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Sample records for childhood unintentional injury

  1. Economic Cost of Childhood Unintentional Injuries

    OpenAIRE

    Zhiqin Lao; Mervyn Gifford; Koustuv Dalal

    2012-01-01

    Aims: This study aims to review the economic cost of childhood (0-18 years) unintentional injuries (UI) and focuses upon comparing the cost burden between developing and developed countries. Methods: Articles were selected from PUBMED using the search words "Economic Cost", "Unintentional injuries" and "Children". Nine articles were selected. Results: Studies in China focused upon cost to hospitals, in Bangladesh they focused on personal payment in rural areas, and in Vietnam they foc...

  2. Economic cost of childhood unintentional injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqin Lao

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: Different bases and contexts of studies make it difficult to draw a solid conclusion about the amount of costs of UI among children. Therefore, more studies of children′s unintentional injuries should be carried out in low and middle income countries.

  3. Childhood unintentional injuries: Supervision and first aid provided

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annabel Jonkheijm

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : The aim of this study was to investigate the circumstances surrounding unintentional injuries of children and the appropriateness of the first aid provided by caregivers. Materials and Methods : This prospective study included children with aged range 0-12 years, who presented with an unintentional injury at the Trauma Unit of a hospital in Cape Town, South Africa, over a 3 month period. Caregivers were interviewed about the circumstances of the injury and the first aid provided. Experts classified the first aid as appropriate, appropriate but incomplete, or inappropriate. Results: A total of 313 children were included with a median age of 3.75 years. The most common causes of injury were falls (39.6%, n = 124, burns (23.9%, n = 75 and motor vehicle crashes (10.5%, n = 33. More than a quarter of the children (27.2%, n = 81 had been left under the supervision of another child below the age of 12. When the injury occurred, 7.1% (n = 22 of the children were unattended. First aid was provided in 43.1% (n = 134 of the cases. More than half of these interventions (53%, n = 72 were inappropriate or appropriate but incomplete. Conclusions: Especially young children are at risk for unintentional injuries. Lack of appropriate supervision increases this risk. Prevention education of parents and children may help to protect children from injuries. First-aid training should also be more accessible to civilians as both the providing of as well as the quality of first-aid provided lacked in the majority of cases.

  4. The Cost of Childhood Unintentional Injuries and the Value of Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Ted R.; Romano, Eduardo O.; Spicer, Rebecca S.

    2000-01-01

    Examines frequency, costs, and quality of life losses associated with unintentional childhood injuries in 1996, using analyses of national and state data sets. Summarizes the cost effectiveness of several child safety measures and discusses current federal funding patterns for health care research on the subject. An appendix presents methods of…

  5. Influence of sociodemographic factors on the risk of unintentional childhood home injuries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Bjarne; Nielsen, Jeppe W

    2008-01-01

    compared with those for a random sample of the population. RESULTS: A total of 50 561 injuries were analysed. The risk was 1.5 (1.5-1.6) for children with mothers having only primary education compared to tertiary education, and 1.5 (1.4-1.6) for children in families with the lowest vs. the highest income......-income group was 2.4(1.8-3.2). Living in a one- or two-parent family and size of the dwelling had little or no effect on risk. CONCLUSION: Childhood injury incidence depended on sociodemographic factors. The effect of the sociodemographic factors varied between injury mechanisms and products involved......BACKGROUND: While social differences in childhood injuries are recognized, less is known about how social and demographic differences relate to injury mechanism. The purpose of the study was to reveal how sociodemographic factors affect the incidence of unintentional home injuries in Danish...

  6. Unintentional Childhood Injury Patterns, Odds, and Outcomes in Kampala City: an analysis of surveillance data from the National Pediatric Emergency Unit

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    Emilio Ovuga

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Unintentional Childhood Injuries pose a major public health challenge in Africa and Uganda. Previous estimates of the problem may have underestimated the childhood problem. We set to determine unintentional childhood injury pattern, odds, and outcomes at the National Paediatric Emergency unit in Kampala city using surveillance data. METHODS: Incident proportions, odds and proportional rates were calculated and used to determine unintentional injury patterns across childhood (1-12 years. RESULTS: A total of 556 cases recorded between January and May 2008 were analyzed: majority had been transported to hospital by mothers using mini-buses, private cars, and motorcycles. Median distance from injury location to hospital was 5 km. Homes, roads, and schools were leading injury locations. Males constituted 60% of the cases. Play and daily living activities were commonest injury time activities. Falls, burns and traffic accounted for 70.5% of unintentional childhood injuries. Burns, open wounds, fractures were commonest injury types. Motorcycles, buses and passenger-cars caused most crashes. Play grounds, furniture, stairs and trees were commonest source of falls. Most burn injuries were caused by liquids, fires and hot objects. 43.8% of cases were admitted. 30% were discharged without disability; 10%, were disabled; 1%, died. Injury odds and proportional incidence rates varied with age, place and cause. Poisoning and drowning were rare. Local pediatric injury priorities should include home, road and school safety. CONCLUSIONS: Unintentional injuries are common causes of hospital visit by children under 13 years especially boys. Homes, roads and educational facilities are commonest unintentional injury sites. Significant age and gender differences exist in intentional injury causation, characteristics and outcomes. In its current form, our surveillance system seems inefficient in capturing poisoning and drowning. The local prevention

  7. Predictors of unintentional childhood injuries seen at the Accident and Emergency Units of three tertiary health care centres in Jos

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    Bulus J

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Unintentional childhood injuries pose a major health challenge especially in developing countries. Aim: This study sought to determine the predictors of unintentional childhood injuries in the three tertiary health centres studied. Methods: The study was a cross- sectional study. Sociodemographic data, history and physical examination, type of injury and the outcomes were obtained using structured questionnaire. Results: A total of 174 children were enrolled, 108 (62.1% were males and 66 (37.9% were females; 63 (36.2% were 10 years. Of the injuries observed; 99 (56.9% were by vehicular objects, 15 (8.6% were burns, 41 (23.6% were from falls and 19 (10.9% poisoning. Those who were treated as outpatients were 141 (81.0% and 25 (14.4% were admitted for inpatient care. About ninety four percent (94.3% of the children had no significant effect or disability, 3.4% had short-term disability while 2.3% had long term disabilities or died post-injury. There was no statistically significant relationship between the age of the subjects, gender, duration of the injury prior to presentation and the educational status of their care givers with the pattern of the injury. Conclusion: This study showed that 81% (141 of the children studied were treated as outpatients, 56.9% were by vehicular objects, 62.1% were in males and the pattern of injuries were not related to age, gender, educational status of care givers, place or time of injuries. There is need to incorporate these findings in the provision of preventive messages in school health services and in the interventions targeting the safety of children against injuries. Further studies to identify risk factors and plan necessary interventions will also be necessary.

  8. Unintentional Injuries in Preschool Age Children

    OpenAIRE

    ACAR, Ethem; Dursun, Onur Burak; Esin, İbrahim Selcuk; Öğütlü, Hakan; Halil ÖZCAN; Mutlu, Murat

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Unintentional injuries are the leading cause of death among children. Previous research has shown that most of the injuries occur in and around the home. Therefore, parents have a key role in the occurrence and prevention of injuries. In this study, we examined the relationship among home injuries to children and parental attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms, parental attitudes, and children's behavioral problems. Forty children who were admitted to the emergency ...

  9. Community-Based Study on Family-Related Contributory Factors for Childhood Unintentional Injuries in an Urban Setting of Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punyadasa, Dhanusha; Samarakkody, Diana

    2016-01-01

    A community-based descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out among children aged 1 to 4 years residing in an urban setting of Sri Lanka to assess the incidence and associated family-related factors of unintentional injuries. A total of 458 children were recruited using simple random sampling technique, giving a response rate of 91.6%. The incidence of unintentional injuries that needed medical attention during the study period of 3 months was 28.1 per 100 children (95% CI = 19.46-36.74). The factors that were significantly associated with the occurrence of unintentional injuries among children are low monthly income of the family (P = .045), low social support to the mother of index child (P = .022), nonauthoritative type of parenting of the mother of index child (P = .039), cared by person other than mother during day time (P = .002), frequent arguments between parents (P = .004), and frequent alcohol consumption of father (P = .001). PMID:26658485

  10. Unintentional Injuries in Preschool Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acar, Ethem; Dursun, Onur Burak; Esin, İbrahim Selcuk; Öğütlü, Hakan; Özcan, Halil; Mutlu, Murat

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Unintentional injuries are the leading cause of death among children. Previous research has shown that most of the injuries occur in and around the home. Therefore, parents have a key role in the occurrence and prevention of injuries. In this study, we examined the relationship among home injuries to children and parental attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms, parental attitudes, and children's behavioral problems. Forty children who were admitted to the emergency department because of home injuries constitute the study group. The control group also consisted of 40 children, who were admitted for mild throat infections. The parents filled out questionnaires assessing parental ADHD, child behavioral problems, and parenting attitudes. Scores were significantly higher for both internalizing disorders and externalizing disorders in study groups. We also found that ADHD symptoms were significantly higher among fathers of injured children compared with fathers of control groups. Democratic parenting was also found to correlate with higher numbers of injuries. Parenting style, as well as the psychopathology of both the parents and children, is important factors in children's injuries. A child psychiatrist visit following an emergency procedure may help to prevent further unintentional injuries to the child. PMID:26266395

  11. Socioeconomic differences in injury risks in childhood and adolescence: a nation-wide study of intentional and unintentional injuries in Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engström, K; Diderichsen, F; Laflamme, L

    2002-01-01

    registers. Children were divided into four age groups and allocated to four household socioeconomic status groups. Absolute and relative risks were compiled using children of high/intermediate level salaried employees as the comparison group. Four diagnostic groups were considered: fall, traffic......, interpersonal violence, and self inflicted injuries. RESULTS: Injury incidences were relatively low and socioeconomic differences negligible in the 0-4 year olds. Thereafter, significant socioeconomic differences were observed in all diagnostic groups except falls. The highest absolute differences were...

  12. CDC School Health Guidelines to Prevent Unintentional Injuries and Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrios, Lisa C.; Sleet, David A.; Mercy, James A.

    2003-01-01

    Approximately two-thirds of all deaths among children and adolescents aged five to 19 years results from injury-related causes: motor-vehicle crashes, all other unintentional injuries, homicide, and suicide. Schools have a responsibility to prevent injuries from occurring on school property and at school-sponsored events. In addition, schools can…

  13. Unintentional Injuries, Violence, and the Health of Young People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This fact sheet defines unintentional injuries and violence as the terms are used by the CDC and provides statistics on the leading causes of injury mortality and morbidity among children and adolescents, as well as information on the context of injury occurrence. (Contains 2 tables.)

  14. Suicide and unintentional injury mortality among homeless people

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Sandra Feodor; Hjorthøj, Carsten Rygaard; Erlangsen, Annette;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Homeless people have elevated mortality, especially due to external causes. We aimed to examine suicide and unintentional injury mortality levels and identify predictors in the homeless population. METHODS: A nationwide, register-based cohort study of homeless people aged 16 years...... and older was carried out using the Danish Homeless Register, 1999-2008. RESULTS: In all, 32 010 homeless people (70.5% men) were observed. For men, the mortality rate was 174.4 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 150.6-198.1] per 100 000 person-years for suicide and 463.3 (95% CI = 424.......6-502.0) for unintentional injury. For women, the corresponding rates were 111.4 (95% CI = 81.7-141.1) for suicide and 241.4 (95% CI = 197.6-285.1) for unintentional injury. Schizophrenia spectrum, affective, personality and substance use disorders were strongly associated with increased risk of suicide; the highest risk...

  15. The health consequences of child mental health problems and parenting styles: Unintentional injuries among European schoolchildren

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keyes, K.M.; Susser, E.; Pilowsky, D.J.; Hamilton, A.; Bitfoi, A.; Goelitz, D.; Kuijpers, R.C.W.M.; Lesinskiene, S.; Mihova, Z.; Otten, R.; Kovess, V.

    2014-01-01

    Objective. Unintentional injury is the leading cause of death for schoolchildren. We assessed the association between externalizing psychopathology, parenting style, and unintentional injury in European children in the community. Methods. Data were drawn from the School Children Mental Health in Eur

  16. The role of risk-taking and errors in children's liability to unintentional injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Richard; Maughan, Barbara

    2009-07-01

    There is likely to be heterogeneity in the processes putting children at risk of injury. This paper examines whether errors may form a dissociable process from risk-taking. We further examine whether these constructs mediate the links between emotional and behavioural problems and unintentional injury. We designed the parent-report Children's Injury Related Behaviour (CIRB) questionnaire to measure errors and risk-taking in everyday activities. The sample consisted of 499 children aged 4-11 years recruited from the community. Principal components analysis showed that a two factor solution was appropriate and provided scales to measure risk and error with good psychometric properties. Both risk and error scales were independently related to injury history. Errors were associated with conduct problems, emotional problems and hyperactivity. Risk-taking was associated with conduct problems and hyperactivity only. Risk-taking and errors accounted for the links of conduct problems and hyperactivity with injury involvement. The distinction between risk and error has implications for research and interventions to reduce childhood injuries. PMID:19540954

  17. Current trends and age-based differences of unintentional injury in Japanese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Natsuki; Honda, Chikako; Nagata, Satoko

    2016-05-23

    Unintentional injury in children is a worldwide public health problem, as it increases the health burden and is a leading cause of death among children. It is important to understand the differences between different age groups of children in regard to unintentional injury, in order to effectively implement child safety education. The present study aimed to determine the current trends of unintentional injury in children, and to identify the differences between different age groups of children with regard to unintentional injury. We identified 1,521 children who attended an 18-month health checkup (18-month group), and 1,368 children who attended a 36-month health checkup (36-month group), between January 1, 2014 and December 31, 2014. The rate of hospital visits associated with unintentional injury was 10.6% (161/1,521) in the 18-month group, and 13.1% (180/1,368) in the 36-month group. In both groups, present/past illness was associated with hospital visits, and in the 36-month group, hospital visits were more common in boys than in girls. The number of unintentional injuries that occurred outdoors was higher in the 36-month group than in the 18-month group. Unintentional injuries resulting from accidental ingestion and falls were more common in the 18-month group, while unintentional injuries resulting from turning over were more common in the 36-month group. In conclusion, the number of hospital visits for unintentional injury might be higher, and the number of preventive actions taken by mothers might be lower, among children attending the 36-month health checkup than among those attending the 18-month health checkup. PMID:27020119

  18. Epidemiologic features of child unintentional injury in rural PuCheng, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaohua Li

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Epidemiologic features of unintentional injuries among children in rural China are unknown. METHODS: Using a stratified sampling method, we conducted a retrospective study of injury reports over a year-long period. Structured oral questionnaires were administered to parents of 2551 children ages 0 to 14. RESULTS: The annual incidence of unintentional injuries was 15.6%, with boys (16.7% having a slightly higher rate than girls (14.5%; p > .05. The four leading causes of injury for both genders were falls (5.1% annual incidence, burns (2.9%, animal-related injuries (1.7%, and traffic injuries (1.6%. CONCLUSIONS: Unintentional injuries have substantial negative effects on children and their families. In rural PuCheng, China, the incidence of unintentional injury among children is extremely high compared to other regions of the world. The types of injuries incurred are somewhat different from those reported in other geographic areas. Injury prevention programs targeting the issues specific to this region, and similar rural regions of China, are needed.

  19. Mortality from Unspecified Unintentional Injury among Individuals Aged 65 Years and Older by U.S. State, 1999–2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xunjie Cheng

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Recent changes in unspecified unintentional injury mortality for the elderly by U.S. state remain unreported. This study aims to examine U.S. state variations in mortality from unspecified unintentional injury among Americans aged 65+, 1999–2013; Methods: Using mortality rates from the U.S. CDC’s Web-based Injury Statistics Query and Reporting System (WISQARS™, we examined unspecified unintentional injury mortality for older adults aged 65+ from 1999 to 2013 by state. Specifically, the proportion of unintentional injury deaths with unspecified external cause in the data was considered. Linear regression examined the statistical significance of changes in proportion of unspecified unintentional injury from 1999 to 2013; Results: Of the 36 U.S. states with stable mortality rates, over 8-fold differences were observed for both the mortality rates and the proportions of unspecified unintentional injury for Americans aged 65+ during 1999–2013. Twenty-nine of the 36 states showed reductions in the proportion of unspecified unintentional injury cause, with Oklahoma (−89%, Massachusetts (−86% and Oregon (−81% displaying the largest changes. As unspecified unintentional injury mortality decreased, mortality from falls in 28 states and poisoning in 3 states increased significantly. Mortality from suffocation in 15 states, motor vehicle traffic crashes in 12 states, and fire/burn in 8 states also decreased; Conclusions: The proportion of unintentional injuries among older adults with unspecified cause decreased significantly for many states in the United States from 1999 to 2013. The reduced proportion of unspecified injury has implications for research and practice. It should be considered in state-level trend analysis during 1999–2013. It also suggests comparisons between states for specific injury mortality should be conducted with caution, as large differences in unspecified injury mortality across states and over time

  20. Mortality from Unspecified Unintentional Injury among Individuals Aged 65 Years and Older by U.S. State, 1999–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xunjie; Wu, Yue; Yao, Jie; Schwebel, David C.; Hu, Guoqing

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Recent changes in unspecified unintentional injury mortality for the elderly by U.S. state remain unreported. This study aims to examine U.S. state variations in mortality from unspecified unintentional injury among Americans aged 65+, 1999–2013; Methods: Using mortality rates from the U.S. CDC’s Web-based Injury Statistics Query and Reporting System (WISQARS™), we examined unspecified unintentional injury mortality for older adults aged 65+ from 1999 to 2013 by state. Specifically, the proportion of unintentional injury deaths with unspecified external cause in the data was considered. Linear regression examined the statistical significance of changes in proportion of unspecified unintentional injury from 1999 to 2013; Results: Of the 36 U.S. states with stable mortality rates, over 8-fold differences were observed for both the mortality rates and the proportions of unspecified unintentional injury for Americans aged 65+ during 1999–2013. Twenty-nine of the 36 states showed reductions in the proportion of unspecified unintentional injury cause, with Oklahoma (−89%), Massachusetts (−86%) and Oregon (−81%) displaying the largest changes. As unspecified unintentional injury mortality decreased, mortality from falls in 28 states and poisoning in 3 states increased significantly. Mortality from suffocation in 15 states, motor vehicle traffic crashes in 12 states, and fire/burn in 8 states also decreased; Conclusions: The proportion of unintentional injuries among older adults with unspecified cause decreased significantly for many states in the United States from 1999 to 2013. The reduced proportion of unspecified injury has implications for research and practice. It should be considered in state-level trend analysis during 1999–2013. It also suggests comparisons between states for specific injury mortality should be conducted with caution, as large differences in unspecified injury mortality across states and over time could create bias

  1. Status and risk factors of unintentional injuries among Chinese undergraduates: a cross-sectional study

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    Zhou Qiang

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Injuries affect all age groups but have a particular impact on young people. To evaluate the incidence of non-fatal, unintentional, injuries among undergraduates in Wenzhou, China, assess the burden caused by these injuries, and explore the associated risk factors for unintentional injuries among these undergraduates, we conducted a college-based cross-sectional study. Methods Participants were selected by a multi-stage random sampling method, and 2,287 students were asked whether they had had an injury in the last 12 months; the location, cause, and consequences of the event. The questionnaire included demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, lifestyle habits, and the scale of type A behaviour pattern (TABP. Multivariate logistic regression models were used; crude odds ratios (ORs, adjusted ORs and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs were estimated, with students having no injuries as the reference group. Results The incidence of injuries among undergraduates in Wenzhou was 18.71 injuries per 100 person-years (95%CI: 17.12~20.31 injuries per 100 person-years. Falls were the leading cause of injury, followed by traffic injuries, and animal/insect bites. Male students were more likely to be injured than female students. Risk factors associated with unintentional injuries among undergraduates were: students majoring in non-medicine (adjusted OR: 1.53; 95% CI: 1.19-1.96; type A behaviour pattern (adjusted OR: 2.99; 95% CI: 1.45-6.14; liking sports (adjusted OR: 1.86; 95% CI: 1.41-2.45. Conclusions Injuries have become a public health problem among undergraduates. Falls were the major cause of non-fatal injury. Therefore, individuals, families, schools and governments should promptly adopt preventive measures aimed at preventing and controlling morbidity due to non-fatal injury, especially among students identified to be at high-risk; such as male students with type A behaviour pattern who like sports.

  2. Unintentional gun injuries, firearm design, and prevention: What we know, what we need to know, and what can be done

    OpenAIRE

    Frattaroli, Shannon; Webster, Daniel W.; Teret, Stephen P.

    2002-01-01

    The public health community has long recognized unintentional gun injuries as a public health issue. In 1998 in the United States, 866 people died from unintentional gunshot wounds, resulting in a crude death rate of 0.32 per 100,000. Unintentional gun deaths have been declining since at least 1920, yet the reasons for this downward trend are not understood. Possible explanations, such as changes in gun ownership and demography, changes in access to guns among population subgroups, safety pra...

  3. Mothers' Responses to Boys and Girls Engaging in Injury-Risk Behaviors on a Playground: Implications for Sex Differences in Childhood Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrongiello, Barbara A.; Dawber, Tess

    Unintentional injuries are the number one cause of death in childhood, and boys experience two to four times more injuries than girls. The present study examined whether mothers differed in their speed to intervene and the nature of their intervention responses depending on the sex of the child, the injury history of the child, the level of risk…

  4. Unintentional Injuries and Psychosocial Correlates among in-School Adolescents in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Karl Peltzer; Supa Pengpid

    2015-01-01

    The study aimed to provide estimates of the prevalence and psychosocial correlates of unintentional injury among school-going adolescents in Malaysia. Cross-sectional data from the Global School-Based Health Survey (GSHS) included 21,699 students (predominantly ≤13 to ≥17 years) that were selected by a two-stage cluster sample design to represent all secondary school students in Forms 1 to 5. The percentage of school children reporting one or more serious injuries in the past year was 34.9%, ...

  5. Does living density matter for nonfatal unintentional home injury in Asian urban settings? Evidence from Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Emily Y Y; Kim, Jean H; Griffiths, Sian M; Lau, Joseph T F; Yu, Ignatius

    2009-11-01

    Injury is a major global disease burden for the twenty-first century. There are, however, few studies of unintentional household injury in Asian urban settings where living environments are characterized by extremely compact, high-living-density, multistory apartments. This study investigated the association between nonfatal unintentional household injuries with the resident's sociodemographic attributes and household characteristics in Hong Kong, the city with the world's highest population density. A cross-sectional retrospective recall study was conducted in May 2007 using a random telephone survey with a modified Chinese version of the World Health Organization Injury and Violence instrument. The study sample included 1,001 noninstitutionalized Cantonese-speaking Hong Kong residents of all ages, including foreign live-in domestic helpers. Multivariate regression was conducted to identify risk factors for nonfatal unintentional injuries in Hong Kong. Among a predominantly adult sample, household size and time spent at home were not associated with nonfatal unintentional household injuries in the general population in Hong Kong. The multivariate analyses indicated that female gender, owners of private homes, lower square footage of living space per person, and those with slip prevention devices in the bathroom were significantly associated with household injuries. Injured and noninjured groups were found to have adopted different injury prevention strategies toward household injuries. The results identified potential target groups for household injury prevention programs. PMID:19636708

  6. Unintentional Injuries and Psychosocial Correlates among in-School Adolescents in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Peltzer

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to provide estimates of the prevalence and psychosocial correlates of unintentional injury among school-going adolescents in Malaysia. Cross-sectional data from the Global School-Based Health Survey (GSHS included 21,699 students (predominantly ≤13 to ≥17 years that were selected by a two-stage cluster sample design to represent all secondary school students in Forms 1 to 5. The percentage of school children reporting one or more serious injuries in the past year was 34.9%, 42.1% of boys and 27.8% of girls. The two major causes of the most serious injury were “fall” (9.9% and motor vehicle accident or being hit by a motor vehicle (5.4%, and the most frequent type of injury sustained was cut, puncture, or stab wound (6.2% and a broken bone or dislocated joint (4.2%. In multivariable logistic regression analysis, sociodemographic factors (being male and low socioeconomic status, substance use (tobacco and cannabis use, frequent soft drink consumption, attending physical education classes three or more times a week, other risky behavior (truancy, ever having had sex, being bullied, psychological distress, and lack of parental or guardian bonding were associated with annual injury prevalence. Several factors were identified, which could be included in injury prevention promotion programs among secondary school children.

  7. Unintentional Injuries and Psychosocial Correlates among in-School Adolescents in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltzer, Karl; Pengpid, Supa

    2015-11-01

    The study aimed to provide estimates of the prevalence and psychosocial correlates of unintentional injury among school-going adolescents in Malaysia. Cross-sectional data from the Global School-Based Health Survey (GSHS) included 21,699 students (predominantly ≤13 to ≥17 years) that were selected by a two-stage cluster sample design to represent all secondary school students in Forms 1 to 5. The percentage of school children reporting one or more serious injuries in the past year was 34.9%, 42.1% of boys and 27.8% of girls. The two major causes of the most serious injury were "fall" (9.9%) and motor vehicle accident or being hit by a motor vehicle (5.4%), and the most frequent type of injury sustained was cut, puncture, or stab wound (6.2%) and a broken bone or dislocated joint (4.2%). In multivariable logistic regression analysis, sociodemographic factors (being male and low socioeconomic status), substance use (tobacco and cannabis use), frequent soft drink consumption, attending physical education classes three or more times a week, other risky behavior (truancy, ever having had sex, being bullied), psychological distress, and lack of parental or guardian bonding were associated with annual injury prevalence. Several factors were identified, which could be included in injury prevention promotion programs among secondary school children. PMID:26610542

  8. Relationships between Sleep Behaviors and Unintentional Injury in Southern Chinese School-Aged Children: A Population-Based Study

    OpenAIRE

    Yafei Tan; Di Ma; Ying Chen; Fuyuan Cheng; Xiangxiang Liu; Liping Li

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the relationships between sleep behaviors and injury occurrence among Chinese school-aged children. Data were collected with self-administered questionnaires of a cross-sectional survey which covered the school-aged children from southeastern Chinese urban and rural areas in April 2010. Information was collected on unintentional injury in the past year, sleep duration, napping and daytime fatigue, sleeping pill use, and social-demographic variables. Mul...

  9. Preventing unintentional injury in children and adolescents--the importance of local injury data collection.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Carroll, C

    2012-02-01

    We sought to prospectively study all injuries in children and adolescents up to 16 years of age presenting to a regional Emergency Department (ED), to ascertain detailed injury patterns and to use this data to recommend injury prevention priorities. Electronic injury surveillance was prospectively collected over a 10 year period (1997-2007) in a hospital with a paediatric catchment population of 75,000 in a region with pockets of high social deprivation. All fatalities were obtained from data provided by the Central Statistics Office (CSO). Over a 10 year period, there were 31 fatalities, 5,408 admissions and 40,817 new attendances due to injury. Males outnumbered females in a 3:2 ratio. Of all injuries 24,317 (60%) occurred at home. Peak injury presentation time was in the evening between 18:00 and 20:00. Minor injuries (bruises, minor head injuries, lacerations and sprains) accounted for 32,456 (80%) of total. Fractures resulting from high falls (n=1,194) tended to result from bunk beds, staircases, horses, walls and playground equipment. Burns (n=630) involved hot liquids (tea, coffee), hot bath water, hot cooking oil and hot cooking plates. Pedestrian injuries (n=251) were predominantly \\'dart outs\\' in urban areas. Car passenger injuries (n=869) showed low rates of documented car restraint use. Poisonings (n= 1,153) were predominantly medicinal products. Cyclist injuries (n=477) indicated low documented use of appropriate helmet wear. Prevention priorities should focus on home injuries, hot liquid burn and scald injuries and high falls from walls, beds and playground equipment. To prevent road-related injuries and deaths, further legislation, urban planning and greater police enforcement is required.

  10. Unintentional Injuries in Preschool Age Children: Is There a Correlation With Parenting Style and Parental Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acar, Ethem; Dursun, Onur Burak; Esin, İbrahim Selcuk; Öğütlü, Hakan; Özcan, Halil; Mutlu, Murat

    2015-08-01

    Unintentional injuries are the leading cause of death among children. Previous research has shown that most of the injuries occur in and around the home. Therefore, parents have a key role in the occurrence and prevention of injuries. In this study, we examined the relationship among home injuries to children and parental attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms, parental attitudes, and children's behavioral problems.Forty children who were admitted to the emergency department because of home injuries constitute the study group. The control group also consisted of 40 children, who were admitted for mild throat infections. The parents filled out questionnaires assessing parental ADHD, child behavioral problems, and parenting attitudes.Scores were significantly higher for both internalizing disorders and externalizing disorders in study groups. We also found that ADHD symptoms were significantly higher among fathers of injured children compared with fathers of control groups. Democratic parenting was also found to correlate with higher numbers of injuries.Parenting style, as well as the psychopathology of both the parents and children, is important factors in children's injuries. A child psychiatrist visit following an emergency procedure may help to prevent further unintentional injuries to the child. PMID:26266395

  11. Unintentional Injuries in Preschool Age Children: Is There a Correlation With Parenting Style and Parental Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acar, Ethem; Dursun, Onur Burak; Esin, İbrahim Selcuk; Öğütlü, Hakan; Özcan, Halil; Mutlu, Murat

    2015-08-01

    Unintentional injuries are the leading cause of death among children. Previous research has shown that most of the injuries occur in and around the home. Therefore, parents have a key role in the occurrence and prevention of injuries. In this study, we examined the relationship among home injuries to children and parental attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms, parental attitudes, and children's behavioral problems.Forty children who were admitted to the emergency department because of home injuries constitute the study group. The control group also consisted of 40 children, who were admitted for mild throat infections. The parents filled out questionnaires assessing parental ADHD, child behavioral problems, and parenting attitudes.Scores were significantly higher for both internalizing disorders and externalizing disorders in study groups. We also found that ADHD symptoms were significantly higher among fathers of injured children compared with fathers of control groups. Democratic parenting was also found to correlate with higher numbers of injuries.Parenting style, as well as the psychopathology of both the parents and children, is important factors in children's injuries. A child psychiatrist visit following an emergency procedure may help to prevent further unintentional injuries to the child.

  12. Childhood Injuries in Singapore: Can Local Physicians and the Healthcare System Do More to Confront This Public Health Concern?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Alvin Cong Wei; Low, Sher Guan; Vasanwala, Farhad Fakhrudin

    2016-01-01

    Childhood injury is one of the leading causes of death globally. Singapore is no exception to this tragic fact, with childhood injuries accounting up to 37% of Emergency Department visits. Hence, it is important to understand the epidemiology and risk factors of childhood injuries locally. A search for relevant articles published from 1996–2016 was performed on PubMed, Cochrane Library and Google Scholar using keywords relating to childhood injury in Singapore. The epidemiology, mechanisms of injury, risk factors and recommended prevention strategies of unintentional childhood injuries were reviewed and described. Epidemiological studies have shown that childhood injury is a common, preventable and significant public health concern in Singapore. Home injuries and falls are responsible for majority of the injuries. Injuries related to childcare products, playground and road traffic accidents are also important causes. Healthcare professionals and legislators play an important role in raising awareness and reducing the incidence of childhood injuries in Singapore. For example, despite legislative requirements for many years, the low usage of child restraint seats in Singapore is worrisome. Thus, greater efforts in public health education in understanding childhood injuries, coupled with more research studies to evaluate the effectiveness and deficiencies of current prevention strategies will be necessary. PMID:27438844

  13. Childhood Injuries in Singapore: Can Local Physicians and the Healthcare System Do More to Confront This Public Health Concern?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Alvin Cong Wei; Low, Sher Guan; Vasanwala, Farhad Fakhrudin

    2016-01-01

    Childhood injury is one of the leading causes of death globally. Singapore is no exception to this tragic fact, with childhood injuries accounting up to 37% of Emergency Department visits. Hence, it is important to understand the epidemiology and risk factors of childhood injuries locally. A search for relevant articles published from 1996-2016 was performed on PubMed, Cochrane Library and Google Scholar using keywords relating to childhood injury in Singapore. The epidemiology, mechanisms of injury, risk factors and recommended prevention strategies of unintentional childhood injuries were reviewed and described. Epidemiological studies have shown that childhood injury is a common, preventable and significant public health concern in Singapore. Home injuries and falls are responsible for majority of the injuries. Injuries related to childcare products, playground and road traffic accidents are also important causes. Healthcare professionals and legislators play an important role in raising awareness and reducing the incidence of childhood injuries in Singapore. For example, despite legislative requirements for many years, the low usage of child restraint seats in Singapore is worrisome. Thus, greater efforts in public health education in understanding childhood injuries, coupled with more research studies to evaluate the effectiveness and deficiencies of current prevention strategies will be necessary. PMID:27438844

  14. Barriers to, and facilitators of, the prevention of unintentional injury in children in the home: a systematic review and synthesis of qualitative research

    OpenAIRE

    Smithson, Janet; Garside, Ruth; Pearson, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Background This review considers barriers to, and facilitators of, success for interventions to reduce unintentional injury to children in the home through supply and/or installation of home safety equipment, and looks at risk assessments. Methods A systematic review of qualitative research. Bibliographic databases were searched for studies on interventions to reduce unintentional child injury in the home, or on related attitudes and behaviours. Studies were quality appraised, findings extrac...

  15. Mothers’ perspectives on the delivery of childhood injury messages: a qualitative study from the growing up in Wales, environments for healthy living study (EHL)

    OpenAIRE

    Khanom, Ashrafunnesa; Hill, Rebecca A; Brophy, Sinead; Morgan, Kelly; Rapport, Frances; Lyons, Ronan

    2013-01-01

    Background Childhood injury is the second leading cause of death for infants aged 1–5 years in the United Kingdom (UK) and most unintentional injuries occur in the home. We explored mothers’ knowledge and awareness of child injury prevention and sought to discover mothers’ views about the best method of designing interventions to deliver appropriate child safety messages to prevent injury in the home. Methods Qualitative study based on 21 semi-structured interviews with prospective mothers an...

  16. Relationships between Sleep Behaviors and Unintentional Injury in Southern Chinese School-Aged Children: A Population-Based Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yafei Tan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to explore the relationships between sleep behaviors and injury occurrence among Chinese school-aged children. Data were collected with self-administered questionnaires of a cross-sectional survey which covered the school-aged children from southeastern Chinese urban and rural areas in April 2010. Information was collected on unintentional injury in the past year, sleep duration, napping and daytime fatigue, sleeping pill use, and social-demographic variables. Multivariable logistic regression analyses, controlling for confounding factors, were conducted to assess sleep-related variables that were associated with injuries. Students who slept for less than 8 h had a 30% increased risk of injury (OR: 1.30; 95%CI: 1.01–1.69 compared with those who slept for 8–9 h. Lack of napping, snoring and use of sleeping pills were significantly associated with injury. Among different genders, the slight difference in sleep behaviors predicted the occurrence of injury. Rural children displayed more sleep behaviors associated with injury than urban children. The sleep behaviors of primary school students were more negatively correlated with injury occurrence than junior/senior high school children. Consideration should be given to the prevention of problematic sleep behaviors as a potential risk factor in order to decrease injury rates and promote the health of school-aged children.

  17. Relationships between Sleep Behaviors and Unintentional Injury in Southern Chinese School-Aged Children: A Population-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yafei; Ma, Di; Chen, Ying; Cheng, Fuyuan; Liu, Xiangxiang; Li, Liping

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the relationships between sleep behaviors and injury occurrence among Chinese school-aged children. Data were collected with self-administered questionnaires of a cross-sectional survey which covered the school-aged children from southeastern Chinese urban and rural areas in April 2010. Information was collected on unintentional injury in the past year, sleep duration, napping and daytime fatigue, sleeping pill use, and social-demographic variables. Multivariable logistic regression analyses, controlling for confounding factors, were conducted to assess sleep-related variables that were associated with injuries. Students who slept for less than 8 h had a 30% increased risk of injury (OR: 1.30; 95%CI: 1.01-1.69) compared with those who slept for 8-9 h. Lack of napping, snoring and use of sleeping pills were significantly associated with injury. Among different genders, the slight difference in sleep behaviors predicted the occurrence of injury. Rural children displayed more sleep behaviors associated with injury than urban children. The sleep behaviors of primary school students were more negatively correlated with injury occurrence than junior/senior high school children. Consideration should be given to the prevention of problematic sleep behaviors as a potential risk factor in order to decrease injury rates and promote the health of school-aged children. PMID:26501305

  18. Relationships between Sleep Behaviors and Unintentional Injury in Southern Chinese School-Aged Children: A Population-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yafei; Ma, Di; Chen, Ying; Cheng, Fuyuan; Liu, Xiangxiang; Li, Liping

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the relationships between sleep behaviors and injury occurrence among Chinese school-aged children. Data were collected with self-administered questionnaires of a cross-sectional survey which covered the school-aged children from southeastern Chinese urban and rural areas in April 2010. Information was collected on unintentional injury in the past year, sleep duration, napping and daytime fatigue, sleeping pill use, and social-demographic variables. Multivariable logistic regression analyses, controlling for confounding factors, were conducted to assess sleep-related variables that were associated with injuries. Students who slept for less than 8 h had a 30% increased risk of injury (OR: 1.30; 95%CI: 1.01-1.69) compared with those who slept for 8-9 h. Lack of napping, snoring and use of sleeping pills were significantly associated with injury. Among different genders, the slight difference in sleep behaviors predicted the occurrence of injury. Rural children displayed more sleep behaviors associated with injury than urban children. The sleep behaviors of primary school students were more negatively correlated with injury occurrence than junior/senior high school children. Consideration should be given to the prevention of problematic sleep behaviors as a potential risk factor in order to decrease injury rates and promote the health of school-aged children.

  19. Pediatric Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ballesteros, M. F., Sleet, D. A. (2008). CDC childhood injury report: patterns of unintentional injuries among 0-19 ... American Academy of Pediatrics. (2008). Management of pediatric trauma. Pediatrics, 121 , 849–854. [top] How many people are ... may slightly increase childhood risk of neurological impairment, NIH study suggests All ...

  20. Unintentional injuries in the rural population of Twiserkan, Iran: A cross-sectional study on their incidence, characteristics and preventability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naghavi Mohsen

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Knowledge is sparse concerning injuries affecting rural populations in low and middle-income countries in general and in Iran in particular. This study documents the incidence and characteristics of severe injuries affecting rural people in the Iranian district of Twiserkan and it investigates these people's suggestions for injury prevention and control. Methods An interview-based investigation was undertaken that comprised all unintentional injuries leading to hospitalization (more than 6 hours or death that had occurred within a twelve month period and that were identified in the files of the 62 "health houses" of the Twiserkan district. For each case, semi-structured interviews were conducted at the households of the injured people (134 injuries affecting 117 households were identified. Results The incidence rates of fatal and non-fatal injuries were respectively 4.1 and 17.2 per 10 000 person-years and, as expected, men were more affected than women (77.6% of all injury cases. Traffic injuries (in particular among motorcyclists were as common as home-related injuries but they were far more fatal. Among common suggestions for prevention, people mentioned that the authorities could work on the design and engineering of the infrastructure in and around the village, that the rural health workers could contribute more with local information and education and that the people themselves could consider behaving in a safer manner. Conclusion Not only domestic injuries but also those in traffic are an important cause of severe and fatal injury among rural people. Health workers may play an important role in injury surveillance and in identifying context-relevant means of prevention that they or other actors may then implement.

  1. County Poverty Concentration and Disparities in Unintentional Injury Deaths: A Fourteen-Year Analysis of 1.6 Million U.S. Fatalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karb, Rebecca A.; Subramanian, S. V.; Fleegler, Eric W.

    2016-01-01

    Unintentional injury is the fourth leading cause of death in the United States, and mortality due to injury has risen over the past decade. The social determinants behind these rising trends have not been well documented. This study examines the relationship between county-level poverty and unintentional injury mortality in the United States from 1999–2012. Complete annual compressed mortality and population data for 1999–2012 were obtained from the National Center for Health Statistics and linked with census yearly county poverty measures. The outcomes examined were unintentional injury fatalities, overall and by six specific mechanisms: motor vehicle collisions, falls, accidental discharge of firearms, drowning, exposure to smoke or fire, and unintentional poisoning. Age-adjusted mortality rates and time trends for county poverty categories were calculated, and multivariate negative binomial regression was used to determine changes over time in both the relative risk of living in high poverty concentration areas and the population attributable fraction. Age-adjusted mortality rates for counties with > 20% poverty were 66% higher mortality in 1999 compared with counties with poverty (45.25 vs. 27.24 per 100,000; 95% CI for rate difference 15.57,20.46), and that gap widened in 2012 to 79% (44.54 vs. 24.93; 95% CI for rate difference 17.13,22.09). The relative risk of living in the highest poverty counties has increased for all injury mechanisms with the exception of accidental discharge of firearms. The population attributable fraction for all unintentional injuries rose from 0.22 (95% CI 0.13,0.30) in 1999 to 0.35 (95% CI 0.22,0.45) in 2012. This is the first study that uses comprehensive mortality data to document the associations between county poverty and injury mortality rates for the entire US population over a 14 year period. This study suggests that injury reduction interventions should focus on areas of high or increasing poverty. PMID:27144919

  2. Individual and area socioeconomic inequalities in cause-specific unintentional injury mortality: 11-year follow-up study of 2.7 million Canadians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, Stephanie; Auger, Nathalie; Gamache, Philippe; Hamel, Denis

    2012-03-01

    This study investigated the association between individual and area socioeconomic status (SES) and leading causes of unintentional injury mortality in Canadian adults. Using the 1991-2001 Canadian Census Mortality Follow-up Study cohort (N=2,735,152), Cox proportional hazard regression was used to calculate hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for all-cause unintentional injury, motor vehicle collision (MVC), fall, poisoning, suffocation, fire/burn, and drowning deaths. Results indicated that associations with SES differed by cause of injury, and were generally more pronounced for males. Low education was associated with an elevated risk of mortality from all-cause unintentional injury and MVC (males only) and poisoning and drowning (both sexes). Low income was strongly associated with most causes of injury mortality, particularly fire/burn and poisoning. Having no occupation or low occupational status was associated with higher risks of all-cause injury, fall, poisoning and suffocation (both sexes) and MVC deaths among men. Associations with area deprivation were weak, and only areas with high deprivation had elevated risk of all-cause injury, MVC (males only), poisoning and drowning (both sexes). This study reveals the importance of examining SES differentials by cause of death from a multilevel perspective. Future research is needed to clarify the mechanisms underlying these differences to implement equity-oriented approaches for reducing differential exposures, vulnerability or consequences of injury mortality. PMID:22269490

  3. Preventing Unintentional Injuries in the Home Using the Health Impact Pyramid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, Karin A.; Liller, Karen D.; Baldwin, Grant; Sleet, David

    2015-01-01

    Injuries continue to be the leading cause of death for the first four decades of life. These injuries result from a confluence of behavioral, physical, structural, environmental, and social factors. Taken together, these illustrate the importance of taking a broad and multileveled approach to injury prevention. Using examples from fall, fire,…

  4. Incidence of unintentional injuries in farming based on one year of weekly registration in Danish farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, K; Carstensen, O; Lauritsen, Jens

    2000-01-01

    In Denmark, farming ranks as the industry with the highest incidence rate of fatal injuries. For nonfatal injuries, insufficient registration practices prevent valid comparisons between occupations. This study examines the occurrence of farm accidents and injuries, as well as work-specific factors......, via weekly registration in a representative sample of 393 farms in one county during 1 year....

  5. Alcohol and risk of admission to hospital for unintentional cutting or piercing injuries at home: a population-based case-crossover study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thornley Simon

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cutting and piercing injuries are among the leading causes of unintentional injury morbidity in developed countries. In New Zealand, cutting and piercing are second only to falls as the most frequent cause of unintentional home injuries resulting in admissions to hospital among people aged 20 to 64 years. Alcohol intake is known to be associated with many other types of injury. We used a case-crossover study to investigate the role of acute alcohol use (i.e., drinking during the previous 6 h in unintentional cutting or piercing injuries at home. Methods A population-based case-crossover study was conducted. We identified all people aged 20 to 64 years, resident in one of three regions of the country (Greater Auckland, Waikato and Otago, who were admitted to public hospital within 48 h of an unintentional non-occupational cutting or piercing injury sustained at home (theirs or another's from August 2008 to December 2009. The main exposure of interest was use of alcohol in the 6-hour period before the injury occurred and the corresponding time intervals 24 h before, and 1 week before, the injury. Other information was collected on known and potential confounders. Information was obtained during face-to-face interviews with cases, and through review of their medical charts. Results Of the 356 participants, 71% were male, and a third sustained injuries from contact with glass. After adjustment for other paired exposures, the odds ratio for injury after consuming 1 to 3 standard drinks of alcohol during the 6-hour period before the injury (compared to the day before, compared to none, was 1.77 (95% confidence interval 0.84 to 3.74, and for four or more drinks was 8.68 (95% confidence interval 3.11 to 24.3. Smokers had higher alcohol-related risks than non-smokers. Conclusions Alcohol consumption increases the odds of unintentional cutting or piercing injury occurring at home and this risk increases with higher levels of drinking.

  6. Incidence, patterns and severity of reported unintentional injuries in Pakistan for persons five years and older: results of the National Health Survey of Pakistan 1990–94

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    Qureshi Huma I

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background National level estimates of injuries are not readily available for developing countries. This study estimated the annual incidence, patterns and severity of unintentional injuries among persons over five years of age in Pakistan. Methods National Health Survey of Pakistan (NHSP 1990–94 is a nationally representative survey of the household. Through a two-stage stratified design, 18, 315 persons over 5 years of age were interviewed to estimate the overall annual incidence, patterns and severity of unintentional injuries for males and females in urban and rural areas over the preceding one year. Weighted estimates were computed adjusting for complex survey design using surveyfreq and surveylogistic option of SAS 9.1 software. Results The overall annual incidence of all unintentional injuries was 45.9 (CI: 39.3–52.5 per 1000 per year; 59.2 (CI: 49.2–69.2 and 33.2 (CI: 27.0–39.4 per 1000 per year among males and females over five years of age, respectively. An estimated 6.16 million unintentional injuries occur in Pakistan annually among persons over five years of age. Urban and rural injuries were 55.9 (95% CI: 48.1–63.7 and 41.2 (95% CI: 32.2–50.0 per 1000 per year, respectively. The annual incidence of injuries due to falls were 22.2 (95% CI: 18.0–26.4, poisoning 3.3 (95%CI: 0.5–6.1 and burn was 1.5 (95%CI: 0.9–2.1 per 1000 per year. The majority of injuries occurred at home 19.2 (95%CI: 16.0–22.4 or on the roads 17.0 (95%CI: 13.8–20.2. Road traffic/street, school and urban injuries were more likely to result in handicap. Conclusion There is high burden of unintentional injuries among persons over five years of age in Pakistan. These results are useful to plan further studies and prioritizing prevention programs on injuries nationally and other developing countries with similar situation.

  7. Childhood injuries – frequency of occurrence

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    Sylwia Wieder-Huszla

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background . Childhood injuries and accidents constitute an important health, social and economic problem. Serious injuries require surgical intervention and hospitalization. In other cases, patients leave hospital within several hours after diagnosis and non-operative treatment, and then they receive outpatient care. Despite a downward trend, injuries remain the main cause of death among children and adolescents. Therefore, understanding their epidemiology, which would allow us to create prevention programs based on scientific evidence (evidence based medicine, is so important. Objectives. The study’s objective was an attempt at analyzing childhood injuries treated in outpatient clinics. Material and methods. The study comprised 2182 children aged 0–18, including 692 females and 1490 males. Among them 1024 children treated surgically and 1158 outpatients. In the retrospective study the authors used a method of analysis of medical records of patients treated in 2012 at the Department of Child Surgery and Traumatology and Orthopaedics with the Operating Theatre in the Nicolaus Copernicus Province Hospital in Koszalin. The analysis was conducted on the basis of operative reports in the case of afflictions and injuries requiring surgery, and outpatient admissions reports in the case of outpatients. Results. Among the outpatients, the biggest group of injuries (34.83% or 403 included bruises, cuts, lacerations etc. Regarding frequency, injuries of hand area – 14.35% (166 and arm fractures – 13.4% (159 followed. Conclusions . 1. The age and gender of patients were factors determining injuries. 2. Seasons of the year have an influence on the structure of injuries among children. 3. It is necessary to increase social awareness on the prevention and negative effects of burns.

  8. County Poverty Concentration and Disparities in Unintentional Injury Deaths: A Fourteen-Year Analysis of 1.6 Million U.S. Fatalities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca A Karb

    Full Text Available Unintentional injury is the fourth leading cause of death in the United States, and mortality due to injury has risen over the past decade. The social determinants behind these rising trends have not been well documented. This study examines the relationship between county-level poverty and unintentional injury mortality in the United States from 1999-2012. Complete annual compressed mortality and population data for 1999-2012 were obtained from the National Center for Health Statistics and linked with census yearly county poverty measures. The outcomes examined were unintentional injury fatalities, overall and by six specific mechanisms: motor vehicle collisions, falls, accidental discharge of firearms, drowning, exposure to smoke or fire, and unintentional poisoning. Age-adjusted mortality rates and time trends for county poverty categories were calculated, and multivariate negative binomial regression was used to determine changes over time in both the relative risk of living in high poverty concentration areas and the population attributable fraction. Age-adjusted mortality rates for counties with > 20% poverty were 66% higher mortality in 1999 compared with counties with < 5% poverty (45.25 vs. 27.24 per 100,000; 95% CI for rate difference 15.57,20.46, and that gap widened in 2012 to 79% (44.54 vs. 24.93; 95% CI for rate difference 17.13,22.09. The relative risk of living in the highest poverty counties has increased for all injury mechanisms with the exception of accidental discharge of firearms. The population attributable fraction for all unintentional injuries rose from 0.22 (95% CI 0.13,0.30 in 1999 to 0.35 (95% CI 0.22,0.45 in 2012. This is the first study that uses comprehensive mortality data to document the associations between county poverty and injury mortality rates for the entire US population over a 14 year period. This study suggests that injury reduction interventions should focus on areas of high or increasing poverty.

  9. Unintentional Monuments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannessen, Runa

    2015-01-01

    The Mughrabi Bridge leading to Haram al-Sharif/Temple Mount in the Old City of Jerusalem was built in 2005 with the intent of being a temporary infrastructural solution while a new and permanent bridge was on the drawing table. But the natural forces that had led the old stone ramp to collapse...... unleashed more than the sliding of earth and stone as it triggered a fierce dispute between Israeli and Palestinian/Muslim interests. The crux of this crisis is to be found in the temporary bridge. In this short text, I suggest to see the bridge as an 'unintentional monument' as a way to understand...

  10. What types of unintentional injuries kill our children? Do infants die of the same types of injuries? A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janete Honda Imamura

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to review mortality from external causes (accidental injury in children and adolescents in systematically selected journals. This was a systematic review of the literature on mortality from accidental injury in children and adolescents. We searched the Pubrvled, Latin-American and Caribbean Health Sciences and Excerpta Medica databases for articles published between July of 2001 and June of 2011. National data from official agencies, retrieved by manual searches, were also reviewed. We reviewed 15 journal articles, the 2011 edition of a National Safety Council publication and 2010 statistical data from the Brazilian National Ministry of Health Mortality Database. Most published data were related to high-income countries. Mortality from accidental injury was highest among children less than 1 year of age. Accidental threats to breathing (non-drowning threats constituted the leading cause of death among this age group in the published articles. Across the pediatric age group in the surveyed studies, traffic accidents were the leading cause of death, followed by accidental drowning and submersion. Traffic accidents constitute the leading external cause of accidental death among children in the countries understudy. However, infants were vulnerable to external causes, particularly to accidental non-drowning threats to breathing, and this age group had the highest mortality rates for external causes. Actions to reduce such events are suggested. Further studies investigating the occurrence of accidental deaths in low-income countries are needed to improve the understanding of these preventable events.

  11. What types of unintentional injuries kill our children? Do infants die of the same types of injuries? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imamura, Janete Honda; Troster, Eduardo Juan; Oliveira, Carlos Augusto Cardim de

    2012-09-01

    The objective of this study was to review mortality from external causes (accidental injury) in children and adolescents in systematically selected journals. This was a systematic review of the literature on mortality from accidental injury in children and adolescents. We searched the Pubrvled, Latin-American and Caribbean Health Sciences and Excerpta Medica databases for articles published between July of 2001 and June of 2011. National data from official agencies, retrieved by manual searches, were also reviewed. We reviewed 15 journal articles, the 2011 edition of a National Safety Council publication and 2010 statistical data from the Brazilian National Ministry of Health Mortality Database. Most published data were related to high-income countries. Mortality from accidental injury was highest among children less than 1 year of age. Accidental threats to breathing (non-drowning threats) constituted the leading cause of death among this age group in the published articles. Across the pediatric age group in the surveyed studies, traffic accidents were the leading cause of death, followed by accidental drowning and submersion. Traffic accidents constitute the leading external cause of accidental death among children in the countries understudy. However, infants were vulnerable to external causes, particularly to accidental non-drowning threats to breathing, and this age group had the highest mortality rates for external causes. Actions to reduce such events are suggested. Further studies investigating the occurrence of accidental deaths in low-income countries are needed to improve the understanding of these preventable events. PMID:23018311

  12. Using the public health model to address unintentional injuries and TBI: A perspective from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Grant; Breiding, Matt; Sleet, David

    2016-06-30

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) can have long term effects on mental and physical health, and can disrupt vocational, educational, and social functioning. TBIs can range from mild to severe and their effects can last many years after the initial injury. CDC seeks to reduce the burden of TBI from unintentional injuries through a focus on primary prevention, improved recognition and management, and intervening to improve health outcomes after TBI. CDC uses a 4-stage public health model to guide TBI prevention, moving from 1) surveillance of TBI, 2) identification of risk and protective factors for TBI, 3) development and testing of evidence-based interventions, to 4) bringing effective intervention to scale through widespread adoption. CDC's unintentional injury prevention activities focus on the prevention of sports-related concussions, motor vehicle crashes, and older adult falls. For concussion prevention, CDC developed Heads Up - an awareness initiative focusing on ways to prevent a concussion in sports, and identifying how to recognize and manage potential concussions. In motor vehicle injury prevention, CDC has developed a tool (MV PICCS) to calculate the expected number of injuries prevented and lives saved using various evidence-based motor vehicle crash prevention strategies. To help prevent TBI related to older adult falls, CDC has developed STEADI, an initiative to help primary care providers identify their patients' falls risk and provide effective interventions. In the future, CDC is focused on advancing our understanding of the public health burden of TBI through improved surveillance in order to produce more comprehensive estimates of the public health burden of TBI. PMID:27497467

  13. Prediction of posttraumatic stress in fathers of children with chronic diseases or unintentional injuries: a six-months follow-up study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sennhauser Felix H

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While fathers were neglected for a long time in research investigating families of pediatric patients, there are now a few studies available on fathers' posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD. However, little is known about the course of PTSS and PTSD in fathers of pediatric patients. The present study aimed to compare the prevalence and course of PTSS and PTSD in fathers of children with different chronic and acute conditions and to identify factors that contribute to fathers' PTSS. Methods Sixty-nine fathers of children newly diagnosed with either cancer, type I diabetes mellitus, or epilepsy and 70 fathers of children suffering from an unintentional injury completed questionnaires at 4–6 weeks (Time 1 and six months (Time 2 after diagnosis or injury. Results Noticeable PTSD rates were found in fathers of children with a chronic disease (26% at Time 1 and 21% at Time 2, respectively. These rates were significantly higher than rates found in fathers of children with unintentional injuries (12% at Time 1 and 6% at Time 2, respectively. Within six months after the child's diagnosis or accident a decrease in severity of PTSS was observed in both groups. Significant predictors of PTSS at Time 2 were the father's initial level of PTSS, the child's medical condition (injuries vs. chronic diseases and functional status, the father's use of dysfunctional coping strategies, and father's level of neuroticism. Conclusion Our findings suggest that fathers with initially high PTSS levels are at greater risk to experience PTSS at follow-up, particularly fathers of children with a chronic disease. Sensitizing health care professionals to the identification of PTSS symptoms but also to indicators of neuroticism and the use of specific coping strategies early in the treatment course is essential for the planning and implementation of adequate intervention strategies.

  14. Unintentional Drowning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The Problem Risk Factors Prevention Additional Resources How big is the problem? From 2005-2014, there were ... 250-253. U.S. Coast Guard, Department of Homeland Security (US). Recreational ... States Coast Guard data. Injury Prevention 2011;17:156-159.14. Driscoll ...

  15. Childhood injuries in a tertiary institution in north east Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Issa Abdul Razaq Esin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Injury has been recognised as a preventable cause of morbidity and mortality in children. The aim of this study was to determine the aetiology, pattern and location of childhood injuries in north east Nigeria. Materials and Methods: This is a 3-year retrospective hospital-based descriptive study. The study included 114 children (77 boys, 37 girls; mean age 6.4 ± 3.2 years; range 2 months to 15 years who were admitted for various injuries in the female/paediatric surgical ward from January 2007 to December 2009. Information obtained from their case notes included demographic data, mechanism of injury, location of injury, anatomical site of injury and outcome of treatment. Results: Records for 114 children (77 boys, 37 girls; mean age 6.2 years; range 2 months to 15 years were available for analysis. The highest number of injuries occurred in the age group 6-10 years. Home was the most common location of injury among the age group 0-5 years while older children sustained most of their injuries outside the home on the street/highways. Burns from hot water was the most common injury among children aged 0-5 years while pedestrian accident accounted for the highest cause of injury among older children. Fall accounted for 20.2% of the injuries. The most common specific anatomic injury was head injury followed by limb fractures. Two mortalities were recorded (1.8%. Conclusion: This study provided useful information on the characteristics of childhood injuries in our environment. There is the need for parents and children education about the risks of injury and preventive measures in addition to legislation and policy on environmental modifications and enforcements to significantly reduce childhood injury.

  16. Injury Patterns among Individuals Diagnosed with Infantile Autism during Childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouridsen, Svend-Erik; Rich, Bente; Isager, Torben

    2016-01-01

    Background: To date, injury risk among people with infantile autism (IA) has been a relatively poorly researched issue.Objective:The purpose of our study was to compare the prevalence and types of injuries in a clinical sample of 118 patients diagnosed with IA during childhood with those of 336 age...

  17. Associated factors for the occurrence of unintentional injuries in children from a low-income community in northeastern Brazil - doi 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v34i2.10313

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline de Souza Pereira

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Unintentional injuries reach high levels within the scope of morbidity and mortality worldwide, and have an impact on the quality of life of children and family members. This study depicts the socio-demographic profile of families in a community and identifies the factors associated with unintentional injuries in children. This is a cross-sectional study, developed with 362 families from a community in Fortaleza (Ceará State, by applying a questionnaire to the responsible adult in the family; the data were subjected to descriptive statistics by applying Pearson’s chi-square (x2 test, with p ≤ 0.05. From the results, 78% resided in the business area of the community, 71% survived with income up to the minimum wage, 62.7% were part of a nuclear family, and most residences showed risk factors for unintentional injuries. The data corroborate the literature by reaffirming the relationship between the socio-demographic and economic profile of families living in areas of socio-environmental vulnerability with the occurrence of unintentional injuries at home.

  18. The risk of pediatric bicycle handlebar injury compared with non-handlebar injury: a retrospective multicenter study in Osaka, Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Hirose, Tomoya; Ogura, Hiroshi; Kiguchi, Takeyuki; Mizushima, Yasuaki; Kimbara, Futoshi; Shimazaki, Junya; Shiono, Shigeru; Yamamura, Hitoshi; Wakai, Akinori; Takegawa, Ryosuke; Matsumoto, Hisatake; Ohnishi, Mitsuo; Shimazu, Takeshi

    2015-01-01

    Background Bicycle accidents are one of the major causes of unintentional traumatic injury in childhood. The purpose of this study was to examine characteristics and risks of handlebar injury in childhood. Methods We conducted a more than 5-year retrospective survey of patients under 15 years of age with bicycle-related injuries admitted to eight urban tertiary emergency centers in Osaka, Japan. Patients were divided into the direct-impact handlebar injury (HI) group and the non-handlebar inj...

  19. Imaging of cervical spine injuries of childhood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khanna, Geetika; El-Khoury, Georges Y. [University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Department of Radiology, 3951 JPP, Iowa, IA (United States)

    2007-06-15

    Cervical spine injuries of children, though rare, have a high morbidity and mortality. The pediatric cervical spine is anatomically and biomechanically different from that of adults. Hence, the type, level and outcome of cervical spine injuries in children are different from those seen in adults. Normal developmental variants seen in children can make evaluation of the pediatric cervical spine challenging. This article reviews the epidemiology of pediatric cervical spine trauma, normal variants seen in children and specific injuries that are more common in the pediatric population. We also propose an evidence-based imaging protocol to avoid unnecessary imaging studies and minimize radiation exposure in children. (orig.)

  20. Analysis on clinical characteristics of children in outpatient department and emergent department because of unintentional injury%医院门急诊就诊意外伤害儿童临床特征调查分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭利军; 田艳珍; 许景灿; 熊琼; 任小红

    2011-01-01

    目的:了解医院急诊就诊儿童意外伤害的临床特征和分布,探讨儿童意外伤害的危险因素.方法:采用现场问卷调查的方法,调查2009年7 ~10月来湖南省儿童医院门急诊就诊的意外伤害儿童,经筛选后收回资料完整问卷66份.结果:66例意外伤害儿童中,男童意外伤害发生构成比高于女童,比例为1.36:1;医院急诊就诊意外伤害儿童病因顺位前3位为跌落、碰撞/硬物击伤、气管异物;常见的部位是头面部(62.1%);发生地点主要在家中(51.5%);意外伤害给家庭带来沉重的心理负担、经济负担和社会负担,其中心理负担最重.结论:充分了解儿童意外伤害的临床特征、相关危险因素、预防措施以优化医院急诊抢救措施,减少意外伤害后因抢救不力引起的致残、致死率.%Objective: To understand the clinical characteristics and distribution of children in outpatient department and emergent department because of unintentional injury, explore the risk factors of unintentional injury among children. Methods: A field questionnaire survey was carried out to investigate the children suffering from unintentional injury who went to outpatient department and emergent department of the hospital, 66 integrated questionnaires were obtained after screening. Results: Among 66 children suffering from unintentional injury, the proportion of boys was higher than that of girls, the ratio was 1. 36: 1. The top three causes of unintentional injury were falling, bumping/hitting by hard objects and foreign body in trachea; the common positions were head and face (62. 1% ) , and the injuries were mainly occurred at home (51. 5% ) . Unintentional injury subjected the families under heavy psychological stress, economic stress and social stress, especially psychological stress. Conclusion: Understanding the clinical characteristics, related risk factors, preventive measures of unintentional injury among children

  1. 0~6岁儿童意外伤害627例相关因素分析%Analysis of related factors of unintentional injuries among 627 cases of children aged 0-6 years old

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢良坚; 李国英; 卢雪珍; 吴奇

    2012-01-01

    Objective To analyze the cause and characteristics of unintentional injuries among children aged 0-6 years old in Haizhu district, in order to provide guide for injury prevention and intervention. Methods The datas of unintentional injuries among 627 cases of children aged 0-6 years old in Haizhu district were collected by child health care routine report of Guangzhou city, the datas were analyzed. Results The commonest five reasons of unintentional injuries among children aged 0-6 years old were falling injury (77.99%), scalding injury (6.06%), instrument injury (6.06%), road traffic injury (3.99%) and bite injury of animal (1.59%). Preschool children were accounted for the highest proportion (79.11%) of unintentional injuries among 0-6 years old children. The ratio of male to female was 2.17:1.00. Play or recreation was the primary activity when injury happened, auounted for 54.38%. 59.65% children were taken to hospital timely, 98.88% children restored to health, 1.12% children were disabled or died. Conclusion Unintentional injuries threat the health and life of children severely. Prevention of children unintentional injury requires participation of the whole society, strengthening the safety legislation, safety education, safety management and technical support.%目的 分析海珠区0~6岁儿童意外伤害发生的原因及特征,为开展伤害预防干预提供依据.方法 对广州市儿童保健常规报表收集的627例儿童意外伤害资料进行分析.结果 0~6岁儿童意外伤害原因前5位依次是跌伤(77.99%)、烫伤(6.06%)、器械伤(6.06%)、道路交通伤(3.99%)、动物伤害(1.59%);学龄前期儿童所占比例最高,为79.11%;伤害的性别分布为男∶女=2.17∶1.00倍;伤害发生时的活动以玩耍/娱乐活动为主,占54.38%;59.65%的儿童发生伤害后能被及时送到医院就诊;发生伤害的儿童98.88%治愈,1.12%的儿童致残或死亡.结论 意外伤害是儿童健康、生命的严重威胁,应全

  2. Childhood injury after a parental cancer diagnosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Chen (Ruoqing); A.R. Wallin (Amanda Regodón); A. Sjölander (Arvid); U. Valdimarsdóttir (Unnur); W. Ye (Weimin); H.W. Tiemeier (Henning); K. Fall (Katja); C. Almqvist (Catarina); K. Czene (Kamila); F. Fang (Fang)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractA parental cancer diagnosis is psychologically straining for the whole family. We investigated whether a parental cancer diagnosis is associated with a higher-than-expected risk of injury among children by using a Swedish nationwide register-based cohort study. Compared to children witho

  3. 南宁市农村留守儿童意外伤害流行病学调查%Epidemiological investigation on unintentional injuries of left-behind children in rural area of Nanning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋武; 黄华兴; 韦金露; 石海丽; 朱微微; 张获华

    2011-01-01

    目的:了解南宁市农村留守儿童意外伤害发生的流行特征及其影响因素,为制定相关预防和控制策略提供依据.方法:采用整群分层随机抽样方法抽取南宁市4个城区的儿童共2584例,以问卷形式调查农村留守儿童意外伤害的现况.结果:在本次调查中,农村留守儿童1096例,留守组意外伤害的发生率为29.7%,高于非留守组,差异有统计学意义(x2=12.94,P<0.05);留守组男童意外伤害发生率比女童高,差异有统计学意义(x2=4.623,P<0.05),7~12岁组比2~6岁组高,差异有统计学意义(X2=5.60,P=0.015);留守儿童组前5位意外伤害依次为:跌倒/坠落(45.6%)、割伤/刺伤(29.6%)、烧烫伤(12.9%)、碰撞/挤压(11.5%)、交通事故(10.4%);留守儿童伤害发生的地点主要在家中(37.5%)、学校(32.4%)、道路上(19.2%),多发季节在夏季(35.6%)及冬季(24.2%);留守儿童发生伤害后有12.3%需住院治疗,约半数儿童需请假休息,治疗费用在2 000元以上占5.0%,以白费居多;留守组再发意外伤害率12.9%,高于非留守组再发意外伤害率8.5%,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论:南宁市农村留守儿童意外伤害发生率较高,负担较大,应针对原因采取有效措施,减少农村留守儿童意外伤害的发生.%Objective: To understand the epidemiological characteristics and effect factors of unintentional injuries of left - behind children in rural area of Nanning, provide a basis for making related preventive and controlling strategies. Methods: Cluster stratified random sampling method was used to select 2 584 children from 4 urban areas of Nanning, and questionnaires were used to survey the status of unintentional injuries of left- behind children. Results: Among 1 096 left -behind children in rural area, the incidence of unintentional injuries was 29. 7%, which was significantly higher than that of non - left - behind children group ( x2 = 12. 94, P < 0. 05 ); in left - behind children

  4. Childhood urethral injuries: perspectives on outcome and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskin, L S; McAninch, J W

    1993-08-01

    To elucidate the history of childhood urethral injuries, we undertook a retrospective review of 19 male patients comprising 2 groups: those requiring surgical intervention in adulthood and those with complete disruption of the posterior urethra requiring acute intervention (cystostomy drainage). Group 1 patients (n = 12) ranged in age from 17 to 63 years, had sustained urethral injury between the ages of 3 to 15 years and underwent initial surgery from 9 to 18 years after injury. In all 12 patients the strictures developed in the bulbar urethra. All now report continence and normal voiding and none is impotent. Group 2 patients (n = 7) ranged in age from 4 to 16 years and underwent delayed primary reconstruction of the urethral rupture defect. Six patients are now continent with a good stream but the seventh has required repeat optical urethrotomy. One patient with erectile capability at the time of injury was rendered impotent and remains so. PMID:8402031

  5. PELVIC INJURY IN CHILDHOOD: WHAT IS ITS CURRENT IMPORTANCE?

    Science.gov (United States)

    GUERRA, MARÍA ROXANA VIAMONT; BRAGA, SUSANA REIS; AKKARI, MIGUEL; SANTILI, CLAUDIO

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the importance of pelvic fractures in childhood by analyzing epidemiological characteristics and associated injuries. Methods: This is a retrospective study performed between 2002 and 2012 at two trauma referral centers in São Paulo. We identified 25 patients aged 16 years old or younger with pelvic fracture. Results: The main mechanism of trauma was traffic accident (80%), followed by fall from height (16%). At hospital admission, 92% had traumatic brain injury and 40% had hemodynamic instability. Besides pelvic fractures, 56% of the children had other associated injuries (genitourinary, abdominal, vascular, chest and neurological), and 79% of them required operative treatment. According to the Torode and Zieg classification, the majority of cases were types III and IV. Seventy-two percent of all pelvic fractures were treated by surgery; 52% involved external fixation and 20% involved open reduction and internal fixation. Conclusions: The pelvic fractures in childhood can be considered a marker for injury severity, because the associated injuries usually are severe, needing operative treatment and leading to a high mortality rate (12%). Level of Evidence IV, Case Series. PMID:27217818

  6. Cognitive function in childhood and early adulthood and injuries later in life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osler, Merete; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Laursen, Bjarne;

    2007-01-01

    measured at both the age of 12 and 18 years was inversely associated with any form of unintentional injury. Adjustment for educational attainment at the age of 18 years attenuated these associations but did not remove them completely. The association was most evident for falls and poisoning, while...

  7. Validity of a surveillance system for childhood injuries in a rural block of Tamilnadu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivamani M

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Childhood injuries are increasingly getting the attention of public health experts following WHO′s report on global burden of diseases. Surveillance is an important component of control of any disease and effectiveness of the surveillance system depends upon completeness of the information about occurrence of the health related events to the public health authorities. Aims: This study aimed to set up a surveillance system for childhood injuries and validate it by a survey and thereafter estimate the incidence of childhood injuries using capture recapture method. Settings and Design: Observational study design. Materials and Methods: Passive surveillance system for childhood injuries was created for 26,811 children of less than fourteen years of Kaniyambadi block and it was validated by cross sectional study at the end of surveillance period. Using these two independent information systems, capture recapture method was applied to find out the possible incidence of injuries in the given population at a given period of time. Statistics: Chi square, Lincoln Peterson formula for capture re-capture method. Results: Surveillance and survey for childhood injuries identified 13.59/1000 child-years (CI: 11.86 -15.32 and 341.89/1000 child-years (CI: 254.46-429.33 of injury rates, respectively. Conclusion: Passive surveillance system underreports childhood injuries markedly but it does identify childhood injuries of serious nature.

  8. Epidemiological of unintentional injuries in children:analysis of 192 cases treated in pediatgric inyensive care unit%儿童意外伤害病因及预后

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任玉倩; 崔云; 张育才; 徐梁; 戎群芳; 腾国良

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨儿童意外伤害患儿的流行病学特征及预后情况。方法对上海交通大学附属儿童医院儿童重症监护室2011年10月~2014年9月收治的意外伤害患儿,进行回顾性研究。结果该阶段共收治意外伤害患儿192例,占 PICU 收治患儿总数的6.40%;男孩116例,女孩76例。婴幼儿组(0~3岁)108例,意外发生率最高(56.77%),学龄前儿童组(~6岁)50例(26.04%),学龄儿童组(~10岁)20例(10.42%),青春期组(~15岁)14例(7.29%)。意外伤害种类按照例数排序依次为车祸伤、高空坠落伤、跌落或撞击致脑外伤、药物中毒、气道异物、溺水、消化道异物、颈部外伤、切割伤。死亡人数32例,死亡率16.7%,3年病死率分别为14.28%,15.68%,28.57%。0~3岁婴幼儿组是构成死亡病例的主要群体。溺水是主要意外死亡原因,其次为药物中毒。结论意外伤害发生率和病死率有逐年上升趋势,以跌落或撞击致脑外伤和药物中毒增长最为明显。随儿童年龄增长,意外伤害发生率降低。婴幼儿易发生车祸伤和高空坠落伤,年长儿要注意预防溺水、药物中毒。%Objective To explore the causes and prognosis of unintentional injuries admitted to pediatric intensive care unit. Methods The clinical data of 192 children with unintentional injuries ,116 boys and 76 girls, treated in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU) of the Children’s Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University from September 2011 to September 2011, accounting for 6.40% of the total number of the children admitted to the PICU. treated patients. were analyzed according to the International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-10. Results The incidence rates of unintentional injuries of the children aged 0~~3 (n=108), 3~6 (n=50), 6~10 (n=29), and 10~15 (n=14) were 56.77%, 26.04%, 10.42%, and (7.29% respectively. The types of unintentional

  9. 儿童意外伤害家居环境与游戏场所相关因素研究%Research on Unintentional Children Injuries and Factors of Family Environment and Playground

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈忠; 张斌; 覃凌智; 邱琳; 张雅琪

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨儿童伤害的发生现状及周围家庭环境、游戏场所的影响因素,为社会和家庭预防儿童伤害提供指导和预防方法.方法 采用分层随机整群抽样方法,按老街道、城乡结合部(流动人口密集地)、乡镇3个层次,抽取4个老街道、3个城乡结合部、6个乡镇,采用儿童安全联盟(TASC)在亚洲各国普遍应用的调查表为基本模板,根据我市实际情况进行必要的修订.结果 武汉市儿童伤害的发生率为78.7%.伤害组儿童家周围500m内有湖泊、江河、水塘的比例高于未伤害组;伤害组家中地面类型以水泥地面为主,未伤害组以木地板为主;伤害组家中儿童床无护栏的比例,主要热源类型为煤炉、火灶的比例,儿童经常活动地方有障碍物、有水源、有危险品(电源、热源)的比例均高于未伤害组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).伤害组游戏场所地面类型以水泥地面、泥土地面为主,未伤害组以水泥地面、木地板为主;两组儿童常用玩具的安全性、游戏场所设备种类比较,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.01).居住在乡镇、家中儿童床无护栏是儿童发生意外伤害的危险因素,而母亲从不参与娱乐、家周围500m内无湖泊等水源是保护因素.结论 儿童意外伤害的高频发生不容忽视,儿童家庭及环境因素与儿童意外伤害的发生有关,对控制与干预儿童意外伤害有着一定的指导作用.%Objective To investigate the current condition of unintentional children injuries in Wuhan city and the influencing factors in family environment and playground in order to provide guidance and preventing methods for society and family in preventing unintentional children injuries. Methods Four streets in city, three sub - urban areas and six towns were selected according to three levels: the old streets, the urban fringe ( intensive floating population ) and township by using stratified random cluster sampling

  10. Study on the status of unintentional injuries in children under age 7 in Guangzhou%广州市七岁以下儿童意外伤害发生现状分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡艳; 邢艳菲; 蒋琳; 曾芳玲; 林穗方

    2011-01-01

    目的 了解和分析7岁以下儿童意外伤害发生现状和分布特点.方法 对2010年广州市7岁以下儿童意外伤害监测网络的470 770名集体和散居儿童中发生的意外伤害现状进行描述性分析.结果 2010年广州市7岁以下儿童意外伤害发生率为1.48%,其中集体儿童意外伤害发生率为1.66%,散居儿童意外伤害发生率为1.11%,城区儿童意外伤害发生率为1.36%,区县(农村地区)儿童意外伤害发生率为2.52%;集体儿童高于散居儿童,农村儿童高于城区儿童.儿童伤害发生原因构成顺位依次是跌伤(70.54%)、动物伤害(8.48%)、烧烫伤(5.75%)、钝器伤(3.92%)和交通道路伤(3.48%).儿童意外伤害发生部位依次是头面部(60.00%)、腕和手(15.48%)、膝部和小腿(11.70%)、肘和前臂(4.54%)、肩部和上臂(2.99%).意外伤害病例中,轻度意外伤害占85.35%,中度意外伤害占9.12%,重度意外伤害占0.57%.其中去医院门诊/急诊的儿童占49.66%,需住院或重症监护的儿童占2.06%,在家中或托幼园所就地处理的儿童占43.34%.结论 2010年广州市7岁以下儿童意外伤害发生率为1.48%,发生原因主要以跌伤、动物伤害、烧烫伤、钝器伤以及交通道路伤为主,不同年龄、区域儿童意外伤害发生特征及临床特征存在差异.%Objective To understand the pravelence and distribution of unintentional injuries in children under age 7 in Guangzhou. Methods Data was descriptively analyzed from the Guangzhou Unintentional Injuries Surveillance System among 470 770 children under age 7 living scatterly or collectively. Results The incidence rates of unintentional injuries among children in Guangzhou was 1.48%, among which the incidence rates were: living scatterly as 1.11% living collectively as 1.66%, living in urban areas as 1.36% in rural as 2.52%. In order, the proportion of main causes of children's unintentional injuries were as follows: falls (70.54%), animal injuries (8

  11. Childhood Injury Prevention: Intervention in the Bedouin City of Rahat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Hemmo-Lotem

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available For several years, the National Center for Children's Health and Safety (Beterem has worked on many levels to promote safety and prevent injury of the children in Israel. As part of intervention programs in 20 communities around Israel, this paper describes a 1-year, multidisciplinary, multistrategic childhood safety promotion and injury prevention project. The project took place in the Bedouin city of Rahat in the Southern part of Israel, the Negev, conducted by a local safety coordinator. This specific intervention study took place from March 2003 to March 2004. The main goal was to identify hazards and dangerous obstacles in public places in Rahat, then remove or repair the obstacles found, in order to secure a safe public environment for children. “Obstacle”” was defined as any barrier that could endanger the safety of a child. Ten examples are used to illustrate this applied research project, and 80% of the problems were solved within the project period (time to solve between 1 week to 3 months, depending on various factors. We recommend the involvement of a safety coordinator from the community to focus on safety hazards for children, the use of a documentation diary to log the time frame, and also the use of pictures to illustrate the hazards and the changes, or to use as arguments in the lobbying process.

  12. Alexithymia as a Mediator between Childhood Trauma and Self-Injurious Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paivio, Sandra C.; McCulloch, Chantal R.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to test whether alexithymia mediates the relationship between childhood maltreatment and self-injurious behaviors (SIB) in college women. Method: The sample was comprised of 100 female undergraduate students. Measures were the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire [D. Bernstein, L. Fink, Manual for the Childhood…

  13. Current status of unintentional injury death in children under five years old in Inner Mongolia%内蒙古5岁以下儿童意外伤害死亡现状分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王文丽; 胡俊梅; 杨缨; 王晓琴

    2015-01-01

    目的:分析2008至2013年内蒙古自治区5岁以下儿童意外伤害死亡现状及主要死因,探讨其意外伤害死亡特征,为制定儿童意外伤害死亡的预防和控制措施提供科学依据。方法采用全面调查的方法,资料来源于全区妇幼卫生年报表及5岁以下儿童死亡报告卡,采用国际疾病分类(ICD-10)进行死因分类。应用SPSS 17.0软件进行统计分析。结果内蒙古自治区婴儿、1~4岁儿童及5岁以下儿童意外伤害死亡率分别为26.90/105、33.40/105与60.30/105,意外伤害死亡占总死亡的构成比分别为3.56%,31.87%与7.01%。5岁以下儿童意外伤害死亡男童多于女童,差异无统计学意义(χ2=0.17,P>0.05);农村多于城市,而且城乡之间存在显著性差异(χ2=8.29,P<0.05)。不同年龄儿童意外伤害死因及顺位有所不同,婴儿以意外窒息(63.07%)、跌落(7.10%)和交通意外(7.10%)为主;1~4岁儿童以交通意外(35.93%)、意外窒息(15.56%)和溺水(14.65%)为主;5岁以下儿童以意外窒息(36.76%)、交通意外(23.07%)、溺水(8.62%)为主。结论减少婴儿意外窒息和1~4岁儿童交通意外的发生,加强农村地区儿童及家长的安全教育是预防和控制本区5岁以下儿童意外伤害死亡的关键措施。%Objective To analyze the current status of unintentional injury death in children under 5 years old and explore their characteristics, so as to provide scientific evidence for formulating measures to prevent and control unintentional injury death.Methods The data was obtained from annual statement of maternal and child health and death card of children under the age of five in the whole region by the method of complete investigation.ICD-10 was used to classify the death causes.Data was analyzed by SPSS 17.0.Results The unintentional injury

  14. Retropharyngeal hematoma secondary to whiplash injury in childhood: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurata, Hakan; Yilmaz, Muhammet Bahadır; Borcek, Alp Ozgun; Oner, Ali Yusuf; Baykaner, M Kemali

    2012-01-01

    Whiplash Associated Disorders (WAD) has been reported as an adult phenomenon. Whiplash injury has classically been described as a cervical soft tissue hyperextension- flexion injury after a trauma such as a rear end impact car crash, contact sport injuries, blows to the head from a falling object or a punch and shaken baby syndrome and is mostly seen in adults . It is important as it may cause severe disability due to spinal cord injury, decrease work productivity and even retropharyngeal hematoma resulting airway obstruction and mortality due to bleeding amongst deep cervical fascias. We describe a case of retropharyngeal hematoma after whiplash injury in a childhood.

  15. 20 Years of Research on Socioeconomic Inequality and Children's—Unintentional Injuries Understanding the Cause-Specific Evidence at Hand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucie Laflamme

    2010-01-01

    Studies have been conducted at both area and individual levels, the bulk of which deal with road traffic, burn, and fall injuries. As a whole and for each injury cause separately, their results support the notion that low socioeconomic status is greatly detrimental to child safety but not in all instances and settings. In light of variations between causes and, within causes, between settings and countries, it is emphasized that the prevention of inequities in child safety requires not only that proximal risk factors of injuries be tackled but also remote and fundamental ones inherent to poverty.

  16. Socio-economic status and types of childhood injury in Alberta: a population based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svenson Lawrence W

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood injury is the leading cause of mortality, morbidity and permanent disability in children in the developed world. This research examines relationships between socio-economic status (SES, demographics, and types of childhood injury in the province of Alberta, Canada. Methods Secondary analysis was performed using administrative health care data provided by Alberta Health and Wellness on all children, aged 0 to 17 years, who had injuries treated by a physician, either in a physician's office, outpatient department, emergency room and/or as a hospital inpatient, between April 1st. 1995 to March 31st. 1996. Thirteen types of childhood injury were assessed with respect to age, gender and urban/rural location using ICD9 codes, and were related to SES as determined by an individual level SES indicator, the payment status of the Alberta provincial health insurance plan. The relationships between gender, SES, rural/urban status and injury type were determined using logistic regression. Results Twenty-four percent of Alberta children had an injury treated by physician during the one year period. Peak injury rates occurred about ages 2 and 13–17 years. All injury types except poisoning were more common in males. Injuries were more frequent in urban Alberta and in urban children with lower SES (receiving health care premium assistance. Among the four most common types of injury (78.6% of the total, superficial wounds and open wounds were more common among children with lower SES, while fractures and dislocations/sprains/strains were more common among children receiving no premium assistance. Conclusion These results show that childhood injury in Alberta is a major health concern especially among males, children living in urban centres, and those living on welfare or have Treaty status. Most types of injury were more frequent in children of lower SES. Analysis of the three types of the healthcare premium subsidy allowed a more

  17. Cognitive dysfunction in young men following head injury in childhood and adolescence: a population study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teasdale, T W; Engberg, A W

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To examine the prevalence of cognitive dysfunction among young men who had suffered a head injury during childhood or adolescence, in particular focusing upon the effects of age and the severity of the injury. METHODS: By cross linkage of Danish national registers for hospital.......0, irrespective of age at injury. For cases of two concussions, all odds ratios were > 1.4 but were not significant for all age groupings. CONCLUSIONS: For milder forms of single head injury before age 12 there is no evidence of enduring cognitive dysfunction. The apparent effect at later ages may reflect...

  18. Childhood and adolescent injuries in elementary schools in north-western Uganda: extent, risk and associated factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutto, Milton; Lawoko, Stephen; Ovuga, Emilio; Svanstrom, Leif

    2012-01-01

    Childhood injuries remain understudied in Uganda. The objective of this study was to determine the extent, nature and determinants of school-related childhood injury risk in north-western Uganda. A cohort of 1000 grade fives from 13 elementary schools was followed-up for one term. Survival and multi-level modelling techniques compared the risk rates across gender, schools and locations. Childhood injuries are common in north-western Uganda. Most of them occur during travel, breaks, practical classes and gardening, while walking, playing, learning and digging. Most injuries result from collisions with objects, sports and falls. Two-thirds of children receive first aid and hospital care. Times to injury were 72.1 and 192.9 person days (p = 0.0000). Gender differences in time to event were significant (p = 0.0091). Girls had better survival rates: cumulative prevalence of childhood injury was 36.1%; with significant gender differences (p = 0.007). Injury rate was 12.3/1000 person days, with a hazard ratio of 1.4. Compared to girls, boys had a 37% higher injury rate (p = 0.004). Rates varied among schools. Associated factors include sex and school. Rural-urban location and school differences do influence childhood injury risk. Childhood injuries are common: the risk is high, gender- and school-specific. Determinants include gender and school. Location and school contexts influence injury risk. PMID:22273248

  19. Brain and head injury in infancy and childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article describes typical head injuries in infants and children. In comparison with adults there are distinct differences in the etiology of trauma and in the kind of reaction of the skull and brain. In infants and children there are three different types of trauma: birth trauma, accidental and non-accidental injury. The typical injuries in these three groups are described. (orig.)

  20. Children and unintentional firearm death

    OpenAIRE

    Hemenway, David; Solnick, Sara J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Children in the United States are at far greater risk of unintentional gun death than children in other developed countries. The relative figures may even be worse since the estimates for US child unintentional gun deaths are derived from the Vital Statistics which have been shown to be underestimates. No study has used a national data system to investigate the circumstances of fatal child gun accidents. Methods We use data from the National Violent Death Reporting System for 16 st...

  1. Children and unintentional firearm death

    OpenAIRE

    Hemenway, David; Solnick, Sara J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Children in the United States are at far greater risk of unintentional gun death than children in other developed countries. The relative figures may even be worse since the estimates for US child unintentional gun deaths are derived from the Vital Statistics which have been shown to be underestimates. No study has used a national data system to investigate the circumstances of fatal child gun accidents. Methods: We use data from the National Violent Death Reporting System for 16 ...

  2. 济宁市农村留守儿童意外伤害调查%Survey and Study on Unintentional Injuries of Rural Left -behind Children of Jining City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘霞; 张跃兵; 张国华; 翟景花; 陈双双

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To explore the condition of unintentional injuries of rural left -behind children of Jining city , and to provide references for preventive strategies .Methods :Multi -stage sampling method was used to select 686 rural middle school students in Jining City and the participants were followed up for 1 year ,and questionnaires were made to survey the situation of intentional injuries .Results:① 201 were left -behind children of 686 rural middle school students ,accounting for 29 3.% ;②The incidence of unintentional injuries in the left -behind children in 1 year was higher than the non -left -behind children group(39 8.% ,24 1.% );③ The incidence of boys was higher than girls′(χ2 =6 1.50 ,P=0 0.13);④Statistically differences was found in students of 3 junior grades(55 .3% ,35 .7% , 23 6.% ) ,and the difference was statistically between the grade 1 and 2(χ2 =13 1.03 ,P=0 0.00<0 0.167);⑤The inci-dence of the left -behind children("whose father or mother went out for work")was significantly lower than the others′("whose father and mother both went out for work")(χ2 =20 1.92 ,P=0 0.00) .Conclusion:Unintentional inju-ries of left -behind children is common ,we should pay attention to take effective measures to reduce the incidence of unintentional injuries of rural left -behind children .%目的:了解济宁市农村留守儿童意外伤害发生情况,为其预防策略提供依据。方法:采用多阶段抽样方法抽取济宁市686名农村初中生并随访1年,以问卷调查形式了解初中生意外伤害情况。结果:①686名农村初中生中,留守儿童201例(293.%);②留守儿童1年内意外伤害发生率高于非留守儿童(398.%,241.%,);③男生1年内意外伤害发生率高于女生(χ2=61.50,P=00.13);④3个年级意外伤害发生率(553.%,357.%,236.%)差异有统计学意义,两两比较初一、初三学生意外伤害发生率

  3. Burden of injury in childhood and adolescence in 8 European countries.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Polinder, Suzanne

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Injury is the major cause of death and suffering among children and adolescents, but awareness of the problem and political commitment for preventive actions remain unacceptably low. We have assessed variation in the burden of injuries in childhood and adolescence in eight European countries. METHODS: Hospital, emergency department, and mortality databases of injury patients aged 0-24 years were analyzed for Austria, Denmark, Ireland, Latvia, Netherlands, Norway, Slovenia and the United Kingdom (England, Wales). Years lost due to premature mortality (YLL), years lived with disability (YLD), and disability adjusted life years (DALYs) were calculated. RESULTS: Differences in the burden of injury in childhood and adolescence are large, with a fourfold gap between the safest countries (Netherlands and UK) in western-Europe and the relatively unsafe countries (Latvia and Slovenia) in the east. Variation between countries is attributable to high variation in premature mortality (YLL varied from 14-58 per 1000 persons) and disability (YLD varied from 3-10 per 1000 persons). Highest burden is observed among males ages 15-24. If childhood and adolescence injuries are reduced to the level of current best injury prevention practices, 6 DALYs per 1000 child years can be avoided. CONCLUSIONS: Injuries in childhood and adolescence cause a high disability and mortality burden in Europe. In all developmental stages large inequalities between west and east are observed. Potential benefits up to almost 1 million healthy child years gained across Europe are possible, if proven ways for prevention are more widely implemented. Our children deserve action now.

  4. Burden of injury in childhood and adolescence in 8 European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brugmans Marco JP

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Injury is the major cause of death and suffering among children and adolescents, but awareness of the problem and political commitment for preventive actions remain unacceptably low. We have assessed variation in the burden of injuries in childhood and adolescence in eight European countries. Methods Hospital, emergency department, and mortality databases of injury patients aged 0-24 years were analyzed for Austria, Denmark, Ireland, Latvia, Netherlands, Norway, Slovenia and the United Kingdom (England, Wales. Years lost due to premature mortality (YLL, years lived with disability (YLD, and disability adjusted life years (DALYs were calculated. Results Differences in the burden of injury in childhood and adolescence are large, with a fourfold gap between the safest countries (Netherlands and UK in western-Europe and the relatively unsafe countries (Latvia and Slovenia in the east. Variation between countries is attributable to high variation in premature mortality (YLL varied from 14-58 per 1000 persons and disability (YLD varied from 3-10 per 1000 persons. Highest burden is observed among males ages 15-24. If childhood and adolescence injuries are reduced to the level of current best injury prevention practices, 6 DALYs per 1000 child years can be avoided. Conclusions Injuries in childhood and adolescence cause a high disability and mortality burden in Europe. In all developmental stages large inequalities between west and east are observed. Potential benefits up to almost 1 million healthy child years gained across Europe are possible, if proven ways for prevention are more widely implemented. Our children deserve action now.

  5. Risk of childhood injuries after prenatal exposure to maternal bereavement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Virk, Jasveer; Li, Jiong; Lauritsen, Jens;

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the risk of injuries among children exposed to a stressful life exposure (defined as bereavement) before conception or during fetal life.......The aim of this study was to assess the risk of injuries among children exposed to a stressful life exposure (defined as bereavement) before conception or during fetal life....

  6. Epidemiology of admitted cases of childhood injuries in Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital Nnewi, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekwunife Okechukwu Hyginus

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Injuries have become a leading cause of childhood death, and majority of these occur in developing countries. The range of injuries also varies among age groups, sex, populations and economies. Within the same population, injury pattern changes over time. Statistics of trauma from most developing countries are still not very many. To aid sound policies, documentation of trauma epidemiology from different cultures and geographies is still needful. Methodology: Hospital records of all children aged 18 years and below that presented between January 2007 and December 2011 were studied retrospectively. Results: A total of 217 patients were admitted, 125 (57.6% males and 92 (42.4% females. Multiple injuries occurred in 24 (11.1% of children. Road crashes accounted for the greatest number of injuries; 109 cases (50.2% followed by falls 60; (27.6%. Motor cycle related injuries accounted for 67 (61.5% of the 109 road traffic injuries. The age group most commonly affected is 0-5 years accounting for 98 (45.2% cases. Head injury was the commonest injury sustained 83 (33.9%. Majority of the injuries, 72 (66.1% occurred in or near home. Injuries were more frequent during the weekdays 132 (60.8% compared to the weekends 85 (39.2%. Long term functional or physical disability was seen in 62 (28.6% of cases. Six children died giving a mortality rate of 2.8%. Conclusion: Childhood trauma rate is still high, with motorcycle related road traffic accidents constituting a major cause. Education and enforcement of road traffic regulations and limiting motorcycle transportation may help in reducing the trauma rate in children.

  7. Metamemory Following Childhood Brain Injury: A Consequence of Executive Impairment

    OpenAIRE

    Geurten, Marie; Chevignard, Mathilde; Kerrouche, Bernadette; Tiberghien, Anne; Meulemans, Thierry

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the influence of children’s level of executive functioning on two types of metamemory knowledge following a traumatic brain injury (TBI). For this purpose, 22 children (aged 7 to 14 years) who had sustained a moderate to severe TBI and 44 typically developing children were recruited. Children with TBI were divided into two groups according to the severity of their executive impairment. Injury severity was determined by the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score on admis...

  8. Repercussões no contexto familiar de injúrias não-intencionais em crianças = The repercussion from unintentional injuries in children on the family context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiza Jane Eyre de Souza Vieira

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desta pesquisa é estudar as características da criança como vítima de injúrias não-intencionais e seu familiar-acompanhante, descrever as repercussões dessas injúrias na família e identificar a concepção de familiares-acompanhantes sobre fatores de risco no domicílio e o conhecimento de práticas preventivas. Estudo descritivo, realizado com 29 familiares e/ou acompanhantes de crianças internadas em um hospital de emergência, em Fortaleza, Ceará, em 2005. A maioria das crianças tinha entre 5 a 10 anos,do sexo masculino, e prevaleceu a injúria no trânsito. Em relação aos acompanhantes, predominou renda de até um salário mínimo e eles afirmaram que conhecem os tipos mais comuns de injúrias com crianças e os modos de evitá-los. As repercussões atingem as dimensões emocionais, econômicas e sociais, somando-se verbalizações de medo, culpa e arrependimento, protesto e resignação. Conclui-se que o tema precisa ser amplamente discutido, mobilizando pessoas em instâncias formadoras de opiniões para reorientação da práxis na Saúde e Educação.The objective of this work is to study the characteristics of the child when victim of unintentional injury, as well as those of his family caregiver. This was accomplished by describing the repercussion of those injuries in the family and identifyingthe family caregivers’ conception of risk factors in the home, as well as their knowledge of preventive practices. A descriptive study was conducted with 29 relatives or caregivers of injured children at an emergency hospital in Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil, in 2005. Most of the children were between 5 and 10 years old and were male; the most prevalent instances of injury were traffic-related. Regarding the caregivers, the most prevalent income range for this group was up to minimum wage. They reported knowing the most frequent types ofinjuries to children, as well as the ways to avoid them. The repercussions within the

  9. Effectiveness evaluation on surveillance and intervention model of unintentional injuries for children in Shenzhen City,Guangdong Province%广东省深圳市社区综合干预模式预防儿童意外伤害效果评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林建苗; 王虹; 林艳; 刘一心

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of the surveillance and intervention model of unintentional injuries for 0-6-year-old children in Shenzhen City.Methods With multi-stage random sampling, 12 communities from Shenzhen City were selected to take the surveillance and intervention model of unintentional injuries, and the effectiveness of the intervention was evaluated.Results The incidence rate of unintentional injuries for children was decreased from 8.36% before intervention to 6.40% after intervention ( P < 0.05 ).The rate of mechanical injuries, unintentional poisoning and unintentional fall were 0.18%, 0.10% and 3.26% after the intervention, all higher than those before the intervention which were 1.11%, 0.56% and 4.68%, respectively (P < 0.05 ).The rate of the parents who worried the incidence of unintentional injuries, and who thought that injuries were serious public health problems and that the prevention of injuries for children was concerned with the government, school and individuals were 96.89%, 80.61% and 95.56% after the intervention, all higher than those before the intervention (95.69%, 76.01% and 86.18%, P <0.01 ).Conclusion Intervention measures of injury could improve the level of the injury knowledge and attitude of the parents and could reduce the injury incidence rate of children.%目的 评价广东省深圳市社区0~6岁儿童意外伤害综合干预模式的效果.方法 采用多阶段随机抽样方法,抽取深圳市12个社区作为干预地点,在幼儿园、社区和镇实施预防儿童意外伤害的健康教育干预措施,并对干预前后的效果进行评价.结果 儿童伤害发生率由干预前的8.36%下降至干预后的6.40%(P<0.05).机械伤、中毒、意外跌落的发生率分别从干预前的1.11%、0.56%和4.68%降至干预后的0.18%、0.10%和3.26%,其差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05).家长担心发生伤害、认为伤害是严重的公共卫生问题、认为预

  10. Childhood Injuries: Keeping the #1 Killer at Bay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutright, Melitta J.

    1991-01-01

    Suggestions to help parents keep their children safe from injury include learn first aid; child-proof the home; use carseats and safety belts; lock up medications, toxic materials, sharp instruments, and guns; block off stairways; install smoke alarms; insist on bike helmets; and put safety plugs in electric sockets. (SM)

  11. Social differences in traffic injury risks in childhood and youth--a literature review and a research agenda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laflamme, L; Diderichsen, Finn

    2000-01-01

    The paper reviews the scientific literature concerning social differences in traffic injuries in childhood in order to highlight the current state of knowledge and to draw the main lines of a research agenda.......The paper reviews the scientific literature concerning social differences in traffic injuries in childhood in order to highlight the current state of knowledge and to draw the main lines of a research agenda....

  12. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Chronic Dysarthric Speech after Childhood Brain Injury: Reliance on a Left-Hemisphere Compensatory Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Angela T.; Masterton, Richard; Pigdon, Lauren; Connelly, Alan; Liegeois, Frederique J.

    2013-01-01

    Severe and persistent speech disorder, dysarthria, may be present for life after brain injury in childhood, yet the neural correlates of this chronic disorder remain elusive. Although abundant literature is available on language reorganization after lesions in childhood, little is known about the capacity of motor speech networks to reorganize…

  13. Menace of childhood non-accidental traumatic brain injuries: A single unit report

    OpenAIRE

    Musa Ibrahim; Adamu Ladan Mu′azu; Nura Idris; Musa Uba Rabiu; Binta Wudil Jibir; Kabir Ibrahim Getso; Mohammad Aminu Mohammad; Femi Luqman Owolabi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Childhood traumatic brain injury (TBI) has high rate of mortality and morbidity worldwide. There are dearths of reports from developing countries with large paediatric population on trauma; neurosurgery trauma of nonaccidental origin is not an exemption. This study analysed menace of non-accidental TBI in the paediatric population from our center. Materials and Methods: This is a single unit, retrospective study of the epidemiology of non-accidental TBI in children starting from S...

  14. Childhood adversities and adult use of potentially injurious physical discipline in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Umeda, Maki; Kawakami, Norito; Kessler, Ronald C.; Miller, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Using data derived from the World Mental Health Japan Survey (n = 1,186), this study examined the intergenerational continuity of potentially injurious physical discipline of children in a community sample from Japan with a special focus on the confounding effects of 11 other types of childhood adversities (CAs) and the intervening effects of mental disorders and socioeconomic status. Bivariate analyses revealed that having experienced physical discipline as children and five other CAs was si...

  15. Childhood dental injuries: a resiliency model of adaptation

    OpenAIRE

    Porritt, Jenny; Helen D. Rodd; Baker, Sarah R.

    2014-01-01

    Background. There is a paucity of research examining how children and their families adapt to traumatic dental injuries. Aim. This study examined how clinical and psychosocial factors influence adaptation to this oral stressor using a theoretical framework of resiliency and adaptation. Design. Children with traumatised permanent teeth, who were attending a UK dental hospital, completed questionnaires at baseline and at a 6 month follow-up. Child questionnai...

  16. Dipoles, unintentional antennas and EMC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berend Danker

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Radiated emissions from equipment commonly originate from electronic circuits that act as electric dipoles created by the signal voltage between the signal conductors or as magnetic dipoles formed by the signal current flowing in a loop. Direct emission is mostly small, but circuits often couple to long conductors or large wiring loops which act as antennas and are efficient radiators. A comparable situation exists when short dipole antennas or small wiring loops receive ambient noise (susceptibility. Usually the amplitude of noise sources or the susceptibility of circuits is an invariable. The dipole strength increases with the distance between the conductors and the area. Shielding and proper grounding decreases the interaction via unintentional antennas. Short-circuiting and the insertion of lossy ferrite cores reduce the efficiency of unintentional antennas.

  17. Evaluation and Prevention for Falls in Elder People:A Leading Cause of Unintentional Injuries%老年人意外伤害的首要病因--跌倒的评价和预防

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑华光; 鞠奕; 沈东超; 王琳; 姜睿璇; 赵性泉; 王拥军; 王春雪

    2013-01-01

    Falls are the leading cause of both fatal and non-fatal unintentional injuries in older people. Patients with neurologic or general conditions were associated with an increased risk of falling. Risk factors for falls include age older than 80 years, depression, use of four or more prescription medications, muscle weakness, arthritis, and impairments in gait, balance, cognition, vision. An increased risk of falls is established among persons with diagnoses of stroke, dementia, and disorders of gait and balance and probable among patients with Parkinson disease, peripheral neuropathy, lower extremity weakness or sensory loss, and substantial vision loss. A history of falling in the past year strongly predicts the likelihood of future falls. A risk-assessment tool and care plan may be an important way of managing the issue. In this review we aimed to focus on assessment of the potential risk factors as well as the effective fall prevention strategies.%跌倒是老年人意外伤害(包括致死性和非致死性)的首要原因。罹患神经科疾患或其他疾病的患者跌倒的风险增加。一般性的危险因素包括:年龄超过80岁、抑郁、口服药物种类超过4种、肌肉无力、关节炎、步态异常、平衡障碍、认知障碍、视敏度下降等。相关的神经科疾病有卒中、痴呆、帕金森病、周围神经病、深感觉障碍等。在1年内有跌倒病史的患者,再次发生跌倒的风险增加。合适的跌倒风险评估量表和预防方案对防止跌倒是非常关键的。本综述对跌倒的潜在危险因素进行评估,同时对跌倒预防措施的有效性进行全面评价。

  18. Attention remediation following traumatic brain injury in childhood and adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbiati, Susanna; Recla, Monica; Pastore, Valentina; Liscio, Mariarosaria; Bardoni, Alessandra; Castelli, Enrico; Strazzer, Sandra

    2009-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) frequently affects both the basic and the superordinate components of attention; deficits vary according to patient age. This study evaluated the efficacy of a specific remediation intervention for attention. Sixty-five TBI patients (aged 6?18 years) with attention deficit were assessed at baseline and at 1-year follow-up: 40 patients received attention-specific neuropsychological training for 6 months, and the control group comprised 25 patients. Cognitive assessment included a Wechsler Intelligence Scale (e.g., A. Orsini, 1993) and the Continuous Performance Test II (CPT II; C. K. Conners, 2000). The Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS; S. Sparrow, D. Balla & D. V. Cicchetti, 1984) was administered to assess the treatment's ecological validity. At baseline, all patients presented with a mild intellectual disability and pathological scores on the CPT II. At follow-up, significant differences were found between the 2 groups on the CPT II and VABS: The clinical group improved more than the control group. Specific remediation training for attention, including a combination of a process-specific approach and metacognitive strategies, significantly improved attention performance. Improvement in attention skills also affected adaptive skills positively.

  19. Pattern of childhood burn injuries and their management outcome at Bugando Medical Centre in Northwestern Tanzania

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    Chalya Phillipo L

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Burn injuries constitute a major public health problem and are the leading cause of childhood morbidity and mortality worldwide. There is paucity of published data on childhood burn injuries in Tanzania, particularly the study area. This study was conducted to describe the pattern of childhood burn injuries in our local setting and to evaluate their management outcome. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted at Bugando Medical Centre (in Northwestern Tanzania over a 3-year period from January 2008 to December 2010. Data was collected using a pre-tested coded questionnaire and statistical analyses performed using SPSS software version 15.0. Results A total of 342 burned children were studied. Males were mainly affected. Children aged = 2 were the majority accounting for 45.9% of cases. Intentional burn injuries due to child abuse were reported in 2.9% of cases. Scald was the most common type of burns (56.1%. The trunk was the most commonly involved body region (57.3%. Majority of patients (48.0% sustained superficial burns. Eight (2.3% patients were HIV positive. Most patients (89.8% presented to the hospital later than 24 h. The rate of burn wound infection on admission and on 10th day were 32.4% and 39.8% respectively.Staphylococcus aureus were more common on admission wound swabs, with Pseudomonas aeruginosa becoming more evident after 10th day. MRSA was detected in 19.2% of Staphylococcus aureus. Conservative treatment was performed in 87.1% of cases. Surgical treatment mainly skin grafting (65.9% was performed in 44 (12.9% of patients. The overall average of the length of hospital stay (LOS was 22.12 ± 16.62 days. Mortality rate was 11.7%. Using multivariate logistic regression analysis; age of the patient, type of burn, delayed presentation, clothing ignition, %TBSA and severity of burn were found to be significantly associated with LOS (P P Conclusion Childhood burn injuries still remain a menace in our

  20. Epidemiological study on unintentional injuries among migrant children under six years old in four communities in Beijing%北京市4社区0~6岁流动儿童意外伤害的流行病学特征研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐韬; 张瑞; 梁艺; 宫丽敏; 王惠珊

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] To understand the situation of unintentional injuries among migrant children under six years old in Beijing and provide basis for future intervention. [Methods] Four migrant communities in Beijing were randomly selected to participate in the study. Questionnaire survey was conducted among parents of migrant children under six years old. Parents of resident children were also interviewed as the control group. The contents of the questionnaire survey included unintentional injuries related knowledge and behavior, occurrence of unintentional injuries in the previous year.[Results] The general incidences of unintentional injuries among migrant and resident children were 11.9% and 12.9% respectively. There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups(x2= 0. 119 ,P= 0. 730). The incidences of road traffic injuries, sharp instrument injuries, burns and bites were higher among migrant children than resident children. 40.5% of injuries among migrant children happened at home, 26.2% at outside activity spots, 33.3% at road sides or other outside places. 92.3% of injuries among resident children happened at home. The average time of hospital admission, rest time and medical cost due to injuries among migrant children were significant higher than those of the resident children. [Conclusions] There are specific epidemiological characters on unintentional injuries among migrant children under six years old in Beijing. The disease burden of unintentional injuries among migrant children is higher than resident children. Intervention methods should be taken to decrease the incidence and burden of unintentional injuries among migrant children.%[目的]为了解北京市0~6岁流动儿童意外伤害的发生现状,为干预措施提供依据.[方法]选择北京市流动人口集中的4个社区,对在社区居住的非京籍0~6岁儿童的家长进行问卷调查;同时对社区居住的京籍0~6岁儿童的家长进行调查,作

  1. Affect and State Dysregulation as Moderators of the Relationship between Childhood Sexual Abuse and Nonsuicidal Self-Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolen, Rebecca M.; Ramseyer Winter, Virginia; Hodges, Liz

    2013-01-01

    Nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) is a significant problem in both clinical and nonclinical populations. Affect and state dysregulation are frequently observed in survivors of childhood sexual abuse and in those who engage in NSSI. Both have been found to predict NSSI, and affect regulation has also been modeled as a mediator of NSSI. This study…

  2. Impact of Childhood Abuse on the Risk of Non-Suicidal Self-Injury in Mainland Chinese Adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhui Wan

    Full Text Available Childhood abuse has been associated with significant increases in non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI behaviors in adolescents; however, only general definitions of this risk indicator have been examined. This study identified relationships between specific forms of childhood abuse and NSSI in mainland Chinese adolescents.A total of 14,221 cases were retained from an epidemiological study involving adolescents from junior and senior middle schools. Information relating to the perpetrator, perceived harm, timing of exposure to different types of childhood abuse, and NSSI were obtained. Logistic regression was used to analyze relationships between each form of childhood abuse and NSSI.Approximately 51.0% of the students reported at least one abusive childhood experience. Nearly one in four students (24.9% reported that they had engaged in NSSI in the past 12 months. Each type of childhood abuse, occurring at any time within the first 16 years of life, especially in situations of continuous exposure, was significantly associated with NSSI. A significant graded relationship was found between number of abusive childhood experiences and NSSI. Students maltreated by parents or others were at high risk of engaging in NSSI, the risk was greater in students maltreated by both; students who had been exposed to childhood abuse with no perceived harm still demonstrated an elevated risk for NSSI. The pattern of associations did not vary by gender.These findings suggest that experiencing any of various forms of childhood abuse should be considered a risk factor for NSSI during adolescence. Further research should focus upon psychosocial, neural, and genetic factors that might moderate or mediate the onset of NSSI in adolescents who have experienced childhood abuse.

  3. Research on Unintentional Injuries and Its Affecting Factors in Preschool Children at Urban Area of Guiyang City%贵阳市城区2 193例学龄前儿童意外伤害及影响因素的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘玲; 刘筱娴; 文秋生; 王鸿娟; 李建芬; 鲁永辉

    2001-01-01

    【 Objective】 To find out the situation and influencing factors of unintentional injuries among preschool children at urban area in Guiyang city. 【Methods】 The descriptive epidemiology and case- control study was conducted among these chil drenin15kindergartens in Guiyang during1,April,98-31,Mar,99. 【Results】 The rate of injury was 24.76% with the boys ' higher than that of girls' (P < 0.05)and it rose very significanty with the chidren' s age went up.(P < 0.05) .The first threetypes of injuries were fall,collision and animal injuries.96.32% of injuries were mild and 3.68% were moderate. There was no disability and death. The analysis of single and multiple factors showed that the chileren' s unintentional injury were affected by following factors:fa ther' s age, the background of partent' s education, mother' s occupation, family pets, children' s nationality, persons taking care of chil dren, living floors and family average income. 【Conclusions】 The rate of children' s unintentional injury in Guiyang was high. The unintentionall injury was assoiated with many factors. It was a serious problem for Guiyang children.%【目的】了解贵阳市城区学龄前儿童意外伤害现况和影响因素。【方法】采用描述性流行病学和病例一对照研究的方法,对贵阳性市城区15所幼儿园的学龄前儿童在1998年4月1日~1999年3月31日期间发生的意外伤害情况和影响因素进行了研究。【结果】贵阳市城区学龄前儿童意外伤害发生率为24.76%,男童高于女童(P<0.05),意外伤害发生率随年龄增长而上升(P<0.05)。伤害类型前三位为:跌伤、撞伤、动物伤;96.32%的伤害为轻度,3.68%为中度,无1例伤残和死亡。单因素和多因素回归分析表明儿童意外伤害的发生受下列因素的影响:父亲年龄、父母文化程度、母亲职业、家庭宠物、儿童民族、儿童看护人、居住楼层、家庭人均收入等。

  4. 山西省某三甲医院意外伤害住院儿童疾病经济负担分析%Analysis on disease burden of unintentional injury among hospitalized children in a hospital of Shanxi Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋瑞娟; 王莉

    2015-01-01

    Objective To learn about the economic burden of hospital children with the unintentional injury in Changzhi based on a hospital,and to provide a scientific basis of health priorities for the region.Methods Children who had first unintentional injury and visited a hospital in Changzhi from August 1,2012 to July 31,2013 were enrolled into the study.A face-to-face interview was carried out and rank-sum test was adopted.Results The top five disease burden of unin-tentional injury were 439 192.72 Yuan (traffic accident),217 833.73 Yuan (fall),61 508.93 Yuan (poisoning), 36 118.76 Yuan (burning);15 380.19 Yuan (insect/animal bites).The total disease burden was 835 007.24 Yuan,di-rect economic burden accounted for 81.63%,indirect economic burden accounted for 18.39%.In the direct economic bur-den,hospitalization costs accounted for 80.05%.Average disease burden was 11 928.67 Yuan in each person.The economic burden of 10 -14 years old accounted for 51.87% of total economic burden.Conclusion Economic burden caused by un-intentional injury is considerable.Traffic accident damage is the heaviest damage reasons,followed by falling down.In all age group the heaviest economic burden is in 10 -14 years group.%目的:以山西省长治市某三甲医院为基点了解长治地区意外伤害住院儿童疾病经济负担,为确定本地区卫生工作重点提供科学依据。方法选取2012年8月1日—2013年7月31日首次住长治市某三甲医院的意外伤害儿童共70人作为研究对象,进行面对面调查,采用秩和检验。结果本组资料意外伤害的疾病负担,前5位的为交通事故439192.72元,跌落217833.73元,中毒61508.93元,烫伤36118.76元,昆虫/动物咬伤15380.19元。总疾病负担为835007.24元,直接经济负担占81.63%,间接经济负担占18.39%。其中直接经济负担中住院费用占80.05%。人均疾病经济负担11928.67元。10~14岁的经济负担占总经济负担的51.87%。结论

  5. Analysis on disease burden of unintentional injury among hospitalized children in a hospital of Shanxi Province%山西省某三甲医院意外伤害住院儿童疾病经济负担分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋瑞娟; 王莉

    2015-01-01

    Objective To learn about the economic burden of hospital children with the unintentional injury in Changzhi based on a hospital,and to provide a scientific basis of health priorities for the region.Methods Children who had first unintentional injury and visited a hospital in Changzhi from August 1,2012 to July 31,2013 were enrolled into the study.A face-to-face interview was carried out and rank-sum test was adopted.Results The top five disease burden of unin-tentional injury were 439 192.72 Yuan (traffic accident),217 833.73 Yuan (fall),61 508.93 Yuan (poisoning), 36 118.76 Yuan (burning);15 380.19 Yuan (insect/animal bites).The total disease burden was 835 007.24 Yuan,di-rect economic burden accounted for 81.63%,indirect economic burden accounted for 18.39%.In the direct economic bur-den,hospitalization costs accounted for 80.05%.Average disease burden was 11 928.67 Yuan in each person.The economic burden of 10 -14 years old accounted for 51.87% of total economic burden.Conclusion Economic burden caused by un-intentional injury is considerable.Traffic accident damage is the heaviest damage reasons,followed by falling down.In all age group the heaviest economic burden is in 10 -14 years group.%目的:以山西省长治市某三甲医院为基点了解长治地区意外伤害住院儿童疾病经济负担,为确定本地区卫生工作重点提供科学依据。方法选取2012年8月1日—2013年7月31日首次住长治市某三甲医院的意外伤害儿童共70人作为研究对象,进行面对面调查,采用秩和检验。结果本组资料意外伤害的疾病负担,前5位的为交通事故439192.72元,跌落217833.73元,中毒61508.93元,烫伤36118.76元,昆虫/动物咬伤15380.19元。总疾病负担为835007.24元,直接经济负担占81.63%,间接经济负担占18.39%。其中直接经济负担中住院费用占80.05%。人均疾病经济负担11928.67元。10~14岁的经济负担占总经济负担的51.87%。结论

  6. Outcomes in Adult Survivors of Childhood Burn Injuries as Compared with Matched Controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, James; Gawaziuk, Justin P; Khan, Sazzadul; Chateau, Dan; Bolton, James M; Sareen, Jitender; Enns, Jessica; Doupe, Malcolm; Brownell, Marni; Logsetty, Sarvesh

    2016-01-01

    Limited research exists examining long-term mental and physical health outcomes in adult survivors of pediatric burns. The authors examine the postinjury lifetime prevalence of common mental and physical disorders in a large pediatric burn cohort and compare the results with matched controls. Seven hundred and forty five survivors of childhood burns identified in the Burn Registry (1% between April 1, 1988 and March 31, 2010) were matched 1:5 to the general population based on age at time of injury (index date), sex, and geographic residence. Postinjury rate ratio (RR) was used to compare burn cases and control cohorts for common mental and physical illnesses through physician billings, and hospital claims. RR was adjusted for sex, rural residence, and income. Compared with matched controls, postburn cases had significantly higher RR of all mental disorders, which remained significant (P abuse RR = 2.3 [CL: 1.7-3.2], suicide attempt RR = 4.3 [CL: 1.6-12.1], or any mental disorder RR = 1.5 [CL: 1.3-1.8]). The relative rate of some physical illnesses was also significantly increased in burn survivors: arthritis RR = 1.2 (CL: 1.1-1.4), fractures RR = 1.4 (CL: 1.2-1.6), total respiratory morbidity RR = 1.1 (CL: 1.02-1.3), and any physical illness RR = 1.2 (CL: 1.1-1.3). Adult survivors of childhood burn injury have significantly increased rates of postburn mental and physical illnesses. Screening and appropriate management of these illnesses is essential when caring for this population. PMID:26594866

  7. Parental educational level and injury incidence and mortality among foreign-born children: a cohort study with 46 years follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Beiki

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Background: Injury risk during childhood and adolescence vary depending on socio-economic factors. The aim of this study was to study if the risk of fatal and non-fatal unintentional injuries among foreign-born children was similar across parental educational level or not. Methods: In this retrospective cohort study we followed 907,335 children between 1961 and 2007 in Sweden. We established the cohort by linkage between Swedish national registers including cause of death register and in-patient register, through unique Personal Identification Numbers. The main exposure variable was parental (maternal and paternal educational level. The cohorts was followed from start date of follow-up period, or date of birth whichever occurred last, until exit date from the cohort, which was date of hospitalization or death due to unintentional injury, first emigration, death due to other causes than injury or end of follow-up, whichever came first. We calculated hazard ratios (HR with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI by Cox proportional hazards regression models. Results: Overall, we found 705 and 78,182 cases of death and hospitalization due to unintentional injuries, respectively. Risk of death and hospitalization due to unintentional injuries was statistically significantly 1.48 (95% CI: 1.24-1.78 and 1.10 (95% CI: 1.08-1.12 times higher among children with lowest parental educational level (9 years and shorter years of study compared to children with highest parental educational level (+13 years of study. We found similar results when stratified our study group by sex of children, by maternal and paternal educational level separately, and injury type (traffic-related, fall, poisoning, burn and drowning. Conclusions: It seems injury prevention work against unintentional injuries is less effective among children with low parental education compared with those with higher parental education. We recommend designing specific preventive interventions

  8. Exploring the King’s outcome scale for childhood head injury in children attending a rehabilitation hospital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rumney, Peter; Hung, Ryan; McAdam, Laura;

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Few tools exist to assess and monitor impairment and disability in children with acquired brain injury. The King’s Outcome Scale for Childhood Head Injury (KOSCHI) was developed as an alternative to the Glasgow Outcome Scale. However, limited information is available to support its...... reliability, validity and responsiveness. A pilot study was designed to (1) develop a KOSCHI data collection form; and (2) determine the feasibility of studying its intra-rater and inter-rater reliability in children with acquired brain injury. Methods: A KOSCHI data collection form was developed after...... reviewing the literature. Two paediatricians and one paediatric neurologist tested its use in a clinical setting and the form was modified. As a pilot study, a rehabilitation paediatrician then assessed 10 children (aged 5–18 years) with acquired brain injuries (six traumatic, four non...

  9. Specificity of childhood maltreatment and emotion deficit in nonsuicidal self-injury in an inpatient sample of youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomassin, Kristel; Shaffer, Anne; Madden, Amber; Londino, Donna L

    2016-10-30

    The present study investigated the function of two specific emotion-related skills, emotion expressivity and emotion coping, as potential mediators in the relations between childhood sexual, physical, and emotional abuse and NSSI. A robust body of work supports the role of emotion regulation in nonsuicidal self-injury, but additional research is warranted to tease apart the role of specific emotion regulation deficits as predictors of NSSI. Participants included 95 youth (Mage=14.22, SDage=1.67; 58% female) hospitalized on one of two acute care psychiatric inpatient units. Participants completed self-report questionnaires related to childhood experiences of trauma, current emotion expressivity and coping, and lifetime frequency of NSSI. Path analytic models indicated that only child emotional abuse was directly associated with NSSI when all abuse subtypes were examined simultaneously. Results also indicated that poor emotion expressivity, but not emotion coping, mediated the relation between childhood experiences of emotional abuse and NSSI. PMID:27479099

  10. Prevalence and predictors of mental disorders in intentionally and unintentionally injured emergency centre patients

    OpenAIRE

    van der Westhuizen, Claire; Wyatt, Gail; Williams, John K.; Stein, Dan J.; Sorsdahl, Katherine

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the prevalence and predictors of mental disorders amongst injured emergency centre (EC) patients in low- and middle-income countries. Patients presenting with either an intentional or unintentional injury were recruited (n=200). Mental health, injury and psychological trauma histories were assessed. Descriptive statistics and logistic regressions were conducted and predictors for current mental disorder were identified. Diagnostic criteria for a current mental disorder, ...

  11. Menace of childhood non-accidental traumatic brain injuries: A single unit report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musa Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Childhood traumatic brain injury (TBI has high rate of mortality and morbidity worldwide. There are dearths of reports from developing countries with large paediatric population on trauma; neurosurgery trauma of nonaccidental origin is not an exemption. This study analysed menace of non-accidental TBI in the paediatric population from our center. Materials and Methods: This is a single unit, retrospective study of the epidemiology of non-accidental TBI in children starting from September, 2008 to March, 2014. The management outcomes of the epidemiology of the non-accidental TBI were analysed. Results: Total of 109 children age range from 0 (intra-natal to 16 years with a mean of 5.8 ± 4.6 years (median, 5 years were enrolled into the study. 34 (31.2% were domestic violence, 26 (23.9% street assaults, 16 (14.7% were due to animal assaults and mishaps, 17 (15.6% fall from heights. Seven (6.4% cases of collapsed buildings were also seen during the period. Four (3.7% industrial accidents and two (1.8% were self-inflicted injuries. There were also three (2.8% cases of iatrogenic TBI out of which two infants (1.8% sustained TBI from cesarean section procedure while one patient (0.9% under general anaesthesia felt from the operation bed resulting to severe TBI. Conclusion: Child abuse, unprotected child labour, parental/care-givers negligence are the main cause of nonaccidental TBI. Human right activists and government agents should be incorporated in curtailing the menace.

  12. Evaluation on peer education of unintentional injury prevention among children living with migrant-worker parents in Shanghai%上海市农民工同住子女意外伤害同伴教育效果初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王剑; 顾沈兵; 赵爱珍; 温鼎来; 金伟; 陈德; 吕姿之

    2011-01-01

    目的 评价上海市农民工同住子女意外伤害同伴教育的效果,为探讨预防意外伤害的健康教育方法提供依据.方法 选取上海市4所民工子弟学校,各抽取1个班级,共4个班级.其中2个班级共100人为干预组;另2个班级,共102人为对照组.在教育前、教育后使用相同问卷各进行1次调查.结果 开展同伴教育后,干预组知识评分中位数从7分上升到8分,安全行为意向评分中位数从5分上升到8分,干预组组内、干预组较对照组组间的意外伤害知识评分、安全行为意向评分均有明显提升(P<0.01).干预组在"骑车带人危险"、"宠物咬伤后有严重后果"、"流动小吃摊不卫生"知识的知晓率均为99.0%,高于对照组(P<0.05).结论 在小学生农民工同住子女中开展意外伤害的同伴教育,是可行而有效的.%Objective To evaluate the effects of peer education program of unintentional injury prevention among children living with migrant-worker parents in Shanghai, and to provide basis for health education of unintentional injury prevention. Methods Four schools of migrant-worker' s children in Shanghai were selected as sample schools. One class was selected from each school. One hundred students from two classes were selected as intervention groups, and 102 students from the other two classes were selected as control group. The same questionnaire was conducted before and after the program to evaluate the effects. Results After the peer education, the median scores on knowledge, safe behavior intention of intervention group rose from 7 to 8, 5 to 8 respectively. They increased significantly compared with pre-interven-tion and control group ( P < 0. 01). The awareness rates of intervention group were higher than control group such as ' carrying person to ride is risky' , ' being bitten by pets is dangerous' , ' roadside food stands is unhygienic' ( P < 0. 05 ). And they were all 99. 0%. Conclusion Peer education for

  13. 46 CFR 28.580 - Unintentional flooding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... the engineroom, must be assumed to be flooded. (f) Survival conditions. A vessel is presumed to... COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY UNINSPECTED VESSELS REQUIREMENTS FOR COMMERCIAL FISHING INDUSTRY VESSELS Stability § 28.580 Unintentional flooding. (a) Applicability. Except for an open boat...

  14. Neonatal encephalopathic cerebral injury in South India assessed by perinatal magnetic resonance biomarkers and early childhood neurodevelopmental outcome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J Lally

    Full Text Available Although brain injury after neonatal encephalopathy has been characterised well in high-income countries, little is known about such injury in low- and middle-income countries. Such injury accounts for an estimated 1 million neonatal deaths per year. We used magnetic resonance (MR biomarkers to characterise perinatal brain injury, and examined early childhood outcomes in South India.We recruited consecutive term or near term infants with evidence of perinatal asphyxia and a Thompson encephalopathy score ≥6 within 6 h of birth, over 6 months. We performed conventional MR imaging, diffusion tensor MR imaging and thalamic proton MR spectroscopy within 3 weeks of birth. We computed group-wise differences in white matter fractional anisotropy (FA using tract based spatial statistics. We allocated Sarnat encephalopathy stage aged 3 days, and evaluated neurodevelopmental outcomes aged 3½ years using Bayley III.Of the 54 neonates recruited, Sarnat staging was mild in 30 (56%; moderate in 15 (28% and severe in 6 (11%, with no encephalopathy in 3 (6%. Six infants died. Of the 48 survivors, 44 had images available for analysis. In these infants, imaging indicated perinatal rather than established antenatal origins to injury. Abnormalities were frequently observed in white matter (n = 40, 91% and cortex (n = 31, 70% while only 12 (27% had abnormal basal ganglia/thalami. Reduced white matter FA was associated with Sarnat stage, deep grey nuclear injury, and MR spectroscopy N-acetylaspartate/choline, but not early Thompson scores. Outcome data were obtained in 44 infants (81% with 38 (79% survivors examined aged 3½ years; of these, 16 (42% had adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes.No infants had evidence for established brain lesions, suggesting potentially treatable perinatal origins. White matter injury was more common than deep brain nuclei injury. Our results support the need for rigorous evaluation of the efficacy of rescue hypothermic

  15. Intervention effect comparison of lecture, parent-child education and network on family unintentional injury among pre-school children' s parents%成都市三种形式健康教育对儿童家庭意外伤害干预效果比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓燕; 刘熹; 夏劲节; 田红梅; 邱孟

    2013-01-01

    Objective To compare intervention effect of lecture, parent-child education and network on family un-intentional injury among pre-school children' s parents, and provide suggestions for reducing family unintentional injury inci-dence. Methods Stratified cluster sampling method was used to select 1747 pre-school children' s parents in 9 kindergar-tens to join the intervention. Effectiveness evaluation was carried out after 1 week. Results Lecture, parent-child educa-tion and network interventions showed different effect on knowledge and behavior changes. The awareness rates of furniture supplies safety and macrobiotic knowledge in network intervention group were 15. 37% and 34. 63% , higher than that of oth-er two groups. The rate of correct drug select in lecture group (12. 63% ) was highest. The prevalence of eating behavior in parent-child education group (33. 28% ) and network group (32. 43% ) were higher than that in lecture group (30. 62% ). The rates of correct behaviors of using scissors and eating habit in network were 34. 29% and 86. 66% , respectively. The rate of no playing in kitchen in lecture group (29. 07% ) was highest in three groups (P <0. 05). Conclusion Internet in-tervention in health education plays an important role in reducing family unintentional injury. Various methods should be car-ried out among pre-school children to help them establish safety habit,and then reduce the rate of unintentional injury in fu-ture.%目的 比较授课、亲子教育及网络干预方式对儿童家庭意外伤害的干预效果,为降低儿童家庭意外伤害发生率提供建议.方法 采用分层整群抽样方法,选取成都市9所幼儿园的幼儿家长1747名参加干预活动,在干预后1周采用问卷进行效果评价.结果 在安全知识中,家居用品安全检查最重要的五方面和抗生素治疗的病原类型,网络干预组知晓率最高,分别为15.37%和34.63%;药物的正确选择上,教师讲解组知晓率最高(12.63

  16. Study on the Knowledge,Attitude and Practice and Influencing Factors of Unintentional Injuries among Parents of Migrant Children in Guangzhou City%广州地区学龄前流动儿童家长意外伤害知信行现状及相关因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘慧燕; 查达永; 杨丽; 林穗方; 邱琇

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the knowledge,attitude and practice (KAP)and influencing factors of unin-tentional injuries among parents of migrant children,and to provide evidences for the prevention and control of the injury.Methods Random cluster sample of 3 to 6years old migrant children were chosen.The children's parents were surveyed with questionnaire to obtain the information regarding the KAP on children injury.Results The KAP scores respectively was 6.37±1.1 1,4.77±0.56 and 18.13±2.1 9.74.78% of the parents realized that injury was the leading cause of being disabled and death among children under 14 years old,99.34% were eager to get health education about injury.78.87% of the parents hadn't been trained for injury prevention.The main way they got knowledge about injury were from TV or internet (37.87%).The prevalence of their injury-related practice was from 23.03% to 98.1 6%.Multi-factor logistic regression analysis showed that gender and education level of par-ents,family relationship,level of received injury education,monthly income and per capita living space could affect the KAP score.Conclusions Health education and behavior intervention should be carried out based on the charac-teristics of the floating population to prevent children's injury.%目的:了解广州地区学龄前流动儿童家长的意外伤害相关知识、态度和行为情况,分析影响因素,为探索流动儿童伤害的干预策略研究提供依据。方法采用随机整群抽样法对广州市3~6岁流动儿童家长进行伤害的知信行(KAP)调查。结果流动儿童家长 KAP 评分分别为6.37±1.11,4.77±0.56和18.13±2.19。74.78%的家长正确回答了伤害是14岁以下儿童死亡和伤残的最主要原因;99.34%的家长认为有必要对孩子进行安全知识教育;78.87%的家长表示没有接受过预防儿童伤害的培训,获得伤害知识主要来自电视或网络(37.87%)。预防儿童伤害相关正确行为形成率为23.03%~98.16%,

  17. Self versus Family Ratings of the Frontal Systems Behaviour Scale and Measured Executive Functions: Adult Outcomes following Childhood Traumatic Brain Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Barrett, Robert D.; McLellan, Tracey L.; Audrey McKinlay

    2013-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) frequently occurs during childhood and adolescence with long-term neuropsychological and behavioral effects. Greater personal awareness of injury is associated with better outcomes. However, personal awareness is often assessed using ratings obtained from family members or significant others. Surprisingly, the accuracy of family-ratings compared with self-ratings has not been well studied in the TBI population. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine self v...

  18. 广州地区3-6岁流动儿童意外伤害综合干预效果评价%Intervention Effect Evaluation of Unintentional Injuries among Migrant Children Aged 3 to 6 Years old in Guangzhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘慧燕; 查达永; 杨丽; 林穗方

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the intervention effect of migrant children’ s injury, and to provide evidence for the injury prevention and control.Methods:A random cluster sample of migrant children aged 3-6 years old was chosen.Evaluation was conducted with method of com-parison between before and after intervention.Results:The incidence rate of unintentional injuries for children decreased from 34.97%before in-tervention to 29.44% after intervention (P<0.05).The total average score was (25.74 ±2.23)before intervention to (27.15 ±2.13)after in-tervention (P<0.05), and the average scores of KAP increased respectively(P<0.05).After intervention, 11 items decreased significantly a-mong 19 items of high-risk behavior about injury(P<0.05).Conclusion:Family-school-community comprehensive intervention model could improve the level of the injury knowledge and attitude of the parents, reduce the risk behavior and the injury incidence rate of children.%目的:评价广州地区学龄前流动儿童伤害干预效果,为流动儿童的伤害控制策略提供依据。方法:采用随机整群抽样法对广州市3-6岁流动儿童进行伤害调查,并通过干预前后对照,评价干预效果。结果:学龄前流动儿童伤害发生率由干预前的34.97%下降至29.44%,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。儿童家长意外伤害总分从(25.74±2.23)分提高到(27.15±2.13)分,其中知识得分、态度得分、行为得分均有显著提高(均P<0.05)。干预后,19项伤害危险行为中有11项显著降低( P<0.05)。结论:家庭-学校-社区三位一体综合干预模式可有效提高流动儿童家长对意外伤害的认知率,改善相关信念,并减少危险行为,降低伤害发生率。

  19. The Development of Emotion and Empathy Skills after Childhood Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonks, James; Slater, Alan; Frampton, Ian; Wall, Sarah E.; Yates, Phil; Williams, W. Huw

    2009-01-01

    Lasting socio-emotional behaviour difficulties are common among children who have suffered brain injuries. A proportion of difficulties may be attributed to impaired cognitive and/or executive skills after injury. A recent and rapidly accruing body of literature indicates that deficits in recognizing and responding to the emotions of others are…

  20. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound in non-operative management of pancreatic injury in childhood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valentino, Massimo; Sartoni Galloni, Stefania; Rimondi, Maria Rita; Barozzi, Libero [University Hospital S. Orsola-Malpighi, Emergency Department, Bologna (Italy); Gentili, Andrea [University Hospital S. Orsola-Malpighi, Department of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care, Bologna (Italy); Lima, Mario [University Hospital S. Orsola-Malpighi, Department of Paediatrics, Bologna (Italy)

    2006-06-15

    We report a 5-year-old child with pancreatic trauma from a blunt abdominal injury that was monitored with contrast-enhanced sonography. Unenhanced US failed to demonstrate the abnormality that was recognized by CT and MRI. The injury was well demonstrated by contrast-enhanced US which was therefore used for follow-up until its healing. (orig.)

  1. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound in non-operative management of pancreatic injury in childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report a 5-year-old child with pancreatic trauma from a blunt abdominal injury that was monitored with contrast-enhanced sonography. Unenhanced US failed to demonstrate the abnormality that was recognized by CT and MRI. The injury was well demonstrated by contrast-enhanced US which was therefore used for follow-up until its healing. (orig.)

  2. Unintentional child neglect: literature review and observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Emily; Billick, Stephen B

    2015-06-01

    Child abuse is a problem that affects over six million children in the United States each year. Child neglect accounts for 78% of those cases. Despite this, the issue of child neglect is still not well understood, partially because child neglect does not have a consistent, universally accepted definition. Some researchers consider child neglect and child abuse to be one in the same, while other researchers consider them to be conceptually different. Factors that make child neglect difficult to define include: (1) Cultural differences; motives must be taken into account because parents may believe they are acting in the child's best interests based on cultural beliefs (2) the fact that the effect of child abuse is not always immediately visible; the effects of emotional neglect specifically may not be apparent until later in the child's development, and (3) the large spectrum of actions that fall under the category of child abuse. Some of the risk factors for increased child neglect and maltreatment have been identified. These risk factors include socioeconomic status, education level, family composition, and the presence of dysfunction family characteristics. Studies have found that children from poorer families and children of less educated parents are more likely to sustain fatal unintentional injuries than children of wealthier, better educated parents. Studies have also found that children living with adults unrelated to them are at increased risk for unintentional injuries and maltreatment. Dysfunctional family characteristics may even be more indicative of child neglect. Parental alcohol or drug abuse, parental personal history of neglect, and parental stress greatly increase the odds of neglect. Parental depression doubles the odds of child neglect. However, more research needs to be done to better understand these risk factors and to identify others. Having a clearer understanding of the risk factors could lead to prevention and treatment, as it would allow

  3. Accidental firearm injury in childhood--a predictor of social and medical outcome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponzer, S; Bergman, B; Brismar, B; Johansson, S E

    1997-09-01

    This paper reports register data on a consecutive series of 141 children and teenagers hospitalized due to firearm injuries during a 21-year period in a community with restrictive firearm laws. Most of the injuries were minor and hospitalization was short. Shot by an air gun resulting in an eye injury was the most frequent reason for hospitalization. The patients hospitalized due to firearm injuries were compared with a control group composed of 141 individuals matched pair-wise for sex and age. The total morbidity during the follow-up period of on average 10 years was higher among patients compared with controls concerning both somatic diseases and injuries. All cases of severe psychopathology were found in the patient group. Criminality was higher among patients compared with controls and the former were younger at the time of the first crime compared with the latter. This study indicates that, irrespective of firearm laws, young people suffering from firearm injuries, even if the injury is classified as accidental, run a higher risk of becoming psychosocially disadvantaged and criminal as adults. This makes preventative measures highly necessary not only from a societal point of view, but also to avoid individual suffering in this high-risk group of youngsters. PMID:9426991

  4. Repercussões no contexto familiar de injúrias não-intencionais em crianças - DOI: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.1087 The repercussion from unintentional injuries in children on the family context - DOI: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.1087

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirna Albuquerque Frota

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desta pesquisa é estudar as características da criança como vítima de injúrias não-intencionais e seu familiar-acompanhante, descrever as repercussões dessas injúrias na família e identificar a concepção de familiares-acompanhantes sobre fatores de risco no domicílio e o conhecimento de práticas preventivas. Estudo descritivo, realizado com 29 familiares e/ou acompanhantes de crianças internadas em um hospital de emergência, em Fortaleza, Ceará, em 2005. A maioria das crianças tinha entre 5 a 10 anos, do sexo masculino, e prevaleceu a injúria no trânsito. Em relação aos acompanhantes, predominou renda de até um salário mínimo e eles afirmaram que conhecem os tipos mais comuns de injúrias com crianças e os modos de evitá-los. As repercussões atingem as dimensões emocionais, econômicas e sociais, somando-se verbalizações de medo, culpa e arrependimento, protesto e resignação. Conclui-se que o tema precisa ser amplamente discutido, mobilizando pessoas em instâncias formadoras de opiniões para reorientação da práxis na Saúde e EducaçãoThe objective of this work is to study the characteristics of the child when victim of unintentional injury, as well as those of his family caregiver. This was accomplished by describing the repercussion of those injuries in the family and identifying the family caregivers’ conception of risk factors in the home, as well as their knowledge of preventive practices. A descriptive study was conducted with 29 relatives or caregivers of injured children at an emergency hospital in Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil, in 2005. Most of the children were between 5 and 10 years old and were male; the most prevalent instances of injury were traffic-related. Regarding the caregivers, the most prevalent income range for this group was up to minimum wage. They reported knowing the most frequent types of injuries to children, as well as the ways to avoid them. The repercussions within the

  5. Unintentional Learning and the Occupational Health and Safety Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodge, R. Bruce

    1998-01-01

    Evidence from the occupational safety and health field suggests that much unintentional learning takes place in the workplace that is not a result of conscious decisions and lacks critical reflection. Such learning may have negative consequences. Action can be taken to identify and mitigate the effects of unintentional learning. (SK)

  6. Suicide Probability in Adolescents With a History of Childhood Maltreatment: The Role of Non-Suicidal Self-Injury, Emotion Regulation Difficulties, and Forms of Self-Criticism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khanipour

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Suicidal attempt and non-suicidal self-injury are very common in adolescents with a history of childhood maltreatment. By identifying correlates of these kinds of high-risk behaviors, it is possible to prevent and decrease completed suicide. Objectives The aims of this study were: 1 to compare adolescents with a history of childhood maltreatment with non-suicidal self injury (NSSI or past suicidal attempt in terms of suicide probability, and 2 to investigate the association between NSSI, forms of self-criticism, emotion regulation difficulties, and suicide probability. Patients and Methods Participants were 169 adolescents living in Iranian social welfare centers who had a history of childhood maltreatment. The Suicide Probability Scale, Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale, Forms of Self-criticism, and the Non-Suicidal Self injury (NSSI checklist were used for assessment. Results Adolescents with NSSI and suicidal attempts had higher rates of suicide ideation than adolescents with NSSI-only (P < 0.05. Feelings of inadequacy, self-hatred, difficulty with impulse control, and frequency of NSSI can predict 50% variance of suicide probability (P < 0.001. Conclusions Adolescents with histories of suicidal attempts and NSSI, compared with adolescents with NSSI-only, were more prone to suicide. Self-criticism, poor impulse control, and the frequency of NSSI were the main risk factors associated with suicide probability in adolescents with a history of childhood maltreatment.

  7. Brain and head injury in infancy and childhood; Schaedel- und Hirntrauma im Kindesalter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Struffert, T. [Abteilung fuer Neuroradiologie, Radiologische Klinik, Universitaet des Saarlandes, Homburg, Saar (Germany); Abteilung fuer Neuroradiologie, Radiologische Klinik, Universitaet des Saarlandes, 66421, Homburg, Saar (Germany); Grunwald, I.; Reith, W. [Abteilung fuer Neuroradiologie, Radiologische Klinik, Universitaet des Saarlandes, Homburg, Saar (Germany)

    2003-11-01

    This article describes typical head injuries in infants and children. In comparison with adults there are distinct differences in the etiology of trauma and in the kind of reaction of the skull and brain. In infants and children there are three different types of trauma: birth trauma, accidental and non-accidental injury. The typical injuries in these three groups are described. (orig.) [German] In diesem Beitrag werden die typischen Schaedel- und Hirnverletzungen bei Kindern zusammengefasst. Bei diesen bestehen im Vergleich zu Erwachsenen deutliche Unterschiede in der Aetiologie und der Reaktion der Kalotte und des Gehirns auf ein Trauma. Bezueglich der Aetiologie kann unterschieden werden in Geburtstrauma, akzidentelles und nichtakzidentelles Trauma. Die typischen Verletzungen dieser 3 Gruppen werden ausfuehrlich beschrieben. (orig.)

  8. Executive Functions and Theory of Mind as Predictors of Social Adjustment in Childhood Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fountain-Zaragoza, Stephanie; Dennis, Maureen; Taylor, H. Gerry; Bigler, Erin D.; Rubin, Kenneth; Vannatta, Kathryn; Gerhardt, Cynthia A.; Stancin, Terry; Yeates, Keith Owen

    2014-01-01

    Abstract This study examined whether executive function and theory of mind mediate the effects of pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI) on social adjustment, relative to children with orthopedic injury (OI). Participants included 19 children with severe TBI, 41 children with complicated mild/moderate TBI, and 57 children with OI. They completed measures of executive function, as well as cognitive, affective, and conative theory of mind. Parents provided ratings of children's social adjustment. Children with severe TBI performed more poorly than children with OI on executive function and theory of mind tasks and were rated by parents as having more behavioral symptoms and worse communication and social skills. Executive function and theory of mind were positively correlated with social skills and communication skills, and negatively correlated with behavioral symptoms. In multiple mediator models, theory of mind and executive function were not significant direct predictors of any measure of social adjustment, but mediated the association between injury and adjustment for children with severe TBI. Theory of mind was a significant independent mediator when predicting social skills, but executive function was not. TBI in children, particularly severe injury, is associated with poor social adjustment. The impact of TBI on children's social adjustment is likely mediated by its effects on executive function and theory of mind. PMID:25003478

  9. Evidence for unintentional emotional contagion beyond dyads.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Dezecache

    Full Text Available Little is known about the spread of emotions beyond dyads. Yet, it is of importance for explaining the emergence of crowd behaviors. Here, we experimentally addressed whether emotional homogeneity within a crowd might result from a cascade of local emotional transmissions where the perception of another's emotional expression produces, in the observer's face and body, sufficient information to allow for the transmission of the emotion to a third party. We reproduced a minimal element of a crowd situation and recorded the facial electromyographic activity and the skin conductance response of an individual C observing the face of an individual B watching an individual A displaying either joy or fear full body expressions. Critically, individual B did not know that she was being watched. We show that emotions of joy and fear displayed by A were spontaneously transmitted to C through B, even when the emotional information available in B's faces could not be explicitly recognized. These findings demonstrate that one is tuned to react to others' emotional signals and to unintentionally produce subtle but sufficient emotional cues to induce emotional states in others. This phenomenon could be the mark of a spontaneous cooperative behavior whose function is to communicate survival-value information to conspecifics.

  10. A STUDY TO ASSESS THE KNOWLEDGE OF RURAL MOTHERS REGARDING COMMON DOMESTIC CHILDHOOD INJURIES AND HOME-SAFETY MEASURES ADOPTED BY THEM IN WEST DISTRICT OF TRIPURA, INDIA

    OpenAIRE

    Manjulika; Taranga; Amar

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Fragile, helpless and innocent, an infant enters the world completely dependent on its caretakers. The house is an exciting place for infants and small children, who love to explore but aren’t aware of the potential dangers. OBJECTIVES: To assess knowledge of mothers regarding domestic childhood injuries and safety measures adopted by them. METHODOLOGY: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 230 rural mothers of west Tripura district during May to June 201...

  11. The effect of health education to cognitive and behavioral of the kindergarten children and their parents on unintentional injuries%健康教育对托幼机构儿童及其家长意外伤害认知和行为的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    覃凌智; 彭安娜; 陈忠; 陈娟; 郭丹; 张斌

    2012-01-01

    目的:探索健康教育在有效预防托幼机构儿童意外伤害中的作用.方法:随机抽取武汉2所幼儿园大、中、小班各2个班3~6岁托幼机构儿童共181名,并将其家长作为调查对象,采用自行编写印制的书籍、儿歌、游戏模具、故事、主题活动、讲座等形式,分别在开展健康教育前后对儿童及其家长进行两次问卷调查.结果:健康教育后,儿童及其家长在儿童乘车安全知识、烫伤、发现煤气泄漏、鼻腔塞入异物的处理、对剪刀、打火机、电插座等有可能造成伤害物品的识别、交通安全等方面的回答正确率均显著增高,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05或P<0.01),在幼儿单独在家时的安全知识、防止跌落等方面的回答正确率也较健康教育前有所提高,但差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论:健康教育干预可明显改善家长和儿童意外伤害的认知和行为.%Objective: To explore the role of health education in effectively preventing unintenlional injury of kindergarten children. Methods: A total of 181 children aged 3-6 and their parents were randomly selected from large, medium and small classes of two kindergartens in Wuhan Health education included self ?published books, songs, games, story, theme activities, lectures and others The investigation was maken in the children and their parents before and after the health education. Results: After health education, answering correct rates of children and their parents in child car safety knowledge, burns, found a gas leak, nasal foreign body inserted into the handling of scissors, cigarette lighters, power outlets and other items may cause harm to the identification, traffic safety and other aspects were significantly higher (P 0. 05) . Conclusion; Health education can significantly improve cognitive and behavioral of children and their parents on unintentional injuries.

  12. Language development following brain injury in early childhood: a longitudinal case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trudeau, N; Poulin-Dubois, D; Joanette, Y

    2000-01-01

    The present longitudinal case study was designed to investigate the possibility that a traumatic brain injury (TBI) occurring during the second year of life, while significant lexical and grammatical competencies are emerging, could have an impact on subsequent language development. Thus, the language development of a very young girl (BL) who suffered a TBI at the age of 17 months was monitored for 6 months following the injury. Different procedures were used to measure her lexical and grammatical development: monthly parental checklists, free-play sessions and word-learning tasks. BL's results were compared with two control groups (n = 5 and 9) matched for age and gender. Overall, the results are consistent with the classical view of acquired language disorders in children: despite an initial decrease in the use of her premorbid vocabulary, BL showed no durable significant impairment on any measure of lexical or grammatical development. PMID:10912253

  13. Neuroimaging for non-accidental head injury in childhood: A proposed protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaspan, T.; Griffiths, P.D.; McConachie, N.S.; Punt, J.A.G

    2003-01-01

    Non-accidental head injury (NAHI) is a major cause of neurological disability and death during infancy. Radiological imaging plays a crucial role in evaluating craniospinal injury, both for guiding medical management and the forensic aspects of abusive trauma. The damage sustained is varied, complex and may be accompanied by an evolving pattern of brain injury secondary to a cascade of metabolic and physiological derangements. Regrettably, many cases are poorly or incompletely evaluated leading to diagnostic errors and difficulties in executing subsequent child care or criminal proceedings. It is evident, from cases referred to the authors, that imaging protocols for NAHI are lacking (or only loosely adhered to, if present) in many centres throughout the U.K. Future research in this field will also be hampered if there is a lack of consistent and reliable radiological data. There is no nationally agreed protocol for imaging NAHI. We propose such a protocol, based upon a wide experience in the medical management of child abuse and extensive involvement in the medicolegal aspects of NAHI. Jaspan, T., et al. (2003). Clinical Radiology58, 44--53.

  14. Neuroimaging for non-accidental head injury in childhood: A proposed protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Non-accidental head injury (NAHI) is a major cause of neurological disability and death during infancy. Radiological imaging plays a crucial role in evaluating craniospinal injury, both for guiding medical management and the forensic aspects of abusive trauma. The damage sustained is varied, complex and may be accompanied by an evolving pattern of brain injury secondary to a cascade of metabolic and physiological derangements. Regrettably, many cases are poorly or incompletely evaluated leading to diagnostic errors and difficulties in executing subsequent child care or criminal proceedings. It is evident, from cases referred to the authors, that imaging protocols for NAHI are lacking (or only loosely adhered to, if present) in many centres throughout the U.K. Future research in this field will also be hampered if there is a lack of consistent and reliable radiological data. There is no nationally agreed protocol for imaging NAHI. We propose such a protocol, based upon a wide experience in the medical management of child abuse and extensive involvement in the medicolegal aspects of NAHI. Jaspan, T., et al. (2003). Clinical Radiology58, 44--53

  15. Children’s Understanding of No Diving Warning Signs: Implications for Preventing Childhood Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrongiello, Barbara A.; Cox, Amanda; Scott, Rachel; Sutey, Sarah E.

    2016-01-01

    The current study examined children’s understanding of No Diving warning signs. Normally-developing 7 to 10 year olds were asked questions to assess their understanding of text, images, and main messages on No Diving warning signs. These structured interviews were audio recorded and responses were later coded. Results revealed that children understood the behavior advised against (diving), why it is prohibited (can hit head on the bottom), and what can happen (serious injury including hospitalization). They understood that breaking your neck results in limitations in mobility and can occur from diving, but they did not anticipate that such an injury is likely to occur. There were no gender and few age differences, but diving experience was associated with children significantly downplaying their risk of injury. The findings suggest that having No Diving warning signs explicitly mention a broken neck, may serve to remind children of this potential consequence at the time of decision making. Active adult supervision is particularly important for children who have prior positive diving experiences. PMID:27399739

  16. Children's Understanding of No Diving Warning Signs: Implications for Preventing Childhood Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrongiello, Barbara A; Cox, Amanda; Scott, Rachel; Sutey, Sarah E

    2016-01-01

    The current study examined children's understanding of No Diving warning signs. Normally-developing 7 to 10 year olds were asked questions to assess their understanding of text, images, and main messages on No Diving warning signs. These structured interviews were audio recorded and responses were later coded. Results revealed that children understood the behavior advised against (diving), why it is prohibited (can hit head on the bottom), and what can happen (serious injury including hospitalization). They understood that breaking your neck results in limitations in mobility and can occur from diving, but they did not anticipate that such an injury is likely to occur. There were no gender and few age differences, but diving experience was associated with children significantly downplaying their risk of injury. The findings suggest that having No Diving warning signs explicitly mention a broken neck, may serve to remind children of this potential consequence at the time of decision making. Active adult supervision is particularly important for children who have prior positive diving experiences. PMID:27399739

  17. Children’s Understanding of No Diving Warning Signs: Implications for Preventing Childhood Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara A. Morrongiello

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The current study examined children’s understanding of No Diving warning signs. Normally-developing 7 to 10 year olds were asked questions to assess their understanding of text, images, and main messages on No Diving warning signs. These structured interviews were audio recorded and responses were later coded. Results revealed that children understood the behavior advised against (diving, why it is prohibited (can hit head on the bottom, and what can happen (serious injury including hospitalization. They understood that breaking your neck results in limitations in mobility and can occur from diving, but they did not anticipate that such an injury is likely to occur. There were no gender and few age differences, but diving experience was associated with children significantly downplaying their risk of injury. The findings suggest that having No Diving warning signs explicitly mention a broken neck, may serve to remind children of this potential consequence at the time of decision making. Active adult supervision is particularly important for children who have prior positive diving experiences.

  18. Strangulation injury from indigenous rocking cradle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saha Abhijeet

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Indigenously made rocking cradle is frequently used in rural India. We report strangulation from an indigenously made rocking cradle in an 11-month-old female child. The unique mode of injury and its mechanism have been discussed. Strangulation is an important cause of homicidal and suicidal injury in adults but in children it is usually accidental leading to death due to asphyxia as a result of partial hanging. In western countries, it is the third most common cause of accidental childhood deaths, 17% of them being due to ropes and cords. It ranks fourth amongst the causes of unintentional injury in children less than 1 year of age following roadside accidents, drowning and burns. However, in India, strangulation injury is under reported although indigenous rocking cradles are very commonly used in rural India, and they are even more dangerous than the cribs and adult beds as there are no safety mechanisms therein. We report a case of accidental strangulation following suspension from an indigenously made rocking cradle. The unique mode of injury has prompted us to report this case.

  19. Are unintentional nurse-attended deliveries a patient safety issue?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veltman, Larry

    2016-08-01

    Unintentional nurse-attended deliveries occur on most labor and delivery units. Some precipitous deliveries are unavoidable, but others, occurring after admission with the expectation that the woman's designated provider would attend the delivery are, for a variety of reasons, still attended only by nursing staff. This study was undertaken to establish a benchmark for unintentional nurse-attended deliveries. Fifty perinatal units were studied with respect to their statistics regarding unintentional nurse-attended deliveries. Ten of the 50 perinatal units (20%) did not keep statistics on unintentional nurse-attended deliveries. The average percentage of unintentional nurse-attended deliveries in the 40 perinatal units that did keep this statistic was 1.38% (range 0-5.3%). This benchmark should be useful as the safety issues for these types of deliveries are analyzed. Audits regarding timing of examinations during labor, practices regarding notification of providers and other communication practices, provider arrival times, and involved personnel should help perinatal units develop policies, protocols, and strategies to minimize the chances for unintentional nurse-attended deliveries when there should be enough time and appropriate communication to allow the woman's provider to be present at the delivery. PMID:27547875

  20. Childhood Obesity

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-08-06

    In this podcast, Dr. Tom Frieden, CDC Director, discusses the decrease in childhood obesity rates and what strategies have been proven to work to help our children grow up and thrive.  Created: 8/6/2013 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control.   Date Released: 3/6/2014.

  1. Self-perceptions of young adults who survived severe childhood burn injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, William; Robert, Rhonda S; Thomas, Christopher R; Holzer, Charles E; Blakeney, Patricia; Meyer, Walter J

    2013-01-01

    significantly lower self-concept scores on the TSCS2 physical scale are consistent with the physical disfigurement and handicaps common with major burn injuries, and a strong indication of this group's perception of the first impression made when interacting with others. The survivors seem to feel worthwhile within the contexts of family and friends. Although the major limitation of this study using the TSCS2 is the lack of a matched reference population to compare the burn survivors, the TSCS2 does help in gaining insight into the self-esteem issues of the burn survivor population.

  2. Self-perceptions of young adults who survived severe childhood burn injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, William; Robert, Rhonda S; Thomas, Christopher R; Holzer, Charles E; Blakeney, Patricia; Meyer, Walter J

    2013-01-01

    significantly lower self-concept scores on the TSCS2 physical scale are consistent with the physical disfigurement and handicaps common with major burn injuries, and a strong indication of this group's perception of the first impression made when interacting with others. The survivors seem to feel worthwhile within the contexts of family and friends. Although the major limitation of this study using the TSCS2 is the lack of a matched reference population to compare the burn survivors, the TSCS2 does help in gaining insight into the self-esteem issues of the burn survivor population. PMID:23202876

  3. Injury prevention and public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Sleet

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Injuries are one of the most under-recognized public health problems facing the world today. With more than 5 million deaths every year, violence and injuries account for 9% of global mortality, as many deaths as from HIV, Malaria and Tuberculosis combined. Eight of the 15 leading causes of death for people ages 15 to 29 years are injury-related: road traffic injuries, suicides, homicides, drowning, burns, war injuries, poisonings and falls. For every death due to war, there are three deaths due to homicide and five deaths due to suicide. However, most violence happens to people behind closed doors and results not in death, but often in years of physical and emotional suffering [1]. Injuries can be classified by intent: unintentional or intentional. Traffic injuries, fire-related injuries, falls, drowning, and poisonings are most often classified as unintentional injuries; injuries due to assault, selfinflicted violence such as suicide, and war are classified as intentional injuries, or violence. Worldwide, governments and public and private partners are increasingly aware of the strains that unintentional injuries and violence place on societies. In response they are strengthening data collection systems, improving services for victims and survivors, and increasing prevention efforts [1].

  4. Unintentional cervical dural tap treated with lumbar blood patch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lebrun, C.; Peek, D.; Vanelderen, P.J.L.; Zundert, J. van

    2014-01-01

    Cervical radicular pain presents itself as pain radiating from the neck to the arm. If conservative treatment fails, a cervical epidural steroid injection can be considered. A rare but possible complication resulting from the interlaminar approach is unintentional cervical dural puncture that may re

  5. Social differences in injury risk in childhood and youth : Exploring the roles of structural and triggering factors

    OpenAIRE

    Engström, Karin

    2003-01-01

    Injuries are a leading cause of mortality and morbidity among children and adolescents. Injury risks are not randomly distributed across social groups. The primary aim of this thesis is to increase knowledge about the determinants of the social distribution of injuries among children and adolescents. Family-related social characteristics and peer victimisation in the school environment are studied separately and in combination. The first three studies, based on Swedish nati...

  6. Long-term executive functioning outcomes for complicated and uncomplicated mild traumatic brain injury sustained in early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papoutsis, Jennifer; Stargatt, Robyn; Catroppa, Cathy

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated long-term executive functioning following early mild traumatic brain injury (TBI), differentiating between complicated (n=34) and uncomplicated injuries (n=18). Children post mild TBI were compared to 33 controls at least 7-years post-injury. The complicated mild TBI group performed significantly worse on divided attention compared to both groups, with younger age at injury and neurological symptoms predictors of outcome. No significant group differences existed on speed of information processing, selective attention, working memory, or goal setting. These findings indicate that specific aspects of executive function are compromised by early complicated mild TBI and argue for a stratified definition of mild TBI. PMID:25470225

  7. Activating Endogenous Neural Precursor Cells Using Metformin Leads to Neural Repair and Functional Recovery in a Model of Childhood Brain Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvati Dadwal

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The development of cell replacement strategies to repair the injured brain has gained considerable attention, with a particular interest in mobilizing endogenous neural stem and progenitor cells (known as neural precursor cells [NPCs] to promote brain repair. Recent work demonstrated metformin, a drug used to manage type II diabetes, promotes neurogenesis. We sought to determine its role in neural repair following brain injury. We find that metformin administration activates endogenous NPCs, expanding the size of the NPC pool and promoting NPC migration and differentiation in the injured neonatal brain in a hypoxia-ischemia (H/I injury model. Importantly, metformin treatment following H/I restores sensory-motor function. Lineage tracking reveals that metformin treatment following H/I causes an increase in the absolute number of subependyma-derived NPCs relative to untreated H/I controls in areas associated with sensory-motor function. Hence, activation of endogenous NPCs is a promising target for therapeutic intervention in childhood brain injury models.

  8. A STUDY TO ASSESS THE KNOWLEDGE OF RURAL MOTHERS REGARDING COMMON DOMESTIC CHILDHOOD INJURIES AND HOME-SAFETY MEASURES ADOPTED BY THEM IN WEST DISTRICT OF TRIPURA, INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjulika

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fragile, helpless and innocent, an infant enters the world completely dependent on its caretakers. The house is an exciting place for infants and small children, who love to explore but aren’t aware of the potential dangers. OBJECTIVES: To assess knowledge of mothers regarding domestic childhood injuries and safety measures adopted by them. METHODOLOGY: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 230 rural mothers of west Tripura district during May to June 2012. A systematic random sampling technique was used to select individual participant and information collected using pre-tested semi-structured interview schedule. RESULTS: The majority (71.3% of respondents were in the age group 20-25 yea, housewives (79.56%, nuclear families (67.7%, up to primary education (60.9% and family income of injuries. Out of which 6(66.7% of respondents’ children 3 were treated at home, remaining at hospital and all of them recovered. No significant relationship between age of mother and level of knowledge (X2 for trend, p= 1.094. There was significant relation (p= 0.016 between sex of the child and level of knowledge of mothers. CONCLUSION: The study revealed that sex of the children was important factor for knowledge level of mothers. The reported incidence of domestic injury was low that might have been due to under reporting.

  9. The Harstad injury prevention study: the epidemiology of sports injuries. An 8 year study.

    OpenAIRE

    Ytterstad, B.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To describe the epidemiology of sports injuries occurring in a community during 8 years and to evaluate the outcome of an intervention implemented against injuries occurring in downhill skiing. METHODS--Hospital treated sports injuries occurring in Harstad, Norway (population 22 600) were recorded prospectively during an 8 year period. A prevention programme targeting downhill skiing injuries was evaluated. RESULTS--2234 sports injuries accounted for 17.2% of recorded unintentional...

  10. Severe Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... inflicted traumatic brain injury (ITBI), is a leading cause of child maltreatment deaths in the United States. Meeting the ... Awareness Additional Prevention Resources Childhood Injuries Concussion in Children and Teens Injuries from Violence Injuries from Motor Vehicle Crashes Teen Driver Safety ...

  11. Social problem-solving skills following childhood traumatic brain injury and its association with self-regulation and social and behavioural functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesalingam, Kalaichelvi; Yeates, Keith Owen; Sanson, Ann; Anderson, Vicki

    2007-09-01

    This study examines social problem-solving skills following childhood traumatic brain injury (TBI) and its association with self-regulation, and social and behavioural functioning. Participants included 65 children with moderate to severe TBI and 65 children without TBI, all between 6 and II years of age. Social problem-solving, self-regulation, and social and behavioural functioning were assessed 2-5 years following injury. Children were administered a newly developed semi-structured task to assess their solutions to hypothetical situations involving social problems or dilemmas. When compared with uninjured children, those with TBI suggested avoidant and aggressive solutions more often and assertive solutions less often in response to the hypothetical situations. Children's self-regulatory skills, as measured by the Matching Familiar Figures Test (MFFT), Test of Everyday Attention for Children (TEA-Ch) and the Delay of Gratification Task (DGT), collectively accounted for significant variance in their solutions to social problems, such that better self-regulation predicted more assertive solutions and fewer aggressive solutions. Assertive solutions were positively related to parent- and teacher-rated social and behavioural outcomes, whereas aggressive solutions were negatively related to the outcomes. The difficulties in social problem-solving skills demonstrated by children with TBI may help account for their poor social and behavioural functioning. PMID:19331015

  12. Unintentional Discontinuation of Chronic Medications for Seniors in Nursing Homes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stall, Nathan M.; Fischer, Hadas D.; Wu, C. Fangyun; Bierman, Arlene S.; Brener, Stacey; Bronskill, Susan; Etchells, Edward; Fernandes, Olavo; Lau, Davina; Mamdani, Muhammad M.; Rochon, Paula; Urbach, David R.; Bell, Chaim M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Transitions of care leave patients vulnerable to the unintentional discontinuation of medications with proven efficacy for treating chronic diseases. Older adults residing in nursing homes may be especially susceptible to this preventable adverse event. The effect of large-scale policy changes on improving this practice is unknown. The objective of this study was to analyze the effect of a national medication reconciliation accreditation requirement for nursing homes on rates of unintentional medication discontinuation after hospital discharge. It was a population-based retrospective cohort study that used linked administrative records between 2003 and 2012 of all hospitalizations in Ontario, Canada. We identified nursing home residents aged ≥66 years who had continuous use of ≥1 of the 3 selected medications for chronic disease: levothyroxine, HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins), and proton pump inhibitors (PPIs). In 2008 medication reconciliation became a required practice for accreditation of Canadian nursing homes. The main outcome measures included the proportion of patients who restarted the medication of interest after hospital discharge at 7 days. We also performed a time series analysis to examine the impact of the accreditation requirement on rates of unintentional medication discontinuation. The study included 113,088 adults aged ≥66 years who were nursing home residents, had an acute hospitalization, and were discharged alive to the same nursing home. Overall rates of discontinuation at 7-days after hospital discharge were highest in 2003–2004 for all nursing homes: 23.9% for thyroxine, 26.4% for statins, and 23.9% for PPIs. In most of the cases, these overall rates decreased annually and were lowest in 2011–2012: 4.0% for thyroxine, 10.6% for statins, and 8.3% for PPIs. The time series analysis found that nursing home accreditation did not significantly lower medication discontinuation rates for any of the 3 drug groups. From 2003

  13. Self-regulation as a mediator of the effects of childhood traumatic brain injury on social and behavioral functioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ganesalingam, Kalaichelvi; Sanson, Ann; Anderson, Vicki; Yeates, Keith Owen

    2007-01-01

    This study builds on our earlier investigation (see Ganesalingam et at., 2006). We showed previously that children with moderate to severe traumatic brain injuries (TBI) had poorer self-regulation and social and behavioral functioning than their uninjured peers and that self-regulation predicted sig

  14. A Multiple Mediational Test of the Relationship between Childhood Maltreatment and Non-Suicidal Self-Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenk, Chad E.; Noll, Jennie G.; Cassarly, Jennifer A.

    2010-01-01

    Post-traumatic stress symptoms, depressive symptoms, and psychological dysregulation have been shown to mediate the relationship between child maltreatment and non-suicidal self-injury. However, these proposed mediators often co-occur and previous research has not tested mediation when all variables are assessed simultaneously. The current study…

  15. Unintentionality of affective attention across visual processing stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andero eUusberg

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Affective attention involves bottom-up perceptual selection that prioritizes motivationally significant stimuli. To clarify the extent to which this process is automatic, we investigated the dependence of affective attention on the intention to process emotional meaning. Affective attention was manipulated by presenting IAPS images with variable arousal and intentionality by requiring participants to make affective and non-affective evaluations. Polytomous rather than binary decisions were required from the participants in order to elicit relatively deep emotional processing. The temporal dynamics of prioritized processing were assessed using Early Posterior Negativity (EPN, 175-300 ms as well as P3-like (P3, 300 – 500 ms and Slow Wave (SW, 500 – 1500 ms portions of the Late Positive Potential. All analysed components were differentially sensitive to stimulus categories suggesting that they indeed reflect distinct stages of motivational significance encoding. The intention to perceive emotional meaning had no effect on EPN, an additive effect on P3, and an interactive effect on SW. We concluded that affective attention went from completely unintentional during the EPN to partially unintentional during P3 and SW where top-down signals, respectively, complemented and modulated bottom-up differences in stimulus prioritization. The findings were interpreted in light of two-stage models of visual perception by associating the EPN with large-capacity initial relevance detection and the P3 as well as SW with capacity-limited consolidation and elaboration of affective stimuli.

  16. Multiple bilateral lower limb fractures in a 2-year-old child: previously unreported injury with a unique mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repswal, Basant; Jain, Anuj; Gupta, Sunil; Aggarwal, Aditya; Kohli, Tushar; Pathrot, Devendra

    2014-01-01

    Fall from height is a common cause of unintentional injuries in children and accounts for 6% of all trauma-related childhood deaths, usually from head injury. We report a case of a 2-year-old child with multiple fractures of the bilateral lower limbs due to this reason. A child fell from a height of around 15 feet after toppling from a balcony. He developed multiple fractures involving the right femoral shaft, right distal femoral epiphysis (Salter Harris type 2), right distal metaphysis of the tibia and fibula, and undisplaced Salter Harris type 2 epiphyseal injury of the left distal tibia. There were no head, abdominal or spinal injuries. The patient was taken into emergency operation theatre after initial management which consisted of intravenous fluids, blood transfusion, and splintage of both lower limbs. Fracture of the femoral shaft was treated by closed reduction and fixation using two titanium elastic nails. Distal femoral physeal injury required open reduction and fixation with K wires. Distal tibia fractures were closely reduced and managed nonoperatively in both the lower limbs. All the fractures united in four weeks. At the last follow-up, the child had no disability and was able to perform daily activities comfortably. We also proposed the unique mechanism of injury in this report. PMID:25293902

  17. Multiple bilateral lower limb fractures in a 2-year-old child: previously unreported injury with a unique mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuj Jain

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Fall from height is a common cause of unintentional injuries in children and accounts for 6% of all trauma-related childhood deaths, usually from head injury. We report a case of a 2-year-old child with multiple fractures of the bilateral lower limbs due to this reason. A child fell from a height of around 15 feet after toppling from a alcony. He developed multiple fractures involving the right femoral shaft, right distal femoral epiphysis (Salter Harris type 2, right distal metaphysis of the tibia and fi bula, and undisplaced Salter Harris type 2 epiphyseal injury of the left distal tibia. There were no head, abdominal or spinal injuries. The patient was taken into emergency operation theatre after initial management which consisted of intravenous fl uids, blood transfusion, and splintage of both lower limbs. Fracture of the femoral shaft was treated by closed reduction and fixation using two titanium elastic nails. Distal femoral physeal injury required open eduction and fixation with K wires. Distal tibia fractures were closely reduced and managed nonoperatively in both the lower limbs. All the fractures united in four weeks. At the last follow-up, the child had no disability and was able to perform daily ctivities comfortably. We also proposed the unique mechanism of injury in this report. Key words: Multiple bilateral lower limb fractures; Fall; Child

  18. Multiple bilateral lower limb fractures in a 2-year-old child: previously unreported injury with a unique mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Basant Repswal; Anuj Jain; Sunil Gupta; Aditya Aggarwal; Tushar Kohli; Devendra Pathrot

    2014-01-01

    Fall from height is a common cause of unintentional injuries in children and accounts for 6% of all trauma-related childhood deaths,usually from head injury.We report a case of a 2-year-old child with multiple fractures of the bilateral lower limbs due to this reason.A child fell from a height of around 15 feet after toppling from a balcony.He developed multiple fractures involving the right femoral shaft,right distal femoral epiphysis (Salter Harris type 2),right distal metaphysis of the tibia and fibula,and undisplaced Salter Harris type 2 epiphyseal injury of the left distal tibia.There were no head,abdominal or spinal injuries.The patient was taken into emergency operation theatre after initial management which consisted of intravenous fluids,blood transfusion,and splintage of both lower limbs.Fracture of the femoral shaft was treated by closed reduction and fixation using two titanium elastic nails.Distal femoral physeal injury required open reduction and fixation with K wires.Distal tibia fractures were closely reduced and managed nonoperatively in both the lower limbs.All the fractures united in four weeks.At the last follow-up,the child had no disability and was able to perform daily activities comfortably.We also proposed the unique mechanism of injury in this report.

  19. Perfusion delay causes unintentional ischemic preconditioning in isolated heart preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minhaz, U; Koide, S; Shohtsu, A; Fujishima, M; Nakazawa, H

    1995-01-01

    This study sought to show that unintentional preconditioning can be induced in the isolated perfused heart during the preparation procedure. The following four groups were compared: hearts were placed in ice cold saline and cooled for 15 s and then mounted to the Langendorff apparatus (n = 5; cool immediate group); hearts were cooled for 60 s and mounted (n = 5; cool delay group); hearts were mounted directly to the apparatus within 15 s after the isolation without cooling (n = 5; noncool immediate group); hearts were mounted without cooling, but the mounting was delayed for 60 s after the isolation (n = 5; noncool delay group). All hearts were paced at a fixed rate of 300 bpm, and an occlusion of left coronary (LCA) for 60 min was performed, which was followed by reperfusion for another 60 min. Coronary flow (CBF), left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP), and creatine phosphokinase (CPK) release did not change among the four groups during ischemia. At the end of reperfusion the LVDP values were 70 +/- 1%, 66 +/- 2%, 62 +/- 3%, and 73 +/- 2% of preischemic values in cool immediate, cool delay, noncool immediate, and noncool delay groups, respectively. CPK values were 116 +/- 4, 121 +/- 7, 138 +/- 6, and 29 +/- 1 x 10(3) U/g myocardium, and percentage necrosis/risk areas were 24 +/- 1.0%, 21 +/- 1.7%, 38 +/- 2.6%, and 13 +/- 0.5% in cool immediate, cool delay, noncool immediate, and noncool delay groups, respectively. The noncool delay group demonstrated high LVDP, least amount of CPK release, and smallest size of necrosis. These results indicate that an unintentional preconditioning effect can be induced when the cooling procedure is not applied and perfusion is delayed. PMID:8585864

  20. Developing Methods of Repurposing Electronic Health Record Data for Identification of Older Adults at Risk of Unintentional Falls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baus, Adam; Zullig, Keith; Long, Dustin; Mullett, Charles; Pollard, Cecil; Taylor, Henry; Coben, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    Nationally, nearly 40 percent of community-dwelling adults age 65 and older fall at least once a year, making unintentional falls the leading cause of both fatal and nonfatal injuries among this age group. Addressing this public health problem in primary care offers promise. However, challenges in incorporating fall risk screening into primary care result in a problem of missed opportunities for screening, counseling, intervention, and ultimately prevention. Given these barriers, this study examines the potential for the innovative use of routinely collected electronic health record data to provide enhanced clinical decision support in busy, often resource-thin primary care environments. Using de-identified data from a sample of West Virginia primary care centers, we find that it is both feasible and worthwhile to repurpose routinely collected data for the purpose of identification of older adults at risk of falls. Searching of both free-text and semistructured data was particularly valuable. PMID:27134607

  1. Contributing Factors for Acute Illness/Injury from Childhood Pesticide Exposure in North Carolina, USA, 2007–2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirmalla Barros

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Between 2007 and 2013, there were 685 events with evidence of a relationship between pesticide exposure and acute illness/injury among persons less than 18 years old in North Carolina (United States. Median age of children affected was 4.3 years (range: 0.2–17.9. Distribution by gender was similar across all age groups. One fatality and four high severity events were observed. The greatest proportion (42% of events had ocular exposures, followed by dermal (25% and inhalation (18% exposures. When more than one route of exposure occurred, dermal and ocular routes were the most common (46%. Almost all events took place indoors and 32 events involved contact with pets. Insecticides (53% and insect repellants (31% were the most frequent agents contributing to these events. Manual application of pesticides contributed to the greatest number of events (25%, while application through a pressurized can and use of a trigger pump were involved in 21% and 15% of events, respectively. Additional contributors were due to inappropriate storage of pesticides and improper use of the pesticide. These contributing factors can be removed or minimized if pesticides are stored outside the residence or out of the reach of children and pets, and adequate ventilation is ensured whenever pesticides are applied.

  2. Stereotype activation is unintentional: Behavioural and event-related potenials evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pei; Yang, Ya-Ping; Tan, Chen-Hao; Zhao, Xiang-Xia; Liu, Yong-He; Lin, Chong-De

    2016-04-01

    In this study, a priming Stroop paradigm was used to determine whether stereotype activation is unintentional. Priming conditions (priming/no-priming) and the relationship between priming and target (consistent/inconsistent/no-relation) were the independent variables; accuracy, reaction time and N400 amplitude were used as dependent variables. The reaction time revealed that stereotype activation is, to some extent, unintentional. Furthermore, the event-related potenial (ERP) results showed that N400 amplitude was larger for inconsistent conditions than for consistent conditions. This result supported the notion that stereotype activation is an unintentional and automatic process.

  3. Self versus family ratings of the frontal systems behaviour scale and measured executive functions: adult outcomes following childhood traumatic brain injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert D Barrett

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI frequently occurs during childhood and adolescence with long-term neuropsychological and behavioral effects. Greater personal awareness of injury is associated with better outcomes. However, personal awareness is often assessed using ratings obtained from family members or significant others. Surprisingly, the accuracy of family-ratings compared with self-ratings has not been well studied in the TBI population. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine self versus family-ratings of frontal dysfunction and secondly, the association between self/family reported frontal dysfunction and measured executive function outcomes. A total of 60 participants, approximately 10 years post-TBI, comprised 3 groups including; moderate/severe TBI (N=26; mean age 22.9, SD=3.0, mild TBI (N=20; mean age, 21.7, SD=2.7, and control (N=14: mean age, 21.6, SD=3.7. Neuropsychological testing was used to obtain domain scores for executive function and working memory/attention for each participant, and nominated family members and participants with TBI were asked to complete the Frontal Systems Behaviour Scale (FrSBe, consisting of three sub-scales; apathy, disinhibition, and executive dysfunction. Using the FrSBe there was no significant difference between the groups in executive function score, but the moderate/severe and mild groups had significantly lower working memory/attention scores compared with the control group (p<0.05. Repeated measures analysis of variance showed higher self-ratings on all sub-scales compared with family in each group (p<0.05. Scores on executive function and working memory/attention domains correlated with self, but not family reported executive dysfunction. Self-rated executive dysfunction explained 36% of the variance in executive function (p<0.001. While agreement between self-rated and family-rated total FrSBe scores was significant in all groups (p<0.001, our results showed that self-ratings were of

  4. Childhood psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farber, E M; Nall, L

    1999-11-01

    Psoriasis is a common skin disease in infants, children, and adolescents. A review of the clinical, epidemiologic, genetic, and therapeutic aspects of childhood psoriasis is presented. Population studies indicate that the first signs of psoriatic lesions occur in the pediatric age group, birth to 18 years of age, and that both genetic and environmental factors interact to precipitate the development of psoriasis. Koebner reactions are the result of external or internal triggering factors, such as physical injury to the skin, low humidity, and certain drugs. The most frequently observed variant to psoriasis is the plaque type, followed by guttate psoriasis, and juvenile psoriatic arthritis. Pustular psoriasis and erythrodermic psoriasis are rare forms of the disease, but are seen in children from infancy to adolescence. The scalp is the most frequently affected site of involvement in pediatric psoriasis, followed by the appearance of lesions on the extensor surfaces of the extremities, trunk, and nails. Although not common in adult psoriasis, the face and ears are often involved. Topical medications such as corticosteroids, calcipotriol, coal tar preparations, anthralin formulations, and ultraviolet B are recommended in monotherapy or in combination therapy, whereas psoralen plus ultraviolet A, methotrexate, and retinoids should only be administered in crisis situations. The treatment objectives in childhood psoriasis are to preserve skin surfaces, to afford physical relief from the disease, and to employ treatments that do not endanger the health or future development of the child.

  5. Brain injury in very preterm children and neurosensory and cognitive disabilities during childhood: the EPIPAGE cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane Marret

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association of motor and cognitive/learning deficiencies and overall disabilities in very preterm (VPT children and their relations to gestational age (GA and brain lesions. DESIGN SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: EPIPAGE is a longitudinal population-based cohort study of children born before 33 weeks' gestation (WG in 9 French regions in 1997-1998. Cumulating data from all follow up stages, neurodevelopmental outcomes were available for 90% of the 2480 VPT survivors at 8 years. Main outcomes were association of motor and cognitive deficiencies and existence of at least one deficiency (motor, cognitive, behavioral/psychiatric, epileptic, visual, and/or hearing deficiencies in three GA groups (24-26, 27-28, and 29-32WG and four groups of brain lesions (none, minor, moderate, or severe. RESULTS: VPT had high rates of motor (14% and cognitive (31% deficiencies. Only 6% had an isolated motor deficiency, 23% an isolated cognitive one and 8% both types. This rate reached 20% among extremely preterm. Psychiatric disorders and epilepsy were observed in 6% and 2% of children, respectively. The risks of at least one severe or moderate deficiency were 11 and 29%. These risks increased as GA decreased; only 36% of children born extremely preterm had no reported deficiency. Among children with major white matter injury (WMI, deficiency rates reached 71% at 24-26WG, 88% at 27-28WG, and 80% at 29-32WG; more than 40% had associated motor and cognitive deficiencies. By contrast, isolated cognitive deficiency was the most frequent problem among children without major lesions. CONCLUSIONS: In VPT, the lower the GA, the higher the neurodisability rate. Cerebral palsy is common. Impaired cognitive development is more frequent. Its occurrence in case without WMI or early motor disorders makes long-term follow up necessary. The strong association between motor impairments, when they exist, and later cognitive dysfunction supports the hypothesis

  6. Pattern of injury mortality by age-group in children aged 0–14 years in Scotland, 2002–2006, and its implications for prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stone David H

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Knowledge of the epidemiology of injuries in children is essential for the planning, implementation and evaluation of preventive measures but recent epidemiological information on injuries in children both in general and by age-group in Scotland is scarce. This study examines the recent pattern of childhood mortality from injury by age-group in Scotland and considers its implications for prevention. Methods Routine mortality data for the period 2002–2006 were obtained from the General Register Office for Scotland and were analysed in terms of number of deaths, mean annual mortality rates per 100,000 population, leading causes of death, and causes of injury death. Mid-year population estimates were used as the denominator. Chi-square tests were used to determine statistical significance. Results 186 children aged 0–14 died from an injury in Scotland during 2002–06 (MR 4.3 per 100,000. Injuries were the leading cause of death in 1–14, 5–9 and 10–14 year-olds (causing 25%, 29% and 32% of all deaths respectively. The leading individual causes of injury death (0–14 years were pedestrian and non-pedestrian road-traffic injuries and assault/homicide but there was variation by age-group. Assault/homicide, fire and suffocation caused most injury deaths in young children; road-traffic injuries in older ones. Collectively, intentional injuries were a bigger threat to the lives of under-15s than any single cause of unintentional injury. The mortality rate from assault/homicide was highest in infants ( Conclusion Injuries continue to be a leading cause of death in childhood in Scotland. Variation in causes of injury death by age-group is important when targeting preventive efforts. In particular, the threats of assault/homicide in infants, fire in 1–4 year-olds, pedestrian injury in 5–14 year-olds, and suicide in 10–14 year-olds need urgent consideration for preventive action.

  7. Analysis of Prior Health System Contacts as a Harbinger of Subsequent Fatal Injury in American Indians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanddal, Teri L.; Upchurch, James; Sanddal, Nels D.; Esposito, Thomas J.

    2005-01-01

    Many American Indian nations, tribes, and bands are at an elevated risk for premature death from unintentional injury. Previous research has documented a relationship between alcohol-related injury and subsequent injury death among predominately urban samples. The presence or nature of such a relationship has not been documented among American…

  8. Cuts to the offender's own hand--unintentional self-infliction in the course of knife attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Ulrike; Faller-Marquardt, Maria; Tatschner, Thomas; Walter, Klaus; Pollak, Stefan

    2004-12-01

    In a knife attack the perpetrator can unintentionally injure his own hand, if the knife does not have an adequate handguard and the tip of the blade hits a solid, mostly bony structure while being violently thrust into the victim's body. The injuries occurring under these conditions are localized on the flexor side of the knife-holding hand and may include the index, middle, ring and little fingers. They are seen particularly often on the little finger at the level of the proximal phalanx and in the skin fold of the proximal interphalangeal joint. The majority of these cuts run transversely to the longitudinal axis of the fingers and can show a step-like arrangement with different distances to the metacarpophalangeal joints, often from ulnar-proximal to radial-distal. In the six cases presented the injuries were most pronounced on the ulnar side of the hand. When the flexor tendons of the fingers are also severed and the tendon stumps are strongly retracted this indicates that the fist was firmly closed at the time of the injury.

  9. Peer Influences on Risk-taking in Middle Childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Bradbury, Kirsten

    1998-01-01

    Unintentional injury is the leading cause of death and disability in children. Many injuries to school-aged children occur during unsupervised peer activities, but peer influences on risky behavior in preadolescence remain under-investigated. We examined peer context effects on reported risk-taking, identified predictors of peer influence, and compared peer influence in high- and low-social-functioning groups. Forty-one boys aged 8-10 years listened to scenarios in which they encountered oppo...

  10. The Relationship between Childhood Psychological Abuse and Neglect and Self Injurious Behavior of Students in Higher Vocational Colleges%童年心理虐待与忽视和高职生自伤行为的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    代辰旭; 张野; 张珊珊; 李紫糸

    2016-01-01

    为了研究童年心理虐待与忽视和高职生自伤行为的关系,采用儿童心理虐待与忽视量表和青少年自我伤害问卷对辽宁省某职业技术学校的730名高职生进行调查,结果表明:大部分高职生存在心理虐待与忽视和自伤行为,性别、生源地、独生子女均存在显著性差异;二者呈正相关,且自伤行为可以解释童年心理虐待与忽视。文章对心理虐待与忽视和自伤行为的原因进行分析,并从不同角度提出对策。%In order to study the relationship between childhood psychological abuse and neglect and the self injurious behavior of students in higher vocational colleges, the child psychological abuse and neglect scale and adolescent self harm questionnaire on a vocational technical school in Liaoning Province 730 vocational college students were investigated. The results showed that most of the students in higher vocational colleges had psychological abuse and neglect and self injurious behavior, and there were significant differences in gender, origin and only child. They were positively correlated, and self injurious behavior can explain childhood psychological abuse and neglect. This article carries on the analysis on the causes of psychological abuse and neglect and self injurious behavior, and puts forward the countermeasures from different angles.

  11. Review on Current Situation and a Prospect of Childhood Injury Economic Burden Study%儿童伤害的经济学负担研究现状及展望

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温连奎; 杨莉

    2013-01-01

    Childhood injuries have emerged as leading global public health problem with direct, indirect and invisible economic burdens besides serve disease burdens that lower levels of health. Scholars in China and abroad have been studying the economic burden of child injury and got different results affected by types of injuries, characteristics of population, areas of children and their social and economic situations. In this article, we searched articles about this topic in Chinese and English to review the study results and showed the necessity and direction for further studies of childhood injury economic burden.%儿童伤害是全球性的重大公共卫生问题,不仅导致了巨大的疾病负担,也造成了沉重的直接、间接和无形经济负担。国内外已有部分学者针对儿童伤害的经济学负担展开研究,不同研究得出的结果各异,受到研究伤害类型、人群特征、地域和社会经济等影响。本文就儿童伤害经济学负担查阅国内外文献,综述了国内外相关研究结果,提出了进一步研究儿童伤害经济负担的必要性和探索方向。

  12. A Tewo Tibetan Childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rdo rje tshe brtan

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Rdo rje tshe brtan (b. 1986 describes his childhood in Dredze Village, Yiwa Township, Tewo County, Gannan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Gansu Province, China, as well as being a student in Xining City, Qinghai Province. Topics covered include his family, childhood injuries and illnesses, education, Terang (malicious household deities, mountain deities and associated rituals and sacrifices, death, conflict with other locals, collecting local plants, a birth in the village, stealing fruit, a wedding, plowing, a visit to a hot spring, a lost yak, slaughtering pigs, government confiscation of fields, and slaughtering pigs. Photos provide additional detail.

  13. Epidemiology of child injuries in Uganda: challenges for health policy

    OpenAIRE

    Renee Yuen-Jan Hsia; Doruk Ozgediz; Sudha Jayaraman; Patrick Kyamanywa; Milton Mutto; Kobusingye, Olive C.

    2011-01-01

    Globally, 90% of road crash deaths occur in the developing world. Children in Africa bear the major part of this burden, with the highest unintentional injury rates in the world. Our study aims to better understand injury patterns among children living in Kampala, Uganda and provide evidence that injuries are significant in child health. Trauma registry records of injured children seen at Mulago Hospital in Kampala were analysed. This data was collected when patients were seen initially and i...

  14. Cranial nerve palsies in childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Lyons, C J; Godoy, F; ALQahtani, E

    2015-01-01

    We review ocular motor cranial nerve palsies in childhood and highlight many of the features that differentiate these from their occurrence in adulthood. The clinical characteristics of cranial nerve palsies in childhood are affected by the child's impressive ability to repair and regenerate after injury. Thus, aberrant regeneration is very common after congenital III palsy; Duane syndrome, the result of early repair after congenital VI palsy, is invariably associated with retraction of the g...

  15. Current trends and update on injury prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, Parichat; Ramaiah, Ramesh; Vavilala, Monica S

    2011-01-01

    Injuries are a major and growing public health problem, a leading cause of death and disabilities among people aged 1-44 years around the world. Each year, 5.8 million people die from injuries, accounting for 10% of the world's deaths. Road traffic injuries (RTIs), self-inflicted injuries and violence are the top three leading causes of all injury deaths, while RTIs, falls and drowning are the top three leading causes of unintentional injury death. In many high-income countries, trends of injury death have been decreasing as a result of prevention measures. In contrast, trends in low- and middle-income countries have been rising. In this article, we review the prevention strategies for RTIs, violence, falls and drowning developed over decades to disseminate the knowledge and inform health care providers, especially acute care physicians, about the importance of injury prevention. PMID:22096775

  16. Childhood Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Childhood Stress KidsHealth > For Parents > Childhood Stress Print A A ... and feel stress to some degree. Sources of Stress Stress is a function of the demands placed ...

  17. Childhood Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Wilkinson, Justine; Howard, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Childhood obesity has important consequences for health and wellbeing both during childhood and also in later adult life. The rising prevalence of childhood obesity poses a major public health challenge in both developed and developing countries by increasing the burden of chronic non-communicable diseases. Despite the urgent need for effective preventative strategies, there remains disagreement over its definition due to a lack of evidence on the optimal cut-offs linking childhood BMI to dis...

  18. Childhood Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Childhood Cancer KidsHealth > For Parents > Childhood Cancer Print A A A Text Size What's ... in children, but can happen. The most common childhood cancers are leukemia , lymphoma , and brain cancer . As ...

  19. Anogenital warts in children: sexual abuse or unintentional contamination?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesus Lisieux Eyer de

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Anogenital warts (AGW were recently recognized in children, and their significance as an index of childhood sexual abuse is controversial. We report our transdisciplinary approach (including a pediatric surgeon, psychologist, social worker, ethics expert, and occasionally law enforcement agents and its results in a group of 17 children with AGW treated at the public pediatric referral hospital in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, during a 3-year period (1996-1999. All children were treated by electrocauterization of the warts, tested for other STDs, and submitted to perineal examination under anesthesia. Families received psycho-social counseling as necessary and cases were referred to child protection and law enforcement agents when indicated according to Brazilian legislation. We identified a high incidence of sexual abuse (8 children, 5/7 > 5 years old, with 3 patients inconclusive as to sexual abuse and 7 cases of perinatal transmission (5/8 5 years of age. However, strong support and a transdisciplinary approach to the children and their families is necessary to identify it.

  20. Sensitivity of hospitals' E-coded data in identifying causes of children's violence-related injuries.

    OpenAIRE

    Winn, D. G.; Agran, P. F.; Anderson, C.L.

    1995-01-01

    E codes classify causes of injury as unintentional, intentional, and undetermined. E-coded discharge data from hospitals provide an opportunity to use this source of morbidity data for planning, implementation, and evaluation of injury and violence prevention activities. This study explores the extent to which E-coded data from hospitals identify injuries that result from violent acts. Cases were identified through a multihospital population-based surveillance system of pediatric injuries. Th...

  1. Reducing Unintentional Plagiarism amongst International Students in the Biological Sciences: An Embedded Academic Writing Development Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divan, Aysha; Bowman, Marion; Seabourne, Anna

    2015-01-01

    There is general agreement in the literature that international students are more likely to plagiarise compared to their native speaker peers and, in many instances, plagiarism is unintentional. In this article we describe the effectiveness of an academic writing development programme embedded into a Biological Sciences Taught Masters course…

  2. Father-Child Interactions and Children's Risk of Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    StGeorge, Jennifer; Fletcher, Richard; Freeman, Emily; Paquette, Daniel; Dumont, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    Unintentional injury is an important cause of infant and child hospitalisation and parents play a key role in reducing children's risk-taking behaviour. Studies show that maternal and paternal parenting and supervision of children differ, but there is little research showing how fathers' parenting may influence children's tendency to engage in…

  3. [Confusional arousal: a rare cause of self-injurious behaviour].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortier, P; Vandenbulcke, M; Gabriëls, L

    2014-01-01

    Non-rapid eye movement (NREM) arousal sleep disorders (confusional arousal, somnambulism and sleep terror) are self-limiting and temporary phenomena which cannot be attributed to medical or psychiatric factors. However, very occasionally they can be the cause of unintentional injury to self or others. We describe the case of an 18-year-old who engaged in self-injurious behaviour while asleep. This behaviour could be attributed to confusional arousal. PMID:24535769

  4. Childhood Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Aydın, Ahmet; Koca, Fahrettin; Fıçıcıoğlu, Can; Çam, Halit; Mıkla, Şerare

    1995-01-01

    Management of childhood obesity and its early and late complications are among the most difficult problems confronted by pediatricians and practitioners The purpose of this review is to provide information for the evaluation and treatment of childhood obesity Key nbsp;words: nbsp;Child Obesity Etiology Management Complications

  5. The Role of Context in Risk for Pediatric Injury: Influences from the Home and Child Care Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwebel, David C.; Brezausek, Carl M.

    2007-01-01

    Unintentional injury is the leading cause of pediatric mortality among American children, but the role of environmental context remains poorly understood as a risk for child injury. Couched in Bronfenbrenner's (1977) ecological theory, this study analyzed data from a sample of almost 900 children to identify relations between the home and…

  6. New onset epilepsy following unintentional durotomy in a patient on anti-psychiatric medication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    West M

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available We would like to present a rare case report describing a case in which new-onset tonic-clonic seizures occurred following an unintentional durotomy during lumbar discectomy and decompression. Unintentional durotomy is a frequent complication of spinal surgical procedures, with a rate as high as 17%. To our knowledge a case of new onset epilepsy has never been reported in the literature. Although dural tears during surgery and CSF hypovolaemia are thought to be the main contributing factors, one postulates on the effects of anti-psychiatric medication with epileptogenic properties. Amisulpride and Olanzapine can lower seizure threshold and should be used with caution in patients previously diagnosed with epilepsy. However manufacturers do not state that in cases where the seizure threshold is already lowered by CSF hypotension, new onset epilepsy might be commoner. Finally, strong caution and aggressive post-operative monitoring is advised for patients with CSF hypotension in combination with possible epileptogenic medication.

  7. Current surgical instrument labeling techniques may increase the risk of unintentionally retained foreign objects: a hypothesis

    OpenAIRE

    Ipaktchi, Kyros; Kolnik, Adam; Messina, Michael; Banegas, Rodrigo; Livermore, Meryl; Price, Connie

    2013-01-01

    Background Marking of surgical instruments is essential to ensure their proper identification after sterile processing. The National Quality Forum defines unintentionally retained foreign objects in a surgical patient as a serious reportable event also called "never event." Presentation of the hypothesis We hypothesize that established practices of surgical instrument identification using unkempt tape labels and plastic tags may expose patients to "never events" from retained disintegrating l...

  8. Effectiveness of measures to prevent unintentional deaths of infants and children from suffocation and strangulation.

    OpenAIRE

    Kraus, J F

    1985-01-01

    Unintentional deaths from suffocation and strangulation account for about 20 percent of all nontransport-related infant and child fatalities in the United States. In the late 1950s, some preventive countermeasures were introduced to reduce the number of deaths resulting from refrigerator or freezer entrapment. A few years later, countermeasures were introduced to prevent deaths resulting from suffocation by plastic bags, inhumation, and mechanical strangulation from wedging in infant cribs. F...

  9. Preventing gun injuries in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossen, Eric J; Lewis, Brenna; Hoffman, Benjamin D

    2015-02-01

    Firearms are involved in the injury and death of a large number of children each year from both intentional and unintentional causes. Gun ownership in homes with children is common, and pediatricians should incorporate evidence-based means to discuss firearms and protect children from gun-related injuries and violence. Safe storage of guns, including unloaded guns locked and stored separately from ammunition, can decrease risks to children, and effective tools are available that pediatricians can use in clinical settings to help decrease children's access to firearms. Furthermore, several community-based interventions led by pediatricians have effectively reduced firearm-related injury risks to children. Educational programs that focus on children's behavior around guns have not proven effective. PMID:25646308

  10. Preventing gun injuries in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossen, Eric J; Lewis, Brenna; Hoffman, Benjamin D

    2015-02-01

    Firearms are involved in the injury and death of a large number of children each year from both intentional and unintentional causes. Gun ownership in homes with children is common, and pediatricians should incorporate evidence-based means to discuss firearms and protect children from gun-related injuries and violence. Safe storage of guns, including unloaded guns locked and stored separately from ammunition, can decrease risks to children, and effective tools are available that pediatricians can use in clinical settings to help decrease children's access to firearms. Furthermore, several community-based interventions led by pediatricians have effectively reduced firearm-related injury risks to children. Educational programs that focus on children's behavior around guns have not proven effective.

  11. Does health-related quality of life ‎predict injury event?‎

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kambiz Abachizadeh

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Unintentional injury is a leading threat to children's health. Some human ‎factors have been determined as predictor of unintentional injury. Association ‎between Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQOL as a human factor and unintentionalinjuries is unclear. The objective of study is to examine the association between ‎HRQOL and unintentional injuries among primary school children. Methods: This study was a cross-sectional conducted in Ahwaz, a city in Iran. ‎Overall, 3375 children aged 6-10 years were randomly selected from primary school. ‎HRQOL was measured by 56 items taken from seven domains of Netherlands ‎Organization for Applied Scientific Research Academic Medical Center (TNO AZL ‎child quality of life (TACQOL parent form. Parents were interviewed to collect ‎information about incidence, cause and a brief description of injury within the past 12 ‎months prior to the study.‎ Results: The response rate was 3375 of 3792 (89%. There was a significant trend ‎for increasing occurrence of injury with decreasing of HRQOL score (P= Sig. ‎Adjusted OR for injury was significantly higher in very low (2.38, 95% CI: 1.45-‎‎3.86, low (2.18, 95% CI: 1.34-3.56, and medium (1.73, 95%CI: 1.06-2.83 ‎HRQOL groups compared to reference group (very high HRQOL. The median of total ‎HRQOL (P= Sig and all its domains (P=0.017 (except autonomous functioning ‎was lower in injured group compared to uninjured one.‎ Conclusions: This study found an association between HRQOL and unintentionalinjury among primary school children. This is a preliminary finding and further ‎investigations with a well-defined analytical design are needed.‎

  12. Multivariate Statistics and Supervised Learning for Predictive Detection of Unintentional Islanding in Grid-Tied Solar PV Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Shashank Vyas; Rajesh Kumar; Rajesh Kavasseri

    2016-01-01

    Integration of solar photovoltaic (PV) generation with power distribution networks leads to many operational challenges and complexities. Unintentional islanding is one of them which is of rising concern given the steady increase in grid-connected PV power. This paper builds up on an exploratory study of unintentional islanding on a modeled radial feeder having large PV penetration. Dynamic simulations, also run in real time, resulted in exploration of unique potential causes of creation of a...

  13. Preventing Knee Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to tearing. Growth Plate Injuries, Fractures, and Dislocations Knee fractures rarely occur in childhood sports, but with any ... is the bump on the front of the knee where the patellar tendon attaches. Fractures to the growth plate in this area often ...

  14. Childhood Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leukemia is cancer of the white blood cells. It is the most common type of childhood cancer. ... blood cells help your body fight infection. In leukemia, the bone marrow produces abnormal white blood cells. ...

  15. Source, Managemnt and Quantification of Unintentional POPs (PCDDD/Fs) in Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charitra Sah, Ram

    2010-05-01

    The aim to prepare and present this paper is to highlight the source, management and quantification of the unintentional POPs in an unindustrialized least developing landlocked small country Nepal. The methodology adopted for this is the review of the relevant research documents and national initiative towards addressing this issues complemented with sharing of the first hand experience from the implementation of the POPs management activities undertaken by our organization. Nepal is a small country of size 147181 sq.km but having large sources of POPs including unintentional POPs (PCDD/Fs) mainly because of weak enforcement of the existing environment related laws, standards and international commitment including POPs Convention. Country became homes to about 75 tons of Obsolete Pesticide since last 30 years including about 44 percent (33 tons out of 75) are of known POPs. These obsolete pesticides including identified POPs have been poorly stored in some about 25 locations throughout the country. The major warehouse accommodating about 50 tons at Amlekhgunj has been located just in front of a high school where about 1000 children are being studying and found to have some health related problem due to the gasses emission from the warehouse as well as school playground field contaminated with these POPs pesticides. The playground soil contamination has been found from routine examination of the soil samples. In addition to pesticides including POPs were used in the agriculture and public health field in the past, there are several other practices as well as anthropogenic activities producing PCDD/Fs. The annual inventory of countrywide emission of unintentional POPs was estimated to be 312.55 g TEQ for Nepal (MOE 2004). This is very high for a country like Nepal least developing in terms of industrial and economy. This estimation was based on the UNEP Toolkit which has included the broad categories of waste such as waste incineration, ferrous and non ferrous metal

  16. Adding insult to injury: childhood and adolescent risk factors for psychosis predict lower fractional anisotropy in the superior longitudinal fasciculus in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeRosse, Pamela; Ikuta, Toshikazu; Peters, Bart D; Karlsgodt, Katherine H; Szeszko, Philip R; Malhotra, Anil K

    2014-12-30

    Although epidemiological studies provide strong support for demographic and environmental risk factors in psychotic disorders, few data examine how these risk factors relate to the putative aberrant neurodevelopment associated with illness. The present study examined how the accumulation of risk factors including low IQ, low parental socioeconomic status (SES), history of adolescent cannabis use and childhood trauma, and high levels of subclinical psychotic-like experiences (PLEs) contributed to aberrant neurodevelopmental outcomes in 112 otherwise healthy adults recruited from the community. Participants were studied with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), and voxel-wise statistical analysis of fractional anisotropy (FA) using tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) was used to examine the relation between cumulative risk (CR) for psychosis and white matter (WM) integrity across the whole brain. Analyses revealed that higher CR was significantly associated with lower FA in a cluster in the left superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF). These results suggest that risk factors previously associated with psychotic disorders are associated with WM integrity even in otherwise healthy adults and may provide insight into how previously identified risk factors contribute to the structural brain abnormalities associated with psychotic illness. Prospective longitudinal studies examining the effect of risk factors on the developmental trajectory of brain WM are warranted. PMID:25277095

  17. Childhood obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heitmann, Berit L; Koplan, Jeffrey; Lissner, Lauren

    2009-01-01

    Despite progress toward assuring the health of today's young population, the 21(st) century began with an epidemic of childhood obesity. There is general agreement that the situation must be addressed by means of primary prevention, but relatively little is known about how to intervene effectively....... The evidence behind the assumption that childhood obesity can be prevented was discussed critically in this roundtable symposium. Overall, there was general agreement that action is needed and that the worldwide epidemic itself is sufficient evidence for action. As the poet, writer, and scholar Wittner Bynner...

  18. A preliminary investigation of unintentional POP emissions from thermal wire reclamation at industrial scrap metal recycling parks in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Zhiqiang; Zheng, Minghui; Liu, Guorui; Liu, Wenbin; Lv, Pu; Zhang, Bing; Su, Guijin; Gao, Lirong; Xiao, Ke

    2012-05-15

    Thermal wire reclamation is considered to be a potential source of unintentional persistent organic pollutants (unintentional POPs). In this study, unintentional POP concentrations, including PCDD/Fs, dioxin like PCBs (dl-PCBs), polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs), hexachlorobenzene (HxCBz) and pentachlorobenzene (PeCBz), were quantified in flue gas and residual ash emissions from thermal wire reclamation at scrap metal dismantling parks in Zhejiang Province, China. The total average TEQ emissions of the investigated unintentional POPs from flue gas and residual ash in two typical scrap metal recycling plants ranged from 13.1 to 48.3ngTEQNm(-3) and 0.08 to 2.8ngTEQg(-1), respectively. The dominant PCDD/F congeners were OCDD, 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDD, OCDF and 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDF, while PCB-126 and PCB-169 were the main contributors to the toxicity of the dl-PCBs. There were clear differences in the distribution dl-PCBs congeners contributing to the TEQ concentrations in the flue gas samples from the two plants. The PCN TEQs were dominated by PCN-66/67 and PCN-73. Although thermal wire reclamation in incinerators has been proposed as an alternative to open burning, there are still considerable environmental risks associated with regulated incinerators, and unintentional POP emissions from thermal wire reclamation sites need to be controlled by local government agencies.

  19. The Role of Preventive Medicine in Childhood Trauma

    OpenAIRE

    Gokhan Berktug Bahadir; Akgun Oral; Ahmet Guven

    2011-01-01

    Death or fatal complications due to childhood trauma may lead to loss of human and human-power, leeway and financial losses. The most important step in preventing trauma and deaths related to trauma is which it is known that the trauma can be prevented it is even an unpredictable event. Therefore, \\"the risk of injury\\" and \\"injury prevention\\" in childhood must be comprehended and interested in by anyone. In this review, the problems leading to trauma, prevention methods and preventive medi...

  20. Unintentional carbon monoxide poisoning hospitalization and emergency department counts and rates by county, year, and fire-relatedness among California residents,2000-2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Environmental Health Tracking Program — This dataset contains case counts, rates, and confidence intervals of unintentional carbon monoxide poisoning (CO) inpatient hospitalizations and emergency...

  1. Unintentional selection, unanticipated insights: introductions, stocking and the evolutionary ecology of fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchings, J A

    2014-12-01

    Natural environmental change has produced countless opportunities for species to disperse into and persist in habitats where they previously did not exist. Introduction and stocking programmes have facilitated similar sorts of colonization opportunities across considerably greater geographical scales and often in much shorter periods of time. Even though the mechanism of colonization differs, the result can be the same: evolutionary change in the colonizing population in response to novel selection pressures. As a consequence, some human-mediated fish transfers have unintentionally yielded novel research opportunities to study how phenotypes and genes interact with their environment and affect ecological and evolutionary change. The primary purpose here is to explore how work, directly or indirectly involved with human-mediated transfers, has unintentionally yielded novel research and research opportunities in fish ecology and evolution. Insights have produced new knowledge or altered previously held perceptions on topics such as local adaptation, rate of evolutionary change, phenotypic plasticity, alternative reproductive strategies, population structure and colonization probability. Well-documented stocking programmes, especially in terms of history, numbers and original population sources, can provide highly fertile ground for generating further insights on the ecology and evolution of fishes and of the factors likely to influence the success of conservation-based, restoration programmes. PMID:25469951

  2. Epidemiologic characteristics, knowledge and risk factors of unintentional burns in rural children in Zunyi, Southwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Shangpeng; Yang, Huajun; Hui, Ya; Zhou, Xiang; Wang, Tao; Luo, Ya; Xiang, Huiyun; Shi, Xiuquan

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the knowledge level and risk factors for pediatric unintentional burns in rural Southwest China with an aim to provide basic evidence for the prevention strategies. A stratified sampling method was used to recruit 1842 rural children from 9 schools. Self-reported burns during the past 12 months and relevant risk factors were collected by questionnaires. The burn incidence of all surveyed children was 12.7% (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 11.2–14.2%). We found that burn incidence had a trend to increase with the increasing school grade level and a trend to decrease with increasing knowledge scores on burns. The top two causes of burns were hot liquids (36.3%) and hot object (29.5%). More than 30% of children had little knowledge about preventive measures and how to give first-aid after burns. The main risk factors for burns included female gender, left-behind children by parents who were working in cities, and poor mother school education level. As the incidence of pediatric unintentional burns was high in rural southwest China, schools, families, and local public health agencies should put efforts into health education targeting burn prevention and first-aid measures after burns, particularly in “left-behind” children and those with mothers with poor education. PMID:27748426

  3. Childhood Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuca, Sevil Ari, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    This book aims to provide readers with a general as well as an advanced overview of the key trends in childhood obesity. Obesity is an illness that occurs due to a combination of genetic, environmental, psychosocial, metabolic and hormonal factors. The prevalence of obesity has shown a great rise both in adults and children in the last 30 years.…

  4. Childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, R

    1999-01-01

    Approximately 10% of children are obese. Twin and adoption studies demonstrate a large genetic component to obesity, especially in adults. However, the increasing prevalence of obesity over the last 20 years can only be explained by environmental factors. In most obese individuals, no measurable differences in metabolism can be detected. Few children engage in regular physical activity. Obese children and adults uniformly underreport the amount of food they eat. Obesity is particularly related to increased consumption of high-fat foods. BMI is a quick and easy way to screen for childhood obesity. Treating childhood obesity relies on positive family support and lifestyle changes involving the whole family. Food preferences are influenced early by parental eating habits, and when developed in childhood, they tend to remain fairly constant into adulthood. Children learn to be active or inactive from their parents. In addition, physical activity (or more commonly, physical inactivity) habits that are established in childhood tend to persist into adulthood. Weight loss is usually followed by changes in appetite and metabolism, predisposing individuals to regain their weight. However, when the right family dynamics exist--a motivated child with supportive parents--long-term success is possible.

  5. Injury Secondary to Antiretroviral Agents: Retrospective Analysis of a Regional Poison Center Database

    OpenAIRE

    Wheatley, Matthew A; Shah, Bijal B; Morgan, Brent W.; Houry, Debra; Kazzi, Ziad N.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Poisoning is an increasingly important cause of injury in the United States. In 2009 poison centers received 2,479,355 exposure reports, underscoring the role of poison centers in intentional and unintentional injury prevention. Antiretroviral (ARV) agents are commonly prescribed drugs known to cause toxicity, yet the frequency of these incidents is unknown. The objectives of this study were to quantify the number of reported cases of toxicity secondary to ARV agents at a region...

  6. Injury Secondary to Antiretroviral Agents: A Retrospective Analysis of a Regional Poison Center Database

    OpenAIRE

    Wheatley, Matthew A; Shah, Bijal B; Morgan, Brent W.; Houry, Debra; Kazzi, Ziad N.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Poisoning is an increasingly important cause of injury in the United States. In 2009 poison centers received 2,479,355 exposure reports, underscoring the role of poison centers in intentional and unintentional injury prevention. Antiretroviral (ARV) agents are commonly prescribed drugs known to cause toxicity, yet the frequency of these incidents is unknown. The objectives of this study were to quantify the number of reported cases of toxicity secondary to ARV agents at a region...

  7. A Quantitative Model of Thermal Injury-Induced Acute Inflammation

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Qian; Berthiaume, Francois; Androulakis, Ioannis P.

    2010-01-01

    Severe burns are among the most common causes of death from unintentional injury. The induction and resolution of the burn-induced systemic inflammatory response are mediated by a network of factors and regulatory proteins. Numerous mechanisms operate simultaneously, thus requiring a systems level approach to characterize their overall impact. Towards this goal, we propose an in silico semi-mechanistic model of burn-induced systemic inflammation using liver specific gene expression from a rat...

  8. Childhood vitiligo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aparna Palit

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Childhood vitiligo is often encountered in dermatological practice. When present in infancy or early childhood, various nevoid and hereditary disorders are to be differentiated. In many cases, familial aggregation of the disease is seen and other autoimmune disorders may be associated. Segmental presentation is more common, and limited body surface area involvement is usual in this age group. Children with vitiligo often suffer from anxiety and depression because of their unusual appearance. Management of vitiligo in children is difficult as therapeutic options are restricted when compared to that in adult patients. Selection of treatment should be careful in these patients with the aim to achieve best results with minimal side effects as well as relieving patients′ and parents′ anxiety.

  9. Slipping and tripping: fall injuries in adults associated with rugs and carpets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Rosen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Falls are a leading cause of unintentional injury among adults age 65 years and older. Loose, unsecured rugs and damaged carpets with curled edges, are recognized environmental hazards that may contribute to falls. To characterize nonfatal, unintentional fall-related injuries associated with rugs and carpets in adults aged 65 years and older. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective analysis of surveillance data of injuries treated in hospital emergency departments (EDs during 2001–2008. We used the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System-All Injury Program, which collects data from a nationally representative stratified probability sample of 66 U.S. hospital EDs. Sample weights were used to make national estimates. RESULTS: Annually, an estimated 37,991 adults age 65 years or older were treated in U.S. EDs for falls associated with carpets (54.2% and rugs (45.8%. Most falls (72.8% occurred at home. Women represented 80.2% of fall injuries. The most common location for fall injuries in the home was the bathroom (35.7%. Frequent fall injuries occurred at the transition between carpet/rug and non-carpet/rug, on wet carpets or rugs, and while hurrying to the bathroom. CONCLUSIONS: Fall injuries associated with rugs and carpets are common and may cause potentially severe injuries. Older adults, their caregivers, and emergency and primary care physicians should be aware of the significant risk for fall injuries and of environmental modifications that may reduce that risk.

  10. Childhood psoriasis

    OpenAIRE

    Dogra Sunil; Kaur Inderjeet

    2010-01-01

    Psoriasis is a common dermatosis in children with about one third of all patients having onset of disease in the first or second decade of life. A chronic disfiguring skin disease, such as psoriasis, in childhood is likely to have profound emotional and psychological effects, and hence requires special attention. Psoriasis in children has been reported to differ from that among adults being more frequently pruritic; plaque lesions are relatively thinner, softer, and less scaly; face and flexu...

  11. Childhood pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uretsky, G; Goldschmiedt, M; James, K

    1999-05-01

    Acute pancreatitis is a rare finding in childhood but probably more common than is generally realized. This condition should be considered in the evaluation of children with vomiting and abdominal pain, because it can cause significant morbidity and mortality. Clinical suspicion is required to make the diagnosis, especially when the serum amylase concentration is normal. Recurrent pancreatitis may be familial as a result of inherited biochemical or anatomic abnormalities. Patients with hereditary pancreatitis are at high risk for pancreatic cancer.

  12. Effectiveness of measures to prevent unintentional deaths of infants and children from suffocation and strangulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, J F

    1985-01-01

    Unintentional deaths from suffocation and strangulation account for about 20 percent of all nontransport-related infant and child fatalities in the United States. In the late 1950s, some preventive countermeasures were introduced to reduce the number of deaths resulting from refrigerator or freezer entrapment. A few years later, countermeasures were introduced to prevent deaths resulting from suffocation by plastic bags, inhumation, and mechanical strangulation from wedging in infant cribs. For three of these major causes of suffocation and strangulation deaths among infants and children (refrigerator or freezer entrapment, suffocation by plastic bag, and inhumation at construction sites), there appears to have been a significant decline in incidence; however, there is no evidence of a significant reduction in deaths from mechanical strangulation in cribs. The impact of current countermeasures is discussed, and some suggestions for new or modified approaches are made. PMID:3920722

  13. Investigation of yellow luminescence intensity of N-polar unintentionally doped GaN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Du Da-Chao; Zhang Jin-Cheng; Ou Xin-Xiu; Wang Hao; Chen Ke; Xue Jun-Shuai; Xu Sheng-Rui; Hao Yue

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports that the yellow luminescence intensity of N-polar GaN Epi-layers is much lower than that of Ga-polar ones due to the inverse polarity, and reduces drastically in the N-polar unintentionally-doped GaN after etching in KOH solution. The ratio of yellow luminescence intensity to band-edge emission intensity decreases sharply with the etching time. The full width at half maximum of x-ray diffraction of (10-12) plane falls sharply after etching, and the surface morphology characterized by scanning electron microscope shows a rough surface that changes with the etching time. The mechanism for the generation of the yellow luminescence are explained in details.

  14. Partially Hydrogenated Graphene Materials Exhibit High Electrocatalytic Activities Related to Unintentional Doping with Metallic Impurities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankovský, Ondřej; Libánská, Alena; Bouša, Daniel; Sedmidubský, David; Matějková, Stanislava; Sofer, Zdeněk

    2016-06-13

    Partially hydrogenated graphene materials, synthesized by the chemical reduction/hydrogenation of two different graphene oxides using zinc powder in acidic environment or aluminum powder in alkaline environment, exhibit high electrocatalytic activities, as well as electrochemical sensing properties. The starting graphene oxides and the resultant hydrogenated graphenes were characterized in detail. Their electrocatalytic activity was examined in the oxygen reduction reaction, whereas sensing properties towards explosives were tested by using picric acid as a redox probe. Findings indicate that the high electrocatalytic performance originates not only from the hydrogenation of graphene, but also from unintentional contamination of graphene with manganese and other metals during synthesis. A careful evaluation of the obtained data and a detailed chemical analysis are necessary to identify the origin of this anomalous electrocatalytic activity. PMID:27167069

  15. Deep level defects in unintentionally doped 4H-SiC homoepitaxial layer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia Renxu; Zhang Yimen; Zhang Yuming; Wang Yuehu; Zhang Lin

    2009-01-01

    Unintentionally doped 4H-SiC homoepitaxial layers grown by hot-wall chemical vapor deposition (HWCVD) have been studied using photoluminescence (PL) technique in the temperature range of 10 to 240 K. A broadband green luminescence has been observed. Vacancies of carbon (Vc) are revealed by electron spin resonance (ESR) technique at 110 K. The results strongly suggest that the green band luminescence, as shallow donor-deep accepter emission, is attributed to the vacancies of C and the extended defects. The broadband green luminescence spectrum can be fitted by the two Gauss-type spectra using nonlinear optimization technique. It shows that the broad-band green luminescence originates from the combination of two independent radiative transitions. The centers of two energy levels are located 2.378 and 2.130 eV below the conduction band, respectively, and the ends of two energy levels are expanded and superimposed each other.

  16. Childhood Traumatic Grief

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Educators Resources for Kids and Teens Childhood Traumatic Grief What is Childhood Traumatic Grief? Children grieve in their own way following the ... child may have a condition called Childhood Traumatic Grief (CTG). Thinking about the person who died—even ...

  17. Childhood Cancer Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Shop With CureSearch Blog Donate Now Select Page Childhood Cancer Statistics Home > Understanding Children’s Cancer > Childhood Cancer Statistics Childhood Cancer Statistics – Graphs and Infographics Number of Diagnoses ...

  18. Acute hemiplegia in childhood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okuno, Takehiko; Takao, Tatsuo; Itoh, Masatoshi; Konishi, Yukuo; Nakano, Shozo (Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine)

    1983-04-01

    The results of CT in 100 patients with acute hemiplegia in childhood are reported here. The etiology was various: 2 patients had infratentorial brain tumors, 56 had cerebral vascular diseases, 3 had head injuries, 16 had intracranial infectious diseases, one had postinfectious encephalomyelitis, one had multiple sclerosis, 2 had epilepsy, and the diagnosis of 19 were unknown. Eleven patients had a normal CT and a good prognosis. As for the type of onset, there were patients of type 1 with fever and 42 with convulsions and unconsciousness; those of type 2 with convulsions and unconsciousness were 12, and those of type 3 without fever and convulsions were 46. This classification is assumed to be useful, as the type of onset is characteristic of the etiology. Six patients were diagnosed correctly by repeated examinations, although the first CT did not reveal any remarkable findings. Capsular infarction, occlusion of the posterior cerebral artery in acute hemiplegia in childhood, abnormal findings of the internal capsule, thalamus, and midbrain in a patient with postinfectious encephalomyelitis, and a diffuse low density in the CT of the unilateral hemisphere in the patients with acute encephalopathy and acute hemiplegia of an obscure origin have been found after the introduction of computerized tomography.

  19. Characteristics of unintentional carbon monoxide poisoning in Northwest Iran--Tabriz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dianat, Iman; Nazari, Jalil

    2011-12-01

    The study describes the epidemiology and characteristics of unintentional carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning in Northwest Iran between 2007 and 2009 using multiple data sources including records of the main provider of emergency medical transportation, death certificate reports of the Legal Medicine Organization and through household surveys. A total of 1005 people were diagnosed with non-fatal CO poisoning. Ninety deaths were confirmed due to CO exposure. The ratio of unintentional CO-related poisoning cases in relation to all poisonings was 17.6%. Non-fatal CO poisoning was higher in females and adults aged 25-44 year olds, whereas the death rate was highest for those over 64 years. Domestic gas appliances were involved in 98% of non-fatal incidents and in all fatal poisonings, with gas water heaters (59.2%) and free-standing heaters (25.3%) being the most common causes of CO exposure. The main mechanisms of poisoning were faulty installations and defective devices. The main locations of incidents were the bathroom (48%) and living room (32%). Only 19% of the households reported that they were aware of the hazards of CO exposure before the incident, and no household reported having a CO detector at the time of the poisoning. The results suggest that interventions should be targeted at home environments and focus on at-risk groups such as women and elderly people. Setting stricter standards and environmental legislations and promotion of public awareness against the dangers of CO exposure are important considerations for overcoming this public health problem. PMID:21827338

  20. Effect of medication reconciliation on unintentional medication discrepancies in acute hospital admissions of elderly adults: A multicenter study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bemt, P.M.L.A. van den; Schrieck-De Loos, E.M. van der; Linden, C. van der; Theeuwes, A.M.L.J.; Pol, A.G.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the effect of pharmacy-based medication reconciliation on the frequency of unintentional medication discrepancies in acutely admitted individuals aged 65 and older. Design Multicenter intervention study with pre-post design. Setting Twelve Dutch hospitals. Participants One

  1. Increase in Fracture Risk Following Unintentional Weight Loss in Postmenopausal Women: The Global Longitudinal Study of Osteoporosis in Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compston, Juliet E; Wyman, Allison; FitzGerald, Gordon; Adachi, Jonathan D; Chapurlat, Roland D; Cooper, Cyrus; Díez-Pérez, Adolfo; Gehlbach, Stephen H; Greenspan, Susan L; Hooven, Frederick H; LaCroix, Andrea Z; March, Lyn; Netelenbos, J Coen; Nieves, Jeri W; Pfeilschifter, Johannes; Rossini, Maurizio; Roux, Christian; Saag, Kenneth G; Siris, Ethel S; Silverman, Stuart; Watts, Nelson B; Anderson, Frederick A

    2016-07-01

    Increased fracture risk has been associated with weight loss in postmenopausal women, but the time course over which this occurs has not been established. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of unintentional weight loss of ≥10 lb (4.5 kg) in postmenopausal women on fracture risk at multiple sites up to 5 years after weight loss. Using data from the Global Longitudinal Study of Osteoporosis in Women (GLOW), we analyzed the relationships between self-reported unintentional weight loss of ≥10 lb at baseline, year 2, or year 3 and incident clinical fracture in the years after weight loss. Complete data were available in 40,179 women (mean age ± SD 68 ± 8.3 years). Five-year cumulative fracture rate was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method, and adjusted hazard ratios for weight loss as a time-varying covariate were calculated from Cox multiple regression models. Unintentional weight loss at baseline was associated with a significantly increased risk of fracture of the clavicle, wrist, spine, rib, hip, and pelvis for up to 5 years after weight loss. Adjusted hazard ratios showed a significant association between unintentional weight loss and fracture of the hip, spine, and clavicle within 1 year of weight loss, and these associations were still present at 5 years. These findings demonstrate increased fracture risk at several sites after unintentional weight loss in postmenopausal women. This increase is found as early as 1 year after weight loss, emphasizing the need for prompt fracture risk assessment and appropriate management to reduce fracture risk in this population. © 2016 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. PMID:26861139

  2. Increase in Fracture Risk Following Unintentional Weight Loss in Postmenopausal Women: The Global Longitudinal Study of Osteoporosis in Women†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compston, Juliet E.; Wyman, A; FitzGerald, Gordon; Adachi, Jonathan D.; Chapurlat, Roland D.; Cooper, Cyrus; Díez-Pérez, Adolfo; Gehlbach, Stephen H; Greenspan, Susan L.; Hooven, Frederick H.; LaCroix, Andrea Z.; March, Lyn; Coen Netelenbos, J.; Nieves, Jeri W.; Pfeilschifter, Johannes; Rossini, Maurizio; Roux, Christian; Saag, Kenneth G.; Siris, Ethel S.; Silverman, Stuart; Watts, Nelson B.; Anderson, Frederick A.

    2016-01-01

    Increased fracture risk has been associated with weight loss in postmenopausal women but the time course over which this occurs has not been established. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of unintentional weight loss of ≥10 lb (4.5 kg) in postmenopausal women on fracture risk at multiple sites up to 5 years following weight loss. Using data from the Global Longitudinal Study of Osteoporosis in Women (GLOW) we analyzed the relationships between self-reported unintentional weight loss of ≥10 lb at baseline, year 2, or year 3 and incident clinical fracture in the years following weight loss. Complete data were available in 40,179 women (mean age ± SD 68 ± 8.3 years). Five-year cumulative fracture rate was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method, and adjusted hazard ratios for weight loss as a time-varying covariate were calculated from Cox multiple regression models. Unintentional weight loss at baseline was associated with a significantly increased risk of fracture of the clavicle, wrist, spine, rib, hip, and pelvis for up to 5 years following weight loss. Adjusted hazard ratios showed a significant association between unintentional weight loss and fracture of the hip, spine, and clavicle within 1 year of weight loss, and these associations were still present at 5 years. These findings demonstrate increased fracture risk at several sites after unintentional weight loss in postmenopausal women. This increase is seen as early as 1 year following weight loss, emphasizing the need for prompt fracture risk assessment and appropriate management to reduce fracture risk in this population. PMID:26861139

  3. Deaths from injuries and induced abortion among rural Bangladeshi women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauveau, V; Blanchet, T

    1989-01-01

    Information about injuries and violence as causes of death of women is scarce and often incomplete, and particularly so regarding women in the rural areas of South Asia. This report provides detailed specific information collected in Matlab, a sub-district of rural Bangladesh. Of 1139 women (aged 15-44 yr) who died there during the 11-yr period from 1976 to 1986, 207 (18%) were victims of unintentional injuries or violence. In this study, unintentional injuries include domestic and traffic accidents, drowning and snake-bites, while violent deaths are defined as due to intentional injury and include homicide, suicide and lethal complications of induced abortion. Injuries and violence accounted for 31% of all deaths among women aged 15-19 yr. This proportion dropped significantly with age to 10% among women aged 35-44 yr. Unmarried women suffered a higher proportion of such deaths (36%) than married women (15%). Violent deaths during pregnancy and complications of induced abortion among young unmarried women deserve special attention. In the male-dominated society under study, suicide and homicide are observed to be two frequent consequences of illegitimate pregnancy. Although this study suffers from the absence of data on non-fatal injuries and attempted violence, it may serve as a basis for recommending preventive measures.

  4. Traffic calming policy can reduce inequalities in child pedestrian injuries: database study

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, S; Lyons, R.; John, A.; Palmer, S.

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: To determine whether area wide traffic calming distribution reflects known inequalities in child pedestrian injury rates. To determine whether traffic calming is associated with changes in childhood pedestrian injury rates.

  5. Childhood psoriasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dogra Sunil

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Psoriasis is a common dermatosis in children with about one third of all patients having onset of disease in the first or second decade of life. A chronic disfiguring skin disease, such as psoriasis, in childhood is likely to have profound emotional and psychological effects, and hence requires special attention. Psoriasis in children has been reported to differ from that among adults being more frequently pruritic; plaque lesions are relatively thinner, softer, and less scaly; face and flexural involvement is common and guttate type is the characteristic presentation. Whether onset in childhood predicts a more severe form of psoriasis is a matter of controversy, it may cause significant morbidity particularly if it keeps relapsing. Most children have mild form of psoriasis which can be generally treated effectively with topical agents such as emollients, coal tar, corticosteroids, dithranol, calcipotriol etc. according to age and the sites affected. Narrow band UVB is the preferred form of phototherapy in children for moderate to severe disease or in patients not responding to topical therapy alone. Systemic therapies are reserved for more severe and extensive cases that cannot be controlled with topical treatment and/or phototherapy such as severe plaque type, unstable forms like erythrodermic and generalized pustular psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis. There are no controlled trials of systemic therapies in this age group, most experience being with retinoids and methotrexate with favorable results. Cyclosporine can be used as a short-term intermittent crisis management drug. There is an early promising experience with the use of biologics (etanercept and infliximab in childhood psoriasis. Systemic treatments as well as phototherapy have limited use in children due to cumulative dose effects of drugs, low acceptance, and risk of gonadal toxicity. More evidence-based data is needed about the effectiveness and long-term safety of topical

  6. Paediatric Blood-Injection-Injury Phobia

    OpenAIRE

    Beena Johnson

    2016-01-01

    Blood-Injection-Injury phobia is a major health issue throughout the life span. It usually starts in early childhood. Avoidance of health care is seen in such individuals. Children with blood injection injury phobia have uncontrollable fear of blood, injury, injections and needles. Because of the intense fear, these children will do everything possible to avoid it. Various physical symptoms including increased heart rate, chest discomfort, trembling movements, feeling of choking and syncope...

  7. Data mining: childhood injury control and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tepas, Joseph J

    2009-08-01

    Data mining is defined as the automatic extraction of useful, often previously unknown information from large databases or data sets. It has become a major part of modern life and is extensively used in industry, banking, government, and health care delivery. The process requires a data collection system that integrates input from multiple sources containing critical elements that define outcomes of interest. Appropriately designed data mining processes identify and adjust for confounding variables. The statistical modeling used to manipulate accumulated data may involve any number of techniques. As predicted results are periodically analyzed against those observed, the model is consistently refined to optimize precision and accuracy. Whether applying integrated sources of clinical data to inferential probabilistic prediction of risk of ventilator-associated pneumonia or population surveillance for signs of bioterrorism, it is essential that modern health care providers have at least a rudimentary understanding of what the concept means, how it basically works, and what it means to current and future health care. PMID:19667841

  8. Unintentional weakness of cancers: the MEK-ERK pathway as a double-edged sword.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suda, Kenichi; Mitsudomi, Tetsuya

    2013-10-01

    Recent advances in molecular targeted therapies have greatly improved treatment outcomes for cancers driven by oncogenic mutations. Despite initial and dramatic clinical responses, tumors eventually acquire resistance to these targeted therapies, showing flexible and diverse responses. Interestingly, cancer cells sometimes overadapt to the drug treatment environment, leading to a state in which cancer cells cannot survive without the drug. This interesting phenomenon (often called "drug dependency" or "drug addiction") is exemplified in preclinical acquired resistance models of BRAF-mutated melanoma treated with vemurafenib and EGFR-mutated lung cancer treated with EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors. A number of intriguing parallels in drug-addicted cancers became apparent in a comparison of the two models: (i) overexpression of driver oncogenes as causes of acquired resistance; (ii) overexpression of driver oncogenes causing MEK-ERK hyperactivation under drug-free conditions; (iii) hyperactivation of the MEK-ERK pathway as critical to this drug addiction phenomenon; (iv) ongoing dependence on the oncogenic driver; and (v) morphologic changes in resistant cells under drug-free conditions. This Perspective article not only focuses on this interesting and peculiar phenomenon but also discusses weapon strategies to exploit this unintentional weakness of cancers. PMID:23900694

  9. Inhibition of unintentional extra carriers by Mn valence change for high insulating devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Daoyou; Li, Peigang; Wu, Zhenping; Cui, Wei; Zhao, Xiaolong; Lei, Ming; Li, Linghong; Tang, Weihua

    2016-04-01

    For intrinsic oxide semiconductors, oxygen vacancies served as the electron donors have long been, and inevitably still are, attributed as the primary cause of conductivity, making oxide semiconductors seem hard to act as high insulating materials. Meanwhile, the presence of oxygen vacancies often leads to a persistent photoconductivity phenomenon which is not conducive to the practical use in the fast photoelectric response devices. Herein, we propose a possible way to reduce the influence of oxygen vacancies by introducing a valence change doping in the monoclinic β-Ga2O3 epitaxial thin film. The unintentional extra electrons induced by oxygen vacancies can be strongly suppressed by the change valence of the doped Mn ions from +3 to +2. The resistance for the Mn-doped Ga2O3 increases two orders of magnitude in compared with the pure Ga2O3. As a result, photodetector based on Mn-doped Ga2O3 thin films takes on a lower dark current, a higher sensitivity, and a faster photoresponse time, exhibiting a promising candidate using in high performance solar-blind photodetector. The study presents that the intentional doping of Mn may provide a convenient and reliable method of obtaining high insulating thin film in oxide semiconductor for the application of specific device.

  10. Roger Williams’s Unintentional Contribution to the Creation of American Capitalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casey Pratt

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues that in attempting to protect the religious life from the sullying influence of worldly affairs, Roger Williams participated, albeit unintentionally, in creating the economic conditions that led to the birth of American capitalism. Although Williams argued for a separation of church and state, he did so not in the interest of defending economic liberty, but instead to preserve the sanctity of the church against the frequent immorality that seemed to him required in worldly governance. Questions of pricing and wages, lending and interest—issues that would until Williams’s intervention have been handled by the church in terms of Aquinas’ just price theory—fell outside of the church’s purview according to the new model described by Williams. The result was the creation of an “amoral” public space where the effective separation between spiritual and material concerns led to a kind of free-by-default economic marketplace. This paper traces the development and inadvertent consequences of this essentially theological idea as it took shape in the colonial era.

  11. Are boys and girls that different? An analysis of traumatic brain injury in children.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Collins, Niamh C

    2013-08-01

    The Phillips Report on traumatic brain injury (TBI) in Ireland found that injury was more frequent in men and that gender differences were present in childhood. This study determined when gender differences emerge and examined the effect of gender on the mechanism of injury, injury type and severity and outcome.

  12. Multivariate Statistics and Supervised Learning for Predictive Detection of Unintentional Islanding in Grid-Tied Solar PV Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashank Vyas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Integration of solar photovoltaic (PV generation with power distribution networks leads to many operational challenges and complexities. Unintentional islanding is one of them which is of rising concern given the steady increase in grid-connected PV power. This paper builds up on an exploratory study of unintentional islanding on a modeled radial feeder having large PV penetration. Dynamic simulations, also run in real time, resulted in exploration of unique potential causes of creation of accidental islands. The resulting voltage and current data underwent dimensionality reduction using principal component analysis (PCA which formed the basis for the application of Q statistic control charts for detecting the anomalous currents that could island the system. For reducing the false alarm rate of anomaly detection, Kullback-Leibler (K-L divergence was applied on the principal component projections which concluded that Q statistic based approach alone is not reliable for detection of the symptoms liable to cause unintentional islanding. The obtained data was labeled and a K-nearest neighbor (K-NN binomial classifier was then trained for identification and classification of potential islanding precursors from other power system transients. The three-phase short-circuit fault case was successfully identified as statistically different from islanding symptoms.

  13. Relationship Analysis of the Correlated Factors between Unintentional Inj ury and Family Envi-ronment of College Students%大学生意外伤害与环境相关因素的关系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈思思; 周乐山

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨大学生意外伤害与环境因素的关系,为预防和控制大学生意外伤害的发生提供参考依据.方法采用自编调查表和环境量表中文版(the family environment scale-Chinese version,FES-CV)对71例意外伤害大学生和匹配的71例未发生意外伤害学生的环境因素进行评定,运用t检验、χ2检验、条件 Logistic 回归等分析意外伤害与环境相关因素的关系.结果病例组与对照组在成绩、是否独生、喝酒情况、家庭月收入、教育方式方面差异有统计学意义(均P<0.05).FES-CV8个维度中病例组的亲密度、情感表达得分高于对照组(均P<0.05).多因素分析显示是否独生、家庭月收入、亲密度是大学生意外伤害的主要影响因素(均P<0.05).结论应根据意外伤害大学生的环境特征采取相应的干预措施,以降低大学生意外伤害的发生率.%Objective To discuss the relationships between unintentional injury and family environment in college students,so as to provide references for preventing and controlling unintentional inj ury of college students.Methods By using self-designed questionnaire and the Family Environment Scale Chinese version to assess 7 1 inj ured and matched 7 1 uninj ured cases’s family environment factors and then analyze the rela-tionships between unintentional inj ury and family environment relevant factors by using T test and condi-tional Logistic regression.Results There were statistic significances of grades,whether the only child in the family,drinking situation,family monthly income and education style between two groups of students (all P<0.05).FES-CV scale of score of intimacy and emotional expression in case group were higher than which in control group (all P<0.05).Multivariate analysis showed that whether the only child in the fami-ly,family monthly income and intimacy were the maj or influencing factors of unintentional inj ury of college students (all P<0

  14. Cranial nerve palsies in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, C J; Godoy, F; ALQahtani, E

    2015-02-01

    We review ocular motor cranial nerve palsies in childhood and highlight many of the features that differentiate these from their occurrence in adulthood. The clinical characteristics of cranial nerve palsies in childhood are affected by the child's impressive ability to repair and regenerate after injury. Thus, aberrant regeneration is very common after congenital III palsy; Duane syndrome, the result of early repair after congenital VI palsy, is invariably associated with retraction of the globe in adduction related to the innervation of the lateral rectus by the III nerve causing co-contraction in adduction. Clinical features that may be of concern in adulthood may not be relevant in childhood; whereas the presence of mydriasis in III palsy suggests a compressive aetiology in adults, this is not the case in children. However, the frequency of associated CNS abnormalities in III palsy and the risk of tumour in VI palsy can be indications for early neuroimaging depending on presenting features elicited through a careful history and clinical examination. The latter should include the neighbouring cranial nerves. We discuss the impact of our evolving knowledge of congenital cranial dysinnervation syndromes on this field. PMID:25572578

  15. Childhood trauma, country report (Thailand).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junnanond, C; Ruangkanchanasetr, S; Chunharas, A

    1993-10-01

    In Thailand, each year approximately 15,000 people die from accidents, a figure exceeded only by cardiovascular diseases. Motor vehicle accidents (MVA) is the principal cause of death and injuries in children of all ages except preschool group. In 1988 there were 554,452 cases of injuries out of which 10,031 died from MVA. In Bangkok alone MVA accounts for an average of 300 childhood and teenage death and 1,900 cases of injuries each year. Falls, burns and poisonings are relatively high in children less than 4 years old while MVA and injuries from sharp and blunt objects of both accidental and non-accidental cases increase with age and become the two leading causes of injury in older children. The sex ratio (F:M) in preschool ages are 1:1.4 and 1:2 in preteen. Poisonings, though less common, are considered to be very important because of their severity. Drugs, hydrocarbon, insecticides, lead and corrosive substances are leading agents. As for injuries caused by animals, 150 cases of rabies were reported each year while around 5,000 cases of snake bites were found in 1987 and 20 per cent of the victims were children. The study from Ramathibodi Hospital revealed that the majority of accidents (65-72%) occur at home and 20 per cent in the street in children younger than 12 years. Peak incidence were found between 5-9 pm. During weekend and holidays the incidence is higher. Ninety-five per cent of the accidents reported were mild cases, 15 per cent moderate, 3 per cent severe and less than 1 per cent caused death. PMID:7822995

  16. Childhood trauma, country report (Thailand).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junnanond, C; Ruangkanchanasetr, S; Chunharas, A

    1993-10-01

    In Thailand, each year approximately 15,000 people die from accidents, a figure exceeded only by cardiovascular diseases. Motor vehicle accidents (MVA) is the principal cause of death and injuries in children of all ages except preschool group. In 1988 there were 554,452 cases of injuries out of which 10,031 died from MVA. In Bangkok alone MVA accounts for an average of 300 childhood and teenage death and 1,900 cases of injuries each year. Falls, burns and poisonings are relatively high in children less than 4 years old while MVA and injuries from sharp and blunt objects of both accidental and non-accidental cases increase with age and become the two leading causes of injury in older children. The sex ratio (F:M) in preschool ages are 1:1.4 and 1:2 in preteen. Poisonings, though less common, are considered to be very important because of their severity. Drugs, hydrocarbon, insecticides, lead and corrosive substances are leading agents. As for injuries caused by animals, 150 cases of rabies were reported each year while around 5,000 cases of snake bites were found in 1987 and 20 per cent of the victims were children. The study from Ramathibodi Hospital revealed that the majority of accidents (65-72%) occur at home and 20 per cent in the street in children younger than 12 years. Peak incidence were found between 5-9 pm. During weekend and holidays the incidence is higher. Ninety-five per cent of the accidents reported were mild cases, 15 per cent moderate, 3 per cent severe and less than 1 per cent caused death.

  17. Childhood medulloblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massimino, Maura; Biassoni, Veronica; Gandola, Lorenza; Garrè, Maria Luisa; Gatta, Gemma; Giangaspero, Felice; Poggi, Geraldina; Rutkowski, Stefan

    2016-09-01

    Medulloblastoma accounts for 15-20% of childhood nervous system tumours. The risk of dying was reduced by 30% in the last twenty years. Patients are divided in risk strata according to post-surgical disease, dissemination, histology and some molecular features such as WNT subgroup and MYC status. Sixty to 70% of patients older than 3 years are assigned to the average-risk group. High-risk patients include those with disseminated and/or residual disease, large cell and/or anaplastic histotypes, MYC genes amplification. Current and currently planned clinical trials will: (1) evaluate the feasibility of reducing both the dose of craniospinal irradiation and the volume of the posterior fossa radiotherapy (RT) for those patients at low biologic risk, commonly identified as those having a medulloblastoma of the WNT subgroup; (2) determine whether intensification of chemotherapy (CT) or irradiation can improve outcome in patients with high-risk disease; (3) find target therapies allowing tailored therapies especially for relapsing patients and those with higher biological risk. PMID:27375228

  18. Unintentional PCB in chlorophenylsilanes as a source of contamination in environmental samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anezaki, Katsunori, E-mail: anezaki@hro.or.jp [Hokkaido Research Organization, Environmental and Geological Research Department, Institute of Environmental Sciences, N19W12, Kita, Sapporo, Hokkaido (Japan); Nakano, Takeshi [Center for Advanced Science and Innovation, Osaka University, Osaka (Japan)

    2015-04-28

    Highlights: • PCB concentrations were studied in silicone-based adhesives and chlorophenylsilanes. • Congener patterns (CP) were studied in adhesives and chlorophenylsilanes. • High concentrations of PCBs were detected in dichlorodiphenylsilane. • In commercial adhesives, PCBs with similar CP to dichlorodiphenylsilane were found. • CP were affected by the chlorobenzene used for synthesizing chlorophenylsilanes. - Abstract: This paper discusses the concentrations and congener patterns of PCBs unintentionally present in chlorophenylsilanes. Chlorophenylsilanes are used in the production of silicone-based adhesives and phenyl silicones. The concentration of PCBs in adhesives was found to range from not-detectable concentrations to 40 mg/kg. The concentrations of PCBs in trichlorophenylsilane, dichlorodiphenylsilane, chlorotriphenylsilane, and diphenylsilanediol were 0.00072–2.7, 6.5–1,500, 0.019–1.1, and 0.12–120 mg/kg, respectively. Dichlorodiphenylsilane and diphenylsilanediol, in particular, had high PCB concentrations. The PCB concentration of some specimens exceeded the 50 mg/kg limit set by the transportation regulations of the Stockholm Convention. In the adhesives and chlorophenylsilanes, mono- and di-chlorinated biphenyls were detected in high proportions. The congeners detected in dichlorinated biphenyls had a structure in which one chlorine atom was substituted at each of the two aryls of the biphenyl backbone. This indicated that the chlorobenzene used for synthesizing chlorophenylsilanes undergoes dimerization. The congener and homologue patterns of the adhesives containing PCBs were similar to dichlorodiphenylsilane and diphenylsilanediol. It was concluded that the production of the adhesives is based on these substances. In addition, these results indicate that silicone-based products may become a source of PCBs in the environment, leading to irregular PCB values in environmental analysis.

  19. Emission of unintentionally produced persistent organic pollutants (UPOPs) from municipal waste incinerators in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuancheng; Yang, Yang; Yu, Gang; Huang, Jun; Wang, Bin; Deng, Shubo; Wang, Yujue

    2016-09-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), pentachlorobenzene (PeCBz) and hexachlorobenzene (HxCBz), which are listed in the Stockholm Convention, are commonly known as unintentionally produced persistent organic pollutants (UPOPs). As municipal waste incinerators (MWIs) have burgeoned in China, the emission of UPOPs is of great concerns. Compared to the extensive studies of PCDD/Fs emission, not much information of non-dioxin UPOPs (i.e., PCBs, HxCBz, and PeCBz) is available. In the present study, samples from raw gas (RG) after boiler, stack gas (SG) after air pollution control devices (APCDs) and fly ash (FA) samples were collected from typical MWIs in China. The analyses of SG samples indicate that PCDD/Fs are the major contributor to TEQ value, but non-dioxin UPOPs are the dominant compounds in terms of mass concentration. The mean emission factors of dl-PCBs, PeCBz, and HxCBz in SG are 0.372, 144, and 84.7 μg/t, respectively. In contrast with gaseous samples, FA contains higher mass concentration of PCDD/Fs and PCBs than that of PeCBz and HxCBz. In terms of homologues distribution of PCBs, di- to tetra-CBs were the predominant species in both SG and FA samples. PCB-126 is the major contributor to the TEQ concentration. The comparison of UPOPs composition in SG and RG samples shows that activated carbon adsorption process is capable of removing most PCDD/Fs, but less efficient for the removal of non-dioxin UPOPs. PMID:27239966

  20. Local extinction and unintentional rewilding of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) on a desert island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilder, Benjamin T.; Betancourt, Julio L.; Epps, Clinton W.; Crowhurst, Rachel S.; Mead, Jim I.; Ezcurra, Exequiel

    2014-01-01

    Bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) were not known to live on Tiburón Island, the largest island in the Gulf of California and Mexico, prior to the surprisingly successful introduction of 20 individuals as a conservation measure in 1975. Today, a stable island population of ~500 sheep supports limited big game hunting and restocking of depleted areas on the Mexican mainland. We discovered fossil dung morphologically similar to that of bighorn sheep in a dung mat deposit from Mojet Cave, in the mountains of Tiburón Island. To determine the origin of this cave deposit we compared pellet shape to fecal pellets of other large mammals, and extracted DNA to sequence mitochondrial DNA fragments at the 12S ribosomal RNA and control regions. The fossil dung was 14C-dated to 1476–1632 calendar years before present and was confirmed as bighorn sheep by morphological and ancient DNA (aDNA) analysis. 12S sequences closely or exactly matched known bighorn sheep sequences; control region sequences exactly matched a haplotype described in desert bighorn sheep populations in southwest Arizona and southern California and showed subtle differentiation from the extant Tiburón population. Native desert bighorn sheep previously colonized this land-bridge island, most likely during the Pleistocene, when lower sea levels connected Tiburón to the mainland. They were extirpated sometime in the last ~1500 years, probably due to inherent dynamics of isolated populations, prolonged drought, and (or) human overkill. The reintroduced population is vulnerable to similar extinction risks. The discovery presented here refutes conventional wisdom that bighorn sheep are not native to Tiburón Island, and establishes its recent introduction as an example of unintentional rewilding, defined here as the introduction of a species without knowledge that it was once native and has since gone locally extinct.

  1. Unintentional miRNA ablation is a risk factor in gene knockout studies: a short report.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Osokine

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the most powerful techniques for studying the function of a gene is to disrupt the expression of that gene using genetic engineering strategies such as targeted recombination or viral integration of gene trap cassettes. The tremendous utility of these tools was recognized this year with the awarding of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine to Capecchi, Evans, and Smithies for their pioneering work in targeted recombination mutagenesis in mammals. Another noteworthy discovery made nearly a decade ago was the identification of a novel class of non-coding genes called microRNAs. MicroRNAs are among the largest known classes of regulatory elements with more than 1000 predicted to exist in the mouse genome. Over 50% of known microRNAs are located within introns of coding genes. Given that currently about half of the genes in mouse have been knocked out, we investigated the possibility that intronic microRNAs may have been coincidentally deleted or disrupted in some of these mouse models. We searched published murine knockout studies and gene trap embryonic stem cell line databases for cases where a microRNA was located within or near the manipulated genomic loci, finding almost 200 cases where microRNA expression may have been disrupted along with another gene. Our results draw attention to the need for careful planning in future knockout studies to minimize the unintentional disruption of microRNAs. These data also raise the possibility that many knockout studies may need to be reexamined to determine if loss of a microRNA contributes to the phenotypic consequences attributed to loss of a protein-encoding gene.

  2. Head Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Aid: Falls First Aid: Head Injuries Preventing Children's Sports Injuries Getting Help: Know the Numbers Concussions Stay Safe: ... Tips: Inline Skating Safety Tips: Skateboarding Dealing With Sports Injuries Concussions: What to Do Contact Us Print Resources ...

  3. Eye Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    The structure of your face helps protect your eyes from injury. Still, injuries can damage your eye, sometimes severely enough that you could lose your vision. Most eye injuries are preventable. If you play sports or ...

  4. Sports Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sometimes you can injure yourself when you play sports or exercise. Accidents, poor training practices, or improper ... can also lead to injuries. The most common sports injuries are Sprains and strains Knee injuries Swollen ...

  5. Injury Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Data Consumer Opinion Surveys Home / Research & Statistics Injury Statistics This is the statistic reports page for scientific ... Home Appliances, Maintenance and Construction Injury Statistics Injury Statistics September 30, 2012 Submersions Related to Non-Pool ...

  6. Childhood Overweight and Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Childhood Obesity Facts The prevalence of obesity among low-income children aged 2 through 4 years, by state ... Obesity now affects 1 in 6 children and adolescents in the United States. Childhood Obesity Facts How ...

  7. Childhood Brain Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brain tumors are abnormal growths inside the skull. They are among the most common types of childhood ... still be serious. Malignant tumors are cancerous. Childhood brain and spinal cord tumors can cause headaches and ...

  8. Influence of Sex on Suicidal Phenotypes in Affective Disorder Patients with Traumatic Childhood Experiences

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandra Bernegger; Klemens Kienesberger; Laura Carlberg; Patrick Swoboda; Birgit Ludwig; Romina Koller; Nestor D Kapusta; Martin Aigner; Helmuth Haslacher; Michaela Schmöger; Siegfried Kasper; Alexandra Schosser

    2015-01-01

    Objectives In the current study, we aimed to investigate the impact of childhood trauma on suicidal behaviour phenotypes in a group of patients with diagnosed affective disorder (unipolar or bipolar affective disorder). Patients and Methods Patients with and without a history of childhood abuse, measured by Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), were assessed to explore risks for suicidal behaviour (including suicide attempt, self-harm and non-suicidal self-injury). The tested sample consisted...

  9. Childhood proptosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proptosis in children is a hallmark of orbital diseases which can present a diagnostic challenge requiring thoughtful investigation. The aim of this review is to provide the reader an overview of the subject of childhood proptosis with an emphasis on the systematic and practical approach for the work-up of proptosis in children. Use of proper imaging studies is essential for the correct diagnosis. Computed tomography is a good screening test for any space occupying lesion of the orbit. Proptosis describes eye prominence due to space occupying orbital lesions. Congenital lesions usually present in the first decade of life. Acquired orbital lesions such as lymphangiomas, orbital varix, rhabdomyosarcoma and neural tumors may present at the end of the first decade of life. Metastatic tumors to the orbit, adenocarcinoma of lacrimal gland and rapidly growing masses may present with proptosis associated with pain. Visual loss can be the presenting symptoms in the patients with optic nerve (ON) gliomas, orbital meningiomas and posteriorly located tumors. Cystic lesions of the orbit may be congenital or acquired, dermoid cysts being the most common congenital orbital lesions. Some of the vascular lesions of the orbit include capillary hemangiomas, lymphangiomas, orbital varix, and arteriovenous malformations. Inflammatory process of the orbit in children include cellulitis and pseudotumor. Neural tumors such as neurofibromas, ON gilomas and meningiomas are less common causes of proptosis in children. Rhabdomyosarcoma is the most common primary orbital malignancy in children which can present with acute proptosis and is one of the few life-threatening diseases seen initially by an ophthalmologist. Secondary orbital tumors invade the orbit from adjacent sinuses, cranium or extended from the eye itself. The most common distant metastases in children include neuroblastoma and Ewing's sarcoma. Although many orbital processes can be diagnosed based on history, clinical

  10. Visceral injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisner, D H; Blaisdell, F W

    1992-06-01

    Abdominal visceral injuries are encountered by every surgeon who deals with trauma. It is simple and useful to divide abdominal visceral injuries into those caused by penetrating mechanisms of injury and those due to blunt mechanisms. Determination of the need for operative intervention is generally easier after penetrating trauma. Gunshot wounds to the abdomen should be explored, as should stab wounds to the anterior abdomen that penetrate the fascia. A midline incision is the standard approach to abdominal visceral injuries because of its ease and versatility. Abdominal exploration should be consistent and systemic so as not to miss significant injuries. Hollow viscus injury is most common after penetrating injury, while blunt injury most often results in injury to solid viscera. Diagnostic and operative aspects of the treatment of specific visceral injuries are reviewed.

  11. Patterns of Injury in Hospitalised One-Year-Old Children: Analysis by Trimester of Age Using Coded Data and Textual Description

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debbie Scott

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The second year of life is a time of rapid developmental changes. This paper aims to describe the pattern of unintentional injuries to one-year old children in three-month age bands to better understand the risks associated with developmental stages and, therefore, identify opportunities for proactive prevention. Injury surveillance data were used to identify children admitted to hospital in Queensland, Australia for an unintentional injury from 2002–2012. Falls were the most common injury, followed by burns and scalds, contact injuries and poisonings. Falls and contact injuries remained roughly constant by age, burns and scalds decreased and poisonings (by medications increased. Animal- and transport-related injuries also became more common, immersions and other threats to breathing less common. Within the falls and contact categories falls from play equipment and injuries due to contact with persons increased, while falls down stairs and catching fingers in doors decreased. The pattern of injuries varies over the second year of life and is clearly linked to the child’s increasing mobility and boldness. Preventive measures for young children need to be designed—and evaluated—with their developmental stage in mind, using a variety of strategies, including opportunistic, developmentally specific education of parents; and practitioners should also consider potential for lapses in supervision and possible intentional injury in all injury assessments.

  12. Patterns of Injury in Hospitalised One-Year-Old Children: Analysis by Trimester of Age Using Coded Data and Textual Description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Debbie; Siskind, Victor

    2016-01-01

    The second year of life is a time of rapid developmental changes. This paper aims to describe the pattern of unintentional injuries to one-year old children in three-month age bands to better understand the risks associated with developmental stages and, therefore, identify opportunities for proactive prevention. Injury surveillance data were used to identify children admitted to hospital in Queensland, Australia for an unintentional injury from 2002-2012. Falls were the most common injury, followed by burns and scalds, contact injuries and poisonings. Falls and contact injuries remained roughly constant by age, burns and scalds decreased and poisonings (by medications) increased. Animal- and transport-related injuries also became more common, immersions and other threats to breathing less common. Within the falls and contact categories falls from play equipment and injuries due to contact with persons increased, while falls down stairs and catching fingers in doors decreased. The pattern of injuries varies over the second year of life and is clearly linked to the child's increasing mobility and boldness. Preventive measures for young children need to be designed-and evaluated-with their developmental stage in mind, using a variety of strategies, including opportunistic, developmentally specific education of parents; and practitioners should also consider potential for lapses in supervision and possible intentional injury in all injury assessments. PMID:27399742

  13. Syndesmosis injuries

    OpenAIRE

    Hunt, Kenneth J.

    2013-01-01

    Traumatic injuries to the distal tibiofibular syndesmosis commonly result from high-energy ankle injuries. They can occur as isolated ligamentous injuries and can be associated with ankle fractures. Syndesmotic injuries can create a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge for musculoskeletal physicians. Recent literature has added considerably to the body of knowledge pertaining to injury mechanics and treatment outcomes, but there remain a number of controversies regarding diagnostic tests, imp...

  14. Child Injury: What You Need to Know

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-04-16

    This podcast is based on the April 2012 CDC Vital Signs report. Many childhood deaths and injuries are preventable, including those caused by crashes, suffocation, poisoning, drowning, fires, and falls. The podcast discusses ways to help prevent these deaths and injuries.  Created: 4/16/2012 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 4/16/2012.

  15. A profile of Injury in Fiji: findings from a population-based injury surveillance system (TRIP-10

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wainiqolo Iris

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over 90% of injury deaths occur in low-and middle-income countries. However, the epidemiological profile of injuries in Pacific Islands has received little attention. We used a population-based-trauma registry to investigate the characteristics of all injuries in Viti Levu, Fiji. Method The Fiji Injury Surveillance in Hospitals (FISH database prospectively collected data on all injury-related deaths and primary admissions to hospital (≥12 hours stay in Viti Levu during 12 months commencing October 2005. Results The 2167 injury-related deaths and hospitalisations corresponded to an annual incidence rate of 333 per 100,000, with males accounting for twice as many cases as females. Almost 80% of injuries involved people aged less than 45 years, and 74% were deemed unintentional. There were 244 fatalities (71% died before admission and 1994 hospitalisations corresponding to crude annual rates of 37.5 per 100,000 and 306 per 100,000 respectively. The leading cause of fatal injury was road traffic injury (29% and the equivalent for injury admissions was falls (30%. The commonest type of injury resulting in death and admission to hospital was asphyxia and fractures respectively. Alcohol use was documented as a contributing factor in 13% of deaths and 12% of admissions. In general, indigenous Fijians had higher rates of injury admission, especially for interpersonal violence, while those of Indian ethnicity had higher rates of fatality, especially from suicide. Conclusions Injury is an important public health problem that disproportionately affects young males in Fiji, with a high proportion of deaths prior to hospital presentation. This study highlights key areas requiring priority attention to reduce the burden of potentially life-threatening injuries in Fiji.

  16. Prevalence, circumstances and consequences of non-fatal road traffic injuries and other bodily injuries among older people in China, Ghana, India, Mexico, Russia and South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Peltzer, Karl; Phaswana-Mafuya, Nancy; Arokiasamy, Perianayagam; Biritwum, Richard; Yawson, Alfred; Minicuci, Nadia; Stewart Williams, Jennifer; Kowal, Paul; Chatterji, Somnath

    2015-01-01

    Unintentional injuries are one of the main contributors to mortality and disability in elderly populations in low- and middle-income countries. The aim of this study was to examine the annual road traffic and other bodily (not including falls) injury prevalence and associated risk factors among older adults across six lower and upper middle-income countries. A cross-sectional survey involving face-to-face household interviews were conducted in China (n=13,177), Ghana (n=4305), India (n=6560),...

  17. Childhood trauma and childhood urbanicity in relation to psychotic disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frissen, Aleida; Lieverse, Ritsaert; Drukker, Marjan; van Winkel, Ruud; Delespaul, Philippe; Cahn, W

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Urban upbringing and childhood trauma are both associated with psychotic disorders. However, the association between childhood urbanicity and childhood trauma in psychosis is poorly understood. The urban environment could occasion a background of social adversity against which any effect

  18. On the relation between motivation and retention in educational contexts: The role of intentional and unintentional mind wandering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seli, Paul; Wammes, Jeffrey D; Risko, Evan F; Smilek, Daniel

    2016-08-01

    Highly motivated students often exhibit better academic performance than less motivated students. However, to date, the specific cognitive mechanisms through which motivation increases academic achievement are not well understood. Here we explored the possibility that mind wandering mediates the relation between motivation and academic performance, and additionally, we examined possible mediation by both intentional and unintentional forms of mind wandering. We found that participants reporting higher motivation to learn in a lecture-based setting tended to engage in less mind wandering, and that this decrease in mind wandering was in turn associated with greater retention of the lecture material. Critically, we also found that the influence of motivation on retention was mediated by both intentional and unintentional types of mind wandering. Not only do the present results advance our theoretical understanding of the mechanisms underlying the relation between motivation and academic achievement, they also provide insights into possible methods of intervention that may be useful in improving student retention in educational settings. PMID:26585116

  19. Management of head injuries in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conchie, Henry; Palmer, Sarah; Fernando, Katalin; Paul, Siba Prosad

    2016-07-01

    Head injury is the most common cause of injury-related death and permanent disability in children. Minor head trauma is common in childhood and does not require any medical treatment. Although deficits can occur even after mild to moderate head injury, they are markedly greater and become clinically evident following severe head injury. It is important that emergency department clinicians are aware of the signs and symptoms that indicate severe traumatic brain injury and triage for urgent intervention in those children who present with these signs and symptoms. Clinicians also need to know when children can be sent home with reassurance and information, and when they require admission or transfer to a neurosurgical unit. This article examines the literature on head injuries in children, describes assessment, management and treatment, and provides a simple management algorithm. PMID:27384805

  20. Chest Traumas due to Fall in Childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ufuk Cobanoglu

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Falls are the most common reason for childhood traumas. The aim of this study is to investigate the causes, types, monthly frequencies and results f injuries due to fall of children in our region and to recommend somep recautions for preventing these injuries. Material and Methods: A retrospective evaluation was performed in 47 pediatric patients admitted to the Department of Thoracic Surgery during 2006-2009 with a diagnosis of chest trauma due to fall. For every patient, a pediatric trauma score (PTS was calculated. Descriptive statistics were performed for PTS and the duration of hospital stay. Results: The mean PTS of the cases who had additional system injuries were significantly worse than the cases who had isolated chest traumas. Similarly, the length of hospital stay was also much longer in the cases with associated system injuries.Conclusions: Injuries occur mostly in summer season. It may be due to the fact that the children do not go to the school and usually spend their times outside in this period. The children and their parents should be educated about the prevention of these accidents. Additionally, the accident and injury rates may also be reduced by constructing safer games and sports grounds with robust infrastructure.

  1. Injuries among Children and Young Adults in Uganda : Epidemiology and Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Mutto, Milton

    2011-01-01

    Background Injuries are a major morbidity and mortality cause among children and young adults worldwide. Previous Ugandan studies were limited in scope and biased towards severe adulthood injuries in referral care. Aims and Objectives This study explored the epidemiology of childhood and young adulthood injuries in Uganda: specifically their extent, pattern, distribution, risk and determinants, and stakeholder perceptions their regarding prevention and control. Methods ...

  2. Childhood as a value

    OpenAIRE

    EWELINA PIECUCH

    2011-01-01

    The article encompasses the problems of childhood and its influence on the rest of one's life. I have concentrated on this crucial and specific time in life. It is demonstrated by biology, medicine, psychology, and psychoanalysis that human habits are formed in childhood. Health, hygiene and aesthetic behaviour determine one's further fate and influence life in its entirety. It is that phase of human life that determines the rest of it. In childhood children manifest their cogn...

  3. Injury Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Traumatic Brain Injury School sports Injuries can land students in the ER. Text Messaging: Emergency Physicians ... For You American College of Emergency Phycisians Copyright © American College of Emergency ...

  4. Childhood Cancer Survivor Study: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancers of Childhood Treatment Childhood Cancer Genomics Research Childhood Cancer Survivor Study: An Overview In 2016, it ... Late Effects of Treatment for Childhood Cancer .) The Childhood Cancer Survivor Study ( CCSS ), funded by the National ...

  5. Inhalation Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Coşkun Araz; Arash Pirat

    2011-01-01

    Despite significant advances in wound care of patients with burn injuries, inhalation injury remains as an important contributor to morbidity and mortality in these patients. Unfortunately, there are limited studies that have focused on the diagnosis, grading, pathophysiology, and therapy of inhalation injury, therefore a widely accepted consensus is lacking on these topics. Inhalation injury is generally defined as the inhalation of thermal or chemical irritants and can be divided into three...

  6. Imaging of sports injuries in children and adolescents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raissaki, Maria [Department of Radiology, Heraklion University Hospital, University of Crete, Stavrakia, Heraklion 711 10 (Greece); Apostolaki, Eleni [Department of Radiology, Heraklion University Hospital, University of Crete, Stavrakia, Heraklion 711 10 (Greece); Karantanas, Apostolos H. [Department of Radiology, Heraklion University Hospital, University of Crete, Stavrakia, Heraklion 711 10 (Greece)]. E-mail: apolsen@yahoo.com

    2007-04-15

    Sports injuries may be unique in childhood and adolescence due to the inherent weakness of the growing skeleton at specific sites, mainly the cartilaginous parts. Many injuries are predictable based on the known mechanism of injury encountered in certain sports. There are two distinct patterns of injury in sports; acute and chronic or overuse. Imaging plays an important role in the diagnosis and management of these entities. Radiologists should be familiar with the advantages and limitations of the various imaging modalities when evaluating the injured young athlete. The present review focuses on the radiological findings and appropriate imaging approach in injuries that are typically or most commonly encountered in the skeletally immature athletes.

  7. Imaging of sports injuries in children and adolescents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sports injuries may be unique in childhood and adolescence due to the inherent weakness of the growing skeleton at specific sites, mainly the cartilaginous parts. Many injuries are predictable based on the known mechanism of injury encountered in certain sports. There are two distinct patterns of injury in sports; acute and chronic or overuse. Imaging plays an important role in the diagnosis and management of these entities. Radiologists should be familiar with the advantages and limitations of the various imaging modalities when evaluating the injured young athlete. The present review focuses on the radiological findings and appropriate imaging approach in injuries that are typically or most commonly encountered in the skeletally immature athletes

  8. The SF-36 health survey: a valid measure of changes in health status after injury.

    OpenAIRE

    Kopjar, B.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to evaluate the criterion validity and responsiveness to changes over time of the Medical Outcome Study Short Form 36 (MOS SF-36) measure. METHODS: A consecutive sample of 775 patients 16 to 78 years treated for an unintentional injury at the hospital or emergency clinic in Drammen, Norway was selected for the study. Data about activity restrictions and health status measured by SF-36 were obtained by a postal questionnaire 6-10 weeks after the injury. A f...

  9. Epidemiology of child injuries in Uganda: challenges for health policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renee Yuen-Jan Hsia

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Globally, 90% of road crash deaths occur in the developing world. Children in Africa bear the major part of this burden, with the highest unintentional injury rates in the world. Our study aims to better understand injury patterns among children living in Kampala, Uganda and provide evidence that injuries are significant in child health. Trauma registry records of injured children seen at Mulago Hospital in Kampala were analysed. This data was collected when patients were seen initially and included patient condition, demographics, clinical variables, cause, severity, as measured by the Kampala trauma score, and location of injury. Outcomes were captured on discharge from the casualty department and at two weeks for admitted patients. From August 2004 to August 2005, 872 injury visits for children <18 years old were recorded. The mean age was 11 years (95% CI 10.9–11.6; 68% (95% CI 65–72% were males; 64% were treated in casualty and discharged; 35% were admitted. The most common causes were traffic crashes (34%, falls (18% and violence (15%. Most children (87% were mildly injured; 1% severely injured. By two weeks, 6% of the patients admitted for injuries had died and, of these morbidities, 16% had severe injuries, 63% had moderate injuries and 21% had mild injuries. We concluded that, in Kampala, children bear a large burden of injury from preventable causes. Deaths in low severity patients highlight the need for improvements in facility-based care. Further studies are necessary to capture overall child injury mortality and to measure chronic morbidity owing to sequelae of injuries.

  10. Averting the Legacy of Kidney Disease - Focus on Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingelfinger, Julie R; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar; Schaefer, Franz

    2016-04-01

    World Kidney Day 2016 focuses on kidney disease in childhood and the antecedents of adult kidney disease that can begin in earliest childhood. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) in childhood differs from that in adults, as the largest diagnostic group among children includes congenital anomalies and inherited disorders, with glomerulopathies and kidney disease in the setting of diabetes being relatively uncommon. In addition, many children with acute kidney injury will ultimately develop sequelae that may lead to hypertension and CKD in later childhood or in adult life. Children born early or who are small-for date newborns have relatively increased risk for the development of CKD later in life. Persons with a high-risk birth and early childhood history should be watched closely in order to help detect early signs of kidney disease in time to provide effective prevention or treatment. Successful therapy is feasible for advanced CKD in childhood; there is evidence that children fare better than adults, if they receive kidney replacement therapy including dialysis and transplantation, while only a minority of children may require this ultimate intervention. Because there are disparities in access to care, effort is needed so that those children with kidney disease, wherever they live, may be treated effectively, irrespective of their geographic or economic circumstances. Our hope is that World Kidney Day will inform the general public, policy makers and caregivers about the needs and possibilities surrounding kidney disease in childhood. PMID:27536691

  11. Averting the legacy of kidney disease - Focus on childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie R Ingelfinger

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available World Kidney Day 2016 focuses on kidney disease in childhood and the antecedents of adult kidney disease that can begin in earliest childhood. Chronic kidney disease (CKD in childhood differs from that in adults, as the largest diagnostic group among children includes congenital anomalies and inherited disorders, with glomerulopathies and kidney disease in the setting of diabetes being relatively uncommon. In addition, many children with acute kidney injury will ultimately develop sequelae that may lead to hypertension and CKD in later childhood or in adult life. Children born early or who are small-for date newborns have relatively increased risk for the development of CKD later in life. Persons with a high-risk birth and early childhood history should be watched closely in order to help detect early signs of kidney disease in time to provide effective prevention or treatment. Successful therapy is feasible for advanced CKD in childhood; there is evidence that children fare better than adults, if they receive kidney replacement therapy including dialysis and transplantation, while only a minority of children may require this ultimate intervention Because there are disparities in access to care, effort is needed so that those children with kidney disease, wherever they live, may be treated effectively, irrespective of their geographic or economic circumstances. Our hope is that World Kidney Day will inform the general public, policy makers and caregivers about the needs and possibilities surrounding kidney disease in childhood.

  12. Averting the legacy of kidney disease--focus on childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie R Ingelfinger

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available World Kidney Day 2016 focuses on kidney disease in childhood and the antecedents of adult kidney disease that can begin in earliest childhood. Chronic kidney disease (CKD in childhood differs from that in adults, as the largest diagnostic group among children includes congenital anomalies and inherited disorders, with glomerulopathies and kidney disease in the setting of diabetes being relatively uncommon. In addition, many children with acute kidney injury will ultimately develop sequelae that may lead to hypertension and CKD in later childhood or in adult life. Children born early or who are small-for date newborns have relatively increased risk for the development of CKD later in life. Persons with a high-risk birth and early childhood history should be watched closely in order to help detect early signs of kidney disease in time to provide effective prevention or treatment. Successful therapy is feasible for advanced CKD in childhood; there is evidence that children fare better than adults, if they receive kidney replacement therapy including dialysis and transplantation, while only a minority of children may require this ultimate intervention Because there are disparities in access to care, effort is needed so that those children with kidney disease, wherever they live, may be treated effectively, irrespective of their geographic or economic circumstances. Our hope is that World Kidney Day will inform the general public, policy makers and caregivers about the needs and possibilities surrounding kidney disease in childhood.

  13. Averting the legacy of kidney disease – focus on childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie R. Ingelfinger

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available World Kidney Day 2016 focuses on kidney disease in childhood and the antecedents of adult kidney disease that can begin in earliest childhood. Chronic kidney disease (CKD in childhood differs from that in adults, as the largest diagnostic group amongst children includes congenital anomalies and inherited disorders, with glomerulopathies and kidney disease in the setting of diabetes being relatively uncommon. In addition, many children with acute kidney injury will ultimately develop sequelae that may lead to hypertensionand CKD in later childhood or in adult life. Children born early or who are small-for-date newborns have relatively increased risk for the development of CKD later in life. Persons with a high-risk birth and early childhood history should be watched closely to help to detect early signs of kidney disease in time to provide effective prevention or treatment. Successful therapy is feasible for advanced CKD in childhood; there is evidence that children fare better than adults, if they receive kidney replacement therapy including dialysis and transplantation, whilst only a minority of children may require this ultimate intervention. Because there are disparities in access to care, effort is needed so that children with kidney disease, wherever they live, may be treated effectively, irrespective of their geographic oreconomic circumstances. Our hope is that World Kidney Day will inform the general public, policymakers and caregivers about the needs and possibilities surrounding kidney disease in childhood.

  14. Averting the legacy of kidney disease - focus on childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.R. Ingelfinger

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available World Kidney Day 2016 focuses on kidney disease in childhood and the antecedents of adult kidney disease that can begin in earliest childhood. Chronic kidney disease (CKD in childhood differs from that in adults, in that the largest diagnostic group among children includes congenital anomalies and inherited disorders, with glomerulopathies and kidney disease as a consequence of diabetes being relatively uncommon. In addition, many children with acute kidney injury will ultimately develop sequelae that may lead to hypertension and CKD in later childhood or in adult life. Children born early or who are small-for-date newborns have relatively increased risk for the development of CKD later in life. Persons with a high-risk birth and early childhood history should be watched closely in order to help detect early signs of kidney disease in time to provide effective prevention or treatment. Successful therapy is feasible for advanced CKD in childhood; there is evidence that children fare better than adults, if they receive kidney replacement therapy including dialysis and transplantation, although only a minority of children may require this ultimate intervention. Because there are disparities in access to care, effort is needed so that children with kidney disease, wherever they live, may be treated effectively, irrespective of their geographic or economic circumstances. Our hope is that the World Kidney Day will inform the general public, policy makers and caregivers about the needs and possibilities surrounding kidney disease in childhood.

  15. Head injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hureibi, K A; McLatchie, G R

    2010-05-01

    Head injury is one of the commonest injuries in sport. Most are mild but some can have serious outcomes. Sports medicine doctors should be able to recognise the clinical features and evaluate athletes with head injury. It is necessary during field assessment to recognise signs and symptoms that help in assessing the severity of injury and making a decision to return-to-play. Prevention of primary head injury should be the aim. This includes protective equipment like helmets and possible rule changes. PMID:20533694

  16. Nonfatal childhood and their association with socioeconomic and gender structures: an ecological study of 14 Swedish municipalities (2000–2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard A. Dale

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract:
    Background: Injuries are the major cause of death and disability in European children. This study explored socioeconomic and gender structures in association with nonfatal childhood injury rates by sex and age groups in Sweden. Methods: Six indicators of socioeconomic structure and three indicators of gender structure were combined using principal component analysis. Sex- and age-specific mean annual injury rates of fourteen Swedish municipalities were estimated (2000–2005. The associations were analysed with Pearson’s correlation coefficients. Results: Narrow gender ratio in unskilled occupations and in politics was positively associated with injuries in girls 6–17 years (r ≥ 0.7 and with fractures in boys 6–12 years of age (r = 0.5. Wider income distribution was negatively associated (r ≥ -0.4 with boys’ injuries and positively associated with fractures in girls 13–17 years (r = 0.5. Relative wealth and male manager dominance was negatively associated with injuries in children 0–5 years (r = -0.4. Relative poverty was not associated with nonfatal childhood injuries. Conclusions: The strength of the associations between socioeconomic and gender structures and nonfatal childhood injury rates varied by sex, age group and type of injury. Childhood injury preventive interventions should consider the local gender structure, area-level wealth and area-level income distribution, and not only area-level poverty.

  17. Childhood Obesity. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summerfield, Liane M.

    In this discussion of childhood obesity, the medical and psychological problems associated with the condition are noted. Childhood obesity most likely results from an interaction of nutritional, psychological, familial, and physiological factors. Three factors--the family, low-energy expenditure, and heredity--are briefly examined. Early…

  18. Bicycling injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silberman, Marc R

    2013-01-01

    Bicycling injuries can be classified into bicycle contact, traumatic, and overuse injuries. Despite the popularity of cycling, there are few scientific studies regarding injuries. Epidemiological studies are difficult to compare due to different methodologies and the diverse population of cyclists studied. There are only three studies conducted on top level professionals. Ninety-four percent of professionals in 1 year have experienced at least one overuse injury. Most overuse injuries are mild with limited time off the bike. The most common site of overuse injury is the knee, and the most common site of traumatic injury is the shoulder, with the clavicle having the most common fracture. Many overuse and bicycle contact ailments are relieved with simple bike adjustments.

  19. Prevalence and risk factors of injury among children aged 0-14 years in Hubei province%湖北省0~14岁儿童伤害状况及危险因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张岚; 戴馨

    2012-01-01

    Objective To understand the epidemiological characteristics and risk factors of nonfatal injuries among children in Hubei province. Methods The questionnaire survey was conducted among 0 ~ 14 years old children's parents in 10 cities and counties of Hubei province by multistage stratified cluster sampling. Results There were 10 688 children collected in the survey, 5 894 children in cities and 4 794 children in counties. The incidence rate of nonfatal injuries was 19.0% , which was significantly higher in male than female ( OR = 1. 28) , in rural areas than in urban areas ( OR = 2. 58). The highest rate was at 6 - 11 years old group (23.7% ) , while the lowest rate was at 0 - 2 years old group (5.5% ). The top three types of injuries were unintentional fall (45.2% ) , burn or scald (9.5% ) and animal bites(9.5% ). About 79.6% injuries were superficial injury, 40.1% injuries happened at home/dorm. The risk factors of childhood injury were male, divorced/ separated/widowed parents, a large population of family, unemployed or retired mothers/home-makers. Conclusion Childhood injuries severely affect children's health in Hubei Province. The effects of childrens characteristics and family environment on injury should be considered.%目的 了解湖北省儿童伤害发生的流行病学特征和相关危险因素,为制定儿童伤害干预措施提供科学依据.方法 多阶段分层整群抽取湖北省10个市、县的0~14岁儿童家长进行回顾性问卷调查.结果 共调查儿童10 688名,城市5 894名,农村4 794名.儿童非致死性伤害发生率为19.0%,发生率男性高于女性(OR=1.28),农村高于城市(OR=2.58).6~11岁组的伤害率最高(23.7%),0~2岁组的伤害率最低(5.5%).前3位伤害类型依次为跌倒/坠落(45.2%)、烧烫伤(9.5%)和动物伤(9.5%).79.6%为轻度损伤,40.1%的伤害发生在家里/宿舍.男性、家庭人口数多、居室热水等摆放不合理、母亲无工作的儿

  20. Childhood trauma and childhood urbanicity in relation to psychotic disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Frissen, Aleida; Lieverse, Ritsaert; Drukker, Marjan; van Winkel, Ruud; Delespaul, Philippe; [...

    2015-01-01

    Background Urban upbringing and childhood trauma are both associated with psychotic disorders. However, the association between childhood urbanicity and childhood trauma in psychosis is poorly understood. The urban environment could occasion a background of social adversity against which any effect of childhood trauma increases. Also, any impact of the urban environment on likelihood of exposure to childhood trauma could be stronger in children who later develop psychotic disorder. The aim of...

  1. Childhood trauma and childhood urbanicity in relation to psychotic disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Frissen, Aleida; Lieverse, Ritsaert; Drukker, Marjan; van Winkel, Ruud; Delespaul, Philippe; Cahn, W.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Urban upbringing and childhood trauma are both associated with psychotic disorders. However, the association between childhood urbanicity and childhood trauma in psychosis is poorly understood. The urban environment could occasion a background of social adversity against which any effect of childhood trauma increases. Also, any impact of the urban environment on likelihood of exposure to childhood trauma could be stronger in children who later develop psychotic disorder. The aim o...

  2. 湖北麻城市居民1987-2008年意外跌落死亡趋势分析%Trends of unintentional fall related death during 1987-2008 in Macheng city

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈敏; 王友洁; 张德楷; 杨森焙; 刘筱娴

    2012-01-01

    Objective To assess the trends and characteristics of mortality due to unintentional fall during 1987 -2008 in Macheng ctiy. Methods The data was from Macheng Injury Death Surveillance System. The mortality rates and proportion of death causes were calculated. Chi-square test was applied to analyze the statistical significance. Results The overall standard mortality rate of unintentional fall was 4. 97/100 000. The males had 2. 25 times higher mortality rate than the females (P < 0. 001). The general trend of the mortality from 1987 - 2008 was descending (x2cmh = 49. 9, P < 0. 001). The mortality rate increased with the age (x2cmh= 850. 4, P < 0. 001). The proportion of fall death among injury deaths increased in the males (x2cmh= 23. 88, P < 0. 001), but decreased in the females (x2cmh= 10.17, P = 0. 037). People living in mountain area had a higher unintentional fall-related mortality rate than those living in hill and plain areas (x2 = 223. 52,P <0. 0001). Fall-related mortalities among different populations of 3 terrains declined from 1987 to 2008. (plain x2cmh=60. 86,P<0.0001; hill:x2cmh= 13. 3,P =0. 0099; mountain:x2cmh=55. 84,P <. 0001). Conclusion The impact of unintentional fall-related mortality was different among the residents of different age. Males,people older than 65 years and living in mountain area had the highest mortality rate. Interventions related to unintentional fall should be taken among populations at high risk.%目的 了解湖北省麻城市居民1987-2008年意外跌落死亡分布特征及其变化趋势,为制定干预措施提供参考依据.方法 收集1987-2008年麻城市居民病伤死亡登记报告中的意外跌落死亡数据,按年份、性别、年龄和居住地分别计算死亡率和死因构成比,并进行x2检验和x2趋势检验.结果 麻城市居民1987-2008年意外跌落死亡率为4.97/10万,其中男性死亡率为6.87/10万,高于女性的2.90/10万(x2=193.11,P <0.0001);1987-1988、1989-1993、1994-1998

  3. Childhood deaths from external causes in Estonia, 2001–2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soonets Ruth

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2000, the overall rate of injury deaths in children aged 0–14 was 28.7 per 100000 in Estonia, which is more than 5 times higher than the corresponding rate in neighbouring Finland. This paper describes childhood injury mortality in Estonia by cause and age groups, and validates registration of these deaths in the Statistical Office of Estonia against the autopsy data. Methods The data on causes of all child deaths in Estonia in 2001–2005 were abstracted from the autopsy protocols at the Estonian Bureau of Forensic Medicine. Average annual mortality rates per 100,000 were calculated. Coverage (proportion of the reported injury deaths from the total number of injury deaths and accuracy (proportion of correctly classified injury deaths of the registration of causes of death in Statistical Office of Estonia were assessed by comparing the Statistical Office of Estonia data with the data from Estonian Bureau of Forensic Medicine. Results Average annual mortality from external causes in 0–14 years-old children in Estonia was 19.1 per 100,000. Asphyxia and transport accidents were the major killers followed by poisoning and suicides. Relative contribution of these causes varied greatly between age groups. Intent of death was unknown for more than 10% of injury deaths. Coverage and accuracy of registration of injury deaths by Statistical Office of Estonia were 91.5% and 95.3%, respectively. Conclusion Childhood mortality from injuries in Estonia is among the highest in the EU. The number of injury deaths in Statistical Office of Estonia is slightly underestimated mostly due to misclassification for deaths from diseases. Accuracy of the Statistical Office of Estonia data was high with some underestimation of intentional deaths. Moreover, high proportion of death with unknown intent suggests underestimation of intentional deaths. Reduction of injury deaths should be given a high priority in Estonia. More information on

  4. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Injury Psychological Issues After Spinal Cord Injury Psychological Health After Spinal Cord Injury Psychological Health After Spinal Cord Injury The Psychologist's Role After ...

  5. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cord Injury Psychological Realities After Spinal Cord Injury Psychology of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Psychology of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation How Psychologists Help ...

  6. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cord Injury Psychological Realities after Spinal Cord Injury Psychology of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Psychology of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation How Psychologists Help ...

  7. The burden of disease and injury in Iran 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaseghi Sanaz

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study was to estimate the burden of disease and injury in Iran for the year 2003, using Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs at the national level and for six selected provinces. Methods Methods developed by the World Health Organization for National Burden of Disease (NBD studies were applied to estimate disease and injury incidence for the calculation of Years of Life Lost due to premature mortality (YLL, Years Lived with Disability (YLD, and DALYs. The following adjustments of the NBD methodology were made in this study: a revised list with 213 disease and injury causes, development of new and more specific disease modeling templates for cancers and injuries, and adjustment for dependent comorbidity. We compared the results with World Health Organization (WHO estimates for Eastern Mediterranean Region, sub-region B in 2002. Results We estimated that in the year 2003, there were 21,572 DALYs due to all diseases and injuries per 100,000 Iranian people of all ages and both sexes. From this total number of DALYs, 62% were due to disability premature deaths (YLD and 38% were due to premature deaths (YLL; 58% were due to noncommunicable diseases, 28% – to injuries, and 14% – to communicable, maternal, perinatal, and nutritional conditions. Fifty-three percent of the total number of 14.349 million DALYs in Iran were in males, with 36.5% of the total due to intentional and unintentional injuries, 15% due to mental and behavioral disorders, and 10% due to circulatory system diseases; and 47% of DALYs were in females, with 18% of the total due to mental and behavioral disorders, 18% due to intentional and unintentional injuries, and 12% due to circulatory system diseases. The disease and injury causes leading to the highest number of DALYs in males were road traffic accidents (1.071 million, natural disasters (548 thousand, opioid use (510 thousand, and ischemic heart disease (434 thousand. The leading

  8. Paragliding injuries.

    OpenAIRE

    Krüger-Franke, M; Siebert, C H; Pförringer, W

    1991-01-01

    Regulations controlling the sport of paragliding were issued in April 1987 by the German Department of Transportation. The growing popularity of this sport has led to a steady increase in the number of associated injuries. This study presents the incidence, localization and degree of injuries associated with paragliding documented in Germany, Austria and Switzerland. The 283 injuries suffered by 218 paragliders were documented in the period 1987-1989: 181 occurred during landing, 28 during st...

  9. Patterns of injury in children and adolescents presenting to a South African township health centre.

    OpenAIRE

    Zwi, K. J.; Zwi, A. B.; Smettanikov, E.; Söderlund, N; Logan, S.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To describe the patterns and causes of childhood injury presenting to a South African township health centre in 1991. DESIGN: Retrospective review of clinic held case notes. SETTING: Typical South-African urban township within Greater Johannesburg. SUBJECTS: 695 subjects aged 0-19 years presenting as a direct result of injury. RESULTS: Overall rates of presentation for injury were 6297/100,000/year (95% confidence interval 5463 to 7131); 35% of injuries were caused by violence, 14...

  10. Inhalation Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coşkun Araz

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite significant advances in wound care of patients with burn injuries, inhalation injury remains as an important contributor to morbidity and mortality in these patients. Unfortunately, there are limited studies that have focused on the diagnosis, grading, pathophysiology, and therapy of inhalation injury, therefore a widely accepted consensus is lacking on these topics. Inhalation injury is generally defined as the inhalation of thermal or chemical irritants and can be divided into three types of injury: thermal injury, which is mostly restricted to the upper airway; chemical injury, which affects tracheobronchial tree; and systemic toxicity owing to toxic gases such as carbon monoxide. Inhalation injury increases the burn injury associated morbidity and mortality by causing airway problems and respiratory failure during the early phase and by contributing to the development of pneumonia and atelectasis during the late phase. Additionally, systemic effects of toxic gases such as carbon monoxide may also adversely affect the early and long-term outcome in burn victims. The early diagnosis and therapy of these problems plays a key role in improving the outcome of burn patients. (Journal of the Turkish Society Intensive Care 2011; 9 Suppl: 37-45

  11. Cognitive behavioural therapy skills in children who have sustained an acquired brain injury

    OpenAIRE

    Ingham, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    Background: Childhood brain injury can result in cognitive, behavioural, and psychological difficulties. It is reported that many children who have suffered a brain injury experience the same level of emotional distress as children seen in mental health services. Cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) has been shown to be an effective intervention for a range of psychological disorders that arise during childhood, yet to date there is little evidence to suggest whether this is a beneficial therapy...

  12. Reducing Childhood Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Reducing Childhood Obesity Past Issues / Summer 2007 Table of Contents For ... Ga. were the first three We Can! cities. Obesity Research: A New Approach The percentage of children ...

  13. Childhood vitiligo: Treatment paradigms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amrinder Jit Kanwar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Childhood vitiligo differs from the adults by showing a higher incidence in females, segmental vitiligo being more common and less frequent association with other systemic autoimmune and endocrine disorders.Childhood vitiligo is often associated with a marked psychosocial and long lasting effect on the self-esteem of the affected children and their parents, hence an adequate treatment is very essential. Treatment of vitiligo is indeed a tough challenge for the dermatologists′ more so in the background of childhood vitiligo. Although multiple therapeutic modalities are available in the therapeutic armamentarium, not all can be used in children. This brief report updates regarding various therapies available in the treatment of childhood vitiligo.

  14. Cardiovascular Conditions of Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... This childhood illness can result in long-term heart complications. Learn the symptoms, diagnosis and treatment for Kawasaki disease. Rheumatic Fever This inflammatory infection can occur after strep ...

  15. Childhood Immunization Schedule

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Why Immunize? Vaccines: The Basics Instant Childhood Immunization Schedule Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Get the ... See Disclaimer for additional details. Based on Immunization Schedule for Children 0 through 6 Years of age ...

  16. Early Childhood Caries

    OpenAIRE

    Kawashita, Yumiko; Kitamura, Masayasu; Saito, Toshiyuki

    2011-01-01

    Dental caries is one of the most common childhood diseases, and people continue to be susceptible to it throughout their lives. Although dental caries can be arrested and potentially even reversed in its early stages, it is often not self-limiting and progresses without proper care until the tooth is destroyed. Early childhood caries (ECC) is often complicated by inappropriate feeding practices and heavy infection with mutans streptococci. Such children should be targeted with a professional ...

  17. Stress and childhood epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Campen, J.S. van

    2015-01-01

    Epilepsy is one of the most common chronic diseases in childhood, characterized by the enduring predisposition to generate epileptic seizures. Children with epilepsy and their parents often report seizures precipitated by stress. In order to increase our understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the effects of stress on seizures in childhood epilepsy, we performed a variety of studies, which are described in this thesis. In part I we evaluate the extent of stress sensitivi...

  18. Childhood Ovarian Malignancy

    OpenAIRE

    Mahadik, Kalpana; Ghorpade, Kanchanmala

    2014-01-01

    Objective of this article is to appraise diagnostic aspects and treatment modalities in childhood ovarian tumor in background of available evidence. Literature search on Pubmed revealed various aspects of epidemiology, histopathological diagnosis, and treatment of pediatric ovarian tumor. 85 % of childhood tumors are germ cell tumors. The varied histopathological picture in germ cell tumors poses a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. Immunohistochemistry and newer genetic markers like SALL4...

  19. Early childhood aggression

    OpenAIRE

    Alink, Lenneke Rosalie Agnes

    2006-01-01

    In this thesis the development, stability, and correlates of early childhood aggression were investigated. The normative development was examined in a general population sample using questionnaires completed by the parents of 12-, 24-, and 36-month-old children and again one year later. Results showed an early childhood aggression curve, with increasing rates of aggression in the second year of life and decreasing rates in the fourth year. One-year stabilities were moderate for 12-month-olds ...

  20. Pesticides and childhood cancers.

    OpenAIRE

    Daniels, J L; Olshan, A.F.; Savitz, D A

    1997-01-01

    To evaluate the possible association between pesticides and the risk of childhood cancers, epidemiologic studies published between 1970 and 1996 were critically reviewed. Thirty-one studies investigated whether occupational or residential exposure to pesticides by either parents or children was related to increased risk of childhood cancer. In general, the reported relative risk estimates were modest. Risk estimates appeared to be stronger when pesticide exposure was measured in more detail. ...

  1. What Do We Know About the Association Between Firearm Legislation and Firearm-Related Injuries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santaella-Tenorio, Julian; Cerdá, Magdalena; Villaveces, Andrés; Galea, Sandro

    2016-01-01

    Firearms account for a substantial proportion of external causes of death, injury, and disability across the world. Legislation to regulate firearms has often been passed with the intent of reducing problems related to their use. However, lack of clarity around which interventions are effective remains a major challenge for policy development. Aiming to meet this challenge, we systematically reviewed studies exploring the associations between firearm-related laws and firearm homicides, suicides, and unintentional injuries/deaths. We restricted our search to studies published from 1950 to 2014. Evidence from 130 studies in 10 countries suggests that in certain nations the simultaneous implementation of laws targeting multiple firearms restrictions is associated with reductions in firearm deaths. Laws restricting the purchase of (e.g., background checks) and access to (e.g., safer storage) firearms are also associated with lower rates of intimate partner homicides and firearm unintentional deaths in children, respectively. Limitations of studies include challenges inherent to their ecological design, their execution, and the lack of robustness of findings to model specifications. High quality research on the association between the implementation or repeal of firearm legislation (rather than the evaluation of existing laws) and firearm injuries would lead to a better understanding of what interventions are likely to work given local contexts. This information is key to move this field forward and for the development of effective policies that may counteract the burden that firearm injuries pose on populations.

  2. What Do We Know About the Association Between Firearm Legislation and Firearm-Related Injuries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santaella-Tenorio, Julian; Cerdá, Magdalena; Villaveces, Andrés; Galea, Sandro

    2016-01-01

    Firearms account for a substantial proportion of external causes of death, injury, and disability across the world. Legislation to regulate firearms has often been passed with the intent of reducing problems related to their use. However, lack of clarity around which interventions are effective remains a major challenge for policy development. Aiming to meet this challenge, we systematically reviewed studies exploring the associations between firearm-related laws and firearm homicides, suicides, and unintentional injuries/deaths. We restricted our search to studies published from 1950 to 2014. Evidence from 130 studies in 10 countries suggests that in certain nations the simultaneous implementation of laws targeting multiple firearms restrictions is associated with reductions in firearm deaths. Laws restricting the purchase of (e.g., background checks) and access to (e.g., safer storage) firearms are also associated with lower rates of intimate partner homicides and firearm unintentional deaths in children, respectively. Limitations of studies include challenges inherent to their ecological design, their execution, and the lack of robustness of findings to model specifications. High quality research on the association between the implementation or repeal of firearm legislation (rather than the evaluation of existing laws) and firearm injuries would lead to a better understanding of what interventions are likely to work given local contexts. This information is key to move this field forward and for the development of effective policies that may counteract the burden that firearm injuries pose on populations. PMID:26905895

  3. National Childhood Vaccine Injury Compensation Act of 1985. Hearing before the Committee on Labor and Human Resources, United States Senate, Ninety-Ninth Congress. First Session on S. 827 To Amend the Public Health Service Act To Provide for the Compensation of Children and Others Who Have Sustained Vaccine-Related Injuries, and for Other Purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Labor and Human Resources.

    Under examination at this hearing was the best mechanism for a system of compensation for vaccine injuries. Also considered was the applicability of environmental legislation to vaccines, and whether approval by the Federal Government means that a vaccine is, in effect, as safe as it could be. Statements were presented by representatives of the…

  4. National Childhood Vaccine-Injury Compensation Act. Hearing before the Committee on Labor and Human Resources, United States Senate, Ninety-Eighth Congress on S.2117 to Amend the Public Health Service Act to Provide for the Compensation of Children and Others Who Have Sustained Vaccine-Related Injury, and for Other Purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Labor and Human Resources.

    Statements are presented which were made at this hearing to amend the Public Health Service Act to provide for the compensation of children and others who have sustained vaccine-related injury. While the hearing focused on the costs and the regulatory burden that might be imposed by the legislation, the following areas were also addressed: (1) the…

  5. Repetitive Stress Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Repetitive Stress Injuries KidsHealth > For Teens > Repetitive Stress Injuries Print ... t had any problems since. What Are Repetitive Stress Injuries? Repetitive stress injuries (RSIs) are injuries that ...

  6. Malpractice claims and unintentional outcome of tonsil surgery and other standard procedures in otorhinolaryngology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Windfuhr, Jochen P.

    2013-12-01

    compensation of malpractice after LN (16; 57%, TE (10; 37%, SP (8; 57% and AE (2; 100%. There were 16 cases of PTH amongst 27 trials after TE resulting either in death (5 or apallic syndrome (5. Bleeding complications had occurred on the day of surgery in only 2 patients. 16 trials were based on malpractice claims following SP encompassing lack of informed consent (6, anosmia (4, septal perforation (2, frontobasal injury (2 and dry nose (2. Trials after LN procedures were associated exclusively with a lesion of the spinal accessory nerve (28, including lack of informed consent in 19 cases. 49 cases (69% were decided for the defendant, 22 (31% were decided for the plaintiff with monetary compensation in 7 of 29 AE/TE-trials, 9 of 28 LN-trials and 6 of 14 SP-trials. Lack of informed consent was not registered for AE/TE but LN (11 and SP (2. Conclusion: Complicated cases following TE, TT, ATE, SP and LN are not systematically collected in Germany. It can be assumed, that not every complicated case is published in the medical literature or law journals and therefore not obtainable for scientific research. Alleged medical malpracice is proven for less than 6% before trial stage. Approximately half of all cases result in a plaintiff verdict or settlement at court. Proper documentation of a thourough counselling, examination, indication, informed consent and follow-up assists the surgeon in litigation. An adequate complication management of PTH is essential, including instructions for the patients/parents, instructions for the medical staff and readily available surgical instruments. Successful outcome of life-threatening PTH is widely based on a proper airway management in an interdisciplinary approach. Electrosurgical tonsillectomy techniques were repeatedly labeled as a risk factor for bleeding complications following TE. Institutions should analyse the individual PTH rate on a yearly basis. Contradictory expert opinions and verdicts of the courts concerning spinal accesory nerve

  7. Influences of Childhood Experiences on Early Childhood Education Students

    OpenAIRE

    Strekalova-Hughes, Ekaterina; Maarouf, Saoussan; Keskin, Burhanettin

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative study examined whether or not childhood experiences of the early childhood education students affected their present personal beliefs and pedagogies. A digital survey was filled out by 58 students majoring in Early Childhood Education program. The participants were asked to identify and reflect on their impactful early experiences. The follow-up interviews with two participants were conducted to deepen the reflections on childhood experiences and explore their effects on the ...

  8. Discriminating between intentional and unintentional gaze fixation using multimodal-based fuzzy logic algorithm for gaze tracking system with NIR camera sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naqvi, Rizwan Ali; Park, Kang Ryoung

    2016-06-01

    Gaze tracking systems are widely used in human-computer interfaces, interfaces for the disabled, game interfaces, and for controlling home appliances. Most studies on gaze detection have focused on enhancing its accuracy, whereas few have considered the discrimination of intentional gaze fixation (looking at a target to activate or select it) from unintentional fixation while using gaze detection systems. Previous research methods based on the use of a keyboard or mouse button, eye blinking, and the dwell time of gaze position have various limitations. Therefore, we propose a method for discriminating between intentional and unintentional gaze fixation using a multimodal fuzzy logic algorithm applied to a gaze tracking system with a near-infrared camera sensor. Experimental results show that the proposed method outperforms the conventional method for determining gaze fixation.

  9. Risk communication, the West Nile virus epidemic, and bioterrorism: responding to the commnication challenges posed by the intentional or unintentional release of a pathogen in an urban setting

    OpenAIRE

    Covello, Vincent T.; Peters, Richard G.; Wojtecki, Joseph G.; Hyde, Richard C.

    2001-01-01

    The intentional or unintentional introduction of a pathogen in an urban setting presents severe communication chanllenges. Risk communication—a science-based approach for communicating effectively in high-concern situations—provides a set of principles and tools for meeting those challenges. A brief overview of the risk communication theoretical perspective and basic risk communication models is presented here, and the risk communication perspective is applied to the West Nile virus epidemic ...

  10. Childhood Eye Diseases and Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Things College Students Should Do For Their Eyes Childhood Eye Diseases and Conditions Nov. 01, 2013 The ... cataract or eye disorder that needs treatment. Common Childhood Eye Diseases & Conditions When the following diseases are ...

  11. General Information about Childhood Ependymoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... without radiation therapy . Childhood ependymoma, anaplastic ependymoma, or RELA fusion–positive ependymoma Treatment of newly diagnosed childhood ... Grade II), anaplastic ependymoma (WHO Grade III), or RELA fusion–positive ependymoma is: Surgery . After surgery, the ...

  12. Treatment Option Overview (Childhood Ependymoma)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... without radiation therapy . Childhood ependymoma, anaplastic ependymoma, or RELA fusion–positive ependymoma Treatment of newly diagnosed childhood ... Grade II), anaplastic ependymoma (WHO Grade III), or RELA fusion–positive ependymoma is: Surgery . After surgery, the ...

  13. Highly chlorinated unintentionally produced persistent organic pollutants generated during the methanol-based production of chlorinated methanes: A case study in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lifei; Yang, Wenlong; Zhang, Linli; Li, Xiaoxiu

    2015-08-01

    The formation of unintentionally produced persistent organic pollutants (POPs) may occur during various chlorination processes. In this study, emissions of unintentionally produced POPs during the methanol-based production of chlorinated methanes were investigated. High concentrations of highly chlorinated compounds such as decachlorobiphenyl, octachloronaphthalene, octachlorostyrene, hexachlorobutadiene, hexachlorocyclopentadiene, hexachlorobenzene, and pentachlorobenzene were found in the carbon tetrachloride byproduct of the methanol-based production of chlorinated methanes. The total emission amounts of hexachlorocyclopentadiene, hexachlorobutadiene, polychlorinated benzenes, polychlorinated naphthalenes, octachlorostyrene, and polychlorinated biphenyls released during the production of chlorinated methanes in China in 2010 were estimated to be 10080, 7350, 5210, 427, 212, and 167 kg, respectively. Moreover, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) were formed unintentionally during chlorinated methanes production, the emission factor for PCDDs/DFs was 364 μg toxic equivalency quotient (TEQ) t(-1) product for residues, which should be added into the UNEP toolkit for updating. It was worth noting that a high overall toxic equivalency quotient from polychlorinated naphthalenes and PCDDs/DFs was generated from the chlorinated methanes production in China in 2010. The values reached 563 and 32.8 g TEQ, respectively. The results of the study indicate that more research and improved management systems are needed to ensure that the methanol-based production of chlorinated methanes can be achieved safely. PMID:25777670

  14. Childhood trauma in bipolar disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Watson, S; Gallagher, P.; Dougall, D.; R Porter; Moncrieff, J.; Ferrier, I. N.; Young, A. H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: There has been little investigation of early trauma in bipolar disorder despite evidence that stress impacts on the course of this illness. We aimed to compare the rates of childhood trauma in adults with bipolar disorder to a healthy control group, and to investigate the impact of childhood trauma on the clinical course of bipolar disorder. Methods: Retrospective assessment of childhood trauma was conducted using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) in 60 outpatients with bipo...

  15. The role of exclusive breastfeeding in prevention of childhood epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander Kurniadi; Elisabeth Siti Herini; Wahyu Damayanti

    2015-01-01

    Background Epilepsy affects 1% of children worldwide. The highest incidence is in the first year of life, and perinatal factors, such as hypoxic-ischemic injury, infection, and cortical malformation may play etiologic roles. Breast milk contains optimal nutrients for human brain in early life. Breastfeeding has been associated with lower risk of infections, better cognitive and psychomotor development. However, the role of breastfeeding in preventing childhood epilepsy remains unclear. Ob...

  16. The role of exclusive breastfeeding in prevention of childhood epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander Kurniadi; Elisabeth Siti Herini; Wahyu Damayanti

    2015-01-01

    Background Epilepsy affects 1% of children worldwide. The highest incidence is in the first year of life, and perinatal factors, such as hypoxic-ischemic injury, infection, and cortical malformation may play etiologic roles. Breast milk contains optimal nutrients for human brain in early life. Breastfeeding has been associated with lower risk of infections, better cognitive and psychomotor development. However, the role of breastfeeding in preventing childhood epilepsy remains unclear. Object...

  17. Rowing Injuries

    OpenAIRE

    Hosea, Timothy M.; Hannafin, Jo A.

    2012-01-01

    Context: Rowing is one of the original modern Olympic sports and was one of the most popular spectator sports in the United States. Its popularity has been increasing since the enactment of Title IX. The injury patterns in this sport are unique because of the stress applied during the rowing stroke. Evidence Acquisition: This review summarizes the existing literature describing the biomechanics of the rowing stroke and rowing-related injury patterns. Data were obtained from previously publish...

  18. Discovering the Culture of Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plank, Emily

    2016-01-01

    We often filter our interactions with children through the lens of adulthood. View the culture of childhood through a whole new lens. Identify age-based bias and expand your outlook on and understanding of early childhood as a culture. Examine various elements of childhood culture: language, the power of believing, artistic expressions, and social…

  19. Reconceptualizing the "Nature" of Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Affrica

    2011-01-01

    This interdisciplinary article draws upon human geography to bring fresh new perspectives to the relationship between two commonly conflated concepts: "childhood" and "nature". Childhood studies scholars have gone a long way towards retheorizing childhood beyond the "natural" and the "universal" by pointing to its historical and cultural…

  20. Childhood myelodysplastic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Tathagata; Choudhry, V P

    2013-09-01

    Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) comprises of a heterogeneous group of bone marrow disorders resulting from a clonal stem cell defect characterised by cytopenias despite a relatively hypercellular marrow, ineffective hematopoiesis, morphological dysplasia in the marrow elements, no response to hematinics such as iron, B12 or folic acid and risk of progression to leukemia. Myelodysplastic syndrome in childhood is extremely rare and accounts for less than 5% of all hematopoietic neoplasms in children below the age of 14 y. The primary MDS in children, also known as de novo MDS differs from secondary MDS which generally follows congenital or acquired bone marrow (BM) failure syndromes as well as from therapy related MDS, commonly resulting from cytotoxic therapy. MDS associated with Down syndrome which accounts for approximately one-fourth of cases of childhood MDS is now considered a unique biologic entity synonymous with Down syndrome-related myeloid leukemia and is biologically distinct from other cases of childhood MDS. Refractory cytopenia of childhood (RCC) is the commonest type of MDS. Genetic changes predisposing to MDS in childhood remain largely obscure. Monosomy 7 is by-far the commonest cytogenetic abnormality associated with childhood MDS; however most cases of RCC show a normal karyotype. Complex cytogenetic abnormalities and trisomy 8 and trisomy 21 are also occasionally observed. The most effective and curative treatment is Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and this is particularly effective in children with the monosomy 7 genetic defect as well as those displaying complex karyotype abnormalities provided it is instituted early in the course of the disease.

  1. Child Injury: What You Need to Know PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-04-16

    This 60 second PSA is based on the April 2012 CDC Vital Signs report. Many childhood deaths and injuries are preventable, including those caused by crashes, suffocation, poisoning, drowning, fires, and falls. The PSA discusses ways to help prevent these deaths and injuries.  Created: 4/16/2012 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 4/16/2012.

  2. Mechanism of Injury-Provoked Poliomyelitis

    OpenAIRE

    Gromeier, Matthias; Wimmer, Eckard

    1998-01-01

    Skeletal muscle injury is known to predispose its sufferers to neurological complications of concurrent poliovirus infections. This phenomenon, labeled “provocation poliomyelitis,” continues to cause numerous cases of childhood paralysis due to the administration of unnecessary injections to children in areas where poliovirus is endemic. Recently, it has been reported that intramuscular injections may also increase the likelihood of vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis in recipients of ...

  3. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Injury 101 The Basics of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation The Basics of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Preventing Pressure Sores Preventing Pressure Sores Transition from ...

  4. Long-term monitoring of PCDD/PCDF and other unintentionally produced POPs-Concepts and case studies from Europe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REINMANN; Jürgen; WEBER; Roland; HAAG; Roland

    2010-01-01

    During the start-up and unstable combustion periods,even the state-of-the-art incinerators emit polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans(PCDD/PCDF) in stack gases at concentrations that are up to 1000 times higher than normal operation. Therefore,incinerators and other sources with variation of PCDD/PCDF release into air cannot be reliably monitored by the conventional short-term sampling that covers only 0.1%to 0.2%of the yearly operating time.A more comprehensive monitoring regime is required.This paper describes different applications of continuous PCDD/PCDF sampling in some European countries.The cases demonstrate that flexible regimes for continuous sampling can be crafted and applied by governments or regional/local authorities.Such regimes range from a countrywide,continuous requirement for selected facility types(e.g.,waste incinerators) to a facility-specific regime that applies,for example,to new facilities for a defined time period until the facility has demonstrated continuous compliance with regulatory limits. Countries implementing the Stockholm Convention are suggested to evaluate in their Best available technology/Best environmental practice(BAT/BEP) activities the usefulness of long-term sampling by,for example,designating institutes related to the environmental ministry or regional authorities to supervise long-term sampling regimes at relevant facilities in their country/areas,beginning with priority sources(e.g.,facilities used for destruction of persistent organic pollutants(POPs) or hazardous waste processing) . This paper presents and discusses the results of the AMESA long-term monitoring system having demonstrated that in addition to PCDD/PCDF all other unintentionally produced POPs listed in the Stockholm Convention could be supervised.

  5. Unintentional Pharmaceutical-Related Medication Errors Caused by Laypersons Reported to the Toxicological Information Centre in the Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Michal; Leššo, Roman; Pelclová, Daniela

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of the article was to study unintentional pharmaceutical-related poisonings committed by laypersons that were reported to the Toxicological Information Centre in the Czech Republic. Identifying frequency, sources, reasons and consequences of the medication errors in laypersons could help to reduce the overall rate of medication errors. Records of medication error enquiries from 2013 to 2014 were extracted from the electronic database, and the following variables were reviewed: drug class, dosage form, dose, age of the subject, cause of the error, time interval from ingestion to the call, symptoms, prognosis at the time of the call and first aid recommended. Of the calls, 1354 met the inclusion criteria. Among them, central nervous system-affecting drugs (23.6%), respiratory drugs (18.5%) and alimentary drugs (16.2%) were the most common drug classes involved in the medication errors. The highest proportion of the patients was in the youngest age subgroup 0-5 year-old (46%). The reasons for the medication errors involved the leaflet misinterpretation and mistaken dose (53.6%), mixing up medications (19.2%), attempting to reduce pain with repeated doses (6.4%), erroneous routes of administration (2.2%), psychiatric/elderly patients (2.7%), others (9.0%) or unknown (6.9%). A high proportion of children among the patients may be due to the fact that children's dosages for many drugs vary by their weight, and more medications come in a variety of concentrations. Most overdoses could be prevented by safer labelling, proper cap closure systems for liquid products and medication reconciliation by both physicians and pharmacists. PMID:26990237

  6. Prediction of posttraumatic stress in fathers of children with chronic diseases or unintentional injuries: a six-months follow-up study

    OpenAIRE

    Sennhauser Felix H; Vollrath Margarete E; Ribi Karin; Gnehm Hanspeter E; Landolt Markus A

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background While fathers were neglected for a long time in research investigating families of pediatric patients, there are now a few studies available on fathers' posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, little is known about the course of PTSS and PTSD in fathers of pediatric patients. The present study aimed to compare the prevalence and course of PTSS and PTSD in fathers of children with different chronic and acute conditions and to ...

  7. Childhood maltreatment and violence: mediation through psychiatric morbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Rafael A; Kallis, Constantinos; Ullrich, Simone; Barnicot, Kirsten; Keers, Robert; Coid, Jeremy W

    2016-02-01

    Childhood maltreatment is associated with multiple adverse outcomes in adulthood including poor mental health and violence. We investigated direct and indirect pathways from childhood maltreatment to adult violence perpetration and the explanatory role of psychiatric morbidity. Analyses were based on a population survey of 2,928 young men 21-34 years in Great Britain in 2011, with boost surveys of black and minority ethnic groups and lower social grades. Respondents completed questionnaires measuring psychiatric diagnoses using standardized screening instruments, including antisocial personality disorder (ASPD), drug and alcohol dependence and psychosis. Maltreatment exposures included childhood physical abuse, neglect, witnessing domestic violence and being bullied. Adult violence outcomes included: any violence, violence toward strangers and intimate partners (IPV), victim injury and minor violence. Witnessing domestic violence showed the strongest risk for adult violence (AOR 2.70, 95% CI 2.00, 3.65) through a direct pathway, with psychotic symptoms and ASPD as partial mediators. Childhood physical abuse was associated with IPV (AOR 2.33, 95% CI 1.25, 4.35), mediated by ASPD and alcohol dependence. Neglect was associated with violence toward strangers (AOR 1.73, 95% CI 1.03, 2.91), mediated by ASPD. Prevention of violence in adulthood following childhood physical abuse and neglect requires treatment interventions for associated alcohol dependence, psychosis, and ASPD. However, witnessing family violence in childhood had strongest and direct effects on the pathway to adult violence, with important implications for primary prevention. In this context, prevention strategies should prioritize and focus on early childhood exposure to violence in the family home. PMID:26803688

  8. Averting the Legacy of Kidney Disease—Focus on Childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie R. Ingelfinger

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available World Kidney Day 2016 focuses on kidney disease in childhood and the antecedents of adult kidney disease that can begin in earliest childhood. Chronic kidney disease (CKD in childhood differs from that in adults, as the largest diagnostic group among children includes congenital anomalies and inherited disorders, with glomerulopathies and kidney disease in the setting of diabetes being relatively uncommon. In addition, many children with acute kidney injury will ultimately develop sequelae that may lead to hypertension and CKD in later childhood or in adult life. Children born early or who are small-for date newborns have relatively increased risk for the development of CKD later in life. Persons with a high-risk birth and early childhood history should be watched closely in order to help detect early signs of kidney disease in time to provide effective prevention or treatment. Successful therapy is feasible for advanced CKD in childhood; there is evidence that children fare better than adults if they receive kidney replacement therapy, including dialysis and transplantation, while only a minority of children may require this ultimate intervention.  Since there are disparities in access to care, effort is needed so that those children with kidney disease, wherever they live, may be treated effectively, irrespective of their geographic or economic circumstances. Our hope is that World Kidney Day will inform the general public, policy makers and caregivers about the needs and possibilities surrounding kidney disease in childhood. “For in every adult there dwells the child that was, and in every child there lies the adult that will be.”—John Connolly, The Book of Lost Things.

  9. Domestic injuries and suicide among women of reproductive age in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fardiazar Z

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Zahra Fardiazar,1 Homayoun Sadeghi-Bazargani,2 Reza Mohammadi31Women's Reproductive Health Research Center, 2Neuroscience Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran; 3Public Health Department, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, SwedenBackground: The aim of this study was to map out some epidemiological aspects of intentional and unintentional injuries among Iranian women of reproductive age using a national registry.Methods: Injury data were taken from a national-based injury surveillance system over the period 2000–2002. The study population comprised 31.5% of the population of Iran.Results: Of all the 307,064 domestic injuries reported during the years 2000–2002, about 152,600 cases (49.7% involved women. About half of these women (76,474 were in the reproductive age group. The majority (42.7% of injuries among women of reproductive age were burn wounds followed by lacerations in 32.6%. Eighty-five percent of suicide cases were poisonings, followed by 11% for suicides by burning. However, 45.2% of burn suicides were fatal, compared with a 0.89% fatality rate for poisonings. Of all female suicide victims, 1029 died, 174 victims became disabled, while the remainder improved or were undergoing therapy when reported.Conclusion: Injuries, especially burns, are a major public health problem for women of reproductive age.Keywords: injuries, women's health, accidents, burns, falls, poisonings, home safety, domestic injuries, epidemiology

  10. Early Childhood Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Child Traumatic Stress Network, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Early childhood trauma generally refers to the traumatic experiences that occur to children aged 0-6. Because infants' and young children's reactions may be different from older children's, and because they may not be able to verbalize their reactions to threatening or dangerous events, many people assume that young age protects children from the…

  11. Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pui, Ching-Hon; Yang, Jun J; Hunger, Stephen P;

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: To review the impact of collaborative studies on advances in the biology and treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in children and adolescents. METHODS: A review of English literature on childhood ALL focusing on collaborative studies was performed. The resulting article was re...

  12. Childhood disintegrative disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouridsen, Svend Erik

    2003-01-01

    are sometimes associated with this disorder, but contrary to earlier belief this is not typical. Interest in childhood disintegrative disorder has increased markedly in recent years and in this review attention is given to more recently published cases based on ICD-9, ICD-10 and DSM-IV diagnostic systems...

  13. Managing childhood obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    The prevalence of childhood obesity has steadily increased over the last decades, with approximately 35% of children aged 6-19 classified as overweight or obese. Recently, a plateau in the increasing rates of obesity has been observed. Despite this leveling off, overweight and obese children are hea...

  14. Atopic endotype in childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoos, Ann-Marie Malby; Chawes, Bo Lund Krogsgaard; Rasmussen, Morten Arendt;

    2016-01-01

    with asthma through early childhood (0-6 years) when analyzed as any sensitization (odds ratio [OR] range, 0.78-1.29; P ≥ .48). However, at 13 years of age, any sensitization was associated with asthma (OR range, 4.02-5.94; all P contrast, any sensitization was associated with eczema at ½, 1...

  15. Early Childhood Education 193.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polis, Gloria Owens

    This module adapts the content of an on-campus early childhood education program to a competency-based set of self-paced learning activities for use in largely self-directed, supervised instruction of student child caretakers employed at such settings as a day care center or Head Start agency. Addressed in the individual sections of the module are…

  16. Conscientiousness: Origins in Childhood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Nancy; Duckworth, Angela L.; Spinrad, Tracy L.; Valiente, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    In this review, we evaluate developmental and personality research with the aim of determining whether the personality trait of conscientiousness can be identified in children and adolescents. After concluding that conscientiousness does emerge in childhood, we discuss the developmental origins of conscientiousness with a specific focus on…

  17. Childhood environment and obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    US children are at risk for developing childhood obesity. Currently, 23% of children ages 2–5 are overweight or obese, i.e., at or above the 85th percentile. This prevalence becomes even higher as children age, with 34% of children ages 6–11 being overweight or obese. Ethnic minority children are at...

  18. Childhood Obesity: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, John J.

    2007-01-01

    This article reviews recent research evidence, largely from systematic reviews, on a number of aspects of childhood obesity: its definition and prevalence; consequences; causes and prevention. The basis of the body mass index (BMI) as a means of defining obesity in children and adolescents is discussed: a high BMI for age constitutes obesity. In…

  19. Childhood microbial keratitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah G Al Otaibi

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: Children with suspected microbial keratitis require comprehensive evaluation and management. Early recognition, identifying the predisposing factors and etiological microbial organisms, and instituting appropriate treatment measures have a crucial role in outcome. Ocular trauma was the leading cause of childhood microbial keratitis in our study.

  20. Early childhood aggression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alink, Lenneke Rosalie Agnes

    2006-01-01

    In this thesis the development, stability, and correlates of early childhood aggression were investigated. The normative development was examined in a general population sample using questionnaires completed by the parents of 12-, 24-, and 36-month-old children and again one year later. Results show

  1. [Dissociative disorder and self-injury].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noma, Shun'ichi

    2011-01-01

    Both the number of patients with dissociative disorder and that of those with self-injury have been increasing since the end of the twentieth century, suggesting that dissociation and self-injury might be closely related. When dissociative disorder coexists with self-injury, it implies self-punishment and a wish to be understood by others. Although many cases of self-injury observed since 2000 lacked traumatic experiences and were not accompanied by pathological dissociative symptoms, the patients did have dissociative tendencies. According to the results of our study examining self-injury in patients with eating disorders, we observed that self-injury, dissociative tendency and insulation from others are related to each other. This suggests that affects, sensations and representations are dissociated, losing their normal response order, and that the pervasive idea that "pain=secure" is formed in a patient from childhood based on influence from their parents. Self-injury appears to be an activation of this pervasive idea that is triggered by a stressful situation, when the dissociative psychological segmentation of effects and their representations are present in the background.

  2. Cognitive and psychopathological sequelae of pediatric traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchamp, M H; Anderson, V

    2013-01-01

    Childhood traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a frequent cause of acquired disability in childhood and can have a serious impact on development across the lifespan. The consequences of early TBI vary according to injury severity, with severe injuries usually resulting in more serious physical, cognitive and behavioral sequelae. Both clinical and research reports document residual deficits in a range of skills, including intellectual function, attention, memory, learning, and executive function. In addition, recent investigations suggest that early brain injury also affects psychological and social development and that problems in these domains may increase in the long term postinjury. Together, these deficits affect children's ability to function effectively at school, in the home, and in their social environment, resulting in impaired acquisition of knowledge, psychological and social problems, and overall reduced quality of life. Ultimately, recovery from childhood TBI depends on a range of complex biological, developmental, and psychosocial factors making prognosis difficult to predict. This chapter will detail the cognitive (intellectual, attentional, mnesic, executive, educational, and vocational) and psychopathological (behavioral, adaptive, psychological, social) sequelae of childhood TBI with a particular focus on postinjury recovery patterns in the acute, short-, and long-term phases, as well as into adulthood. PMID:23622301

  3. School Reentry for Children with Acquired Central Nervous Systems Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carney, Joan; Porter, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    Onset of acquired central nervous system (CNS) injury during the normal developmental process of childhood can have impact on cognitive, behavioral, and motor function. This alteration of function often necessitates special education programming, modifications, and accommodations in the education setting for successful school reentry. Special…

  4. Wrestling injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halloran, Laurel

    2008-01-01

    The sport of wrestling has a history dating back to ancient times as one of the original Olympic sports. It particularly appeals to adolescents as equally matched opponents engage in competition. There can be no argument that participation in sports helps promote a physically active lifestyle. However, despite the documented health benefits of increased physical activity, those who participate in athletics are at risk for sports-related injuries. This article will discuss wrestling injuries and recommend prevention strategies to keep athletes safe. PMID:18521035

  5. Facial Sports Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Calendar Find an ENT Doctor Near You Facial Sports Injuries Facial Sports Injuries Patient Health Information News media ... should receive immediate medical attention. Prevention Of Facial Sports Injuries The best way to treat facial sports injuries ...

  6. Eye Injuries at Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ask an Ophthalmologist Español Eye Health / Tips & Prevention Eye Injuries Sections Preventing Eye Injuries Recognizing and Treating ... Safety Sports Eye Injuries by the Numbers — Infographic Eye Injuries at Work Edited by: Shirley Dang Feb. ...

  7. Preventing Eye Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ophthalmologist Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Eye Injuries Sections Preventing Eye Injuries Recognizing and Treating ... Sports Eye Injuries by the Numbers — Infographic Preventing Eye Injuries Reviewed by: Brenda Pagan-Duran MD Mar. ...

  8. Weight loss - unintentional

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... urinating more than usual? Have you lost any hair? What medicines are you taking? Do you feel sad or depressed? Are you pleased or concerned with the weight loss? You may need to see a dietitian for nutrition advice.

  9. Chest Traumas due to Bicycle accident in Childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ufuk Cobanoglu

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim:Childhood injuries are the leading cause of death in children and result in significant healthcare utilization. Trauma is the second most common cause of mortality in children aged 1-4 years and leading cause of death in children older than 4 years. Thoracic injury is the second most leading cause of death in traumatized children. Multisystemic injury is found in more than 50% of children with thoracic injuries most of which are secondary to blunt traumas. We planned this study to evaluate thorax trauma cases secondary to bicycle driving in childhood and to draw attention to the importance of the regulation of traffic rules, the education of bicycle drivers.Material and Methods:  A retrospective evaluation was performed in 17 pediatric patients admitted to the Department of Thoracic Surgery during 2006-2010 with a diagnosis of chest trauma due to bicycle driving. For every patient, a pediatric trauma score (PTS was calculated. Descriptive statistics were performed for PTS. Results; Eleven (64.70% cases were injured due to the tricycle accidents and six cases 6 (35.29% were injured due to the two-wheeled bicycle accidents. The most frequent thoracic pathologies included pulmonary contusion (41.2% and chest wall contusion (29.41%. Extrathoracic injuries were seen in 35.29%, the extremities (17.64% and abdomino pelvic (11.76% being the most commonly involved. Treatment consisted of symptomatic treatment in 12 patients (70.58%, tube thoracostomy in 2 patients (11.76%, and thoracotomy in 1 patient (5.9%. The morbidity was seen in 3 patients (17.64%. The mortality rate was 5.9% (n:1. The mean PTS of the cases who had additional system injuries were significantly worse than the cases who had isolated chest traumas Conclusions: The pediatric thorax has a greater cartilage content and incomplete ossification of the ribs. Due to the pliability of the pediatric rib cage and mediastinal mobility, significant intrathoracic injury may exist in the

  10. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Experts \\ Spinal Cord Injury 101 Topics Adult Injuries Spinal Cord Injury 101 Spinal Cord Injury 101 The Basics of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation ... in countries outside the US ? A spinal cord injury affects the entire family FacingDisability is designed to ...

  11. Inhalation Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... increase mortality 30% to 40% when patients with cutaneous burns and inhalation injury are compared with patients ... nasal hairs • Facial burns • Burns around the mouth • Mineral spirits – 104º F – paint thinner, brush cleaner. • Redness, ...

  12. Alcohol and injuries: a review of international emergency room studies since 1995.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherpitel, Cheryl J

    2007-03-01

    This paper provides a review of emergency room (ER) studies on alcohol and injury, using representative probability samples of adult injury patients, and focuses on the scope and burden of the problem as measured by estimated blood alcohol concentration (BAC) at the time of the ER visit, self-report drinking prior to injury, violence-related injury and alcohol use disorders. A computerized search of the English-language literature on MEDLINE, PsychINFO and the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) Alcohol and Alcohol Problems Science Database (ETOH) was conducted for articles published between 1995 and 2005, using the following key descriptors: (1) emergency room/emergency department/accident and emergency, (2) alcohol/drinking and (3) injuries (intentional and unintentional). Findings support prior reviews, with injured patients more likely to be positive for BAC and report drinking prior to injury than non-injured, and with the magnitude of the association substantially increased for violence-related injuries compared to non-violence-related injuries. Indicators of alcohol use disorders did not show a strong association with injury. Findings were not homogeneous across studies, however, and contextual variables, including study-level detrimental drinking pattern, explained some of the variation. This review represents a broader range of ER studies than that reported previously, across both developed and developing countries, and has added to our knowledge base in relation to the influence of contextual variables on the alcohol-injury relationship. Future research on alcohol and injury should focus on obtaining representative samples of ER patients, with special attention to both acute and chronic alcohol use, and to organisational and socio-cultural variables that may influence findings across studies. In-depth patient interviews may also be useful for a better understanding of drinking in the injury event and associated circumstances. PMID

  13. Early Childhood Caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumiko Kawashita

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Dental caries is one of the most common childhood diseases, and people continue to be susceptible to it throughout their lives. Although dental caries can be arrested and potentially even reversed in its early stages, it is often not self-limiting and progresses without proper care until the tooth is destroyed. Early childhood caries (ECC is often complicated by inappropriate feeding practices and heavy infection with mutans streptococci. Such children should be targeted with a professional preventive program that includes oral hygiene instructions for mothers or caregivers, along with fluoride and diet counseling. However, these strategies alone are not sufficient to prevent dental caries in high-risk children; prevention of ECC also requires addressing the socioeconomic factors that face many families in which ECC is endemic. The aim of this paper is to systematically review information about ECC and to describe why many children are suffering from dental caries.

  14. Childhood Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Dayal

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA is a common condition in childhood and can result insevere complications if left untreated. It is showing a rising trend in India. A significantassociation with obesity has been observed; however, some children with enlargedtonsils and/or adenoids may even be underweight. The patient usually presents withsnoring and other respiratory problems like mouth breathing, choking and gaspingepisodes in night. Poor school performance and neurocognitive deficits have beenreported. Pulmonary hypertension and cor pulmonale are seen in severe cases. Besidesthe history and clinical examination, for definitive diagnosis an overnightpolysomnographic evaluation is the gold standard. In all cases, the specific treatmentranges from simple lifestyle modifications and medications to surgeries likeadenotonsillectomy. Early diagnosis is vital.Key words: Childhood OSA, Obesity, adenotonsillar hypertrophy

  15. Genetics of Childhood Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhua Zhao

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a major health problem and an immense economic burden on the health care systems both in the United States and the rest of the world. The prevalence of obesity in children and adults in the United States has increased dramatically over the past decade. Besides environmental factors, genetic factors are known to play an important role in the pathogenesis of obesity. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS have revealed strongly associated genomic variants associated with most common disorders; indeed there is general consensus on these findings from generally positive replication outcomes by independent groups. To date, there have been only a few GWAS-related reports for childhood obesity specifically, with studies primarily uncovering loci in the adult setting instead. It is clear that a number of loci previously reported from GWAS analyses of adult BMI and/or obesity also play a role in childhood obesity.

  16. Tibetan Nomad Childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karma Dondrub

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A Tibetan Nomad Childhood by Kar+ma don 'grub. Kar+ma's life begins on the boundless Tibetan grassland in 1983 in Yushu (Yul shul Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Mtsho sgnon (Qinghai Province. Living in a black yak hair tent, Kar+ma begins tending his family's yak calves as soon as he can walk, in a grassland so barren that he is startled upon first seeing a tree at the age of eight. Charlatan livestock-stealing monks, anthrax, death, birth, happiness, and encounters with modern education create a powerful, unparalleled account of Tibetan nomad childhood in the late twentieth century - a way of life that will soon be forever gone.

  17. Gender and injuries predict stimulant medication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Søren; Leckman, James F.; Nielsen, Helena Skyt;

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this article was to examine whether injuries in early childhood and gender predict prescriptions of stimulant medication in three groups of children: With attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and other psychiatric disorders (OPD......). Methods: This was a population-based study with prospective and complete follow-up of children with ADHD (n=11,553), ASD (n=9698), and OPD (n=48,468), of whom 61%, 16%, and 3%, respectively, were treated with stimulants. For all 69,719 individual children data on psychiatric diagnoses, injuries, and drug...... prescriptions were obtained from national registers and merged. Results: Having sustained an injury before 5 years of age increased the likelihood of later stimulant treatment, in children with ADHD (odds ratio [OR]=1.09; 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.01-1.21), ASD (OR=1.19; 95% CI=1.02-1.40), and OPD (OR=1...

  18. Language and focal brain lesion in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila, Lia; Riesgo, Rudimar; Pedroso, Fleming; Goldani, Marcelo; Danesi, Marlene; Ranzan, Josiane; Sleifer, Pricila

    2010-07-01

    Childhood ischemic strokes can lead to problems like hemiplegias, epilepsies, cognitive changes (memory and mathematical solutions), and language ability (reading, writing, and aphasias). The purpose of this study was to evaluate language and its aspects in children with unilateral ischemic stroke and associate them with the age during the event, injured side, and occurrence of epilepsy. Thirty-two children between 8 months and 19 years of age were evaluated. Among them, 21 (65%) had a change in their language skills, there being a connection between age and the time of injury (P < .05). The most impaired aspects were their phonology, semantics, and syntax. In this sample, there was a persistent change in the semantic aspect, which is an alert for the early detection of learning and future development problems.

  19. Trauma radiology in infancy and childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this review article is to familiarise the reader with the specific paediatric conditions in trauma radiology. The article briefly describes the major pathophysiologic differences in childhood and the consecutive altered injury pattern. The standard radiological imaging protocol for various involved body regions and different trauma settings/varying queries is described, with suggestion for standardised diagnostic flowcharts in some typical settings. Special regard is given to radiation protection and the potential of newer imaging modalities such as ultrasound, multi-detector- and spiral CT as well as MRI in paediatric trauma patients. As such the paper hopefully provides some basic guidelines for general radiologists in peripheral hospitals who less often have to deal with paediatric queries. (orig.)

  20. Injury prevention in an urban setting: challenges and successes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laraque, D; Barlow, B; Durkin, M; Heagarty, M

    1995-01-01

    The Harlem Hospital Injury Prevention Program (HHIPP) was established in 1988 with the goal of reducing injuries to children in central Harlem by providing safe play areas, supervised activities, and injury prevention education. To achieve this goal, a broad-based coalition was formed with state and local governmental agencies interested in injury prevention and with community groups, schools, parents, and hospital staff. An evaluation of the program in terms of both process and outcome formed a critical element of this effort. Since 1988 the HHIPP, as the lead agency for the Healthy Neighborhoods/Safe Kids Coalition, developed or participated in two types of programs: injury-prevention education programs and programs that provide safe activities and/or environments for children. The educational programs included Window Guards campaign; Safety City Program; Kids, Injuries and Street Smarts Program (KISS); Burn Prevention Curriculum and Smoke Detector Distribution; Harlem Alternative to Violence Program; Adolescent Outreach Program; and Critical Incident Stress Management Teams. The safe activities and environmental programs included the Bicycle Safety Program/Urban Youth Bike Corps; Playground Injury Prevention Program; the Greening of Harlem Program; the Harlem Horizon Art Studio; Harlem Hospital Dance Clinic; Unity through Murals project; baseball at the Harlem Little League; winter baseball clinic; and the soccer league. Each program was conceived using injury data, coupled with parental concern and activism, which acted as catalysts to create a community coalition to respond to a specific problem. Data systems developed over time, which monitored the prevalence and incidence of childhood injuries in northern Manhattan, including central Harlem, became essential not only to identify specific types of childhood injuries in this community but also to evaluate these programs for the prevention of injuries in children.

  1. Brain Development in Childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Taki, Yasuyuki; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2012-01-01

    Although human brain development continues throughout childhood and adolescence, it is a non-linear process both structurally and functionally. Here we review studies of brain development in healthy children from the viewpoint of structure and the perfusion of gray and white matter. Gray matter volume increases and then decreases with age, with the developmental time of the peak volume differing among brain regions in the first and second decades of life. On the other hand, white matter volum...

  2. Early Childhood Development

    OpenAIRE

    Bakilana, Anne; Moucheraud, Corrina; McConnell, Christin; HASAN, Rifat

    2016-01-01

    Teenage pregnancies have potential negative consequences on the next generation. Children born to adolescent mothers are particularly at risk in terms of health, nutrition, cognitive and socio-emotional development. Evidence shows that the early years – especially the first 1,000 days – are crucially important for lifetime health, learning, and productivity. Particularly for the most vulnerable children and families, early childhood development (ECD) is a high return investment. This polic...

  3. Early Childhood Development

    OpenAIRE

    HASAN, Rifat; Moucheraud, Corrina; Bakilana, Anne; Nadeau, Sophie

    2015-01-01

    Teenage pregnancies have potential negative consequences on the next generation. Children born to adolescent mothers are particularly at risk in terms of health, nutrition, cognitive and socio-emotional development. Evidence shows that the early years – especially the first 1,000 days – are crucially important for lifetime health, learning, and productivity. Particularly for the most vulnerable children and families, early childhood development (ECD) is a high return investment. This polic...

  4. Conscientiousness: Origins in Childhood?

    OpenAIRE

    Eisenberg, Nancy; Duckworth, Angela L.; Spinrad, Tracy L.; Valiente, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    In this review, we evaluate developmental and personality research with the aim of determining if the personality trait of conscientiousness can be identified in children and adolescents. After concluding that conscientiousness does emerge in childhood, we discuss the developmental origins of conscientiousness with a specific focus on self-regulation, academic motivation, and internalized compliance/internalization of standards. Based on the accumulated body of evidence, we conclude that self...

  5. Childhood lymphoma in Yorkshire.

    OpenAIRE

    Davison, A. M.; McKinney, P A; Bailey, C C; Lewis, I.; Cartwright, R A; O'Brien, C.

    1992-01-01

    AIMS: A histopathological review of 43 cases of childhood non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) in an attempt to identify histological variables of prognostic importance. METHOD: Each case was reclassified according to the Working Formulation and an attempt made to allocate an immunophenotype using a panel of monoclonal antibodies. Results were correlated with clinical data on site and survival. RESULTS: Of the 43 cases, 30 were males and 13 females. There were 17 cases of lymphoblastic lymphoma, 15 c...

  6. Fatty liver in childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Ozturk,Yesim; Soylu, Ozlem Bekem

    2014-01-01

    Fatty liver is a growing health problem worldwide. It might evolve to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, cirrhosis and cause hepatocellular carcinoma. This disease, which has increased because of eating habits, changes in food content and lifestyle, affects people from childhood. The most important risk factors are obesity and insulin resistance. Besides these factors, gender, ethnicity, genetic predisposition and some medical problems are also important. Cirrhosis in children is rare but is repor...

  7. Childhood ovarian malignancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahadik, Kalpana; Ghorpade, Kanchanmala

    2014-04-01

    Objective of this article is to appraise diagnostic aspects and treatment modalities in childhood ovarian tumor in background of available evidence. Literature search on Pubmed revealed various aspects of epidemiology, histopathological diagnosis, and treatment of pediatric ovarian tumor. 85 % of childhood tumors are germ cell tumors. The varied histopathological picture in germ cell tumors poses a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. Immunohistochemistry and newer genetic markers like SALL4 and karyopherin-2 (KPNA2) have been helpful in differentiating ovarian yolk sac tumor from dysgerminoma, teratomas, and other pictures of hepatoid, endometrioid, clear cell carcinomatous, and adenocarcinomatous tissues with varied malignant potential. Before platinum therapy, these tumors were almost fatal in children. Fertility-conserving surgery with bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin has dramatically changed the survival rates in these patients. This modality gives cancer cure with healthy offspring to female patients with childhood ovarian tumor. Evidence also supports this protocol resulting in successful pregnancy rates and safety of cytotoxic drugs in children born to these patients. PMID:24757335

  8. Peer Bullying During Early Childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Hatice UYSAL; Çağlayan DİNÇER

    2012-01-01

    Peer bullying during early childhood is discussed along with the literature reviewed in this article with the purpose of drawing attention to peer bullying during early childhood and its significance, and contributing to studies which are few in number in Turkey. Peer bullying during early childhood was considered with its definition and types, people who play key roles in peer bullying, factors (gender, age, parents, and friendship) that relate to peer bullying, and what should be done befor...

  9. Stress and Obesity in Childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Koch, Felix-Sebastian

    2009-01-01

    Childhood obesity is a serious health problem and prevalence increases dramatically around the world, including Sweden. The aim of the current thesis was to examine parents’ and children’s stress in relation to childhood obesity. Parenting stress, social support, parental worries, and serious life events, as well as children’s temperament, self-esteem, body dissatisfaction, saliva cortisol, weight and height were measured to estimate stress and the relation between stress and childhood obesit...

  10. Psychiatric Aspects of Childhood Epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Pattanayak, Raman Deep; Sagar, Rajesh

    2012-01-01

    How to Cite this Article: Pattanayak RD, Sagar R. Psychiatric Aspects of Childhood Epilepsy. Iran J Child Neurol 2012;6(2):9-18.Childhood epilepsy is a chronic, recurrent disorder of unprovoked seizures. Theonset of epilepsy in childhood has significant implications for brain growth anddevelopment. Seizures may impair the ongoing neurodevelopmental processes and compromise the child’s intellectual and cognitive functioning, leading totremendous cognitive, behavioral and psychosocial consequen...

  11. Investigation of Childhood Abuse Experiences

    OpenAIRE

    AYDIN, Oktay

    2013-01-01

    In this study childhood abuse experiences between 18-25 years old males wasinvestigated according to some variables. The sample consist of 308 male. ChildhoodTrauma Questionnaire was applied to sample group to determine their childhood abuseexperiences. In addition to this, to determine some of demographical characteristics of thesubjects, a questionnaire was used. ANOVA and Pearson Moment Correlation CoefficentTechniques were used on the obtained results.At the and of the research;- People u...

  12. Childhood obesity and prevention approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Dilek Yildiz; Berna Eren Fidanci; Derya Suluhan

    2015-01-01

    Childhood obesity has increased dramatically during the past two decades. The growing incidence of childhood obesity is alarming, given the significant short and long term health problems associated with obesity. Being overweight or obese may increase the rate of non-communicable diseases such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease in adulthood. It may contribute to shortening life expectancy and adversely affects the quality of life. Therefore, it is important to prevent childhood obe...

  13. Quantity of documentation of maltreatment risk factors in injury-related paediatric hospitalisations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McKenzie Kirsten

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While child maltreatment is recognised as a global problem, solid epidemiological data on the prevalence of child maltreatment and risk factors associated with child maltreatment is lacking in Australia and internationally. There have been recent calls for action to improve the evidence-base capturing and describing child abuse, particularly those data captured within the health sector. This paper describes the quantity of documentation of maltreatment risk factors in injury-related paediatric hospitalisations in Queensland, Australia. Methods This study involved a retrospective medical record review, text extraction and coding methodology to assess the quantity of documentation of risk factors and the subsequent utility of data in hospital records for describing child maltreatment and data linkage to Child Protection Service (CPS. Results There were 433 children in the maltreatment group and 462 in the unintentional injury group for whom medical records could be reviewed. Almost 93% of the maltreatment code sample, but only 11% of the unintentional injury sample had documentation identified indicating the presence of any of 20 risk factors. In the maltreatment group the most commonly documented risk factor was history of abuse (41%. In those with an unintentional injury, the most commonly documented risk factor was alcohol abuse of the child or family (3%. More than 93% of the maltreatment sample also linked to a child protection record. Of concern are the 16% of those children who linked to child protection who did not have documented risk factors in the medical record. Conclusion Given the importance of the medical record as a source of information about children presenting to hospital for treatment and as a potential source of evidence for legal action the lack of documentation is of concern. The details surrounding the injury admission and consideration of any maltreatment related risk factors, both identifying their

  14. Adverse Childhood Experiences and Childhood Autobiographical Memory Disturbance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, David W.; Anda, Robert F.; Edwards, Valerie J.; Felitti, Vincent J.; Dube, Shanta R.; Giles, Wayne H.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To examine relationships between childhood autobiographical memory disturbance (CAMD) and adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) which are defined as common forms of child maltreatment and related traumatic stressors. Methods: We use the ACE score (an integer count of eight different categories of ACEs) as a measure of cumulative exposure…

  15. The impact of RF-plasma power in carrier relaxation dynamics of unintentional doped GaN epitaxial layers grown by MBE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Nisha; Anand, Kritika; Barvat, Arun; Pal, Prabir; Singh, Dilip K.; Jewariya, Mukesh; Ragam, Srinivasa; Adhikari, Sonachand; Maurya, Kamlesh K.; Khanna, Suraj P.

    2016-04-01

    In this work, unintentionally doped GaN samples were prepared on GaN template by radio frequency (RF)-plasma MBE technique using two different RF-plasma powers. Photoluminescence (PL), steady state photoconductivity (PC) and ultrafast optical pump-probe spectroscopy measurements have been carried out to characterize the samples. The effect of RF-plasma power towards unintentional doping and giving rise to yellow luminescence (YL) is discussed. Our PC measurements show relatively faster decay for sample grown with higher RF-plasma power. In addition, the ultrafast optical pump-probe spectroscopy results show the presence of various defect levels with different relaxation times. A faster ultrafast relaxation time from the conduction band to the closest defect level and conduction band to the next defect level was observed for the sample grown with higher plasma power. A comparatively low defect density and faster carrier relaxation observed in higher RF-plasma power grown samples is caused by lower impurities and gallium vacancies. The results imply that RF-plasma power is very important parameter for the growth of epitaxial GaN films and undesirable impurities and gallium vacancies might get incorporated in the epitaxial GaN films.

  16. Practitioner Review: Beyond Shaken Baby Syndrome--What Influences the Outcomes for Infants following Traumatic Brain Injury?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashton, Rebecca

    2010-01-01

    Background: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) in infancy is relatively common, and is likely to lead to poorer outcomes than injuries sustained later in childhood. While the headlines have been grabbed by infant TBI caused by abuse, often known as shaken baby syndrome, the evidence base for how to support children following TBI in infancy is thin.…

  17. Environmental- and injury-related epidemic-assistance investigations, 1946-2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, Henry; Briss, Peter

    2011-12-01

    This paper summarizes environmental investigations (n = 458) conducted during the first 60 years of the epidemic-assistance investigation program at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. These investigations were grouped into 10 categories: toxic chemicals (n = 102), indoor air quality and outdoor air toxics (n = 21), new or rare epidemic diseases and unexplained syndromes (n = 29), natural disasters (n = 81), terrorism and unintentional human-made disasters (n = 9), substance use and abuse (n = 13), environmental aspects of infectious disease (n = 132), those affecting neonates and infants (n = 11), violence and injuries (n = 51), and miscellaneous (n = 9). Among the most important or prominent were studies of lead and arsenic toxicity at smelters, mercury in paint and beauty creams, dioxin in waste oil in Missouri, polychlorinated biphenyls and multiple other toxic chemicals, global pesticide poisoning outbreaks, hepatic angiosarcoma among vinyl chloride workers, toxic oil syndrome in Spain, eosinophilia-myalgia syndrome from contaminated L-tryptophan, diethylene glycol poisoning in Haiti, aflatoxicosis in Kenya, Gulf War illness among veterans, impact and needs assessments during natural disasters (e.g., Hurricane Katrina (2005) and the Mount St. Helens volcano eruptions (1980)), risk factors for heat-related mortality, domestic and international terrorist attacks, Parkinsonism related to 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine in California, and unintentional injury- and violence-related events. PMID:22135395

  18. Environmental- and injury-related epidemic-assistance investigations, 1946-2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, Henry; Briss, Peter

    2011-12-01

    This paper summarizes environmental investigations (n = 458) conducted during the first 60 years of the epidemic-assistance investigation program at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. These investigations were grouped into 10 categories: toxic chemicals (n = 102), indoor air quality and outdoor air toxics (n = 21), new or rare epidemic diseases and unexplained syndromes (n = 29), natural disasters (n = 81), terrorism and unintentional human-made disasters (n = 9), substance use and abuse (n = 13), environmental aspects of infectious disease (n = 132), those affecting neonates and infants (n = 11), violence and injuries (n = 51), and miscellaneous (n = 9). Among the most important or prominent were studies of lead and arsenic toxicity at smelters, mercury in paint and beauty creams, dioxin in waste oil in Missouri, polychlorinated biphenyls and multiple other toxic chemicals, global pesticide poisoning outbreaks, hepatic angiosarcoma among vinyl chloride workers, toxic oil syndrome in Spain, eosinophilia-myalgia syndrome from contaminated L-tryptophan, diethylene glycol poisoning in Haiti, aflatoxicosis in Kenya, Gulf War illness among veterans, impact and needs assessments during natural disasters (e.g., Hurricane Katrina (2005) and the Mount St. Helens volcano eruptions (1980)), risk factors for heat-related mortality, domestic and international terrorist attacks, Parkinsonism related to 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine in California, and unintentional injury- and violence-related events.

  19. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Fertility After Spinal Cord Injury Coping with a New Injury Coping with a New Injury Adjusting to Social Life in a Wheelchair ... after an injury? What are the most promising new treatments for spinal cord injuries? What are the ...

  20. Adverse Childhood Experiences and Hallucinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitfield, C.L.; Dube, S.R.; Felitti, V.J.; Anda, R.F.

    2005-01-01

    Objective:: Little information is available about the contribution of multiple adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) to the likelihood of reporting hallucinations. We used data from the ACE study to assess this relationship. Methods:: We conducted a survey about childhood abuse and household dysfunction while growing up, with questions about health…

  1. Teachers in Early Childhood Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilderry, Anna

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines teacher accountability and authority in early childhood policy. It reports on data from a study that investigated the influences affecting early childhood teacher decision-making at the preschool level in Victoria, Australia. Using a question raised by Ball "Where are the teachers in all this [policy]?" provided a…

  2. Markets and Childhood Obesity Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cawley, John

    2006-01-01

    In examining the childhood obesity epidemic from the perspective of economics, John Cawley looks at both possible causes and possible policy solutions that work through markets. The operation of markets, says Cawley, has contributed to the recent increase in childhood overweight in three main ways. First, the real price of food fell. In…

  3. Early Childhood Inclusion in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giné, Climent; Balcells-Balcells, Anna; Cañadas, Margarita; Paniagua, Gema

    2016-01-01

    This article describes early childhood inclusion in educational settings in Spain. First, we address the legislative framework of preschool education in Spain and offer a brief analysis of some relevant issues, including the current situation of early childhood education and inclusion at this stage. Second, current policies and practices relating…

  4. Combined dyslipidemia in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavey, Rae-Ellen W

    2015-01-01

    Combined dyslipidemia (CD) is now the predominant dyslipidemic pattern in childhood, characterized by moderate-to-severe elevation in triglycerides and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C), minimal elevation in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and reduced HDL-C. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy shows that the CD pattern is represented at the lipid subpopulation level as an increase in small, dense LDL and in overall LDL particle number plus a reduction in total HDL-C and large HDL particles, a highly atherogenic pattern. In youth, CD occurs almost exclusively with obesity and is highly prevalent, seen in more than 40% of obese adolescents. CD in childhood predicts pathologic evidence of atherosclerosis and vascular dysfunction in adolescence and young adulthood, and early clinical cardiovascular events in adult life. There is a tight connection between CD, visceral adiposity, insulin resistance, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and the metabolic syndrome, suggesting an integrated pathophysiological response to excessive weight gain. Weight loss, changes in dietary composition, and increases in physical activity have all been shown to improve CD significantly in children and adolescents in short-term studies. Most importantly, even small amounts of weight loss are associated with significant decreases in triglyceride levels and increases in HDL-C levels with improvement in lipid subpopulations. Diet change focused on limitation of simple carbohydrate intake with specific elimination of all sugar-sweetened beverages is very effective. Evidence-based recommendations for initiating diet and activity change are provided. Rarely, drug therapy is needed, and the evidence for drug treatment of CD in childhood is reviewed. PMID:26343211

  5. Risk of maltreatment-related injury: a cross-sectional study of children under five years old admitted to hospital with a head or neck injury or fracture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Jonathan Lee

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To determine the predictive value and sensitivity of demographic features and injuries (indicators for maltreatment-related codes in hospital discharge records of children admitted with a head or neck injury or fracture. METHODS: STUDY DESIGN: Population-based, cross sectional study. SETTING: NHS hospitals in England. SUBJECTS: Children under five years old admitted acutely to hospital with head or neck injury or fracture. DATA SOURCE: Hospital Episodes Statistics, 1997 to 2009. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Maltreatment-related injury admissions, defined by ICD10 codes, were used to calculate for each indicator (demographic feature and/or type of injury: i the predictive value (proportion of injury admissions that were maltreatment-related; ii sensitivity (proportion of all maltreatment-related injury admissions with the indicator. RESULTS: Of 260,294 childhood admissions for fracture or head or neck injury, 3.2% (8,337 were maltreatment-related. With increasing age of the child, the predictive value for maltreatment-related injury declined but sensitivity increased. Half of the maltreatment-related admissions occurred in children older than one year, and 63% occurred in children with head injuries without fractures or intracranial injury. CONCLUSIONS: Highly predictive injuries accounted for very few maltreatment-related admissions. Protocols that focus on high-risk injuries may miss the majority of maltreated children.

  6. Subclinical hypothyroidism in childhood.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Grady, M J

    2012-02-01

    Subclinical hypothyroidism (SH) is defined as an elevated thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) in association with a normal total or free thyroxine (T4) or triiodothyronine (T3). It is frequently encountered in both neonatology and general paediatric practice; however, its clinical significance is widely debated. Currently there is no broad consensus on the investigation and treatment of these patients; specifically who to treat and what cut-off level of TSH should be used. This paper reviews the available evidence regarding investigation, treatments and outcomes reported for childhood SH.

  7. Increasing Childhood Influenza Vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowalk, Mary Patricia; Lin, Chyongchiou J.; Hannibal, Kristin; Reis, Evelyn C.; Gallik, Gregory; Moehling, Krissy K.; Huang, Hsin-Hui; Allred, Norma J.; Wolfson, David H.; Zimmerman, Richard K.

    2014-01-01

    Background Since the 2008 inception of universal childhood influenza vaccination, national rates have risen more dramatically among younger children than older children and reported rates across racial/ethnic groups are inconsistent. Interventions may be needed to address age and racial disparities to achieve the recommended childhood influenza vaccination target of 70%. Purpose To evaluate an intervention to increase childhood influenza vaccination across age and racial groups. Methods In 2011–2012, 20 primary care practices treating children were randomly assigned to Intervention and Control arms of a cluster randomized controlled trial to increase childhood influenza vaccination uptake using a toolkit and other strategies including early delivery of donated vaccine, in-service staff meetings, and publicity. Results The average vaccination differences from pre-intervention to the intervention year were significantly larger in the Intervention arm (n=10 practices) than the Control arm (n=10 practices), for children aged 2–8 years (10.2 percentage points (pct pts) Intervention vs 3.6 pct pts Control) and 9–18 years (11.1 pct pts Intervention vs 4.3 pct pts Control, p<0.05), for non-white children (16.7 pct pts Intervention vs 4.6 pct pts Control, p<0.001), and overall (9.9 pct pts Intervention vs 4.2 pct pts Control, p<0.01). In multi-level modeling that accounted for person- and practice-level variables and the interactions among age, race and intervention, the likelihood of vaccination increased with younger age group (6–23 months), white race, commercial insurance, the practice’s pre-intervention vaccination rate, and being in the Intervention arm. Estimates of the interaction terms indicated that the intervention increased the likelihood of vaccination for non-white children in all age groups and white children aged 9–18 years. Conclusions A multi-strategy intervention that includes a practice improvement toolkit can significantly improve influenza

  8. Stroke in childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Serap Teber; Gülhis Deda

    2011-01-01

    Stroke in childhood is one of the most common causes of death or severe impairment worldwide, with annual incidence estimated from 1,3 to 13 cases/100.000 population. The definition of stroke consists both of arterial ischemic stroke (AIS) and hemorrhagic stroke. The incidence of ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke in children is approximately the same, in contrast to adults, while the incidence is higher in boys than it is in girls. Risks factors for pediatric stroke differ from those for adults...

  9. Migraine and lifestyle in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casucci, Gerardo; Villani, Veronica; d'Onofrio, Florindo; Russo, Antonio

    2015-05-01

    Migraine is one of the most frequently reported somatic complaints in childhood, with a negative impact on health-related quality of life. The incidence of migraine in childhood has substantially increased over the past 30 years, probably due to both increased awareness of the disease and lifestyle changes in this age group. Indeed, several conditions have been identified as risk factors for migraine in childhood. Amongst these, dysfunctional family situation, the regular consumption of alcohol, caffeine ingestion, low level of physical activity, physical or emotional abuse, bullying by peers, unfair treatment in school and insufficient leisure time seem to play a critical role. Nevertheless, there are only few studies about the association between migraine and lifestyle in childhood, due to previous observations specifically focused on "headache" in children. In this brief review, we will concentrate upon recent studies aimed to explore migraine and lifestyle risk factors in childhood. PMID:26017522

  10. Trends in Injury-related Incidence and Mortality Among Inpatients in Guangdong Province in 1997-2001

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI-PING LI; SHENG WANG

    2004-01-01

    Currently, China is in short of thorough and systemic data concerning the patterns and incidence of injuries and related deaths. Guangdong Province as one of the economically advanced areas in China is faced with a relatively serious injury problem, and investigation of this problem in this Province will provide valuable information for other provinces and areas in this Country, as well as scientific basis for policy making for injury prevention and control. Methods Analyses are based on the computerized hospital discharge data collected from 322 hospitals in Guangdong Province between 1997 and 2001. Diagnoses are coded according to the International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM). Results The total hospitalization rate related with injuries increased year by year from 1997 to 2001. The ratio of case-fatality has a decline trend for all injury inpatients, who were mainly caused by motor vehicle accidents, unintentional falls, puncture and cut by machine and others. The constituent ratio of death among patients caused by motor vehicle accidents accounted for 56.13% among the total deaths, which ranked as the first place. The direct medical cost also had an increased trend. Conclusions Data on injuries requiring hospitalization can be used to design and target more effective injury prevention programs. Injury prevention would decrease human sufferings, disability, and associated economic losses.

  11. Nonfatal suicidal behavior among women prisoners: the predictive roles of childhood victimization, childhood neglect, and childhood positive support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripodi, Stephen J; Onifade, Eyitayo; Pettus-Davis, Carrie

    2014-04-01

    Women entering prison report high rates of childhood victimization. Women in prison also report higher rates of nonfatal suicidal behavior (self-reported suicide attempts) than women in the general population and similar rates to their male counterparts despite having significantly lower suicide rates than males in the general population. Yet, there is a dearth of research that addresses the relationship between childhood victimization and suicidality for women prisoners in the United States. The purpose of this study is (a) to assess the relationship between childhood victimization and nonfatal suicidal behavior for a random sample of women prisoners; (b) to investigate predictive differences between childhood physical victimization, childhood sexual victimization, childhood neglect, and childhood support; and (c) to determine whether women prisoners with higher frequencies of childhood victimization and neglect are more likely to have attempted suicide than women prisoners with lower frequencies. Results indicate that childhood victimization, neglect, and lack of support are all significantly associated with nonfatal suicidal behavior among women prisoners. Frequency of childhood neglect had a larger effect size than frequency of childhood physical victimization, childhood sexual victimization, and lack of support. The results of this study add to the growing body of literature on childhood victimization and suicidality in general, and nonfatal suicidal behavior for prisoner populations in particular. The article ends with a discussion on clinical implications; particularly the finding that frequency of childhood victimization, childhood neglect, and lack of childhood support matters when determining the risk of suicidality. PMID:23315427

  12. 防止自动扶梯和倾斜式自动人行道逆转的思考%Dessertation RePort on unintentional Reversal of the Direction of Traveiof

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱思中

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces the items of GB16899, which relate to the protection against risk of unintentional reversal of the direction of travel, and analyzes the reliability of common two kinds of protection against unintentional reversal of the direction of travel and the auxiliary brake.%介绍了国家标准对自动扶梯和倾斜式自动人行道防逆转装置的规定;分析了常见的两类防逆转装置设计的可靠性,以及附加制动器设计的可靠性。

  13. Spinal injury - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources - spinal injury ... The following organizations are good resources for information on spinal injury : National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke -- www.ninds.nih.gov The National Spinal Cord Injury ...

  14. Eye Injuries at Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Injuries by the Numbers — Infographic Eye Injuries at Home Reviewed by: Brenda Pagan-Duran MD Mar. 01, ... chore is being done. Preventing Eye Injuries at Home Wearing protective eyewear will prevent 90 percent of ...

  15. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... injury? What is the "Spinal Cord Injury Model Systems" program? ... family FacingDisability is designed to provide Internet-based information and support for people with spinal cord injuries ...

  16. Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) happens when a bump, blow, jolt, or other head injury causes damage to the brain. Every year, millions of people in the U.S. suffer brain injuries. More than half are bad enough that ...

  17. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Substance Abuse and Spinal Cord Injury How Family Life Changes After Spinal Cord Injury How Family Life Changes After Spinal Cord Injury Empowering the Patient After Spinal ...

  18. Stages of development and injury patterns in the early years: a population-based analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simpson Kelly

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Canada, there are many formal public health programs under development that aim to prevent injuries in the early years (e.g. 0–6. There are paradoxically no population-based studies that have examined patterns of injury by developmental stage among these young children. This represents a gap in the Canadian biomedical literature. The current population-based analysis explores external causes and consequences of injuries experienced by young children who present to the emergency department for assessment and treatment. This provides objective evidence about prevention priorities to be considered in anticipatory counseling and public health planning. Methods Four complete years of data (1999–2002; n = 5876 cases were reviewed from the Kingston sites of the Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program (CHIRPP, an ongoing injury surveillance initiative. Epidemiological analyses were used to characterize injury patterns within and across age groups (0–6 years that corresponded to normative developmental stages. Results The average annual rate of emergency department-attended childhood injury was 107 per 1000 (95% CI 91–123, with boys experiencing higher annual rates of injury than girls (122 vs. 91 per 1000; p Conclusion This population-based injury surveillance analysis provides a strong evidence-base to inform and enhance anticipatory counseling and other public health efforts aimed at the prevention of childhood injury during the early years.

  19. Childhood burns in south eastern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okoro Philemon

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Burns injuries are recognized as a major health problem worldwide. In children and, particularly, in our environment where poverty, ignorance and disease are still high, they constitute significant morbidity and mortality. Previous studies on this topic in parts of Nigeria either lumped adults and children together or were retrospective. We, therefore, prospectively studied the current trends in burns in children. Patients and Methods: This prospective study of burns spanned over a period of 18 months (June 2006-December 2007 at the Paediatric Surgery Units of the Imo State University Teaching Hospital, Orlu, and the Federal Medical Centre, Owerri, Imo State. Data were collected and analysed for age, sex, cause/type of burn, place of burn, presence or absence of adult/s, initial prehospital intervention, interval between injury and presentation, surface area and depth of burn and treatment and outcome. Results: Fifty-three patients were studied, 31 (58.4% were male and 22 (41.6% were female (M:F = 1.4:1. Patients mostly affected were aged 2 years and below. The most common cause of burns was hot water in 31 (58.5% patients. The vast majority of these injuries happened in a domestic environment (92.5% and in the presence of competent adult/s (88.7%. Outcome of treatment was good: there were two (3.8% deaths and 46 (86% patients had complete recovery. Conclusion: Burns is still a major health problem among children in south eastern Nigeria. Fortunately, outcome of appropriate treatment is good. However, we think that poor safety consciousness among parents is a major predisposing factor. Public enlightenment on measures to ensure safe home environment may be necessary to avoid or limit childhood burns.

  20. Childhood depression: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lima NNR

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Nádia Nara Rolim Lima,1 Vânia Barbosa do Nascimento,1 Sionara Melo Figueiredo de Carvalho,1 Luiz Carlos de Abreu,1,3 Modesto Leite Rolim Neto,2 Aline Quental Brasil,2 Francisco Telésforo Celestino Junior,2 Gislene Farias de Oliveira,2 Alberto Olavo Advíncula Reis3 1Programa de Pós-graduação em Ciências da Saúde, Faculdade de Medicina do ABC, Santo André, São Paulo, Brazil; 2Departamento de Medicina. Universidade Federal do Ceará, UFC, Barbalha, Ceará, Brazil; 3Departamento de Saúde Materno Infantil, Faculdade de Saúde Pública, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil Abstract: As an important public health issue, childhood depression deserves special attention, considering the serious and lasting consequences of the disease to child development. Taking this into consideration, the present study was based on the following question: what practical contributions to clinicians and researchers does the current literature on childhood depression have to offer? The objective of the present study was to conduct a systematic review of articles regarding childhood depression. To accomplish this purpose, a systematic review of articles on childhood depression, published from January 1, 2010 to November 24, 2012, on MEDLINE and SciELO databases was carried out. Search terms were “depression” (medical subject headings [MeSH], “child” (MeSH, and "childhood depression" (keyword. Of the 180 retrieved studies, 25 met the eligibility criteria. Retrieved studies covered a wide range of aspects regarding childhood depression, such as diagnosis, treatment, prevention and prognosis. Recent scientific literature regarding childhood depression converge to, directly or indirectly, highlight the negative impacts of depressive disorders to the children's quality of life. Unfortunately, the retrieved studies show that childhood depression commonly grows in a background of vulnerability and poverty, where individual and familiar needs

  1. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Workers Help Transitions How Social Workers Help Transitions Occupational Therapy After Spinal Cord Injury Occupational Therapy After Spinal Cord Injury How Occupational Therapists Work ...

  2. The Floating Upper Limb: Multiple Injuries Involving Ipsilateral, Proximal, Humeral, Supracondylar, and Distal Radial Limb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manaan, Qazi; Bashir, Adil; Zahoor, Adnan; Mokhdomi, Taseem A.

    2016-01-01

    Floating arm injury represents a common yet complicated injury of the childhood severely associated with limb deformation and even morbidity, if not precisely addressed and credibly operated. Here, we report a rare floating upper limb case of a 9-year-old boy with multiple injuries of ipsilateral proximal humeral, supracondylar and distal radial limb. This is the first report to document such a combined floating elbow and floating arm injury in the same limb. In this report, we discuss the surgical procedures used and recovery of the patient monitored to ascertain the effectiveness of the method in limb reorganisation. PMID:27583121

  3. Injury-related unsafe behavior among households from different socioeconomic strata in Pune city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirkazemi Roksana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Behavior pattern influences the risk of unintentional injuries. This study was conducted to identify the pattern of household unsafe behavior in different socioeconomic strata, in Pune city, India. Materials and Method: Population-based, cross-sectional study. Behaviors influencing the risk of burn, poisoning, drowning, and road traffic injuries were questioned from 200 randomly selected households. Results: Nearly 28% of the households did not have a separate kitchen, 37.5% cooked at the ground level, 33.5% used a kerosene pressure stove, 12% used unprotected open fire as a source of warmth in winter, and 34.5% stored inflammable substances at home. Ninety one percent of the households reported storing poisonous chemicals in places that could not be locked. In 68.3% of the households with children below five years, these chemicals were kept in places accessible to children. Nearly 21% of the individuals, who could swim, did so in unsafe places and 25.2% of them were not trained in swimming. In 35.5% of the households, children used streets as playgrounds. Among all two-wheeled vehicle riders, 35.6% reported not having a helmet and 57.7% of those who had a helmet did not use it regularly. Socioeconomic status was strongly associated with the unsafe behaviors related to burns, drowning, and road traffic injuries. Conclusion: The study identifies the sociocultural and behavioral factors leading to unsafe behaviors, placing individuals at risk of unintentional injuries, which can be used as a first step toward prevention.

  4. Sports injuries of the ear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, G A

    1972-07-01

    The author describes common sports injuries involving the ear. Such injuries include hematoma, lacerations, foreign bodies (tattoo), and thermal injuries. Ear canal injuries include swimmer's ear and penetrating injuries. Tympanum injuries include tympanic membrane perforations, ossicular discontinuity, eustachian tube dysfunction, temporal bone fractures and traumatic facial nerve palsy. Inner ear injuries include traumatic sensorineural deafness. The author emphasizes the management of these injuries.

  5. Back injuries in a cohort of schoolchildren aged 6-12

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franz, Claudia; Jespersen, Eva; Rexen, Christina;

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this prospective school cohort study were to describe the epidemiology of diagnosed back pain in childhood, classified as either nontraumatic or traumatic back injury, and to estimate the association with physical activity in different settings. Over 2.5 years, 1240 children aged 6......-12 years were surveyed weekly using mobile text messages to ask about the presence or absence of back pain. Pain was clinically diagnosed and injuries were classified using the International Classification of Diseases version 10. Physical activity data were obtained from text messages and accelerometers....... Of the 315 back injuries diagnosed, 186 injuries were nontraumatic and 129 were traumatic. The incidence rate ratio was 1.5 for a nontraumatic back injury compared with a traumatic injury. The overall estimated back injury incidence rate was 0.20 per 1000 physical activity units (95% confidence interval 0...

  6. Childhood Sexual Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evrim Aktepe

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Sexual abuse is defined as use of child or adolescent by the adults for satisfying of sexual urges and needs with forcing, threatening or tricking. Sexual abuse can be in the form of sexual abuse without touch, sexual touch, interfemoral intercourse, sexual penetration, and sexual exploitation. The prevalence of sexual abuse is reported as 10-40%. It is seen in female four times more than in males. Abusers are frequently male, only 5-15% of them are female. The abuse by females is usually towards male child. Thirty-fifty percent of abuse cases among child and adolescent are outside the family including strangers or familiar person. Some features of abusers are introvert personality, pedophilic and antisocial personality. Most of the abusers have a history of sexual abuse or aggression during childhood. Sexual intercourse between two people who are not allowed to marry by law is called as incest. Family pattern of incest is defined globally as disorganized and dysfunctional. The most commonly reported familial pattern is rigid and patriarchal family pattern with a harsh father using force quite frequently. The clinical features and impacts of the sexual abuse on the child varies according to the relation between abusers and the child, form of abuse, duration of abuse, presence of physical assault, developmental phase, child age and psychological development before the abuse. Sexual abuse history may result in psychiatric disorders including anxiety, depression, substance dependence, suicide act, borderline personality disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder. Abuse negatively affects interpersonal relationships and self esteem of abused individuals. Several studies reported close association between risky sexual behaviors in adulthood and a history of of sexual abuse during childhood. Four traumatic dynamics including traumatic sexuality with abuse, feeling of betrayal, weakness, and stigmatization exist in childhood abuse. Trauma can cause

  7. Peer Bullying During Early Childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatice UYSAL

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Peer bullying during early childhood is discussed along with the literature reviewed in this article with the purpose of drawing attention to peer bullying during early childhood and its significance, and contributing to studies which are few in number in Turkey. Peer bullying during early childhood was considered with its definition and types, people who play key roles in peer bullying, factors (gender, age, parents, and friendship that relate to peer bullying, and what should be done before and after peer bullying.

  8. Injuries in Basketball

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NIKOLAOS KOSTOPOULOS & DIMITRIOS PHILLIPOU

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Ninety players of 8 teams in 2 male team basketball senior divisions were observed prospectively for 1 season to study the injury incidence in relation to exposure in games and practices. Forty-six injuries were recorded. Injury incidence was evaluated at 2.5 injuries per 1000 player-hours, with a significantly higher incidence in game injuries (14.3 injuries per 1000 game-hours compared with practice injuries(0.6 injuries per 1000 practice-hours.Practice injury incidence was higher in the lower performance level group, and game injury incidence was higher in the high-level group. The upper extremity was involved in 37% of the injuries, and the lower extremity in 54%.The knee was the most commonly injured joint, followed by the finger, ankle, and shoulder. Knee injuries were the most severe injuries, and they were more frequent in high-level players. There was an increase in the severity of injury with respect to performance level. The injury mechanism revealed a high number of offensive injuries, one-third of them occurring during a counterattack. The injury pattern showed certain variations with respect to player position and performance level.

  9. Brain Development in Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taki, Yasuyuki; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2012-01-01

    Although human brain development continues throughout childhood and adolescence, it is a non-linear process both structurally and functionally. Here we review studies of brain development in healthy children from the viewpoint of structure and the perfusion of gray and white matter. Gray matter volume increases and then decreases with age, with the developmental time of the peak volume differing among brain regions in the first and second decades of life. On the other hand, white matter volume increase is mostly linear during those periods. As regards fractional anisotropy, most regions show an exponential trajectory with aging. In addition, cerebral blood flow and gray matter volume are proportional at similar developmental ages. Moreover, we show that several lifestyle choices, such as sleeping habits and breakfast staple, affect gray matter volume in healthy children. There are a number of uninvestigated important issues that require future study. PMID:23166579

  10. Childhood Short Stature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.Ray

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Childhood short stature comprises Varity of endocrinal, systemic, Skeletal & genetic disorders of pediatrics and is not just confined for endocrinal disorder only. A systemic approach often reduces the need for test which is often expensive &unnecessary. Use growth chart & asses bone age during evaluation. Short & heavy child are generally due to Endocrine causes, Short & thin are due to systemic disease, Short with normal velocity are may be due to Constitutional delay in growth &puberty or Familial short stature, differentiation can be done by Bone Age. In Girls Turner syndrome has to be kept in mind. Purpose of evaluation to find out the child who does not need treatment, who cannot be treated & the child who can be benefited from treatment.

  11. Monitoring asthma in childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin C. Lødrup Carlsen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of asthma treatment is to obtain clinical control and reduce future risks to the patient. However, to date there is limited evidence on how to monitor patients with asthma. Childhood asthma introduces specific challenges in terms of deciding what, when, how often, by whom and in whom different assessments of asthma should be performed. The age of the child, the fluctuating course of asthma severity, variability in clinical presentation, exacerbations, comorbidities, socioeconomic and psychosocial factors, and environmental exposures may all influence disease activity and, hence, monitoring strategies. These factors will be addressed in herein. We identified large knowledge gaps in the effects of different monitoring strategies in children with asthma. Studies into monitoring strategies are urgently needed, preferably in collaborative paediatric studies across countries and healthcare systems.

  12. Fatty liver in childhood

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yesim; Ozturk; Ozlem; Bekem; Soylu

    2014-01-01

    Fatty liver is a growing health problem worldwide. It might evolve to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, cirrhosis and cause hepatocellular carcinoma. This disease, which has increased because of eating habits, changes in food content and lifestyle, affects people from childhood. The most important risk factors are obesity and insulin resistance. Besides these factors, gender, ethnicity, genetic predisposition and some medical problems are also important. Cirrhosis in children is rare but is reported. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease(NAFLD) has no specific symptoms or signs but should be considered in obese children. NAFLD does not have a proven treatment. Weight loss with family based treatments is the most acceptable management. Exercise and an applicable diet with low glycemic index and appropriate calorie intake are preferred. Drugs are promising but not sufficient in children for today.

  13. Adiponectin in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffery, Alison N; Murphy, Michael J; Metcalf, Brad S; Hosking, Joanne; Voss, Linda D; English, Patrick; Sattar, Naveed; Wilkin, Terence J

    2008-01-01

    Adiponectin, a hormone produced and secreted by adipocytes, is present in circulation in high circulating concentrations, suggesting an important physiological role. An indirect regulator of glucose metabolism, adiponectin increases insulin sensitivity, improves glucose tolerance and inhibits inflammation. Plasma adiponectin relates inversely to adiposity and, importantly, reflects the sequelae of accumulation of excess adiposity. The role of adiponectin in adults has been explored in detail. Studies in children are now available and, given the increasing rates of childhood obesity, it is important to establish the role of adiponectin in mediating insulin resistance and cardiovascular disease in this age group. This paper reviews the regulation of adiponectin, its effect on body mass, glucose metabolism and cardiovascular risk in infants, children and adolescents. It demonstrates clear links between adiponectin and features of the metabolic syndrome in obese children and adolescents. However, adiponectin's role as a predictor of metabolic dysfunction in healthy, normal-weight youngsters is less clear. PMID:19086185

  14. [Food allergy in childhood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Kirsten; Niggemann, Bodo

    2016-06-01

    IgE-mediated immediate type reactions are the most common form of food allergy in childhood. Primary (often in early childhood) and secondary (often pollen-associated) allergies can be distinguished by their level of severity. Hen's egg, cow's milk and peanut are the most common elicitors of primary food allergy. Tolerance development in hen's egg and cow's milk allergy happens frequently whereas peanut allergy tends toward a lifelong disease. For the diagnostic patient history, detection of sensitization and (in many cases) oral food challenges are necessary. Especially in peanut and hazelnut allergy component-resolves diagnostic (measurement of specific IgE to individual allergens, e. g. Ara h 2) seem to be helpful. In regard to therapy elimination diet is still the only approved approach. Patient education through dieticians is extremely helpful in this regard. Patients at risk for anaphylactic reactions need to carry emergency medications including an adrenaline auto-injector. Instruction on the usage of the adrenaline auto-injector should take place and a written management plan handed to the patient. Moreover, patients or caregivers should be encouraged to attending a structured educational intervention on knowledge and emergency management. In parallel, causal therapeutic options such as oral, sublingual or epicutaneous immunotherapies are currently under development. In regard to prevention of food allergy current guidelines no longer advise to avoid highly allergenic foods. Current intervention studies are investigating wether early introduction of highly allergic foods is effective and safe to prevent food allergy. It was recently shown that peanut introduction between 4 and 11  months of age in infants with severe atopic dermatitis and/or hen's egg allergy (if they are not already peanut allergic) prevents peanut allergy in a country with high prevalence. PMID:27207693

  15. Cardiac damage after treatment of childhood cancer: A long-term follow-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With improved childhood cancer cure rate, long term sequelae are becoming an important factor of quality of life. Signs of cardiovascular disease are frequently found in long term survivors of cancer. Cardiac damage may be related to irradiation and chemotherapy. We have evaluated simultaneous influence of a series of independent variables on the late cardiac damage in childhood cancer survivors in Slovenia and identified groups at the highest risk. 211 long-term survivors of different childhood cancers, at least five years after treatment were included in the study. The evaluation included history, physical examination, electrocardiograpy, exercise testing and echocardiograpy. For analysis of risk factors, beside univariate analysis, multivariate classification tree analysis statistical method was used. Patients treated latest, from 1989–98 are at highest risk for any injury to the heart (73%). Among those treated earlier are at the highest risk those with Hodgkin's disease treated with irradiation above 30 Gy and those treated for sarcoma. Among specific forms of injury, patients treated with radiation to the heart area are at highest risk of injury to the valves. Patients treated with large doses of anthracyclines or concomitantly with anthracyclines and alkylating agents are at highest risk of systolic function defect and enlarged heart chambers. Those treated with anthracyclines are at highest risk of diastolic function defect. The time period of the patient's treatment is emerged as an important risk factor for injury of the heart

  16. Cardiac damage after treatment of childhood cancer: A long-term follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demšar Damjan

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With improved childhood cancer cure rate, long term sequelae are becoming an important factor of quality of life. Signs of cardiovascular disease are frequently found in long term survivors of cancer. Cardiac damage may be related to irradiation and chemotherapy. We have evaluated simultaneous influence of a series of independent variables on the late cardiac damage in childhood cancer survivors in Slovenia and identified groups at the highest risk. Methods 211 long-term survivors of different childhood cancers, at least five years after treatment were included in the study. The evaluation included history, physical examination, electrocardiograpy, exercise testing and echocardiograpy. For analysis of risk factors, beside univariate analysis, multivariate classification tree analysis statistical method was used. Results and Conclusion Patients treated latest, from 1989–98 are at highest risk for any injury to the heart (73%. Among those treated earlier are at the highest risk those with Hodgkin's disease treated with irradiation above 30 Gy and those treated for sarcoma. Among specific forms of injury, patients treated with radiation to the heart area are at highest risk of injury to the valves. Patients treated with large doses of anthracyclines or concomitantly with anthracyclines and alkylating agents are at highest risk of systolic function defect and enlarged heart chambers. Those treated with anthracyclines are at highest risk of diastolic function defect. The time period of the patient's treatment is emerged as an important risk factor for injury of the heart.

  17. MedlinePlus: Childhood Immunization

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... well. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention publishes a schedule for childhood vaccines. Although some of ... and Caregivers (08/11/2016, Food and Drug Administration) Malaria Vaccine Protection Short-Lived in Young Children ( ...

  18. [The impact of childhood caries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madrid, Carlos; Abarca, Marcelo; Bouferrache, Kahina; Gehri, Mario; Bodenmann, Patrick; Pop, Sabina

    2012-04-01

    The early childhood caries affect primary dentition before the eruption of the permanent teeth. It is set to extended use of a bottle containing fermentable carbohydrates. The early childhood caries is not only a dental disease: it is a social, cultural and behavioral condition that reflects the practices and beliefs around the child. Swiss data indicate that in aged 2 children, one of for could be affected by this devastating oral disease, mainly in vulnerable populations. The primary care physician has an important role in the screening of preschool children, in determining the risk level of the child for early childhood caries. Physicians can advise families, especially pregnant women, about preventive measures and behavior, leading to a dramatic drop of early childhood caries prevalence. PMID:22545498

  19. Leydig cell tumours in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengel, W; Knorr, D

    1983-01-01

    Two cases of Leydig cell tumours in childhood are presented. In one case, delayed diagnosis and operation led to pubertas praecox vera whereas in the other case normal growth and development occurred after early diagnosis and operation. PMID:6878724

  20. Childhood Deaths from Physical Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasim, Mohd. Sham; and Others

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes 30 cases of childhood deaths caused by physical abuse in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Data presented include ethnic origins, age, causes of death, identity of perpetrators, and marital situation of parents. (DB)

  1. Managing iatrogenic tracheal injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Goonasekera C

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We present three cases of iatrogenic tracheal injury. Two patients suffered acute tracheal injuries during anesthesia/surgery, one was managed surgically and the other conservatively. The third case is a delayed tracheal injury presenting as a fistula. The reasons for surgical vs conservative management of tracheal injuries and preventive measures are discussed.

  2. Managing iatrogenic tracheal injuries

    OpenAIRE

    A. Goonasekera C; Esufali S

    2005-01-01

    We present three cases of iatrogenic tracheal injury. Two patients suffered acute tracheal injuries during anesthesia/surgery, one was managed surgically and the other conservatively. The third case is a delayed tracheal injury presenting as a fistula. The reasons for surgical vs conservative management of tracheal injuries and preventive measures are discussed.

  3. Patterns of work injuries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lander, Flemming; Nielsen, Kent Jacob; Rasmussen, Kurt;

    2014-01-01

    To compare work injuries treated in an emergency department (ED) and injuries reported to the Danish Working Environment Authority (DWEA).......To compare work injuries treated in an emergency department (ED) and injuries reported to the Danish Working Environment Authority (DWEA)....

  4. Maternal Employment and Childhood Obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gwozdz, Wencke; Sousa-Poza, Alfonso; Reisch, Lucia;

    2013-01-01

    The substantial increase in female employment rates in Europe over the past two decades has often been linked in political and public rhetoric to negative effects on child development, including obesity. We analyse this association between maternal employment and childhood obesity using rich...... on obesity's main drivers: calorie intake and physical activity. Our analysis provides little evidence for any association between maternal employment and childhood obesity, diet or physical activity....

  5. Maternal Employment and Childhood Obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gwozdz, Wencke; Sousa-Poza, Alfonso; Reisch, Lucia;

    The substantial increase in female employment rates in Europe over the past two decades has often been linked in political and public rhetoric to negative effects on child development, including obesity. We analyse this association between maternal employment and childhood obesity using rich...... on obesity's main drivers: calorie intake and physical activity. Our analysis provides little evidence for any association between maternal employment and childhood obesity, diet or physical activity....

  6. Childhood obesity: causes and consequences

    OpenAIRE

    Sahoo, Krushnapriya; Sahoo, Bishnupriya; Choudhury, Ashok Kumar; Sofi, Nighat Yasin; Kumar, Raman; Bhadoria, Ajeet Singh

    2015-01-01

    Childhood obesity has reached epidemic levels in developed as well as in developing countries. Overweight and obesity in childhood are known to have significant impact on both physical and psychological health. Overweight and obese children are likely to stay obese into adulthood and more likely to develop non-communicable diseases like diabetes and cardiovascular diseases at a younger age. The mechanism of obesity development is not fully understood and it is believed to be a disorder with m...

  7. CHILDHOOD OBESITY AND ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMCALS

    OpenAIRE

    La Merrill, Michele; Birnbaum, Linda S.

    2011-01-01

    Childhood and adolescent rates of obesity and overweight are continuing to increase in much of the world. Risk factors such as diet composition, excess caloric intake, decreased exercise, genetics, and the built environment are active areas of etiologic research. The obesogen hypothesis, which postulates that pre- and peri- natal chemical exposure can contribute to risk of childhood and adolescent obesity, remains relatively under-examined. This review surveys numerous classes of chemicals fo...

  8. Injuries in professional footballers.

    OpenAIRE

    Muckle, D. S.

    1981-01-01

    The incidence of injuries in footballers is described. Nearly half of footballer's injuries involve the knee, with vertical tearing of the meniscus being common; surgical intervention may be required. Approximately one third of injuries involve the ankle, and will often require immobilisation. Other injuries include muscle damage, spondylosis of L4 or L5, concussion, and dislocations. The importance of prompt and correct treatment of injuries is emphasised.

  9. Injuries in orienteering.

    OpenAIRE

    Linde, F.

    1986-01-01

    In a one-year prospective study of 42 elite orienteers, 73 recent injuries (1.7 per runner per year) were found. Acute injuries totalled 52% and 48% were due to overuse. Ankle sprains made up 37% of acute injuries while the remaining were mainly contusions caused by falls or bumps against branches or rocks. Medial shin pain, Achilles peritendinitis, peroneal tenosynovitis and iliotibial band friction syndrome were the most frequent overuse injuries. All overuse injuries were located in the lo...

  10. Secondary attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder due to right basal ganglia injury: A case report

    OpenAIRE

    Ceylan, Mehmet Fatih; AKCA, Ömer Faruk

    2013-01-01

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a frequent and commonly studied neuropsychiatric disorder in children and adolescents. The symptoms of ADHD include inattention and/or hyperactivity and impulsivity. Diagnosis of ADHD requires a persistent pattern of symptoms beginning before the age of 7 except for secondary ADHD. Secondary ADHD may occur as a consequence of childhood traumatic brain injury. A patient with secondary ADHD as a result of right basal ganglia injury is presented...

  11. Inhibitory Control after Traumatic Brain Injury in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Sinopoli, Katia J.; Dennis, Maureen

    2011-01-01

    Inhibitory control describes a number of distinct processes. Effortless inhibition refers to acts of control that are automatic and reflexive. Effortful inhibition refers to voluntary, goal-directed acts of control such as response flexibility, interference control, cancellation inhibition, and restraint inhibition. Disruptions to a number of inhibitory control processes occur as a consequence of childhood traumatic brain injury (TBI). This paper reviews the current knowledge of inhibition de...

  12. Asthma in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Benedictis, Fernando Maria; Attanasi, Marina

    2016-03-01

    Several topics on childhood asthma were addressed in the Paediatric Clinical Year in Review session at the 2015 European Respiratory Society International Congress. With regard to the relationship between lower respiratory tract infections and asthma, it emerges that is the number of respiratory episodes in the first years of life, but not the particular viral trigger, to be associated with later asthma development. Understanding which characteristics of individual patients are associated with an increased risk for asthma exacerbation is a critical step to implement strategies preventing these seasonal events. Recent data suggest the possibility that exhaled volatile organic compounds may qualify as biomarkers in detecting early signs of asthma. Adding information of exhaled volatile organic compounds and expression of inflammation genes to a clinical tool significantly improves asthma prediction in preschool wheezy children. Personal communication with children and adolescents is likely more important than the tools actually used for monitoring asthma. Systemic corticosteroids do not affect the long-term prognosis in children with first viral-induced wheezing episode and should be used cautiously during acute episodes. Finally, stress and a polymorphism upstream of a specific gene are both associated with reduced bronchodilator response in children with asthma.

  13. Asthma in childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Maria de Benedictis

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Several topics on childhood asthma were addressed in the Paediatric Clinical Year in Review session at the 2015 European Respiratory Society International Congress. With regard to the relationship between lower respiratory tract infections and asthma, it emerges that is the number of respiratory episodes in the first years of life, but not the particular viral trigger, to be associated with later asthma development. Understanding which characteristics of individual patients are associated with an increased risk for asthma exacerbation is a critical step to implement strategies preventing these seasonal events. Recent data suggest the possibility that exhaled volatile organic compounds may qualify as biomarkers in detecting early signs of asthma. Adding information of exhaled volatile organic compounds and expression of inflammation genes to a clinical tool significantly improves asthma prediction in preschool wheezy children. Personal communication with children and adolescents is likely more important than the tools actually used for monitoring asthma. Systemic corticosteroids do not affect the long-term prognosis in children with first viral-induced wheezing episode and should be used cautiously during acute episodes. Finally, stress and a polymorphism upstream of a specific gene are both associated with reduced bronchodilator response in children with asthma.

  14. Brain SPECT in childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The modalities and the indications of perfusion and neurotransmission SPECT in childhood are presented. The perfusion as well as neurotransmission tracers have not yet authorization for use in children; they have to be used by prescription of magistral preparation or in research protocols. The radioprotection rules have to be strictly respected. The most frequent indication of perfusion SPECT is pharmacologically resistant epilepsy; the ictal SPECT before surgery allows the localization of the epileptogenic focus. Other indications are relevant in the prognosis of neonatal anoxia and encephalitis. In psychiatric disorders, especially in autism, the interest is the physiopathological approach of the brain dysfunctions. The neurotransmission SPECT is emerging as a consequence of the development of new radiotracer, as the dopaminergic system ligands. The decrease of the dopamine D2 receptors in the striatum can be imaged and quantified in the neonate. The lesions of dopamine system seem to be a consequence of the neonatal hypoxia-ischemia and it is predictive of motor sequelae. Brain SPECT should become a routine examination in child neurologic and psychiatric disorders. (authors)

  15. Childhood drowning in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hss, Amar-Singh; Tan, Pui San; Hashim, Lina

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to collate data on childhood drowning in Malaysia and review existing drowning prevention measures. This study used secondary data from governmental and non-governmental agencies. All reported fatal drownings from 2000 to 2007 and all reported non-fatal drownings from 2000 to 2008 were included. Data were analysed to provide understanding of the epidemiology of drowning incidents, risk factors and available preventive efforts. On average 286 (range 248-344) children died yearly due to drowning with a death rate of 3.05 per 100,000 annually. An additional average of 207 children drowned but survived annually (1.99 per 100,000). The estimated burden of drowning in children (death and non-death) is 5 per 100,000. There was no reduction in annual drowning fatalities over time. Most drowning took place in east coast regions during the annual monsoon season. It was 3.52 (2.80-4.41) times more common in boys and most prevalent among 10-14 years. Most prevalent sites of all-age drowning were seas and rivers. Limited water safety regulations are currently available in the country. This is the first comprehensive national study in Malaysia on paediatric drowning and highlights the magnitude of the problem. It calls for concerted effort to devise effective national drowning prevention measures. PMID:23651461

  16. Child Injury in Israel: Emergency Room Visits to a Children's Medical Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Hemmo-Lotem

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The object of this study was to provide data for policy making and prevention program planning in Israel. The study examined all visits to the Department of Emergency Medicine at the Schneider Children's Medical Center in 1996 (41,279 visits in total. Approximately 22.6% of the emergency room patients were admitted following injury. Most (97% were unintentional injury. Approximately 42% of the patients were less than 4 years old and about 20% were 2 years old. In all age groups, the rate of boys was double. Approximately 92% were Jews. Despite this low rate of non-Jewish patients, however, they constituted 20% of later hospitalizations. The main injuries recorded were bruises and wounds from blunt objects, falls, motor vehicle–related accidents, and sport injuries. The most commonly injured body parts were the head and upper and lower limbs. In 82%, medical treatment was reported and 7% were hospitalized. In examining injuries over the year, there were no significant differences between the different months, but there were clusters of injuries around various holidays—bicycle and skateboard accidents at Rosh Hashanah, Yom Kippur, and Succoth; pedestrian accidents around Lag BaOmer; burns on Purim, Hannukkah, and Passover; and accidental poisoning around Passover. The findings gave an indication of the nature of the injured population groups. These data could be useful for prevention strategy, both on the level of physical injury as well as on the level of the times of the year, when the risk was higher. The data collected very strongly raise the urgent need for establishing a national surveillance system, which would allow tracking injury-related data with respect to young people throughout the country.

  17. Early Childhood Environment and Genetic Interactions: the Diathesis for Suicidal Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodsky, Beth S

    2016-09-01

    Adverse childhood experiences are associated with higher risk for suicide and suicidal behavior later in life. There are known associations between childhood trauma, particularly sexual abuse, and higher rates of suicide, non-lethal suicide attempts, and non-suicidal self-injurious behaviors in adolescence and adulthood. Emotional abuse/neglect, disrupted parental attachment, and cumulative effect of multiple forms of maltreatment, also increase risk. Yet, the causal relationship remains unclear. The diathesis-stress model provides a framework for understanding how early life adverse experiences contribute to suicide vulnerability. Current findings from the fields of biology, neurology, and genetics shed new light on mediating variables and possible causal links between early childhood trauma and suicide. In this paper, we review recent advances, particularly regarding the interaction of early life environmental adverse events with genetics factors, that increase the diathesis for psychological traits are associated with subsequent deliberate self-harm behaviors. PMID:27484207

  18. Neurometabolic diseases of childhood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patay, Zoltan [St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Section of Neuroradiology, Division of Radiology, Department of Radiological Sciences, Memphis, TN (United States); Blaser, Susan I. [The Hospital for Sick Children, Division of Neuroradiology, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Toronto (Canada); Poretti, Andrea; Huisman, Thierry A.G.M. [Charlotte R. Bloomberg Children' s Center, Pediatric Radiology and Pediatric Neuroradiology, The Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, The Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2015-09-15

    Metabolic diseases affecting the pediatric brain are complex conditions, the underlying mechanisms leading to structural damage are diverse and the diagnostic imaging manifestations are often non-specific; hence early, sensitive and specific diagnosis can be challenging for the radiologist. However, misdiagnosis or a delayed diagnosis can result in a devastating, irreversible injury to the developing brain. Based upon the inborn error, neurometabolic diseases can be subdivided in various groups depending on the predominantly involved tissue (e.g., white matter in leukodystrophies or leukoencephalopathies), the involved metabolic processes (e.g., organic acidurias and aminoacidopathies) and primary age of the child at presentation (e.g., neurometabolic disorders of the newborn). This manuscript summarizes these topics. (orig.)

  19. Spinal injury in sport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spinal injuries are very common among professional or amateur athletes. Spinal sport lesions can be classified in overuse and acute injuries. Overuse injuries can be found after years of repetitive spinal load during sport activity; however specific overuse injuries can also be found in adolescents. Acute traumas are common in contact sports. Most of the acute injuries are minor and self-healing, but severe and catastrophic events are possible. The aim of this article is to review the wide spectrum of spinal injuries related to sport activity, with special regard to imaging finding

  20. Spinal injury in sport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barile, Antonio [Department of Radiology, University of L' Aquila, S. Salvatore Hospital, Via Vetoio, Coppito, 67100 L' Aquila (Italy)]. E-mail: antonio.barile@cc.univaq.it; Limbucci, Nicola [Department of Radiology, University of L' Aquila, S. Salvatore Hospital, Via Vetoio, Coppito, 67100 L' Aquila (Italy); Splendiani, Alessandra [Department of Radiology, University of L' Aquila, S. Salvatore Hospital, Via Vetoio, Coppito, 67100 L' Aquila (Italy); Gallucci, Massimo [Department of Radiology, University of L' Aquila, S. Salvatore Hospital, Via Vetoio, Coppito, 67100 L' Aquila (Italy); Masciocchi, Carlo [Department of Radiology, University of L' Aquila, S. Salvatore Hospital, Via Vetoio, Coppito, 67100 L' Aquila (Italy)

    2007-04-15

    Spinal injuries are very common among professional or amateur athletes. Spinal sport lesions can be classified in overuse and acute injuries. Overuse injuries can be found after years of repetitive spinal load during sport activity; however specific overuse injuries can also be found in adolescents. Acute traumas are common in contact sports. Most of the acute injuries are minor and self-healing, but severe and catastrophic events are possible. The aim of this article is to review the wide spectrum of spinal injuries related to sport activity, with special regard to imaging finding.

  1. Neuropathophysiology of Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quillinan, Nidia; Herson, Paco S; Traystman, Richard J

    2016-09-01

    Every year in the United States, millions of individuals incur ischemic brain injury from stroke, cardiac arrest, or traumatic brain injury. These acquired brain injuries can lead to death or long-term neurologic and neuropsychological impairments. The mechanisms of ischemic and traumatic brain injury that lead to these deficiencies result from a complex interplay of interdependent molecular pathways, including excitotoxicity, acidotoxicity, ionic imbalance, oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis. This article reviews several mechanisms of brain injury and discusses recent developments. Although much is known from animal models of injury, it has been difficult to translate these effects to humans. PMID:27521191

  2. Lisfranc Joint Injuries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lisa Chinn

    2009-01-01

    @@ The ankle and foot are the most common sites for athletic injuries.[1]Midfoot,or Lisfranc,injuries are the second most common foot injury and have a high in cidence in particular sports.They account for 4% of all football injuries per year,occurring frequently in linemen.[2]They are also common in equestrians,surfers,and windsurfers.[2]Lisfranc injuries are often misdiagnosed and if not treated properly can have lingering symptoms.It is estimated that Lisfranc joint injuries occur in 1 in every 55,000 persons every year.[3,4

  3. Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS): Childhood Adversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... childhood maltreatment. In particular, for women, emotional and sexual abuse during childhood was associated with a greater risk ... risk for chronic fatigue syndrome: results from a population-based study. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2006 Nov;63( ...

  4. Maternal postpartum distress and childhood overweight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adeltoft, Teresa Ajslev; Andersen, Camilla S; Ingstrup, Katja Glejsted;

    2010-01-01

    We investigated associations between maternal postpartum distress covering anxiety, depression and stress and childhood overweight.......We investigated associations between maternal postpartum distress covering anxiety, depression and stress and childhood overweight....

  5. Childhood Diseases - What Parents Need to Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Childhood Diseases - What Parents Need to Know Past Issues / ... centers is continuing to improve the outlook for childhood diseases every day. Photo: iStock When the Eunice ...

  6. Influence of Sex on Suicidal Phenotypes in Affective Disorder Patients with Traumatic Childhood Experiences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Bernegger

    Full Text Available In the current study, we aimed to investigate the impact of childhood trauma on suicidal behaviour phenotypes in a group of patients with diagnosed affective disorder (unipolar or bipolar affective disorder.Patients with and without a history of childhood abuse, measured by Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ, were assessed to explore risks for suicidal behaviour (including suicide attempt, self-harm and non-suicidal self-injury. The tested sample consisted of 258 patients (111 males and 147 females, in-patients and out-patients at the Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Medical University of Vienna and University Hospital Tulln, Lower Austria. Psychiatric diagnoses were derived from the SCAN (Schedules for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry interview. In addition, patients were administered the Lifetime Parasuicidal Count (LPC, Suicidal Behaviour Questionnaire (SBQ-R, and Viennese Suicide Risk Assessment Scale (VISURIAS questionnaires.In contrast to male suicide attempters, female suicide attempters showed both significantly higher total CTQ scores (p<0.001, and higher CTQ subscores (emotional, physical and sexual abuse, as well as emotional and physical neglect in comparison to the non-suicidal control group. Besides, females with a history of self-harming behaviour (including suicidal intention and Non-Suicidal-Self Injury (NSSI had significantly higher CTQ total scores (p<0.001 than the control group.These findings suggest gender differences in suicidal behaviour after being exposed to childhood trauma.

  7. Influence of Sex on Suicidal Phenotypes in Affective Disorder Patients with Traumatic Childhood Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlberg, Laura; Swoboda, Patrick; Ludwig, Birgit; Koller, Romina; Kapusta, Nestor D.; Aigner, Martin; Haslacher, Helmuth; Schmöger, Michaela; Kasper, Siegfried; Schosser, Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    Objectives In the current study, we aimed to investigate the impact of childhood trauma on suicidal behaviour phenotypes in a group of patients with diagnosed affective disorder (unipolar or bipolar affective disorder). Patients and Methods Patients with and without a history of childhood abuse, measured by Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), were assessed to explore risks for suicidal behaviour (including suicide attempt, self-harm and non-suicidal self-injury). The tested sample consisted of 258 patients (111 males and 147 females, in-patients and out-patients at the Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Medical University of Vienna and University Hospital Tulln, Lower Austria). Psychiatric diagnoses were derived from the SCAN (Schedules for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry) interview. In addition, patients were administered the Lifetime Parasuicidal Count (LPC), Suicidal Behaviour Questionnaire (SBQ-R), and Viennese Suicide Risk Assessment Scale (VISURIAS) questionnaires. Results In contrast to male suicide attempters, female suicide attempters showed both significantly higher total CTQ scores (phistory of self-harming behaviour (including suicidal intention) and Non-Suicidal-Self Injury (NSSI) had significantly higher CTQ total scores (p<0.001) than the control group. Conclusion These findings suggest gender differences in suicidal behaviour after being exposed to childhood trauma. PMID:26366559

  8. Health lifestyles in early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollborn, Stefanie; James-Hawkins, Laurie; Lawrence, Elizabeth; Fomby, Paula

    2014-12-01

    This study integrates two important developments, the concept of health lifestyles (which has focused on adults and adolescents) and the increased attention to early childhood. We introduce the concept of children's health lifestyles, identifying differences from adult health lifestyles and articulating intergenerational transmission and socialization processes shaping children's health lifestyles. Using the nationally representative Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (2001-2007; N ≈ 6,150), latent class analyses identify predominant health lifestyles among U.S. preschoolers. Five distinct empirical patterns representing health lifestyles emerge, two capturing low and medium levels of overall risk across domains and three capturing domain-specific risks. Social background predicts children's health lifestyles, but lower household resources often explain these relationships. Across kindergarten measures of cognition, behavior, and health, preschool health lifestyles predict children's development even after controlling for social disadvantage and concurrent household resources. Further research on health lifestyles throughout childhood is warranted.

  9. Health lifestyles in early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollborn, Stefanie; James-Hawkins, Laurie; Lawrence, Elizabeth; Fomby, Paula

    2014-12-01

    This study integrates two important developments, the concept of health lifestyles (which has focused on adults and adolescents) and the increased attention to early childhood. We introduce the concept of children's health lifestyles, identifying differences from adult health lifestyles and articulating intergenerational transmission and socialization processes shaping children's health lifestyles. Using the nationally representative Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (2001-2007; N ≈ 6,150), latent class analyses identify predominant health lifestyles among U.S. preschoolers. Five distinct empirical patterns representing health lifestyles emerge, two capturing low and medium levels of overall risk across domains and three capturing domain-specific risks. Social background predicts children's health lifestyles, but lower household resources often explain these relationships. Across kindergarten measures of cognition, behavior, and health, preschool health lifestyles predict children's development even after controlling for social disadvantage and concurrent household resources. Further research on health lifestyles throughout childhood is warranted. PMID:25413801

  10. Early Childhood Education 295. Special Topics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polis, Gloria Owens

    This module, part of a series of early childhood education instructional materials, is intended to assist teachers in adapting an on-campus early childhood education program for use by students desiring self-paced instruction in early childhood education. The course consists of individualized study of a topic chosen by the student or approved work…

  11. Key Injury and Violence Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Traumatic Brain Injury Violence Prevention Key Injury and Violence Data Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Injuries ... of death among persons 1-44. Injury- and violence-related deaths are only part of the problem ...

  12. Teeth Injuries (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Teeth Injuries KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Teeth Injuries ... or young child injures the gums or baby teeth: Apply pressure to the area (if it's bleeding) ...

  13. What Are Sports Injuries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 06:02 Size: 11.7 MB November 2014 What Are Sports Injuries? Fast Facts: An Easy-to- ... Research Is Being Done on Treating Sports Injuries? What’s the Difference Between an Acute and a Chronic ...

  14. Head injury - first aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000028.htm Head injury - first aid To use the sharing features on this page, ... a concussion can range from mild to severe. First Aid Learning to recognize a serious head injury and ...

  15. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the use of electrical stimulation for spinal cord injuries? What is "Braingate" research? What is the status of stem-cell research? How would stem-cell therapies work in the treatment of spinal cord injuries? ...

  16. Overview of Head Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Children are admitted to the hospital for these reasons or if they were unconscious even briefly or had a seizure. Children are also admitted to the hospital if child abuse is suspected. Severe head injury If the injury ...

  17. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Patient Partnerships How Social Workers Help Transitions How Social Workers Help Transitions Occupational Therapy After Spinal Cord Injury Occupational Therapy After Spinal Cord Injury How Occupational Therapists Work How Occupational Therapists Work Occupational Therapy Enables Daily ...

  18. Prenatal irradiation and childhood cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This letter addresses a technical question in connection with the recent paper by Knox et al. In particular, it concerns a correction to the estimate of childhood cancer risk following obstetric radiography, based on the Oxford Survey of Childhood Cancers (OSCC). One of us (CRM) enquired about the centring values for variables used in the analysis and particularly about the formulae used to calculate the higher order interactions of the radiation risk with birth year and age at diagnosis. These centring values and formulae are given in Table 1. This letter arises from that enquiry. (author)

  19. [New perspectives on childhood obesity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fodor, Miklós; Sófi, Gyula

    2013-08-11

    From preventional point of view, childhood obesity is very important, since proliferation of extra fatty tissue in childhood contribute metabolic processes favoring the development of type 2 diabetes, as well as it can accelerate cardiovascular complications. Anyone who is overweight in his or her life is likely to be confronted by such social stigma that could ultimately have a negative impact on self-esteem. The cornerstone of prevention is a healthy diet and age-adjusted physical training which may result in a physiological energy balance. PMID:23916906

  20. [New perspectives on childhood obesity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fodor, Miklós; Sófi, Gyula

    2013-08-11

    From preventional point of view, childhood obesity is very important, since proliferation of extra fatty tissue in childhood contribute metabolic processes favoring the development of type 2 diabetes, as well as it can accelerate cardiovascular complications. Anyone who is overweight in his or her life is likely to be confronted by such social stigma that could ultimately have a negative impact on self-esteem. The cornerstone of prevention is a healthy diet and age-adjusted physical training which may result in a physiological energy balance.

  1. An Un-American Childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Edwards, Flor Christine

    2014-01-01

    An Un-American Childhood is my memoir about growing up unconventionally in a religious sex cult with my parents and eleven siblings until I was a teenager. We lived in Thailand because Father David, our leader, didn't want us in the west when the world ended in 1993. When Father David died suddenly, the cult broke apart, and we found ourselves alone in the world with no money, food, very little clothing, and no direction. An Un-American Childhood takes the reader on a journey from the Childr...

  2. Children, playing and childhood cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Medeiros Veiga Ramires Monteiro

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper will address the ideas of authors of Childhood Studies, who question the strict concepts society has of children as being passive and immature; and the issue of play as being an instrument for the purposes of educational learning, or simply of recreation. The aim is to bring the issue of play closer to the concept of childhood cultures, accounting for and sustaining the importance of listening to the points of view of the actual subjects of research with children about this important and complex way of creating and experiencing their cultures, which cannot be reduced to adult-centered purposes.

  3. Women in agriculture: risks for occupational injury within the context of gendered role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, C A; Carruth, A K; Reed, D B

    2002-02-01

    Women continue to make significant contributions to farming. Not only do women participate in the traditional roles of homemaker, caregiver, and wife, they also work side-by-side with their spouses in keeping the farm viable. More daughters are entering the farming business, either as partners with other family members or as independent operators. Each year since the United States Department of Agriculture began including gender in the Census of Agriculture, the percentage of women engaged in agriculture has increased, and women's participation in agriculture is increasing faster than in other business segments. This article examines the role of women in agriculture and how sociocultural, economic, and physical factors may affect women's exposure to injury-producing events and their knowledge and beliefs about injury prevention. To date, few studies have examined work-related unintentional injuries among farm women. Even less is known about the extent to which occupational risks are recognized when women seek medical care. Differences in size and stature, increased physical strain, and low maximal oxygen uptake may predispose women to ergonomic-related injuries. Limitations of current research and recommendations for future analyses are discussed. PMID:12002372

  4. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Coping with a New Injury Adjusting to Social Life in a Wheelchair Adjusting to Social Life in a Wheelchair Substance Abuse and Spinal Cord ... Substance Abuse and Spinal Cord Injury How Family Life Changes After Spinal Cord Injury How Family Life ...

  5. Assessment of Ankle Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Nicholas; Cooper, Leslie

    2009-01-01

    School nurses are faced with the challenge of identifying and treating ankle injuries in the school setting. There is little information guiding the assessment and treatment of these children when an injury occurs. It is essential for school nurses to understand ankle anatomy, pathophysiology of the acute ankle injury, general and orthopedic…

  6. Spinal Cord Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... forth between your body and your brain. A spinal cord injury disrupts the signals. Spinal cord injuries usually begin with a blow that fractures or ... down on the nerve parts that carry signals. Spinal cord injuries can be complete or incomplete. With a complete ...

  7. Rotator Cuff Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connors, G. Patrick

    Many baseball players suffer from shoulder injuries related to the rotator cuff muscles. These injuries may be classified as muscular strain, tendonitis or tenosynovitis, and impingement syndrome. Treatment varies from simple rest to surgery, so it is important to be seen by a physician as soon as possible. In order to prevent these injuries, the…

  8. HAND INJURIES IN VOLLEYBALL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BHAIRO, NH; NIJSTEN, MWN; VANDALEN, KC; TENDUIS, HJ

    1992-01-01

    We studied the long-term sequelae of hand injuries as a result of playing volleyball. In a retrospective study, 226 patients with injuries of the hand who were seen over a 5-year period at our Trauma Department, were investigated. Females accounted for 66 % of all injuries. The mean age was 26 years

  9. [Acute kidney injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hageman, D.; Kooman, J.P.; Lance, M.D.; Heurn, L.W. van; Snoeijs, M.G.

    2012-01-01

    - 'Acute kidney injury' is modern terminology for a sudden decline in kidney function, and is defined by the RIFLE classification (RIFLE is an acronym for Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss and End-stage kidney disease).- Acute kidney injury occurs as a result of the combination of reduced perfusion in the

  10. Effect of Group-III precursors on unintentional gallium incorporation during epitaxial growth of InAlN layers by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jeomoh, E-mail: jkim610@gatech.edu; Ji, Mi-Hee; Detchprohm, Theeradetch [Center for Compound Semiconductors and School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, 777Atlantic Dr. NW, Atlanta, Georgia 30332-0250 (United States); Dupuis, Russell D. [Center for Compound Semiconductors and School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, 777Atlantic Dr. NW, Atlanta, Georgia 30332-0250 (United States); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States); Fischer, Alec M.; Ponce, Fernando A. [Department of Physics, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287-1504 (United States); Ryou, Jae-Hyun [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science and Engineering Program, and Texas Center for Superconductivity at the University of Houston (TcSUH), University of Houston, Houston, Texas 77204-4006 (United States)

    2015-09-28

    Unintentional incorporation of gallium (Ga) in InAlN layers grown with different molar flow rates of Group-III precursors by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition has been experimentally investigated. The Ga mole fraction in the InAl(Ga)N layer was increased significantly with the trimethylindium (TMIn) flow rate, while the trimethylaluminum flow rate controls the Al mole fraction. The evaporation of metallic Ga from the liquid phase eutectic system between the pyrolized In from injected TMIn and pre-deposited metallic Ga was responsible for the Ga auto-incorporation into the InAl(Ga)N layer. The theoretical calculation on the equilibrium vapor pressure of liquid phase Ga and the effective partial pressure of Group-III precursors based on growth parameters used in this study confirms the influence of Group-III precursors on Ga auto-incorporation. More Ga atoms can be evaporated from the liquid phase Ga on the surrounding surfaces in the growth chamber and then significant Ga auto-incorporation can occur due to the high equilibrium vapor pressure of Ga comparable to effective partial pressure of input Group-III precursors during the growth of InAl(Ga)N layer.

  11. Effect of Group-III precursors on unintentional gallium incorporation during epitaxial growth of InAlN layers by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unintentional incorporation of gallium (Ga) in InAlN layers grown with different molar flow rates of Group-III precursors by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition has been experimentally investigated. The Ga mole fraction in the InAl(Ga)N layer was increased significantly with the trimethylindium (TMIn) flow rate, while the trimethylaluminum flow rate controls the Al mole fraction. The evaporation of metallic Ga from the liquid phase eutectic system between the pyrolized In from injected TMIn and pre-deposited metallic Ga was responsible for the Ga auto-incorporation into the InAl(Ga)N layer. The theoretical calculation on the equilibrium vapor pressure of liquid phase Ga and the effective partial pressure of Group-III precursors based on growth parameters used in this study confirms the influence of Group-III precursors on Ga auto-incorporation. More Ga atoms can be evaporated from the liquid phase Ga on the surrounding surfaces in the growth chamber and then significant Ga auto-incorporation can occur due to the high equilibrium vapor pressure of Ga comparable to effective partial pressure of input Group-III precursors during the growth of InAl(Ga)N layer

  12. The thickness design of unintentionally doped GaN interlayer matched with background doping level for InGaN-based laser diodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Chen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to reduce the internal optical loss of InGaN laser diodes, an unintentionally doped GaN (u-GaN interlayer is inserted between InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well active region and Al0.2Ga0.8N electron blocking layer. The thickness design of u-GaN interlayer matching up with background doping level for improving laser performance is studied. It is found that a suitably chosen u-GaN interlayer can well modulate the optical absorption loss and optical confinement factor. However, if the value of background doping concentration of u-GaN interlayer is too large, the output light power may decrease. The analysis of energy band diagram of a LD structure with 100 nm u-GaN interlayer shows that the width of n-side depletion region decreases when the background concentration increases, and may become even too small to cover whole MQW, resulting in a serious decrease of the output light power. It means that a suitable interlayer thickness design matching with the background doping level of u-GaN interlayer is significant for InGaN-based laser diodes.

  13. The thickness design of unintentionally doped GaN interlayer matched with background doping level for InGaN-based laser diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, P.; Zhao, D. G.; Jiang, D. S.; Zhu, J. J.; Liu, Z. S.; Yang, J.; Li, X.; Le, L. C.; He, X. G.; Liu, W.; Li, X. J.; Liang, F.; Zhang, B. S.; Yang, H.; Zhang, Y. T.; Du, G. T.

    2016-03-01

    In order to reduce the internal optical loss of InGaN laser diodes, an unintentionally doped GaN (u-GaN) interlayer is inserted between InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well active region and Al0.2Ga0.8N electron blocking layer. The thickness design of u-GaN interlayer matching up with background doping level for improving laser performance is studied. It is found that a suitably chosen u-GaN interlayer can well modulate the optical absorption loss and optical confinement factor. However, if the value of background doping concentration of u-GaN interlayer is too large, the output light power may decrease. The analysis of energy band diagram of a LD structure with 100 nm u-GaN interlayer shows that the width of n-side depletion region decreases when the background concentration increases, and may become even too small to cover whole MQW, resulting in a serious decrease of the output light power. It means that a suitable interlayer thickness design matching with the background doping level of u-GaN interlayer is significant for InGaN-based laser diodes.

  14. Childhood sarcoidosis: Louisiana experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedalia, Abraham; Khan, Tahir A; Shetty, Avinash K; Dimitriades, Victoria R; Espinoza, Luis R

    2016-07-01

    A retrospective chart review was conducted to detect patients with sarcoidosis seen by pediatric rheumatology service from the period of 1992 to 2013 at Children's hospital of New Orleans. Twenty-seven patients were identified. The average duration of symptoms before diagnosis was 5 (range 1-120) months. Five patients had onset before the age of 5 years and were diagnosed with early-onset sarcoidosis. The most common manifestations at presentation were constitutional symptoms (62 %) followed by ocular (38 %). During the course of illness, 19/27 (70 %) had multiorgan involvement. Common manifestations included uveitis/iritis (77 %), fever (50 %), hilar adenopathy (42 %), arthritis (31 %), peripheral lympadenopathy (31 %), hepatosplenomegaly (31 %), parenchymal lung disease (27 %), and skin rash (19 %). Unusual manifestations included granulomatous bone marrow disease (3 cases), hypertension (2), abdominal aortic aneurysm (large vessel vasculitis; 1), granulomatous hepatitis (1), nephrocalcinosis (1), membranous nephropathy (1), refractory granulomatous interstitial nephritis with recurrence in transplanted kidney (1), CNS involvement (2), parotid gland enlargement (1), and sensorineural hearing loss (1). Biopsy specimen was obtained in 21/27 (77 %) patients, and demonstration of noncaseating granuloma associated with negative stains for mycobacteria and fungi was seen in 18 patients. Elevated angiotensin-converting enzyme level was seen in 74 % of patients. Treatment with oral prednisone was initiated in symptomatic patients with significant clinical improvement. Low-dose methotrexate (MTX) 10-15 mg/m(2)/week orally, as steroid-sparing agent, was administered in 14 patients. Other immunomodulators included cyclophosphamide (2 patients), etanercept (2), infliximab (2), mycophenolate mofetil (1), and tacrolimus (1). Childhood sarcoidosis is prevalent in Louisiana. Most of the affected children present with a multisystem disease associated with

  15. Median and Ulnar Nerve Injuries in Children and Adolescents- Long-term outcome and Cerebral reorganisation

    OpenAIRE

    Chemnitz, Anette

    2013-01-01

    A peripheral nerve injury may lead to serious disability and influence the individual´s quality of life. It is considered that children can regain better sensory and motor function after a peripheral nerve injury, but the exact mechanism behind such superior recovery is not known. The aim of the thesis was to study the long-term clinical outcome after a peripheral nerve injury in patients injured in childhood and adolescence and to relate the clinical outcome to changes in the central and ...

  16. THE CONCEPT OF CHILDHOOD IN LITERATURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Igorevna KRUPENINA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the nature, types, characteristics of the phenomenon of childhood as a social phenomenon of our time. The author notes the complexity of the definition of “childhood” and its different interpretations. The author also notes that social “construction” considers not childhood itself in its entirety but childhood through the "prism of adulthood". Childhood is often seen as something natural through which goes everyone and something that everybody must have as a result of education and development. At the same time, is lost the understanding of childhood as a valuable phenomenon in itself. The author draws attention to different ways of studying childhood in psychology, literature and history and correlates concepts of childhood in psychology, history and culturology. The author considers the childhood concept by Philippe Aries in correlation with the image of childhood in the novels by Charles Dickens. This choice is determined by specific periodizations of childhood in history and culture what makes the specific development of the world of childhood dependent on the evolution of the world of grown-ups and its culture. 

  17. Early Childhood: Child, Teacher, Parent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baroody, Christie

    2006-01-01

    The field of early childhood holds promising keys to unlocking many of the mysteries in learning. Educators in the field, given the right tools, have the potential to have a profound impact on the long-term success of their students. The design of this curriculum comes directly out of the incredible possibilities set in motion while exploring…

  18. Teaching Mathematics in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moomaw, Sally

    2011-01-01

    Children who learn math fundamentals in preschool and kindergarten have the best chance of later achievement in school--but too often, children don't get the effective early math instruction that makes all the difference. Now there's a core early childhood textbook that helps current and future educators teach the most critical math concepts to…

  19. Early Childhood Education in Azerbaijan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starnes, Lisa

    2000-01-01

    Describes the Early Learning Childhood Center in Azerbaijan's capital city. Focuses on the goals of the program; its initial development; staff ratios, compensation, and teacher training; curriculum; cultural challenges and compromise; and relationships with parents. Asserts that developing a culturally sensitive program is extremely difficult,…

  20. Predicting adult asthma in childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vonk, JM; Boezen, HM

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: There still is no cure for asthma. Early identification of patients at risk for disease progression may lead to better treatment opportunities and hopefully better disease outcomes in adulthood. Recent literature on childhood risk factors associated with the outcome of asthma in a

  1. Early Childhood Intervention in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yuzhu; Maude, Susan P.; Brotherson, Mary Jane

    2015-01-01

    With rapid economic development and increasing awareness of the importance of early childhood intervention (ECI), China is re-examining its social and educational practices for young children with disabilities. This re-examination may have a significant impact on young children with disabilities in China. It may also set an example for other…

  2. Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura in childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.C. Bouw; N. Dors; H. van Ommen; N.L. Ramakers-van Woerden

    2009-01-01

    Thrombotic thrombocytopenic puripura (TTP) is a rare disease, especially in childhood, and has a high mortality rate in the absence of appropriate treatment. it is characterised by microangiopathic haemolytic anaemia and consumptive thrombocytopenia. TTP may be difficult to distinguish from haemolyt

  3. Childhood obesity: causes and consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Krushnapriya; Sahoo, Bishnupriya; Choudhury, Ashok Kumar; Sofi, Nighat Yasin; Kumar, Raman; Bhadoria, Ajeet Singh

    2015-01-01

    Childhood obesity has reached epidemic levels in developed as well as in developing countries. Overweight and obesity in childhood are known to have significant impact on both physical and psychological health. Overweight and obese children are likely to stay obese into adulthood and more likely to develop non-communicable diseases like diabetes and cardiovascular diseases at a younger age. The mechanism of obesity development is not fully understood and it is believed to be a disorder with multiple causes. Environmental factors, lifestyle preferences, and cultural environment play pivotal roles in the rising prevalence of obesity worldwide. In general, overweight and obesity are assumed to be the results of an increase in caloric and fat intake. On the other hand, there are supporting evidence that excessive sugar intake by soft drink, increased portion size, and steady decline in physical activity have been playing major roles in the rising rates of obesity all around the world. Childhood obesity can profoundly affect children's physical health, social, and emotional well-being, and self esteem. It is also associated with poor academic performance and a lower quality of life experienced by the child. Many co-morbid conditions like metabolic, cardiovascular, orthopedic, neurological, hepatic, pulmonary, and renal disorders are also seen in association with childhood obesity. PMID:25949965

  4. Childhood Obesity and Academic Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    James B. Hunt Jr. Institute for Educational Leadership and Policy, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Childhood obesity is on the rise across the country and in North Carolina, with four times as many children exhibiting signs of obesity now as they did 20 years ago. The costs in terms of medical expenses are staggering, with one estimate putting the cost to North Carolina at $16 million a year. Some North Carolina legislators have expressed…

  5. Early Childhood Inclusion in Croatia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljubešic, Marta; Šimleša, Sanja

    2016-01-01

    This article explains early childhood inclusion in Croatia from its beginnings up to challenges in current policy and practice. The first preschool education for children with disabilities dates back to the 1980s and was provided in special institutions. In the last 10 years, mainstream kindergartens have been enrolling children with disabilities…

  6. Regulated Childhood: Equivalence with Variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallberg Roth, Ann-Christine; Mansson, Annika

    2009-01-01

    The overriding aim of this article is to make a contribution to the discussion on individual development plans (IDPs) in Sweden as an expression of a regulated childhood and institutional practice. Individual development plans are seen as a phenomenon linked to the emergence of an auditing society. In sum, children are studied as subjects in…

  7. Sociological Factors Affecting Childhood Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster-Scott, Latisha

    2007-01-01

    According to data from the National Center for Health Statistics, childhood obesity rates are highest among ethnic minorities. It is very helpful to consider the role of culture when attempting to analyze and explain obesity rates in ethnic minority populations. Culture influences the attitudes and beliefs toward exercise, food and nutrition, and…

  8. Childhood Obesity: Prediction and Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Michael D.

    Obesity in children is a problem both insidious and acute. Childhood obesity has been indicated as a forerunner of adult obesity; it is also an immediate problem for the child. Given the lack of evidence for long term maintenance of any weight loss, this paper investigates the etiology of the disorder as a prelude to prevention. Upon review of the…

  9. Childhood Obesity. Special Reference Briefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winick, Myron

    This reference brief deals with the problem of childhood obesity and how it can lead to obesity in the adult. Eighty-four abstracts are presented of studies on the identification, prevention, and treatment of obesity in children, focusing on diet and psychological attitudes. Subjects of the studies were children ranging in age from infancy through…

  10. Early Childhood Educator's Nutrition Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Christine; And Others

    This nutrition handbook is designed to provide enough information on nutrition and food habits to enable early childhood educators to add a nutrition dimension to children's learning activities. Topics covered are the role of nutrition in growth during the preschool years; nutrients and their functions; selecting a healthy diet; common nutritional…

  11. Childhood Obesity: The Caregiver's Role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haschke, Bernadette

    2003-01-01

    Describes the role caregivers play in helping young children dealing with obesity. Examines: (1) causes of childhood obesity; (2) caregiver's position; (3) learning nutrition concepts; (4) preparing and serving healthy foods; (5) encouraging physical activity; (6) working with parents; and (7) assisting an obese child. (SD)

  12. Childhood Vestibular Disorders: A Tutorial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Zarin; Stakiw, Daria B.

    2004-01-01

    There is a growing body of evidence that childhood disorders affecting the vestibular system, although rare, do exist. Describing symptoms associated with the vestibular mechanism for children may be difficult, resulting in misdiagnosing or under-diagnosing these conditions. The pathophysiology, symptoms, and management options of the more common…

  13. [Trampoline injuries in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinikumpu, Juha-Jaakko; Antila, Eeva; Korhonen, Jussi; Rättyä, Johanna; Serlo, Willy

    2012-01-01

    Trampolines for home use have become common in Finland during the past ten years, being especially favored by children. Trampoline jumping is beneficial and constructive physical exercise, but poses a significant risk for injuries. The most common injuries include sprains and strains. During summertime, trampoline injuries account for as many as 13% of children's accidents requiring hospital care. Fractures are by far the most common trampoline injuries requiring hospital care. Injuries can be prevented by using safety nets. Only one child at a time is allowed to jump on the trampoline.

  14. Pattern and epidemiology of pediatric musculoskeletal injuries in Kashmir valley, a retrospective single-center study of 1467 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Shahid; Dar, Tahir; Beigh, Asif Qayoom; Dhar, Shabir; Ahad, Humayun; Hussain, Imtiyaz; Ahmad, Sharief

    2015-05-01

    This work aimed to study the pattern and epidemiology of pediatric musculoskeletal trauma and consequent morbidity in Kashmir Valley and compare the results with other studies and to formulate preventive measures and devise management strategies. This was a retrospective study of 1467 pediatric orthopedic trauma patients who presented to our hospital over a 3-year period between September 2005 and August 2008. Information was recorded in a prescribed proforma including the following: age, sex, mode of trauma, type of fracture/injury, radiological study, final diagnosis, intervention performed, and complications. The information was collected from the Medical Records Department of the hospital. The children's ages ranged from 0 to 16 years; there were 996 males and 471 females, with males outnumbering females in every age group (the overall male-to-female ratio was 2.12:1). Most fractures occurred in children aged 7-12 years [n=816 (53.96%)] and decreased in younger and older children beyond this age group. The left side was involved in 762 cases, 612 injuries involved the right side, 24 were bilateral, and 69 patients presented with multiple injuries. In children aged 0-6 years, the most common site of injury was the elbow, whereas in children aged 7-16 years, it was the forearm. In descending order, most injuries were sustained because of fall while playing (34.76%), fall from height (33.74%), road traffic accidents (14.92%), and fall from standing height (7.97%). The majority of injuries were caused by unintentional trauma (94.48 vs. 5.52%). The places where injury occurred were the home [603 (41.10%)], play field and orchards near the home [450 (30.67%)], roads [219 (14.92%)], school [183 (12.47%)], and unknown [12 (0.81%)]. The pattern and epidemiology of pediatric trauma differs from those in adults. The majority of musculoskeletal injuries are because of unintentional trauma in this young age group and hence preventable. Enhanced supervision at home and

  15. Recreational mountain biking injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aitken, S A; Biant, L C; Court-Brown, Charles M

    2011-04-01

    Mountain biking is increasing in popularity worldwide. The injury patterns associated with elite level and competitive mountain biking are known. This study analysed the incidence, spectrum and risk factors for injuries sustained during recreational mountain biking. The injury rate was 1.54 injuries per 1000 biker exposures. Men were more commonly injured than women, with those aged 30-39 years at highest risk. The commonest types of injury were wounding, skeletal fracture and musculoskeletal soft tissue injury. Joint dislocations occurred more commonly in older mountain bikers. The limbs were more commonly injured than the axial skeleton. The highest hospital admission rates were observed with head, neck and torso injuries. Protective body armour, clip-in pedals and the use of a full-suspension bicycle may confer a protective effect. PMID:20659880

  16. Childhood Maltreatment and Educational Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Elisa; Babchishin, Lyzon; Marquis, Robyn; Fréchette, Sabrina

    2015-10-01

    Children (0-18 years) with maltreatment histories are vulnerable to experiencing difficulties across multiple domains of functioning, including educational outcomes that encompass not only academic achievement but also mental well-being. The current literature review adopted Slade and Wissow's model to examine (1) the link between childhood maltreatment and academic achievement, (2) the link between childhood maltreatment and mental health outcomes (i.e., emotional and behavioral difficulties), and (3) the bidirectional relationship between childhood academic achievement and mental health. In addition, we reviewed variables that might influence or help explain the link between childhood maltreatment and educational outcomes, drawing on developmental perspectives and Bronfenbrenner's ecological model. Finally, whenever possible, we presented findings specific to maltreated children in out-of-home care to highlight the unique challenges experienced by this population. Results indicated that children with maltreatment histories often experience impairments in both their academic performance (e.g., special education, grade retention, lower grades) and mental well-being (e.g., anxiety, low mood, aggression, social skills deficits, poor interpersonal relationships). These impairments appeared to be particularly pronounced among maltreated children in out-of-home care. Findings, albeit sparse, also indicated that mental health difficulties are negatively associated with children's academic achievement and, similarly, that academic achievement deficits are linked with mental health problems. The link between childhood maltreatment and educational outcomes may be partly explained through the disruption of key developmental processes in children, such as attachment, emotion regulation, and sense of agency. As well, maltreatment characteristics and the functioning of various systems in which children are embedded (e.g., family, school, child welfare) can serve to positively

  17. Childhood Maltreatment and Educational Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Elisa; Babchishin, Lyzon; Marquis, Robyn; Fréchette, Sabrina

    2015-10-01

    Children (0-18 years) with maltreatment histories are vulnerable to experiencing difficulties across multiple domains of functioning, including educational outcomes that encompass not only academic achievement but also mental well-being. The current literature review adopted Slade and Wissow's model to examine (1) the link between childhood maltreatment and academic achievement, (2) the link between childhood maltreatment and mental health outcomes (i.e., emotional and behavioral difficulties), and (3) the bidirectional relationship between childhood academic achievement and mental health. In addition, we reviewed variables that might influence or help explain the link between childhood maltreatment and educational outcomes, drawing on developmental perspectives and Bronfenbrenner's ecological model. Finally, whenever possible, we presented findings specific to maltreated children in out-of-home care to highlight the unique challenges experienced by this population. Results indicated that children with maltreatment histories often experience impairments in both their academic performance (e.g., special education, grade retention, lower grades) and mental well-being (e.g., anxiety, low mood, aggression, social skills deficits, poor interpersonal relationships). These impairments appeared to be particularly pronounced among maltreated children in out-of-home care. Findings, albeit sparse, also indicated that mental health difficulties are negatively associated with children's academic achievement and, similarly, that academic achievement deficits are linked with mental health problems. The link between childhood maltreatment and educational outcomes may be partly explained through the disruption of key developmental processes in children, such as attachment, emotion regulation, and sense of agency. As well, maltreatment characteristics and the functioning of various systems in which children are embedded (e.g., family, school, child welfare) can serve to positively

  18. Update of Endocrine Dysfunction following Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kent Reifschneider

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injuries (TBI are common occurrences in childhood, often resulting in long term, life altering consequences. Research into endocrine sequelae following injury has gained attention; however, there are few studies in children. This paper reviews the pathophysiology and current literature documenting risk for endocrine dysfunction in children suffering from TBI. Primary injury following TBI often results in disruption of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and antidiuretic hormone production and release, with implications for both acute management and survival. Secondary injuries, occurring hours to weeks after TBI, result in both temporary and permanent alterations in pituitary function. At five years after moderate to severe TBI, nearly 30% of children suffer from hypopituitarism. Growth hormone deficiency and disturbances in puberty are the most common; however, any part of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis can be affected. In addition, endocrine abnormalities can improve or worsen with time, having a significant impact on children’s quality of life both acutely and chronically. Since primary and secondary injuries from TBI commonly result in transient or permanent hypopituitarism, we conclude that survivors should undergo serial screening for possible endocrine disturbances. High indices of suspicion for life threatening endocrine deficiencies should be maintained during acute care. Additionally, survivors of TBI should undergo endocrine surveillance by 6–12 months after injury, and then yearly, to ensure early detection of deficiencies in hormonal production that can substantially influence growth, puberty and quality of life.

  19. Child and young adult injuries among long-term Afghan refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugerman, David E; Hyder, Adnan A; Nasir, Khurram

    2005-09-01

    The aim was to determine the epidemiology and risk factors of childhood and young adult injuries among long-term Afghan refugees in Pakistan. A stratified cluster study was undertaken on a random sample of refugee households from June to July 2002. The Afghan Refugee Injury Survey was administered to the head of the household and recorded all injuries among household members within the last 3 months. Crude injury incidence was 12.3 per 1000 population among those aged 0-29 years (age groups 0-4, 5-14 and 15-29 years). Those aged 15-29 years had the highest injury rate (18.3 per 1000) closely followed by those aged 5-14 (12.3 per 1000) and much higher than the 0-4 years category (2.3 per 1000). Falls accounted for most injuries (48%) with both road traffic injuries and assaults accounting for 15%. The 15-29 year age group (odds ratio = 9.1) and those educated informally or for less than 6 years (odds ratio = 2.10), were associated with injury (p refugee children and young adults are disproportionately affected by injuries, especially falls, than children in developed countries. Appropriate injury prevention strategies must be implemented among refugee camps with long-term refugees as part of their health programmes. PMID:16335435

  20. Biomechanics of whiplash injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Hai-bin; King H YANG; WANG Zheng-guo

    2009-01-01

    Despite a large number of rear-end collisions on the road and a high frequency of whiplash injuries reported, the mechanism of whiplash injuries is not completely understood. One of the reasons is that the injury is not necessarily accompanied by obvious tissue damage detectable by X-ray or MRI. An extensive series of biomechanics studies, including injury epidemiology, neck kinematics,facet capsule ligament mechanics, injury mechanisms and injury criteria, were undertaken to help elucidate these whiplash injury mechanisms and gain a better understanding of cervical facet pain. These studies provide the following evidences to help explain the mechanisms of the whiplash injury: (1) Whiplash injuries are generally considered to be a soft tissue injury of the neck with symptoms such as neck pain and stiffness, shoulder weakness, dizziness, headache and memory loss, etc. (2) Based on kinematical studies on the cadaver and volunteers, there are three distinct periods that have the potential to cause injury to the neck. In the first stage, flexural deformation of the neck is observed along with a loss of cervical lordosis; in the second stage, the cervical spine assumes an S-shaped curve as the lower vertebrae begin to extend and gradually cause the upper vertebrae to extend; during the final stage, the entire neck is extended due to the extension moments at both ends. (3)The in vivo environment afforded by rodent models of injury offers particular utility for linking mechanics, nociception and behavioral outcomes. Experimental findings have examined strains across the facet joint as a mechanism of whiplash injury, and suggested a capsular strain threshold or a vertebral distraction threshold for whiplash-related injury,potentially producing neck pain. (4) Injuries to the facet capsule region of the neck are a major source of post-crash pain. There are several hypotheses on how whiplash-associated injury may occur and three of these injuries are related to strains within