Sample records for children 2003-2006 geres

  1. SWOV programme 2003-2006.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)


    SWOV uses a four-year programme to structure its activities over a longer period of time. The current four-year programme, for 2003-2006, includes proposals for so-called planning office activities, anticipatory research, knowledge management, and knowledge dissemination. The research activities are

  2. Fruit juice consumption decreases the proportion of children with inadequate intakes of key nutrients: NHANES 2003-2006 (United States)

    Fruit juice (FJ) consumption has been under scrutiny despite its nutrient profile. NHANES (2003–2006) data were used to compare the proportion of children ages 2–18 years with intakes of selected vitamins/minerals below recommended levels among consumers (n = 3,976; 51% females) and non-consumers (n...

  3. Improved nutrient intake and diet quality with 100% fruit juice consumption in children: NHANES 2003-2006 (United States)

    Fruit juice (FJ) consumption has recently been viewed as a sweetened beverage with little regard to its nutrient contribution to the diet. NHANES, 2003–2006, data were used to examine the association of 100% FJ consumption, with nutrient intake and diet quality in children ages 2–5 y (n equals 1,665...

  4. Diet quality is positively associated with 100% fruit juice consumption in children and adults in the United States: NHANES 2003-2006

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    Zanovec Michael


    Full Text Available Abstract Background One hundred percent fruit juice (100% FJ has been viewed by some as a sweetened beverage with concerns about its effect on weight. Little regard has been given to the contribution of 100% FJ to diet quality. Methods In this study data from the 2003-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used to examine the association of 100% FJ consumption with diet quality in participants 2-5 years of age (y (n = 1665, 6-12 y (n = 2446, 13-18 y (n = 3139, and 19+y (n = 8861. Two 24-hour dietary recalls were used to determine usual intake using the National Cancer Institute method. Usual intake, standard errors, and regression analyses (juice independent variable and Healthy Eating Index-2005 [HEI-2005] components were dependent variables, using appropriate covariates, were determined using sample weights. Results The percentage of participants 2-5 y, 6-12 y, 13-18 y, and 19+y that consumed 100% FJ was 71%, 57%, 45%, and 62%, respectively. Usual intake of 100% FJ (ounce [oz]/day among the four age groups was: 5.8 ± 0.6, 2.6 ± 0.4, 3.7 ± 0.4, and 2.4 ± 0.2 for those in age groups 2-5 y, 6-12 y, 13-18 y, and 19+y, respectively. Consumption of 100% FJ was associated with higher energy intake in 6-12 y, 13-18 y, and 19+y; and higher total, saturated, and discretionary fats in 13-18 y participants. Consumption of 100% FJ was associated with higher total HEI-2005 scores in all age groups ( Conclusions Usual intake of 100% FJ consumption exceeded MyPyramid recommendations for children 2-5 y, but was associated with better diet quality in all age groups and should be encouraged in moderation as part of a healthy diet.

  5. Diet quality is positively associated with 100% fruit juice consumption in children and adults in the United States: NHANES 2003-2006 (United States)

    One hundred percent fruit juice (100% FJ) has been viewed by some as a sweetened beverage with concerns about its effect on weight. Little regard has been given to the contribution of 100% FJ to diet quality. In this study data from the 2003-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were...

  6. Fruit juice consumption is associated with improved nutrient adequacy in children and adolescents: The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003-2006 (United States)

    The goal of the study was to examine the contribution of 100% fruit juice consumption to dietary adequacy of shortfall nutrients by children and adolescents. This was a cross-sectional study and used data from the 2003–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Participants were...

  7. Arboviruses in North Dakota, 2003-2006. (United States)

    Anderson, John F; Main, Andy J; Armstrong, Philip M; Andreadis, Theodore G; Ferrandino, Francis J


    To investigate arbovirus transmission in North Dakota, we collected and screened mosquitoes for viral infection by Vero cell culture assay. Seven viruses were isolated from 13 mosquito species. Spatial and temporal distributions of the important vectors of West Nile virus (WNV), Cache Valley virus, Jamestown Canyon virus (JCV), and trivittatus virus are reported. Snowshoe hare virus, Potosi virus, and western equine encephalomyelitis virus were also isolated. The risks of Culex tarsalis and Aedes vexans transmitting WNV to humans were 61.4% and 34.0% in 2003-2006, respectively, but in 2003 when the largest epidemic was reported, risks for Ae. vexans and Cx. tarsalis in Cass County were 73.6% and 23.9%, respectively. Risk of humans acquiring an infectious bite was greatest from about the second week of July through most of August. West Nile virus sequences were of the WN02 genotype. Most JCV strains belonged to a single clade of genetically related strains. Cache Valley virus and JCV were prevalent during August and early September and during July and August, respectively.

  8. Zoonoses and zoonotic agents in humans, food, animals and feed in the Netherlands 2003-2006

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valkenburgh S; Oosterom R van; Stenvers O; Aalten M; Braks M; Schimmer B; Giessen A van de; Pelt W van; Langelaar M; Voedsel en Waren Autoriteit VWS; LZO; EPI


    The report 'Zoonoses and Zoonotic Agents in Humans, Food, Animals and Feed in The Netherlands 2003 - 2006' is based on data that is reported annually to the European Commission, in accordance with the Directive 2003/99/EC on the monitoring of zoonoses and zoonotic agents. They are supplemented with

  9. Blended Learning für gering qualifizierte Lerner?

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    Anke Grotlüschen


    Full Text Available Die seit langem bekannte «Bildungsschere» weitet sich zu einer digitalen Diskriminierung aus: Einkommen und Vorbildung entscheiden darüber, wer an Blended Learning teilnehmen kann. Einige empirische Untersuchungen (v. a. das Berichtssystem Weiterbildung und die sog. München-Studie zeigen auf, wer selbst gesteuert mit Medien lernt. Kontrastierend werden Evaluationsergebnisse eines Förderprojekts vorgestellt. Sie zeigen die Reichweite und Grenzen von E-Learning-Anteilen in Lernszenarien für gering qualifizierte Lernende auf.

  10. Fatalities among oil and gas extraction workers--United States, 2003-2006. (United States)


    Oil and gas extraction (i.e., removing oil and natural gas from the ground) is a growing industry in the United States, employing approximately 380,000 workers in 2006. In recent years, activity in this industry has increased substantially, from an average of 800 actively drilling rigs in the United States during the 1990s to approximately 1,300 during 2003-2006. In August 2005, the U.S. Department of Labor's Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) asked CDC to investigate a 15% increase in fatalities among oil and gas extraction workers (from 85 fatalities in 2003 to 98 in 2004). CDC analyzed data from the BLS Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries (CFOI) for the period 2003-2006. This report describes the results of that analysis, which indicated that increases in oil and gas extraction activity were correlated with an increase in the rate of fatal occupational injuries in this industry, with an annual fatality rate of 30.5 per 100,000 workers (404 fatalities) during 2003-2006, approximately seven times the rate for all workers (4.0 per 100,000 workers). Nearly half of all fatal injuries among these workers were attributed to highway motor-vehicle crashes and workers being struck by machinery or equipment. Employers should work with existing industry groups and federal, state, and local government agencies to promote seatbelt use. In addition, researchers and public health officials should collaborate with industry groups to establish engineering and process controls that remove workers from potentially dangerous machinery while drilling and servicing oil and gas wells.

  11. Social disparities in exposures to bisphenol A and polyfluoroalkyl chemicals: a cross-sectional study within NHANES 2003-2006

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    Nelson Jessica W


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bisphenol A (BPA and polyfluoroalkyl chemicals (PFCs are suspected endocrine disrupting compounds known to be ubiquitous in people's bodies. Population disparities in exposure to these chemicals have not been fully characterized. Methods We analyzed data from the 2003-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Using multivariable linear regression we examined the association between urinary concentrations of BPA, serum concentrations of four PFCs, and multiple measures of socioeconomic position (SEP: family income, education, occupation, and food security. We also examined associations with race/ethnicity. Results All four PFCs were positively associated with family income, whereas BPA was inversely associated with family income. BPA concentrations were higher in people who reported very low food security and received emergency food assistance than in those who did not. This association was particularly strong in children: 6-11 year-olds whose families received emergency food had BPA levels 54% higher (95% CI, 13 to 112% than children of families who did not. For BPA and PFCs we saw smaller and less consistent associations with education and occupation. Mexican Americans had the lowest concentrations of any racial/ethnic group of both types of chemicals; for PFCs, Mexican Americans not born in the U.S. had much lower levels than those born in the U.S. Conclusions People with lower incomes had higher body burdens of BPA; the reverse was true for PFCs. Family income with adjustment for family size was the strongest predictor of chemical concentrations among the different measures of SEP we studied. Income, education, occupation, and food security appear to capture different aspects of SEP that may be related to exposure to BPA and PFCs and are not necessarily interchangeable as measures of SEP in environmental epidemiology studies. Differences by race/ethnicity were independent of SEP.

  12. Perfluoroalkyl substances and endometriosis in US women in NHANES 2003-2006. (United States)

    Campbell, Stephanie; Raza, Masooma; Pollack, Anna Z


    Exposure to endocrine-active perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), is nearly ubiquitous, but data on the association between PFASs and endometriosis diagnosis are limited. We aimed to examine the relationship between PFASs and endometriosis. Women aged 20-50 years from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2003-2006) were selected (n=753). Serum PFAS levels were measured and endometriosis status was determined by self-report of doctor diagnosis. Weighted survey sampling logistic regression was used. Women reporting endometriosis were older (39.4 vs. 33.7 years), and more likely to be non-Hispanic white. Geometric mean levels of perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) were significantly higher among women reporting endometriosis. Endometriosis was associated with select quartiles of PFOA, PFNA, and PFOS. Sensitivity analyses had similar results but wider confidence intervals. These findings suggest that PFOA, PFNA, and PFOS may be of interest in future studies with improved endometriosis diagnostic criteria and prospectively measured exposure.

  13. Changes in West Nile virus seroprevalence and antibody titers among Wisconsin mesopredators 2003-2006. (United States)

    Docherty, Douglas E; Samuel, Michael D; Egstad, Kristina F; Griffin, Kathryn M; Nolden, Cherrie A; Karwal, Lovkesh; Ip, Hon S


    After the 2001 occurrence of West Nile virus (WNV) in Wisconsin (WI), we collected sera, during 2003-2006, from south-central WI mesopredators. We tested these sera to determine WNV antibody prevalence and geometric mean antibody titer (GMAT). Four-fold higher antibody prevalence and 2-fold higher GMAT in 2003-2004 indicated greater exposure of mesopredators to WNV during the apparent epizootic phase. The period 2005-2006 was likely the enzootic phase because WNV antibody prevalence fell to a level similar to other flaviviruses. Our results suggest that, in mesopredators, vector-borne transmission is the primary route of infection and WNV antibodies persist for < 1 year. Mesopredators may be sensitive indicators of West Nile virus spill-over into humans and horses. Mesopredator sero-surveys may complement dead crow surveillance by providing additional data for the timing of public health interventions. Research is needed to clarify the dynamics of WNV infection in these mammals and their role as potential WNV amplifiers.

  14. Assessing Physical Activity and its Relationship to Cardiovascular Risk Factors: NHANES 2003-2006

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    Cao Guichan


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Levels of physical activity (PA in the general population are difficult to characterize. Historically measurement has been based on self-report, which can be subject to bias. PA monitor use has created opportunities to improve surveillance and analytic research on activity and health. The aims of the current study were to investigate the associations between objectively measured PA and cardiovascular disease risk factors and obesity. Methods Data on PA from accelerometers, demographics, blood pressure, plasma glucose and lipids, self-reported hypertension and diabetes were obtained for adults, ages 20-65, in the NHANES surveys, 2003-2006. Outcomes were assessed as levels of moderate and vigorous activity, percentage of participants meeting recommended guidelines, and the correlations between activity and cardiovascular risk factors. Accelerometry data were available on 3,370 adults. Based on standard algorithms, activity levels were extremely low in all age-gender-race/ethnic groups, with an average of only 1 bout of vigorous activity lasting longer than 1 minute/day. Results Men spent 35 minutes in moderate activity/day, women 21 minutes; >75% of this activity was accumulated in 1-minute bouts. Levels of activity declined sharply after age 50 in all groups. Negative associations were observed between minutes of combined moderate and vigorous activity and systolic blood pressure, blood glucose, diabetes, hypertension, body mass index and obesity, and a positive association was seen with HDL-cholesterol (all P ≤ 0.03, suggesting valid rank ordering of participants by activity level. Conclusion The magnitude of the gap between self-report and accelerometry activity must be a result of either a vast social acceptability bias in reporting or inaccurate measurement with accelerometry. Therefore, due to the low validity of self reported PA data for epidemiologic research, it is pertinent to encourage the use of valid, objective

  15. Environmental Assessment of the Gering-Stegall 115-kV Transmission Line Consolidation Project, Scotts Bluff County, Nebraska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The Department of Energy (DOE), Western Area Power Administration (Western) proposes to consolidate segments of two transmission lines near the Gering Substation in Gering, Nebraska. The transmission lines are both located in Scotts Bluff County, Nebraska. The transmission lines are both located in Scotts Bluff County, Nebraska, within the city of Gering. Presently, there are three parallel 115-kilovolt (kV) transmission lines on separate rights-of-way (ROW) that terminate at the Gering Substation. The project would include dismantling the Archer-Gering wood-pole transmission line and rebuilding the remaining two lines on single-pole steel double circuit structures. The project would consolidate the Gering-Stegall North and Gering-Stegall South 115-kV transmission lines on to one ROW for a 1.33-mile segment between the Gering Substation and a point west of the Gering Landfill. All existing wood-pole H-frame structures would be removed, and the Gering-Stegall North and South ROWs abandoned. Western is responsible for the design, construction, operation, and maintenance of the line. Western prepared an environmental assessment (EA) that analyzed the potential environmental impacts of the proposed construction, operation, and maintenance of the 115-kV transmission line consolidation. Based on the analyses in the EA, the DOE finds that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA).

  16. Assessment of financial flow in the health system of Serbia in a period 2003-2006

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    Gajić-Stevanović Milena


    low as the consequence of relatively low level of GDP in Serbia. Conclusion. Establishing NHA provided a pattern of national healtcare spending and allowed a comparison of healthcare system in Serbia with the systems of other countries. Analysing a period 2003- 2006 revealed a similarity between Serbia and the countries of the European Unity in regard to the level of average financial resources allocation for healthcare expressed as a percentage of GDP, as well as in regard to financiers in the system of healthcare. A high purchasing power disparity, however, in healthcare services was observed between the population of Serbia and other European countries.

  17. Mountain Lions of the Flagstaff Uplands: 2003-2006 Progress Report (United States)

    Mattson, David J.


    Executive Summary Stakeholders in management of mountain lions in the Flagstaff Uplands of northern Arizona have expressed increasing concern about both potential impacts of humans on lions and potential risks posed by lions to humans. A series of human-mountain lion encounters during 2000-2001 on Mt. Elden, immediately adjacent to Flagstaff, and similar incidents during 2004 near Tucson brought increased attention to management of human safety in mountain lion range. These human-centered concerns, together with long-standing questions about how the human infrastructure centered on Flagstaff might be affecting lion movements led us to initiate a mountain lion study in 2003 which we plan to continue through 2009. Our study focuses on movements and other behaviors of mountain lions, with the goal of providing information that can be used to increase human safety, decrease human impacts, and, overall, provide insight into the ecology of lions in this region. To serve this goal, we have focused on collecting data that will be the basis of explanatory models that can provide spatially-explicit predictions of mountain lion activity, specify the effects of human facilities, such as highways and urban areas, and provide insight into when, where, and how often different kinds of lions kill different kinds of prey. During 2003-2006, we captured six female and five male mountain lions in the Flagstaff Uplands, 10 of which we fitted with collars that collected up to six high-precision GPS fixes per day, transmitted daily to our offices via Argos satellites. This timely delivery of data allowed us to visit kill sites and other foci of localized activity to collect detailed information on lion behavior. By June 2006 we had obtained 9357 GPS locations and visited 394 sites, at which we documented 218 kills, 165 of which were by five females and 53 by five males. These data were the basis for preliminary analyses presented in this report. All lions during all seasons exhibited a

  18. Population-referenced percentiles for waist-worn accelerometer-derived total activity counts in U.S. youth: 2003 - 2006 NHANES.

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    Dana L Wolff-Hughes

    Full Text Available The total activity volume performed is an overall measure that takes into account the frequency, intensity, and duration of activities performed. The importance of considering total activity volume is shown by recent studies indicating that light physical activity (LPA and intermittent moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA have health benefits. Accelerometer-derived total activity counts (TAC per day from a waist-worn accelerometer can serve as a proxy for an individual's total activity volume. The purpose of this study was to develop age- and gender-specific percentiles for daily TAC, minutes of MVPA, and minutes of LPA in U.S. youth ages 6 - 19 y.Data from the 2003 - 2006 NHANES waist-worn accelerometer component were used in this analysis. The sample was composed of youth aged 6 - 19 years with at least 4 d of ≥ 10 hours of accelerometer wear time (N = 3698. MVPA was defined using age specific cutpoints as the total number of minutes at ≥4 metabolic equivalents (METs for youth 6 - 17 y or minutes with ≥2020 counts for youth 18 - 19 y. LPA was defined as the total number of minutes between 100 counts and the MVPA threshold. TAC/d, MVPA, and LPA were averaged across all valid days.For males in the 50th percentile, the median activity level was 441,431 TAC/d, with 53 min/d of MVPA and 368 min/d of LPA. The median level of activity for females was 234,322 TAC/d, with 32 min/d of MVPA and 355 min/d of LPA.Population referenced TAC/d percentiles for U.S. youth ages 6-19 y provide a novel means of characterizing the total activity volume performed by children and adolescents.

  19. Selected physiologic variables are weakly to moderately associated with 29 biomarkers of diet and nutrition, NHANES 2003-2006. (United States)

    Haynes, Bridgette M H; Pfeiffer, Christine M; Sternberg, Maya R; Schleicher, Rosemary L


    The physiologic status of an individual may influence biomarkers of nutritional status. To help researchers with planning studies and interpreting data, we assessed the associations between common physiologic variables (fasting, inflammation, renal function, and pregnancy) and 29 biomarkers of diet and nutrition measured in blood or urine in a representative sample of the adult U.S. population (aged ≥ 20 y; pregnancy variable and iron indicators limited to women aged 20-49 y) participating in NHANES 2003-2006. We compared simple linear regression (model 1) with multiple linear regression [model 2, controlling for age, sex, race-ethnicity, smoking, supplement use, and the physiologic factors (and urine creatinine for urine biomarkers)] and report significant findings from model 2. Not being fasted was positively associated with most water-soluble vitamins (WSVs) and related metabolites (RMs). Some WSV, fat-soluble vitamin (FSV) and micronutrient (MN), and phytoestrogen concentrations were lower in the presence of inflammation (C-reactive protein ≥ 5 mg/L), whereas fatty acids and most iron indicators were higher. Most WSVs and RMs were higher when renal function was impaired [estimated glomerular filtration rate function, however, showed several large differences for WSV and RM concentrations. This descriptive analysis of associations between physiologic variables and a large number of nutritional biomarkers showed that controlling for demographic variables, smoking, and supplement use generally did not change the interpretation of bivariate results. The analysis serves as a useful basis for more complex future research.

  20. Short report: Changes in West Nile virus seroprevalence and antibody titers among Wisconsin mesopredators 2003-2006 (United States)

    Docherty, D.E.; Samuel, M.D.; Egstad, K.F.; Griffin, K.M.; Nolden, C.A.; Karwal, L.; Ip, H.S.


    After the 2001 occurrence of West Nile virus (WNV) in Wisconsin (WI), we collected sera, during 2003-2006, from south-central WI mesopredators. We tested these sera to determine WNV antibody prevalence and geometric mean antibody titer (GMAT). Four-fold higher antibody prevalence and 2-fold higher GMAT in 2003-2004 indicated greater exposure of mesopredators to WNV during the apparent epizootic phase. The period 2005-2006 was likely the enzootic phase because WNV antibody prevalence fell to a level similar to other flaviviruses. Our results suggest that, in mesopredators, vector-borne transmission is the primary route of infection and WNV antibodies persist for < 1 year. Mesopredators may be sensitive indicators of West Nile virus spill-over into humans and horses. Mesopredator sero-surveys may complement dead crow surveillance by providing additional data for the timing of public health interventions. Research is needed to clarify the dynamics of WNV infection in these mammals and their role as potential WNV amplifiers. Copyright ?? 2009 by The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  1. electorales 2003-2006

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    Francisco Martínez Martínez


    Full Text Available La concepción, organización y desarrollo de elecciones son un aspecto de la vida democrática de los Estados modernos, actualmente son determinantes para el correcto ejercicio del poder y de la autoridad pública, por tanto su afección va más allá del simple ejercicio e instrumento del voto; por tal motivo, la integración de la estructura electoral y, particularmente la del Estado de México, reviste interés desde que, a partir del mismo se sustenta una buena parte de la consolidación de las instituciones que, emanadas de tal ejercicio, concite a las mejores prácticas en la vida cotidiana de los habitantes de su territorio, en tal sentido un adecuado sistema de integración e incorporación de servidores electorales prevendría y mejoraría la relación de distanciamiento entre ciudadano y autoridades electorales y, en sentido más amplio, daría confianza y certidumbre a los resultado obtenidos.

  2. Prevalence of Feeding Related Issues/Difficulties in Taiwanese Children with History of Prematurity, 2003-2006 (United States)

    Howe, Tsu-Hsin; Hsu, Chyong-Hsin; Tsai, Mei-Wun


    Feeding problems are common problems seen in premature infants following their discharge from the NICU. However, the prevalence of feeding issues and failure to thrive among preterm infants in Taiwan is uncertain. All former studies of prevalence and identifications of feeding issues were from western countries. Those findings are therefore not…

  3. Estudo longitudinal sobre qualidade e equidade no ensino fundamental brasileiro: GERES 2005 Estudio longitudinal sobre cualidad y equidad en la enseñanza fundamental brasileña: GERES 2005 Longitudinal study of quality and equity in the Brazilian elementary education: GERES 2005

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    Creso Franco


    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta o relato do desenho metodológico do "Estudo longitudinal sobre qualidade e eficácia no ensino fundamental brasileiro: GERES 2005". O GERES ainda está em desenvolvimento e sua principal característica é o acompanhamento de uma mesma amostra de alunos dos anos iniciais do ensino fundamental ao longo de quatro anos. Cinco cidades participam do estudo, a saber: Belo Horizonte (MG, Rio de Janeiro (RJ, Salvador (BA, Campinas (SP e Campo Grande (MS. O estudo começou em 2005 e envolve a aplicação de testes cognitivos em Leitura e em Matemática, bem como questionários contextuais para alunos, professores e diretores das escolas participantes. A Teoria de Resposta ao Item Paramétrica tem sido utilizada com o propósito de equalização das escalas para os diferentes níveis de escolarização (anos ou seus equivalentes, de modo que seja possível obter uma curva de crescimento da proficiência ao longo do tempo para cada aluno observado. O GERES tem como objetivo central investigar quais práticas pedagógicas e condições escolares contribuem para a promoção da eficácia e da eqüidade escolar, tendo como principal abordagem analítica a utilização de modelos multiníveis.Este artículo presenta relato del diseño metodológico del "Estudio longitudinal sobre cualidad y eficacia en la enseñanza fundamental brasileña: GERES 2005". El GERES aún está en desenvolvimiento y su principal característica es el acompañamiento de una misma muestra de alumnos de los años iniciales de la enseñanza fundamental al longo de cuatro años. Cinco ciudades participan del estudio, a saber: Belo Horizonte (MG, Rio de Janeiro (RJ, Salvador (BA, Campinas (SP e Campo Grande (MS. El estudio comenzó en 2005 y envuelve la aplicación de testes cognitivos en Lectura y en Matemática, bien como cuestionarios contextuales para alumnos, profesores y directores de las escuelas participantes. La Teoría de Respuesta al Ítem Param

  4. 100% Orange juice consumption is associated with better diet quality, improved nutrient adequacy, decreased risk for obesity, and improved biomarkers of health in adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003-2006

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    O’Neil Carol E


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Consumption of 100% orange juice (OJ has been positively associated with nutrient adequacy and diet quality, with no increased risk of overweight/obesity in children; however, no one has examined these factors in adults. The purpose of this study was to examine the association of 100% OJ consumption with nutrient adequacy, diet quality, and risk factors for metabolic syndrome (MetS in a nationally representative sample of adults. Methods Data from adults 19+ years of age (n = 8,861 participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2006 were used. The National Cancer Institute method was used to estimate the usual intake (UI of 100% OJ consumption, selected nutrients, and food groups. Percentages of the population below the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR or above the Adequate Intake (AI were determined. Diet quality was measured by the Healthy Eating Index-2005 (HEI-2005. Covariate adjusted logistic regression was used to determine if consumers had a lower odds ratio of being overweight or obese or having risk factors of MetS or MetS. Results Usual per capita intake of 100% OJ was 50.3 ml/d. Among consumers (n = 2,310; 23.8%, UI was 210.0 ml/d. Compared to non-consumers, consumers had a higher (p  Conclusion The results suggest that moderate consumption of 100% OJ should be encouraged to help individuals meet the USDA daily recommendation for fruit intake and as a component of a healthy diet.

  5. Molecular characterisation of African swine fever viruses from Nigeria (2003-2006) recovers multiple virus variants and reaffirms CVR epidemiological utility. (United States)

    Owolodun, Olajide A; Bastos, Armanda D S; Antiabong, John F; Ogedengbe, Mosunmola E; Ekong, Pius S; Yakubu, Bitrus


    Samples collected from wild and domestic suids in Nigeria, over a 3-year period (2003-2006), were evaluated for African swine fever (ASF) virus genome presence by targeting three discrete genome regions, namely the 478-bp C-terminal p72 gene region advocated for genotype assignment, a 780-bp region spanning the 5'-ends of the pB125R and pB646L (p72) genes and the hypervariable central variable region (CVR) encoded within the 9RL ORF (pB602L). ASF virus (ASFV) presence was confirmed in 23 of the 26 wild and domestic pigs evaluated. No evidence of ASF infection was found in two warthogs from Adamawa State; however, one bushpig from Plateau State was positive. Nucleotide sequences of the 478-bp and 780-bp amplicons were identical across all ASFV-positive samples sequenced. However, five discrete CVR variants were recovered, bringing the total number identified to date, from Nigeria, to six. The largest of the CVR variants, termed 'Tet-36' was identical to a virus causing outbreaks in neighbouring Benin in 1997, indicating a prolonged persistence of this virus type in Nigeria. Co-circulation of three tetramer types (Tet-36, Tet-27 and Tet-20) was found in Plateau State in July 2004, whilst in Benue State, two tetramer types (Tet-20 and Tet-21) were present in August 2005. Despite simultaneous field presence, individual co-infection was not observed. This study has reaffirmed the epidemiological utility of the CVR genome region for distinguishing between geographically and temporally constrained genotype I viruses, and has revealed the presence of multiple ASFV variants in Nigeria.

  6. Bloodstream infections among patients treated with intravenous epoprostenol or intravenous treprostinil for pulmonary arterial hypertension--seven sites, United States, 2003-2006. (United States)


    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a life-threatening disorder characterized by elevated pulmonary artery pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance. Continuous infusion of a prostanoid, which acts as a vasodilator and anti-proliferative agent, is indicated in the treatment of patients with severe PAH. Two prostanoids are approved for intravenous (IV) use in the United States: epoprostenol (epoprostenol sodium [brand name Flolan], Gilead, Foster City, California) and treprostinil (treprostinil sodium [brand name Remodulin], United Therapeutics, Silver Spring, Maryland). These drugs are administered to PAH patients at hundreds of treatment centers in the United States. In September 2006, CDC received a report from a PAH specialist of a suspected increase in the number of gram-negative bloodstream infections (BSIs) among PAH patients treated with IV treprostinil. CDC conducted a retrospective investigation with the assistance of several state health departments and the cooperation of seven PAH treatment centers to determine the relative rates of BSI in a sample of patients treated with IV treprostinil and IV epoprostenol during 2003--2006. This report describes the results of that investigation, which indicated that, based on combined data from seven separate PAH treatment centers, pooled mean rates of BSI (primarily gram-negative BSI) were significantly higher for patients on treprostinil than for those on epoprostenol. The results do not suggest intrinsic contamination of IV treprostinil as a cause of the infections; the difference in rates might have been caused by differences in preparation and storage of the two agents, differences in catheter care practices, or differences in the anti-inflammatory activity of the agents. Health-care providers who care for PAH patients should be aware of these findings. Further investigation is needed to determine the causes of the different infection rates at centers where this was observed and to determine whether such a

  7. A Política Científica e Tecnológica e as Demandas da Inclusão Social no Governo Lula (2003-2006 [Science and Technology Policy and Demands for Social Inclusion in the Lula Administration (2003-2006

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    Milena Pavan Serafim


    Full Text Available Este artigo parte da percepção de que houve um fortalecimento da questão social, em especial da inclusão social, no Governo Lula. Seu objetivo é analisar em que medida a Política Científica e Tecnológica incorporou modificações e/ou preocupações semelhantes em sua agenda. Para tanto, apresentamos a trajetória dessa política, destacando o período mais recente. Ao analisar documentos oficiais e bibliografias especializadas, constatamos que a criação da Secretaria Nacional de Ciência e Tecnologia para a Inclusão Social deve ser reconhecida como o surgimento de um novo espaço de disputa, ainda que assimétrica e frágil, no qual os atores antes excluídos do processo de conformação da agenda da PCT podem agora tomar parte. --- Science and Technology Policy and Demands for Social Inclusion in the Lula Administration (2003-2006 --- Abstract --- This paper is based on the perception that there has been increasing concern towards social issues in Brazil, particularly that of social inclusion, during the Lula Administration. The main objective of this paper is to analyze to what degree the agenda of science and technology policy has incorporated similar changes or concerns. We therefore explore the trajectory of this policy, in particular the more recent period. Based on the study of official documents and specialized references, we note that the creation of the National Secretary of Science and Technology for Social Inclusion should be recognized as the emergence of a new field for political struggle, albeit still asymmetrical and frail, in which previously excluded actors may now take part in the agenda setting.

  8. Impact of orange juice consumption on bone health of the U.S. population in the national health and nutrition examination survey 2003-2006. (United States)

    Lee, Sang Gil; Yang, Meng; Wang, Ying; Vance, Terrence; Lloyd, Beate; Chung, Sang-Jin; Koo, Sung I; Chun, Ock K


    Orange juice (OJ) fortified with calcium (Ca) and vitamin D has turned OJ into a readily available source of these nutrients for children and adults. However, the impact of OJ consumption on Ca and vitamin D adequacy and bone health has not been documented. The aim of this study was the evaluation of the contribution of 100% OJ consumption to dietary and serum Ca and vitamin D status, and bone health parameters in the U.S. population aged 4 years and older (n=13,971) using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003-2004 and 2005-2006. Food consumption data were coded to produce micronutrient intake values using the USDA Food and Nutrient Database for Dietary Studies 3.0. Serum concentrations of bone-related micronutrients and biomarkers, bone mineral density (BMD), and bone mineral content (BMC) were measured. Analysis of data was conducted using SAS software 9.2 and SUDAAN. OJ consumers showed higher intakes of bone-related micronutrients, compared with nonconsumers (P<.05). In addition, OJ consumers had higher serum Ca levels in adults (P<.01) and had a lower odds ratio for serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 <20 ng/mL in children (P<.05). OJ consumption was positively associated with femur BMD in children (P<.05) and with femur BMC in both children and adults (P<.05). In conclusion, OJ may be recommended as an effective dietary means of improving the status of Ca and vitamin D, acid-base balance, and of promoting bone health in children and adults.

  9. Human brucellosis:seroepidemiology of Tangshan City from 2003 to 2006%2003-2006年唐山市人间布鲁杆菌病血清流行病学分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范玉山; 刘丹; 张立山; 王建红


    Objective To study the human brucellosis infection status and its epidemic feature during 2003-2006.Methods A total of 485 blood samples of serum underwent rose bengal plate test(RBPT)and serum agglutination test(SAT),which include 422 cases having a history of contacting with sheep/goats or cattle,22 suspected eases,and 41 cases having contacted with infected persons.All cases were diagnosed according serology test and epidemiologic survey.Results The positive rates of Serum antibodies(SAT titer)were 8.8%(12/137),12.7%(8/63),13.1%(22/171)and 16.2%(19/114),respectively,during 2003 to 2006 in Tangshan,in an increasing Rend and peaked in the second and the third seasons 77.0%(47/61).The mostly infected population were those who contacted with sheep/goats or cattle,accounting for 98.4%(60/61).Livestock farmers 86.9%(53/61),and veterinarians 8.2%(5/61)were mostly likely to be infected.Assay of serum antibodies is negative in the persons contacting with infected cases.Conclusions The prevalence of human brucellsis had presented a rising tendency in highly dangerous crowd of Tangshan.Contacting with infected livestock(such as sheep/goats or cattle),especially their aborted materials and placenta were mainly transmitted modes of human brucellsis.However,cases of person-to-person transmission has not been discovered in this study.%目的 了解2003-2006年唐山市人间布鲁杆菌感染状况及其流行病学特征.方法 采集有牛羊接触史人群(422例)、疑似病例(22例)和部分与感染者密切接触人员(41例)的血清共485人份,进行虎红平板凝集试验(RBPT)和试管凝集试验(SAT),根据血清学检验和流行病学调查结果进行病例诊断.结果 2003-2006年唐山市布鲁杆菌病抗体阳性检出率分别为8.8%(12/137)、12.7%(8/63)、13.1%(22/171)、16.2%(19/114),呈逐年上升趋势.2、3季度呈现明显的感染发病高峰,占总感染人数的77.0%(47/61).有明确的牛羊接触史人员占总感染人数的98

  10. Usual dietary intake among female breast cancer survivors is not significantly different from women with no cancer history: results of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003-2006. (United States)

    Milliron, Brandy-Joe; Vitolins, Mara Z; Tooze, Janet A


    Dietary intake is a modifiable behavior that may reduce the risk of recurrence and death among breast cancer survivors. Cancer survivors are encouraged to consume a diet rich in fruit, vegetables, and whole grains and limit red meat, processed meat, and alcohol intake. Using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2003-2006), this study examined whether breast cancer survivors and women with no history of cancer differed in the distribution of usual intake of foods included in the dietary recommendations for preventing cancer and recurrences. Participants completed one or two 24-hour dietary recalls. The food groups included in this analysis were whole fruit; total vegetables; dark green and orange vegetables; whole grains; red meat; processed meat; alcohol; and calories from solid fat, alcohol, and added sugar. The National Cancer Institute Method was used to estimate the distribution of usual intake and to compare breast cancer survivors (n=102) to noncancer respondents (n=2,684). Using age and cancer survivor as covariates, subgroup estimates of usual intake were constructed. No significant group differences were found, except that survivors reported a greater intake of whole grains. More than 90% of both groups did not meet recommendations for fruits, vegetables, and whole grains; 75.4% and 70.2%, respectively, consumed less than the red meat recommendation; and cancer survivors was not significantly different from women with no history of cancer.

  11. Nutrients from dairy foods are difficult to replace in diets of Americans: food pattern modeling and an analyses of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2006. (United States)

    Fulgoni, Victor L; Keast, Debra R; Auestad, Nancy; Quann, Erin E


    Because dairy products provide shortfall nutrients (eg, calcium, potassium, and vitamin D) and other important nutrients, this study hypothesized that it would be difficult for Americans to meet nutritional requirements for these nutrients in the absence of dairy product consumption or when recommended nondairy calcium sources are consumed. To test this hypothesis, MyPyramid dietary pattern modeling exercises and an analyses of data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2006 were conducted in those aged at least 2 years (n = 16 822). Impact of adding or removing 1 serving of dairy, removing all dairy, and replacing dairy with nondairy calcium sources was evaluated. Dietary pattern modeling indicated that at least 3 servings of dairy foods are needed to help individuals meet recommendations for nutrients, such as calcium and magnesium, and 4 servings may be needed to help some groups meet potassium recommendations. A calcium-equivalent serving of dairy requires 1.1 servings of fortified soy beverage, 0.6 serving of fortified orange juice, 1.2 servings of bony fish, or 2.2 servings of leafy greens. The replacement of dairy with calcium-equivalent foods alters the overall nutritional profile of the diet and affects nutrients including protein, potassium, magnesium, phosphorus, riboflavin, vitamins A, D and B(12). Similar modeling exercises using consumption data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey also demonstrated that nondairy calcium replacement foods are not a nutritionally equivalent substitute for dairy products. In conclusion, although it is possible to meet calcium intake recommendations without consuming dairy foods, calcium replacement foods are not a nutritionally equivalent substitute for dairy foods and consumption of a calcium-equivalent amount of some nondairy foods is unrealistic.

  12. Sable Island air monitoring program report: 2003-2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waugh, David; Inkpen, Tracey; Hingston, Michael; Keast, Stephanie; McPherson, Johnny; Worthy, Doug; Forbes, Gerry [Air Quality Sciences, Meteorological Service of Canada, Atlantic Region Environment Canada (Canada)


    Sable Island is an island situated in the Atlantic which receives pollutant flows from the Great Lakes and the United States Eastern Seaboard. The Sable Island air monitoring station was set up by the Environmental Studies Research Funds and its partners to monitor the concentration of nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulphur oxides (SO2), hydrogen sulphide (H2S), fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and ozone (O3). This paper presents the results of the first 4 years of operation of the station. It was found that concentrations of PM2.5 and ozone exceeded desirable levels on several occasions while concentrations of NOx, SO2 and H2S recorded were much below maximum acceptable levels. In addition it was found that the episodes of elevated pollutant levels were due to transboundary flows from onshore. The Sable Island air monitoring project showed good results in its first 4 years of operation and the project partners are considering extending the program.

  13. Progress in Predictability Studies in China(2003-2006)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Since the last International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics General Assembly(2003),predictability studies in China have made significant progress.For dynamic forecasts,two novel approaches of conditional nonlinear optimal perturbation and nonlinear local Lyapunov exponents were proposed to cope with the predictability problems of weather and climate,which are superior to the corresponding linear theory.A (ENSO)Was provided based on a theoretical model.To improve the forecast skill of an intermediate coupled ENSO model,a new initialization scheme was developed,and its applicability was illustrated by hindcast experiments.Using the reconstruction phase space theory and the spatio-temporal series predictive method,Chinese scientists also proposed a new approach to improve dynamical extended range(monthly) prediction and successfully applied it to the monthly-scale predictability of short-term climate variations.In statistical forecasts,it Was found that the effects of sea surface temperature on precipitation in China have obvious spatial and temporal distribution features,and that summer precipitation patterns over east China are closely related to the northern atmospheric circulation.For ensemble forecasts,a new initial perturbation method was used to forecast heavy rain in Guangdong and Fujian Provinces on 8 June 1998.Additionally,the ensemble forecast approach was also used for the prediction of a tropical typhoons.A new dowuscaling model consisting of dynamical and statistical methods was provided to improve the prediction of the monthly mean precipitation.This new downscaling model showed a relatively higher score than the issued operational forecast.

  14. A política africana do governo Lula: (2003-2006 The Lula government's African policy: (2003-2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Oliveira Ribeiro


    Full Text Available O artigo analisa as relações Brasil-África entre 2003 e 2006, procurando demonstrar que a eleição de Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva trouxe nova dinâmica às relações do Brasil com o continente africano. O discurso e a prática diplomática deste governo convergem para a construção de alianças preferenciais com parceiros no âmbito das relações Sul-Sul. Nesse contexto, defende-se que África do Sul, Angola e Nigéria são parceiros políticos e econômicos essenciais à estratégia diplomática brasileira para o continente africano.The article analyzes Brazil-Africa relations between 2003 and 2006, aiming to demonstrate that the election of Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva injected a new dynamic to Brazil's relations with the African continent. The discourse and diplomatic practice of the Lula government have combined to help build preferential alliances with partners within the arena of South-South relations. In this context the text argues that South Africa, Angola and Nigeria are essential political and economic partners in Brazil's diplomatic strategy for the African continent.

  15. Türkçe Öğretmenlerinin Okuma Yöntem-Tekniklerini ve Araç-Gereçlerini Kullanma Durumları The Using Conditions Of In Reading Methods-Techniques And Materials Of The Turkish Teachers'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    questions methods are almost at the same rate; reading methods such as verbal choir, reading theatre and memorizing are used less frequently.Additionally, teachers use the teachers’ guidebook with 93% and the course book with 92%. Usage rates of spelling dictionary and dictionaries are very close to each other between the rates of 88-83%; and use of extracurricular reading books remains at 75%. Meanwhile, it was identified that participants do not use the technology in the reading field of Turkish language course, as the rate of use is marked at 67%.Silent and oral reading method emerges as the most used methods for male participants. While oral reading is also the most used method for female participants, association with text emerges as the second most used method. Reading Theater and memorizing methods are the two least used methods for both male and female participants. Türkçe dersi çok yönlü bir derstir. Bu bakımdan, bu dersle ilgili çalışmalar sırasında birden çok değişik yöntem ve tekniğe başvurulması hem doğal, hem de zorunludur. Türkçe Dersi Öğretim Programı’nda okuma, diğer becerilerin geliştirilmesi için temel olarak görülmüştür.Öğrenmenin etkili ve kalıcı olabilmesi için, öğrendiklerimiz birçok duyumuza hitap etmelidir. Bu anlamda okuma alanındaki yöntem-teknik ve araç-gereçler; analiz yapan, sorgulayan, sınıflayan, üreten bireyler olarak yetiştirilmemiz için kullanılmalıdır. Türkçe öğretimi, yalnızca dilsel metinlerle yürütülen bir süreç olmaktan çıkarılıp görsel, işitsel metinlerle de desteklenerek yürütülmelidir.Bu araştırmanın amacı, Türkçe öğretmenlerinin 7 ve 8. sınıf Türkçe öğretim programında yer alan okuma alanında kullanılması önerilen yöntem-teknikleri ve araç-gereçleri kullanma durumlarının belirlenmesidir. Araştırma tarama modelindedir. Araştırmanın örneklemi Bursa il merkezinde görev yapan 298 öğretmenden oluşmaktadır. Örnekleme y

  16. Nyankomne asylansøgeres helbredsstatus og traumatiseringsgrad--sekundaerpublikation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Masmas, Tania Nicole; Møller, Eva; Buhmann, Caecilie;


    non-tortured asylum seekers. Among the torture survivors, 63% fulfilled the criteria of post-traumatic stress disorder, 58% had objective psychological findings, and 42% had torture-related scars. Identification of torture survivors is important in order to initiate the necessary medical treatment...

  17. Selvmordsforsøgeres kontakt til den primaere sundhedssektor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Børge Frank; Christiansen, Erik


    We examined suicide attempters' use of health insurance services as part of an effort to prevent suicidal behaviour.......We examined suicide attempters' use of health insurance services as part of an effort to prevent suicidal behaviour....

  18. NCCOS IKONOS Imagery for the Republic of Palau, 2003-2006 (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) National Ocean Service (NOS) is tasked with the coral mapping element of the U.S. Coral Reef Task...

  19. A case study of speculative financial bubbles in the South African stock market 2003-2006

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, W X; Sornette, Didier; Zhou, Wei-Xing


    We tested 45 indices and common stocks traded in the South African stock market for the possible existence of a bubble over the period from Jan. 2003 to May 2006. A bubble is defined by a faster-than-exponential acceleration with significant log-periodic oscillations. The faster-than-exponential acceleration characteristics are tested with several different metrics, including nonlinearity on the logarithm of the price and power law fits. The log-periodic properties are investigated in detail using the first-order log-periodic power-law (LPPL) formula, the parametric detrending method, the $(H,q)$-analysis, and the second-order Weierstrass-type model, resulting in a consistent and robust estimation of the fundamental angular log-frequency $\\omega_1 =7\\pm 2$, in reasonable agreement with previous estimations on many other bubbles in developed and developing markets. Sensitivity tests of the estimated critical times and of the angular log-frequency are performed by varying the first date and the last date of the...

  20. The epidemiology of breast cancer in French Guiana 2003-2006. (United States)

    Roue, Tristan; Fior, Angela; Plenet, Juliette; Belliardo, Sophie; Nacher, Mathieu


    For the first time the incidence and mortality of breast cancer were estimated in French Guiana, an overseas French Territory of South America. A certified cancer registry collected exhaustive data on breast cancer between 2003 and 2005. The age-standardized rate of breast cancer was 47.1 per 100 000 women. The age-standardized death rate was 11.0 per 100 000 women. Although the standardized incidence and death rates were lower than in metropolitan France and South America, the ratio between incidence and mortality showed that the prognosis of breast cancer in French Guiana was worse than in metropolitan France (23 deaths per 100 incident cases versus 17 deaths per 100 incident cases, respectively). The demographics of French Guiana, suggests that mass organized screening may benefit from lowering the age of its target population.

  1. U.S. Marine Corps Operations in Iraq, 2003-2006 (United States)


    Brigade, 1st Infantry Division, patrolled the area of operations Topeka. Colonel Arthur W. “ Buck ” Conner Jr., U.S. Army, deployed his 1st Battalion...15 RPG propellants 5 RPG boosters 4 Powder bags 5 Primers 8 These results remained typical throughout the campaign of 2004–2005 for that level of

  2. Restoring Anadromous Fish Habitat in the Lapwai Creek Watershed, Technical Report 2003-2006.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasmussen, Lynn


    The Restoring Anadromous Fish Habitat in the Lapwai Creek Watershed is a multi-phase project to enhance steelhead trout in the Lapwai Creek watershed by improving salmonid spawning and rearing habitat. Habitat is limited by extreme high runoff events, low summer flows, high water temperatures, poor instream cover, spawning gravel siltation, and sediment, nutrient and bacteria loading. Funded by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) as part of the Northwest Power Planning Council's Fish and Wildlife Program, the project assists in mitigating damage to steelhead runs caused by the Columbia River hydroelectric dams. The project is sponsored by the Nez Perce Soil and Water Conservation District (District). Target fish species include steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Steelhead trout within the Snake River Basin were listed in 1997 as threatened under the Endangered Species Act. Accomplishments for the contract period December 1, 2003 through February 28, 2004 include; seven grade stabilization structures, 0.67 acres of wetland plantings, ten acres tree planting, 500 linear feet streambank erosion control, two acres grass seeding, and 120 acres weed control.

  3. Teaching medical ethics to undergraduate students in post-apartheid South Africa, 2003 2006. (United States)

    Moodley, Keymanthri


    The apartheid ideology in South Africa had a pervasive influence on all levels of education including medical undergraduate training. The role of the health sector in human rights abuses during the apartheid era was highlighted in 1997 during the Truth and Reconciliation Commission hearings. The Health Professions Council of South Africa (HPCSA) subsequently realised the importance of medical ethics education and encouraged the introduction of such teaching in all medical schools in the country. Curricular reform at the University of Stellenbosch in 1999 presented an unparalleled opportunity to formally introduce ethics teaching to undergraduate students. This paper outlines the introduction of a medical ethics programme at the Faculty of Health Sciences from 2003 to 2006, with special emphasis on the challenges encountered. It remains one of the most comprehensive undergraduate medical ethics programmes in South Africa. However, there is scope for expanding the curricular time allocated to medical ethics. Integrating the curriculum both horizontally and vertically is imperative. Implementing a core curriculum for all medical schools in South Africa would significantly enhance the goals of medical education in the country.

  4. TOPICAL REVIEW: A review of power harvesting using piezoelectric materials (2003 2006) (United States)

    Anton, Steven R.; Sodano, Henry A.


    The field of power harvesting has experienced significant growth over the past few years due to the ever-increasing desire to produce portable and wireless electronics with extended lifespans. Current portable and wireless devices must be designed to include electrochemical batteries as the power source. The use of batteries can be troublesome due to their limited lifespan, thus necessitating their periodic replacement. In the case of wireless sensors that are to be placed in remote locations, the sensor must be easily accessible or of a disposable nature to allow the device to function over extended periods of time. Energy scavenging devices are designed to capture the ambient energy surrounding the electronics and convert it into usable electrical energy. The concept of power harvesting works towards developing self-powered devices that do not require replaceable power supplies. A number of sources of harvestable ambient energy exist, including waste heat, vibration, electromagnetic waves, wind, flowing water, and solar energy. While each of these sources of energy can be effectively used to power remote sensors, the structural and biological communities have placed an emphasis on scavenging vibrational energy with piezoelectric materials. This article will review recent literature in the field of power harvesting and present the current state of power harvesting in its drive to create completely self-powered devices.

  5. NCCOS Shoreline for the Republic of Palau - Derived from IKONOS Imagery, 2003-2006 (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project is a cooperative effort between the National Ocean Service, National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science, Center for Coastal Monitoring and Assessment,...

  6. Large-Scale Submerged Aquatic Vegetation Restoration in Chesapeake Bay: Status Report, 2003-2006 (United States)


    marina), (2) wild celery (V. americana), (3) sago pondweed (S. pectinata), and (4) redhead grass (P. perfoliatus). Molecular and cultivation...depth and density on germination and development of Zostera marina L. seeds. Biologia Marina Mediterranea 7(3):55–58. Granger, S., M. Traber, S. W...sago pondweed (S. pectinata), and redhead grass (P. perfoliatus) collected from different regions of the Chesapeake Bay. Molecular and cultivation

  7. Factores De Riesgo Para Parto Pretermino En El Departamento De Caldas Entre El 2003-2006


    Arango, Maria del Pilar; Gineco-Obstetra, Docente Gineco-obstetricia, F. de Medicina, Universidad de Manizales.; Aroca Gonzalez, Ana Maria; Estudiante 10º Semestre, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Manizales.; Caicedo Pastrana, Claudia Lorena; Gineco-Obstetra, Docente Gineco-obstetricia, F. de Medicina, Universidad de Manizales.; Castaño Berdawil, Ricardo Elias; Gineco-Obstetra, Docente Gineco-obstetricia, F. de Medicina, Universidad de Manizales.; Castaño Castrillón, Jose Jaime; Profesor Asociado, Director Centro de Investigaciones, F. de Medicina, U. de Manizales. Cra 9 # 19-03, Manizales, Caldas, teléfono 8841450. Correo :; Cifuentes Navas, Viviana Andrea; Gineco-Obstetra, Docente Gineco-obstetricia, F. de Medicina, Universidad de Manizales.; Escobar Cardona, Natalia; Gineco-Obstetra, Docente Gineco-obstetricia, F. de Medicina, Universidad de Manizales.; Giraldo Galvis, Jairo Alonso; Gineco-Obstetra, Docente Gineco-obstetricia, F. de Medicina, Universidad de Manizales.; Lopez, Irma Rocio; Estudiante 10º Semestre, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Manizales.


    Preterm deliveries include births before a gestational age of 37 weeks. It’s from unknownetiology and seems to be a multi-factorial pathology, which worldwide is recognized asthe first cause of prenatal morbidity and mortality.Objective: To identify risk factors for preterm deliveries in the pregnant women of thedepartments of Caldas between the years 2003 and 2006.Materials and Methods: A descriptive retrospective study was made of cases andcontrols in local hospitals of the Republica Hospit...

  8. Food portion patterns and trends among U.S. children and the relationship to total eating occasion size, 1977-2006. (United States)

    Piernas, Carmen; Popkin, Barry M


    Food and beverage portion sizes are related to childhood obesity. We examined trends in food portion sizes and the association with total meal sizes among U.S. children. We selected children 2- to 18-y-old (n = 31,337) from 4 nationally representative surveys of food intake between 1977-1978 and 2003-2006. We assessed portion sizes (kcal and g) of selected key foods (soft/fruit drinks, salty snacks, desserts, French fries, burgers, pizzas, Mexican fast foods, and hot dogs), the total energy from eating occasions that included key foods, and portion sizes of the selected key foods by source (stores, restaurants, and fast-food locations). These foods represented over one-third of children's energy intake in 2003-2006. Portion sizes increased significantly over the 30-y period and increases in pizza were particularly pronounced in the last decade [+176 kcal (736 kJ). Energy from eating occasions including pizzas and soft drinks increased, as did the proportion of energy from these foods in an eating occasion. Hamburgers and cheeseburgers increased in portion size and eating occasion size, but the proportion of these foods in the total eating occasions did not increase. Portion sizes of other key foods increased, although the total energy from eating events that included them remained constant (e.g. Mexican fast-foods, French fries, fruit drinks) or decreased (e.g. salty snacks, desserts). Portion sizes increased across all food sources (stores, restaurants, and fast foods) for soft drinks and pizzas but only at fast-food locations for French fries. Portion sizes continue to grow for selected foods. Fast-food chains appear to be linked with less healthful portion size increases for selected foods.

  9. Analysis of factors influencing admission to intensive care following convulsive status epilepticus in children.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tirupathi, Sandya


    OBJECTIVES: To identify clinical features and therapeutic decisions that influence admission to the Intensive Care unit (ICU) in children presenting with convulsive status epilepticus (CSE). METHODS: We evaluated 47 admissions with status epilepticus to a tertiary paediatric hospital A&E over a three year period (2003-2006). Following initial management 23 episodes required admission to ICU and 24 were managed on a paediatric ward. We compared clinical, demographic data and compliance with our CSE protocol between the ICU and ward groups. RESULTS: Median age at presentation in the ICU group was 17 months (range 3 months-11 years) compared to 46 months in the ward group (range 3 months-10 years). Fifty per cent of patients in both groups had a previous history of seizures. Median duration of pre-hospital seizure activity was 30 min in both groups. More than two doses of benzodiazepines were given as first line medication in 62% of the ICU group and 33% of the ward group. Among children admitted to ICU with CSE, 26% had been managed according to the CSE protocol, compared to 66% of children who were admitted to a hospital ward. Febrile seizures were the most common aetiology in both groups. CONCLUSION: Younger age at presentation, administration of more than two doses of benzodiazepines and deviation from the CSE protocol appear to be factors which influence admission of children to ICU. Recognition of pre-hospital administration of benzodiazepines and adherence to therapeutic guidelines may reduce the need for ventilatory support in this group.

  10. Endocarditis - children (United States)

    Valve infection - children; Staphylococcus aureus - endocarditis - children; Enterococcus - endocarditis- children; Streptococcus viridians - endocarditis - children; Candida - endocarditis - children; Bacterial endocarditis - children; Infective ...

  11. La influenza en Costa Rica 2003-2006, un tema fundamental para la vigilancia epidemiológica actual Influenza in Costa Rica 2003-2006, a fundamental issue for the current epidemiological surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Patricia Carvajal Muñoz


    Full Text Available Anualmente la influenza causa aproximadamente 3,5 millones de casos severos en el mundo. Objetivo: Describir y analizar la situación epidemiológica de la influenza y apoyar el fortalecimiento de su sistema de vigilancia. Métodos: Estudio descriptivo retrospectivo. Se calculó incidencia, riesgo relativo (RR, intervalo de confianza al 95 % (IC 95 % y número de egresos con sus promedios móviles, tasas de egreso hospitalario de influenza y neumonía. Fuentes de datos: los registros de notificación colectiva del Ministerio de Salud, la base de datos de egresos hospitalarios del Seguro Social y los registros de la vigilancia centinela del Centro Nacional de Influenza. Resultados: La incidencia anual mostró tendencia al aumento (R2 = 0,9 con picos en marzo a abril, junio a septiembre y agosto a diciembre. Las tasas anuales de egreso hospitalario mostraron tendencia a disminuir (R2 =0,9 con picos en marzo a mayo, julio a septiembre y septiembre a octubre. El pico de aislamientos del laboratorio se presentó en el segundo semestre de cada año, más frecuente en los meses de julio, agosto y septiembre. Discusión: Se cotejaron los datos de la vigilancia, los egresos hospitalarios y el laboratorio, los resultados no fueron suficientes para concluir si la influenza muestra estacionalidad. Se sugiere realizar un estudio del sistema de vigilancia de influenza para mejorar la calidad y el registro de los datos ya que es fundamental conocer la estacionalidad de la influenza y sus cambios para respaldar las intervenciones correspondientes y sus modificaciones.Influenza causes approximately 3,5 million cases of severe illness each year worldwide. Objective: To describe and analyze the influenza epidemiological situation in the past four years in order to support enhancement of the influenza surveillance system in Costa Rica. Methods: A descriptive, retrospective study was conducted. Incidence and hospital discharge rates were calculated. Sources of data were: collective notification forms of the Ministry of Health, the hospital discharge data base of the Costa Rican Social Security system as well as the influenza surveillance forms of the National Influenza Center. Results: Since 2005 collective information has been gathered monthly, by province, by age-groups and sex. From 2005 through 2006, the highest rates were found in the months of March and May. Regarding hospital discharges, mobile averages showed that a peak was reached between June and September. Laboratory diagnoses were highest during the months of July through September. Discussion: Collective notification is higher in the first semester; nevertheless, hospital discharge rates are higher between June and September which match the peak reached by laboratory diagnoses for influenza virus; this may suggest seasonality but there is a lack of robust data to confirm this; therefore, we suggest conducting further seasonality studies. This study supports the development of guidelines for the influenza surveillance process in Costa Rica.

  12. Estudio descriptivo de la enfermedad cerebrovascular en el Hospital Regional Docente de Ica-Perú 2003 - 2006

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    J. Jhonnel Alarco


    Full Text Available Objetivo, Determinar algunas características epidemiológicas de la enfermedad cerebro vascular (ECV, describir las características de la población estudiada según sexo, edad, procedencia, raza, forma de inicio, ubicación, tipos y subtipos, síntomas, antecedentes patológicos y mortalidad intrahospitalaria. Materiales y métodos, estudio descriptivo. Lugar, Hospital Regional Docente de Ica. Criterios de inclusión, pacientes ingresados con diagnóstico de accidente cerebrovascular. Intervenciones, revisión de historias clínicas de archivo entre los años 2003 y 2006 Principales medidas de resultados, análisis estadístico, porcentajes y medidas de tendencia central, tabuladas en una base de datos con ayuda del programa Microsoft Excel 2003 para Windows®. Resultados, de 152 pacientes ingresados al servicio de Medicina 119 fueron casos de ECV isquémico, 33 casos fueron ECV hemorrágico. El principal antecedente patológico fue la hipertensión arterial con un 75.0 %. El síntoma más frecuente fue el trastorno motor con 80.3% seguido por alteraciones del lenguaje con 55.9%. El mayor número fue encontrado entre la séptima y octava décadas de la vida. La edad mínima fue de 17 y máxima de 102 años. La mortalidad global fue de 18 casos obteniéndose una tasa de letalidad específica para el ECV isquémico de 0,8% y de 51,5% para el ECV hemorrágico. Conclusiones: Se distingue a la HTA como el principal antecedente modificable, cuya prevención reduciría notablemente su mortalidad.

  13. An Unmastered Past: Latvia and Russia After NATO and EU Enlargement: Bilateral Issues of Statecraft 2003-2006 (United States)


    Supreme Soviet of Latvian SSR, cited in Dietrich Loeber Russian-Latvian Territorial Dispute Over Abrene, The Parker School Jounal of International Law, Vol...Dietrich, Russian- Latvian Territorial Dispute Over Abrene, The Parker School Jounal of International Law, Vol. 2, 1995. Malia, Martin, The Soviet

  14. Race, Urban Context, and Russian Roulette: Findings from the National Violent Death Reporting System, 2003-2006 (United States)

    Wasserman, Ira; Stack, Steven


    Previous work on Russian roulette has focused on data from large cities. It is unclear if the epidemiological patterns based on large cities will replicate for the nation as a whole, and if the influence of minority status will be moderated by urban context. The present investigation fills these gaps by providing descriptive epidemiological data…

  15. Evaluation of Juvenile Salmonid Outmigration and Survival in the Lower Umatilla River Basin, Annual Report 2003-2006.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, Tara


    This report summarizes activities conducted by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife's Juvenile Outmigration and Survival M&E project in the Umatilla River subbasin between 2004-2006. Information is used to make informed decisions on hatchery effectiveness, natural production success, passage improvement and flow enhancement strategies. Data collected includes annual estimates of smolt abundance, migration timing, and survival, life history characteristics and productivity status and trends for spring and fall Chinook salmon, coho salmon and summer steelhead. Productivity data provided is the key subbasin scale measure of the effectiveness of salmon and steelhead restoration actions in the Umatilla River. Information is also used for regional planning and recovery efforts of Mid-Columbia River (MCR) ESA-listed summer steelhead. Monitoring is conducted via smolt trapping and PIT-tag interrogation at Three Mile Falls Dam. The Umatilla Juvenile Outmigration and Survival Project was established in 1994 to evaluate the success of management actions and fisheries restoration efforts in the Umatilla River Basin. Project objectives for the 2004-2006 period were to: (1) operate the PIT tag detection system at Three Mile Falls Dam (TMFD), (2) enhance provisional PIT-tag interrogation equipment at the east bank adult fish ladder, (3) monitor the migration timing, abundance and survival of naturally-produced juvenile salmonids and trends in natural production, (4) determine migration parameters and survival of hatchery-produced fish representing various rearing, acclimation and release strategies, (5) evaluate the relative survival between transported and non-transported fish, (6) monitor juvenile life history characteristics and evaluate trends over time, (7) investigate the effects of river, canal, fishway operations and environmental conditions on smolt migration and survival, (8) document the temporal distribution and diversity of resident fish species, and (9) participate in planning and coordination activities within the basin and dissemination of results.

  16. Occurrence of organic wastewater-indicator compounds in urban streams of the Atlanta area, Georgia, 2003-2006 (United States)

    Lawrence, Stephen J.; LaFontaine, Jacob H.


    Between March 2003 and January 2006, 863 water samples were collected from streams in seven urban watersheds with varying land uses within or near the City of Atlanta, Georgia. Sixty-four sampling sites representing three site types were established in those watersheds. The first type consisted of sites within three watersheds not affected by combined sewer overflows; these were designated as the control basins. The second and third site types were established in four watersheds and were designated as sites upstream or downstream from combined sewer outfalls.

  17. Characterization of the Kootenai River Aquatic Macroinvertebrate Community before and after Experimental Nutrient Addition, 2003-2006. [Chapter 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holderman, Charlie [Kootenai Tribe of Idaho Bonners


    The Kootenai River ecosystem has experienced numerous ecological changes since the early 1900s. Some of the largest impacts to habitat, biological communities, and ecological function resulted from levee construction along the 120 km of river upstream from Kootenay Lake, completed by the 1950s, and the construction and operation of Libby Dam, completed in 1972 on the river near Libby Montana. Levee construction isolated tens of thousands of hectares of historic functioning floodplain habitat from the river channel, eliminating nutrient production and habitat diversity crucial to the functioning of a large river-floodplain ecosystem. Libby Dam continues to create large changes in the timing, duration, and magnitude of river flows, and greatly reduces sediment and nutrient transport to downstream river reaches. These changes have contributed to the ecological collapse of the post-development Kootenai River ecosystem and its native biological communities. In response to this artificial loss of nutrients, experimental nutrient addition was initiated in the Kootenay Lake's North Arm in 1992, the South Arm in 2004, and in the Kootenai River at the Idaho-Montana border during 2005. This report characterizes the macroinvertebrate community in the Kootenai River and its response to experimental nutrient addition during 2005 and 2006. This report also provides an initial evaluation of cascading trophic interactions in response to nutrient addition. Macroinvertebrates were sampled at 12 sites along a 325 km section of the Kootenai River, representing an upriver unimpounded reference reach, treatment and control canyon reach sites, and braided and meandering reach sites, all downstream from Libby Dam. Principle component analysis revealed that richness explained the greatest amount of variability in response to nutrient addition as did taxa from Acari, Coleoptera, Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera. Analysis of variance revealed that nutrient addition had a significant effect (p<0.0001) on invertebrate abundance, biomass, and richness at sites KR-9 and KR-9.1 combined (the zone of maximum biological response). Richness, a valuable ecological metric, increased more than abundance and biomass, which were subject to greater sampling bias. Cascading trophic interactions were observed as increased algal accrual, increased in-river invertebrate abundance, and increased invertebrate counts in mountain whitefish (Prosopium williamsonii) guts samples, but were not quantitatively tested. Sampling and analyses across trophic levels are currently ongoing and are expected to better characterize ecological responses to experimental nutrient addition in the Kootenai River.

  18. Monitoreo del glaciar horcones inferior y sus termokarst, antes y durante el surge de 2003-2006: Andes centrales argentinos

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    María Gabriela Lenzano


    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se expone el monitoreo de termokarts glaciarios y su relación e interacción con los eventos surges ocurridos en el glaciar cubierto Horcones Inferior (GHI. Este glaciar se encuentra ubicado a los 32º 41'S y 69º 57'W, al pie de la pared sur del C° Aconcagua, Parque Provincial Aconcagua, en la Provincia de Mendoza, Argentina. El estudio fue llevado a cabo a través de la implementación de métodos indirectos de detección utilizando imágenes de los sensores Landsat y Aster durante el período 1997-2006. En el Glaciar Horcones Inferior "GHI", la superficie ocupada por los termokarst alcanza valores que varían entre el 4.3% y el 0% de la superficie total del glaciar, al finalizar un evento de surge. Las velocidades registradas en la superficie del glaciar cubierto arrojaron valores promedios entre 0.4 y 12 m/día. La metodología aplicada, con imágenes satelitales históricas, representa una herramienta fundamental para separar períodos de flujo glaciario catastróficos y no catastróficos.This work analyses the temporal evolution of thermokarst and their relationship to the surges in a reconstituted debris covered glacier. The glacier Horcones Inferior is located at Lat 32º 41' S and Long 69º 57' W in the Provincial Park Aconcagua, Mendoza, Argentina, on the foot of the Aconcagua massif. The study and monitoring of the thermokarst was carried out applying indirect methods using Landsat and Aster images from 1997-2006. Detected percentages of thermokarst, in relation to the total glacial area, showed that they varied between 4.3% to 0% at the end of the surge event. The registered speeds of the glacier -on the glacial surface- reached averages of between 0.4 and 12 m/d. This methodology, with historical images from archives, represents a fundamental tool to separate catastrophic and non-catastrophic glacial flow periods.

  19. Efficacy of monotherapies and artesunate-based combination therapies in children with uncomplicated malaria in Somalia. (United States)

    Warsame, Marian; Atta, Hoda; Klena, John D; Waqar, Butt Ahmed; Elmi, Hussein Haji; Jibril, Ali Mohamed; Hassan, Hassan Mohamed; Hassan, Abdullahi Mohamed


    In order to guide the antimalarial treatment policy of Somalia, we conducted therapeutic efficacy studies of routinely used antimalarial monotherapies as well as artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) for uncomplicated malaria in three sentinel sites during 2003-2006. Therapeutic efficacy of chloroquine (CQ), amodiaquine (AQ) and sulfadoxine/pyrimetahmine (SP) monotherapies, and artesunate plus SP (AS+SP) or AQ (AS+AQ) were evaluated in children 6 months to 10 years old with uncomplicated malaria. For the assessment of the monotherapies, 2003 WHO protocol with 14-day follow-up was used while the 2005 WHO protocol with 28-day follow-up was used for testing the ACTs. Of the monotherapies, CQ performed very poorly with treatment failures varying from 76.5% to 88% between the sites. AQ treatment failure was low except for Janale site with treatment failure of 23.4% compared to 2.8% and 8% in Jamame and Jowhar, respectively. For SP, treatment failures from 7.8% to 12.2% were observed. A 28-day test of artemisinin-based combinations, AS+SP and AS+AQ, proved to be highly efficacious with cure rates of 98-100% supporting the choice of AS+SP combination as first line treatment for uncomplicated malaria for Somalia.

  20. Prenatal and postnatal polybrominated diphenyl ether exposure and visual spatial abilities in children. (United States)

    Vuong, Ann M; Braun, Joseph M; Yolton, Kimberly; Xie, Changchun; Webster, Glenys M; Sjödin, Andreas; Dietrich, Kim N; Lanphear, Bruce P; Chen, Aimin


    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are associated with impaired visual spatial abilities in toxicological studies, but no epidemiologic study has investigated PBDEs and visual spatial abilities in children. The Health Outcomes and Measures of the Environment Study, a prospective birth cohort (2003-2006, Cincinnati, OH), was used to examine prenatal and childhood PBDEs and visual spatial abilities in 199 children. PBDEs were measured at 16±3 weeks gestation and at 1, 2, 3, 5, and 8 years using gas chromatography/isotope dilution high-resolution mass spectrometry. We used the Virtual Morris Water Maze to measure visual spatial abilities at 8 years. In covariate-adjusted models, 10-fold increases in BDE-47, -99, and -100 at 5 years were associated with shorter completion times by 5.2s (95% Confidence Interval [CI] -9.3, -1.1), 4.5s (95% CI -8.1, -0.9), and 4.7s (95% CI -9.0, -0.3), respectively. However, children with higher BDE-153 at 3 years had longer completion times (β=5.4s, 95% CI -0.3, 11.1). Prenatal PBDEs were associated with improved visual spatial memory retention, with children spending a higher percentage of their search path in the correct quadrant. Child sex modified some associations between PBDEs and visual spatial learning. Longer path lengths were observed among males with increased BDE-47 at 2 and 3 years, while females had shorter paths. In conclusion, prenatal and postnatal BDE-28, -47, -99, and -100 at 5 and 8 years were associated with improved visual spatial abilities, whereas a pattern of impairments in visual spatial learning was noted with early childhood BDE-153 concentrations.

  1. Internet Use by Children Çocuk ve Internet Kullanımı

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilüfer Tuncer


    Full Text Available Computers and Internet, which have started to dominate our modern lives, have no doubt became part of children's living too. It is a fact that Internet has many advantages in several areas, mainly in education, communication and creativity. However, Internet also has many disadvantages, i.e., physical, psychological and social effects and dangers to children. In this article, the object is to emphasize not only these negative aspects, but also to point out the preventive measures, particularly for the parents. Modern çağın bir gereği haline gelen bilgisayar ve İnternet, kuşkusuz çocukların da yaşamına girmiştir.Internet'in, başta eğitim, iletişim, yaratıcılık olmak üzere çeşitli alanlarda yararları olduğu herkes tarafından bilinmektedir. Ancak, bilgisayar ve Internet kullanımının, çocuklar için olumsuz fiziksel, psikolojik ve sosyal etkilerinin yanında, tehlikeler de içerdiği yadsınamaz. Bu makalede, olumsuz yönlerin yanında, alınabilecek önlemlere, özellikle de ana-babaların yapabileceklerine değinilmiştir.

  2. Children Culture and Library Çocuk Kültürü ve Kütüphane

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    Sekine Karakaş


    Full Text Available Libraries, especially children's libraries, are institutions for upgrading cultural level and living standards of children in preparing them for adulthood. As is known the relationship between libraries and children's culture is as old as the history of the library itself. This subject has not been treated sufficiently both in the world and in Turkey. Our intention is to provide a general framework in bringing light on this important topic. Kütüphaneler ve özellikle çocuk kütüphaneleri çocukların ve gençlerin kültür düzeyini yükseltmelerinde ve yaşam kalitesini iyileştirmelerinde uzun dönemde etkisi olan kurumlardır. Oysa kütüphanelerin çocuk kültürü ile doğrudan ilişkisi, kütüphanelerin tarihi kadar eski olmakla birlikte bu konu ülkemizde ve dünya literatüründe gereğince yer almamıştır. Bu çalışmada çocuk kültürü ve kütüphane bağlantısı genel çizgileri ile verilmeye çalışılmıştır.

  3. De Medische Paragraaf bij de GBL is gereed. Een kort overzicht van de inhoud

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilken, A.; Akkermans, A.J.


    Op 15 december 2011 is de Medische Paragraaf bij de Gedragscode Behandeling Letselschade (GBL) aanvaard door het platform van De Letselschade Raad. De Medische Paragraaf bestaat uit vijf onderdelen die aansluiten bij het globale chronologische verloop van het medisch beoordelingstraject. Hij treedt

  4. Cohort profile: the Motorik-Modul Longitudinal Study: physical fitness and physical activity as determinants of health development in German children and adolescents. (United States)

    Wagner, Matthias O; Bös, Klaus; Jekauc, Darko; Karger, Claudia; Mewes, Nadine; Oberger, Jennifer; Reimers, Anne K; Schlenker, Lars; Worth, Annette; Woll, Alexander


    The Motorik-Modul (MoMo) Longitudinal Study aims to contribute to long-term improvement in the health of German children and adolescents by focusing on: (i) the development of physical fitness and physical activity (including period effects); (ii) the individual and physical/social environmental determinants of the development of physical fitness and physical activity; and (iii) the impact of physical fitness and physical activity on the development of physical and mental health. The MoMo Longitudinal Study began with a nationwide representative sample of 4529 children and adolescents who ranged in age from 4-17 years at the study baseline (2003-2006). The first survey wave of the MoMo Longitudinal Study was conducted between 2009 and 2012, with two subsequent survey waves to be conducted between 2014 and 2016 and 2018 and 2020, respectively. The MoMo Longitudinal Study includes a physical fitness test profile, a physical activity questionnaire, and subjective and objective measures of health from the German Health Interview and Examination Survey (KiGGS). Data access is provided on request ( For further information, including a complete list of publications please visit

  5. Home and other nontraffic injuries among children and youth in a high-income Middle Eastern country: a trauma registry study. (United States)

    Grivna, Michal; Barss, Peter; Stanculescu, Cristina; Eid, Hani O; Abu-Zidan, Fikri M


    A trauma registry in the United Arab Emirates was used to ascertain nontraffic injuries of 0- to 19-year-olds. The registry's value for prevention was assessed. A total of 292 children and youth with nontraffic injuries were admitted for >24 hours at surgical wards of the main trauma hospital in Al Ain region during 36 months in 2003-2006. Injuries were analyzed by external cause, location, body part, and severity. Nontraffic represented 60% (n = 292) of child and youth injuries. Incidence/100 000 person-years was 91 for males, 43 for females. Unintentional included falls 65% (n = 191), burns 17% (n = 49), animal-related (mainly camel) 3% (n = 10), and others 10% (n = 29). Intentional accounted for 4% (n = 13). Falls affected all ages, burns mainly 1- to 4-year-olds. Of the injuries, 70% occurred at home. Most frequent and severe injuries measured by the Injury Severity Score and Abbreviated Injury Scale involved extremities. Prevention of home falls for all ages and burns of 1- to 4-year-olds are priorities. Registries should cover pediatric wards and include data on fall locations and hazardous products.

  6. Mapping the risk of anaemia in preschool-age children: the contribution of malnutrition, malaria, and helminth infections in West Africa.

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    Ricardo J Soares Magalhães


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Childhood anaemia is considered a severe public health problem in most countries of sub-Saharan Africa. We investigated the geographical distribution of prevalence of anaemia and mean haemoglobin concentration (Hb in children aged 1-4 y (preschool children in West Africa. The aim was to estimate the geographical risk profile of anaemia accounting for malnutrition, malaria, and helminth infections, the risk of anaemia attributable to these factors, and the number of anaemia cases in preschool children for 2011. METHODS AND FINDINGS: National cross-sectional household-based demographic health surveys were conducted in 7,147 children aged 1-4 y in Burkina Faso, Ghana, and Mali in 2003-2006. Bayesian geostatistical models were developed to predict the geographical distribution of mean Hb and anaemia risk, adjusting for the nutritional status of preschool children, the location of their residence, predicted Plasmodium falciparum parasite rate in the 2- to 10-y age group (Pf PR(2-10, and predicted prevalence of Schistosoma haematobium and hookworm infections. In the four countries, prevalence of mild, moderate, and severe anaemia was 21%, 66%, and 13% in Burkina Faso; 28%, 65%, and 7% in Ghana, and 26%, 62%, and 12% in Mali. The mean Hb was lowest in Burkina Faso (89 g/l, in males (93 g/l, and for children 1-2 y (88 g/l. In West Africa, severe malnutrition, Pf PR(2-10, and biological synergisms between S. haematobium and hookworm infections were significantly associated with anaemia risk; an estimated 36.8%, 14.9%, 3.7%, 4.2%, and 0.9% of anaemia cases could be averted by treating malnutrition, malaria, S. haematobium infections, hookworm infections, and S. haematobium/hookworm coinfections, respectively. A large spatial cluster of low mean Hb (95% was predicted for an area shared by Burkina Faso and Mali. We estimate that in 2011, approximately 6.7 million children aged 1-4 y are anaemic in the three study countries. CONCLUSIONS: By

  7. Children Teaching Children (United States)

    Williams, Pia


    This study describes children's awareness of what it means to teach a game to a peer where the act of teaching becomes expression of the child's possible awareness. Awareness is defined as the attention to different aspects of the teaching process shown by the teaching child, sometimes through their own verbal reflection. This implies an…

  8. Importación de cierres de cremallera para la industria textil peruana, en el marco de las preferencias arancelarias CAN (2003-2006)



    Objetivo: Establecer en qué medida la importación de cierres de cremallera eleva la ventaja competitiva en la industria textil del Perú en el marco de los regímenes aduaneros vigentes y las preferencias arancelarias de la CAN. Método: No experimental y de tipo transversal correlacional. Resultados: Las características más resaltantes del mercado local de cierres con respecto a la demanda de la industria son: variedad en tamaños y colores, precios, calidad y la respectiva disponibilidad del pr...

  9. A Comparative Evaluation of Pisa 2003-2006 Results in Reading Literacy Skills: An Example of Top-Five OECD Countries and Turkey (United States)

    Aydin, Ayhan; Erdagf, Coskun; Tas, Nuray


    In this study it is aimed to describe and evaluate comparatively the reading literacy exam results, the finance of education and schools, and socio-cultural status of parents in Turkey and the top-five OECD countries, Finland, Korea, Canada, Australia, New Zealand respectively, in the light reports and publications by OECD regarding PISA 2003 and…

  10. Survey of characteristics of neonatal death in neonatal intensive care unit of Boo-Ali Sina educational & therapeutic center between 2003-2006

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    Azita Bala Ghafari


    Full Text Available , , , (Received 24 June, 2009 ; Accepted 16 September, 2009AbstractBackground and purpose: The neonatal mortality rate is an important index for evaluation of public health. It involves the death of infants under 28 days. Obviously, recognizing the characteristics of neonatal mortality in this center, may be useful for promoting the procedures in the NICU, as well as planning to impede the severe complications or death.Materials and methods: This is a descriptive study performed by analyzing the available data from the medical records of NICU patients at Boo-Ali Sina Educational & Therapeutic Center during 2003 and 2006. The number of deaths, names, and medical records number of the dead infants were collected. Among 1238 patients in the NICU, 363 deaths were reported. According to medical records, 222 deaths occurred in neonates aged 0 to 27 days. Data were collected using a checklist, the validity and reliability of which were approved by clinicians. The Descriptive methods were used in analyzing the data.Results: The findings include: 140 subjects were male (63.1%; 72 from single birth (77.5%; the age-group of mothers of 38 cases (37.7% was 20-24 y; 132 cases (59.5% resided in villages; 129 cases (58.1% with prenatal care; 120 cased of Caesarian section (54%; 155 cases (76% with birth weight lower than 2500 grams and 154 preterm (75.5%. Mortality during neonatal period was divided in two groups: early death (0-6 days 142 cases (62% and late death (7-27 days 80 cases (36%.Conclusion: Correct and exact completion of NICU forms would help undertaking descriptive and analytic epidemiologic studies.Key words: Neonatal mortality, early neonatal mortality, late neonatal mortality, NICUJ Mazand Univ Med Sci 2009; 20(74: 79-83 (Persian

  11. Risk of venous thromboembolism after total hip and knee replacement in older adults with comorbidity and co-occurring comorbidities in the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (2003-2006

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    Katz Jeffrey N


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Venous thromboembolism is a common, fatal, and costly injury which complicates major surgery in older adults. The American College of Chest Physicians recommends high potency prophylaxis regimens for individuals undergoing total hip or knee replacement (THR or TKR, but surgeons are reluctant to prescribe them due to fear of excess bleeding. Identifying a high risk cohort such as older adults with comorbidities and co-occurring comorbidities who might benefit most from high potency prophylaxis would improve how we currently perform preoperative assessment. Methods Using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample, we identified older adults who underwent THR or TKR in the U.S. between 2003 and 2006. Our outcome was VTE, including any pulmonary embolus or deep venous thrombosis. We performed multivariate logistic regression analyses to assess the effects of comorbidities on VTE occurrence. Comorbidities under consideration included coronary artery disease, congestive heart failure (CHF, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, diabetes, and cerebrovascular disease. We also examined the impact of co-occurring comorbidities on VTE rates. Results CHF increased odds of VTE in both the THR cohort (OR = 3.08 95% CI 2.05-4.65 and TKR cohort (OR = 2.47 95% CI 1.95-3.14. COPD led to a 50% increase in odds in the TKR cohort (OR = 1.49 95% CI 1.31-1.70. The data did not support synergistic effect of co-occurring comorbidities with respect to VTE occurrence. Conclusions Older adults with CHF undergoing THR or TKR and with COPD undergoing TKR are at increased risk of VTE. If confirmed in other datasets, these older adults may benefit from higher potency prophylaxis.

  12. Ground-Water Recharge in Humid Areas of the United States--A Summary of Ground-Water Resources Program Studies, 2003-2006 (United States)

    Delin, Geoffrey N.; Risser, Dennis W.


    Increased demands on water resources by a growing population and recent droughts have raised awareness about the adequacy of ground-water resources in humid areas of the United States. The spatial and temporal variability of ground-water recharge are key factors that need to be quantified to determine the sustainability of ground-water resources. Ground-water recharge is defined herein as the entry into the saturated zone of water made available at the water-table surface, together with the associated flow away from the water table within the saturated zone (Freeze and Cherry, 1979). In response to the need for better estimates of ground-water recharge, the Ground-Water Resources Program (GWRP) of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) began an initiative in 2003 to estimate ground-water recharge rates in the relatively humid areas of the United States.

  13. Wednesday's Children. (United States)

    Paterson, Katherine


    The author of "Jacob Have I Loved" and "Come Sing, Jimmy Jo" describes the characters in books she has written who are like "Wednesday's children"--full of woe. Discusses dealing with tragedy in children's books. (EL)

  14. Children's Health (United States)

    Your child's health includes physical, mental and social well-being. Most parents know the basics of keeping children healthy, like offering ... for children to get regular checkups with their health care provider. These visits are a chance to ...

  15. Likeable children, uneasy children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anderson, Sally Dean


    Drawing on fieldwork in small-town schools with children of Muslim background whose families came to Denmark as United Nation refugees, the chapter explores how pedagogical ideologies of school-based peer sociability inflect children’s experiences of ‘being Muslim.’ Danish provincial schools......, with their permanent classes, emphasis on class-based sociability, and particular understandings of what constitutes religion, represent a particular context for children’s school experiences. An analysis of two contrasting cases reveals that participation in peer sociability in and beyond school tends to erase...

  16. Does the fractionalization of daily physical activity (sporadic vs. bouts impact cardiometabolic risk factors in children and youth?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca M Holman

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Children and youth accumulate their daily moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA in bouts (i.e., ≥ 5 consecutive minutes and in a sporadic manner (i.e., <5 consecutive minutes. The study objective was to determine, within children and youth, whether MVPA accumulated in bouts is more strongly associated with cardiometabolic risk factors than an equivalent volume of MVPA accumulated sporadically. METHODS: Participants consisted of 2754 children and youth aged 6-19 years from the 2003-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a representative cross-sectional study. Bouts and sporadic MVPA were measured objectively over 7 days using Actigraph accelerometers. Thresholds of 5 and 10 consecutive minutes were used to differentiate between bouts and sporadic MVPA. A high cardiometabolic risk factor score (CRS was created based on measures of waist circumference, non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, C-reactive protein, and systolic blood pressure. Associations were examined using logistic regression and controlled for covariates (sex, age, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, dietary fat and sodium, smoking, and accelerometry wear time. RESULTS: The odds of a high CRS decreased in a dose-response for both the sporadic and bout MVPA measures. Relative to quartile 1, the odds ratio (95% confidence interval for a high CRS in quartile 4 was 0.25 (0.10-0.60 for sporadic MVPA, 0.17 (0.09-0.34 for ≥ 5 minute bouts of MVPA, and 0.19 (0.11-0.34 for ≥ 10 minute bouts of MVPA. The sporadic and bout MVPA measures had a similar ability to distinguish between participants with high and normal CRS. Relative to 0 minutes of MVPA, an equivalent number of minutes of sporadic MVPA and bouts of MVPA had an almost identical odds ratio for a high CRS. The findings were consistent for 5 and 10 minute bout thresholds. CONCLUSIONS: The relations between sporadic MVPA and bouts of MVPA with cardiometabolic risk factors were remarkably similar

  17. Seropositivity of Lyme borreliosis and associated risk factors: a population-based study in Children and Adolescents in Germany (KiGGS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Dehnert

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Lyme borreliosis (LB caused by spirochetes of the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex is the most common tick-borne disease in the northern hemisphere. Data on the distribution and on risk factors in Germany are sketchy. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Blood samples of a nationwide population-based cross-sectional study from 2003-2006 in children and adolescents aged 1 to 17 years in Germany (KiGGS were analysed (n = 12,614 to assess the seroprevalence of anti-Borrelia antibodies. Data from standardized interviews were used to assess potential risk factors. First, sera were screened for anti-Borrelia antibodies by ELISA. The overall prevalence was 4.8% (95% confidence interval (CI 4.3-5.4%. Positive and borderline ELISA test results were confirmed by a line blot revealing a combined prevalence of 4.0% (95% CI 3.6-4.5%. Seroprevalence of ELISA was significantly higher in males (odds ratio (OR = 1.37; CI 1.15-1.63 and in the southern part of Germany (OR = 1.41; CI 1.09-1.83, but significantly lower in children and adolescents with migration background (OR = 0.33; CI 0.24-0.44. Study participants from households with cats had a higher chance of seropositivity (OR = 6.7; CI 5.6-8.0. In a multivariable model the odds of seropositivity increases by 11% for every year of age for boys and 6% for girls. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This survey is the first nationwide, representative seroprevalence survey of LB in children and young adolescents. The study shows that infections with Borrelia burgdorferi are endemic in all parts of Germany despite regional differences. Even at a young age children are exposed to tick bites including seropositivity. Encouraging a thorough check for ticks and promptly removal of ticks are the key public health strategies to reduce the risk of LB and other tick-borne diseases in children and adolescents. Further epidemiological studies are warranted to better understand the burden of disease related to LB.

  18. Brain tumor - children (United States)

    ... children; Neuroglioma - children; Oligodendroglioma - children; Meningioma - children; Cancer - brain tumor (children) ... The cause of primary brain tumors is unknown. Primary brain tumors may ... (spread to nearby areas) Cancerous (malignant) Brain tumors ...

  19. Street children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rončević Nevenka


    Full Text Available According to UNICEF, street child is any child under the age of 18 for whom the street has become home and/or source of income and which is not adequately protected or supervised by adult, responsible person. It has been estimated that there are between 100 and 150 million street children worldwide. Life and work on the street have long term and far-reaching consequences for development and health of these children. By living and working in the street, these children face the highest level of risk. Street children more often suffer from the acute illness, injuries, infection, especially gastrointestinal, acute respiratory infections and sexually transmitted diseases, inadequate nutrition, mental disorders, and drug abuse. They are more often victims of abuse, sexual exploitation, trafficking; they have higher rate of adolescent pregnancy than their peers from poor families. Street children and youth have higher rates of hospitalization and longer hospital stay due to seriousness of illness and delayed health care. Street children/youth are reluctant to seek health care, and when they try, they face many barriers. Street children are invisible to the state and their number in Serbia is unknown. Recently, some non­governmental organizations from Belgrade, Novi Sad and Nis have recognized this problem and tried to offer some help to street children, by opening drop­in centers, but this is not enough. To solve this problem, an engagement of the state and the whole community is necessary, and primary responsibility lies in health, social and educational sector. The best interests of the child must serve as a basic guideline in all activities aimed at improving health, quality of life and rights of children involved in the life and work in the street.

  20. [Chronic and vaccine-preventable diseases in children and adolescents in Germany: results of the KiGGS study: first follow up (KiGGS wave 1)]. (United States)

    Neuhauser, H; Poethko-Müller, C


    The German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS) 2003-2006 is the first nationwide comprehensive study on the health of children and adolescents living in Germany. The KiGGS first interview follow-up is a telephone interview study that collected, among other things, data on a number of chronic and vaccine-preventable diseases in 2009-2012 and is a combined cross-sectional and longitudinal study based on a population registry sample from the 167 KiGGS study points. The analysis is based on 12,368 respondents (7913 KiGGS follow-up participants aged 7-17 years, response 72 % and 4455 newly recruited 0- to 6-year-olds, response 42 %). Based on parent reports the lifetime prevalence of both chickenpox and pertussis has decreased in the population targeted by recently changed vaccination recommendations. For measles the prevalence remained unsatisfactorily high in each investigated age group. Of the children and adolescents aged 0-17 years 16 % (95 % confidence interval CI 15.2-17.0 %) had a long-standing chronic health condition according to the parents. Of these, however, only one in five was affected in their routine daily activities. The lifetime prevalence in 7- to 17-year-olds was 1.2 % (0.9-1.6) for epilepsy (0.4 % for the past 12 months), 5.0 % (4.4-5.7) for migraine, 0.2 % (0.1-0.3) for diabetes and in 0 to 6-year-olds 2.0 % (1.5-2.6) for heart conditions and 3.1 % (2.5-3.8) for febrile seizures with a -prevalence in 0 to 2-year-olds which are most affected of 1.0 % (0.6-1.6) in the past 12 months. The vast majority of children and adolescents in Germany are in good or very good health as suggested by other results reported in this issue; however, chronic conditions are not rare and need continuous monitoring. These results confirm that implementation of the vaccination recommendations of the German Standing Committee on Vaccination (STIKO) can lead to effective prevention of infectious diseases in Germany.

  1. Children's Bureau (United States)

    ... Initiatives & Issues For the Press Focus Areas Adoption Child Abuse & Neglect Child Welfare Services Foster Care Guardianship Tribes ... of children and families through programs that reduce child abuse and neglect, increase the number of adoptions, and ...

  2. Children and HIV (United States)

    ... Subscribe Translate Text Size Print Children Children and HIV Most HIV-positive children under the age of ... Frequently Asked Questions How long do children with HIV typically live? Because effective treatments are relatively new ...

  3. Difficult Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Else

    The purpose of this paper is to put focus on families and children who have had contact to the social service department because of problems related children’s well-being, health or development. Problems that are recognized by the families themselves and by the authorities as problems that put...... the family in a poor position regarding the children’s well-being, health and development, but not so severe that the child is to be placed out of home. The paper concentrates attention on differences between families with and without contact to the social service department for reasons related to the child....... Especially on children and their development in social relations to children at the same age, on how the mothers experience their child and on the parent’s resources concerning health, education and job situation. The paper presents results from the first two data collections (1996 and 1999) in a prospective...

  4. Children and Firearms (United States)

    ... they can watch TV, movies, and videos with children; restrict violent video games; limit TV; and disapprove of the ... and Children TV Violence and Children Home Alone Children Music and Music Videos Teen Suicide Violent Behavior in Children and Adolescents Threats by Children: ...

  5. Children and TV Violence (United States)

    ... and War: How to Talk to Children Movies, Media, and Children Internet Use in Children WatchingTV/Screen Time and Children Child and Adolescent Psychiatrists Video Games and Children: Playing with Violence Music and Music Videos Violent Behavior in Children ...

  6. Invisible children. (United States)

    Goodpasture, Meggan; Everett, V Denise; Gagliano, Martha; Narayan, Aditee P; Sinal, Sara


    A series of severe child abuse cases in the state, all involving children who were reportedly homeschooled, are cause for concern. We review 4 such cases and the regulations regarding homeschooling in the state of North Carolina, exploring potential deficits in the system and suggesting ways of addressing them.

  7. Treating Children and Adolescents (United States)

    ... Children and Adolescents Go Back Treating Children and Adolescents Email Print + Share For the most part, the ... tailored, based upon the child's weight. Children and adolescents are moving through a period of physical and ...

  8. Chronic Pancreatitis in Children (United States)

    ... Information > Children/Pediatric > Chronic Pancreatitis in Children test Chronic Pancreatitis in Children What symptoms would my child ... pancreatitis will develop diabetes in adolescence. Who gets chronic pancreatitis? Those at risk for chronic pancreatitis are ...

  9. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine Children’s (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging uses small ... of Children's Nuclear Medicine? What is Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical ...

  10. Asthma in Children (United States)

    ... have asthma. Nearly 9 million of them are children. Children have smaller airways than adults, which makes asthma especially serious for them. Children with asthma may experience wheezing, coughing, chest tightness, ...

  11. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine (United States)

    ... Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine Children’s (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging uses small amounts ... Children's Nuclear Medicine? What is Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical imaging ...

  12. Wuxia's Children Shoes sole: Touching Children's Heart

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ Wuxia Children shoes sole company, founded in 1998, is the first professional children shoes sole business in Wenzhou city. It is located in Huanglong Commercial Center,Wenzhou city, Zhejiang province.

  13. Thromboembolism in Children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAO Cheng-xin


    @@ Thromboembotic events are being increasingly diagnosed in children. The incidence of symptomatic thrombolic events is 0.07%/10 000 children , 5.3/10 000hospital admissions of children and 2.4/1 000 admissions of newborns to intensive care units in west, but the incidence of thromboembotic events in children in China is an unknow now.

  14. Home Alone Children (United States)

    ... to an empty house. Every week thousands of parents make decisions to leave children home alone while they go to work, run errands, or for social engagements. It is estimated over 40% of children are left ... their parents that these children are labeled "latch key children," ...

  15. Children Solve Problems. (United States)

    De Bono, Edward

    A group of children were presented with several tasks, including the invention of a sleep machine and a machine to weigh elephants. The tasks were chosen to involve the children in coping with problems of a distinct character. A study of the children's drawings and interpretations shows that children's thinking ability is not very different from…

  16. Torture in children. (United States)

    Quiroga, Jose


    This is a review article that studies the problem of torture in children. Torture in children is a significant worldwide problem, but there are no official or reliable independent statistics to measure the magnitude of the problem. The definition of torture in the Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment applies to adults and children. The Convention on the Rights of the Child defines children as "every human being below the age of eighteen years". Torture in children happens during peace times and during political violence and war conflicts. The majority of torture victims happen during peace times. The high-risk groups are impoverished children living in the street, children deprived of parental care, children in conflict with the law, and children in detention. During political violence and war the high risk children are the children detained during political violence, child soldiers, children internally displaced in refugee camps, detained children during the war against terrorism and children tortured by peacekeeping forces. The perpetrators of torture in children are the members of the same forces that torture adults, generally the police, civil police, security guards trained by police, prison guards, and military forces. The paper identifies some preventive measure and develops recommendations for action at the local, national and international level.

  17. Evacuation dynamics of children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larusdottir, Aldis Run; Dederichs, Anne


    higher walking speeds in spiral stairs when the children are familiar with the evacuation path. Higher per-son densities and faster flow through doors were obtained among the children than found in literature on adults. Children in the younger age group are generally slower than the older children....... The children walk slower in horizontal plan than adults, however they are keen to run during evacuations, in the latter case their travel speed increases and exceeds the adults’. Since the evacuation characte-ristics of children differ in many ways from those of adults, nowadays models badly comprehend...

  18. Children, Time, and Play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elkind, David; Rinaldi, Carla; Flemmert Jensen, Anne;

    Proceedings from the conference "Children, Time, and Play". Danish University of Education, January 30th 2003.......Proceedings from the conference "Children, Time, and Play". Danish University of Education, January 30th 2003....

  19. Separation anxiety in children (United States)

    ... page: // Separation anxiety in children To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Separation anxiety in children is a developmental stage in which ...

  20. Airway reconstruction in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rao Sanjay


    Full Text Available Aim/Background : Airway anomalies are infrequent but potentially life threatening in children. A program to care for these difficult children was set up at our institution, and this paper summarizes our experience. Methods: A total of 34 children were enrolled in the program over a period of three years. These children were evaluated as per the standard protocols. Treatment was individualized. Results: Of these 34 children, 28 had their airways restored and are doing well. Four children continue to remain on tracheostomy and two will require long term tracheostomy. There were two deaths. All children are under surveillance as there is a risk of recurrence. Conclusions: Airway anomalies are complex problems with significant morbidity and mortality. Current therapeutic modalities allow for good results. Most children were successfully decannulated and did well.

  1. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the body. jaundice in newborns and older children. epilepsy . location, anatomy and function of the thyroid gland. ... are most often used in children with cancer, epilepsy and back pain. top of page What does ...

  2. Cancer immunotherapy in children (United States)

    More often than not, cancer immunotherapies that work in adults are used in modified ways in children. Seldom are new therapies developed just for children, primarily because of the small number of pediatric patients relative to the adult cancer patient

  3. Children's hospice care. (United States)

    Armstrong-Dailey, A


    Facing the inevitable death of a child is a difficult reality for many parents and health care providers as well. Children's Hospice International offers a variety of information and education services to support the provision of children's hospice care.

  4. Healthy Lifestyle: Children's Health (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Children's health You want your child to eat healthy foods, but do you know which nutrients ... 16, 2016 Original article: ...

  5. Treating Children and Adolescents (United States)

    ... Children and Adolescents Go Back Treating Children and Adolescents Email Print + Share For the most part, the ... side effects. Side effects from sulfasalazine may include headache, sun sensitivity rash, or other signs of sulfa ...

  6. Giving Medication to Children (United States)

    ... For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Giving Medication to Children Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ... the upper limit. back to top Q: Are medications that are intended for children clinically tested on ...

  7. ADHD in Young Children (United States)

    ... Digital Press Kit Read the MMWR Science Clips ADHD in Young Children Use recommended treatment first Language: ... The recommended first treatment for young children with ADHD is underused. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends ...

  8. Children and Facial Trauma (United States)

    ... an ENT Doctor Near You Children and Facial Trauma Children and Facial Trauma Patient Health Information News ... staff at . What is facial trauma? The term facial trauma means any injury to ...

  9. Cholecystectomy in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ainsworth, Alan Patrick; Axelsen, Anne Reiss; Rasmussen, Lars


    It is recommended that children with typical clinical signs of biliary colic should be offered surgery if gallstones are present. The aim of this study was to describe a population of children having undergone cholecystectomy.......It is recommended that children with typical clinical signs of biliary colic should be offered surgery if gallstones are present. The aim of this study was to describe a population of children having undergone cholecystectomy....

  10. Psychological violence against children


    Jurkovič, Sabina


    The topic of my thesis is a study of how parents and primary school teachers perceive and identify psychological abuse of children. Psychological abuse is an especially sensitive area because children do not perceive interpersonal relations and activities in their environment in the same way as adults. Children also do not possess the physical or psychological power required to withstand or defend themselves against different forms of violence, abuse and harassment. Children who are the victi...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The article considers the main milestones of Slovak children's literature and how it is represented in the translation into foreign languages. The work of writers who have contributed to the development of children's literature most of all is analyzed in the article, as well as the work of the translators who have contributed to the promotion of Slovak literature abroad.

  12. Children Teach Children: Learning by Teaching. (United States)

    Gartner, Alan; And Others

    This book describes current educational programs in which young people have been tutoring younger students; the programs are based on the assumption that children learn more from teaching other children. To the degree that they offer a chance to enact an adult role, teaching tasks can provide reassurance and confidence for many youths. Strategies…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kniazkova V.S.


    Full Text Available The article considers the main milestones of Slovak children's literature and how it is represented in the translation into foreign languages. The work of writers who have contributed to the development of children's literature most of all is analyzed in the article, as well as the work of the translators who have contributed to the promotion of Slovak literature abroad.

  14. The impact of private use of PCV7 in 2009 and 2010 on serotypes and antimicrobial resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae carried by young children in Portugal: Comparison with data obtained since 1996 generating a 15-year study prior to PCV13 introduction. (United States)

    Nunes, Sónia; Félix, Sofia; Valente, Carina; Simões, Alexandra S; Tavares, Débora A; Almeida, Sónia T; Paulo, Ana C; Brito-Avô, António; de Lencastre, Hermínia; Sá-Leão, Raquel


    In Portugal, the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) was not introduced in the national immunization plan but was commercially available between 2001 and 2010. We studied serotype distribution and antibiotic susceptibility of Streptococcus pneumoniae carried by children in 2009 and 2010. Vaccination with PCV7 was extracted from children's immunization bulletins and information on recent antimicrobial consumption was obtained through a questionnaire. For comparison, we included data from previous studies conducted since 1996: 1996-1999, 2001-2003, 2006-2007. Pneumococci were isolated from nasopharyngeal samples of 1092 children up to six years old attending day-care in an urban area. Among these, 76% (819/1070) were vaccinated and 62% (677/1092) carried pneumococci. In 2009-2010, serotype replacement was extensive. Carriage of PCV7 serotypes was 4.9% and 5.8%, in 2009 and 2010, respectively, with the majority being of serotype 19F (carried by 4.3% and 4.6% of all participants, respectively). Colonization by serotype 19F was associated with vaccine status (7.7% (19/248) of non-vaccinees vs. 3.5% (29/818) of PCV7-vaccinees, p=0.010). Carriage of serotype 19A was high in 2009 and 2010 (8.6% of all participants) consistent with values already observed in 2007; carriage of serotype 6A was <1% (10/1092), indicating a major decline after 2007 (5.8% or 31/538, p<0.001). Non-vaccine serotypes increased and serotype 6C became the most frequently carried serotype in 2010 (11.2% (54/481)). High-level resistance to penicillin (MIC ≥2mg/L) showed a decreasing trend (p<0.001), whereas resistance to both penicillin and erythromycin increased (p<0.001) and was detected in 15-20% of all isolates in 2009-2010, most of which were non-vaccine serotypes. Antimicrobial use decreased over time (p<0.001). In conclusion, widespread private use of PCV7 has impacted on colonization leading to near elimination of all PCV7 serotypes except for serotype 19F. Antimicrobial consumption

  15. Treating Children Fairly. (United States)

    Wolfe, Barbara L.


    Examines whether children are receiving less than their share of public resources, considering (1) how the economic situations of children and the elderly have changed; (2) effects of insufficient resources and causes of disparities in treatment of young people; and (3) proposals for increasing society's investment in children. (SLD)

  16. On Japanese Children's Books. (United States)

    Watanare, Shigeo

    This report, given at a special meeting held in Tehran, presents data and facts concerning yearly publications (books, magazines, and textbooks), translations, and illustrations of Japanese children's literature. The report then discusses at length recent trends in children's literature and library activities for children in the past, present, and…

  17. Cow's milk and children (United States)

    Milk and children; Cow’s milk allergy - children; Lactose intolerance - children ... You may have heard that cow's milk should not be given to babies younger than 1 year old. This is because cow's milk doesn't provide enough of certain ...

  18. Children's Theories of Motivation (United States)

    Gurland, Suzanne T.; Glowacky, Victoria C.


    To investigate children's theories of motivation, we asked 166 children (8-12 years of age) to rate the effect of various motivational strategies on task interest, over the short and long terms, in activities described as appealing or unappealing. Children viewed the rewards strategy as resulting in greatest interest except when implemented over…

  19. Nordic Children's Foodscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Barbro; Mäkelä, Johanna; Roos, Gun


    A study of the different food messages that children encounter and their own reflections of these messages was carried out among fifty-nine children from Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden.The children took photos of their "foodscapes," including school, home, shops, streets, cafés and restauran...

  20. Bullying among Children. (United States)

    Bullock, Janis R.


    Notes that teachers have differing views toward children who bully. Addresses characteristics of bullies and their victims, incidences of bullying among children, the effects of bullying on children, and recommendations for teachers' support, including school-wide, classroom, and individual interventions. (DLH)

  1. Bad Air For Children (United States)

    Kane, Dorothy Noyes


    Children are especially sensitive to air pollution and consequences to them maybe of longer duration than to adults. The effects of low-level pollution on children are the concern of this article. The need for research on the threat of air pollution to childrens' health is emphasized. (BT)

  2. Canadian Children's Literature. (United States)

    School Libraries in Canada, 2001


    Includes 15 articles that relate to Canadian children's literature, including the power of literature; using Canadian literature in Canada; the principal's role in promoting literacy; Canadian Children's Book Centre; the National Library of Canada's children's literature collection; book promotion; selection guide; publisher's perspective; and…

  3. Literature for Children. (United States)

    Salomone, Ronald E., Ed.


    The 15 articles in this journal issue deal with children's literature. Among the topics and titles discussed are (1) Virginia Hamilton's books, (2) the new realism in children's literature, (3) gender bias in children's books, (4) teaching "Where the Wild Things Are" to adults, (5) language use in "Alice in Wonderland," (6) "Mom, the Wolf Man and…

  4. Counseling with Exceptional Children (United States)

    Tarver-Behring, Shari; Spagna, Michael E.


    Children and adolescents with disabilities are an extremely heterogeneous group of diverse learners, each with unique learning strengths and needs. Often misunderstood and frequently less served by the counseling profession, these children and adolescents need counseling services just as much as, if not more than, other children. Federal…

  5. Helping Children Understand Divorce. (United States)

    Allers, Robert D.


    Children of divorced parents may bring many problems along when they come to school. Teachers can recognize these troubles and help children learn to handle them. They may be able to help children better understand their feelings about their parents' divorce. (CJ)

  6. Ptosis - infants and children (United States)

    Blepharoptosis-children; Congenital ptosis; Eyelid drooping-children; Eyelid drooping-amblyopia; Eyelid drooping-astigmatism ... Ptosis in infants and children is often due to a problem with the muscle that raises the eyelid. A nerve problem in the eyelid can ...

  7. Literature with Children. (United States)

    Cohen, Monroe D., Ed.

    Articles concerning the teaching of literature to children are presented. "Providing Balanced Contacts with Literature for Children" covers the potential of literature in the curriculum. In "The Classics in Children's Literature," a classic is defined as a book or story or poem that usually has long outlived its author. "Fostering Lifetime Reading…

  8. On Children Writing Poetry. (United States)

    Rouse, John


    Discusses two approaches to teaching poetry writing to children: a method approach that molds children's creativity into acceptable forms, and an experimental approach that allows children to try out personal feelings and different forms, which is more conducive to their perceptions, creativity, and developing sense of self. (HTH)

  9. Lesson's-learned from a 2003-2006 USA-Honduras NGO and University Geosciences Education Partnership in Land use Land / Land Cover Change Analysis using Remote Sensing and GPS (United States)

    Ford, R. E.


    Between 2004 and 2006 the Loma Linda University ESSE21 Mesoamerican Project (Earth System Science Education for the 21st Century) collaborated with a series of academic, NGO (nongovernmental) and government agencies, including a USAID (United States Agency for International Development) integrated environmental resource management project to: a) build the human and technical capacity of local partners in the use of geospatial technologies, e.g. GIS, GPS, Remote Sensing, b) improve their capacity to apply these tools to biodiversity, health, sustainability, protected-area management, and other NRM (Natural Resource Management) decision-making needs and problems, and c) establish long term institutional relationships for teacher/student exchange, including development of joint curricula and research projects focused on health geoinformatics as well as sustainable development. Much of this has contributed toward a new "geotourism" effort adopted by Honduras called the SAVE Honduras strategy (Scientific, Academic, Volunteer, Educational). A central element of this initiative is to increase joint collaborative research and learning together by students and faculty at US universities working with Honduran institutions (private and public). See SAVE Strategy page = In the presentation we describe our experience over the last three years collaborating with key partners such as the Central American Observatory of Suyapa based at the UNAH (Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Honduras) which has opened a new GIS/Remote Sensing Laboratory. We also collaborated closely with CURLA (Centro Universitario Regional del Litoral Atlántico) located near La Ceiba--a land grant-type institution- -to support outreach and extension activities by students and staff to local-level NGOs and community groups dealing with conservation, hazards mitigation, biodiversity, fisheries and related problems. We have also participated in joint "informal education" efforts doing environmental and ecotourism outreach with groups such as the Hugh Parkey Foundation and EarthWatch Institute in Belize and others in Honduras such as FUCSA (Fundacion Cuero y Salado), FUPNAPIB (Fundacion Parque Nacional Pico Bonito), REHDES (Red Ecologista Hondurena para el Desarrollo Sostenible), and SMBC (Sociedad Mesoamericana para la Biologia y Conservacion). See more about the projects on water resources, herpetofauna on the Pacific coast, and the West Indian manatee at: Lessons learned about designing, organizing, implementing, and financing such geosciences educational partnerships will be presented as well as describing "next steps". Suggestions about how other universities could join with us will be also proposed.

  10. Geopolítica brasileira na África subsaariana: assertivas cooperativas e ou conflitivas dos governos de Geisel (1974-1979) e Lula (2003-2006). Um estudo de geopolítica comparada


    Herbert Schutzer


    As geopolíticas que sustentam as políticas externas implementadas durante os governos de Geisel e Lula no primeiro mandato encontram-se fundamentadas nas teorias elaboradas pelos pensadores geopolíticos como Mario Travassos, Meira Mattos e Golbery, O contexto atual do cenário subsaariano, que envolve inúmeros atores participantes das estruturas centrais do sistema mundo e de algumas potências médias, elevam a região subsaariana a uma centralidade na geopolítica atual e serve de justificativ...

  11. Caracterización de un Grupo de Estudiantes que Obtuvo Altos Puntajes en el Examen de Calidad de la Educación Superior, Ecaes, AÑOS 2003 - 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senior Roca , Diana Margarita


    Full Text Available Teniendo en cuenta el impacto que los resultados de los exámenes de calidad de la educación superior (ECAES tienen en la comunidad académica en general, se consideró importante estudiar aspectos sociodemográficos, psicol ógicos y condiciones educativas relacionadas con la vida universitaria, de estudiantes que obtuvieron puntajes en el examen ECAES, por encima de dos desviaciones estándar; calificación que supera al 97% de la poblaci ón que presenta este examen. Se pretende contribuir con este trabajo a la reflexión y análisis sobre el rendimiento académico, para incorporar los resultados encontrados, en el diseño de alternativas de trabajo que ayuden a otros estudiantes a alcanzar el éxito académico. En este estudio participaron 36 profesionales de psicología, egresados de cinco universidades colombianas. Se encontró que estos estudiantes se caracterizan porque atribuyen su alto puntaje en el ECAES a su capacidad intelectual, consideran que el éxito académico se debe a su esfuerzo personal, no tienen problemas para leer y comprender textos en inglés, tienen fácil acceso a Internet, se encuentran motivados para seguir estudiando luego de culminar su carrera universitaria, desean realizar estudios fuera del país, las actividades académicas desarrolladas en la universidad tenían sentido para ellos, no les preocupaba que los docentes fueran estrictos, se encontraban orgullosos de pertenecer a su universidad y consideraban que su opinión era tenida en cuenta al momento de tomar decisiones en su familia. Los resultados suministrados por la prueba AF-5, muestran que tienen un autoconcepto alto en la dimensión académico-laboral.






  13. Quality and energy yield of modules and photovoltaic plants - Final report; Qualita e resa energetica di moduli ed impianti fotovoltaici. Centrale ISAAC-TISO - Periodo VII: 2003-2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chianese, D.; Bernasconi, A.; Friesen, G.; Cereghetti, N.; Pola, I.; Bura, E.; Nagel, K.; Pittet, D.; Realini, A.; Pasinelli, P.; Ballerini, N.; Rioggi, S.


    This comprehensive final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) reviews work done at the ISAAC-TISO test centre in southern Switzerland. The main objective of the test centre is the evaluation of photovoltaic module quality, i.e. the assessment of the power values declared by the manufacturer, the electrical behaviour and energy production in varying climatic conditions, the stability of these values over time, and module life-span. Up till now, both outdoor and indoor structures for testing the electrical behaviour of modules have been realised. Indoor measurements under standard conditions are carried out using a solar simulator, outdoor measurements are carried out using external stands capable of accommodating 18 pairs of modules. The aim of the test procedure is to verify the actual power of modules; to verify if module guarantees are respected; to observe the behaviour of modules under real climatic conditions; to compare the energy yield of the different types of module; and finally, to develop methods for forecasting energy yield. The test installations are described in detail and various results are presented. Building-integrated photovoltaics is discussed and the mechanical characteristics of various module types are examined.

  14. Drifting buoy data from SVP Drifting Argos Buoys, deployed by the NOAA Coral Reef Ecosystems Division (CRED) near Guam and the Commonwealth of the Northern Marianas Islands, 2003-2006 (NODC Accession 0067473) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data collection includes data from multiple SVP drifters deployed in the region of the Marianas Archipelago to assess ocean currents and sea surface...

  15. 2003-2006年民航空勤人员医学临时停飞原因分析%Analysis of medical causes leading to civil aircrew temporary grounding from 2003 to 2006

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨斌; 梁谷米; 于红燕; 张齐云; 仲西蒙; 续文; 顾明; 周毓瑾


    目的 分析民航空勤人员医学临时停飞原因与特点,为航卫保障工作提供可靠的临床流行病学依据.方法 对2003年至2006年度516例东方航空江苏有限公司空勤人员因医学原因临时停飞情况进行调查,其中飞行员123人,空中乘务员342人,空中安全员51人.分析不同年度、不同职别人员医学临时停飞原因及临时停飞天数.应用SPSS 13.0统计软件进行统计分析.结果 ①临时停飞疾病居前10位的是上呼吸道感染、急性肠炎、气压性中耳炎、急性胃肠炎、软组织损伤、急慢性胃炎、痛经和月经不调、扁桃体炎、腰扭伤和腰肌劳损、皮炎.②上呼吸道感染是引起医学临时停飞的首要原因,高血压、气压性中耳炎、妊娠分别是飞行员、空中安全员、空中乘务员医学临时停飞的主要原因.③上呼吸道感染和气压性中耳炎在医学临时停飞总天数中位居前列,骨折、烫伤、肾炎及肾盂肾炎以及腰椎间盘突出症在单次医学临时停飞天数中位居前列.结论 应加强对空勤人员的健康教育,有针对性地开展预防工作,使其加强体质锻炼,养成良好生活习惯,降低医学临时停飞率.%Objective To analyze the characteristics and causes leading to civil aircrew medical temporary grounding and to provide the clinical epidemiology reference for aeromedical protection.Methods The constituent ratio of grounding cases and days of medical temporary grounding from 2003 to 2006 in China Eastern Airlines Jiangsu Ltd.were investigated and statistically analyzed by SPSS 13.0 software.Results The top ten diseases led to 516 aircrew medical temporary grounding in China Eastern Airlines Jiangsu Ltd.were upper respiratory tract infection,acute enteritis,barotraumatic otitis media,acute gastroenteritis,soft tissue injury,acute or chronic gastritis,dysmenorrhea and menoxenia,tonsillitis,lumbar sprain and lumbar muscle strain and dermatitis.Upper respiratory tract infection was the prime reason for aircrew medical temporary grounding.Hypertension disease,barotraumatic otitis media and pregnancy were the other important causes leading pilot,security officer and steward medical temporary grounding.Upper respiratory tract infection and barotraumatic otitis media,fracture,scald,nephritis and pyelonephritis and prolapse of lumbar intervertebral disc ranked the top of total and average sick leave days.Conclusions It is suggested that the health education and orientated prevention should be strengthened.Participating in physical exercise and taking good lifestyle habit would be helpful to reduce the rate of medical temporary grounding.

  16. Hvordan indgår undervisningsportfolio i bedømmelse af ansøgere til videnskabelige stillinger ved universitetet?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Frederik V; Kobayashi, Sofie; Lunddahl Jensen, Agnete

    . Interviewene indledes med generelle spørgsmål til bedømmelsesarbejdet og på vægtningen mellem undervisning og forskning, og herefter drøftes den funktion de fælles retningslinjer for portfolio har i det konkrete arbejde med vurdering af undervisningsportfolioer. Analysen vil fokusere på deltagernes...... karakteristik af det Teaching and Learning Regime (Trowler & Coopers, 2010) de indgår i, deres oplevelse af de undervisningsportfolioer de har skullet tage stilling til, samt deres oplevelse af funktionen af de fælles retningslinjer for portfolio i fm. ansættelser. Vi vil bruge Star og Griesemers (1989) begreb...

  17. Morphine sulphation in children.


    Choonara, I.; Ekbom, Y; Lindström, B; Rane, A.


    The metabolism of morphine was studied in nine children and seven preterm neonates receiving a continuous infusion of morphine. All the neonates and three children had detectable concentrations of morphine-3-sulphate (M3S) in urine. None of the neonates or the children had detectable concentrations of morphine-6-sulphate (M6S) in urine. None of the children had detectable concentrations of M3S in plasma. The M3S/morphine ratios were significantly higher in neonates than children (P less than ...

  18. Children's participation in Teledialogue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Bo; Lauritsen, Peter; Danholt, Peter


    Teledialogue is a combined research and design project aimed at improving communications between social workers and children under their custody living in foster care or youth institutions. While social workers are responsible for the welfare of placed children they are under heavy workload...... and often only communicate with children at biannual meetings - the minimum required by law. The purpose of Teledialogue is to use participatory methods to develop an IT-enabled concept for children and social workers to maintain communication between the biannual meetings. Social workers and children...... are thus the primary participants in this design process. This presentation describes the inclusion and participation of the placed children in Teledialogue. With an outset in Actor-Network Theory (ANT) two points are made: 1) that children were participating in shaping the design long before they were...

  19. [Watching over the children]. (United States)


    The World Health Organization estimates that more than 1 million children are infected with HIV worldwide. More than 50% of HIV infected children in developing countries die before they reach 12 months old. The lives of many other children who do not suffer from HIV themselves are affected by it because family members have AIDS. Families with adult members with AIDS become more poor and are under more stress because the adults lose their income or are too sick to be involved in agricultural activities. Women can be both HIV infected and in charge of caring for family members with AIDS or for the young children. Often, children must quit school to look for work in order to provide family needs. More than 5 million children will lose their mothers or both parents to AIDS between 1995 and 2000. Grandparents, aunts, or uncles care for the orphans but they are not in the position to pay for the extra food or school. Orphans can lose their rights to inherit family land or homes. Without an education, professional training, and family support, orphans face the risk of becoming street children. These children are especially vulnerable and often become sexually active at a young age, exposing them to HIV. AIDS control programs must find solutions to the needs and problems of children as well as those of adults. The programs must continue to focus on HIV prevention, guarantee access to primary health care for women and children, support children and other family members caring for sick parents, make sure that older children benefit from sexual education, provide the means to prevent HIV infection, and care for more orphans and for older people who can no longer count on their children for their major needs.

  20. Foreign body in children?s airways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassol Vitor


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the clinical characteristics and the results of bronchoscopic treatment of children due to foreign body aspiration in a university hospital. METHOD: Time series of children who underwent bronchoscopies for foreign bodies aspirated into the airway between March 1993 and July 2002. Each patient was analyzed for age, sex, initial clinical diagnosis, nature and location of the foreign body, duration of symptoms between aspiration and bronchoscopy, radiological findings, results of bronchoscopic removal, complications of bronchoscopy and presence of foreign bodies in the airways. RESULTS: Thirty-four children, 20 (59% boys, ages ranging from nine months to nine years (median = 23 months. In 32 (94% children the foreign body was removed by rigid bronchoscope, and two resulted in thoracotomy. Foreign bodies were more frequent in children under three years of age (66%. A clinical history of foreign body inhalation was obtained in 27 (80% cases. Most of the foreign bodies removed were organic (65% and more frequently found in the right bronchial tree (59%. Foreign bodies were removed within 24 hours in 18 (53% cases. The most frequent radiographic findings were: unilateral air trapping, atelectasis and radiopac foreign body. Major bronchoscopy complications occurred in seven children (22%, and there were no deaths. CONCLUSIONS: More attention is necessary to the respiratory symptoms of aspirations, mainly in boys at early ages, with clinical history and compatible radiological findings. Most foreign bodies removed were of organic nature. In this case series, therapeutic rigid bronchoscopy was effective with few complications.

  1. Young Children and War Play. (United States)

    Carlsson-Paige, Nancy; Levin, Diane E.


    In a recent survey of parents and early childhood professionals the prevalence of war play among children and an increase in the amount of violence in children's play was noted. Outlines how the deregulation of children's television during the Reagan administration has affected children's exposure to violence in children's television programming.…

  2. Children of Different Categories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gulløv, Eva; Bundgaard, Helle


    In this article we discuss the production of social distinctions within an institutional setting. Based on ethnographic fieldwork in a multi-ethnic pre-school in Denmark we focus on the interpersonal encounters between immigrant children, their parents and the staff. More specifically we explore...... an apparent paradox in daily practice where on the one hand staff attempt to mute differences between children on the assumption that all children are equal and should be treated as such, while on the other hand distinctions are in practice established when children behave in ways considered inappropriate...... in relation to their own long term interest. Our material indicates that this logic systematically marks Middle Eastern children as ?other?. This legitimises an educational effort to compensate practices of upbringing in the families by teaching these children how to behave in ways considered 'proper...

  3. Children of alcoholics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Oravecz


    Full Text Available The author briefly interprets the research – results, referring to the phenomenon of children of alcoholics, especially the psychological and psychopathological characteristics of children of alcoholics in adolescence and young adulthood. The author presents a screening study of adolescents. The sample contains 200 high school students at age 18. The aim of the survey was to discover the relationship between alcohol consumption of parents, PTSD - related psychopathological symptoms and reported life quality of their children. The study confirmed the hypothesis about a substantial correlation between high alcohol consumption of parents, higher psychopathological symptom - expression and lower reported life quality score of their children. Higher PTSD-related symptomatology in children of alcoholics is probably resulted by home violence, which is very often present in family of alcoholics. The article also evaluated the results regarding suicide ideation of children of alcoholics, which is definitely more frequent and more intense than in their peers living in non alcohol – dependent families.

  4. Children in Risk Society

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming; Zhao


    <正>According to WilliamCorsaro,children do not only interpret adults’culture,but also create their own culture(40).However,how children interpret adults’culture and create their own culture to a large extent depends on adults,so adults influence the way children perceive the world and themselves.In Corsaro’s Orb Web Model,both social institutions and

  5. Domestic violence against children


    Mihić Biljana D.


    In this paper the author is analysing definitions and basic notions related to domestic violence against children, as one of the most serious forms of violence. The special chapter deals with effects of violence against children and causes of domestic violence against them. Also, the author is analysing different forms of social reaction and considering the problem of legal regulation of mandatory reporting domestic violence against children.

  6. Children's participation in research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broström professor, Stig


    and research in their own preschool settings. This article offers an argument based on theory and practical examples for the inclusion of children in educational and educational research. It also introduces some of the problems which warrant consideration if researchers are to understand and cooperate...... with children as co-researchers. The author 15 portrays the educational process and the research process as a possible way for the democratisation of children....

  7. Measuring Vision in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Verweyen


    Full Text Available Measuring vision in children is a special skill requiring time, patience and understanding. Methods should be adapted to the child’s age, abilities, knowledge and experience. Young children are not able to describe their vision or explain their visual symptoms. Through observation, and with information from the mother or guardian, functional vision can be evaluated. While testing and observing children, an experienced assessor notices their responses to visual stimuli. These must be compared with the expected functional vision for children of the same age and abilities, so it is important to know the normal visual development.

  8. Children and stress


    Johansson, Camilla


    Abstract This paper is about children and stress. Stress among children is a serious problem and to be aware of that as a preschool teacher is very important. I’ve focused on the youngest children in preschool. I’ve searched for information in litterateur and articles. To fins literature is not a problem because it is a lot written about this subject. I did two interviews with three preschool teachers. All my sources agree that stress among children is a problem that we must try to work again...

  9. Children and violence. (United States)

    Renshaw, Domeena C


    In this "information era" it can no longer be said that children are being raised in Eden or in a gentle environment of kindness and love. However rural their home, children will undoubtedly see depictions of violence on television, in the movies, or in newspapers, or hear about it on the radio or while at school or on classroom computers. All children require safety education in order to learn how to protect themselves from harm at home, at school, or in the neighborhood. This article outlines how violence may impact today's children who seek medical care.

  10. Spirometry in children. (United States)

    Jat, Kana Ram


    Respiratory disorders are responsible for considerable morbidity and mortality in children. Spirometry is a useful investigation for diagnosing and monitoring a variety of paediatric respiratory diseases, but it is underused by primary care physicians and paediatricians treating children with respiratory disease. We now have a better understanding of respiratory physiology in children, and newer computerised spirometry equipment is available with updated regional reference values for the paediatric age group. This review evaluates the current literature for indications, test procedures, quality assessment, and interpretation of spirometry results in children. Spirometry may be useful for asthma, cystic fibrosis, congenital or acquired airway malformations and many other respiratory diseases in children. The technique for performing spirometry in children is crucial and is discussed in detail. Most children, including preschool children, can perform acceptable spirometry. Steps for interpreting spirometry results include identification of common errors during the test by applying acceptability and repeatability criteria and then comparing test parameters with reference standards. Spirometry results depict only the pattern of ventilation, which may be normal, obstructive, restrictive, or mixed. The diagnosis should be based on both clinical features and spirometry results. There is a need to encourage primary care physicians and paediatricians treating respiratory diseases in children to use spirometry after adequate training.

  11. [Acute fever in children]. (United States)

    Gras-Le Guen, Christèle; Launay, Élise


    Fever in children is a very common symptom associated most of the time with a viral infection. However, in 7% of children, fever without source is the first symptom of a serious bacterial infection such as pneumonia, meningitis, pyelonephritis or bacteremia. The key point in clinical examination of these children is the early identification of toxic signs. Because SBI prevalence is higher in very young children (1-3 month-aged), they required a specific management with some systematic complementary investigations and a broad indication of probabilistic antibiotherapy treatment.

  12. Atrial Fibrillation in Children (United States)

    ... Cholesterol Tools & Resources Congenital Defects Children & Adults About Congenital Heart Defects The Impact of Congenital Heart Defects Understand Your Risk for Congenital Heart Defects Symptoms & ...

  13. Television Commercials' Effects on Children. (United States)

    Quisenberry, James D.


    Discusses research focused on characteristics of children's TV commercials, the relationship between commercials and children's learning and reasoning, and effects of commercials on children's language, attitudes, and beliefs. (Author/RH)

  14. America's Children and the Environment (United States)

    ... Protection Agency Search Search America's Children and the Environment (ACE) Share Facebook Twitter Google+ Pinterest Contact Us ... of updates to ACE . America's Children and the Environment (ACE) America's Children and the Environment (ACE) is ...

  15. Sleep Disorders in Children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    All the parents want their children to go to bed by themselves and sleep through the night. Unluckily, over 30% of today--s parents do not have such children. Instead, their kids are awake at night crying or resist going to bed in the evening.

  16. Raising Children Who Care. (United States)

    Kohn, Alfie


    Presents excerpt from Kohn's 1990 book, asserting that parents are most important to children and need to project a positive view of life. Argues that caring, the absence of physical punishment, guiding and explaining, cooperating, and taking children seriously are required to offset the pressure and negative values that a competitive culture…

  17. Children of Alcoholics (United States)

    ... 11) • Abuse of drugs or alcohol; or • Aggression towards other children • Risk taking behaviors • Depression or suicidal thoughts or behavior Some children of alcoholics may cope by taking the role of responsible "parents" within the family and among friends. They may ...

  18. Headache in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soee, Ann Britt L; Skov, Liselotte; Thomsen, Lise L.;


    Aim: The aim of this article is to evaluate the effectiveness of a specific multidisciplinary treatment programme for children with headache and to describe the concept and settings of the Children's Headache Clinic in Denmark. Method: All new patients were included and evaluations were conducted...

  19. Dengue in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, L.M.; Groot, R. de


    Dengue is a mosquito-borne viral disease of expanding geographical range and increasing incidence. The vast majority of dengue cases are children less than 15 years of age. Dengue causes a spectrum of illness from mild fever to severe disease with plasma leakage and shock. Infants and children with

  20. The Punishment of Children (United States)

    Maslova, T. F.; Smagina, M. V.


    The causes of punishment including violence are perceived, first and foremost, as in the nature of family relations. The authors' survey focused on children's interaction with their parents, and the risk of violence is clearly present. Russian sociological research on violence against children within families shows a lack of consensus on what…

  1. [Children, television and violence]. (United States)

    Zann, M


    The relationships between children and television are a source of heated debate. Several studies, mainly conducted in North America, have found a correlation between television violence viewing and aggressive behavior, preadolescents appearing as the most vulnerable. However, in France opinions are more nuanced and one generally considers that television-induced violence in children mainly depends upon individual and educative socio-familial factors.

  2. Testing children for allergies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eigenmann, P A; Atanaskovic-Markovic, M; O'B Hourihane, J;


    Allergic diseases are common in childhood and can cause a significant morbidity and impaired quality-of-life of the children and their families. Adequate allergy testing is the prerequisite for optimal care, including allergen avoidance, pharmacotherapy and immunotherapy. Children with persisting...

  3. Chronic Diarrhea in Children (United States)

    ... All Content Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) in Children Lactose Intolerance Ménétrier’s Disease Microscopic Colitis Ostomy Surgery of the ... and Diseases Diarrhea Celiac Disease IBS in Children Lactose Intolerance Related Diagnostic Tests Colonoscopy Flexible Sigmoidoscopy Upper GI ...

  4. Facial paralysis in children. (United States)

    Reddy, Sashank; Redett, Richard


    Facial paralysis can have devastating physical and psychosocial consequences. These are particularly severe in children in whom loss of emotional expressiveness can impair social development and integration. The etiologies of facial paralysis, prospects for spontaneous recovery, and functions requiring restoration differ in children as compared with adults. Here we review contemporary management of facial paralysis with a focus on special considerations for pediatric patients.

  5. Children's bone health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.M. van der Sluis (Inge)


    textabstractThe thesis can be divided in two main parts. In the first part (Chapter 2 to 5) bone mineral density, bone metabolism and body composition in healthy children and young adults have been evaluated, while in the second part (Chapter 6 to 10) these issues were studied in children with vario

  6. Children's television in Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriyani, H.; Hollander, E.H.; d'Haenens, L.S.J.; Beentjes, J.W.J.


    This article describes the structure, conduct, and performance of children's television in Indonesia during the last four decades, reflecting on its interaction with the government, the market, and civil society. A striking trend in Indonesia's children's television is undoubtedly its exponential gr

  7. FY 1991 Children's Agenda. (United States)

    Michigan Coalition for Children and Families, East Lansing.

    Addressed to advocates and decision makers, this agenda identifies state services in Michigan that will be most vital to the state's children and families in fiscal year 1991. Initial contents provide general policy recommendations of the Michigan Coalition for Children and Families. Policy recommendations for the programs of the departments of…

  8. Preoperative preparation of children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya Reshma Aranha


    Full Text Available Surgery is a stressful and anxiety provoking experience for children. Millions of children undergo surgery every year. The majority of children experience significant preoperative anxiety which intern can affect their recovery. Preoperative anxiety may bring about physical and physiological changes in children, which can be particularly evident in terms of increased heart rate and blood pressure. To identify various strategies used to minimize the preoperative anxiety of children and update their clinical effectiveness among children undergoing surgery, the authors searched PubMed, MEDLINE, CINAHL, ScienceDirect, Google Scholar, Scopus, and Cochrane Library for identifying the relevant studies and retrieved available literature. It is concluded that utilization of the strategies available to reduce the preoperative anxiety of children will be a promising intervention to reduce anxiety, to promote relaxation, satisfaction, and speedy recovery. Many of these techniques are simple, cost-effective and can be easily carried out by nurses. It is essential to use the age appropriate and individualized methods in preparing children for surgery. Further research is required to strengthen the evidence.

  9. Query recommendation for children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duarte Torres, Sergio; Hiemstra, Djoerd; Weber, Ingmar; Serdyukov, Pavel


    One of the biggest problems that children experience while searching the web occurs during the query formulation process. Children have been found to struggle formulating queries based on keywords given their limited vocabulary and their difficulty to choose the right keywords. In this work we propo

  10. Children and Marital Stability (United States)

    Thornton, Arland


    This research investigated the relationship between early childbearing and marital instability. Women with large families and those with no children were the most likely to experience disruption. The lowest dissolution rates were found for those with moderate numbers of children. (Author)

  11. [Violence against children]. (United States)

    Daher, Michel


    The Convention of Human Rights defines violence as "all forms of physical or mental violence, injury and abuse, neglect or negligent treatment, maltreatment or exploitation, including sexual abuse". Violence against children cuts across boundaries of geography, race, class, religion and culture. It occurs in homes, schools and streets ; in places of work and entertainment, and in care and detention centers. Perpetrators include parents, family members, teachers, caretakers, law enforcement authorities and other children. Some children are particularly vulnerable because of gender, race, ethnic origin, disability or social status. And no country is immune, whether rich or poor. Although the consequences of violence for children may vary according to its nature and severity, the short- and long-term repercussions are very often grave and damaging. Violence may result in greater susceptibility to lifelong social, emotional, and cognitive impairments and to health-risk behaviors, such as substance abuse and early initiation of sexual behavior. Governments are ultimately responsible for the protection of children. It is therefore up to governments to act now, to fulfill their human rights obligations and other commitments, to ensure the protection of children from all forms of violence. Violence against children is never justifiable. Nor is it inevitable. After providing a global picture of violence against children, we propose recommendations to prevent and respond to this issue.

  12. Children's Advertising Guidelines. (United States)

    Council of Better Business Bureaus, Inc., New York, NY.

    These guidelines have been developed for the use of advertisers and advertising agencies and for the self-regulatory mechanism which these groups have established, the National Advertising Division, to help ensure that advertising directed to children is truthful, accurate, and fair to children's perceptions. Preliminary sections set forth basic…

  13. Divorce and Children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Zang Xiaoping (editor of the Literary Gazette) Whether or not to get divorced for the sake of the children is an important question for every couple that is having problems. I think the key to solving the problem is to start by considering what would be best for the healthy development of their children.

  14. Gifted Children and Divorce (United States)

    Dudley, John; Karnes, Frances A.


    Divorce is often a contentious process with multiple issues to decide, especially in cases in which there are children involved. Divorce raises several legal issues when considering the well-being of children, including those who are gifted. In this article, the authors discuss these issues which include school choice, child support, and custody…

  15. Teaching Our Homeless Children (United States)

    Sheldon, George H.


    This paper discusses some of the major concerns associated with the instructional process of our homeless children. The reader is provided with a brief overview of the prevalence of this population. According to the National Center on Family Homelessness the number of school children who are homeless is growing rapidly with 1.4 to 1.5 million…

  16. [Children outside house


    Smithson, John Snowden, fl 1903


    Showing a row of children seated on the floor outside a house. Smithson has pencilled the following lecture notes: '12. Number of children. Volcanic rock. Afterwards tree tattooing - waist to knee not all done at once - sign of manhood - those not tattooed considered of no account'.

  17. Children with Usher syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dammeyer, Jesper Herup


    Background: Mental and behavioral disorders among adults with Usher syndrome have been discussed and reported in some case studies but no research has been reported on children with Usher syndrome. Methods: This article investigates the prevalence and characteristics of mental and behavioral...... disorders among 26 children, 3-17 years of age, with Usher syndrome. Results: Six of the 26 children were diagnosed with a mental or behavioral disorder (1 with schizophrenia and mild mental retardation, 1 with atypical autism and severe mental retardation, 1 with atypical autism and mild mental retardation......, 1 with mild mental retardation, and 2 with conduct disorder). Another 3 children had had a mental or behavioral disorder previously in their childhood. Conclusion: Even though vision impairment first manifests in late childhood, some children with Usher syndrome seem to develop mental and behavioral...

  18. Recurrent wheezing in children (United States)

    Piazza, Michele; Piacentini, Giorgio


    Recurrent wheezing have a significant morbidity and it’s estimated that about one third of school-age children manifest the symptom during the first 5 years of life. Proper identification of children at risk of developing asthma at school age may predict long-term outcomes and improve treatment and preventive approach, but the possibility to identify these children at preschool age remains limited. For many years authors focused their studies to identify early children with recurrent wheezing at risk to develop asthma at school age. Different phenotypes have been proposed for a more precise characterization and a personalized plan of treatment. The main criticism concerns the inability to define stable phenotypes with the risk of overestimating or underestimating the characteristics of symptoms in these children. The aim of this review is to report the recent developments on the diagnosis and treatment of recurrent paediatric wheezing. PMID:26835404

  19. Vesicoureteric reflux in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jameela A Kari


    Full Text Available Aim: This study aimed to identify the differences between primary and secondary vesicoureteric reflux (VUR and the effect of associated bladder abnormalities on kidney function. Patients and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of children with VUR who were followed up at King Abdulaziz University Hospital from January 2005 to December 2010. The review included results of radiological investigations and kidney function tests. We used Chi-square test for statistical analysis and paired t-test to compare group means for initial and last creatinine levels. Results: Ninety-nine children were included in this study. Twenty (20.2% had primary VUR, 11 had high-grade VUR, while 9 had low-grade reflux. All children with low-grade VUR had normal dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA. Renal scars were present in 72% of the children with high-grade VUR. The mean creatinine levels (initial and last for both groups were normal. Seventy-nine (79.8% children had secondary VUR, which was due to posterior urethral valves (PUV (46.8%, neurogenic bladder caused by meningomyelocele (25.3%, non-neurogenic neurogenic bladder (NNB (21.5%, or neurogenic bladder associated with prune belly syndrome (6.3%. Children with NNB, meningomyelocele and PUV had high creatinine at presentation with no considerable worsening of their kidney functions during the last visit. Renal scars were present in 49.4% of the children with secondary VUR. Conclusion: Children with primary VUR and normal bladder had good-functioning kidneys, while those with secondary VUR associated with abnormal bladder caused by NNB, spina bifida or PUV had abnormal kidney functions. DMSA scans were useful in predicting higher grades of VUR in children with primary reflux.

  20. Using Art with Vulnerable Children (United States)

    Cumming, Stevi; Visser, John


    Refugee children are often admitted into schools having experienced traumatic events. The impact of trauma on children has been well documented and these children frequently have complex needs. The Devon Behaviour Support Team (BST) has offered Art Workshops to schools to support children with social, emotional and behavioural difficulties and…

  1. Special Features in Children's Conversations. (United States)

    Karjalainen, Merja

    In a study of features that seem to be typical of children's conversations, 10 Finnish preschool children's conversations were videotaped and audiotaped over a period of 10 hours. The children were taped in conversation, play, fairy tale, and eating situations. Among the findings are that all children enjoy playing with language, but some initiate…

  2. Seeing Children's Pleasure with Food (United States)

    Curtis, Deb


    Children's relationship with food in early childhood programs is often a complex topic. Families have concerns about "picky eaters" and teachers feel pressure to make sure that children eat enough while in their care. Children bring snacks that teachers describe as junk food and believe this negatively impacts children's behavior. Foods marketed…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. L. Piskunova


    Full Text Available The article presents the results of examination of 1849 children, entering children's infectioushospitalofVladivostokwith the clinical picture of croup of viral etiology. The clinical features of primary and recurrent croup are described. Frequency of recurrent croup inVladivostokis 8%. Children with a recurrent croup had the burdened premorbid background, and also persistent herpetic infections (cytomegalic infection in 42,9% cases, cytomegalic infection in combination with the herpes simplex virus -1. Frequency of croups substantially rose in the period of epidemic of influenza.

  4. Medical marijuana and children. (United States)

    Stubblefield, Sam


    Medical marijuana is legal for use by minors in many states, but not Delaware. Anecdotes have accumulated suggesting efficacy in managing seizures in children and several other conditions in adults. Currently well-designed studies in children are lacking. Challenges to effective pediatric medical marijuana use remain at the level of biochemistry, the individual patient, and society. Appropriate and effective use of medical marijuana in children will require significant legislative changes at the state and federal level, as well as high-quality research and standardization of marijuana strains.

  5. Headache In Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivasa R


    Full Text Available Headaches are common in children. The presentation of headache in children is varied and hence the characterization of headache is more challenging. This situation is worsened further by inadequacies in the history and the effect of maturational factors. Relevant epidemiological and limitations in the applicability of International Headache Society criteria in childhood headache and the rationale for newer criteria are discussed. Migraine and tension-type headache are the common primary headache seen in children. Although there is a paucity of clinical trials the management of childhood migraine, the important role of correct pharmacological approach has been delineated. The pivotal role of non-pharmacological treatment is emphasized.

  6. Sensorineural hearing loss in children.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Wormald, R


    The objective of the study was to examine the aetiology of sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) in a paediatric population presenting to the National Centre of Medical Genetics. A retrospective chart review from 1998 to 2006. One hundred and twenty nine children were investigated for SNHL. The average age of diagnosis of hearing loss was 36 months. The degree of hearing loss was mild in 8 children, moderate in 33 children, severe in 31 children and profound in 57 children. Eighty-five children (66%) were diagnosed with a hereditary hearing loss, 11 (8%) children had an acquired hearing loss and no cause found in 33 (26%) children. This is the first report of the causes of hearing loss in Irish children. The mean age of diagnosis in our cohort is high and emphasises the need for a neonatal screening programme. There remains a number of children for whom the cause of hearing loss remains unknown.

  7. Children and Grief (United States)

    ... Collins) / Your Adolescent (1999 Harper Collins) Order Your Child from Harper Collins Order Your Adolescent from Harper Collins Related Facts for Families Death of Pets: Talking to Children Foster Care Sleep Problems Chronic ...

  8. Pneumonia - children - discharge (United States)

    ... this page: // Pneumonia in children - discharge To use the sharing features ... this page, please enable JavaScript. Your child has pneumonia, which is an infection in the lungs. In ...

  9. Children's Craniofacial Association (United States)

    ... Hemifacial Moebius syndrome Pfeiffer syndrome Pierre Robin Sequence Treacher Collins syndrome Other syndromes Wonder News & Events Help CCA ... Pierre Robin Sequence • Pfeiffer syndrome • Saethre-Chotzen syndrome • Treacher Collins syndrome Children's Craniofacial Association is a national, 501( ...

  10. Children's Environment in ECEC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Anette Boye; Laursen, Hanne; Jørgensen, Hanne Hede


    the actor-oriented aspects of socialization processes. Children live, experience and attach to their life space, they have to have a spatial image of their environment that they go to in their imagination and then transfer that image to the map. We refer to modern childhood sociology that considers children......Danish Legislation prescribes that children’s environment in Early Childhood Education (ECE) is evaluated and enhanced as an integrated part of curriculum work. Children’s perspectives must be included in the efforts. During the last 10 years, pedagogues have endeavoured to include children...... in evaluations of physical, psychological and aesthetic environmental dimensions of education. The present study aims to elucidate how professionals and children co-operate in order to develop children’s environments and study the impact of children’s perspectives on pedagogy and children’s processes of ‘bildung...

  11. Children in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kløvgaard, Marius; Nielsen, Nina Odgaard; Sørensen, Thomas Lund


    in Nuuk or Ilulissat (n=332). Data on diseases and health care system contacts were extracted. Diagnoses were validated retrospectively. Primary health care contacts were reviewed for a random sample of 1:6. RESULTS: In 311 children with valid social security number, the total number of health care system......BACKGROUND: Previous studies of Greenlandic children's disease pattern and contacts to the health care system are sparse and have focused on the primary health care sector. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to identify the disease pattern and use of health care facilities of children aged 0-10 in two Greenlandic...... cohorts. METHODS AND DESIGN: In a retrospective, descriptive follow-up of the Ivaaq (The Greenland Child Cohort) and the CLEAR (climate changes, environmental contaminants and reproductive health) birth cohorts (total n=1,000), we reviewed medical records of children aged 6-10 in 2012 with residence...

  12. Teaching minority children hygiene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rheinländer, Thilde; Samuelsen, Helle; Dalsgaard, Anders


    homes of pre-school children, together with 67 semi-structured interviews with caregivers and five kindergarten staff. Thematic analysis was applied and concepts of social learning provided inputs to the analysis. Findings. This study showed that poor living conditions with lack of basic sanitation......Objectives. Ethnic minority children in Vietnam experience high levels of hygiene- and sanitation-related diseases. Improving hygiene for minority children is therefore vital for improving child health. The study objective was to investigate how kindergarten and home environments influence...... the learning of hygiene of pre-school ethnic minority children in rural Vietnam. Design. Eight months of ethnographic field studies were conducted among four ethnic minority groups living in highland and lowland communities in northern Vietnam. Data included participant observation in four kindergartens and 20...

  13. Parental Investments in Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonke, Jens; Esping-Andersen, Gösta

    This study examines parental time investment in their children, distinguishing between developmental and non-developmental care. Our analyses centre on three influential determinants: educational background, marital homogamy, and spouses’ relative bargaining power. We find that the emphasis...

  14. Treating Children as Individuals (United States)

    ... goal is nearly impossible to achieve. Even if parents interact with their youngsters in a comparable manner, each child may perceive these actions differently. Your behavior toward your children is determined in part by the ...

  15. Secondhand Smoke and Children (United States)

    ... and is retained in clothing, hair, curtains, and furniture. Many people find ETS unpleasant, annoying, and irritating ... children of non-smoking mothers. Modest impairment in school performance and intellectual achievement has also been demonstrated. ...

  16. Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romano T. DeMarco


    Full Text Available The surgical management of pediatric stone disease has evolved significantly over the last three decades. Prior to the introduction of shockwave lithotripsy (SWL in the 1980s, open lithotomy was the lone therapy for children with upper tract calculi. Since then, SWL has been the procedure of choice in most pediatric centers for children with large renal calculi. While other therapies such as percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL were also being advanced around the same time, PNL was generally seen as a suitable therapy in adults because of the concerns for damage in the developing kidney. However, recent advances in endoscopic instrumentation and renal access techniques have led to an increase in its use in the pediatric population, particularly in those children with large upper tract stones. This paper is a review of the literature focusing on the indications, techniques, results, and complications of PNL in children with renal calculi.

  17. Medicine safety and children (United States)

    ... this page: // Medicine safety and children To use the sharing features ... especially careful if you have toddlers around. Keep Medicines out of Reach and Sight Safety tips: DO ...

  18. Urinary tract infection - children (United States)

    ... this page: // Urinary tract infection - children To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A urinary tract infection is an infection of the urinary tract. This ...

  19. School-Phobic Children (United States)

    Gittelman, Rachel


    Separation anxiety is the major difficulty (and anticipatory anxiety a secondary difficulty) in treating school phobic children, and must be dealt with in a coordinated effort by school therapists, teachers, and parents. (MB)

  20. Language disorder - children (United States)

    ... this page: // Language disorder - children To use the sharing features on ... member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health on the Net Foundation (www. ...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. S. Kharlamova


    Full Text Available The authors presented a review of literature of necrotizing fasciitis in children. A rare case of necrotizing fasciitis in 3-year-old child is described. The difficulties of differential diagnostics of the given disease are presented.

  2. Children and Families: 1984? (United States)

    Bronfenbrenner, Urie


    In order to develop normally, children need emotional involvement and shared activities with one or more adult(s). Public policy in the United States, unlike that of most industrialized societies, is not supportive of family life. (Author/GC)

  3. Children of Divorce. (United States)

    Kelly, Joan B.; Wallerstein, Judith S.


    Discusses the emotional trauma children experience at home and in school when their parents divorce. Also considers the actual and potential role of the school in providing support to these youngsters. (Author/LD)

  4. Gastrointestinal infections in children. (United States)

    Mönkemüller, K E; Wilcox, C M


    Gastrointestinal infections in children are a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Children living in developing countries are particularly susceptible to infectious diarrhea because of poor standards of hygiene and sanitation. Although the magnitude of diarrheal illnesses in developed countries is less, costly hospital admissions are still frequent. The causal agent of infectious diarrhea is most frequently related to age, geographical location, lifestyle habits, use of antibiotics, associated medical conditions, social circumstances, and degree of immune competence. In this article we present some of the most important articles published in the field during the last year. The role of Helicobacter pylori in the pathogenesis of gastritis and peptic ulcer disease has been shown in adults and children. Information about the natural history of H. pylori, symptomatology, and diagnostic therapeutic approaches for children are being generated constantly; we discuss some of the most relevant information in this review.

  5. Hypertensive crisis in children. (United States)

    Chandar, Jayanthi; Zilleruelo, Gastón


    Hypertensive crisis is rare in children and is usually secondary to an underlying disease. There is strong evidence that the renin-angiotensin system plays an important role in the genesis of hypertensive crisis. An important principle in the management of children with hypertensive crisis is to determine if severe hypertension is chronic, acute, or acute-on-chronic. When it is associated with signs of end-organ damage such as encephalopathy, congestive cardiac failure or renal failure, there is an emergent need to lower blood pressures to 25-30% of the original value and then accomplish a gradual reduction in blood pressure. Precipitous drops in blood pressure can result in impairment of perfusion of vital organs. Medications commonly used to treat hypertensive crisis in children are nicardipine, labetalol and sodium nitroprusside. In this review, we discuss the pathophysiology, differential diagnosis and recent developments in management of hypertensive crisis in children.

  6. Treating Arrhythmias in Children (United States)

    ... Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Treating Arrhythmias in Children Updated:Dec 21,2016 Many options ... card This content was last reviewed September 2016. Arrhythmia • Home • About Arrhythmia • Why Arrhythmia Matters • Understand Your ...

  7. Children and Arrhythmia (United States)

    ... Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Children and Arrhythmia Updated:Dec 21,2016 If your child has ... options This content was last reviewed September 2016. Arrhythmia • Home • About Arrhythmia • Why Arrhythmia Matters • Understand Your ...

  8. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... need sedation for the imaging. During this procedure, parents are usually allowed and often encouraged to stay ... discomfort from having to remain still during imaging. Parents are encouraged to stay with their children to ...

  9. Television and Children's Fantasy. (United States)

    Singer, Dorothy; Kelly, Helen Bryman


    Television can be a source of knowledge and information or it can cause negative behavior. Parents can help their children understand the difference between fantasy and reality on television and help make television viewing a positive event. (DF)

  10. Dental Exam for Children (United States)

    ... such as pacifier use and thumb sucking Toddlers, school-age children and adolescents During each regular checkup, ... child will bite down on the X-ray film holder while the X-ray images are being ...

  11. Children's Mental Health Surveillance (United States)

    Children’s Mental Health Surveillance What are childhood mental disorders? The term childhood mental disorder means all mental disorders that can ... is the impact of mental disorders in children? Mental health is important to overall health. Mental disorders are ...

  12. Hepatitis A - children (United States)

    ... fulminant hepatitis (liver failure) is rare in healthy children. The symptoms are often easy to manage and include: Dark urine Tiredness Loss of appetite Fever Nausea and vomiting Pale stools Abdominal pain ( ...

  13. Adopted Children and Discipline (United States)

    ... Life Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Adopted Children & Discipline Page Content Article Body Some parents are hesitant to discipline the child they have adopted. They may set fewer limits than they would ...

  14. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... beforehand, especially if sedation is to be used. Most nuclear medicine exams will involve an injection in ... PET/CT, SPECT/CT and PET/MR) are most often used in children with cancer, epilepsy and ...

  15. Children with Learning Disorders (United States)

    ... frustrated, and develops emotional problems such as low self-esteem in the face of repeated failure. Some children ... different issues affecting the child. A child and adolescent psychiatrist can help coordinate the evaluation, and work ...

  16. Children and Divorce (United States)

    ... with their own relationships and experience problems with self-esteem. Children will do best if they know that ... can refer the parents to a child and adolescent psychiatrist for evaluation and treatment. In addition, the ...

  17. Children with Essential Tremor (United States)

    ... different from their peers and the resulting low self-esteem can affect their ability to function well with ... ET is frustrating and embarrassing for children and adolescents, and can lead to anxiety, depression, and social ...

  18. Kidney Stones in Children (United States)

    ... drinking the wrong types of fluids, such as soft drinks or drinks with caffeine, may cause substances in ... such as chocolate, peanut butter, and dark-colored soft drinks. Children who form uric acid or cystine stones ...

  19. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of page What are some common uses of the procedure? Children's (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging is performed ... the thyroid gland. top of page How does the procedure work? With ordinary x-ray examinations, an ...

  20. Children and Parasitic Diseases (United States)

    ... . Parasites About Parasites Animals Blood Food Insects Water Education and Training CDC Bottle Bioassay References ... flowing water. It can cause itching and impaired vision in children, and lead to blindness in adulthood. ...

  1. Speech disorders - children (United States)

    ... this page: // Speech disorders - children To use the sharing features on ... 2017, A.D.A.M., Inc. Duplication for commercial use must be authorized in writing by ADAM ...

  2. Consumption and Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Browning, Martin; Ejrnæs, Mette


    supply. We develop two tests of the extreme hypothesis that only changes in family structure matter. We estimate effects of the numbers and ages of children on consumption. These estimates allow us to rationalize all of the increase in consumption without recourse to any of the causal mechanisms. Our...... estimates can be interpreted either as giving upper bounds on the effects of children or as evidence that the other causes are not important....



    SOMESFALEAN Vasilica


    The purpose of this paper is to highlight the reasons that lead marketers to give greater importance to children, how to explain this increased potential that children have on the existing market and strategies that marketers and companies use in order to reach this market. To this end we analyzed a series of articles, studies and research conducted on the subject, with implications in psychology, sociology, but especially in marketing. The results obtained show very interesting issues regard...

  4. Children and the Media


    Dennis, Everette E.; Pease, Edward C.


    Throughout history the media has primarily been produced by adults, for adults, about adults. Increasingly, children have become a matter of high priority in the modern media society, and as they have, they have also become the subject of much concern. From debates in Congress about the detrimental effects of movies, comic books, and video games over the last century to efforts to court children as media consumers, there is a clear recognition that the media are not now and probably ne...

  5. Pharmacovigilance for children's sake. (United States)

    Star, Kristina; Edwards, I Ralph


    Child age-specific information on efficacy and risk of medicines can be limited for healthcare professionals and patients. It is therefore very important to make the best use of a risk planned approach to the pharmacological treatment of children. This means pharmacovigilance in the broadest sense of gaining the best data from the use of medicines in clinical practice. We consider issues that complicate safe medication use in paediatric care, as well as current progress and provide suggestions for building knowledge within paediatric pharmacovigilance to be used to minimise patient harm. The continuous development in children constitutes a challenge to prescribing and administering age-suitable doses for individual children. Children are not only different from adults but differ vastly within their own age group. Physical growth during childhood is apparent to the eye, but less obvious is the ongoing maturation of organ function important for drug disposition and action. Systematic issues such as medication errors, off-label use and the lack of age-suitable formulations are considerable obstacles for safe medication use in paediatrics. The recognition of emerging adverse drug reactions could be more challenging in developing children. Initiatives to improve the situation have been made by the WHO and regulators in the USA and EU. Age-specific changes in physiology, pharmacology and psychology, as well as systematic issues specific for children need to be considered in the work of assessing spontaneous reports in children. Pharmacovigilance needs to broaden its aims considerably beyond merely capturing new associations between drugs and events, and encompass careful collection on patient characteristics and circumstances around the reported adverse drug reaction to provide essential information that will give clues on how to prevent harm to children.

  6. Headache in children


    Srinivasa R


    Headaches are common in children. The presentation of headache in children is varied and hence the characterization of headache is more challenging. This situation is worsened further by inadequacies in the history and the effect of maturational factors. Relevant epidemiological and limitations in the applicability of International Headache Society criteria in childhood headache and the rationale for newer criteria are discussed. Migraine and tension-type headache are the common primary h...

  7. Solidarity, children and research. (United States)

    Lyons, Barry


    While research on children is supported by many professional guidelines, international declarations and domestic legislation, when it is undertaken on children with no possibility of direct benefit it rests on shaky moral foundations. A number of authors have suggested that research enrolment is in the child's best interests, or that they have a moral duty or societal obligation to participate. However, these arguments are unpersuasive. Rather, I will propose in this paper that research participation by children seems most reasonable when considered as an act of solidarity; a form of identification with, and provision of practical assistance to, those who are less well off. This is an articulation of the view that many children, and their parents, seem to take seriously the suffering of others, and wish to assist in advancing other children's wellbeing. Perhaps, by fostering an environment in which children are encouraged to take solidarity seriously, participation in research which holds out substantial hope of benefit to those less well off would come to be perceived as a behavioural norm rather than an exceptional practice.

  8. Children at health risks. (United States)

    Sekar, H R


    In India, 69% of the children of the working class die, most of whom are child laborers. Economic pressure forces parents to make their children work. Employers want child workers because they can manipulate them and pay them low wages, thereby ensuring their viability. The caste system induces social inequality, inheritance invokes cultural inequality, and patriarchal socialization is responsible for gender inequality, all of which perpetuates exploitation of children by employers. In Sivakasi, an estimated 125,000 children make up the child labor force, comprising 30% of the entire labor force. 75% are from the lowest castes. 90% of child workers are girls because they are more obedient and accept even lower wages than boys, and girls need to save for their dowry. Girls often suffer verbal and physical abuse. Like their parents who were also child workers, child workers are illiterate and work long hours. A small rich elite in Sivakasi controls most of the trading and industrial capital, educational institutions, and voluntary organizations. Employers' agents give parents a loan and use their children's labor as security. Each day, they bring child workers to Sivakasi in factory buses from villages to work at least 12 hour days. They work under hazardous conditions, e.g., working with toxic chemicals. Coughing, sore throat, dizziness, methemoglobinemia, and anemia are common effects of ingestion or inhalation of chlorate dust. Inhalation of sulphur dust causes respiratory infections, eye infections, and chronic lung diseases (e.g., asthma). Fires and explosions are common risks for working children. Factory management seldom undertake fire prevention measures. An extensive survey of the problem of child labor is needed in Sivakasi before systematic planning to protect children could be done. Overall development, especially agricultural development, is needed. Parents, employers, enforcement authorities, trade unions, and social groups need to be sensitized to the

  9. Abdominal pain - children under age 12 (United States)

    Stomach pain in children; Pain - abdomen - children; Abdominal cramps in children; Belly ache in children ... belly Has had a recent injury to the abdomen Is having trouble breathing Call your provider if ...

  10. TB in Children in the United States (United States)

    ... in Children Treatment Vaccines Statistics Related Links TB in Children in the United States TB disease in children under ... person with infectious TB disease. Testing for TB in Children In the absence of symptoms, usually the ...

  11. Epilepsy in children. (United States)

    Arnold, S T; Dodson, W E


    Childhood epilepsies comprise a broad range of disorders which vary from benign to progressive and disabling. Accurate diagnosis of epilepsy type and determination of aetiology, when possible, are essential for appropriate treatment. The most common seizure type encountered in children is febrile seizures. These represent a benign condition which is not, in fact, epilepsy and usually does not require antiepileptic medication. When partial seizures occur in childhood, benign syndromes with spontaneous remission, such as rolandic epilepsy, must be distinguished from symptomatic epilepsies which may be refractory to medical management. Complex partial seizures in young children may appear different than in adults. The adverse effect profiles and dosing regimens of antiepileptic drugs in children are also different than in adults, and influence the choice of treatment. Epilepsy surgery should be considered for some children with intractible partial seizures. Generalized epilepsies also have a broader spectrum in children. The idiopathic generalized absence epilepsies are usually easy to control with medication. They range from childhood absence epilepsy which tends to remit in adolescence to juvenile myoclonic epilepsy which is a lifelong condition. In contrast, the seizures of West syndrome and Lennox-Gastaut syndrome are difficult to control, and treatment involves therapeutic modalities rarely used in adults such as ACTH and the ketogenic diet. Many childhood epilepsy syndromes have a familial predisposition, and the genetic bases for several disorders have been described.

  12. Diabetic neuropathy in children. (United States)

    Mah, Jean K; Pacaud, Danièle


    The worldwide burden of diabetes and its complications in children continues to increase due to the rise in type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Although overt diabetic neuropathy is rarely present in children and adolescents with diabetes, subclinical diabetic neuropathy has been estimated to occur in approximately half of all children with type 1 diabetes with a duration of 5 years or longer and up to 25% of pediatric patients with newly diagnosed diabetes have abnormal findings on nerve conduction studies. The present review on the state of pediatric diabetic neuropathy covers the definition, prevalence, pathogenesis, diagnosis, risk factors, and possible treatment approaches specific to children and adolescents with diabetes. It also highlights the many unknowns in this field. Nonetheless, new emerging interventions that can either prevent or delay the progression of diabetic microvascular and macrovascular complications may become available in the near future. Until specific interventions for diabetic neuropathy are available for use in children, it will be hard to justify screening for neuropathy other than through clinical assessment. Meanwhile, the search for quicker, easily administered, and quantifiable tests for diabetic neuropathy and efforts to establish valid pediatric norms for well-established measures used in adults will need to continue.

  13. Preputial retraction in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agarwal Abhinav


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to assess preputial retractability in children at various ages. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Nine hundred and sixty boys attending the hospital were included in the study. Children with hypospadias or history of preputial manipulation were excluded. Preputial anatomy was studied and subjects were classified into five groups as described by Kayaba et al . RESULTS: The prepuce could not be retracted at all so as to make even the external urethral meatus visible in 61.4% children aged 0-6 months while this decreased to only 0.9% in children aged 10-12 years. At the other end of the spectrum, while prepuce could not be fully retracted in any child below 6 months, it could be done in about 60% in the age group of 10-12 years. CONCLUSION Preputial nonseparation is the major cause of preputial nonretraction in the pediatric age group. Prepuce spontaneously separates from the glans as age increases and true phimosis is rare in children. Surgical intervention should be avoided for nonseparation of prepuce.

  14. Perioperative counseling in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Koutelekos


    Full Text Available Counseling is a part of professional role of nurses and a prerequisite for holistic care. Aim: The aim of the present study was to review the literature about Counseling of children that undergo surgery. Material and method: The methodology οf this study included bibliography research from both the review and the research literature, between 2005-2009 mainly in the pubmed data base which referred to Counseling of children that undergo surgery, using the key words: Counseling, perioperative treatment, holistic care . Results: In the literature it is cited that counseling is provided by well trained and balanced individuals that have communication skills. Prerequisite of effective counseling is Conversation, where the nurse-consultant after elaborate listening proposes remarks, proposals, in order to enhance self-image, self-knowledge and self-esteem of the child and improve its’ personal emotional state. Perioperative counseling procedure as a part of the holistic care of children should follow and individualized approach either on preoperative and postoperative stage. Conclusion: Ultimate goal of effective counseling to children that undergo surgery is to improve the quality of provided care and increase the degree of satisfaction of hospitalized children and their families.

  15. Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keshtkar Jahromi


    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB is the most common cause of infection-related death worldwide. Children represent 5 to 15% of all TB cases around the world and are more frequently infected and more easily affected by the most severe forms of the disease such as meningitis and disseminated form .Here, we reviewed TB in children with impact on the routes of transmission, clinical manifestations, treatment, control, and prophylaxis. Electronic databases (PubMed, Scopus were searched from June1995 to May 2014 by using key words (pulmonaryTB,epidemiology,transmission,clinical manifestations,treatment,control, and prophylaxis . Pulmonary tuberculosis may manifest in several forms, including endobronchial TB with focal lymphadenopathy, progressive pulmonary disease, pleural involvement, and reactivated pulmonary disease . Symptoms of primary pulmonary disease in the pediatric population are often insignificant. Gastric aspirates are used instead of sputum in children younger than 6 years. BCG vaccination is used in many parts of the world and the major role of vaccination is the prevention of life-threatening illness such as disseminated TB and meningitis in children.Treatment is the same as for adults. Most people infected with M .tuberculosis do not develop active disease. In healthy individuals, the lifetime risk of developing infection to disease is 5-10%. Reactivation of TB often occurs in older children and adolescent and is more common in patients who acquire TB at age 7 years and older.

  16. [Caffeine and children]. (United States)

    D'ius, P B


    Beverages containing caffeine are consumed by most people in most countries most days. Consumption is mostly in beverages such as coffee, tea and some soft drinks, and smaller amounts from other foods such as chocolate. Children also consume caffeine, though in smaller amounts even relative to their smaller size. Many questions have been asked about possible health effects of caffeine and have been answered by scientific research. Studies on pregnant women consuming caffeine show no effects on the fetus, infants, or on development followed up to school age. There have been many studies on children of school age. For example, it has been shown that a single dose of 3 mg/kg is without appreciable effect on a variety of behavioral and physiological functions, and even 10 mg/kg, had only minimal effects, within the normal range of differences between the children without caffeine. While newborn infants metabolize caffeine slowly, children from less than 1 year to adolescence metabolize caffeine about twice as fast as non-smoking adults. The numerous studies showing safety of caffeine in adults, combined with the direct studies in children showing they are similar and not more susceptible to caffeine than adults, gives assurance that lifelong consumption of caffeine in foods and beverages, starting in childhood, is without deleterious effects on health.

  17. Ethnicity and children's diets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Annemette Ljungdalh; Krasnik, Allan; Holm, Lotte


    of children between 4 months and 2 and a half years who were descendants of Turkish or Pakistani immigrants. The focus groups investigated: (1) everyday feeding practices; (2) values and concerns behind food choice; (3) social and cultural norms influencing feeding and eating practices; (4) experienced...... those related to ethnicity that are sometimes more important in determining food habits. The present study found that child-feeding practices were shaped by two main aims: (1) securing and improving child health; and (2) ensuring multi-cultural eating competence in children. The results confirm...... that ethnic distinctions do matter in the concerns and dilemmas mothers experience when feeding their children, but they also challenge the health authorities' reliance on dichotomies in promoting health among immigrant families. The participants' ethnic self-identification through food practices did...

  18. The Children's Loneliness Scale. (United States)

    Maes, Marlies; Van den Noortgate, Wim; Vanhalst, Janne; Beyers, Wim; Goossens, Luc


    The present study examined the factor structure and construct validity of the Children's Loneliness Scale (CLS), a popular measure of childhood loneliness, in Belgian children. Analyses were conducted on two samples of fifth and sixth graders in Belgium, for a total of 1,069 children. A single-factor structure proved superior to alternative solutions proposed in the literature, when taking item wording into account. Construct validity was shown by substantial associations with related constructs, based on both self-reported (e.g., depressive symptoms and low social self-esteem), and peer-reported variables (e.g., victimization). Furthermore, a significant association was found between the CLS and a peer-reported measure of loneliness. Collectively, these findings provide a solid foundation for the continuing use of the CLS as a measure of childhood loneliness.

  19. Sleep problems in children. (United States)

    Baweja, R; Calhoun, S; Baweja, R; Singareddy, R


    Sleep complaints and sleep disorders are common during childhood and adolescence. The impact of not getting enough sleep may affect children's' physical health as well emotional, cognitive and social development. Insomnia, sleep-disordered breathing, parasomnias and sleep disturbances associated with medical and psychiatric disorders are some of the commonly encountered sleep disorders in this age group. Changes in sleep architecture and the amount of sleep requirement associated with each stage of development should be considered during an evaluation of sleep disorders in children. Behavioral treatments should be used initially wherever possible especially considering that most pharmacologic agents used to treat pediatric sleep disorders are off-label. In this review we address the most common sleep problems in children/adolescents as they relate to prevalence, presentation and symptoms, evaluation and management.

  20. Intestinal Malakoplakia in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Mahjoub


    Full Text Available Objective: Malakoplakia is a rare inflammatory disease, related to enterobacterial infection in the context of a disorder of cell-mediated immunity. Malakoplakia is exceptional in children and usually involves the gastrointestinal tract. The diagnosis is exclusively based on histological analysis.Cases Presentation: In this paper we have reported 3 children with intestinal malakoplakia which were enrolled during a period of 6 years between 2001 to 2006 at Childrens Medical Center. Two were male, and one female. The main clinical manifestations were: chronic bloody and mucosal diarrhea, abdominal pain and polypoid masses detected by diagnostic colonoscopy. Histological diagnosis proved to be definite in these cases. The response to drug treatment with trimethoprim-sulfamthoxazole in all three patients was good. Conclusion: The presence of intestinal malakoplakia must be ruled out in every child having chronic bloody mucosal diarrhea.

  1. Vegetarian diets and children. (United States)

    Sanders, T A; Reddy, S


    The diets and growth of children reared on vegetarian diets are reviewed. Excessive bulk combined with low energy density can be a problem for children aged Diets that have a high content of phytate and other modifiers of mineral absorption are associated with an increased prevalence of rickets and iron-deficiency anemia. Vitamin B-12 deficiency is a real hazard in unsupplemented or unfortified vegan and vegetarian diets. It is suggested that vegans and vegetarians should use oils with a low ratio of linoleic to linolenic acid in view of the recently recognized role of docosahexaenoic acid in visual functioning. If known pitfalls are avoided, the growth and development of children reared on both vegan and vegetarian diets appears normal.

  2. Abdominal Decompression in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Chiaka Ejike


    Full Text Available Abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS increases the risk for mortality in critically ill children. It occurs in association with a wide variety of medical and surgical diagnoses. Management of ACS involves recognizing the development of intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH by intra-abdominal pressure (IAP monitoring, treating the underlying cause, and preventing progression to ACS by lowering IAP. When ACS is already present, supporting dysfunctional organs and decreasing IAP to prevent new organ involvement become an additional focus of therapy. Medical management strategies to achieve these goals should be employed but when medical management fails, timely abdominal decompression is essential to reduce the risk of mortality. A literature review was performed to understand the role and outcomes of abdominal decompression among children with ACS. Abdominal decompression appears to have a positive effect on patient survival. However, prospective randomized studies are needed to fully understand the indications and impact of these therapies on survival in children.

  3. Vegetarian diets and children. (United States)

    Sanders, T A


    Although the general health and development of vegan and vegetarian children seem to be normal, there may be subtle differences compared with omnivores. They are at increased risk of iron deficiency, and impaired psychomotor development associated with iron deficiency has been reported in macrobiotic infants. Fortunately, this impairment is not permanent, and follow-up studies have reported higher-than-average intelligence quotients among older macrobiotic children. Several other hazards of vegetarian diets have been identified, including vitamin B12 deficiency, rickets, and a bulky diet that can restrict energy intake in the first few years of life; however, these pitfalls can be avoided easily, and children can be successfully reared on vegetarian diets.

  4. Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) - children (United States)

    Acute myeloid leukemia is a cancer of the blood and bone marrow. Bone marrow is the soft tissue inside ... develops quickly. Both adults and children can get acute myeloid leukemia ( AML ). This article is about AML in children.

  5. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... in the abdomen, arms, legs, neck and/or brain (in infants and children) or within various body ... children. It is also valuable for evaluating the brain, spinal cord and hip joints in newborns and ...

  6. Nutrition for Children with Cancer (United States)

    ... Children and Cancer When Your Child Has Cancer Nutrition for Children with Cancer Nutrition is an important part of the health of ... help you ensure your child is getting the nutrition he or she needs. Why good nutrition is ...

  7. Children's (Pediatric) Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... if sedation or anesthesia is to be used. In general, children who have recently been ill will ... to help diagnose a wide range of conditions in children due to injury, illness or congenital abnormalities. ...

  8. Children and the Mass Media (United States)

    Winston, Shirley


    Resume of testimony given at hearings at the White House Conference on Children, September, 1970. Topics considered were the influence of the mass media on children and ways to improve media products. (NH)

  9. Understanding ADHD: Symptoms in Children (United States)

    ... this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Understanding ADHD Symptoms In Children Past Issues / Spring 2014 Table ... hyperactivity, and impulsivity are the key behaviors of ADHD. It is normal for all children to be ...

  10. Scoliosis in Children and Adolescents (United States)

    ... Questions and Answers about Scoliosis in Children and Adolescents This publication defines scoliosis and provides information about ... it is diagnosed and treated in children and adolescents. You may be interested in contacting one or ...

  11. Recurrent parotitis in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhattarai M


    Full Text Available Recurrent parotitis is an uncommon condition in children. Its etiological factors have not been proved till date although causes due to genetic inheritance, local autoimmune manifestation, allergy, viral infection and immunodeficiency have been suggested. The exact management of this disorder is not yet standardized, but a conservative approach is preferred and all affected children should be screened for Sjogren′s syndrome and immune deficiency including human immunodeficiency virus. We report a 12 years female child who presented with 12 episodes of non-painful recurrent swellings of the bilateral parotid gland in the past 3 years.

  12. [Trampoline injuries in children]. (United States)

    Sinikumpu, Juha-Jaakko; Antila, Eeva; Korhonen, Jussi; Rättyä, Johanna; Serlo, Willy


    Trampolines for home use have become common in Finland during the past ten years, being especially favored by children. Trampoline jumping is beneficial and constructive physical exercise, but poses a significant risk for injuries. The most common injuries include sprains and strains. During summertime, trampoline injuries account for as many as 13% of children's accidents requiring hospital care. Fractures are by far the most common trampoline injuries requiring hospital care. Injuries can be prevented by using safety nets. Only one child at a time is allowed to jump on the trampoline.

  13. Psychostimulant toxicity in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozalp Ekinci


    Full Text Available Methylphenidate is used for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children above the age of 6 with a high safety and tolerability. When used above the recommended dosage, methylphenidate has been reported to cause toxicity symptoms including neuro-psychiatric and cardiac adverse reactions. In this overview paper, the available literature on psyhcostimulant toxicity in children and the clinical symptoms and follow-up of a 4-year-old child who accidentally used high dose of methylphenidate will be discussed. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2013; 22(2.000: 184-193

  14. Fabry disease in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borgwardt, Line Gutte; Feldt-Rasmussen, U; Rasmussen, AK


    Fabry disease is a rare, multiorgan disease. The most serious complications involve the kidney, brain and heart. This study aims to assess the effect of enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) using agalsidase-beta in children with Fabry disease. We carried out a nationwide, descriptive and observational...... increased. Treatment with agalsidase-beta was associated with a reduction of neuropathic and abdominal pain and headache. Although all aspects of the Fabry pain phenotype cannot be treated with ERT, the observed effects were clinically significant in the lives of the majority of Fabry children and together...

  15. The cost of children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordström, Leif Jonas

    In this paper we estimate the opportunity cost of children. The underlying theoretical model is represented by a household production model. In the empirical analysis, we consider three different cohorts for men and women born between 1955 and 1970. For the women in the two oldest cohorts......, the opportunity cost of two children is estimated to 28-29 per cent of full income, which in monetary units is close to estimated income difference between women employed in the public and private sector. The opportunity cost of fatherhood is generally positive, but only significantly positive for men born...

  16. Subdural empyema in children. (United States)

    Hendaus, Mohammed A


    Subdural Empyema in infants and children might be life threatening if not managed properly. A search of the Pub Med database was carried out using a combination of the following terms: Subdural empyema, children, and management. Neurosurgical textbooks were reviewed as well. The prevalence, etiology, clinical features, investigations and management of SDE are reviewed in this article. Conservative management with antibiotics and follow up imaging is recommended if there are no focal deficits, change in mental status or if the patient is responding well to antibiotics. Alternatively, craniotomy is warranted in addition to antibiotics therapy. The surgeon might opt for burr holes in case the patient is frail or in septic shock.

  17. Factors of children's school readiness


    Ljubica Marjanovič Umek; Urška Fekonja; Katja Bajc


    The purpose of the study was to examine the effect of preschool on children's school readiness in connection with their intellectual abilities, language competence, and parents' education. The sample included 219 children who were 68 to 83 months old and were attending the first year of primary school. Children were differentiated by whether or not they had attended preschool before starting school. Children's intellectual ability was determined using Raven's Coloured Progress...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wellington Amancio do Silva


    Full Text Available This paper aims to contribute to issues related to social representations of children through the lens of the adult world; we recommend that fosters the child's opportunity to be author and co-author (protagonist in the production of children's literature and is known to be beyond their textual production considering that all production of children in school (painting, scribbling, drawings, sketches of letters and various signs is recognized as children's literature. 

  19. Children's Responses to Literary Style. (United States)

    Henze, Mary Vance

    This study undertook to determine (1) whether teaching sixth grade children elements of style would increase their pleasure in listening to "The Hobbit," (2) whether children who learned the most about style would respond the most positively to Tolkien's style, and (3) what children's preferences would be for selected examples of Tolkien's style.…

  20. Inquiring Minds: Theorizing Children's Interests (United States)

    Hedges, Helen; Cooper, Maria


    Children's interests are a common foundation for early childhood curricula. Yet, little research is available about the fundamental nature of children's interests and analytical ways to recognize and engage with these. Early work on children's interests adopted a psychological perspective and associated interests with activity choices. Recent work…

  1. Problem children or harassed childhood?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warming, Hanne

    instition as stressed andnoisy, and thus it is the children they try to change (re-socialize) to solve the problems. The paper concludes that the discoruses tend to individualize structural problems with the result that a large group of children are identified as problem children rather than given better...

  2. Children, Deaf, of Deaf Parents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.E. Baker; B. van den Bogaerde


    Deaf children with Deaf parents usually grow up in the Deaf community, that is if their parents offer them a sign language and are active members of the community. These Deaf children are similar to other children of linguistic and cultural minorities in many ways. They are also different in that th

  3. Language Impairment in Autistic Children. (United States)

    Deaton, Ann Virginia

    Discussed is the language impairment of children with infantile autism. The speech patterns of autistic children, including echolalia, pronomial reversal, silent language, and voice imitation, are described. The clinical picture of the autistic child is compared to that of children with such other disorders as deafness, retardation, and…

  4. Children's Environmental Concerns: Expressing Ecophobia (United States)

    Strife, Susan Jean


    While numerous quantitative studies across disciplines have investigated children's knowledge and attitudes about environmental problems, few studies examine children's feelings about environmental problems--and even fewer have focused on the child's point of view. Through 50 in-depth interviews with urban children (ages 10-12) this research aimed…

  5. Fostering Children's Interests in Gardening (United States)

    Lekies, Kristi S.; Sheavly, Marcia Eames


    Despite the rapidly growing interest in children's gardens and attention to the positive benefits of gardening for children, little is known about the ways in which young people actually form interests in gardening. Using a sample of 9- and 10-year-old children at a school garden site in New York State, this study examined the ways in which…

  6. Children of War. [Lesson Plan]. (United States)

    Discovery Communications, Inc., Bethesda, MD.

    This lesson plan presents activities in which students read, analyze, and discuss excerpts from children's war diaries; and create a storyboard for a public service announcement on children's rights in wartime. It includes objectives, materials, procedures, extension activities, excerpts of children's war diaries, suggested readings, and web…

  7. Parents Were Children Once Too (United States)

    Hudson, Lucy


    Parents who love their children sometimes harm them. They harm them by physically or sexually abusing them and by failing to provide the nurturance that children have the right to expect. They neglect and abuse their children because they lack the necessary combination of knowledge, patience, empathy, and problem-solving capabilities. Intervening…

  8. Children's Conceptions of Parental Authority. (United States)

    Tisak, Marie S.


    Examines children's conceptions of parental authority. A total of 120 children were interviewed and asked to evaluate social events (stealing, family chores, friendship choice) pertaining to restraint of behavior and maintenance of parental rule systems. Results suggest that children's notions of authority are heterogeneous with respect to the…

  9. Young Children's Concepts of Shape. (United States)

    Clements, Douglas H.; Swaminathan, Sudha; Hannibal, Mary Anne Zeitler; Sarama, Julie


    Investigates, by conducting individual clinical interviews of 97 children ages 3 to 6, the criteria preschool children use to distinguish members of a class of shapes from other figures, emphasizing identification and descriptions of shapes and reasons for these identifications. Concludes that young children initially form schemas on the basis of…

  10. Quechua Children's Theory of Mind. (United States)

    McCormick, Penelope G.; Olson, David R.

    Three different theory of mind tasks were conducted with 4- to 8-year-old Quechua peasant children in the Peruvian Andes. The study investigated the ways in which children in preliterate cultures think and the possibility that they think differently than children in literate cultures. The tasks included: (1) a false-belief task, which tested the…

  11. Voicing children's critique and utopias

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husted, Mia; Lind, Unni


    , designed to accommodate children's participation through graphic illustrations of young children's critique and utopias. The study is informed by a commitment to democratic participation and processes (Reason and Bradbury 2001, Gunnarsson et al. 2016). Ethical guidelines implied dialogues and discussions......, children's voice, critique and utopias, pedagogical work...

  12. Counseling Young Children of Alcoholics. (United States)

    Brake, Kathryn J.


    Provides a rationale for services to children of alcoholics and describes school-based interventions to help these children. Asserts that schools are the logical setting for providing knowledge, skills, and support to help children of alcoholics understand the dysfunctional effects of familial alcoholism. Offers suggestions for school counselors…

  13. Administration for Children and Families (United States)

    ... Releases RSS Feeds Speeches Videos What is the Administration for Children & Families? The Administration for Children and Families (ACF) is a division ... Center Blog Press Releases RSS Feeds Speeches Videos Administration for Children & Families U.S. Department of Health & Human ...

  14. Social exclusion of children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Annette Roest; Anne Marike Lokhorst; Cok Vrooman


    Original title: Sociale uitsluiting bij kinderen. Combating social exclusion of children is a subject that has received growing attention in Dutch government policy in recent years. To date, however, no analysis has been performed to ascertain the extent and origins of this phenomenon. This report

  15. Lead Poisoning in Children. (United States)

    Drummond, A. H., Jr.


    Early symptoms of lead poisoning in children are often overlooked. Lead poisoning has its greatest effects on the brain and nervous system. The obvious long-term solution to the lead poisoning problem is removal of harmful forms of the metal from the environment. (JN)

  16. Preschool Children's School Readiness (United States)

    Pekdogan, Serpil; Akgül, Esra


    The purpose of this study is to examine preschool teachers' perspectives about children's school readiness. Qualitative and quantitative research methods were used in the study as a mixed method research. Data, in the quantitative aspects of the research, were collected through the use of "School Readiness Form" developed by Boz (2004)…

  17. Strangulation injuries in children.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sep, D.Ph.; Thies, K.C.


    In this article we present a case of fatal strangulation with playground equipment in a 4-year-old child and a review of the literature. Playground injuries are a major cause of injury in children but fatalities are rare. However, strangulation is the cause of death in more than 50% of all playgroun

  18. Children's Media Policy (United States)

    Jordan, Amy B.


    Amy Jordan addresses the need to balance the media industry's potentially important contributions to the healthy development of America's children against the consequences of excessive and age-inappropriate media exposure. Much of the philosophical tension regarding how much say the government should have about media content and delivery stems…


    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravnbøl, Camilla Ida

    This paper adds a perspective to existing research on child protection by engaging in a debate on intersectional discrimination and its relationship to child protection. The paper has a twofold objective, (1) to further establish intersectionality as a concept to address discrimination against ch...... children, and (2) to illustrate the importance of addressing intersectionality within rights-based programmes of child protection....

  20. Young Children's Combinatoric Strategies. (United States)

    English, Lyn D.


    Fifty children, ranging in age from 4 to 10, were individually administered a series of tasks involving different combinations of 2 items selected from a discrete set of items. Analyses of their performances revealed a series of six, increasingly sophisticated, solution strategies ranging from random number selection of items to a systematic…

  1. Children, Mobility, and Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Pia; Romero Mikkelsen, Miguel; Nielsen, Thomas Alexander Sick


    This article discusses the potentials of a mixed methods approach to the study of children’s mobility patterns. The methodology presented here combined ethnographic fieldwork with global positioning system technology and an interactive questionnaire that children completed via mobile phone. This ...

  2. Children and Television Violence. (United States)

    Meyer, Timothy P.


    The question of whether violence depicted on television causes viewers to act aggressively is meaningless because it implies a simple "yes" or "no" response. Effects of mass media depend on the types of viewers and content as well as the conditions of message reception. Television violence can affect the behavior of children on some occasions.…

  3. Muslim Children's Other School (United States)

    Moore, Leslie C.


    Millions of Muslim children around the world participate in Qur'anic schooling. For some, this is their only formal schooling experience; others attend both Qur'anic school and secular school. Qur'anic schooling emphasizes memorization and reproduction (recitation, reading, and transcription) of Qur'anic texts without comprehension of their…

  4. Single Fathers Rearing Children. (United States)

    Greif, Geoffrey L.


    Describes single fathers rearing children alone following divorce (N=1,136). Findings revealed four primary reasons for the divorce and four broad situations in which the fathers obtained custody. These latter situations often are affected by the mother's desire to relinquish custody. (NRB)

  5. Proteinuria in Sudanese children. (United States)

    el Hag, A I; el Seed, A M; Mustafa, M D


    One thousand, eight hundred and forty-six apparently healthy nursery and school children living in the Khartoum area and belonging to different socio-economic classes were studied. Nine hundred and thirty-seven were boys, 909 girls. Their ages ranged from three to 16 years. N-multistix strips were used to test for proteinuria and haematuria, the former being also checked by the sulphosalicylic acid test. Children with proteinuria of 1+ or more were further investigated by examining their urinary sediment for abnormal deposits and by testing for orthostatic proteinuria using day and night specimens of urine with specific gravity of 1.018 or more. Children who had no proteins on orthostatic testing were rescreened for proteinuria 10-14 days after the initial screening. The prevalence rate for proteinuria was 7.2% with no significant difference between boys and girls. In both sexes the prevalence rate increased significantly with age but was not influenced by the socio-economic status. Of the children with proteinuria, haematuria occurred in 27% and abnormal urinary deposits in 14.8%. Orthostatic testing showed a negative result for proteins in 44%, orthostatic proteinuria in 40%, of whom a third had either abnormal urinary sediments or haematuria, and continuous proteinuria in 15.6% of whom the majority had abnormal deposits.

  6. Sex Bias in Children. (United States)

    Zalk, Sue Rosenberg; And Others

    This study investigated children's sex biased attitudes as a function of the sex, age, and race of the child as well as a geographical-SES factor. Two attitudes were measured on a 55-item questionnaire: Sex Pride (attributing positive characteristics to a child of the same sex) and Sex Prejudice (attributing negative characteristics to a child of…

  7. [Traveling with small children]. (United States)

    Olivier, C


    Traveling with children especially in the tropics requires special planning. Contraindications are rare but care providers should obtain information about medical and transfusional facilities at the destination. Children should receive all vaccinations required for international travel and for specific countries, taking into account age, location, duration of stay, and purpose of trip. A first aid kit should be packed containing a thermometer, bandages, antiseptic agents, a total sunscreen preparation, a mosquito net, sterile compresses, tablets for water disinfection, and indispensable medications (antimalarial agents, antipyretics, oral rehydration solutions, antiemetics, and eye wash). The main indication for chemoprophylaxis is malaria. Chloroquine is recommended for most locations but proguanil may be necessary in areas of resistance. Special attention must be paid to skin care in infants: maintaining cleanliness, avoiding cuts insofar as possible, and treating any wounds. Clothing must be carefully laundered and adequate to prevent overexposure to sunlight and insect bites. Insect bites must also be prevented by applying repellents, using mosquito nets, and wearing insecticide-treated garments. Handwashing by people who prepare meals and by the children before eating is important to prevent food poisoning. Breast feeding is advisable for infants. Thorough cooking of meats, rinsing of fresh produce, drinking of bottled beverages, and sterilization of water are also important food safety measures. These precautions are usually adequate to allow safe travel with children.


    Bellés-Obrero, Cristina; Jiménez-Martín, Sergi; Vall-Castello, Judit


    Although the majority of the literature has confirmed that recessions are beneficial for adults' health and babies' outcomes at delivery, this effect should not necessarily be the same for children. In this paper, we study the effect of business cycle conditions on infant underweight, overweight, and obesity. We exploit eight waves of repeated cross-sectional data (1987-2012) of the Spanish National Health Survey for children aged 2-15 and use the regional unemployment rate of the trimester of the interview as a proxy for the business cycle phase at the local level. We find that an increase in the unemployment rate is associated with lower obesity incidence, especially for children under 6 years old and over 12 years old. However, economic shocks also proof to have potentially negative consequences as they increase the prevalence of infant underweight for the same age groups. Moreover, we show that the possible mechanisms through which the cycle is impacting infant obesity is the nutritional composition of the children's diet, as well as, increases in the frequency of exercise. We provide some evidence that suggests that the impact of business cycle conditions on infant weight disorders have little objective health consequences in the short run. However, the potential long-term effects may become important as underweight during childhood is associated with worse outcomes later in life. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Rich Pickings for Children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    ALTHOUGH Chinese televisionworkers didn’t neglect children asan audience even in the early days oftelevision broadcasting in China,in thelate 1950’s,a lack of equipment confinedchildren’s programs to photographs andpictures.These have become part of a

  10. Children of Addicted Women (United States)

    Lester, Barry M.; Lagasse, Linda L.


    The purpose of this article was to review follow up studies of children with prenatal drug exposure from preschool through adolescence. Specifically, the authors focus on the effects of prenatal exposure to cocaine, methamphetamine, and opiates on behavior and development. The largest number of studies have examined cocaine-exposed children. The authors identified 42 studies that suggest that there are unique effects of prenatal cocaine exposure on 4- to 13-year-old children, particularly in the areas of behavior problems, attention, language, and cognition. In addition, studies make reasonable attempts to control for possible confounding factors. Systematic research on the long-term effects of prenatal methamphetamine exposure is just beginning but seems to be showing similar effects to that of cocaine. The literature on the on the long-term effects of children with prenatal opiate exposure is more substantial than the methamphetamine literature but it is still relatively sparse and surprising in that there is little recent work. Thus, there are no studies on the current concerns with opiates used for prescription mediation. There is a growing literature using neuroimaging techniques to study the effects of prenatal drug exposure that holds promise for understanding brain/behavior relationships. In addition to pharmacological and teratogenic effects, drugs can also be viewed from a prenatal stressor model. The author discuss this “fetal origins” approach that involves fetal programming and the neuroendocrine system and the potential implications for adolescent brain and behavioral development. PMID:20407981

  11. Interactive Playgrounds for Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poppe, Ronald; Delden, van Robby; Moreno, Alejandro; Reidsma, Dennis; Nijholt, Anton


    Play is an important factor in the life of children. It plays a role in their cognitive, social, and physical development, and provides entertaining and fulfilling activities in itself. As with any field of human endeavor, interactive technology has a huge potential for transforming and enhancing pl


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    Paraneoplastic manifestations are signs and symptoms observed in patients with cancer, distant from the tumour or its metastases and not caused by invasion, obstruction or bulk mass. In children with cancer, paraneoplastic manifestations are rare and distinct from those observed in adults. Knowledge

  13. Children's velo-mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carstensen, Trine Agervig; Nielsen, Thomas Sick; Olafsson, Anton Stahl


    embodying of know-how of traffic power relations and mobility technology. The paper examines how parents’ perception of risks are transgressed by cycle training and how cycling is fitted into complex household routines. By shedding light on the sensitive mechanisms that ‘make’ and sustain cycling children...

  14. The Children's House (United States)

    Peller, Lili E.


    Lili Peller's "The Children's House" essay begins where Maria Montessori left off in her description of space articulations. Peller does not name Montessori specifically as she always had a desire to become independent in her own right as a neo-Freudian child analyst. But the Haus Der Kinder founded in summer of 1922 suggests a total…

  15. Playgrounds for City Children. (United States)

    Friedberg, M. Paul

    The work of a contemporary landscape architect is a living realization of the possibilities for increasing children's learning by improving play environment. The designer's philosophy and photographs of six playgrounds are contained in this bulletin, directed wherever there is need to make parks and school playgrounds open, aesthetic, and…

  16. Vietnam in Childrens' Books. (United States)

    United Nations Children's Fund, New York, NY. United States Committee.

    Twenty-five nonfiction and 18 fiction and folklore listings are included in this bulletin on Vietnam in childrens' books. Slides, filmstrips, and film listings are also included. Each listing is accompanied by a brief annotation. Subjects include customs and culture, the country and the people, Ho Chi Min, the Vietnamese revolution, Vietnamese…

  17. Social anxiety in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avakyan, Tamara V.


    Full Text Available Results of research on social anxiety in orphaned children are presented in this article. The goal of this study was to identify the relationship between depressive states, anxiety states, characteristics of the situation at school, and fear of social evaluation in orphaned children. The differences in these parameters between orphaned children and children living with their families were also studied. The sample consisted of 123 teenagers. The main group comprised 57 orphans from an orphanage near the Moscow region, aged 10 to 16 years old. The control group comprised 66 students from a general school, aged 10 to 15 years old, and all living with their families. Differences were found in the parameters studied. The orphans were characterized by higher levels of social and general anxiety. On the one hand, they strove for the attention and approval of adults, but, on the other hand, they were more worried than their peers who lived with their families about the impression they made on others. They were afraid of receiving a negative evaluation.

  18. Helping Children Manage Stress. (United States)

    Robson, Maggie; And Others


    Describes interventions used to enhance coping and stress management to children and adolescents. Argues that the model of stress upon which the intervention is based dictates the intervention. Implications are discussed of the acceptance of an extended Lazarus/Folkman model for interventions in schools. (CFR)

  19. Severe asthma in children. (United States)

    Guilbert, Theresa W; Bacharier, Leonard B; Fitzpatrick, Anne M


    Severe asthma in children is characterized by sustained symptoms despite treatment with high doses of inhaled corticosteroids or oral corticosteroids. Children with severe asthma may fall into 2 categories, difficult-to-treat asthma or severe therapy-resistant asthma. Difficult-to-treat asthma is defined as poor control due to an incorrect diagnosis or comorbidities, or poor adherence due to adverse psychological or environmental factors. In contrast, treatment resistant is defined as difficult asthma despite management of these factors. It is increasingly recognized that severe asthma is a highly heterogeneous disorder associated with a number of clinical and inflammatory phenotypes that have been described in children with severe asthma. Guideline-based drug therapy of severe childhood asthma is based primarily on extrapolated data from adult studies. The recommendation is that children with severe asthma be treated with higher-dose inhaled or oral corticosteroids combined with long-acting β-agonists and other add-on therapies, such as antileukotrienes and methylxanthines. It is important to identify and address the influences that make asthma difficult to control, including reviewing the diagnosis and removing causal or aggravating factors. Better definition of the phenotypes and better targeting of therapy based upon individual patient phenotypes is likely to improve asthma treatment in the future.

  20. Obesity, Physical Activity - Children. (United States)

    Gilliam, Thomas B.

    Childhood obesity starts at a very early age, and preventive measures taken early enough may retard the development of fat cells. It appears that physical activity plays an important role in reducing obesity. The activity program must start early, in preschool days. It is felt that screening children for obesity when they first enter school and…

  1. Hearing Loss in Children (United States)

    ... Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Hearing loss can affect a child’s ability to develop communication, language, and social skills. The earlier children with hearing loss start getting services, the more likely they are ...

  2. Are children like werewolves?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Weippert, Madyson; Leblanc, Allana G;


    24-hour accelerometer recordings of sleep and activity. The present observational, cross-sectional study included 5812 children ages 9-11 years from study sites that represented all inhabited continents and wide ranges of human development (Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, Colombia, Finland, Ind...

  3. Death, Children, and Books. (United States)

    Carr, Robin L.

    The books listed in this annotated bibliography are intended to help children understand the reality of death and deal with the mystery and emotions that accompany it. Each entry indicates the genre and reading level of the book and provides a brief description of the attitude toward death that it conveys. The selections include fables, fantasy,…

  4. Hepatobiliary Intervention in Children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franchi-Abella, Stéphanie [Le Centre Hospitalier Universitaire du Kremlin-Bicêtre (France); Cahill, Anne Marie; Barnacle, Alex M. [Great Ormond Street Hospital, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom); Pariente, Danièle [Le Centre Hospitalier Universitaire du Kremlin-Bicêtre (France); Roebuck, Derek J., E-mail: [Great Ormond Street Hospital, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom)


    Various vascular and nonvascular hepatobiliary interventional radiology techniques are now commonly performed in children’s hospitals. Although the procedures are broadly similar to interventional practice in adults, there are important differences in indications and technical aspects. This review describes the indications, techniques, and results of liver biopsy, hepatic and portal venous interventions and biliary interventions in children.

  5. Media Violence and Children. (United States)

    Groebel, Jo


    Presents the results of the UNESCO global study on media violence and children which was conducted between 1996 and 1997. Highlights include the role of the media, media heroes as role models, media violence and aggression, differences by gender, rural versus urban environments, the pervasiveness of television, and recommendations. (Author/LRW)

  6. Building Resilience in Children (United States)

    ... D., MS Ed, FAAP, a pediatrician specializing in adolescent medicine at The Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia (CHOP), has joined forces with the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) to author A Parent’s Guide to Building Resilience in Children and Teens: Giving Your Child Roots ...

  7. How Children Grow. (United States)

    National Institutes of Health (DHEW), Bethesda, MD.

    The discussion of genetic and environmental factors in the growth of children from infancy to adolescence focuses on intrauterine life, the effects of nutrition, hormones, illness, and emotion in the childhood years, and obesity and puberty in adolescents. Described are processes, such as amniocentesis, for monitoring the physiology chemistry of…

  8. Children's Advertisement Writing (United States)

    Burrell, Andrew; Beard, Roger


    This paper explores primary school children's ability to engage with "the power of the text" by tackling persuasive writing in the form of an advertisement. It is eclectically framed within genre theory and rhetorical studies and makes use of linguistic tools and concepts. The paper argues that writing research has not built upon earlier…

  9. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine (United States)

    ... medicine exams will involve an injection in a vein in your child’s arm or hand. Your child should wear loose, comfortable clothing and ... medicine exams will involve an injection into a vein in your child's arm or hand. Children should wear comfortable, loose-fitting clothing to ...




  11. Children and chiropractic care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartvigsen, Jan; Hestbaek, Lise


    care profession has convincingly assumed the responsibility of spinal and musculoskeletal health for children. Considering the magnitude of the challenges ahead for both researchers and clinicians, this may be a good opportunity for doctors of chiropractic to take responsibility and engage...

  12. Acute mastoiditis in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anthonsen, Kristian; Høstmark, Karianne; Hansen, Søren;


    Conservative treatment of acute otitis media may lead to more complications. This study evaluates changes in incidence, the clinical and microbiological findings, the complications and the outcome of acute mastoiditis in children in a country employing conservative guidelines in treating acute...... otitis media....

  13. Chinese Children's Songs. (United States)

    Kwok, Irene, Comp.

    Singing can be an enjoyable and effective way to motivate children to learn a second language. This booklet consists of contemporary and folk songs that are related to Chinese festivals, transportation, the family, seasons, Christmas and other topics. Each page gives the music to a song with the words in Chinese and in English. The songs are…

  14. Lawnmower injuries in children.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Nugent, Nora


    OBJECTIVE: Power lawnmowers can pose significant danger of injury to both the operator and the bystander, from direct contact with the rotary blades or missile injury. Our objective was to review our experience with paediatric lawnmower-associated trauma, and the safety recommendations available to operators of power lawnmowers. METHODS: The patient cohort comprised paediatric (<16 years of age) patients treated for lawnmower-associated trauma, by the plastic surgery service, between 1996 and 2003. These patients were identified retrospectively. Age at the time of injury, location and extent of bony and soft tissue injuries sustained, treatment instituted and clinical outcome were recorded. Brochures and instruction manuals of six lawnmower manufacturers were reviewed, and safety recommendations noted. RESULTS: Fifteen patients were identified. The majority of injuries occurred from direct contact with the rotary blades (93%); the remaining child sustained a burn injury. Fourteen children (93%) required operative intervention. Seven patients (46%) sustained injuries resulting in amputation, two of whom had major limb amputations. All children, except the burns patient, underwent wound debridement and received antibiotic therapy. Reconstructive methods ranged from primary closure to free tissue transfer. Many patients required multiple procedures. In all instruction manuals, instructions to keep children and pets indoors or out of the yard when mowing were found. CONCLUSIONS: Lawnmower injuries can be devastating, particularly in children. Many victims have lasting deformities as a result of their injuries. Awareness of and stringent adherence to safety precautions during use of power lawnmowers can prevent many of these accidents.

  15. Children's Classics. Fifth Edition. (United States)

    Jordan, Alice M.

    "Children's Classics," a 1947 article by Alice M. Jordan reprinted from "The Horn Book Magazine," examines the dynamics and appeal of some of the most famous books for young readers, including "Alice in Wonderland,""The Wind in the Willows,""Robinson Crusoe," and "Andersen's Fairy Tales." Paul Hein's annotated bibliography, a revision of Jordan's…

  16. Discrimination Learning in Children (United States)

    Ochocki, Thomas E.; And Others


    Examined the learning performance of 192 fourth-, fifth-, and sixth-grade children on either a two or four choice simultaneous color discrimination task. Compared the use of verbal reinforcement and/or punishment, under conditions of either complete or incomplete instructions. (Author/SDH)


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. I. Turkinа


    Full Text Available Contemporary scientific and practical data about various lipid metabolism disorders (dyslipidemia in children are discussed. Spectra lipids, phospholipids and lipoproteins in blood serum and erythrocyte membranes are presented. Characteristics of dyslipidemia and hypolipidemia, classification of hyperlipidemia, a description of acetonemic vomiting syndrome are given. Basic principles of dyslipidemia treatment as well as therapy of obesity associated with dyslipidemia are described.

  18. Children's Rights with Endogenous Fertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brad R. Taylor


    Full Text Available This paper uses hypothetical contractarianism to consider the value of children's rights laws as a means of protecting children. Laws protecting children from their parents have the unintended but predictable consequence of making child-rearing less desirable for some parents and thereby reducing the number of children born. Such laws therefore produce a trade-off between the expected wellbeing of actual and possible persons. I show that a possible child behind an appropriate veil of ignorance may rationally oppose laws which benefit some and harm no actual children.

  19. Preventing gun injuries in children. (United States)

    Crossen, Eric J; Lewis, Brenna; Hoffman, Benjamin D


    Firearms are involved in the injury and death of a large number of children each year from both intentional and unintentional causes. Gun ownership in homes with children is common, and pediatricians should incorporate evidence-based means to discuss firearms and protect children from gun-related injuries and violence. Safe storage of guns, including unloaded guns locked and stored separately from ammunition, can decrease risks to children, and effective tools are available that pediatricians can use in clinical settings to help decrease children's access to firearms. Furthermore, several community-based interventions led by pediatricians have effectively reduced firearm-related injury risks to children. Educational programs that focus on children's behavior around guns have not proven effective.

  20. Comparison of diadochokinetic rate between deaf children and normal children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Wang; Zhihong Yao


    BACKGROUND: Diadochokinetic rate reflects the motion state and synergic level of oral, lingual and speech muscle group, and it is an important index to judge the speech articulation, it is also very significant in the training and evaluation of vocal ability and the correction and treatment of speech.OBJECTIVE: To compare the diadochokinetic rate between deaf children and normal children.DESIGN: A comparative observation.SETTING: College of Hearing and Speech Sciences, Zhejiang University of Traditional Chinese Medicine.PARTICIPANTS: Twenty deaf children and 20 normal children of 6-7 years old, half boys and half girls, were selected from Hangzhou Rehabilitation Center for Deaf Children and Hangzhou Fuxing Kindergarten between January and March, 2006. The influences of organic dysarthria on our study had been eliminated, including intellectual and oral diseases, etc. Informed consents were obtained from the guardians of all the enrolled children.METHODS: ① The deaf children all cooperated with the study after proper communication with them. They practiced to pronounce/pa/,/ta/,/ka/clearly in order, then pronounced them together, that was/pataka/. They should slow down at first in order to pronounce clearly and cohere them together, then speeded up to practice,so that the results could not be affected by the unfamiliar pronunciation. After practice, the deaf children were tested by pronouncing /pataka/ for five time continuously, and they were asked to pronounce clearly and correctly with uniform intensity, loudness, speed, etc. They were tested for three times by the same methods,and the durations of the three times were recorded to obtain the average value, then the velocity was calculated. The tests for the normal children were the same as those mentioned above. ② The differences of the measurement data were compared by the ttest.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Results of diadochokinetic rate compared between deaf children and normal children.RESULTS: All the 20

  1. Children with Asthma and Sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selda Yuzer


    Full Text Available Asthma is one of the chronic diseases which have are widely seen among the children. The disease has recently been in the increase all over the world and affects many children. In a study conducted with International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC method, it was found out that prevalence of childhood asthma was 17.1%. Participation in sportive activities by the children with asthma, which is today considered as a part of asthma treatment program, makes contributions to their physical, mental and psychological development and increases their quality of life. The most recommended sports for the children with asthma are swimming and water sports. Sports like tennis and volleyball are too advised. Choice of sports depends on severity of asthma, child and #8217;s choice and whether or not asthma is kept under control. Nursing approaches for the children with asthma include correction of symptoms, training of children and their families, assistance with disease adaptation, continuing asthma care at home and interventions to make children lead healthy activities of daily life of children. With protective measures to be taken by families and children; children should be encourage for sportive activities. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2014; 13(3.000: 241-244

  2. Optics and children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Manuel F M; De Campos, J Ayres; Lira, Madalena; Franco, Sandra [Centro de Fisica da Universidade do Minho (Portugal); Vazquez-Dorrio, Jose B, E-mail: [Universidad de Vigo, EIM, Departamento de Fisica (Spain)


    Light and Optics are subjects that 'naturally' attracts the interest and sympathy of children even from very early ages. In this communication, we present a series of experiments and support material designed in this hands-on perspective, to be used to introduce the study of light and optics to kindergarten and early basic school students. Our hands-on investigative approach leads the students, aged 4 to 10 years, to observe the experiment and discover themselves, in a critical and active way, different aspects of light and optics. Preparing funny eye catching situations and experiments predispose the children to work, effectively, enjoying themselves while building up their self-confidence.

  3. Adiposity indices in children. (United States)

    Rolland-Cachera, M F; Sempé, M; Guilloud-Bataille, M; Patois, E; Péquignot-Guggenbuhl, F; Fautrad, V


    On the basis of a longitudinal study of growth in French children, we attempted to find a valid index for estimating adiposity, and to specify the optimal conditions for its use. The Quetelet index was found suitable for application to children, but as with all methods, a certain lack of precision proved unavoidable because of the different stages of growth observed at a given age. For use by clinicians, we provide charts, based on the Quetelet index and on age, permitting estimation of adiposity in any child on the basis of longitudinal study measurements. For use by epidemiologists, we give standard values for studying groups of subjects, even when a reference population is not available. Body adiposity may be expressed independently of age and sex.

  4. Evacuation of Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larusdottir, Aldis Run

    is to provide new data and information on children’s evacuation, which is a step towards including children in evacuation models and calculations. Little is known about children’s evacuation characteristics in fire compared to other parts of the population. In recent years there has been more focus on children...... those using a handrail designed for adults. Training has a positive effect on evacuation time and process. Fire drills showed weaknesses in evacuation procedures which could be revised accordingly. Although a number of findings have been made and new data has been provided there is need for further......Saving human lives is the highest priority in case of fire, according to fire codes around the world. Codes state that everyone should be able to escape to safety in case of fire. In order to design buildings that enable this the available safe egress time (ASET) must be held up against...

  5. English Education of Children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    With the further development of China's reform and opening up, our communication with the world more and more frequently, more and more closely. As the primary tool of international communication, English is particularly important. Now, to strengthen foreign language teaching, especially to learn foreign languages at children, has become a global trend. In China, many schools and teachers for many years to carry out a useful attempt of children's English teaching, and accumulated a lot of successful experience, of course, there are many difficulties and setbacks, and even failure. How to exclude the difficulty and the setback, avoid failure? I combined with my own teaching practice, discusses and studies for many years, has received the good ef-fect.

  6. Neutrophilic dermatoses in children. (United States)

    Berk, David R; Bayliss, Susan J


    The neutrophilic dermatoses are rare disorders, especially in children, and are characterized by neutrophilic infiltrates in the skin and less commonly in extracutaneous tissue. The neutrophilic dermatoses share similar clinical appearances and associated conditions, including inflammatory bowel disease, malignancies, and medications. Overlap forms of disease demonstrating features of multiple neutrophilic dermatoses may be seen. The manuscript attempts to provide an up-to-date review of (i) classical neutrophilic dermatoses, focusing on distinctive features in children and (ii) neutrophilic dermatoses which may largely be pediatric or genodermatosis-associated (Majeed, SAPHO [synovitis, severe acne, sterile palmoplantar pustulosis, hyperostosis, and osteitis] syndrome, PAPA (pyogenic sterile arthritis, pyoderma gangrenosum, and acne), PFAPA (periodic fever with aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis, and cervical adenopathy), and other periodic fever syndromes, and congenital erosive and vesicular dermatosis healing with reticulated supple scarring).

  7. Visible epiglottis in children. (United States)

    Jamaluddin Ahmed, Farooque; Shinohara, Andrá Luis; Bonifécio da Silva, Salete Moura; Andreo, Jesus Carlos; Rodrigues, Antonio de Castro


    Visible epiglottis is a rare anatomical variant which is usually asymptomatic without the need of any medical or surgical intervention. It is most commonly seen in children but there are some reports of its prevalence in adults too. Cases of visible epiglottis seem to be unfamiliar among dental professionals. In this report, we have attempted to present this anatomical variant of epiglottis in the feld of dentistry by describing a case of an 8-year-old girl who presented to the department of pediatric dentistry for normal dental check-up unaware of the existence of the visible epiglottis. How to cite this article: Ahmed FJ, Shinohara AL, da Silva SMB, Andreo JC, de Castro Rodrigues A. Visible Epiglottis in Children. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2014;7(3):223-224.

  8. Hydrocephalus in children. (United States)

    Kahle, Kristopher T; Kulkarni, Abhaya V; Limbrick, David D; Warf, Benjamin C


    Hydrocephalus is a common disorder of cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) physiology resulting in abnormal expansion of the cerebral ventricles. Infants commonly present with progressive macrocephaly whereas children older than 2 years generally present with signs and symptoms of intracranial hypertension. The classic understanding of hydrocephalus as the result of obstruction to bulk flow of CSF is evolving to models that incorporate dysfunctional cerebral pulsations, brain compliance, and newly characterised water-transport mechanisms. Hydrocephalus has many causes. Congenital hydrocephalus, most commonly involving aqueduct stenosis, has been linked to genes that regulate brain growth and development. Hydrocephalus can also be acquired, mostly from pathological processes that affect ventricular outflow, subarachnoid space function, or cerebral venous compliance. Treatment options include shunt and endoscopic approaches, which should be individualised to the child. The long-term outcome for children that have received treatment for hydrocephalus varies. Advances in brain imaging, technology, and understanding of the pathophysiology should ultimately lead to improved treatment of the disorder.

  9. Intelligence in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín Nader


    Full Text Available Partial results of an investigation are presented whose primary objective is to adapt and to standardize the neurocognitive assessment battery C.A.S. of Das and Naglieri (1997 in a child sample. The test is an operationalization of a non traditional intelligence model (PASS that considers the intelligent behaviors as a group of four cognitive basic processes (planning, attention, simultaneous and successive processing. The objectives of this work are to obtain the psychometric properties of the instrument and also, to analyze if differences exist according to sex and age. The study type is crosswise - transactional. It was administered the CAS to 150 children residents in Buenos Aires among the ages of 6 to 12 years (population general non consultant and the WISC-III to a sample of 50 children

  10. Jaw fractures in children. (United States)

    Kotilainen, R; Kärjä, J; Kullaa-Mikkonen, A


    From a total of 350 jaw fractures treated in 1980-1984 at Kuopio University Central Hospital, 20% were in children. These injuries were evaluated retrospectively regarding age, sex, incidence and etiology. Forty-five of the patients were boys and 25 girls. The frequency of maxillary and mandibular fractures in 70 young patients was 28.6%. The most common type of bone fractures was fracture of the alveolar process, which was prevalent in persons with mixed dentition. Before the age of 7 years, falls from height were the common causes of jaw fractures. The major cause of the jaw fractures in children from 7 to 15 years old was road accidents (47.1%), especially in boys. Most of these were cycling accidents, only a few patients were victims of automobile accidents. In addition, about one third (25.7%) of the patients were treated in the hospital because of multiple injuries to other organs.

  11. [Moral development in children]. (United States)

    Malá, E


    In child psychiatry the developmental aspect is emphasized. Recognition of normal sequence of development in so-called "normal children" makes it possible to reveal pathological conditions (either retardation or acceleration of development, distortion or atypical development). Change-motion-development are philosophical categories considered a manifestation or life--of psychobiological maturation and growth. When investigating the moral development three theories were applied: the developmental theory (Piaget)--learning (Kohlberg), the dynamic theory (Sandler). Among factors which influence in a certain way the moral behaviour the following were selected: age, sex, temperament, family environment. The author describes three stages of moral development in children: preventional stage (moral heteronomy) up to the age of 8 years, conventional and pst conventional (moral autonomy) in adolescence.

  12. Children's velo-mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carstensen, Trine Agervig; Nielsen, Thomas Sick; Olafsson, Anton Stahl


    Sustainable mobilities play a dominate role in low carbon futures and cycling is an integral element. Children are heirs of transport cultures and crucial for future sustainable mobility. Moreover cycling is important for children’s independent mobility and geographical experience. Dominating app...... the paper inform a discussion of urban planning and transport policy measures important for stabilizing sustainable mobility.......Sustainable mobilities play a dominate role in low carbon futures and cycling is an integral element. Children are heirs of transport cultures and crucial for future sustainable mobility. Moreover cycling is important for children’s independent mobility and geographical experience. Dominating...... approaches in transport research, including cycling, understand travel behaviour individualistic and lack to grasp the relational complexities, which are inevitable when considering children’s mobilities. Furthermore has children’s cycling largely been studied as independent mobility and active school travel...

  13. Diabetes insipidus in children. (United States)

    Jain, Vandana; Ravindranath, Aathira


    Diabetes insipidus (DI) is one of the common disorders affecting sodium and water homeostasis, and results when ADH is either inadequately produced, or unable to negotiate its actions on the renal collecting tubules through aquaporins. The diagnostic algorithm starts with exclusion of other causes of polyuria and establishing low urine osmolality in the presence of high serum osmolality. In this paper, we have reviewed the diagnosis, etiology and management of DI in children, with special emphasis on recent advances in the field.

  14. Benefits for handicapped children

    CERN Multimedia


    The introduction of long-term care benefits within the CERN Health Insurance Scheme requires the coordination of the benefits foreseen for handicapped children. Measures were adopted by the Management following the recommendation made by the Standing Concertation Committee on 26 March 2003. A document clarifying these measures is available on the Web at the following address: Social Affairs Service 74201

  15. Raynaud's phenomenon in children. (United States)

    Ortega Vicente, Elena; Garrido Redondo, Mercedes

    Raynaud's Phenomenon is caused by spasm of the small arteries and arterioles of the fingers. It is triggered by various stimuli including exposure to cold or a stressful event. It may be symmetrical or wrap one end. The appearance of this entity in children is rare. We report the case of a 4 year old male consultation health center by episodes of coldness, pallor and pain in both feet.

  16. Thoracotomies in children. (United States)

    Findik, Gokturk; Gezer, Suat; Sirmali, Mehmet; Turut, Hasan; Aydogdu, Koray; Tastepe, Irfan; Karaoglanoglu, Nurettin; Kaya, Sadi


    Thoracotomies in children have been less extensively studied, as the incidence of diseases necessitating thoracotomies is low in the pediatric age group. This study reviews childhood thoracic diseases, thoracotomy approaches, indications, and complications. Surgical procedures and complications of a total of 196 children below 16 years of age who underwent thoracotomy for various reasons at the Department of Thoracic Surgery, Ataturk Chest Diseases and Chest Surgery Training and Research Hospital, between January 2000 and December 2004, were reviewed in this study. Out of the 196 patients, 77 were female (39%) and 119 (61%) were male. The most commonly encountered indications for surgery were hydatid cyst (35%), bronchiectasis (25%), chronic nonspecific pleuritis (13%), chest wall deformities (10%), and mediastinal cystic formations and masses (10%). The other indications included tuberculosis (3%), aspergilloma (0.5%), fibrohyalinized cyst (0.5%), resection of trachea (0.5%), bronchogenic cyst (0.5%), inflammatory pseudo-tumor (0.5%), sequestration (1%), lipoblastoma (0.5%), and eosinophilic granuloma (1%). Out of the 196 patients, 176 underwent lateral thoracotomy and 20 patients with a chest wall deformity underwent midsternal incision. Complications were seen in 35 patients (18%): atelectasia and secretory retention (54%), wound infection (17%), hemorrhage (3%), chylothorax (3%), intrathoracic space (3%), and postoperative extended air leakage (20%). The mean hospital stay was 15 days and we did not encounter any mortality. The physiology and anatomy of the respiratory system and especially the respiratory control mechanism in pediatric patients vary from those of the adults, resulting in a more morbid course after thoracic surgery in children. Despite severe postoperative pain, posterolateral thoracotomy is the preferred approach in adults because of an advanced intrathoracic exposure and easy manipulation. On the other hand, lower pain threshold and the

  17. [Dysphonia in children]. (United States)

    Nicollas, R; Giovanni, A; Triglia, J-M


    Dysphonia is a frequent reason for consultation in children. Most of the time, this presentation is the consequence of a vocal abuse, however, the physician has to be aware that an organic lesion, such as laryngeal papillomatosis can exist and so perform a flexible laryngoscopy. In case of laryngeal papillomatosis, surgery and several medical treatments will be proposed for a long time. In other cases, speech therapy, sometimes associated with surgery, will be performed.

  18. Arthralgia in Children



    Arthralgia is joint pain unaccompanied by obvious clinical signs of arthritis or trauma. In most children and adolescents, the affected joint is the knee, hip, ankle, or less commonly an arm joint. Causes of arthralgia include arthritis; systemic disease; tumor; infection; growing pains; transient synovitis of the hip; osteochondroses; ostochondritis dissecans; traction syndrome; chondromalacia of the patella and post-traumatic synovitis. Some pains can be diagnosed with confidence with histo...

  19. Antihistamine use in children. (United States)

    Fitzsimons, Roisin; van der Poel, Lauri-Ann; Thornhill, William; du Toit, George; Shah, Neil; Brough, Helen A


    This review provides an overview of the use of antihistamines in children. We discuss types of histamine receptors and their mechanism of action, absorption, onset and duration of action of first-generation and second-generation H(1)-antihistamines, as well as elimination of H(1)-antihistamines which has important implications for dosing in children. The rationale for the use of H(1)-antihistamines is explored for the relief of histamine-mediated symptoms in a variety of allergic conditions including: non-anaphylactic allergic reactions, atopic eczema (AE), allergic rhinitis (AR) and conjunctivitis, chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU) and whether they have a role in the management of intermittent and chronic cough, anaphylaxis, food protein-induced gastrointestinal allergy and asthma prevention. Second-generation H(1)-antihistamines are preferable to first-generation H(1)-antihistamines in the management of non-anaphylactic allergic reactions, AR, AE and CSU due to: their better safety profile, including minimal cognitive and antimuscarinic side effects and a longer duration of action. We offer some guidance as to the choices of H(1)-antihistamines available currently and their use in specific clinical settings. H(1)-antihistamine class, availability, licensing, age and dosing administration, recommended indications in allergic conditions and modalities of delivery for the 12 more commonly used H(1)-antihistamines in children are also tabulated.

  20. Acute diarrhea in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radlović Nedeljko


    Full Text Available Acute diarrhea (AD is the most frequent gastroenterological disorder, and the main cause of dehydration in childhood. It is manifested by a sudden occurrence of three or more watery or loose stools per day lasting for seven to 10 days, 14 days at most. It mainly occurs in children until five years of age and particularly in neonates in the second half-year and children until the age of three years. Its primary causes are gastrointestinal infections, viral and bacterial, and more rarely alimentary intoxications and other factors. As dehydration and negative nutritive balance are the main complications of AD, it is clear that the compensation of lost body fluids and adequate diet form the basis of the child’s treatment. Other therapeutic measures, except antipyretics in high febrility, antiparasitic drugs for intestinal lambliasis, anti-amebiasis and probiotics are rarely necessary. This primarily regards uncritical use of antibiotics and intestinal antiseptics in the therapy of bacterial diarrhea. The use of antiemetics, antidiarrhetics and spasmolytics is unnecessary and potentially risky, so that it is not recommended for children with AD.

  1. [Young children and books]. (United States)

    Diatkine, R; Bonnafé, M; Roy, J; Camus, C; Brandao, C


    Children come into contact very early with the written language. The work of Emilia Ferreiro, a student of Piaget, has shown that from early on, well before they can read, they know that the written word has a meaning. Their successive hypotheses show an elaboration which does not occur by chance. Experience shows that babies have a specific interest for a book as an object. They recognize the value of the pictures, as much representations of their mental representations as are words, whereas these two capacities evolve in a complementary fashion. The capacity to be interested by a narrative introduces a new form of organization in the chain of representations, whether they refer to absent or imaginary objects. A good story has a special place among the narratives the child hears, which actually have the specific structures of the written language. The authors of this work report a number of examples of very young children who are put in contact with books. They see in this a new model for mental health work which can be set up by virtue of meetings outside the school rooms, the mental health services, and even of the libraries, by people of different professional skills, in order to loosen the vice of the children's daily routine, and to give the child time to dream with the books, and to draw the adults in to a salutary disorder.

  2. Studies in children. (United States)

    Perera, Frederica P; Edwards, Susan C


    This chapter first discusses the urgent need for prevention of childhood diseases that impose a huge and growing burden on families and society. It provides a review of recent research in this area to illustrate both the strengths and limitations of molecular epidemiology in drawing needed links between environmental exposures and illness in children. For illustration, three of the major diseases in children are discussed: asthma, cancer and developmental disorders. All three impose significant difficulties, have increased in recent decades, and are thought to be caused in substantial part by environmental factors, such as toxic exposures due to lifestyle choices (i.e. smoking and diet), pollutants in the workplace, ambient air, water and the food supply. These exogenous exposures can interact with "host" factors, such as genetic susceptibility and nutritional deficits, to cause disease. Molecular epidemiology has provided valuable new insights into the magnitude and diversity of exposures beginning in utero, the unique susceptibility of the young, and the adverse preclinical and clinical effects resulting from the interactions between these factors. However, molecular epidemiology also faces certain constraints and challenges that are specific to studies of the very young, including ethical issues, technical issues due to the limited amount of biological specimens that can be obtained, and communication of results to parents and communities. These challenges are particularly apparent when incorporating the newer epigenetic and "omic" techniques and biomarkers into studies of children's diseases.

  3. [Violence against children]. (United States)

    Ziegenhain, Ute; Künster, Anne Katrin; Besier, Tanja


    Violence against children is a widespread phenomenon. Interpersonal violence within the family context is typical in childhood, whereas violence occurs more frequently in the leisure and peer context during adolescence, often involving new media. The risk for experiencing violence is associated with many different factors, for example the age, psychosocial context, and cultural background of a child. Data on the prevalence of violence vary by country, depending on the available documentation systems. It is estimated that the number of unreported cases is high. Meta-analyses comprising mainly retrospective self-report studies indicate prevalence estimates between 12 and 19% for neglect, physical, and sexual abuse. Emotional child abuse is reported far more often, with a prevalence as high as 36.3%. German studies, however, weren't able to replicate these international findings. Here, child emotional abuse is reported less often. Violence against children has many negative consequences for physical, emotional, and psychosocial development. Violence prevention therefore comprises different international and national programs and strategies, which are able to successfully reduce violence against children. Programs focusing on the promotion of adequate parenting behavior show especially promising results.

  4. The world's children. (United States)

    Niimi, R


    World leaders from 159 countries agreed at the 1990 World Summit for Children to specific goals which would reduce levels of child and maternal mortality, and give every child access to basic education, clean water, and proper sanitation by 2000. Major progress has since been achieved in most countries, with more than 80% of the world's children now immunized against diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis. Moreover, the deaths of over 1 million children annually are being averted through the increased use of oral rehydration therapy against diarrheal dehydration, poliomyelitis and guinea worm have almost been eradicated, the consumption of iodized salt is protecting approximately 12 million infants annually from iodine deficiency, and access to safe drinking water is on the rise. Scientific developments in pediatrics, the strengthening of national health services, and the use of cost-effective primary health care approaches such as immunization, oral rehydration therapy, the promotion of breast feeding, and growth monitoring have helped reduce the national rate of infant mortality (IMR) in Turkey to 42 per 1000 live births compared to the urban IMR in Turkey during the 1940s of 300-350/1000. Developments in public health, the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC), education and child development, and child protection and the CRC are discussed.

  5. [Parasitic diarrhea in children]. (United States)

    Gendrel, D


    In many areas, Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba dispar are found together and their microscopic appearance is identical. Biochemical tests which can show cell wall differences are often falsely negative and the only possible way is to treat with metronidazole when amoebiasis is suspected. In case of clinical failure of metronidazole, a bacterial diarrhea is frequently found. Giardia is an other protozoa frequently found in stools of children in endemic areas. Diarrheas due to Giardia are possible in normal children and frequent in malnourished. They can determine severe atrophy of jejunal mucosa and must be treated. Cryptoridiosis is frequently asymptomatic but induces diarrhea in malnourished children. Diarrhea due to helminths is rare and only Strongyloides stercoralis induces severe diarrhea in malnourished child and must be treated in emergency with Ivermectin to avoid dissemination. In immune deficiency induced by corticosteroid treatment or cancer chemotherapy, a prophylactic treatment with Ivermectin against Strongyloides stercoralis must be given in endemic areas or after return, and probably also with metronidazole against Giardia.

  6. Young Children and Trust in Turkey (United States)

    Alat, Zeynep


    The aim of the study was to examine differences in children's generalised trust and the maternal behaviour, child temperament, and demographic factors on the levels of trust in children. A total of 314 mothers and their children participated in the study. Results showed no evidence of sex differences in children's beliefs. Children living in urban…

  7. Preschool Children's Perceptions of Overweight Peers (United States)

    Su, Wei; Aurelia, Di Santo


    The aim of the study was to determine if preschool children perceive overweight children to have more negative characteristics than non-overweight children. Children from 32 to 70 months old (N = 42) listened to four stories about an interaction between two children, in which one child demonstrated socially unacceptable behaviour and one child…

  8. Academic Achievement in Children of Divorce. (United States)

    Wadsby, Marie; Svedin, Carl Goran


    Studied the influence of divorce on children's grades. The grades earned by children of divorce (N=74) and by control group children were similar, but children of manual workers had lower grade point averages than did children of higher level nonmanual employees. Study indicates that divorce alone does not significantly lower grades. (RJM)

  9. Psychiatric Symptoms in Children with Primary Headache (United States)

    Anttila, Pirjo; Sourander, Andre; Metsahonkala, Liisa; Aromaa, Minna; Helenius, Hans; Sillanpaa, Matti


    Objective: To examine the association of psychiatric symptoms with migraine and tension-type headache in children. Method: A questionnaire completed by 1,135 Finnish children in the sixth grade identified 154 children with migraine, 138 with tension-type headache, and 407 children who were headache-free. Seventy children were randomly selected…

  10. Parental Divorce and Children's Adjustment. (United States)

    Lansford, Jennifer E


    This article reviews the research literature on links between parental divorce and children's short-term and long-term adjustment. First, I consider evidence regarding how divorce relates to children's externalizing behaviors, internalizing problems, academic achievement, and social relationships. Second, I examine timing of the divorce, demographic characteristics, children's adjustment prior to the divorce, and stigmatization as moderators of the links between divorce and children's adjustment. Third, I examine income, interparental conflict, parenting, and parents well-being as mediators of relations between divorce and children's adjustment. Fourth, I note the caveats and limitations of the research literature. Finally, I consider notable policies related to grounds for divorce, child support, and child custody in light of how they might affect children s adjustment to their parents divorce.

  11. Evaluation of hypertension in children. (United States)

    Kapur, Gaurav; Baracco, Rossana


    Hypertension is an important public health problem, and increasingly children are being diagnosed with primary hypertension. As the list of secondary causes of hypertension is extensive, pediatric practitioners increasingly need to decide on investigations needed for evaluating children presenting with high blood pressure. The differentiation between primary and secondary hypertension is paramount to understanding this important health issue, since many forms of secondary hypertension require specific treatment. The review evaluates the current available guidelines and practice patterns for evaluating children with elevated blood pressure. The review also aims to provide a framework for cost-effective evaluation strategies for children with elevated blood pressure based on current recommendations and evidence.

  12. Cotinine Levels in Asthmatic Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Delpisheh


    Full Text Available Introduction: Asthmatic children are more at risk to environmental tobacco smoke exposure (ETS due to impaired lower airway function. Objective: To investigate the association of low socio-economic status and ETS exposure in asthmatic children. Design: A cross-sectional study on 425 primary school children (aged 5-11years in Merseyside, using a parent completed questionnaire and childrens’ saliva samples. Results: 25.9 % of children had doctor diagnosed asthma and 12 % had a history of hospital admission for respiratory illnesses. The symptom triad of cough, wheeze and breathlessness were reported for 8.5% of children. Mean cotinine level was 2.1 ng/ml (±0.6 SD. 45.6% of children were ETS exposed (cotinine levels >1.0 ng/ml. Asthmatic children and those from disadvantaged households were more likely to be ETS exposed, compared to non-asthmatic and those from advantaged households [OR=1.7 (95%CI=1.1-2.4] and [OR=2.1(1.8-3.2 respectively]. A synergic effect of parental asthma, deprivation and high cotinine levels on childhood asthma was observed in multivariate analysis. Conclusions: A high cotinine level was significantly associated with an increased risk of asthma in children particularly amongst disadvantaged households. Interventions aimed at limiting ETS exposure particularly among disadvantaged groups with asthmatic children are needed.

  13. Eating Behavior of Autistic Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maulina Handayani


    Full Text Available Association between autism and eating problem has been discussed in US and European countries recently, but there are only a few studies about that matter in Asian countries. Objective: This study provides information about eating behavior in autistic children in comparison with Typically Developing (TD children in two different countries, which are Japan and Indonesia. Method: Participants of this study were 39 Japanese and 13 Indonesian parents with autistic children and 197 Japanese and 144 Indonesian parents of TD. Ages of subjects were between 3 to 6 years old. Eating behavior was evaluated by using Brief Autism Mealtime Inventory (BAMBI completed by parents. Result showed that commonly children in both countries had eating behavior problems and children with autistic showed more problems than TD children. It is estimated that autistic children have a delay in eating development that may influence their eating behaviors. It is also reported that cultural background can be considered as another influencing factor in the difference of eating behavior in each country. Conclusion: Our study provided information that Autism children have problem in eating behavior. It needs to be noticed continually by clinicians and parents, although problem in eating behavior is not a core feature of autism; it can be an associate feature in autism. Key words: Autism, Eating behavior, Children

  14. Treatment Methods for Kidney Failure in Children (United States)

    ... after the transplant before they get any additional vaccines. Children who take immunosuppressive medications should not receive vaccines ... Children with kidney failure should receive the standard vaccinations recommended for all children, as well as vaccinations to prevent influenza and ...

  15. Classroom interventions for children with ADHD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, Yvonne; Gaastra, Geraldina F.; Tucha, Lara I.; Tucha, Oliver


    In a typical classroom, children are instructed to remain seated, perform independent seatwork and follow teachers’ instructions. Children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may find these classroom demands particularly difficult to adhere to because, by definition, children with A

  16. Echolalia and Comprehension in Autistic Children. (United States)

    Roberts, Jacqueline M. A.


    The study with 10 autistic children (ages 4-17) found that those children with poor receptive language skills produced significantly more echolalic utterances than those children whose receptive skills were more age-appropriate. (Author/DB)

  17. Limb Loss in Children: Prosthetic Issues (United States)

    ... children with upper-limb (arms or hands) versus lower-limb (feet and legs) loss? Arms and legs are ... University of Illinois) studied how often children new lower-limb prostheses. His research suggests that: Children (1 to ...

  18. Influenza vaccination for children with asthma


    Friedman, Bat-Chen; Goldman, Ran D.


    QUESTION Parents of children with asthma are encouraged by many health organizations to vaccinate their children against seasonal influenza viruses. Is the influenza vaccine efficient in preventing asthma exacerbation? Are current vaccinations safe to administer to children with asthma?

  19. Por los Ninos (For the Children): Education of Undocumented Children. (United States)

    Gonzalez, Elena R.; Team, Linda B.

    Published as a special project of Texas IMPACT and the Texas Conference of Churches, this booklet outlines legal aspects of the education of undocumented children, lists moral and practical reasons for educating them, provides reasons for changing the Texas law which prohibits use of state funds for education of children who are not legally…

  20. Raising Multilingual Children: Foreign Language Acquisition and Children. (United States)

    Tokuhama-Espinosa, Tracey

    This book illustrates how children learn foreign languages and when they can do so with the best results. The most recent studies in linguistics, neurology, education, and psychology are evaluated, and the findings are presented in a recipe format. Parents are encouraged to evaluate the multilingual children in their lives with the use of tools…

  1. Postural Control in Deaf Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir-Abbas Ebrahimi


    Full Text Available This cross-sectional study aimed to determine the reliability of static control evaluation with Synapsys Posturography System (SPS, Marseille, France and to compare the static postural control of deaf children with typically developing children. This study was conducted in 2 phases on 81 children of 7 to 12 years old in Tehran schools. The first phase examined the reliability of static balance evaluation with SPS. In this phase, a total of 12 children with typical development were evaluated and then do a re-test 1 week later. In the second phase, 30 children with profound sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL and high risk in their balance (selected from Baghcheban Schools for the Deaf as the experimental group, and 37 children with typical development (selected randomly from 2 primary schools for girls and boys in District 12 of Tehran Department of Education as control group were enrolled in the study. They were all placed under sensory organization test evaluation. Based on the results of intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC, the unilateral random effects model, test-retest reliability in different sensory conditions, the moderate to excellent results were obtained (ICC between 0.68 and 0.94. Also, the mean displacement of pressure center in all sensory conditions, the limits of stability (LOS area, the overall balance scores, and scores for balance sensory ratio (except the somatosensory ratio of children with typical development were better than the deaf peers (P˂0.05. The SPS has acceptable reliability to evaluate static posture in children between the ages of 7 and 12 years. Furthermore, deaf children as compared to children with typical development had a lower static postural control in all sensory conditions. This finding confirms the need to examine the postural control for identifying the extent of sensory deficit that has caused poor balance function, and also the need for early intervention to address the balance deficit in deaf

  2. The advertising and children's audience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S. Teletov


    Full Text Available The aim of article. The article shows that today more and more citizens supply from advertising. Children's perception of the world is radically different from the adults’ perception. Modern advertising industry affects children's audience more and more. The aim of the article is to analyze the impact of advertising on children's audience with further proposals. The results of the analysis. Some social critics believe that advertising provides new information that helps to be more adaptive in society and to develop memory. Others think that advertising reduces mental activity, imposes ideals of beauty and effects family relationships. Modern advertising industry is increasingly effects children. It is profitable because it is easier to attract young audience who easy perceive new things, habits and tastes. Children audience hasn’t molded own lifestyle. Social activities of companies are not limited to charity. Advertising for children should not be difficult and confusing to children. Following the requirements of creation the socially responsible advertising can gain adherents not only among adults but also among children, who will become loyal to particular company and products which it produces over time. The algorithm for creating socially responsible advertising campaign for children is proposed. Authors proposed appropriate slogans for different applications. It is very difficult to predict the children’s reaction. Indifferent attitude to the creation of advertising can lead to destruction of children’s right values. Children get information from any source. Conclusions and directions of further researches should be conducted towards the need of social responsibility for creating advertising in general and advertising for particular child. Children more respond to images with audio accompaniment. Special attention should be paid to the creation of television advertising and advertisement.

  3. Scientists want more children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Howard Ecklund

    Full Text Available Scholars partly attribute the low number of women in academic science to the impact of the science career on family life. Yet, the picture of how men and women in science--at different points in the career trajectory--compare in their perceptions of this impact is incomplete. In particular, we know little about the perceptions and experiences of junior and senior scientists at top universities, institutions that have a disproportionate influence on science, science policy, and the next generation of scientists. Here we show that having fewer children than wished as a result of the science career affects the life satisfaction of science faculty and indirectly affects career satisfaction, and that young scientists (graduate students and postdoctoral fellows who have had fewer children than wished are more likely to plan to exit science entirely. We also show that the impact of science on family life is not just a woman's problem; the effect on life satisfaction of having fewer children than desired is more pronounced for male than female faculty, with life satisfaction strongly related to career satisfaction. And, in contrast to other research, gender differences among graduate students and postdoctoral fellows disappear. Family factors impede talented young scientists of both sexes from persisting to research positions in academic science. In an era when the global competitiveness of US science is at risk, it is concerning that a significant proportion of men and women trained in the select few spots available at top US research universities are considering leaving science and that such desires to leave are related to the impact of the science career on family life. Results from our study may inform university family leave policies for science departments as well as mentoring programs in the sciences.

  4. Scientists want more children. (United States)

    Ecklund, Elaine Howard; Lincoln, Anne E


    Scholars partly attribute the low number of women in academic science to the impact of the science career on family life. Yet, the picture of how men and women in science--at different points in the career trajectory--compare in their perceptions of this impact is incomplete. In particular, we know little about the perceptions and experiences of junior and senior scientists at top universities, institutions that have a disproportionate influence on science, science policy, and the next generation of scientists. Here we show that having fewer children than wished as a result of the science career affects the life satisfaction of science faculty and indirectly affects career satisfaction, and that young scientists (graduate students and postdoctoral fellows) who have had fewer children than wished are more likely to plan to exit science entirely. We also show that the impact of science on family life is not just a woman's problem; the effect on life satisfaction of having fewer children than desired is more pronounced for male than female faculty, with life satisfaction strongly related to career satisfaction. And, in contrast to other research, gender differences among graduate students and postdoctoral fellows disappear. Family factors impede talented young scientists of both sexes from persisting to research positions in academic science. In an era when the global competitiveness of US science is at risk, it is concerning that a significant proportion of men and women trained in the select few spots available at top US research universities are considering leaving science and that such desires to leave are related to the impact of the science career on family life. Results from our study may inform university family leave policies for science departments as well as mentoring programs in the sciences.

  5. Worm Infections in Children. (United States)

    Weatherhead, Jill E; Hotez, Peter J


    • On the basis of research evidence, worm infections are important global child health conditions causing chronic disability that lasts from childhood into adulthood (Table 1). (2)(3) Evidence Quality: B • On the basis of research evidence, the major worm infections found in developing countries include ascariasis, trichuriasis, hookworm infection, and schistosomiasis; toxocariasis, enterobiasis, and cysticercosis are also found in poor regions of North America and Europe. (4)(9)(13) Evidence Quality: B • On the basis of expert consensus, children and adolescents are often vulnerable to acquiring large numbers of worms, ie, high-intensity infections (Fig 1)(21)(22)(23) Evidence Quality: D • On the basis of expert consensus and research evidence, moderate and heavy worm burdens cause increased morbidity because of growth and intellectual stunting in children and adolescents. Many of these effects may result from helminth-induced malnutrition. (21)(22)(23) Evidence Quality: C • On the basis of expert consensus and research evidence, worm infections are also commonly associated with eosinophilia. (48) (49) Evidence Quality: B • On the basis of research evidence as well as consensus, helminthes can cause inflammation in the lung (asthma), gastrointestinal tract (enteritis and colitis), liver (hepatitis and fibrosis), and urogenital tract. (7)(21)(22)(23)(27)(28)(40)(41)(43) Evidence Quality: B • On the basis of research evidence, microscopy techniques for diagnosis of worm infections in children often exhibit suboptimal sensitivities and specificities, necessitating new or improved diagnostic modalities such as polymerase chain reaction. (54)(55) Evidence Quality: A • On the basis of research evidence and expert consensus, mass drug administration (“preventive chemotherapy”) has becomea standard practice for ministries of health in low- and middle-income countries to control intestinal helminth infections and schistosomiasis. (67)(68) Evidence

  6. Micronutrient deficiency in children. (United States)

    Bhan, M K; Sommerfelt, H; Strand, T


    Malnutrition increases morbidity and mortality and affects physical growth and development, some of these effects resulting from specific micronutrient deficiencies. While public health efforts must be targeted to improve dietary intakes in children through breast feeding and appropriate complementary feeding, there is a need for additional measures to increase the intake of certain micronutrients. Food-based approaches are regarded as the long-term strategy for improving nutrition, but for certain micronutrients, supplementation, be it to the general population or to high risk groups or as an adjunct to treatment must also be considered. Our understanding of the prevalence and consequences of iron, vitamin A and iodine deficiency in children and pregnant women has advanced considerably while there is still a need to generate more knowledge pertaining to many other micronutrients, including zinc, selenium and many of the B-vitamins. For iron and vitamin A, the challenge is to improve the delivery to target populations. For disease prevention and growth promotion, the need to deliver safe but effective amounts of micronutrients such as zinc to children and women of fertile age can be determined only after data on deficiency prevalence becomes available and the studies on mortality reduction following supplementation are completed. Individual or multiple micronutrients must be used as an adjunct to treatment of common infectious diseases and malnutrition only if the gains are substantial and the safety window sufficiently wide. The available data for zinc are promising with regard to the prevention of diarrhea and pneumonia. It should be emphasized that there must be no displacement of important treatment such as ORS in acute diarrhea by adjunct therapy such as zinc. Credible policy making requires description of not only the clinical effects but also the underlying biological mechanisms. As findings of experimental studies are not always feasible to extrapolate to

  7. Bowlby's children: the forgotten revolution in Australian children's nursing. (United States)

    Wood, Jeanette


    Children's hospitals are vastly different today from fifty years ago. Although there have been dramatic changes in treatment and environment, the biggest contrast for patients is the involvement of parents and family in the nursing and care of the children. This change is largely due to the work of two men from Great Britain, Dr John Bowlby and James Robertson, whose research findings changed the way children were nursed to include consideration of their psychological alongside physical needs. This caused a revolution in the nursing of children that spread throughout Australasia. Bowlby and Robertson's work is largely forgotten now, but it forms the basis for the current policy of nursing children within the context of the family. This paper includes excerpts from an Australian oral history collection of twenty-six narratives from former child patients, parents and nurses and the personal papers of Dr Bowlby.

  8. Chiropractic and children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leboeuf-Yde, Charlotte; Hestbæk, Lise


    briefly discuss how this should be handled in clinical practice is briefly discussed, using the concept of "traffic lights" (red, yellow, green). We explain how the combination of evidence and plausibility can be used to reach a decision as to whether a treatment or diagnostic procedure is suitable...... of problems were identified: the lack of research in general and the lack of research using the appropriate study designs and methodology in particular. Therefore, we discuss the meager research noted in the areas of chiropractic care in children and the clinical consequences this should have...



    Dr. V.N. Sreekumar


    Abstract                           The family is based on and supports primary relations. It provides Very serious especially if the parents don't get along, Insecurity, instability, problems in school, at home, etc. Counseling is always helpful, someone non-biased so the child feels they can trust someone. Children that come from broken families will most likely have a difficult time in life, struggle and turn to drug abuse or other negative behavior. Some kids get made fun of and have ...

  10. When cities move children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demant Klinker, Charlotte; Schipperijn, Jasper; Toftager, Mette;


    This study presents a novel method to assess context-specific physical activity patterns using accelerometer and GPS. The method efficiency is investigated by providing descriptive results on the use of domains and subdomains, and assessing how much of children's and adolescents' daily activity t......, clubs and sports facilities. Satisfactory method efficiency was found during weekdays. Natural experiments combined with objective assessment of context-specific behaviours hold the potential to create evidence on the effects of changes to the built environment on behaviour....

  11. Suppurative myositis in children. (United States)

    King, B; Ho, E; Lynn, M; Davidson, P


    Three cases are reported of pyogenic (non-tuberculous) myositis involving the ilio-psoas and/or iliacus muscles in children presenting to John Hunter Hospital, Newcastle, Australia, in a 12-month period. In one, cultures grew Haemophilus influenzae type B and in the other two Staphylococcus aureus was isolated. Biopsy of the abscess cavity from the second child confirmed an antecedent haematoma as the underlying cause. The third had underlying sacroiliac septic arthritis with a history of antecedent trauma. The classification, investigation, and treatment of myositis is discussed.

  12. Functional Nausea in Children. (United States)

    Kovacic, Katja; Di Lorenzo, Carlo


    Chronic nausea is a highly prevalent, bothersome, and difficult-to-treat symptom among adolescents. When chronic nausea presents as the predominant symptom and is not associated with any underlying disease, it may be considered a functional gastrointestinal disorder and named "functional nausea." The clinical features of functional nausea and its association with comorbid conditions provide clues to the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms. These may include gastrointestinal motor and sensory disturbances, autonomic imbalance, altered central nervous system pathways, or a combination of these. This review summarizes the current knowledge on mechanisms and treatment strategies for chronic, functional nausea in children.

  13. Visible Epiglottis in Children



    ABSTRACT% Visible epiglottis is a rare anatomical variant which is usually asymptomatic without the need of any medical or surgical intervention. It is most commonly seen in children but there are some reports of its prevalence in adults too. Cases of visible epiglottis seem to be unfamiliar among dental professionals. In this report, we have attempted to present this anatomical variant of epiglottis in the feld of dentistry by describing a case of an 8-year-old girl who presented to the depa...

  14. [Leucopenia in children]. (United States)

    Lohi, Olli; Vettenranta, Kim


    Decreased leukocyte values in children are usually due to the decrease in the number of neutrophilic granulocytes. This is usually a transient phenomenon associated with viral infections. In infancy and early childhood, immune mediated neutropenias are possible causes of prolonged leukopenia. Causes of rare leukopenias are numerous, including underlying diseases such as congenital myelopathy, a syndrome or malignant hematological disease. The risk of infection associated with neutropenia is increased especially in patients with a production defect of the bone marrow as the underlying cause.

  15. Socialization and Instrumental Competence in Young Children (United States)

    Baumrind, Diana


    Discusses relationships between parental authority patterns by which children are influenced and the development of socially responsible and independent behavior in young children (especially girls). (NH)

  16. Intracranial Hypertension in Children without Papilledema


    Chelse, Ana B.; Epstein, Leon G.


    Researchers at Nationwide Children's Memorial Hospital studied the frequency of intracranial hypertension without papilledema in children followed in a multispecialty pediatric intracranial hypertension clinic.

  17. Children, Additive Change, and Calculus. (United States)

    Nemirovsky, Ricardo; And Others

    Students can learn to solve problems of qualitative integration and differentiation independently of their study of formal calculus or algebra. This exploratory study investigated the basic intuitions that elementary school children construct in their daily experience with physical and symbolic change. Elementary school children (n=18) were…

  18. Social Implications in Children's Literature. (United States)

    Tyndall, Kaye Spence

    Such topics as death, divorce, old age, poverty, crime, racism, and handicaps are becoming the subjects of novels for young people and of picture books for children. If these books are to help children deal with social issues, conflicts, and concerns, they should foster realistic rather than stereotypical attitudes. Many books, for example,…

  19. Children's Attitudes toward the Elderly (United States)

    Jantz, Richard K.; And Others


    A study measured children's attitudes toward and knowledge of older people in American society. Findings indicate that children have little general knowledge of the elderly and very complex, mixed attitudes toward older persons. Ways are suggested in which schools can inculcate positive attitudes toward all people, including the elderly.…

  20. [Social media, children and pediatricians]. (United States)

    Le Heuzey, M-F


    Using social media web sites is a common activity for children, and any site that allows social interaction (social network, games, virtual worlds...) is a social media site. Pediatricians are in a position to help families understand the benefits and the risks of these sites, and to diagnose problems in children and adolescents as cyberbullying, depression, and post traumatic disorder.

  1. Understanding Traumatic Stress in Children (United States)

    ... events can leave people feeling overwhelmed and unsafe. Children may be especially vulnerable and require adults and caregivers to help them re-establish a sense of safety. Though recovering may take time, it is possible, ... Traumatic Stress in Children , to help. This guide describes the most common ...

  2. Children of Dutch Nazi collaborators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tames, I.


    This article looks into what happened to the children of Dutch Nazi collaborators after the liberation of the Netherlands in May 1945. The author first outlines the historical context in which these children lived and the manner in which they recounted and recorded their memories much later. In comb

  3. Childrens Hospital Inservice Education Curriculum. (United States)

    Lutz, Joan

    A description is provided of a 15-month, in-service nursing education program at Childrens Hospital (Los Angeles, California). The first sections of the paper describe Childrens Hospital and provide a rationale for the hospital-based program. A listing of program goals and objectives is also provided, indicating that the curriculum is designed to…

  4. Children's Responses to Television Violence. (United States)

    Leifer, Aimee Dorr; Roberts, Donald F.

    A paper-and-pencil measure of aggressive resonse was developed to study the effects on children of exposure to television-mediated violence. Using this measure, a series of experiments was conducted using actural television programs as stimulus material. The results of these studies suggest: 1) Although the majority of children understand the…

  5. Children's Experience of Public Space (United States)

    Elsley, Susan


    Children and young people regard the external physical environment as important for their needs. Their use of space varies according to age and circumstance and includes designated play and leisure facilities as well as other informal areas within their neighbourhoods. However, children have little influence over the development of public space as…

  6. Undernourished children and milk lactose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grenov, Benedikte; Briend, André; Sangild, Per Torp


    . At limited extra costs, lactose or lactose-containing milk ingredients may have beneficial effects if added to food products for undernourished children. CONCLUSIONS: Lactose may be an overlooked beneficial nutrient for young and undernourished children. Research is needed to define the balance between...

  7. When Do Children Understand "Opposite"? (United States)

    Phillips, Catherine I.; Pexman, Penny M.


    Purpose: The aims of the present research were to determine (a) the age at which children with typical development understand the concept of opposite, (b) whether this is related to other cognitive abilities or experiences, and (c) whether there is early implicit understanding of the concept. Method: Children (N = 204) between 3 and 5 years of age…

  8. Handedness Shapes Children's Abstract Concepts (United States)

    Casasanto, Daniel; Henetz, Tania


    Can children's handedness influence how they represent abstract concepts like "kindness" and "intelligence"? Here we show that from an early age, right-handers associate rightward space more strongly with positive ideas and leftward space with negative ideas, but the opposite is true for left-handers. In one experiment, children indicated where on…

  9. Assessing Learning with Children(2)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ Understanding the teaching requirements from the syllabus Task 1 List all the activities that you have done or you think you can do with children in the classroom.For example:reading aloud,children reciting a dialogue,etc.

  10. Severe Anemia in Malawian Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calis, J.C.J.; Kamija, S.P.; Faragher, E.B.; Brabin, B.J.; Bates, I.; Cuevas, L.E.; Haan, de R.J.; Phiri, A.I.; Malange, P.; Khoka, M.; Hulshof, P.J.M.; Lieshout, L.; Beld, M.G.H.M.; Teo, Y.Y.; Rockett, K.A.; Richardson, A.; Kwiatkowski, D.P.; Molyneux, M.E.; Hensbroek, van M.B.


    Background Severe anemia is a major cause of sickness and death in African children, yet the causes of anemia in this population have been inadequately studied. Methods We conducted a case¿control study of 381 preschool children with severe anemia (hemoglobin concentration,

  11. Children's Literature: Perceptions of Bullying (United States)

    Esch, Ginny


    Bullying has occurred throughout the generations and in all kinds of societies. Bullying, in the context of children, generally involves one or more larger or older children subjugating a defenseless youngster who is incapable of protecting him/herself. This article focuses on varying measures of dealing with bullies at the early childhood level.…

  12. Children's Perceptions of Gender Discrimination (United States)

    Brown, Christia Spears; Bigler, Rebecca S.


    Children (N = 76; ages 5-10 years) participated in a study designed to examine perceptions of gender discrimination. Children were read scenarios in which a teacher determined outcomes for 2 students (1 boy and 1 girl). Contextual information (i.e., teacher's past behavior), the gender of the target of discrimination (i.e., student), and the…

  13. Seeing How Children See Us (United States)

    Curtis, Deb; Baird, Lorrie


    Children have laser-like attention for everything teachers do and say. They are skillful social scientists, learning about themselves, relationships, and the world by carefully observing the people around them. As keen observers, children notice the smallest details of a teacher's body language, tone of voice, and movements. Teachers' interactions…

  14. KIDMONEY: Children as Big Business. (United States)

    Reese, Shelly


    Discusses how marketers are targeting children as a consumer segment. Highlights include advertising budgets and media, how children spend their money, the more influential role of the child in the family, in-school marketing, controversial advertising on Channel One, marketing on the Internet, and parental control. (AEF)

  15. Children, Computers, and School Furniture. (United States)

    Maxwell, Lorraine E.


    Discusses the rise of posture-related discomfort and injury in children using computers in their classrooms and explores the research in the area. Recommends greater effort in encouraging school furniture manufacturers to create ergonomically appropriate computer workstations. Advice on what children can do to lessen musculoskeletal discomfort…

  16. Deleuze's Children (United States)

    Hickey-Moody, Anna Catherine


    Children, the image of the child, and the gendered figures of the girl and the boy are thematics that run through the work of Deleuze and feature prominently in his joint writing with Guattari. However, there are many different children in Deleuze's writings. Various child figures do distinct things in Deleuze's work. In this article, I…

  17. Dynamic Digital Libraries for Children. (United States)

    Theng, Yin Leng; Mohd-Nasir, Norliza; Buchanan, George; Fields, Bob; Thimbleby, Harold; Cassidy, Noel

    The design of systems, including digital libraries, is often inspired by what technology makes possible. In user-centered design, design emphasizes users, their tasks and needs. The majority of current digital libraries are not designed for children. For digital libraries to be popular with children, they need to be fun and easy-to-use. This paper…

  18. Febrile Children in Primary Care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Elshout (Gijs)


    markdownabstractFever in children is a common symptom. Frequently,the underlying illness is self-limiting and medical intervention is seldom needed. However, general practitioners need to be alert on those children who are at risk for serious infections. In this thesis, we studied the natural course

  19. Acquired aplastic anemia in children. (United States)

    Hartung, Helge D; Olson, Timothy S; Bessler, Monica


    This article provides a practice-based and concise review of the etiology, diagnosis, and management of acquired aplastic anemia in children. Bone marrow transplantation, immunosuppressive therapy, and supportive care are discussed in detail. The aim is to provide the clinician with a better understanding of the disease and to offer guidelines for the management of children with this uncommon yet serious disorder.

  20. Decoding Children's Expressions of Affect. (United States)

    Feinman, Joel A.; Feldman, Robert S.

    Mothers' ability to decode the emotional expressions of their male and female children was compared to the decoding ability of non-mothers. Happiness, sadness, fear and anger were induced in children in situations that varied in terms of spontaneous and role-played encoding modes. It was hypothesized that mothers would be more accurate decoders of…

  1. Apartheid and South Africa's Children. (United States)

    Atmore, Eric

    The policy of apartheid, until recently one of the dominant aspects of South African society, has caused grievous harm to that nation's non-white population, especially black women and children. Most black children have not grown up in stable, two-parent families due to migrant labor policies and low wages. Housing, health care, nutrition, and…

  2. Iron deficiency anemia in children


    Pochinok, T. V.


    In the article the role of iron in the human body is highlighted. The mechanism of development of iron deficiency states, their consequences and the basic principles of diagnosis and correction of children of different ages are shown.Key words: children, iron deficiency anemia, treatment.

  3. Children Learning through Each Other. (United States)

    Liebschner, Joachim


    Reexamines Froebel's philosophical viewpoints on children's social development in light of the significance of social forces, children's deliberate imitation of each other during play, and parent roles. Illustrates Froebel's theories on the social aspect of learning with two observations recorded by his co-workers and one letter written by Froebel…

  4. Education of Migrant Children Worrisome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The plight of migrant workers in China, estimated to number in the hundreds of millions, has drawn grave concerns from top leaders and common people alike.Part of their plight is the schooling of their children that they cannot go to school on equal terms as local children.


    Elizabeth S. Magee Education and Research Foundation, Inc., Cleveland, OH.


  6. Grief: Helping Young Children Cope (United States)

    Wood, Frances B.


    In their role as caregivers supporting the children they teach, it is important for teachers to understand the grieving process and recognize symptoms of grief. The author explains Elisabeth Kubler-Ross's five stages of grief and offers 10 classroom strategies to help young children cope with their feelings.

  7. Helping Children Cope through Literature (United States)

    Lowe, Danielle F.


    As a primary educator, I have witnessed the impact literature can have on a child's life. Unfortunately, in our society children are exposed to a much higher level of violence, instability, and death than in previous years. To assist children through these difficult times, it is best to provide them with an outlet of expression. "Bibliotherapy",…

  8. Inclusion, children's groups, music therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holck, Ulla; Jacobsen, Stine Lindahl


    the children! Initially by rocking in time to the rhythm, and then with dance moves or spontaneous singing. In this chapter, we demonstrate how music and music activities can be used as a means of including vulnerable children in school or preschool settings. Based on experiences from music therapy, we have...

  9. Adopting Children with Attachment Problems. (United States)

    Hughes, Daniel A.


    Notes that attachment behavior in infants is a facet of normal child development, and that children with attachment problems require special attention during and after the adoption process. Presents actions needed to increase the probability that such children can be successfully adopted, detailed attachment patterns, and parenting strategies and…

  10. Filipino children's understanding of peace

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oppenheimer, L.J.T.; Kuipers, I.


    This study reports on 10-year-old Filipino children's understanding of peace, war, and strategies to attain peace. In total, 56 children were presented with a semistructured interview consisting of free associations to peace and questions pertaining to the definitions of peace and war and strategies

  11. Supporting Biracial Children's Identity Development. (United States)

    Morrison, Johnetta Wade; Bordere, Tashel


    Discusses stages of identity development in early childhood, as well as ways teachers can be supportive of that development. Addresses components of identity development in young children, parental preferences, valuing diversity, and curriculum recommendations. Provides suggestions appropriate for children of any racial combination. (SD)

  12. Early Children's Literature and Aging (United States)

    McGuire, Sandra L.


    Increased longevity is a worldwide phenomenon placing emphasis on the need for preparation for life's later years. Today's children will be the older adults of tomorrow. A resource that can help to educate them about aging and prepare them for the long life ahead is early children's literature (Preschool-Primary). This literature can provide…

  13. Creating Space for Children's Literature (United States)

    Serafini, Frank


    As teachers struggle to balance the needs of their students with the requirements of commercial reading materials, educators need to consider how teachers will create space for children's literature in today's classrooms. In this article, 10 practical recommendations for incorporating children's literature in the reading instructional framework…

  14. Strength Training and Children's Health. (United States)

    Faigenbaum, Avery D.


    Provides an overview of the potential health benefits of strength training for children, discussing the role of strength training in preventing sports-related injuries and highlighting design considerations for such programs. The focus is on musculoskeletal adaptations to strength training that are observable in healthy children. Guidelines for…

  15. Classic African American Children's Literature (United States)

    McNair, Jonda C.


    The purpose of this article is to assert that there are classic African American children's books and to identify a sampling of them. The author presents multiple definitions of the term classic based on the responses of children's literature experts and relevant scholarship. Next, the manner in which data were collected and analyzed in regard to…

  16. Children's Strategies on the Internet (United States)

    Dunkels, Elza


    This paper presents the results of an interview study of 104 12-year old children. The aim was to learn more about how children use the Internet, what they find negative on the Internet and what coping strategies they use. The media debate seems to display consensus regarding what threats the Internet poses to young people. However, this study…

  17. School Adaptation of Roma Children (United States)

    Gerganov, Encho; Varbanova, Silvia; Kyuchukov, Hristo


    This paper examines the degree of school adaptation among Roma children who were included in a program for the desegregation of Roma schools in Bulgaria. More specifically, the program requires Roma children to attend mixed classes with Bulgarian students and Roma teacher assistants to work with them. The Bulgarian version of the Questionnaire on…

  18. Children's perceptions of gender discrimination. (United States)

    Spears Brown, Christia; Bigler, Rebecca S


    Children (N = 76; ages 5-10 years) participated in a study designed to examine perceptions of gender discrimination. Children were read scenarios in which a teacher determined outcomes for 2 students (1 boy and 1 girl). Contextual information (i.e., teacher's past behavior), the gender of the target of discrimination (i.e., student), and the gender of the perpetrator (i.e., teacher) were manipulated. Results indicated that older children were more likely than younger children to make attributions to discrimination when contextual information suggested that it was likely. Girls (but not boys) were more likely to view girls than boys as victims of discrimination, and children with egalitarian gender attitudes were more likely to perceive discrimination than were their peers.

  19. Mathematics Achievement by Immigrant Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary G. Huang


    Full Text Available In this study, I examined academic achievement of immigrant children in the United States, Canada, England, Australia, and New Zealand. Analyzing data from the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS, I gauged the performance gaps relating to the generation of immigration and the home language background. I found immigrant children's math and science achievement to be lower than the others only in England, the U.S., and Canada. Non-English language background was found in each country to relate to poor math and science learning and this disadvantage was stronger among native-born children—presumably children of indigenous groups—than among immigrant children. I also examined the school variation in math performance gaps, using hierarchical linear modeling (HLM to each country's data. The patterns in which language- and generation-related math achievement gaps varied between schools are different in the five countries.

  20. Gesture Facilitates Children's Creative Thinking. (United States)

    Kirk, Elizabeth; Lewis, Carine


    Gestures help people think and can help problem solvers generate new ideas. We conducted two experiments exploring the self-oriented function of gesture in a novel domain: creative thinking. In Experiment 1, we explored the relationship between children's spontaneous gesture production and their ability to generate novel uses for everyday items (alternative-uses task). There was a significant correlation between children's creative fluency and their gesture production, and the majority of children's gestures depicted an action on the target object. Restricting children from gesturing did not significantly reduce their fluency, however. In Experiment 2, we encouraged children to gesture, and this significantly boosted their generation of creative ideas. These findings demonstrate that gestures serve an important self-oriented function and can assist creative thinking.

  1. Urinary Tract Infections in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Taskesen


    Full Text Available Urinary tract infections (UTI are frequent conditions in children. Untreated urinary tract infections can lead to serious kidney problems that could threaten the life of the child. Therefore, early detection and treatment of urinary tract infection is important. In older children, urinary tract infections may cause obvious symptoms such as stomach ache and disuria. In infants and young children, UTIs may be harder to detect because of less specific symptoms. Recurrences are common in children with urinary abnormalities such as neurogenic bladder, vesicourethral reflux or those with very poor toilet and hygiene habits. This article reviews the diagnostic approach and presents the current data related to the roles of radiologic imaging, surgical correction and antibiotic prophylaxis of UTIs in children. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2009; 18(2.000: 57-69

  2. Defibrillation in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haskell Sarah


    Full Text Available Defibrillation is the only effective treatment for ventricular fibrillation (VF. Optimal methods for defibrillation in children are derived and extrapolated from adult data. VF occurs as the initial rhythm in 8-20% of pediatric cardiac arrests. This has fostered a new interest in determining the optimal technique for pediatric defibrillation. This review will provide a brief background of the history of defibrillation and a review of the current literature on pediatric defibrillation. The literature search was performed through PubMed, using the MeSH headings of cardiopulmonary resuscitation, defibrillation and electric countershock. The authors′ personal bibliographic files were also searched. Only published articles were chosen. The recommended energy dose has been 2 J/kg for 30 years, but recent reports may indicate that higher dosages may be more effective and safe. In 2005, the European Resuscitation Council recommended 4 J/kg as the initial dose, without escalation for subsequent shocks. Automated external defibrillators are increasingly used for pediatric cardiac arrest, and available reports indicate high success rates. Additional research on pediatric defibrillation is critical in order to be able to provide an equivalent standard of care for children in cardiac arrest and improve outcomes.

  3. Hydrocephalus in children. (United States)

    Rekate, Harold L; Blitz, Ari M


    Imaging of hydrocephalus in utero, in infants and children is critically dependent on an understanding of the pathophysiology and treatment options for this condition in this age spectrum. For this reason, this chapter deals not only with the imaging modalities used to study hydrocephalus and how they are applied but also reviews key aspects of the pathophysiology and treatment of hydrocephalus in children. Imaging techniques to establish the diagnosis of chronic hydrocephalus fall into two categories: (1) tracer-type techniques that require an injection and observation of the transit of an injected substance through the ventricular system or subarachnoid space and (2) cross-sectional imaging, which allows for direct visualization of a point of obstruction within the ventricular system or subarachnoid space. For cross-sectional imaging, both magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography can be used, but MRI is usually preferred. Nomenclature has obscured the description of imaging findings in hydrocephalus. We suggest that most hydrocephalus is obstructive and propose to designate ventriculomegaly, the condition in which the ventricles are large on imaging, but there is no true obstruction to the outflow of cerebrospinal fluid.

  4. Tuberculosis in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonseca-Santos, Jose [Servico de Imagiologia Geral, Hospital de Santa Maria. Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Prof. Egas Moniz, Lisbon 1649-035 (Portugal)]. E-mail:


    Epidemiology of tuberculosis (TB) in childhood is closely related to TB in adults. Serious manifestations are often observed in children with TB. Immunological immaturity and social dependence facilitate the spread of infection. Paediatricians account in practise both primary TB, with hilar lymphadenopathy, and subacute or chronic pulmonary complications, in TB disease. Children appear to have a higher risk of having extrapulmonary TB involving any organ. The diagnosis of tuberculosis reactivation/re-infection, is based in the isolation of the agent in the sputum [7]. Primary TB is difficult to diagnose, usually established by indirect signs of low epidemiological specificity, symptoms, chest radiography and the intracutaneous tuberculin test. In this context, one can understand the importance of correct interpretation of the chest radiograph. Chest CT is recommended if the chest radiograph is equivocal. In addition, an overview of extrapulmonary cases of TB - of the spine, bone and lymph nodes - including the role of other imaging modalities (Us and MR) will be presented [1,3].

  5. Scaphoid fractures in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gajdobranski Đorđe


    Full Text Available Introduction. Scaphoid fractures are rare in childhood. Diagnosis is very difficult to establish because carpal bones are not fully ossified. In suspected cases comparative or delayed radiography is used, as well as computerized tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasound and bone scintigraphy. Majority of scaphoid fractures are treated conservatively with good results. In case of delayed fracture healing various types of treatment are available. Objective. To determine the mechanism of injury, clinical healing process, types and outcome of treatment of scaphoid fractures in children. Methods. We retrospectively analyzed patients with traumatic closed fracture of the scaphoid bone over a ten-year period (2002-2011. The outcome of the treatment of “acute” scaphoid fracture was evaluated using the Mayo Wrist Score. Results. There were in total 34 patients, of mean age 13.8 years, with traumatic closed fracture of the scaphoid bone, whose bone growth was not finished yet. Most common injury mechanism was fall on outstretched arm - 76% of patients. During the examined period 31 children with “acute” fracture underwent conservative treatment, with average immobilization period of 51 days. Six patients were lost to follow-up. In the remaining 25 patients, after completed rehabilitation, functional results determined by the Mayo Wrist Score were excellent. Conclusion. Conservative therapy of “acute” scaphoid fractures is an acceptable treatment option for pediatric patients with excellent functional results.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard-Fabian Schumacher


    Full Text Available

    This review is focused on childhood specific aspects of malaria, especially in resource-poor settings. We summarise the actual knowledge in the field of epidemiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis, management and prevention.

    These aspects are important as malaria is responsible for almost a quarter of all child death in sub-Saharan Africa. Malaria control is thus one key intervention to reduce childhood mortality, especially as malaria is also an important risk factor for other severe infections, namely bacteraemia.

    In children symptoms are more varied and often mimic other common childhood illness, particularly gastroenteritis, meningitis/encephalitis, or pneumonia. Fever is the key symptom, but the characteristic regular tertian and quartan patterns are rarely observed. There are no pathognomonic features for severe malaria in this age group. The well known clinical (fever, impaired consciousness, seizures, vomiting, respiratory distress and laboratory (severe anaemia, thrombocytopenia, hypoglycaemia, metabolic acidosis, and hyperlactataemia features of severe falciparum malaria in children, are equally typical for severe sepsis.

    Appropriate therapy (considering species, resistance patterns and individual patient factors – possibly a drug combination of an artemisinin derivative with a long-acting antimalarial drug - reduces treatment duration to only three days and should be urgently started.

    While waiting for the results of ongoing vaccine trials, all effort should be made to better implement other malaria-control measures like the use of treated bed-nets and new chemoprophylaxis regimens.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard-Fabian Schumacher


    Full Text Available This review is focused on childhood specific aspects of malaria, especially in resource-poor settings. We summarise the actual knowledge in the field of epidemiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis, management and prevention. These aspects are important as malaria is responsible for almost a quarter of all child death in sub-Saharan Africa. Malaria control is thus one key intervention to reduce childhood mortality, especially as malaria is also an important risk factor for other severe infections, namely bacteraemia. In children symptoms are more varied and often mimic other common childhood illness, particularly gastroenteritis, meningitis/encephalitis, or pneumonia. Fever is the key symptom, but the characteristic regular tertian and quartan patterns are rarely observed. There are no pathognomonic features for severe malaria in this age group. The well known clinical (fever, impaired consciousness, seizures, vomiting, respiratory distress and laboratory (severe anaemia, thrombocytopenia, hypoglycaemia, metabolic acidosis, and hyperlactataemia features of severe falciparum malaria in children, are equally typical for severe sepsis. Appropriate therapy (considering species, resistance patterns and individual patient factors – possibly a drug combination of an artemisinin derivative with a long-acting antimalarial drug - reduces treatment duration to only three days and should be urgently started. While waiting for the results of ongoing vaccine trials, all effort should be made to better implement other malaria-control measures like the use of treated bed-nets and new chemoprophylaxis regimens.

  8. Mechanical ventilation in children. (United States)

    Kendirli, Tanil; Kavaz, Asli; Yalaki, Zahide; Oztürk Hişmi, Burcu; Derelli, Emel; Ince, Erdal


    Mechanical ventilation can be lifesaving, but > 50% of complications in conditions that require intensive care are related to ventilatory support, particularly if it is prolonged. We retrospectively evaluated the medical records of patients who had mechanical ventilation in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU) during a follow-up period between January 2002-May 2005. Medical records of 407 patients were reviewed. Ninety-one patients (22.3%) were treated with mechanical ventilation. Ages of all patients were between 1-180 (median: 8) months. The mechanical ventilation time was 18.8 +/- 14.1 days. Indication of mechanical ventilation could be divided into four groups as respiratory failure (64.8%), cardiovascular failure (19.7%), central nervous system disease (9.8%) and safety airway (5.4%). Tracheostomy was performed in four patients. The complication ratio of mechanically ventilated children was 42.8%, and diversity of complications was as follows: 26.3% atelectasia, 17.5% ventilator-associated pneumonia, 13.1% pneumothorax, 5.4% bleeding, 4.3% tracheal edema, and 2.1% chronic lung disease. The mortality rate of mechanically ventilated patients was 58.3%, but the overall mortality rate in the PICU was 12.2%. In conclusion, there are few published epidemiological data on the follow-up results and mortality in infants and children who are mechanically ventilated.

  9. Takayasu arteritis in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cochat Pierre


    Full Text Available Abstract Takayasu arteritis (TA is a large vessel vasculitis that usually affects young female patients during the second and third decades of life, but has been reported in children as young as 24 months of age. Aim of this report was to describe four children (two girls with TA, as well as summarizing main published studies. The mean age at presentation of our cases was 11 years (range 8–15. Three patients were Caucasians and one Asian. Arterial hypertension was the commonest mode of presentation followed by systemic symptoms. Other related symptoms were due to ischemia and consisted of abdomen, chest, and limb pain. An abdominal bruit was noted in only one patient. Inflammation markers were always abnormal. Angiography was performed in all cases; left subclavian artery and common carotid artery were more frequently involved. Renal artery stenosis was observed in two patients. One boy was diagnosed as having an associated immune deficiency (Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome. Treatment modalities included prednisone (n = 4, methotrexate (n = 3, and mycophenolate mofetil (MMF (n = 1. Surgery was required in two patients. Follow-up ranged from 3 to 10 years since diagnosis. In three cases antihypertensive drugs and methotrexate were stopped, and prednisone was reduced to 7.5 mg/day.

  10. Neuropathic pain in children. (United States)

    Howard, Richard F; Wiener, Suzanne; Walker, Suellen M


    Neuropathic pain (NP), due to a lesion or disease of the somatosensory nervous system, is not well documented or researched in children. NP is a clinical diagnosis that can be difficult, especially in younger children. Nevertheless, it is important to recognise NP, as pain mechanisms and consequently management and prognosis differ from other types of long-term pain. NP is common in adult pain clinics but many of the underlying disease states in which it occurs are infrequently or never encountered in paediatric practice. However, NP in childhood has been reported, even in the very young in certain clinical situations. Causes of NP include traumatic injury, complex regional pain syndrome type II, cancer and chemotherapy, chronic infection, neurological and metabolic disease, and inherited sensory nerve dysfunction. The clinical and laboratory study of traumatic peripheral nerve injury has revealed important age-related differences in clinical presentation and prognosis. It is clear that mechanisms operating during development can profoundly modify the consequences of nerve damage and NP. Clinically, diagnosis, assessment and treatment of NP are based on methods and evidence derived from data in adults. Improvements in the understanding and management of NP are likely to come from developmentally appropriate improvements in the clarity and consistency of diagnosis and systematic, well-researched approaches to treatment.

  11. Myocardial dysfunction in malnourished children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faddan Nagla Hassan


    Full Text Available Background : Malnourished children suffer several alterations in body composition that could produce cardiac abnormalities. Aim : The aim of the present study was to detect the frequency of myocardial damage in malnourished children as shown by echocardiography and cardiac troponin T (cTnT level. Methods : Forty-five malnourished infants and young children (mean±SD of age was 11.24 ±7.88 months were matched with 25 apparently healthy controls (mean±SD of age was 10.78±6.29 months. Blood sample was taken for complete blood picture, liver and kidney function tests, serum sodium, potassium, calcium levels and cTnT. All the malnourished children were subjected to echocardiographic evaluation. Results : Malnourished children showed a significantly lower left ventricular (LV mass than the control group. The LV systolic functions were significantly impaired in patients with severe malnutrition. The cTnT level was higher than the upper reference limits in 11 (24.44% of the studied malnourished children and all of them had a severe degree of malnutrition. The cTnT level was significantly higher in patients with anemia, sepsis and electrolyte abnormalities and it correlated negatively with LV ejection fraction (EF. Six of the studied children with high cTnT levels (54.5% died within 21 days of treatment while only one case (2.9% with normal level of cTnT died within the same period. Conclusions: LV mass is reduced in malnourished children. Children with severe malnutrition have a significant decrease in LV systolic functions. Elevated cTnT levels in malnourished children has both diagnostic and prognostic significance for cardiomyocyte damage.

  12. What Children Can Teach Us: Developing Digital Libraries for Children with Children (United States)

    Druin, Allison


    At the University of Maryland, an interdisciplinary team of researchers from information studies, computer science, education, art, and psychology worked with seven children (ages seven to eleven) to design a new digital library for children. This partnership led to new approaches for collection development, cataloging (metadata standards), and…

  13. Mealtime Behaviors of Preschool Children: Comparison of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Children with Typical Development (United States)

    Provost, Beth; Crowe, Terry K.; Osbourn, Patricia L.; McClain, Catherine; Skipper, Betty J.


    This study identified mealtime behaviors of young children (3-6 years old) with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and compared these behaviors to children with typical development matched for age, gender, and ethnicity. The parents of children with ASD (n = 24) and children with typical development (n = 24) completed a mealtime survey to assess early…

  14. Austin Children`s Museum ``Go Power`` project. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    Go Power, was conceived as an interactive exhibit and related set of activities designed to promote in children and families an understanding and appreciation of energy concepts. Planned in 1990, the project culminated its first phase of activities with colorful, interactive exhibit about the pathways and transformations of energy, on display at the Austin Children`s Museum between February 5th and June 6th, 1993. The project was supported by the US Department of Energy, the National Science Foundation, the Lower Colorado River Authority and various local foundations and businesses. This report describes the process, product and outcomes of this project.

  15. Bilingualism accentuates children's conversational understanding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Siegal

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although bilingualism is prevalent throughout the world, little is known about the extent to which it influences children's conversational understanding. Our investigation involved children aged 3-6 years exposed to one or more of four major languages: English, German, Italian, and Japanese. In two experiments, we examined the children's ability to identify responses to questions as violations of conversational maxims (to be informative and avoid redundancy, to speak the truth, be relevant, and be polite. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In Experiment 1, with increasing age, children showed greater sensitivity to maxim violations. Children in Italy who were bilingual in German and Italian (with German as the dominant language L1 significantly outperformed Italian monolinguals. In Experiment 2, children in England who were bilingual in English and Japanese (with English as L1 significantly outperformed Japanese monolinguals in Japan with vocabulary age partialled out. CONCLUSIONS: As the monolingual and bilingual groups had a similar family SES background (Experiment 1 and similar family cultural identity (Experiment 2, these results point to a specific role for early bilingualism in accentuating children's developing ability to appreciate effective communicative responses.

  16. Factors of children's school readiness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljubica Marjanovič Umek


    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to examine the effect of preschool on children's school readiness in connection with their intellectual abilities, language competence, and parents' education. The sample included 219 children who were 68 to 83 months old and were attending the first year of primary school. Children were differentiated by whether or not they had attended preschool before starting school. Children's intellectual ability was determined using Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices (CPM; Raven, Raven, & Court, 1999, language competence using the Lestvice splošnega govornegarazvoja–LJ (LSGR–LJ, Scales of General Language Development; Marjanovič Umek, Kranjc, Fekonja in Bajc, 2004, and school readiness with the Preizkus pripravljenosti za šolo (PPŠ, Test of School Readiness; Toličič, 1986. The results indicate that children's intellectual ability and language competence have a high predictive value for the school readiness — they explained 51% of the variance in children's scores on the PPŠ. Preschool enrollment has a positive effect on school readiness for children whose parents have a low level of education, but not for those whose parents are highly educated.

  17. Nutritional status of vegetarian children. (United States)

    Dwyer, J T; Dietz, W H; Andrews, E M; Suskind, R M


    Thirty-nine preschool children consuming different types of vegetarian diets were studied. Type and amount of carbohydrate, fat, protein, and amount of sodium and cholesterol provided by their diets were more like intakes suggested in the proposed Dietary Goals for the United States than to levels in usual diets of nonvegetarian children. Macrobiotic vegetarian children consumed less animal food than did other vegetarian children. The mean intake of vitamin D of macrobiotics was an eighth of the Recommended Dietary Allowance and mean serum alkaline phosphatase values were elevated. The mean intake of vitamin B12 levels were normal. Vegan macrobiotic children had the lowest intakes of vitamins B12 and D. Other vegetarians' mean intakes of these vitamins met the Recommended Dietary Allowance. Mean iron intakes of the vegetarians approximated the Recommended Dietary Allowance. Hematological indices were suggestive of mild iron deficiency anemia in a quarter of subjects. Serum cholesterol values were low for the group. Physical measurements were within normal limits and macrobiotic vegetarians were not smaller or leaner than other vegetarian children. The nutritional difficulties discovered could be corrected by careful planning of vegetarian children's diets while preserving the beneficial qualities of the diet in other respects.

  18. Cerebellar arteriovenous malformations in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffiths, P.D. [Sheffield Univ. (United Kingdom). Acad. Dept. of Radiol.; Blaser, S.; Armstrong, D.; Chuang, S.; Harwood-Nash, D. [Division of Neuroradiology, The Hospital for Sick Children and University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada); Humphreys, R.P. [Division of Neurosurgery, The Hospital for Sick Children and University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada)


    We review the presentation, imaging findings and outcome in 18 children with cerebellar arteriovenous malformations (AVM). This group is of particular interest because of the reported poor outcome despite modern imaging and neurosurgical techniques. All children had CT and 15 underwent catheter angiography at presentation. Several of the children in the latter part of the study had MRI. Of the 18 children, 17 presented with a ruptured AVM producing intracranial haemorrhage. The remaining child presented with temporal lobe epilepsy and was shown to have temporal, vermian and cerebellar hemisphere AVM. This child had other stigmata of Osler-Weber-Rendu syndrome. Three other children had pre-existing abnormalities of possible relevance. One had a vascular malformation of the cheek and mandible, one a documented chromosomal abnormality and another a midline cleft upper lip and palate. Six of the 17 children with a ruptured cerebellar AVM died within 7 days of the ictus. Vascular pathology other than an AVM was found in 10 of the 14 children with a ruptured cerebellar AVM who had angiography: 4 intranidal aneurysms, 5 venous aneurysms and 2 cases of venous outflow obstruction (one child having both an aneurysm and obstruction). The severity of clinical presentation was directly related to the size of the acute haematoma, which was a reasonable predictor of outcome. (orig.) With 4 figs., 4 tabs., 23 refs.

  19. Fusobacterium infections in children (United States)

    Arane, Karen; Goldman, Ran D.


    Abstract Question A 2-year-old patient in my practice with acute otitis media that has progressed to mastoiditis with a high fever returns with positive culture results for Fusobacterium. What should I do next? Answer Fusobacterium is a genus of anaerobic bacteria. Although Fusobacterium infections are rare, they can become severe if not treated promptly. Appropriate treatment is combination antibiotic therapy consisting of a β-lactam (penicillin, cephalosporin) and an anaerobic antimicrobial agent (metronidazole, clindamycin). At times surgical involvement is required for mastoiditis such as drainage of abscesses or insertion of a ventilation tube. Delayed treatment of an infection caused by Fusobacterium can lead to serious complications, including Lemierre syndrome. Children should be seen in a hospital for close monitoring. PMID:27737977

  20. Acute pancreatitis in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jokić Radoica


    Full Text Available Introduction. Acute pancreatitis in children is mostly due to abdominal trauma, diseases or congenital anomalies of the biliary-pancreatic tree. Both exogenous and endogenous functions of the gland could be disturbed by various levels of damage. Clinical Finding and Diagnostics. Acute abdominal pain, gastrointestinal signs and general deterioration are the main clinical findings. The examination can be completed by blood and urine tests of amylase, electrolytes level, and the C-reactive protein. In addition to these tests, ultrasound, computed tomography and endoscopy are required as well. Therapeutic Methods. The therapy of choice is non-operative treatment using medicaments to control the pain, decrease the pancreatic activity and prevent further complications. If the conservative treatment fails, the surgical approach is necessary: drainage, resections, by-pass procedures, etc. Conclusion. Acute pancreatitis is a very serious disease in childhood. Clinical experience and rational approach are very important in the diagnostic and therapeutic methods.

  1. Vasculitis in children. (United States)

    Eleftheriou, Despina; Batu, Ezgi Deniz; Ozen, Seza; Brogan, Paul A


    Primary systemic vasculitides of the young are relatively rare diseases, but are associated with significant morbidity and mortality, particularly if there is diagnostic delay. We provide an overview of paediatric vasculitides with emphasis on key differences in vasculitis presentation and management between children and adults. Significant advances in the field of paediatric vasculitis research include the development of classification criteria and disease outcome tools for paediatric disease; inclusion of paediatric patients in international multicentre randomized controlled trials of therapies in vasculitis; and development of rare disease trial designs for therapeutic trials of paediatric vasculitis. The continuation of unmet needs as well as the exploration of potential therapeutic avenues and considerations in the design of future trials are also discussed.

  2. Soccer injuries in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paterson, Anne [Royal Belfast Hospital for Sick Children, Radiology Department, Belfast (United Kingdom)


    Soccer is the most popular sport in the world, with FIFA recognising more than 265 million amateur players. Despite the fact that soccer is a contact sport, it is perceived to be relatively safe to play, a factor that has contributed to its status as the fastest growing team sport in the USA. Acute and minor injuries predominate in the statistics, with contusions and abrasions being the most commonly recorded. As would be expected, the majority of soccer injuries are to the lower limbs, with serious truncal and spinal trauma being rare. This article examines the type and anatomic location of injuries sustained by children and adolescents who play soccer, and the main mechanisms whereby such injuries occur. The risk factors underpinning injury occurrence are considered, along with injury avoidance tactics. (orig.)

  3. CT head in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, Padma, E-mail: [Royal Children' s Hospital and the University of Melbourne, Medical Imaging Department, Flemington Road, Parkville, Melbourne, Victoria 3052 (Australia); Bekhit, Elhamy, E-mail: [Royal Children' s Hospital and the University of Melbourne, Medical Imaging Department, Flemington Road, Parkville, Melbourne, Victoria 3052 (Australia); Ramanauskas, Fiona, E-mail: [Royal Children' s Hospital and the University of Melbourne, Medical Imaging Department, Flemington Road, Parkville, Melbourne, Victoria 3052 (Australia); Kumbla, Surekha, E-mail: [Royal Children' s Hospital and the University of Melbourne, Medical Imaging Department, Flemington Road, Parkville, Melbourne, Victoria 3052 (Australia)


    The advances in computerized technology (CT) technique over the last few decades have greatly modified imaging protocols in children. The range of pathologies that can now be demonstrated has broadened with the advent of newer techniques such as CT perfusion and the ability to perform complex reconstructions. Increasing speed of scanning and reduction in scan time have influenced the need for sedation and general anaesthetic as well as impacting on motion artefact. Additionally, concerns about radiation safety and avoidance of unnecessary radiation have further impacted on the inclusion of CT in the imaging armamentarium. Justification and image optimisation are essential. It is important to familiarize oneself with the appearances of normal variants or age related developmental changes. CT does however remain an appropriate investigation in a number of conditions.

  4. Neurobrucellosis in children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohamed; Ata; Hendaus; Rasha; Muneer; Qaqish; Ahmed; Hassan; Alhammadi


    Neurobrucellosis is a complication of brucellosis,which is considered endemic in the Indian subcontinent,Arabian Peninsula and Mediterranean countries.Brucella reaches the central nervous system via hematogenous spread in the infected human being,or through phagocytosis.Neurobrucellosis can present with any neurological symptoms,hence,the index of suspicion must be high enough to make proper diagnosis.Cerebrospinal fluid studies are usually diagnostic,while imagings including magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography are of little assistance.As for therapy,a combination of antibiotics must be administered with a goal to reduce relapse or avoid failure.The duration of treatment should be tailored as per clinical signs and symptoms until the cerebrospinal fluid components return to normal,which might be up to six months.In this article,we present an overall view of current understanding of neurobrucellosis in children,its epidemiology,clinical features,diagnostictests,and management options.

  5. Secondary drowning in children. (United States)

    Pearn, J H


    Secondary drowning (and near-drowning) is one of the post-immersion respiratory syndromes. It is defined as deterioration of pulmonary function that follows deficient gas exchange due to loss or inactivation of surfactant. A review of 94 consecutive cases of near-drowning in childhood showed that this syndrome occurred in five (5%) cases. Its onset was usually rapid and characterised by a latent period of one to 48 hours of relative respiratory well-being. It occurred more rapidly after immersion in fresh water. The two children immersed in salt water died of secondary drowning, while the three immersed in fresh water recovered completely. If it is anticipated, recognised, and treated vigorously prognosis of secondary drowning is good in fresh water cases but bad after salt water immersion.

  6. Septic arthritis in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Riccio


    Full Text Available Osteoarticular infections are a form of diagnostic and therapeutic emergency in infants and children, even if relatively rare. Despite decades of experience with different protocols, and multiple clinical trials, today it is still difficult to determine what kind of antibiotics is really effective, what kind of associations are required, which is the optimal time range of a treatment, when and on which subjects to base the transition from a parenteral treatment to an oral one. Current philosophy aims more and more at reducing hospitalization and costs, and wants to decrease the discomfort in the family. The purpose of these guidelines is to promote a reasoned clinical and therapeutic approach, in a context of diagnostic probabilities that offer the best chance of success in reducing hospitalization with a rapid transition to an oral treatment, and then outpatient, and thus educing totally the processing time.

  7. Asthma control in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Søren


    The goal of asthma management is to achieve disease control. Poorly controlled asthma is associated with an increased number of days lost from school, exacerbations and days in hospital. Furthermore, children with uncontrolled asthma have more frequent contacts with the health-care system. Recent...... studies have added new information about the effects of poorly controlled asthma on a range of important, but less studied outcomes, including risk of obesity, daily physical activity, cardiovascular fitness, stress, concentration and focused attention, learning disabilities and risk of depression. From...... these studies it seems that poor asthma control may have a greater impact on the child than previously thought. This may have important long-term consequences for the child such as an increased risk of life-style associated diseases and poorer school performance. The level of control seems to be the most...

  8. Back Pain in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadi Kayiran ; Sinan Mahir Kayiran;


    Full Text Available Contrary to popular knowledge, back pain is quite frequently seen in children. While very rare in the pre-school age group, frequency reaches 30% in the adolescent period. In many cases, the causes of back pain in childhood cannot be exactly determined and the pain disappears by itself in a short time. It should be remembered that back pain that persists for more than two weeks may be associated with organic causes. Whether or not there have been disruptions in neurological functions should be definitely probed in the medical history. Keeping in mind that back pain could be a part of a systemic disease, a systemic examination should be carried out in cases where there has been long-term back pain. The complaint of childhood back pain should be assessed with a thorough history, a careful physical examination and advanced testing tools. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(1.000: 115-118

  9. Multiple Sclerosis in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soroor INALOO


    Full Text Available How to Cite This Article: Inaloo S, Haghbin S. Multiple Sclerosis in Children. Iran J Child Neurol. 2013 Spring;7(2:1-10. Multiple sclerosis (MS is the most important immune-mediated demyelinated disease of human which is typically the disease of young adults. A total of 4% to 5% of MS population are pediatric. Pediatric MS is defined as the appearance of MS before the age of sixteen. About 80% of the pediatric cases and nearly all adolescent onset patients present with attacks typical to adult MS. Approximately 97% to 99% of the affected children have relapsing-remitting MS, while 85% to 95% of the adults experience such condition. MS in children is associated with more frequent and severe relapses. Treatment is the same as adults. We aimed to review the epidemiology, etiology, clinical manifestations, and treatment of MS in children. References1. Lublin F. History of modern multiple sclerosis therapy. J Neurol 2005 Sep;252(Suppl 3:iii3-iii9. Review.2. Murray TJ. Robert Carswell: the first illustrator of MS. Int MS J 2009 Sep;16(3:98-101.3. Kabat EA, Glusman M, Knaub V. Quantitative estimation of the albumin and gamma globulin in normal and pathologic cerebrospinal fluid by immunochemical methods. Am J Med 1948 May;4(5:653-62.4. Kumar DR, Aslinia F, Yale SH, Mazza JJ. Jean-Martin Charcot: the father of neurology. Clin Med Res 2011 Mar;9(1:46-9.5. Dawson JD. The histology of disseminated sclerosis.Trans of the Roy Soc Edinb. 1916;50:517-740.6. Gadoth N. Multiple sclerosis in children. Brain Dev 2003 Jun;25(4:229-32. Review.7. Banwell BL. Pediatric multiple sclerosis. Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep 2004 May;4(3:245-52.8. Renoux C, Vukusic S, Mikaeloff Y, Edan G, Clanet M, Dubois B, et al. Natural history of multiple sclerosis with childhood onset. N Engl J Med 2007 Jun 21;356(25:2603-13.9. Boiko A, Vorobeychicle G, Paty D, Devonshire V, Sondovnick D. Early onset multiple sclerosis: a long longitudinal study. Neurology 2002 Oct 8

  10. Pancreatitis in children. (United States)

    Winchester, M


    The pathophysiology of pancreatic autodigestion is poorly understood. Pancreatitis affects all age groups, and the diagnosis is sometimes missed when serum amylase and lipase activities are not measured in the child with abdominal pain. Acute pancreatitis in children has become a more commonly seen condition and the causes have varied. Laboratory and radiological studies play an important role in determining the diagnosis and prognosis. Family history is important in the diagnosis of idiopathic hereditary pancreatitis. Most acute episodes resolve with supportive care, but the mortality in acute pancreatitis is currently about 15% (Hadorn et al., 1980). Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography or an endoscopic retrograde pancreatogram may be necessary to investigate relapses of pancreatitis. Chronic pancreatitis can be a life-threatening condition requiring lifetime medical management.

  11. Measuring children's food preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Annemarie; Kildegaard, Heidi; Gabrielsen, Gorm


    The aim of this study is to investigate if children’s food preferences can be reliable measured by using pictures of foods presented on a computer screen in a conjoint layout.We investigate reproducibility (test–retest) and infer validity by comparison with traditional hedonic evaluations...... juices (tangible products), chosen to span the preference spectrum, were hedonically evaluated for appearance and taste. Finally, an actual product choice was performed by having the children choose between two buns and two juices.Results showed that the computer evaluationswith pictures of foods...... provided reproducible information about the children’s visual food preferences, which were in concordance with both hedonic measures and products choices, and can thus be considered valid....

  12. Soccer injuries in children. (United States)

    Paterson, Anne


    Soccer is the most popular sport in the world, with FIFA recognising more than 265 million amateur players. Despite the fact that soccer is a contact sport, it is perceived to be relatively safe to play, a factor that has contributed to its status as the fastest growing team sport in the USA. Acute and minor injuries predominate in the statistics, with contusions and abrasions being the most commonly recorded. As would be expected, the majority of soccer injuries are to the lower limbs, with serious truncal and spinal trauma being rare. This article examines the type and anatomic location of injuries sustained by children and adolescents who play soccer, and the main mechanisms whereby such injuries occur. The risk factors underpinning injury occurrence are considered, along with injury avoidance tactics.

  13. Thermometry in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prerna Batra


    Full Text Available Accurate measurement of temperature is important for detection of fever and hypothermia in pediatric patients. Ideal temperature-measurement technique should be safe, easy, noninvasive, cost effective, time efficient, and should precisely reflect core body temperature. Pulmonary artery is the closest to hypothalamus and best reflects the core temperature. Other sites used are distal esophagus, urinary bladder and nasopharynx. All these methods are invasive and difficult to use in clinical practice. Amongst the noninvasive methods, rectal thermometry is considered to be the closest to core temperature, but it has its own drawbacks. With the current evidence available, tympanic artery thermometry for children more than 2 years of age and temporal artery thermometry in all age groups are taking precedence over other methods.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Imandel


    Full Text Available Some children of Borazjan area have minute white flecks, yellow or brown spot areas scattered irregularly over the tooth surface, the causative factor was attributed to excess of fluoride in water. To verify this matter short chemical examination of water samples from endemic area was carried out. The results of water analysis by colorimetric method, using zirconium a1izarin reagent after distillation the samples, showed that the average mount of fluoride of Borazjan and the mixture of treated. Water of Boshigan River with water piped of Borazjan wells were 4 and 2 times respectively more than recommended control limits for fluoride and confirmed that this was the causative agent of mottled, teeth (Dental Fluorosis.

  15. SOS Children's Friendly Community Historical Overview (United States)

    Lukaš, Mirko; Lenard, Ivan


    SOS Children's Village Croatia is categorized as a children's home whose primary goal is taking care of children without an adequate parental care or parents themselves. Moreover, it aims at providing children, regardless of their racial, national or religious affiliation, with affection and love in a safe family environment. In addition, SOS…

  16. Children, the Flu, and the Flu Vaccine (United States)

    ... Cancer Parents Children, the Flu, and the Flu Vaccine Children and Flu Antiviral Drugs Caregivers of Young Children ... of Developing Flu–Related Complications . There are special vaccination instructions for children aged 6 months through 8 years of age ...

  17. Media and Children's Aggression, Fear, and Altruism (United States)

    Wilson, Barbara J.


    Noting that the social and emotional experiences of American children today often heavily involve electronic media, Barbara Wilson takes a close look at how exposure to screen media affects children's well-being and development. She concludes that media influence on children depends more on the type of content that children find attractive than on…

  18. Evaluative expression in deaf children's written narratives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beijsterveldt, E.M. van; Hell, J.G. van


    Background: Deaf children vary in the use of and proficiency in signed language. The majority of studies on writing skills of children who are deaf did not assess deaf children's proficiency in signed language and/or grouped together deaf children with varying sign language skills. Aims: Adopting a

  19. Television violence and its effect on children. (United States)

    Johnson, M O


    Television (TV) has become a large part of children's activities. Much discussion exists as to the level of violence on TV programs and its effect on children's behavior. This article reviews the literature, discusses social issues, and presents some interventions available to nursing professionals to assist children and families in coping with the impact of TV on children's lives.

  20. COAP: Children of Alcoholic Parents. Curriculum. (United States)

    DeMonnin, Leona

    The Children of Alcoholics Project (COAP) offers a preschool curriculum designed to increase the survival skills of children of alcoholics and help these children adjust to problems in an alcoholic home. The program goals address cognitive, social and emotional, and physical development. Children are selected for the program based on…

  1. Lexical-Phonological Interactions in Bilingual Children (United States)

    Kehoe, Margaret M.


    This study examined lexical-phonological interactions in the first 50 words of a group of monolingual German- and Spanish-speaking children and bilingual German--Spanish children. The phonological characteristics of the earliest target word forms and output patterns of these children were analyzed to determine whether bilingual children select…

  2. Exploring Canadian Identity through Canadian Children's Literature. (United States)

    Pantaleo, Sylvia


    Considers what commonplaces of culture and identity are being, could be, transmitted through the use of children's literature in classrooms. Explores what is Canadian about Canadian children's literature. Describes a study which involved Canadian elementary school children who read Canadian children's books. Concludes that literature plays a…

  3. What Do Young Children Dream about? (United States)

    Honig, Alice Sterling; Nealis, Arlene L.


    Young children's dreams can be a way for teachers and caregivers to share with children and an opportunity for children to describe and even draw dreams. In two different preschool settings, in two different geographical locales, 94 children, aged 3-5 years, shared 266 dreams with a trusted, familiar teacher. Dreams were coded anonymously. The…

  4. The Joys and Sorrows of Educating Children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Different families have different views about educating children. But teaching methods reflect the economic and cultural level of society. As society develops, the traditional Chinese patriarchal method to educate children encounters many objections. However, when parents treat their children democratically, children are spoiled to different degrees and "Little Emperors" appear, which proves the patriarchal method still exists in disguised form.

  5. Helping and Cooperation in Children with Autism (United States)

    Liebal, Kristin; Colombi, Costanza; Rogers, Sally J.; Warneken, Felix; Tomasello, Michael


    Helping and cooperation are central to human social life. Here, we report two studies investigating these social behaviors in children with autism and children with developmental delay. In the first study, both groups of children helped the experimenter attain her goals. In the second study, both groups of children cooperated with an adult, but…

  6. Providing nursing care in a children's hospice. (United States)

    Day, Alison

    Children who are admitted to hospices need specialist treatment that enables them to enjoy their childhood as much as possible while they receive the care they require. Their parents also have particular needs. During Children's Hospice Week, which started on September 21, the Association of Children's Hospices aims to raise awareness of the work done by children's hospices and the services they provide.

  7. The State of America's Children Yearbook: 1996. (United States)

    Finlay, Belva, Ed.

    The Children's Defense Fund (CDF) 1996 report on the state of America's children highlights the critical need for renewed commitment to children by early childhood advocates, parents, and all sectors of society. The introduction describes in general the crises faced by children and calls for adults to recommit their energies to providing solutions…

  8. Policy Implications of Advertising to Children. (United States)

    Griffin, Emilie

    Since its inception the Children's Advertising Review Unit has turned to research in order to better evaluate children's advertisements, to develop guidelines for children's advertisers and to resolve some perplexing questions about certain types of advertising content. Although some work has been done in advertising directed toward children, most…

  9. Advertising to Children: Concepts and Controversies. (United States)

    Macklin, M. Carole, Ed.; Carlson, Les, Ed.

    This book presents cutting-edge research designed to stimulate and inform the debate over advertising to the children's market and the effects such advertising has on children. Perspectives are organized in sections to address what children know and think about advertising, how advertising works with children, and what issues are at the forefront…

  10. Fractions Learning in Children with Mathematics Difficulties (United States)

    Tian, Jing; Siegler, Robert S.


    Learning of fractions is difficult for children in general and especially difficult for children with mathematics difficulties (MD). Recent research on developmental and individual differences in fraction knowledge of MD and typically achieving (TA) children has demonstrated that U.S. children with MD start middle school behind TA peers in…

  11. Experiences of Daycare Children of Divorce (United States)

    Storksen, Ingunn; Thorsen, Arlene Arstad; Overland, Klara; Brown, Steven R.


    Research shows that children of divorce are at risk of adjustment problems and school problems. In previous studies of young children of divorce, most often parents or teachers have supplied data. In this study, we explore the children's own feelings and experiences through Q methodology with visual images. The study includes 17 children of…

  12. Young Children and Trust in Turkey (United States)

    Alat, Zeynep


    The aim of the study was to examine differences in children's generalised trust and the maternal behaviour, child temperament, and demographic factors on the levels of trust in children. A total of 314 mothers and their children participated in the study. Results showed no evidence of sex differences in children's beliefs. Children…

  13. An Analysis on Children's Rights in Stories Recommended for Children in Turkey (United States)

    Karaman-Kepenekci, Yasemin


    Children's rights are legally protected benefits for children to develop physically, mentally, emotionally, socially and morally with freedom and honor in a healthy and normal way. It is important that children know the rights they have. Works of high quality children's literature ensure the socialization of children by making them understand or…

  14. Exploring Language Profiles for Children with ADHD and Children with Asperger Syndrome (United States)

    Helland, Wenche Andersen; Biringer, Eva; Helland, Turid; Heimann, Mikael


    Objective: The aims of the present study was to investigate communication impairments in a Norwegian sample of children with ADHD and children with Asperger syndrome (AS) and to explore whether children with ADHD can be differentiated from children with AS in terms of their language profiles on the Norwegian adaptation of the Children's…

  15. Do You See What I See? School Perspectives of Deaf Children, Hearing Children and Their Parents (United States)

    Marschark, Marc; Bull, Rebecca; Sapere, Patricia; Nordmann, Emily; Skene, Wendy; Lukomski, Jennifer; Lumsden, Sarah


    Perspectives on academic and social aspects of children's school experiences were obtained from deaf and hearing children and their (deaf or hearing) parents. Possible differences between (1) the views of children and their parents and (2) those of hearing children and their parents compared to deaf children and their parents were of particular…

  16. Participation of Children with Intellectual Disability Compared with Typically Developing Children (United States)

    King, Matthew; Shields, Nora; Imms, Christine; Black, Monique; Ardern, Clare


    We compared participation in out-of-school activities between children with intellectual disability and children with typical development using the Children's Assessment of Participation and Enjoyment and Preferences for Activities of Children questionnaires. Thirty-eight pairs of children were matched for age (mean age 12.3 plus or minus 2.7…

  17. Swiss Children's Moral and Psychological Judgments about Inclusion and Exclusion of Children with Disabilities (United States)

    Gasser, Luciano; Malti, Tina; Buholzer, Alois


    Children's judgments about inclusion and exclusion of children with disabilities were investigated in a Swiss sample of 6-, 9-, and 12-year-old children from inclusive and noninclusive classrooms (N = 422). Overall, the majority of children judged it as morally wrong to exclude children with disabilities. Yet, participants were less likely to…

  18. Bowel vaginoplasty in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarin Yogesh


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To describe our experience with bowel vaginoplasty done in children. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a retrospective study of eight children aged 10 months to 8 years, who underwent bowel vaginoplasty over a period of 5 years (2000-2005. The indications of bowel vaginoplasty included anorectovestibular fistula (ARVF associated with Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser (MRKH syndrome (n=6 and cloaca (n=2. The bowel segment used for vaginoplasty included colon (n=3, ileum (n=2 and duplicated rectum (n=1. In two patients of ARVF associated with uterovaginal agenesis, the distal- most part of ARVF was transected at the level of peritoneal reflection and left as neovagina, whereas the proximal bowel was pulled through at the proposed neo-anal site. All the patients were advised daily home dilatation of the neo vaginal orifice with Hegar′s dilators, for a period of six weeks. RESULTS: Bowel vaginoplasty was done in eight patients. None had any significant per-operative complication. Two patients had abdominal wound dehiscence, requiring secondary suturing. Two patients had mucosal prolapse of the neovagina, which required trimming. One patient died two months after discharge, because of meningitis. Out of the eight patients, seven are in regular follow-up. Six patients have neovagina, cosmetically acceptable to the parents; all have been radiologically proven to have adequate length. One patient had unacceptable perineal appearance with nipple-like vaginal orifice and scarred perineal wound, that merits a revision. None of the patients had vaginal stenosis and excessive mucus discharge, during follow-up visits. Although post surgical results are acceptable to the parents cosmetically, the sexual and psychological outcome is yet to be assessed. Conclusions: Bowel vaginoplasty is a safe and acceptable procedure to treat the pediatric patients of uterovaginal agenesis and cloaca.

  19. Food allergy in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radlović Nedeljko


    Full Text Available Food allergy represents a highly up-to-date and continually increasing problem of modern man. Although being present in all ages, it most often occures in children aged up to three years. Sensitization most often occurs by a direct way, but it is also possible to be caused by mother’s milk, and even transplacentally. Predisposition of inadequate immune response to antigen stimulation, reaginic or nonreaginic, is of nonselective character so that food allergy is often multiple and to a high rate associated with inhalation and/ or contact hypersensitivity. Also, due to antigen closeness of some kinds of food, cross-reactive allergic reaction is also frequent, as is the case with peanuts, legumes and tree nuts or cow’s, sheep’s and goat’s milk. Most frequent nutritive allergens responsible for over 90% of adverse reactions of this type are proteins of cow’s milk, eggs, peanuts, tree nuts, wheat, soy, fish, shellfish, crustaceans, and cephalopods. Allergy intolerance of food antigens is characterized by a very wide spectrum of clinical manifestations. Highly severe systemic reactions, sometimes fatal, are also possible. The diagnosis of food allergy is based on a detailed personal and family medical history, complete clinical examination, and corresponding laboratory and other examinations adapted to the type of hypersensitivity and the character of patient’s complaints, and therapy on the elimination diet. A positive effect of elimination diet also significantly contributes to the diagnosis. Although most children “outgrow” their allergies, allergy to peanuts, tree nuts, fish, shellfish, crustaceans, and cephalopods are generally life-long allergies.

  20. Speech Databases of Typical Children and Children with SLI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Grill

    Full Text Available The extent of research on children's speech in general and on disordered speech specifically is very limited. In this article, we describe the process of creating databases of children's speech and the possibilities for using such databases, which have been created by the LANNA research group in the Faculty of Electrical Engineering at Czech Technical University in Prague. These databases have been principally compiled for medical research but also for use in other areas, such as linguistics. Two databases were recorded: one for healthy children's speech (recorded in kindergarten and in the first level of elementary school and the other for pathological speech of children with a Specific Language Impairment (recorded at a surgery of speech and language therapists and at the hospital. Both databases were sub-divided according to specific demands of medical research. Their utilization can be exoteric, specifically for linguistic research and pedagogical use as well as for studies of speech-signal processing.

  1. Determinants of Bilingualism among Children


    Chiswick, Barry R.; Gindelsky, Marina


    This paper analyzes the determinants of bilingualism (i.e., speaks a language other than English at home) among children age 5 to 18 years in the American Community Survey, 2005-2011. Two groups of children are considered: those born in the US (native born) and foreign-born children who immigrated prior to age 14 (the 1.5 generation). The analyses are conducted overall, within genders, and within racial and ethnic groups. Bilingualism is more prevalent if the parents are foreign born, less pr...

  2. Hepatitis C: Issues in Children. (United States)

    Lee, Christine K; Jonas, Maureen M


    Hepatitis C infection is a global health problem. Most infected children have not been identified. Perinatal transmission is the most common mode of acquisition. Liver disease owing to chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection progresses slowly in individuals infected early in life. Serious complications rarely affect patients during childhood. Successful treatment of HCV in adults has improved and recommendations have changed. Treatment in children should be deferred until direct-acting antivirals and interferon-free regimens are available to this population. If treatment cannot be deferred, regimens including peginterferon and ribavirin can be given to children with compensated liver disease.

  3. Common Tuina Techniques in Children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    @@ Tuina techniques in children are similar to those in adults. Some are same in name, but different in methods,such as pushing technique. Some techniques are just applied to children rather than to adults, such as pushing method. In clinical practice, such intense Tuina techniques as nailing, grasping, and pinching are practiced as the ending manipulations, so as not to hurt children and affect treatment. Such media as ginger juice,Talcum powder and egg white are commonly used to prevent from skin abrasion and improve therapeutic effects.

  4. Television and children's executive function. (United States)

    Lillard, Angeline S; Li, Hui; Boguszewski, Katie


    Children spend a lot of time watching television on its many platforms: directly, online, and via videos and DVDs. Many researchers are concerned that some types of television content appear to negatively influence children's executive function. Because (1) executive function predicts key developmental outcomes, (2) executive function appears to be influenced by some television content, and (3) American children watch large quantities of television (including the content of concern), the issues discussed here comprise a crucial public health issue. Further research is needed to reveal exactly what television content is implicated, what underlies television's effect on executive function, how long the effect lasts, and who is affected.

  5. Neuropathic pain management in children.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hyde, Catherine


    There are difficulties in assessing, managing, and evaluating neuropathic pain in dying children, particularly those with neurological impairment. Neuropathic pain in children often presents differently to how it presents in the adult population. Comprehensive assessment as well as pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions are crucial to its successful management and frequently require input from an interdisciplinary team. Notwithstanding the need for further research, this paper brings together research papers, reviews, and clinical guidelines to present an exploration of existing evidence regarding care for children with neuropathic pain and their families.

  6. Accidental dapsone poisoning in children. (United States)

    Nair, P M; Philip, E


    Accidental poisoning in children shows a trend towards poisoning with various newer drugs and chemicals used in the household. Sixty-one cases of accidental poisoning in children were seen in Sree Avittam Thirunal Hospital, (S.A.T.H.), Trivandrum, South India during the year 1982, constituting 0.61% of the total pediatric admissions. Dapsone poisoning constituted 9.8% of the total accidental poisonings, emphasising the need for safe storage of drugs out of the reach of young children. Dapsone poisoning with resultant methaemoglobinaemia responded well to intravenous ascorbic acid and other supportive measures.

  7. Anxiety in children having elective surgery. (United States)

    Wollin, Sarah R; Plummer, John L; Owen, Harry; Hawkins, Russell M F; Materazzo, Felicity; Morrison, Virginia


    One hundred and twenty children aged 5-12 years and their parents were interviewed preoperatively about anxiety and fear. Needles, postoperative pain, the unknown, and many unrecognizable people in the induction room were all reported as increasing anxiety for children. Effective modes of reducing children's anxiety were considered to be the prospect of eating after surgery, staff speaking directly to children in a friendly way, and having a television to watch. Parents' suggestions for reducing children's anxiety included giving better explanations, ensuring that children who have had their operations do not return to the same ward where other children are still waiting, and providing more distractions.

  8. Safe and Responsible Online Behaviors for Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Hsien L. Chen


    Full Text Available The Internet makes new learning opportunities possible for children by offering vast amount of resources and powerful communication means Oftentimes, the Internet is the first resource children choose for information seeking. Other than schoolwork related resources,the Internet. contains unlimited interesting and entertaining information for children. As going online becomes a favorite pastime for millions of children,teachers and parents need to caution children about the negative side of the Internet. They need to teach children online safety and responsibility, and further,monitor their online behaviors. The article, first, discusses the possible threats to childrens online safety, including potential sex offenders, pornographic materials,and unethical marketing tactics aimed at children. Then, it addresses unethical and irresponsible behaviors, such as plagiarism, spamming, and hacking, which are committed or may be committed by children. Finally, the article explains how teachers and parents can help children become responsible and ethical Internet users.

  9. 上海地区儿童急性呼吸道病毒感染的流行特征%Epidemiological characteristics of common respiratory viruses among children with acute respiratory tract infections in Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾玫; 王晓红; 俞蕙; 朱启鎔


    目的 了解近年上海地区呼吸道合胞病毒(RSV)、甲型和乙型流感病毒(IV-A和IV-B)、副流感病毒1、2、3型(PIV-1、2、3)以及腺病毒(ADV)在急性呼吸道感染住院儿童中的流行特征.方法 回顾性分析2003-2006年连续4年复旦大学附属儿科医院收治入院的急性呼吸道感染儿童鼻咽吸取物7种常见呼吸道病毒的检出情况以及季节和年龄分布特点.直接免疫荧光法检测病毒.年龄分布比较作非参数检验.结果 4年期间共收集11214例患儿标本,其中98.7%取自急性下呼吸道感染,7种病毒总的阳性检出率为24.2%,其中RSV阳性率为17.7%,PIV-3为2.8%,ADV为2.2%,IV-A为0.7%,PIV-1为0.5%,PIV-2为0.3%,IV-B为0.1%,混合感染为0.2%.RSV通常在冬、春季流行,夏季很少检出,每2年RSV流行季节提前至秋季开始,持续流行较长时间.PIV-3、ADV和IV全年散发,某些月份时有流行.无固定的流行规律.病毒感染患儿年龄中位数RSV为4个月、PIV-3为8个月、PIV-1为9.5个月、PIV-2为10.5个月、ADV为12个月、IV为13个月,差异有统计学意义(X2154.319,P<0.01).RSV感染率随患儿年龄增长而降低,PIV-3在婴幼儿人群中感染率较高,ADV在1岁及以上儿童中感染率较高.结论 RSV是上海地区儿童呼吸道感染最常见的病毒病原,要幼儿易感,春、秋和冬季都有流行,PIV-3是第2位常见病原.感染儿童以婴幼儿常见,ADV是第3位常见病原,感染儿童年龄较大,IV检出率低,未出现ADV和IV在上海地区儿童中暴发流行.%Objective To understand the epidemiology of respiratory syncytial virus(RSV),influenza virus type A and type B(IV-A and IV-B),parainfluenza virus type 1,2,3(PIV-1,2,3)and adenovirus(ADV) among children with acute respiratory tract infection in Shanghai.Methods A retrospective epidemiological investigation was conducted to analyze the prevalence rate,seasonality and susceptible pediatric population of seven common respiratory viruses among

  10. Growth Hormone Deficiency in Children (United States)

    ... c m y one in Children What is growth hormone deficiency? Growth hormone deficiency (GHD) is a rare condition in which the body does not make enough growth hormone (GH). GH is made by the pituitary gland, ...

  11. Electric Shock Injuries in Children (United States)

    ... Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Electric Shock Injuries in Children Page Content ​When the human ... passes through it, producing what's called an electric shock. Depending on the voltage of the current and ...

  12. Exploring Cultural Diversity (Children's Books). (United States)

    Galda, Lee; Cotter, Janet


    Reviews 57 children's books, combining realistic fiction, nonfiction, poetry, literary folklore, and folklore from people and places around the world, that reveal the cultural wonders of the world. Offers suggestions on how to group these books within thematic units. (MG)

  13. For Realism in Children's Fiction. (United States)

    Stibbs, Andrew


    Points out the sometimes excessive lengths that authors carry the suspension of reality in children's fiction. Advocates a more disciplined imagination, and rejection of untrue or impossible worlds. (HTH)

  14. Children's (Pediatric) Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... in children due to injury, illness or congenital abnormalities. When imaging of a child’s brain and spinal ... to: detect a variety of brain conditions and abnormalities like cysts, tumors, bleeding, swelling, or problems with ...

  15. Twins or two single children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available Based on Swedish register data, we compared the influence of a twin birth on the divorce risk with the influence of the sequential birth of two single children. The divorce risk for a woman with a very young child was lower than the risk for women without children or women with children older than 3.5 years. This behaviour was essentially independent of the number of children and whether or not the woman gave birth to twins. The effect of parity was much smaller than the effect of child age. The influence of twins on the divorce risk appeared to fall between that of a first and a second singleton.

  16. Transfusion in critically ill children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Secher, E L; Stensballe, J; Afshari, A


    Transfusion of blood products is a cornerstone in managing many critically ill children. Major improvements in blood product safety have not diminished the need for caution in transfusion practice. In this review, we aim to discuss the interplay between benefits and potential adverse effects...... of transfusion in critically ill children by including 65 papers, which were evaluated based on previously agreed selection criteria. Current practice on transfusing critically ill children is mainly founded on the basis of adult studies, common practices with cut-off values, and expert opinions, rather than...... evidence-based medicine. Paediatric patients have explicit physiological challenges and requirements to be addressed. Critically ill children often suffer from anaemia, have substantial iatrogenic blood loss with subsequent transfusions, and are at a higher risk of complications, often due to human errors...

  17. Poland: Children's Fiction in English. (United States)

    Povsic, Frances F.


    Lists and annotates children's books that present Polish folklore and legends, biographies of famous Polish people, personal accounts of life in Poland, and stories about Polish Americans and people living in Poland. (ET)

  18. Children Need Time to Play

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lisa Carducci


    In the West,tiger mothers and wolf fathers are considered examples of extreme parenting.However,many Chinese parents put pressure on their children and probably look to such tiger mothers and wolf fathers as role models.

  19. Lung function measurements in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poorisrisak, Porntiva


    , there was no effect of the child's history of atopy, parental atopy or smoking. We subsequently pooled these normative data (105 children) with previous data from 121 healthy young children; mean sRaw (SD) 1.27 kPa*s (0.25). Conclusion: Control using biological standards revealed errors in factory setting......The Ph.D. thesis is based on studies conducted at 6 pediatric departments in following hospitals: Naestved, Gentofte, Kolding, Skejby, Hvidovre and Rigshospitalet. Study I: Specific airway resistance (sRaw) measured by wholebody plethysmography in preschool children is increasingly used in research...... and clinical practise. However, there is no available method for calibration of the resistance measure, which raises concern of accuracy. The primary aim was to determine the agreement of sRaw measurements in 6 centers. Seven healthy young children were brought to each of the 6 centers for sRaw measurements...

  20. Assessing Learning With Children(4)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ Giving feedback to and getting feedback from children The first question you may have might be what feedback means.Feedback is everything that we do to tell our learners how they are doing.For example,