male and 44.6% were female. Mean age of patients was 8.2±2.7 years old. Acute post streptococcal glomerulonephritis (APSGN was reported in 92.5%, membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis in 4.2%, hemolytic uremic syndrome in 2.1% and IgA nephropathy in 1.06%. There was no significant differences between GN types and gender (P=0.54. Clinical manifestation included edema in 68.8%, oliguria in 36.3%, gross hematuria in 69.1%, HTN in 61.7% and anuria in 1.06%. Microscopic hematuria was detected in all patients. In the time of follow up none of patients had hypertension, 3.1% had proteinuria and 6.3% had microscopic hematuria. APSGN is the most common causes of AGN in Qom and Yazd's children. Early diagnosis and treatment of APSGN may protect children from long term morbidity and mortality and improve quality of life.

  8. Optics workshops designed to preschool children (age 3 to 6 years)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Charvel; Solano, Cristina

    2016-09-01

    Since 2005, it was decided in Mexico that children have to start their formal education at the age of 3 years, two years earlier that in many other countries. This change was done to increase activities that enhance the social interaction and stimulus (knowledge and skills) of the students to prepare them to the next academic level. The main drawback of the developed curriculum for the younger children is that it does not include enough scientific activities. The work presented here is the answer of a particular initiative of some teachers to implement scientific workshops in optics. We have found that preschoolers are attracted to scientific activities if the material is presented in the right way. While design any scientific activity it is important to remember that young children want to know about their world without changing it, they have to experience the principle without memorizing, therefore the language used to describe concepts, ideas or terms has to be carefully chosen to avoid confuse preschoolers that can lose track of the activity. The scientific information has to be very clear and limited to a single physical principle and the concepts have to be presented in a way to include games as a learning activity that allow them to experience with the results.

  9. Cephalic measures in normal pre-school children 3 to 7-years of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Diament

    1976-12-01

    Full Text Available In a study designed to determine standards for the Developmental Neurological Examination (DNE several measures of the head were also recorded. The study consisted in the examination of 200 children, half from each sex, 40 from each age group (3 to 7-years of age. These children were selected among 755 normal pre-school-age children, living in the city of São Paulo (Brazil. The criteria for selection were both anamnestic and clinic. The following measures of the head were recorded: cephalic perimeter, biauricular and antero-posterior distances (Diament, 1967. A new cephalic index (nCI was also determined (Diament, 1968. This index is useful in detecting changes in head shape mainly in cases of precocious cranioestenosis (Diament, 1968; Facure, 1972. The statistical analysis consisted in determining means and standard errors for each measure. For the new cephalic index it was shown through the Kruskal-Wallis test that there were no significant difference between age and sex. Therefore we considered all groups together to find out the tolerance region for the new index which turned out to be given by the interval: 0.848-1.002. This result is based in 186 cases since 14 were excluded because of some problems in the recording process. Therefore we expect with a confidence of 95% that the above interval covers 90% of the population, in the 3 to 7 years age-groups independently of sex.

  10. [Dietary factors and their relation to appetite in children under two years with mild malnutrition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quijada, Mariana Martínez; Gutiérrez, María Luisa Alvarez

    2012-06-01

    Malnutrition is conditioned by a series of factors, among them the dietary factors, which include appetite, eating behaviors and habits. In order to assess these factors, the following objective was pursued: describe the dietary factors and their relation to appetite in children under two years of age with mild malnutrition. A correlational study was conducted. The sample consisted of all children under two years of age (n = 168) diagnosed with primary (mild) malnutrition, who attended consultation at the Centro de Atención Nutricional Infantil Antímano, CANIA, during the period 2000-2008. The results showed intake of energy and macronutrients was lower than the individual requirement; iron intake children showed rebellious behavior and caregivers were permissive. Protein adequacy, vegetable and whole milk consumption frequency, preparation type, identification of refusals and preferences, place and duration of meals, and child-caregiver interaction at mealtimes were significantly associated with appetite; if we consider this last one as a guide and we try to modify inadequate eating behaviors and habits, we will generate an impact over the child appetite that could improve the food consumption and prevent malnutrition.

  11. Maxillary Arch Dimension Changes of 3-5 Years Old Filipino Children

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    Abdol Hamid Zafarmand

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this study was to assess the dental arch dimensions in primary dentition of 3-5 years old Filipino children and determining the existence of sexual dimorphism.Materials and Methods: In this descriptive study, 60 Filipino preschool children aged 3-5 years old were selected from Manila city. Study casts were used for measurements of 3 arch dimensions: bicanine width, bimolar width, and arch length. The analyses were performed to compare values within age-groups and within gender-groups, besides reporting mean and standard deviations. The data were subjected to One-way ANOVA and Student t-test.Results: Significant differences were observed regarding dental arch dimensions among different ages and genders (p<0.05. Comparison between genders showed a statistically significant difference in bicanine width at the age of 4 (p=0.04, in bimolar width at age of 5 (p=0.006, and in arch length at age of 4 (p=0.03 and 5 (p=0.02. Differences within male group for different ages showed only arch length dimension was statistically significant (p=0.021. In females, however the comparison between age-groups also revealed a statistically significant difference in bicanine (p= 0.016 and bimolar widths (p=0.027 dimensions.Conclusion: The present study showed that dental arch dimensions, vary among different ages and genders of children. It also showed that a sexual dimorphism does exist between the gender groups.

  12. Epidemiological study of traumatic dental injuries in 5- to 6-year-old Brazilian children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Oliveira BERTI

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring traumatic dental injury (TDI in primary teeth through epidemiological cross-sectional surveys provides descriptive information relevant to the development of public policies focused on the prevention of such injuries for the target population. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of TDI in 5- to 6-year-old Brazilian children and its association with biological and socioeconomic factors. A total of 684 children aged 5 to 6 years old, from 11 public schools in the city of Barueri (Brazil were evaluated. Clinical examinations were carried out in the schools, by two trained and calibrated examiners. Gauze and a mouth mirror were used for the examinations. The reported TDIs were classified according to the Andreasen (2007 criteria for primary teeth. The results showed that 52.3% of the children had TDI. Enamel fracture (63.4% was the most frequently observed sign of TDI, and the most affected teeth were the primary maxillary central incisors (26.9% maxillary right central incisor and 24% maxillary left central incisor. There was no association between the presence of TDI and biological or socioeconomic factors. In conclusion, the prevalence of TDI was high and had no statistically significant association with biological and socioeconomic factors.

  13. Experience with headwear influences the other-race effect in 4-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhrke, Janina; Freitag, Claudia; Lamm, Bettina; Teiser, Johanna; Poloczek, Sonja; Fassbender, Ina; Teubert, Manuel; Voehringer, Isabel; Keller, Heidi; Knopf, Monika; Lohaus, Arnold; Schwarzer, Gudrun

    2015-09-01

    The other-race effect (ORE) implies the better recognition of faces of one's own race compared with faces of a different race. It demonstrates that face recognition is shaped by daily experience with human faces. Such experience mainly includes structural information of own-race faces and also information on the way faces are usually seen, as a whole or partly covered by scarves or other headwear. In two experiments, we investigated how this mode of presentation is related to the occurrence of the ORE during childhood. In Experiment 1, 4-year-old German children (N = 104), accustomed to seeing faces without headwear in daily life, were asked to recognize female Caucasian or African faces, presented either as a whole or wearing a woolen hat, in a forced choice paradigm. In Experiment 2, 4-year-olds from rural Cameroon (N = 70), accustomed to seeing faces with and without headwear in daily life, participated in the same task. In both groups, the ORE was present in the familiar mode of presentation, that is, in whole faces in German children and in whole and partly covered faces in Cameroonian children. The results are discussed in relation to the role of experience for face recognition processes.

  14. Prediction of correlates of daily physical activity in Spanish children aged 8-9 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saavedra, J M; Escalante, Y; Domínguez, A M; García-Hermoso, A; Hernández-Mocholí, M A

    2014-06-01

    The aims of the study were (a) to examine the associations between the daily physical activity (PA) of 8- to 9-year-old children and their parents, and (b) to examine what effect the child's daily PA has on its cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), body mass index (BMI), and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). The sample consisted of 1021 persons [351 children (8.73 ± 0.69 years in age) and 670 parents]. Pedometers were used to evaluate PA in parents and their children over the course of 4 days (Thursday-Sunday), with the instructions on how to wear the pedometers for 24 h a day. Also evaluated were height, weight, BMI, CRF (via the maximal multistage 20-m shuttle run test), and HRQoL (via the EQ-5D-Y questionnaire). Associations between these variables were studied using path model techniques. The father's PA predicts his child's daily PA. This in turn predicts the child's lower BMI, CRF, and perceived quality of life. The findings suggest that the role model of a physically active father positively influences the child's PA habits, and hence that the family environment can have an important part to play in promoting health.

  15. Results of a Multidisciplinary Treatment Program in 3-Year-Old to 5-Year-Old Overweight or Obese Children A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bocca, Gianni; Corpeleijn, Eva; Stolk, Ronald P.; Sauer, Pieter J. J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess the effects of a multidisciplinary intervention program for 3-year-old to 5-year-old overweight and obese children compared with a usual-care program. Design: Randomized controlled clinical trial conducted from October 2006 to March 2008. Setting: Groningen Expert Center for Kid

  16. Mortality in Children Aged 0-9 Years: A Nationwide Cohort Study from Three Nordic Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Yongfu; Qin, Guoyou; Cnattingius, Sven;

    2016-01-01

    and mortality rates were compared by age, gender, cause of death, and calendar periods. Among the 7,105,962 children, there were 48,299 deaths during study period. From 1981–1985 to 2001–2005, all-cause mortality rates were reduced by between 34% and 62% at different ages. Overall mortality rate ratio between...... boys and girls decreased from 1.25 to 1.21 with the most prominent reduction in children aged 5–9 years (from 1.59 to 1.19). Neoplasms, diseases of the nervous system and transport accidents were the most frequent cause of death after the first year of life. These three leading causes of death declined...... by 42% (from 6.2 to 3.6 per 100,000 person years), 43% (from 3.7 to 2.1) and 62% (from 3.9 to 1.5) in boys, and 25% (from 4.1 to 3.1 per 100000 person years), 42% (from 3.4 to 1.9) and 63% (from 3.0 to 1.1) in girls, respectively. Mortality from neoplasms was the highest in each age except infants when...

  17. Bodily characteristics and lifestyle of Czech children aged 7.00 to 10.99 years, incidence of childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovárová, M; Vignerová, J; Bláha, P; Osancová, K

    2002-12-01

    In 1991-2000 in the Czech Republic a survey of the prevalence of obesity was made. The assessment was made by the transversal method in elementary schools in all regions of the Czech Republic. Children aged 7.00 to 10.99 years were investigated. The survey comprised a total of 3362 children (1668 girls and 1694 boys). A total of 12 anthropometric dimensions were recorded and questionnaires addressed to the children and parents were analyzed. From the results ensued that the ratio of obese children of both sexes in the CR (i.e. children with BMI values about the 97th percentile of the reference population) increased. This zone comprised 6.0% boys and 5.6% girls of the investigated group. An important finding was also the increase of mean values of the abdominal circumference of the children in all age groups in both sexes. The ratio of obese children in different communities is related unequivocally to the size of the community., In smaller communities there are more obese children (according to our data 6.9%) and in large towns the ratio of obese children is 2.3%. In large towns there is also a greater proportion of thin children - 12.1%, in small communities 8.6%. It was found that there is a higher percentage of obese children in families where the mother has elementary education as compared with children of mothers with secondary and university education. Mothers with elementary education have 9.6% obese children while university educated mothers have only 3.6% obese children. Analysis of the dietary questionnaires revealed that only 62.9% children in large towns eat breakfast, the position in villages is similar - 63.9%. In the group of children with excessive body weight fewer children have breakfast (only 54.1%), in the group of children with a low body weigh the majority eat breakfast (75.3%). The majority of children have a mid-morning snack at school which they bring from home. As regards school lunch the majority of children from large towns replied that

  18. 10 years with Planet Earth essence in the primary school children drawings

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Addezio, Giuliana

    2016-04-01

    "10 years with Planet Earth" is the title of the 2016 INGV calendar for primary schools representing the review of a project conceived as support and complement of 15 years long INGV dissemination activities with schools. We realized 10 calendars together with and for primary schools, every year with a subject related to a World in constant evolution. Earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, tsunami waves, magnetic storms and other phenomena are manifestations of the complexity and dynamicity, which began more than four billion years ago and never halted. Since the Earth originated to the first presence of water, life and oxygen, the Cambrian explosion of species, the domain of dinosaurs, the great extinctions and glaciations, the surface of our planet experiences continents collisions, mountains and oceans formation and life forms emerging and disappearing. Every year we have launched a competition asking children to send drawings on themes chosen to stimulate learning about Earth Sciences and Planet Earth dynamics. We intended to raise awareness on issues as water resources availability, protection against natural disasters and control of environmental degradation. For each competition, we chose the most significant drawings to be included in the yearly calendar about the Earth. The authors of drawings were awarded by scientists, journalists, artists and science communicators and even by a minister. Besides the competitions, these drawings depict their own impressions and reflections, providing an opportunity to illustrate the children's point of view. From drawings and texts arise a great consideration and respect for the Planet, raising hopes that similar initiatives can contribute to increase the knowledge of the Earth and of the fragile human ecosystem in the hearts and minds of future active citizens. The project was made possible thanks to the teachers and to the wonderful students of more than 200 schools that sent about 10,000 drawings that have intrigued

  19. The Etiological Structure of Acute Respiratory Diseases in the Years 2009—2013 in Children of Voronezh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. Kokoreva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the etiology of acute respiratory infections was carried out in 865 children hospitalized to a hospital infection in the ears 2009—2013. It was found that respiratory viruses dominated in the etiological structure of acute respiratory infections of children, with a leading position in the number of revised survey diagnoses in different years of observation occupied influenza, but in recent years there is a growth trend of respiratory syncytial virus infection. The most pronounced seasonality of hospitalized children to help in the verification of the diagnosis, there was just the influenza, and mycoplasma infection. Children of preschool and school age with influenza and micoplasma infections are hospitalized more often, while for respiratory diseases other etiology, especially with respiratory syncytial virus infection children up to 3 years are hospitalized.

  20. Prevalence of molar incisor hypomineralization in 7–9-year-old children of Bengaluru City, India

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    Priya Subramaniam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH is a developmental defect. The prevalence of MIH ranges widely from 2.4% to 40.2%. Aim: This study was under taken to determine the prevalence of MIH in 7–9-year-old children of Bengaluru City, India. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional epidemiological study was conducted in a representative sample of 2500 school children aged 7–9 years of Bengaluru, India. Oral examination was carried out by a single trained calibrated examiner under natural daylight. Results: Twelve children (0.48% were diagnosed with MIH. A total of 68 teeth were observed with MIH. All four first permanent molars were affected in 50% of children. In the molar group, mandibular molars (29.41% were more frequently affected than maxillary molars (27.94%. Conclusion: The prevalence of MIH in 7–9-year-old children of Bengaluru was 0.48%, with no gender predilection.

  1. Prevalence of molar incisor hypomineralization in 7–9-year-old children of Bengaluru City, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, Priya; Gupta, Tulika; Sharma, Akhilesh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH) is a developmental defect. The prevalence of MIH ranges widely from 2.4% to 40.2%. Aim: This study was under taken to determine the prevalence of MIH in 7–9-year-old children of Bengaluru City, India. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional epidemiological study was conducted in a representative sample of 2500 school children aged 7–9 years of Bengaluru, India. Oral examination was carried out by a single trained calibrated examiner under natural daylight. Results: Twelve children (0.48%) were diagnosed with MIH. A total of 68 teeth were observed with MIH. All four first permanent molars were affected in 50% of children. In the molar group, mandibular molars (29.41%) were more frequently affected than maxillary molars (27.94%). Conclusion: The prevalence of MIH in 7–9-year-old children of Bengaluru was 0.48%, with no gender predilection. PMID:27041893

  2. Aggression, social competence, and academic achievement in Chinese children: a 5-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xinyin; Huang, Xiaorui; Chang, Lei; Wang, Li; Li, Dan

    2010-08-01

    The primary purpose of this longitudinal study was to examine, in a sample of Chinese children (initial M age = 8 years, N = 1,140), contributions of aggression to the development of social competence and academic achievement. Five waves of panel data on aggression and social and school performance were collected from peer evaluations, teacher ratings, and school records in Grades 2 to 5. Structural equation modeling revealed that aggression had unique effects on later social competence and academic achievement after their stabilities were controlled, particularly in the junior grades. Aggression also had significant indirect effects on social and academic outcomes through multiple pathways. Social competence and academic achievement contributed to the development of each other, but not aggression. The results indicate cascade effects of aggression in Chinese children from a developmental perspective.

  3. A COMPARISON OF AUTOREFRACTOMETER WITH CYCLOPLEGIC RETINOSCOPY IN CHILDREN AGED 3 TO 15 YEARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaishree

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To compare the accuracy of the autorefractometer with traditional retinoscopy as a means of determining the approximate subjective refraction in children after cycloplegia. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Prospective observation study carried out in 72 eyes of 72 patients aged 3 to 15 years in upgraded department of Ophthalmology, LLRM Medical College, Meerut between April 2013 to June 2013. The negative spherical power of autorefracto meter was higher than retinoscopic group. The positive spherical power was lower in autorefractometer. DISCUSSION: Our observations in this younger age group amply that the inbuilt automatic fogging system of the autorefractometer fails to neutralize adequ ately the patient's accommodative efforts during manifest refraction. CONCLUSION: Manual retinoscopy is still the most accurate technique to estimate refractive status in children.

  4. [The acoustic aspect of the speech development in children during the third year of life].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liakso, E E; Gromova, A D; Frolova, O V; Romanova, O D

    2004-01-01

    The current part of a Russian language acquisition longitudinal study based on auditory, phonetic and instrumental analysis is devoted to the third year of child's life. We examined the development of supplementary acoustic and phonetic features of the child's speech providing for the possibility for the speech to be recognized. The instrumental analysis and statistical processing of vowel formant dynamics as well as stress, palatalization and VOT development, has been performed for the first time in Russian children. We showed that the high probability of children words recognition by auditors was due to establishment of a system of acoustically stable features which, in combination with each other, provide for the informative sufficiency of a message.

  5. French concessive connectives and argumentation: an experimental study in eight- to ten-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champaud, C; Bassano, D

    1994-06-01

    An experimental study examined the comprehension of sentences containing concessive connectives, considered from an argumentative-conclusive point of view, in eight- and ten-year-old French children (24 subjects in each age group). Two tasks were used: subjects had to choose between (1) opposite preceding contexts of sentences (context choice task), and (2) conclusions that could be drawn from the same sentences (conclusion choice task). Results indicated a clear developmental increase in performance. For all concessive items, except mais ('but'), results of the context choice task were better than results of the conclusion choice task. Older children gave significantly better responses for mais in the conclusion choice task. The ambivalence of the connective mais is discussed; comparisons with production and crosslinguistic data are suggested.

  6. A STUDY OF CONCEPTUAL DEVELOPMENT AND VISUAL PERCEPTION IN SIX-YEAR-OLD CHILDREN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bütün Ayhan, Aynur; Aki, Esra; Mutlu, Burcu; Aral, Neriman

    2015-12-01

    Visual perception comprises established responses to visual stimuli. Conceptual development accompanies the development of visual perception skills. Both visual perception and sufficient conceptual development is vital to a child's academic skills and social participation. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between conceptual development and visual perceptual skills of six-year-old children. 140 children were administered Bracken's (1998) Basic Concept Scale (BBCS-R) and the Frostig Developmental Visual Perception Test. BBCS-R scores were weakly correlated with FDVPT Discrimination of figure-ground, and had moderate and significant correlations with Constancy of the figures, Perception of position in space, Perception of spatial relation, and the Total score on visual perception. Also, a moderate correlation was found between the total scores of the FDVPT and the total score of the BBCS-R.

  7. Maternal Pre-Pregnancy BMI and Intelligence Quotient (IQ) in 5-Year-Old Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bliddal, Mette; Olsen, Jørn; Støvring, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: An association between maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and childhood intelligence quotient (IQ) has repeatedly been found but it is unknown if this association is causal or due to confounding caused by genetic or social factors. METHODS: We used a cohort of 1,783 mothers and their 5-year......-old children sampled from the Danish National Birth Cohort. The children participated between 2003 and 2008 in a neuropsychological assessment of cognitive ability including IQ tests taken by both the mother and the child. Linear regression analyses were used to estimate the associations between parental BMI...... and child IQ adjusted for a comprehensive set of potential confounders. Child IQ was assessed with the Wechsler Primary and Preschool Scales of Intelligence--Revised (WPPSI-R). RESULTS: The crude association between maternal BMI and child IQ showed that BMI was adversely associated with child IQ...

  8. A sound spectrogram analysis of children's crying after painful stimuli during the first year of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runefors, P; Arnbjönsson, E

    2005-01-01

    In a prospective study we tested the hypothesis that a cry from an infant can be used as part of an instrument to measure pain. Ten healthy newly born infants were subjected to painful stimuli on four occasions during their first year of life. The sound of the crying was analysed with regard to duration. With the help of a sound spectrogram, the fundamental frequencies of the first five crying sounds were analysed. The number of crying sounds decreased with age. There was a considerable difference between the 10 children, and also between the different pricking occasions for the respective children. We conclude that if crying is to be used as part of an instrument for measuring pain, the child's age has to be taken into account.

  9. Cortisol reactions to a social evaluative paradigm in 5- and 6-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Weerth, C; Zijlmans, M A C; Mack, S; Beijers, R

    2013-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to develop a stress paradigm to elicit cortisol secretory responses in a group of 5- and 6-year-old children as a whole. To this end, we tested a paradigm containing elements of social evaluative threat, unpredictability and uncontrollability, and with a duration of 20 min. The Children's Reactions to Evaluation Stress Test is composed of three short tasks that children have to perform in front of a judge. The tasks are rigged so as to provoke (partial) failure in the child's performance. Participants were 42 children (M = 68.0 months, SD = 4.3). Six saliva samples were taken during the testing session to obtain cortisol measurements of baseline concentrations, stress reactivity, and recovery. Our findings showed that this paradigm was effective in provoking a significant increase in salivary cortisol concentration in the group as a whole, with no effects of possible confounders (child's sex, age or school, parental educational level, time of testing, sex of experimenter, and sex of judge). The mean cortisol concentration increase for the group was 127.5% (SD = 190.9); 61% of the children could be classified as reactors (mean increase of 214%, SD = 201.5), and 39% as non-reactors (mean decrease of 7.8%, SD = 16.8). To our knowledge, this is the first study in this age group that shows a significant cortisol response for the group as a whole to a standardized laboratory paradigm. As such, this paradigm is a promising tool to be used in future research on early life interactions between physiology and psychology.

  10. Prevalence of iodine deficiency disorders among 6 - 12 years school children of Gulbarga city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raveesh P M

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Iodine Deficiency Disorders is among the easiest and least expensive of all nutrient disorders to prevent. Salt iodization is currently the most widely used strategy to control and eliminate Iodine Deficiency Disorders. The Central Government has issued the notification banning the sale of non-iodated salt for direct human consumption in the entire country with effect from 17th May, 2006 under the Prevention of Food Adulteration Act 1954.  Rationale: 6 out of 17 districts surveyed in Karnataka were endemic to Iodine deficiency with goiter prevalence rates in the range of 10.67–41.11%. In Gulbarga more than 90% of the families were consuming salt with Iodine content less than 15 ppm.  Objectives: To assess the magnitude of the Iodine Deficiency Disorders among the children. To determine the Iodine content of the salt used at houses of the children and to find out the availability of adequately iodized salt at the retail shops. Materials and Methods: A cross sectional study among 6-12 Years School Children conducted in Gulbarga city. Cluster sampling methodology and surveillance methods for iodine deficiency disorders as recommended by WHO/ICCIDD were used. The study included 1620 school children with equal proportion of girls and boys. The salt samples were tested on spot with MBI kit provided by UNICEF, and Iodine concentration was recorded as 0, <15 and >15 ppm. Results:  The overall prevalence of goitre was 4.32%, there was no significant gender variation in total goitre prevalence. The association between anaemia and the prevalence of total goitre was statistically significant. Proportion of the children consuming adequately iodised salt was 51.1%. Among salt samples collected from retail shops, only 44.62% samples were adequately iodised. Conclusion: prevalence of goitre was 4.32% which is below the cut-off to indicate endemicity of IDD. Adequately iodised salt availability and consumption among household is not

  11. The Bender Gestalt test for 5- to 15-year old Brazilian children: norms and validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, G N; Santos, T R

    1996-11-01

    Norms for two modalities (normal and stress) of the Bender Gestalt test were developed for the neuropsychological assessment of children in the greater Rio de Janeiro area. For each modality, a measure of performance, a measure of speed and a measure of emotional disturbance were obtained. A total of 398 children (199 males and 199 females), 5 to 15 years old, who were attending a public school in Niterói were the subjects of this study. Analysis of the data revealed that age, but not sex, had a significant effect on performance, but not on speed, in both modalities such that older children made fewer errors than younger children. Also, the number of emotional indicators significantly decreased with age. Additionally, boys needed more time to complete the normal modality than girls, and showed a higher number of emotional indicators in both modalities. The Bender test was found to be valid in the sense that children who had failed at least one grade in school performed worse than those who had not. The number of emotional indicators was shown to be valid since it was significantly correlated with factors such as hyperactivity-conduct problem, and independent functioning, and inattention of the Composite Teacher Rating Scale (Brito GNO and Pinto RCA (1991). Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 13: 417-418). We conclude that the Bender test is valid for use in schoolchildren, and the number of emotional indicators is valid as an index of psychopathology, but sex and age should be considered when using the norms in Brazil.

  12. Spirometric reference values for Hopi Native American children ages 4-13 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnall, David A; Nelson, Arnold G; Hearon, Christopher M; Interpreter, Christina; Kanuho, Verdell

    2016-04-01

    Spirometry is the most important tool in diagnosing pulmonary disease and is the most frequently performed pulmonary function test. Respiratory disease is also one of the greatest causes for morbidity and mortality on the Hopi Nation, but no specific reference equations exist for this unique population. The purpose of this study was to determine if population reference equations were necessary for these children and, if needed, to create new age and race-specific pulmonary nomograms for Hopi children. Two hundred and ninety-two healthy children, ages 4-13 years, attending Hopi Nation elementary schools in Arizona, were asked to perform spirometry for a full battery of pulmonary volumes and capacities of which the following were analyzed: forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV1 ), FEV1 % (FEV1 /FVC), FEF25-75% and peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR). Spirometric data from Navajo children living in the same geographical region as the Hopi children were compared as well as spirometric data from common reference values used for other ethnic groups in the USA. Spirometry tests from 165 girls and 127 boys met American Thoracic Society quality control standards. We found that the natural log of height, body mass and age were significant predictors of FEV1 , FVC, and FEF25-75% in the gender-specific models and that lung function values all increased with height and age as expected. The predictions using the equations derived for Navajo, Caucasian, Mexican-American, African-American youth were significantly different (P ≤ 0.05) from the predictions derived from the Hopi equations for all of the variables across both genders, with the exceptions of Hopi versus Navajo FEV1 /FVC in the males and Hopi versus Caucasians FEF25-75% in the females. Thus it would appear for this population important to have specific formulae to provide more accurate reference values.

  13. Vitamin D Intake and Status in 6-Year-Old Icelandic Children Followed up from Infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorisdottir, Birna; Gunnarsdottir, Ingibjorg; Steingrimsdottir, Laufey; Palsson, Gestur I; Birgisdottir, Bryndis E; Thorsdottir, Inga

    2016-02-04

    High serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels have been observed in infants in Nordic countries, likely due to vitamin D supplement use. Internationally, little is known about tracking vitamin D status from infancy to childhood. Following up 1-year-old infants in our national longitudinal cohort, our aims were to study vitamin D intake and status in healthy 6-year-old Icelandic children (n = 139) and to track vitamin D status from one year of age. At six years, the mean 25(OH)D level was 56.5 nmol/L (SD 17.9) and 64% of children were vitamin D sufficient (25(OH)D ≥ 50 nmol/L). A logistic regression model adjusted for gender and breastfeeding showed that higher total vitamin D intake (Odds ratio (OR) = 1.27, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.08-1.49), blood samples collected in summer (OR = 8.88, 95% CI = 1.83-43.23) or autumn (OR = 5.64, 95% CI = 1.16-27.32) compared to winter/spring, and 25(OH)D at age one (OR = 1.02, 95% CI = 1.002-1.04) were independently associated with vitamin D sufficiency at age six. The correlation between 25(OH)D at age one and six was 0.34 (p = 0.003). Our findings suggest that vitamin D status in infancy, current vitamin D intake and season are predictors of vitamin D status in early school age children. Our finding of vitamin D status tracking from infancy to childhood provides motivation for further studies on tracking and its clinical significance.

  14. Tumors of the liver; a ten year study in Children Medical Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farahmand F

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to review the frequency, histopathology and outcome in children with tumors of the liver. Methods: Included in this retrospective/descriptive study were 30 children treated for liver tumors from 1375-1384 (ca. 1996-2005, at Children’s Hospital Medical Center, Tehran, Iran. We included the clinical, radiologic, and pathologic data of our patients, focusing on the frequency, etiology and outcome. Results: Patient ages ranged from three months to 12 years (median 3.8 years, with 18 males (60% and 12 females (40%. Of these, 17 patients had hepatoblastoma (55.66%, including 13 males and four females, with an age range of six months to five years. Four cases (13.33% had neuroblastoma. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC was found in three cases (10%, all of whom were carriers of hepatitis B. Two cases (6.66% were diagnosed with mesenchymal hamartoma, two cases (6.66% with hemangioendothelioma and two cases (6.66% with rhabdomyosarcoma and leiomyosarcoma of the biliary tract. Abdominal swelling and hepatomegaly were seen in all of patients. Jaundice was observed in two cases. Serum alpha-fetoprotein levels greater than 500 ng/ml were seen in 17 cases (56.66%. All patients were receiving specific treatment. The three-year survival rate was 65% for hepatoblastoma and 2% for HCC Conclusion: With the introduction of specific treatment, the survival rate for children with tumors of the liver has significantly increased. Further improvement can be achieved using diagnostic biopsy for hepatoblastoma, although it may result in complications, and preoperative chemotherapy followed by complete surgical excision (per International Society of Pediatric Oncology guidelines, yielding an outstanding survival rate of 80%.

  15. Associations between regional brain volumes at term-equivalent age and development at 2 years of age in preterm children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lind, Annika [Turku University Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, Turku (Finland); Aabo Akademi University, Department of Psychology, Turku (Finland); Parkkola, Riitta [University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, Department of Radiology and Turku PET Center, PO Box 52, Turku (Finland); Lehtonen, Liisa; Maunu, Jonna; Lapinleimu, Helena [University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, Turku (Finland); Munck, Petriina [Turku University Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, Turku (Finland); University of Turku, Department of Psychology, Turku (Finland); Haataja, Leena [University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, Department of Pediatric Neurology, Turku (Finland)

    2011-08-15

    Altered brain volumes and associations between volumes and developmental outcomes have been reported in prematurely born children. To assess which regional brain volumes are different in very low birth weight (VLBW) children without neurodevelopmental impairments ([NDI] cerebral palsy, hearing loss, blindness and significantly delayed cognitive performance) compared with VLBW children with NDI, and to evaluate the association between regional brain volumes at term-equivalent age and cognitive development and neurological performance at a corrected age of 2 years. The study group consisted of a regional cohort of 164 VLBW children, divided into one group of children without NDI (n = 148) and one group of children with NDI (n = 16). Brain (MRI) was performed at term-equivalent age, from which brain volumes were manually analysed. Cognitive development was assessed with the Bayley Scales of Infant Development II (BSID-II), and neurological performance with the Hammersmith Infant Neurological Examination at the corrected age of 2 years. The volumes of total brain tissue, cerebrum, frontal lobes, basal ganglia and thalami, and cerebellum were significantly smaller, and the volume of the ventricles significantly larger, in the children with NDI than in those without NDI. Even in children without NDI, a smaller cerebellar volume was significantly correlated with poor neurological performance at 2 years of corrected age. Volumetric analysis at brain MRI can provide an additional parameter for early prediction of outcome in VLBW children. (orig.)

  16. Relationship between overall child development and caries severity in Chilean three-year-old preschool children.

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    Marcela Mufdi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available To determine the relationship between caries and overall child development in three-year-old children in the cities of Linares and Talca, Chile, 2014-2015. Method: Cross-sectional study conducted in a sample of 170 preschool children attending daycare centers in Linares and Talca. Four dimensions of child development (language, cognition, motor skills and socio-emotional development were qualitatively assessed using the child learning and development test (TADI, for its acronym in Spanish. Nutritional development was calculated with the weight/height index. Caries history was assessed by the dmft index and compromised tissue quantification. Statistical analysis was performed using Pearson's rho, ANOVA, Student’s t-test, Fisher’s exact test and Kruskal-Wallis. Results: A negative linear correlation was observed between dmft and total TADI score (r=-0.20, p=0.00, and the dimensions of language (r=-0.19, p=0.01, cognition (r=-0.18, p=0.02 and socio-emotional development (r=-0.21, p=0.01. Preschoolers with a dmft of >6.5 had a lower average TADI score than those with a dmft of <2.6 (p=0.009. There were no statistically significant differences in the level of compromised tissue quantification between preschool children with normal and altered development. No statistically significant association between dmft and nutritional development was found. Conclusion: A relationship between caries severity and overall child development in three-year-old preschool children was observed. Longitudinal studies are required to assess causality.

  17. Vaccination coverage among children in kindergarten - United States, 2013-14 school year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seither, Ranee; Masalovich, Svetlana; Knighton, Cynthia L; Mellerson, Jenelle; Singleton, James A; Greby, Stacie M

    2014-10-17

    State and local vaccination requirements for school entry are implemented to maintain high vaccination coverage and protect schoolchildren from vaccine-preventable diseases. Each year, to assess state and national vaccination coverage and exemption levels among kindergartners, CDC analyzes school vaccination data collected by federally funded state, local, and territorial immunization programs. This report describes vaccination coverage in 49 states and the District of Columbia (DC) and vaccination exemption rates in 46 states and DC for children enrolled in kindergarten during the 2013-14 school year. Median vaccination coverage was 94.7% for 2 doses of measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine; 95.0% for varying local requirements for diphtheria, tetanus toxoid, and acellular pertussis (DTaP) vaccine; and 93.3% for 2 doses of varicella vaccine among those states with a 2-dose requirement. The median total exemption rate was 1.8%. High exemption levels and suboptimal vaccination coverage leave children vulnerable to vaccine-preventable diseases. Although vaccination coverage among kindergartners for the majority of reporting states was at or near the 95% national Healthy People 2020 targets for 4 doses of DTaP, 2 doses of MMR, and 2 doses of varicella vaccine, low vaccination coverage and high exemption levels can cluster within communities. Immunization programs might have access to school vaccination coverage and exemption rates at a local level for counties, school districts, or schools that can identify areas where children are more vulnerable to vaccine-preventable diseases. Health promotion efforts in these local areas can be used to help parents understand the risks for vaccine-preventable diseases and the protection that vaccinations provide to their children.

  18. Change in Metabolic Profile after 1-Year Nutritional-Behavioral Intervention in Obese Children

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    Elvira Verduci

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Research findings are inconsistent about improvement of specific cardio-metabolic variables after lifestyle intervention in obese children. The aim of this trial was to evaluate the effect of a 1-year intervention, based on normocaloric diet and physical activity, on body mass index (BMI, blood lipid profile, glucose metabolism and metabolic syndrome. Eighty-five obese children aged ≥6 years were analyzed. The BMI z-score was calculated. Fasting blood samples were analyzed for lipids, insulin and glucose. The homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR was calculated and insulin resistance was defined as HOMA-IR >3.16. HOMA-β%, quantitative insulin sensitivity check index and triglyceride glucose index were calculated. The metabolic syndrome was defined in accordance with the International Diabetes Federation criteria. At the end of intervention children showed a reduction (mean (95% CI in BMI z-score (−0.58 (−0.66; −0.50, triglycerides (−0.35 (−0.45; −0.25 mmol/L and triglyceride glucose index (−0.29 (−0.37; −0.21, and an increase in HDL cholesterol (0.06 (0.01; 0.11 mmol/L. Prevalence of insulin resistance declined from 51.8% to 36.5% and prevalence of metabolic syndrome from 17.1% to 4.9%. Nutritional-behavioral interventions can improve the blood lipid profile and insulin sensitivity in obese children, and possibly provide benefits in terms of metabolic syndrome.

  19. Patterns of consonant deletion in typically developing children aged 3 to 7 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Deborah G H; van Doorn, Jan; McLeod, Sharynne; Esterman, Adrian

    2008-01-01

    Children with and without speech, language and/or literacy impairment, delete consonants when they name pictures to elicit single words. Consonant deletion seems to be more frequent in long words (words of three or more syllables) than in short words (words of one or two syllables). However, it may be missed in long words because they are not routinely assessed and, even if they are, there is little normative data about them. The study aims were (1) to determine if a relationship exists between consonant deletion and the number of syllables in words, (2) delimit variation in the numbers of children using it, its frequency of occurrence and the words it affects and (3) to discuss the application of these data to clinical practice. The participants were 283 typically developing children, aged 3;0 to 7;11 years, speaking Australian English with proven normal language, cognition and hearing. They named pictures, yielding 166 selected words that were varied for syllable number, stress and shape and repeatedly sampled all consonants and vowels of Australian English. Almost all participants (95%) used consonant deletion. Whilst a relationship existed between consonant deletion frequency and the number of syllables in words, the syllable effect was interpreted as a proxy of an interaction of segmental and prosodic features that included two or more syllables, sonorant sounds, non-final weak syllables, within-word consonant sequences and/or anterior-posterior articulatory movements. Clinically, two or three deletions of consonants across the affected words may indicate typical behaviour for children up to the age of 7;11 years but variations outside these tolerances may mark impairment. These results are further evidence to include long words in routine speech assessment.

  20. Mozart effect on dental anxiety in 6–12 year old children

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    Arlette Suzy Setiawan

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Children anxiety in dental treatment often becomes a barrier for dentist to perform optimum dental treatment procedure. Various methods to manage anxiety and fear in children have been applied including listening to classical music during dental treatment. One of the classical music usually used is music by Mozart. Purpose: This study is aimed to discover the role of classical music by Mozart in dental anxiety changes. Method: This study was a quasi experimental study using purposive sampling method. The samples consist of 30 children between 6-12 years old group who were treated at the Pediatric Dentistry Clinic, Dental Hospital, Faculty of Dentistry Padjadjaran University. The anxiety data was collected using Visual Analogue Scale (VAS before and after listening on the classical music during treatment. Result: The result of this study showed that there were 23 children (76.67% of subjects who present decreased anxiety, 7 children (23.33% of subjects did not present decreased anxiety and none of of subjects showed increased anxiety. Conclusion: It was concluded that listening to music by Mozart during dental treatment can reduce anxiety in 6-12 year old children.Latar belakang: Kecemasan pada anak saat perawatan gigi seringkali merupakan penghalang bagi dokter gigi untuk melaksanakan prosedurperawatan gigi yang optimal. Berbagai metode untuk mengatasi kecemasan dan rasa takutpada anak telah dilakukan termasuk mendengarkan musik klasik selama perawatan gigi. Salah satu musik klasik yang banyak digunakan adalah music oleh Mozart. Tujuan: Penelitian ini ditujukan untuk menemukan peran music klasik Mozart dalam perubahan kecemasan pada perawatan gigi. Metode: Penelitian ini adalah kuasi eksperimental menggunakan metode pengambilan sampel purposif. Sampel terdiri dari 30 anak antara 6-12 tahun yang dirawat di Klinik Kedokteran Gigi Anak, Rumah Sakit Gigi dan Mulut Fakultas Kedokteran Gigi Universitas Padjadjaran. Data kecemasan diambil