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Sample records for childhood unintentional injury

  1. Economic Cost of Childhood Unintentional Injuries

    OpenAIRE

    Zhiqin Lao; Mervyn Gifford; Koustuv Dalal

    2012-01-01

    Aims: This study aims to review the economic cost of childhood (0-18 years) unintentional injuries (UI) and focuses upon comparing the cost burden between developing and developed countries. Methods: Articles were selected from PUBMED using the search words "Economic Cost", "Unintentional injuries" and "Children". Nine articles were selected. Results: Studies in China focused upon cost to hospitals, in Bangladesh they focused on personal payment in rural areas, and in Vietnam they foc...

  2. Economic cost of childhood unintentional injuries

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    Zhiqin Lao

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: Different bases and contexts of studies make it difficult to draw a solid conclusion about the amount of costs of UI among children. Therefore, more studies of children′s unintentional injuries should be carried out in low and middle income countries.

  3. Childhood unintentional injuries: Supervision and first aid provided

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    Annabel Jonkheijm

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : The aim of this study was to investigate the circumstances surrounding unintentional injuries of children and the appropriateness of the first aid provided by caregivers. Materials and Methods : This prospective study included children with aged range 0-12 years, who presented with an unintentional injury at the Trauma Unit of a hospital in Cape Town, South Africa, over a 3 month period. Caregivers were interviewed about the circumstances of the injury and the first aid provided. Experts classified the first aid as appropriate, appropriate but incomplete, or inappropriate. Results: A total of 313 children were included with a median age of 3.75 years. The most common causes of injury were falls (39.6%, n = 124, burns (23.9%, n = 75 and motor vehicle crashes (10.5%, n = 33. More than a quarter of the children (27.2%, n = 81 had been left under the supervision of another child below the age of 12. When the injury occurred, 7.1% (n = 22 of the children were unattended. First aid was provided in 43.1% (n = 134 of the cases. More than half of these interventions (53%, n = 72 were inappropriate or appropriate but incomplete. Conclusions: Especially young children are at risk for unintentional injuries. Lack of appropriate supervision increases this risk. Prevention education of parents and children may help to protect children from injuries. First-aid training should also be more accessible to civilians as both the providing of as well as the quality of first-aid provided lacked in the majority of cases.

  4. Influence of sociodemographic factors on the risk of unintentional childhood home injuries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Bjarne; Nielsen, Jeppe W

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: While social differences in childhood injuries are recognized, less is known about how social and demographic differences relate to injury mechanism. The purpose of the study was to reveal how sociodemographic factors affect the incidence of unintentional home injuries in Danish......-income group was 2.4(1.8-3.2). Living in a one- or two-parent family and size of the dwelling had little or no effect on risk. CONCLUSION: Childhood injury incidence depended on sociodemographic factors. The effect of the sociodemographic factors varied between injury mechanisms and products involved in the...

  5. Unintentional Childhood Injury Patterns, Odds, and Outcomes in Kampala City: an analysis of surveillance data from the National Pediatric Emergency Unit

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    Emilio Ovuga

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Unintentional Childhood Injuries pose a major public health challenge in Africa and Uganda. Previous estimates of the problem may have underestimated the childhood problem. We set to determine unintentional childhood injury pattern, odds, and outcomes at the National Paediatric Emergency unit in Kampala city using surveillance data. METHODS: Incident proportions, odds and proportional rates were calculated and used to determine unintentional injury patterns across childhood (1-12 years. RESULTS: A total of 556 cases recorded between January and May 2008 were analyzed: majority had been transported to hospital by mothers using mini-buses, private cars, and motorcycles. Median distance from injury location to hospital was 5 km. Homes, roads, and schools were leading injury locations. Males constituted 60% of the cases. Play and daily living activities were commonest injury time activities. Falls, burns and traffic accounted for 70.5% of unintentional childhood injuries. Burns, open wounds, fractures were commonest injury types. Motorcycles, buses and passenger-cars caused most crashes. Play grounds, furniture, stairs and trees were commonest source of falls. Most burn injuries were caused by liquids, fires and hot objects. 43.8% of cases were admitted. 30% were discharged without disability; 10%, were disabled; 1%, died. Injury odds and proportional incidence rates varied with age, place and cause. Poisoning and drowning were rare. Local pediatric injury priorities should include home, road and school safety. CONCLUSIONS: Unintentional injuries are common causes of hospital visit by children under 13 years especially boys. Homes, roads and educational facilities are commonest unintentional injury sites. Significant age and gender differences exist in intentional injury causation, characteristics and outcomes. In its current form, our surveillance system seems inefficient in capturing poisoning and drowning. The local prevention

  6. Predictors of unintentional childhood injuries seen at the Accident and Emergency Units of three tertiary health care centres in Jos

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    Bulus J

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Unintentional childhood injuries pose a major health challenge especially in developing countries. Aim: This study sought to determine the predictors of unintentional childhood injuries in the three tertiary health centres studied. Methods: The study was a cross- sectional study. Sociodemographic data, history and physical examination, type of injury and the outcomes were obtained using structured questionnaire. Results: A total of 174 children were enrolled, 108 (62.1% were males and 66 (37.9% were females; 63 (36.2% were 10 years. Of the injuries observed; 99 (56.9% were by vehicular objects, 15 (8.6% were burns, 41 (23.6% were from falls and 19 (10.9% poisoning. Those who were treated as outpatients were 141 (81.0% and 25 (14.4% were admitted for inpatient care. About ninety four percent (94.3% of the children had no significant effect or disability, 3.4% had short-term disability while 2.3% had long term disabilities or died post-injury. There was no statistically significant relationship between the age of the subjects, gender, duration of the injury prior to presentation and the educational status of their care givers with the pattern of the injury. Conclusion: This study showed that 81% (141 of the children studied were treated as outpatients, 56.9% were by vehicular objects, 62.1% were in males and the pattern of injuries were not related to age, gender, educational status of care givers, place or time of injuries. There is need to incorporate these findings in the provision of preventive messages in school health services and in the interventions targeting the safety of children against injuries. Further studies to identify risk factors and plan necessary interventions will also be necessary.

  7. Unintentional Injuries in Preschool Age Children

    OpenAIRE

    ACAR, Ethem; Dursun, Onur Burak; Esin, İbrahim Selcuk; Öğütlü, Hakan; Halil ÖZCAN; Mutlu, Murat

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Unintentional injuries are the leading cause of death among children. Previous research has shown that most of the injuries occur in and around the home. Therefore, parents have a key role in the occurrence and prevention of injuries. In this study, we examined the relationship among home injuries to children and parental attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms, parental attitudes, and children's behavioral problems. Forty children who were admitted to the emergency ...

  8. Community-Based Study on Family-Related Contributory Factors for Childhood Unintentional Injuries in an Urban Setting of Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punyadasa, Dhanusha; Samarakkody, Diana

    2016-01-01

    A community-based descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out among children aged 1 to 4 years residing in an urban setting of Sri Lanka to assess the incidence and associated family-related factors of unintentional injuries. A total of 458 children were recruited using simple random sampling technique, giving a response rate of 91.6%. The incidence of unintentional injuries that needed medical attention during the study period of 3 months was 28.1 per 100 children (95% CI = 19.46-36.74). The factors that were significantly associated with the occurrence of unintentional injuries among children are low monthly income of the family (P = .045), low social support to the mother of index child (P = .022), nonauthoritative type of parenting of the mother of index child (P = .039), cared by person other than mother during day time (P = .002), frequent arguments between parents (P = .004), and frequent alcohol consumption of father (P = .001). PMID:26658485

  9. Unintentional Injuries in Preschool Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acar, Ethem; Dursun, Onur Burak; Esin, İbrahim Selcuk; Öğütlü, Hakan; Özcan, Halil; Mutlu, Murat

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Unintentional injuries are the leading cause of death among children. Previous research has shown that most of the injuries occur in and around the home. Therefore, parents have a key role in the occurrence and prevention of injuries. In this study, we examined the relationship among home injuries to children and parental attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms, parental attitudes, and children's behavioral problems. Forty children who were admitted to the emergency department because of home injuries constitute the study group. The control group also consisted of 40 children, who were admitted for mild throat infections. The parents filled out questionnaires assessing parental ADHD, child behavioral problems, and parenting attitudes. Scores were significantly higher for both internalizing disorders and externalizing disorders in study groups. We also found that ADHD symptoms were significantly higher among fathers of injured children compared with fathers of control groups. Democratic parenting was also found to correlate with higher numbers of injuries. Parenting style, as well as the psychopathology of both the parents and children, is important factors in children's injuries. A child psychiatrist visit following an emergency procedure may help to prevent further unintentional injuries to the child. PMID:26266395

  10. Community perceptions of unintentional child injuries in Makwanpur district of Nepal: a qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    Pant, Puspa Raj; Towner, Elizabeth; Pilkington, Paul; Ellis, Matthew; Manandhar, Dharma

    2014-01-01

    Background In Nepal, childhood unintentional injury is an emerging public health problem but it has not been prioritised on national health agenda. There is lack of literature on community perceptions about child injuries. This study has explored community perceptions about child injuries and how injuries can be prevented. Methods Focus group discussions were conducted with mothers, school students and community health volunteers from urban and rural parts of Makwanpur district in Nepal. FGDs...

  11. Socioeconomic differences in injury risks in childhood and adolescence: a nation-wide study of intentional and unintentional injuries in Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engström, K; Diderichsen, F; Laflamme, L

    2002-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: To measure socioeconomic differences in injuries among different age groups of children and adolescents. SUBJECTS: Children under 20 living in Sweden between 1990 and 1994 (about 2.6 million). METHOD: A cross sectional study based on record linkage between 15 Swedish national...... registers. Children were divided into four age groups and allocated to four household socioeconomic status groups. Absolute and relative risks were compiled using children of high/intermediate level salaried employees as the comparison group. Four diagnostic groups were considered: fall, traffic...... traffic injuries, especially among 15-19 year olds, and in self inflicted injuries among 15-19 year old girls. Relative differences were highest in both categories of intentional injuries for the age group 10-14. Social circumstances in the household other than family socioeconomic status affected the...

  12. CDC School Health Guidelines to Prevent Unintentional Injuries and Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrios, Lisa C.; Sleet, David A.; Mercy, James A.

    2003-01-01

    Approximately two-thirds of all deaths among children and adolescents aged five to 19 years results from injury-related causes: motor-vehicle crashes, all other unintentional injuries, homicide, and suicide. Schools have a responsibility to prevent injuries from occurring on school property and at school-sponsored events. In addition, schools can…

  13. Unintentional Injuries, Violence, and the Health of Young People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This fact sheet defines unintentional injuries and violence as the terms are used by the CDC and provides statistics on the leading causes of injury mortality and morbidity among children and adolescents, as well as information on the context of injury occurrence. (Contains 2 tables.)

  14. Assessment of caregiver responsibility in unintentional child injury deaths: challenges for injury prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnitzer, Patricia G; Covington, Theresa M; Kruse, Robin L

    2011-02-01

    Most unintentional injury deaths among young children result from inadequate supervision or failure by caregivers to protect the child from potential hazards. Determining whether inadequate supervision or failure to protect could be classified as child neglect is a component of child death review (CDR) in most states. However, establishing that an unintentional injury death was neglect related can be challenging as differing definitions, lack of standards regarding supervision, and changing norms make consensus difficult. The purpose of this study was to assess CDR team members' categorisation of the extent to which unintentional injury deaths were neglect related. CDR team members were surveyed and asked to classify 20 vignettes-presented in 10 pairs-that described the circumstances of unintentional injury deaths among children. Vignette pairs differed by an attribute that might affect classification, such as poverty or intent. Categories for classifying vignettes were: (1) caregiver not responsible/not neglect related; (2) some caregiver responsibility/somewhat neglect related; (3) caregiver responsible /definitely neglect related. CDR team members from five states (287) completed surveys. Respondents assigned the child's caregiver at least some responsibility for the death in 18 vignettes (90%). A majority of respondents classified the caregiver as definitely responsible for the child's death in eight vignettes (40%). This study documents attributes that influence CDR team members' decisions when assessing caregiver responsibility in unintentional injury deaths, including supervision, intent, failure to use safety devices, and a pattern of previous neglectful behaviour. The findings offer insight for incorporating injury prevention into CDR more effectively. PMID:21278098

  15. Suicide and unintentional injury mortality among homeless people

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Sandra Feodor; Hjorthøj, Carsten Rygaard; Erlangsen, Annette;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Homeless people have elevated mortality, especially due to external causes. We aimed to examine suicide and unintentional injury mortality levels and identify predictors in the homeless population. METHODS: A nationwide, register-based cohort study of homeless people aged 16 years and...... older was carried out using the Danish Homeless Register, 1999-2008. RESULTS: In all, 32 010 homeless people (70.5% men) were observed. For men, the mortality rate was 174.4 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 150.6-198.1] per 100 000 person-years for suicide and 463.3 (95% CI = 424.6-502.0) for...... estimates were found for schizophrenia spectrum disorders among both men [hazard ratio (HR) = 3.1, 95% CI = 2.0-4.9] and women (HR = 15.5, 95% CI = 4.5-54.0). Alcohol and drug use disorders were predictors of death by unintentional injury for both men and women, whereas schizophrenia spectrum disorders and...

  16. The health consequences of child mental health problems and parenting styles: Unintentional injuries among European schoolchildren

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keyes, K.M.; Susser, E.; Pilowsky, D.J.; Hamilton, A.; Bitfoi, A.; Goelitz, D.; Kuijpers, R.C.W.M.; Lesinskiene, S.; Mihova, Z.; Otten, R.; Kovess, V.

    2014-01-01

    Objective. Unintentional injury is the leading cause of death for schoolchildren. We assessed the association between externalizing psychopathology, parenting style, and unintentional injury in European children in the community. Methods. Data were drawn from the School Children Mental Health in Eur

  17. Current trends and age-based differences of unintentional injury in Japanese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Natsuki; Honda, Chikako; Nagata, Satoko

    2016-05-23

    Unintentional injury in children is a worldwide public health problem, as it increases the health burden and is a leading cause of death among children. It is important to understand the differences between different age groups of children in regard to unintentional injury, in order to effectively implement child safety education. The present study aimed to determine the current trends of unintentional injury in children, and to identify the differences between different age groups of children with regard to unintentional injury. We identified 1,521 children who attended an 18-month health checkup (18-month group), and 1,368 children who attended a 36-month health checkup (36-month group), between January 1, 2014 and December 31, 2014. The rate of hospital visits associated with unintentional injury was 10.6% (161/1,521) in the 18-month group, and 13.1% (180/1,368) in the 36-month group. In both groups, present/past illness was associated with hospital visits, and in the 36-month group, hospital visits were more common in boys than in girls. The number of unintentional injuries that occurred outdoors was higher in the 36-month group than in the 18-month group. Unintentional injuries resulting from accidental ingestion and falls were more common in the 18-month group, while unintentional injuries resulting from turning over were more common in the 36-month group. In conclusion, the number of hospital visits for unintentional injury might be higher, and the number of preventive actions taken by mothers might be lower, among children attending the 36-month health checkup than among those attending the 18-month health checkup. PMID:27020119

  18. Epidemiologic features of child unintentional injury in rural PuCheng, China

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    Shaohua Li

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Epidemiologic features of unintentional injuries among children in rural China are unknown. METHODS: Using a stratified sampling method, we conducted a retrospective study of injury reports over a year-long period. Structured oral questionnaires were administered to parents of 2551 children ages 0 to 14. RESULTS: The annual incidence of unintentional injuries was 15.6%, with boys (16.7% having a slightly higher rate than girls (14.5%; p > .05. The four leading causes of injury for both genders were falls (5.1% annual incidence, burns (2.9%, animal-related injuries (1.7%, and traffic injuries (1.6%. CONCLUSIONS: Unintentional injuries have substantial negative effects on children and their families. In rural PuCheng, China, the incidence of unintentional injury among children is extremely high compared to other regions of the world. The types of injuries incurred are somewhat different from those reported in other geographic areas. Injury prevention programs targeting the issues specific to this region, and similar rural regions of China, are needed.

  19. Clustering of disability caused by unintentional injury among 15- to 60-year-old: a challenge in rapidly developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Yi-Lan Liao; Jin-Feng Wang; Gong Chen; Wei Du; Xin-Ming Song; Xiao Yun; Xiao-Ying Zheng

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about disability caused by unintentional injury (accidents) worldwide. This study estimates the prevalence of disability caused by unintentional injury amongst people aged 15-60 years across different cities in the People’s Republic of China with the aim of providing a scientific basis for developing prevention and control programmes. The prevalence of disability caused by unintentional injury in this target group in sampled cities across the country was estimated from data fr...

  20. Mortality from Unspecified Unintentional Injury among Individuals Aged 65 Years and Older by U.S. State, 1999–2013

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    Xunjie Cheng

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Recent changes in unspecified unintentional injury mortality for the elderly by U.S. state remain unreported. This study aims to examine U.S. state variations in mortality from unspecified unintentional injury among Americans aged 65+, 1999–2013; Methods: Using mortality rates from the U.S. CDC’s Web-based Injury Statistics Query and Reporting System (WISQARS™, we examined unspecified unintentional injury mortality for older adults aged 65+ from 1999 to 2013 by state. Specifically, the proportion of unintentional injury deaths with unspecified external cause in the data was considered. Linear regression examined the statistical significance of changes in proportion of unspecified unintentional injury from 1999 to 2013; Results: Of the 36 U.S. states with stable mortality rates, over 8-fold differences were observed for both the mortality rates and the proportions of unspecified unintentional injury for Americans aged 65+ during 1999–2013. Twenty-nine of the 36 states showed reductions in the proportion of unspecified unintentional injury cause, with Oklahoma (−89%, Massachusetts (−86% and Oregon (−81% displaying the largest changes. As unspecified unintentional injury mortality decreased, mortality from falls in 28 states and poisoning in 3 states increased significantly. Mortality from suffocation in 15 states, motor vehicle traffic crashes in 12 states, and fire/burn in 8 states also decreased; Conclusions: The proportion of unintentional injuries among older adults with unspecified cause decreased significantly for many states in the United States from 1999 to 2013. The reduced proportion of unspecified injury has implications for research and practice. It should be considered in state-level trend analysis during 1999–2013. It also suggests comparisons between states for specific injury mortality should be conducted with caution, as large differences in unspecified injury mortality across states and over time

  1. Status and risk factors of unintentional injuries among Chinese undergraduates: a cross-sectional study

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    Zhou Qiang

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Injuries affect all age groups but have a particular impact on young people. To evaluate the incidence of non-fatal, unintentional, injuries among undergraduates in Wenzhou, China, assess the burden caused by these injuries, and explore the associated risk factors for unintentional injuries among these undergraduates, we conducted a college-based cross-sectional study. Methods Participants were selected by a multi-stage random sampling method, and 2,287 students were asked whether they had had an injury in the last 12 months; the location, cause, and consequences of the event. The questionnaire included demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, lifestyle habits, and the scale of type A behaviour pattern (TABP. Multivariate logistic regression models were used; crude odds ratios (ORs, adjusted ORs and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs were estimated, with students having no injuries as the reference group. Results The incidence of injuries among undergraduates in Wenzhou was 18.71 injuries per 100 person-years (95%CI: 17.12~20.31 injuries per 100 person-years. Falls were the leading cause of injury, followed by traffic injuries, and animal/insect bites. Male students were more likely to be injured than female students. Risk factors associated with unintentional injuries among undergraduates were: students majoring in non-medicine (adjusted OR: 1.53; 95% CI: 1.19-1.96; type A behaviour pattern (adjusted OR: 2.99; 95% CI: 1.45-6.14; liking sports (adjusted OR: 1.86; 95% CI: 1.41-2.45. Conclusions Injuries have become a public health problem among undergraduates. Falls were the major cause of non-fatal injury. Therefore, individuals, families, schools and governments should promptly adopt preventive measures aimed at preventing and controlling morbidity due to non-fatal injury, especially among students identified to be at high-risk; such as male students with type A behaviour pattern who like sports.

  2. Unintentional gun injuries, firearm design, and prevention: What we know, what we need to know, and what can be done

    OpenAIRE

    Frattaroli, Shannon; Webster, Daniel W.; Teret, Stephen P.

    2002-01-01

    The public health community has long recognized unintentional gun injuries as a public health issue. In 1998 in the United States, 866 people died from unintentional gunshot wounds, resulting in a crude death rate of 0.32 per 100,000. Unintentional gun deaths have been declining since at least 1920, yet the reasons for this downward trend are not understood. Possible explanations, such as changes in gun ownership and demography, changes in access to guns among population subgroups, safety pra...

  3. Mothers' Responses to Boys and Girls Engaging in Injury-Risk Behaviors on a Playground: Implications for Sex Differences in Childhood Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrongiello, Barbara A.; Dawber, Tess

    Unintentional injuries are the number one cause of death in childhood, and boys experience two to four times more injuries than girls. The present study examined whether mothers differed in their speed to intervene and the nature of their intervention responses depending on the sex of the child, the injury history of the child, the level of risk…

  4. Unintentional Injuries and Psychosocial Correlates among in-School Adolescents in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Karl Peltzer; Supa Pengpid

    2015-01-01

    The study aimed to provide estimates of the prevalence and psychosocial correlates of unintentional injury among school-going adolescents in Malaysia. Cross-sectional data from the Global School-Based Health Survey (GSHS) included 21,699 students (predominantly ≤13 to ≥17 years) that were selected by a two-stage cluster sample design to represent all secondary school students in Forms 1 to 5. The percentage of school children reporting one or more serious injuries in the past year was 34.9%, ...

  5. Does living density matter for nonfatal unintentional home injury in Asian urban settings? Evidence from Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Emily Y Y; Kim, Jean H; Griffiths, Sian M; Lau, Joseph T F; Yu, Ignatius

    2009-11-01

    Injury is a major global disease burden for the twenty-first century. There are, however, few studies of unintentional household injury in Asian urban settings where living environments are characterized by extremely compact, high-living-density, multistory apartments. This study investigated the association between nonfatal unintentional household injuries with the resident's sociodemographic attributes and household characteristics in Hong Kong, the city with the world's highest population density. A cross-sectional retrospective recall study was conducted in May 2007 using a random telephone survey with a modified Chinese version of the World Health Organization Injury and Violence instrument. The study sample included 1,001 noninstitutionalized Cantonese-speaking Hong Kong residents of all ages, including foreign live-in domestic helpers. Multivariate regression was conducted to identify risk factors for nonfatal unintentional injuries in Hong Kong. Among a predominantly adult sample, household size and time spent at home were not associated with nonfatal unintentional household injuries in the general population in Hong Kong. The multivariate analyses indicated that female gender, owners of private homes, lower square footage of living space per person, and those with slip prevention devices in the bathroom were significantly associated with household injuries. Injured and noninjured groups were found to have adopted different injury prevention strategies toward household injuries. The results identified potential target groups for household injury prevention programs. PMID:19636708

  6. Chronic avulsive injuries of childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Children and adolescents are prone to avulsive injuries related to a combination of their propensity for great strength, ability to sustain extreme levels of activity, and immature growing apophyses. Appropriate interpretation of imaging studies showing chronic avulsive injuries is essential so that the irregularity and periostitis that can be associated with chronic avulsions is not misinterpreted as probable malignancy. This article reviews the chronic avulsive injuries of childhood. (orig.)

  7. Chronic avulsive injuries of childhood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donnelly, L.F.; Helms, C.A. [Dept. of Radiology, Duke Univ. Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Bisset, G.S. III [Dept. of Radiology, Duke Univ. Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)]|[Department of Pediatrics, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Squire, D.L. [Department of Pediatrics, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)

    1999-03-01

    Children and adolescents are prone to avulsive injuries related to a combination of their propensity for great strength, ability to sustain extreme levels of activity, and immature growing apophyses. Appropriate interpretation of imaging studies showing chronic avulsive injuries is essential so that the irregularity and periostitis that can be associated with chronic avulsions is not misinterpreted as probable malignancy. This article reviews the chronic avulsive injuries of childhood. (orig.) With 12 figs., 8 refs.

  8. Unintentional Injuries and Psychosocial Correlates among in-School Adolescents in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Peltzer

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to provide estimates of the prevalence and psychosocial correlates of unintentional injury among school-going adolescents in Malaysia. Cross-sectional data from the Global School-Based Health Survey (GSHS included 21,699 students (predominantly ≤13 to ≥17 years that were selected by a two-stage cluster sample design to represent all secondary school students in Forms 1 to 5. The percentage of school children reporting one or more serious injuries in the past year was 34.9%, 42.1% of boys and 27.8% of girls. The two major causes of the most serious injury were “fall” (9.9% and motor vehicle accident or being hit by a motor vehicle (5.4%, and the most frequent type of injury sustained was cut, puncture, or stab wound (6.2% and a broken bone or dislocated joint (4.2%. In multivariable logistic regression analysis, sociodemographic factors (being male and low socioeconomic status, substance use (tobacco and cannabis use, frequent soft drink consumption, attending physical education classes three or more times a week, other risky behavior (truancy, ever having had sex, being bullied, psychological distress, and lack of parental or guardian bonding were associated with annual injury prevalence. Several factors were identified, which could be included in injury prevention promotion programs among secondary school children.

  9. Unintentional Injuries and Psychosocial Correlates among in-School Adolescents in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltzer, Karl; Pengpid, Supa

    2015-11-01

    The study aimed to provide estimates of the prevalence and psychosocial correlates of unintentional injury among school-going adolescents in Malaysia. Cross-sectional data from the Global School-Based Health Survey (GSHS) included 21,699 students (predominantly ≤13 to ≥17 years) that were selected by a two-stage cluster sample design to represent all secondary school students in Forms 1 to 5. The percentage of school children reporting one or more serious injuries in the past year was 34.9%, 42.1% of boys and 27.8% of girls. The two major causes of the most serious injury were "fall" (9.9%) and motor vehicle accident or being hit by a motor vehicle (5.4%), and the most frequent type of injury sustained was cut, puncture, or stab wound (6.2%) and a broken bone or dislocated joint (4.2%). In multivariable logistic regression analysis, sociodemographic factors (being male and low socioeconomic status), substance use (tobacco and cannabis use), frequent soft drink consumption, attending physical education classes three or more times a week, other risky behavior (truancy, ever having had sex, being bullied), psychological distress, and lack of parental or guardian bonding were associated with annual injury prevalence. Several factors were identified, which could be included in injury prevention promotion programs among secondary school children. PMID:26610542

  10. Clustering of disability caused by unintentional injury among 15- to 60-year-old: a challenge in rapidly developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Lan Liao

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about disability caused by unintentional injury (accidents worldwide. This study estimates the prevalence of disability caused by unintentional injury amongst people aged 15-60 years across different cities in the People’s Republic of China with the aim of providing a scientific basis for developing prevention and control programmes. The prevalence of disability caused by unintentional injury in this target group in sampled cities across the country was estimated from data from the Second Chinese National Sample Survey on Disability. Using the statistical evolution tree approach, cities automatically clustered into a tree structure according to the level of social security and industrial structure. The Kruskal- Wallis test was applied to compare the prevalence in various types of city. The results show that the prevalence of disability due to unintentional injury in the target population group varied significantly across the 16 types of city investigated, but that it was particularly common among the unemployed and poor. With regard to occupational structure, cities with activities oriented towards transport and construction had the highest average prevalence despite access to local, relatively sound social security systems and adequate medical resources. It was also found that people struck by unintentional injury were treated in various ways depending on the availability of social assistance, medical care and job training, which differed widely between cities depending on each city’s main occupational activity. High-risk cities areas were identified for that would benefit particularly by additional medical resource allocation as it would reduce their burden of unintentional injury.

  11. Alcohol and risk of admission to hospital for unintentional cutting or piercing injuries at home: a population-based case-crossover study

    OpenAIRE

    Thornley Simon; Kool Bridget; Robinson Elizabeth; Marshall Roger; Smith Gordon S; Ameratunga Shanthi

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Cutting and piercing injuries are among the leading causes of unintentional injury morbidity in developed countries. In New Zealand, cutting and piercing are second only to falls as the most frequent cause of unintentional home injuries resulting in admissions to hospital among people aged 20 to 64 years. Alcohol intake is known to be associated with many other types of injury. We used a case-crossover study to investigate the role of acute alcohol use (i.e., drinking duri...

  12. Preventing unintentional injury in children and adolescents--the importance of local injury data collection.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Carroll, C

    2012-02-01

    We sought to prospectively study all injuries in children and adolescents up to 16 years of age presenting to a regional Emergency Department (ED), to ascertain detailed injury patterns and to use this data to recommend injury prevention priorities. Electronic injury surveillance was prospectively collected over a 10 year period (1997-2007) in a hospital with a paediatric catchment population of 75,000 in a region with pockets of high social deprivation. All fatalities were obtained from data provided by the Central Statistics Office (CSO). Over a 10 year period, there were 31 fatalities, 5,408 admissions and 40,817 new attendances due to injury. Males outnumbered females in a 3:2 ratio. Of all injuries 24,317 (60%) occurred at home. Peak injury presentation time was in the evening between 18:00 and 20:00. Minor injuries (bruises, minor head injuries, lacerations and sprains) accounted for 32,456 (80%) of total. Fractures resulting from high falls (n=1,194) tended to result from bunk beds, staircases, horses, walls and playground equipment. Burns (n=630) involved hot liquids (tea, coffee), hot bath water, hot cooking oil and hot cooking plates. Pedestrian injuries (n=251) were predominantly \\'dart outs\\' in urban areas. Car passenger injuries (n=869) showed low rates of documented car restraint use. Poisonings (n= 1,153) were predominantly medicinal products. Cyclist injuries (n=477) indicated low documented use of appropriate helmet wear. Prevention priorities should focus on home injuries, hot liquid burn and scald injuries and high falls from walls, beds and playground equipment. To prevent road-related injuries and deaths, further legislation, urban planning and greater police enforcement is required.

  13. Unintentional Injuries in Preschool Age Children: Is There a Correlation With Parenting Style and Parental Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acar, Ethem; Dursun, Onur Burak; Esin, İbrahim Selcuk; Öğütlü, Hakan; Özcan, Halil; Mutlu, Murat

    2015-08-01

    Unintentional injuries are the leading cause of death among children. Previous research has shown that most of the injuries occur in and around the home. Therefore, parents have a key role in the occurrence and prevention of injuries. In this study, we examined the relationship among home injuries to children and parental attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms, parental attitudes, and children's behavioral problems.Forty children who were admitted to the emergency department because of home injuries constitute the study group. The control group also consisted of 40 children, who were admitted for mild throat infections. The parents filled out questionnaires assessing parental ADHD, child behavioral problems, and parenting attitudes.Scores were significantly higher for both internalizing disorders and externalizing disorders in study groups. We also found that ADHD symptoms were significantly higher among fathers of injured children compared with fathers of control groups. Democratic parenting was also found to correlate with higher numbers of injuries.Parenting style, as well as the psychopathology of both the parents and children, is important factors in children's injuries. A child psychiatrist visit following an emergency procedure may help to prevent further unintentional injuries to the child. PMID:26266395

  14. Childhood Injuries in Singapore: Can Local Physicians and the Healthcare System Do More to Confront This Public Health Concern?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Alvin Cong Wei; Low, Sher Guan; Vasanwala, Farhad Fakhrudin

    2016-01-01

    Childhood injury is one of the leading causes of death globally. Singapore is no exception to this tragic fact, with childhood injuries accounting up to 37% of Emergency Department visits. Hence, it is important to understand the epidemiology and risk factors of childhood injuries locally. A search for relevant articles published from 1996-2016 was performed on PubMed, Cochrane Library and Google Scholar using keywords relating to childhood injury in Singapore. The epidemiology, mechanisms of injury, risk factors and recommended prevention strategies of unintentional childhood injuries were reviewed and described. Epidemiological studies have shown that childhood injury is a common, preventable and significant public health concern in Singapore. Home injuries and falls are responsible for majority of the injuries. Injuries related to childcare products, playground and road traffic accidents are also important causes. Healthcare professionals and legislators play an important role in raising awareness and reducing the incidence of childhood injuries in Singapore. For example, despite legislative requirements for many years, the low usage of child restraint seats in Singapore is worrisome. Thus, greater efforts in public health education in understanding childhood injuries, coupled with more research studies to evaluate the effectiveness and deficiencies of current prevention strategies will be necessary. PMID:27438844

  15. Childhood Injuries in Singapore: Can Local Physicians and the Healthcare System Do More to Confront This Public Health Concern?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Alvin Cong Wei; Low, Sher Guan; Vasanwala, Farhad Fakhrudin

    2016-01-01

    Childhood injury is one of the leading causes of death globally. Singapore is no exception to this tragic fact, with childhood injuries accounting up to 37% of Emergency Department visits. Hence, it is important to understand the epidemiology and risk factors of childhood injuries locally. A search for relevant articles published from 1996–2016 was performed on PubMed, Cochrane Library and Google Scholar using keywords relating to childhood injury in Singapore. The epidemiology, mechanisms of injury, risk factors and recommended prevention strategies of unintentional childhood injuries were reviewed and described. Epidemiological studies have shown that childhood injury is a common, preventable and significant public health concern in Singapore. Home injuries and falls are responsible for majority of the injuries. Injuries related to childcare products, playground and road traffic accidents are also important causes. Healthcare professionals and legislators play an important role in raising awareness and reducing the incidence of childhood injuries in Singapore. For example, despite legislative requirements for many years, the low usage of child restraint seats in Singapore is worrisome. Thus, greater efforts in public health education in understanding childhood injuries, coupled with more research studies to evaluate the effectiveness and deficiencies of current prevention strategies will be necessary. PMID:27438844

  16. Barriers to, and facilitators of, the prevention of unintentional injury in children in the home: a systematic review and synthesis of qualitative research

    OpenAIRE

    Smithson, Janet; Garside, Ruth; Pearson, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Background This review considers barriers to, and facilitators of, success for interventions to reduce unintentional injury to children in the home through supply and/or installation of home safety equipment, and looks at risk assessments. Methods A systematic review of qualitative research. Bibliographic databases were searched for studies on interventions to reduce unintentional child injury in the home, or on related attitudes and behaviours. Studies were quality appraised, findings extrac...

  17. Mothers’ perspectives on the delivery of childhood injury messages: a qualitative study from the growing up in Wales, environments for healthy living study (EHL)

    OpenAIRE

    Khanom, Ashrafunnesa; Hill, Rebecca A; Brophy, Sinead; Morgan, Kelly; Rapport, Frances; Lyons, Ronan

    2013-01-01

    Background Childhood injury is the second leading cause of death for infants aged 1–5 years in the United Kingdom (UK) and most unintentional injuries occur in the home. We explored mothers’ knowledge and awareness of child injury prevention and sought to discover mothers’ views about the best method of designing interventions to deliver appropriate child safety messages to prevent injury in the home. Methods Qualitative study based on 21 semi-structured interviews with prospective mothers an...

  18. Pediatric Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ballesteros, M. F., Sleet, D. A. (2008). CDC childhood injury report: patterns of unintentional injuries among 0-19 ... American Academy of Pediatrics. (2008). Management of pediatric trauma. Pediatrics, 121 , 849–854. [top] How many people are ... may slightly increase childhood risk of neurological impairment, NIH study suggests All ...

  19. Relationships between Sleep Behaviors and Unintentional Injury in Southern Chinese School-Aged Children: A Population-Based Study

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    Yafei Tan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to explore the relationships between sleep behaviors and injury occurrence among Chinese school-aged children. Data were collected with self-administered questionnaires of a cross-sectional survey which covered the school-aged children from southeastern Chinese urban and rural areas in April 2010. Information was collected on unintentional injury in the past year, sleep duration, napping and daytime fatigue, sleeping pill use, and social-demographic variables. Multivariable logistic regression analyses, controlling for confounding factors, were conducted to assess sleep-related variables that were associated with injuries. Students who slept for less than 8 h had a 30% increased risk of injury (OR: 1.30; 95%CI: 1.01–1.69 compared with those who slept for 8–9 h. Lack of napping, snoring and use of sleeping pills were significantly associated with injury. Among different genders, the slight difference in sleep behaviors predicted the occurrence of injury. Rural children displayed more sleep behaviors associated with injury than urban children. The sleep behaviors of primary school students were more negatively correlated with injury occurrence than junior/senior high school children. Consideration should be given to the prevention of problematic sleep behaviors as a potential risk factor in order to decrease injury rates and promote the health of school-aged children.

  20. Unintentional injuries in the rural population of Twiserkan, Iran: A cross-sectional study on their incidence, characteristics and preventability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naghavi Mohsen

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Knowledge is sparse concerning injuries affecting rural populations in low and middle-income countries in general and in Iran in particular. This study documents the incidence and characteristics of severe injuries affecting rural people in the Iranian district of Twiserkan and it investigates these people's suggestions for injury prevention and control. Methods An interview-based investigation was undertaken that comprised all unintentional injuries leading to hospitalization (more than 6 hours or death that had occurred within a twelve month period and that were identified in the files of the 62 "health houses" of the Twiserkan district. For each case, semi-structured interviews were conducted at the households of the injured people (134 injuries affecting 117 households were identified. Results The incidence rates of fatal and non-fatal injuries were respectively 4.1 and 17.2 per 10 000 person-years and, as expected, men were more affected than women (77.6% of all injury cases. Traffic injuries (in particular among motorcyclists were as common as home-related injuries but they were far more fatal. Among common suggestions for prevention, people mentioned that the authorities could work on the design and engineering of the infrastructure in and around the village, that the rural health workers could contribute more with local information and education and that the people themselves could consider behaving in a safer manner. Conclusion Not only domestic injuries but also those in traffic are an important cause of severe and fatal injury among rural people. Health workers may play an important role in injury surveillance and in identifying context-relevant means of prevention that they or other actors may then implement.

  1. County Poverty Concentration and Disparities in Unintentional Injury Deaths: A Fourteen-Year Analysis of 1.6 Million U.S. Fatalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karb, Rebecca A.; Subramanian, S. V.; Fleegler, Eric W.

    2016-01-01

    Unintentional injury is the fourth leading cause of death in the United States, and mortality due to injury has risen over the past decade. The social determinants behind these rising trends have not been well documented. This study examines the relationship between county-level poverty and unintentional injury mortality in the United States from 1999–2012. Complete annual compressed mortality and population data for 1999–2012 were obtained from the National Center for Health Statistics and linked with census yearly county poverty measures. The outcomes examined were unintentional injury fatalities, overall and by six specific mechanisms: motor vehicle collisions, falls, accidental discharge of firearms, drowning, exposure to smoke or fire, and unintentional poisoning. Age-adjusted mortality rates and time trends for county poverty categories were calculated, and multivariate negative binomial regression was used to determine changes over time in both the relative risk of living in high poverty concentration areas and the population attributable fraction. Age-adjusted mortality rates for counties with > 20% poverty were 66% higher mortality in 1999 compared with counties with poverty (45.25 vs. 27.24 per 100,000; 95% CI for rate difference 15.57,20.46), and that gap widened in 2012 to 79% (44.54 vs. 24.93; 95% CI for rate difference 17.13,22.09). The relative risk of living in the highest poverty counties has increased for all injury mechanisms with the exception of accidental discharge of firearms. The population attributable fraction for all unintentional injuries rose from 0.22 (95% CI 0.13,0.30) in 1999 to 0.35 (95% CI 0.22,0.45) in 2012. This is the first study that uses comprehensive mortality data to document the associations between county poverty and injury mortality rates for the entire US population over a 14 year period. This study suggests that injury reduction interventions should focus on areas of high or increasing poverty. PMID:27144919

  2. Individual and area socioeconomic inequalities in cause-specific unintentional injury mortality: 11-year follow-up study of 2.7 million Canadians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, Stephanie; Auger, Nathalie; Gamache, Philippe; Hamel, Denis

    2012-03-01

    This study investigated the association between individual and area socioeconomic status (SES) and leading causes of unintentional injury mortality in Canadian adults. Using the 1991-2001 Canadian Census Mortality Follow-up Study cohort (N=2,735,152), Cox proportional hazard regression was used to calculate hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for all-cause unintentional injury, motor vehicle collision (MVC), fall, poisoning, suffocation, fire/burn, and drowning deaths. Results indicated that associations with SES differed by cause of injury, and were generally more pronounced for males. Low education was associated with an elevated risk of mortality from all-cause unintentional injury and MVC (males only) and poisoning and drowning (both sexes). Low income was strongly associated with most causes of injury mortality, particularly fire/burn and poisoning. Having no occupation or low occupational status was associated with higher risks of all-cause injury, fall, poisoning and suffocation (both sexes) and MVC deaths among men. Associations with area deprivation were weak, and only areas with high deprivation had elevated risk of all-cause injury, MVC (males only), poisoning and drowning (both sexes). This study reveals the importance of examining SES differentials by cause of death from a multilevel perspective. Future research is needed to clarify the mechanisms underlying these differences to implement equity-oriented approaches for reducing differential exposures, vulnerability or consequences of injury mortality. PMID:22269490

  3. Incidence of unintentional injuries in farming based on one year of weekly registration in Danish farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, K; Carstensen, O; Lauritsen, Jens

    2000-01-01

    In Denmark, farming ranks as the industry with the highest incidence rate of fatal injuries. For nonfatal injuries, insufficient registration practices prevent valid comparisons between occupations. This study examines the occurrence of farm accidents and injuries, as well as work-specific factors......, via weekly registration in a representative sample of 393 farms in one county during 1 year....

  4. Long-term health effects of unintentional injuries in Danish adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Bjarne; Møller, Hanne

    2012-01-01

    external causes of injury was obtained by linking the interview data to the National Patient Register. RESULTS: In total, 1,058 respondents (7.3%) reported health effects of injuries. Among these, 336 (2.3%) reported considerable limitations in their daily activities. Those reporting health effects also...... population and most can be attributed to falls and traffic injuries. Back injuries and multiple injuries had the largest influence on perceived health. FUNDING: The work was supported by TrygFonden grant no. 7585-07. TRIAL REGISTRATION: not relevant....

  5. Alcohol and risk of admission to hospital for unintentional cutting or piercing injuries at home: a population-based case-crossover study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thornley Simon

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cutting and piercing injuries are among the leading causes of unintentional injury morbidity in developed countries. In New Zealand, cutting and piercing are second only to falls as the most frequent cause of unintentional home injuries resulting in admissions to hospital among people aged 20 to 64 years. Alcohol intake is known to be associated with many other types of injury. We used a case-crossover study to investigate the role of acute alcohol use (i.e., drinking during the previous 6 h in unintentional cutting or piercing injuries at home. Methods A population-based case-crossover study was conducted. We identified all people aged 20 to 64 years, resident in one of three regions of the country (Greater Auckland, Waikato and Otago, who were admitted to public hospital within 48 h of an unintentional non-occupational cutting or piercing injury sustained at home (theirs or another's from August 2008 to December 2009. The main exposure of interest was use of alcohol in the 6-hour period before the injury occurred and the corresponding time intervals 24 h before, and 1 week before, the injury. Other information was collected on known and potential confounders. Information was obtained during face-to-face interviews with cases, and through review of their medical charts. Results Of the 356 participants, 71% were male, and a third sustained injuries from contact with glass. After adjustment for other paired exposures, the odds ratio for injury after consuming 1 to 3 standard drinks of alcohol during the 6-hour period before the injury (compared to the day before, compared to none, was 1.77 (95% confidence interval 0.84 to 3.74, and for four or more drinks was 8.68 (95% confidence interval 3.11 to 24.3. Smokers had higher alcohol-related risks than non-smokers. Conclusions Alcohol consumption increases the odds of unintentional cutting or piercing injury occurring at home and this risk increases with higher levels of drinking.

  6. Incidence, patterns and severity of reported unintentional injuries in Pakistan for persons five years and older: results of the National Health Survey of Pakistan 1990–94

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    Qureshi Huma I

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background National level estimates of injuries are not readily available for developing countries. This study estimated the annual incidence, patterns and severity of unintentional injuries among persons over five years of age in Pakistan. Methods National Health Survey of Pakistan (NHSP 1990–94 is a nationally representative survey of the household. Through a two-stage stratified design, 18, 315 persons over 5 years of age were interviewed to estimate the overall annual incidence, patterns and severity of unintentional injuries for males and females in urban and rural areas over the preceding one year. Weighted estimates were computed adjusting for complex survey design using surveyfreq and surveylogistic option of SAS 9.1 software. Results The overall annual incidence of all unintentional injuries was 45.9 (CI: 39.3–52.5 per 1000 per year; 59.2 (CI: 49.2–69.2 and 33.2 (CI: 27.0–39.4 per 1000 per year among males and females over five years of age, respectively. An estimated 6.16 million unintentional injuries occur in Pakistan annually among persons over five years of age. Urban and rural injuries were 55.9 (95% CI: 48.1–63.7 and 41.2 (95% CI: 32.2–50.0 per 1000 per year, respectively. The annual incidence of injuries due to falls were 22.2 (95% CI: 18.0–26.4, poisoning 3.3 (95%CI: 0.5–6.1 and burn was 1.5 (95%CI: 0.9–2.1 per 1000 per year. The majority of injuries occurred at home 19.2 (95%CI: 16.0–22.4 or on the roads 17.0 (95%CI: 13.8–20.2. Road traffic/street, school and urban injuries were more likely to result in handicap. Conclusion There is high burden of unintentional injuries among persons over five years of age in Pakistan. These results are useful to plan further studies and prioritizing prevention programs on injuries nationally and other developing countries with similar situation.

  7. Childhood injuries – frequency of occurrence

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    Sylwia Wieder-Huszla

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background . Childhood injuries and accidents constitute an important health, social and economic problem. Serious injuries require surgical intervention and hospitalization. In other cases, patients leave hospital within several hours after diagnosis and non-operative treatment, and then they receive outpatient care. Despite a downward trend, injuries remain the main cause of death among children and adolescents. Therefore, understanding their epidemiology, which would allow us to create prevention programs based on scientific evidence (evidence based medicine, is so important. Objectives. The study’s objective was an attempt at analyzing childhood injuries treated in outpatient clinics. Material and methods. The study comprised 2182 children aged 0–18, including 692 females and 1490 males. Among them 1024 children treated surgically and 1158 outpatients. In the retrospective study the authors used a method of analysis of medical records of patients treated in 2012 at the Department of Child Surgery and Traumatology and Orthopaedics with the Operating Theatre in the Nicolaus Copernicus Province Hospital in Koszalin. The analysis was conducted on the basis of operative reports in the case of afflictions and injuries requiring surgery, and outpatient admissions reports in the case of outpatients. Results. Among the outpatients, the biggest group of injuries (34.83% or 403 included bruises, cuts, lacerations etc. Regarding frequency, injuries of hand area – 14.35% (166 and arm fractures – 13.4% (159 followed. Conclusions . 1. The age and gender of patients were factors determining injuries. 2. Seasons of the year have an influence on the structure of injuries among children. 3. It is necessary to increase social awareness on the prevention and negative effects of burns.

  8. Unintentional Monuments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannessen, Runa

    2015-01-01

    unleashed more than the sliding of earth and stone as it triggered a fierce dispute between Israeli and Palestinian/Muslim interests. The crux of this crisis is to be found in the temporary bridge. In this short text, I suggest to see the bridge as an 'unintentional monument' as a way to understand the...... presence of historical and political powers in the shaping of space...

  9. What types of unintentional injuries kill our children? Do infants die of the same types of injuries? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imamura, Janete Honda; Troster, Eduardo Juan; Oliveira, Carlos Augusto Cardim de

    2012-09-01

    The objective of this study was to review mortality from external causes (accidental injury) in children and adolescents in systematically selected journals. This was a systematic review of the literature on mortality from accidental injury in children and adolescents. We searched the Pubrvled, Latin-American and Caribbean Health Sciences and Excerpta Medica databases for articles published between July of 2001 and June of 2011. National data from official agencies, retrieved by manual searches, were also reviewed. We reviewed 15 journal articles, the 2011 edition of a National Safety Council publication and 2010 statistical data from the Brazilian National Ministry of Health Mortality Database. Most published data were related to high-income countries. Mortality from accidental injury was highest among children less than 1 year of age. Accidental threats to breathing (non-drowning threats) constituted the leading cause of death among this age group in the published articles. Across the pediatric age group in the surveyed studies, traffic accidents were the leading cause of death, followed by accidental drowning and submersion. Traffic accidents constitute the leading external cause of accidental death among children in the countries understudy. However, infants were vulnerable to external causes, particularly to accidental non-drowning threats to breathing, and this age group had the highest mortality rates for external causes. Actions to reduce such events are suggested. Further studies investigating the occurrence of accidental deaths in low-income countries are needed to improve the understanding of these preventable events. PMID:23018311

  10. What types of unintentional injuries kill our children? Do infants die of the same types of injuries? A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janete Honda Imamura

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to review mortality from external causes (accidental injury in children and adolescents in systematically selected journals. This was a systematic review of the literature on mortality from accidental injury in children and adolescents. We searched the Pubrvled, Latin-American and Caribbean Health Sciences and Excerpta Medica databases for articles published between July of 2001 and June of 2011. National data from official agencies, retrieved by manual searches, were also reviewed. We reviewed 15 journal articles, the 2011 edition of a National Safety Council publication and 2010 statistical data from the Brazilian National Ministry of Health Mortality Database. Most published data were related to high-income countries. Mortality from accidental injury was highest among children less than 1 year of age. Accidental threats to breathing (non-drowning threats constituted the leading cause of death among this age group in the published articles. Across the pediatric age group in the surveyed studies, traffic accidents were the leading cause of death, followed by accidental drowning and submersion. Traffic accidents constitute the leading external cause of accidental death among children in the countries understudy. However, infants were vulnerable to external causes, particularly to accidental non-drowning threats to breathing, and this age group had the highest mortality rates for external causes. Actions to reduce such events are suggested. Further studies investigating the occurrence of accidental deaths in low-income countries are needed to improve the understanding of these preventable events.

  11. Childhood trauma fatality and resource allocation in injury control programs in a developing country

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    Shadman Mazyar

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Only a few studies have addressed the trimodal distribution of childhood trauma fatalities in lesser developed countries. We conducted this study to evaluate pre-hospital, Emergency Department (ED and in-hospital distribution of childhood injury-related death for each mechanism of injury in Tehran, Iran. This information will be used for the efficient allocation of the limited injury control resources in the city. Methods We used Tehran's Legal Medicine Organization (LMO database. This is the largest and the most complete database that receives information about trauma fatalities from more than 100 small and large hospitals in Tehran. We reviewed all the medical records and legal documents of the deceased registered in LMO from September 1999 to September 2000. Demographic and injury related characteristics of the children 15 years old or younger were extracted from the records. Results Ten percent of the 4,233 trauma deaths registered in LMO occurred among children 15 years old or younger. Motor vehicle crashes (MVCs (50%, burns (18%, falls (6% and poisonings (6% were the most common mechanisms of unintentional fatal injuries. Prehospital, emergency department and hospital deaths comprised 42%, 20% and 37% of the trauma fatalities, respectively. While, more than 80% of fatal injuries due to poisoning and drowning occurred in prehospital setting, 92% of burn-related fatalities happened after hospital admission. Conclusion Injury prevention is the single most important solution for controlling trauma fatalities due to poisoning and drowning. Improvements in the quality of care in hospitals and intensive care units might substantially alleviate the magnitude of the problem due to burns. Improvements in prehospital and ED care might significantly decrease MVC and falls-related fatalities.

  12. As injúrias não intencionais no ambiente domiciliar: a casa segura Unintentional injuries in the home environment: home safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos E. N Paes

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Revisar as características das injúrias físicas não intencionais e seu impacto sobre a criança e o adolescente. FONTES DOS DADOS: Foram selecionados artigos publicados principalmente entre 2000 e 2005 nas bases de dados MEDLINE, EBSCO, Proquest, SciELO, BVS e Google Scholar. Utilizaram-se as seguintes palavras-chave: injúrias, injúrias não intencionais, casa segura, queimaduras, quedas, afogamentos, escorpionismo, ofidismo, intoxicação, criança, adolescente, mortalidade, controle de injúrias e internações. Alguns artigos foram avaliados a partir de referência de publicações pesquisadas. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: São contextualizadas as injúrias não intencionais no mundo e no Brasil, bem como identificadas as condutas atualmente adotadas para sua prevenção e controle. São avaliados os impactos sobre a mortalidade, sobre o conjunto de danos físicos e o impacto econômico das injúrias. É enfatizado o enfoque sobre o ambiente doméstico, com a abordagem evolutiva da criança, as disparidades sociais e a contextualização do ambiente doméstico sobre o mundo infantil e as vulnerabilidades. São identificados os principais tipos de eventos que causam dano físico à criança e ao adolescente, especialmente no âmbito domiciliar. CONCLUSÃO: A prevenção de injúrias no ambiente doméstico é uma realidade possível, determinando desafios aos profissionais da área de saúde para a redução do impacto das lesões não intencionais sobre a morbimortalidade de crianças e jovens do Brasil e do mundo.OBJECTIVE: To review the characteristics of unintentional injuries and their impact on children and adolescents. SOURCES OF DATA: Articles published between 2000 and 2005 in the MEDLINE, EBSCO, Proquest, SciELO, BVS and Google Scholar databases were selected. The authors used the keywords unintentional injuries, injuries, safe home, burns, falls, drowning, scorpions, snakes, poisoning, child, adolescent, mortality, injury

  13. Prediction of posttraumatic stress in fathers of children with chronic diseases or unintentional injuries: a six-months follow-up study

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    Sennhauser Felix H

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While fathers were neglected for a long time in research investigating families of pediatric patients, there are now a few studies available on fathers' posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD. However, little is known about the course of PTSS and PTSD in fathers of pediatric patients. The present study aimed to compare the prevalence and course of PTSS and PTSD in fathers of children with different chronic and acute conditions and to identify factors that contribute to fathers' PTSS. Methods Sixty-nine fathers of children newly diagnosed with either cancer, type I diabetes mellitus, or epilepsy and 70 fathers of children suffering from an unintentional injury completed questionnaires at 4–6 weeks (Time 1 and six months (Time 2 after diagnosis or injury. Results Noticeable PTSD rates were found in fathers of children with a chronic disease (26% at Time 1 and 21% at Time 2, respectively. These rates were significantly higher than rates found in fathers of children with unintentional injuries (12% at Time 1 and 6% at Time 2, respectively. Within six months after the child's diagnosis or accident a decrease in severity of PTSS was observed in both groups. Significant predictors of PTSS at Time 2 were the father's initial level of PTSS, the child's medical condition (injuries vs. chronic diseases and functional status, the father's use of dysfunctional coping strategies, and father's level of neuroticism. Conclusion Our findings suggest that fathers with initially high PTSS levels are at greater risk to experience PTSS at follow-up, particularly fathers of children with a chronic disease. Sensitizing health care professionals to the identification of PTSS symptoms but also to indicators of neuroticism and the use of specific coping strategies early in the treatment course is essential for the planning and implementation of adequate intervention strategies.

  14. Childhood injuries in a tertiary institution in north east Nigeria

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    Issa Abdul Razaq Esin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Injury has been recognised as a preventable cause of morbidity and mortality in children. The aim of this study was to determine the aetiology, pattern and location of childhood injuries in north east Nigeria. Materials and Methods: This is a 3-year retrospective hospital-based descriptive study. The study included 114 children (77 boys, 37 girls; mean age 6.4 ± 3.2 years; range 2 months to 15 years who were admitted for various injuries in the female/paediatric surgical ward from January 2007 to December 2009. Information obtained from their case notes included demographic data, mechanism of injury, location of injury, anatomical site of injury and outcome of treatment. Results: Records for 114 children (77 boys, 37 girls; mean age 6.2 years; range 2 months to 15 years were available for analysis. The highest number of injuries occurred in the age group 6-10 years. Home was the most common location of injury among the age group 0-5 years while older children sustained most of their injuries outside the home on the street/highways. Burns from hot water was the most common injury among children aged 0-5 years while pedestrian accident accounted for the highest cause of injury among older children. Fall accounted for 20.2% of the injuries. The most common specific anatomic injury was head injury followed by limb fractures. Two mortalities were recorded (1.8%. Conclusion: This study provided useful information on the characteristics of childhood injuries in our environment. There is the need for parents and children education about the risks of injury and preventive measures in addition to legislation and policy on environmental modifications and enforcements to significantly reduce childhood injury.

  15. Unintentional Drowning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The Problem Risk Factors Prevention Additional Resources How big is the problem? From 2005-2014, there were ... 250-253. U.S. Coast Guard, Department of Homeland Security (US). Recreational ... States Coast Guard data. Injury Prevention 2011;17:156-159.14. Driscoll ...

  16. Associated factors for the occurrence of unintentional injuries in children from a low-income community in northeastern Brazil - doi 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v34i2.10313

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline de Souza Pereira

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Unintentional injuries reach high levels within the scope of morbidity and mortality worldwide, and have an impact on the quality of life of children and family members. This study depicts the socio-demographic profile of families in a community and identifies the factors associated with unintentional injuries in children. This is a cross-sectional study, developed with 362 families from a community in Fortaleza (Ceará State, by applying a questionnaire to the responsible adult in the family; the data were subjected to descriptive statistics by applying Pearson’s chi-square (x2 test, with p ≤ 0.05. From the results, 78% resided in the business area of the community, 71% survived with income up to the minimum wage, 62.7% were part of a nuclear family, and most residences showed risk factors for unintentional injuries. The data corroborate the literature by reaffirming the relationship between the socio-demographic and economic profile of families living in areas of socio-environmental vulnerability with the occurrence of unintentional injuries at home.

  17. The risk of pediatric bicycle handlebar injury compared with non-handlebar injury: a retrospective multicenter study in Osaka, Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Hirose, Tomoya; Ogura, Hiroshi; Kiguchi, Takeyuki; Mizushima, Yasuaki; Kimbara, Futoshi; Shimazaki, Junya; Shiono, Shigeru; Yamamura, Hitoshi; Wakai, Akinori; Takegawa, Ryosuke; Matsumoto, Hisatake; Ohnishi, Mitsuo; Shimazu, Takeshi

    2015-01-01

    Background Bicycle accidents are one of the major causes of unintentional traumatic injury in childhood. The purpose of this study was to examine characteristics and risks of handlebar injury in childhood. Methods We conducted a more than 5-year retrospective survey of patients under 15 years of age with bicycle-related injuries admitted to eight urban tertiary emergency centers in Osaka, Japan. Patients were divided into the direct-impact handlebar injury (HI) group and the non-handlebar inj...

  18. Neurobehavioral Outcome after Early Childhood Head Injury

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    2004-01-01

    Neurobehavioral function following traumatic brain injury (TBI) in a school-aged population, recovery over a period of 30 months post-injury, and predictors of outcome were studied in three groups of children treated at University of Melbourne, Royal Children’s Hospital, Australia.

  19. Analysis on clinical characteristics of children in outpatient department and emergent department because of unintentional injury%医院门急诊就诊意外伤害儿童临床特征调查分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭利军; 田艳珍; 许景灿; 熊琼; 任小红

    2011-01-01

    目的:了解医院急诊就诊儿童意外伤害的临床特征和分布,探讨儿童意外伤害的危险因素.方法:采用现场问卷调查的方法,调查2009年7 ~10月来湖南省儿童医院门急诊就诊的意外伤害儿童,经筛选后收回资料完整问卷66份.结果:66例意外伤害儿童中,男童意外伤害发生构成比高于女童,比例为1.36:1;医院急诊就诊意外伤害儿童病因顺位前3位为跌落、碰撞/硬物击伤、气管异物;常见的部位是头面部(62.1%);发生地点主要在家中(51.5%);意外伤害给家庭带来沉重的心理负担、经济负担和社会负担,其中心理负担最重.结论:充分了解儿童意外伤害的临床特征、相关危险因素、预防措施以优化医院急诊抢救措施,减少意外伤害后因抢救不力引起的致残、致死率.%Objective: To understand the clinical characteristics and distribution of children in outpatient department and emergent department because of unintentional injury, explore the risk factors of unintentional injury among children. Methods: A field questionnaire survey was carried out to investigate the children suffering from unintentional injury who went to outpatient department and emergent department of the hospital, 66 integrated questionnaires were obtained after screening. Results: Among 66 children suffering from unintentional injury, the proportion of boys was higher than that of girls, the ratio was 1. 36: 1. The top three causes of unintentional injury were falling, bumping/hitting by hard objects and foreign body in trachea; the common positions were head and face (62. 1% ) , and the injuries were mainly occurred at home (51. 5% ) . Unintentional injury subjected the families under heavy psychological stress, economic stress and social stress, especially psychological stress. Conclusion: Understanding the clinical characteristics, related risk factors, preventive measures of unintentional injury among children

  20. Childhood agricultural injuries: an update for clinicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Suzanne; Marlenga, Barbara; Lee, Barbara C

    2013-02-01

    Every three days a child dies in an agriculture-related incident, and every day 45 children are injured in the United States. These tragedies should not be regarded as "accidents," as they often follow predictable and preventable patterns. Prevention is not only possible, but vital, since many of these injuries are almost immediately fatal. Major sources of fatal injuries are machinery, motor vehicles, and drowning. Tractor injuries alone account for one-third of all deaths. The leading sources of nonfatal injuries are structures and surfaces, animals (primarily horses), and vehicles (primarily all-terrain vehicles [ATVs]). Children living on farms are at a higher risk than hired workers, and are unprotected by child labor laws. Preschool children and older male youth are at the highest risk for fatal injury, while nonfatal injury was most common among boys aged 10-15 years. Multiple prevention strategies have been developed, yet economic and cultural barriers often impede their implementation. Educational campaigns alone are often ineffective, and must be coupled with re-engineering of machines and safety devices to reduce fatalities. Legislation has the potential to improve child safety, yet political and economic pressures often prohibit changes in child labor laws and mandated safety requirements. Clinicians play a pivotal role in injury prevention, and should actively address common rural risk-taking behaviors as part of the routine office visit in order to help prevent these tragedies. PMID:23395394

  1. Imaging of cervical spine injuries of childhood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khanna, Geetika; El-Khoury, Georges Y. [University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Department of Radiology, 3951 JPP, Iowa, IA (United States)

    2007-06-15

    Cervical spine injuries of children, though rare, have a high morbidity and mortality. The pediatric cervical spine is anatomically and biomechanically different from that of adults. Hence, the type, level and outcome of cervical spine injuries in children are different from those seen in adults. Normal developmental variants seen in children can make evaluation of the pediatric cervical spine challenging. This article reviews the epidemiology of pediatric cervical spine trauma, normal variants seen in children and specific injuries that are more common in the pediatric population. We also propose an evidence-based imaging protocol to avoid unnecessary imaging studies and minimize radiation exposure in children. (orig.)

  2. Serious childhood injuries caused by air guns.

    OpenAIRE

    Shanon, A; Feldman, W.

    1991-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the severity of nonfatal injuries to children caused by air guns and pellet guns. DESIGN: Case series (hospital chart review). SETTING: Inpatient wards of the Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario. PATIENTS: All children under 18 years of age admitted to the hospital from Jan. 1, 1979, to Dec. 31, 1989, under ICD code E917, E922, E955, E965, E970 or E985 who had suffered air gun injuries. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Personal data, circumstances of event and clinical data. ...

  3. 南宁市农村留守儿童意外伤害流行病学调查%Epidemiological investigation on unintentional injuries of left-behind children in rural area of Nanning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋武; 黄华兴; 韦金露; 石海丽; 朱微微; 张获华

    2011-01-01

    目的:了解南宁市农村留守儿童意外伤害发生的流行特征及其影响因素,为制定相关预防和控制策略提供依据.方法:采用整群分层随机抽样方法抽取南宁市4个城区的儿童共2584例,以问卷形式调查农村留守儿童意外伤害的现况.结果:在本次调查中,农村留守儿童1096例,留守组意外伤害的发生率为29.7%,高于非留守组,差异有统计学意义(x2=12.94,P<0.05);留守组男童意外伤害发生率比女童高,差异有统计学意义(x2=4.623,P<0.05),7~12岁组比2~6岁组高,差异有统计学意义(X2=5.60,P=0.015);留守儿童组前5位意外伤害依次为:跌倒/坠落(45.6%)、割伤/刺伤(29.6%)、烧烫伤(12.9%)、碰撞/挤压(11.5%)、交通事故(10.4%);留守儿童伤害发生的地点主要在家中(37.5%)、学校(32.4%)、道路上(19.2%),多发季节在夏季(35.6%)及冬季(24.2%);留守儿童发生伤害后有12.3%需住院治疗,约半数儿童需请假休息,治疗费用在2 000元以上占5.0%,以白费居多;留守组再发意外伤害率12.9%,高于非留守组再发意外伤害率8.5%,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论:南宁市农村留守儿童意外伤害发生率较高,负担较大,应针对原因采取有效措施,减少农村留守儿童意外伤害的发生.%Objective: To understand the epidemiological characteristics and effect factors of unintentional injuries of left - behind children in rural area of Nanning, provide a basis for making related preventive and controlling strategies. Methods: Cluster stratified random sampling method was used to select 2 584 children from 4 urban areas of Nanning, and questionnaires were used to survey the status of unintentional injuries of left- behind children. Results: Among 1 096 left -behind children in rural area, the incidence of unintentional injuries was 29. 7%, which was significantly higher than that of non - left - behind children group ( x2 = 12. 94, P < 0. 05 ); in left - behind children

  4. Injury Patterns among Individuals Diagnosed with Infantile Autism during Childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkebæk Mouridsen, Svend Erik; Rich, Bente; Isager, Torben

    2016-01-01

    Background: To date, injury risk among people with infantile autism (IA) has been a relatively poorly researched issue.Objective:The purpose of our study was to compare the prevalence and types of injuries in a clinical sample of 118 patients diagnosed with IA during childhood with those of 336 age......-and sex-matched controls from the general population.Method: All participants werescreened through the nationwide Danish National Hospital Register. The average amount of time that the participants were observed was 30.3 years (range, 27.3 to 30.4 years), and the mean patient age at the end of the...... difference is statistically significant (P< .0001; odds ratio, 0.4; 95% confidence interval, 0.3 to 0.6), and the nature of the injuries also seems to differ. Gender, intellectual level, and concurrent epilepsy were not predictive of injury risk.Conclusions:Our results lend support to the notion that...

  5. PELVIC INJURY IN CHILDHOOD: WHAT IS ITS CURRENT IMPORTANCE?

    Science.gov (United States)

    GUERRA, MARÍA ROXANA VIAMONT; BRAGA, SUSANA REIS; AKKARI, MIGUEL; SANTILI, CLAUDIO

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the importance of pelvic fractures in childhood by analyzing epidemiological characteristics and associated injuries. Methods: This is a retrospective study performed between 2002 and 2012 at two trauma referral centers in São Paulo. We identified 25 patients aged 16 years old or younger with pelvic fracture. Results: The main mechanism of trauma was traffic accident (80%), followed by fall from height (16%). At hospital admission, 92% had traumatic brain injury and 40% had hemodynamic instability. Besides pelvic fractures, 56% of the children had other associated injuries (genitourinary, abdominal, vascular, chest and neurological), and 79% of them required operative treatment. According to the Torode and Zieg classification, the majority of cases were types III and IV. Seventy-two percent of all pelvic fractures were treated by surgery; 52% involved external fixation and 20% involved open reduction and internal fixation. Conclusions: The pelvic fractures in childhood can be considered a marker for injury severity, because the associated injuries usually are severe, needing operative treatment and leading to a high mortality rate (12%). Level of Evidence IV, Case Series. PMID:27217818

  6. Health and Safety: Involving Community Workers in Early Childhood Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallinga, Charlotte; Coleman, Mick; Bales, Diane

    2007-01-01

    Dramatic improvements have been made in the lives of children over the last century. Even so, many health and safety challenges remain unresolved. For example, unintentional injuries claim the lives of more children each year than any other cause of death. In addition, a panel of pediatricians reported that the incidence of childhood obesity…

  7. Epidemiological of unintentional injuries in children:analysis of 192 cases treated in pediatgric inyensive care unit%儿童意外伤害病因及预后

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任玉倩; 崔云; 张育才; 徐梁; 戎群芳; 腾国良

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨儿童意外伤害患儿的流行病学特征及预后情况。方法对上海交通大学附属儿童医院儿童重症监护室2011年10月~2014年9月收治的意外伤害患儿,进行回顾性研究。结果该阶段共收治意外伤害患儿192例,占 PICU 收治患儿总数的6.40%;男孩116例,女孩76例。婴幼儿组(0~3岁)108例,意外发生率最高(56.77%),学龄前儿童组(~6岁)50例(26.04%),学龄儿童组(~10岁)20例(10.42%),青春期组(~15岁)14例(7.29%)。意外伤害种类按照例数排序依次为车祸伤、高空坠落伤、跌落或撞击致脑外伤、药物中毒、气道异物、溺水、消化道异物、颈部外伤、切割伤。死亡人数32例,死亡率16.7%,3年病死率分别为14.28%,15.68%,28.57%。0~3岁婴幼儿组是构成死亡病例的主要群体。溺水是主要意外死亡原因,其次为药物中毒。结论意外伤害发生率和病死率有逐年上升趋势,以跌落或撞击致脑外伤和药物中毒增长最为明显。随儿童年龄增长,意外伤害发生率降低。婴幼儿易发生车祸伤和高空坠落伤,年长儿要注意预防溺水、药物中毒。%Objective To explore the causes and prognosis of unintentional injuries admitted to pediatric intensive care unit. Methods The clinical data of 192 children with unintentional injuries ,116 boys and 76 girls, treated in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU) of the Children’s Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University from September 2011 to September 2011, accounting for 6.40% of the total number of the children admitted to the PICU. treated patients. were analyzed according to the International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-10. Results The incidence rates of unintentional injuries of the children aged 0~~3 (n=108), 3~6 (n=50), 6~10 (n=29), and 10~15 (n=14) were 56.77%, 26.04%, 10.42%, and (7.29% respectively. The types of unintentional

  8. Study on the status of unintentional injuries in children under age 7 in Guangzhou%广州市七岁以下儿童意外伤害发生现状分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡艳; 邢艳菲; 蒋琳; 曾芳玲; 林穗方

    2011-01-01

    目的 了解和分析7岁以下儿童意外伤害发生现状和分布特点.方法 对2010年广州市7岁以下儿童意外伤害监测网络的470 770名集体和散居儿童中发生的意外伤害现状进行描述性分析.结果 2010年广州市7岁以下儿童意外伤害发生率为1.48%,其中集体儿童意外伤害发生率为1.66%,散居儿童意外伤害发生率为1.11%,城区儿童意外伤害发生率为1.36%,区县(农村地区)儿童意外伤害发生率为2.52%;集体儿童高于散居儿童,农村儿童高于城区儿童.儿童伤害发生原因构成顺位依次是跌伤(70.54%)、动物伤害(8.48%)、烧烫伤(5.75%)、钝器伤(3.92%)和交通道路伤(3.48%).儿童意外伤害发生部位依次是头面部(60.00%)、腕和手(15.48%)、膝部和小腿(11.70%)、肘和前臂(4.54%)、肩部和上臂(2.99%).意外伤害病例中,轻度意外伤害占85.35%,中度意外伤害占9.12%,重度意外伤害占0.57%.其中去医院门诊/急诊的儿童占49.66%,需住院或重症监护的儿童占2.06%,在家中或托幼园所就地处理的儿童占43.34%.结论 2010年广州市7岁以下儿童意外伤害发生率为1.48%,发生原因主要以跌伤、动物伤害、烧烫伤、钝器伤以及交通道路伤为主,不同年龄、区域儿童意外伤害发生特征及临床特征存在差异.%Objective To understand the pravelence and distribution of unintentional injuries in children under age 7 in Guangzhou. Methods Data was descriptively analyzed from the Guangzhou Unintentional Injuries Surveillance System among 470 770 children under age 7 living scatterly or collectively. Results The incidence rates of unintentional injuries among children in Guangzhou was 1.48%, among which the incidence rates were: living scatterly as 1.11% living collectively as 1.66%, living in urban areas as 1.36% in rural as 2.52%. In order, the proportion of main causes of children's unintentional injuries were as follows: falls (70.54%), animal injuries (8

  9. Alexithymia as a Mediator between Childhood Trauma and Self-Injurious Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paivio, Sandra C.; McCulloch, Chantal R.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to test whether alexithymia mediates the relationship between childhood maltreatment and self-injurious behaviors (SIB) in college women. Method: The sample was comprised of 100 female undergraduate students. Measures were the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire [D. Bernstein, L. Fink, Manual for the Childhood…

  10. Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms Mediate the Relation between Childhood Sexual Abuse and Nonsuicidal Self-Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weierich, Mariann R.; Nock, Matthew K.

    2008-01-01

    Prior research consistently has shown a strong relation between childhood abuse and nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI), yet it is unclear why this relation exists. The authors examined 2 specific posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom clusters as potential mechanisms through which childhood abuse may be related to NSSI. Participants were 86…

  11. Current status of unintentional injury death in children under five years old in Inner Mongolia%内蒙古5岁以下儿童意外伤害死亡现状分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王文丽; 胡俊梅; 杨缨; 王晓琴

    2015-01-01

    目的:分析2008至2013年内蒙古自治区5岁以下儿童意外伤害死亡现状及主要死因,探讨其意外伤害死亡特征,为制定儿童意外伤害死亡的预防和控制措施提供科学依据。方法采用全面调查的方法,资料来源于全区妇幼卫生年报表及5岁以下儿童死亡报告卡,采用国际疾病分类(ICD-10)进行死因分类。应用SPSS 17.0软件进行统计分析。结果内蒙古自治区婴儿、1~4岁儿童及5岁以下儿童意外伤害死亡率分别为26.90/105、33.40/105与60.30/105,意外伤害死亡占总死亡的构成比分别为3.56%,31.87%与7.01%。5岁以下儿童意外伤害死亡男童多于女童,差异无统计学意义(χ2=0.17,P>0.05);农村多于城市,而且城乡之间存在显著性差异(χ2=8.29,P<0.05)。不同年龄儿童意外伤害死因及顺位有所不同,婴儿以意外窒息(63.07%)、跌落(7.10%)和交通意外(7.10%)为主;1~4岁儿童以交通意外(35.93%)、意外窒息(15.56%)和溺水(14.65%)为主;5岁以下儿童以意外窒息(36.76%)、交通意外(23.07%)、溺水(8.62%)为主。结论减少婴儿意外窒息和1~4岁儿童交通意外的发生,加强农村地区儿童及家长的安全教育是预防和控制本区5岁以下儿童意外伤害死亡的关键措施。%Objective To analyze the current status of unintentional injury death in children under 5 years old and explore their characteristics, so as to provide scientific evidence for formulating measures to prevent and control unintentional injury death.Methods The data was obtained from annual statement of maternal and child health and death card of children under the age of five in the whole region by the method of complete investigation.ICD-10 was used to classify the death causes.Data was analyzed by SPSS 17.0.Results The unintentional injury

  12. Cognitive dysfunction in young men following head injury in childhood and adolescence: a population study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teasdale, T W; Engberg, A W

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To examine the prevalence of cognitive dysfunction among young men who had suffered a head injury during childhood or adolescence, in particular focusing upon the effects of age and the severity of the injury. METHODS: By cross linkage of Danish national registers for hospital...

  13. 20 Years of Research on Socioeconomic Inequality and Children's—Unintentional Injuries Understanding the Cause-Specific Evidence at Hand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucie Laflamme

    2010-01-01

    Studies have been conducted at both area and individual levels, the bulk of which deal with road traffic, burn, and fall injuries. As a whole and for each injury cause separately, their results support the notion that low socioeconomic status is greatly detrimental to child safety but not in all instances and settings. In light of variations between causes and, within causes, between settings and countries, it is emphasized that the prevention of inequities in child safety requires not only that proximal risk factors of injuries be tackled but also remote and fundamental ones inherent to poverty.

  14. Socio-economic status and types of childhood injury in Alberta: a population based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svenson Lawrence W

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood injury is the leading cause of mortality, morbidity and permanent disability in children in the developed world. This research examines relationships between socio-economic status (SES, demographics, and types of childhood injury in the province of Alberta, Canada. Methods Secondary analysis was performed using administrative health care data provided by Alberta Health and Wellness on all children, aged 0 to 17 years, who had injuries treated by a physician, either in a physician's office, outpatient department, emergency room and/or as a hospital inpatient, between April 1st. 1995 to March 31st. 1996. Thirteen types of childhood injury were assessed with respect to age, gender and urban/rural location using ICD9 codes, and were related to SES as determined by an individual level SES indicator, the payment status of the Alberta provincial health insurance plan. The relationships between gender, SES, rural/urban status and injury type were determined using logistic regression. Results Twenty-four percent of Alberta children had an injury treated by physician during the one year period. Peak injury rates occurred about ages 2 and 13–17 years. All injury types except poisoning were more common in males. Injuries were more frequent in urban Alberta and in urban children with lower SES (receiving health care premium assistance. Among the four most common types of injury (78.6% of the total, superficial wounds and open wounds were more common among children with lower SES, while fractures and dislocations/sprains/strains were more common among children receiving no premium assistance. Conclusion These results show that childhood injury in Alberta is a major health concern especially among males, children living in urban centres, and those living on welfare or have Treaty status. Most types of injury were more frequent in children of lower SES. Analysis of the three types of the healthcare premium subsidy allowed a more

  15. Childhood and adolescent injuries in elementary schools in north-western Uganda: extent, risk and associated factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutto, Milton; Lawoko, Stephen; Ovuga, Emilio; Svanstrom, Leif

    2012-01-01

    Childhood injuries remain understudied in Uganda. The objective of this study was to determine the extent, nature and determinants of school-related childhood injury risk in north-western Uganda. A cohort of 1000 grade fives from 13 elementary schools was followed-up for one term. Survival and multi-level modelling techniques compared the risk rates across gender, schools and locations. Childhood injuries are common in north-western Uganda. Most of them occur during travel, breaks, practical classes and gardening, while walking, playing, learning and digging. Most injuries result from collisions with objects, sports and falls. Two-thirds of children receive first aid and hospital care. Times to injury were 72.1 and 192.9 person days (p = 0.0000). Gender differences in time to event were significant (p = 0.0091). Girls had better survival rates: cumulative prevalence of childhood injury was 36.1%; with significant gender differences (p = 0.007). Injury rate was 12.3/1000 person days, with a hazard ratio of 1.4. Compared to girls, boys had a 37% higher injury rate (p = 0.004). Rates varied among schools. Associated factors include sex and school. Rural-urban location and school differences do influence childhood injury risk. Childhood injuries are common: the risk is high, gender- and school-specific. Determinants include gender and school. Location and school contexts influence injury risk. PMID:22273248

  16. Brain and head injury in infancy and childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article describes typical head injuries in infants and children. In comparison with adults there are distinct differences in the etiology of trauma and in the kind of reaction of the skull and brain. In infants and children there are three different types of trauma: birth trauma, accidental and non-accidental injury. The typical injuries in these three groups are described. (orig.)

  17. 济宁市农村留守儿童意外伤害调查%Survey and Study on Unintentional Injuries of Rural Left -behind Children of Jining City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘霞; 张跃兵; 张国华; 翟景花; 陈双双

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To explore the condition of unintentional injuries of rural left -behind children of Jining city , and to provide references for preventive strategies .Methods :Multi -stage sampling method was used to select 686 rural middle school students in Jining City and the participants were followed up for 1 year ,and questionnaires were made to survey the situation of intentional injuries .Results:① 201 were left -behind children of 686 rural middle school students ,accounting for 29 3.% ;②The incidence of unintentional injuries in the left -behind children in 1 year was higher than the non -left -behind children group(39 8.% ,24 1.% );③ The incidence of boys was higher than girls′(χ2 =6 1.50 ,P=0 0.13);④Statistically differences was found in students of 3 junior grades(55 .3% ,35 .7% , 23 6.% ) ,and the difference was statistically between the grade 1 and 2(χ2 =13 1.03 ,P=0 0.00<0 0.167);⑤The inci-dence of the left -behind children("whose father or mother went out for work")was significantly lower than the others′("whose father and mother both went out for work")(χ2 =20 1.92 ,P=0 0.00) .Conclusion:Unintentional inju-ries of left -behind children is common ,we should pay attention to take effective measures to reduce the incidence of unintentional injuries of rural left -behind children .%目的:了解济宁市农村留守儿童意外伤害发生情况,为其预防策略提供依据。方法:采用多阶段抽样方法抽取济宁市686名农村初中生并随访1年,以问卷调查形式了解初中生意外伤害情况。结果:①686名农村初中生中,留守儿童201例(293.%);②留守儿童1年内意外伤害发生率高于非留守儿童(398.%,241.%,);③男生1年内意外伤害发生率高于女生(χ2=61.50,P=00.13);④3个年级意外伤害发生率(553.%,357.%,236.%)差异有统计学意义,两两比较初一、初三学生意外伤害发生率

  18. Children and unintentional firearm death

    OpenAIRE

    Hemenway, David; Solnick, Sara J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Children in the United States are at far greater risk of unintentional gun death than children in other developed countries. The relative figures may even be worse since the estimates for US child unintentional gun deaths are derived from the Vital Statistics which have been shown to be underestimates. No study has used a national data system to investigate the circumstances of fatal child gun accidents. Methods We use data from the National Violent Death Reporting System for 16 st...

  19. Children and unintentional firearm death

    OpenAIRE

    Hemenway, David; Solnick, Sara J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Children in the United States are at far greater risk of unintentional gun death than children in other developed countries. The relative figures may even be worse since the estimates for US child unintentional gun deaths are derived from the Vital Statistics which have been shown to be underestimates. No study has used a national data system to investigate the circumstances of fatal child gun accidents. Methods: We use data from the National Violent Death Reporting System for 16 ...

  20. Preschool Traumatic Brain Injury: A Review for the Early Childhood Special Educator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetherington, Crista E.; Hooper, Stephen R.

    2006-01-01

    This article reviews an emergent area of traumatic brain injury (TBI) literature; namely, developmental outcomes of TBI sustained during the early childhood and preschool period. The developmental time period from birth through age 5 years is one of significant growth and maturity, particularly in the neurological development of the child. An…

  1. Burden of injury in childhood and adolescence in 8 European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brugmans Marco JP

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Injury is the major cause of death and suffering among children and adolescents, but awareness of the problem and political commitment for preventive actions remain unacceptably low. We have assessed variation in the burden of injuries in childhood and adolescence in eight European countries. Methods Hospital, emergency department, and mortality databases of injury patients aged 0-24 years were analyzed for Austria, Denmark, Ireland, Latvia, Netherlands, Norway, Slovenia and the United Kingdom (England, Wales. Years lost due to premature mortality (YLL, years lived with disability (YLD, and disability adjusted life years (DALYs were calculated. Results Differences in the burden of injury in childhood and adolescence are large, with a fourfold gap between the safest countries (Netherlands and UK in western-Europe and the relatively unsafe countries (Latvia and Slovenia in the east. Variation between countries is attributable to high variation in premature mortality (YLL varied from 14-58 per 1000 persons and disability (YLD varied from 3-10 per 1000 persons. Highest burden is observed among males ages 15-24. If childhood and adolescence injuries are reduced to the level of current best injury prevention practices, 6 DALYs per 1000 child years can be avoided. Conclusions Injuries in childhood and adolescence cause a high disability and mortality burden in Europe. In all developmental stages large inequalities between west and east are observed. Potential benefits up to almost 1 million healthy child years gained across Europe are possible, if proven ways for prevention are more widely implemented. Our children deserve action now.

  2. Burden of injury in childhood and adolescence in 8 European countries.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Polinder, Suzanne

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Injury is the major cause of death and suffering among children and adolescents, but awareness of the problem and political commitment for preventive actions remain unacceptably low. We have assessed variation in the burden of injuries in childhood and adolescence in eight European countries. METHODS: Hospital, emergency department, and mortality databases of injury patients aged 0-24 years were analyzed for Austria, Denmark, Ireland, Latvia, Netherlands, Norway, Slovenia and the United Kingdom (England, Wales). Years lost due to premature mortality (YLL), years lived with disability (YLD), and disability adjusted life years (DALYs) were calculated. RESULTS: Differences in the burden of injury in childhood and adolescence are large, with a fourfold gap between the safest countries (Netherlands and UK) in western-Europe and the relatively unsafe countries (Latvia and Slovenia) in the east. Variation between countries is attributable to high variation in premature mortality (YLL varied from 14-58 per 1000 persons) and disability (YLD varied from 3-10 per 1000 persons). Highest burden is observed among males ages 15-24. If childhood and adolescence injuries are reduced to the level of current best injury prevention practices, 6 DALYs per 1000 child years can be avoided. CONCLUSIONS: Injuries in childhood and adolescence cause a high disability and mortality burden in Europe. In all developmental stages large inequalities between west and east are observed. Potential benefits up to almost 1 million healthy child years gained across Europe are possible, if proven ways for prevention are more widely implemented. Our children deserve action now.

  3. Risk of childhood injuries after prenatal exposure to maternal bereavement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Virk, Jasveer; Li, Jiong; Lauritsen, Jens; Olsen, Jørn

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the risk of injuries among children exposed to a stressful life exposure (defined as bereavement) before conception or during fetal life.......The aim of this study was to assess the risk of injuries among children exposed to a stressful life exposure (defined as bereavement) before conception or during fetal life....

  4. Epidemiology of admitted cases of childhood injuries in Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital Nnewi, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekwunife Okechukwu Hyginus

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Injuries have become a leading cause of childhood death, and majority of these occur in developing countries. The range of injuries also varies among age groups, sex, populations and economies. Within the same population, injury pattern changes over time. Statistics of trauma from most developing countries are still not very many. To aid sound policies, documentation of trauma epidemiology from different cultures and geographies is still needful. Methodology: Hospital records of all children aged 18 years and below that presented between January 2007 and December 2011 were studied retrospectively. Results: A total of 217 patients were admitted, 125 (57.6% males and 92 (42.4% females. Multiple injuries occurred in 24 (11.1% of children. Road crashes accounted for the greatest number of injuries; 109 cases (50.2% followed by falls 60; (27.6%. Motor cycle related injuries accounted for 67 (61.5% of the 109 road traffic injuries. The age group most commonly affected is 0-5 years accounting for 98 (45.2% cases. Head injury was the commonest injury sustained 83 (33.9%. Majority of the injuries, 72 (66.1% occurred in or near home. Injuries were more frequent during the weekdays 132 (60.8% compared to the weekends 85 (39.2%. Long term functional or physical disability was seen in 62 (28.6% of cases. Six children died giving a mortality rate of 2.8%. Conclusion: Childhood trauma rate is still high, with motorcycle related road traffic accidents constituting a major cause. Education and enforcement of road traffic regulations and limiting motorcycle transportation may help in reducing the trauma rate in children.

  5. Cognitive function in childhood and early adulthood and injuries later in life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osler, Merete; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Laursen, Bjarne;

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It has been suggested that cognitive function in childhood is a modifiable risk factor for adult injury. This study examines the relationship between cognitive function measured at the age of 12 and 18 years and fatal and non-fatal injuries later in adult life. METHODS: A total of 11...... on cognitive performance. In addition, cognitive test scores measured on most (90%) cohort members were retrieved from the conscription board records (18 years). RESULTS: During follow-up, 100 of the men died as a result of and 2123 had been admitted to hospital at least once for injury. Cognitive function...... associations with other injury types were weaker and disappeared after adjustment for educational status. Cognitive function was associated with repeated hospital admissions for injuries as well as length of hospital stay. CONCLUSIONS: We found marked inverse associations between cognitive function measured...

  6. Repercussões no contexto familiar de injúrias não-intencionais em crianças = The repercussion from unintentional injuries in children on the family context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiza Jane Eyre de Souza Vieira

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desta pesquisa é estudar as características da criança como vítima de injúrias não-intencionais e seu familiar-acompanhante, descrever as repercussões dessas injúrias na família e identificar a concepção de familiares-acompanhantes sobre fatores de risco no domicílio e o conhecimento de práticas preventivas. Estudo descritivo, realizado com 29 familiares e/ou acompanhantes de crianças internadas em um hospital de emergência, em Fortaleza, Ceará, em 2005. A maioria das crianças tinha entre 5 a 10 anos,do sexo masculino, e prevaleceu a injúria no trânsito. Em relação aos acompanhantes, predominou renda de até um salário mínimo e eles afirmaram que conhecem os tipos mais comuns de injúrias com crianças e os modos de evitá-los. As repercussões atingem as dimensões emocionais, econômicas e sociais, somando-se verbalizações de medo, culpa e arrependimento, protesto e resignação. Conclui-se que o tema precisa ser amplamente discutido, mobilizando pessoas em instâncias formadoras de opiniões para reorientação da práxis na Saúde e Educação.The objective of this work is to study the characteristics of the child when victim of unintentional injury, as well as those of his family caregiver. This was accomplished by describing the repercussion of those injuries in the family and identifyingthe family caregivers’ conception of risk factors in the home, as well as their knowledge of preventive practices. A descriptive study was conducted with 29 relatives or caregivers of injured children at an emergency hospital in Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil, in 2005. Most of the children were between 5 and 10 years old and were male; the most prevalent instances of injury were traffic-related. Regarding the caregivers, the most prevalent income range for this group was up to minimum wage. They reported knowing the most frequent types ofinjuries to children, as well as the ways to avoid them. The repercussions within the

  7. Effectiveness evaluation on surveillance and intervention model of unintentional injuries for children in Shenzhen City,Guangdong Province%广东省深圳市社区综合干预模式预防儿童意外伤害效果评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林建苗; 王虹; 林艳; 刘一心

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of the surveillance and intervention model of unintentional injuries for 0-6-year-old children in Shenzhen City.Methods With multi-stage random sampling, 12 communities from Shenzhen City were selected to take the surveillance and intervention model of unintentional injuries, and the effectiveness of the intervention was evaluated.Results The incidence rate of unintentional injuries for children was decreased from 8.36% before intervention to 6.40% after intervention ( P < 0.05 ).The rate of mechanical injuries, unintentional poisoning and unintentional fall were 0.18%, 0.10% and 3.26% after the intervention, all higher than those before the intervention which were 1.11%, 0.56% and 4.68%, respectively (P < 0.05 ).The rate of the parents who worried the incidence of unintentional injuries, and who thought that injuries were serious public health problems and that the prevention of injuries for children was concerned with the government, school and individuals were 96.89%, 80.61% and 95.56% after the intervention, all higher than those before the intervention (95.69%, 76.01% and 86.18%, P <0.01 ).Conclusion Intervention measures of injury could improve the level of the injury knowledge and attitude of the parents and could reduce the injury incidence rate of children.%目的 评价广东省深圳市社区0~6岁儿童意外伤害综合干预模式的效果.方法 采用多阶段随机抽样方法,抽取深圳市12个社区作为干预地点,在幼儿园、社区和镇实施预防儿童意外伤害的健康教育干预措施,并对干预前后的效果进行评价.结果 儿童伤害发生率由干预前的8.36%下降至干预后的6.40%(P<0.05).机械伤、中毒、意外跌落的发生率分别从干预前的1.11%、0.56%和4.68%降至干预后的0.18%、0.10%和3.26%,其差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05).家长担心发生伤害、认为伤害是严重的公共卫生问题、认为预

  8. Social differences in traffic injury risks in childhood and youth--a literature review and a research agenda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laflamme, L; Diderichsen, Finn

    2000-01-01

    The paper reviews the scientific literature concerning social differences in traffic injuries in childhood in order to highlight the current state of knowledge and to draw the main lines of a research agenda.......The paper reviews the scientific literature concerning social differences in traffic injuries in childhood in order to highlight the current state of knowledge and to draw the main lines of a research agenda....

  9. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Chronic Dysarthric Speech after Childhood Brain Injury: Reliance on a Left-Hemisphere Compensatory Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Angela T.; Masterton, Richard; Pigdon, Lauren; Connelly, Alan; Liegeois, Frederique J.

    2013-01-01

    Severe and persistent speech disorder, dysarthria, may be present for life after brain injury in childhood, yet the neural correlates of this chronic disorder remain elusive. Although abundant literature is available on language reorganization after lesions in childhood, little is known about the capacity of motor speech networks to reorganize…

  10. Childhood adversities and adult use of potentially injurious physical discipline in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Umeda, Maki; Kawakami, Norito; Kessler, Ronald C.; Miller, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Using data derived from the World Mental Health Japan Survey (n = 1,186), this study examined the intergenerational continuity of potentially injurious physical discipline of children in a community sample from Japan with a special focus on the confounding effects of 11 other types of childhood adversities (CAs) and the intervening effects of mental disorders and socioeconomic status. Bivariate analyses revealed that having experienced physical discipline as children and five other CAs was si...

  11. Menace of childhood non-accidental traumatic brain injuries: A single unit report

    OpenAIRE

    Musa Ibrahim; Adamu Ladan Mu′azu; Nura Idris; Musa Uba Rabiu; Binta Wudil Jibir; Kabir Ibrahim Getso; Mohammad Aminu Mohammad; Femi Luqman Owolabi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Childhood traumatic brain injury (TBI) has high rate of mortality and morbidity worldwide. There are dearths of reports from developing countries with large paediatric population on trauma; neurosurgery trauma of nonaccidental origin is not an exemption. This study analysed menace of non-accidental TBI in the paediatric population from our center. Materials and Methods: This is a single unit, retrospective study of the epidemiology of non-accidental TBI in children starting from S...

  12. Dipoles, unintentional antennas and EMC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berend Danker

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Radiated emissions from equipment commonly originate from electronic circuits that act as electric dipoles created by the signal voltage between the signal conductors or as magnetic dipoles formed by the signal current flowing in a loop. Direct emission is mostly small, but circuits often couple to long conductors or large wiring loops which act as antennas and are efficient radiators. A comparable situation exists when short dipole antennas or small wiring loops receive ambient noise (susceptibility. Usually the amplitude of noise sources or the susceptibility of circuits is an invariable. The dipole strength increases with the distance between the conductors and the area. Shielding and proper grounding decreases the interaction via unintentional antennas. Short-circuiting and the insertion of lossy ferrite cores reduce the efficiency of unintentional antennas.

  13. Sibling experiences after a major childhood burn injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehna, Carlee

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this research project was to understand, primarily from the sibling perspective, the effect of a child's major burn injury on his or her sibling. A mixed method qualitative dominant design was implemented using the life story method for the qualitative portion. Additionally, the Sibling Relationship Questionnaire -Revised (SRQ-R) was used as a structured interview guide and for calculating scoring data to explore sibling relationship factors of warmth/closeness, rivalry, conflict, and relative status/power. Participants from 22 family cases (one or multiple family members) and 40 individuals were interviewed. To capture impact on the family over time, interviews began a minimum of two years post-burn. The central thematic pattern for the sibling relationship in families having a child with a major burn injury was that of normalization. Two components of normalization were described: areas of normalization and the process of adjustment. Areas of normalization were found in play and other activities, in school and work, and in family relations with siblings. The process of adjustment was varied and often gradual, involved school and work re-entry, and in some instances, seemed to change life perspective. Clinical implications in providing family-centered care can focus on promoting normalization by assessing and supporting siblings who may only be occasionally seen in the hospital or clinic. PMID:21067076

  14. Evaluation and Prevention for Falls in Elder People:A Leading Cause of Unintentional Injuries%老年人意外伤害的首要病因--跌倒的评价和预防

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑华光; 鞠奕; 沈东超; 王琳; 姜睿璇; 赵性泉; 王拥军; 王春雪

    2013-01-01

    Falls are the leading cause of both fatal and non-fatal unintentional injuries in older people. Patients with neurologic or general conditions were associated with an increased risk of falling. Risk factors for falls include age older than 80 years, depression, use of four or more prescription medications, muscle weakness, arthritis, and impairments in gait, balance, cognition, vision. An increased risk of falls is established among persons with diagnoses of stroke, dementia, and disorders of gait and balance and probable among patients with Parkinson disease, peripheral neuropathy, lower extremity weakness or sensory loss, and substantial vision loss. A history of falling in the past year strongly predicts the likelihood of future falls. A risk-assessment tool and care plan may be an important way of managing the issue. In this review we aimed to focus on assessment of the potential risk factors as well as the effective fall prevention strategies.%跌倒是老年人意外伤害(包括致死性和非致死性)的首要原因。罹患神经科疾患或其他疾病的患者跌倒的风险增加。一般性的危险因素包括:年龄超过80岁、抑郁、口服药物种类超过4种、肌肉无力、关节炎、步态异常、平衡障碍、认知障碍、视敏度下降等。相关的神经科疾病有卒中、痴呆、帕金森病、周围神经病、深感觉障碍等。在1年内有跌倒病史的患者,再次发生跌倒的风险增加。合适的跌倒风险评估量表和预防方案对防止跌倒是非常关键的。本综述对跌倒的潜在危险因素进行评估,同时对跌倒预防措施的有效性进行全面评价。

  15. Pattern of childhood burn injuries and their management outcome at Bugando Medical Centre in Northwestern Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chalya Phillipo L

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Burn injuries constitute a major public health problem and are the leading cause of childhood morbidity and mortality worldwide. There is paucity of published data on childhood burn injuries in Tanzania, particularly the study area. This study was conducted to describe the pattern of childhood burn injuries in our local setting and to evaluate their management outcome. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted at Bugando Medical Centre (in Northwestern Tanzania over a 3-year period from January 2008 to December 2010. Data was collected using a pre-tested coded questionnaire and statistical analyses performed using SPSS software version 15.0. Results A total of 342 burned children were studied. Males were mainly affected. Children aged = 2 were the majority accounting for 45.9% of cases. Intentional burn injuries due to child abuse were reported in 2.9% of cases. Scald was the most common type of burns (56.1%. The trunk was the most commonly involved body region (57.3%. Majority of patients (48.0% sustained superficial burns. Eight (2.3% patients were HIV positive. Most patients (89.8% presented to the hospital later than 24 h. The rate of burn wound infection on admission and on 10th day were 32.4% and 39.8% respectively.Staphylococcus aureus were more common on admission wound swabs, with Pseudomonas aeruginosa becoming more evident after 10th day. MRSA was detected in 19.2% of Staphylococcus aureus. Conservative treatment was performed in 87.1% of cases. Surgical treatment mainly skin grafting (65.9% was performed in 44 (12.9% of patients. The overall average of the length of hospital stay (LOS was 22.12 ± 16.62 days. Mortality rate was 11.7%. Using multivariate logistic regression analysis; age of the patient, type of burn, delayed presentation, clothing ignition, %TBSA and severity of burn were found to be significantly associated with LOS (P P Conclusion Childhood burn injuries still remain a menace in our

  16. Peritoneal Dialysis in Childhood Acute Kidney Injury: Experience in Southwest Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ademola, Adebowale Dele; Asinobi, Adanze Onyenonachi; Ogunkunle, Oluwatoyin Olufunmilayo; Yusuf, Bamidele Nurudeen; Ojo, Olalekan Ezekiel

    2012-01-01

    ♦ Background: The choices for renal replacement therapy (RRT) in childhood acute kidney injury (AKI) are limited in low-resource settings. Peritoneal dialysis (PD) appears to be the most practical modality for RRT in young children with AKI in such settings. Data from sub-Saharan Africa on the use of PD in childhood AKI are few. ♦ Methods: We performed a retrospective study of children who underwent PD for AKI at a tertiary-care hospital in southwest Nigeria from February 2004 to March 2011 (85 months). ♦ Results: The study included 27 children (55.6% female). Mean age was 3.1 ± 2.6 years, with the youngest being 7 days, and the oldest, 9 years. The causes of AKI were intravascular hemolysis (n = 11), septicemia (n = 8), acute glomerulonephritis (n = 3), gastroenteritis (n = 3), and hemolytic uremic syndrome (n = 2). Peritoneal dialysis was performed manually using percutaneous or adapted catheters. Duration of PD ranged from 6 hours to 12 days (mean: 5.0 ± 3.3 days). The main complications were peritonitis (n = 10), pericatheter leakage (n = 9), and catheter outflow obstruction (n = 5). Of the 27 patients, 19 (70%) survived till discharge. ♦ Conclusions: In low-resource settings, PD can be successfully performed for the management of childhood AKI. In our hospital, the use of adapted catheters may have contributed to the high complication rates. Peritoneal dialysis should be promoted for the management of childhood AKI in low-resource settings, and access to percutaneous or Tenckhoff catheters, dialysis fluid, and automated PD should be increased. PMID:22550119

  17. Affect and State Dysregulation as Moderators of the Relationship between Childhood Sexual Abuse and Nonsuicidal Self-Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolen, Rebecca M.; Ramseyer Winter, Virginia; Hodges, Liz

    2013-01-01

    Nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) is a significant problem in both clinical and nonclinical populations. Affect and state dysregulation are frequently observed in survivors of childhood sexual abuse and in those who engage in NSSI. Both have been found to predict NSSI, and affect regulation has also been modeled as a mediator of NSSI. This study…

  18. Research on Unintentional Injuries and Its Affecting Factors in Preschool Children at Urban Area of Guiyang City%贵阳市城区2 193例学龄前儿童意外伤害及影响因素的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘玲; 刘筱娴; 文秋生; 王鸿娟; 李建芬; 鲁永辉

    2001-01-01

    【 Objective】 To find out the situation and influencing factors of unintentional injuries among preschool children at urban area in Guiyang city. 【Methods】 The descriptive epidemiology and case- control study was conducted among these chil drenin15kindergartens in Guiyang during1,April,98-31,Mar,99. 【Results】 The rate of injury was 24.76% with the boys ' higher than that of girls' (P < 0.05)and it rose very significanty with the chidren' s age went up.(P < 0.05) .The first threetypes of injuries were fall,collision and animal injuries.96.32% of injuries were mild and 3.68% were moderate. There was no disability and death. The analysis of single and multiple factors showed that the chileren' s unintentional injury were affected by following factors:fa ther' s age, the background of partent' s education, mother' s occupation, family pets, children' s nationality, persons taking care of chil dren, living floors and family average income. 【Conclusions】 The rate of children' s unintentional injury in Guiyang was high. The unintentionall injury was assoiated with many factors. It was a serious problem for Guiyang children.%【目的】了解贵阳市城区学龄前儿童意外伤害现况和影响因素。【方法】采用描述性流行病学和病例一对照研究的方法,对贵阳性市城区15所幼儿园的学龄前儿童在1998年4月1日~1999年3月31日期间发生的意外伤害情况和影响因素进行了研究。【结果】贵阳市城区学龄前儿童意外伤害发生率为24.76%,男童高于女童(P<0.05),意外伤害发生率随年龄增长而上升(P<0.05)。伤害类型前三位为:跌伤、撞伤、动物伤;96.32%的伤害为轻度,3.68%为中度,无1例伤残和死亡。单因素和多因素回归分析表明儿童意外伤害的发生受下列因素的影响:父亲年龄、父母文化程度、母亲职业、家庭宠物、儿童民族、儿童看护人、居住楼层、家庭人均收入等。

  19. 山西省某三甲医院意外伤害住院儿童疾病经济负担分析%Analysis on disease burden of unintentional injury among hospitalized children in a hospital of Shanxi Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋瑞娟; 王莉

    2015-01-01

    Objective To learn about the economic burden of hospital children with the unintentional injury in Changzhi based on a hospital,and to provide a scientific basis of health priorities for the region.Methods Children who had first unintentional injury and visited a hospital in Changzhi from August 1,2012 to July 31,2013 were enrolled into the study.A face-to-face interview was carried out and rank-sum test was adopted.Results The top five disease burden of unin-tentional injury were 439 192.72 Yuan (traffic accident),217 833.73 Yuan (fall),61 508.93 Yuan (poisoning), 36 118.76 Yuan (burning);15 380.19 Yuan (insect/animal bites).The total disease burden was 835 007.24 Yuan,di-rect economic burden accounted for 81.63%,indirect economic burden accounted for 18.39%.In the direct economic bur-den,hospitalization costs accounted for 80.05%.Average disease burden was 11 928.67 Yuan in each person.The economic burden of 10 -14 years old accounted for 51.87% of total economic burden.Conclusion Economic burden caused by un-intentional injury is considerable.Traffic accident damage is the heaviest damage reasons,followed by falling down.In all age group the heaviest economic burden is in 10 -14 years group.%目的:以山西省长治市某三甲医院为基点了解长治地区意外伤害住院儿童疾病经济负担,为确定本地区卫生工作重点提供科学依据。方法选取2012年8月1日—2013年7月31日首次住长治市某三甲医院的意外伤害儿童共70人作为研究对象,进行面对面调查,采用秩和检验。结果本组资料意外伤害的疾病负担,前5位的为交通事故439192.72元,跌落217833.73元,中毒61508.93元,烫伤36118.76元,昆虫/动物咬伤15380.19元。总疾病负担为835007.24元,直接经济负担占81.63%,间接经济负担占18.39%。其中直接经济负担中住院费用占80.05%。人均疾病经济负担11928.67元。10~14岁的经济负担占总经济负担的51.87%。结论

  20. Unintentional exposure to ultraviolet radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the risks from unintentional exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR), and to consider hazard control regulation, one must face first the problem of their state of scientific knowledge and the public's perception of UVR. Few people in the general public would question the health benefits of sunlight. Many flock to the beaches each summer to develop a healthy tan. Since the 1920's scientists have recognized that most of the benefits--and risks--of sunlight exposure result from the UVR present in sunlight. Dermatologists warn sunbathers to avoid exposure or protect themselves against the intense midday UVR or risk skin cancer. A growing number of scientists warn of hazards to the eye if UVR--perhaps even shorter visible wavelengths--are not filtered by lenses. In addition to any intentional exposure for health or cosmetic purposes, many people are also exposed to UVR without being aware of it or without their intent to be exposed. Outdoor workers are exposed to sunlight, many industrial workers (e.g., welders) are exposed to UVR from arc sources, some UVR penetrates clothing, and people indoors are exposed to UVR from artificial lighting

  1. Parental educational level and injury incidence and mortality among foreign-born children: a cohort study with 46 years follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Beiki

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Background: Injury risk during childhood and adolescence vary depending on socio-economic factors. The aim of this study was to study if the risk of fatal and non-fatal unintentional injuries among foreign-born children was similar across parental educational level or not. Methods: In this retrospective cohort study we followed 907,335 children between 1961 and 2007 in Sweden. We established the cohort by linkage between Swedish national registers including cause of death register and in-patient register, through unique Personal Identification Numbers. The main exposure variable was parental (maternal and paternal educational level. The cohorts was followed from start date of follow-up period, or date of birth whichever occurred last, until exit date from the cohort, which was date of hospitalization or death due to unintentional injury, first emigration, death due to other causes than injury or end of follow-up, whichever came first. We calculated hazard ratios (HR with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI by Cox proportional hazards regression models. Results: Overall, we found 705 and 78,182 cases of death and hospitalization due to unintentional injuries, respectively. Risk of death and hospitalization due to unintentional injuries was statistically significantly 1.48 (95% CI: 1.24-1.78 and 1.10 (95% CI: 1.08-1.12 times higher among children with lowest parental educational level (9 years and shorter years of study compared to children with highest parental educational level (+13 years of study. We found similar results when stratified our study group by sex of children, by maternal and paternal educational level separately, and injury type (traffic-related, fall, poisoning, burn and drowning. Conclusions: It seems injury prevention work against unintentional injuries is less effective among children with low parental education compared with those with higher parental education. We recommend designing specific preventive interventions

  2. Outcomes in Adult Survivors of Childhood Burn Injuries as Compared with Matched Controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, James; Gawaziuk, Justin P; Khan, Sazzadul; Chateau, Dan; Bolton, James M; Sareen, Jitender; Enns, Jessica; Doupe, Malcolm; Brownell, Marni; Logsetty, Sarvesh

    2016-01-01

    Limited research exists examining long-term mental and physical health outcomes in adult survivors of pediatric burns. The authors examine the postinjury lifetime prevalence of common mental and physical disorders in a large pediatric burn cohort and compare the results with matched controls. Seven hundred and forty five survivors of childhood burns identified in the Burn Registry (1% between April 1, 1988 and March 31, 2010) were matched 1:5 to the general population based on age at time of injury (index date), sex, and geographic residence. Postinjury rate ratio (RR) was used to compare burn cases and control cohorts for common mental and physical illnesses through physician billings, and hospital claims. RR was adjusted for sex, rural residence, and income. Compared with matched controls, postburn cases had significantly higher RR of all mental disorders, which remained significant (P abuse RR = 2.3 [CL: 1.7-3.2], suicide attempt RR = 4.3 [CL: 1.6-12.1], or any mental disorder RR = 1.5 [CL: 1.3-1.8]). The relative rate of some physical illnesses was also significantly increased in burn survivors: arthritis RR = 1.2 (CL: 1.1-1.4), fractures RR = 1.4 (CL: 1.2-1.6), total respiratory morbidity RR = 1.1 (CL: 1.02-1.3), and any physical illness RR = 1.2 (CL: 1.1-1.3). Adult survivors of childhood burn injury have significantly increased rates of postburn mental and physical illnesses. Screening and appropriate management of these illnesses is essential when caring for this population. PMID:26594866

  3. Suicide and unintentional poisoning mortality trends in the United States, 1987-2006: two unrelated phenomena?

    OpenAIRE

    Frost James L; Ducatman Alan M; Stack Steven; De Leo Diego; Hobbs Gerry; Rockett Ian RH; Kapusta Nestor D; Walker Rheeda L

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Two counter trends in injury mortality have been separately reported in the US in recent times - a declining suicide rate and a rapidly rising unintentional poisoning mortality rate. Poisoning suicides are especially difficult to detect, and injury of undetermined intent is the underlying cause-of-death category most likely to reflect this difficulty. We compare suicide and poisoning mortality trends over two decades in a preliminary assessment of their independence and im...

  4. Prevalence and predictors of mental disorders in intentionally and unintentionally injured emergency centre patients

    OpenAIRE

    van der Westhuizen, Claire; Wyatt, Gail; Williams, John K.; Stein, Dan J.; Sorsdahl, Katherine

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the prevalence and predictors of mental disorders amongst injured emergency centre (EC) patients in low- and middle-income countries. Patients presenting with either an intentional or unintentional injury were recruited (n=200). Mental health, injury and psychological trauma histories were assessed. Descriptive statistics and logistic regressions were conducted and predictors for current mental disorder were identified. Diagnostic criteria for a current mental disorder, ...

  5. Predictors for DSM-5 nonsuicidal self-injury in female adolescent inpatients: The role of childhood maltreatment, alexithymia, and dissociation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüdtke, Janine; In-Albon, Tina; Michel, Chantal; Schmid, Marc

    2016-05-30

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between various adverse childhood experiences, alexithymia, and dissociation in predicting nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) in an inpatient sample of female adolescents. Seventy-two adolescents (aged 14-18 years) with NSSI disorder (n=46) or mental disorders without NSSI (n=26) completed diagnostic interviews and self-report measures to assess NSSI disorder according to the DSM-5 criteria, childhood maltreatment, alexithymia, and dissociation. Alexithymia and dissociation were highly prevalent in both study groups. Multivariate logistic regression analyses indicated that only alexithymia was a significant predictor for NSSI, whereas childhood maltreatment and dissociation had no predictive influence. The association between alexithymia and NSSI emphasizes the significance of emotion regulation training for female adolescents with NSSI. Efforts to reduce NSSI behavior should therefore foster skills to heighten the perception and recognition of one's own emotions. PMID:27088878

  6. Exploring the King’s outcome scale for childhood head injury in children attending a rehabilitation hospital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rumney, Peter; Hung, Ryan; McAdam, Laura;

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Few tools exist to assess and monitor impairment and disability in children with acquired brain injury. The King’s Outcome Scale for Childhood Head Injury (KOSCHI) was developed as an alternative to the Glasgow Outcome Scale. However, limited information is available to support its...... are necessary to enhance clarity of the collected information and reduce rater disagreement over assigning a KOSCHI score at the moderate disability and good recovery levels. Previous studies used patient charts to assign KOSCHI scores. Clinicians vary in their note-taking when conducting a history...

  7. Menace of childhood non-accidental traumatic brain injuries: A single unit report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musa Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Childhood traumatic brain injury (TBI has high rate of mortality and morbidity worldwide. There are dearths of reports from developing countries with large paediatric population on trauma; neurosurgery trauma of nonaccidental origin is not an exemption. This study analysed menace of non-accidental TBI in the paediatric population from our center. Materials and Methods: This is a single unit, retrospective study of the epidemiology of non-accidental TBI in children starting from September, 2008 to March, 2014. The management outcomes of the epidemiology of the non-accidental TBI were analysed. Results: Total of 109 children age range from 0 (intra-natal to 16 years with a mean of 5.8 ± 4.6 years (median, 5 years were enrolled into the study. 34 (31.2% were domestic violence, 26 (23.9% street assaults, 16 (14.7% were due to animal assaults and mishaps, 17 (15.6% fall from heights. Seven (6.4% cases of collapsed buildings were also seen during the period. Four (3.7% industrial accidents and two (1.8% were self-inflicted injuries. There were also three (2.8% cases of iatrogenic TBI out of which two infants (1.8% sustained TBI from cesarean section procedure while one patient (0.9% under general anaesthesia felt from the operation bed resulting to severe TBI. Conclusion: Child abuse, unprotected child labour, parental/care-givers negligence are the main cause of nonaccidental TBI. Human right activists and government agents should be incorporated in curtailing the menace.

  8. Loss of independent limb control in childhood hemiparesis is related to time of brain injury onset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukal-Moulton, Theresa; Murray, Theresa M.; Dewald, Julius P.A.

    2013-01-01

    Aim This study investigated the presence of inter-limb activity at the elbow joint in individuals with childhood-onset hemiparesis, including spontaneous mirror movements during unilateral tasks and the ability to suppress them during bilateral tasks. Method Eighteen individuals with hemiparesis were divided into three categories of injury timing: before birth (PRE-natal), around the time of birth (PERI-natal), and after 6 months of age (POST-natal). Individuals with hemiparesis, as well as 12 typically developing peers, participated in unilateral and bilateral elbow flexion and extension tasks completed at maximal and submaximal effort while muscle activity was monitored and motor output was quantified by two multiple degrees-of-freedom load cells. Results Significantly higher levels of paretic elbow flexion were found only in the PRE- and PERI-natal groups during the flexion of the non-paretic limb, which was modulated by effort level in both unilateral and bilateral tasks. Interpretation The bilateral activation of elbow flexors in the PRE-/PERI-natal groups indicates potential use of a common cortical command source to drive both upper extremities, while the POST-natal/typically developing groups’ flexors appear to receive input from different supraspinal structures. PMID:23411673

  9. Neonatal encephalopathic cerebral injury in South India assessed by perinatal magnetic resonance biomarkers and early childhood neurodevelopmental outcome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J Lally

    Full Text Available Although brain injury after neonatal encephalopathy has been characterised well in high-income countries, little is known about such injury in low- and middle-income countries. Such injury accounts for an estimated 1 million neonatal deaths per year. We used magnetic resonance (MR biomarkers to characterise perinatal brain injury, and examined early childhood outcomes in South India.We recruited consecutive term or near term infants with evidence of perinatal asphyxia and a Thompson encephalopathy score ≥6 within 6 h of birth, over 6 months. We performed conventional MR imaging, diffusion tensor MR imaging and thalamic proton MR spectroscopy within 3 weeks of birth. We computed group-wise differences in white matter fractional anisotropy (FA using tract based spatial statistics. We allocated Sarnat encephalopathy stage aged 3 days, and evaluated neurodevelopmental outcomes aged 3½ years using Bayley III.Of the 54 neonates recruited, Sarnat staging was mild in 30 (56%; moderate in 15 (28% and severe in 6 (11%, with no encephalopathy in 3 (6%. Six infants died. Of the 48 survivors, 44 had images available for analysis. In these infants, imaging indicated perinatal rather than established antenatal origins to injury. Abnormalities were frequently observed in white matter (n = 40, 91% and cortex (n = 31, 70% while only 12 (27% had abnormal basal ganglia/thalami. Reduced white matter FA was associated with Sarnat stage, deep grey nuclear injury, and MR spectroscopy N-acetylaspartate/choline, but not early Thompson scores. Outcome data were obtained in 44 infants (81% with 38 (79% survivors examined aged 3½ years; of these, 16 (42% had adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes.No infants had evidence for established brain lesions, suggesting potentially treatable perinatal origins. White matter injury was more common than deep brain nuclei injury. Our results support the need for rigorous evaluation of the efficacy of rescue hypothermic

  10. Intervention effect comparison of lecture, parent-child education and network on family unintentional injury among pre-school children' s parents%成都市三种形式健康教育对儿童家庭意外伤害干预效果比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓燕; 刘熹; 夏劲节; 田红梅; 邱孟

    2013-01-01

    Objective To compare intervention effect of lecture, parent-child education and network on family un-intentional injury among pre-school children' s parents, and provide suggestions for reducing family unintentional injury inci-dence. Methods Stratified cluster sampling method was used to select 1747 pre-school children' s parents in 9 kindergar-tens to join the intervention. Effectiveness evaluation was carried out after 1 week. Results Lecture, parent-child educa-tion and network interventions showed different effect on knowledge and behavior changes. The awareness rates of furniture supplies safety and macrobiotic knowledge in network intervention group were 15. 37% and 34. 63% , higher than that of oth-er two groups. The rate of correct drug select in lecture group (12. 63% ) was highest. The prevalence of eating behavior in parent-child education group (33. 28% ) and network group (32. 43% ) were higher than that in lecture group (30. 62% ). The rates of correct behaviors of using scissors and eating habit in network were 34. 29% and 86. 66% , respectively. The rate of no playing in kitchen in lecture group (29. 07% ) was highest in three groups (P <0. 05). Conclusion Internet in-tervention in health education plays an important role in reducing family unintentional injury. Various methods should be car-ried out among pre-school children to help them establish safety habit,and then reduce the rate of unintentional injury in fu-ture.%目的 比较授课、亲子教育及网络干预方式对儿童家庭意外伤害的干预效果,为降低儿童家庭意外伤害发生率提供建议.方法 采用分层整群抽样方法,选取成都市9所幼儿园的幼儿家长1747名参加干预活动,在干预后1周采用问卷进行效果评价.结果 在安全知识中,家居用品安全检查最重要的五方面和抗生素治疗的病原类型,网络干预组知晓率最高,分别为15.37%和34.63%;药物的正确选择上,教师讲解组知晓率最高(12.63

  11. Suicide and unintentional poisoning mortality trends in the United States, 1987-2006: two unrelated phenomena?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frost James L

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Two counter trends in injury mortality have been separately reported in the US in recent times - a declining suicide rate and a rapidly rising unintentional poisoning mortality rate. Poisoning suicides are especially difficult to detect, and injury of undetermined intent is the underlying cause-of-death category most likely to reflect this difficulty. We compare suicide and poisoning mortality trends over two decades in a preliminary assessment of their independence and implications for suicide misclassification. Methods Description of overall and gender- and age-specific trends using national mortality data from WISQARS, the Web-based Injury Statistics Query and Reporting System, maintained by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC. Subjects were the 936,633 residents dying in the 50 states and the District of Columbia between 1987 and 2006 whose underlying cause of death was classified as suicide, unintentional poisoning, or injury mortality of undetermined intent. Results The official US suicide rate declined 18% between 1987 and 2000, from 12.71 to 10.43 deaths per 100,000 population. It then increased to 11.15 deaths per 100,000 by 2006, a 7% rise. By contrast to these much smaller rate changes for suicide, the unintentional poisoning mortality rate rose more than fourfold between 1987 and 2006, from 2.19 to 9.22 deaths per 100,000. Only the population aged 65 years and older showed a sustained decline in the suicide rate over the entire observation period. Consistently highest in gender-age comparisons, the elderly male rate declined by 35%. The elderly female rate declined by 43%. Unlike rate trends for the non-elderly, both declines appeared independent of corresponding mortality trends for unintentional poisoning and poisoning of undetermined intent. The elderly also deviated from younger counterparts by having a smaller proportion of their injury deaths of undetermined intent classified as poisoning

  12. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound in non-operative management of pancreatic injury in childhood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valentino, Massimo; Sartoni Galloni, Stefania; Rimondi, Maria Rita; Barozzi, Libero [University Hospital S. Orsola-Malpighi, Emergency Department, Bologna (Italy); Gentili, Andrea [University Hospital S. Orsola-Malpighi, Department of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care, Bologna (Italy); Lima, Mario [University Hospital S. Orsola-Malpighi, Department of Paediatrics, Bologna (Italy)

    2006-06-15

    We report a 5-year-old child with pancreatic trauma from a blunt abdominal injury that was monitored with contrast-enhanced sonography. Unenhanced US failed to demonstrate the abnormality that was recognized by CT and MRI. The injury was well demonstrated by contrast-enhanced US which was therefore used for follow-up until its healing. (orig.)

  13. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound in non-operative management of pancreatic injury in childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report a 5-year-old child with pancreatic trauma from a blunt abdominal injury that was monitored with contrast-enhanced sonography. Unenhanced US failed to demonstrate the abnormality that was recognized by CT and MRI. The injury was well demonstrated by contrast-enhanced US which was therefore used for follow-up until its healing. (orig.)

  14. The Development of Emotion and Empathy Skills after Childhood Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonks, James; Slater, Alan; Frampton, Ian; Wall, Sarah E.; Yates, Phil; Williams, W. Huw

    2009-01-01

    Lasting socio-emotional behaviour difficulties are common among children who have suffered brain injuries. A proportion of difficulties may be attributed to impaired cognitive and/or executive skills after injury. A recent and rapidly accruing body of literature indicates that deficits in recognizing and responding to the emotions of others are…

  15. Unintentional child neglect: literature review and observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Emily; Billick, Stephen B

    2015-06-01

    Child abuse is a problem that affects over six million children in the United States each year. Child neglect accounts for 78% of those cases. Despite this, the issue of child neglect is still not well understood, partially because child neglect does not have a consistent, universally accepted definition. Some researchers consider child neglect and child abuse to be one in the same, while other researchers consider them to be conceptually different. Factors that make child neglect difficult to define include: (1) Cultural differences; motives must be taken into account because parents may believe they are acting in the child's best interests based on cultural beliefs (2) the fact that the effect of child abuse is not always immediately visible; the effects of emotional neglect specifically may not be apparent until later in the child's development, and (3) the large spectrum of actions that fall under the category of child abuse. Some of the risk factors for increased child neglect and maltreatment have been identified. These risk factors include socioeconomic status, education level, family composition, and the presence of dysfunction family characteristics. Studies have found that children from poorer families and children of less educated parents are more likely to sustain fatal unintentional injuries than children of wealthier, better educated parents. Studies have also found that children living with adults unrelated to them are at increased risk for unintentional injuries and maltreatment. Dysfunctional family characteristics may even be more indicative of child neglect. Parental alcohol or drug abuse, parental personal history of neglect, and parental stress greatly increase the odds of neglect. Parental depression doubles the odds of child neglect. However, more research needs to be done to better understand these risk factors and to identify others. Having a clearer understanding of the risk factors could lead to prevention and treatment, as it would allow

  16. Accidental firearm injury in childhood--a predictor of social and medical outcome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponzer, S; Bergman, B; Brismar, B; Johansson, S E

    1997-09-01

    This paper reports register data on a consecutive series of 141 children and teenagers hospitalized due to firearm injuries during a 21-year period in a community with restrictive firearm laws. Most of the injuries were minor and hospitalization was short. Shot by an air gun resulting in an eye injury was the most frequent reason for hospitalization. The patients hospitalized due to firearm injuries were compared with a control group composed of 141 individuals matched pair-wise for sex and age. The total morbidity during the follow-up period of on average 10 years was higher among patients compared with controls concerning both somatic diseases and injuries. All cases of severe psychopathology were found in the patient group. Criminality was higher among patients compared with controls and the former were younger at the time of the first crime compared with the latter. This study indicates that, irrespective of firearm laws, young people suffering from firearm injuries, even if the injury is classified as accidental, run a higher risk of becoming psychosocially disadvantaged and criminal as adults. This makes preventative measures highly necessary not only from a societal point of view, but also to avoid individual suffering in this high-risk group of youngsters. PMID:9426991

  17. Firearms in US homes as a risk factor for unintentional gunshot fatality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiebe, Douglas J

    2003-09-01

    This study used national data and a matched case-control design to estimate the relative risk of death by an unintentional gunshot associated with having firearms in the home. A sample of adults who died in the United States in 1993 from unintentional gunshot injuries was drawn from the National Mortality Followback Survey (NMFS) (n=84). Twenty controls were sought for each case from the 1994 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) and matched to the cases by sex, age group, race, and region of residence (n=1451). Subjects were classified as having or not having guns in the home based interview responses. The relative risk of death by an unintentional gunshot injury, comparing subjects living in homes with and without guns, was 3.7 (95% confidence interval (CI)=1.9-7.2). Adjustment for covariates resulted in little change in the effect estimates. There was evidence of a dose-response effect: compared to subjects living in homes with no guns, the relative risk was 3.4 (95% CI=1.5-7.6) among subjects with one gun and 3.9 (95% CI=2.0-7.8) among subjects with multiple guns in the home. Having handguns in the home was associated with the largest effect estimates. Tests of homogeneity showed that the effect estimates did not vary significantly across categories of the matching variables. Firearms in the home appear to be a risk factor for unintentional gunshot fatality among adults. The magnitude of the observed effect estimates should be compared with those from additional studies. PMID:12850071

  18. Repercussões no contexto familiar de injúrias não-intencionais em crianças - DOI: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.1087 The repercussion from unintentional injuries in children on the family context - DOI: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.1087

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirna Albuquerque Frota

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desta pesquisa é estudar as características da criança como vítima de injúrias não-intencionais e seu familiar-acompanhante, descrever as repercussões dessas injúrias na família e identificar a concepção de familiares-acompanhantes sobre fatores de risco no domicílio e o conhecimento de práticas preventivas. Estudo descritivo, realizado com 29 familiares e/ou acompanhantes de crianças internadas em um hospital de emergência, em Fortaleza, Ceará, em 2005. A maioria das crianças tinha entre 5 a 10 anos, do sexo masculino, e prevaleceu a injúria no trânsito. Em relação aos acompanhantes, predominou renda de até um salário mínimo e eles afirmaram que conhecem os tipos mais comuns de injúrias com crianças e os modos de evitá-los. As repercussões atingem as dimensões emocionais, econômicas e sociais, somando-se verbalizações de medo, culpa e arrependimento, protesto e resignação. Conclui-se que o tema precisa ser amplamente discutido, mobilizando pessoas em instâncias formadoras de opiniões para reorientação da práxis na Saúde e EducaçãoThe objective of this work is to study the characteristics of the child when victim of unintentional injury, as well as those of his family caregiver. This was accomplished by describing the repercussion of those injuries in the family and identifying the family caregivers’ conception of risk factors in the home, as well as their knowledge of preventive practices. A descriptive study was conducted with 29 relatives or caregivers of injured children at an emergency hospital in Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil, in 2005. Most of the children were between 5 and 10 years old and were male; the most prevalent instances of injury were traffic-related. Regarding the caregivers, the most prevalent income range for this group was up to minimum wage. They reported knowing the most frequent types of injuries to children, as well as the ways to avoid them. The repercussions within the

  19. Unintentional Learning and the Occupational Health and Safety Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodge, R. Bruce

    1998-01-01

    Evidence from the occupational safety and health field suggests that much unintentional learning takes place in the workplace that is not a result of conscious decisions and lacks critical reflection. Such learning may have negative consequences. Action can be taken to identify and mitigate the effects of unintentional learning. (SK)

  20. Brain and head injury in infancy and childhood; Schaedel- und Hirntrauma im Kindesalter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Struffert, T. [Abteilung fuer Neuroradiologie, Radiologische Klinik, Universitaet des Saarlandes, Homburg, Saar (Germany); Abteilung fuer Neuroradiologie, Radiologische Klinik, Universitaet des Saarlandes, 66421, Homburg, Saar (Germany); Grunwald, I.; Reith, W. [Abteilung fuer Neuroradiologie, Radiologische Klinik, Universitaet des Saarlandes, Homburg, Saar (Germany)

    2003-11-01

    This article describes typical head injuries in infants and children. In comparison with adults there are distinct differences in the etiology of trauma and in the kind of reaction of the skull and brain. In infants and children there are three different types of trauma: birth trauma, accidental and non-accidental injury. The typical injuries in these three groups are described. (orig.) [German] In diesem Beitrag werden die typischen Schaedel- und Hirnverletzungen bei Kindern zusammengefasst. Bei diesen bestehen im Vergleich zu Erwachsenen deutliche Unterschiede in der Aetiologie und der Reaktion der Kalotte und des Gehirns auf ein Trauma. Bezueglich der Aetiologie kann unterschieden werden in Geburtstrauma, akzidentelles und nichtakzidentelles Trauma. Die typischen Verletzungen dieser 3 Gruppen werden ausfuehrlich beschrieben. (orig.)

  1. Prediction of complications following unintentional caustic ingestion in children. Is endoscopy always necessary?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christesen, H B

    1995-01-01

    The records of 115 children hospitalized following caustic ingestion over an 18.5-year period from 1976 to 1994 were reviewed. The relationship between types of product ingested, signs and symptoms, degree of esophageal injury and complications was analyzed. All complications were the result of...... respiratory complications, in symptomatic ingestions of lye or ammonia water, in children with respiratory symptoms, and in rare cases of severe symptoms following ADD or strong acid ingestion. It is suggested that children who are non-symptomatic following unintentional ingestions are not at risk of...

  2. The effect of health education to cognitive and behavioral of the kindergarten children and their parents on unintentional injuries%健康教育对托幼机构儿童及其家长意外伤害认知和行为的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    覃凌智; 彭安娜; 陈忠; 陈娟; 郭丹; 张斌

    2012-01-01

    目的:探索健康教育在有效预防托幼机构儿童意外伤害中的作用.方法:随机抽取武汉2所幼儿园大、中、小班各2个班3~6岁托幼机构儿童共181名,并将其家长作为调查对象,采用自行编写印制的书籍、儿歌、游戏模具、故事、主题活动、讲座等形式,分别在开展健康教育前后对儿童及其家长进行两次问卷调查.结果:健康教育后,儿童及其家长在儿童乘车安全知识、烫伤、发现煤气泄漏、鼻腔塞入异物的处理、对剪刀、打火机、电插座等有可能造成伤害物品的识别、交通安全等方面的回答正确率均显著增高,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05或P<0.01),在幼儿单独在家时的安全知识、防止跌落等方面的回答正确率也较健康教育前有所提高,但差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论:健康教育干预可明显改善家长和儿童意外伤害的认知和行为.%Objective: To explore the role of health education in effectively preventing unintenlional injury of kindergarten children. Methods: A total of 181 children aged 3-6 and their parents were randomly selected from large, medium and small classes of two kindergartens in Wuhan Health education included self ?published books, songs, games, story, theme activities, lectures and others The investigation was maken in the children and their parents before and after the health education. Results: After health education, answering correct rates of children and their parents in child car safety knowledge, burns, found a gas leak, nasal foreign body inserted into the handling of scissors, cigarette lighters, power outlets and other items may cause harm to the identification, traffic safety and other aspects were significantly higher (P 0. 05) . Conclusion; Health education can significantly improve cognitive and behavioral of children and their parents on unintentional injuries.

  3. A STUDY TO ASSESS THE KNOWLEDGE OF RURAL MOTHERS REGARDING COMMON DOMESTIC CHILDHOOD INJURIES AND HOME-SAFETY MEASURES ADOPTED BY THEM IN WEST DISTRICT OF TRIPURA, INDIA

    OpenAIRE

    Manjulika; Taranga; Amar

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Fragile, helpless and innocent, an infant enters the world completely dependent on its caretakers. The house is an exciting place for infants and small children, who love to explore but aren’t aware of the potential dangers. OBJECTIVES: To assess knowledge of mothers regarding domestic childhood injuries and safety measures adopted by them. METHODOLOGY: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 230 rural mothers of west Tripura district during May to June 201...

  4. Language development following brain injury in early childhood: a longitudinal case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trudeau, N; Poulin-Dubois, D; Joanette, Y

    2000-01-01

    The present longitudinal case study was designed to investigate the possibility that a traumatic brain injury (TBI) occurring during the second year of life, while significant lexical and grammatical competencies are emerging, could have an impact on subsequent language development. Thus, the language development of a very young girl (BL) who suffered a TBI at the age of 17 months was monitored for 6 months following the injury. Different procedures were used to measure her lexical and grammatical development: monthly parental checklists, free-play sessions and word-learning tasks. BL's results were compared with two control groups (n = 5 and 9) matched for age and gender. Overall, the results are consistent with the classical view of acquired language disorders in children: despite an initial decrease in the use of her premorbid vocabulary, BL showed no durable significant impairment on any measure of lexical or grammatical development. PMID:10912253

  5. Evidence for unintentional emotional contagion beyond dyads.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Dezecache

    Full Text Available Little is known about the spread of emotions beyond dyads. Yet, it is of importance for explaining the emergence of crowd behaviors. Here, we experimentally addressed whether emotional homogeneity within a crowd might result from a cascade of local emotional transmissions where the perception of another's emotional expression produces, in the observer's face and body, sufficient information to allow for the transmission of the emotion to a third party. We reproduced a minimal element of a crowd situation and recorded the facial electromyographic activity and the skin conductance response of an individual C observing the face of an individual B watching an individual A displaying either joy or fear full body expressions. Critically, individual B did not know that she was being watched. We show that emotions of joy and fear displayed by A were spontaneously transmitted to C through B, even when the emotional information available in B's faces could not be explicitly recognized. These findings demonstrate that one is tuned to react to others' emotional signals and to unintentionally produce subtle but sufficient emotional cues to induce emotional states in others. This phenomenon could be the mark of a spontaneous cooperative behavior whose function is to communicate survival-value information to conspecifics.

  6. Children's Understanding of No Diving Warning Signs: Implications for Preventing Childhood Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrongiello, Barbara A; Cox, Amanda; Scott, Rachel; Sutey, Sarah E

    2016-01-01

    The current study examined children's understanding of No Diving warning signs. Normally-developing 7 to 10 year olds were asked questions to assess their understanding of text, images, and main messages on No Diving warning signs. These structured interviews were audio recorded and responses were later coded. Results revealed that children understood the behavior advised against (diving), why it is prohibited (can hit head on the bottom), and what can happen (serious injury including hospitalization). They understood that breaking your neck results in limitations in mobility and can occur from diving, but they did not anticipate that such an injury is likely to occur. There were no gender and few age differences, but diving experience was associated with children significantly downplaying their risk of injury. The findings suggest that having No Diving warning signs explicitly mention a broken neck, may serve to remind children of this potential consequence at the time of decision making. Active adult supervision is particularly important for children who have prior positive diving experiences. PMID:27399739

  7. Children’s Understanding of No Diving Warning Signs: Implications for Preventing Childhood Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara A. Morrongiello

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The current study examined children’s understanding of No Diving warning signs. Normally-developing 7 to 10 year olds were asked questions to assess their understanding of text, images, and main messages on No Diving warning signs. These structured interviews were audio recorded and responses were later coded. Results revealed that children understood the behavior advised against (diving, why it is prohibited (can hit head on the bottom, and what can happen (serious injury including hospitalization. They understood that breaking your neck results in limitations in mobility and can occur from diving, but they did not anticipate that such an injury is likely to occur. There were no gender and few age differences, but diving experience was associated with children significantly downplaying their risk of injury. The findings suggest that having No Diving warning signs explicitly mention a broken neck, may serve to remind children of this potential consequence at the time of decision making. Active adult supervision is particularly important for children who have prior positive diving experiences.

  8. Neuroimaging for non-accidental head injury in childhood: A proposed protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaspan, T.; Griffiths, P.D.; McConachie, N.S.; Punt, J.A.G

    2003-01-01

    Non-accidental head injury (NAHI) is a major cause of neurological disability and death during infancy. Radiological imaging plays a crucial role in evaluating craniospinal injury, both for guiding medical management and the forensic aspects of abusive trauma. The damage sustained is varied, complex and may be accompanied by an evolving pattern of brain injury secondary to a cascade of metabolic and physiological derangements. Regrettably, many cases are poorly or incompletely evaluated leading to diagnostic errors and difficulties in executing subsequent child care or criminal proceedings. It is evident, from cases referred to the authors, that imaging protocols for NAHI are lacking (or only loosely adhered to, if present) in many centres throughout the U.K. Future research in this field will also be hampered if there is a lack of consistent and reliable radiological data. There is no nationally agreed protocol for imaging NAHI. We propose such a protocol, based upon a wide experience in the medical management of child abuse and extensive involvement in the medicolegal aspects of NAHI. Jaspan, T., et al. (2003). Clinical Radiology58, 44--53.

  9. Neuroimaging for non-accidental head injury in childhood: A proposed protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Non-accidental head injury (NAHI) is a major cause of neurological disability and death during infancy. Radiological imaging plays a crucial role in evaluating craniospinal injury, both for guiding medical management and the forensic aspects of abusive trauma. The damage sustained is varied, complex and may be accompanied by an evolving pattern of brain injury secondary to a cascade of metabolic and physiological derangements. Regrettably, many cases are poorly or incompletely evaluated leading to diagnostic errors and difficulties in executing subsequent child care or criminal proceedings. It is evident, from cases referred to the authors, that imaging protocols for NAHI are lacking (or only loosely adhered to, if present) in many centres throughout the U.K. Future research in this field will also be hampered if there is a lack of consistent and reliable radiological data. There is no nationally agreed protocol for imaging NAHI. We propose such a protocol, based upon a wide experience in the medical management of child abuse and extensive involvement in the medicolegal aspects of NAHI. Jaspan, T., et al. (2003). Clinical Radiology58, 44--53

  10. Children’s Understanding of No Diving Warning Signs: Implications for Preventing Childhood Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrongiello, Barbara A.; Cox, Amanda; Scott, Rachel; Sutey, Sarah E.

    2016-01-01

    The current study examined children’s understanding of No Diving warning signs. Normally-developing 7 to 10 year olds were asked questions to assess their understanding of text, images, and main messages on No Diving warning signs. These structured interviews were audio recorded and responses were later coded. Results revealed that children understood the behavior advised against (diving), why it is prohibited (can hit head on the bottom), and what can happen (serious injury including hospitalization). They understood that breaking your neck results in limitations in mobility and can occur from diving, but they did not anticipate that such an injury is likely to occur. There were no gender and few age differences, but diving experience was associated with children significantly downplaying their risk of injury. The findings suggest that having No Diving warning signs explicitly mention a broken neck, may serve to remind children of this potential consequence at the time of decision making. Active adult supervision is particularly important for children who have prior positive diving experiences. PMID:27399739

  11. Evolving hypopituitarism as a consequence of traumatic brain injury (TBI) in childhood - call for attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medic-Stojanoska, Milica; Pekic, Sandra; Curic, Nikola; Djilas-Ivanovic, Dragana; Popovic, Vera

    2007-06-01

    Hypopituitarism is a common complication of TBI in long-term survivors, more frequent than previously realized. It may be partial or complete, sometimes very subtle without visible lesions in hypothalamo-pituitary region and is diagnosed only by biochemical means. Neuroendocrine abnormalities caused by TBI may have significant implications for the recovery and rehabilitation of these patients. The subjects at risk are those who have suffered moderate to severe trauma, although mild intensity trauma may precede hypopituitarism also. Particular attention should be paid to this problem in children and adolescents. We describe a patient with hypopituitarism thought to be idiopathic due to mild head trauma which caused diabetes insipidus in childhood, gradual failure of pituitary hormones during the period of growth and development, and metabolic (dyslipidemia), physical (obesity), and cognitive impairments in the adult period. PMID:17906374

  12. Developing Methods of Repurposing Electronic Health Record Data for Identification of Older Adults at Risk of Unintentional Falls

    OpenAIRE

    Baus, Adam; Zullig, Keith; Long, Dustin; Mullett, Charles; Pollard, Cecil; Taylor, Henry; Coben, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    Nationally, nearly 40 percent of community-dwelling adults age 65 and older fall at least once a year, making unintentional falls the leading cause of both fatal and nonfatal injuries among this age group. Addressing this public health problem in primary care offers promise. However, challenges in incorporating fall risk screening into primary care result in a problem of missed opportunities for screening, counseling, intervention, and ultimately prevention. Given these barriers, this study e...

  13. Are unintentional nurse-attended deliveries a patient safety issue?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veltman, Larry

    2016-08-01

    Unintentional nurse-attended deliveries occur on most labor and delivery units. Some precipitous deliveries are unavoidable, but others, occurring after admission with the expectation that the woman's designated provider would attend the delivery are, for a variety of reasons, still attended only by nursing staff. This study was undertaken to establish a benchmark for unintentional nurse-attended deliveries. Fifty perinatal units were studied with respect to their statistics regarding unintentional nurse-attended deliveries. Ten of the 50 perinatal units (20%) did not keep statistics on unintentional nurse-attended deliveries. The average percentage of unintentional nurse-attended deliveries in the 40 perinatal units that did keep this statistic was 1.38% (range 0-5.3%). This benchmark should be useful as the safety issues for these types of deliveries are analyzed. Audits regarding timing of examinations during labor, practices regarding notification of providers and other communication practices, provider arrival times, and involved personnel should help perinatal units develop policies, protocols, and strategies to minimize the chances for unintentional nurse-attended deliveries when there should be enough time and appropriate communication to allow the woman's provider to be present at the delivery. PMID:27547875

  14. Childhood Obesity

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-08-06

    In this podcast, Dr. Tom Frieden, CDC Director, discusses the decrease in childhood obesity rates and what strategies have been proven to work to help our children grow up and thrive.  Created: 8/6/2013 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control.   Date Released: 3/6/2014.

  15. Injury prevention and public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Sleet

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Injuries are one of the most under-recognized public health problems facing the world today. With more than 5 million deaths every year, violence and injuries account for 9% of global mortality, as many deaths as from HIV, Malaria and Tuberculosis combined. Eight of the 15 leading causes of death for people ages 15 to 29 years are injury-related: road traffic injuries, suicides, homicides, drowning, burns, war injuries, poisonings and falls. For every death due to war, there are three deaths due to homicide and five deaths due to suicide. However, most violence happens to people behind closed doors and results not in death, but often in years of physical and emotional suffering [1]. Injuries can be classified by intent: unintentional or intentional. Traffic injuries, fire-related injuries, falls, drowning, and poisonings are most often classified as unintentional injuries; injuries due to assault, selfinflicted violence such as suicide, and war are classified as intentional injuries, or violence. Worldwide, governments and public and private partners are increasingly aware of the strains that unintentional injuries and violence place on societies. In response they are strengthening data collection systems, improving services for victims and survivors, and increasing prevention efforts [1].

  16. Self-perceptions of young adults who survived severe childhood burn injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, William; Robert, Rhonda S; Thomas, Christopher R; Holzer, Charles E; Blakeney, Patricia; Meyer, Walter J

    2013-01-01

    significantly lower self-concept scores on the TSCS2 physical scale are consistent with the physical disfigurement and handicaps common with major burn injuries, and a strong indication of this group's perception of the first impression made when interacting with others. The survivors seem to feel worthwhile within the contexts of family and friends. Although the major limitation of this study using the TSCS2 is the lack of a matched reference population to compare the burn survivors, the TSCS2 does help in gaining insight into the self-esteem issues of the burn survivor population. PMID:23202876

  17. Intentional and unintentional poisoning in Pakistan: a pilot study using the Emergency Departments surveillance project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Background Acute poisoning is one of the most common reasons for emergency department visits around the world. In Pakistan, the epidemiological data on poisoning is limited due to an under developed poison information surveillance system. We aim to describe the characteristics associated with intentional and unintentional poisoning in Pakistan presenting to emergency departments. Methods The data was extracted from the Pakistan National Emergency Department Surveillance (Pak-NEDS) which was an active surveillance conducted between November 2010 and March 2011. All patients, regardless of age, who presented with poisoning to any of Pakistan's seven major tertiary care centers' emergency departments, were included. Information about patient demographics, type of poisoning agent, reason for poisoning and outcomes were collected using a standard questionnaire. Results Acute poisoning contributed to 1.2% (n = 233) of patients with intentional and unintentional injuries presenting to EDs of participating centers. Of these, 68% were male, 54% were aged 19 to 44 and 19% were children and adolescents (drug/medicine (27%), alcohol (16.7%) and food/plant (6%). In half of all patients the poisoning was intentional. A total of 11.6% of the patients were admitted and 6.6% died. Conclusion Poisoning causes more morbidity and mortality in young adults in Pakistan compared to other age groups, half of which is intentional. Improving mental health, regulatory control for hazardous chemicals and better access to care through poison information centers and emergency departments will potentially help control the problem. PMID:26691609

  18. The Harstad injury prevention study: the epidemiology of sports injuries. An 8 year study.

    OpenAIRE

    Ytterstad, B.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To describe the epidemiology of sports injuries occurring in a community during 8 years and to evaluate the outcome of an intervention implemented against injuries occurring in downhill skiing. METHODS--Hospital treated sports injuries occurring in Harstad, Norway (population 22 600) were recorded prospectively during an 8 year period. A prevention programme targeting downhill skiing injuries was evaluated. RESULTS--2234 sports injuries accounted for 17.2% of recorded unintentional...

  19. Social differences in injury risk in childhood and youth : Exploring the roles of structural and triggering factors

    OpenAIRE

    Engström, Karin

    2003-01-01

    Injuries are a leading cause of mortality and morbidity among children and adolescents. Injury risks are not randomly distributed across social groups. The primary aim of this thesis is to increase knowledge about the determinants of the social distribution of injuries among children and adolescents. Family-related social characteristics and peer victimisation in the school environment are studied separately and in combination. The first three studies, based on Swedish nati...

  20. A STUDY TO ASSESS THE KNOWLEDGE OF RURAL MOTHERS REGARDING COMMON DOMESTIC CHILDHOOD INJURIES AND HOME-SAFETY MEASURES ADOPTED BY THEM IN WEST DISTRICT OF TRIPURA, INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjulika

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fragile, helpless and innocent, an infant enters the world completely dependent on its caretakers. The house is an exciting place for infants and small children, who love to explore but aren’t aware of the potential dangers. OBJECTIVES: To assess knowledge of mothers regarding domestic childhood injuries and safety measures adopted by them. METHODOLOGY: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 230 rural mothers of west Tripura district during May to June 2012. A systematic random sampling technique was used to select individual participant and information collected using pre-tested semi-structured interview schedule. RESULTS: The majority (71.3% of respondents were in the age group 20-25 yea, housewives (79.56%, nuclear families (67.7%, up to primary education (60.9% and family income of injuries. Out of which 6(66.7% of respondents’ children 3 were treated at home, remaining at hospital and all of them recovered. No significant relationship between age of mother and level of knowledge (X2 for trend, p= 1.094. There was significant relation (p= 0.016 between sex of the child and level of knowledge of mothers. CONCLUSION: The study revealed that sex of the children was important factor for knowledge level of mothers. The reported incidence of domestic injury was low that might have been due to under reporting.

  1. Severe Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... inflicted traumatic brain injury (ITBI), is a leading cause of child maltreatment deaths in the United States. Meeting the ... Awareness Additional Prevention Resources Childhood Injuries Concussion in Children and Teens Injuries from Violence Injuries from Motor Vehicle Crashes Teen Driver Safety ...

  2. Unintentional Discontinuation of Chronic Medications for Seniors in Nursing Homes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stall, Nathan M.; Fischer, Hadas D.; Wu, C. Fangyun; Bierman, Arlene S.; Brener, Stacey; Bronskill, Susan; Etchells, Edward; Fernandes, Olavo; Lau, Davina; Mamdani, Muhammad M.; Rochon, Paula; Urbach, David R.; Bell, Chaim M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Transitions of care leave patients vulnerable to the unintentional discontinuation of medications with proven efficacy for treating chronic diseases. Older adults residing in nursing homes may be especially susceptible to this preventable adverse event. The effect of large-scale policy changes on improving this practice is unknown. The objective of this study was to analyze the effect of a national medication reconciliation accreditation requirement for nursing homes on rates of unintentional medication discontinuation after hospital discharge. It was a population-based retrospective cohort study that used linked administrative records between 2003 and 2012 of all hospitalizations in Ontario, Canada. We identified nursing home residents aged ≥66 years who had continuous use of ≥1 of the 3 selected medications for chronic disease: levothyroxine, HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins), and proton pump inhibitors (PPIs). In 2008 medication reconciliation became a required practice for accreditation of Canadian nursing homes. The main outcome measures included the proportion of patients who restarted the medication of interest after hospital discharge at 7 days. We also performed a time series analysis to examine the impact of the accreditation requirement on rates of unintentional medication discontinuation. The study included 113,088 adults aged ≥66 years who were nursing home residents, had an acute hospitalization, and were discharged alive to the same nursing home. Overall rates of discontinuation at 7-days after hospital discharge were highest in 2003–2004 for all nursing homes: 23.9% for thyroxine, 26.4% for statins, and 23.9% for PPIs. In most of the cases, these overall rates decreased annually and were lowest in 2011–2012: 4.0% for thyroxine, 10.6% for statins, and 8.3% for PPIs. The time series analysis found that nursing home accreditation did not significantly lower medication discontinuation rates for any of the 3 drug groups. From 2003

  3. Multiple bilateral lower limb fractures in a 2-year-old child: previously unreported injury with a unique mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Basant Repswal; Anuj Jain; Sunil Gupta; Aditya Aggarwal; Tushar Kohli; Devendra Pathrot

    2014-01-01

    Fall from height is a common cause of unintentional injuries in children and accounts for 6% of all trauma-related childhood deaths,usually from head injury.We report a case of a 2-year-old child with multiple fractures of the bilateral lower limbs due to this reason.A child fell from a height of around 15 feet after toppling from a balcony.He developed multiple fractures involving the right femoral shaft,right distal femoral epiphysis (Salter Harris type 2),right distal metaphysis of the tibia and fibula,and undisplaced Salter Harris type 2 epiphyseal injury of the left distal tibia.There were no head,abdominal or spinal injuries.The patient was taken into emergency operation theatre after initial management which consisted of intravenous fluids,blood transfusion,and splintage of both lower limbs.Fracture of the femoral shaft was treated by closed reduction and fixation using two titanium elastic nails.Distal femoral physeal injury required open reduction and fixation with K wires.Distal tibia fractures were closely reduced and managed nonoperatively in both the lower limbs.All the fractures united in four weeks.At the last follow-up,the child had no disability and was able to perform daily activities comfortably.We also proposed the unique mechanism of injury in this report.

  4. Multiple bilateral lower limb fractures in a 2-year-old child: previously unreported injury with a unique mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repswal, Basant; Jain, Anuj; Gupta, Sunil; Aggarwal, Aditya; Kohli, Tushar; Pathrot, Devendra

    2014-01-01

    Fall from height is a common cause of unintentional injuries in children and accounts for 6% of all trauma-related childhood deaths, usually from head injury. We report a case of a 2-year-old child with multiple fractures of the bilateral lower limbs due to this reason. A child fell from a height of around 15 feet after toppling from a balcony. He developed multiple fractures involving the right femoral shaft, right distal femoral epiphysis (Salter Harris type 2), right distal metaphysis of the tibia and fibula, and undisplaced Salter Harris type 2 epiphyseal injury of the left distal tibia. There were no head, abdominal or spinal injuries. The patient was taken into emergency operation theatre after initial management which consisted of intravenous fluids, blood transfusion, and splintage of both lower limbs. Fracture of the femoral shaft was treated by closed reduction and fixation using two titanium elastic nails. Distal femoral physeal injury required open reduction and fixation with K wires. Distal tibia fractures were closely reduced and managed nonoperatively in both the lower limbs. All the fractures united in four weeks. At the last follow-up, the child had no disability and was able to perform daily activities comfortably. We also proposed the unique mechanism of injury in this report. PMID:25293902

  5. Multiple bilateral lower limb fractures in a 2-year-old child: previously unreported injury with a unique mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuj Jain

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Fall from height is a common cause of unintentional injuries in children and accounts for 6% of all trauma-related childhood deaths, usually from head injury. We report a case of a 2-year-old child with multiple fractures of the bilateral lower limbs due to this reason. A child fell from a height of around 15 feet after toppling from a alcony. He developed multiple fractures involving the right femoral shaft, right distal femoral epiphysis (Salter Harris type 2, right distal metaphysis of the tibia and fi bula, and undisplaced Salter Harris type 2 epiphyseal injury of the left distal tibia. There were no head, abdominal or spinal injuries. The patient was taken into emergency operation theatre after initial management which consisted of intravenous fl uids, blood transfusion, and splintage of both lower limbs. Fracture of the femoral shaft was treated by closed reduction and fixation using two titanium elastic nails. Distal femoral physeal injury required open eduction and fixation with K wires. Distal tibia fractures were closely reduced and managed nonoperatively in both the lower limbs. All the fractures united in four weeks. At the last follow-up, the child had no disability and was able to perform daily ctivities comfortably. We also proposed the unique mechanism of injury in this report. Key words: Multiple bilateral lower limb fractures; Fall; Child

  6. Unintentionality of affective attention across visual processing stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andero eUusberg

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Affective attention involves bottom-up perceptual selection that prioritizes motivationally significant stimuli. To clarify the extent to which this process is automatic, we investigated the dependence of affective attention on the intention to process emotional meaning. Affective attention was manipulated by presenting IAPS images with variable arousal and intentionality by requiring participants to make affective and non-affective evaluations. Polytomous rather than binary decisions were required from the participants in order to elicit relatively deep emotional processing. The temporal dynamics of prioritized processing were assessed using Early Posterior Negativity (EPN, 175-300 ms as well as P3-like (P3, 300 – 500 ms and Slow Wave (SW, 500 – 1500 ms portions of the Late Positive Potential. All analysed components were differentially sensitive to stimulus categories suggesting that they indeed reflect distinct stages of motivational significance encoding. The intention to perceive emotional meaning had no effect on EPN, an additive effect on P3, and an interactive effect on SW. We concluded that affective attention went from completely unintentional during the EPN to partially unintentional during P3 and SW where top-down signals, respectively, complemented and modulated bottom-up differences in stimulus prioritization. The findings were interpreted in light of two-stage models of visual perception by associating the EPN with large-capacity initial relevance detection and the P3 as well as SW with capacity-limited consolidation and elaboration of affective stimuli.

  7. Unintentional topical lindane ingestions--United States, 1998-2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-06-01

    Lindane is an organochlorine pesticide found in certain prescription-only shampoos and topical lotions used to treat pediculosis (i.e., lice infestation) and scabies; lindane has been associated with human neurologic toxicity. In 2004, CDC was alerted to cases of illness caused by unintentional ingestion of lindane by persons mistaking the product for a liquid oral medication (e.g., cough syrup). To assess the extent of illness from ingestion of lindane, CDC, with assistance from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and state health departments, collected case reports and analyzed data from the Sentinel Event Notification System for Occupational Risks-Pesticides (SENSOR-Pesticides) program and the Toxic Exposure Surveillance System (TESS). This report summarizes the results of that analysis, which identified 870 cases of unintentional lindane ingestion during 1998-2003, and describes two examples of lindane ingestions. To reduce the risk of lindane ingestion, public health authorities should alert clinicians to the hazards of lindane and the importance of following FDA usage guidelines, which include dispensing lindane in manufacturer-produced, 1- or 2-ounce single-use containers. PMID:15931156

  8. Non-Suicidal Self-Injury in Swedish Adolescents : Prevalence, Characteristics, Functions and Associations With Childhood Adversities

    OpenAIRE

    Zetterqvist, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI), such as intentionally cutting, burning or hitting oneself, is a behavior with potentially detrimental consequences and empirical studies are necessary to gain knowledge of how to prevent NSSI in adolescents. The aims of this thesis were to investigate the prevalence, methods, characteristics and functions of NSSI in a large community sample of Swedish adolescents, and to examine the relationship between NSSI and adverse life events and trauma symptoms. All emp...

  9. Severe Scapular Pain Following Unintentional Cervical Epidural Air Injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henthorn, Randall W; Murray, Kerra

    2016-03-01

    This a unique case of severe scapular pain following unintentional epidural space air injection during epidural steroid injection.A 70-year-old woman presented for a fluoroscopically guided C7-T1 interlaminar epidural steroid injection. Three injection attempts were made using the loss of resistance with air technique. On the first attempt the epidural space was entered, but contrast injection showed that the needle was intravenous. On the second attempt an equivocal loss of resistance with air was perceived and 5 mL of air was lost from the syringe. The needle was withdrawn and redirected, and upon the third needle passage the contrast injection showed appropriate epidural space filling up to the C4-5 level. Injection of betamethasone mixed in lidocaine was initially uneventful.However, 20 minutes post-injection the patient experienced sudden sharp and continuous pain along the medial edge of the scapula. After failing to respond to multiple intravascular analgesics, the patient was transferred to the emergency room. Her pain subsided completely following an intravenous diazepam injection. Cervical spine computerized tomography showed obvious air in the posterior epidural space from C4-5 to C6-7 as well as outside the spinal canal from (C4-T2). Having recovered fully, she was discharged the following morning. In reviewing the procedure, the equivocal loss of resistance on the second passage was actually a true loss of resistance to epidural space and air was unintentionally injected. Surprisingly, severe scapular pain resulted in a delayed manner after the steroid solution was injected. The authors theorize that unintentional prefilling of the epidural space with air prior to the injection of the subsequent steroid mixture added sufficient pressure to the epidural space to cause right-sided C4 nerve root stretching/entrapment and ensuing radicular pain to the right scapular border. The subsequent intravenous diazepam provided cervical muscle relaxation and

  10. Unintentional overdose of analgesia secondary to acute dental pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, M D; Graham, C A

    2002-08-24

    Three cases of unintentional overdose with simple analgesics are presented. Over a two month period, these patients presented to the accident and emergency (A&E) department with acute dental pain, outside normal working hours, having been unable to access emergency dental care. In one case the patient's reason for attendance was to obtain further supplies of analgesics. The patients required admission for assessment of the severity of the overdose in addition to advice about appropriate use of analgesics and advice on access to dental care. None of the patients required treatment for the overdose. These cases serve as a timely reminder of the importance of taking an accurate drug history in emergency situations. They also raise issues of patient education for self medication and access to emergency dental services outside normal working hours. PMID:12222908

  11. Perfusion delay causes unintentional ischemic preconditioning in isolated heart preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minhaz, U; Koide, S; Shohtsu, A; Fujishima, M; Nakazawa, H

    1995-01-01

    This study sought to show that unintentional preconditioning can be induced in the isolated perfused heart during the preparation procedure. The following four groups were compared: hearts were placed in ice cold saline and cooled for 15 s and then mounted to the Langendorff apparatus (n = 5; cool immediate group); hearts were cooled for 60 s and mounted (n = 5; cool delay group); hearts were mounted directly to the apparatus within 15 s after the isolation without cooling (n = 5; noncool immediate group); hearts were mounted without cooling, but the mounting was delayed for 60 s after the isolation (n = 5; noncool delay group). All hearts were paced at a fixed rate of 300 bpm, and an occlusion of left coronary (LCA) for 60 min was performed, which was followed by reperfusion for another 60 min. Coronary flow (CBF), left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP), and creatine phosphokinase (CPK) release did not change among the four groups during ischemia. At the end of reperfusion the LVDP values were 70 +/- 1%, 66 +/- 2%, 62 +/- 3%, and 73 +/- 2% of preischemic values in cool immediate, cool delay, noncool immediate, and noncool delay groups, respectively. CPK values were 116 +/- 4, 121 +/- 7, 138 +/- 6, and 29 +/- 1 x 10(3) U/g myocardium, and percentage necrosis/risk areas were 24 +/- 1.0%, 21 +/- 1.7%, 38 +/- 2.6%, and 13 +/- 0.5% in cool immediate, cool delay, noncool immediate, and noncool delay groups, respectively. The noncool delay group demonstrated high LVDP, least amount of CPK release, and smallest size of necrosis. These results indicate that an unintentional preconditioning effect can be induced when the cooling procedure is not applied and perfusion is delayed. PMID:8585864

  12. Years of life lost because of premature death due to intentional and unintentional accidents in Ghazvin province from 2004 till 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahid Jafari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Accidents are the second cause of death in Iran and one of the significant challenges in public health. They can affect people in all ages. In this study, we try to calculate years of life lost due to intentional and unintentional injuries, which is considered as one of the main indicators for prioritizing public health problems.  Methods: This study is a practical cross sectional survey research HSR (health system research that uses secondary analysis on the death data of Ghazvin province. The calculations also take into account the WHO standards in age group, sex and years of life lost (YLL due to death.  Results: This study showed that the unintentional accidents were the leading cause of death based on YLL from 2004 until 2008 in Ghazvin province. The number of deaths due to intentional and unintentional accidents was 3796 deaths as of which 2954 (77.8% was male and 842 (22.2% female. In general three quarter of the YLL due to early death relates to accidents for males and less than a quarter relates to accidents for females. Between 2004 until 2008, the maximum number of years of life lost (YLL in both sexes is for the age group of 15 to 49.  Conclusion: Considering the high level of years of life lost (YLL due to accident in this province, especially in men, more appropriate interventions for the more risk prone age groups and male in general need to be taken into account.

  13. Pattern of injury mortality by age-group in children aged 0–14 years in Scotland, 2002–2006, and its implications for prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stone David H

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Knowledge of the epidemiology of injuries in children is essential for the planning, implementation and evaluation of preventive measures but recent epidemiological information on injuries in children both in general and by age-group in Scotland is scarce. This study examines the recent pattern of childhood mortality from injury by age-group in Scotland and considers its implications for prevention. Methods Routine mortality data for the period 2002–2006 were obtained from the General Register Office for Scotland and were analysed in terms of number of deaths, mean annual mortality rates per 100,000 population, leading causes of death, and causes of injury death. Mid-year population estimates were used as the denominator. Chi-square tests were used to determine statistical significance. Results 186 children aged 0–14 died from an injury in Scotland during 2002–06 (MR 4.3 per 100,000. Injuries were the leading cause of death in 1–14, 5–9 and 10–14 year-olds (causing 25%, 29% and 32% of all deaths respectively. The leading individual causes of injury death (0–14 years were pedestrian and non-pedestrian road-traffic injuries and assault/homicide but there was variation by age-group. Assault/homicide, fire and suffocation caused most injury deaths in young children; road-traffic injuries in older ones. Collectively, intentional injuries were a bigger threat to the lives of under-15s than any single cause of unintentional injury. The mortality rate from assault/homicide was highest in infants ( Conclusion Injuries continue to be a leading cause of death in childhood in Scotland. Variation in causes of injury death by age-group is important when targeting preventive efforts. In particular, the threats of assault/homicide in infants, fire in 1–4 year-olds, pedestrian injury in 5–14 year-olds, and suicide in 10–14 year-olds need urgent consideration for preventive action.

  14. Contributing Factors for Acute Illness/Injury from Childhood Pesticide Exposure in North Carolina, USA, 2007–2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirmalla Barros

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Between 2007 and 2013, there were 685 events with evidence of a relationship between pesticide exposure and acute illness/injury among persons less than 18 years old in North Carolina (United States. Median age of children affected was 4.3 years (range: 0.2–17.9. Distribution by gender was similar across all age groups. One fatality and four high severity events were observed. The greatest proportion (42% of events had ocular exposures, followed by dermal (25% and inhalation (18% exposures. When more than one route of exposure occurred, dermal and ocular routes were the most common (46%. Almost all events took place indoors and 32 events involved contact with pets. Insecticides (53% and insect repellants (31% were the most frequent agents contributing to these events. Manual application of pesticides contributed to the greatest number of events (25%, while application through a pressurized can and use of a trigger pump were involved in 21% and 15% of events, respectively. Additional contributors were due to inappropriate storage of pesticides and improper use of the pesticide. These contributing factors can be removed or minimized if pesticides are stored outside the residence or out of the reach of children and pets, and adequate ventilation is ensured whenever pesticides are applied.

  15. Stereotype activation is unintentional: Behavioural and event-related potenials evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pei; Yang, Ya-Ping; Tan, Chen-Hao; Zhao, Xiang-Xia; Liu, Yong-He; Lin, Chong-De

    2016-04-01

    In this study, a priming Stroop paradigm was used to determine whether stereotype activation is unintentional. Priming conditions (priming/no-priming) and the relationship between priming and target (consistent/inconsistent/no-relation) were the independent variables; accuracy, reaction time and N400 amplitude were used as dependent variables. The reaction time revealed that stereotype activation is, to some extent, unintentional. Furthermore, the event-related potenial (ERP) results showed that N400 amplitude was larger for inconsistent conditions than for consistent conditions. This result supported the notion that stereotype activation is an unintentional and automatic process. PMID:25622795

  16. Anticholinergic syndrome following an unintentional overdose of scopolamine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmela E Corallo

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Carmela E Corallo1, Ann Whitfield2, Adeline Wu21Department of Pharmacy, The Alfred, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia; 2Intensive Care Unit, Box Hill Hospital, Melbourne, Victoria, AustraliaAbstract: Scopolamine hydrobromide (hyoscine is an antimuscarinic drug which is primarily used in the prophylaxis and treatment of motion sickness and as a premedication to dry bronchial and salivary secretions. In acute overdosage, the main clinical problem is central nervous system (CNS depression. In Australia, tablets containing scopolamine hydrobromide 0.3 mg are available over the counter in packs of ten. The recommended dose for adults is one to two tablets as a single dose, repeated four to six hours later, if required. The maximum dose stated on the pack is four tablets over a 24-hour period with a caution regarding drowsiness and blurred vision. We describe a patient who presented with symptoms of anticholinergic syndrome secondary to an unintentional overdose of scopolamine. Whilst at work, the patient noticed that he had forgotten his prescribed medication, domperidone, at home; a friend gave him some travel sickness medication which contained scopolamine for relief of nausea. On a previous occasion, he had experienced a similar, less severe reaction with another anticholinergic agent, loperamide. This report highlights the need to consider nonprescription products, ie, over the counter medications, herbal/nutritional supplements as causes of anticholinergic syndrome when a patient presents with symptoms suggestive of this diagnosis.Keywords: domperidone, scopolamine, nonprescription drugs, toxicity, anticholinergic syndrome

  17. Peer Influences on Risk-taking in Middle Childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Bradbury, Kirsten

    1998-01-01

    Unintentional injury is the leading cause of death and disability in children. Many injuries to school-aged children occur during unsupervised peer activities, but peer influences on risky behavior in preadolescence remain under-investigated. We examined peer context effects on reported risk-taking, identified predictors of peer influence, and compared peer influence in high- and low-social-functioning groups. Forty-one boys aged 8-10 years listened to scenarios in which they encountered oppo...

  18. Alcohol and violence in the emergency department: a regional report from the WHO collaborative study on alcohol and injuries Consumo de alcohol y violencia en los servicios de urgencia

    OpenAIRE

    Guilherme Borges; Ricardo Orozco; Mariana Cremonte; Neliana Buzi-Figlie; Cheryl Cherpitel; Vladimir Poznyak

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the relative risk (RR) of non-fatal unintentional and violence-related injury associated with alcohol consumption in three emergency departments in Latin America (2001-2002). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Pair-matched case-crossover was used to obtain RR estimates for alcohol in non-fatal injuries among 447 patients in Argentina (A), 489 in Brazil (B) and 455 in Mexico (M). Intentional (violence) or unintentional (non-violence) injury status were the main outcomes. RESULTS: Ab...

  19. A kinematic study on (unintentional imitation in bottlenose dolphins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Sartori

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of observing other’s movements on subsequent performance in bottlenose dolphins. The imitative ability of non-human animals has intrigued a number of researchers. So far, however, studies in dolphins have been confined to intentional imitation concerned with the explicit request to imitate other agents. In the absence of instruction to imitate, do dolphins (unintentionally replicate other’s movement features? To test this, dolphins were filmed while reaching and touching a stimulus before and after observing another dolphin (i.e., model performing the same action. All videos were reviewed and segmented in order to extract the relevant movements. A marker was inserted post-hoc via software on the videos upon the anatomical landmark of interest (i.e. rostrum and was tracked throughout the time course of the movement sequence. The movement was analyzed using an in-house software developed to perform two-dimensional (2D post-hoc kinematic analysis. The results indicate that dolphins’ kinematics is sensitive to other’s movement features. Movements performed for the ‘visuomotor priming’ condition were characterized by a kinematic pattern similar to that performed by the observed dolphin (i.e., model. Addressing the issue of spontaneous imitation in bottlenose dolphins might allow ascertaining whether the potential or impulse to produce an imitative action is generated, not just when they intend to imitate, but whenever they watch another conspecific’s behavior. In closing, this will clarify whether motor representational capacity is a by-product of factors specific to humans or whether more general characteristics such as processes of associative learning prompted by high level of encephalization could help to explain the evolution of this ability.

  20. Review on Current Situation and a Prospect of Childhood Injury Economic Burden Study%儿童伤害的经济学负担研究现状及展望

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温连奎; 杨莉

    2013-01-01

    Childhood injuries have emerged as leading global public health problem with direct, indirect and invisible economic burdens besides serve disease burdens that lower levels of health. Scholars in China and abroad have been studying the economic burden of child injury and got different results affected by types of injuries, characteristics of population, areas of children and their social and economic situations. In this article, we searched articles about this topic in Chinese and English to review the study results and showed the necessity and direction for further studies of childhood injury economic burden.%儿童伤害是全球性的重大公共卫生问题,不仅导致了巨大的疾病负担,也造成了沉重的直接、间接和无形经济负担。国内外已有部分学者针对儿童伤害的经济学负担展开研究,不同研究得出的结果各异,受到研究伤害类型、人群特征、地域和社会经济等影响。本文就儿童伤害经济学负担查阅国内外文献,综述了国内外相关研究结果,提出了进一步研究儿童伤害经济负担的必要性和探索方向。

  1. The Relationship between Childhood Psychological Abuse and Neglect and Self Injurious Behavior of Students in Higher Vocational Colleges%童年心理虐待与忽视和高职生自伤行为的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    代辰旭; 张野; 张珊珊; 李紫糸

    2016-01-01

    为了研究童年心理虐待与忽视和高职生自伤行为的关系,采用儿童心理虐待与忽视量表和青少年自我伤害问卷对辽宁省某职业技术学校的730名高职生进行调查,结果表明:大部分高职生存在心理虐待与忽视和自伤行为,性别、生源地、独生子女均存在显著性差异;二者呈正相关,且自伤行为可以解释童年心理虐待与忽视。文章对心理虐待与忽视和自伤行为的原因进行分析,并从不同角度提出对策。%In order to study the relationship between childhood psychological abuse and neglect and the self injurious behavior of students in higher vocational colleges, the child psychological abuse and neglect scale and adolescent self harm questionnaire on a vocational technical school in Liaoning Province 730 vocational college students were investigated. The results showed that most of the students in higher vocational colleges had psychological abuse and neglect and self injurious behavior, and there were significant differences in gender, origin and only child. They were positively correlated, and self injurious behavior can explain childhood psychological abuse and neglect. This article carries on the analysis on the causes of psychological abuse and neglect and self injurious behavior, and puts forward the countermeasures from different angles.

  2. Epidemiology of child injuries in Uganda: challenges for health policy

    OpenAIRE

    Renee Yuen-Jan Hsia; Doruk Ozgediz; Sudha Jayaraman; Patrick Kyamanywa; Milton Mutto; Kobusingye, Olive C.

    2011-01-01

    Globally, 90% of road crash deaths occur in the developing world. Children in Africa bear the major part of this burden, with the highest unintentional injury rates in the world. Our study aims to better understand injury patterns among children living in Kampala, Uganda and provide evidence that injuries are significant in child health. Trauma registry records of injured children seen at Mulago Hospital in Kampala were analysed. This data was collected when patients were seen initially and i...

  3. A Tewo Tibetan Childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rdo rje tshe brtan

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Rdo rje tshe brtan (b. 1986 describes his childhood in Dredze Village, Yiwa Township, Tewo County, Gannan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Gansu Province, China, as well as being a student in Xining City, Qinghai Province. Topics covered include his family, childhood injuries and illnesses, education, Terang (malicious household deities, mountain deities and associated rituals and sacrifices, death, conflict with other locals, collecting local plants, a birth in the village, stealing fruit, a wedding, plowing, a visit to a hot spring, a lost yak, slaughtering pigs, government confiscation of fields, and slaughtering pigs. Photos provide additional detail.

  4. Current trends and update on injury prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, Parichat; Ramaiah, Ramesh; Vavilala, Monica S

    2011-01-01

    Injuries are a major and growing public health problem, a leading cause of death and disabilities among people aged 1-44 years around the world. Each year, 5.8 million people die from injuries, accounting for 10% of the world's deaths. Road traffic injuries (RTIs), self-inflicted injuries and violence are the top three leading causes of all injury deaths, while RTIs, falls and drowning are the top three leading causes of unintentional injury death. In many high-income countries, trends of injury death have been decreasing as a result of prevention measures. In contrast, trends in low- and middle-income countries have been rising. In this article, we review the prevention strategies for RTIs, violence, falls and drowning developed over decades to disseminate the knowledge and inform health care providers, especially acute care physicians, about the importance of injury prevention. PMID:22096775

  5. Cranial nerve palsies in childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Lyons, C J; Godoy, F; ALQahtani, E

    2015-01-01

    We review ocular motor cranial nerve palsies in childhood and highlight many of the features that differentiate these from their occurrence in adulthood. The clinical characteristics of cranial nerve palsies in childhood are affected by the child's impressive ability to repair and regenerate after injury. Thus, aberrant regeneration is very common after congenital III palsy; Duane syndrome, the result of early repair after congenital VI palsy, is invariably associated with retraction of the g...

  6. Sensitivity of hospitals' E-coded data in identifying causes of children's violence-related injuries.

    OpenAIRE

    Winn, D. G.; Agran, P. F.; Anderson, C.L.

    1995-01-01

    E codes classify causes of injury as unintentional, intentional, and undetermined. E-coded discharge data from hospitals provide an opportunity to use this source of morbidity data for planning, implementation, and evaluation of injury and violence prevention activities. This study explores the extent to which E-coded data from hospitals identify injuries that result from violent acts. Cases were identified through a multihospital population-based surveillance system of pediatric injuries. Th...

  7. Childhood Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cells. It is the most common type of childhood cancer. Your blood cells form in your bone ... in the bones or joints Risk factors for childhood leukemia include having a brother or sister with ...

  8. Childhood Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Childhood Stress KidsHealth > For Parents > Childhood Stress Print A A ... and feel stress to some degree. Sources of Stress Stress is a function of the demands placed ...

  9. Childhood Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Wilkinson, Justine; Howard, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Childhood obesity has important consequences for health and wellbeing both during childhood and also in later adult life. The rising prevalence of childhood obesity poses a major public health challenge in both developed and developing countries by increasing the burden of chronic non-communicable diseases. Despite the urgent need for effective preventative strategies, there remains disagreement over its definition due to a lack of evidence on the optimal cut-offs linking childhood BMI to dis...

  10. Childhood Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Childhood Cancer KidsHealth > For Parents > Childhood Cancer Print A A A Text Size What's ... in children, but can happen. The most common childhood cancers are leukemia , lymphoma , and brain cancer . As ...

  11. Reducing Unintentional Plagiarism amongst International Students in the Biological Sciences: An Embedded Academic Writing Development Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divan, Aysha; Bowman, Marion; Seabourne, Anna

    2015-01-01

    There is general agreement in the literature that international students are more likely to plagiarise compared to their native speaker peers and, in many instances, plagiarism is unintentional. In this article we describe the effectiveness of an academic writing development programme embedded into a Biological Sciences Taught Masters course…

  12. The unintentional and unconscious exposure to radon (and other natural radionuclides)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radon programmes for dwellings (remediation of the risk and prevention of the risk) as well as radon programmes for workplaces in the Czech Republic are described. To implementation radiation protection against natural radiation sources on workplaces with unintentional and unconscious exposure to these sources of radiation is a new, but interesting and important task which need new approaches, time staff and effort

  13. [Confusional arousal: a rare cause of self-injurious behaviour].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortier, P; Vandenbulcke, M; Gabriëls, L

    2014-01-01

    Non-rapid eye movement (NREM) arousal sleep disorders (confusional arousal, somnambulism and sleep terror) are self-limiting and temporary phenomena which cannot be attributed to medical or psychiatric factors. However, very occasionally they can be the cause of unintentional injury to self or others. We describe the case of an 18-year-old who engaged in self-injurious behaviour while asleep. This behaviour could be attributed to confusional arousal. PMID:24535769

  14. The Role of Context in Risk for Pediatric Injury: Influences from the Home and Child Care Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwebel, David C.; Brezausek, Carl M.

    2007-01-01

    Unintentional injury is the leading cause of pediatric mortality among American children, but the role of environmental context remains poorly understood as a risk for child injury. Couched in Bronfenbrenner's (1977) ecological theory, this study analyzed data from a sample of almost 900 children to identify relations between the home and…

  15. Preventing gun injuries in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossen, Eric J; Lewis, Brenna; Hoffman, Benjamin D

    2015-02-01

    Firearms are involved in the injury and death of a large number of children each year from both intentional and unintentional causes. Gun ownership in homes with children is common, and pediatricians should incorporate evidence-based means to discuss firearms and protect children from gun-related injuries and violence. Safe storage of guns, including unloaded guns locked and stored separately from ammunition, can decrease risks to children, and effective tools are available that pediatricians can use in clinical settings to help decrease children's access to firearms. Furthermore, several community-based interventions led by pediatricians have effectively reduced firearm-related injury risks to children. Educational programs that focus on children's behavior around guns have not proven effective. PMID:25646308

  16. Does health-related quality of life ‎predict injury event?‎

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kambiz Abachizadeh

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Unintentional injury is a leading threat to children's health. Some human ‎factors have been determined as predictor of unintentional injury. Association ‎between Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQOL as a human factor and unintentionalinjuries is unclear. The objective of study is to examine the association between ‎HRQOL and unintentional injuries among primary school children. Methods: This study was a cross-sectional conducted in Ahwaz, a city in Iran. ‎Overall, 3375 children aged 6-10 years were randomly selected from primary school. ‎HRQOL was measured by 56 items taken from seven domains of Netherlands ‎Organization for Applied Scientific Research Academic Medical Center (TNO AZL ‎child quality of life (TACQOL parent form. Parents were interviewed to collect ‎information about incidence, cause and a brief description of injury within the past 12 ‎months prior to the study.‎ Results: The response rate was 3375 of 3792 (89%. There was a significant trend ‎for increasing occurrence of injury with decreasing of HRQOL score (P= Sig. ‎Adjusted OR for injury was significantly higher in very low (2.38, 95% CI: 1.45-‎‎3.86, low (2.18, 95% CI: 1.34-3.56, and medium (1.73, 95%CI: 1.06-2.83 ‎HRQOL groups compared to reference group (very high HRQOL. The median of total ‎HRQOL (P= Sig and all its domains (P=0.017 (except autonomous functioning ‎was lower in injured group compared to uninjured one.‎ Conclusions: This study found an association between HRQOL and unintentionalinjury among primary school children. This is a preliminary finding and further ‎investigations with a well-defined analytical design are needed.‎

  17. Preventing Knee Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to tearing. Growth Plate Injuries, Fractures, and Dislocations Knee fractures rarely occur in childhood sports, but with any ... is the bump on the front of the knee where the patellar tendon attaches. Fractures to the growth plate in this area often ...

  18. Childhood Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Aydın, Ahmet; Koca, Fahrettin; Fıçıcıoğlu, Can; Çam, Halit; Mıkla, Şerare

    1995-01-01

    Management of childhood obesity and its early and late complications are among the most difficult problems confronted by pediatricians and practitioners The purpose of this review is to provide information for the evaluation and treatment of childhood obesity Key nbsp;words: nbsp;Child Obesity Etiology Management Complications

  19. Roger Williams’s Unintentional Contribution to the Creation of American Capitalism

    OpenAIRE

    Casey Pratt

    2011-01-01

    This paper argues that in attempting to protect the religious life from the sullying influence of worldly affairs, Roger Williams participated, albeit unintentionally, in creating the economic conditions that led to the birth of American capitalism. Although Williams argued for a separation of church and state, he did so not in the interest of defending economic liberty, but instead to preserve the sanctity of the church against the frequent immorality that seemed to him required in worldly g...

  20. Acute hand ischemia after unintentional intraarterial injection of drugs: is catheter-directed thrombolysis useful?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breguet, Romain; Terraz, Sylvain; Righini, Marc; Didier, Dominique

    2014-06-01

    Unintentional intraarterial injections are rare but may have devastating consequences. No consensus on treatment has been established owing to the wide variety of possible injected substances, incomplete understanding of the underlying pathophysiology, and the absence of case-controlled, prospective human studies. The aim of the present study and literature review was to evaluate the benefit of intraarterial thrombolysis combined with systemic anticoagulation therapy when an artery of the upper extremity is accidentally punctured and ischemia of the hand ensues. PMID:24857945

  1. Current surgical instrument labeling techniques may increase the risk of unintentionally retained foreign objects: a hypothesis

    OpenAIRE

    Ipaktchi, Kyros; Kolnik, Adam; Messina, Michael; Banegas, Rodrigo; Livermore, Meryl; Price, Connie

    2013-01-01

    Background Marking of surgical instruments is essential to ensure their proper identification after sterile processing. The National Quality Forum defines unintentionally retained foreign objects in a surgical patient as a serious reportable event also called "never event." Presentation of the hypothesis We hypothesize that established practices of surgical instrument identification using unkempt tape labels and plastic tags may expose patients to "never events" from retained disintegrating l...

  2. A kinematic study on (un)intentional imitation in bottlenose dolphins

    OpenAIRE

    Luisa Sartori; Maria Bulgheroni; Raffaella Tizzi; Umberto Castiello

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of observing other’s movements on subsequent performance in bottlenose dolphins. The imitative ability of non-human animals has intrigued a number of researchers. So far, however, studies in dolphins have been confined to intentional imitation concerned with the explicit request to imitate other agents. In the absence of instruction to imitate, do dolphins (un)intentionally replicate other’s movement features? To test this, dolphins w...

  3. Effectiveness of measures to prevent unintentional deaths of infants and children from suffocation and strangulation.

    OpenAIRE

    Kraus, J F

    1985-01-01

    Unintentional deaths from suffocation and strangulation account for about 20 percent of all nontransport-related infant and child fatalities in the United States. In the late 1950s, some preventive countermeasures were introduced to reduce the number of deaths resulting from refrigerator or freezer entrapment. A few years later, countermeasures were introduced to prevent deaths resulting from suffocation by plastic bags, inhumation, and mechanical strangulation from wedging in infant cribs. F...

  4. Multivariate Statistics and Supervised Learning for Predictive Detection of Unintentional Islanding in Grid-Tied Solar PV Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Shashank Vyas; Rajesh Kumar; Rajesh Kavasseri

    2016-01-01

    Integration of solar photovoltaic (PV) generation with power distribution networks leads to many operational challenges and complexities. Unintentional islanding is one of them which is of rising concern given the steady increase in grid-connected PV power. This paper builds up on an exploratory study of unintentional islanding on a modeled radial feeder having large PV penetration. Dynamic simulations, also run in real time, resulted in exploration of unique potential causes of creation of a...

  5. Childhood Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leukemia is cancer of the white blood cells. It is the most common type of childhood cancer. ... blood cells help your body fight infection. In leukemia, the bone marrow produces abnormal white blood cells. ...

  6. Childhood leukaemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The debate on whether there is any link between leukaemia clusters and nuclear installations has been raging since the early eighties. A Government Inquiry found no link between childhood leukaemia and residence near Seascale, an area near British Nuclear Fuels Sellafield plant. Research in the 1980s linked childhood leukaemia to fathers' occupations prior to conception in the Seascale plant but also to workers in the iron, steel, farming and chemical industries. This article reviews research findings to date. (UK)

  7. Adding insult to injury: childhood and adolescent risk factors for psychosis predict lower fractional anisotropy in the superior longitudinal fasciculus in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeRosse, Pamela; Ikuta, Toshikazu; Peters, Bart D; Karlsgodt, Katherine H; Szeszko, Philip R; Malhotra, Anil K

    2014-12-30

    Although epidemiological studies provide strong support for demographic and environmental risk factors in psychotic disorders, few data examine how these risk factors relate to the putative aberrant neurodevelopment associated with illness. The present study examined how the accumulation of risk factors including low IQ, low parental socioeconomic status (SES), history of adolescent cannabis use and childhood trauma, and high levels of subclinical psychotic-like experiences (PLEs) contributed to aberrant neurodevelopmental outcomes in 112 otherwise healthy adults recruited from the community. Participants were studied with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), and voxel-wise statistical analysis of fractional anisotropy (FA) using tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) was used to examine the relation between cumulative risk (CR) for psychosis and white matter (WM) integrity across the whole brain. Analyses revealed that higher CR was significantly associated with lower FA in a cluster in the left superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF). These results suggest that risk factors previously associated with psychotic disorders are associated with WM integrity even in otherwise healthy adults and may provide insight into how previously identified risk factors contribute to the structural brain abnormalities associated with psychotic illness. Prospective longitudinal studies examining the effect of risk factors on the developmental trajectory of brain WM are warranted. PMID:25277095

  8. The Role of Preventive Medicine in Childhood Trauma

    OpenAIRE

    Gokhan Berktug Bahadir; Akgun Oral; Ahmet Guven

    2011-01-01

    Death or fatal complications due to childhood trauma may lead to loss of human and human-power, leeway and financial losses. The most important step in preventing trauma and deaths related to trauma is which it is known that the trauma can be prevented it is even an unpredictable event. Therefore, \\"the risk of injury\\" and \\"injury prevention\\" in childhood must be comprehended and interested in by anyone. In this review, the problems leading to trauma, prevention methods and preventive medi...

  9. Unintentional carbon monoxide poisoning hospitalization and emergency department counts and rates by county, year, and fire-relatedness among California residents,2000-2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Environmental Health Tracking Program — This dataset contains case counts, rates, and confidence intervals of unintentional carbon monoxide poisoning (CO) inpatient hospitalizations and emergency...

  10. Unintentional selection, unanticipated insights: introductions, stocking and the evolutionary ecology of fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchings, J A

    2014-12-01

    Natural environmental change has produced countless opportunities for species to disperse into and persist in habitats where they previously did not exist. Introduction and stocking programmes have facilitated similar sorts of colonization opportunities across considerably greater geographical scales and often in much shorter periods of time. Even though the mechanism of colonization differs, the result can be the same: evolutionary change in the colonizing population in response to novel selection pressures. As a consequence, some human-mediated fish transfers have unintentionally yielded novel research opportunities to study how phenotypes and genes interact with their environment and affect ecological and evolutionary change. The primary purpose here is to explore how work, directly or indirectly involved with human-mediated transfers, has unintentionally yielded novel research and research opportunities in fish ecology and evolution. Insights have produced new knowledge or altered previously held perceptions on topics such as local adaptation, rate of evolutionary change, phenotypic plasticity, alternative reproductive strategies, population structure and colonization probability. Well-documented stocking programmes, especially in terms of history, numbers and original population sources, can provide highly fertile ground for generating further insights on the ecology and evolution of fishes and of the factors likely to influence the success of conservation-based, restoration programmes. PMID:25469951

  11. Childhood obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heitmann, Berit L; Koplan, Jeffrey; Lissner, Lauren

    2009-01-01

    Despite progress toward assuring the health of today's young population, the 21(st) century began with an epidemic of childhood obesity. There is general agreement that the situation must be addressed by means of primary prevention, but relatively little is known about how to intervene effectively....... The evidence behind the assumption that childhood obesity can be prevented was discussed critically in this roundtable symposium. Overall, there was general agreement that action is needed and that the worldwide epidemic itself is sufficient evidence for action. As the poet, writer, and scholar...

  12. Injury Secondary to Antiretroviral Agents: Retrospective Analysis of a Regional Poison Center Database

    OpenAIRE

    Wheatley, Matthew A; Shah, Bijal B; Morgan, Brent W.; Houry, Debra; Kazzi, Ziad N.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Poisoning is an increasingly important cause of injury in the United States. In 2009 poison centers received 2,479,355 exposure reports, underscoring the role of poison centers in intentional and unintentional injury prevention. Antiretroviral (ARV) agents are commonly prescribed drugs known to cause toxicity, yet the frequency of these incidents is unknown. The objectives of this study were to quantify the number of reported cases of toxicity secondary to ARV agents at a region...

  13. Injury Secondary to Antiretroviral Agents: A Retrospective Analysis of a Regional Poison Center Database

    OpenAIRE

    Wheatley, Matthew A; Shah, Bijal B; Morgan, Brent W.; Houry, Debra; Kazzi, Ziad N.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Poisoning is an increasingly important cause of injury in the United States. In 2009 poison centers received 2,479,355 exposure reports, underscoring the role of poison centers in intentional and unintentional injury prevention. Antiretroviral (ARV) agents are commonly prescribed drugs known to cause toxicity, yet the frequency of these incidents is unknown. The objectives of this study were to quantify the number of reported cases of toxicity secondary to ARV agents at a region...

  14. A Quantitative Model of Thermal Injury-Induced Acute Inflammation

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Qian; Berthiaume, Francois; Androulakis, Ioannis P.

    2010-01-01

    Severe burns are among the most common causes of death from unintentional injury. The induction and resolution of the burn-induced systemic inflammatory response are mediated by a network of factors and regulatory proteins. Numerous mechanisms operate simultaneously, thus requiring a systems level approach to characterize their overall impact. Towards this goal, we propose an in silico semi-mechanistic model of burn-induced systemic inflammation using liver specific gene expression from a rat...

  15. Slipping and tripping: fall injuries in adults associated with rugs and carpets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Rosen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Falls are a leading cause of unintentional injury among adults age 65 years and older. Loose, unsecured rugs and damaged carpets with curled edges, are recognized environmental hazards that may contribute to falls. To characterize nonfatal, unintentional fall-related injuries associated with rugs and carpets in adults aged 65 years and older. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective analysis of surveillance data of injuries treated in hospital emergency departments (EDs during 2001–2008. We used the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System-All Injury Program, which collects data from a nationally representative stratified probability sample of 66 U.S. hospital EDs. Sample weights were used to make national estimates. RESULTS: Annually, an estimated 37,991 adults age 65 years or older were treated in U.S. EDs for falls associated with carpets (54.2% and rugs (45.8%. Most falls (72.8% occurred at home. Women represented 80.2% of fall injuries. The most common location for fall injuries in the home was the bathroom (35.7%. Frequent fall injuries occurred at the transition between carpet/rug and non-carpet/rug, on wet carpets or rugs, and while hurrying to the bathroom. CONCLUSIONS: Fall injuries associated with rugs and carpets are common and may cause potentially severe injuries. Older adults, their caregivers, and emergency and primary care physicians should be aware of the significant risk for fall injuries and of environmental modifications that may reduce that risk.

  16. Childhood Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuca, Sevil Ari, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    This book aims to provide readers with a general as well as an advanced overview of the key trends in childhood obesity. Obesity is an illness that occurs due to a combination of genetic, environmental, psychosocial, metabolic and hormonal factors. The prevalence of obesity has shown a great rise both in adults and children in the last 30 years.…

  17. Partially Hydrogenated Graphene Materials Exhibit High Electrocatalytic Activities Related to Unintentional Doping with Metallic Impurities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankovský, Ondřej; Libánská, Alena; Bouša, Daniel; Sedmidubský, David; Matějková, Stanislava; Sofer, Zdeněk

    2016-06-13

    Partially hydrogenated graphene materials, synthesized by the chemical reduction/hydrogenation of two different graphene oxides using zinc powder in acidic environment or aluminum powder in alkaline environment, exhibit high electrocatalytic activities, as well as electrochemical sensing properties. The starting graphene oxides and the resultant hydrogenated graphenes were characterized in detail. Their electrocatalytic activity was examined in the oxygen reduction reaction, whereas sensing properties towards explosives were tested by using picric acid as a redox probe. Findings indicate that the high electrocatalytic performance originates not only from the hydrogenation of graphene, but also from unintentional contamination of graphene with manganese and other metals during synthesis. A careful evaluation of the obtained data and a detailed chemical analysis are necessary to identify the origin of this anomalous electrocatalytic activity. PMID:27167069

  18. Effectiveness of measures to prevent unintentional deaths of infants and children from suffocation and strangulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, J F

    1985-01-01

    Unintentional deaths from suffocation and strangulation account for about 20 percent of all nontransport-related infant and child fatalities in the United States. In the late 1950s, some preventive countermeasures were introduced to reduce the number of deaths resulting from refrigerator or freezer entrapment. A few years later, countermeasures were introduced to prevent deaths resulting from suffocation by plastic bags, inhumation, and mechanical strangulation from wedging in infant cribs. For three of these major causes of suffocation and strangulation deaths among infants and children (refrigerator or freezer entrapment, suffocation by plastic bag, and inhumation at construction sites), there appears to have been a significant decline in incidence; however, there is no evidence of a significant reduction in deaths from mechanical strangulation in cribs. The impact of current countermeasures is discussed, and some suggestions for new or modified approaches are made. PMID:3920722

  19. Deep level defects in unintentionally doped 4H-SiC homoepitaxial layer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia Renxu; Zhang Yimen; Zhang Yuming; Wang Yuehu; Zhang Lin

    2009-01-01

    Unintentionally doped 4H-SiC homoepitaxial layers grown by hot-wall chemical vapor deposition (HWCVD) have been studied using photoluminescence (PL) technique in the temperature range of 10 to 240 K. A broadband green luminescence has been observed. Vacancies of carbon (Vc) are revealed by electron spin resonance (ESR) technique at 110 K. The results strongly suggest that the green band luminescence, as shallow donor-deep accepter emission, is attributed to the vacancies of C and the extended defects. The broadband green luminescence spectrum can be fitted by the two Gauss-type spectra using nonlinear optimization technique. It shows that the broad-band green luminescence originates from the combination of two independent radiative transitions. The centers of two energy levels are located 2.378 and 2.130 eV below the conduction band, respectively, and the ends of two energy levels are expanded and superimposed each other.

  20. Characteristics of unintentional carbon monoxide poisoning in Northwest Iran--Tabriz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dianat, Iman; Nazari, Jalil

    2011-12-01

    The study describes the epidemiology and characteristics of unintentional carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning in Northwest Iran between 2007 and 2009 using multiple data sources including records of the main provider of emergency medical transportation, death certificate reports of the Legal Medicine Organization and through household surveys. A total of 1005 people were diagnosed with non-fatal CO poisoning. Ninety deaths were confirmed due to CO exposure. The ratio of unintentional CO-related poisoning cases in relation to all poisonings was 17.6%. Non-fatal CO poisoning was higher in females and adults aged 25-44 year olds, whereas the death rate was highest for those over 64 years. Domestic gas appliances were involved in 98% of non-fatal incidents and in all fatal poisonings, with gas water heaters (59.2%) and free-standing heaters (25.3%) being the most common causes of CO exposure. The main mechanisms of poisoning were faulty installations and defective devices. The main locations of incidents were the bathroom (48%) and living room (32%). Only 19% of the households reported that they were aware of the hazards of CO exposure before the incident, and no household reported having a CO detector at the time of the poisoning. The results suggest that interventions should be targeted at home environments and focus on at-risk groups such as women and elderly people. Setting stricter standards and environmental legislations and promotion of public awareness against the dangers of CO exposure are important considerations for overcoming this public health problem. PMID:21827338

  1. Traffic calming policy can reduce inequalities in child pedestrian injuries: database study

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, S; Lyons, R.; John, A.; Palmer, S.

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: To determine whether area wide traffic calming distribution reflects known inequalities in child pedestrian injury rates. To determine whether traffic calming is associated with changes in childhood pedestrian injury rates.

  2. Sports Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... most common sports injuries are Sprains and strains Knee injuries Swollen muscles Achilles tendon injuries Pain along the shin bone Rotator cuff injuries Fractures Dislocations If you get hurt, stop playing. Continuing ...

  3. Use of wafer temperature determination for the study of unintentional parameter influences for the MOVPE of III-nitrides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardtdegen, H.; Kaluza, N.; Steins, R.; Cho, Y.S.; Sofer, Z. [Institute of Thin Films and Interfaces, Center of Nanoelectronics for Information Technology, Research Center Juelich, 52425 Juelich (Germany); Zorn, M. [Ferdinand-Braun-Institut fuer Hoechstfrequenztechnik, Albert Einstein-Str. 11, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Haberland, K.; Zettler, J.T. [LayTec Gesellschaft fuer in situ und Nanosensorik mbH, Helmholzstr. 13-14, 10587 Berlin (Germany)

    2005-11-01

    In this paper we first report on the use of real-time determination of wafer temperature for transparent substrates. With this method we study the unintentional influence of growth parameter variations on the surface temperature. The effect on nitride growth optimization will be discussed. (copyright 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  4. Childhood vitiligo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aparna Palit

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Childhood vitiligo is often encountered in dermatological practice. When present in infancy or early childhood, various nevoid and hereditary disorders are to be differentiated. In many cases, familial aggregation of the disease is seen and other autoimmune disorders may be associated. Segmental presentation is more common, and limited body surface area involvement is usual in this age group. Children with vitiligo often suffer from anxiety and depression because of their unusual appearance. Management of vitiligo in children is difficult as therapeutic options are restricted when compared to that in adult patients. Selection of treatment should be careful in these patients with the aim to achieve best results with minimal side effects as well as relieving patients′ and parents′ anxiety.

  5. Acute hemiplegia in childhood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okuno, Takehiko; Takao, Tatsuo; Itoh, Masatoshi; Konishi, Yukuo; Nakano, Shozo (Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine)

    1983-04-01

    The results of CT in 100 patients with acute hemiplegia in childhood are reported here. The etiology was various: 2 patients had infratentorial brain tumors, 56 had cerebral vascular diseases, 3 had head injuries, 16 had intracranial infectious diseases, one had postinfectious encephalomyelitis, one had multiple sclerosis, 2 had epilepsy, and the diagnosis of 19 were unknown. Eleven patients had a normal CT and a good prognosis. As for the type of onset, there were patients of type 1 with fever and 42 with convulsions and unconsciousness; those of type 2 with convulsions and unconsciousness were 12, and those of type 3 without fever and convulsions were 46. This classification is assumed to be useful, as the type of onset is characteristic of the etiology. Six patients were diagnosed correctly by repeated examinations, although the first CT did not reveal any remarkable findings. Capsular infarction, occlusion of the posterior cerebral artery in acute hemiplegia in childhood, abnormal findings of the internal capsule, thalamus, and midbrain in a patient with postinfectious encephalomyelitis, and a diffuse low density in the CT of the unilateral hemisphere in the patients with acute encephalopathy and acute hemiplegia of an obscure origin have been found after the introduction of computerized tomography.

  6. Childhood psoriasis

    OpenAIRE

    Dogra Sunil; Kaur Inderjeet

    2010-01-01

    Psoriasis is a common dermatosis in children with about one third of all patients having onset of disease in the first or second decade of life. A chronic disfiguring skin disease, such as psoriasis, in childhood is likely to have profound emotional and psychological effects, and hence requires special attention. Psoriasis in children has been reported to differ from that among adults being more frequently pruritic; plaque lesions are relatively thinner, softer, and less scaly; face and flexu...

  7. Childhood Traumatic Grief

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Educators Resources for Kids and Teens Childhood Traumatic Grief What is Childhood Traumatic Grief? Children grieve in their own way following the ... child may have a condition called Childhood Traumatic Grief (CTG). Thinking about the person who died—even ...

  8. Childhood Cancer Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Shop With CureSearch Blog Donate Now Select Page Childhood Cancer Statistics Home > Understanding Children’s Cancer > Childhood Cancer Statistics Childhood Cancer Statistics – Graphs and Infographics Number of Diagnoses ...

  9. The interpretation of urogenital findings in children with straddle injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowd, M D; Fitzmaurice, L; Knapp, J F; Mooney, D

    1994-01-01

    Because urogenital trauma frequently raises the question of sexual abuse, it is important to be able to relate the mechanism of injury to expected examination findings. This study was undertaken to characterize the trauma that results from straddling and correlate such injuries with the history, examination, and patient characteristics. The charts of 100 patients examined in an urban pediatric emergency department were reviewed; their conditions met the criteria of straddle injury--a blow to the perineum as a result of falling or striking a surface or an object with the force of one's own body weight. Ages ranged from 9 to 187 months (mean, 77.9; median, 67.2); 72% were female. Most injuries were minor lacerations and abrasions of the genitalia. Eleven percent had injury to the posterior fourchette. Hymenal and vaginal injuries were primarily caused by penetrating mechanisms. Five patients who presented with a history of straddling subsequently received the diagnosis of sexual assault based on disclosure by the patient or a witness and inconsistency of physical findings. There were no urethral or perianal injuries resulting from nonpenetrating straddle mechanisms. Straddle injuries include a variety of mostly minor urogenital injuries. Perianal, hymenal, or vaginal trauma suggests a penetrating mechanism, either unintentional or from sexual assault. An investigation for sexual assault should be initiated in the following cases: infants younger than 9 months of age; perianal, hymenal, or vaginal injury; extensive or severe injury; concurrent nonurogenital injuries; and whenever there is lack of correlation between history and physical findings. PMID:8120766

  10. Paediatric Blood-Injection-Injury Phobia

    OpenAIRE

    Beena Johnson

    2016-01-01

    Blood-Injection-Injury phobia is a major health issue throughout the life span. It usually starts in early childhood. Avoidance of health care is seen in such individuals. Children with blood injection injury phobia have uncontrollable fear of blood, injury, injections and needles. Because of the intense fear, these children will do everything possible to avoid it. Various physical symptoms including increased heart rate, chest discomfort, trembling movements, feeling of choking and syncope...

  11. Increase in Fracture Risk Following Unintentional Weight Loss in Postmenopausal Women: The Global Longitudinal Study of Osteoporosis in Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compston, Juliet E; Wyman, Allison; FitzGerald, Gordon; Adachi, Jonathan D; Chapurlat, Roland D; Cooper, Cyrus; Díez-Pérez, Adolfo; Gehlbach, Stephen H; Greenspan, Susan L; Hooven, Frederick H; LaCroix, Andrea Z; March, Lyn; Netelenbos, J Coen; Nieves, Jeri W; Pfeilschifter, Johannes; Rossini, Maurizio; Roux, Christian; Saag, Kenneth G; Siris, Ethel S; Silverman, Stuart; Watts, Nelson B; Anderson, Frederick A

    2016-07-01

    Increased fracture risk has been associated with weight loss in postmenopausal women, but the time course over which this occurs has not been established. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of unintentional weight loss of ≥10 lb (4.5 kg) in postmenopausal women on fracture risk at multiple sites up to 5 years after weight loss. Using data from the Global Longitudinal Study of Osteoporosis in Women (GLOW), we analyzed the relationships between self-reported unintentional weight loss of ≥10 lb at baseline, year 2, or year 3 and incident clinical fracture in the years after weight loss. Complete data were available in 40,179 women (mean age ± SD 68 ± 8.3 years). Five-year cumulative fracture rate was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method, and adjusted hazard ratios for weight loss as a time-varying covariate were calculated from Cox multiple regression models. Unintentional weight loss at baseline was associated with a significantly increased risk of fracture of the clavicle, wrist, spine, rib, hip, and pelvis for up to 5 years after weight loss. Adjusted hazard ratios showed a significant association between unintentional weight loss and fracture of the hip, spine, and clavicle within 1 year of weight loss, and these associations were still present at 5 years. These findings demonstrate increased fracture risk at several sites after unintentional weight loss in postmenopausal women. This increase is found as early as 1 year after weight loss, emphasizing the need for prompt fracture risk assessment and appropriate management to reduce fracture risk in this population. © 2016 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. PMID:26861139

  12. Increase in Fracture Risk Following Unintentional Weight Loss in Postmenopausal Women: The Global Longitudinal Study of Osteoporosis in Women†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compston, Juliet E.; Wyman, A; FitzGerald, Gordon; Adachi, Jonathan D.; Chapurlat, Roland D.; Cooper, Cyrus; Díez-Pérez, Adolfo; Gehlbach, Stephen H; Greenspan, Susan L.; Hooven, Frederick H.; LaCroix, Andrea Z.; March, Lyn; Coen Netelenbos, J.; Nieves, Jeri W.; Pfeilschifter, Johannes; Rossini, Maurizio; Roux, Christian; Saag, Kenneth G.; Siris, Ethel S.; Silverman, Stuart; Watts, Nelson B.; Anderson, Frederick A.

    2016-01-01

    Increased fracture risk has been associated with weight loss in postmenopausal women but the time course over which this occurs has not been established. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of unintentional weight loss of ≥10 lb (4.5 kg) in postmenopausal women on fracture risk at multiple sites up to 5 years following weight loss. Using data from the Global Longitudinal Study of Osteoporosis in Women (GLOW) we analyzed the relationships between self-reported unintentional weight loss of ≥10 lb at baseline, year 2, or year 3 and incident clinical fracture in the years following weight loss. Complete data were available in 40,179 women (mean age ± SD 68 ± 8.3 years). Five-year cumulative fracture rate was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method, and adjusted hazard ratios for weight loss as a time-varying covariate were calculated from Cox multiple regression models. Unintentional weight loss at baseline was associated with a significantly increased risk of fracture of the clavicle, wrist, spine, rib, hip, and pelvis for up to 5 years following weight loss. Adjusted hazard ratios showed a significant association between unintentional weight loss and fracture of the hip, spine, and clavicle within 1 year of weight loss, and these associations were still present at 5 years. These findings demonstrate increased fracture risk at several sites after unintentional weight loss in postmenopausal women. This increase is seen as early as 1 year following weight loss, emphasizing the need for prompt fracture risk assessment and appropriate management to reduce fracture risk in this population. PMID:26861139

  13. Childhood psoriasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dogra Sunil

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Psoriasis is a common dermatosis in children with about one third of all patients having onset of disease in the first or second decade of life. A chronic disfiguring skin disease, such as psoriasis, in childhood is likely to have profound emotional and psychological effects, and hence requires special attention. Psoriasis in children has been reported to differ from that among adults being more frequently pruritic; plaque lesions are relatively thinner, softer, and less scaly; face and flexural involvement is common and guttate type is the characteristic presentation. Whether onset in childhood predicts a more severe form of psoriasis is a matter of controversy, it may cause significant morbidity particularly if it keeps relapsing. Most children have mild form of psoriasis which can be generally treated effectively with topical agents such as emollients, coal tar, corticosteroids, dithranol, calcipotriol etc. according to age and the sites affected. Narrow band UVB is the preferred form of phototherapy in children for moderate to severe disease or in patients not responding to topical therapy alone. Systemic therapies are reserved for more severe and extensive cases that cannot be controlled with topical treatment and/or phototherapy such as severe plaque type, unstable forms like erythrodermic and generalized pustular psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis. There are no controlled trials of systemic therapies in this age group, most experience being with retinoids and methotrexate with favorable results. Cyclosporine can be used as a short-term intermittent crisis management drug. There is an early promising experience with the use of biologics (etanercept and infliximab in childhood psoriasis. Systemic treatments as well as phototherapy have limited use in children due to cumulative dose effects of drugs, low acceptance, and risk of gonadal toxicity. More evidence-based data is needed about the effectiveness and long-term safety of topical

  14. Are boys and girls that different? An analysis of traumatic brain injury in children.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Collins, Niamh C

    2013-08-01

    The Phillips Report on traumatic brain injury (TBI) in Ireland found that injury was more frequent in men and that gender differences were present in childhood. This study determined when gender differences emerge and examined the effect of gender on the mechanism of injury, injury type and severity and outcome.

  15. Childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Joan C; Lawlor, Debbie A; Kimm, Sue Y S

    2010-05-15

    Worldwide prevalence of childhood obesity has increased greatly during the past three decades. The increasing occurrence in children of disorders such as type 2 diabetes is believed to be a consequence of this obesity epidemic. Much progress has been made in understanding of the genetics and physiology of appetite control and from these advances, elucidation of the causes of some rare obesity syndromes. However, these rare disorders have so far taught us few lessons about prevention or reversal of obesity in most children. Calorie intake and activity recommendations need reassessment and improved quantification at a population level because of sedentary lifestyles of children nowadays. For individual treatment, currently recommended calorie prescriptions might be too conservative in view of evolving insight into the so-called energy gap. Although quality of research into both prevention and treatment has improved, high-quality multicentre trials with long-term follow-up are needed. Meanwhile, prevention and treatment approaches to increase energy expenditure and decrease intake should continue. Recent data suggest that the spiralling increase in childhood obesity prevalence might be abating; increased efforts should be made on all fronts to continue this potentially exciting trend. PMID:20451244

  16. Data mining: childhood injury control and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tepas, Joseph J

    2009-08-01

    Data mining is defined as the automatic extraction of useful, often previously unknown information from large databases or data sets. It has become a major part of modern life and is extensively used in industry, banking, government, and health care delivery. The process requires a data collection system that integrates input from multiple sources containing critical elements that define outcomes of interest. Appropriately designed data mining processes identify and adjust for confounding variables. The statistical modeling used to manipulate accumulated data may involve any number of techniques. As predicted results are periodically analyzed against those observed, the model is consistently refined to optimize precision and accuracy. Whether applying integrated sources of clinical data to inferential probabilistic prediction of risk of ventilator-associated pneumonia or population surveillance for signs of bioterrorism, it is essential that modern health care providers have at least a rudimentary understanding of what the concept means, how it basically works, and what it means to current and future health care. PMID:19667841

  17. Roger Williams’s Unintentional Contribution to the Creation of American Capitalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casey Pratt

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues that in attempting to protect the religious life from the sullying influence of worldly affairs, Roger Williams participated, albeit unintentionally, in creating the economic conditions that led to the birth of American capitalism. Although Williams argued for a separation of church and state, he did so not in the interest of defending economic liberty, but instead to preserve the sanctity of the church against the frequent immorality that seemed to him required in worldly governance. Questions of pricing and wages, lending and interest—issues that would until Williams’s intervention have been handled by the church in terms of Aquinas’ just price theory—fell outside of the church’s purview according to the new model described by Williams. The result was the creation of an “amoral” public space where the effective separation between spiritual and material concerns led to a kind of free-by-default economic marketplace. This paper traces the development and inadvertent consequences of this essentially theological idea as it took shape in the colonial era.

  18. A novel monitoring system for conventional waste to detect unintentional additions of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For many years the conventional wastes of the Juelich Nuclear Research Center have been monitored for unintentional additions of radioactive material before being transferred to a public garbage pit. This monitoring has been performed by a health physics aide. Recently an automatic monitoring device was installed. The main piece of this testing device is a scintillator probe. The sensitivity and directional independence of the probe for different nuclides showed its suitability for monitoring conventional waste in steel containers. For this purpose an appropriate mechanism was designed. The containers intended for waste transport are standing in a container pit over which a trolley on rails is passing. On the front part of the trolley, two gamma-probes are mounted. If no activity is detected the device ejects a test note in form of a card, similar to a parking ticket. During the whole measuring procedure, a barrier prevents the container from being moved out. If radioactive constituents are present, the barrier will continue to block the removal. At the same time a signal is given leading to inspection of the refused container. (orig.)

  19. Inhibition of unintentional extra carriers by Mn valence change for high insulating devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Daoyou; Li, Peigang; Wu, Zhenping; Cui, Wei; Zhao, Xiaolong; Lei, Ming; Li, Linghong; Tang, Weihua

    2016-04-01

    For intrinsic oxide semiconductors, oxygen vacancies served as the electron donors have long been, and inevitably still are, attributed as the primary cause of conductivity, making oxide semiconductors seem hard to act as high insulating materials. Meanwhile, the presence of oxygen vacancies often leads to a persistent photoconductivity phenomenon which is not conducive to the practical use in the fast photoelectric response devices. Herein, we propose a possible way to reduce the influence of oxygen vacancies by introducing a valence change doping in the monoclinic β-Ga2O3 epitaxial thin film. The unintentional extra electrons induced by oxygen vacancies can be strongly suppressed by the change valence of the doped Mn ions from +3 to +2. The resistance for the Mn-doped Ga2O3 increases two orders of magnitude in compared with the pure Ga2O3. As a result, photodetector based on Mn-doped Ga2O3 thin films takes on a lower dark current, a higher sensitivity, and a faster photoresponse time, exhibiting a promising candidate using in high performance solar-blind photodetector. The study presents that the intentional doping of Mn may provide a convenient and reliable method of obtaining high insulating thin film in oxide semiconductor for the application of specific device.

  20. Unintentional weakness of cancers: the MEK-ERK pathway as a double-edged sword.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suda, Kenichi; Mitsudomi, Tetsuya

    2013-10-01

    Recent advances in molecular targeted therapies have greatly improved treatment outcomes for cancers driven by oncogenic mutations. Despite initial and dramatic clinical responses, tumors eventually acquire resistance to these targeted therapies, showing flexible and diverse responses. Interestingly, cancer cells sometimes overadapt to the drug treatment environment, leading to a state in which cancer cells cannot survive without the drug. This interesting phenomenon (often called "drug dependency" or "drug addiction") is exemplified in preclinical acquired resistance models of BRAF-mutated melanoma treated with vemurafenib and EGFR-mutated lung cancer treated with EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors. A number of intriguing parallels in drug-addicted cancers became apparent in a comparison of the two models: (i) overexpression of driver oncogenes as causes of acquired resistance; (ii) overexpression of driver oncogenes causing MEK-ERK hyperactivation under drug-free conditions; (iii) hyperactivation of the MEK-ERK pathway as critical to this drug addiction phenomenon; (iv) ongoing dependence on the oncogenic driver; and (v) morphologic changes in resistant cells under drug-free conditions. This Perspective article not only focuses on this interesting and peculiar phenomenon but also discusses weapon strategies to exploit this unintentional weakness of cancers. PMID:23900694

  1. Head Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Aid: Falls First Aid: Head Injuries Preventing Children's Sports Injuries Getting Help: Know the Numbers Concussions Stay Safe: ... Tips: Inline Skating Safety Tips: Skateboarding Dealing With Sports Injuries Concussions: What to Do Contact Us Print Resources ...

  2. Sports Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sometimes you can injure yourself when you play sports or exercise. Accidents, poor training practices, or improper ... can also lead to injuries. The most common sports injuries are Sprains and strains Knee injuries Swollen ...

  3. Injury Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Data Consumer Opinion Surveys Home / Research & Statistics Injury Statistics This is the statistic reports page for scientific ... Home Appliances, Maintenance and Construction Injury Statistics Injury Statistics September 30, 2012 Submersions Related to Non-Pool ...

  4. Eye Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    The structure of your face helps protect your eyes from injury. Still, injuries can damage your eye, sometimes severely enough that you could lose your vision. Most eye injuries are preventable. If you play sports or ...

  5. Understanding the Effect of Unintentional Doping on Transport Optimization and Analysis in Efficient Organic Bulk-Heterojunction Solar Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Deledalle, Florent; Kirchartz, Thomas; Vezie, Michelle S.; Campoy-Quiles, Mariano; Shakya Tuladhar, Pabitra; Nelson, Jenny; Durrant, James R.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we provide experimental evidence of the effects of unintentional p-type doping on the performance and the apparent recombination dynamics of bulk-heterojunction solar cells. By supporting these experimental observations with drift-diffusion simulations on two batches of the same efficient polymer-fullerene solar cells with substantially different doping levels and at different thicknesses, we investigate the way the presence of doping affects the interpretation of optoelectroni...

  6. Multivariate Statistics and Supervised Learning for Predictive Detection of Unintentional Islanding in Grid-Tied Solar PV Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashank Vyas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Integration of solar photovoltaic (PV generation with power distribution networks leads to many operational challenges and complexities. Unintentional islanding is one of them which is of rising concern given the steady increase in grid-connected PV power. This paper builds up on an exploratory study of unintentional islanding on a modeled radial feeder having large PV penetration. Dynamic simulations, also run in real time, resulted in exploration of unique potential causes of creation of accidental islands. The resulting voltage and current data underwent dimensionality reduction using principal component analysis (PCA which formed the basis for the application of Q statistic control charts for detecting the anomalous currents that could island the system. For reducing the false alarm rate of anomaly detection, Kullback-Leibler (K-L divergence was applied on the principal component projections which concluded that Q statistic based approach alone is not reliable for detection of the symptoms liable to cause unintentional islanding. The obtained data was labeled and a K-nearest neighbor (K-NN binomial classifier was then trained for identification and classification of potential islanding precursors from other power system transients. The three-phase short-circuit fault case was successfully identified as statistically different from islanding symptoms.

  7. Relationship Analysis of the Correlated Factors between Unintentional Inj ury and Family Envi-ronment of College Students%大学生意外伤害与环境相关因素的关系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈思思; 周乐山

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨大学生意外伤害与环境因素的关系,为预防和控制大学生意外伤害的发生提供参考依据.方法采用自编调查表和环境量表中文版(the family environment scale-Chinese version,FES-CV)对71例意外伤害大学生和匹配的71例未发生意外伤害学生的环境因素进行评定,运用t检验、χ2检验、条件 Logistic 回归等分析意外伤害与环境相关因素的关系.结果病例组与对照组在成绩、是否独生、喝酒情况、家庭月收入、教育方式方面差异有统计学意义(均P<0.05).FES-CV8个维度中病例组的亲密度、情感表达得分高于对照组(均P<0.05).多因素分析显示是否独生、家庭月收入、亲密度是大学生意外伤害的主要影响因素(均P<0.05).结论应根据意外伤害大学生的环境特征采取相应的干预措施,以降低大学生意外伤害的发生率.%Objective To discuss the relationships between unintentional injury and family environment in college students,so as to provide references for preventing and controlling unintentional inj ury of college students.Methods By using self-designed questionnaire and the Family Environment Scale Chinese version to assess 7 1 inj ured and matched 7 1 uninj ured cases’s family environment factors and then analyze the rela-tionships between unintentional inj ury and family environment relevant factors by using T test and condi-tional Logistic regression.Results There were statistic significances of grades,whether the only child in the family,drinking situation,family monthly income and education style between two groups of students (all P<0.05).FES-CV scale of score of intimacy and emotional expression in case group were higher than which in control group (all P<0.05).Multivariate analysis showed that whether the only child in the fami-ly,family monthly income and intimacy were the maj or influencing factors of unintentional inj ury of college students (all P<0

  8. Constructing Model of Relationship among Behaviors and Injuries to Products Based on Large Scale Text Data on Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomori, Koji; Kitamura, Koji; Motomura, Yoichi; Nishida, Yoshifumi; Yamanaka, Tatsuhiro; Komatsubara, Akinori

    In Japan, childhood injury prevention is urgent issue. Safety measures through creating knowledge of injury data are essential for preventing childhood injuries. Especially the injury prevention approach by product modification is very important. The risk assessment is one of the most fundamental methods to design safety products. The conventional risk assessment has been carried out subjectively because product makers have poor data on injuries. This paper deals with evidence-based risk assessment, in which artificial intelligence technologies are strongly needed. This paper describes a new method of foreseeing usage of products, which is the first step of the evidence-based risk assessment, and presents a retrieval system of injury data. The system enables a product designer to foresee how children use a product and which types of injuries occur due to the product in daily environment. The developed system consists of large scale injury data, text mining technology and probabilistic modeling technology. Large scale text data on childhood injuries was collected from medical institutions by an injury surveillance system. Types of behaviors to a product were derived from the injury text data using text mining technology. The relationship among products, types of behaviors, types of injuries and characteristics of children was modeled by Bayesian Network. The fundamental functions of the developed system and examples of new findings obtained by the system are reported in this paper.

  9. Childhood trauma, country report (Thailand).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junnanond, C; Ruangkanchanasetr, S; Chunharas, A

    1993-10-01

    In Thailand, each year approximately 15,000 people die from accidents, a figure exceeded only by cardiovascular diseases. Motor vehicle accidents (MVA) is the principal cause of death and injuries in children of all ages except preschool group. In 1988 there were 554,452 cases of injuries out of which 10,031 died from MVA. In Bangkok alone MVA accounts for an average of 300 childhood and teenage death and 1,900 cases of injuries each year. Falls, burns and poisonings are relatively high in children less than 4 years old while MVA and injuries from sharp and blunt objects of both accidental and non-accidental cases increase with age and become the two leading causes of injury in older children. The sex ratio (F:M) in preschool ages are 1:1.4 and 1:2 in preteen. Poisonings, though less common, are considered to be very important because of their severity. Drugs, hydrocarbon, insecticides, lead and corrosive substances are leading agents. As for injuries caused by animals, 150 cases of rabies were reported each year while around 5,000 cases of snake bites were found in 1987 and 20 per cent of the victims were children. The study from Ramathibodi Hospital revealed that the majority of accidents (65-72%) occur at home and 20 per cent in the street in children younger than 12 years. Peak incidence were found between 5-9 pm. During weekend and holidays the incidence is higher. Ninety-five per cent of the accidents reported were mild cases, 15 per cent moderate, 3 per cent severe and less than 1 per cent caused death. PMID:7822995

  10. How Are Childhood Cancers Found?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Topic How are childhood cancers treated? How are childhood cancers found? Screening for childhood cancers Screening is testing for a disease such ... in people who don’t have any symptoms. Childhood cancers are rare, and there are no widely ...

  11. Cranial nerve palsies in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, C J; Godoy, F; ALQahtani, E

    2015-02-01

    We review ocular motor cranial nerve palsies in childhood and highlight many of the features that differentiate these from their occurrence in adulthood. The clinical characteristics of cranial nerve palsies in childhood are affected by the child's impressive ability to repair and regenerate after injury. Thus, aberrant regeneration is very common after congenital III palsy; Duane syndrome, the result of early repair after congenital VI palsy, is invariably associated with retraction of the globe in adduction related to the innervation of the lateral rectus by the III nerve causing co-contraction in adduction. Clinical features that may be of concern in adulthood may not be relevant in childhood; whereas the presence of mydriasis in III palsy suggests a compressive aetiology in adults, this is not the case in children. However, the frequency of associated CNS abnormalities in III palsy and the risk of tumour in VI palsy can be indications for early neuroimaging depending on presenting features elicited through a careful history and clinical examination. The latter should include the neighbouring cranial nerves. We discuss the impact of our evolving knowledge of congenital cranial dysinnervation syndromes on this field. PMID:25572578

  12. Unintentional PCB in chlorophenylsilanes as a source of contamination in environmental samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anezaki, Katsunori, E-mail: anezaki@hro.or.jp [Hokkaido Research Organization, Environmental and Geological Research Department, Institute of Environmental Sciences, N19W12, Kita, Sapporo, Hokkaido (Japan); Nakano, Takeshi [Center for Advanced Science and Innovation, Osaka University, Osaka (Japan)

    2015-04-28

    Highlights: • PCB concentrations were studied in silicone-based adhesives and chlorophenylsilanes. • Congener patterns (CP) were studied in adhesives and chlorophenylsilanes. • High concentrations of PCBs were detected in dichlorodiphenylsilane. • In commercial adhesives, PCBs with similar CP to dichlorodiphenylsilane were found. • CP were affected by the chlorobenzene used for synthesizing chlorophenylsilanes. - Abstract: This paper discusses the concentrations and congener patterns of PCBs unintentionally present in chlorophenylsilanes. Chlorophenylsilanes are used in the production of silicone-based adhesives and phenyl silicones. The concentration of PCBs in adhesives was found to range from not-detectable concentrations to 40 mg/kg. The concentrations of PCBs in trichlorophenylsilane, dichlorodiphenylsilane, chlorotriphenylsilane, and diphenylsilanediol were 0.00072–2.7, 6.5–1,500, 0.019–1.1, and 0.12–120 mg/kg, respectively. Dichlorodiphenylsilane and diphenylsilanediol, in particular, had high PCB concentrations. The PCB concentration of some specimens exceeded the 50 mg/kg limit set by the transportation regulations of the Stockholm Convention. In the adhesives and chlorophenylsilanes, mono- and di-chlorinated biphenyls were detected in high proportions. The congeners detected in dichlorinated biphenyls had a structure in which one chlorine atom was substituted at each of the two aryls of the biphenyl backbone. This indicated that the chlorobenzene used for synthesizing chlorophenylsilanes undergoes dimerization. The congener and homologue patterns of the adhesives containing PCBs were similar to dichlorodiphenylsilane and diphenylsilanediol. It was concluded that the production of the adhesives is based on these substances. In addition, these results indicate that silicone-based products may become a source of PCBs in the environment, leading to irregular PCB values in environmental analysis.

  13. Emission of unintentionally produced persistent organic pollutants (UPOPs) from municipal waste incinerators in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuancheng; Yang, Yang; Yu, Gang; Huang, Jun; Wang, Bin; Deng, Shubo; Wang, Yujue

    2016-09-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), pentachlorobenzene (PeCBz) and hexachlorobenzene (HxCBz), which are listed in the Stockholm Convention, are commonly known as unintentionally produced persistent organic pollutants (UPOPs). As municipal waste incinerators (MWIs) have burgeoned in China, the emission of UPOPs is of great concerns. Compared to the extensive studies of PCDD/Fs emission, not much information of non-dioxin UPOPs (i.e., PCBs, HxCBz, and PeCBz) is available. In the present study, samples from raw gas (RG) after boiler, stack gas (SG) after air pollution control devices (APCDs) and fly ash (FA) samples were collected from typical MWIs in China. The analyses of SG samples indicate that PCDD/Fs are the major contributor to TEQ value, but non-dioxin UPOPs are the dominant compounds in terms of mass concentration. The mean emission factors of dl-PCBs, PeCBz, and HxCBz in SG are 0.372, 144, and 84.7 μg/t, respectively. In contrast with gaseous samples, FA contains higher mass concentration of PCDD/Fs and PCBs than that of PeCBz and HxCBz. In terms of homologues distribution of PCBs, di- to tetra-CBs were the predominant species in both SG and FA samples. PCB-126 is the major contributor to the TEQ concentration. The comparison of UPOPs composition in SG and RG samples shows that activated carbon adsorption process is capable of removing most PCDD/Fs, but less efficient for the removal of non-dioxin UPOPs. PMID:27239966

  14. Unintentional miRNA ablation is a risk factor in gene knockout studies: a short report.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Osokine

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the most powerful techniques for studying the function of a gene is to disrupt the expression of that gene using genetic engineering strategies such as targeted recombination or viral integration of gene trap cassettes. The tremendous utility of these tools was recognized this year with the awarding of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine to Capecchi, Evans, and Smithies for their pioneering work in targeted recombination mutagenesis in mammals. Another noteworthy discovery made nearly a decade ago was the identification of a novel class of non-coding genes called microRNAs. MicroRNAs are among the largest known classes of regulatory elements with more than 1000 predicted to exist in the mouse genome. Over 50% of known microRNAs are located within introns of coding genes. Given that currently about half of the genes in mouse have been knocked out, we investigated the possibility that intronic microRNAs may have been coincidentally deleted or disrupted in some of these mouse models. We searched published murine knockout studies and gene trap embryonic stem cell line databases for cases where a microRNA was located within or near the manipulated genomic loci, finding almost 200 cases where microRNA expression may have been disrupted along with another gene. Our results draw attention to the need for careful planning in future knockout studies to minimize the unintentional disruption of microRNAs. These data also raise the possibility that many knockout studies may need to be reexamined to determine if loss of a microRNA contributes to the phenotypic consequences attributed to loss of a protein-encoding gene.

  15. Local extinction and unintentional rewilding of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) on a desert island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilder, Benjamin T.; Betancourt, Julio L.; Epps, Clinton W.; Crowhurst, Rachel S.; Mead, Jim I.; Ezcurra, Exequiel

    2014-01-01

    Bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) were not known to live on Tiburón Island, the largest island in the Gulf of California and Mexico, prior to the surprisingly successful introduction of 20 individuals as a conservation measure in 1975. Today, a stable island population of ~500 sheep supports limited big game hunting and restocking of depleted areas on the Mexican mainland. We discovered fossil dung morphologically similar to that of bighorn sheep in a dung mat deposit from Mojet Cave, in the mountains of Tiburón Island. To determine the origin of this cave deposit we compared pellet shape to fecal pellets of other large mammals, and extracted DNA to sequence mitochondrial DNA fragments at the 12S ribosomal RNA and control regions. The fossil dung was 14C-dated to 1476–1632 calendar years before present and was confirmed as bighorn sheep by morphological and ancient DNA (aDNA) analysis. 12S sequences closely or exactly matched known bighorn sheep sequences; control region sequences exactly matched a haplotype described in desert bighorn sheep populations in southwest Arizona and southern California and showed subtle differentiation from the extant Tiburón population. Native desert bighorn sheep previously colonized this land-bridge island, most likely during the Pleistocene, when lower sea levels connected Tiburón to the mainland. They were extirpated sometime in the last ~1500 years, probably due to inherent dynamics of isolated populations, prolonged drought, and (or) human overkill. The reintroduced population is vulnerable to similar extinction risks. The discovery presented here refutes conventional wisdom that bighorn sheep are not native to Tiburón Island, and establishes its recent introduction as an example of unintentional rewilding, defined here as the introduction of a species without knowledge that it was once native and has since gone locally extinct.

  16. A kinematic study on (un)intentional imitation in bottlenose dolphins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartori, Luisa; Bulgheroni, Maria; Tizzi, Raffaella; Castiello, Umberto

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of observing other's movements on subsequent performance in bottlenose dolphins. The imitative ability of non-human animals has intrigued a number of researchers. So far, however, studies in dolphins have been confined to intentional imitation concerned with the explicit request to imitate other agents. In the absence of instruction to imitate, do dolphins (un)intentionally replicate other's movement features? To test this, dolphins were filmed while reaching and touching a stimulus before and after observing another dolphin (i.e., model) performing the same action. All videos were reviewed and segmented in order to extract the relevant movements. A marker was inserted post hoc via software on the videos upon the anatomical landmark of interest (i.e., rostrum) and was tracked throughout the time course of the movement sequence. The movement was analyzed using an in-house software developed to perform two-dimensional (2D) post hoc kinematic analysis. The results indicate that dolphins' kinematics is sensitive to other's movement features. Movements performed for the "visuomotor priming" condition were characterized by a kinematic pattern similar to that performed by the observed dolphin (i.e., model). Addressing the issue of spontaneous imitation in bottlenose dolphins might allow ascertaining whether the potential or impulse to produce an imitative action is generated, not just when they intend to imitate, but whenever they watch another conspecific's behavior. In closing, this will clarify whether motor representational capacity is a by-product of factors specific to humans or whether more general characteristics such as processes of associative learning prompted by high level of encephalization could help to explain the evolution of this ability. PMID:26300764

  17. Unintentional PCB in chlorophenylsilanes as a source of contamination in environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • PCB concentrations were studied in silicone-based adhesives and chlorophenylsilanes. • Congener patterns (CP) were studied in adhesives and chlorophenylsilanes. • High concentrations of PCBs were detected in dichlorodiphenylsilane. • In commercial adhesives, PCBs with similar CP to dichlorodiphenylsilane were found. • CP were affected by the chlorobenzene used for synthesizing chlorophenylsilanes. - Abstract: This paper discusses the concentrations and congener patterns of PCBs unintentionally present in chlorophenylsilanes. Chlorophenylsilanes are used in the production of silicone-based adhesives and phenyl silicones. The concentration of PCBs in adhesives was found to range from not-detectable concentrations to 40 mg/kg. The concentrations of PCBs in trichlorophenylsilane, dichlorodiphenylsilane, chlorotriphenylsilane, and diphenylsilanediol were 0.00072–2.7, 6.5–1,500, 0.019–1.1, and 0.12–120 mg/kg, respectively. Dichlorodiphenylsilane and diphenylsilanediol, in particular, had high PCB concentrations. The PCB concentration of some specimens exceeded the 50 mg/kg limit set by the transportation regulations of the Stockholm Convention. In the adhesives and chlorophenylsilanes, mono- and di-chlorinated biphenyls were detected in high proportions. The congeners detected in dichlorinated biphenyls had a structure in which one chlorine atom was substituted at each of the two aryls of the biphenyl backbone. This indicated that the chlorobenzene used for synthesizing chlorophenylsilanes undergoes dimerization. The congener and homologue patterns of the adhesives containing PCBs were similar to dichlorodiphenylsilane and diphenylsilanediol. It was concluded that the production of the adhesives is based on these substances. In addition, these results indicate that silicone-based products may become a source of PCBs in the environment, leading to irregular PCB values in environmental analysis

  18. Cycling injuries.

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, G. C.

    1993-01-01

    Bicycle-related injuries have increased as cycling has become more popular. Most injuries to recreational riders are associated with overuse or improper fit of the bicycle. Injuries to racers often result from high speeds, which predispose riders to muscle strains, collisions, and falls. Cyclists contact bicycles at the pedals, seat, and handlebars. Each is associated with particular cycling injuries.

  19. Back Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pelvis. Back injuries can result from sports injuries, work around the house or in the garden, or a sudden jolt such as a car accident. The lower back is the most common site of back injuries and back pain. Common back injuries include Sprains and strains Herniated ...

  20. Injury mortality and accessibility to emergency care in Japan: an observational epidemiological study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Takashi; Okayama, Masanobu; Aihara, Masakazu; Kajii, Eiji

    2014-01-01

    Background Unintentional injury is a major cause of death across the globe. The accessibility to emergency medical services may affect the rate of preventable trauma deaths. The purpose of this study was to analyze the accessibility to emergency medical hospitals in municipalities in Japan and to clarify whether accessibility was associated with the mortality rate attributed to unintentional injuries. Methods An observational epidemiological study was conducted in all 1,742 municipalities in Japan. Measurements assessed were population size, accessibility to emergency hospitals, and mortality rates attributed to unintentional injuries. Accessibility of each municipality to their nearest emergency hospital was calculated with a computer simulation using a geographic information system. After calculating demographic statistics and the Gini coefficient of accessibility, multivariate analyses were used to examine the correlation between accessibility time and mortality. Municipalities were divided into six groups according to accessibility time, and we then performed a correlation analysis between accessibility time and mortality using analysis of covariance. Results The median time of accessibility to emergency hospitals was 34.5 minutes. The Gini coefficient of accessibility time was 0.410. A total of 385 municipalities (23.4%) had an accessibility time of over 60 minutes. Accessibility was significantly related to mortality (beta coefficient =0.006; P30 minutes, and the mortality rate in municipalities with an accessibility time of 30–45 minutes was lower than that in municipalities with an accessibility time of 60–90 minutes (P<0.001). Conclusion The geographical disparities for emergency care accessibility were related to the rate of death by unintentional injury. Improving accessibility to emergency hospitals could help decrease the mortality rate of preventable trauma. Meanwhile, our findings suggest the need for substantially shorter accessibility times to

  1. Treatment of Severe Acetaminophen–Induced Hepatocellular Injury with Prostaglandin E: Two Case Reports

    OpenAIRE

    Khatchatourian, Marina; Vellend, Hillar

    1995-01-01

    Drugs have long been recognized as culprits in hepatocellular injury. Acetaminophen is one example of a commonly used over-the-counter medication that can cause severe centrolobular hepatic necrosis when ingested in large quantities in suicide attempts or unintentional overdoses. Acetaminophen hepatotoxicity is mediated by a toxic reactive metabolite formed from the parent compound by the cytochrome P450 mixed-function oxidase system of the hepatocyte. Conventional treatment of acetaminophen-...

  2. Childhood medulloblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massimino, Maura; Biassoni, Veronica; Gandola, Lorenza; Garrè, Maria Luisa; Gatta, Gemma; Giangaspero, Felice; Poggi, Geraldina; Rutkowski, Stefan

    2016-09-01

    Medulloblastoma accounts for 15-20% of childhood nervous system tumours. The risk of dying was reduced by 30% in the last twenty years. Patients are divided in risk strata according to post-surgical disease, dissemination, histology and some molecular features such as WNT subgroup and MYC status. Sixty to 70% of patients older than 3 years are assigned to the average-risk group. High-risk patients include those with disseminated and/or residual disease, large cell and/or anaplastic histotypes, MYC genes amplification. Current and currently planned clinical trials will: (1) evaluate the feasibility of reducing both the dose of craniospinal irradiation and the volume of the posterior fossa radiotherapy (RT) for those patients at low biologic risk, commonly identified as those having a medulloblastoma of the WNT subgroup; (2) determine whether intensification of chemotherapy (CT) or irradiation can improve outcome in patients with high-risk disease; (3) find target therapies allowing tailored therapies especially for relapsing patients and those with higher biological risk. PMID:27375228

  3. Patterns of Injury in Hospitalised One-Year-Old Children: Analysis by Trimester of Age Using Coded Data and Textual Description

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debbie Scott

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The second year of life is a time of rapid developmental changes. This paper aims to describe the pattern of unintentional injuries to one-year old children in three-month age bands to better understand the risks associated with developmental stages and, therefore, identify opportunities for proactive prevention. Injury surveillance data were used to identify children admitted to hospital in Queensland, Australia for an unintentional injury from 2002–2012. Falls were the most common injury, followed by burns and scalds, contact injuries and poisonings. Falls and contact injuries remained roughly constant by age, burns and scalds decreased and poisonings (by medications increased. Animal- and transport-related injuries also became more common, immersions and other threats to breathing less common. Within the falls and contact categories falls from play equipment and injuries due to contact with persons increased, while falls down stairs and catching fingers in doors decreased. The pattern of injuries varies over the second year of life and is clearly linked to the child’s increasing mobility and boldness. Preventive measures for young children need to be designed—and evaluated—with their developmental stage in mind, using a variety of strategies, including opportunistic, developmentally specific education of parents; and practitioners should also consider potential for lapses in supervision and possible intentional injury in all injury assessments.

  4. Patterns of Injury in Hospitalised One-Year-Old Children: Analysis by Trimester of Age Using Coded Data and Textual Description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Debbie; Siskind, Victor

    2016-01-01

    The second year of life is a time of rapid developmental changes. This paper aims to describe the pattern of unintentional injuries to one-year old children in three-month age bands to better understand the risks associated with developmental stages and, therefore, identify opportunities for proactive prevention. Injury surveillance data were used to identify children admitted to hospital in Queensland, Australia for an unintentional injury from 2002-2012. Falls were the most common injury, followed by burns and scalds, contact injuries and poisonings. Falls and contact injuries remained roughly constant by age, burns and scalds decreased and poisonings (by medications) increased. Animal- and transport-related injuries also became more common, immersions and other threats to breathing less common. Within the falls and contact categories falls from play equipment and injuries due to contact with persons increased, while falls down stairs and catching fingers in doors decreased. The pattern of injuries varies over the second year of life and is clearly linked to the child's increasing mobility and boldness. Preventive measures for young children need to be designed-and evaluated-with their developmental stage in mind, using a variety of strategies, including opportunistic, developmentally specific education of parents; and practitioners should also consider potential for lapses in supervision and possible intentional injury in all injury assessments. PMID:27399742

  5. Syndesmosis injuries

    OpenAIRE

    Hunt, Kenneth J.

    2013-01-01

    Traumatic injuries to the distal tibiofibular syndesmosis commonly result from high-energy ankle injuries. They can occur as isolated ligamentous injuries and can be associated with ankle fractures. Syndesmotic injuries can create a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge for musculoskeletal physicians. Recent literature has added considerably to the body of knowledge pertaining to injury mechanics and treatment outcomes, but there remain a number of controversies regarding diagnostic tests, imp...

  6. Influence of Sex on Suicidal Phenotypes in Affective Disorder Patients with Traumatic Childhood Experiences

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandra Bernegger; Klemens Kienesberger; Laura Carlberg; Patrick Swoboda; Birgit Ludwig; Romina Koller; Nestor D Kapusta; Martin Aigner; Helmuth Haslacher; Michaela Schmöger; Siegfried Kasper; Alexandra Schosser

    2015-01-01

    Objectives In the current study, we aimed to investigate the impact of childhood trauma on suicidal behaviour phenotypes in a group of patients with diagnosed affective disorder (unipolar or bipolar affective disorder). Patients and Methods Patients with and without a history of childhood abuse, measured by Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), were assessed to explore risks for suicidal behaviour (including suicide attempt, self-harm and non-suicidal self-injury). The tested sample consisted...

  7. Childhood Brain Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... They are among the most common types of childhood cancers. Some are benign tumors, which aren't ... can still be serious. Malignant tumors are cancerous. Childhood brain and spinal cord tumors can cause headaches ...

  8. Childhood Brain Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brain tumors are abnormal growths inside the skull. They are among the most common types of childhood ... still be serious. Malignant tumors are cancerous. Childhood brain and spinal cord tumors can cause headaches and ...

  9. Childhood Overweight and Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Childhood Obesity Facts The prevalence of obesity among low-income children aged 2 through 4 years, by state ... Obesity now affects 1 in 6 children and adolescents in the United States. Childhood Obesity Facts How ...

  10. Reducing Childhood Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Reducing Childhood Obesity Past Issues / Summer 2007 Table of Contents For ... page please turn Javascript on. The We Can! childhood obesity-prevention program involves parents, caregivers, and community leaders ...

  11. Bone Stress Injuries in Runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenforde, Adam S; Kraus, Emily; Fredericson, Michael

    2016-02-01

    Bone stress injuries (BSIs) are common running injuries and may occur at a rate of 20% annually. Both biological and biomechanical risk factors contribute to BSI. Evaluation of a runner with suspected BSI includes completing an appropriate history and physical examination. MRI grading classification for BSI has been proposed and may guide return to play. Management includes activity modification, optimizing nutrition, and addressing risk factors, including the female athlete triad. BSI prevention strategies include screening for risk factors during preparticipation evaluations, optimizing nutrition (including adequate caloric intake, calcium, and vitamin D), and promoting ball sports during childhood and adolescence. PMID:26616181

  12. A profile of Injury in Fiji: findings from a population-based injury surveillance system (TRIP-10

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wainiqolo Iris

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over 90% of injury deaths occur in low-and middle-income countries. However, the epidemiological profile of injuries in Pacific Islands has received little attention. We used a population-based-trauma registry to investigate the characteristics of all injuries in Viti Levu, Fiji. Method The Fiji Injury Surveillance in Hospitals (FISH database prospectively collected data on all injury-related deaths and primary admissions to hospital (≥12 hours stay in Viti Levu during 12 months commencing October 2005. Results The 2167 injury-related deaths and hospitalisations corresponded to an annual incidence rate of 333 per 100,000, with males accounting for twice as many cases as females. Almost 80% of injuries involved people aged less than 45 years, and 74% were deemed unintentional. There were 244 fatalities (71% died before admission and 1994 hospitalisations corresponding to crude annual rates of 37.5 per 100,000 and 306 per 100,000 respectively. The leading cause of fatal injury was road traffic injury (29% and the equivalent for injury admissions was falls (30%. The commonest type of injury resulting in death and admission to hospital was asphyxia and fractures respectively. Alcohol use was documented as a contributing factor in 13% of deaths and 12% of admissions. In general, indigenous Fijians had higher rates of injury admission, especially for interpersonal violence, while those of Indian ethnicity had higher rates of fatality, especially from suicide. Conclusions Injury is an important public health problem that disproportionately affects young males in Fiji, with a high proportion of deaths prior to hospital presentation. This study highlights key areas requiring priority attention to reduce the burden of potentially life-threatening injuries in Fiji.

  13. Child Injury: What You Need to Know

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-04-16

    This podcast is based on the April 2012 CDC Vital Signs report. Many childhood deaths and injuries are preventable, including those caused by crashes, suffocation, poisoning, drowning, fires, and falls. The podcast discusses ways to help prevent these deaths and injuries.  Created: 4/16/2012 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 4/16/2012.

  14. Prevalence, circumstances and consequences of non-fatal road traffic injuries and other bodily injuries among older people in China, Ghana, India, Mexico, Russia and South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Peltzer, Karl; Phaswana-Mafuya, Nancy; Arokiasamy, Perianayagam; Biritwum, Richard; Yawson, Alfred; Minicuci, Nadia; Stewart Williams, Jennifer; Kowal, Paul; Chatterji, Somnath

    2015-01-01

    Unintentional injuries are one of the main contributors to mortality and disability in elderly populations in low- and middle-income countries. The aim of this study was to examine the annual road traffic and other bodily (not including falls) injury prevalence and associated risk factors among older adults across six lower and upper middle-income countries. A cross-sectional survey involving face-to-face household interviews were conducted in China (n=13,177), Ghana (n=4305), India (n=6560),...

  15. Lisfranc injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welck, M J; Zinchenko, R; Rudge, B

    2015-04-01

    Lisfranc injuries are commonly asked about in FRCS Orthopaedic trauma vivas. The term "Lisfranc injury" strictly refers to an injury where one or more of the metatarsals are displaced from the tarsus. The term is more commonly used to describe an injury to the midfoot centred on the 2nd tarsometatarsal joint. The injury is named after Jacques Lisfranc de St. Martin (1790-1847), a French surgeon and gynaecologist who first described the injury in 1815. 'Lisfranc injury' encompasses a broad spectrum of injuries, which can be purely ligamentous or involve the osseous and articular structures. They are often difficult to diagnose and treat, but if not detected and appropriately managed they can cause long-term disability. This review outlines the anatomy, epidemiology, classification, investigation and current evidence on management of this injury. PMID:25543185

  16. Management of head injuries in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conchie, Henry; Palmer, Sarah; Fernando, Katalin; Paul, Siba Prosad

    2016-07-01

    Head injury is the most common cause of injury-related death and permanent disability in children. Minor head trauma is common in childhood and does not require any medical treatment. Although deficits can occur even after mild to moderate head injury, they are markedly greater and become clinically evident following severe head injury. It is important that emergency department clinicians are aware of the signs and symptoms that indicate severe traumatic brain injury and triage for urgent intervention in those children who present with these signs and symptoms. Clinicians also need to know when children can be sent home with reassurance and information, and when they require admission or transfer to a neurosurgical unit. This article examines the literature on head injuries in children, describes assessment, management and treatment, and provides a simple management algorithm. PMID:27384805

  17. Childhood proptosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proptosis in children is a hallmark of orbital diseases which can present a diagnostic challenge requiring thoughtful investigation. The aim of this review is to provide the reader an overview of the subject of childhood proptosis with an emphasis on the systematic and practical approach for the work-up of proptosis in children. Use of proper imaging studies is essential for the correct diagnosis. Computed tomography is a good screening test for any space occupying lesion of the orbit. Proptosis describes eye prominence due to space occupying orbital lesions. Congenital lesions usually present in the first decade of life. Acquired orbital lesions such as lymphangiomas, orbital varix, rhabdomyosarcoma and neural tumors may present at the end of the first decade of life. Metastatic tumors to the orbit, adenocarcinoma of lacrimal gland and rapidly growing masses may present with proptosis associated with pain. Visual loss can be the presenting symptoms in the patients with optic nerve (ON) gliomas, orbital meningiomas and posteriorly located tumors. Cystic lesions of the orbit may be congenital or acquired, dermoid cysts being the most common congenital orbital lesions. Some of the vascular lesions of the orbit include capillary hemangiomas, lymphangiomas, orbital varix, and arteriovenous malformations. Inflammatory process of the orbit in children include cellulitis and pseudotumor. Neural tumors such as neurofibromas, ON gilomas and meningiomas are less common causes of proptosis in children. Rhabdomyosarcoma is the most common primary orbital malignancy in children which can present with acute proptosis and is one of the few life-threatening diseases seen initially by an ophthalmologist. Secondary orbital tumors invade the orbit from adjacent sinuses, cranium or extended from the eye itself. The most common distant metastases in children include neuroblastoma and Ewing's sarcoma. Although many orbital processes can be diagnosed based on history, clinical

  18. Quantitative genetic analysis of injury liability in infants and toddlers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, K.; Matheny, A.P. Jr. [Univ. of Louisville Medical School, KY (United States)

    1995-02-27

    A threshold model of latent liability was applied to infant and toddler twin data on total count of injuries sustained during the interval from birth to 36 months of age. A quantitative genetic analysis of estimated twin correlations in injury liability indicated strong genetic dominance effects, but no additive genetic variance was detected. Because interpretations involving overdominance have little research support, the results may be due to low order epistasis or other interaction effects. Boys had more injuries than girls, but this effect was found only for groups whose parents were prompted and questioned in detail about their children`s injuries. Activity and impulsivity are two behavioral predictors of childhood injury, and the results are discussed in relation to animal research on infant and adult activity levels, and impulsivity in adult humans. Genetic epidemiological approaches to childhood injury should aid in targeting higher risk children for preventive intervention. 30 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Injuries among Children and Young Adults in Uganda : Epidemiology and Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Mutto, Milton

    2011-01-01

    Background Injuries are a major morbidity and mortality cause among children and young adults worldwide. Previous Ugandan studies were limited in scope and biased towards severe adulthood injuries in referral care. Aims and Objectives This study explored the epidemiology of childhood and young adulthood injuries in Uganda: specifically their extent, pattern, distribution, risk and determinants, and stakeholder perceptions their regarding prevention and control. Methods ...

  20. Injury Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Traumatic Brain Injury School sports Injuries can land students in the ER. Text Messaging: Emergency Physicians ... For You American College of Emergency Phycisians Copyright © American College of Emergency ...

  1. Gender and injuries predict stimulant medication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Søren; Leckman, James F.; Nielsen, Helena Skyt;

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this article was to examine whether injuries in early childhood and gender predict prescriptions of stimulant medication in three groups of children: With attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and other psychiatric disorders (OP...

  2. Inhalation Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Coşkun Araz; Arash Pirat

    2011-01-01

    Despite significant advances in wound care of patients with burn injuries, inhalation injury remains as an important contributor to morbidity and mortality in these patients. Unfortunately, there are limited studies that have focused on the diagnosis, grading, pathophysiology, and therapy of inhalation injury, therefore a widely accepted consensus is lacking on these topics. Inhalation injury is generally defined as the inhalation of thermal or chemical irritants and can be divided into three...

  3. Imaging of sports injuries in children and adolescents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sports injuries may be unique in childhood and adolescence due to the inherent weakness of the growing skeleton at specific sites, mainly the cartilaginous parts. Many injuries are predictable based on the known mechanism of injury encountered in certain sports. There are two distinct patterns of injury in sports; acute and chronic or overuse. Imaging plays an important role in the diagnosis and management of these entities. Radiologists should be familiar with the advantages and limitations of the various imaging modalities when evaluating the injured young athlete. The present review focuses on the radiological findings and appropriate imaging approach in injuries that are typically or most commonly encountered in the skeletally immature athletes

  4. Imaging of sports injuries in children and adolescents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raissaki, Maria [Department of Radiology, Heraklion University Hospital, University of Crete, Stavrakia, Heraklion 711 10 (Greece); Apostolaki, Eleni [Department of Radiology, Heraklion University Hospital, University of Crete, Stavrakia, Heraklion 711 10 (Greece); Karantanas, Apostolos H. [Department of Radiology, Heraklion University Hospital, University of Crete, Stavrakia, Heraklion 711 10 (Greece)]. E-mail: apolsen@yahoo.com

    2007-04-15

    Sports injuries may be unique in childhood and adolescence due to the inherent weakness of the growing skeleton at specific sites, mainly the cartilaginous parts. Many injuries are predictable based on the known mechanism of injury encountered in certain sports. There are two distinct patterns of injury in sports; acute and chronic or overuse. Imaging plays an important role in the diagnosis and management of these entities. Radiologists should be familiar with the advantages and limitations of the various imaging modalities when evaluating the injured young athlete. The present review focuses on the radiological findings and appropriate imaging approach in injuries that are typically or most commonly encountered in the skeletally immature athletes.

  5. On the relation between motivation and retention in educational contexts: The role of intentional and unintentional mind wandering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seli, Paul; Wammes, Jeffrey D; Risko, Evan F; Smilek, Daniel

    2016-08-01

    Highly motivated students often exhibit better academic performance than less motivated students. However, to date, the specific cognitive mechanisms through which motivation increases academic achievement are not well understood. Here we explored the possibility that mind wandering mediates the relation between motivation and academic performance, and additionally, we examined possible mediation by both intentional and unintentional forms of mind wandering. We found that participants reporting higher motivation to learn in a lecture-based setting tended to engage in less mind wandering, and that this decrease in mind wandering was in turn associated with greater retention of the lecture material. Critically, we also found that the influence of motivation on retention was mediated by both intentional and unintentional types of mind wandering. Not only do the present results advance our theoretical understanding of the mechanisms underlying the relation between motivation and academic achievement, they also provide insights into possible methods of intervention that may be useful in improving student retention in educational settings. PMID:26585116

  6. The Seebeck coefficient of In2O3 - Inferences on causes of unintentional conductivity and electron effective mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    If synthesized with high quality and purity, In2O3 along with SnO2 and Ga2O3 can become true wide band gap semiconductors in their own right, allowing new applications such as transparent electronics or power electronics. A long standing issue with these oxides is the source of the unintentional n-type conductivity, and the more recent suspicion that the In2O3 surface dominate the thin film conductivity. Furthermore, literature values on the electron effective mass show a large spread. In this contribution we measured and modeled the room temperature Seebeck coefficient of high-quality, plasma-assisted molecular-beam-epitaxy-grown In2O3 for a wide range of electron concentrations, including the previously unexplored non-degenerate regime. We then use Hall and Seebeck measurements to (1.) confirm the bulk nature (and not the surface) of the unintentionally doped electron system in In2O3, and (2.) estimate the electron effective mass.

  7. Epidemiology of child injuries in Uganda: challenges for health policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renee Yuen-Jan Hsia

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Globally, 90% of road crash deaths occur in the developing world. Children in Africa bear the major part of this burden, with the highest unintentional injury rates in the world. Our study aims to better understand injury patterns among children living in Kampala, Uganda and provide evidence that injuries are significant in child health. Trauma registry records of injured children seen at Mulago Hospital in Kampala were analysed. This data was collected when patients were seen initially and included patient condition, demographics, clinical variables, cause, severity, as measured by the Kampala trauma score, and location of injury. Outcomes were captured on discharge from the casualty department and at two weeks for admitted patients. From August 2004 to August 2005, 872 injury visits for children <18 years old were recorded. The mean age was 11 years (95% CI 10.9–11.6; 68% (95% CI 65–72% were males; 64% were treated in casualty and discharged; 35% were admitted. The most common causes were traffic crashes (34%, falls (18% and violence (15%. Most children (87% were mildly injured; 1% severely injured. By two weeks, 6% of the patients admitted for injuries had died and, of these morbidities, 16% had severe injuries, 63% had moderate injuries and 21% had mild injuries. We concluded that, in Kampala, children bear a large burden of injury from preventable causes. Deaths in low severity patients highlight the need for improvements in facility-based care. Further studies are necessary to capture overall child injury mortality and to measure chronic morbidity owing to sequelae of injuries.

  8. The SF-36 health survey: a valid measure of changes in health status after injury.

    OpenAIRE

    Kopjar, B.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to evaluate the criterion validity and responsiveness to changes over time of the Medical Outcome Study Short Form 36 (MOS SF-36) measure. METHODS: A consecutive sample of 775 patients 16 to 78 years treated for an unintentional injury at the hospital or emergency clinic in Drammen, Norway was selected for the study. Data about activity restrictions and health status measured by SF-36 were obtained by a postal questionnaire 6-10 weeks after the injury. A f...

  9. Childhood trauma and childhood urbanicity in relation to psychotic disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frissen, Aleida; Lieverse, Ritsaert; Drukker, Marjan; van Winkel, Ruud; Delespaul, Philippe; Cahn, W

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Urban upbringing and childhood trauma are both associated with psychotic disorders. However, the association between childhood urbanicity and childhood trauma in psychosis is poorly understood. The urban environment could occasion a background of social adversity against which any effect

  10. Head injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hureibi, K A; McLatchie, G R

    2010-05-01

    Head injury is one of the commonest injuries in sport. Most are mild but some can have serious outcomes. Sports medicine doctors should be able to recognise the clinical features and evaluate athletes with head injury. It is necessary during field assessment to recognise signs and symptoms that help in assessing the severity of injury and making a decision to return-to-play. Prevention of primary head injury should be the aim. This includes protective equipment like helmets and possible rule changes. PMID:20533694

  11. Childhood as a value

    OpenAIRE

    EWELINA PIECUCH

    2011-01-01

    The article encompasses the problems of childhood and its influence on the rest of one's life. I have concentrated on this crucial and specific time in life. It is demonstrated by biology, medicine, psychology, and psychoanalysis that human habits are formed in childhood. Health, hygiene and aesthetic behaviour determine one's further fate and influence life in its entirety. It is that phase of human life that determines the rest of it. In childhood children manifest their cogn...

  12. Prevalence and risk factors of injury among children aged 0-14 years in Hubei province%湖北省0~14岁儿童伤害状况及危险因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张岚; 戴馨

    2012-01-01

    Objective To understand the epidemiological characteristics and risk factors of nonfatal injuries among children in Hubei province. Methods The questionnaire survey was conducted among 0 ~ 14 years old children's parents in 10 cities and counties of Hubei province by multistage stratified cluster sampling. Results There were 10 688 children collected in the survey, 5 894 children in cities and 4 794 children in counties. The incidence rate of nonfatal injuries was 19.0% , which was significantly higher in male than female ( OR = 1. 28) , in rural areas than in urban areas ( OR = 2. 58). The highest rate was at 6 - 11 years old group (23.7% ) , while the lowest rate was at 0 - 2 years old group (5.5% ). The top three types of injuries were unintentional fall (45.2% ) , burn or scald (9.5% ) and animal bites(9.5% ). About 79.6% injuries were superficial injury, 40.1% injuries happened at home/dorm. The risk factors of childhood injury were male, divorced/ separated/widowed parents, a large population of family, unemployed or retired mothers/home-makers. Conclusion Childhood injuries severely affect children's health in Hubei Province. The effects of childrens characteristics and family environment on injury should be considered.%目的 了解湖北省儿童伤害发生的流行病学特征和相关危险因素,为制定儿童伤害干预措施提供科学依据.方法 多阶段分层整群抽取湖北省10个市、县的0~14岁儿童家长进行回顾性问卷调查.结果 共调查儿童10 688名,城市5 894名,农村4 794名.儿童非致死性伤害发生率为19.0%,发生率男性高于女性(OR=1.28),农村高于城市(OR=2.58).6~11岁组的伤害率最高(23.7%),0~2岁组的伤害率最低(5.5%).前3位伤害类型依次为跌倒/坠落(45.2%)、烧烫伤(9.5%)和动物伤(9.5%).79.6%为轻度损伤,40.1%的伤害发生在家里/宿舍.男性、家庭人口数多、居室热水等摆放不合理、母亲无工作的儿

  13. Childhood Cancer Survivor Study: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancers of Childhood Treatment Childhood Cancer Genomics Research Childhood Cancer Survivor Study: An Overview In 2016, it ... Late Effects of Treatment for Childhood Cancer .) The Childhood Cancer Survivor Study ( CCSS ), funded by the National ...

  14. Nonfatal childhood and their association with socioeconomic and gender structures: an ecological study of 14 Swedish municipalities (2000–2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard A. Dale

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract:
    Background: Injuries are the major cause of death and disability in European children. This study explored socioeconomic and gender structures in association with nonfatal childhood injury rates by sex and age groups in Sweden. Methods: Six indicators of socioeconomic structure and three indicators of gender structure were combined using principal component analysis. Sex- and age-specific mean annual injury rates of fourteen Swedish municipalities were estimated (2000–2005. The associations were analysed with Pearson’s correlation coefficients. Results: Narrow gender ratio in unskilled occupations and in politics was positively associated with injuries in girls 6–17 years (r ≥ 0.7 and with fractures in boys 6–12 years of age (r = 0.5. Wider income distribution was negatively associated (r ≥ -0.4 with boys’ injuries and positively associated with fractures in girls 13–17 years (r = 0.5. Relative wealth and male manager dominance was negatively associated with injuries in children 0–5 years (r = -0.4. Relative poverty was not associated with nonfatal childhood injuries. Conclusions: The strength of the associations between socioeconomic and gender structures and nonfatal childhood injury rates varied by sex, age group and type of injury. Childhood injury preventive interventions should consider the local gender structure, area-level wealth and area-level income distribution, and not only area-level poverty.

  15. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Injury Psychological Issues After Spinal Cord Injury Psychological Health After Spinal Cord Injury Psychological Health After Spinal Cord Injury The Psychologist's Role After ...

  16. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cord Injury Psychological Realities After Spinal Cord Injury Psychology of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Psychology of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation How Psychologists Help ...

  17. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cord Injury Psychological Realities after Spinal Cord Injury Psychology of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Psychology of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation How Psychologists Help ...

  18. Averting the legacy of kidney disease - focus on childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.R. Ingelfinger

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available World Kidney Day 2016 focuses on kidney disease in childhood and the antecedents of adult kidney disease that can begin in earliest childhood. Chronic kidney disease (CKD in childhood differs from that in adults, in that the largest diagnostic group among children includes congenital anomalies and inherited disorders, with glomerulopathies and kidney disease as a consequence of diabetes being relatively uncommon. In addition, many children with acute kidney injury will ultimately develop sequelae that may lead to hypertension and CKD in later childhood or in adult life. Children born early or who are small-for-date newborns have relatively increased risk for the development of CKD later in life. Persons with a high-risk birth and early childhood history should be watched closely in order to help detect early signs of kidney disease in time to provide effective prevention or treatment. Successful therapy is feasible for advanced CKD in childhood; there is evidence that children fare better than adults, if they receive kidney replacement therapy including dialysis and transplantation, although only a minority of children may require this ultimate intervention. Because there are disparities in access to care, effort is needed so that children with kidney disease, wherever they live, may be treated effectively, irrespective of their geographic or economic circumstances. Our hope is that the World Kidney Day will inform the general public, policy makers and caregivers about the needs and possibilities surrounding kidney disease in childhood.

  19. Averting the legacy of kidney disease – focus on childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie R. Ingelfinger

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available World Kidney Day 2016 focuses on kidney disease in childhood and the antecedents of adult kidney disease that can begin in earliest childhood. Chronic kidney disease (CKD in childhood differs from that in adults, as the largest diagnostic group amongst children includes congenital anomalies and inherited disorders, with glomerulopathies and kidney disease in the setting of diabetes being relatively uncommon. In addition, many children with acute kidney injury will ultimately develop sequelae that may lead to hypertensionand CKD in later childhood or in adult life. Children born early or who are small-for-date newborns have relatively increased risk for the development of CKD later in life. Persons with a high-risk birth and early childhood history should be watched closely to help to detect early signs of kidney disease in time to provide effective prevention or treatment. Successful therapy is feasible for advanced CKD in childhood; there is evidence that children fare better than adults, if they receive kidney replacement therapy including dialysis and transplantation, whilst only a minority of children may require this ultimate intervention. Because there are disparities in access to care, effort is needed so that children with kidney disease, wherever they live, may be treated effectively, irrespective of their geographic oreconomic circumstances. Our hope is that World Kidney Day will inform the general public, policymakers and caregivers about the needs and possibilities surrounding kidney disease in childhood.

  20. Averting the Legacy of Kidney Disease - Focus on Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingelfinger, Julie R; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar; Schaefer, Franz

    2016-04-01

    World Kidney Day 2016 focuses on kidney disease in childhood and the antecedents of adult kidney disease that can begin in earliest childhood. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) in childhood differs from that in adults, as the largest diagnostic group among children includes congenital anomalies and inherited disorders, with glomerulopathies and kidney disease in the setting of diabetes being relatively uncommon. In addition, many children with acute kidney injury will ultimately develop sequelae that may lead to hypertension and CKD in later childhood or in adult life. Children born early or who are small-for date newborns have relatively increased risk for the development of CKD later in life. Persons with a high-risk birth and early childhood history should be watched closely in order to help detect early signs of kidney disease in time to provide effective prevention or treatment. Successful therapy is feasible for advanced CKD in childhood; there is evidence that children fare better than adults, if they receive kidney replacement therapy including dialysis and transplantation, while only a minority of children may require this ultimate intervention. Because there are disparities in access to care, effort is needed so that those children with kidney disease, wherever they live, may be treated effectively, irrespective of their geographic or economic circumstances. Our hope is that World Kidney Day will inform the general public, policy makers and caregivers about the needs and possibilities surrounding kidney disease in childhood. PMID:27536691

  1. The burden of disease and injury in Iran 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaseghi Sanaz

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study was to estimate the burden of disease and injury in Iran for the year 2003, using Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs at the national level and for six selected provinces. Methods Methods developed by the World Health Organization for National Burden of Disease (NBD studies were applied to estimate disease and injury incidence for the calculation of Years of Life Lost due to premature mortality (YLL, Years Lived with Disability (YLD, and DALYs. The following adjustments of the NBD methodology were made in this study: a revised list with 213 disease and injury causes, development of new and more specific disease modeling templates for cancers and injuries, and adjustment for dependent comorbidity. We compared the results with World Health Organization (WHO estimates for Eastern Mediterranean Region, sub-region B in 2002. Results We estimated that in the year 2003, there were 21,572 DALYs due to all diseases and injuries per 100,000 Iranian people of all ages and both sexes. From this total number of DALYs, 62% were due to disability premature deaths (YLD and 38% were due to premature deaths (YLL; 58% were due to noncommunicable diseases, 28% – to injuries, and 14% – to communicable, maternal, perinatal, and nutritional conditions. Fifty-three percent of the total number of 14.349 million DALYs in Iran were in males, with 36.5% of the total due to intentional and unintentional injuries, 15% due to mental and behavioral disorders, and 10% due to circulatory system diseases; and 47% of DALYs were in females, with 18% of the total due to mental and behavioral disorders, 18% due to intentional and unintentional injuries, and 12% due to circulatory system diseases. The disease and injury causes leading to the highest number of DALYs in males were road traffic accidents (1.071 million, natural disasters (548 thousand, opioid use (510 thousand, and ischemic heart disease (434 thousand. The leading

  2. Inhalation Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coşkun Araz

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite significant advances in wound care of patients with burn injuries, inhalation injury remains as an important contributor to morbidity and mortality in these patients. Unfortunately, there are limited studies that have focused on the diagnosis, grading, pathophysiology, and therapy of inhalation injury, therefore a widely accepted consensus is lacking on these topics. Inhalation injury is generally defined as the inhalation of thermal or chemical irritants and can be divided into three types of injury: thermal injury, which is mostly restricted to the upper airway; chemical injury, which affects tracheobronchial tree; and systemic toxicity owing to toxic gases such as carbon monoxide. Inhalation injury increases the burn injury associated morbidity and mortality by causing airway problems and respiratory failure during the early phase and by contributing to the development of pneumonia and atelectasis during the late phase. Additionally, systemic effects of toxic gases such as carbon monoxide may also adversely affect the early and long-term outcome in burn victims. The early diagnosis and therapy of these problems plays a key role in improving the outcome of burn patients. (Journal of the Turkish Society Intensive Care 2011; 9 Suppl: 37-45

  3. Patterns of injury in children and adolescents presenting to a South African township health centre.

    OpenAIRE

    Zwi, K. J.; Zwi, A. B.; Smettanikov, E.; Söderlund, N; Logan, S.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To describe the patterns and causes of childhood injury presenting to a South African township health centre in 1991. DESIGN: Retrospective review of clinic held case notes. SETTING: Typical South-African urban township within Greater Johannesburg. SUBJECTS: 695 subjects aged 0-19 years presenting as a direct result of injury. RESULTS: Overall rates of presentation for injury were 6297/100,000/year (95% confidence interval 5463 to 7131); 35% of injuries were caused by violence, 14...

  4. Childhood Obesity. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summerfield, Liane M.

    In this discussion of childhood obesity, the medical and psychological problems associated with the condition are noted. Childhood obesity most likely results from an interaction of nutritional, psychological, familial, and physiological factors. Three factors--the family, low-energy expenditure, and heredity--are briefly examined. Early…

  5. Reframing Early Childhood Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamopoulos, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Rapid changes in Australian education have intensified the role of early childhood leaders and led to unprecedented challenges. The Australian Curriculum (ACARA, 2011), mandated Australian "National Quality Framework" (NQF) for Early Childhood Education & Care (DEEWR, 2010b) and the "National Early Years Learning Framework" (EYLF) (DEEWR, 2009)…

  6. 湖北麻城市居民1987-2008年意外跌落死亡趋势分析%Trends of unintentional fall related death during 1987-2008 in Macheng city

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈敏; 王友洁; 张德楷; 杨森焙; 刘筱娴

    2012-01-01

    Objective To assess the trends and characteristics of mortality due to unintentional fall during 1987 -2008 in Macheng ctiy. Methods The data was from Macheng Injury Death Surveillance System. The mortality rates and proportion of death causes were calculated. Chi-square test was applied to analyze the statistical significance. Results The overall standard mortality rate of unintentional fall was 4. 97/100 000. The males had 2. 25 times higher mortality rate than the females (P < 0. 001). The general trend of the mortality from 1987 - 2008 was descending (x2cmh = 49. 9, P < 0. 001). The mortality rate increased with the age (x2cmh= 850. 4, P < 0. 001). The proportion of fall death among injury deaths increased in the males (x2cmh= 23. 88, P < 0. 001), but decreased in the females (x2cmh= 10.17, P = 0. 037). People living in mountain area had a higher unintentional fall-related mortality rate than those living in hill and plain areas (x2 = 223. 52,P <0. 0001). Fall-related mortalities among different populations of 3 terrains declined from 1987 to 2008. (plain x2cmh=60. 86,P<0.0001; hill:x2cmh= 13. 3,P =0. 0099; mountain:x2cmh=55. 84,P <. 0001). Conclusion The impact of unintentional fall-related mortality was different among the residents of different age. Males,people older than 65 years and living in mountain area had the highest mortality rate. Interventions related to unintentional fall should be taken among populations at high risk.%目的 了解湖北省麻城市居民1987-2008年意外跌落死亡分布特征及其变化趋势,为制定干预措施提供参考依据.方法 收集1987-2008年麻城市居民病伤死亡登记报告中的意外跌落死亡数据,按年份、性别、年龄和居住地分别计算死亡率和死因构成比,并进行x2检验和x2趋势检验.结果 麻城市居民1987-2008年意外跌落死亡率为4.97/10万,其中男性死亡率为6.87/10万,高于女性的2.90/10万(x2=193.11,P <0.0001);1987-1988、1989-1993、1994-1998

  7. Childhood deaths from external causes in Estonia, 2001–2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soonets Ruth

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2000, the overall rate of injury deaths in children aged 0–14 was 28.7 per 100000 in Estonia, which is more than 5 times higher than the corresponding rate in neighbouring Finland. This paper describes childhood injury mortality in Estonia by cause and age groups, and validates registration of these deaths in the Statistical Office of Estonia against the autopsy data. Methods The data on causes of all child deaths in Estonia in 2001–2005 were abstracted from the autopsy protocols at the Estonian Bureau of Forensic Medicine. Average annual mortality rates per 100,000 were calculated. Coverage (proportion of the reported injury deaths from the total number of injury deaths and accuracy (proportion of correctly classified injury deaths of the registration of causes of death in Statistical Office of Estonia were assessed by comparing the Statistical Office of Estonia data with the data from Estonian Bureau of Forensic Medicine. Results Average annual mortality from external causes in 0–14 years-old children in Estonia was 19.1 per 100,000. Asphyxia and transport accidents were the major killers followed by poisoning and suicides. Relative contribution of these causes varied greatly between age groups. Intent of death was unknown for more than 10% of injury deaths. Coverage and accuracy of registration of injury deaths by Statistical Office of Estonia were 91.5% and 95.3%, respectively. Conclusion Childhood mortality from injuries in Estonia is among the highest in the EU. The number of injury deaths in Statistical Office of Estonia is slightly underestimated mostly due to misclassification for deaths from diseases. Accuracy of the Statistical Office of Estonia data was high with some underestimation of intentional deaths. Moreover, high proportion of death with unknown intent suggests underestimation of intentional deaths. Reduction of injury deaths should be given a high priority in Estonia. More information on

  8. Self-injurious behavior in anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favaro, A; Santonastaso, P

    2000-08-01

    Recent reports have postulated the existence of two different types of self-injurious behavior: impulsive and compulsive. The aim of the present study is to analyze the dimensionality of self-injurious behavior and to study the link between self-injurious behavior and clinical features in anorexia nervosa. The study involved 236 consecutive patients with anorexia nervosa, diagnosed by DSM-IV criteria. Subjects were evaluated by means of a semistructured interview and self-reported questionnaires, such as the Eating Disorders Inventory and Hopkins Symptom Checklist. A principal component analysis was used to study the dimensionality of different types of self-injurious behavior, including purging. Our findings confirm the distinction between impulsive and compulsive self-injurious behavior. The dimensions appear to be represented as a continuum in both the anorexia nervosa diagnostic subgroups. A third distinct dimension emerged that included self-induced vomiting and laxative/diuretics abuse. Childhood sexual abuse and anxiety significantly predict the presence of impulsive self-injury, whereas obsessionality and age predict compulsive self-injury. The coexistence of a positive score on both dimensions of self-injurious behavior was the strongest predictor of treatment dropout. The present study highlights the importance of self-injurious behavior; it should be given due consideration in future outcome studies on anorexia nervosa PMID:10972574

  9. Cognitive behavioural therapy skills in children who have sustained an acquired brain injury

    OpenAIRE

    Ingham, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    Background: Childhood brain injury can result in cognitive, behavioural, and psychological difficulties. It is reported that many children who have suffered a brain injury experience the same level of emotional distress as children seen in mental health services. Cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) has been shown to be an effective intervention for a range of psychological disorders that arise during childhood, yet to date there is little evidence to suggest whether this is a beneficial therapy...

  10. Childhood trauma and childhood urbanicity in relation to psychotic disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Frissen, Aleida; Lieverse, Ritsaert; Drukker, Marjan; van Winkel, Ruud; Delespaul, Philippe; [...

    2015-01-01

    Background Urban upbringing and childhood trauma are both associated with psychotic disorders. However, the association between childhood urbanicity and childhood trauma in psychosis is poorly understood. The urban environment could occasion a background of social adversity against which any effect of childhood trauma increases. Also, any impact of the urban environment on likelihood of exposure to childhood trauma could be stronger in children who later develop psychotic disorder. The aim of...

  11. Childhood trauma and childhood urbanicity in relation to psychotic disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Frissen, Aleida; Lieverse, Ritsaert; Drukker, Marjan; van Winkel, Ruud; Delespaul, Philippe; Cahn, W.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Urban upbringing and childhood trauma are both associated with psychotic disorders. However, the association between childhood urbanicity and childhood trauma in psychosis is poorly understood. The urban environment could occasion a background of social adversity against which any effect of childhood trauma increases. Also, any impact of the urban environment on likelihood of exposure to childhood trauma could be stronger in children who later develop psychotic disorder. The aim o...

  12. What Do We Know About the Association Between Firearm Legislation and Firearm-Related Injuries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santaella-Tenorio, Julian; Cerdá, Magdalena; Villaveces, Andrés; Galea, Sandro

    2016-01-01

    Firearms account for a substantial proportion of external causes of death, injury, and disability across the world. Legislation to regulate firearms has often been passed with the intent of reducing problems related to their use. However, lack of clarity around which interventions are effective remains a major challenge for policy development. Aiming to meet this challenge, we systematically reviewed studies exploring the associations between firearm-related laws and firearm homicides, suicides, and unintentional injuries/deaths. We restricted our search to studies published from 1950 to 2014. Evidence from 130 studies in 10 countries suggests that in certain nations the simultaneous implementation of laws targeting multiple firearms restrictions is associated with reductions in firearm deaths. Laws restricting the purchase of (e.g., background checks) and access to (e.g., safer storage) firearms are also associated with lower rates of intimate partner homicides and firearm unintentional deaths in children, respectively. Limitations of studies include challenges inherent to their ecological design, their execution, and the lack of robustness of findings to model specifications. High quality research on the association between the implementation or repeal of firearm legislation (rather than the evaluation of existing laws) and firearm injuries would lead to a better understanding of what interventions are likely to work given local contexts. This information is key to move this field forward and for the development of effective policies that may counteract the burden that firearm injuries pose on populations. PMID:26905895

  13. Nonfreezing Tissue Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Wrist Extensor Stretch Additional Content Medical News Nonfreezing Tissue Injuries By Daniel F. Danzl, MD NOTE: This ... Cold Injuries Overview of Cold Injuries Hypothermia Nonfreezing Tissue Injuries Frostbite In nonfreezing tissue injuries, parts of ...

  14. Repetitive Stress Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Repetitive Stress Injuries KidsHealth > For Teens > Repetitive Stress Injuries Print ... t had any problems since. What Are Repetitive Stress Injuries? Repetitive stress injuries (RSIs) are injuries that ...

  15. Childhood cancer in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Mariana; Hendricks, Marc; Davidson, Alan; Stefan, Cristina D; van Eyssen, Ann L; Uys, Ronelle; van Zyl, Anel; Hesseling, Peter

    2014-04-01

    The majority of children with cancer live in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) with little or no access to cancer treatment. The purpose of the paper is to describe the current status of childhood cancer treatment in Africa, as documented in publications, dedicated websites and information collected through surveys. Successful twinning programmes, like those in Malawi and Cameroon, as well as the collaborative clinical trial approach of the Franco-African Childhood Cancer Group (GFAOP), provide good models for childhood cancer treatment. The overview will hopefully influence health-care policies to facilitate access to cancer care for all children in Africa. PMID:24214130

  16. National Childhood Vaccine Injury Compensation Act of 1985. Hearing before the Committee on Labor and Human Resources, United States Senate, Ninety-Ninth Congress. First Session on S. 827 To Amend the Public Health Service Act To Provide for the Compensation of Children and Others Who Have Sustained Vaccine-Related Injuries, and for Other Purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Labor and Human Resources.

    Under examination at this hearing was the best mechanism for a system of compensation for vaccine injuries. Also considered was the applicability of environmental legislation to vaccines, and whether approval by the Federal Government means that a vaccine is, in effect, as safe as it could be. Statements were presented by representatives of the…

  17. Cardiovascular Conditions of Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... This childhood illness can result in long-term heart complications. Learn the symptoms, diagnosis and treatment for Kawasaki disease. Rheumatic Fever This inflammatory infection can occur after strep ...

  18. Reducing Childhood Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Reducing Childhood Obesity Past Issues / Summer 2007 Table of Contents For ... Ga. were the first three We Can! cities. Obesity Research: A New Approach The percentage of children ...

  19. Childhood Immunization Schedule

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Why Immunize? Vaccines: The Basics Instant Childhood Immunization Schedule Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Get the ... See Disclaimer for additional details. Based on Immunization Schedule for Children 0 through 6 Years of age ...

  20. Childhood vitiligo: Treatment paradigms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amrinder Jit Kanwar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Childhood vitiligo differs from the adults by showing a higher incidence in females, segmental vitiligo being more common and less frequent association with other systemic autoimmune and endocrine disorders.Childhood vitiligo is often associated with a marked psychosocial and long lasting effect on the self-esteem of the affected children and their parents, hence an adequate treatment is very essential. Treatment of vitiligo is indeed a tough challenge for the dermatologists′ more so in the background of childhood vitiligo. Although multiple therapeutic modalities are available in the therapeutic armamentarium, not all can be used in children. This brief report updates regarding various therapies available in the treatment of childhood vitiligo.

  1. Childhood Vaccine Schedule

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Childhood Vaccine Schedule Past Issues / Spring 2008 Table of Contents ... please turn Javascript on. When to Vaccinate What Vaccine Why Birth (or any age if not previously ...

  2. Tooth decay - early childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ribeiro NM, Ribeiro MA. Breastfeeding and early childhood caries: a critical review. J Pediatr (Rio J) . 2004;80:S199-S210. Sexton S, Natale R. Risks and benefits of pacifiers. Am Fam Physician . 2009; ...

  3. Early Childhood Caries

    OpenAIRE

    Kawashita, Yumiko; Kitamura, Masayasu; Saito, Toshiyuki

    2011-01-01

    Dental caries is one of the most common childhood diseases, and people continue to be susceptible to it throughout their lives. Although dental caries can be arrested and potentially even reversed in its early stages, it is often not self-limiting and progresses without proper care until the tooth is destroyed. Early childhood caries (ECC) is often complicated by inappropriate feeding practices and heavy infection with mutans streptococci. Such children should be targeted with a professional ...

  4. Endobronchial tumours in childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endobronchial tumours are rare in childhood and are not often considered in the differential diagnosis of persistent pneumonitis and atelectasis. We present the clinical and radiological features of seven cases of childhood bronchial 'adenoma' seen at our hospital over a 16-year period. Because they are relatively slow growing, prompt diagnosis and early surgical treatment offer the best chance of cure in these patients. A review of the literature is given

  5. Abdominal MRI in childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MRI provides diagnostic information in multiple abdominal diseases in childhood. Additional information to sonographic findings can be achieved in the diagnosis of abdominal malformation as well as in several inflammatory processes. In childhood cancer imaging MRI is essential at the beginning as well as during therapy to assess response to therapy. Because of radiation protection MRI has to replace CT in abdominal imaging in children. Some technical details have to be considered when children are examined. (orig.)

  6. Meningeal hemangiopericytoma in childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meningeal hemangiopericytoma (MHP) is extremely rare in childhood. Mean age at diagnosis is between 38 and 43 years. We present an 8-year-old boy with MHP of the middle cranial fossa. Imaging findings were indistinguishable from an aggressive bone tumor such as Ewing's sarcoma. Imaging findings are presented and discussed. Our case indicates that MHP should be considered in the differential diagnosis of skull-base tumors despite the fact that MHP is extremely rare in childhood. (orig.)

  7. Endobronchial tumours in childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endobronchial tumours are rare in childhood and are not often considered in the differential diagnosis of persistent pneumonitis and atelectasis. We present the clinical and radiological features of seven cases of childhood bronchial 'adenoma' seen at our hospital over a 16-year period. Because they are relatively slow growing, prompt diagnosis and early surgical treatment offer the best chance of cure in these patients. A review of the literature is given. (Copyright (c) Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  8. Fractures in childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clinical diagnosis of fractures in childhood can be very difficult. Therefore imaging, not only x-rays but also ultrasound, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging are of special importance. There are typical pediatric types of fractures due to epiphyseal plates and high flexibility of the bone. Fractures heal faster and dislocations can be spontaneously corrected better but also growth disturbance can occur. The second part of the article describes the special types of fractures with special attention to the characteristics in childhood.

  9. Stress and childhood epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Campen, J.S. van

    2015-01-01

    Epilepsy is one of the most common chronic diseases in childhood, characterized by the enduring predisposition to generate epileptic seizures. Children with epilepsy and their parents often report seizures precipitated by stress. In order to increase our understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the effects of stress on seizures in childhood epilepsy, we performed a variety of studies, which are described in this thesis. In part I we evaluate the extent of stress sensitivi...

  10. Early childhood aggression

    OpenAIRE

    Alink, Lenneke Rosalie Agnes

    2006-01-01

    In this thesis the development, stability, and correlates of early childhood aggression were investigated. The normative development was examined in a general population sample using questionnaires completed by the parents of 12-, 24-, and 36-month-old children and again one year later. Results showed an early childhood aggression curve, with increasing rates of aggression in the second year of life and decreasing rates in the fourth year. One-year stabilities were moderate for 12-month-olds ...

  11. Pesticides and childhood cancers.

    OpenAIRE

    Daniels, J L; Olshan, A.F.; Savitz, D A

    1997-01-01

    To evaluate the possible association between pesticides and the risk of childhood cancers, epidemiologic studies published between 1970 and 1996 were critically reviewed. Thirty-one studies investigated whether occupational or residential exposure to pesticides by either parents or children was related to increased risk of childhood cancer. In general, the reported relative risk estimates were modest. Risk estimates appeared to be stronger when pesticide exposure was measured in more detail. ...

  12. Childhood Ovarian Malignancy

    OpenAIRE

    Mahadik, Kalpana; Ghorpade, Kanchanmala

    2014-01-01

    Objective of this article is to appraise diagnostic aspects and treatment modalities in childhood ovarian tumor in background of available evidence. Literature search on Pubmed revealed various aspects of epidemiology, histopathological diagnosis, and treatment of pediatric ovarian tumor. 85 % of childhood tumors are germ cell tumors. The varied histopathological picture in germ cell tumors poses a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. Immunohistochemistry and newer genetic markers like SALL4...

  13. Rowing Injuries

    OpenAIRE

    Hosea, Timothy M.; Hannafin, Jo A.

    2012-01-01

    Context: Rowing is one of the original modern Olympic sports and was one of the most popular spectator sports in the United States. Its popularity has been increasing since the enactment of Title IX. The injury patterns in this sport are unique because of the stress applied during the rowing stroke. Evidence Acquisition: This review summarizes the existing literature describing the biomechanics of the rowing stroke and rowing-related injury patterns. Data were obtained from previously publish...

  14. Experience in expert opinion of late radiation injuries after radiotherapy of children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    13 cases of radiation injuries due to radiotherapy in childhood and adolescence were handled centrally for compensation settlement. This was part of the GDR expert opinion program of complications resulting from medical irradiation. Investigations, in recent years, were carried out under the aspect of compensation in terms of civil law or extended financial assistance according to a Decree issued on Dec. 16, 1974. These late radiation injuries resulted from radiotherapy of childhood cancer (n = 3) and of benign tissue processes (n = 10), primarily haemangiomas in early childhood (n = 7). Case histories with facts and findings of expert opinion are outlined. (author)

  15. Malpractice claims and unintentional outcome of tonsil surgery and other standard procedures in otorhinolaryngology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Windfuhr, Jochen P.

    2013-12-01

    compensation of malpractice after LN (16; 57%, TE (10; 37%, SP (8; 57% and AE (2; 100%. There were 16 cases of PTH amongst 27 trials after TE resulting either in death (5 or apallic syndrome (5. Bleeding complications had occurred on the day of surgery in only 2 patients. 16 trials were based on malpractice claims following SP encompassing lack of informed consent (6, anosmia (4, septal perforation (2, frontobasal injury (2 and dry nose (2. Trials after LN procedures were associated exclusively with a lesion of the spinal accessory nerve (28, including lack of informed consent in 19 cases. 49 cases (69% were decided for the defendant, 22 (31% were decided for the plaintiff with monetary compensation in 7 of 29 AE/TE-trials, 9 of 28 LN-trials and 6 of 14 SP-trials. Lack of informed consent was not registered for AE/TE but LN (11 and SP (2. Conclusion: Complicated cases following TE, TT, ATE, SP and LN are not systematically collected in Germany. It can be assumed, that not every complicated case is published in the medical literature or law journals and therefore not obtainable for scientific research. Alleged medical malpracice is proven for less than 6% before trial stage. Approximately half of all cases result in a plaintiff verdict or settlement at court. Proper documentation of a thourough counselling, examination, indication, informed consent and follow-up assists the surgeon in litigation. An adequate complication management of PTH is essential, including instructions for the patients/parents, instructions for the medical staff and readily available surgical instruments. Successful outcome of life-threatening PTH is widely based on a proper airway management in an interdisciplinary approach. Electrosurgical tonsillectomy techniques were repeatedly labeled as a risk factor for bleeding complications following TE. Institutions should analyse the individual PTH rate on a yearly basis. Contradictory expert opinions and verdicts of the courts concerning spinal accesory nerve

  16. Language disorders in children with central nervous system injury

    OpenAIRE

    Dennis, Maureen

    2010-01-01

    Children with injury to the central nervous system (CNS) exhibit a variety of language disorders that have been described by members of different disciplines, in different journals, using different descriptors and taxonomies. This paper is an overview of language deficits in children with CNS injury, whether congenital or acquired after a period of normal development. It first reviews the principal CNS conditions associated with language disorders in childhood. It then describes a functional ...

  17. Child Injury: What You Need to Know PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-04-16

    This 60 second PSA is based on the April 2012 CDC Vital Signs report. Many childhood deaths and injuries are preventable, including those caused by crashes, suffocation, poisoning, drowning, fires, and falls. The PSA discusses ways to help prevent these deaths and injuries.  Created: 4/16/2012 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 4/16/2012.

  18. Discriminating between intentional and unintentional gaze fixation using multimodal-based fuzzy logic algorithm for gaze tracking system with NIR camera sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naqvi, Rizwan Ali; Park, Kang Ryoung

    2016-06-01

    Gaze tracking systems are widely used in human-computer interfaces, interfaces for the disabled, game interfaces, and for controlling home appliances. Most studies on gaze detection have focused on enhancing its accuracy, whereas few have considered the discrimination of intentional gaze fixation (looking at a target to activate or select it) from unintentional fixation while using gaze detection systems. Previous research methods based on the use of a keyboard or mouse button, eye blinking, and the dwell time of gaze position have various limitations. Therefore, we propose a method for discriminating between intentional and unintentional gaze fixation using a multimodal fuzzy logic algorithm applied to a gaze tracking system with a near-infrared camera sensor. Experimental results show that the proposed method outperforms the conventional method for determining gaze fixation.

  19. Mechanism of Injury-Provoked Poliomyelitis

    OpenAIRE

    Gromeier, Matthias; Wimmer, Eckard

    1998-01-01

    Skeletal muscle injury is known to predispose its sufferers to neurological complications of concurrent poliovirus infections. This phenomenon, labeled “provocation poliomyelitis,” continues to cause numerous cases of childhood paralysis due to the administration of unnecessary injections to children in areas where poliovirus is endemic. Recently, it has been reported that intramuscular injections may also increase the likelihood of vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis in recipients of ...

  20. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Injury 101 The Basics of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation The Basics of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Preventing Pressure Sores Preventing Pressure Sores Transition from ...

  1. Risk communication, the West Nile virus epidemic, and bioterrorism: responding to the commnication challenges posed by the intentional or unintentional release of a pathogen in an urban setting

    OpenAIRE

    Covello, Vincent T.; Peters, Richard G.; Wojtecki, Joseph G.; Hyde, Richard C.

    2001-01-01

    The intentional or unintentional introduction of a pathogen in an urban setting presents severe communication chanllenges. Risk communication—a science-based approach for communicating effectively in high-concern situations—provides a set of principles and tools for meeting those challenges. A brief overview of the risk communication theoretical perspective and basic risk communication models is presented here, and the risk communication perspective is applied to the West Nile virus epidemic ...

  2. Influences of Childhood Experiences on Early Childhood Education Students

    OpenAIRE

    Strekalova-Hughes, Ekaterina; Maarouf, Saoussan; Keskin, Burhanettin

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative study examined whether or not childhood experiences of the early childhood education students affected their present personal beliefs and pedagogies. A digital survey was filled out by 58 students majoring in Early Childhood Education program. The participants were asked to identify and reflect on their impactful early experiences. The follow-up interviews with two participants were conducted to deepen the reflections on childhood experiences and explore their effects on the ...

  3. Highly chlorinated unintentionally produced persistent organic pollutants generated during the methanol-based production of chlorinated methanes: A case study in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lifei; Yang, Wenlong; Zhang, Linli; Li, Xiaoxiu

    2015-08-01

    The formation of unintentionally produced persistent organic pollutants (POPs) may occur during various chlorination processes. In this study, emissions of unintentionally produced POPs during the methanol-based production of chlorinated methanes were investigated. High concentrations of highly chlorinated compounds such as decachlorobiphenyl, octachloronaphthalene, octachlorostyrene, hexachlorobutadiene, hexachlorocyclopentadiene, hexachlorobenzene, and pentachlorobenzene were found in the carbon tetrachloride byproduct of the methanol-based production of chlorinated methanes. The total emission amounts of hexachlorocyclopentadiene, hexachlorobutadiene, polychlorinated benzenes, polychlorinated naphthalenes, octachlorostyrene, and polychlorinated biphenyls released during the production of chlorinated methanes in China in 2010 were estimated to be 10080, 7350, 5210, 427, 212, and 167 kg, respectively. Moreover, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) were formed unintentionally during chlorinated methanes production, the emission factor for PCDDs/DFs was 364 μg toxic equivalency quotient (TEQ) t(-1) product for residues, which should be added into the UNEP toolkit for updating. It was worth noting that a high overall toxic equivalency quotient from polychlorinated naphthalenes and PCDDs/DFs was generated from the chlorinated methanes production in China in 2010. The values reached 563 and 32.8 g TEQ, respectively. The results of the study indicate that more research and improved management systems are needed to ensure that the methanol-based production of chlorinated methanes can be achieved safely. PMID:25777670

  4. The role of exclusive breastfeeding in prevention of childhood epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander Kurniadi; Elisabeth Siti Herini; Wahyu Damayanti

    2015-01-01

    Background Epilepsy affects 1% of children worldwide. The highest incidence is in the first year of life, and perinatal factors, such as hypoxic-ischemic injury, infection, and cortical malformation may play etiologic roles. Breast milk contains optimal nutrients for human brain in early life. Breastfeeding has been associated with lower risk of infections, better cognitive and psychomotor development. However, the role of breastfeeding in preventing childhood epilepsy remains unclear. Ob...

  5. The role of exclusive breastfeeding in prevention of childhood epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander Kurniadi; Elisabeth Siti Herini; Wahyu Damayanti

    2015-01-01

    Background Epilepsy affects 1% of children worldwide. The highest incidence is in the first year of life, and perinatal factors, such as hypoxic-ischemic injury, infection, and cortical malformation may play etiologic roles. Breast milk contains optimal nutrients for human brain in early life. Breastfeeding has been associated with lower risk of infections, better cognitive and psychomotor development. However, the role of breastfeeding in preventing childhood epilepsy remains unclear. Object...

  6. Domestic injuries and suicide among women of reproductive age in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fardiazar Z

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Zahra Fardiazar,1 Homayoun Sadeghi-Bazargani,2 Reza Mohammadi31Women's Reproductive Health Research Center, 2Neuroscience Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran; 3Public Health Department, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, SwedenBackground: The aim of this study was to map out some epidemiological aspects of intentional and unintentional injuries among Iranian women of reproductive age using a national registry.Methods: Injury data were taken from a national-based injury surveillance system over the period 2000–2002. The study population comprised 31.5% of the population of Iran.Results: Of all the 307,064 domestic injuries reported during the years 2000–2002, about 152,600 cases (49.7% involved women. About half of these women (76,474 were in the reproductive age group. The majority (42.7% of injuries among women of reproductive age were burn wounds followed by lacerations in 32.6%. Eighty-five percent of suicide cases were poisonings, followed by 11% for suicides by burning. However, 45.2% of burn suicides were fatal, compared with a 0.89% fatality rate for poisonings. Of all female suicide victims, 1029 died, 174 victims became disabled, while the remainder improved or were undergoing therapy when reported.Conclusion: Injuries, especially burns, are a major public health problem for women of reproductive age.Keywords: injuries, women's health, accidents, burns, falls, poisonings, home safety, domestic injuries, epidemiology

  7. Childhood Eye Diseases and Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Things College Students Should Do For Their Eyes Childhood Eye Diseases and Conditions Nov. 01, 2013 The ... cataract or eye disorder that needs treatment. Common Childhood Eye Diseases & Conditions When the following diseases are ...

  8. General Information about Childhood Ependymoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... without radiation therapy . Childhood ependymoma, anaplastic ependymoma, or RELA fusion–positive ependymoma Treatment of newly diagnosed childhood ... Grade II), anaplastic ependymoma (WHO Grade III), or RELA fusion–positive ependymoma is: Surgery . After surgery, the ...

  9. Treatment Option Overview (Childhood Ependymoma)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... without radiation therapy . Childhood ependymoma, anaplastic ependymoma, or RELA fusion–positive ependymoma Treatment of newly diagnosed childhood ... Grade II), anaplastic ependymoma (WHO Grade III), or RELA fusion–positive ependymoma is: Surgery . After surgery, the ...

  10. Trampoline injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Paul W

    2003-04-01

    As the popularity of trampolines has increased during the past 10 years, so has the number of injuries sustained using them. Whether there is an actual increase in the risk associated with the use of a trampoline for the same number of exposure hours is not known. The marked increase in emergency room visits related to trampoline injuries might reflect only the increased number of trampolines now available for recreational use or the creative manner in which they are being used. The complex factors related to trampolines, their use, and the possible injuries will be discussed. A liberal use of Internet references will be used because this is where much of the advertising and information available to the public regarding trampolines currently is disseminated. PMID:12671484

  11. Childhood physical abuse in outpatients with psychosomatic symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kubo Chiharu

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Japan and Asia, few studies have been done of physical and sexual abuse. This study was aimed to determine whether a history of childhood physical abuse is associated with anxiety, depression and self-injurious behavior in outpatients with psychosomatic symptoms. Methods We divided 564 consecutive new outpatients at the Department of Psychosomatic Medicine of Kyushu University Hospital into two groups: a physically abused group and a non-abused group. Psychological test scores and the prevalence of self-injurious behavior were compared between the two groups. Results A history of childhood physical abuse was reported by patients with depressive disorders(12.7%, anxiety disorders(16.7%, eating disorders (16.3%, pain disorders (10.8%, irritable bowel syndrome (12.5%, and functional dyspepsia(7.5%. In both the patients with depressive disorders and those with anxiety disorders, STAI-I (state anxiety and STAI-II (trait anxiety were higher in the abused group than in the non-abused group (p In the patients with depressive disorders, the abused group was younger than the non-abused group (p Conclusion A history of childhood physical abuse is associated with psychological distress such as anxiety, depression and self-injurious behavior in outpatients with psychosomatic symptoms. It is important for physicians to consider the history of abuse in the primary care of these patients.

  12. Childhood trauma in bipolar disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Watson, S; Gallagher, P.; Dougall, D.; R Porter; Moncrieff, J.; Ferrier, I. N.; Young, A. H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: There has been little investigation of early trauma in bipolar disorder despite evidence that stress impacts on the course of this illness. We aimed to compare the rates of childhood trauma in adults with bipolar disorder to a healthy control group, and to investigate the impact of childhood trauma on the clinical course of bipolar disorder. Methods: Retrospective assessment of childhood trauma was conducted using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) in 60 outpatients with bipo...

  13. Facial Sports Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Calendar Find an ENT Doctor Near You Facial Sports Injuries Facial Sports Injuries Patient Health Information News media ... should receive immediate medical attention. Prevention Of Facial Sports Injuries The best way to treat facial sports injuries ...

  14. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cord Injury 101 Spinal Cord Injury 101 The Basics of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation The Basics of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Preventing Pressure Sores Preventing Pressure Sores Transition ...

  15. Eye Injuries at Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ask an Ophthalmologist Español Eye Health / Tips & Prevention Eye Injuries Sections Preventing Eye Injuries Recognizing and Treating ... Safety Sports Eye Injuries by the Numbers — Infographic Eye Injuries at Work Edited by: Shirley Dang Feb. ...

  16. Preventing Eye Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ophthalmologist Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Eye Injuries Sections Preventing Eye Injuries Recognizing and Treating ... Sports Eye Injuries by the Numbers — Infographic Preventing Eye Injuries Reviewed by: Brenda Pagan-Duran MD Mar. ...

  17. Reconceptualizing the "Nature" of Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Affrica

    2011-01-01

    This interdisciplinary article draws upon human geography to bring fresh new perspectives to the relationship between two commonly conflated concepts: "childhood" and "nature". Childhood studies scholars have gone a long way towards retheorizing childhood beyond the "natural" and the "universal" by pointing to its historical and cultural…

  18. Discovering the Culture of Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plank, Emily

    2016-01-01

    We often filter our interactions with children through the lens of adulthood. View the culture of childhood through a whole new lens. Identify age-based bias and expand your outlook on and understanding of early childhood as a culture. Examine various elements of childhood culture: language, the power of believing, artistic expressions, and social…

  19. Birthweight and Childhood Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paltiel, Ora; Tikellis, Gabriella; Linet, Martha; Golding, Jean; Lemeshow, Stanley; Phillips, Gary; Lamb, Karen; Stoltenberg, Camilla; Håberg, Siri E; Strøm, Marin; Granstrøm, Charlotta; Northstone, Kate; Klebanoff, Mark; Ponsonby, Anne-Louise; Milne, Elizabeth; Pedersen, Marie; Kogevinas, Manolis; Ha, Eunhee; Dwyer, Terence

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Evidence relating childhood cancer to high birthweight is derived primarily from registry and case-control studies. We aimed to investigate this association, exploring the potential modifying roles of age at diagnosis and maternal anthropometrics, using prospectively collected data from...... the International Childhood Cancer Cohort Consortium. METHODS: We pooled data on infant and parental characteristics and cancer incidence from six geographically and temporally diverse member cohorts [the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (UK), the Collaborative Perinatal Project (USA......). Childhood cancer (377 cases diagnosed prior to age 15 years) risk was analysed by type (all sites, leukaemia, acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, and non-leukaemia) and age at diagnosis. We estimated hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) from Cox proportional hazards models stratified by cohort...

  20. Prediction of posttraumatic stress in fathers of children with chronic diseases or unintentional injuries: a six-months follow-up study

    OpenAIRE

    Sennhauser Felix H; Vollrath Margarete E; Ribi Karin; Gnehm Hanspeter E; Landolt Markus A

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background While fathers were neglected for a long time in research investigating families of pediatric patients, there are now a few studies available on fathers' posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, little is known about the course of PTSS and PTSD in fathers of pediatric patients. The present study aimed to compare the prevalence and course of PTSS and PTSD in fathers of children with different chronic and acute conditions and to ...

  1. School Reentry for Children with Acquired Central Nervous Systems Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carney, Joan; Porter, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    Onset of acquired central nervous system (CNS) injury during the normal developmental process of childhood can have impact on cognitive, behavioral, and motor function. This alteration of function often necessitates special education programming, modifications, and accommodations in the education setting for successful school reentry. Special…

  2. Cognitive and psychopathological sequelae of pediatric traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchamp, M H; Anderson, V

    2013-01-01

    Childhood traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a frequent cause of acquired disability in childhood and can have a serious impact on development across the lifespan. The consequences of early TBI vary according to injury severity, with severe injuries usually resulting in more serious physical, cognitive and behavioral sequelae. Both clinical and research reports document residual deficits in a range of skills, including intellectual function, attention, memory, learning, and executive function. In addition, recent investigations suggest that early brain injury also affects psychological and social development and that problems in these domains may increase in the long term postinjury. Together, these deficits affect children's ability to function effectively at school, in the home, and in their social environment, resulting in impaired acquisition of knowledge, psychological and social problems, and overall reduced quality of life. Ultimately, recovery from childhood TBI depends on a range of complex biological, developmental, and psychosocial factors making prognosis difficult to predict. This chapter will detail the cognitive (intellectual, attentional, mnesic, executive, educational, and vocational) and psychopathological (behavioral, adaptive, psychological, social) sequelae of childhood TBI with a particular focus on postinjury recovery patterns in the acute, short-, and long-term phases, as well as into adulthood. PMID:23622301

  3. Unintentional Pharmaceutical-Related Medication Errors Caused by Laypersons Reported to the Toxicological Information Centre in the Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Michal; Leššo, Roman; Pelclová, Daniela

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of the article was to study unintentional pharmaceutical-related poisonings committed by laypersons that were reported to the Toxicological Information Centre in the Czech Republic. Identifying frequency, sources, reasons and consequences of the medication errors in laypersons could help to reduce the overall rate of medication errors. Records of medication error enquiries from 2013 to 2014 were extracted from the electronic database, and the following variables were reviewed: drug class, dosage form, dose, age of the subject, cause of the error, time interval from ingestion to the call, symptoms, prognosis at the time of the call and first aid recommended. Of the calls, 1354 met the inclusion criteria. Among them, central nervous system-affecting drugs (23.6%), respiratory drugs (18.5%) and alimentary drugs (16.2%) were the most common drug classes involved in the medication errors. The highest proportion of the patients was in the youngest age subgroup 0-5 year-old (46%). The reasons for the medication errors involved the leaflet misinterpretation and mistaken dose (53.6%), mixing up medications (19.2%), attempting to reduce pain with repeated doses (6.4%), erroneous routes of administration (2.2%), psychiatric/elderly patients (2.7%), others (9.0%) or unknown (6.9%). A high proportion of children among the patients may be due to the fact that children's dosages for many drugs vary by their weight, and more medications come in a variety of concentrations. Most overdoses could be prevented by safer labelling, proper cap closure systems for liquid products and medication reconciliation by both physicians and pharmacists. PMID:26990237

  4. Long-term monitoring of PCDD/PCDF and other unintentionally produced POPs-Concepts and case studies from Europe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REINMANN; Jürgen; WEBER; Roland; HAAG; Roland

    2010-01-01

    During the start-up and unstable combustion periods,even the state-of-the-art incinerators emit polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans(PCDD/PCDF) in stack gases at concentrations that are up to 1000 times higher than normal operation. Therefore,incinerators and other sources with variation of PCDD/PCDF release into air cannot be reliably monitored by the conventional short-term sampling that covers only 0.1%to 0.2%of the yearly operating time.A more comprehensive monitoring regime is required.This paper describes different applications of continuous PCDD/PCDF sampling in some European countries.The cases demonstrate that flexible regimes for continuous sampling can be crafted and applied by governments or regional/local authorities.Such regimes range from a countrywide,continuous requirement for selected facility types(e.g.,waste incinerators) to a facility-specific regime that applies,for example,to new facilities for a defined time period until the facility has demonstrated continuous compliance with regulatory limits. Countries implementing the Stockholm Convention are suggested to evaluate in their Best available technology/Best environmental practice(BAT/BEP) activities the usefulness of long-term sampling by,for example,designating institutes related to the environmental ministry or regional authorities to supervise long-term sampling regimes at relevant facilities in their country/areas,beginning with priority sources(e.g.,facilities used for destruction of persistent organic pollutants(POPs) or hazardous waste processing) . This paper presents and discusses the results of the AMESA long-term monitoring system having demonstrated that in addition to PCDD/PCDF all other unintentionally produced POPs listed in the Stockholm Convention could be supervised.

  5. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Experts \\ Spinal Cord Injury 101 Topics Adult Injuries Spinal Cord Injury 101 Spinal Cord Injury 101 The Basics of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation ... in countries outside the US ? A spinal cord injury affects the entire family FacingDisability is designed to ...

  6. Musculoskeletal injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This presentation is about musculoskeletal injuries and the diagnosis of osseous tumors. The use of the radiology, bone scintigraphy, computed tomography and magnetic resonance contribute to detect the localization of the osseous lesions as well as the density (lytic, sclerotic, mixed) and the benign and malignant tumors.

  7. Inhalation Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... increase mortality 30% to 40% when patients with cutaneous burns and inhalation injury are compared with patients ... nasal hairs • Facial burns • Burns around the mouth • Mineral spirits – 104º F – paint thinner, brush cleaner. • Redness, ...

  8. Childhood maltreatment and violence: mediation through psychiatric morbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Rafael A; Kallis, Constantinos; Ullrich, Simone; Barnicot, Kirsten; Keers, Robert; Coid, Jeremy W

    2016-02-01

    Childhood maltreatment is associated with multiple adverse outcomes in adulthood including poor mental health and violence. We investigated direct and indirect pathways from childhood maltreatment to adult violence perpetration and the explanatory role of psychiatric morbidity. Analyses were based on a population survey of 2,928 young men 21-34 years in Great Britain in 2011, with boost surveys of black and minority ethnic groups and lower social grades. Respondents completed questionnaires measuring psychiatric diagnoses using standardized screening instruments, including antisocial personality disorder (ASPD), drug and alcohol dependence and psychosis. Maltreatment exposures included childhood physical abuse, neglect, witnessing domestic violence and being bullied. Adult violence outcomes included: any violence, violence toward strangers and intimate partners (IPV), victim injury and minor violence. Witnessing domestic violence showed the strongest risk for adult violence (AOR 2.70, 95% CI 2.00, 3.65) through a direct pathway, with psychotic symptoms and ASPD as partial mediators. Childhood physical abuse was associated with IPV (AOR 2.33, 95% CI 1.25, 4.35), mediated by ASPD and alcohol dependence. Neglect was associated with violence toward strangers (AOR 1.73, 95% CI 1.03, 2.91), mediated by ASPD. Prevention of violence in adulthood following childhood physical abuse and neglect requires treatment interventions for associated alcohol dependence, psychosis, and ASPD. However, witnessing family violence in childhood had strongest and direct effects on the pathway to adult violence, with important implications for primary prevention. In this context, prevention strategies should prioritize and focus on early childhood exposure to violence in the family home. PMID:26803688

  9. Atopic endotype in childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoos, Ann-Marie Malby; Chawes, Bo Lund Krogsgaard; Rasmussen, Morten Arendt;

    2016-01-01

    with asthma through early childhood (0-6 years) when analyzed as any sensitization (odds ratio [OR] range, 0.78-1.29; P ≥ .48). However, at 13 years of age, any sensitization was associated with asthma (OR range, 4.02-5.94; all P contrast, any sensitization was associated with eczema at ½, 1...

  10. Malignant tumors of childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book contains 34 papers about malignant tumors. some of the titles are: Invasive Cogenital Mesoblastic Nephroma, Leukemia Update, Unusual Perinatal Neoplasms, Lymphoma Update, Gonadal Germ Cell Tumors in Children, Nutritional Status and Cancer of Childhood, and Chemotherapy of Brain tumors in Children

  11. Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pui, Ching-Hon; Yang, Jun J; Hunger, Stephen P;

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: To review the impact of collaborative studies on advances in the biology and treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in children and adolescents. METHODS: A review of English literature on childhood ALL focusing on collaborative studies was performed. The resulting article was...

  12. Managing childhood obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    The prevalence of childhood obesity has steadily increased over the last decades, with approximately 35% of children aged 6-19 classified as overweight or obese. Recently, a plateau in the increasing rates of obesity has been observed. Despite this leveling off, overweight and obese children are hea...

  13. Dietary Patterns in Childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Louise Beltoft Borup

    childhood. These associations might contribute to the identification of families, who would benefit from guidance to help them establish healthy dietary patterns for their infants. Finding tracking for some infants and changes in adherence to dietary patterns for others as well as the association between...

  14. Childhood environment and obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    US children are at risk for developing childhood obesity. Currently, 23% of children ages 2–5 are overweight or obese, i.e., at or above the 85th percentile. This prevalence becomes even higher as children age, with 34% of children ages 6–11 being overweight or obese. Ethnic minority children are at...

  15. Childhood Obesity: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, John J.

    2007-01-01

    This article reviews recent research evidence, largely from systematic reviews, on a number of aspects of childhood obesity: its definition and prevalence; consequences; causes and prevention. The basis of the body mass index (BMI) as a means of defining obesity in children and adolescents is discussed: a high BMI for age constitutes obesity. In…

  16. Early childhood aggression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alink, Lenneke Rosalie Agnes

    2006-01-01

    In this thesis the development, stability, and correlates of early childhood aggression were investigated. The normative development was examined in a general population sample using questionnaires completed by the parents of 12-, 24-, and 36-month-old children and again one year later. Results show

  17. Childhood disintegrative disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouridsen, Svend Erik

    2003-01-01

    sometimes associated with this disorder, but contrary to earlier belief this is not typical. Interest in childhood disintegrative disorder has increased markedly in recent years and in this review attention is given to more recently published cases based on ICD-9, ICD-10 and DSM-IV diagnostic systems...

  18. Conscientiousness: Origins in Childhood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Nancy; Duckworth, Angela L.; Spinrad, Tracy L.; Valiente, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    In this review, we evaluate developmental and personality research with the aim of determining whether the personality trait of conscientiousness can be identified in children and adolescents. After concluding that conscientiousness does emerge in childhood, we discuss the developmental origins of conscientiousness with a specific focus on…

  19. Early Childhood Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Edgar, Ed.

    1989-01-01

    Focused on early childhood development, this "UNICEF Intercom" asserts that developmental programs should aim to give children a fair chance at growth beyond survival. First presented are moral, scientific, social equity, economic, population, and programatic arguments for looking beyond the fundamental objective of saving young lives.…

  20. Childhood disintegrative disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Hari Charan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We are presenting a case of a 10-year-old female child who presented with normal development till 5 years of age followed by deterioration in previously acquired language and social skills with stereotypic hand movements suggestive of childhood disintegrative disorder. This case is reported as this condition is very rare.

  1. Early Childhood Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Child Traumatic Stress Network, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Early childhood trauma generally refers to the traumatic experiences that occur to children aged 0-6. Because infants' and young children's reactions may be different from older children's, and because they may not be able to verbalize their reactions to threatening or dangerous events, many people assume that young age protects children from the…

  2. Tanzania : Early Childhood Development

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2012-01-01

    This report presents an analysis of the Early Childhood Development (ECD) programs and policies that affect young children in Tanzania. This report is part of a series of reports prepared by the World Bank using the Systems Approach for Better Education Results (SABER)-ECD framework and includes analysis of early learning, health, nutrition and social and child protection policies and inte...

  3. Uganda : Early Childhood Development

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2012-01-01

    This report presents an analysis of the Early Childhood Development (ECD) programs and policies that affect young children in Uganda and recommendations to move forward. This report is part of a series of reports prepared by the World Bank using the Systems Approach for Better Education Results (SABER)-ECD framework1 and includes analysis of early learning, health, nutrition and social and ...

  4. Childhood microbial keratitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah G Al Otaibi

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: Children with suspected microbial keratitis require comprehensive evaluation and management. Early recognition, identifying the predisposing factors and etiological microbial organisms, and instituting appropriate treatment measures have a crucial role in outcome. Ocular trauma was the leading cause of childhood microbial keratitis in our study.

  5. Survivors of childhood cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradwell, Moira

    2009-05-01

    Treatment of childhood cancer aims to cure with minimum risk to the patient's subsequent health. Monitoring the long-term effects of treatment on children and young adults is now an essential part of the continued care of survivors. Late effects include: impact on growth, development and intellectual function; organ system impairment; the development of second malignancies; and psychosocial problems. These can adversely affect long-term survival and the quality of life. In the UK, models of long-term follow up for survivors of childhood cancer vary from centre to centre but nurses have a significant role to play. Combining the nurse specialist role with that of the advanced practitioner ensures that the goals of improving the quality of nursing care to the survivors of childhood cancer are achieved and maximises the nursing contribution to their follow up. With the number of childhood cancer survivors increasing, providing holistic, health promotional care, tailored to the specific needs of survivors will be crucial for their future. PMID:19505060

  6. Prevalence, risk factors and disability associated with fall-related injury in older adults in low- and middle-incomecountries: results from the WHO Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE)

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Jennifer Stewart; Kowal, Paul; Hestekin, Heather; O'Driscoll, Tristan; Peltzer, Karl; Yawson, Alfred; Biritwum, Richard; Maximova, Tamara; Salinas Rodriguez, Aaron; Manrique Espinoza, Betty; Wu, Fan; Arokiasamy, Perianayagam; Chatterji, Somnath

    2015-01-01

    Background In 2010 falls were responsible for approximately 80 % of disability stemming from unintentional injuries excluding traffic accidents in adults 50 years and over. Falls are becoming a major public health problem in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) where populations are ageing rapidly. Methods Nationally representative standardized data collected from adults aged 50 years and over participating in the World Health Organization (WHO) Study on global AGEing and adult health (SA...

  7. Weight loss - unintentional

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of laxatives Other causes such as: Eating disorders, anorexia nervosa that have not been diagnosed yet Diabetes that ... do not know the reason. You have other symptoms along with the weight loss.

  8. Chest Traumas due to Bicycle accident in Childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ufuk Cobanoglu

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim:Childhood injuries are the leading cause of death in children and result in significant healthcare utilization. Trauma is the second most common cause of mortality in children aged 1-4 years and leading cause of death in children older than 4 years. Thoracic injury is the second most leading cause of death in traumatized children. Multisystemic injury is found in more than 50% of children with thoracic injuries most of which are secondary to blunt traumas. We planned this study to evaluate thorax trauma cases secondary to bicycle driving in childhood and to draw attention to the importance of the regulation of traffic rules, the education of bicycle drivers.Material and Methods:  A retrospective evaluation was performed in 17 pediatric patients admitted to the Department of Thoracic Surgery during 2006-2010 with a diagnosis of chest trauma due to bicycle driving. For every patient, a pediatric trauma score (PTS was calculated. Descriptive statistics were performed for PTS. Results; Eleven (64.70% cases were injured due to the tricycle accidents and six cases 6 (35.29% were injured due to the two-wheeled bicycle accidents. The most frequent thoracic pathologies included pulmonary contusion (41.2% and chest wall contusion (29.41%. Extrathoracic injuries were seen in 35.29%, the extremities (17.64% and abdomino pelvic (11.76% being the most commonly involved. Treatment consisted of symptomatic treatment in 12 patients (70.58%, tube thoracostomy in 2 patients (11.76%, and thoracotomy in 1 patient (5.9%. The morbidity was seen in 3 patients (17.64%. The mortality rate was 5.9% (n:1. The mean PTS of the cases who had additional system injuries were significantly worse than the cases who had isolated chest traumas Conclusions: The pediatric thorax has a greater cartilage content and incomplete ossification of the ribs. Due to the pliability of the pediatric rib cage and mediastinal mobility, significant intrathoracic injury may exist in the

  9. Stingray injury.

    OpenAIRE

    Evans, R.J.; Davies, R S

    1996-01-01

    A case of stingray injury is reported. Local symptoms and signs include intense pain, oedema around the wound, erythema and petechiae. Systemic symptoms and signs include nausea and vomiting, muscle cramps, diaphoresis, syncope, headache, muscle fasciculations, and cardiac arrhythmias. Treatment aims to reverse local and systemic effects of the venom, alleviate pain, and prevent infection. Antitetanus prophylaxis is important. Treatment for anaphylaxis may be necessary.

  10. Rediscovering Morality through the Concept of Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdick-Shepherd, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    This chapter looks at John Dewey's consideration of childhood as a platform which to view the significance of childhood in moral life. It argues that the concept of childhood is integral to our thinking in the teaching and learning relationship. When we consider childhood from Dewey's platform, we see that childhood is relevant to…

  11. Trauma radiology in infancy and childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this review article is to familiarise the reader with the specific paediatric conditions in trauma radiology. The article briefly describes the major pathophysiologic differences in childhood and the consecutive altered injury pattern. The standard radiological imaging protocol for various involved body regions and different trauma settings/varying queries is described, with suggestion for standardised diagnostic flowcharts in some typical settings. Special regard is given to radiation protection and the potential of newer imaging modalities such as ultrasound, multi-detector- and spiral CT as well as MRI in paediatric trauma patients. As such the paper hopefully provides some basic guidelines for general radiologists in peripheral hospitals who less often have to deal with paediatric queries. (orig.)

  12. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Fertility After Spinal Cord Injury Coping with a New Injury Coping with a New Injury Adjusting to Social Life in a Wheelchair ... after an injury? What are the most promising new treatments for spinal cord injuries? What are the ...

  13. Early Childhood Caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumiko Kawashita

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Dental caries is one of the most common childhood diseases, and people continue to be susceptible to it throughout their lives. Although dental caries can be arrested and potentially even reversed in its early stages, it is often not self-limiting and progresses without proper care until the tooth is destroyed. Early childhood caries (ECC is often complicated by inappropriate feeding practices and heavy infection with mutans streptococci. Such children should be targeted with a professional preventive program that includes oral hygiene instructions for mothers or caregivers, along with fluoride and diet counseling. However, these strategies alone are not sufficient to prevent dental caries in high-risk children; prevention of ECC also requires addressing the socioeconomic factors that face many families in which ECC is endemic. The aim of this paper is to systematically review information about ECC and to describe why many children are suffering from dental caries.

  14. Genetics of Childhood Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhua Zhao

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a major health problem and an immense economic burden on the health care systems both in the United States and the rest of the world. The prevalence of obesity in children and adults in the United States has increased dramatically over the past decade. Besides environmental factors, genetic factors are known to play an important role in the pathogenesis of obesity. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS have revealed strongly associated genomic variants associated with most common disorders; indeed there is general consensus on these findings from generally positive replication outcomes by independent groups. To date, there have been only a few GWAS-related reports for childhood obesity specifically, with studies primarily uncovering loci in the adult setting instead. It is clear that a number of loci previously reported from GWAS analyses of adult BMI and/or obesity also play a role in childhood obesity.

  15. Tibetan Nomad Childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karma Dondrub

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A Tibetan Nomad Childhood by Kar+ma don 'grub. Kar+ma's life begins on the boundless Tibetan grassland in 1983 in Yushu (Yul shul Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Mtsho sgnon (Qinghai Province. Living in a black yak hair tent, Kar+ma begins tending his family's yak calves as soon as he can walk, in a grassland so barren that he is startled upon first seeing a tree at the age of eight. Charlatan livestock-stealing monks, anthrax, death, birth, happiness, and encounters with modern education create a powerful, unparalleled account of Tibetan nomad childhood in the late twentieth century - a way of life that will soon be forever gone.

  16. Practitioner Review: Beyond Shaken Baby Syndrome--What Influences the Outcomes for Infants following Traumatic Brain Injury?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashton, Rebecca

    2010-01-01

    Background: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) in infancy is relatively common, and is likely to lead to poorer outcomes than injuries sustained later in childhood. While the headlines have been grabbed by infant TBI caused by abuse, often known as shaken baby syndrome, the evidence base for how to support children following TBI in infancy is thin.…

  17. Risk of maltreatment-related injury: a cross-sectional study of children under five years old admitted to hospital with a head or neck injury or fracture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Jonathan Lee

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To determine the predictive value and sensitivity of demographic features and injuries (indicators for maltreatment-related codes in hospital discharge records of children admitted with a head or neck injury or fracture. METHODS: STUDY DESIGN: Population-based, cross sectional study. SETTING: NHS hospitals in England. SUBJECTS: Children under five years old admitted acutely to hospital with head or neck injury or fracture. DATA SOURCE: Hospital Episodes Statistics, 1997 to 2009. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Maltreatment-related injury admissions, defined by ICD10 codes, were used to calculate for each indicator (demographic feature and/or type of injury: i the predictive value (proportion of injury admissions that were maltreatment-related; ii sensitivity (proportion of all maltreatment-related injury admissions with the indicator. RESULTS: Of 260,294 childhood admissions for fracture or head or neck injury, 3.2% (8,337 were maltreatment-related. With increasing age of the child, the predictive value for maltreatment-related injury declined but sensitivity increased. Half of the maltreatment-related admissions occurred in children older than one year, and 63% occurred in children with head injuries without fractures or intracranial injury. CONCLUSIONS: Highly predictive injuries accounted for very few maltreatment-related admissions. Protocols that focus on high-risk injuries may miss the majority of maltreated children.

  18. Brain Development in Childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Taki, Yasuyuki; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2012-01-01

    Although human brain development continues throughout childhood and adolescence, it is a non-linear process both structurally and functionally. Here we review studies of brain development in healthy children from the viewpoint of structure and the perfusion of gray and white matter. Gray matter volume increases and then decreases with age, with the developmental time of the peak volume differing among brain regions in the first and second decades of life. On the other hand, white matter volum...

  19. Epidemiology of childhood cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Terracini Benedetto

    2011-01-01

    Abstract At least in economically developed countries, in the last decades, the incidence of childhood cancer has increased and the increase is unlikely to be an artefact. Causes of the increase have not been identified: a role of preventable environmental exposures is possible. Changes have also occurred in the age distribution of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. Currently, children with cancer can be successfully treated and cured. However, access to the best therapy differs widely among coun...

  20. Cultivating childhood obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Greene-Martin, DeCleasha

    2013-01-01

    In recent years the levels of obesity in the United States has risen greatly especially amongst children. Doctors, psychologists, and other scientists have been studying the growing problem for years. Implications for childhood obesity not only have enormous physical consequences but emotional repercussions which can affect the child’s academic and social development. A number of factors have been identified as having an effect on these children; family life reveals the grocery store habits o...

  1. Conscientiousness: Origins in Childhood?

    OpenAIRE

    Eisenberg, Nancy; Duckworth, Angela L.; Spinrad, Tracy L.; Valiente, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    In this review, we evaluate developmental and personality research with the aim of determining if the personality trait of conscientiousness can be identified in children and adolescents. After concluding that conscientiousness does emerge in childhood, we discuss the developmental origins of conscientiousness with a specific focus on self-regulation, academic motivation, and internalized compliance/internalization of standards. Based on the accumulated body of evidence, we conclude that self...

  2. Childhood lymphoma in Yorkshire.

    OpenAIRE

    Davison, A. M.; McKinney, P A; Bailey, C C; Lewis, I.; Cartwright, R A; O'Brien, C.

    1992-01-01

    AIMS: A histopathological review of 43 cases of childhood non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) in an attempt to identify histological variables of prognostic importance. METHOD: Each case was reclassified according to the Working Formulation and an attempt made to allocate an immunophenotype using a panel of monoclonal antibodies. Results were correlated with clinical data on site and survival. RESULTS: Of the 43 cases, 30 were males and 13 females. There were 17 cases of lymphoblastic lymphoma, 15 c...

  3. Peer Bullying During Early Childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Hatice UYSAL; Çağlayan DİNÇER

    2012-01-01

    Peer bullying during early childhood is discussed along with the literature reviewed in this article with the purpose of drawing attention to peer bullying during early childhood and its significance, and contributing to studies which are few in number in Turkey. Peer bullying during early childhood was considered with its definition and types, people who play key roles in peer bullying, factors (gender, age, parents, and friendship) that relate to peer bullying, and what should be done befor...

  4. Stress and Obesity in Childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Koch, Felix-Sebastian

    2009-01-01

    Childhood obesity is a serious health problem and prevalence increases dramatically around the world, including Sweden. The aim of the current thesis was to examine parents’ and children’s stress in relation to childhood obesity. Parenting stress, social support, parental worries, and serious life events, as well as children’s temperament, self-esteem, body dissatisfaction, saliva cortisol, weight and height were measured to estimate stress and the relation between stress and childhood obesit...

  5. Psychiatric Aspects of Childhood Epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Pattanayak, Raman Deep; Sagar, Rajesh

    2012-01-01

    How to Cite this Article: Pattanayak RD, Sagar R. Psychiatric Aspects of Childhood Epilepsy. Iran J Child Neurol 2012;6(2):9-18.Childhood epilepsy is a chronic, recurrent disorder of unprovoked seizures. Theonset of epilepsy in childhood has significant implications for brain growth anddevelopment. Seizures may impair the ongoing neurodevelopmental processes and compromise the child’s intellectual and cognitive functioning, leading totremendous cognitive, behavioral and psychosocial consequen...

  6. Investigation of Childhood Abuse Experiences

    OpenAIRE

    AYDIN, Oktay

    2013-01-01

    In this study childhood abuse experiences between 18-25 years old males wasinvestigated according to some variables. The sample consist of 308 male. ChildhoodTrauma Questionnaire was applied to sample group to determine their childhood abuseexperiences. In addition to this, to determine some of demographical characteristics of thesubjects, a questionnaire was used. ANOVA and Pearson Moment Correlation CoefficentTechniques were used on the obtained results.At the and of the research;- People u...

  7. Childhood obesity and prevention approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Dilek Yildiz; Berna Eren Fidanci; Derya Suluhan

    2015-01-01

    Childhood obesity has increased dramatically during the past two decades. The growing incidence of childhood obesity is alarming, given the significant short and long term health problems associated with obesity. Being overweight or obese may increase the rate of non-communicable diseases such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease in adulthood. It may contribute to shortening life expectancy and adversely affects the quality of life. Therefore, it is important to prevent childhood obe...

  8. Childhood ovarian malignancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahadik, Kalpana; Ghorpade, Kanchanmala

    2014-04-01

    Objective of this article is to appraise diagnostic aspects and treatment modalities in childhood ovarian tumor in background of available evidence. Literature search on Pubmed revealed various aspects of epidemiology, histopathological diagnosis, and treatment of pediatric ovarian tumor. 85 % of childhood tumors are germ cell tumors. The varied histopathological picture in germ cell tumors poses a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. Immunohistochemistry and newer genetic markers like SALL4 and karyopherin-2 (KPNA2) have been helpful in differentiating ovarian yolk sac tumor from dysgerminoma, teratomas, and other pictures of hepatoid, endometrioid, clear cell carcinomatous, and adenocarcinomatous tissues with varied malignant potential. Before platinum therapy, these tumors were almost fatal in children. Fertility-conserving surgery with bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin has dramatically changed the survival rates in these patients. This modality gives cancer cure with healthy offspring to female patients with childhood ovarian tumor. Evidence also supports this protocol resulting in successful pregnancy rates and safety of cytotoxic drugs in children born to these patients. PMID:24757335

  9. Trends in Injury-related Incidence and Mortality Among Inpatients in Guangdong Province in 1997-2001

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI-PING LI; SHENG WANG

    2004-01-01

    Currently, China is in short of thorough and systemic data concerning the patterns and incidence of injuries and related deaths. Guangdong Province as one of the economically advanced areas in China is faced with a relatively serious injury problem, and investigation of this problem in this Province will provide valuable information for other provinces and areas in this Country, as well as scientific basis for policy making for injury prevention and control. Methods Analyses are based on the computerized hospital discharge data collected from 322 hospitals in Guangdong Province between 1997 and 2001. Diagnoses are coded according to the International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM). Results The total hospitalization rate related with injuries increased year by year from 1997 to 2001. The ratio of case-fatality has a decline trend for all injury inpatients, who were mainly caused by motor vehicle accidents, unintentional falls, puncture and cut by machine and others. The constituent ratio of death among patients caused by motor vehicle accidents accounted for 56.13% among the total deaths, which ranked as the first place. The direct medical cost also had an increased trend. Conclusions Data on injuries requiring hospitalization can be used to design and target more effective injury prevention programs. Injury prevention would decrease human sufferings, disability, and associated economic losses.

  10. Eye Injuries at Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Injuries by the Numbers — Infographic Eye Injuries at Home Reviewed by: Brenda Pagan-Duran MD Mar. 01, ... chore is being done. Preventing Eye Injuries at Home Wearing protective eyewear will prevent 90 percent of ...

  11. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... injury? What is the "Spinal Cord Injury Model Systems" program? ... family FacingDisability is designed to provide Internet-based information and support for people with spinal cord injuries ...

  12. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to Social Life in a Wheelchair Adjusting to Social Life in a Wheelchair Substance Abuse and Spinal Cord Injury Substance Abuse and Spinal Cord Injury How Family Life Changes After Spinal Cord Injury How Family ...

  13. Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) happens when a bump, blow, jolt, or other head injury causes damage to the brain. Every year, millions of people in the U.S. suffer brain injuries. More than half are bad enough that ...

  14. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Substance Abuse and Spinal Cord Injury How Family Life Changes After Spinal Cord Injury How Family Life Changes After Spinal Cord Injury Empowering the Patient After Spinal ...

  15. Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) happens when a bump, blow, jolt, or other head injury causes damage to the brain. Every year, millions of people in the U.S. suffer brain injuries. More than half are bad enough that people ...

  16. The impact of RF-plasma power in carrier relaxation dynamics of unintentional doped GaN epitaxial layers grown by MBE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Nisha; Anand, Kritika; Barvat, Arun; Pal, Prabir; Singh, Dilip K.; Jewariya, Mukesh; Ragam, Srinivasa; Adhikari, Sonachand; Maurya, Kamlesh K.; Khanna, Suraj P.

    2016-04-01

    In this work, unintentionally doped GaN samples were prepared on GaN template by radio frequency (RF)-plasma MBE technique using two different RF-plasma powers. Photoluminescence (PL), steady state photoconductivity (PC) and ultrafast optical pump-probe spectroscopy measurements have been carried out to characterize the samples. The effect of RF-plasma power towards unintentional doping and giving rise to yellow luminescence (YL) is discussed. Our PC measurements show relatively faster decay for sample grown with higher RF-plasma power. In addition, the ultrafast optical pump-probe spectroscopy results show the presence of various defect levels with different relaxation times. A faster ultrafast relaxation time from the conduction band to the closest defect level and conduction band to the next defect level was observed for the sample grown with higher plasma power. A comparatively low defect density and faster carrier relaxation observed in higher RF-plasma power grown samples is caused by lower impurities and gallium vacancies. The results imply that RF-plasma power is very important parameter for the growth of epitaxial GaN films and undesirable impurities and gallium vacancies might get incorporated in the epitaxial GaN films.

  17. Stages of development and injury patterns in the early years: a population-based analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simpson Kelly

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Canada, there are many formal public health programs under development that aim to prevent injuries in the early years (e.g. 0–6. There are paradoxically no population-based studies that have examined patterns of injury by developmental stage among these young children. This represents a gap in the Canadian biomedical literature. The current population-based analysis explores external causes and consequences of injuries experienced by young children who present to the emergency department for assessment and treatment. This provides objective evidence about prevention priorities to be considered in anticipatory counseling and public health planning. Methods Four complete years of data (1999–2002; n = 5876 cases were reviewed from the Kingston sites of the Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program (CHIRPP, an ongoing injury surveillance initiative. Epidemiological analyses were used to characterize injury patterns within and across age groups (0–6 years that corresponded to normative developmental stages. Results The average annual rate of emergency department-attended childhood injury was 107 per 1000 (95% CI 91–123, with boys experiencing higher annual rates of injury than girls (122 vs. 91 per 1000; p Conclusion This population-based injury surveillance analysis provides a strong evidence-base to inform and enhance anticipatory counseling and other public health efforts aimed at the prevention of childhood injury during the early years.

  18. An unusual rugby injury

    OpenAIRE

    Croft, S J; Brenchley, J; Badhe, S P; Cresswell, T. R.

    2006-01-01

    We describe an unusual sports injury in a young man, a combination of obturator hip dislocation with an ipsilateral anterior cruciate ligament injury. Traumatic non‐prosthetic hip dislocations, particularly obturator hip dislocations, are extremely rare sports injuries and have not previously been reported in conjunction with a knee ligament injury. The severe pain and obvious deformity from the hip injury can distract from other injuries, particularly to the ipsilateral knee. This case reinf...

  19. Adverse Childhood Experiences and Childhood Autobiographical Memory Disturbance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, David W.; Anda, Robert F.; Edwards, Valerie J.; Felitti, Vincent J.; Dube, Shanta R.; Giles, Wayne H.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To examine relationships between childhood autobiographical memory disturbance (CAMD) and adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) which are defined as common forms of child maltreatment and related traumatic stressors. Methods: We use the ACE score (an integer count of eight different categories of ACEs) as a measure of cumulative exposure…

  20. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Workers Help Transitions How Social Workers Help Transitions Occupational Therapy After Spinal Cord Injury Occupational Therapy After Spinal Cord Injury How Occupational Therapists Work ...

  1. Injury-related unsafe behavior among households from different socioeconomic strata in Pune city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirkazemi Roksana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Behavior pattern influences the risk of unintentional injuries. This study was conducted to identify the pattern of household unsafe behavior in different socioeconomic strata, in Pune city, India. Materials and Method: Population-based, cross-sectional study. Behaviors influencing the risk of burn, poisoning, drowning, and road traffic injuries were questioned from 200 randomly selected households. Results: Nearly 28% of the households did not have a separate kitchen, 37.5% cooked at the ground level, 33.5% used a kerosene pressure stove, 12% used unprotected open fire as a source of warmth in winter, and 34.5% stored inflammable substances at home. Ninety one percent of the households reported storing poisonous chemicals in places that could not be locked. In 68.3% of the households with children below five years, these chemicals were kept in places accessible to children. Nearly 21% of the individuals, who could swim, did so in unsafe places and 25.2% of them were not trained in swimming. In 35.5% of the households, children used streets as playgrounds. Among all two-wheeled vehicle riders, 35.6% reported not having a helmet and 57.7% of those who had a helmet did not use it regularly. Socioeconomic status was strongly associated with the unsafe behaviors related to burns, drowning, and road traffic injuries. Conclusion: The study identifies the sociocultural and behavioral factors leading to unsafe behaviors, placing individuals at risk of unintentional injuries, which can be used as a first step toward prevention.

  2. Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruciate ligament injury - anterior; ACL injury; Knee injury - anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) ... confirm the diagnosis. It may also show other knee injuries. First aid for an ACL injury may include: ...

  3. Teachers in Early Childhood Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilderry, Anna

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines teacher accountability and authority in early childhood policy. It reports on data from a study that investigated the influences affecting early childhood teacher decision-making at the preschool level in Victoria, Australia. Using a question raised by Ball "Where are the teachers in all this [policy]?" provided a…

  4. Adverse Childhood Experiences and Hallucinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitfield, C.L.; Dube, S.R.; Felitti, V.J.; Anda, R.F.

    2005-01-01

    Objective:: Little information is available about the contribution of multiple adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) to the likelihood of reporting hallucinations. We used data from the ACE study to assess this relationship. Methods:: We conducted a survey about childhood abuse and household dysfunction while growing up, with questions about health…

  5. Markets and Childhood Obesity Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cawley, John

    2006-01-01

    In examining the childhood obesity epidemic from the perspective of economics, John Cawley looks at both possible causes and possible policy solutions that work through markets. The operation of markets, says Cawley, has contributed to the recent increase in childhood overweight in three main ways. First, the real price of food fell. In…

  6. Radiation injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation accidents and incidents continue to be of great interest and concern to the public. Issues such as the threat of nuclear war, the Chernobyl reactor accident, or reports of sporadic incidences of accidental radiation exposure keep this interest up and maintain a high level of fear among the public. In this climate of real concern and radiation phobia, physicians should not only be prepared to answer questions about acute or late effects of ionizing radiation, but also be able to participate in the initial assessment and management of individuals who have been exposed to ionizing radiation or contaminated with radioactive material. Some of the key facts about radiation injury and its medical treatment are discussed by the author

  7. 防止自动扶梯和倾斜式自动人行道逆转的思考%Dessertation RePort on unintentional Reversal of the Direction of Traveiof

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱思中

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces the items of GB16899, which relate to the protection against risk of unintentional reversal of the direction of travel, and analyzes the reliability of common two kinds of protection against unintentional reversal of the direction of travel and the auxiliary brake.%介绍了国家标准对自动扶梯和倾斜式自动人行道防逆转装置的规定;分析了常见的两类防逆转装置设计的可靠性,以及附加制动器设计的可靠性。

  8. Injuries in Basketball

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NIKOLAOS KOSTOPOULOS & DIMITRIOS PHILLIPOU

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Ninety players of 8 teams in 2 male team basketball senior divisions were observed prospectively for 1 season to study the injury incidence in relation to exposure in games and practices. Forty-six injuries were recorded. Injury incidence was evaluated at 2.5 injuries per 1000 player-hours, with a significantly higher incidence in game injuries (14.3 injuries per 1000 game-hours compared with practice injuries(0.6 injuries per 1000 practice-hours.Practice injury incidence was higher in the lower performance level group, and game injury incidence was higher in the high-level group. The upper extremity was involved in 37% of the injuries, and the lower extremity in 54%.The knee was the most commonly injured joint, followed by the finger, ankle, and shoulder. Knee injuries were the most severe injuries, and they were more frequent in high-level players. There was an increase in the severity of injury with respect to performance level. The injury mechanism revealed a high number of offensive injuries, one-third of them occurring during a counterattack. The injury pattern showed certain variations with respect to player position and performance level.

  9. Combined dyslipidemia in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavey, Rae-Ellen W

    2015-01-01

    Combined dyslipidemia (CD) is now the predominant dyslipidemic pattern in childhood, characterized by moderate-to-severe elevation in triglycerides and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C), minimal elevation in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and reduced HDL-C. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy shows that the CD pattern is represented at the lipid subpopulation level as an increase in small, dense LDL and in overall LDL particle number plus a reduction in total HDL-C and large HDL particles, a highly atherogenic pattern. In youth, CD occurs almost exclusively with obesity and is highly prevalent, seen in more than 40% of obese adolescents. CD in childhood predicts pathologic evidence of atherosclerosis and vascular dysfunction in adolescence and young adulthood, and early clinical cardiovascular events in adult life. There is a tight connection between CD, visceral adiposity, insulin resistance, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and the metabolic syndrome, suggesting an integrated pathophysiological response to excessive weight gain. Weight loss, changes in dietary composition, and increases in physical activity have all been shown to improve CD significantly in children and adolescents in short-term studies. Most importantly, even small amounts of weight loss are associated with significant decreases in triglyceride levels and increases in HDL-C levels with improvement in lipid subpopulations. Diet change focused on limitation of simple carbohydrate intake with specific elimination of all sugar-sweetened beverages is very effective. Evidence-based recommendations for initiating diet and activity change are provided. Rarely, drug therapy is needed, and the evidence for drug treatment of CD in childhood is reviewed. PMID:26343211

  10. Migraine and lifestyle in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casucci, Gerardo; Villani, Veronica; d'Onofrio, Florindo; Russo, Antonio

    2015-05-01

    Migraine is one of the most frequently reported somatic complaints in childhood, with a negative impact on health-related quality of life. The incidence of migraine in childhood has substantially increased over the past 30 years, probably due to both increased awareness of the disease and lifestyle changes in this age group. Indeed, several conditions have been identified as risk factors for migraine in childhood. Amongst these, dysfunctional family situation, the regular consumption of alcohol, caffeine ingestion, low level of physical activity, physical or emotional abuse, bullying by peers, unfair treatment in school and insufficient leisure time seem to play a critical role. Nevertheless, there are only few studies about the association between migraine and lifestyle in childhood, due to previous observations specifically focused on "headache" in children. In this brief review, we will concentrate upon recent studies aimed to explore migraine and lifestyle risk factors in childhood. PMID:26017522

  11. Stroke in childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Serap Teber; Gülhis Deda

    2011-01-01

    Stroke in childhood is one of the most common causes of death or severe impairment worldwide, with annual incidence estimated from 1,3 to 13 cases/100.000 population. The definition of stroke consists both of arterial ischemic stroke (AIS) and hemorrhagic stroke. The incidence of ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke in children is approximately the same, in contrast to adults, while the incidence is higher in boys than it is in girls. Risks factors for pediatric stroke differ from those for adults...

  12. Subclinical hypothyroidism in childhood.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Grady, M J

    2012-02-01

    Subclinical hypothyroidism (SH) is defined as an elevated thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) in association with a normal total or free thyroxine (T4) or triiodothyronine (T3). It is frequently encountered in both neonatology and general paediatric practice; however, its clinical significance is widely debated. Currently there is no broad consensus on the investigation and treatment of these patients; specifically who to treat and what cut-off level of TSH should be used. This paper reviews the available evidence regarding investigation, treatments and outcomes reported for childhood SH.

  13. Nonfatal suicidal behavior among women prisoners: the predictive roles of childhood victimization, childhood neglect, and childhood positive support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripodi, Stephen J; Onifade, Eyitayo; Pettus-Davis, Carrie

    2014-04-01

    Women entering prison report high rates of childhood victimization. Women in prison also report higher rates of nonfatal suicidal behavior (self-reported suicide attempts) than women in the general population and similar rates to their male counterparts despite having significantly lower suicide rates than males in the general population. Yet, there is a dearth of research that addresses the relationship between childhood victimization and suicidality for women prisoners in the United States. The purpose of this study is (a) to assess the relationship between childhood victimization and nonfatal suicidal behavior for a random sample of women prisoners; (b) to investigate predictive differences between childhood physical victimization, childhood sexual victimization, childhood neglect, and childhood support; and (c) to determine whether women prisoners with higher frequencies of childhood victimization and neglect are more likely to have attempted suicide than women prisoners with lower frequencies. Results indicate that childhood victimization, neglect, and lack of support are all significantly associated with nonfatal suicidal behavior among women prisoners. Frequency of childhood neglect had a larger effect size than frequency of childhood physical victimization, childhood sexual victimization, and lack of support. The results of this study add to the growing body of literature on childhood victimization and suicidality in general, and nonfatal suicidal behavior for prisoner populations in particular. The article ends with a discussion on clinical implications; particularly the finding that frequency of childhood victimization, childhood neglect, and lack of childhood support matters when determining the risk of suicidality. PMID:23315427

  14. Childhood burns in south eastern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okoro Philemon

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Burns injuries are recognized as a major health problem worldwide. In children and, particularly, in our environment where poverty, ignorance and disease are still high, they constitute significant morbidity and mortality. Previous studies on this topic in parts of Nigeria either lumped adults and children together or were retrospective. We, therefore, prospectively studied the current trends in burns in children. Patients and Methods: This prospective study of burns spanned over a period of 18 months (June 2006-December 2007 at the Paediatric Surgery Units of the Imo State University Teaching Hospital, Orlu, and the Federal Medical Centre, Owerri, Imo State. Data were collected and analysed for age, sex, cause/type of burn, place of burn, presence or absence of adult/s, initial prehospital intervention, interval between injury and presentation, surface area and depth of burn and treatment and outcome. Results: Fifty-three patients were studied, 31 (58.4% were male and 22 (41.6% were female (M:F = 1.4:1. Patients mostly affected were aged 2 years and below. The most common cause of burns was hot water in 31 (58.5% patients. The vast majority of these injuries happened in a domestic environment (92.5% and in the presence of competent adult/s (88.7%. Outcome of treatment was good: there were two (3.8% deaths and 46 (86% patients had complete recovery. Conclusion: Burns is still a major health problem among children in south eastern Nigeria. Fortunately, outcome of appropriate treatment is good. However, we think that poor safety consciousness among parents is a major predisposing factor. Public enlightenment on measures to ensure safe home environment may be necessary to avoid or limit childhood burns.

  15. A Study of the Relationship between Early Childhood Program Attributes and Early Childhood Reading Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington, Novella M.

    2012-01-01

    This quantitative correlational study focuses on the relationship between early childhood program attributes and early childhood reading success. Data will be gathered from early childhood sites with grades prekindergarten through second grade in which early childhood program attributes exist and early childhood reading is measured by the…

  16. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Injury Coping with a New Injury Adjusting to Social Life in a Wheelchair Adjusting to Social Life in a Wheelchair Substance Abuse and Spinal ... Spinal Cord Injury How does the spinal cord work? What is a spinal cord injury? Why is ...

  17. Managing iatrogenic tracheal injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Goonasekera C

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We present three cases of iatrogenic tracheal injury. Two patients suffered acute tracheal injuries during anesthesia/surgery, one was managed surgically and the other conservatively. The third case is a delayed tracheal injury presenting as a fistula. The reasons for surgical vs conservative management of tracheal injuries and preventive measures are discussed.

  18. Managing iatrogenic tracheal injuries

    OpenAIRE

    A. Goonasekera C; Esufali S

    2005-01-01

    We present three cases of iatrogenic tracheal injury. Two patients suffered acute tracheal injuries during anesthesia/surgery, one was managed surgically and the other conservatively. The third case is a delayed tracheal injury presenting as a fistula. The reasons for surgical vs conservative management of tracheal injuries and preventive measures are discussed.

  19. Patterns of work injuries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lander, Flemming; Nielsen, Kent Jacob; Rasmussen, Kurt;

    2014-01-01

    To compare work injuries treated in an emergency department (ED) and injuries reported to the Danish Working Environment Authority (DWEA).......To compare work injuries treated in an emergency department (ED) and injuries reported to the Danish Working Environment Authority (DWEA)....

  20. Childhood depression: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lima NNR

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Nádia Nara Rolim Lima,1 Vânia Barbosa do Nascimento,1 Sionara Melo Figueiredo de Carvalho,1 Luiz Carlos de Abreu,1,3 Modesto Leite Rolim Neto,2 Aline Quental Brasil,2 Francisco Telésforo Celestino Junior,2 Gislene Farias de Oliveira,2 Alberto Olavo Advíncula Reis3 1Programa de Pós-graduação em Ciências da Saúde, Faculdade de Medicina do ABC, Santo André, São Paulo, Brazil; 2Departamento de Medicina. Universidade Federal do Ceará, UFC, Barbalha, Ceará, Brazil; 3Departamento de Saúde Materno Infantil, Faculdade de Saúde Pública, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil Abstract: As an important public health issue, childhood depression deserves special attention, considering the serious and lasting consequences of the disease to child development. Taking this into consideration, the present study was based on the following question: what practical contributions to clinicians and researchers does the current literature on childhood depression have to offer? The objective of the present study was to conduct a systematic review of articles regarding childhood depression. To accomplish this purpose, a systematic review of articles on childhood depression, published from January 1, 2010 to November 24, 2012, on MEDLINE and SciELO databases was carried out. Search terms were “depression” (medical subject headings [MeSH], “child” (MeSH, and "childhood depression" (keyword. Of the 180 retrieved studies, 25 met the eligibility criteria. Retrieved studies covered a wide range of aspects regarding childhood depression, such as diagnosis, treatment, prevention and prognosis. Recent scientific literature regarding childhood depression converge to, directly or indirectly, highlight the negative impacts of depressive disorders to the children's quality of life. Unfortunately, the retrieved studies show that childhood depression commonly grows in a background of vulnerability and poverty, where individual and familiar needs

  1. Prevention of Football Injuries

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Every sport has a unique profile of injury and risk of injury. In recent years, there have been numerous attempts at conducting injury prevention trials for specific injuries or for injuries within specific sports to provide evidence useful to the sports medicine and sport community. Football has been a focus of a number of randomized injury prevention trials. Methods MEDLINE was searched with the first order keywords of “injury prevention” and “sport”. This list was restricted to “cl...

  2. Rugby injury survey 1979.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inglis, G S; Stewart, I D

    1981-11-11

    In a prospective study 1085 rugby players and their injuries were recorded in the 1979 playing season. The age, grade, position, fitness and ground conditions did not affect the injury pattern. The majority of injuries were insignificant requiring no hospital follow up. The tackle accounted for 44 percent of all injuries. Set play does not contribute significantly to the number of injuries. The head and neck was the most frequently involved site, followed by the lower limbs. Foul play was implicated in 15 percent of all injuries. More stringent refereeing and coaching of the tackle could aid in reducing the number and severity of rugby injuries. PMID:6950267

  3. Use of postmortem human subjects to describe injury responses and tolerances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoganandan, Narayan; Stemper, Brian D; Pintar, Frank A; Maiman, Dennis J

    2011-04-01

    Traumatic injuries from blunt, penetrating, and blast events expose the human body to unintentional and intentional external mechanical loads. To mitigate trauma and develop safety-engineered devices for clinical and bioengineering applications, it is critical to delineate the structural load-bearing anatomy and biomechanics of the various components of the human body. This article presents advances made in the understanding of the injury responses and tolerances through experiments conducted using intact or segmented tissues from postmortem human subjects (PMHS), and a considerable majority of data for the presentation has been extracted from studies conducted at the Institutions of the authors. The role of the PMHS model for studying traumatic injuries to the head and face, vertebral column (cervical, thoracic and lumbar spines), thorax, abdomen, pelvis, and lower extremities is discussed. Different impact loading scenarios, likely responsible for the initial trauma causation, are considered in the analysis and determination of the human response to injury. Clinical advances made using the PMHS model are discussed. This includes vertebral stabilization system evaluations secondary to traumatic injuries to the spinal column. The critical importance of using data from the PMHS model in developing validated computational models for advancing crashworthiness research, occupant safety in motor vehicle crashes, medical devices, and safety-engineering applications is highlighted. PMID:21433078

  4. Injuries in professional footballers.

    OpenAIRE

    Muckle, D. S.

    1981-01-01

    The incidence of injuries in footballers is described. Nearly half of footballer's injuries involve the knee, with vertical tearing of the meniscus being common; surgical intervention may be required. Approximately one third of injuries involve the ankle, and will often require immobilisation. Other injuries include muscle damage, spondylosis of L4 or L5, concussion, and dislocations. The importance of prompt and correct treatment of injuries is emphasised.

  5. Injuries in orienteering.

    OpenAIRE

    Linde, F.

    1986-01-01

    In a one-year prospective study of 42 elite orienteers, 73 recent injuries (1.7 per runner per year) were found. Acute injuries totalled 52% and 48% were due to overuse. Ankle sprains made up 37% of acute injuries while the remaining were mainly contusions caused by falls or bumps against branches or rocks. Medial shin pain, Achilles peritendinitis, peroneal tenosynovitis and iliotibial band friction syndrome were the most frequent overuse injuries. All overuse injuries were located in the lo...

  6. Chest injuries associated with head injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilfred Chukwuemeka Mezue

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although there have been significant advances in the management of traumatic brain injury (TBI, associated severe injuries, in particular chest injuries, remain a major challenge. This paper analyses the contribution of chest injuries to the outcome of head injuries in the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital (UNTH and the Memfys Hospital for Neurosurgery (MHN in Enugu, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective review of the medical records, operative notes, and radiological findings of all patients admitted for head injury who had associated significant chest injuries in the MHN from 2002 to 2009 and the UNTH between 2007 and 2010. Patients with only head injury and other extracranial injury not affecting the chest were excluded. Patients who were inadequately investigated were also excluded. Results: Nineteen patients from the MHN and 11 patients from the UNTH were analyzed. Ages ranged from 9 to 65 years and the male:female ratio was 3:1. Injuries were most common between 30 and 50 years and road traffic accident accounted for 60%. Barotrauma from ventilation was documented in 2 patients. The commonest types of intrathoracic injuries are pneumothorax and hemothorax. Chest wall injuries are more common but carry less morbidity and mortality. Only 20% of patients presented within 48 hours of injury. Management of the associated chest trauma commenced in the referring hospitals only in 26.4% of the patients. All patients with hemo-pneumothorax had tube thoracostomy as did 96% of patients with pneumothorax. 10% of patients with haemothorax needed thoracotomy. Mortality is 43%, which is higher than for patients with only TBI with comparable Glasgow coma scale. Outcome is influenced by the time to admission and the GCS on admission. Conclusion: Associated chest injuries result in higher mortality from head injuries. This association is more likely in the young and more productive. All patients presenting with head and

  7. Cardiac damage after treatment of childhood cancer: A long-term follow-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With improved childhood cancer cure rate, long term sequelae are becoming an important factor of quality of life. Signs of cardiovascular disease are frequently found in long term survivors of cancer. Cardiac damage may be related to irradiation and chemotherapy. We have evaluated simultaneous influence of a series of independent variables on the late cardiac damage in childhood cancer survivors in Slovenia and identified groups at the highest risk. 211 long-term survivors of different childhood cancers, at least five years after treatment were included in the study. The evaluation included history, physical examination, electrocardiograpy, exercise testing and echocardiograpy. For analysis of risk factors, beside univariate analysis, multivariate classification tree analysis statistical method was used. Patients treated latest, from 1989–98 are at highest risk for any injury to the heart (73%). Among those treated earlier are at the highest risk those with Hodgkin's disease treated with irradiation above 30 Gy and those treated for sarcoma. Among specific forms of injury, patients treated with radiation to the heart area are at highest risk of injury to the valves. Patients treated with large doses of anthracyclines or concomitantly with anthracyclines and alkylating agents are at highest risk of systolic function defect and enlarged heart chambers. Those treated with anthracyclines are at highest risk of diastolic function defect. The time period of the patient's treatment is emerged as an important risk factor for injury of the heart

  8. Peer Bullying During Early Childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatice UYSAL

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Peer bullying during early childhood is discussed along with the literature reviewed in this article with the purpose of drawing attention to peer bullying during early childhood and its significance, and contributing to studies which are few in number in Turkey. Peer bullying during early childhood was considered with its definition and types, people who play key roles in peer bullying, factors (gender, age, parents, and friendship that relate to peer bullying, and what should be done before and after peer bullying.

  9. Childhood Sexual Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evrim Aktepe

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Sexual abuse is defined as use of child or adolescent by the adults for satisfying of sexual urges and needs with forcing, threatening or tricking. Sexual abuse can be in the form of sexual abuse without touch, sexual touch, interfemoral intercourse, sexual penetration, and sexual exploitation. The prevalence of sexual abuse is reported as 10-40%. It is seen in female four times more than in males. Abusers are frequently male, only 5-15% of them are female. The abuse by females is usually towards male child. Thirty-fifty percent of abuse cases among child and adolescent are outside the family including strangers or familiar person. Some features of abusers are introvert personality, pedophilic and antisocial personality. Most of the abusers have a history of sexual abuse or aggression during childhood. Sexual intercourse between two people who are not allowed to marry by law is called as incest. Family pattern of incest is defined globally as disorganized and dysfunctional. The most commonly reported familial pattern is rigid and patriarchal family pattern with a harsh father using force quite frequently. The clinical features and impacts of the sexual abuse on the child varies according to the relation between abusers and the child, form of abuse, duration of abuse, presence of physical assault, developmental phase, child age and psychological development before the abuse. Sexual abuse history may result in psychiatric disorders including anxiety, depression, substance dependence, suicide act, borderline personality disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder. Abuse negatively affects interpersonal relationships and self esteem of abused individuals. Several studies reported close association between risky sexual behaviors in adulthood and a history of of sexual abuse during childhood. Four traumatic dynamics including traumatic sexuality with abuse, feeling of betrayal, weakness, and stigmatization exist in childhood abuse. Trauma can cause

  10. Secondary attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder due to right basal ganglia injury: A case report

    OpenAIRE

    Ceylan, Mehmet Fatih; AKCA, Ömer Faruk

    2013-01-01

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a frequent and commonly studied neuropsychiatric disorder in children and adolescents. The symptoms of ADHD include inattention and/or hyperactivity and impulsivity. Diagnosis of ADHD requires a persistent pattern of symptoms beginning before the age of 7 except for secondary ADHD. Secondary ADHD may occur as a consequence of childhood traumatic brain injury. A patient with secondary ADHD as a result of right basal ganglia injury is presented...

  11. Prevention of injury by early socialization of aggressive behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Tremblay, R

    2002-01-01

    Frequent use of physical aggression by humans appears to reach its peak between 2 and 3 years of age. In the following years most children learn alternatives to physical aggression. Approximately 4% of children have high levels of physical aggression from early childhood to late adolescence. These children can be considered to show chronic physical aggression. They are at high risk of causing injuries to others and to themselves. They are also at high risk of many other co-morbid mental healt...

  12. Inhibitory Control after Traumatic Brain Injury in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Sinopoli, Katia J.; Dennis, Maureen

    2011-01-01

    Inhibitory control describes a number of distinct processes. Effortless inhibition refers to acts of control that are automatic and reflexive. Effortful inhibition refers to voluntary, goal-directed acts of control such as response flexibility, interference control, cancellation inhibition, and restraint inhibition. Disruptions to a number of inhibitory control processes occur as a consequence of childhood traumatic brain injury (TBI). This paper reviews the current knowledge of inhibition de...

  13. Fatty liver in childhood

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yesim; Ozturk; Ozlem; Bekem; Soylu

    2014-01-01

    Fatty liver is a growing health problem worldwide. It might evolve to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, cirrhosis and cause hepatocellular carcinoma. This disease, which has increased because of eating habits, changes in food content and lifestyle, affects people from childhood. The most important risk factors are obesity and insulin resistance. Besides these factors, gender, ethnicity, genetic predisposition and some medical problems are also important. Cirrhosis in children is rare but is reported. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease(NAFLD) has no specific symptoms or signs but should be considered in obese children. NAFLD does not have a proven treatment. Weight loss with family based treatments is the most acceptable management. Exercise and an applicable diet with low glycemic index and appropriate calorie intake are preferred. Drugs are promising but not sufficient in children for today.

  14. Monitoring asthma in childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin C. Lødrup Carlsen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of asthma treatment is to obtain clinical control and reduce future risks to the patient. However, to date there is limited evidence on how to monitor patients with asthma. Childhood asthma introduces specific challenges in terms of deciding what, when, how often, by whom and in whom different assessments of asthma should be performed. The age of the child, the fluctuating course of asthma severity, variability in clinical presentation, exacerbations, comorbidities, socioeconomic and psychosocial factors, and environmental exposures may all influence disease activity and, hence, monitoring strategies. These factors will be addressed in herein. We identified large knowledge gaps in the effects of different monitoring strategies in children with asthma. Studies into monitoring strategies are urgently needed, preferably in collaborative paediatric studies across countries and healthcare systems.

  15. Pyoderma gangrenosum in childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khatri M

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available We have treated 4 cases of pyoderma gangrenosum in infancy and childhood in past 2 years. The ages at onset were 6 months, 8 months, 6 months and 11.5 years respectively. Initial lesions were papulopustular in 3 and nodular in 1 patients but later on all of them developed ulcerative lesions with erythematous, violaceous, infiltrated or undermined edges. The lesions were numerous in 3 patients but few in 1 patient. The first patient had very high leucocyte count. In the second patient skin lesions of PG followed measles vaccinations. We could not reveal any association in the other two patients. None of the patient responded to antibiotic therapy. Three patients were treated successfully with dapsone and one with a combination of dapsone and prednisolone. We conclude that pyoderma gangrenosum is not so rare in infancy and it is more likely to occur without associated systemic diseases.

  16. Adiponectin in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffery, Alison N; Murphy, Michael J; Metcalf, Brad S; Hosking, Joanne; Voss, Linda D; English, Patrick; Sattar, Naveed; Wilkin, Terence J

    2008-01-01

    Adiponectin, a hormone produced and secreted by adipocytes, is present in circulation in high circulating concentrations, suggesting an important physiological role. An indirect regulator of glucose metabolism, adiponectin increases insulin sensitivity, improves glucose tolerance and inhibits inflammation. Plasma adiponectin relates inversely to adiposity and, importantly, reflects the sequelae of accumulation of excess adiposity. The role of adiponectin in adults has been explored in detail. Studies in children are now available and, given the increasing rates of childhood obesity, it is important to establish the role of adiponectin in mediating insulin resistance and cardiovascular disease in this age group. This paper reviews the regulation of adiponectin, its effect on body mass, glucose metabolism and cardiovascular risk in infants, children and adolescents. It demonstrates clear links between adiponectin and features of the metabolic syndrome in obese children and adolescents. However, adiponectin's role as a predictor of metabolic dysfunction in healthy, normal-weight youngsters is less clear. PMID:19086185

  17. [Food allergy in childhood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Kirsten; Niggemann, Bodo

    2016-06-01

    IgE-mediated immediate type reactions are the most common form of food allergy in childhood. Primary (often in early childhood) and secondary (often pollen-associated) allergies can be distinguished by their level of severity. Hen's egg, cow's milk and peanut are the most common elicitors of primary food allergy. Tolerance development in hen's egg and cow's milk allergy happens frequently whereas peanut allergy tends toward a lifelong disease. For the diagnostic patient history, detection of sensitization and (in many cases) oral food challenges are necessary. Especially in peanut and hazelnut allergy component-resolves diagnostic (measurement of specific IgE to individual allergens, e. g. Ara h 2) seem to be helpful. In regard to therapy elimination diet is still the only approved approach. Patient education through dieticians is extremely helpful in this regard. Patients at risk for anaphylactic reactions need to carry emergency medications including an adrenaline auto-injector. Instruction on the usage of the adrenaline auto-injector should take place and a written management plan handed to the patient. Moreover, patients or caregivers should be encouraged to attending a structured educational intervention on knowledge and emergency management. In parallel, causal therapeutic options such as oral, sublingual or epicutaneous immunotherapies are currently under development. In regard to prevention of food allergy current guidelines no longer advise to avoid highly allergenic foods. Current intervention studies are investigating wether early introduction of highly allergic foods is effective and safe to prevent food allergy. It was recently shown that peanut introduction between 4 and 11  months of age in infants with severe atopic dermatitis and/or hen's egg allergy (if they are not already peanut allergic) prevents peanut allergy in a country with high prevalence. PMID:27207693

  18. Child Injury in Israel: Emergency Room Visits to a Children's Medical Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Hemmo-Lotem

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The object of this study was to provide data for policy making and prevention program planning in Israel. The study examined all visits to the Department of Emergency Medicine at the Schneider Children's Medical Center in 1996 (41,279 visits in total. Approximately 22.6% of the emergency room patients were admitted following injury. Most (97% were unintentional injury. Approximately 42% of the patients were less than 4 years old and about 20% were 2 years old. In all age groups, the rate of boys was double. Approximately 92% were Jews. Despite this low rate of non-Jewish patients, however, they constituted 20% of later hospitalizations. The main injuries recorded were bruises and wounds from blunt objects, falls, motor vehicle–related accidents, and sport injuries. The most commonly injured body parts were the head and upper and lower limbs. In 82%, medical treatment was reported and 7% were hospitalized. In examining injuries over the year, there were no significant differences between the different months, but there were clusters of injuries around various holidays—bicycle and skateboard accidents at Rosh Hashanah, Yom Kippur, and Succoth; pedestrian accidents around Lag BaOmer; burns on Purim, Hannukkah, and Passover; and accidental poisoning around Passover. The findings gave an indication of the nature of the injured population groups. These data could be useful for prevention strategy, both on the level of physical injury as well as on the level of the times of the year, when the risk was higher. The data collected very strongly raise the urgent need for establishing a national surveillance system, which would allow tracking injury-related data with respect to young people throughout the country.

  19. Childhood cancers and atmospheric carcinogens

    OpenAIRE

    Knox, E

    2005-01-01

    Study objectives: To retest previous findings that childhood cancers are probably initiated by prenatal exposures to combustion process gases and to volatile organic compounds (VOCs); and to identify specific chemical hazards.

  20. Fiber Intake and Childhood Appendicitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brender, Jean D.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Parents of 135 children with appendicitis and of 212 comparison children were interviewed about their children's diet. Results suggest that a liberal intake of whole-grain breads and cereals may decrease the risk of appendicitis during childhood. (KH)

  1. MedlinePlus: Childhood Immunization

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... well. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention publishes a schedule for childhood vaccines. Although some of ... and Caregivers (08/11/2016, Food and Drug Administration) Malaria Vaccine Protection Short-Lived in Young Children ( ...

  2. [The impact of childhood caries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madrid, Carlos; Abarca, Marcelo; Bouferrache, Kahina; Gehri, Mario; Bodenmann, Patrick; Pop, Sabina

    2012-04-01

    The early childhood caries affect primary dentition before the eruption of the permanent teeth. It is set to extended use of a bottle containing fermentable carbohydrates. The early childhood caries is not only a dental disease: it is a social, cultural and behavioral condition that reflects the practices and beliefs around the child. Swiss data indicate that in aged 2 children, one of for could be affected by this devastating oral disease, mainly in vulnerable populations. The primary care physician has an important role in the screening of preschool children, in determining the risk level of the child for early childhood caries. Physicians can advise families, especially pregnant women, about preventive measures and behavior, leading to a dramatic drop of early childhood caries prevalence. PMID:22545498

  3. Leydig cell tumours in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengel, W; Knorr, D

    1983-01-01

    Two cases of Leydig cell tumours in childhood are presented. In one case, delayed diagnosis and operation led to pubertas praecox vera whereas in the other case normal growth and development occurred after early diagnosis and operation. PMID:6878724

  4. Vaccine-Preventable Childhood Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About CDC.gov . Vaccines and Immunizations Share Compartir Vaccine-Preventable Childhood Diseases On this Page Protect Your ... American Academy of Family Physicians (AAFP). Descriptions of Vaccine-preventable Child Diseases The following vaccine-preventable diseases, ...

  5. Childhood Deaths from Physical Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasim, Mohd. Sham; and Others

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes 30 cases of childhood deaths caused by physical abuse in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Data presented include ethnic origins, age, causes of death, identity of perpetrators, and marital situation of parents. (DB)

  6. Spinal injury in sport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spinal injuries are very common among professional or amateur athletes. Spinal sport lesions can be classified in overuse and acute injuries. Overuse injuries can be found after years of repetitive spinal load during sport activity; however specific overuse injuries can also be found in adolescents. Acute traumas are common in contact sports. Most of the acute injuries are minor and self-healing, but severe and catastrophic events are possible. The aim of this article is to review the wide spectrum of spinal injuries related to sport activity, with special regard to imaging finding

  7. Spinal injury in sport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barile, Antonio [Department of Radiology, University of L' Aquila, S. Salvatore Hospital, Via Vetoio, Coppito, 67100 L' Aquila (Italy)]. E-mail: antonio.barile@cc.univaq.it; Limbucci, Nicola [Department of Radiology, University of L' Aquila, S. Salvatore Hospital, Via Vetoio, Coppito, 67100 L' Aquila (Italy); Splendiani, Alessandra [Department of Radiology, University of L' Aquila, S. Salvatore Hospital, Via Vetoio, Coppito, 67100 L' Aquila (Italy); Gallucci, Massimo [Department of Radiology, University of L' Aquila, S. Salvatore Hospital, Via Vetoio, Coppito, 67100 L' Aquila (Italy); Masciocchi, Carlo [Department of Radiology, University of L' Aquila, S. Salvatore Hospital, Via Vetoio, Coppito, 67100 L' Aquila (Italy)

    2007-04-15

    Spinal injuries are very common among professional or amateur athletes. Spinal sport lesions can be classified in overuse and acute injuries. Overuse injuries can be found after years of repetitive spinal load during sport activity; however specific overuse injuries can also be found in adolescents. Acute traumas are common in contact sports. Most of the acute injuries are minor and self-healing, but severe and catastrophic events are possible. The aim of this article is to review the wide spectrum of spinal injuries related to sport activity, with special regard to imaging finding.

  8. Urological injuries following trauma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bent, C. [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Barts and The London NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom)], E-mail: clare.bent@bartsandthelondon.nhs.uk; Iyngkaran, T.; Power, N.; Matson, M. [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Barts and The London NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom); Hajdinjak, T.; Buchholz, N. [Department of Urology, Barts and The London NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom); Fotheringham, T. [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Barts and The London NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom)

    2008-12-15

    Blunt renal trauma is the third most common injury in abdominal trauma following splenic and hepatic injuries, respectively. In the majority, such injuries are associated with other abdominal organ injuries. As urological injuries are not usually life-threatening, and clinical signs and symptoms are non-specific, diagnosis is often delayed. We present a practical approach to the diagnosis and management of these injuries based on our experience in a busy inner city trauma hospital with a review of the current evidence-based practice. Diagnostic imaging signs are illustrated.

  9. Neuropathophysiology of Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quillinan, Nidia; Herson, Paco S; Traystman, Richard J

    2016-09-01

    Every year in the United States, millions of individuals incur ischemic brain injury from stroke, cardiac arrest, or traumatic brain injury. These acquired brain injuries can lead to death or long-term neurologic and neuropsychological impairments. The mechanisms of ischemic and traumatic brain injury that lead to these deficiencies result from a complex interplay of interdependent molecular pathways, including excitotoxicity, acidotoxicity, ionic imbalance, oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis. This article reviews several mechanisms of brain injury and discusses recent developments. Although much is known from animal models of injury, it has been difficult to translate these effects to humans. PMID:27521191

  10. Lisfranc Joint Injuries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lisa Chinn

    2009-01-01

    @@ The ankle and foot are the most common sites for athletic injuries.[1]Midfoot,or Lisfranc,injuries are the second most common foot injury and have a high in cidence in particular sports.They account for 4% of all football injuries per year,occurring frequently in linemen.[2]They are also common in equestrians,surfers,and windsurfers.[2]Lisfranc injuries are often misdiagnosed and if not treated properly can have lingering symptoms.It is estimated that Lisfranc joint injuries occur in 1 in every 55,000 persons every year.[3,4

  11. General Overview on Childhood Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Sevil İnal; Nejla Canbulat

    2013-01-01

    Until recently, it has not been put much emphasis on obesity in children and the view of “obese child is healthy” is widely accepted by families. However, understanding that a close relation exists between obesity prevalence and childhood obesity, which increased in recent years both across the world and in our country, and many diseases such as hypertension, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases changed the opinion of both of health care professionals and the society about childhood obesity in T...

  12. Childhood obesity, prevalence and prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Merchant Anwar T; Akhtar-Danesh Noori; Dehghan Mahshid

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Childhood obesity has reached epidemic levels in developed countries. Twenty five percent of children in the US are overweight and 11% are obese. Overweight and obesity in childhood are known to have significant impact on both physical and psychological health. The mechanism of obesity development is not fully understood and it is believed to be a disorder with multiple causes. Environmental factors, lifestyle preferences, and cultural environment play pivotal roles in the rising pre...

  13. Childhood obesity and cardiovascular disease

    OpenAIRE

    Bridger, Tracey

    2009-01-01

    Childhood obesity has reached epidemic proportions. Many of these children have risk factors for later disease, including cardiovascular disease. For optimal cardiovascular health, health care professionals must be able to identify children and youth at risk and provide appropriate support as needed. The present article reviews the current medical literature on obesity and cardiovascular disease risk factors in the paediatric population, the long-term cardiovascular consequences of childhood ...

  14. Childhood obesity: causes and consequences

    OpenAIRE

    Sahoo, Krushnapriya; Sahoo, Bishnupriya; Choudhury, Ashok Kumar; Sofi, Nighat Yasin; Kumar, Raman; Bhadoria, Ajeet Singh

    2015-01-01

    Childhood obesity has reached epidemic levels in developed as well as in developing countries. Overweight and obesity in childhood are known to have significant impact on both physical and psychological health. Overweight and obese children are likely to stay obese into adulthood and more likely to develop non-communicable diseases like diabetes and cardiovascular diseases at a younger age. The mechanism of obesity development is not fully understood and it is believed to be a disorder with m...

  15. CHILDHOOD OBESITY AND ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMCALS

    OpenAIRE

    La Merrill, Michele; Birnbaum, Linda S.

    2011-01-01

    Childhood and adolescent rates of obesity and overweight are continuing to increase in much of the world. Risk factors such as diet composition, excess caloric intake, decreased exercise, genetics, and the built environment are active areas of etiologic research. The obesogen hypothesis, which postulates that pre- and peri- natal chemical exposure can contribute to risk of childhood and adolescent obesity, remains relatively under-examined. This review surveys numerous classes of chemicals fo...

  16. Multilevel Determinants of Childhood Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Yen-Jung

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity among US children and adolescents has rapidly increased in the past several decades, and the epidemic of childhood obesity is currently a serious public health concern in the United States. This dissertation consists of three studies examining individual- and neighborhood-level determinants of childhood obesity. The study area was Los Angeles County in California. Our first study examined the effects of maternal employment, individual socioeconomic status (SES), and ...

  17. Management of dentoalveolar injuries in children: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Das U

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Children aged 6-15 years old experience more injuries to their teeth and the injuries sustained are more serious as evidenced by a higher percentage of luxations, avulsions, fractures and dislocations. The mandible is the most frequently fractured facial bone and mandibular alveolar injuries have been reported to range between 8.1-50.6%. Those with mandibular or midface fractures have a higher incidence of associated chest, extremity, abdomen and cervical spine injuries. The growing patient with facial injuries presents the clinician with a series of thought-provoking circumstances. Dentoalveolar and mandibular injuries are especially important to understand because of the potential complications related to tooth eruption, alveolar development, occlusion and facial growth. However, the principles involved in the treatment for children need to be modified by certain anatomical, physiological and psychological factors specifically related to childhood. This case report documents the trauma, management and follow-up care of an 11-year-old boy who sustained undisplaced infraorbital, nasal fractures and mandibular dentoalveolar fracture along with other associated injuries of the extremities.

  18. Key Injury and Violence Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Traumatic Brain Injury Violence Prevention Key Injury and Violence Data Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Injuries ... of death among persons 1-44. Injury- and violence-related deaths are only part of the problem ...

  19. Teeth Injuries (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Teeth Injuries KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Teeth Injuries ... or young child injures the gums or baby teeth: Apply pressure to the area (if it's bleeding) ...

  20. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the use of electrical stimulation for spinal cord injuries? What is "Braingate" research? What is the status of stem-cell research? How would stem-cell therapies work in the treatment of spinal cord injuries? ...

  1. Overview of Head Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Children are admitted to the hospital for these reasons or if they were unconscious even briefly or had a seizure. Children are also admitted to the hospital if child abuse is suspected. Severe head injury If the injury ...

  2. What Are Sports Injuries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 06:02 Size: 11.7 MB November 2014 What Are Sports Injuries? Fast Facts: An Easy-to- ... Research Is Being Done on Treating Sports Injuries? What’s the Difference Between an Acute and a Chronic ...

  3. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Patient Partnerships How Social Workers Help Transitions How Social Workers Help Transitions Occupational Therapy After Spinal Cord Injury Occupational Therapy After Spinal Cord Injury How Occupational Therapists Work How Occupational Therapists Work Occupational Therapy Enables Daily ...

  4. Leg Injuries and Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can damage your legs. Common leg injuries include sprains and strains, joint dislocations, and fractures. These injuries can affect the entire leg, or just the foot, ankle, knee, or hip. Certain diseases also lead to leg ...

  5. Injuries in classical ballet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quirk, R

    1984-11-01

    The specialised medical knowledge about dancers' injuries is negligible compared with that which surrounds sports medicine. The author discusses his experience in the management of more than 2000 injuries sustained by dancers of classical ballet. PMID:6151832

  6. Head injury - first aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000028.htm Head injury - first aid To use the sharing features on this page, ... a concussion can range from mild to severe. First Aid Learning to recognize a serious head injury and ...

  7. [Childhood and transsexualism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiland, C

    1988-01-01

    on the childhood of adult patients. Often, they have little to say about their own childhood. Interviews with parents give still another point of view. Most of the cases seen in consultation resulting from problems with gender-identity are mixed and secondary, rarely in a pure, clear-cut state.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:3051066

  8. 75 FR 41872 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Surveillance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-19

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Surveillance, Natural History, Quality of Care and Outcomes of..., Natural History, Quality of Care and Outcomes of Diabetes Mellitus with Onset in Childhood and...

  9. 76 FR 28438 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns ``Affordable Care Act (ACA): Childhood Obesity Research Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) DP11- 007, Panel...

  10. Early Childhood Environment and Genetic Interactions: the Diathesis for Suicidal Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodsky, Beth S

    2016-09-01

    Adverse childhood experiences are associated with higher risk for suicide and suicidal behavior later in life. There are known associations between childhood trauma, particularly sexual abuse, and higher rates of suicide, non-lethal suicide attempts, and non-suicidal self-injurious behaviors in adolescence and adulthood. Emotional abuse/neglect, disrupted parental attachment, and cumulative effect of multiple forms of maltreatment, also increase risk. Yet, the causal relationship remains unclear. The diathesis-stress model provides a framework for understanding how early life adverse experiences contribute to suicide vulnerability. Current findings from the fields of biology, neurology, and genetics shed new light on mediating variables and possible causal links between early childhood trauma and suicide. In this paper, we review recent advances, particularly regarding the interaction of early life environmental adverse events with genetics factors, that increase the diathesis for psychological traits are associated with subsequent deliberate self-harm behaviors. PMID:27484207

  11. Childhood eye diseases in southwestern Nigeria: a tertiary hospital study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluwatoyin Helen Onakpoya

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Eye diseases are important cause of medical consultation in children, with the spectrum varying in different localities. This study aimed to determine the spectrum of childhood eye diseases in a tertiary hospital serving rural and semi-rural communities. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective review of all patients less than 15 years old who presented to the eye clinic of Wesley Guild Hospital Ilesa, Nigeria between January 2001 and December 2006. Data on age at presentation, age at onset of disease, sex and diagnosis were collected and analyzed using SPSS. A p value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: We evaluated the reports of 286 children, with a male:female ratio of 1:1.1. Children aged 11-15 years made up the largest group (p=0.013. Ocular trauma (21.7%, allergic conjunctivitis (17.8%, infections of the eye and its adnexa (15.4% and refractive errors (14.3% were the most common conditions. Ocular injury was more common in males (p=0.002 and children aged 6-10 years, and 87.1% of these cases were a closed globe injury. Infections were seen more commonly among females and children aged 0-5 years, with keratitis representing 40.9% of these cases. Congenital eye disease represented 13.3% of childhood eye diseases. CONCLUSION: The prevalent childhood eye diseases recorded here can lead to absenteeism from school and are potentially blinding. Health education aimed at the prevention of ocular trauma and prompt presentation for the management of other eye diseases should be encouraged.

  12. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Coping with a New Injury Adjusting to Social Life in a Wheelchair Adjusting to Social Life in a Wheelchair Substance Abuse and Spinal Cord ... Substance Abuse and Spinal Cord Injury How Family Life Changes After Spinal Cord Injury How Family Life ...

  13. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Injury Coping with a New Injury Adjusting to Social Life in a Wheelchair Adjusting to Social Life in a Wheelchair Substance Abuse and Spinal ... is designed to provide Internet-based information and support for people with spinal cord injuries and the ...

  14. Rotator Cuff Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connors, G. Patrick

    Many baseball players suffer from shoulder injuries related to the rotator cuff muscles. These injuries may be classified as muscular strain, tendonitis or tenosynovitis, and impingement syndrome. Treatment varies from simple rest to surgery, so it is important to be seen by a physician as soon as possible. In order to prevent these injuries, the…

  15. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Spinal Cord Injury How does the spinal cord work? What is a spinal cord injury? Why is the level of a spinal cord ... stem-cell research? How would stem-cell therapies work in the treatment of spinal cord injuries? What does stem-cell research on animals tell ...

  16. Assessment of Ankle Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Nicholas; Cooper, Leslie

    2009-01-01

    School nurses are faced with the challenge of identifying and treating ankle injuries in the school setting. There is little information guiding the assessment and treatment of these children when an injury occurs. It is essential for school nurses to understand ankle anatomy, pathophysiology of the acute ankle injury, general and orthopedic…

  17. "Floating shoulder" injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heng, Kenneth

    2016-12-01

    "Floating shoulder" is a rare injury complex resulting from high-energy blunt force trauma to the shoulder, resulting in scapulothoracic dissociation. It is commonly associated with catastrophic neurovascular injury. Two cases of motorcyclists with floating shoulder injuries are described. PMID:26961729

  18. Women in agriculture: risks for occupational injury within the context of gendered role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, C A; Carruth, A K; Reed, D B

    2002-02-01

    Women continue to make significant contributions to farming. Not only do women participate in the traditional roles of homemaker, caregiver, and wife, they also work side-by-side with their spouses in keeping the farm viable. More daughters are entering the farming business, either as partners with other family members or as independent operators. Each year since the United States Department of Agriculture began including gender in the Census of Agriculture, the percentage of women engaged in agriculture has increased, and women's participation in agriculture is increasing faster than in other business segments. This article examines the role of women in agriculture and how sociocultural, economic, and physical factors may affect women's exposure to injury-producing events and their knowledge and beliefs about injury prevention. To date, few studies have examined work-related unintentional injuries among farm women. Even less is known about the extent to which occupational risks are recognized when women seek medical care. Differences in size and stature, increased physical strain, and low maximal oxygen uptake may predispose women to ergonomic-related injuries. Limitations of current research and recommendations for future analyses are discussed. PMID:12002372

  19. Brucellosis in Childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulku Gul

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Brucellosis is still an important infectious disease, being widespread as endemic and sporadic cases in Turkey. The aim of this study was to evaluate clinical and laboratory findings, treatment modalities and final outcomes of brucellosis in children. Material and Methods: This is a retrospective record review of all patients 0-18 years of age with brucellosis admitted during a 8-year period between January 2003 and September 2010.Results: Of the 62 patients, 39 (63% were male. The mean age and standard deviation of patients was 120±51.7 months (4 months-18 years. Most common symptoms on admission were fever (88%, arthralgia (64% and dizziness (19%. On physical examination, the findings and percentages were as follows; arthritis (29%, lymphadenopathy (25%, hepatomegaly (24% and splenomegaly (17%. Fifty-one percent of the patients had high sedimentation rate, 41% had high transaminase levels, and 40% had positivity for C-Reactive Protein. Brucella agglutination tests were positive in all cases. Brucella spp. was isolated from blood cultures in 27% of the cases. All of the cases were given combined drug therapy. Three of the cases (4.8% had relapses during the follow up period. No mortality was seen in patients with brucellosis.Conclusion: Childhood brucellosis remains an important public health problem in our country. It may cause serious complications in children, and treatment with at least two antibiotics for not less than six weeks appears to be effective.

  20. Childhood drowning in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hss, Amar-Singh; Tan, Pui San; Hashim, Lina

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to collate data on childhood drowning in Malaysia and review existing drowning prevention measures. This study used secondary data from governmental and non-governmental agencies. All reported fatal drownings from 2000 to 2007 and all reported non-fatal drownings from 2000 to 2008 were included. Data were analysed to provide understanding of the epidemiology of drowning incidents, risk factors and available preventive efforts. On average 286 (range 248-344) children died yearly due to drowning with a death rate of 3.05 per 100,000 annually. An additional average of 207 children drowned but survived annually (1.99 per 100,000). The estimated burden of drowning in children (death and non-death) is 5 per 100,000. There was no reduction in annual drowning fatalities over time. Most drowning took place in east coast regions during the annual monsoon season. It was 3.52 (2.80-4.41) times more common in boys and most prevalent among 10-14 years. Most prevalent sites of all-age drowning were seas and rivers. Limited water safety regulations are currently available in the country. This is the first comprehensive national study in Malaysia on paediatric drowning and highlights the magnitude of the problem. It calls for concerted effort to devise effective national drowning prevention measures. PMID:23651461

  1. Brain SPECT in childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The modalities and the indications of perfusion and neurotransmission SPECT in childhood are presented. The perfusion as well as neurotransmission tracers have not yet authorization for use in children; they have to be used by prescription of magistral preparation or in research protocols. The radioprotection rules have to be strictly respected. The most frequent indication of perfusion SPECT is pharmacologically resistant epilepsy; the ictal SPECT before surgery allows the localization of the epileptogenic focus. Other indications are relevant in the prognosis of neonatal anoxia and encephalitis. In psychiatric disorders, especially in autism, the interest is the physiopathological approach of the brain dysfunctions. The neurotransmission SPECT is emerging as a consequence of the development of new radiotracer, as the dopaminergic system ligands. The decrease of the dopamine D2 receptors in the striatum can be imaged and quantified in the neonate. The lesions of dopamine system seem to be a consequence of the neonatal hypoxia-ischemia and it is predictive of motor sequelae. Brain SPECT should become a routine examination in child neurologic and psychiatric disorders. (authors)

  2. Injury Prevention Practices as Depicted in G- and PG-Rated Movies, 2008-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, Andrew R; Tongren, J Eric; Gilchrist, Julie

    2015-08-01

    Unintentional injuries are the leading cause of death among children in the United States. The use of recommended safety practices can reduce injuries. Children often learn behaviors from media exposure. Children's movies released in 1995-2007 infrequently depicted appropriate injury prevention practices. The aim of this study was to determine if injury prevention practices in children's movies have improved. The top grossing 25 G- and PG-rated movies in the United States per year for 2008-2012 were eligible for inclusion in the study. Movies or scenes were excluded if they were animated, not set in the present day, fantasy, documentary, or not in English. Injury prevention practices involving riding in a motor vehicle, walking, boating, bicycling, and four other activities were recorded for characters with speaking roles. Fifty-six (45%) of the 125 movies met the inclusion criteria. A total of 603 person-scenes were examined involving 175 (29%) children and 428 (71%) adults. Thirty-eight person-scenes involved crashes or falls, resulting in four injuries and no deaths. Overall, 59% (353/603) of person-scenes showed appropriate injury prevention practices. This included 313 (70%) of 445 motor-vehicle passengers who were belted; 15 (30%) of 50 pedestrians who used a crosswalk, 2 (7%) of 30 boaters who wore personal flotation devices, and 8 (29%) of 28 bicyclists who wore helmets. In comparison with previous studies, there were significant increases in usage of seat belts, crosswalks, personal flotation devices, and bicycle helmets. However, 41% of person-scenes still showed unsafe practices and the consequences of those behaviors were infrequently depicted. PMID:25476034

  3. [Treating specific childhood phobia in a single session? A systematic review of the literature.

    OpenAIRE

    Fond, Guillaume; Franc, N.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The essential feature of specific phobia is a persistent fear of clearly discernable, circumscribed objects or situations. The DSM-IV distinguishes four subtypes: animal, natural environment, blood-injection-injury, and situational. Specific phobias frequently co-occur. Specific phobia is one of the most common psychiatric disorders with a lifetime prevalence of 12.5% and is about twice as common in women as in men. Most phobias have a childhood onset except for the situational sub...

  4. Influence of Sex on Suicidal Phenotypes in Affective Disorder Patients with Traumatic Childhood Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlberg, Laura; Swoboda, Patrick; Ludwig, Birgit; Koller, Romina; Kapusta, Nestor D.; Aigner, Martin; Haslacher, Helmuth; Schmöger, Michaela; Kasper, Siegfried; Schosser, Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    Objectives In the current study, we aimed to investigate the impact of childhood trauma on suicidal behaviour phenotypes in a group of patients with diagnosed affective disorder (unipolar or bipolar affective disorder). Patients and Methods Patients with and without a history of childhood abuse, measured by Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), were assessed to explore risks for suicidal behaviour (including suicide attempt, self-harm and non-suicidal self-injury). The tested sample consisted of 258 patients (111 males and 147 females, in-patients and out-patients at the Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Medical University of Vienna and University Hospital Tulln, Lower Austria). Psychiatric diagnoses were derived from the SCAN (Schedules for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry) interview. In addition, patients were administered the Lifetime Parasuicidal Count (LPC), Suicidal Behaviour Questionnaire (SBQ-R), and Viennese Suicide Risk Assessment Scale (VISURIAS) questionnaires. Results In contrast to male suicide attempters, female suicide attempters showed both significantly higher total CTQ scores (phistory of self-harming behaviour (including suicidal intention) and Non-Suicidal-Self Injury (NSSI) had significantly higher CTQ total scores (p<0.001) than the control group. Conclusion These findings suggest gender differences in suicidal behaviour after being exposed to childhood trauma. PMID:26366559

  5. Median and Ulnar Nerve Injuries in Children and Adolescents- Long-term outcome and Cerebral reorganisation

    OpenAIRE

    Chemnitz, Anette

    2013-01-01

    A peripheral nerve injury may lead to serious disability and influence the individual´s quality of life. It is considered that children can regain better sensory and motor function after a peripheral nerve injury, but the exact mechanism behind such superior recovery is not known. The aim of the thesis was to study the long-term clinical outcome after a peripheral nerve injury in patients injured in childhood and adolescence and to relate the clinical outcome to changes in the central and ...

  6. Neurometabolic diseases of childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metabolic diseases affecting the pediatric brain are complex conditions, the underlying mechanisms leading to structural damage are diverse and the diagnostic imaging manifestations are often non-specific; hence early, sensitive and specific diagnosis can be challenging for the radiologist. However, misdiagnosis or a delayed diagnosis can result in a devastating, irreversible injury to the developing brain. Based upon the inborn error, neurometabolic diseases can be subdivided in various groups depending on the predominantly involved tissue (e.g., white matter in leukodystrophies or leukoencephalopathies), the involved metabolic processes (e.g., organic acidurias and aminoacidopathies) and primary age of the child at presentation (e.g., neurometabolic disorders of the newborn). This manuscript summarizes these topics. (orig.)

  7. Neurometabolic diseases of childhood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patay, Zoltan [St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Section of Neuroradiology, Division of Radiology, Department of Radiological Sciences, Memphis, TN (United States); Blaser, Susan I. [The Hospital for Sick Children, Division of Neuroradiology, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Toronto (Canada); Poretti, Andrea; Huisman, Thierry A.G.M. [Charlotte R. Bloomberg Children' s Center, Pediatric Radiology and Pediatric Neuroradiology, The Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, The Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2015-09-15

    Metabolic diseases affecting the pediatric brain are complex conditions, the underlying mechanisms leading to structural damage are diverse and the diagnostic imaging manifestations are often non-specific; hence early, sensitive and specific diagnosis can be challenging for the radiologist. However, misdiagnosis or a delayed diagnosis can result in a devastating, irreversible injury to the developing brain. Based upon the inborn error, neurometabolic diseases can be subdivided in various groups depending on the predominantly involved tissue (e.g., white matter in leukodystrophies or leukoencephalopathies), the involved metabolic processes (e.g., organic acidurias and aminoacidopathies) and primary age of the child at presentation (e.g., neurometabolic disorders of the newborn). This manuscript summarizes these topics. (orig.)

  8. ABC of childhood memories [artists' book

    OpenAIRE

    Wood, Philippa; MacLellan, Tamar

    2009-01-01

    The limited edition artists' book by Philippa Wood and Tamar MacLellan – ABC of Childhood Memories was a collaborative project that explored the 1960s/70s childhood memories of each artist through text based narrative and image.

  9. Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS): Childhood Adversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... childhood maltreatment. In particular, for women, emotional and sexual abuse during childhood was associated with a greater risk ... risk for chronic fatigue syndrome: results from a population-based study. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2006 Nov;63( ...

  10. Childhood Asthma: A Chance to HEAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Special Section Childhood Asthma: A Chance to HEAL Past Issues / Fall ... HEAL is seeking ways to reduce the nation's childhood asthma challenge. Even before Hurricane Katrina swept through ...

  11. Childhood Diseases - What Parents Need to Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Childhood Diseases - What Parents Need to Know Past Issues / ... centers is continuing to improve the outlook for childhood diseases every day. Photo: iStock When the Eunice ...

  12. Maternal postpartum distress and childhood overweight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ajslev, Teresa A; Andersen, Camilla S; Ingstrup, Katja G;

    2010-01-01

    We investigated associations between maternal postpartum distress covering anxiety, depression and stress and childhood overweight.......We investigated associations between maternal postpartum distress covering anxiety, depression and stress and childhood overweight....

  13. Sport injuries in adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Susanne Habelt; Carol Claudius Hasler; Klaus Steinbrück; Martin Majewski

    2011-01-01

    In spite of the wide range of injuries in adolescents during sports activities, there are only a few studies investigating the type and frequency of sport injuries in puberty. However, this information may help to prevent, diagnose and treat sports injuries among teens. 4468 injuries in adolescent patients were treated over a ten year period of time: 66,97% were boys and 32.88% girls. The most frequent sports injuries were football (31.13%) followed by handball (8.89%) and sports during scho...

  14. Work injuries and disability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tüchsen, Finn; Christensen, Karl Bang; Feveile, Helene;

    2009-01-01

    PROBLEM: This study estimated the hazard ratio for disability pension retirement (DPR) for persons who have experienced a work injury causing absence lasting at least one day after the accidental injury occurred and to estimate the fraction of DPR attributable to work injuries. METHODS: A total......, the hazard ratio (HR) among those employees who had ever experienced a work injury was 1.80 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.20-2.68). No association was found among women. SUMMARY: Having had a reportable work injury is a strong predictor of subsequent DPR for men....

  15. Imaging of muscle injuries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Khoury, G.Y. [Iowa Univ., Iowa City, IA (United States). Dept. of Radiology; Brandser, E.A. [Iowa Univ., Iowa City, IA (United States). Dept. of Radiology; Kathol, M.H. [Iowa Univ., Iowa City, IA (United States). Dept. of Radiology; Tearse, D.S. [Iowa Univ., Iowa City, IA (United States). Dept. of Orthopaedic Surgery; Callaghan, J.J. [Iowa Univ., Iowa City, IA (United States). Dept. of Orthopaedic Surgery

    1996-01-01

    Although skeletal muscle is the single largest tissue in the body, there is little written about it in the radiologic literature. Indirect muscle injuries, also called strains or tears, are common in athletics, and knowing the morphology and physiology of the muscle-tendon unit is the key to the understanding of these injuries. Eccentric muscle activation produces more tension within the muscle tan when it is activated concentrically, making it more susceptible to tearing. Injuries involving the muscle belly tend to occur near the myotendinous junction. In adolescents, the weakest link in the muscle-tendon-bone complex is the apophysis. Traditionally, plain radiography has been the main diagnostic modality for evaluation of these injuries; however, with the advent of MRI it has become much easier to diagnose injuries primarily affecting the soft tissues. This article reviews the anatomy and physiology of the muscle-tendon unit as they relate to indirect muscle injuries. Examples of common muscle injuries are illustrated. (orig.)

  16. Lisfranc injuries: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eleftheriou, Kyriacos I; Rosenfeld, Peter F; Calder, James D F

    2013-06-01

    Lisfranc injuries are a spectrum of injuries to the tarsometatarsal joint complex of the midfoot. These range from subtle ligamentous sprains, often seen in athletes, to fracture dislocations seen in high-energy injuries. Accurate and early diagnosis is important to optimise treatment and minimise long-term disability, but unfortunately, this is a frequently missed injury. Undisplaced injuries have excellent outcomes with non-operative treatment. Displaced injuries have worse outcomes and require anatomical reduction and internal fixation for the best outcome. Although evidence to date supports the use of screw fixation, plate fixation may avoid further articular joint damage and may have benefits. Recent evidence supports the use of limited arthrodesis in more complex injuries. PMID:23563815

  17. Imaging of muscle injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although skeletal muscle is the single largest tissue in the body, there is little written about it in the radiologic literature. Indirect muscle injuries, also called strains or tears, are common in athletics, and knowing the morphology and physiology of the muscle-tendon unit is the key to the understanding of these injuries. Eccentric muscle activation produces more tension within the muscle tan when it is activated concentrically, making it more susceptible to tearing. Injuries involving the muscle belly tend to occur near the myotendinous junction. In adolescents, the weakest link in the muscle-tendon-bone complex is the apophysis. Traditionally, plain radiography has been the main diagnostic modality for evaluation of these injuries; however, with the advent of MRI it has become much easier to diagnose injuries primarily affecting the soft tissues. This article reviews the anatomy and physiology of the muscle-tendon unit as they relate to indirect muscle injuries. Examples of common muscle injuries are illustrated. (orig.)

  18. Pattern and epidemiology of pediatric musculoskeletal injuries in Kashmir valley, a retrospective single-center study of 1467 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Shahid; Dar, Tahir; Beigh, Asif Qayoom; Dhar, Shabir; Ahad, Humayun; Hussain, Imtiyaz; Ahmad, Sharief

    2015-05-01

    This work aimed to study the pattern and epidemiology of pediatric musculoskeletal trauma and consequent morbidity in Kashmir Valley and compare the results with other studies and to formulate preventive measures and devise management strategies. This was a retrospective study of 1467 pediatric orthopedic trauma patients who presented to our hospital over a 3-year period between September 2005 and August 2008. Information was recorded in a prescribed proforma including the following: age, sex, mode of trauma, type of fracture/injury, radiological study, final diagnosis, intervention performed, and complications. The information was collected from the Medical Records Department of the hospital. The children's ages ranged from 0 to 16 years; there were 996 males and 471 females, with males outnumbering females in every age group (the overall male-to-female ratio was 2.12:1). Most fractures occurred in children aged 7-12 years [n=816 (53.96%)] and decreased in younger and older children beyond this age group. The left side was involved in 762 cases, 612 injuries involved the right side, 24 were bilateral, and 69 patients presented with multiple injuries. In children aged 0-6 years, the most common site of injury was the elbow, whereas in children aged 7-16 years, it was the forearm. In descending order, most injuries were sustained because of fall while playing (34.76%), fall from height (33.74%), road traffic accidents (14.92%), and fall from standing height (7.97%). The majority of injuries were caused by unintentional trauma (94.48 vs. 5.52%). The places where injury occurred were the home [603 (41.10%)], play field and orchards near the home [450 (30.67%)], roads [219 (14.92%)], school [183 (12.47%)], and unknown [12 (0.81%)]. The pattern and epidemiology of pediatric trauma differs from those in adults. The majority of musculoskeletal injuries are because of unintentional trauma in this young age group and hence preventable. Enhanced supervision at home and

  19. Income in Adult Survivors of Childhood Cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Wengenroth, Laura; Sommer, Grit; Schindler, Matthias, 1968-; Spycher, Ben D.; von der Weid, Nicolas X.; Stutz-Grunder, Eveline; Michel, Gisela; Kuehni, Claudia E.

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Little is known about the impact of childhood cancer on the personal income of survivors. We compared income between survivors and siblings, and determined factors associated with income. METHODS As part of the Swiss Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (SCCSS), a questionnaire was sent to survivors, aged ≥18 years, registered in the Swiss Childhood Cancer Registry (SCCR), diagnosed at age

  20. Health lifestyles in early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollborn, Stefanie; James-Hawkins, Laurie; Lawrence, Elizabeth; Fomby, Paula

    2014-12-01

    This study integrates two important developments, the concept of health lifestyles (which has focused on adults and adolescents) and the increased attention to early childhood. We introduce the concept of children's health lifestyles, identifying differences from adult health lifestyles and articulating intergenerational transmission and socialization processes shaping children's health lifestyles. Using the nationally representative Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (2001-2007; N ≈ 6,150), latent class analyses identify predominant health lifestyles among U.S. preschoolers. Five distinct empirical patterns representing health lifestyles emerge, two capturing low and medium levels of overall risk across domains and three capturing domain-specific risks. Social background predicts children's health lifestyles, but lower household resources often explain these relationships. Across kindergarten measures of cognition, behavior, and health, preschool health lifestyles predict children's development even after controlling for social disadvantage and concurrent household resources. Further research on health lifestyles throughout childhood is warranted. PMID:25413801