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Sample records for childhood unintentional injuries what

  1. Prevention of unintentional childhood injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theurer, Wesley M; Bhavsar, Amit K

    2013-04-01

    Unintentional injury accounts for 40 percent of childhood deaths annually, most commonly from motor vehicle crashes. The proper use of child restraints is the most effective strategy to prevent injury or death. Motor vehicle restraint guidelines have recently been revised to an age-based system that delays the progression in type of restraint for most children. Strategies to prevent suffocation in children include using appropriate bedding, positioning babies on their backs to sleep, and removing items from the sleep and play environment that could potentially entrap or entangle the child. Fencing that isolates a swimming pool from the yard and surrounding area and "touch" adult supervision (i.e., an adult is in the water and able to reach and grab a child) have been shown to be most effective in preventing drownings. Swimming lessons are recommended for children older than four years. Poison prevention programs have been shown to improve prevention behavior among caregivers, but may not decrease poisoning incidence. Syrup of ipecac is not recommended. Smoke detector maintenance, a home escape plan, and educating children about how to respond during a fire emergency are effective strategies for preventing fire injuries or death. Fall injuries may be reduced by not using walkers for infants and toddlers or bunk beds for children six years and younger. Consistent helmet use while bicycling reduces head and brain injuries. Although direct counseling by physicians appears to improve some parental safety behaviors, its effect on reducing childhood injuries is uncertain. Community-based interventions can be effective in high-risk populations.

  2. Smoking and medication during pregnancy predict repeated unintentional injuries in early childhood but not single unintentional injuries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Junger, M.; Japel, C.; Cote, S.; Xu, Q.; Boivin, M.; Tremblay, R.E.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates prospectively the development of single and repeated unintentional injuries from birth to 42 months in a random population sample of new-born children in Quebec (Canada) (N = 1,770). The outcome measures are single unintentional injuries (SUI) and repeated unintentional injur

  3. Childhood unintentional injuries: Supervision and first aid provided

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annabel Jonkheijm

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : The aim of this study was to investigate the circumstances surrounding unintentional injuries of children and the appropriateness of the first aid provided by caregivers. Materials and Methods : This prospective study included children with aged range 0-12 years, who presented with an unintentional injury at the Trauma Unit of a hospital in Cape Town, South Africa, over a 3 month period. Caregivers were interviewed about the circumstances of the injury and the first aid provided. Experts classified the first aid as appropriate, appropriate but incomplete, or inappropriate. Results: A total of 313 children were included with a median age of 3.75 years. The most common causes of injury were falls (39.6%, n = 124, burns (23.9%, n = 75 and motor vehicle crashes (10.5%, n = 33. More than a quarter of the children (27.2%, n = 81 had been left under the supervision of another child below the age of 12. When the injury occurred, 7.1% (n = 22 of the children were unattended. First aid was provided in 43.1% (n = 134 of the cases. More than half of these interventions (53%, n = 72 were inappropriate or appropriate but incomplete. Conclusions: Especially young children are at risk for unintentional injuries. Lack of appropriate supervision increases this risk. Prevention education of parents and children may help to protect children from injuries. First-aid training should also be more accessible to civilians as both the providing of as well as the quality of first-aid provided lacked in the majority of cases.

  4. Understanding unintentional childhood home injuries: pilot surveillance data from Karachi, Pakistan

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    Zia Nukhba

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood injuries, an important public health issue, globally affects more than 95% of children living in low-and middle-income countries. The objective of this study is to describe the epidemiology of childhood unintentional injuries in Karachi, Pakistan with a specific focus on those occurring within the home environment. Methods This was a secondary analysis of a childhood unintentional injury surveillance database setup in the emergency department of the Aga Khan Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan for 3 months. The data was collected by interviewing caretakers of children under 12 years of age presenting with an unintentional injury to the emergency departments of the four major tertiary care hospitals of Karachi, Pakistan. Results The surveillance included 566 injured children of which 409 (72% injuries had taken place at/around home. Of 409 children, 66% were males and mostly between 5 and 11 years of age. Injuries commonly occurred during play time (51%. Fall (59%, dog bites (11% and burns (9% were the commonest mechanisms of injury. The majority of the children (78% were directly discharged from the emergency room with predicted short term disability (42%. There were 2 deaths in the emergency department both due to falls. Conclusion Childhood injury surveillance system provides valuable in-depth information on child injuries. The majority of these unintentional childhood injuries occur at home; with falls, dog bites and burns being the most common types of unintentional childhood home injuries. Specific surveillance systems for child injuries can provide new and valuable information for countries like Pakistan.

  5. The Cost of Childhood Unintentional Injuries and the Value of Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Ted R.; Romano, Eduardo O.; Spicer, Rebecca S.

    2000-01-01

    Examines frequency, costs, and quality of life losses associated with unintentional childhood injuries in 1996, using analyses of national and state data sets. Summarizes the cost effectiveness of several child safety measures and discusses current federal funding patterns for health care research on the subject. An appendix presents methods of…

  6. Parenting interventions for the prevention of unintentional injuries in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendrick, Denise; Mulvaney, Caroline A; Ye, Lily; Stevens, Tony; Mytton, Julie A; Stewart-Brown, Sarah

    2013-03-28

    Parent education and training programmes can improve maternal psychosocial health, child behavioural problems and parenting practices. This review assesses the effects of parenting interventions for reducing child injury. To assess the effects of parenting interventions for preventing unintentional injury in children aged under 18 years and for increasing possession and use of safety equipment and safety practices by parents. We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, BIOSIS Preview, PsycINFO, Sociological Abstracts, Social Science Citation Index, CINAHL, ProQuest Dissertations and Theses, ERIC, DARE, ASSIA, Web of Science, SIGLE and ZETOC. We also handsearched abstracts from the World Conferences on Injury Prevention & Control and the journal Injury Prevention. The searches were conducted in January 2011. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs), non-randomised controlled trials (non-RCTs) and controlled before and after studies (CBAs), which evaluated parenting interventions administered to parents of children aged 18 years and under, and reported outcome data on injuries for children (unintentional or unspecified intent), possession and use of safety equipment or safety practices (including the Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME) scale which contained an assessment of home safety) by parents. Parenting interventions were defined as those with a specified protocol, manual or curriculum aimed at changing knowledge, attitudes or skills covering a range of parenting topics. Studies were selected, data were extracted and quality appraised independently by two authors. Pooled relative risks (RR) were estimated using random effect models. Twenty two studies were included in the review: 16 RCTs, two non-RCTs, one partially randomised trial which contained two randomised intervention arms and one non-randomised control arm, two CBA studies and one quasi randomised controlled trial. Seventeen studies provided interventions comprising parenting

  7. Relation of Caregiver Alcohol Use to Unintentional Childhood Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Damashek, Amy; Williams, Natalie A.; Sher, Kenneth; Peterson, Lizette

    2008-01-01

    Objective The present study used a case-crossover design to investigate the association of caregiver alcohol consumption and supervision to children's injury occurrence and severity. Method A community sample of 170 mothers of toddlers was interviewed biweekly about their children's daily injuries for a period of 6 months. Results Proximal caregiver-reported alcohol use predicted higher likelihood of injury occurrence and higher injury severity, whereas caregiver-reported supervision predicte...

  8. Predictors of unintentional childhood injuries seen at the Accident ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MJP

    2015-12-12

    Dec 12, 2015 ... significant effect or disability, 3.4% had short-term disability while 2.3% ... injuries were not related to age, gender, educational status of care givers, place or time of injuries. ... significantly higher in Low and Middle In-come.

  9. Influence of sociodemographic factors on the risk of unintentional childhood home injuries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Bjarne; Nielsen, Jeppe W

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: While social differences in childhood injuries are recognized, less is known about how social and demographic differences relate to injury mechanism. The purpose of the study was to reveal how sociodemographic factors affect the incidence of unintentional home injuries in Danish...... children for specific injury mechanisms and involved products. METHODS: Information on injuries in 173 504 children treated at emergency departments was recorded for the period 1998-2003. The information was linked to data including parents' education and income and family type, and the results were...... compared with those for a random sample of the population. RESULTS: A total of 50 561 injuries were analysed. The risk was 1.5 (1.5-1.6) for children with mothers having only primary education compared to tertiary education, and 1.5 (1.4-1.6) for children in families with the lowest vs. the highest income...

  10. Parental socioeconomic status and unintentional injury deaths in early childhood: consideration of injury mechanisms, age at death, and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Juhee; Lee, Boeun; Ha, Eun Hee; Park, Hyesook

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether the socioeconomic status (SES) of parents influences early childhood unintentional injury deaths for different injury mechanisms and the gender and age at death of the child. Study design is a population-based retrospective study. Death certificate data from 1995 to 2004 were linked to birth certificate data from 1995 to 1996 for each child who died when aged Parental age, birth order, marital status, residence area, educational level, and occupation were used as indices for SES. Cox proportional-hazards analysis was employed. Our results indicate that nonmetropolitan residence, low parental education level, and a father working in a nonadministrative job or as a farmer were associated with a higher risk of death from injury for both boys and girls. A mother aged younger than 20 years and parents working in manual jobs were associated with a higher risk in boys only. The risks of some socioeconomic factors (low parental education and a father working in a manual job or as a farmer) were evident for children aged 1-4 years. The risks of rural residency tended to increase in older children, and the risk of injury from having a mother aged younger than 20 years increased for younger children. The risks of childhood injury deaths from traffic accidents, falls, and fire/burns were associated with the SES of the parents. Younger parents were associated with higher risks of injury deaths from traffic accidents (hazard ratio [HR]: father, 7.9; mother, 1.9) and falls (HR: father, 2.0; mother, 2.5). A father working as a farmer was associated with a higher risk of childhood injury death from fire/burns (HR = 4.0). In conclusion, the parental SES risk profiles of childhood injury deaths varied with the age and gender of the child, and with the injury mechanism. Therefore, reducing excess injury deaths during early childhood requires preventive efforts targeted at high-risk parents, and based on injury mechanism and on the gender

  11. Parenting interventions for the prevention of unintentional\\ud injuries in childhood

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Background\\ud Parent education and training programmes can improve maternal psychosocial health, child behavioural problems and parenting practices. This review assesses the effects of parenting interventions for reducing child injury.\\ud Objectives\\ud To assess the effects of parenting interventions for preventing unintentional injury in children aged under 18 years and for increasing possession and use of safety equipment and safety practices by parents.\\ud Search methods\\ud We searched CEN...

  12. Epidemiology of unintentional injuries in childhood: a population-based survey in general practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otters, Hanneke; Schellevis, François G; Damen, Jurgen; van der Wouden, Johannes C; van Suijlekom-Smit, Lisette W A; Koes, Bart W

    2005-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the incidence of unintentional injuries presented in general practice, and to identify children at risk from experiencing an unintentional injury. We used the data of all 0–17-year-old children from a representative survey in 96 Dutch general practices in 2001. We computed incidence rates and multilevel multivariate regression analysis in different age strata and identified patient and family characteristics associated with an elevated injury risk. Nine thousand four hundred and eighty-four new injury episodes were identified from 105 353 new health problems presented in general practice, giving an overall incidence rate of 115 per 1000 person years (95% confidence interval [CI] = 113 to 118). Sex and residence in rural areas are strong predictors of injury in all age strata. Also, in children aged 0–4 years, a higher number of siblings is associated with elevated injury risk (≥3 siblings odds ratio [OR] = 1.57, 95% CI = 1.19 to 2.08) and in the 12–17-year-olds, ethnic background and socioeconomic class are associated with experiencing an injury (non-western children OR = 0.67, 95% CI = 0.54 to 0.81; low socioeconomic class OR = 1.39, 95% CI = 1.22 to 1.58). Unintentional injury is a significant health problem in children in general practice, accounting for 9% of all new health problems in children. In all age groups, boys in rural areas are especially at risk to experience an injury. PMID:16105373

  13. Unintentional childhood injury patterns, odds, and outcomes in Kampala City: an analysis of surveillance data from the National Pediatric Emergency Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutto, Milton; Lawoko, Stephen; Nansamba, Catherine; Ovuga, Emilio; Svanstrom, Leif

    2011-01-01

    Abstract: Background: Unintentional Childhood Injuries pose a major public health challenge in Africa and Uganda. Previous estimates of the problem may have underestimated the childhood problem. We set to determine unintentional childhood injury pattern, odds, and outcomes at the National Paediatric Emergency unit in Kampala city using surveillance data. Methods: Incident proportions, odds and proportional rates were calculated and used to determine unintentional injury patterns across childhood (1-12 years). Results: A total of 556 cases recorded between January and May 2008 were analyzed: majority had been transported to hospital by mothers using mini-buses, private cars, and motorcycles. Median distance from injury location to hospital was 5 km. Homes, roads, and schools were leading injury locations. Males constituted 60% of the cases. Play and daily living activities were commonest injury time activities. Falls, burns and traffic accounted for 70.5% of unintentional childhood injuries. Burns, open wounds, fractures were commonest injury types. Motorcycles, buses and passenger-cars caused most crashes. Play grounds, furniture, stairs and trees were commonest source of falls. Most burn injuries were caused by liquids, fires and hot objects. 43.8% of cases were admitted. 30% were discharged without disability; 10%, were disabled; 1%, died. Injury odds and proportional incidence rates varied with age, place and cause. Poisoning and drowning were rare. Local pediatric injury priorities should include home, road and school safety. Conclusions: Unintentional injuries are common causes of hospital visit by children under 13 years especially boys. Homes, roads and educational facilities are commonest unintentional injury sites. Significant age and gender differences exist in intentional injury causation, characteristics and outcomes. In its current form, our surveillance system seems inefficient in capturing poisoning and drowning. The local prevention priorities could

  14. Unintentional Childhood Injury Patterns, Odds, and Outcomes in Kampala City: an analysis of surveillance data from the National Pediatric Emergency Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Ovuga

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Unintentional Childhood Injuries pose a major public health challenge in Africa and Uganda. Previous estimates of the problem may have underestimated the childhood problem. We set to determine unintentional childhood injury pattern, odds, and outcomes at the National Paediatric Emergency unit in Kampala city using surveillance data. METHODS: Incident proportions, odds and proportional rates were calculated and used to determine unintentional injury patterns across childhood (1-12 years. RESULTS: A total of 556 cases recorded between January and May 2008 were analyzed: majority had been transported to hospital by mothers using mini-buses, private cars, and motorcycles. Median distance from injury location to hospital was 5 km. Homes, roads, and schools were leading injury locations. Males constituted 60% of the cases. Play and daily living activities were commonest injury time activities. Falls, burns and traffic accounted for 70.5% of unintentional childhood injuries. Burns, open wounds, fractures were commonest injury types. Motorcycles, buses and passenger-cars caused most crashes. Play grounds, furniture, stairs and trees were commonest source of falls. Most burn injuries were caused by liquids, fires and hot objects. 43.8% of cases were admitted. 30% were discharged without disability; 10%, were disabled; 1%, died. Injury odds and proportional incidence rates varied with age, place and cause. Poisoning and drowning were rare. Local pediatric injury priorities should include home, road and school safety. CONCLUSIONS: Unintentional injuries are common causes of hospital visit by children under 13 years especially boys. Homes, roads and educational facilities are commonest unintentional injury sites. Significant age and gender differences exist in intentional injury causation, characteristics and outcomes. In its current form, our surveillance system seems inefficient in capturing poisoning and drowning. The local prevention

  15. Prevention of unintentional injuries in early childhood: Using an E-health4Uth home safety intervention to promote parents’ child safety behaviours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.E.J. van Scholing-van Beelen (Mirjam)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractEvery day around the world the lives of more than two thousand families are torn apart by the loss of a child due to an unintentional injury [1]. Such tragedy can change lives irrevocably. It is a major public health problem that requires urgent attention. “Unintentional injury” is used

  16. A review of unintentional injuries in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleet, David A; Ballesteros, Michael F; Borse, Nagesh N

    2010-01-01

    Unintentional injuries are the largest source of premature morbidity and mortality and the leading cause of death among adolescents 10-19 years of age. Fatal injury rates of males are twice those of females, and racial disparities in injury are pronounced. Transportation is the largest source of these injuries, principally as drivers and passengers, but also as cyclists and pedestrians. Other major causes involve drowning, poisonings, fires, sports and recreation, and work-related injuries. Implementing known and effective prevention strategies such as using seat belts and bicycle and motorcycle helmets, installing residential smoke alarms, reducing misuse of alcohol, strengthening graduated driver licensing laws, promoting policy change, using safety equipment in sports and leisure, and protecting adolescents at work will all contribute to reducing injuries. The frequency, severity, potential for death and disability, and costs of these injuries, together with the high success potential of prevention strategies, make injury prevention a key public health goal to improve adolescent health in the future.

  17. What types of unintentional injuries kill our children? Do infants die of the same types of injuries? A systematic review

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    Janete Honda Imamura

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to review mortality from external causes (accidental injury in children and adolescents in systematically selected journals. This was a systematic review of the literature on mortality from accidental injury in children and adolescents. We searched the Pubrvled, Latin-American and Caribbean Health Sciences and Excerpta Medica databases for articles published between July of 2001 and June of 2011. National data from official agencies, retrieved by manual searches, were also reviewed. We reviewed 15 journal articles, the 2011 edition of a National Safety Council publication and 2010 statistical data from the Brazilian National Ministry of Health Mortality Database. Most published data were related to high-income countries. Mortality from accidental injury was highest among children less than 1 year of age. Accidental threats to breathing (non-drowning threats constituted the leading cause of death among this age group in the published articles. Across the pediatric age group in the surveyed studies, traffic accidents were the leading cause of death, followed by accidental drowning and submersion. Traffic accidents constitute the leading external cause of accidental death among children in the countries understudy. However, infants were vulnerable to external causes, particularly to accidental non-drowning threats to breathing, and this age group had the highest mortality rates for external causes. Actions to reduce such events are suggested. Further studies investigating the occurrence of accidental deaths in low-income countries are needed to improve the understanding of these preventable events.

  18. Suicide and unintentional injury mortality among homeless people

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Sandra Feodor; Hjorthøj, Carsten Rygaard; Erlangsen, Annette

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Homeless people have elevated mortality, especially due to external causes. We aimed to examine suicide and unintentional injury mortality levels and identify predictors in the homeless population. METHODS: A nationwide, register-based cohort study of homeless people aged 16 years...... and older was carried out using the Danish Homeless Register, 1999-2008. RESULTS: In all, 32 010 homeless people (70.5% men) were observed. For men, the mortality rate was 174.4 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 150.6-198.1] per 100 000 person-years for suicide and 463.3 (95% CI = 424...... and unintentional injury. CONCLUSION: People in the homeless shelter population with a history of a psychiatric disorder constitute a high-risk group regarding the elevated suicide and unintentional injury mortality....

  19. Knowledge, attitudes, and practices of family physicians and nurses regarding unintentional injuries among children under 15 years in Cairo, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elboray, Shereen; Elawdy, Mohamed Yehia; Dewedar, Sahar; Elezz, Nahla Abo; El-Setouhy, Maged; Smith, Gordon S; Hirshon, Jon Mark

    2017-03-01

    Unintentional injuries are a leading cause of death among children, especially in developing countries. Lack of reliable data regarding primary health care professionals' role in childhood unintentional injury prevention hinders the development of effective prevention strategies. A survey of 99 family physicians and nurses from 10 family health centres sought to develop insight into their knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding unintentional injury prevention for children injuries and injury prevention. Falls and road traffic crashes were identified as primary causes of childhood injuries by 54.5%. While >90% agreed injury prevention counselling (IPC) could be effective, only 50.5% provided IPC. Lack of time and educational materials were the leading barriers to provision of IPC (91.9% and 85.9%, respectively), while thinking counselling is not part of their clinical duties was the least perceived barrier (9.1%). There is a large disconnect between providers' knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding IPC, more training and provision of counselling tools are essential for improving IPC by Egyptian medical providers.

  20. Assessment of caregiver responsibility in unintentional child injury deaths: challenges for injury prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnitzer, Patricia G; Covington, Theresa M; Kruse, Robin L

    2011-02-01

    Most unintentional injury deaths among young children result from inadequate supervision or failure by caregivers to protect the child from potential hazards. Determining whether inadequate supervision or failure to protect could be classified as child neglect is a component of child death review (CDR) in most states. However, establishing that an unintentional injury death was neglect related can be challenging as differing definitions, lack of standards regarding supervision, and changing norms make consensus difficult. The purpose of this study was to assess CDR team members' categorisation of the extent to which unintentional injury deaths were neglect related. CDR team members were surveyed and asked to classify 20 vignettes-presented in 10 pairs-that described the circumstances of unintentional injury deaths among children. Vignette pairs differed by an attribute that might affect classification, such as poverty or intent. Categories for classifying vignettes were: (1) caregiver not responsible/not neglect related; (2) some caregiver responsibility/somewhat neglect related; (3) caregiver responsible /definitely neglect related. CDR team members from five states (287) completed surveys. Respondents assigned the child's caregiver at least some responsibility for the death in 18 vignettes (90%). A majority of respondents classified the caregiver as definitely responsible for the child's death in eight vignettes (40%). This study documents attributes that influence CDR team members' decisions when assessing caregiver responsibility in unintentional injury deaths, including supervision, intent, failure to use safety devices, and a pattern of previous neglectful behaviour. The findings offer insight for incorporating injury prevention into CDR more effectively.

  1. Insomnia symptoms and risk for unintentional fatal injuries--the HUNT Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laugsand, Lars Erik; Strand, Linn B; Vatten, Lars J; Janszky, Imre; Bjørngaard, Johan Håkon

    2014-11-01

    To assess the association between insomnia symptoms and risk of fatal unintentional injuries. Population-based prospective cohort study with a mean follow-up of 14 y, linking health survey data with information on insomnia symptoms to the National Cause of Death Registry. Nord-Trøndelag County, Norway. A total of 54,399 men and women 20-89 y of age who participated in the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study between 1995 and 1997. N/A. There were 277 unintentional fatal injuries, including 57 fatal motor vehicle injuries during follow-up. There was a dose-dependent association between the number of insomnia symptoms and risk of unintentional fatal injuries (P for trend 0.001) and fatal motor vehicle injuries (P for trend 0.023), respectively. The proportion of unintentional fatal injuries cases that could have been prevented in the absence of difficulties initiating sleep, difficulties maintaining sleep, and having a feeling of nonrestorative sleep were 8%, 9%, and 8%, respectively. The corresponding estimates for motor vehicle injuries were 34%, 11%, and 10%. Insomnia is a major contributor to both unintentional fatal injuries in general as well as fatal motor vehicle injuries. Increasing public health awareness about insomnia and identifying persons with insomnia may be important in preventing unintentional fatal injuries.

  2. Unintentional injury and its prevention in infant: knowledge and self-reported practices of main caregivers

    OpenAIRE

    Ramdzan, Siti Nurkamilla; Liew, Su May; Khoo, Ee Ming

    2014-01-01

    Background Unintentional injuries are the major cause of morbidity and mortality in infants. Prevention of unintentional injuries has been shown to be effective with education. Understanding the level of knowledge and practices of caregivers in infant safety would be useful to identify gaps for improvement. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in an urban government health clinic in Malaysia among main caregivers of infants aged 11 to 15 months. Face-to-face interviews were conducted...

  3. Caregiver perspectives on unintentional injury risk in children with an autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalari, Rachel N S; Romanczyk, Raymond G

    2012-12-01

    Unintentional injury risk research for children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is currently limited. This article presents findings from a two-phase investigation of caregiver perspectives regarding unintentional injury risk in children with an ASD. Results indicate that children with an ASD exhibit elevated rates of risk-taking behaviors compared with peers, which increases the likelihood of more frequent and severe injuries. In addition, although ASD symptom severity positively correlated with risk-taking behavior and frequency of injury, children with an ASD were rarely rated as high risks for injury by caregivers. Implications are discussed in the context of pediatric health service provision.

  4. Mortality from Unspecified Unintentional Injury among Individuals Aged 65 Years and Older by U.S. State, 1999–2013

    OpenAIRE

    Xunjie Cheng; Yue Wu; Jie Yao; Schwebel, David C; Guoqing Hu

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Recent changes in unspecified unintentional injury mortality for the elderly by U.S. state remain unreported. This study aims to examine U.S. state variations in mortality from unspecified unintentional injury among Americans aged 65+, 1999–2013; Methods: Using mortality rates from the U.S. CDC’s Web-based Injury Statistics Query and Reporting System (WISQARS™), we examined unspecified unintentional injury mortality for older adults aged 65+ from 1999 to 2013 by state. Specifica...

  5. Epidemiologic features of child unintentional injury in rural PuCheng, China

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    Shaohua Li

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Epidemiologic features of unintentional injuries among children in rural China are unknown. METHODS: Using a stratified sampling method, we conducted a retrospective study of injury reports over a year-long period. Structured oral questionnaires were administered to parents of 2551 children ages 0 to 14. RESULTS: The annual incidence of unintentional injuries was 15.6%, with boys (16.7% having a slightly higher rate than girls (14.5%; p > .05. The four leading causes of injury for both genders were falls (5.1% annual incidence, burns (2.9%, animal-related injuries (1.7%, and traffic injuries (1.6%. CONCLUSIONS: Unintentional injuries have substantial negative effects on children and their families. In rural PuCheng, China, the incidence of unintentional injury among children is extremely high compared to other regions of the world. The types of injuries incurred are somewhat different from those reported in other geographic areas. Injury prevention programs targeting the issues specific to this region, and similar rural regions of China, are needed.

  6. Unintentional Injuries in Rural Area - A Community Based Study in Rural Bhopal

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    Madhav Bansal, Sushil Dalal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Unintentional injuries within the home environment have not so far been recognized to the same extent as traffic and work-related injuries in India, largely because they have not been effectively counted. This study took place in the area under PHC Ratua of district Bhopal, India aiming to determine the profile of unintentional injuries. Methods: All the inhabitants of 11 villages within 5 kms. from the centre formed the study population (13,587. One family member preferably the head was interviewed about their experience of injury in the preceding three months by trained personnel. Results: 487 persons had a total of 543 new injuries during three months prior to the interview. Only 292/543 (53.7% of the rec-orded injuries received medical care at health facilities. Home and road traffic injuries constituted the most common injuries with incidence rates of 27 and 24, respectively. Home injuries were most common among young children and the elderly. Majority of the injuries were attributed to ‘‘cutting and crushing’’. Falls were the leading cause among the young (<15 years and the old (above 60 years. Conclusion: The findings suggest that greater attention needs to be directed toward the prevention of injuries occurring in the home. A larger study in terms of size as well as duration (at least one year is needed to characterize the patterns of unintentional injuries in more detail, including any seasonal variation.

  7. Unintentional perineal injury in prepubescent girls: a multicenter, prospective report of 56 girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, G R; Dowd, M D; Landsman, I; Rimsza, M

    1995-05-01

    To determine the pattern of perineal injuries and frequency of hymenal involvement resulting from unintentional trauma in prepubescent girls. Prospective, multicenter. Observation by skilled observers. Determination of the circumstance and physical pattern of injury, with specific attention to the hymen. Children's emergency department or acute care clinic. Tanner stage 1 girls presenting with acute perineal injury. Criteria for unintentional injury: observation of the event or knowledge of the girl's engagement in a risky activity (eg, biking or climbing monkey bars) immediately before the injury. Fifty-six girls were evaluated. Age range: 1 to 12 years (median, 6 years; mean, 6.2 years). Associations: bicycle, 39%; other outdoor injuries, 25% (climbing apparatus, straddling an object, and falls); indoor injuries, 36% (straddling furniture and falls). Most injuries were minor. In each group the labia minora was the most frequent structure involved. The majority of injuries were anterior or lateral to the hymen. However, in 34% some or all of the injuries were posterior to the hymen. Thigh injuries were observed only in older children engaged in bicycle riding or outdoor play. In only one patient was the hymen involved. That patient was a 2 year old who fell outdoors, at a park, abducting her legs in a splits-type mechanism. She had a pinpoint abraded area on the hymenal surface at three o'clock. Otherwise, no unique pattern of injury was associated with age or circumstance of injury. Hymenal injuries are rarely the result of unintentional injury. The presence of a hymenal injury should suggest sexual abuse. Involvement of other perineal structures was commonly associated with unintended injury. Given the limited resources for prevention, the relative infrequency of perineal injuries and the minor nature of most of these injuries, significant preventive efforts are not justified.

  8. A comparison of unintentional injury patterns occurring in two Swedish communities in 1978 and in 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekman, Robert; Ekman, Diana Stark; Schyllander, Jan; Schelp, Lothar

    2015-01-01

    Surveillance and analyses of unintentional injuries can be used to help prioritise community prevention efforts. This study describes changes in local patterns for unintentional injuries resulting in deaths, hospitalisations, and outpatient visits to health care clinics and emergency rooms, comparing information from two different study periods, 1978 and 2008, in the Swedish communities of Falköping and Lidköping. Injury cases were analysed, and confidence intervals were derived. The study results show that while most injuries decreased comparing the first study period to the second, these changes were only significant in terms of decreases in outpatient care. This study points to the importance of more systematic collection data of injury events treated at the outpatient level, particularly for communities where there are relatively low numbers of injury-related deaths and hospitalisations.

  9. Mortality from Unspecified Unintentional Injury among Individuals Aged 65 Years and Older by U.S. State, 1999–2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xunjie Cheng

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Recent changes in unspecified unintentional injury mortality for the elderly by U.S. state remain unreported. This study aims to examine U.S. state variations in mortality from unspecified unintentional injury among Americans aged 65+, 1999–2013; Methods: Using mortality rates from the U.S. CDC’s Web-based Injury Statistics Query and Reporting System (WISQARS™, we examined unspecified unintentional injury mortality for older adults aged 65+ from 1999 to 2013 by state. Specifically, the proportion of unintentional injury deaths with unspecified external cause in the data was considered. Linear regression examined the statistical significance of changes in proportion of unspecified unintentional injury from 1999 to 2013; Results: Of the 36 U.S. states with stable mortality rates, over 8-fold differences were observed for both the mortality rates and the proportions of unspecified unintentional injury for Americans aged 65+ during 1999–2013. Twenty-nine of the 36 states showed reductions in the proportion of unspecified unintentional injury cause, with Oklahoma (−89%, Massachusetts (−86% and Oregon (−81% displaying the largest changes. As unspecified unintentional injury mortality decreased, mortality from falls in 28 states and poisoning in 3 states increased significantly. Mortality from suffocation in 15 states, motor vehicle traffic crashes in 12 states, and fire/burn in 8 states also decreased; Conclusions: The proportion of unintentional injuries among older adults with unspecified cause decreased significantly for many states in the United States from 1999 to 2013. The reduced proportion of unspecified injury has implications for research and practice. It should be considered in state-level trend analysis during 1999–2013. It also suggests comparisons between states for specific injury mortality should be conducted with caution, as large differences in unspecified injury mortality across states and over time

  10. Status and risk factors of unintentional injuries among Chinese undergraduates: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Qiang

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Injuries affect all age groups but have a particular impact on young people. To evaluate the incidence of non-fatal, unintentional, injuries among undergraduates in Wenzhou, China, assess the burden caused by these injuries, and explore the associated risk factors for unintentional injuries among these undergraduates, we conducted a college-based cross-sectional study. Methods Participants were selected by a multi-stage random sampling method, and 2,287 students were asked whether they had had an injury in the last 12 months; the location, cause, and consequences of the event. The questionnaire included demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, lifestyle habits, and the scale of type A behaviour pattern (TABP. Multivariate logistic regression models were used; crude odds ratios (ORs, adjusted ORs and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs were estimated, with students having no injuries as the reference group. Results The incidence of injuries among undergraduates in Wenzhou was 18.71 injuries per 100 person-years (95%CI: 17.12~20.31 injuries per 100 person-years. Falls were the leading cause of injury, followed by traffic injuries, and animal/insect bites. Male students were more likely to be injured than female students. Risk factors associated with unintentional injuries among undergraduates were: students majoring in non-medicine (adjusted OR: 1.53; 95% CI: 1.19-1.96; type A behaviour pattern (adjusted OR: 2.99; 95% CI: 1.45-6.14; liking sports (adjusted OR: 1.86; 95% CI: 1.41-2.45. Conclusions Injuries have become a public health problem among undergraduates. Falls were the major cause of non-fatal injury. Therefore, individuals, families, schools and governments should promptly adopt preventive measures aimed at preventing and controlling morbidity due to non-fatal injury, especially among students identified to be at high-risk; such as male students with type A behaviour pattern who like sports.

  11. Long-term health effects of unintentional injuries in Danish adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Bjarne; Møller, Hanne

    2012-01-01

    and Morbidity Survey in Denmark, 14,566 adults aged 16 years or more were asked about long-term health effects of unintentional injuries. Those reporting long-term health effects were asked about the type and duration of these effects and the accompanying limitation of their daily activities. Information...

  12. Unintentional home injuries across the life span: problems and solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gielen, Andrea C; McDonald, Eileen M; Shields, Wendy

    2015-03-18

    Home injuries cause more than 30,000 deaths and 12 million nonfatal injuries annually in the United States. They generate an estimated $222 billion in lifetime costs annually. Despite some data limitations in documenting home as the location of an injury, much progress has been made in identifying effective prevention strategies that reduce injury or mitigate risk behaviors. The current interest in public health in the role of housing in health offers unparalleled opportunities for injury prevention professionals concerned with home injuries. Sharing the science of injury prevention with the wide array of professionals-such as architects, home builders, home visitors, and fire and emergency medical services providers-who create home environments and interact with residents could be a useful approach. A collaborative national effort to reduce the burden of home injuries is needed.

  13. Unintentional Epinephrine Auto-injector Injuries: A National Poison Center Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anshien, Marco; Rose, S Rutherfoord; Wills, Brandon K

    2016-11-24

    Epinephrine is the only first-line therapeutic agent used to treat life-threatening anaphylaxis. Epinephrine auto-injectors are commonly carried by patients at risk for anaphylaxis, and reported cases of unintentional auto-injector injury have increased over the last decade. Modifications of existing designs and release of a new style of auto-injector are intended to reduce epinephrine auto-injector misuse. The aim of the study was to characterize reported cases of unintentional epinephrine auto-injector exposures from 2013 to 2014 and compare demographics, auto-injector model, and anatomical site of such exposures. The American Association of Poison Control Center's National Poison Data System was searched from January 1, 2013, to December 31, 2014, for cases of unintentional epinephrine auto-injector exposures. Anatomical site data were obtained from all cases reported to the Virginia Poison Center and participating regional poison center for Auvi-Q cases. A total of 6806 cases of unintentional epinephrine auto-injector exposures were reported to US Poison Centers in 2013 and 2014. Of these cases, 3933 occurred with EpiPen, 2829 with EpiPen Jr, 44 with Auvi-Q, and no case reported of Adrenaclick. The most common site of unintentional injection for traditional epinephrine auto-injectors was the digit or thumb, with 58% of cases for EpiPen and 39% of cases with EpiPen Jr. With Auvi-Q, the most common site was the leg (78% of cases). The number of unintentional epinephrine auto-injector cases reported to American Poison Centers in 2013-2014 has increased compared with previous data. Most EpiPen exposures were in the digits, whereas Auvi-Q was most frequently in the leg. Because of the limitations of Poison Center data, more research is needed to identify incidence of unintentional exposures and the effectiveness of epinephrine auto-injector redesign.

  14. Epidemiology of Unintentional Child Injuries in the Makwanpur District of Nepal: A Household Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pant, Puspa Raj; Towner, Elizabeth; Ellis, Matthew; Manandhar, Dharma; Pilkington, Paul; Mytton, Julie

    2015-01-01

    Secondary sources of information indicate that the proportion of child deaths due to injuries is increasing in Nepal. This study aimed to describe the epidemiology of unintentional injuries in children, explore risk factors and estimate the burden faced by families and the community in the Makwanpur district. We conducted a household survey in Makwanpur, covering 3441 households. Injuries that occurred during the 12 months before the survey and required treatment or caused the child to be unable to take part in usual activities for three or more days were included. We identified 193 cases of non-fatal unintentional child injuries from 181 households and estimated an annual rate of non-fatal injuries of 24.6/1000 children; rates for boys were double (32.7/1000) that for girls (16.8/1000). The rates were higher among the children of age groups 1–4 years and 5–9 years. Falls were the most common cause of non-fatal child injuries followed by burns in preschool children and road traffic injuries were the most likely cause in adolescence. Mean period of disability following injury was 25 days. The rates and the mechanisms of injury vary by age and gender. Falls and burns are currently the most common mechanisms of injury amongst young children around rural homes. PMID:26633439

  15. Epidemiology of Unintentional Child Injuries in the Makwanpur District of Nepal: A Household Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puspa Raj Pant

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Secondary sources of information indicate that the proportion of child deaths due to injuries is increasing in Nepal. This study aimed to describe the epidemiology of unintentional injuries in children, explore risk factors and estimate the burden faced by families and the community in the Makwanpur district. We conducted a household survey in Makwanpur, covering 3441 households. Injuries that occurred during the 12 months before the survey and required treatment or caused the child to be unable to take part in usual activities for three or more days were included. We identified 193 cases of non-fatal unintentional child injuries from 181 households and estimated an annual rate of non-fatal injuries of 24.6/1000 children; rates for boys were double (32.7/1000 that for girls (16.8/1000. The rates were higher among the children of age groups 1–4 years and 5–9 years. Falls were the most common cause of non-fatal child injuries followed by burns in preschool children and road traffic injuries were the most likely cause in adolescence. Mean period of disability following injury was 25 days. The rates and the mechanisms of injury vary by age and gender. Falls and burns are currently the most common mechanisms of injury amongst young children around rural homes.

  16. Childhood sledding injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorter, N A; Mooney, D P; Harmon, B J

    1999-01-01

    Sledding is only rarely thought of as a potentially dangerous childhood activity. However, serious injuries and occasional deaths do occur. A review of patients 18 years old and younger admitted to a pediatric trauma center following a sledding accident from 1991 to 1997 was conducted. By design this study was expected to identify the most seriously injured patients. Twenty-five patients were identified, all but four younger than 13. Seventeen were boys. The mechanisms of injury were: collision with stationary object, 15; sled-sled collision, 1; struck by sled, 2; going off jump, 3; foot caught under sled or on ground, 3; fall off sled being towed by snowmobile, 1. The average pediatric trauma score was 10.5, and the average injury severity score 10.6. There were no deaths. The injuries were: head, 11; long bone/extremity, all lower, 10; abdomen, 5; chest, 1; facial, 2; spinal, 1. Five patients sustained multiple injuries. A surprisingly high number, 5, had pre-existing neurological conditions that could have played a contributory role in the accident. Sledding is predominantly an activity of children, and occasional serious injuries occur. Most are preventable. Obeying the simple caveat that sledding should only be done in clear areas away from stationary objects would eliminate the great majority of serious injuries.

  17. The health consequences of child mental health problems and parenting styles: unintentional injuries among European schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyes, Katherine M; Susser, Ezra; Pilowsky, Daniel J; Hamilton, Ava; Bitfoi, Adina; Goelitz, Dietmar; Kuijpers, Rowella C W M; Lesinskiene, Sigita; Mihova, Zlatka; Otten, Roy; Kovess, Viviane

    2014-10-01

    Unintentional injury is the leading cause of death for schoolchildren. We assessed the association between externalizing psychopathology, parenting style, and unintentional injury in European children in the community. Data were drawn from the School Children Mental Health in Europe project and included 4517 schoolchildren across seven diverse European regions. Past-year injuries serious enough to seek medical attention were reported by mothers. Child mental health problems were assessed using validated measures and reported by the mothers, teachers, and children. Parenting styles were based on The Parenting Scale and the Parent Behaviors and Attitudes Questionnaire. Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity symptoms and oppositional defiant symptoms had a higher risk of injury compared to other children whether based on parent report (OR=1.47, 95% C.I. 1.2-1.9), teacher report (OR=1.36, 95% C.I. 1.1-1.7), or parent and teacher report combined (OR=1.53, 95% C.I. 1.1-2.1). Children who self-reported oppositional symptoms also had higher risk of injury (OR=1.6, 95% C.I. 1.1-2.4). Low-caring behavior of parents increased the risk of injury (OR=1.4, 95% C.I. 1.1-1.9). Unintentional injury is a potential adverse health consequence of child externalizing problems. Interventions to improve parent-child relationships and prevention as well as focused treatment for externalizing problems may reduce the burden of injury. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Analysis of Behavioural Characteristics Related to Unintentional Injury in Southeast Chinese Adolescents: Evidence from a School-Based Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Wei; Gong, Qinghai; Liu, Kui; Li, Hui

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the epidemiological features of common unintentional injury-related behaviours and to identify possible factors that lead to these unsafe behaviours among adolescents. A representative sample of 10,806 students was recruited from 77 schools by using the two-stage stratified random sampling method. All participants took a self-administered questionnaires and data were analysed to estimate the prevalence of unintentional injury-related behaviours and to identify the influential factors for these behaviours. The prevalence of unsafe swimming, jaywalking, illegal bicycling and not wearing a seat belt was 6.35%, 33.08%, 18.10% and 15.73%, respectively. The proportion of students who had two, three or four unintentional injury-related behaviours was 14.59%, 4.27% and 0.57%, respectively. Multiple regression analysis showed that male adolescents, living in an urban area and attending a vocational-technical school might contribute to the occurrence of four unintentional injury-related behaviours. In addition, the marital status of parents and father with a college degree or above were negatively associated with the adolescent's behaviour of not wearing a seat belt. Considering diverse epidemiological characteristics of unintentional injury-related behaviours among adolescents, targeted interventions such as enhancing self-protection capabilities and strengthening safety consciousness by family, school and related departments should be implemented to lower the occurrence of unintentional injury-related behaviours.

  19. Intellectual ability 10 years after traumatic brain injury in infancy and childhood: what predicts outcome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Vicki; Catroppa, Cathy; Godfrey, Celia; Rosenfeld, Jeffrey V

    2012-01-01

    The long-term consequences of child traumatic brain injury (TBI) are poorly understood, but there are indications of ongoing deterioration in skills with time since injury. This study investigated outcomes up to 10 years post-injury, to determine the influences of injury severity, injury age, and environment. The study design was prospective and longitudinal. Participants included consecutive admissions to the Royal Children's Hospital, Melbourne, Australia. Children sustaining TBI between 2 and 12 years of age (n=76) were recruited on admission and divided according to injury severity (mild, moderate, and severe) and injury age (2-7 years and 8-12 years). Cognitive abilities were evaluated using standard measures of intellectual function (IQ) acutely and at 12 months, 30 months, and 10 years post-injury. At 10 years, mean IQs for survivors fell within the low average to average range. There were no significant effects of injury severity, injury age, or time since injury. In contrast, elevated rates of impairment were identified in association with severe TBI (global deficits), and early injury (non-verbal deficits). Impairments in processing speed were related to injury severity and age at injury. Predictors of 10-year outcome included pre-injury and social factors, injury age, and family function. Child survivors of serious TBI are at elevated risk of cognitive impairment, with recovery continuing into the third year post-injury. However, between 30 months and 10 years post-insult, children appear to make appropriate developmental gains, contrary to the speculation that these children "grow into their deficits."

  20. Severe childhood injuries and poisoning in a densely populated city: where do they occur and what type?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hon, Kam-Lun; Leung, Ting-Fan; Cheung, Kam-Lau; Nip, Siu-Ying Angel; Ng, Judy; Fok, Tai-Fai; Ng, Pak-Cheung

    2010-03-01

    The aim of this study was to review the patterns of severe childhood injuries and poisoning necessitating pediatric intensive care in a regional trauma center. We reviewed discharge data of all children who were hospitalized for severe injuries and poisoning at the pediatric intensive care unit of a teaching hospital between October 2002 and December 2008. There were 86 patients (males/females, 2:1). Road traffic injuries (n = 19), falls (n = 17), and scalds (n = 13) were the 3 leading categories and accounted for 57% of these pediatric intensive care unit admissions. Injuries more commonly occurred indoor (63%), and victims of indoor accidents were younger (median age, 2.6 vs 8.4 years; P accidents predominated in outdoor accidents. As a risk factor, premorbid neurodevelopmental conditions such as mental retardation, convulsion disorder, or cerebral palsy were only present in indoor accidents. Children in outdoor injuries were generally healthy. Both groups were associated with significant morbidity (mechanical ventilation in 60%, inotrope use in 20%, anticonvulsants in 24%, and neurological/neurosurgical supports in 49%). Comparing the 3 most common categories of patients, there were significant differences in the median age, requirement of neurological/neurosurgical supports, and median hospital stay. Although not requiring neurological/neurosurgical supports, scalds injuries involved the youngest age group and required the longest hospital stay. The causes of severe childhood injuries are heterogeneous. Cardiopulmonary or neurological/neurosurgical supports are often required. These injuries more commonly occur indoor and involve toddlers with underlying neurodevelopmental conditions. These findings have important implications and serve to heighten public awareness especially on home safety measures in the prevention of childhood accidents. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Clustering of disability caused by unintentional injury among 15- to 60-year-old: a challenge in rapidly developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Lan Liao

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about disability caused by unintentional injury (accidents worldwide. This study estimates the prevalence of disability caused by unintentional injury amongst people aged 15-60 years across different cities in the People’s Republic of China with the aim of providing a scientific basis for developing prevention and control programmes. The prevalence of disability caused by unintentional injury in this target group in sampled cities across the country was estimated from data from the Second Chinese National Sample Survey on Disability. Using the statistical evolution tree approach, cities automatically clustered into a tree structure according to the level of social security and industrial structure. The Kruskal- Wallis test was applied to compare the prevalence in various types of city. The results show that the prevalence of disability due to unintentional injury in the target population group varied significantly across the 16 types of city investigated, but that it was particularly common among the unemployed and poor. With regard to occupational structure, cities with activities oriented towards transport and construction had the highest average prevalence despite access to local, relatively sound social security systems and adequate medical resources. It was also found that people struck by unintentional injury were treated in various ways depending on the availability of social assistance, medical care and job training, which differed widely between cities depending on each city’s main occupational activity. High-risk cities areas were identified for that would benefit particularly by additional medical resource allocation as it would reduce their burden of unintentional injury.

  2. Unintentional Injuries and Psychosocial Correlates among in-School Adolescents in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Peltzer

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to provide estimates of the prevalence and psychosocial correlates of unintentional injury among school-going adolescents in Malaysia. Cross-sectional data from the Global School-Based Health Survey (GSHS included 21,699 students (predominantly ≤13 to ≥17 years that were selected by a two-stage cluster sample design to represent all secondary school students in Forms 1 to 5. The percentage of school children reporting one or more serious injuries in the past year was 34.9%, 42.1% of boys and 27.8% of girls. The two major causes of the most serious injury were “fall” (9.9% and motor vehicle accident or being hit by a motor vehicle (5.4%, and the most frequent type of injury sustained was cut, puncture, or stab wound (6.2% and a broken bone or dislocated joint (4.2%. In multivariable logistic regression analysis, sociodemographic factors (being male and low socioeconomic status, substance use (tobacco and cannabis use, frequent soft drink consumption, attending physical education classes three or more times a week, other risky behavior (truancy, ever having had sex, being bullied, psychological distress, and lack of parental or guardian bonding were associated with annual injury prevalence. Several factors were identified, which could be included in injury prevention promotion programs among secondary school children.

  3. Unintentional Injuries and Psychosocial Correlates among in-School Adolescents in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltzer, Karl; Pengpid, Supa

    2015-11-20

    The study aimed to provide estimates of the prevalence and psychosocial correlates of unintentional injury among school-going adolescents in Malaysia. Cross-sectional data from the Global School-Based Health Survey (GSHS) included 21,699 students (predominantly ≤13 to ≥17 years) that were selected by a two-stage cluster sample design to represent all secondary school students in Forms 1 to 5. The percentage of school children reporting one or more serious injuries in the past year was 34.9%, 42.1% of boys and 27.8% of girls. The two major causes of the most serious injury were "fall" (9.9%) and motor vehicle accident or being hit by a motor vehicle (5.4%), and the most frequent type of injury sustained was cut, puncture, or stab wound (6.2%) and a broken bone or dislocated joint (4.2%). In multivariable logistic regression analysis, sociodemographic factors (being male and low socioeconomic status), substance use (tobacco and cannabis use), frequent soft drink consumption, attending physical education classes three or more times a week, other risky behavior (truancy, ever having had sex, being bullied), psychological distress, and lack of parental or guardian bonding were associated with annual injury prevalence. Several factors were identified, which could be included in injury prevention promotion programs among secondary school children.

  4. Pattern and severity of childhood unintentional injuries in Ismailia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    opperwjj

    A combination of education, environmental improvements, engineering ... by others (i.e. stabbings, gunshot wounds, other physical violence or sexual abuse), ..... people: I. Methodology and results of a collaborative study in Brazil, Chile, Cuba ...

  5. Chronic avulsive injuries of childhood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donnelly, L.F.; Helms, C.A. [Dept. of Radiology, Duke Univ. Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Bisset, G.S. III [Dept. of Radiology, Duke Univ. Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)]|[Department of Pediatrics, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Squire, D.L. [Department of Pediatrics, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)

    1999-03-01

    Children and adolescents are prone to avulsive injuries related to a combination of their propensity for great strength, ability to sustain extreme levels of activity, and immature growing apophyses. Appropriate interpretation of imaging studies showing chronic avulsive injuries is essential so that the irregularity and periostitis that can be associated with chronic avulsions is not misinterpreted as probable malignancy. This article reviews the chronic avulsive injuries of childhood. (orig.) With 12 figs., 8 refs.

  6. Factors Influencing Young Children's Risk of Unintentional Injury: Parenting Style and Strategies for Teaching about Home Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrongiello, Barbara A.; Corbett, Michael; Lasenby, Jennifer; Johnston, Natalie; McCourt, Meghan

    2006-01-01

    This study examined mothers' teaching about home-safety issues to 24-30 month and 36-42 month old children, explored the relationship of teaching strategies to parenting styles, and assessed how these factors are related to children's risk of unintentional injury. A structured interview assessed home-safety issues relevant to falls, burns, cuts,…

  7. What Are Sports Injuries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 06:02 Size: 11.7 MB November 2014 What Are Sports Injuries? Fast Facts: An Easy-to- ... Research Is Being Done on Treating Sports Injuries? What’s the Difference Between an Acute and a Chronic ...

  8. How do mothers and fathers influence pediatric injury risk in middle childhood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwebel, David C; Brezausek, Carl M

    2010-09-01

    Parental influences are among the strongest behavioral correlates to unintentional injury outcome in early childhood, but are less well understood as children develop. We implemented a prospective research design to study how parenting style, parent-child relationships, and parental mental health influence injury during middle childhood. We also considered the roles of parent and child gender. Parental influences were assessed from a sample of 584 first graders, plus their mothers and fathers. Injuries requiring medical treatment were assessed regularly over the subsequent 5 years. Logistic regression models examined how maternal and paternal parenting factors predicted injury among all children, just boys, and just girls. Fathers who reported more positive relationships with their children had children protected from injury. This was particularly true of father-son relationships. No maternal traits predicted injury. A positive father-child, and especially a positive father-son relationship, may protect children from injury during middle childhood.

  9. School-based education programmes for the prevention of unintentional injuries in children and young people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orton, Elizabeth; Whitehead, Jessica; Mhizha-Murira, Jacqueline; Clarkson, Mandy; Watson, Michael C; Mulvaney, Caroline A; Staniforth, Joy Ul; Bhuchar, Munish; Kendrick, Denise

    2016-12-27

    Unintentional injuries are the leading cause of death in children aged four to 18 years and are a major cause of ill health. The school setting offers the opportunity to deliver preventive interventions to a large number of children and has been used to address a range of public health problems. However, the effectiveness of the school setting for the prevention of different injury mechanisms in school-aged children is not well understood. To assess the effects of school-based educational programmes for the prevention of injuries in children and evaluate their impact on improving children's safety skills, behaviour and practices, and knowledge, and assess their cost-effectiveness. We ran the most recent searches up to 16 September 2016 for the following electronic databases: Cochrane Injuries Group Specialised Register; Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials; Ovid MEDLINE(R), Ovid MEDLINE(R) In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations; Ovid MEDLINE(R) Daily and Ovid OLDMEDLINE(R); Embase and Embase Classic (Ovid); ISI Web of Science: Science Citation Index Expanded; ISI Web of Science Conference Proceedings Citation Index-Science; ISI Web of Science: Social Sciences Citation Index; ISI Web of Science: Conference Proceedings Citation Index - Social Sciences & Humanities; and the 14 October 2016 for the following electronic databases: Health Economics Evaluations Database (HEED); Health Technology Assessment Database (HTA); CINAHL Plus (EBSCO); ZETOC; LILACS; PsycINFO; ERIC; Dissertation Abstracts Online; IBSS; BEI; ASSIA; CSA Sociological Abstracts; Injury Prevention Web; SafetyLit; EconLit (US); PAIS; UK Clinical Research Network Study Portfolio; Open Grey; Index to Theses in the UK and Ireland; Bibliomap and TRoPHI. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs), non-randomised controlled trials (non-RCTs), and controlled before-and-after (CBA) studies that evaluated school-based educational programmes aimed at preventing a range of injury mechanisms. The

  10. Preventing unintentional injury in children and adolescents--the importance of local injury data collection.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Carroll, C

    2012-02-01

    We sought to prospectively study all injuries in children and adolescents up to 16 years of age presenting to a regional Emergency Department (ED), to ascertain detailed injury patterns and to use this data to recommend injury prevention priorities. Electronic injury surveillance was prospectively collected over a 10 year period (1997-2007) in a hospital with a paediatric catchment population of 75,000 in a region with pockets of high social deprivation. All fatalities were obtained from data provided by the Central Statistics Office (CSO). Over a 10 year period, there were 31 fatalities, 5,408 admissions and 40,817 new attendances due to injury. Males outnumbered females in a 3:2 ratio. Of all injuries 24,317 (60%) occurred at home. Peak injury presentation time was in the evening between 18:00 and 20:00. Minor injuries (bruises, minor head injuries, lacerations and sprains) accounted for 32,456 (80%) of total. Fractures resulting from high falls (n=1,194) tended to result from bunk beds, staircases, horses, walls and playground equipment. Burns (n=630) involved hot liquids (tea, coffee), hot bath water, hot cooking oil and hot cooking plates. Pedestrian injuries (n=251) were predominantly \\'dart outs\\' in urban areas. Car passenger injuries (n=869) showed low rates of documented car restraint use. Poisonings (n= 1,153) were predominantly medicinal products. Cyclist injuries (n=477) indicated low documented use of appropriate helmet wear. Prevention priorities should focus on home injuries, hot liquid burn and scald injuries and high falls from walls, beds and playground equipment. To prevent road-related injuries and deaths, further legislation, urban planning and greater police enforcement is required.

  11. Children admitted to hospital following unintentional injury: perspectives of health service providers in Aotearoa/New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asiasiga Lanuola

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Unintentional injuries are the leading cause of death and hospitalisation among New Zealand children, with indigenous Māori and ethnic minority Pacific children significantly over represented in these statistics. International research has shown that many children hospitalised for injury, as well as their families experience high levels of stress, and ethnic disparities in the quality of trauma care are not uncommon. The research on which this paper is based sought to identify key issues and concerns for New Zealand's multi-ethnic community following hospitalisation for childhood injury in order to inform efforts to improve the quality of trauma services. This paper reports on service providers' perspectives complementing previously published research on the experiences of families of injured children. Methods A qualitative research design involving eleven in-depth individual interviews and three focus groups was used to elicit the views of 21 purposefully selected service provider key informants from a range of professional backgrounds involved in the care and support of injured children and their families in Auckland, New Zealand. Interviews were transcribed and data were analysed using thematic analysis. Results Key issues identified by service providers included limited ability to meet the needs of children with mild injuries, particularly their emotional needs; lack of psychological support for families; some issues related to Māori and Pacific family support services; lack of accessible and comprehensive information for children and families; poor staff continuity and coordination; and poor coordination of hospital and community services, including inadequacies in follow-up plans. There was considerable agreement between these issues and those identified by the participant families. Conclusions The identified issues and barriers indicate the need for interventions for service improvement at systemic, provider and

  12. Unintentional Injuries in Preschool Age Children: Is There a Correlation With Parenting Style and Parental Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acar, Ethem; Dursun, Onur Burak; Esin, İbrahim Selcuk; Öğütlü, Hakan; Özcan, Halil; Mutlu, Murat

    2015-08-01

    Unintentional injuries are the leading cause of death among children. Previous research has shown that most of the injuries occur in and around the home. Therefore, parents have a key role in the occurrence and prevention of injuries. In this study, we examined the relationship among home injuries to children and parental attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms, parental attitudes, and children's behavioral problems.Forty children who were admitted to the emergency department because of home injuries constitute the study group. The control group also consisted of 40 children, who were admitted for mild throat infections. The parents filled out questionnaires assessing parental ADHD, child behavioral problems, and parenting attitudes.Scores were significantly higher for both internalizing disorders and externalizing disorders in study groups. We also found that ADHD symptoms were significantly higher among fathers of injured children compared with fathers of control groups. Democratic parenting was also found to correlate with higher numbers of injuries.Parenting style, as well as the psychopathology of both the parents and children, is important factors in children's injuries. A child psychiatrist visit following an emergency procedure may help to prevent further unintentional injuries to the child.

  13. From risk for trauma to unintentional injury risk: falls--a concept analysis. Nursing Diagnosis Extension and Classification Research Team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenfelder, D P; Crowell, C M

    1999-01-01

    Concept analysis of the nursing diagnosis risk for trauma. To examine the nursing diagnosis risk for trauma and to specify the risk factors for falling. Research and informational articles on falling, and NANDA Nursing Diagnoses: Definitions and Classification, 1999-2000. Replace the current nursing diagnosis risk for trauma with the more specific nursing diagnosis unintentional injury risk: falls. The other risks included in risk for trauma (e.g., burns) also will need to be developed.

  14. Childhood Injuries in Singapore: Can Local Physicians and the Healthcare System Do More to Confront This Public Health Concern?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvin Cong Wei Ong

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Childhood injury is one of the leading causes of death globally. Singapore is no exception to this tragic fact, with childhood injuries accounting up to 37% of Emergency Department visits. Hence, it is important to understand the epidemiology and risk factors of childhood injuries locally. A search for relevant articles published from 1996–2016 was performed on PubMed, Cochrane Library and Google Scholar using keywords relating to childhood injury in Singapore. The epidemiology, mechanisms of injury, risk factors and recommended prevention strategies of unintentional childhood injuries were reviewed and described. Epidemiological studies have shown that childhood injury is a common, preventable and significant public health concern in Singapore. Home injuries and falls are responsible for majority of the injuries. Injuries related to childcare products, playground and road traffic accidents are also important causes. Healthcare professionals and legislators play an important role in raising awareness and reducing the incidence of childhood injuries in Singapore. For example, despite legislative requirements for many years, the low usage of child restraint seats in Singapore is worrisome. Thus, greater efforts in public health education in understanding childhood injuries, coupled with more research studies to evaluate the effectiveness and deficiencies of current prevention strategies will be necessary.

  15. Childhood Injuries in Singapore: Can Local Physicians and the Healthcare System Do More to Confront This Public Health Concern?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Alvin Cong Wei; Low, Sher Guan; Vasanwala, Farhad Fakhrudin

    2016-07-16

    Childhood injury is one of the leading causes of death globally. Singapore is no exception to this tragic fact, with childhood injuries accounting up to 37% of Emergency Department visits. Hence, it is important to understand the epidemiology and risk factors of childhood injuries locally. A search for relevant articles published from 1996-2016 was performed on PubMed, Cochrane Library and Google Scholar using keywords relating to childhood injury in Singapore. The epidemiology, mechanisms of injury, risk factors and recommended prevention strategies of unintentional childhood injuries were reviewed and described. Epidemiological studies have shown that childhood injury is a common, preventable and significant public health concern in Singapore. Home injuries and falls are responsible for majority of the injuries. Injuries related to childcare products, playground and road traffic accidents are also important causes. Healthcare professionals and legislators play an important role in raising awareness and reducing the incidence of childhood injuries in Singapore. For example, despite legislative requirements for many years, the low usage of child restraint seats in Singapore is worrisome. Thus, greater efforts in public health education in understanding childhood injuries, coupled with more research studies to evaluate the effectiveness and deficiencies of current prevention strategies will be necessary.

  16. Relationships between Sleep Behaviors and Unintentional Injury in Southern Chinese School-Aged Children: A Population-Based Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yafei Tan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to explore the relationships between sleep behaviors and injury occurrence among Chinese school-aged children. Data were collected with self-administered questionnaires of a cross-sectional survey which covered the school-aged children from southeastern Chinese urban and rural areas in April 2010. Information was collected on unintentional injury in the past year, sleep duration, napping and daytime fatigue, sleeping pill use, and social-demographic variables. Multivariable logistic regression analyses, controlling for confounding factors, were conducted to assess sleep-related variables that were associated with injuries. Students who slept for less than 8 h had a 30% increased risk of injury (OR: 1.30; 95%CI: 1.01–1.69 compared with those who slept for 8–9 h. Lack of napping, snoring and use of sleeping pills were significantly associated with injury. Among different genders, the slight difference in sleep behaviors predicted the occurrence of injury. Rural children displayed more sleep behaviors associated with injury than urban children. The sleep behaviors of primary school students were more negatively correlated with injury occurrence than junior/senior high school children. Consideration should be given to the prevention of problematic sleep behaviors as a potential risk factor in order to decrease injury rates and promote the health of school-aged children.

  17. Relationships between Sleep Behaviors and Unintentional Injury in Southern Chinese School-Aged Children: A Population-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yafei; Ma, Di; Chen, Ying; Cheng, Fuyuan; Liu, Xiangxiang; Li, Liping

    2015-10-16

    The purpose of this study is to explore the relationships between sleep behaviors and injury occurrence among Chinese school-aged children. Data were collected with self-administered questionnaires of a cross-sectional survey which covered the school-aged children from southeastern Chinese urban and rural areas in April 2010. Information was collected on unintentional injury in the past year, sleep duration, napping and daytime fatigue, sleeping pill use, and social-demographic variables. Multivariable logistic regression analyses, controlling for confounding factors, were conducted to assess sleep-related variables that were associated with injuries. Students who slept for less than 8 h had a 30% increased risk of injury (OR: 1.30; 95%CI: 1.01-1.69) compared with those who slept for 8-9 h. Lack of napping, snoring and use of sleeping pills were significantly associated with injury. Among different genders, the slight difference in sleep behaviors predicted the occurrence of injury. Rural children displayed more sleep behaviors associated with injury than urban children. The sleep behaviors of primary school students were more negatively correlated with injury occurrence than junior/senior high school children. Consideration should be given to the prevention of problematic sleep behaviors as a potential risk factor in order to decrease injury rates and promote the health of school-aged children.

  18. County Poverty Concentration and Disparities in Unintentional Injury Deaths: A Fourteen-Year Analysis of 1.6 Million U.S. Fatalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karb, Rebecca A; Subramanian, S V; Fleegler, Eric W

    2016-01-01

    Unintentional injury is the fourth leading cause of death in the United States, and mortality due to injury has risen over the past decade. The social determinants behind these rising trends have not been well documented. This study examines the relationship between county-level poverty and unintentional injury mortality in the United States from 1999-2012. Complete annual compressed mortality and population data for 1999-2012 were obtained from the National Center for Health Statistics and linked with census yearly county poverty measures. The outcomes examined were unintentional injury fatalities, overall and by six specific mechanisms: motor vehicle collisions, falls, accidental discharge of firearms, drowning, exposure to smoke or fire, and unintentional poisoning. Age-adjusted mortality rates and time trends for county poverty categories were calculated, and multivariate negative binomial regression was used to determine changes over time in both the relative risk of living in high poverty concentration areas and the population attributable fraction. Age-adjusted mortality rates for counties with > 20% poverty were 66% higher mortality in 1999 compared with counties with < 5% poverty (45.25 vs. 27.24 per 100,000; 95% CI for rate difference 15.57,20.46), and that gap widened in 2012 to 79% (44.54 vs. 24.93; 95% CI for rate difference 17.13,22.09). The relative risk of living in the highest poverty counties has increased for all injury mechanisms with the exception of accidental discharge of firearms. The population attributable fraction for all unintentional injuries rose from 0.22 (95% CI 0.13,0.30) in 1999 to 0.35 (95% CI 0.22,0.45) in 2012. This is the first study that uses comprehensive mortality data to document the associations between county poverty and injury mortality rates for the entire US population over a 14 year period. This study suggests that injury reduction interventions should focus on areas of high or increasing poverty.

  19. 幼儿家庭意外伤害干预%Intervention on Pre- school Children's Family Unintentional Injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李小虎; 王琳; 刘熹; 夏劲节; 邱孟; 田红梅; 张晓燕; 刘兆炜

    2012-01-01

    目的 评价成都市幼儿家长在接受家庭意外伤害干预后不同时期的效果,为降低儿童家庭意外伤害发生率提供建议.方法 采用分层和整群抽样方法,选取成都市12所幼儿园的幼儿家长1769名参加干预活动,在干预后1周及干预后3个月分别采用问卷进行效果评价.结果 采取的干预措施在不同时期不同程度的提高了儿童家长对家庭意外伤害预防相关知识的知晓率,帮助儿童养成了相关安全行为,干预后1周效果比3个月后明显.如干预前安全检查五方面知晓率仅占0.96%,干预1周后上升到10.42%,但是干预3个月后,知晓率又下降至2.41%,不同时期的干预效果在知识及行为多方面均呈现相同趋势.结论建议幼托机构定期加强及更新相关知识的培训,不断加强幼儿家长及幼儿知识的积累,培养正确的态度,提高对儿童意外伤害预防能力.%Objective To evaluate the effect of family unintentional injury intervention among pie - school children's parents, provide suggestions for reducing the incidence of family unintentional injury. Methods Stratified cluster sampling method was adopted, totally 1 769 pre - school children's parents in 12 kindergartens were collected for intervention. One week and 3 months after the invervention, questionaire suvey was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness. Results The taken intervention measures improved the awareness of family unintentional injury knowledge in varying degrees at different time, helped children develop safe behaviors. The effect of a week after intervention was more obvious than 3 months later. The awareness rate of safety - check has risen from 0.96% to 10.42% one week after the intervention, but 3 month later, the rate dropped to 2. 41%. The same trend has shown in knowledge and behavior. Conclusion The kindergartens should strengthen trainings about family unintentional injury knowledge at regular intervals. Through accumulation

  20. Incidence of unintentional injuries in farming based on one year of weekly registration in Danish farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, K; Carstensen, O; Lauritsen, Jens

    2000-01-01

    In Denmark, farming ranks as the industry with the highest incidence rate of fatal injuries. For nonfatal injuries, insufficient registration practices prevent valid comparisons between occupations. This study examines the occurrence of farm accidents and injuries, as well as work-specific factors......, via weekly registration in a representative sample of 393 farms in one county during 1 year....

  1. Preventing Unintentional Injuries in the Home Using the Health Impact Pyramid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, Karin A.; Liller, Karen D.; Baldwin, Grant; Sleet, David

    2015-01-01

    Injuries continue to be the leading cause of death for the first four decades of life. These injuries result from a confluence of behavioral, physical, structural, environmental, and social factors. Taken together, these illustrate the importance of taking a broad and multileveled approach to injury prevention. Using examples from fall, fire,…

  2. Preventing Unintentional Injuries in the Home Using the Health Impact Pyramid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, Karin A.; Liller, Karen D.; Baldwin, Grant; Sleet, David

    2015-01-01

    Injuries continue to be the leading cause of death for the first four decades of life. These injuries result from a confluence of behavioral, physical, structural, environmental, and social factors. Taken together, these illustrate the importance of taking a broad and multileveled approach to injury prevention. Using examples from fall, fire,…

  3. Incidence of unintentional injuries in farming based on one year of weekly registration in Danish farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, K; Carstensen, O; Lauritsen, Jens

    2000-01-01

    In Denmark, farming ranks as the industry with the highest incidence rate of fatal injuries. For nonfatal injuries, insufficient registration practices prevent valid comparisons between occupations. This study examines the occurrence of farm accidents and injuries, as well as work-specific factors...

  4. Incidence, patterns and severity of reported unintentional injuries in Pakistan for persons five years and older: results of the National Health Survey of Pakistan 1990–94

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qureshi Huma I

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background National level estimates of injuries are not readily available for developing countries. This study estimated the annual incidence, patterns and severity of unintentional injuries among persons over five years of age in Pakistan. Methods National Health Survey of Pakistan (NHSP 1990–94 is a nationally representative survey of the household. Through a two-stage stratified design, 18, 315 persons over 5 years of age were interviewed to estimate the overall annual incidence, patterns and severity of unintentional injuries for males and females in urban and rural areas over the preceding one year. Weighted estimates were computed adjusting for complex survey design using surveyfreq and surveylogistic option of SAS 9.1 software. Results The overall annual incidence of all unintentional injuries was 45.9 (CI: 39.3–52.5 per 1000 per year; 59.2 (CI: 49.2–69.2 and 33.2 (CI: 27.0–39.4 per 1000 per year among males and females over five years of age, respectively. An estimated 6.16 million unintentional injuries occur in Pakistan annually among persons over five years of age. Urban and rural injuries were 55.9 (95% CI: 48.1–63.7 and 41.2 (95% CI: 32.2–50.0 per 1000 per year, respectively. The annual incidence of injuries due to falls were 22.2 (95% CI: 18.0–26.4, poisoning 3.3 (95%CI: 0.5–6.1 and burn was 1.5 (95%CI: 0.9–2.1 per 1000 per year. The majority of injuries occurred at home 19.2 (95%CI: 16.0–22.4 or on the roads 17.0 (95%CI: 13.8–20.2. Road traffic/street, school and urban injuries were more likely to result in handicap. Conclusion There is high burden of unintentional injuries among persons over five years of age in Pakistan. These results are useful to plan further studies and prioritizing prevention programs on injuries nationally and other developing countries with similar situation.

  5. Injury hospitalizations due to unintentional falls among the Aboriginal population of British Columbia, Canada: incidence, changes over time, and ecological analysis of risk markers, 1991-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Andrew; Lalonde, Christopher E; Brussoni, Mariana; McCormick, Rod; George, M Anne

    2015-01-01

    Aboriginal people in British Columbia (BC) have higher injury incidence than the general population. Our project describes variability among injury categories, time periods, and geographic, demographic and socio-economic groups. This report focuses on unintentional falls. We used BC's universal health care insurance plan as a population registry, linked to hospital separation and vital statistics databases. We identified Aboriginal people by insurance premium group and birth and death record notations. We identified residents of specific Aboriginal communities by postal code. We calculated crude incidence and Standardized Relative Risk (SRR) of hospitalization for unintentional fall injury, standardized for age, gender and Health Service Delivery Area (HSDA), relative to the total population of BC. We tested hypothesized associations of geographic, socio-economic, and employment-related characteristics with community SRR of injury by linear regression. During 1991 through 2010, the crude rate of hospitalization for unintentional fall injury in BC was 33.6 per 10,000 person-years. The Aboriginal rate was 49.9 per 10,000 and SRR was 1.89 (95% confidence interval 1.85-1.94). Among those living on reserves SRR was 2.00 (95% CI 1.93-2.07). Northern and non-urban HSDAs had higher SRRs, within both total and Aboriginal populations. In every age and gender category, the HSDA-standardized SRR was higher among the Aboriginal than among the total population. Between 1991 and 2010, crude rates and SRRs declined substantially, but proportionally more among the Aboriginal population, so the gap between the Aboriginal and total population is narrowing, particularly among females and older adults. These community characteristics were associated with higher risk: lower income, lower educational level, worse housing conditions, and more hazardous types of employment. Over the years, as socio-economic conditions improve, risk of hospitalization due to unintentional fall injury has

  6. Occupational stress and work-related unintentional injuries among Iranian car manufacturing workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soori, H; Rahimi, M; Mohseni, H

    2008-01-01

    This study in 2004 and 2005 aimed to present the pattern of job stress among car manufacturing workers in one factory in the Islamic Republic of Iran, and to assess its relationship with occupational injuries. Data were collected from 608 male workers (508 at-risk general workers and 100 with injuries in the last year). Job stress was assessed by the Belkic occupational stress index. The prevalence of job stress was 21.3%. The main occupational stressors were time pressure (78.5%), mode of payment and evaluation (56.4%), and interaction with people and machines (41.3%). The risk of injury among those with job stress was significantly higher than those without job stress (OR = 2.0; 95% CI: 1.20-3.30). Job stress was responsible for 11.9% of all occupational injuries in this group.

  7. Occupational stress and work-related unintentional injuries among Iranian car manufacturing workers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Soori, H; Rahimi, M; Mohseni, H

    2008-01-01

    This study in 2004 and 2005 aimed to present the pattern of job stress among car manufacturing workers in one factory in the Islamic Republic of Iran, and to assess its relationship with occupational injuries...

  8. Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Unintentional Nonfatal Injury Among the United States Air Force Active Duty

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-10-01

    resulting from repetitive, cumulative microtrauma (e.g., tendonitis, stress fractures, patellofemoral syndrome )" (DoD Injury Surveillance and 10...chronic injuries such as low back pain and repetitive trauma disorders among the US military and civilian populations are a function of physical and...sufficient biomechanical stress on their lumbar region to cause enough physical pain to warrant a medical visit. Sub-hypothesis 3 It was not anticipated

  9. County Poverty Concentration and Disparities in Unintentional Injury Deaths: A Fourteen-Year Analysis of 1.6 Million U.S. Fatalities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca A Karb

    Full Text Available Unintentional injury is the fourth leading cause of death in the United States, and mortality due to injury has risen over the past decade. The social determinants behind these rising trends have not been well documented. This study examines the relationship between county-level poverty and unintentional injury mortality in the United States from 1999-2012. Complete annual compressed mortality and population data for 1999-2012 were obtained from the National Center for Health Statistics and linked with census yearly county poverty measures. The outcomes examined were unintentional injury fatalities, overall and by six specific mechanisms: motor vehicle collisions, falls, accidental discharge of firearms, drowning, exposure to smoke or fire, and unintentional poisoning. Age-adjusted mortality rates and time trends for county poverty categories were calculated, and multivariate negative binomial regression was used to determine changes over time in both the relative risk of living in high poverty concentration areas and the population attributable fraction. Age-adjusted mortality rates for counties with > 20% poverty were 66% higher mortality in 1999 compared with counties with < 5% poverty (45.25 vs. 27.24 per 100,000; 95% CI for rate difference 15.57,20.46, and that gap widened in 2012 to 79% (44.54 vs. 24.93; 95% CI for rate difference 17.13,22.09. The relative risk of living in the highest poverty counties has increased for all injury mechanisms with the exception of accidental discharge of firearms. The population attributable fraction for all unintentional injuries rose from 0.22 (95% CI 0.13,0.30 in 1999 to 0.35 (95% CI 0.22,0.45 in 2012. This is the first study that uses comprehensive mortality data to document the associations between county poverty and injury mortality rates for the entire US population over a 14 year period. This study suggests that injury reduction interventions should focus on areas of high or increasing poverty.

  10. [Complex pelvic injury in childhood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmal, H; Klemt, C; Haag, C; Bonnaire, F

    2002-08-01

    Pelvic disruptions are rare in children caused by the flexible anchoring of bony parts associated with a high elasticity of the skeleton. Portion of pelvic fractures in infants is lower than 5% even when reviewing cases of specialized centers. The part of complex pelvic injuries and multiple injured patients in infants is higher when compared to adults, a fact caused by the more intense forces that are necessary to lead to pelvic disruption in children. Combination of a rare injury and the capability of children to compensate blood loss for a long time may implicate a wrong security and prolong diagnostic and therapeutic procedures--a problem that definitely should be avoided. Three cases were analyzed and established algorithms for treatment of patients matching these special injury-features demonstrated. A good outcome may only be achieved when all components of injury pattern get recognized and treatment is organized following the hierarchy of necessity. Therefore in the time table first life-saving steps have to be taken and then accompanying injuries can be treated that often decisively influence life quality. As seen in our cases unstable and dislocated fractures require open reduction and internal fixation ensuring nerval decompression, stop of hemorrhage and realizing the prerequisite for effective treatment of soft tissue damage. The acute hemorrhagic shock is one of the leading causes of death following severe pelvic injuries. After stabilization of fracture, surgical treatment of soft tissue injuries and intraabdominal bleeding sources the immediate diagnostic angiography possibly in combination with a therapeutic selective embolization is a well established part of the treatment. The aim of complete restitution can only be accomplished by cooperation of several different specialists and consultants in a trauma center.

  11. Unintentional Monuments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannessen, Runa

    2015-01-01

    unleashed more than the sliding of earth and stone as it triggered a fierce dispute between Israeli and Palestinian/Muslim interests. The crux of this crisis is to be found in the temporary bridge. In this short text, I suggest to see the bridge as an 'unintentional monument' as a way to understand...... the presence of historical and political powers in the shaping of space...

  12. Risk of unintentional injuries in children and adolescents with ADHD and the impact of ADHD medications: protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Goikoetxea, Maite; Cortese, Samuele; Aznarez-Sanado, Maite; Magallon, Sara; Luis, Elkin O; Zallo, Noelia Alvarez; de Castro-Manglano, Pilar; Soutullo, Cesar

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been related to increased rates of unintentional injuries. However, the magnitude of the effect and to which extent variables such as sex, age or comorbidity can influence this relationship is unknown. Additionally, and importantly, it is unclear if, and to which degree, ADHD medications can decrease the number of unintentional injuries. Due to the amount of economic and social resources invested in the treatment of injuries, filling these gaps in the literature is highly relevant from a public health standpoint. Here, we present a protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis to estimate the relationship between ADHD and unintentional injuries and assess the impact of pharmacological treatment for ADHD Methods and analysis We will combine results from 114 bibliographic databases for studies relating ADHD and risk of injuries. Bibliographic searches and data extraction will be carried out independently by two researchers. The studies’ risk of bias will be assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Articles reporting ORs or HRs of suffering an injury in ADHD compared with controls (or enough data to calculate them) will be combined using Robust Variance Estimation, a method that permits to include multiple non-independent outcomes in the analysis. All analyses will be carried out in Stata. Age, sex and comorbid conduct disorders will be considered as potential causes of variance and their effect analysed through meta-regression and subgroup analysis. Sensitivity analyses will exclude articles with longer follow-ups, non-stringent definitions of ADHD or controls and statistically uncontrolled/controlled outcomes. Studies implementing a self-controlled case series methodology to investigate if ADHD drugs reduce the risk of injuries will be combined with a generalised linear mixed model using the Poisson distribution and a log link function. Registration details PROSPERO—Prospective Register of

  13. Childhood injuries – frequency of occurrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwia Wieder-Huszla

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background . Childhood injuries and accidents constitute an important health, social and economic problem. Serious injuries require surgical intervention and hospitalization. In other cases, patients leave hospital within several hours after diagnosis and non-operative treatment, and then they receive outpatient care. Despite a downward trend, injuries remain the main cause of death among children and adolescents. Therefore, understanding their epidemiology, which would allow us to create prevention programs based on scientific evidence (evidence based medicine, is so important. Objectives. The study’s objective was an attempt at analyzing childhood injuries treated in outpatient clinics. Material and methods. The study comprised 2182 children aged 0–18, including 692 females and 1490 males. Among them 1024 children treated surgically and 1158 outpatients. In the retrospective study the authors used a method of analysis of medical records of patients treated in 2012 at the Department of Child Surgery and Traumatology and Orthopaedics with the Operating Theatre in the Nicolaus Copernicus Province Hospital in Koszalin. The analysis was conducted on the basis of operative reports in the case of afflictions and injuries requiring surgery, and outpatient admissions reports in the case of outpatients. Results. Among the outpatients, the biggest group of injuries (34.83% or 403 included bruises, cuts, lacerations etc. Regarding frequency, injuries of hand area – 14.35% (166 and arm fractures – 13.4% (159 followed. Conclusions . 1. The age and gender of patients were factors determining injuries. 2. Seasons of the year have an influence on the structure of injuries among children. 3. It is necessary to increase social awareness on the prevention and negative effects of burns.

  14. What did you have in mind? Examining the content of intentional and unintentional types of mind wandering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seli, Paul; Ralph, Brandon C W; Konishi, Mahiko; Smilek, Daniel; Schacter, Daniel L

    2017-05-01

    It has recently been argued that researchers should distinguish between mind wandering (MW) that is engaged with and without intention. Supporting this argument, studies have found that intentional and unintentional MW have behavioral/neural differences, and that they are differentially associated with certain variables of theoretical interest. Although there have been considerable inroads made into the distinction between intentional/unintentional MW, possible differences in their content remain unexplored. To determine whether these two types of MW differ in content, we had participants complete a task during which they categorized their MW as intentional or unintentional, and then provided responses to questions about the content of their MW. Results indicated that intentional MW was more frequently rated as being future-oriented and less vague than unintentional MW. These findings shed light on the nature of intentional and unintentional MW and provide support for the argument that researchers should distinguish between intentional and unintentional types. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Using the public health model to address unintentional injuries and TBI: A perspective from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Grant; Breiding, Matt; Sleet, David

    2016-06-30

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) can have long term effects on mental and physical health, and can disrupt vocational, educational, and social functioning. TBIs can range from mild to severe and their effects can last many years after the initial injury. CDC seeks to reduce the burden of TBI from unintentional injuries through a focus on primary prevention, improved recognition and management, and intervening to improve health outcomes after TBI. CDC uses a 4-stage public health model to guide TBI prevention, moving from 1) surveillance of TBI, 2) identification of risk and protective factors for TBI, 3) development and testing of evidence-based interventions, to 4) bringing effective intervention to scale through widespread adoption. CDC's unintentional injury prevention activities focus on the prevention of sports-related concussions, motor vehicle crashes, and older adult falls. For concussion prevention, CDC developed Heads Up - an awareness initiative focusing on ways to prevent a concussion in sports, and identifying how to recognize and manage potential concussions. In motor vehicle injury prevention, CDC has developed a tool (MV PICCS) to calculate the expected number of injuries prevented and lives saved using various evidence-based motor vehicle crash prevention strategies. To help prevent TBI related to older adult falls, CDC has developed STEADI, an initiative to help primary care providers identify their patients' falls risk and provide effective interventions. In the future, CDC is focused on advancing our understanding of the public health burden of TBI through improved surveillance in order to produce more comprehensive estimates of the public health burden of TBI.

  16. Contextual Determinants of Childhood Injury: A Systematic Review of Studies With Multilevel Analytic Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Rod; Kegler, Scott; Davey, Tamzyn; Clay, Fiona

    2015-12-01

    The definition of injury that underpins the contemporary approach to injury prevention is an etiological definition relating to bodily damage arising from transfer of energy to tissues of the body beyond the limits compatible with physiological function. Causal factors proximal to the energy transfer are nested within a more complex set of contextual determinants. For effective injury control, understanding of these determinants is critical. The primary aims of this study were to describe the area-level determinants that have been included in multilevel analyses of childhood injury and to quantify the relationships between these area-level exposures and injury outcomes. We conducted a systematic review of peer-reviewed, English-language literature published in scientific journals between January 1997 and July 2014, reporting studies that employed multilevel analyses to quantify the eco-epidemiological causation of physical unintentional injuries to children aged 16 years and younger. We conducted and reported the review in accordance with the PRISMA guidelines. We included etiological studies of causal risk factors for unintentional traumatic injuries to children aged 0 to 16 years. Methodological inclusion criteria were as follows: Epidemiological studies quantifying the relationship between risk factors (at various levels) and injury occurrence in the individual; Studies that recognized individual exposure and at least 1 higher level of exposure with units at lower levels or microunits (e.g., individuals) nested within units at higher levels or macrounits (e.g., areas or neighborhoods); Injury outcomes (dependent variable) examined at the individual level; and Central analytic techniques belonging to the following categories: multilevel models, hierarchical models, random effects models, random coefficient models, covariance components models, variance components models, and mixed models. We combined criteria from the checklist described by the Cochrane Effective

  17. Unintentional Drowning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... WISQARS) [online]. [cited 2012 May 3]. Available from: URL: http://www.cdc.gov/injury/wisqars . CDC. Wide- ... pools [online]. [cited 2012 May 3]. Available from URL: http://www.cpsc.gov/cpscpub/pubs/pool.pdf . ...

  18. As injúrias não intencionais no ambiente domiciliar: a casa segura Unintentional injuries in the home environment: home safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos E. N Paes

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Revisar as características das injúrias físicas não intencionais e seu impacto sobre a criança e o adolescente. FONTES DOS DADOS: Foram selecionados artigos publicados principalmente entre 2000 e 2005 nas bases de dados MEDLINE, EBSCO, Proquest, SciELO, BVS e Google Scholar. Utilizaram-se as seguintes palavras-chave: injúrias, injúrias não intencionais, casa segura, queimaduras, quedas, afogamentos, escorpionismo, ofidismo, intoxicação, criança, adolescente, mortalidade, controle de injúrias e internações. Alguns artigos foram avaliados a partir de referência de publicações pesquisadas. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: São contextualizadas as injúrias não intencionais no mundo e no Brasil, bem como identificadas as condutas atualmente adotadas para sua prevenção e controle. São avaliados os impactos sobre a mortalidade, sobre o conjunto de danos físicos e o impacto econômico das injúrias. É enfatizado o enfoque sobre o ambiente doméstico, com a abordagem evolutiva da criança, as disparidades sociais e a contextualização do ambiente doméstico sobre o mundo infantil e as vulnerabilidades. São identificados os principais tipos de eventos que causam dano físico à criança e ao adolescente, especialmente no âmbito domiciliar. CONCLUSÃO: A prevenção de injúrias no ambiente doméstico é uma realidade possível, determinando desafios aos profissionais da área de saúde para a redução do impacto das lesões não intencionais sobre a morbimortalidade de crianças e jovens do Brasil e do mundo.OBJECTIVE: To review the characteristics of unintentional injuries and their impact on children and adolescents. SOURCES OF DATA: Articles published between 2000 and 2005 in the MEDLINE, EBSCO, Proquest, SciELO, BVS and Google Scholar databases were selected. The authors used the keywords unintentional injuries, injuries, safe home, burns, falls, drowning, scorpions, snakes, poisoning, child, adolescent, mortality, injury

  19. Prediction of posttraumatic stress in fathers of children with chronic diseases or unintentional injuries: a six-months follow-up study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sennhauser Felix H

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While fathers were neglected for a long time in research investigating families of pediatric patients, there are now a few studies available on fathers' posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD. However, little is known about the course of PTSS and PTSD in fathers of pediatric patients. The present study aimed to compare the prevalence and course of PTSS and PTSD in fathers of children with different chronic and acute conditions and to identify factors that contribute to fathers' PTSS. Methods Sixty-nine fathers of children newly diagnosed with either cancer, type I diabetes mellitus, or epilepsy and 70 fathers of children suffering from an unintentional injury completed questionnaires at 4–6 weeks (Time 1 and six months (Time 2 after diagnosis or injury. Results Noticeable PTSD rates were found in fathers of children with a chronic disease (26% at Time 1 and 21% at Time 2, respectively. These rates were significantly higher than rates found in fathers of children with unintentional injuries (12% at Time 1 and 6% at Time 2, respectively. Within six months after the child's diagnosis or accident a decrease in severity of PTSS was observed in both groups. Significant predictors of PTSS at Time 2 were the father's initial level of PTSS, the child's medical condition (injuries vs. chronic diseases and functional status, the father's use of dysfunctional coping strategies, and father's level of neuroticism. Conclusion Our findings suggest that fathers with initially high PTSS levels are at greater risk to experience PTSS at follow-up, particularly fathers of children with a chronic disease. Sensitizing health care professionals to the identification of PTSS symptoms but also to indicators of neuroticism and the use of specific coping strategies early in the treatment course is essential for the planning and implementation of adequate intervention strategies.

  20. Is Sweden still a role model for safety? An overview of unintentional injury data over the past two decades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekman, Diana S; Nilsen, Per; Schelp, Lothar; Schyllander, Jan; Ryen, Linda; Ekman, Robert

    2010-09-01

    This study investigates injury-related mortality and hospitalisations, during 1987-2007 in Sweden. Injuries were classified according to International Classification of Diseases (ICD)--8 for pre-1987 injuries, ICD-9 for 1987-1996 injuries and ICD-10 for injuries occurring in 1997 and later. Data on mortality from injuries during 1987-2007 were collected from Sweden's national Cause-of-Death Register, while data concerning injury diagnoses leading to hospitalisation stays of at least 24 h, occurring during 1987-2007, were obtained from the national Patient Register. Crude rates were derived for injury-related deaths and injury-related hospitalisations for age-gender groups, using population data from Statistics Sweden. Our results showed a mixed picture of injury-related hospitalisations and deaths over the study period. Absolute numbers of injury-related deaths and injury-related hospitalisations decreased over time for the population as a whole and for many, but not all, age-gender groups. When assessing crude injury-related death rates and crude injury-related hospitalisation rates over time, as categorised by gender and age groupings, we also found unchanging or increased risks for injury-related deaths and/or hospitalisations for several age-gender groups. While Sweden has made remarkable progress in reducing injury-related deaths and hospitalisations, there are clear differences in risk that remain.

  1. Associated factors for the occurrence of unintentional injuries in children from a low-income community in northeastern Brazil - doi 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v34i2.10313

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline de Souza Pereira

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Unintentional injuries reach high levels within the scope of morbidity and mortality worldwide, and have an impact on the quality of life of children and family members. This study depicts the socio-demographic profile of families in a community and identifies the factors associated with unintentional injuries in children. This is a cross-sectional study, developed with 362 families from a community in Fortaleza (Ceará State, by applying a questionnaire to the responsible adult in the family; the data were subjected to descriptive statistics by applying Pearson’s chi-square (x2 test, with p ≤ 0.05. From the results, 78% resided in the business area of the community, 71% survived with income up to the minimum wage, 62.7% were part of a nuclear family, and most residences showed risk factors for unintentional injuries. The data corroborate the literature by reaffirming the relationship between the socio-demographic and economic profile of families living in areas of socio-environmental vulnerability with the occurrence of unintentional injuries at home.

  2. Childhood injuries in a tertiary institution in north east Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Issa Abdul Razaq Esin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Injury has been recognised as a preventable cause of morbidity and mortality in children. The aim of this study was to determine the aetiology, pattern and location of childhood injuries in north east Nigeria. Materials and Methods: This is a 3-year retrospective hospital-based descriptive study. The study included 114 children (77 boys, 37 girls; mean age 6.4 ± 3.2 years; range 2 months to 15 years who were admitted for various injuries in the female/paediatric surgical ward from January 2007 to December 2009. Information obtained from their case notes included demographic data, mechanism of injury, location of injury, anatomical site of injury and outcome of treatment. Results: Records for 114 children (77 boys, 37 girls; mean age 6.2 years; range 2 months to 15 years were available for analysis. The highest number of injuries occurred in the age group 6-10 years. Home was the most common location of injury among the age group 0-5 years while older children sustained most of their injuries outside the home on the street/highways. Burns from hot water was the most common injury among children aged 0-5 years while pedestrian accident accounted for the highest cause of injury among older children. Fall accounted for 20.2% of the injuries. The most common specific anatomic injury was head injury followed by limb fractures. Two mortalities were recorded (1.8%. Conclusion: This study provided useful information on the characteristics of childhood injuries in our environment. There is the need for parents and children education about the risks of injury and preventive measures in addition to legislation and policy on environmental modifications and enforcements to significantly reduce childhood injury.

  3. Unintentional Injuries in Preschool Age Children: Is There a Correlation With Parenting Style and Parental Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Symptoms

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Acar, Ethem; Dursun, Onur Burak; Esin, İbrahim Selcuk; Öğütlü, Hakan; Özcan, Halil; Mutlu, Murat

    2015-01-01

    .... Therefore, parents have a key role in the occurrence and prevention of injuries. In this study, we examined the relationship among home injuries to children and parental attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD...

  4. Injury Patterns among Individuals Diagnosed with Infantile Autism during Childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouridsen, Svend-Erik; Rich, Bente; Isager, Torben

    2016-01-01

    Background: To date, injury risk among people with infantile autism (IA) has been a relatively poorly researched issue.Objective:The purpose of our study was to compare the prevalence and types of injuries in a clinical sample of 118 patients diagnosed with IA during childhood with those of 336 age...

  5. What Are Growth Plate Injuries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... plate injuries are:  Falling down  Competitive sports (like football)  Recreational activities. Other reasons for growth plate injuries are:  Child abuse  Injury from extreme cold (for ...

  6. Frequency, Causes, and Places of Unintentional Injuries in a Nationally Representative Sample of Iranian Children and Adolescents: The CASPIAN-IV Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelishadi, Roya; Qorbani, Mostafa; Motlagh, Mohammad Esmaeel; Ardalan, Gelayol; Moafi, Mohammad; Mahmood-Arabi, Minoosadat; Heshmat, Ramin; Jari, Mohsen

    2014-01-01

    Background: This study aims to assess the frequency, causes, and places of injuries in a nationally representative sample of Iranian children and adolescents, as well as the referral, places allocated for injured individuals. Methods: This nationwide study was conducted in 2011-2012 among 13486 elementary, secondary and high-school students who were selected by random cluster stratified multistage sampling from 30 provinces in Iran. The Global School-based Health Survey questionnaire of the World Health Organization was used. Results: The study participants consisted of 50.8% boys, 75.6% urban resident with a mean age of 12.5 years. Overall, 20.25% of participants reported that they were minimally injured once in the last 12 months; this prevalence was higher in boys than in girls (25.74% vs. 14.58%, respectively, P < 0.001), without significant difference in urban (20.11%) and rural (20.69%) areas. Most of them (39.92%) were injured at homes or house yards with higher prevalence in girls than in boys (48.61% vs. 35.17%, respectively, P < 0.001) and in rural than in urban areas (27.30% vs. 20.89%, respectively, P < 0.001). Schools were reported as the second prevalent site of injury occurrence (22.50%). Emergency departments and physician offices were the most prevalent referral places for injured individuals (32.31% and 22.38%, respectively). Most of the school injuries occurred during play or sport activities (45.92%). Conclusions: Prevention of unintentional injuries should be considered as a health priority. Appropriate preventive strategies should be enhanced at homes and schools. PMID:25400879

  7. Incidence and determinants of severity of unintentional injuries among students of private schools in Dubai: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altheeb, Ayesha; Hussein, Hamid; Al Faisal, Waleed; AlBehandy, Nusaiba; Alshareef, Nouf; Wasfy, Ahmed

    2017-02-21

    A cross-sectional study was performed on a student population in grades 7-12 in 10 private schools in Dubai in the academic year 2012/13. The study was in two phases. The first was used to estimate incidence rate of injuries, where the total injuries that took place in the schools in 2012 was divided by the total student population in the studied schools in the same year multiplied by 1000. The second was to study the determinants of severity through randomly selecting 1000 cases of injuries. A self-administered questionnaire was given to the participants after obtaining verbal consent. Sociodemographic characteristics showed that most (74.2%) of the students in this study were male and about half (57.3%) were aged 12-14 years. The incidence rate of injuries was 297.7/1000, and most of the injuries (88.9%) were mild. Poor school safety was blamed for most of the injuries, and falls were the most frequent type of injury.

  8. Child Injury: What You Need to Know

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-04-16

    This podcast is based on the April 2012 CDC Vital Signs report. Many childhood deaths and injuries are preventable, including those caused by crashes, suffocation, poisoning, drowning, fires, and falls. The podcast discusses ways to help prevent these deaths and injuries.  Created: 4/16/2012 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 4/16/2012.

  9. The Unintentional Procrastination Scale

    OpenAIRE

    Fernie, BA; Bharucha, Z; Nikčević, AV; Spada, MM

    2016-01-01

    © 2016 The Author(s)Procrastination refers to the delay or postponement of a task or decision and is often conceptualised as a failure of self-regulation. Recent research has suggested that procrastination could be delineated into two domains: intentional and unintentional. In this two-study paper, we aimed to develop a measure of unintentional procrastination (named the Unintentional Procrastination Scale or the ‘UPS’) and test whether this would be a stronger marker of psychopathology than ...

  10. What Do We Know About the Association Between Firearm Legislation and Firearm-Related Injuries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santaella-Tenorio, Julian; Cerdá, Magdalena; Villaveces, Andrés; Galea, Sandro

    2016-01-01

    Firearms account for a substantial proportion of external causes of death, injury, and disability across the world. Legislation to regulate firearms has often been passed with the intent of reducing problems related to their use. However, lack of clarity around which interventions are effective remains a major challenge for policy development. Aiming to meet this challenge, we systematically reviewed studies exploring the associations between firearm-related laws and firearm homicides, suicides, and unintentional injuries/deaths. We restricted our search to studies published from 1950 to 2014. Evidence from 130 studies in 10 countries suggests that in certain nations the simultaneous implementation of laws targeting multiple firearms restrictions is associated with reductions in firearm deaths. Laws restricting the purchase of (e.g., background checks) and access to (e.g., safer storage) firearms are also associated with lower rates of intimate partner homicides and firearm unintentional deaths in children, respectively. Limitations of studies include challenges inherent to their ecological design, their execution, and the lack of robustness of findings to model specifications. High quality research on the association between the implementation or repeal of firearm legislation (rather than the evaluation of existing laws) and firearm injuries would lead to a better understanding of what interventions are likely to work given local contexts. This information is key to move this field forward and for the development of effective policies that may counteract the burden that firearm injuries pose on populations.

  11. What would be Usain Bolt's 100-meter sprint world record without Tyson Gay? Unintentional interpersonal synchronization between the two sprinters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varlet, Manuel; Richardson, Michael J

    2015-02-01

    Despite the desire of athletes to separate themselves from their competitors, to be faster or better, their performance is often influenced by those they are competing with. Here we show that the unintentional or spontaneous interpersonal synchronization of athletes' movements may partially account for such performance modifications. We examined the 100-m final of Usain Bolt in the 12th IAAF World Championship in Athletics (Berlin, 2009) in which he broke the world record, and demonstrate that Usain Bolt and Tyson Gay who ran side-by-side throughout the race spontaneously and intermittently synchronized their steps. This finding demonstrates that even the most optimized individual motor skills can be modulated by the simple presence of another individual via interpersonal coordination processes. It extends previous research by showing that the hard constraints of individual motor performance do not overwhelm the occurrence of spontaneous interpersonal synchronization and open promising new research directions for better understanding and improving athletic performance.

  12. Traumatic Brain Injury in Early Childhood: Developmental Effects and Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowenthal, Barbara; Lowenthal, Barbara

    1998-01-01

    Describes the unique effects of traumatic brain injury (TBI) on development in early childhood and offers suggestions for interventions in the cognitive, language, social-emotional, motor, and adaptive domains. Urges more intensive, long-term studies on the immediate and long-term effects of TBI. (Author/DB)

  13. Early Childhood Traumatic Brain Injuries: Effects on Development and Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowenthal, Barbara

    1998-01-01

    Describes the variety of possible effects of traumatic brain injuries (TBI) on early childhood development in the cognitive, language, social-emotional, motor, and adaptive domains. Suggests interventions which can assist young survivors and their families. Suggests that more long-term, intensive studies be conducted on the short- and long-term…

  14. 南宁市农村留守儿童意外伤害流行病学调查%Epidemiological investigation on unintentional injuries of left-behind children in rural area of Nanning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋武; 黄华兴; 韦金露; 石海丽; 朱微微; 张获华

    2011-01-01

    目的:了解南宁市农村留守儿童意外伤害发生的流行特征及其影响因素,为制定相关预防和控制策略提供依据.方法:采用整群分层随机抽样方法抽取南宁市4个城区的儿童共2584例,以问卷形式调查农村留守儿童意外伤害的现况.结果:在本次调查中,农村留守儿童1096例,留守组意外伤害的发生率为29.7%,高于非留守组,差异有统计学意义(x2=12.94,P<0.05);留守组男童意外伤害发生率比女童高,差异有统计学意义(x2=4.623,P<0.05),7~12岁组比2~6岁组高,差异有统计学意义(X2=5.60,P=0.015);留守儿童组前5位意外伤害依次为:跌倒/坠落(45.6%)、割伤/刺伤(29.6%)、烧烫伤(12.9%)、碰撞/挤压(11.5%)、交通事故(10.4%);留守儿童伤害发生的地点主要在家中(37.5%)、学校(32.4%)、道路上(19.2%),多发季节在夏季(35.6%)及冬季(24.2%);留守儿童发生伤害后有12.3%需住院治疗,约半数儿童需请假休息,治疗费用在2 000元以上占5.0%,以白费居多;留守组再发意外伤害率12.9%,高于非留守组再发意外伤害率8.5%,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论:南宁市农村留守儿童意外伤害发生率较高,负担较大,应针对原因采取有效措施,减少农村留守儿童意外伤害的发生.%Objective: To understand the epidemiological characteristics and effect factors of unintentional injuries of left - behind children in rural area of Nanning, provide a basis for making related preventive and controlling strategies. Methods: Cluster stratified random sampling method was used to select 2 584 children from 4 urban areas of Nanning, and questionnaires were used to survey the status of unintentional injuries of left- behind children. Results: Among 1 096 left -behind children in rural area, the incidence of unintentional injuries was 29. 7%, which was significantly higher than that of non - left - behind children group ( x2 = 12. 94, P < 0. 05 ); in left - behind children

  15. Injuries in Norwegian Early Childhood and Care (ECEC Institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ole Johan Sando

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Children’s play and exploration involves risk and a possibility for being injured. Early childhood and care institutions (ECECs should provide children with physical challenges in a safe environment. Over the past years, the attention towards playground safety and injuries in ECECs has increased. Norwegian practitioners have a liberal approach to children’s risk taking in play, raising questions on injury prevalence in Norwegian ECECs. The aim for this study was to gain knowledge about the injury prevalence and characteristics of the injuries in Norwegian ECECs. Managers from 2105 institutions completed an electronic questionnaire retrospectively asking the managers to report injuries and accidents the past year. The results indicate that injuries are rare in Norwegian ECECs, and that most of the injuries are minor and do not require a follow-up from professional medical personnel. The moderate and severe injuries are very rare, and often mishaps. There are some indications that boys experience injuries more often than girls do. The main cause of moderate injuries is falling, both outdoors and indoors.

  16. Almost 19 million childhood injuries result in 11 thousand deaths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldman, H B

    1996-01-01

    Details are provided from a series of government and private agency reports on the accidents and related deaths of children and the effectiveness of efforts being made to reduce the incidence of these tragedies. In 1992 there were 83,000 accidental deaths and more than 17 million disabling injuries in the United States costing $399 billion. The death rate was down 10 percent from 1991, and also the lowest recorded in recent years. Included in these statistics are 19 million injured children and 11 thousand dead children. The leading cause of death of children less than ten years of age was an unintentional injury. The author presents details on the accidents and related deaths, as well as the effectiveness of efforts to reduce the incidence of these accidents. From the youngest ages to the teen years, a greater number of males than females are injured and die from accident-related causes. The number of accidental deaths of children, ages five to nine years, almost equalled the number of deaths from natural causes. For children ten to fourteen years old, the number of accidental deaths was one third greater than the number from natural causes. Statistics regarding death and injury from motor vehicles, firearms, consumer products, and poison are presented.

  17. Imaging of cervical spine injuries of childhood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khanna, Geetika; El-Khoury, Georges Y. [University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Department of Radiology, 3951 JPP, Iowa, IA (United States)

    2007-06-15

    Cervical spine injuries of children, though rare, have a high morbidity and mortality. The pediatric cervical spine is anatomically and biomechanically different from that of adults. Hence, the type, level and outcome of cervical spine injuries in children are different from those seen in adults. Normal developmental variants seen in children can make evaluation of the pediatric cervical spine challenging. This article reviews the epidemiology of pediatric cervical spine trauma, normal variants seen in children and specific injuries that are more common in the pediatric population. We also propose an evidence-based imaging protocol to avoid unnecessary imaging studies and minimize radiation exposure in children. (orig.)

  18. Childhood injury after a parental cancer diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ruoqing; Regodón Wallin, Amanda; Sjölander, Arvid; Valdimarsdóttir, Unnur; Ye, Weimin; Tiemeier, Henning; Fall, Katja; Almqvist, Catarina; Czene, Kamila; Fang, Fang

    2015-10-31

    A parental cancer diagnosis is psychologically straining for the whole family. We investigated whether a parental cancer diagnosis is associated with a higher-than-expected risk of injury among children by using a Swedish nationwide register-based cohort study. Compared to children without parental cancer, children with parental cancer had a higher rate of hospital contact for injury during the first year after parental cancer diagnosis (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.27, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.22-1.33), especially when the parent had a comorbid psychiatric disorder after cancer diagnosis (HR = 1.41, 95% CI = 1.08-1.85). The rate increment declined during the second and third year after parental cancer diagnosis (HR = 1.10, 95% CI = 1.07-1.14) and became null afterwards (HR = 1.01, 95% CI = 0.99-1.03). Children with parental cancer also had a higher rate of repeated injuries than the other children (HR = 1.13, 95% CI = 1.12-1.15). Given the high rate of injury among children in the general population, our findings may have important public health implications.

  19. Childhood injury after a parental cancer diagnosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Chen (Ruoqing); A.R. Wallin (Amanda Regodón); A. Sjölander (Arvid); U. Valdimarsdóttir (Unnur); W. Ye (Weimin); H.W. Tiemeier (Henning); K. Fall (Katja); C. Almqvist (Catarina); K. Czene (Kamila); F. Fang (Fang)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractA parental cancer diagnosis is psychologically straining for the whole family. We investigated whether a parental cancer diagnosis is associated with a higher-than-expected risk of injury among children by using a Swedish nationwide register-based cohort study. Compared to children witho

  20. [Childhood injuries in Israel--current status and the role of the community pediatrician].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Michal; Oppenheim, Moshe; Ivancovsky, Michal; Silbinger, Orty; Danon, Yehuda

    2012-06-01

    In Israel, as in other developed countries, injury is a major problem in children's health. Injuries are a main cause of morbidity and mortality of children in all age groups, both genders, Jews and Arabs and is also a Leading cause of disability and loss of potential life years. In Israel, every year injuries account for 144 child deaths, approximately 24,000 hospitalizations and about 182,000 ED visits, and it is estimated that about half of all Israeli children sustain an injury requiring primary medical care in the community. The vast majority of those injuries are unintentional. The leading cause of child death from injury is traffic accidents, while home and Leisure accidents are common causes for children's hospitalization due to injury. The death rate is higher among children from low socioeconomic clusters compared to high socioeconomic clusters. Between 2000 and 2008, there was a decrease in child death rates from injury and unintentional injury. Intervention programs involving the safety education of parents by community pediatricians showed effectiveness in increasing safe behaviors and prevention of child injuries. In Israel several programs for injury prevention are implemented in the health system, including parents' education in well-baby clinics for child safety by nurses. Since the community pediatrician is a significant factor in parents' decisions regarding their child's health, it is recommended that he will also educate them concerning child injury prevention.

  1. Injury Patterns among Individuals Diagnosed with Infantile Autism during Childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouridsen, Svend-Erik; Rich, Bente; Isager, Torben

    2016-01-01

    Background: To date, injury risk among people with infantile autism (IA) has been a relatively poorly researched issue.Objective:The purpose of our study was to compare the prevalence and types of injuries in a clinical sample of 118 patients diagnosed with IA during childhood with those of 336 age......-and sex-matched controls from the general population.Method: All participants werescreened through the nationwide Danish National Hospital Register. The average amount of time that the participants were observed was 30.3 years (range, 27.3 to 30.4 years), and the mean patient age at the end....... The difference is statistically significant (P

  2. Associations of occupational safety atmosphere and behaviors with unintentional injuries%职业安全的氛围和态度及行为与职业性非故意伤害的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖雅妮; 黄志雄; 黄绍斌; 曹晓鸥; 陈夏明; 刘序华; 陈维清

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the associations of perception of safety atmosphere at workplace,occupational safety attitude and behaviors with occupational unintentional injury among manufacturing workers.Methods A cross-sectional study was performed and a self-administered questionnaire was used to inquire socio-demographic characteristics,perceived safety atmosphere,occupational safety attitudes,occupational safety behaviors and occupational unintentional injuries among 10585 manufacturing workers selected from 46enterprises in Guangdong.Structural equation modeling was applied to assess the relationship of the perception of safety atmosphere at workplace,occupational safety attitude,and occupational safety behaviors with occupational unintentional injury.Results Among 24 pathways supposed in structural equation model,20pathways (except for the attitude toward occupational safety,the attitude toward managers support,the work posture and individual protection) were significantly related to the occupational unintentional injuries.The further analysis indicated that the perceived safety atmosphere might impact the occupational unintentional injuries by the attitude toward occupational safety and occupational safety behaviors.Conclusion Workers' perception of safety atmosphere indirectly influenced on occupational unintentional injuries through occupational safety attitudes and occupational safety behaviors.%目的 评价制造业工人对工作场所安全氛围的认知、安全生产态度、安全生产行为与职业性非故意伤害之间的关系.方法 采用横断面调查设计和自陈式问卷对广东地区46家制造业企业的10585名一线生产工人的社会人口学特征、对工作场所安全氛围的认知、安全生产态度、安全生产行为和过去一年间职业性非故意伤害的发生情况进行调查,使用结构方程模型评价它们之间的关系.结果 在结构方程模型假设的24条路径中,除“对安全政策的态度

  3. Pattern of unintentional burns: A hospital based study from Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adil, Syed Omair; Ibran, Ehmer-Al; Nisar, Nighat; Shafique, Kashif

    2016-09-01

    Burns are major cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Better understanding of the nature and extent of injury remains the major and only available way to halt the occurrence of the event. The present study was conducted to determine the prevalence of by self and by other unintentional burn, their comparison and the possible mode of acquisition by obtaining the history of exposure to known risk factors. A cross-sectional questionnaire based survey was conducted in Burns Centre of Civil Hospital Karachi, Pakistan and 324 hospitalized adult patients with unintentional burns were consecutively interviewed during August 2013 to February 2014. Information was collected on socio-demographic profile. The source of burn, affected body part and place of injury acquisition in terms of home, outside or work were also noted. Logistic regression model was conducted using SPSS software. Out of 324 patients, 295 (91%) had unintentional burn by self and 29 (9%) had unintentional burn by others. Male gender were 2.37 times and no schooling were 1.75 times more likely to have self-inflicted unintentional burn. Lower limb and head and neck were less likely to involve in unintentional burn by self. The burden of unintentional burn by self was considerably higher. Male gender and no schooling were found more at risk to have unintentional burn by self. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  4. Childhood Wellbeing: What Role for Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spratt, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    The word wellbeing is ubiquitous in political discourse, and concerns about childhood wellbeing are particularly rife. This paper identifies, in the context of Scottish policy, how different professional discourses of wellbeing have migrated into education policy and it examines how this relates to learning. Taking a view of policy enactment as…

  5. Childhood hypertension: what does the radiologist contribute?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roebuck, Derek [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Trust, Radiology Department, London (United Kingdom)

    2008-06-15

    Hypertension may be essential (primary) or secondary to a variety of causes. The most important risk factors for essential hypertension are obesity and a family history of high BP, but there are also associations with sleep apnoea, low birth weight and prematurity. The most important cause of secondary hypertension in childhood is chronic renal disease. (orig.)

  6. 儿童意外伤害家居环境与游戏场所相关因素研究%Research on Unintentional Children Injuries and Factors of Family Environment and Playground

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈忠; 张斌; 覃凌智; 邱琳; 张雅琪

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨儿童伤害的发生现状及周围家庭环境、游戏场所的影响因素,为社会和家庭预防儿童伤害提供指导和预防方法.方法 采用分层随机整群抽样方法,按老街道、城乡结合部(流动人口密集地)、乡镇3个层次,抽取4个老街道、3个城乡结合部、6个乡镇,采用儿童安全联盟(TASC)在亚洲各国普遍应用的调查表为基本模板,根据我市实际情况进行必要的修订.结果 武汉市儿童伤害的发生率为78.7%.伤害组儿童家周围500m内有湖泊、江河、水塘的比例高于未伤害组;伤害组家中地面类型以水泥地面为主,未伤害组以木地板为主;伤害组家中儿童床无护栏的比例,主要热源类型为煤炉、火灶的比例,儿童经常活动地方有障碍物、有水源、有危险品(电源、热源)的比例均高于未伤害组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).伤害组游戏场所地面类型以水泥地面、泥土地面为主,未伤害组以水泥地面、木地板为主;两组儿童常用玩具的安全性、游戏场所设备种类比较,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.01).居住在乡镇、家中儿童床无护栏是儿童发生意外伤害的危险因素,而母亲从不参与娱乐、家周围500m内无湖泊等水源是保护因素.结论 儿童意外伤害的高频发生不容忽视,儿童家庭及环境因素与儿童意外伤害的发生有关,对控制与干预儿童意外伤害有着一定的指导作用.%Objective To investigate the current condition of unintentional children injuries in Wuhan city and the influencing factors in family environment and playground in order to provide guidance and preventing methods for society and family in preventing unintentional children injuries. Methods Four streets in city, three sub - urban areas and six towns were selected according to three levels: the old streets, the urban fringe ( intensive floating population ) and township by using stratified random cluster sampling

  7. Validity of a surveillance system for childhood injuries in a rural block of Tamilnadu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivamani M

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Childhood injuries are increasingly getting the attention of public health experts following WHO′s report on global burden of diseases. Surveillance is an important component of control of any disease and effectiveness of the surveillance system depends upon completeness of the information about occurrence of the health related events to the public health authorities. Aims: This study aimed to set up a surveillance system for childhood injuries and validate it by a survey and thereafter estimate the incidence of childhood injuries using capture recapture method. Settings and Design: Observational study design. Materials and Methods: Passive surveillance system for childhood injuries was created for 26,811 children of less than fourteen years of Kaniyambadi block and it was validated by cross sectional study at the end of surveillance period. Using these two independent information systems, capture recapture method was applied to find out the possible incidence of injuries in the given population at a given period of time. Statistics: Chi square, Lincoln Peterson formula for capture re-capture method. Results: Surveillance and survey for childhood injuries identified 13.59/1000 child-years (CI: 11.86 -15.32 and 341.89/1000 child-years (CI: 254.46-429.33 of injury rates, respectively. Conclusion: Passive surveillance system underreports childhood injuries markedly but it does identify childhood injuries of serious nature.

  8. Study on the status of unintentional injuries in children under age 7 in Guangzhou%广州市七岁以下儿童意外伤害发生现状分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡艳; 邢艳菲; 蒋琳; 曾芳玲; 林穗方

    2011-01-01

    目的 了解和分析7岁以下儿童意外伤害发生现状和分布特点.方法 对2010年广州市7岁以下儿童意外伤害监测网络的470 770名集体和散居儿童中发生的意外伤害现状进行描述性分析.结果 2010年广州市7岁以下儿童意外伤害发生率为1.48%,其中集体儿童意外伤害发生率为1.66%,散居儿童意外伤害发生率为1.11%,城区儿童意外伤害发生率为1.36%,区县(农村地区)儿童意外伤害发生率为2.52%;集体儿童高于散居儿童,农村儿童高于城区儿童.儿童伤害发生原因构成顺位依次是跌伤(70.54%)、动物伤害(8.48%)、烧烫伤(5.75%)、钝器伤(3.92%)和交通道路伤(3.48%).儿童意外伤害发生部位依次是头面部(60.00%)、腕和手(15.48%)、膝部和小腿(11.70%)、肘和前臂(4.54%)、肩部和上臂(2.99%).意外伤害病例中,轻度意外伤害占85.35%,中度意外伤害占9.12%,重度意外伤害占0.57%.其中去医院门诊/急诊的儿童占49.66%,需住院或重症监护的儿童占2.06%,在家中或托幼园所就地处理的儿童占43.34%.结论 2010年广州市7岁以下儿童意外伤害发生率为1.48%,发生原因主要以跌伤、动物伤害、烧烫伤、钝器伤以及交通道路伤为主,不同年龄、区域儿童意外伤害发生特征及临床特征存在差异.%Objective To understand the pravelence and distribution of unintentional injuries in children under age 7 in Guangzhou. Methods Data was descriptively analyzed from the Guangzhou Unintentional Injuries Surveillance System among 470 770 children under age 7 living scatterly or collectively. Results The incidence rates of unintentional injuries among children in Guangzhou was 1.48%, among which the incidence rates were: living scatterly as 1.11% living collectively as 1.66%, living in urban areas as 1.36% in rural as 2.52%. In order, the proportion of main causes of children's unintentional injuries were as follows: falls (70.54%), animal injuries (8

  9. Disseminating Childhood Home Injury Risk Reduction Information in Pakistan: Results from a Community-Based Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan A. Hyder

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Most childhood unintentional injuries occur in the home; however, very little home injury prevention information is tailored to developing countries. Utilizing our previously developed information dissemination tools and a hazard assessment checklist tailored to a low-income neighborhood in Pakistan, we pilot tested and compared the effectiveness of two dissemination tools. Methods: Two low-income neighborhoods were mapped, identifying families with a child aged between 12 and 59 months. In June and July 2010, all enrolled households underwent a home hazard assessment at the same time hazard reduction education was being given using an in-home tutorial or a pamphlet. A follow up assessment was conducted 4–5 months later. Results: 503 households were enrolled; 256 received a tutorial and 247 a pamphlet. The two groups differed significantly (p < 0.01 in level of maternal education and relationship of the child to the primary caregiver. However, when controlling for these variables, those receiving an in-home tutorial had a higher odds of hazard reduction than the pamphlet group for uncovered vats of water (OR 2.14, 95% CI: 1.28, 3.58, an open fire within reach of the child (OR 3.55, 95% CI: 1.80, 7.00, and inappropriately labeled cooking fuel containers (OR 1.86, 95% CI: 1.07, 3.25. Conclusions: This pilot project demonstrates the potential utility of using home-visit tutorials to decrease home hazards in a low-income neighborhood in Pakistan. A longer-term randomized study is needed to assess actual effectiveness of the use of allied health workers for home-based injury education and whether this results in decreased home injuries.

  10. Childhood Injury Prevention: Intervention in the Bedouin City of Rahat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Hemmo-Lotem

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available For several years, the National Center for Children's Health and Safety (Beterem has worked on many levels to promote safety and prevent injury of the children in Israel. As part of intervention programs in 20 communities around Israel, this paper describes a 1-year, multidisciplinary, multistrategic childhood safety promotion and injury prevention project. The project took place in the Bedouin city of Rahat in the Southern part of Israel, the Negev, conducted by a local safety coordinator. This specific intervention study took place from March 2003 to March 2004. The main goal was to identify hazards and dangerous obstacles in public places in Rahat, then remove or repair the obstacles found, in order to secure a safe public environment for children. “Obstacle”” was defined as any barrier that could endanger the safety of a child. Ten examples are used to illustrate this applied research project, and 80% of the problems were solved within the project period (time to solve between 1 week to 3 months, depending on various factors. We recommend the involvement of a safety coordinator from the community to focus on safety hazards for children, the use of a documentation diary to log the time frame, and also the use of pictures to illustrate the hazards and the changes, or to use as arguments in the lobbying process.

  11. Childhood dental injuries: a resiliency model of adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porritt, Jenny M; Rodd, Helen D; Baker, Sarah R

    2015-07-01

    There is a paucity of research examining how children and their families adapt to traumatic dental injuries. This study examined how clinical and psychosocial factors influence adaptation to this oral stressor using a theoretical framework of resiliency and adaptation. Children with traumatised permanent teeth, who were attending a UK dental hospital, completed questionnaires at baseline and at a 6 month follow-up. Child questionnaires assessed coping styles, social support, and quality of life outcomes. Parents were also asked to complete questionnaires, which assessed previous stressors/strains on the family, social support, healthcare satisfaction, and family impacts. Data related to the child's dental injury were collected from clinical notes. Structural equation modelling and regression analyses were employed to analyse data. One hundred and eight children and 113 parents participated at baseline. Children's gender, coping style, social support, and family functioning significantly predicted children's oral health-related quality of life. Parents' satisfaction with their children's dental care significantly predicted parental quality of life outcomes. Children's close friend support and healthcare satisfaction remained significant predictors of positive outcomes at follow-up. The findings revealed important psychosocial factors that influence child and family adaptation to childhood dental trauma. © 2014 BSPD, IAPD and John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Clinical and epidemiologic characteristics of severe childhood ocular injuries in Southern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Hosseini

    2011-01-01

    Conclusions : Trauma is an important cause of childhood ocular morbidity in southern Iran. Playing with sharp objects is an important cause of ocular trauma in children, and most injuries can be prevented by careful supervision.

  13. Alexithymia as a Mediator between Childhood Trauma and Self-Injurious Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paivio, Sandra C.; McCulloch, Chantal R.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to test whether alexithymia mediates the relationship between childhood maltreatment and self-injurious behaviors (SIB) in college women. Method: The sample was comprised of 100 female undergraduate students. Measures were the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire [D. Bernstein, L. Fink, Manual for the Childhood…

  14. Child Injury: What You Need to Know PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-04-16

    This 60 second PSA is based on the April 2012 CDC Vital Signs report. Many childhood deaths and injuries are preventable, including those caused by crashes, suffocation, poisoning, drowning, fires, and falls. The PSA discusses ways to help prevent these deaths and injuries.  Created: 4/16/2012 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 4/16/2012.

  15. Prediction of Multidimensional Fatigue After Childhood Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crichton, Alison J; Babl, Franz; Oakley, Ed; Greenham, Mardee; Hearps, Stephen; Delzoppo, Carmel; Hutchison, Jamie; Beauchamp, Miriam; Anderson, Vicki A

    To determine (1) the presence of fatigue symptoms and predictors of fatigue after childhood brain injury and examine (2) the feasibility, reliability, and validity of a multidimensional fatigue measure (PedsQL Multidimensional Fatigue Scale [MFS]) obtained from parent and child perspectives. Emergency and intensive care units of a hospital in Melbourne, Australia. Thirty-five families (34 parent-proxies and 32 children) aged 8 to 18 years (mean child age = 13.29 years) with traumatic brain injury (TBI) of all severities (27 mild, 5 moderate, and 3 severe) admitted to the Royal Children's Hospital. Longitudinal prospective study. Fatigue data collected at 6-week follow-up (mean = 6.9 weeks). Postinjury child- and parent-rated fatigue (PedsQL MFS), mood, sleep, and pain based on questionnaire report: TBI severity (mild vs moderate/severe TBI). A score greater than 2 standard deviations below healthy control data indicated the presence of abnormal fatigue, rates of which were higher compared with normative data for both parent and child reports (47% and 29%). Fatigue was predicted by postinjury depression and sleep disturbance for parent, but not child ratings. Fatigue, as rated by children, was not significantly predicted by TBI severity or other symptoms. The PedsQL MFS demonstrated acceptable measurement properties in child TBI participants, evidenced by good feasibility and reliability (Cronbach α values >0.90). Interrater reliability between parent and child reports was poor to moderate. Results underscore the need to assess fatigue and associated sleep-wake disturbance and depression after child TBI from both parent and child perspectives.

  16. 20 Years of Research on Socioeconomic Inequality and Children's—Unintentional Injuries Understanding the Cause-Specific Evidence at Hand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucie Laflamme

    2010-01-01

    Studies have been conducted at both area and individual levels, the bulk of which deal with road traffic, burn, and fall injuries. As a whole and for each injury cause separately, their results support the notion that low socioeconomic status is greatly detrimental to child safety but not in all instances and settings. In light of variations between causes and, within causes, between settings and countries, it is emphasized that the prevention of inequities in child safety requires not only that proximal risk factors of injuries be tackled but also remote and fundamental ones inherent to poverty.

  17. Cognitive function in childhood and early adulthood and injuries later in life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osler, Merete; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Laursen, Bjarne

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It has been suggested that cognitive function in childhood is a modifiable risk factor for adult injury. This study examines the relationship between cognitive function measured at the age of 12 and 18 years and fatal and non-fatal injuries later in adult life. METHODS: A total of 11 ...

  18. Childhood bathtub-related injuries: slip and fall prevalence and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Sandra P; Shields, Brenda J; Smith, Gary A

    2005-05-01

    This study was conducted to describe the epidemiology of childhood bathtub-related injuries and to recommend methods for prevention of bathtub-related slips and falls. A consecutive series of 204 children, who were treated for bathtub-related injuries in a pediatric emergency department during a 3-year period were included in the study. The age range was 4 months to 16 years (mean 3.1, SD 2.8, median 2.8 years). Slips and falls accounted for 82.3% (168/204) of mechanisms of injuries. Lacerations, the most common injury type, accounted for 66.7% (136/204) of cases. The most frequent anatomic location of injury was the head or face (68.1%, 139/204). Adult supervision was present during 84.8% (67/79) of the injuries among children younger than 5 years. Parents changed the bathing environment after the patients' injury in 82.3% (65/79) of cases. Injuries due to slips and falls are the most common type of childhood bathtub-related injury. Increased supervision alone will not be sufficient to prevent these injuries, given that adult supervision is already present in most cases. These injuries are most effectively prevented by passive methods, such as providing an effective slip-resistant bathtub surface. The large number of bathtub-related injuries associated with slips and falls argues for exploring a higher coefficient of friction standard for bathtubs, which may lead to fewer injuries.

  19. Childhood death attributable to trauma: is there a difference between accidental and abusive fatal injuries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Henry W; Vander Velden, Heidi; Kreykes, Nathaniel S; Reid, Samuel

    2013-09-01

    Trauma is a leading cause of death among children worldwide. Detailed knowledge of the epidemiology of childhood fatal injuries is necessary for preventing injuries. To determine clinical differences between children who were treated in an emergency department for accidental or abusive injuries. A retrospective review of all deceased patients who were treated in two urban pediatric emergency departments between 1998 and 2010 was performed. Patients were categorized into two groups, accidental and abusive, for comparison. A total of 1498 patients died during the study period, with 124 deaths being attributable to injury for a rate of 9.5 injury-related deaths per year. Most fatal injuries were accidental. Children with abusive fatal injuries were younger and more likely to have been seen for an injury in a clinic or emergency department within 2 months of their death. Eighty-two percent of abusive fatal injuries had documented subdural hematomas, whereas only 7.2% of accidental fatal injuries had a subdural hematoma documented. Nearly 50% of abusive fatal injuries had retinal hemorrhages reported, although no child with an accidental fatal injury had this type of injury documented. Younger children, especially those previously seen in an emergency department or clinic for injury, are more likely to sustain an abusive fatal injury. Sentinel physical findings associated with abusive fatal injuries include subdural hematomas and retinal hemorrhages, and the presence of these findings should prompt an investigation into the circumstances of injury. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Trends in hepatic injury associated with unintentional overdose of paracetamol (Acetaminophen) in products with and without opioid: an analysis using the National Poison Data System of the American Association of Poison Control Centers, 2000-7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, G Randall; Ho, Mona; Woodward, Randall W

    2012-02-01

    more than one paracetamol-containing product. Abuse and misuse accounted for 34% of cases but 58% of the severe injuries. Paracetamol without opioid: A total of 126 830 cases were identified, increasing 44%, and 15 706 cases merited acetylcysteine (70% increase). A total of 4674 patients (3.7%) experienced some hepatic injury (134% increase). [corrected] Use of more than one non-opioid paracetamol product occurred in 7.3% of patients and was associated with a lower injury rate. Hepatic injury associated with paracetamol use is increasing significantly faster than population, paracetamol product sales and poison centre use. This suggests a growing portion of consumers is self-dosing paracetamol beyond the toxic threshold. This is true for paracetamol with and without opioids, but the increase in hepatic injury is greater when paracetamol is taken with an opioid. This disproportionate rise is greatest with misuse and abuse of paracetamol products in combination with opioids. Increasing self-dosage of the opioid combination products for the opioid effect is likely to result in more cases of toxic exposure to paracetamol. In contrast, cases of exposure to paracetamol-containing cough and cold products are underrepresented among those injured. In the absence of opioid-containing products, consumption of more than one paracetamol-containing product did not contribute to injury. Efforts to modulate unintentional paracetamol-related hepatic injury should consider these associations.

  1. Unintentional Injuries among School-Aged Children in Palestine: Findings from the National Study of Palestinian Schoolchildren (HBSC-WBG2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Jildeh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. This study describes the nonfatal injuries among adolescents in Palestine. Methods. The 2006 Palestinian Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC is a cross-sectional survey. Students of grades 6, 8, 10, and 12 completed a modified version of the international HBSC questionnaire, resulting in 15,963 students (47.3% boys and 52.7% girls included in this study (56.9% from the West Bank and 43.1% from Gaza. Results. Of the total 15,963 adolescents, 47.6% were injured, with boys (53.5% being statistically higher than girls (42.1% (P<0.001. The prevalence of those injured more than once decreased by age and was also found significantly higher in boys than in girls (27.3% and 17.9%, resp. (P<0.001. Children living in low FAS families showed significantly lower ratios of injuries than those living in moderate and high FAS families (P<0.001. Injuries while biking were significantly higher among boys (46.3% than girls (41.7% (P<0.001, and injuries while walking/running were more prevalent among girls (32.5% than boys (28.0% (P<0.001. Conclusion. Despite these considerably high rates, injury remains relatively underappreciated. Results of this study are useful to develop a national injury prevention program aimed at enhancing the safety of Palestinian adolescents.

  2. Childhood Obesity

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-08-06

    In this podcast, Dr. Tom Frieden, CDC Director, discusses the decrease in childhood obesity rates and what strategies have been proven to work to help our children grow up and thrive.  Created: 8/6/2013 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control.   Date Released: 3/6/2014.

  3. Retropharyngeal hematoma secondary to whiplash injury in childhood: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurata, Hakan; Yilmaz, Muhammet Bahadır; Borcek, Alp Ozgun; Oner, Ali Yusuf; Baykaner, M Kemali

    2012-01-01

    Whiplash Associated Disorders (WAD) has been reported as an adult phenomenon. Whiplash injury has classically been described as a cervical soft tissue hyperextension- flexion injury after a trauma such as a rear end impact car crash, contact sport injuries, blows to the head from a falling object or a punch and shaken baby syndrome and is mostly seen in adults . It is important as it may cause severe disability due to spinal cord injury, decrease work productivity and even retropharyngeal hematoma resulting airway obstruction and mortality due to bleeding amongst deep cervical fascias. We describe a case of retropharyngeal hematoma after whiplash injury in a childhood.

  4. Blast Injuries: What Clinicians Need to Know

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-11-05

    In this podcast, Dr. Richard C. Hunt, Director of the CDC’s Division of Injury Response, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control provides a brief overview for health care providers on how to respond and care for persons injured by an explosion or blast event.  Created: 11/5/2008 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC), Division of Injury Response (DIR).   Date Released: 11/6/2008.

  5. Trends in childhood injury mortality in South African population ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1990-01-09

    Jan 9, 1990 ... injury mortality rates.1,6, This study examines trends in injury monality rates and the ... Child Safety Centre, Red Cross War Memorial Children's. Hospital and ..... increase in deaths among older coloured children. Wyndham21 .... and head injury admissions to Groote Schuur Hospital. S Afr Med J 1974;.

  6. Insomnia Symptoms and Risk for Unintentional Fatal Injuries—The HUNT Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laugsand, Lars Erik; Strand, Linn B.; Vatten, Lars J.; Janszky, Imre; Bjørngaard, Johan Håkon

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: To assess the association between insomnia symptoms and risk of fatal unintentional injuries. Design: Population-based prospective cohort study with a mean follow-up of 14 y, linking health survey data with information on insomnia symptoms to the National Cause of Death Registry. Setting: Nord-Trøndelag County, Norway. Participants: A total of 54,399 men and women 20-89 y of age who participated in the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study between 1995 and 1997. Interventions: N/A. Measurements and results: There were 277 unintentional fatal injuries, including 57 fatal motor vehicle injuries during follow-up. There was a dose-dependent association between the number of insomnia symptoms and risk of unintentional fatal injuries (P for trend 0.001) and fatal motor vehicle injuries (P for trend 0.023), respectively. The proportion of unintentional fatal injuries cases that could have been prevented in the absence of difficulties initiating sleep, difficulties maintaining sleep, and having a feeling of nonrestorative sleep were 8%, 9%, and 8%, respectively. The corresponding estimates for motor vehicle injuries were 34%, 11%, and 10%. Conclusion: Insomnia is a major contributor to both unintentional fatal injuries in general as well as fatal motor vehicle injuries. Increasing public health awareness about insomnia and identifying persons with insomnia may be important in preventing unintentional fatal injuries. Citation: Laugsand LE, Strand LB, Vatten LJ, Janszky I, Bjørngaard JH. Insomnia symptoms and risk for unintentional fatal injuries—the HUNT Study. SLEEP 2014;37(11):1777-1786. PMID:25364073

  7. Repercussões no contexto familiar de injúrias não-intencionais em crianças = The repercussion from unintentional injuries in children on the family context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiza Jane Eyre de Souza Vieira

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desta pesquisa é estudar as características da criança como vítima de injúrias não-intencionais e seu familiar-acompanhante, descrever as repercussões dessas injúrias na família e identificar a concepção de familiares-acompanhantes sobre fatores de risco no domicílio e o conhecimento de práticas preventivas. Estudo descritivo, realizado com 29 familiares e/ou acompanhantes de crianças internadas em um hospital de emergência, em Fortaleza, Ceará, em 2005. A maioria das crianças tinha entre 5 a 10 anos,do sexo masculino, e prevaleceu a injúria no trânsito. Em relação aos acompanhantes, predominou renda de até um salário mínimo e eles afirmaram que conhecem os tipos mais comuns de injúrias com crianças e os modos de evitá-los. As repercussões atingem as dimensões emocionais, econômicas e sociais, somando-se verbalizações de medo, culpa e arrependimento, protesto e resignação. Conclui-se que o tema precisa ser amplamente discutido, mobilizando pessoas em instâncias formadoras de opiniões para reorientação da práxis na Saúde e Educação.The objective of this work is to study the characteristics of the child when victim of unintentional injury, as well as those of his family caregiver. This was accomplished by describing the repercussion of those injuries in the family and identifyingthe family caregivers’ conception of risk factors in the home, as well as their knowledge of preventive practices. A descriptive study was conducted with 29 relatives or caregivers of injured children at an emergency hospital in Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil, in 2005. Most of the children were between 5 and 10 years old and were male; the most prevalent instances of injury were traffic-related. Regarding the caregivers, the most prevalent income range for this group was up to minimum wage. They reported knowing the most frequent types ofinjuries to children, as well as the ways to avoid them. The repercussions within the

  8. Burden of injury in childhood and adolescence in 8 European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brugmans Marco JP

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Injury is the major cause of death and suffering among children and adolescents, but awareness of the problem and political commitment for preventive actions remain unacceptably low. We have assessed variation in the burden of injuries in childhood and adolescence in eight European countries. Methods Hospital, emergency department, and mortality databases of injury patients aged 0-24 years were analyzed for Austria, Denmark, Ireland, Latvia, Netherlands, Norway, Slovenia and the United Kingdom (England, Wales. Years lost due to premature mortality (YLL, years lived with disability (YLD, and disability adjusted life years (DALYs were calculated. Results Differences in the burden of injury in childhood and adolescence are large, with a fourfold gap between the safest countries (Netherlands and UK in western-Europe and the relatively unsafe countries (Latvia and Slovenia in the east. Variation between countries is attributable to high variation in premature mortality (YLL varied from 14-58 per 1000 persons and disability (YLD varied from 3-10 per 1000 persons. Highest burden is observed among males ages 15-24. If childhood and adolescence injuries are reduced to the level of current best injury prevention practices, 6 DALYs per 1000 child years can be avoided. Conclusions Injuries in childhood and adolescence cause a high disability and mortality burden in Europe. In all developmental stages large inequalities between west and east are observed. Potential benefits up to almost 1 million healthy child years gained across Europe are possible, if proven ways for prevention are more widely implemented. Our children deserve action now.

  9. Burden of injury in childhood and adolescence in 8 European countries.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Polinder, Suzanne

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Injury is the major cause of death and suffering among children and adolescents, but awareness of the problem and political commitment for preventive actions remain unacceptably low. We have assessed variation in the burden of injuries in childhood and adolescence in eight European countries. METHODS: Hospital, emergency department, and mortality databases of injury patients aged 0-24 years were analyzed for Austria, Denmark, Ireland, Latvia, Netherlands, Norway, Slovenia and the United Kingdom (England, Wales). Years lost due to premature mortality (YLL), years lived with disability (YLD), and disability adjusted life years (DALYs) were calculated. RESULTS: Differences in the burden of injury in childhood and adolescence are large, with a fourfold gap between the safest countries (Netherlands and UK) in western-Europe and the relatively unsafe countries (Latvia and Slovenia) in the east. Variation between countries is attributable to high variation in premature mortality (YLL varied from 14-58 per 1000 persons) and disability (YLD varied from 3-10 per 1000 persons). Highest burden is observed among males ages 15-24. If childhood and adolescence injuries are reduced to the level of current best injury prevention practices, 6 DALYs per 1000 child years can be avoided. CONCLUSIONS: Injuries in childhood and adolescence cause a high disability and mortality burden in Europe. In all developmental stages large inequalities between west and east are observed. Potential benefits up to almost 1 million healthy child years gained across Europe are possible, if proven ways for prevention are more widely implemented. Our children deserve action now.

  10. [Injury severity and pattern at the scene. What is the influence of the mechanism of injury?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frink, M; Zeckey, C; Haasper, C; Krettek, C; Hildebrand, F

    2010-05-01

    The mechanism of injury is the major cause for trauma team activation and emergency room resuscitation of trauma victims. To date, it remains unclear to what extent the injury mechanism influences injury pattern and severity. A comprehensive systematic literature search based on Medline was carried out. Only a limited number of studies are available which investigated the influence of injury mechanisms on injury patterns and severity. There are no specific mechanisms for traumatic brain and spine injuries. Injuries to the chest and abdomen most frequently resulted from motor vehicle accidents involving passengers sitting on the side of the impact. Steering wheel deformity correlated with the injury severity. Pelvic fractures occurred most frequently due to motor vehicle accidents. The highest mortality resulted from pedestrians being struck by a vehicle and additional loss of life in the same vehicle compartment. The systematic literature research showed inconsistent results regarding the influence of trauma mechanisms on the resulting injury. Therefore, a treatment algorithm for trauma patients should be independent of the mechanism which is represented in several training programs (e.g. ATLS and PHTLS). However, the mechanism of injury may increase the alertness of the trauma team with respect to injury distribution and severity.

  11. Risk of childhood injuries after prenatal exposure to maternal bereavement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Virk, Jasveer; Li, Jiong; Lauritsen, Jens

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the risk of injuries among children exposed to a stressful life exposure (defined as bereavement) before conception or during fetal life.......The aim of this study was to assess the risk of injuries among children exposed to a stressful life exposure (defined as bereavement) before conception or during fetal life....

  12. Use of preventive measures of childhood injuries at household level: Community-based findings from Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Pant, P. R.; Towner, E.; Ellis, M; Pilkington, P.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Child injuries are a major public health problem in low- and middle- income countries but they are\\ud not recognised at policy or community level. Prevention of injuries is neglected due to lack of awareness. Only a\\ud few community-based studies have been conducted to explore this problem.\\ud Objectives: To explore the practice of safety measures applied by the household after childhood injury among the\\ud survey households of Makwanpur.\\ud Methods: A community-based household ...

  13. Morphometry and diffusion MR imaging years after childhood traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porto, Luciana; Jurcoane, Alina; Magerkurth, Joerg; Margerkurth, Joerg; Althaus, Jürgen; Zanella, Friedhelm; Hattingen, Elke; Kieslich, Matthias

    2011-11-01

    Our goal was to detect possible unrecognized injury in cerebral white matter (WM) in adult survivors of traumatic brain injury (TBI) during childhood, who showed no detectable axonal injury or chronic contusion on late conventional MRI. We used voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to detect subtle structural changes in brain morphology and diffusion-tensor imaging (DTI) to non-invasively probe WM integrity. By means of VBM and DTI we examined a group of 12 adult patients who suffered from childhood closed head injury without axonal injury on late conventional MRI. Patients sustained complicated mild or moderate-to-severe TBI with a mean of 7 points based on the Glasgow Coma Scale. The mean time after trauma was 19 years (range 7-31 years). For VBM, group comparisons of segmented T1-weighted grey matter and WM images were performed, while for DTI we compared the fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity (MD) between the groups. Patients presented with higher MD in the right cerebral white matter, bilaterally in the forceps major and in the body and splenium of the corpus callosum. These findings were supported by VBM, which showed reduced WM volume bilaterally, mainly along the callosal splenium. Our results indicate that persistent focal long-term volume reduction and underlying WM structural changes may occur after TBI during childhood and that their effects extend into adulthood. Normal late conventional MR findings after childhood TBI do not rule out non-apparent axonal injury. Copyright © 2011 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Childhood motorcycle-related injuries in a Nigerian city ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Public campaigns should clearly highlight the risk of injury to this age group, and poor safety practices with regard to children should be specifically targeted. With the ... pedestrian collision in 28 cases (70%), other vehicle-motorcycle collision ...

  15. Dipoles, unintentional antennas and EMC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berend Danker

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Radiated emissions from equipment commonly originate from electronic circuits that act as electric dipoles created by the signal voltage between the signal conductors or as magnetic dipoles formed by the signal current flowing in a loop. Direct emission is mostly small, but circuits often couple to long conductors or large wiring loops which act as antennas and are efficient radiators. A comparable situation exists when short dipole antennas or small wiring loops receive ambient noise (susceptibility. Usually the amplitude of noise sources or the susceptibility of circuits is an invariable. The dipole strength increases with the distance between the conductors and the area. Shielding and proper grounding decreases the interaction via unintentional antennas. Short-circuiting and the insertion of lossy ferrite cores reduce the efficiency of unintentional antennas.

  16. Hippocampus, amygdala and global brain changes 10 years after childhood traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchamp, M H; Ditchfield, M; Maller, J J; Catroppa, C; Godfrey, C; Rosenfeld, J V; Kean, M J; Anderson, V A

    2011-04-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) in children results in damage to the developing brain, particularly in severely injured individuals. Little is known, however, of the long-term structural aspects of the brain following childhood TBI. This study investigated the integrity of the brain 10 years post-TBI using magnetic resonance imaging volumetrics in a sample of 49 participants with mild, moderate and severe TBI, evaluated against a normative sample of 20 individuals from a pediatric database with comparable age and gender distribution. Structural integrity was investigated in gray and white matter, and by manually segmenting two regions of interest (hippocampus, amygdala), potentially vulnerable to the effects of childhood TBI. The results indicate that more severe injuries caused a reduction in gray and white brain matter, while all TBI severity levels resulted in increased volumes of cerebrospinal fluid and smaller hippocampal volumes. In addition, enlarged amygdala volumes were detected in severely injured patients compared to their mild and moderate counterparts, suggesting that childhood TBI may disrupt the development of certain brain regions through diffuse pathological changes. The findings highlight the lasting impact of childhood TBI on the brain and the importance of monitoring brain structure in the long-term after early injury. Copyright © 2010 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. What Protects Certain Nerves from Stretch Injury?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schraut, Nicholas B; Walton, Sharon; Bou Monsef, Jad; Shott, Susan; Serici, Anthony; Soulii, Lioubov; Amirouche, Farid; Gonzalez, Mark H; Kerns, James M

    2016-01-01

    The human tibial nerves is less prone to injury following joint arthroplasty compared with the peroneal nerves. Besides the anatomical distribution, other features may confer protection from stretch injury. We therefore examined the size, shape and connective tissue distribution for the two nerves. The tibial and peroneal nerves from each side of nine fresh human cadavers we reharvested mid-thigh. Proximal segments manually stretched 20%-25% were fixed in aldehyde, while the adjacent distal segments were fixed in their natural length. Paraffin sections stained by Masson's trichrome method for connective tissue were examined by light microscopy. Tibial nerves had 2X more fascicles compared with the peroneal, but the axonal content appeared similar. Analysis showed that neither nerve had a significant reduction in cross sectional area of the fascicles following stretch. However, fascicles from stretched tibial nerves become significantly more oval compared with those from unstretched controls and peroneal nerves. Tibial nerves had a greater proportion that was extrafascicular tissue (50-55%) compared with peroneal nerves (38%-42%). This epineurium was typically adipose tissue. Perineurial thickness in both nerves was directly related to fascicular size. Tibial nerves have several unique histological features associated with size, shape and tissue composition compared with the peroneal nerve. We suggest that more fascicles with their tightly bound perineurium and more robust epineurium afford protection against stretch injury. Mechanical studies should clarify how size and shape contribute to nerve protection and/or neurapraxia.

  18. FastStats: Accidents or Unintentional Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... please visit this page: About CDC.gov . FastStats Homepage Diseases and Conditions Anemia or Iron Deficiency Arthritis ... 0 million Source: National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey: 2011 Emergency Department Summary Tables. Table 17 [PDF - ...

  19. Intentional and unintentional injuries: Healthy approach

    OpenAIRE

    Soori H

    2013-01-01

    وؼي يٕ٘ دا ذ٘ اٚ يِ لٔذٚ ئتي وٝ ثشای ثش سخ داد چٝٛٔل ثٛد ا بٔ ػبثمٝ وٙؾ ٞب ٚ ٚاوٙؾ ٞبی ا ؼ٘ب ثب عجيقت،ػبیش ٛٔجٛدات ٚ ا ؼ٘ب ٖٞبی دی شٍ عجقبً ٚ دس ثؼيبسی ٛٔاسد ثبلٔذٚ ئت ٞ شٕاٜ ثٛدٜ اػت. ؿبیذ پيؾ اص آ وٝ ا ؼ٘ب خبويثٝ ثي بٕسی ٞبی ٚا يٌش یب غيشٚا يٌش دی شٍ جٔتلا ؿٛد لٔذٚ ئت ساتجشثٝ وشدٜ ثبؿذ. دس تٔٛ تبسیخي ثشجبی بٔ ذٜ٘ ي٘ض ؿٛاٞذثؼيبسی اص شٔي ٚ ب٘تٛا ي٘ ب٘ؿي اص لٔذٚ ئت ٞب دس احش جٙ ًٞبٚ ثلایبی عجيقي ٚجٛد داسد. ثٝ ٞش حب ػٛا ح٘ اص ف ذٕٜ تشی خٔبعشاتي ٞؼتٙذ وٝ ٞش ا ؼ٘بي٘ فبسك اص لٛ ئت، ظ٘اد، زٔٞت...

  20. Intentional and unintentional injuries: Healthy approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soori H

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available وؼي يٕ٘ دا ذ٘ اٚ يِ لٔذٚ ئتي وٝ ثشای ثش سخ داد چٝٛٔل ثٛد ا بٔ ػبثمٝ وٙؾ ٞب ٚ ٚاوٙؾ ٞبی ا ؼ٘ب ثب عجيقت،ػبیش ٛٔجٛدات ٚ ا ؼ٘ب ٖٞبی دی شٍ عجقبً ٚ دس ثؼيبسی ٛٔاسد ثبلٔذٚ ئت ٞ شٕاٜ ثٛدٜ اػت. ؿبیذ پيؾ اص آ وٝ ا ؼ٘ب خبويثٝ ثي بٕسی ٞبی ٚا يٌش یب غيشٚا يٌش دی شٍ جٔتلا ؿٛد لٔذٚ ئت ساتجشثٝ وشدٜ ثبؿذ. دس تٔٛ تبسیخي ثشجبی بٔ ذٜ٘ ي٘ض ؿٛاٞذثؼيبسی اص شٔي ٚ ب٘تٛا ي٘ ب٘ؿي اص لٔذٚ ئت ٞب دس احش جٙ ًٞبٚ ثلایبی عجيقي ٚجٛد داسد. ثٝ ٞش حب ػٛا ح٘ اص ف ذٕٜ تشی خٔبعشاتي ٞؼتٙذ وٝ ٞش ا ؼ٘بي٘ فبسك اص لٛ ئت، ظ٘اد، زٔٞت،جٙؼيت، ؿغ ،ُ ػ ٚ ػب یب ٞش فب شٔتجظ ثب خلٛكيتفشدی، اجت بٕفي، التلبدی، فشٞٙ يٍ، حٔيغي ٚ ط ت٘يىي ثب آ ٛٔاجٝ اػت. ص بٔي٘ لٔذٚ ئت سا حبدحٝ ت مّي ئ وشد ذ٘ ٚ ثبآ سا ا شٔی » حبدحٝ خجش يٕ٘ وٙذ « تقجيش ٝ٘ چٙذا دسػتاجتٙبة ب٘پزیش ٚ ؿبیذ غيش لبث پي يٍشی ئ دا ؼ٘تٙذ.

  1. Evaluation and Prevention for Falls in Elder People:A Leading Cause of Unintentional Injuries%老年人意外伤害的首要病因--跌倒的评价和预防

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑华光; 鞠奕; 沈东超; 王琳; 姜睿璇; 赵性泉; 王拥军; 王春雪

    2013-01-01

    Falls are the leading cause of both fatal and non-fatal unintentional injuries in older people. Patients with neurologic or general conditions were associated with an increased risk of falling. Risk factors for falls include age older than 80 years, depression, use of four or more prescription medications, muscle weakness, arthritis, and impairments in gait, balance, cognition, vision. An increased risk of falls is established among persons with diagnoses of stroke, dementia, and disorders of gait and balance and probable among patients with Parkinson disease, peripheral neuropathy, lower extremity weakness or sensory loss, and substantial vision loss. A history of falling in the past year strongly predicts the likelihood of future falls. A risk-assessment tool and care plan may be an important way of managing the issue. In this review we aimed to focus on assessment of the potential risk factors as well as the effective fall prevention strategies.%跌倒是老年人意外伤害(包括致死性和非致死性)的首要原因。罹患神经科疾患或其他疾病的患者跌倒的风险增加。一般性的危险因素包括:年龄超过80岁、抑郁、口服药物种类超过4种、肌肉无力、关节炎、步态异常、平衡障碍、认知障碍、视敏度下降等。相关的神经科疾病有卒中、痴呆、帕金森病、周围神经病、深感觉障碍等。在1年内有跌倒病史的患者,再次发生跌倒的风险增加。合适的跌倒风险评估量表和预防方案对防止跌倒是非常关键的。本综述对跌倒的潜在危险因素进行评估,同时对跌倒预防措施的有效性进行全面评价。

  2. Social differences in traffic injury risks in childhood and youth--a literature review and a research agenda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laflamme, L; Diderichsen, Finn

    2000-01-01

    The paper reviews the scientific literature concerning social differences in traffic injuries in childhood in order to highlight the current state of knowledge and to draw the main lines of a research agenda.......The paper reviews the scientific literature concerning social differences in traffic injuries in childhood in order to highlight the current state of knowledge and to draw the main lines of a research agenda....

  3. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Chronic Dysarthric Speech after Childhood Brain Injury: Reliance on a Left-Hemisphere Compensatory Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Angela T.; Masterton, Richard; Pigdon, Lauren; Connelly, Alan; Liegeois, Frederique J.

    2013-01-01

    Severe and persistent speech disorder, dysarthria, may be present for life after brain injury in childhood, yet the neural correlates of this chronic disorder remain elusive. Although abundant literature is available on language reorganization after lesions in childhood, little is known about the capacity of motor speech networks to reorganize…

  4. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Chronic Dysarthric Speech after Childhood Brain Injury: Reliance on a Left-Hemisphere Compensatory Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Angela T.; Masterton, Richard; Pigdon, Lauren; Connelly, Alan; Liegeois, Frederique J.

    2013-01-01

    Severe and persistent speech disorder, dysarthria, may be present for life after brain injury in childhood, yet the neural correlates of this chronic disorder remain elusive. Although abundant literature is available on language reorganization after lesions in childhood, little is known about the capacity of motor speech networks to reorganize…

  5. Cognitive recovery and development after traumatic brain injury in childhood: a person-oriented, longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonsson, Catherine Aaro; Catroppa, Cathy; Godfrey, Celia; Smedler, Ann-Charlotte; Anderson, Vicki

    2013-01-15

    Influence of childhood traumatic brain injury (TBI) on cognitive recovery and subsequent development is poorly understood. In this longitudinal study we used cluster analysis to explore acute stage individual profiles of injury age and cognition in 118 children with traumatic brain injury. Repeated measures of cognitive function were conducted at 30 months, indicating recovery, and 10 years post-injury, indicating development. Nine clusters were identified. Recovery was evident in three clusters, two of them with low functioning profiles. Developmental gains occurred for three clusters and an acute profile of higher freedom from distractibility (FFD) and lower processing speed (PS) was related to positive differences. One cluster, average low functioning and especially low verbal comprehension, demonstrated a slower development than peers. This suggests that developmental change after TBI in childhood takes place on a continuum, with both chance of long-term catching up, and risk of poor development. An acute profile of higher FFD and lower PS seemed to reflect injury consequences and were followed by developmental gains. These results challenge previous findings, and warrant further investigation.

  6. Childhood intussusception in Ile-ife: What has changed? | Talabi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aims to review our current experience in the management of childhood intussusception and ... More than half of the patients presented after 24 hours. Passage of red currant stool, vomiting, abdominal pain, fever, and abdominal ...

  7. Childhood trauma and psychosis - what is the evidence?

    OpenAIRE

    Schäfer, Ingo; Fisher, Helen L.

    2011-01-01

    In the last decade, a substantial number of population-based studies have suggested that childhood trauma is a risk factor for psychosis. In several studies, the effects held after adjusting for a wide range of potentially confounding variables, including genetic liability for psychosis. Less is known about the mechanisms underlying the association between childhood trauma and psychosis. Possible pathways include relationships between negative perceptions of the self, negative affect, and psy...

  8. Emotion labeling and socio-emotional outcomes 18 months after early childhood traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tlustos, Sarah J; Chiu, C-Y Peter; Walz, Nicolay Chertkoff; Taylor, H Gerry; Yeates, Keith Owen; Wade, Shari L

    2011-11-01

    A growing body of literature has documented evidence for emotion labeling (EL) deficits after traumatic brain injury (TBI); however, long-term effects of TBI on EL abilities, particularly among young children, are unclear. We investigated EL abilities and socio-emotional outcomes in 32 children with moderate-severe TBI, 23 with complicated-mild TBI, and 82 children with orthopedic injuries (OI), shortly after injury and at 18 months post-injury. All children were between 3:0 and 6:11 years of age at the time of injury. Repeated measures analyses indicated that all groups showed improved EL performance between acute and 18-month assessments, but that the moderate-severe TBI group improved at a slower rate than the OI group, so that the two groups showed significantly different performance at 18 months. Emotion labeling ability did not significantly contribute to the prediction of socio-emotional outcomes after controlling for pre-injury functioning. These results provide preliminary evidence of emerging EL deficits after early childhood TBI that are related to injury severity but that do not predict social and behavioral outcomes.

  9. Epidemiological study on unintentional injuries among migrant children under six years old in four communities in Beijing%北京市4社区0~6岁流动儿童意外伤害的流行病学特征研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐韬; 张瑞; 梁艺; 宫丽敏; 王惠珊

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] To understand the situation of unintentional injuries among migrant children under six years old in Beijing and provide basis for future intervention. [Methods] Four migrant communities in Beijing were randomly selected to participate in the study. Questionnaire survey was conducted among parents of migrant children under six years old. Parents of resident children were also interviewed as the control group. The contents of the questionnaire survey included unintentional injuries related knowledge and behavior, occurrence of unintentional injuries in the previous year.[Results] The general incidences of unintentional injuries among migrant and resident children were 11.9% and 12.9% respectively. There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups(x2= 0. 119 ,P= 0. 730). The incidences of road traffic injuries, sharp instrument injuries, burns and bites were higher among migrant children than resident children. 40.5% of injuries among migrant children happened at home, 26.2% at outside activity spots, 33.3% at road sides or other outside places. 92.3% of injuries among resident children happened at home. The average time of hospital admission, rest time and medical cost due to injuries among migrant children were significant higher than those of the resident children. [Conclusions] There are specific epidemiological characters on unintentional injuries among migrant children under six years old in Beijing. The disease burden of unintentional injuries among migrant children is higher than resident children. Intervention methods should be taken to decrease the incidence and burden of unintentional injuries among migrant children.%[目的]为了解北京市0~6岁流动儿童意外伤害的发生现状,为干预措施提供依据.[方法]选择北京市流动人口集中的4个社区,对在社区居住的非京籍0~6岁儿童的家长进行问卷调查;同时对社区居住的京籍0~6岁儿童的家长进行调查,作

  10. Exploring the King’s outcome scale for childhood head injury in children attending a rehabilitation hospital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rumney, Peter; Hung, Ryan; McAdam, Laura;

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Few tools exist to assess and monitor impairment and disability in children with acquired brain injury. The King’s Outcome Scale for Childhood Head Injury (KOSCHI) was developed as an alternative to the Glasgow Outcome Scale. However, limited information is available to support its rel...

  11. Using magnetic resonance imaging to predict new learning outcome at 5 years after childhood traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catroppa, Cathy; Anderson, Vicki; Ditchfield, Michael; Coleman, Lee

    2008-05-01

    Memory and learning entail the recruitment of a number of neural areas, including the medial temporal lobes, temporal association areas, and prefrontal cortices. This study examined the effects of injury severity on long-term memory function in 55 children who sustained traumatic brain injury 5 years earlier and compared this with 17 healthy controls. It also investigated cortical damage and diffuse axonal injury and their association to memory and learning outcomes 5 years after traumatic brain injury. Children were administered memory tests of increasing complexity. Results indicated that injury severity affected aspects of complex memory, with no significant influence on working memory; that focal cortical damage was not predictive of working or complex memory, whereas diffuse axonal injury predicted outcome on complex memory tasks. Findings suggest that the implementation of diffuse axonal injury as an index of injury may assist in predicting memory outcome after childhood traumatic brain injury.

  12. Unintentional Cannabis Intoxication in Toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claudet, Isabelle; Mouvier, Sébastien; Labadie, Magali; Manin, Cécile; Michard-Lenoir, Anne-Pascale; Eyer, Didier; Dufour, Damien

    2017-09-01

    In France, cannabis consumption is illegal. The health impact of its increasing use and higher tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) concentrations is still poorly documented, particularly that of unintentional pediatric intoxications. We sought to evaluate the French national trend of admissions for unintentional cannabis intoxication in children over an 11-year period (2004-2014). A retrospective, national, multicenter, observational study of a pediatric cohort. All children aged cannabis intoxication (compatible symptoms and positive toxicological screening results) during the reference period were included. Twenty-four PEDs participated in our study; 235 children were included, and 71% of the patients were 18 months old or younger. Annual admissions increased by a factor of 13. Hashish resin was the main form ingested (72%). During the study period, the evolution was characterized by a national increase in intoxications, younger intoxicated children (1.28 ± 0.4 vs 1.7 ± 0.7 years, P = .005), and more comas (n = 38) (P = .05, odds ratio 3.5 [1.02-11.8]). Compared with other intoxications, other PED admissions, and the same age population, cannabis-related admissions were greater. There was a potential link between the increased incidence of comas and increased THC concentration in resin seized in France over the period. Children are collateral victims of changing trends in cannabis use and a prevailing THC concentration. Intoxicated children are more frequent, are younger, and have intoxications that are more severe. This raises a real issue of public health. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  13. Attention remediation following traumatic brain injury in childhood and adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbiati, Susanna; Recla, Monica; Pastore, Valentina; Liscio, Mariarosaria; Bardoni, Alessandra; Castelli, Enrico; Strazzer, Sandra

    2009-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) frequently affects both the basic and the superordinate components of attention; deficits vary according to patient age. This study evaluated the efficacy of a specific remediation intervention for attention. Sixty-five TBI patients (aged 6?18 years) with attention deficit were assessed at baseline and at 1-year follow-up: 40 patients received attention-specific neuropsychological training for 6 months, and the control group comprised 25 patients. Cognitive assessment included a Wechsler Intelligence Scale (e.g., A. Orsini, 1993) and the Continuous Performance Test II (CPT II; C. K. Conners, 2000). The Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS; S. Sparrow, D. Balla & D. V. Cicchetti, 1984) was administered to assess the treatment's ecological validity. At baseline, all patients presented with a mild intellectual disability and pathological scores on the CPT II. At follow-up, significant differences were found between the 2 groups on the CPT II and VABS: The clinical group improved more than the control group. Specific remediation training for attention, including a combination of a process-specific approach and metacognitive strategies, significantly improved attention performance. Improvement in attention skills also affected adaptive skills positively.

  14. Pattern of childhood burn injuries and their management outcome at Bugando Medical Centre in Northwestern Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chalya Phillipo L

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Burn injuries constitute a major public health problem and are the leading cause of childhood morbidity and mortality worldwide. There is paucity of published data on childhood burn injuries in Tanzania, particularly the study area. This study was conducted to describe the pattern of childhood burn injuries in our local setting and to evaluate their management outcome. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted at Bugando Medical Centre (in Northwestern Tanzania over a 3-year period from January 2008 to December 2010. Data was collected using a pre-tested coded questionnaire and statistical analyses performed using SPSS software version 15.0. Results A total of 342 burned children were studied. Males were mainly affected. Children aged = 2 were the majority accounting for 45.9% of cases. Intentional burn injuries due to child abuse were reported in 2.9% of cases. Scald was the most common type of burns (56.1%. The trunk was the most commonly involved body region (57.3%. Majority of patients (48.0% sustained superficial burns. Eight (2.3% patients were HIV positive. Most patients (89.8% presented to the hospital later than 24 h. The rate of burn wound infection on admission and on 10th day were 32.4% and 39.8% respectively.Staphylococcus aureus were more common on admission wound swabs, with Pseudomonas aeruginosa becoming more evident after 10th day. MRSA was detected in 19.2% of Staphylococcus aureus. Conservative treatment was performed in 87.1% of cases. Surgical treatment mainly skin grafting (65.9% was performed in 44 (12.9% of patients. The overall average of the length of hospital stay (LOS was 22.12 ± 16.62 days. Mortality rate was 11.7%. Using multivariate logistic regression analysis; age of the patient, type of burn, delayed presentation, clothing ignition, %TBSA and severity of burn were found to be significantly associated with LOS (P P Conclusion Childhood burn injuries still remain a menace in our

  15. What Are the Risk Factors for Childhood Leukemia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for a possible link to childhood leukemia include: Exposure to electromagnetic fields (such as living near power lines) Living near a nuclear power plant Infections early in life Mother’s age when child is ... history Fetal exposure to hormones such as diethylstilbestrol (DES) or birth ...

  16. What money can buy: family income and childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Young

    2014-12-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between family income and childhood obesity. Using the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998-99 (ECLS-K), I report three new findings. First, family income and childhood obesity are generally negatively correlated, but for children in very low-income families, they are positively correlated. Second, the negative association between family income and Body Mass Index (BMI) is especially strong and significant among high-BMI children. Third, the difference in obesity rates between children from low- and high-income families increases as children age. This study further investigates potential factors that might contribute to a rapid increase in the obesity rate among low-income children. I find that their faster weight gain, rather than slower height growth, is a greater contributor to the rapid increase in their BMI over time. On the other hand, I also find that the faster weight gain by low-income children cannot be attributed to any single factor, such as participation in school meal programs, parental characteristics, or individual characteristics. These findings add to the current obesity debate by demonstrating that the key to curbing childhood obesity may lie in factors generating different obesity rates across income levels.

  17. Learning a Music Instrument in Early Childhood: What Can We Learn from Professional Musicians' Childhood Memories?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Wyverne

    2008-01-01

    Professional early childhood educators are often asked for advice about whether or when a young child should learn to play a music instrument. Many educators who do not have a background in music education may not be confident in providing such advice. A range of overseas research has supported learning a music instrument in the early childhood…

  18. 职业应激和社会支持与职业性非故意伤害关系的病例对照研究%Association between occupational stress, social support, and occupational unintentional injuries: a case-control study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘新霞; 宗莹; 黄国贤; 王淑玉; 周郁潮; 郭智屏; 陈维清

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the association between occupational stress,social support,and occupational unintentional injuries.Methods A 1∶1 matched case-control study was conducted in 151 cases of occupational unintentional injuries who were admitted to 6 occupational injury-admitted hospitals in Zhongshan City from October 2013 to December 2013 and 151 matched controls without unintentional injuries in the last year who had matched age,sex,and occupation.Their demographic characteristics,occupational stress (by the effort-reward imbalance questionnaire),and social support were investigated with a structured questionnaire.Results Analysis of the data showed that there were significant differences in the score of each dimension of occupational stress,the ratio of effort to reward,and the score of superior support between the case group and the control group (P<0.05).The Cox regression analysis results showed that more extrinsic efforts (OR=1.47,95%CI=1.20~1.80) and overcommitment (OR=1.30,95%CI=1.08~1.55) were the risk factors for occupational unintentional injuries,while more superior supports (OR=0.64,95%CI=0.48~0.84) and higher earnings (>3 000 yuan each month) (OR=0.67,95%CI=0.54~0.84) were protective factors.Conclusion Occupational stress and social support have an influence on the occurrence of occupational injuries.%目的 评价职业应激和社会支持与职业性非故意伤害的关系.方法 采用1∶1配比的病例-对照调查设计,以2013年10月至2013年12月在中山市6家工伤定点医院收治的151名职业非故意伤害工人和151名经年龄、性别、工种匹配且在过去1年内无非故意伤害的同事为调查对象,用结构式问卷对他们的人口学特征、职业应激(采用付出回报失衡问卷)和社会支持等情况进行调查.结果 两组工人的职业应激各维度得分、付出回报比及上级社会支持维度得分的差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05).使用多因素COX回归拟

  19. Delegations of authority and organization; National Childhood Vaccine Injury Act of 1986--FDA. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-04-01

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending the regulations for delegations of authority by adding new authorities delegated by the Assistant Secretary for Health to the Commissioner of Food and Drugs (the Commissioner). The new authorities are under certain provisions of the Public Health Service Act (the PHS Act) and of the National Childhood Vaccine Injury Act of 1986. The authorities added are being further redelegated, from the Commissioner to the Director, Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER), and the Associate Director for Policy Coordination and Public Affairs, CBER.

  20. Epidemiology of childhood burn: yield of largest community based injury survey in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashreky, S R; Rahman, A; Chowdhury, S M; Giashuddin, S; SvanstrOm, L; Linnan, M; Shafinaz, S; Uhaa, I J; Rahman, F

    2008-09-01

    In terms of mortality, morbidity and disability, burns are emerging as a major child health problem in Bangladesh. This trend is similar to many other developing countries. To develop effective burn prevention programmes, information on its magnitude and determinants is necessary. The purpose of this study was to document the magnitude and determinant of childhood burns in Bangladesh, based on a population-based survey which was conducted between January and December 2003. Nationally representative data was collected from 171,366 rural and urban households, comprising of a total population of 819,429. To facilitate data collection, face-to-face interviews were conducted. The rate of non-fatal burn among children under 18 years of age was calculated as 288.1 per 100,000 children-year. The highest incidence (782.1/100,000 children-year) was found among the 1-4 years age group. About 46% of non-fatal burn injuries occurred between 9 a.m. and 3 p.m. The incidence of childhood burn was found to be more than four times higher in rural children than urban children. Ninety percent (90%) of the childhood burns occurred at homes and the kitchen was the most common place. The rate of disability due to burn was 5.7 per 100,000 children per year. The rate of fatal burn was 0.6 per 100,000 per year among all children. The study findings confirmed that childhood burn was a major childhood illness in Bangladesh. An urgent and appropriate prevention programme is required to prevent these unwanted morbidities, disabilities and deaths due to burn.

  1. Adaptive ability, behavior and quality of life pre and posttraumatic brain injury in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Vicki; Le Brocque, Robyne; Iselin, Greg; Eren, Senem; Dob, Rian; Davern, Timothy J; McKinlay, Lynne; Kenardy, Justin

    2012-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a common, acquired childhood disability, which has been shown to have a significant impact on children's cognitive and educational function. While behavioral problems are also noted, there is ongoing debate about the contribution of preinjury factors in this domain. Few studies have attempted to measure the impact of these preinjury functions on postinjury behavior. To compare pre and postinjury adaptive ability, behavior, executive function and quality of life (QOL) and to identify factors that contribute to outcomes in these domains including injury severity, socio-demographic and preinjury characteristics. Consecutive recruitments to a prospective, longitudinal study, utilizing a between factor design, with injury severity as the independent variable. Children admitted to hospital with a diagnosis of TBI aged between 6 and 14 years (n = 205) were divided according to injury severity (mild, moderate and severe). Adaptive behavior (Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales), child behavior (Child Behavior Checklist), everyday executive functions (Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function) and QOL (Child Health Questionnaire) assessed at 6 months post-TBI. Severity by time interactions were identified across a range of outcome domains demonstrating that more severe injury is associated with a decrease in functional ability at 6 months post-TBI. This effect was most pronounced for everyday executive skills, social function and internalizing aspects of child behavior. Preinjury function was a consistent predictor of postinjury status. Injury severity contributed little to the prediction of functional outcomes once preinjury functioning was accounted for in the model. Age at injury and family cohesion were relevant to specific outcome domains only. Socio-economic status did not contribute significantly to outcome at 6 months. Preinjury functioning as reported by parents in the acute phase may be a useful predictive tool for identifying

  2. 46 CFR 28.580 - Unintentional flooding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... INDUSTRY VESSELS Stability § 28.580 Unintentional flooding. (a) Applicability. Except for an open boat that... baseline upward without limit. (e) Each space containing a through hull fitting, such as the lazarette and...

  3. Causes of fatal childhood accidents involving head injury in northern region, 1979-86.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharples, P M; Storey, A; Aynsley-Green, A; Eyre, J A

    1990-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To examine the causes and circumstances surrounding fatal accidents involving head injuries in children in the Northern region. DESIGN--Retrospective review of the hospital case notes, necropsy reports, and records of the coroners' inquests. SETTING--Northern Regional Health Authority. PATIENTS--All 255 children aged less than 16 years who died with a head injury during 1979-86. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Cause of injury and circumstances of accident according to reports of inquests; injury severity score; number of fatal accidents and mortality per 100,000 children in 10 groups of local authority wards ranked according to their score on the overall deprivation index; and distance of site of accident from child's home. RESULTS--Of the 255 children who died after a head injury, 136 (53%) children were playing at the time of the accident. 195 (76%) children sustained the head injury in road traffic accidents, 135 as pedestrians, 35 as cyclists, and 25 as passengers in a vehicle. In 120 accidents in child pedestrians the primary cause of accident was the unsafe behaviour of the child. 172 (67%) accidents occurred within one to two km of the child's home and 153 (63%) between 3 pm and 9 pm. The mortality was significantly related to social deprivation; excluding eight children injured while on holiday in the region, 15-fold decrease in mortality was recorded between the local authority wards that ranked highest on the overall deprivation index and those that ranked lowest (14.0/100,000 children, group 10 v 0.9/100,000, group 1 respectively, p less than 0.00001). CONCLUSIONS--The finding that most accidents occurred in children living in deprived areas who were playing unsupervised near their home suggests that childhood mortality might be appreciably reduced if children at play were protected from traffic, particularly in socially deprived areas. PMID:2261557

  4. Research on Unintentional Injuries and Its Affecting Factors in Preschool Children at Urban Area of Guiyang City%贵阳市城区2 193例学龄前儿童意外伤害及影响因素的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘玲; 刘筱娴; 文秋生; 王鸿娟; 李建芬; 鲁永辉

    2001-01-01

    【 Objective】 To find out the situation and influencing factors of unintentional injuries among preschool children at urban area in Guiyang city. 【Methods】 The descriptive epidemiology and case- control study was conducted among these chil drenin15kindergartens in Guiyang during1,April,98-31,Mar,99. 【Results】 The rate of injury was 24.76% with the boys ' higher than that of girls' (P < 0.05)and it rose very significanty with the chidren' s age went up.(P < 0.05) .The first threetypes of injuries were fall,collision and animal injuries.96.32% of injuries were mild and 3.68% were moderate. There was no disability and death. The analysis of single and multiple factors showed that the chileren' s unintentional injury were affected by following factors:fa ther' s age, the background of partent' s education, mother' s occupation, family pets, children' s nationality, persons taking care of chil dren, living floors and family average income. 【Conclusions】 The rate of children' s unintentional injury in Guiyang was high. The unintentionall injury was assoiated with many factors. It was a serious problem for Guiyang children.%【目的】了解贵阳市城区学龄前儿童意外伤害现况和影响因素。【方法】采用描述性流行病学和病例一对照研究的方法,对贵阳性市城区15所幼儿园的学龄前儿童在1998年4月1日~1999年3月31日期间发生的意外伤害情况和影响因素进行了研究。【结果】贵阳市城区学龄前儿童意外伤害发生率为24.76%,男童高于女童(P<0.05),意外伤害发生率随年龄增长而上升(P<0.05)。伤害类型前三位为:跌伤、撞伤、动物伤;96.32%的伤害为轻度,3.68%为中度,无1例伤残和死亡。单因素和多因素回归分析表明儿童意外伤害的发生受下列因素的影响:父亲年龄、父母文化程度、母亲职业、家庭宠物、儿童民族、儿童看护人、居住楼层、家庭人均收入等。

  5. Parental educational level and injury incidence and mortality among foreign-born children: a cohort study with 46 years follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Beiki

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Background: Injury risk during childhood and adolescence vary depending on socio-economic factors. The aim of this study was to study if the risk of fatal and non-fatal unintentional injuries among foreign-born children was similar across parental educational level or not. Methods: In this retrospective cohort study we followed 907,335 children between 1961 and 2007 in Sweden. We established the cohort by linkage between Swedish national registers including cause of death register and in-patient register, through unique Personal Identification Numbers. The main exposure variable was parental (maternal and paternal educational level. The cohorts was followed from start date of follow-up period, or date of birth whichever occurred last, until exit date from the cohort, which was date of hospitalization or death due to unintentional injury, first emigration, death due to other causes than injury or end of follow-up, whichever came first. We calculated hazard ratios (HR with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI by Cox proportional hazards regression models. Results: Overall, we found 705 and 78,182 cases of death and hospitalization due to unintentional injuries, respectively. Risk of death and hospitalization due to unintentional injuries was statistically significantly 1.48 (95% CI: 1.24-1.78 and 1.10 (95% CI: 1.08-1.12 times higher among children with lowest parental educational level (9 years and shorter years of study compared to children with highest parental educational level (+13 years of study. We found similar results when stratified our study group by sex of children, by maternal and paternal educational level separately, and injury type (traffic-related, fall, poisoning, burn and drowning. Conclusions: It seems injury prevention work against unintentional injuries is less effective among children with low parental education compared with those with higher parental education. We recommend designing specific preventive interventions

  6. The Deaths Related to Firearm Injuries During the Age of Childhood in Konya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şerafettin Demirci

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, it was aimed to examine the deaths related to the firearm injuries during childhood in Konya and the information such as demographic aspects of the cases, the types of the firearms, origin, and the region of injury, place of case, place of death, shooting distance, and the owner of the firearm. With this purpose, the cases which were autopsied by Konya Branch of Forensic Medicine Council and by forensic medicine expert in the districts of Konya between 1999 and 2007 were retrospectively examined. Among 985 death cases at the age of 18 and under; 50 (5.1% were determined to occur as a result of firearm injuries. The ages of the cases changed between 1 and 18 and the average age was 14.6 + 3.9 (median: 16. 34 cases (68% were boys while 16 (32% of them were girls. The rate of boys to girls was 2.1:1. The origin was suicide in 20 cases (40%, accident in 17 cases (34% and 13 cases (26% was murder. Shotguns were used in 33 cases (66% and handguns were use in 17 cases (34%. Only head was injured in 27 cases (54% while only abdominal region was injured in 10 cases (20%. 29 (70% of firearm injuries took place at home. 35 cases (70% died at crime scene and 3 of them (6% died on the way to hospital. In 24 cases (48% the shooting was performed adjacently or from a close distant, the shooting were performed from nearby in 11 cases (22% while 15 shooting cases (30% were performed from a long distance. In 24 (48% cases, the gun belonged to the victim’s father. As a result, it was seen that keeping the firearms at homes in the increasing rates would end up with deaths during the childhood age. We think it is necessary and useful for people to avoid from keeping firearms at home or other living quarters, keep them in higher places or under strong locking when they have to since they could lead to suicide or accident originated injuries or deaths if the children easily access to the firearms. Key words: Child, firearm, death, forensic medicine

  7. Childhood Traumatic Brain Injury and the Associations With Risk Behavior in Adolescence and Young Adulthood: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Eleanor; Cohen, Miriam; Munafò, Marcus

    2017-03-09

    To systematically review the evidence that childhood traumatic brain injury (TBI) is associated with risk behavior in adolescence and young adulthood. Risk behavior included one or more of the following: use of substances, including alcohol, tobacco, and illicit substances; involvement in criminal behavior; and behavioral issues with conduct. A literature search was conducted using these terms: child, pediatric, traumatic brain injury, head injury, adolescent, psychosocial, antisocial, conduct, substance use. Studies describing original research were included if they reported outcomes over the age of 13 years in participants who sustained a TBI between birth and age 13 years. Six journal articles were reviewed based on 4 separate studies. Three articles indicated a relationship between childhood TBI and increased problematic substance use in adolescence and young adulthood. Three articles supported an association between childhood TBI and later externalizing behavior; however, 2 articles did not support this link. More research is warranted to explore the association between childhood TBI and later risk behavior as the relationship is not currently understood. Future research should build on existing longitudinal research with continued use of medical records for identifying TBI and inclusion of a non-brain-related trauma group to control for general injury effects.This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0 (CCBY), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

  8. Impact of Childhood Abuse on the Risk of Non-Suicidal Self-Injury in Mainland Chinese Adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhui Wan

    Full Text Available Childhood abuse has been associated with significant increases in non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI behaviors in adolescents; however, only general definitions of this risk indicator have been examined. This study identified relationships between specific forms of childhood abuse and NSSI in mainland Chinese adolescents.A total of 14,221 cases were retained from an epidemiological study involving adolescents from junior and senior middle schools. Information relating to the perpetrator, perceived harm, timing of exposure to different types of childhood abuse, and NSSI were obtained. Logistic regression was used to analyze relationships between each form of childhood abuse and NSSI.Approximately 51.0% of the students reported at least one abusive childhood experience. Nearly one in four students (24.9% reported that they had engaged in NSSI in the past 12 months. Each type of childhood abuse, occurring at any time within the first 16 years of life, especially in situations of continuous exposure, was significantly associated with NSSI. A significant graded relationship was found between number of abusive childhood experiences and NSSI. Students maltreated by parents or others were at high risk of engaging in NSSI, the risk was greater in students maltreated by both; students who had been exposed to childhood abuse with no perceived harm still demonstrated an elevated risk for NSSI. The pattern of associations did not vary by gender.These findings suggest that experiencing any of various forms of childhood abuse should be considered a risk factor for NSSI during adolescence. Further research should focus upon psychosocial, neural, and genetic factors that might moderate or mediate the onset of NSSI in adolescents who have experienced childhood abuse.

  9. Childhood intussusception in Ile-ife: What has changed?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ademola Olusegun Talabi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Intussusception is one of the most common causes of intestinal obstruction in children. While the outcome has improved in the developed nations, the same cannot be said of the developing countries, more especially in the sub-Saharan region. This study aims to review our current experience in the management of childhood intussusception and factors affecting surgical outcome at the Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex Ile-Ife. Patients and Methods: This was a retrospective study of 78 patients treated for intussusception at paediatric surgical unit of Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex Ile-Ife between January 1993 and December 2011. The case notes of the patients were retrieved and the following information was recorded: Demographic characteristics, month of occurrence, clinical presentation, investigations, and management as well as the post-operative outcome. The patients were divided into two groups in terms of outcome. Results: There were 58 males and 20 females (M:F = 2.9-1. The age of most of the patients was between 3 months and 9 months with peak incidence at 6 months. Most patients 46 (58.9% were seen during the dry season of December to April. Only six patients (7.7% presented within 24 hours of onset of illness. More than half of the patients presented after 24 hours. Passage of red currant stool, vomiting, abdominal pain, fever, and abdominal distension, passage of watery stool, anal protrusion and palpable abdominal mass in various combinations were the clinical features. All the patients had surgical operations. The most common type of intussusception was ileo-colic type in 64 patients (82.1%. Intestinal resection rate was 41%. The overall mortality rate was 15.4%. Conclusion: There was a delay in presentation of children with intussusception with high post-operative mortality.

  10. Childhood intussusception in Ile-ife: what has changed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talabi, Ademola Olusegun; Sowande, Oludayo Adedapo; Etonyeaku, Chiduziem Amarachukwu; Adejuyigbe, Olusanya

    2013-01-01

    Intussusception is one of the most common causes of intestinal obstruction in children. While the outcome has improved in the developed nations, the same cannot be said of the developing countries, more especially in the sub-Saharan region. This study aims to review our current experience in the management of childhood intussusception and factors affecting surgical outcome at the Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex Ile-Ife. This was a retrospective study of 78 patients treated for intussusception at paediatric surgical unit of Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex Ile-Ife between January 1993 and December 2011. The case notes of the patients were retrieved and the following information was recorded: Demographic characteristics, month of occurrence, clinical presentation, investigations, and management as well as the post-operative outcome. The patients were divided into two groups in terms of outcome. There were 58 males and 20 females (M:F = 2.9-1). The age of most of the patients was between 3 months and 9 months with peak incidence at 6 months. Most patients 46 (58.9%) were seen during the dry season of December to April. Only six patients (7.7%) presented within 24 hours of onset of illness. More than half of the patients presented after 24 hours. Passage of red currant stool, vomiting, abdominal pain, fever, and abdominal distension, passage of watery stool, anal protrusion and palpable abdominal mass in various combinations were the clinical features. All the patients had surgical operations. The most common type of intussusception was ileo-colic type in 64 patients (82.1%). Intestinal resection rate was 41%. The overall mortality rate was 15.4%. There was a delay in presentation of children with intussusception with high post-operative mortality.

  11. Outcomes in Adult Survivors of Childhood Burn Injuries as Compared with Matched Controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, James; Gawaziuk, Justin P; Khan, Sazzadul; Chateau, Dan; Bolton, James M; Sareen, Jitender; Enns, Jessica; Doupe, Malcolm; Brownell, Marni; Logsetty, Sarvesh

    2016-01-01

    Limited research exists examining long-term mental and physical health outcomes in adult survivors of pediatric burns. The authors examine the postinjury lifetime prevalence of common mental and physical disorders in a large pediatric burn cohort and compare the results with matched controls. Seven hundred and forty five survivors of childhood burns identified in the Burn Registry (1% between April 1, 1988 and March 31, 2010) were matched 1:5 to the general population based on age at time of injury (index date), sex, and geographic residence. Postinjury rate ratio (RR) was used to compare burn cases and control cohorts for common mental and physical illnesses through physician billings, and hospital claims. RR was adjusted for sex, rural residence, and income. Compared with matched controls, postburn cases had significantly higher RR of all mental disorders, which remained significant (P < .05) after adjustment (major depression RR = 1.5 [confidence limit {CL}: 1.2-1.8], anxiety disorder RR = 1.5 [CL: 1.3-1.8), substance abuse RR = 2.3 [CL: 1.7-3.2], suicide attempt RR = 4.3 [CL: 1.6-12.1], or any mental disorder RR = 1.5 [CL: 1.3-1.8]). The relative rate of some physical illnesses was also significantly increased in burn survivors: arthritis RR = 1.2 (CL: 1.1-1.4), fractures RR = 1.4 (CL: 1.2-1.6), total respiratory morbidity RR = 1.1 (CL: 1.02-1.3), and any physical illness RR = 1.2 (CL: 1.1-1.3). Adult survivors of childhood burn injury have significantly increased rates of postburn mental and physical illnesses. Screening and appropriate management of these illnesses is essential when caring for this population.

  12. Closing the Door to Lost Earnings Under the National Childhood Vaccine Injury Act of 1986.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Aaron

    2015-01-01

    After a wave of lawsuits against vaccine manufacturers hindered the profitability and production of life-saving vaccines, Congress enacted The National Childhood Vaccine Injury Act of 1986. The Act offers an incentive for individuals to get vaccinated in order to mitigate the population's exposure to disease, while encouraging the continued production of these serums by pharmaceutical companies. Although imperfect, the Vaccine Act fosters promise in filtering out frivolous claims and,provides a central route for due process to the individuals who suffer from a vaccine-related injury. By removing a potential state tort issue to the Federal Circuit, Congress created a reasonably justified avenue for the recovery of damages for injuries and adverse reactions to vaccines. However, this is not to say that the Act can't still be improved. Currently, the Act is silent on whether the death of a child from a vaccine-related injury, before a compensation decision is rendered, should bar the family from recovering for the child's lost earnings. Unless the victim demonstrates a stable source of income that they would have earned had their lives not been interrupted by the adverse reaction to the vaccine, the holding that a minor child may not recover for lost earnings is defensible. However, Congress should revise the statute to issue guidance to clarify its ambiguity. Under the current compensation regime, the standard is too arbitrary to decide that a child who dies before reaching the majority age of 18 has no earning potential. Any line Congress or the Supreme Court tries to draw will be arbitrary, but from an economic, policy, and legal perspective clarity and guidance can be offered to maintain greater flexibility through a case-by-case analysis and by applying the modern minimum wage in reference to the child's age. Independent from future earnings awards, Vaccine Act compensation should be amended to increase the cap on these damages to account for inflation since the

  13. Alcohol intake and risk of injury

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cremonte, Mariana; Cherpitel, Cheryl J

    2014-01-01

    .... The objective of this paper was to estimate the risk of injuries after acute alcohol consumption for intentional injuries and unintentional traffic and non-traffic injuries, using, alternatively, two exposure measures...

  14. Unintentional non-adherence to chronic prescription medications: How unintentional is it really?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gadkari Abhijit S

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Unintentional non-adherence has been characterized as passively inconsistent medication-taking behavior (forgetfulness or carelessness. Our objectives were to: (1 study the prevalence and predictors of unintentional non-adherence; and (2 explore the interrelationship between intentional and unintentional non-adherence in relation to patients’ medication beliefs. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional survey of adults with asthma, hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, osteoporosis, or depression from the Harris Interactive Chronic Illness Panel. The analytic sample for this study included 24,017 adults who self-identified themselves as persistent to prescription medications for their index disease. They answered three questions on unintentional non-adherence (forgot, ran out, being careless, 11 questions on intentional non-adherence, and three multi-item scales assessing perceived need for medication (k = 10, perceived medication concerns (k = 6, and perceived medication affordability (k = 4. Logistic regression was used to model predictors of each unintentional non-adherence behavior. Baron and Kenny’s regression approach was used to test the mediational effect of unintentional non-adherence on the relationship between medication beliefs and intentional non-adherence. Bootstrapping was employed to confirm the statistical significance of these results. Results For the index disease, 62% forgot to take a medication, 37% had run out of the medication, and 23% were careless about taking the medication. Common multivariate predictors (p  Conclusions For our study sample, unintentional non-adherence does not appear to be random and is predicted by medication beliefs, chronic disease, and sociodemographics. The data suggests that the importance of unintentional non-adherence may lie in its potential prognostic significance for future intentional non-adherence. Health care providers may consider routinely

  15. Childhood Abuse, Nonsuicidal Self-Injury, and Suicide Attempts: An Exploration of Gender Differences in Incarcerated Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Jenelle; Gobeil, Renee; Beaudette, Janelle N; Ritchie, Mary B; Brown, Shelley L; Smith, Hayden P

    2016-12-01

    The relationship between types of childhood abuse, suicide attempts, and nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) was examined in a sample of 415 incarcerated adults (268 men, 147 women). Men and women were equally likely to experience childhood abuse, although women were more likely to report sexual abuse and men were more likely to report emotional neglect. Sexual abuse was the only type of abuse found to predict NSSI and suicide attempts in women. For men, physical abuse and physical neglect were significant predictors of NSSI and suicide attempts, respectively. Gender differences exist and should be examined in future research in this area.

  16. Pituitary function at long-term follow-up of childhood traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Rebecca Jane; Sutton, Timothy; Wilson, Peter Murray; Kirkham, Fenella Jane; Davies, Justin Huw

    2010-10-01

    Pituitary dysfunction is a recognized sequela of traumatic brain injury (TBI), occurring in 10-83% of adult patients, but there are few data on the prevalence or natural history in childhood. Our objective was to determine pituitary function in children and young adults at least 4 years after TBI requiring pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) admission. The effects of TBI and hypopituitarism on height, adiposity, and quality of life (QOL) were also evaluated. Unselected patients discharged from the regional PICU with TBI (age < 18 years at injury) from 1999-2004 were recruited. Blood and urine samples were collected for baseline pituitary function testing. Height and weight were measured. Adiposity was assessed by mid-upper arm and waist circumferences, and body fat percentage estimation using four-site skinfold thickness and bioelectrical impedance. Auxology and adiposity data were compared to local age- and sex-matched healthy control data. QOL questionnaires (PedsQL 4.0 and QOL-AGHDA) were completed. Twenty subjects (median age 16.7 years, range 9.2-23.3 years, 13 male) of 127 who were eligible agreed to participate at a median of 6.8 years (range 4.2-10.3 years) since TBI. Markers of injury were higher in those recruited than those who were not. Biochemical evidence of hypopituitarism was identified in only one case, possibly related to comorbid pre-existing attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder. Height, weight, and adiposity were similar to healthy controls. Poor QOL was seen in patients with chronic functional deficits or comorbidities. Overall, pituitary dysfunction was less prevalent than in previous studies in adults and children. The results of this study do not support the use of routine endocrine evaluation of children following TBI.

  17. The Trajectory of Long-Term Psychosocial Development 16 Years following Childhood Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosema, Stefanie; Muscara, Frank; Anderson, Vicki; Godfrey, Celia; Hearps, Stephen; Catroppa, Cathy

    2015-07-01

    Childhood traumatic brain injury (CTBI) is one of the most common causes of impairment in children and adolescents, with psychosocial difficulties found to be the most persisting. Given that the transition into adolescence and adulthood can be a stressful period, it is likely that young people who have sustained a CTBI will be more vulnerable to developing psychosocial problems. To date, most research has focused on psychosocial development up to five years following a CTBI and it is unclear how survivors develop in the long-term as young adults. The aim of this research was to track the long-term psychosocial outcomes of children with CTBI and compare them with healthy controls over a period of 16 years. Seventy-five participants with a CTBI and 29 control participants were followed up at five time-points over a period of 16 years. To measure psychosocial functioning (social skills, internalizing, and externalizing symptoms), questionnaires were completed by the primary caregiver acutely (pre-injury baseline), then six months, five years, 10 years, and 16 years post-injury. No significant group differences were found regarding the developmental trajectory of social skills, or internalizing and externalizing symptoms between the CTBI and control groups. The severe CTBI group demonstrated a trend of lower social skills, while the mild CTBI group showed a trend of higher internalizing and externalizing skills at six months, five years, and ten years post-CTBI event, compared with other groups. The mild CTBI group scored in the borderline range for externalizing symptoms six months post-CTBI; however, all other mean scores were within the normal range. Over a period of 16 years, young adults with CTBI showed similar developmental trajectories regarding psychosocial outcomes, compared with healthy controls. This study confirmed previous literature that CTBI is associated with increased levels of psychosocial problems.

  18. Evaluation on peer education of unintentional injury prevention among children living with migrant-worker parents in Shanghai%上海市农民工同住子女意外伤害同伴教育效果初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王剑; 顾沈兵; 赵爱珍; 温鼎来; 金伟; 陈德; 吕姿之

    2011-01-01

    目的 评价上海市农民工同住子女意外伤害同伴教育的效果,为探讨预防意外伤害的健康教育方法提供依据.方法 选取上海市4所民工子弟学校,各抽取1个班级,共4个班级.其中2个班级共100人为干预组;另2个班级,共102人为对照组.在教育前、教育后使用相同问卷各进行1次调查.结果 开展同伴教育后,干预组知识评分中位数从7分上升到8分,安全行为意向评分中位数从5分上升到8分,干预组组内、干预组较对照组组间的意外伤害知识评分、安全行为意向评分均有明显提升(P<0.01).干预组在"骑车带人危险"、"宠物咬伤后有严重后果"、"流动小吃摊不卫生"知识的知晓率均为99.0%,高于对照组(P<0.05).结论 在小学生农民工同住子女中开展意外伤害的同伴教育,是可行而有效的.%Objective To evaluate the effects of peer education program of unintentional injury prevention among children living with migrant-worker parents in Shanghai, and to provide basis for health education of unintentional injury prevention. Methods Four schools of migrant-worker' s children in Shanghai were selected as sample schools. One class was selected from each school. One hundred students from two classes were selected as intervention groups, and 102 students from the other two classes were selected as control group. The same questionnaire was conducted before and after the program to evaluate the effects. Results After the peer education, the median scores on knowledge, safe behavior intention of intervention group rose from 7 to 8, 5 to 8 respectively. They increased significantly compared with pre-interven-tion and control group ( P < 0. 01). The awareness rates of intervention group were higher than control group such as ' carrying person to ride is risky' , ' being bitten by pets is dangerous' , ' roadside food stands is unhygienic' ( P < 0. 05 ). And they were all 99. 0%. Conclusion Peer education for

  19. What Can I Do to Help Prevent Traumatic Brain Injury?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... TBI in the US: Assessing Outcomes in Children Appendix A Report to Congress: TBI in the US ... Address What's this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Prevention Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Prevention What ...

  20. Suicide Probability in Adolescents With a History of Childhood Maltreatment: The Role of Non-Suicidal Self-Injury, Emotion Regulation Difficulties, and Forms of Self-Criticism

    OpenAIRE

    Khanipour; Hakim shooshtari; Bidaki

    2016-01-01

    Background Suicidal attempt and non-suicidal self-injury are very common in adolescents with a history of childhood maltreatment. By identifying correlates of these kinds of high-risk behaviors, it is possible to prevent and decrease completed suicide. Objectives The aims of this study were: 1) to compare adolescents with a history of childhood maltreatment with non-suicidal self injury (NSSI) or past suicidal attempt in terms of ...

  1. Children’s Understanding of No Diving Warning Signs: Implications for Preventing Childhood Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara A. Morrongiello

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The current study examined children’s understanding of No Diving warning signs. Normally-developing 7 to 10 year olds were asked questions to assess their understanding of text, images, and main messages on No Diving warning signs. These structured interviews were audio recorded and responses were later coded. Results revealed that children understood the behavior advised against (diving, why it is prohibited (can hit head on the bottom, and what can happen (serious injury including hospitalization. They understood that breaking your neck results in limitations in mobility and can occur from diving, but they did not anticipate that such an injury is likely to occur. There were no gender and few age differences, but diving experience was associated with children significantly downplaying their risk of injury. The findings suggest that having No Diving warning signs explicitly mention a broken neck, may serve to remind children of this potential consequence at the time of decision making. Active adult supervision is particularly important for children who have prior positive diving experiences.

  2. 10 CFR 708.6 - What constitutes “a reasonable fear of serious injury?”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Provisions § 708.6 What constitutes “a reasonable fear of serious injury?” Participation in an activity, policy, or practice may cause an employee to have a reasonable fear of serious injury that justifies a... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What constitutes âa reasonable fear of serious injury?â...

  3. Twins' injuries: genetic and environmental risks / twin research reports / human interest stories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, Nancy L

    2011-04-01

    The relative contributions of genetic and environmental factors to unintentional injuries are of interest to families with young twins. A recent study found that childhood injuries are explained mostly by child-specific environmental factors. Next, twin research reviews of the association between periodontal disease and cancer, secular trends in gestational age and birthweight, and language development in hearing and deaf co-twins are also summarized. Interesting reports of newborn twins, twin-like relationships, twin interactions and missed twin relationships are presented.

  4. Menace of childhood non-accidental traumatic brain injuries: A single unit report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musa Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Childhood traumatic brain injury (TBI has high rate of mortality and morbidity worldwide. There are dearths of reports from developing countries with large paediatric population on trauma; neurosurgery trauma of nonaccidental origin is not an exemption. This study analysed menace of non-accidental TBI in the paediatric population from our center. Materials and Methods: This is a single unit, retrospective study of the epidemiology of non-accidental TBI in children starting from September, 2008 to March, 2014. The management outcomes of the epidemiology of the non-accidental TBI were analysed. Results: Total of 109 children age range from 0 (intra-natal to 16 years with a mean of 5.8 ± 4.6 years (median, 5 years were enrolled into the study. 34 (31.2% were domestic violence, 26 (23.9% street assaults, 16 (14.7% were due to animal assaults and mishaps, 17 (15.6% fall from heights. Seven (6.4% cases of collapsed buildings were also seen during the period. Four (3.7% industrial accidents and two (1.8% were self-inflicted injuries. There were also three (2.8% cases of iatrogenic TBI out of which two infants (1.8% sustained TBI from cesarean section procedure while one patient (0.9% under general anaesthesia felt from the operation bed resulting to severe TBI. Conclusion: Child abuse, unprotected child labour, parental/care-givers negligence are the main cause of nonaccidental TBI. Human right activists and government agents should be incorporated in curtailing the menace.

  5. 34 CFR 359.1 - What is the Special Projects and Demonstrations for Spinal Cord Injuries Program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Spinal Cord Injuries Program? 359.1 Section 359.1 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department... INJURIES General § 359.1 What is the Special Projects and Demonstrations for Spinal Cord Injuries Program... needs of individuals with spinal cord injuries. (Authority: Sec. 204(b)(4); 29 U.S.C. 762(b)(4)) ...

  6. Adolescent psychiatric symptoms following preschool childhood mild traumatic brain injury: evidence from a birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinlay, Audrey; Grace, Randolph; Horwood, John; Fergusson, David; MacFarlane, Martin

    2009-01-01

    To determine whether childhood mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) is associated with behavioral problems in adolescence. Children from a longitudinal birth cohort (initial N = 1265) were assigned to 1 of 3 groups: (1) inpatient group (n = 19) comprised children admitted to hospital for MTBI before age 5 years; (2) outpatient group (n = 57), children with any incidence of MTBI before age 5 seen by a general practitioner or at an accident and emergency department and sent home; (3) reference control group (n = 839). Maternal and self-report regarding attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, conduct disorder, anxiety disorder, mood disorder, and alcohol or illicit substance abuse/dependence obtained using Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Third Edition Revised) criteria. At age 14 to 16 years, children who had been hospitalized for MTBI during preschool years were significantly more likely to show symptoms of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (odds ratio = 4.2), conduct disorder/oppositional defiant disorder (odds ratio = 6.2), substance abuse (odds ratio = 3.6), and mood disorder (odds ratio = 3.1) but not anxiety disorder. Preschool MTBI is associated with persistent negative effects on psychosocial development. These continuing problems are consistent with the view that preschool years represent a period of particular vulnerability following MTBI.

  7. Loss of independent limb control in childhood hemiparesis is related to time of brain injury onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukal-Moulton, Theresa; Murray, Theresa M; Dewald, Julius P A

    2013-03-01

    This study investigated the presence of inter-limb activity at the elbow joint in individuals with childhood-onset hemiparesis, including spontaneous mirror movements during unilateral tasks and the ability to suppress them during bilateral tasks. Eighteen individuals with hemiparesis were divided into three categories of injury timing: before birth (PRE-natal), around the time of birth (PERI-natal), and after 6 months of age (POST-natal). Individuals with hemiparesis, as well as 12 typically developing peers, participated in unilateral and bilateral elbow flexion and extension tasks completed at maximal and submaximal effort while muscle activity was monitored and motor output was quantified by two multiple degrees-of-freedom load cells. Significantly, higher levels of paretic elbow flexion were found only in the PRE- and PERI-natal groups during the flexion of the non-paretic limb, which was modulated by effort level in both unilateral and bilateral tasks. The bilateral activation of elbow flexors in the PRE-/PERI-natal groups indicates potential use of a common cortical command source to drive both upper extremities, while the POST-natal/typically developing groups' flexors appear to receive input from different supraspinal structures.

  8. Neonatal ischemic brain injury: what every radiologist needs to know

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badve, Chaitra A.; Khanna, Paritosh C.; Ishak, Gisele E. [Seattle Children' s Hospital, University of Washington Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2012-05-15

    We present a pictorial review of neonatal ischemic brain injury and look at its pathophysiology, imaging features and differential diagnoses from a radiologist's perspective. The concept of perinatal stroke is defined and its distinction from hypoxic-ischemic injury is emphasized. A brief review of recent imaging advances is included and a diagnostic approach to neonatal ischemic brain injury is suggested. (orig.)

  9. Intervention effect comparison of lecture, parent-child education and network on family unintentional injury among pre-school children' s parents%成都市三种形式健康教育对儿童家庭意外伤害干预效果比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓燕; 刘熹; 夏劲节; 田红梅; 邱孟

    2013-01-01

    Objective To compare intervention effect of lecture, parent-child education and network on family un-intentional injury among pre-school children' s parents, and provide suggestions for reducing family unintentional injury inci-dence. Methods Stratified cluster sampling method was used to select 1747 pre-school children' s parents in 9 kindergar-tens to join the intervention. Effectiveness evaluation was carried out after 1 week. Results Lecture, parent-child educa-tion and network interventions showed different effect on knowledge and behavior changes. The awareness rates of furniture supplies safety and macrobiotic knowledge in network intervention group were 15. 37% and 34. 63% , higher than that of oth-er two groups. The rate of correct drug select in lecture group (12. 63% ) was highest. The prevalence of eating behavior in parent-child education group (33. 28% ) and network group (32. 43% ) were higher than that in lecture group (30. 62% ). The rates of correct behaviors of using scissors and eating habit in network were 34. 29% and 86. 66% , respectively. The rate of no playing in kitchen in lecture group (29. 07% ) was highest in three groups (P <0. 05). Conclusion Internet in-tervention in health education plays an important role in reducing family unintentional injury. Various methods should be car-ried out among pre-school children to help them establish safety habit,and then reduce the rate of unintentional injury in fu-ture.%目的 比较授课、亲子教育及网络干预方式对儿童家庭意外伤害的干预效果,为降低儿童家庭意外伤害发生率提供建议.方法 采用分层整群抽样方法,选取成都市9所幼儿园的幼儿家长1747名参加干预活动,在干预后1周采用问卷进行效果评价.结果 在安全知识中,家居用品安全检查最重要的五方面和抗生素治疗的病原类型,网络干预组知晓率最高,分别为15.37%和34.63%;药物的正确选择上,教师讲解组知晓率最高(12.63

  10. Traumatic elbow injuries: what the orthopedic surgeon wants to know.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, Scott E; Dyer, George S; Sodickson, Aaron D; Patel, Ketankumar I; Khurana, Bharti

    2013-05-01

    Traumatic elbow injuries are commonly encountered in the emergency department setting, but their complexity and clinical significance often go unrecognized at the initial evaluation. Initial imaging in patients with elbow trauma should not only help identify major injuries that require immediate intervention but also allow detection of other, often more subtle injuries that may lead to instability or poor functional outcomes if appropriate treatment is delayed. Awareness and detection of these injuries may be improved by a better-developed and more intuitive understanding of the mechanisms that underlie the most common injury patterns. Ideally, such understanding should prompt appropriate early use of advanced imaging techniques. Traumatic elbow injuries should be described in the radiology report within the context of their clinical significance and their implications for management, information that is often best captured by the injury grading and classification systems used by the orthopedic surgery community. This article reviews the relevant anatomy and functional stability of the elbow and discusses common traumatic elbow injury patterns, including elbow dislocations as well as fractures of the distal humerus, radial head and neck, coronoid process, and olecranon. Less commonly encountered injury constellations that are clinically significant are also described. Injury patterns are explained in the context of the responsible force mechanism by using three-dimensional modeling and animation, with emphasis on the functional impact of associated secondary bone and soft-tissue injuries. The utility of cross-sectional imaging modalities such as computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging in the acute care setting is discussed, and specific imaging guidelines are provided. Supplemental material available at http://radiographics.rsna.org/lookup/suppl/doi:10.1148/rg.333125176/-/DC1.

  11. Collapsed scrums and collision tackles: what is the injury risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Simon P; Trewartha, Grant; England, Mike; Stokes, Keith A

    2015-04-01

    To establish the propensity for specific contact events to cause injury in rugby union. Medical staff at participating English community-level rugby clubs reported any injury resulting in the absence for one match or more from the day of the injury during the 2009/2010 (n=46), 2010/2011 (n=67) and 2011/2012 (n=76) seasons. Injury severity was defined as the number of matches missed. Thirty community rugby matches were filmed and the number of contact events (tackles, collision tackles, rucks, mauls, lineouts and scrums) recorded. Of 370 (95% CI 364 to 378) contact events per match, 141 (137 to 145) were tackles, 115 (111 to 119) were rucks and 32 (30 to 33) were scrums. Tackles resulted in the greatest propensity for injury (2.3 (2.2 to 2.4) injuries/1000 events) and the greatest severity (16 (15 to 17) weeks missed/1000 events). Collision tackles (illegal tackles involving a shoulder charge) had a propensity for injury of 15 (12.4 to 18.3) injuries/1000 events and severity was 92 (75 to 112) weeks missed/1000 events, both of which were higher than any other event. Additional scrum analysis showed that only 5% of all scrums collapsed, but the propensity for injury was four times higher (2.9 (1.5 to 5.4) injuries/1000 events) and the severity was six times greater (22 (12 to 42) weeks missed/1000 events) than for non-collapsed scrums. Injury prevention in the tackle should focus on technique with strict enforcement of existing laws for illegal collision tackles. The scrum is a relatively controllable event and further attempts should be made to reduce the frequency of scrum collapse. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  12. Study on the Knowledge,Attitude and Practice and Influencing Factors of Unintentional Injuries among Parents of Migrant Children in Guangzhou City%广州地区学龄前流动儿童家长意外伤害知信行现状及相关因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘慧燕; 查达永; 杨丽; 林穗方; 邱琇

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the knowledge,attitude and practice (KAP)and influencing factors of unin-tentional injuries among parents of migrant children,and to provide evidences for the prevention and control of the injury.Methods Random cluster sample of 3 to 6years old migrant children were chosen.The children's parents were surveyed with questionnaire to obtain the information regarding the KAP on children injury.Results The KAP scores respectively was 6.37±1.1 1,4.77±0.56 and 18.13±2.1 9.74.78% of the parents realized that injury was the leading cause of being disabled and death among children under 14 years old,99.34% were eager to get health education about injury.78.87% of the parents hadn't been trained for injury prevention.The main way they got knowledge about injury were from TV or internet (37.87%).The prevalence of their injury-related practice was from 23.03% to 98.1 6%.Multi-factor logistic regression analysis showed that gender and education level of par-ents,family relationship,level of received injury education,monthly income and per capita living space could affect the KAP score.Conclusions Health education and behavior intervention should be carried out based on the charac-teristics of the floating population to prevent children's injury.%目的:了解广州地区学龄前流动儿童家长的意外伤害相关知识、态度和行为情况,分析影响因素,为探索流动儿童伤害的干预策略研究提供依据。方法采用随机整群抽样法对广州市3~6岁流动儿童家长进行伤害的知信行(KAP)调查。结果流动儿童家长 KAP 评分分别为6.37±1.11,4.77±0.56和18.13±2.19。74.78%的家长正确回答了伤害是14岁以下儿童死亡和伤残的最主要原因;99.34%的家长认为有必要对孩子进行安全知识教育;78.87%的家长表示没有接受过预防儿童伤害的培训,获得伤害知识主要来自电视或网络(37.87%)。预防儿童伤害相关正确行为形成率为23.03%~98.16%,

  13. Practitioner Review: Beyond Shaken Baby Syndrome--What Influences the Outcomes for Infants following Traumatic Brain Injury?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashton, Rebecca

    2010-01-01

    Background: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) in infancy is relatively common, and is likely to lead to poorer outcomes than injuries sustained later in childhood. While the headlines have been grabbed by infant TBI caused by abuse, often known as shaken baby syndrome, the evidence base for how to support children following TBI in infancy is thin.…

  14. The Early Childhood Roots of Violence and Non-Violence: What We Can Do.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Robert F.

    1999-01-01

    Reviews research concerning the origins of violent behavior in the early childhood years. Discusses the importance of early childhood intervention, and offers recommendations for the coordination of intervention efforts by behavior specialists and early childhood educators. (Author/EV)

  15. Long-term classroom functioning and its association with neuropsychological and academic performance following traumatic brain injury during early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treble-Barna, Amery; Schultz, Hanna; Minich, Nori; Taylor, H Gerry; Yeates, Keith Owen; Stancin, Terry; Wade, Shari L

    2017-07-01

    The present study utilized ecobehavioral assessment to examine classroom functioning several years following early childhood traumatic brain injury (TBI) or orthopedic injury (OI) and its association with injury factors, neuropsychological abilities, and academic performance. Participants included 39 children with moderate to severe TBI and 51 children with OI sustained between ages 3 and 7 years. At 7.2 (± 1.3) years post injury, ecobehavioral assessment was used to examine classroom functioning. Additional outcomes included neuropsychological tests, parent and teacher ratings of dysexecutive behavior, and teacher ratings of academic performance. Groups were compared on measures controlling for demographic characteristics, and associations among outcomes were examined using linear regression. Children with TBI showed lower academic engagement relative to children with OI, as well as more frequent individual teacher attention for children with more severe injuries. For children with TBI, difficulties in classroom functioning were associated with lower cognitive flexibility and higher parent and teacher ratings of dysexecutive behavior. Lower scores on a test of fluid reasoning and a greater frequency of individual teacher attention were also associated with lower academic performance in children with TBI. Difficulties in classroom functioning are evident several years after early childhood TBI and were associated with greater injury severity, neuropsychological weaknesses, and poorer academic performance. Children with impaired cognitive flexibility and fluid reasoning skills were at greatest risk for these difficulties and associated weaknesses in academic performance. Instructional interactions may be a potential target for intervention to promote academic progress in at-risk children. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. What environmental factors irritate people with acquired brain injury?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryor, Julie

    2004-08-19

    This study aims to determine the environmental factors nurses identify as being irritating to people with acquired brain injury. This was a qualitative study. An experienced interviewer used the Critical Decision Method to interview 28 nurses working in 10 inpatient brain injury rehabilitation units in Australia on a one to one basis for 1-1.5 h on two consecutive days. Transcripts of interviews were analysed using thematic analysis. Nurses identified five groups of irritants that acted as triggers for aggression: The nurses in this study identified many environmental factors that irritate people with acquired brain injury. Some irritants appeared unavoidable but others could be addressed by staff expertise.

  17. Management of syndesmotic injuries: What is the evidence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnetzke, Marc; Vetter, Sven Y; Beisemann, Nils; Swartman, Benedict; Grützner, Paul A; Franke, Jochen

    2016-01-01

    Ankle fractures are accompanied by a syndesmotic injury in about 10% of operatively treated ankle fractures. Usually, the total rupture of the syndesmotic ligaments with an external rotation force is associated with a Weber type B or C fracture or a Maisonneuve fracture. The clinical assessment should consist of a comprehensive history including mechanism of injury followed by a specific physical examination. Radiographs, and if in doubt magnetic resonance imaging, are needed to ascertain the syndesmotic injury. In the case of operative treatment the method of fixation, the height and number of screws and the need for hardware removal are still under discussion. Furthermore, intraoperative assessment of the accuracy of reduction of the fibula in the incisura using fluoroscopy is difficult. A possible solution might be the assessment with intraoperative three-dimensional imaging. The aim of this article is to provide a current concepts review of the clinical presentation, diagnosis and treatment of syndesmotic injuries. PMID:27900268

  18. Neonatal encephalopathic cerebral injury in South India assessed by perinatal magnetic resonance biomarkers and early childhood neurodevelopmental outcome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J Lally

    Full Text Available Although brain injury after neonatal encephalopathy has been characterised well in high-income countries, little is known about such injury in low- and middle-income countries. Such injury accounts for an estimated 1 million neonatal deaths per year. We used magnetic resonance (MR biomarkers to characterise perinatal brain injury, and examined early childhood outcomes in South India.We recruited consecutive term or near term infants with evidence of perinatal asphyxia and a Thompson encephalopathy score ≥6 within 6 h of birth, over 6 months. We performed conventional MR imaging, diffusion tensor MR imaging and thalamic proton MR spectroscopy within 3 weeks of birth. We computed group-wise differences in white matter fractional anisotropy (FA using tract based spatial statistics. We allocated Sarnat encephalopathy stage aged 3 days, and evaluated neurodevelopmental outcomes aged 3½ years using Bayley III.Of the 54 neonates recruited, Sarnat staging was mild in 30 (56%; moderate in 15 (28% and severe in 6 (11%, with no encephalopathy in 3 (6%. Six infants died. Of the 48 survivors, 44 had images available for analysis. In these infants, imaging indicated perinatal rather than established antenatal origins to injury. Abnormalities were frequently observed in white matter (n = 40, 91% and cortex (n = 31, 70% while only 12 (27% had abnormal basal ganglia/thalami. Reduced white matter FA was associated with Sarnat stage, deep grey nuclear injury, and MR spectroscopy N-acetylaspartate/choline, but not early Thompson scores. Outcome data were obtained in 44 infants (81% with 38 (79% survivors examined aged 3½ years; of these, 16 (42% had adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes.No infants had evidence for established brain lesions, suggesting potentially treatable perinatal origins. White matter injury was more common than deep brain nuclei injury. Our results support the need for rigorous evaluation of the efficacy of rescue hypothermic

  19. Obesity, traumatic brain injury, childhood abuse, and suicide attempts in females at risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer-Smyth, Kathleen

    2014-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that obesity is related to history of traumatic brain injury (TBI), severity and frequency of childhood physical (CPA) and sexual abuse (CSA), and suicide attempts, adjusting for related variables in a high risk female population. This cross-sectional study of 81 females compared obese to non-obese. All variables were verified by private interviews, physical examination, and documented evidence, then statistically analyzed with logistic regression. Obesity at the time of interview was related to history of a decreased number of TBIs per person, greater CSA, suicide attempts, and decreased CPA, adjusting for current smoking, depression, currently using selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, and age. Number of TBIs per person and CPA were inversely related to obesity, adjusting for related variables. Greater CSA frequency and severity, and having attempted suicide were significantly related to greater risk of obesity, adjusting for related variables. Though causes of obesity cannot be determined by this design, and findings should be viewed with caution, this study provides new insight into the obesity epidemic that requires further investigation. Rehabilitation nurses are in ideal settings when patient's conditions are less acute, providing opportunities to address complex serious underlying etiologies of obesity. Obesity has not been alleviated by teaching about diet and exercise because obesity may be the result of dietary self-medication of pain from previous experiences. CSA is a very serious problem that could precipitate suicide attempts, obesity, and multifaceted poor health outcomes throughout the life span; subsequently placing individuals at greater risk of requiring rehabilitation services. © 2014 Association of Rehabilitation Nurses.

  20. Sports Injuries about the Hip: What the Radiologist Should Know.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegazi, Tarek M; Belair, Jeffrey A; McCarthy, Eoghan J; Roedl, Johannes B; Morrison, William B

    2016-10-01

    Injuries of the hip and surrounding structures represent a complex and commonly encountered scenario in athletes, with improper diagnosis serving as a cause of delayed return to play or progression to a more serious injury. As such, radiologists play an essential role in guiding management of athletic injuries. Familiarity with hip anatomy and the advantages and limitations of various imaging modalities is of paramount importance for accurate and timely diagnosis. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is often the modality of choice for evaluating many of the injuries discussed, although preliminary evaluation with conventional radiography and use of other imaging modalities such as ultrasonography (US), computed tomography, and bone scintigraphy may be supplementary or preferred in certain situations. Stress fractures, thigh splints, and posterior hip dislocations are important structural injuries to consider in the athlete, initially imaged with radiographs and often best diagnosed with MR imaging. Apophyseal injuries are particularly important to consider in young athletes and may be acute or related to chronic repetitive microtrauma. Femoroacetabular impingement has been implicated in development of labral tears and cartilage abnormalities. Tear of the ligamentum teres is now recognized as a potential cause of hip pain and instability, best evaluated with MR arthrography. Greater trochanteric pain syndrome encompasses a group of conditions leading to lateral hip pain, with US playing an increasingly important role for both evaluation and image-guided treatment. Muscle injuries and athletic pubalgia are common in athletes. Lastly, snapping hip syndrome and Morel-Lavallée lesions are two less common but nonetheless important considerations. (©)RSNA, 2016.

  1. Injuries of the globe: what can the radiologist offer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Edward K; Nadgir, Rohini N; Fujita, Akifumi; Siegel, Cory; Ghafouri, Roya H; Traband, Anastasia; Sakai, Osamu

    2014-01-01

    Traumatic ocular injuries are a significant cause of blindness and visual deficits. In the setting of acute orbital trauma, urgent ophthalmologic evaluation and intervention are critical in preserving vision. However, in the acute trauma setting, clinical evaluation of the globe may be difficult in the presence of surrounding periorbital soft-tissue swelling and other associated injuries, and patient cooperation may be limited because of unresponsiveness, altered mentation, or sedation. Often, rapid access to imaging is part of the initial diagnostic evaluation, and radiologists may be the first to identify traumatic injuries of the globe. Because of this, radiologists should be familiar with normal orbital and globe anatomy at various imaging modalities and have a thorough understanding of the various patterns of ocular injury and their imaging appearances. Radiologists should also be familiar with the various mimics of ocular injury, including congenital and acquired conditions that may alter the shape of the globe, various types of ocular calcifications, and the different types of material used to treat retinal detachment. Such knowledge may help radiologists make accurate diagnoses, which facilitates prompt and appropriate patient care. RSNA, 2014

  2. What Are Common Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) Symptoms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Trials Resources and Publications What are common TBI symptoms? Skip sharing on social media links Share this: ... is not always a sign of severe TBI. Symptoms of Mild TBI A person with a mild ...

  3. Systematic reviews of workplace injury interventions: what are we missing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipscomb, Hester J; Pompeii, Lisa A; Myers, D J; Schoenfisch, Ashley L; Dement, J M

    2009-01-01

    There are pitfalls associated with applying a biomedical model with its emphasis on experimental designs to the evaluation of workplace injury interventions. Evaluation over enough time is essential in occupational safety when interventions are expected to have a latent effect as well as to assess sustained effects. Controlled trials are not well-suited to this task and are not even possible in circumstances where a policy change, such as legislative action, affects a population of workers simultaneously. Social context influences occupational injury interventions, their evaluation and the wider generalization of findings but is lost in the pooling of data for meta-analyses. Some of these issues can be addressed through recognition of the contribution of diverse observational methodologies in intervention evaluation, improvement and maintenance of robust surveillance systems, and inclusion of qualitative methodologies not typically embraced by epidemiologists or medical researchers. Through consideration of an evaluation of a legislative effort to prevent falls from height in construction, we demonstrate lack of flexibility in current methods used for evaluating time series analyses in systematic reviews of occupational injury intervention effectiveness. These include the manner in which downward change in slope is assessed and the call to demonstrate a significant initial downward change in level. We illustrate essential contextual detail regarding this intervention that is lost in the pooling of data from multiple studies into a combined measure of effect. This reduction of occupational injury intervention evaluation to one of pure statistical significance is ill-conceived, irresponsible, and should be stopped.

  4. 广州地区3-6岁流动儿童意外伤害综合干预效果评价%Intervention Effect Evaluation of Unintentional Injuries among Migrant Children Aged 3 to 6 Years old in Guangzhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘慧燕; 查达永; 杨丽; 林穗方

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the intervention effect of migrant children’ s injury, and to provide evidence for the injury prevention and control.Methods:A random cluster sample of migrant children aged 3-6 years old was chosen.Evaluation was conducted with method of com-parison between before and after intervention.Results:The incidence rate of unintentional injuries for children decreased from 34.97%before in-tervention to 29.44% after intervention (P<0.05).The total average score was (25.74 ±2.23)before intervention to (27.15 ±2.13)after in-tervention (P<0.05), and the average scores of KAP increased respectively(P<0.05).After intervention, 11 items decreased significantly a-mong 19 items of high-risk behavior about injury(P<0.05).Conclusion:Family-school-community comprehensive intervention model could improve the level of the injury knowledge and attitude of the parents, reduce the risk behavior and the injury incidence rate of children.%目的:评价广州地区学龄前流动儿童伤害干预效果,为流动儿童的伤害控制策略提供依据。方法:采用随机整群抽样法对广州市3-6岁流动儿童进行伤害调查,并通过干预前后对照,评价干预效果。结果:学龄前流动儿童伤害发生率由干预前的34.97%下降至29.44%,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。儿童家长意外伤害总分从(25.74±2.23)分提高到(27.15±2.13)分,其中知识得分、态度得分、行为得分均有显著提高(均P<0.05)。干预后,19项伤害危险行为中有11项显著降低( P<0.05)。结论:家庭-学校-社区三位一体综合干预模式可有效提高流动儿童家长对意外伤害的认知率,改善相关信念,并减少危险行为,降低伤害发生率。

  5. Parental death in childhood and self-inflicted injuries in young adults-a national cohort study from Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostila, Mikael; Berg, Lisa; Arat, Arzu; Vinnerljung, Bo; Hjern, Anders

    2016-10-01

    Previous studies have shown that parental death influences health and mortality in bereaved offspring. To date, few studies have examined whether exposure to parental bereavement in childhood is associated with suicidality later in life. The aim of the present research was to investigate whether parental death during childhood influences self-inflicted injuries/poisoning in young adulthood. A national cohort born during 1973-1982 (N = 871,402) was followed prospectively in the National Patient Discharge Register from age 18 to 31-40 years. Cox regression analyses of proportional hazards, with adjustment for socio-demographic confounders and parental psychosocial covariates, were used to test hypotheses regarding parental loss and hospital admission due to self-inflicted injuries/poisoning. Parental deaths were divided into deaths caused by (1) external causes/substance abuse and (2) natural causes. Persons who had lost a parent to an external cause/substance abuse-related death had the highest risk of being admitted to a hospital for a self-inflicted injury/poisoning; HRs 2.03 (1.67-2.46) for maternal death and 2.03 (1.84-2.25) for paternal death, after adjustment for socio-demographic confounders and risk factors among surviving parents. Risks were also increased for parental death due to natural causes, but at a lower level: 1.19 (1.01-1.39) and 1.28 (1.15-1.43), respectively. Losing a father before school age was associated with a higher risk of hospital admission for a self-inflicted injury/poisoning than was loss at an older age for both genders. Maternal loss before school age was associated with a higher risk only for men, particularly maternal death by natural causes (p < 0.01).

  6. Home Environment as a Predictor of Long-Term Executive Functioning following Early Childhood Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durish, Christianne Laliberté; Yeates, Keith Owen; Stancin, Terry; Taylor, H Gerry; Walz, Nicolay C; Wade, Shari L

    2017-07-20

    This study examined the relationship of the home environment to long-term executive functioning (EF) following early childhood traumatic brain injury (TBI). Participants (N=134) were drawn from a larger parent study of 3- to 6-year-old children hospitalized for severe TBI (n=16), complicated mild/moderate TBI (n=44), or orthopedic injury (OI; n=74), recruited prospectively at four tertiary care hospitals in the United States and followed for an average of 6.8 years post-injury. Quality of the home environment, caregiver psychological distress, and general family functioning were assessed shortly after injury (i.e., early home) and again at follow-up (i.e., late home). Participants completed several performance-based measures of EF at follow-up. Hierarchical regression analyses examined the early and late home environment measures as predictors of EF, both as main effects and as moderators of group differences. The early and late home environment were inconsistent predictors of long-term EF across groups. Group differences in EF were significant for only the TEA-Ch Walk/Don't Walk subtest, with poorer performance in the severe TBI group. However, several significant interactions suggested that the home environment moderated group differences in EF, particularly after complicated mild/moderate TBI. The home environment is not a consistent predictor of long-term EF in children with early TBI and OI, but may moderate the effects of TBI on EF. The findings suggest that interventions designed to improve the quality of stimulation in children's home environments might reduce the long-term effects of early childhood TBI on EF. (JINS, 2017, 23, 1-11).

  7. Childhood motocross truncal injuries: high-velocity, focal force to the chest and abdomen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Raelene D; Potter, D Dean; Osborn, John B; Zietlow, Scott; Zarroug, Abdalla E; Moir, Christopher R; Ishitani, Michael B; McIntosh, Amy

    2012-01-01

    To review the need for operative intervention and critical care services for motocross truncal injuries in children. DESIGN COHORT: Retrospective review of patients identified via the hospital trauma registry. Our Level 1 Pediatric Trauma Center serves five motocross tracks. These patients require frequent medical care for injuries. All patients ≤17 years of age with truncal injuries sustained during motocross activities, between 2000 and 2011, were identified through the trauma registry. Operative intervention, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, length of stay, morbidity and demographics were reviewed. Motocross injured 162 children. Thirty (18.5%) were thoracic or abdominal injuries. Operative intervention was required in eight (27%) patients. Mean injury severity score (ISS) was 11.8. ICU admission was required in 50% and average hospital length of stay was 4.1 days. The most common injuries include pulmonary contusion, pneumothorax, spleen and liver lacerations. 13% of subjects suffered truncal injury from motocross on more than one occasion. Paediatric motocross-related truncal injuries are significant. Surgical intervention is required in 27% of patients. The lower ISS incurred from motocross combined with high surgical and ICU admission rates suggests focal high-impact injuries to the chest and abdomen. Despite significant injury, 13% of motocross patients suffer recurrent injuries. Parents and children need injury prevention education.

  8. What Is It Like to Be a Child? Childhood Subjectivity and Teacher Memories as Heterotopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang-Kredl, Sandra; Wilkie, Gala

    2016-01-01

    Foucault's notion of heterotopia offers a novel way to understand teachers' conceptualizations of childhood, in juxtaposing adult memories of childhood with their present context of teaching children. Memory writing prompts were given to 41 early childhood teachers, and the resulting written narratives were analyzed as heterotopic spaces. The…

  9. What Are the Long-Term Economic Costs of Psychological Problems during Childhood? Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Recent research has established evidence of a strong link between poor physical health during childhood (and even in utero) and health and economic outcomes much later in adulthood. But much less is known about the long-term economic consequences of psychological conditions experienced during childhood, although childhood psychological…

  10. What Are the Long-Term Economic Costs of Psychological Problems during Childhood? Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Recent research has established evidence of a strong link between poor physical health during childhood (and even in utero) and health and economic outcomes much later in adulthood. But much less is known about the long-term economic consequences of psychological conditions experienced during childhood, although childhood psychological…

  11. Repercussões no contexto familiar de injúrias não-intencionais em crianças - DOI: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.1087 The repercussion from unintentional injuries in children on the family context - DOI: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.1087

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirna Albuquerque Frota

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desta pesquisa é estudar as características da criança como vítima de injúrias não-intencionais e seu familiar-acompanhante, descrever as repercussões dessas injúrias na família e identificar a concepção de familiares-acompanhantes sobre fatores de risco no domicílio e o conhecimento de práticas preventivas. Estudo descritivo, realizado com 29 familiares e/ou acompanhantes de crianças internadas em um hospital de emergência, em Fortaleza, Ceará, em 2005. A maioria das crianças tinha entre 5 a 10 anos, do sexo masculino, e prevaleceu a injúria no trânsito. Em relação aos acompanhantes, predominou renda de até um salário mínimo e eles afirmaram que conhecem os tipos mais comuns de injúrias com crianças e os modos de evitá-los. As repercussões atingem as dimensões emocionais, econômicas e sociais, somando-se verbalizações de medo, culpa e arrependimento, protesto e resignação. Conclui-se que o tema precisa ser amplamente discutido, mobilizando pessoas em instâncias formadoras de opiniões para reorientação da práxis na Saúde e EducaçãoThe objective of this work is to study the characteristics of the child when victim of unintentional injury, as well as those of his family caregiver. This was accomplished by describing the repercussion of those injuries in the family and identifying the family caregivers’ conception of risk factors in the home, as well as their knowledge of preventive practices. A descriptive study was conducted with 29 relatives or caregivers of injured children at an emergency hospital in Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil, in 2005. Most of the children were between 5 and 10 years old and were male; the most prevalent instances of injury were traffic-related. Regarding the caregivers, the most prevalent income range for this group was up to minimum wage. They reported knowing the most frequent types of injuries to children, as well as the ways to avoid them. The repercussions within the

  12. Childhood motocross truncal injuries: high-velocity, focal force to the chest and abdomen

    OpenAIRE

    Kennedy, Raelene D; Potter, D Dean; Osborn, John B.; Zietlow, Scott; Abdalla E. Zarroug; Moir, Christopher R; Ishitani, Michael B.; McIntosh, Amy

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To review the need for operative intervention and critical care services for motocross truncal injuries in children. Design cohort Retrospective review of patients identified via the hospital trauma registry. Setting Our Level 1 Pediatric Trauma Center serves five motocross tracks. These patients require frequent medical care for injuries. Participants All patients ≤17 years of age with truncal injuries sustained during motocross activities, between 2000 and 2011, were identified t...

  13. Long-Term Neuropsychological Profiles and Their Role as Mediators of Adaptive Functioning after Traumatic Brain Injury in Early Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treble-Barna, Amery; Zang, Huaiyu; Zhang, Nanhua; Taylor, H Gerry; Yeates, Keith Owen; Wade, Shari

    2017-01-15

    The objectives of the study were to characterize long-term neuropsychological outcomes following traumatic brain injury (TBI) sustained during early childhood, and determine whether identified neuropsychological impairments mediated the effect of TBI on long-term adaptive functioning. Participants included 16 children with severe TBI, 42 children with moderate TBI, and 72 children with orthopedic injuries (OI) sustained between ages 3 and 7 years. Children completed neuropsychological tests and caregivers completed a structured interview of child adaptive functioning at 6.9 (±1.10) years post-injury. Profile analysis and multiple mediator modeling were employed. Children with severe TBI demonstrated poorer fluid reasoning and inhibitory control than both children with moderate TBI and OI, as well as slower processing speed than the OI group. Both fluid reasoning and processing speed were significant independent mediators of the effect of severe TBI on adaptive functioning. No neuropsychological measure significantly mediated the effect of moderate TBI on adaptive functioning. Children sustaining early severe TBI demonstrate persisting neuropsychological impairments into adolescence and young adulthood. The impact of severe TBI on children's long-term adaptive functioning is mediated in part by its effects on fluid reasoning and processing speed.

  14. Involving Parents in Indicated Early Intervention for Childhood PTSD Following Accidental Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobham, Vanessa E.; March, Sonja; De Young, Alexandra; Leeson, Fiona; Nixon, Reginald; McDermott, Brett; Kenardy, Justin

    2012-01-01

    Accidental injuries represent the most common type of traumatic event to which a youth is likely to be exposed. While the majority of youth who experience an accidental injury will recover spontaneously, a significant proportion will go on to develop Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). And yet, there is little published treatment outcome…

  15. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound in non-operative management of pancreatic injury in childhood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valentino, Massimo; Sartoni Galloni, Stefania; Rimondi, Maria Rita; Barozzi, Libero [University Hospital S. Orsola-Malpighi, Emergency Department, Bologna (Italy); Gentili, Andrea [University Hospital S. Orsola-Malpighi, Department of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care, Bologna (Italy); Lima, Mario [University Hospital S. Orsola-Malpighi, Department of Paediatrics, Bologna (Italy)

    2006-06-15

    We report a 5-year-old child with pancreatic trauma from a blunt abdominal injury that was monitored with contrast-enhanced sonography. Unenhanced US failed to demonstrate the abnormality that was recognized by CT and MRI. The injury was well demonstrated by contrast-enhanced US which was therefore used for follow-up until its healing. (orig.)

  16. Childhood trauma exposure and toxic stress: what the PNP needs to know.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornor, Gail

    2015-01-01

    Trauma exposure in childhood is a major public health problem that can result in lifelong mental and physical health consequences. Pediatric nurse practitioners must improve their skills in the identification of trauma exposure in children and their interventions with these children. This continuing education article will describe childhood trauma exposure (adverse childhood experiences) and toxic stress and their effects on the developing brain and body. Adverse childhood experiences include a unique set of trauma exposures. The adverse childhood experiences or trauma discussed in this continuing education offering will include childhood exposure to emotional abuse, physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional neglect, physical neglect, domestic violence, household substance abuse, household mental illness, parental separation or divorce, and a criminal household member. Thorough and efficient methods of screening for trauma exposure will be discussed. Appropriate intervention after identification of trauma exposure will be explored.

  17. Management of anterior cruciate ligament injury? What's in and what's out?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Todd Raines

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Sports medicine physicians have a keen clinical and research interest in the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL. The biomechanical, biologic, and clinical data researchers generate, help drive injury management and prevention practices globally. The current concepts in ACL injury and surgery are being shaped by technological advances, expansion in basic science research, resurging interest in ACL preservation, and expanding efforts regarding injury prevention. As new methods are being developed in this field, the primary goal of safely improving patient outcomes will be a unifying principle. With this review, we provide an overview of topics currently in controversy or debate, and we identify paradigm shifts in the understanding, management, and prevention of ACL tears.

  18. Long-term effects of traumatic injuries to incisors and periodontal tissues during childhood: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wriedt, Susanne; Martin, Monika; Al-Nawas, Bilal; Wehrbein, Heiner

    2010-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the incidence of dentoalveolar growth disturbances, loss of teeth and esthetic impairment after the end of growth following traumatic injuries to incisors and periodontal tissues during childhood. 41 patients having sustained dentoalveolar trauma before age 10 and who were now at least aged 16 years, and a total of 68 traumatized teeth were documented by clinical examination, dental casts and photographs. We determined the three-dimensional position of the traumatized teeth on the casts, as well as the traumatized teeth's pulp sensibility, percussive sound and sensitivity, shape and color. 82% of the traumatized teeth were in the upper dentition. 45% of the traumatized teeth experienced subluxation, nearly 30% luxation, 16% avulsion. At the time of the follow-up examination (mean 17.0 years post-trauma), 57% of the traumatized teeth were still in situ. Immediately after trauma 7.4% of the teeth were lost; up to 16 years post-trauma 35.6% of the teeth were lost because of failed root canal filling, root resorption or ankylosis. We observed no functional deviations. Dentoalveolar growth disturbances were rare. Three teeth were markedly discolored. Following dentoalveolar trauma during childhood, negative effects on growth, function and esthetics can be minimized by timely interdisciplinary treatment and by follow-up controls until the end of growth to achieve an outcome satisfying both the patient and clinician.

  19. Evidence for unintentional emotional contagion beyond dyads.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Dezecache

    Full Text Available Little is known about the spread of emotions beyond dyads. Yet, it is of importance for explaining the emergence of crowd behaviors. Here, we experimentally addressed whether emotional homogeneity within a crowd might result from a cascade of local emotional transmissions where the perception of another's emotional expression produces, in the observer's face and body, sufficient information to allow for the transmission of the emotion to a third party. We reproduced a minimal element of a crowd situation and recorded the facial electromyographic activity and the skin conductance response of an individual C observing the face of an individual B watching an individual A displaying either joy or fear full body expressions. Critically, individual B did not know that she was being watched. We show that emotions of joy and fear displayed by A were spontaneously transmitted to C through B, even when the emotional information available in B's faces could not be explicitly recognized. These findings demonstrate that one is tuned to react to others' emotional signals and to unintentionally produce subtle but sufficient emotional cues to induce emotional states in others. This phenomenon could be the mark of a spontaneous cooperative behavior whose function is to communicate survival-value information to conspecifics.

  20. Multiple childcare arrangements and health outcomes in early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jen-Hao

    2013-04-01

    This study examined the associations between multiple childcare arrangements and young children's health problems. This study used three waves of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort, collected from a nationally representative sample of children when they were 9 months old, 2 years old, and 4 years old (N = 7,150). 'Multiple childcare arrangements' was defined and measured by the number of non-parental childcare arrangements that occurred on a regular basis. During each wave of the data collection, the mother reported the number of regular childcare arrangements by three types: relative care, non-relative care, and center-based care. These numbers were summed to calculate the total number of arrangements. The mother also reported the incidence of ear infections, gastrointestinal illnesses, asthma diagnosis, and unintentional injuries of the child. Random effects and fixed effects regression models were used to estimate the association between the number of childcare arrangements and measures of early childhood health problems. Increases in the total number of childcare arrangements were associated with an elevated risk of ear infections, gastrointestinal illnesses, and diagnosed asthma in children. Further analysis indicates that increases in both the number of center-based care and non-relative care (but not relative care) arrangements can lead to a greater chance of health problems in young children. Multiple childcare arrangements are associated with communicable illness and diagnosed asthma in early childhood and appear to be a risk factor for health problems in early childhood.

  1. Early attention impairment and recovery profiles after childhood traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Vicki; Eren, Senem; Dob, Rian; Le Brocque, Robyne; Iselin, Greg; Davern, Timothy J; McKinlay, Lynne; Kenardy, Justin

    2012-01-01

    To examine recovery of attention from 3 to 6 months postinjury; to identify effects of injury severity and time since injury on performance; to explore whether complex attention skills (eg, shifting, divided attention, attentional control) are more vulnerable to traumatic brain injury (TBI), and slower to recover than simple attention skills (eg, attentional capacity, selective attention, sustained attention). Prospective longitudinal investigation. A total of 205 school-aged children with TBI were divided into groups according to injury severity (mild = 63%, moderate = 27%, severe = 10%). Emergency departments of 3 metropolitan children's hospitals across Australia. Standardized clinical measures of both simple and complex attention were administered at 3 months and 6 months postinjury. Attention skills were vulnerable to the impact of TBI. More severe injury affected attention skills most negatively. Significant recovery was observed over time. There were few interaction effects, with severity groups exhibiting similar levels of recovery over the 6 months post-TBI. No differences in recovery trajectories were detected for simple and complex attention. These findings have important clinical and educational implications, suggesting that children with TBI, and particularly those with more serious injuries, are most vulnerable to attention deficits in the acute stages postinjury. It is important that schools and families are aware of these limitations and structure expectations accordingly. For example, gradual return to school should be considered, and in the early stages of recovery, children should be provided with sufficient rest time, with reduced expectations for tasks such as homework.

  2. Suicide Probability in Adolescents With a History of Childhood Maltreatment: The Role of Non-Suicidal Self-Injury, Emotion Regulation Difficulties, and Forms of Self-Criticism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khanipour

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Suicidal attempt and non-suicidal self-injury are very common in adolescents with a history of childhood maltreatment. By identifying correlates of these kinds of high-risk behaviors, it is possible to prevent and decrease completed suicide. Objectives The aims of this study were: 1 to compare adolescents with a history of childhood maltreatment with non-suicidal self injury (NSSI or past suicidal attempt in terms of suicide probability, and 2 to investigate the association between NSSI, forms of self-criticism, emotion regulation difficulties, and suicide probability. Patients and Methods Participants were 169 adolescents living in Iranian social welfare centers who had a history of childhood maltreatment. The Suicide Probability Scale, Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale, Forms of Self-criticism, and the Non-Suicidal Self injury (NSSI checklist were used for assessment. Results Adolescents with NSSI and suicidal attempts had higher rates of suicide ideation than adolescents with NSSI-only (P < 0.05. Feelings of inadequacy, self-hatred, difficulty with impulse control, and frequency of NSSI can predict 50% variance of suicide probability (P < 0.001. Conclusions Adolescents with histories of suicidal attempts and NSSI, compared with adolescents with NSSI-only, were more prone to suicide. Self-criticism, poor impulse control, and the frequency of NSSI were the main risk factors associated with suicide probability in adolescents with a history of childhood maltreatment.

  3. Suicide Probability in Adolescents With a History of Childhood Maltreatment: The Role of Non-Suicidal Self-Injury, Emotion Regulation Difficulties, and Forms of Self-Criticism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanipour, Hamid; Hakim Shooshtari, Mitra; Bidaki, Reza

    2016-06-01

    Suicidal attempt and non-suicidal self-injury are very common in adolescents with a history of childhood maltreatment. By identifying correlates of these kinds of high-risk behaviors, it is possible to prevent and decrease completed suicide. The aims of this study were: 1) to compare adolescents with a history of childhood maltreatment with non-suicidal self injury (NSSI) or past suicidal attempt in terms of suicide probability, and 2) to investigate the association between NSSI, forms of self-criticism, emotion regulation difficulties, and suicide probability. Participants were 169 adolescents living in Iranian social welfare centers who had a history of childhood maltreatment. The Suicide Probability Scale, Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale, Forms of Self-criticism, and the Non-Suicidal Self injury (NSSI) checklist were used for assessment. Adolescents with NSSI and suicidal attempts had higher rates of suicide ideation than adolescents with NSSI-only (P criticism, poor impulse control, and the frequency of NSSI were the main risk factors associated with suicide probability in adolescents with a history of childhood maltreatment.

  4. Confirming "Chanclas": What Early Childhood Teacher Educators Can Learn from Immigrant Preschool Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adair, Jennifer Keys

    2011-01-01

    The immigrant teacher perspective has been largely missing from local and national debates on early childhood pedagogy and has certainly been marginalized in debates about language in early childhood settings. Interviews with dozens of preschool teachers in multiple U.S. cities about children of immigrants' language choices at school (as part of…

  5. Critically Redefining and Repositioning Media Texts in Early Childhood Teacher Education: What If? And Why?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souto-Manning, Mariana; Price-Dennis, Detra

    2012-01-01

    Given the prevalence of popular media in the lives of young children today, early childhood teacher education stands to benefit from fostering critical media literacy practices. Through the use of critical media literary practices, early childhood teacher educators can facilitate a process whereby preservice teachers learn how to critically…

  6. Policies and Practices of Professional Development in China: What Do Early Childhood Teachers Think?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Karen Liang; Yong, Yan

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on early childhood teachers' professional development in China. It reports a study which aims to elicit twelve in-service early childhood teachers' perspectives of the values and issues of professional development policies and the learning opportunities they experienced. Two themes arising from the study are addressed, namely…

  7. Keeping Children Active: What You Can Do to Fight Childhood Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pica, Rae

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author talks about childhood obesity and explores ways to fight this condition. The author shares some activities to get children moving to positively impact childhood obesity. These include: "Stand Up/Sit Down;" "Quick Clean-Up;" and "Get Ready Spaghetti."

  8. The effect of health education to cognitive and behavioral of the kindergarten children and their parents on unintentional injuries%健康教育对托幼机构儿童及其家长意外伤害认知和行为的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    覃凌智; 彭安娜; 陈忠; 陈娟; 郭丹; 张斌

    2012-01-01

    目的:探索健康教育在有效预防托幼机构儿童意外伤害中的作用.方法:随机抽取武汉2所幼儿园大、中、小班各2个班3~6岁托幼机构儿童共181名,并将其家长作为调查对象,采用自行编写印制的书籍、儿歌、游戏模具、故事、主题活动、讲座等形式,分别在开展健康教育前后对儿童及其家长进行两次问卷调查.结果:健康教育后,儿童及其家长在儿童乘车安全知识、烫伤、发现煤气泄漏、鼻腔塞入异物的处理、对剪刀、打火机、电插座等有可能造成伤害物品的识别、交通安全等方面的回答正确率均显著增高,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05或P<0.01),在幼儿单独在家时的安全知识、防止跌落等方面的回答正确率也较健康教育前有所提高,但差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论:健康教育干预可明显改善家长和儿童意外伤害的认知和行为.%Objective: To explore the role of health education in effectively preventing unintenlional injury of kindergarten children. Methods: A total of 181 children aged 3-6 and their parents were randomly selected from large, medium and small classes of two kindergartens in Wuhan Health education included self ?published books, songs, games, story, theme activities, lectures and others The investigation was maken in the children and their parents before and after the health education. Results: After health education, answering correct rates of children and their parents in child car safety knowledge, burns, found a gas leak, nasal foreign body inserted into the handling of scissors, cigarette lighters, power outlets and other items may cause harm to the identification, traffic safety and other aspects were significantly higher (P 0. 05) . Conclusion; Health education can significantly improve cognitive and behavioral of children and their parents on unintentional injuries.

  9. Functional Plasticity in Childhood Brain Disorders: When, What, How, and Whom to Assess

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Maureen; Spiegler, Brenda J.; Simic, Nevena; Sinopoli, Katia J.; Wilkinson, Amy; Yeates, Keith Owen; Taylor, H. Gerry; Bigler, Erin D.; Fletcher, Jack M.

    2014-01-01

    At every point in the lifespan, the brain balances malleable processes representing neural plasticity that promote change with homeostatic processes that promote stability. Whether a child develops typically or with brain injury, his or her neural and behavioral outcome is constructed through transactions between plastic and homeostatic processes and the environment. In clinical research with children in whom the developing brain has been malformed or injured, behavioral outcomes provide an index of the result of plasticity, homeostasis, and environmental transactions. When should we assess outcome in relation to age at brain insult, time since brain insult, and age of the child at testing? What should we measure? Functions involving reacting to the past and predicting the future, as well as social-affective skills, are important. How should we assess outcome? Information from performance variability, direct measures and informants, overt and covert measures, and laboratory and ecological measures should be considered. In whom are we assessing outcome? Assessment should be cognizant of individual differences in gene, socio-economic status (SES), parenting, nutrition, and interpersonal supports, which are moderators that interact with other factors influencing functional outcome. PMID:24821533

  10. Brain and head injury in infancy and childhood; Schaedel- und Hirntrauma im Kindesalter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Struffert, T. [Abteilung fuer Neuroradiologie, Radiologische Klinik, Universitaet des Saarlandes, Homburg, Saar (Germany); Abteilung fuer Neuroradiologie, Radiologische Klinik, Universitaet des Saarlandes, 66421, Homburg, Saar (Germany); Grunwald, I.; Reith, W. [Abteilung fuer Neuroradiologie, Radiologische Klinik, Universitaet des Saarlandes, Homburg, Saar (Germany)

    2003-11-01

    This article describes typical head injuries in infants and children. In comparison with adults there are distinct differences in the etiology of trauma and in the kind of reaction of the skull and brain. In infants and children there are three different types of trauma: birth trauma, accidental and non-accidental injury. The typical injuries in these three groups are described. (orig.) [German] In diesem Beitrag werden die typischen Schaedel- und Hirnverletzungen bei Kindern zusammengefasst. Bei diesen bestehen im Vergleich zu Erwachsenen deutliche Unterschiede in der Aetiologie und der Reaktion der Kalotte und des Gehirns auf ein Trauma. Bezueglich der Aetiologie kann unterschieden werden in Geburtstrauma, akzidentelles und nichtakzidentelles Trauma. Die typischen Verletzungen dieser 3 Gruppen werden ausfuehrlich beschrieben. (orig.)

  11. Strangulation injury from indigenous rocking cradle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saha Abhijeet

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Indigenously made rocking cradle is frequently used in rural India. We report strangulation from an indigenously made rocking cradle in an 11-month-old female child. The unique mode of injury and its mechanism have been discussed. Strangulation is an important cause of homicidal and suicidal injury in adults but in children it is usually accidental leading to death due to asphyxia as a result of partial hanging. In western countries, it is the third most common cause of accidental childhood deaths, 17% of them being due to ropes and cords. It ranks fourth amongst the causes of unintentional injury in children less than 1 year of age following roadside accidents, drowning and burns. However, in India, strangulation injury is under reported although indigenous rocking cradles are very commonly used in rural India, and they are even more dangerous than the cribs and adult beds as there are no safety mechanisms therein. We report a case of accidental strangulation following suspension from an indigenously made rocking cradle. The unique mode of injury has prompted us to report this case.

  12. Strangulation injury from indigenous rocking cradle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Abhijeet; Batra, Prerna; Bansal, Anuradha

    2010-07-01

    Indigenously made rocking cradle is frequently used in rural India. We report strangulation from an indigenously made rocking cradle in an 11-month-old female child. The unique mode of injury and its mechanism have been discussed. Strangulation is an important cause of homicidal and suicidal injury in adults but in children it is usually accidental leading to death due to asphyxia as a result of partial hanging. In western countries, it is the third most common cause of accidental childhood deaths, 17% of them being due to ropes and cords. It ranks fourth amongst the causes of unintentional injury in children less than 1 year of age following roadside accidents, drowning and burns. However, in India, strangulation injury is under reported although indigenous rocking cradles are very commonly used in rural India, and they are even more dangerous than the cribs and adult beds as there are no safety mechanisms therein. We report a case of accidental strangulation following suspension from an indigenously made rocking cradle. The unique mode of injury has prompted us to report this case.

  13. Alcohol intake and risk of injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremonte, Mariana; Cherpitel, Cheryl J

    2014-01-01

    Injuries constitute a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the world, with intentional injuries and those related to traffic most important, due to their social impact and high prevalence. Although alcohol consumption has been identified as a risk factor for injuries, few studies have assessed risk separately for intentional injuries and unintentional injuries caused by traffic, and by other causes. The objective of this paper was to estimate the risk of injuries after acute alcohol consumption for intentional injuries and unintentional traffic and non-traffic injuries, using, alternatively, two exposure measures: self-reported drinking prior to the event and blood alcohol concentration. A probability sample was collected of 540 patients from the emergency department of a hospital in Argentina. Logistic regressions were performed, with and without adjusting for gender, age and drinking pattern. Higher risks were found when blood alcohol concentration was used as a measure of consumption, compared to self-report. The highest risk estimates were obtained for intentional injuries, followed by unintentional traffic and, lastly, by unintentional non-traffic injuries. After controlling for confounders, risks for intentional and unintentional traffic injuries appeared similar for those above and below the legal limit. Results point to a significant involvement of alcohol in the regional context.

  14. Executive functions and theory of mind as predictors of social adjustment in childhood traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Kristen E; Fountain-Zaragoza, Stephanie; Dennis, Maureen; Taylor, H Gerry; Bigler, Erin D; Rubin, Kenneth; Vannatta, Kathryn; Gerhardt, Cynthia A; Stancin, Terry; Yeates, Keith Owen

    2014-11-15

    This study examined whether executive function and theory of mind mediate the effects of pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI) on social adjustment, relative to children with orthopedic injury (OI). Participants included 19 children with severe TBI, 41 children with complicated mild/moderate TBI, and 57 children with OI. They completed measures of executive function, as well as cognitive, affective, and conative theory of mind. Parents provided ratings of children's social adjustment. Children with severe TBI performed more poorly than children with OI on executive function and theory of mind tasks and were rated by parents as having more behavioral symptoms and worse communication and social skills. Executive function and theory of mind were positively correlated with social skills and communication skills, and negatively correlated with behavioral symptoms. In multiple mediator models, theory of mind and executive function were not significant direct predictors of any measure of social adjustment, but mediated the association between injury and adjustment for children with severe TBI. Theory of mind was a significant independent mediator when predicting social skills, but executive function was not. TBI in children, particularly severe injury, is associated with poor social adjustment. The impact of TBI on children's social adjustment is likely mediated by its effects on executive function and theory of mind.

  15. Executive Functions and Theory of Mind as Predictors of Social Adjustment in Childhood Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fountain-Zaragoza, Stephanie; Dennis, Maureen; Taylor, H. Gerry; Bigler, Erin D.; Rubin, Kenneth; Vannatta, Kathryn; Gerhardt, Cynthia A.; Stancin, Terry; Yeates, Keith Owen

    2014-01-01

    Abstract This study examined whether executive function and theory of mind mediate the effects of pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI) on social adjustment, relative to children with orthopedic injury (OI). Participants included 19 children with severe TBI, 41 children with complicated mild/moderate TBI, and 57 children with OI. They completed measures of executive function, as well as cognitive, affective, and conative theory of mind. Parents provided ratings of children's social adjustment. Children with severe TBI performed more poorly than children with OI on executive function and theory of mind tasks and were rated by parents as having more behavioral symptoms and worse communication and social skills. Executive function and theory of mind were positively correlated with social skills and communication skills, and negatively correlated with behavioral symptoms. In multiple mediator models, theory of mind and executive function were not significant direct predictors of any measure of social adjustment, but mediated the association between injury and adjustment for children with severe TBI. Theory of mind was a significant independent mediator when predicting social skills, but executive function was not. TBI in children, particularly severe injury, is associated with poor social adjustment. The impact of TBI on children's social adjustment is likely mediated by its effects on executive function and theory of mind. PMID:25003478

  16. Early childhood exposure to media violence: What parents and policymakers ought to know

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Caroline Fitzpatrick; Michael Oghia; Jad Melki; Linda Pagani

    2016-01-01

    .... We searched through four decades (1971-2011) of literature for enlightening details on the relationship between early exposure to media violence and health outcomes in later childhood and adolescence...

  17. Caregivers' voices: The experiences of caregivers of children who sustained serious accidental and non-accidental head injury in early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wharewera-Mika, Julie; Cooper, Erana; Kool, Bridget; Pereira, Susana; Kelly, Patrick

    2016-04-01

    Head injury is a leading cause of mortality and acquired neurological impairment in children. Head-injured children may have neurobehavioural deficits that persist for years following injury. Head injury can result in significant and persistent caregiver burden, including mental health issues, family stress and disorganisation, and unmet social and healthcare service needs. Few studies have examined the healthcare and social service needs of children and their families following head injury sustained at an early age. This qualitative study aims to describe the experiences of caregivers of children who sustained a serious head injury (particularly non-accidental head injury) before the age of 2 years. Caregivers were interviewed up to 15 years following the initial injury. Semi-structured interviews with 21 caregivers of 15 children (aged 3-15 years at the time of interview) were completed. Thematic analysis of interview data generated three key themes: impact, support and information. The study's findings reveal the broad impact of serious childhood head injury on caregivers, specifically the significant distress and burden brought about through lack of information, challenges in accessing support and inconsistent care. Recommendations for developing a quality 'model of care' and improving ease of access to supports for caregivers are provided.

  18. What's wrong with me? seeking a coherent understanding of recovery after mild traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snell, Deborah L; Martin, Rachelle; Surgenor, Lois J; Siegert, Richard J; Hay-Smith, E Jean C

    2017-09-01

    Qualitative research examining experiences of recovering from mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) is limited. Findings from quantitative studies regarding predictors of persisting symptoms are inconsistent with limited attention directed to capturing broad perspectives and priorities of the wider stakeholders. More flexible research approaches may help advance the field. We used a mixed method design to generate patient perspectives of MTBI recovery, integrating these with quantitative investigation to isolate factors that might contribute to divergent MTBI outcomes. The qualitative component reported here involved semi-structured interviews with selected participants (n = 10) from the quantitative study cohort, sampling both recovered and non-recovered adult MTBI participants. Interviews focused on participants' general description and understandings of their recovery and perceptions of what helped or hindered this. Data were analyzed using general thematic analysis. Participants regardless of recovery status identified the importance of having a coherent understanding of their injury and recovery. Factors facilitating coherence included social support, validation, reassurance, accessing credible evidence-based information and having a pathway to wellness. Findings suggested that coherence could be a helpful umbrella construct worthy of examination in future MTBI research. This construct appears broad and able to cope with the complexity of individual experiences after injury. Implications for rehabilitation Sense of coherence may be a helpful umbrella construct that can facilitate resilience and positive recovery beliefs and expectations after mild traumatic brain injury. Reassurance, validation, and social support appear important and may facilitate injury recovery. Focus on the experiences of people recovering from mild traumatic brain injury may help to refine recovery models and understandings and thus provide more effective intervention targets.

  19. Cognitive dysfunction in young men following head injury in childhood and adolescence: a population study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teasdale, T W; Engberg, A W

    2003-01-01

    admissions and the draft board, 3091 young men were identified who had been injured before age 18 and tested at age 18 or shortly thereafter: 970 had suffered a single concussion and were in hospital for one day only; 521 had two concussions at separate times and were in hospital for one day only on each...... Danish men appearing before the draft board had a score classified as dysfunctional). RESULTS: For young men who had suffered a single concussion, cranial fracture, or cerebral lesion before 12 years of age, resulting in less than 12 days of hospital admission (n = 376), rates of cognitive dysfunction.......0, irrespective of age at injury. For cases of two concussions, all odds ratios were > 1.4 but were not significant for all age groupings. CONCLUSIONS: For milder forms of single head injury before age 12 there is no evidence of enduring cognitive dysfunction. The apparent effect at later ages may reflect...

  20. Neuroimaging for non-accidental head injury in childhood: A proposed protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaspan, T.; Griffiths, P.D.; McConachie, N.S.; Punt, J.A.G

    2003-01-01

    Non-accidental head injury (NAHI) is a major cause of neurological disability and death during infancy. Radiological imaging plays a crucial role in evaluating craniospinal injury, both for guiding medical management and the forensic aspects of abusive trauma. The damage sustained is varied, complex and may be accompanied by an evolving pattern of brain injury secondary to a cascade of metabolic and physiological derangements. Regrettably, many cases are poorly or incompletely evaluated leading to diagnostic errors and difficulties in executing subsequent child care or criminal proceedings. It is evident, from cases referred to the authors, that imaging protocols for NAHI are lacking (or only loosely adhered to, if present) in many centres throughout the U.K. Future research in this field will also be hampered if there is a lack of consistent and reliable radiological data. There is no nationally agreed protocol for imaging NAHI. We propose such a protocol, based upon a wide experience in the medical management of child abuse and extensive involvement in the medicolegal aspects of NAHI. Jaspan, T., et al. (2003). Clinical Radiology58, 44--53.

  1. From research to public policy: the prevention of motor vehicle injuries, childhood drownings, and firearm violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wintemute, G J

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to review the development of the modern sciences of injury epidemiology and injury prevention and to illustrate the use of applied research in formulating effective public policy. MEDLINE searches were conducted from 1966 to 1990, and bibliographies of articles thus obtained were reviewed. Fugitive sources were identified by multiple means. Motor vehicle fatality rates on a per mile driven basis have been reduced by 50% over the past 25 years, largely through attention to the road environment and design of motor vehicles. Passive restraint systems such as air bags promise further reductions. Drowning has emerged as a leading cause of death among young children. Complete pool fencing is expected to prevent many of these events. Firearm violence, particularly among young people, is rapidly increasing. Firearms are hazardous consumer products but are not addressed as such by our current regulatory structure and intervention agenda. Epidemiologic and other applied research can make important contributions to the development of public policies designed to prevent injury. Such policies often address the design and performance of hazardous products and environments and consider individual behavior change as only a secondary objective.

  2. You Are What You Eat? Meal Type, Socio-Economic Status and Cognitive Ability in Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Stumm, Sophie

    2012-01-01

    The current study tests if the type of children's daily main meal (slow versus fast food) mediates the association of socioeconomic status (SES) with cognitive ability and cognitive growth in childhood. A Scottish birth cohort (Growing Up in Scotland) was assessed at ages 3 (N = 4512) and 5 years (N = 3833) on cognitive ability (i.e. vocabulary…

  3. What Does Economics Tell Us about Early Childhood Policy? Research Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilburn, M. Rebecca; Karoly, Lynn A.

    2008-01-01

    Advances in neuroscience, developmental psychology, and program evaluation have been combined to develop a unified framework that provides evidence-based guidance related to early childhood policy. This research shows how insights from the field of economics-- human capital theory and monetary payoffs--also contribute to that framework.…

  4. How Much and What Kind? Identifying an Adequate Technology Infrastructure for Early Childhood Education. Policy Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daugherty, Lindsay; Dossani, Rafiq; Johnson, Erin-Elizabeth; Wright, Cameron

    2014-01-01

    To realize the potential benefits of technology use in early childhood education (ECE), and to ensure that technology can help to address the digital divide, providers, families of young children, and young children themselves must have access to an adequate technology infrastructure. The goals for technology use in ECE that a technology…

  5. What Does Economics Tell Us about Early Childhood Policy? Research Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilburn, M. Rebecca; Karoly, Lynn A.

    2008-01-01

    Advances in neuroscience, developmental psychology, and program evaluation have been combined to develop a unified framework that provides evidence-based guidance related to early childhood policy. This research shows how insights from the field of economics-- human capital theory and monetary payoffs--also contribute to that framework.…

  6. Catechol-O-Methyltransferase Genotypes and Parenting Influence on Long-Term Executive Functioning After Moderate to Severe Early Childhood Traumatic Brain Injury: An Exploratory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurowski, Brad G; Treble-Barna, Amery; Zang, Huaiyu; Zhang, Nanhua; Martin, Lisa J; Yeates, Keith Owen; Taylor, H Gerry; Wade, Shari L

    2017-01-05

    To examine catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) rs4680 genotypes as moderators of the effects of parenting style on postinjury changes in parent behavior ratings of executive dysfunction following moderate to severe early childhood traumatic brain injury. Research was conducted in an outpatient setting. Participants included children admitted to hospital with moderate to severe traumatic brain injury (n = 55) or orthopedic injuries (n = 70) between ages 3 and 7 years. Prospective cohort followed over 7 years postinjury. Parenting Practices Questionnaire and the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Functioning obtained at baseline, 6, 12, and 18 months, and 3.5 and 6.8 years postinjury. DNA was collected from saliva samples, purified using the Oragene (DNA Genotek, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada) OG-500 self-collection tubes, and analyzed using TaqMan (Applied Biosystems, Thermo Fisher Scientific, Waltham, Massachusetts) assay protocols to identify the COMT rs4680 polymorphism. Linear mixed models revealed a significant genotype × parenting style × time interaction (F = 5.72, P = .02), which suggested that the adverse effects of authoritarian parenting on postinjury development of executive functioning were buffered by the presence of the COMT AA genotype (lower enzyme activity, higher dopamine levels). There were no significant associations of executive functioning with the interaction between genotype and authoritative or permissive parenting ratings. The lower activity COMT rs4680 genotype may buffer the negative effect of authoritarian parenting on long-term executive functioning following injury in early childhood. The findings provide preliminary evidence for associations of parenting style with executive dysfunction in children and for a complex interplay of genetic and environmental factors as contributors to decreases in these problems after traumatic injuries in children. Further investigation is warranted to understand the interplay among genetic and

  7. Caregiver ratings of long-term executive dysfunction and attention problems after early childhood traumatic brain injury: family functioning is important.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurowski, Brad G; Taylor, H Gerry; Yeates, Keith Owen; Walz, Nicolay C; Stancin, Terry; Wade, Shari L

    2011-09-01

    To evaluate the relationship of family and parenting factors to long-term executive dysfunction and attention problems after early childhood traumatic brain injury (TBI). We hypothesized that the magnitude of executive dysfunction and attention problems would be moderated by family and parenting factors. A multicenter, prospective cohort study that included an orthopedic injury (OI) reference group. Three tertiary academic children's hospital medical centers and one general medical center. Children, ages 3-7 years, hospitalized for OI, moderate TBI, or severe TBI. METHODS AND OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS: Parental ratings of family functioning and parenting styles were obtained 18 months after the injury occurred. The main outcome measurements, which were parental ratings of children's executive function and attention, were performed at least 24 months after the injury occurred (mean, 39 months; range, 25-63 months). Group comparisons were conducted with use of t-tests, χ(2) analysis, analysis of variance, and Pearson and Spearman correlations. Regression analysis was used to examine associations of the outcomes with family functioning and parenting styles and to test moderating effects of these factors on group differences. Participants with severe TBI demonstrated increased executive dysfunction and attention problems compared with those who sustained moderate TBI or OI. Lower levels of family dysfunction were associated with better executive function and attention across groups but did not moderate group differences. However, attention deficits after severe TBI were exacerbated under conditions of more permissive parenting relative to attention deficits after OIs. Executive function and attention problems persisted on a long-term basis (>24 months) after early childhood TBI, and positive global family functioning and nonpermissive parenting were associated with better outcomes. Better characterization of the optimal family environment for recovery from early childhood

  8. Unintentional cervical dural tap treated with lumbar blood patch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lebrun, C.; Peek, D.; Vanelderen, P.J.L.; Zundert, J. van

    2014-01-01

    Cervical radicular pain presents itself as pain radiating from the neck to the arm. If conservative treatment fails, a cervical epidural steroid injection can be considered. A rare but possible complication resulting from the interlaminar approach is unintentional cervical dural puncture that may re

  9. Injury prevention and public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Sleet

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Injuries are one of the most under-recognized public health problems facing the world today. With more than 5 million deaths every year, violence and injuries account for 9% of global mortality, as many deaths as from HIV, Malaria and Tuberculosis combined. Eight of the 15 leading causes of death for people ages 15 to 29 years are injury-related: road traffic injuries, suicides, homicides, drowning, burns, war injuries, poisonings and falls. For every death due to war, there are three deaths due to homicide and five deaths due to suicide. However, most violence happens to people behind closed doors and results not in death, but often in years of physical and emotional suffering [1]. Injuries can be classified by intent: unintentional or intentional. Traffic injuries, fire-related injuries, falls, drowning, and poisonings are most often classified as unintentional injuries; injuries due to assault, selfinflicted violence such as suicide, and war are classified as intentional injuries, or violence. Worldwide, governments and public and private partners are increasingly aware of the strains that unintentional injuries and violence place on societies. In response they are strengthening data collection systems, improving services for victims and survivors, and increasing prevention efforts [1].

  10. What Will I Be When I Grow Up? An Analysis of Childhood Expectations and Career Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Sarah Brown; John Sessions; Karl Taylor

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we utilise the British National Child Development Study to explore the determinants of children’s career expectations formed at the age of sixteen. We analyse how such career expectations impact upon human capital accumulation at the same age. We also analyse the extent of any divergence between childhood career expectations and the actual career outcomes experienced by the individuals at three distinct ages in adulthood (23, 33 and 42) as well as the impact of any such divergen...

  11. What has the ECRHS told us about the childhood risks of asthma, allergy and lung function?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svanes, C

    2008-10-01

    Few studies investigate how environmental factors in childhood may influence adult respiratory health. The European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS) is a longitudinal multi-centre study of Western world adults, including retrospective assessment of early life factors. Analyses of the ECRHS showed both beneficial and harmful long-term effects of childhood factors on adult asthma, allergy and lung function. Childhood pets were associated with less adult atopy and hay fever; beneficial effects were also indicated for growing up on a farm and for early exposure to other children. The findings have contributed to further development of the hygiene hypothesis and further understanding of the mechanisms relating microbial stimulation to allergy; however, the public health consequences may be limited. Harmful effects of early life factors on adult asthma and lung function were indicated for severe respiratory infections early in life, parental smoking and long-term dog keeping. Intervention with regard to parental smoking and vaccination against common lower airways infections may improve respiratory health in the population. Thus, early life environment had permanent beneficial and adverse effects on adult respiratory health. The multi-centre structure of the ECRHS, the large sample size, the extensive information about each participant and follow-up until the age of 56 years, have given the basis for convincing conclusions, and made possible publication of unsuspected findings in spite of the problems related to adult recall of childhood events. The ECRHS have contributed substantially to increased knowledge about the early life origins of allergy and obstructive pulmonary disease, providing a basis for prevention.

  12. Bacteriology of pressure ulcers in individuals with spinal cord injury: What we know and what we should know

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dana, Ali N.; Bauman, William A.

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) are at increased risk for the development of pressure ulcers. These chronic wounds are debilitating and contribute to prolonged hospitalization and worse medical outcome. However, the species of bacteria and the role that specific species may play in delaying the healing of chronic pressure ulcers in the SCI population has not been well characterized. This study will review the literature regarding what is known currently about the bacteriology of pressure ulcers in individuals with SCI. An electronic literature search of MEDLINE (1966 to February 2014) was performed. Eleven studies detailing bacterial cultures of pressure ulcers in the SCI population met inclusion criteria and were selected for review. Among these studies, bacterial cultures were often polymicrobial with both aerobic and anaerobic bacteria identified with culture techniques that varied significantly. The most common organisms identified in pressure ulcers were Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterococcus faecalis. In general, wounds were poorly characterized with minimal to no physical description and/or location provided. Our present understanding of factors that may alter the microbiome of pressure ulcers in individuals with SCI is quite rudimentary, at best. Well-designed studies are needed to assess appropriate wound culture technique, the impact of bacterial composition on wound healing, development of infection, and the optimum medical and surgical approaches to wound care. PMID:25130374

  13. Self-perceptions of young adults who survived severe childhood burn injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, William; Robert, Rhonda S; Thomas, Christopher R; Holzer, Charles E; Blakeney, Patricia; Meyer, Walter J

    2013-01-01

    significantly lower self-concept scores on the TSCS2 physical scale are consistent with the physical disfigurement and handicaps common with major burn injuries, and a strong indication of this group's perception of the first impression made when interacting with others. The survivors seem to feel worthwhile within the contexts of family and friends. Although the major limitation of this study using the TSCS2 is the lack of a matched reference population to compare the burn survivors, the TSCS2 does help in gaining insight into the self-esteem issues of the burn survivor population.

  14. What are the Main Points in Acupuncture Treatment of Peripheral Nervous Injuries?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张平

    2004-01-01

    Peripheral nervous injuries are post-traumatic sequelae which are commonly encountered in the clinic. Compared with internal medication, acupuncture therapy is much more effective in recovering the functions of the affected nerve(s). In performing acupuncture, the history and the location of the trauma should be taken into account so as to have a clear understanding about what nerve is injured. In case it is a nerve block (neurapraxia) due to mild trauma or compression, acupuncture is able to yield a very effective and rapid therapeutic result; in case there is discontinuation of neural axons, characterized by motor dysfunction due to lesions in the distal nerve fibers and myelin sheath, acupuncture is also effective, but takes longer time.

  15. Prevention of childhood obesity - what type of evidence should we consider relevant?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doak, C; Heitmann, B L; Summerbell, C

    2009-01-01

    , explain discrepant results. Differences in results were compared by inclusion criteria and outcome definitions. The most important summary recommendations for inclusion/exclusion criteria were to exclude all non-peer review articles, to maintain a 6-month lower limit for duration of study, to include......Two reviews, one by Summerbell et al. and the other by Doak et al. came to very different conclusions about the effectiveness of childhood obesity interventions. The aim of this commentary is to assess the extent to which inclusion and exclusion criteria, and the definition of effective outcomes...... and applying agreed exclusion criteria leaves 30 interventions; 50% are positive. Excluding studies without an aim specific to preventing weight gain leaves 10/24 (42%) positive interventions. The differences in the results of these two reviews relate to the inclusion criteria and outcome assessments...

  16. The posttraumatic proximal cross-union of the forearm in childhood: what is recommended?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Dudda

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The posttraumatic proximal cross-union of the forearm in childhood is a rare complication after radial head, neck or proximal forearm fractures and elbow dislocations. There is no standardized treatment. Several surgical procedures with or without interposition techniques are described in the literature. The aim of this study was to analyze all children with cross-unions who underwent surgery over the last 15 years. From 1998 to 2013, 8 children with a posttraumatic proximal cross-union of the forearm (Type 3 according to Vince and Miller received surgical treatment with resection of the cross-union or radial head. Mean age at the time of initial trauma was 9.0±2.56 years (range 6-14 years, age at the time of surgery was 11.9±3.09 years (range 7-16 years. Mean time of resection of the cross-union was 23.2 months. Follow-up time was 10.6 months (range 1-36 months. Five patients had a resection of the cross-union without any interposition techniques, in 2 cases with an additional arthrolysis of the elbow. One patient had an interposition of a local fascia flap. In 2 cases, a primary excision of the radial head, six and seven years, respectively, after trauma, was performed. All patients, except one, had non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs therapy after surgery. A post-operative irradiation was performed in 3 cases. The mean postoperative range of motion for pronation/supination was 36/0/53°. Controversy remains about the best procedure to adopt for posttraumatic cross-union in childhood. After analysis of our data and the literature, we recommend the resection of the cross-union within 6-24 months of occurrence without necessarily using any interposition techniques. All patients reported an improvement with regard to ordinary activities. In cases of long-term cross-union for several years with ankylosis of the elbow and bony deformities of the proximal radius, an excision of the radial head as salvage procedure is recommended.

  17. Successful childhood obesity management in primary care in Canada: what are the odds?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Kuhle

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background. The management of a child presenting with obesity in a primary care setting can be viewed as a multi-step behavioral process with many perceived and actual barriers for families and primary care providers. In order to achieve the goal of behavior change and, ultimately, clinically meaningful weight management outcomes in a child who is considered obese, all steps in this process should ideally be completed. We sought to review the evidence for completing each step, and to estimate the population effect of secondary prevention of childhood obesity in Canada.Methods. Data from the 2009/2010 Canadian Community Health Survey and from a review of the literature were used to estimate the probabilities for completion of each step. A flow chart based on these probabilities was used to determine the proportion of children with obesity that would undergo and achieve clinically meaningful weight management outcomes each year in Canada.Results. We estimated that the probability of a child in Canada who presents with obesity achieving clinically meaningful weight management outcomes through secondary prevention in primary care is around 0.6% per year, with a range from 0.01% to 7.2% per year. The lack of accessible and effective weight management programs appeared to be the most important bottleneck in the process.Conclusions. In order to make progress towards supporting effective pediatric obesity management, efforts should focus on population-based primary prevention and a systems approach to change our obesogenic society, alongside the allocation of resources toward weight management approaches that are comprehensively offered, equitably distributed and robustly evaluated.

  18. Unintentional Discontinuation of Chronic Medications for Seniors in Nursing Homes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stall, Nathan M.; Fischer, Hadas D.; Wu, C. Fangyun; Bierman, Arlene S.; Brener, Stacey; Bronskill, Susan; Etchells, Edward; Fernandes, Olavo; Lau, Davina; Mamdani, Muhammad M.; Rochon, Paula; Urbach, David R.; Bell, Chaim M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Transitions of care leave patients vulnerable to the unintentional discontinuation of medications with proven efficacy for treating chronic diseases. Older adults residing in nursing homes may be especially susceptible to this preventable adverse event. The effect of large-scale policy changes on improving this practice is unknown. The objective of this study was to analyze the effect of a national medication reconciliation accreditation requirement for nursing homes on rates of unintentional medication discontinuation after hospital discharge. It was a population-based retrospective cohort study that used linked administrative records between 2003 and 2012 of all hospitalizations in Ontario, Canada. We identified nursing home residents aged ≥66 years who had continuous use of ≥1 of the 3 selected medications for chronic disease: levothyroxine, HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins), and proton pump inhibitors (PPIs). In 2008 medication reconciliation became a required practice for accreditation of Canadian nursing homes. The main outcome measures included the proportion of patients who restarted the medication of interest after hospital discharge at 7 days. We also performed a time series analysis to examine the impact of the accreditation requirement on rates of unintentional medication discontinuation. The study included 113,088 adults aged ≥66 years who were nursing home residents, had an acute hospitalization, and were discharged alive to the same nursing home. Overall rates of discontinuation at 7-days after hospital discharge were highest in 2003–2004 for all nursing homes: 23.9% for thyroxine, 26.4% for statins, and 23.9% for PPIs. In most of the cases, these overall rates decreased annually and were lowest in 2011–2012: 4.0% for thyroxine, 10.6% for statins, and 8.3% for PPIs. The time series analysis found that nursing home accreditation did not significantly lower medication discontinuation rates for any of the 3 drug groups. From 2003

  19. Toward a taxonomy of the unintentional discharge of firearms in law enforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, John; O'Neill, Dawn A; Lewinski, William J

    2017-03-01

    An unintentional discharge (UD) is an activation of the trigger mechanism that results in an unplanned discharge that is outside of the firearm's prescribed use. UDs can result in injury or death, yet have been understudied in scientific literature. Pre-existing (1974-2015) UD reports (N = 137) from seven law enforcement agencies in the United States of America were analyzed by context, officer behavior, type of firearm, and injuries. Over 50% of UDs occurred in contexts with low threat potential while engaged in routine firearm tasks. The remaining UDs occurred in contexts with elevated to high threat potential during muscle co-activation, unfamiliar firearm tasks, contact with inanimate objects, and a medical condition. An antecedent-behavior-consequence (A-B-C) taxonomy as well as a standardized reporting form, based on the current findings and the existing literature, are offered as tools for identifying the conditions under which UDs may be likely to occur. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Influences on and measures of unintentional group synchrony

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Ellamil

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Many instances of large-scale coordination occur in real-life social situations without the explicit awareness of the individuals involved. While the majority of research to date has examined dyadic interactions – those between two individuals – during intentional or deliberate coordination, the present review surveys the handful of recent studies investigating behavioral and physiological synchrony across groups of more than two people when coordination was not an explicit goal. Both minimal (e.g., visual information, shared location and naturalistic (e.g., choir singing part, family relationship group interactions appear to promote unintentional group synchrony although they have so far only been studied separately. State differences in unintentional group synchrony, or the relative presence of coordination in various conditions, have tended to be assessed differently, such as using correlation-type relationships, compared to its temporal dynamics, or changes over time in the degree of coordination, which appear to be best captured using phase differences. Simultaneously evaluating behavioral, physiological, and social responses as well systematically comparing different synchrony measures could further our understanding of the influences on and measures of group synchrony, allowing us to move away from studying individual persons responding to static laboratory stimuli and towards investigating collective experiences in natural, dynamic social interactions.

  1. Unintentionality of affective attention across visual processing stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uusberg, Andero; Uibo, Helen; Kreegipuu, Kairi; Tamm, Maria; Raidvee, Aire; Allik, Jüri

    2013-01-01

    Affective attention involves bottom-up perceptual selection that prioritizes motivationally significant stimuli. To clarify the extent to which this process is automatic, we investigated the dependence of affective attention on the intention to process emotional meaning. Affective attention was manipulated by presenting affective images with variable arousal and intentionality by requiring participants to make affective and non-affective evaluations. Polytomous rather than binary decisions were required from the participants in order to elicit relatively deep emotional processing. The temporal dynamics of prioritized processing were assessed using early posterior negativity (EPN, 175-300 ms) as well as P3-like (P3, 300-500 ms) and slow wave (SW, 500-1500 ms) portions of the late positive potential. All analyzed components were differentially sensitive to stimulus categories suggesting that they indeed reflect distinct stages of motivational significance encoding. The intention to perceive emotional meaning had no effect on EPN, an additive effect on P3, and an interactive effect on SW. We concluded that affective attention went from completely unintentional during the EPN to partially unintentional during P3 and SW where top-down signals, respectively, complemented and modulated bottom-up differences in stimulus prioritization. The findings were interpreted in light of two-stage models of visual perception by associating the EPN with large-capacity initial relevance detection and the P3 as well as SW with capacity-limited consolidation and elaboration of affective stimuli.

  2. Unintentionality of affective attention across visual processing stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andero eUusberg

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Affective attention involves bottom-up perceptual selection that prioritizes motivationally significant stimuli. To clarify the extent to which this process is automatic, we investigated the dependence of affective attention on the intention to process emotional meaning. Affective attention was manipulated by presenting IAPS images with variable arousal and intentionality by requiring participants to make affective and non-affective evaluations. Polytomous rather than binary decisions were required from the participants in order to elicit relatively deep emotional processing. The temporal dynamics of prioritized processing were assessed using Early Posterior Negativity (EPN, 175-300 ms as well as P3-like (P3, 300 – 500 ms and Slow Wave (SW, 500 – 1500 ms portions of the Late Positive Potential. All analysed components were differentially sensitive to stimulus categories suggesting that they indeed reflect distinct stages of motivational significance encoding. The intention to perceive emotional meaning had no effect on EPN, an additive effect on P3, and an interactive effect on SW. We concluded that affective attention went from completely unintentional during the EPN to partially unintentional during P3 and SW where top-down signals, respectively, complemented and modulated bottom-up differences in stimulus prioritization. The findings were interpreted in light of two-stage models of visual perception by associating the EPN with large-capacity initial relevance detection and the P3 as well as SW with capacity-limited consolidation and elaboration of affective stimuli.

  3. 20 CFR 10.710 - Under what circumstances must a recovery of money or other property in connection with an injury...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Under what circumstances must a recovery of... FECA be reported to OWCP or SOL? 10.710 Section 10.710 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS... Under what circumstances must a recovery of money or other property in connection with an injury...

  4. Early Childhood Educators' Knowledge, Beliefs, Education, Experiences and Children's Language- and Literacy-Learning Opportunities: What Is the Connection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schachter, Rachel E.; Spear, Caitlin F.; Piasta, Shayne B.; Justice, Laura M.; Logan, Jessica A. R.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated how multiple types of knowledge and beliefs, along with holding an early childhood-related degree and teaching experience were linked to amounts of early childhood educators' language and literacy instruction. Quantile regression was used to estimate associations between these variables along a continuum of language…

  5. Clearing the Cervical Spine in a War Zone: What Other Injuries Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) USAF School of Aerospace Medicine...negative clinical examination of the cervical spine. Coexisting injuries identified in patients with negative physical examination included...injuries in proximity to the neck (head, thoracic spine, chest, or humerus) in 17 (85%) patients. In 3 patients(15%), coexisting injuries were not in

  6. Overuse wrist injuries in young athletes: What do sports physicians consider important signals and functional limitations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kox, Laura S; Kuijer, P Paul F M; Opperman, Jip; Kerkhoffs, Gino M M J; Maas, Mario; Frings-Dresen, Monique H W

    2017-02-21

    This study's objective was to collect items from experienced sports physicians, relating to the presence and severity of overuse wrist injuries in young athletes, for developing a measurement instrument for signals of overuse wrist injury. Seven Dutch elite sports physicians involved in guidance and treatment of young athletes in wrist-loading sports (gymnastics, tennis, judo, field hockey, volleyball and rowing) participated in a focus group. They discussed signals and limitations related to overuse wrist injuries in young athletes. Data were coded and categorised into signals and limitations with subcategories, using an inductive approach. Of the resulting 61 signals and limitations in nineteen (sub)categories, 20 were considered important, forming a comprehensive item set for identifying overuse wrist injury in young athletes. Signals such as pain, "click", crepitations, swelling and limited range of motion were marked useful for early identification of overuse wrist injury. Limitations in movement and performance were considered indicative of severe overuse injury but less relevant for initial injury identification. The focus group provided 17 important signals and 3 important limitations indicative of overuse wrist injury. These provide the basis for a valid measurement instrument for identifying overuse wrist injury in young athletes, with equal emphasis on pain and on other symptoms.

  7. What do childhood attention deficit/hyperactivity symptoms in depressed adults tell us about the bipolar spectrum?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purper-Ouakil, D; Porfirio, M C; Le Strat, Y; Falissard, B; Gorwood, P; Masi, G

    2017-03-01

    This study aims to establish if adult patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and childhood Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms would be more frequently within the bipolar spectrum than depressed patients without childhood ADHD. This study was carried out in outpatients recruited by psychiatrists in private practice, with 3963 participants being included in the final sample. Clinicians filled out questionnaires about current depressive symptoms in their patients, lifetime bipolar symptoms, global assessment of functioning and parental history of both major depression and bipolar disorder. Patients assessed current level of anxiety and depressive symptoms and antecedents of childhood ADHD symptoms. Depressed adults with significant childhood ADHD symptoms had a specific pattern of their major depressive episode compared to depressed patients without such symptoms. Subjects with childhood ADHD symptoms were more likely to report lifetime symptoms of mania/hypomania and to have a parent with type I or II bipolar disorder. The developmental trajectories of familial risk for lifetime bipolar symptoms showed that parental bipolar disorder influenced lifetime bipolar symptoms both through a direct pathway and an indirect pathway involving childhood ADHD symptoms. Childhood ADHD and number of depressive symptoms both made direct contributions to lifetime bipolar symptoms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Multiple bilateral lower limb fractures in a 2-year-old child: previously unreported injury with a unique mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Basant Repswal; Anuj Jain; Sunil Gupta; Aditya Aggarwal; Tushar Kohli; Devendra Pathrot

    2014-01-01

    Fall from height is a common cause of unintentional injuries in children and accounts for 6% of all trauma-related childhood deaths,usually from head injury.We report a case of a 2-year-old child with multiple fractures of the bilateral lower limbs due to this reason.A child fell from a height of around 15 feet after toppling from a balcony.He developed multiple fractures involving the right femoral shaft,right distal femoral epiphysis (Salter Harris type 2),right distal metaphysis of the tibia and fibula,and undisplaced Salter Harris type 2 epiphyseal injury of the left distal tibia.There were no head,abdominal or spinal injuries.The patient was taken into emergency operation theatre after initial management which consisted of intravenous fluids,blood transfusion,and splintage of both lower limbs.Fracture of the femoral shaft was treated by closed reduction and fixation using two titanium elastic nails.Distal femoral physeal injury required open reduction and fixation with K wires.Distal tibia fractures were closely reduced and managed nonoperatively in both the lower limbs.All the fractures united in four weeks.At the last follow-up,the child had no disability and was able to perform daily activities comfortably.We also proposed the unique mechanism of injury in this report.

  9. Multiple bilateral lower limb fractures in a 2-year-old child: previously unreported injury with a unique mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuj Jain

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Fall from height is a common cause of unintentional injuries in children and accounts for 6% of all trauma-related childhood deaths, usually from head injury. We report a case of a 2-year-old child with multiple fractures of the bilateral lower limbs due to this reason. A child fell from a height of around 15 feet after toppling from a alcony. He developed multiple fractures involving the right femoral shaft, right distal femoral epiphysis (Salter Harris type 2, right distal metaphysis of the tibia and fi bula, and undisplaced Salter Harris type 2 epiphyseal injury of the left distal tibia. There were no head, abdominal or spinal injuries. The patient was taken into emergency operation theatre after initial management which consisted of intravenous fl uids, blood transfusion, and splintage of both lower limbs. Fracture of the femoral shaft was treated by closed reduction and fixation using two titanium elastic nails. Distal femoral physeal injury required open eduction and fixation with K wires. Distal tibia fractures were closely reduced and managed nonoperatively in both the lower limbs. All the fractures united in four weeks. At the last follow-up, the child had no disability and was able to perform daily ctivities comfortably. We also proposed the unique mechanism of injury in this report. Key words: Multiple bilateral lower limb fractures; Fall; Child

  10. Playground injuries in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naeini H

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Hassan Sadeghi Naeini1, Kent Lindqvist2, Hamid Reza Jafari3, Amir Hossein Mirlohi4, Koustuv Dalal2,51Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran, Iran; 2Division of Social Medicine and Public Health, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden; 3Environmental Planning Department, Graduate Environment Faculty, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran; 4Apadana Research Center, Isfahan, Iran; 5Division of Public Health Science, School of Life Sciences, University of Skovde, SwedenBackground: Rapid urbanization and unplanned population development can be detrimental to the safety of citizens, with children being a particularly vulnerable social group. In this review, we assess childhood playground injuries and suggest safety mechanisms which could be incorporated into playground planning.Methods: Inclusion criteria were “children” as the focus group, “playground” as the main field of study, and “unintentional injury” and “safety” as the concepts of study. The keywords used for the PubMed search were “playground”, “children”, and “injury”. Initially we accessed 182 articles. After screening according to inclusion criteria, 86 articles were found, and after reading the abstracts and then the full text, 14 articles were finally included for analysis. The papers reviewed included four case-control studies, three case studies, three descriptive studies, two interventional studies, one retrospective study, one cross-sectional study, and one systematic review.Results: Playground-related fractures were the most common accidents among children, underscoring the importance of safety promotion and injury prevention in playgrounds, low-risk equipment and playing hours (week days associated with higher risk, implementation of standards, preventing falls and fall-related fractures, and addressing concerns of parents about unsafe neighborhoods. With the exception of one study, all of the

  11. Knowing the meaning, getting the point, bridging the gap, and carrying the message: aspects of discourse following closed head injury in childhood and adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, M; Barnes, M A

    1990-10-01

    Pragmatic communication or discourse was studied in 33 children and adolescents following closed head injury. Three-quarters of the sample was impaired on at least one of four discourse tests (knowing the alternate meanings of ambiguous words in context; getting the point of figurative or metaphoric expressions; bridging the inferential gaps between events in stereotyped social situations; and producing speech acts that express the apparent intentions of others). Resolution of ambiguity was correlated with word fluency and verbal domain knowledge, but not with object naming; understanding of metaphor was correlated with verbal domain knowledge, but not with literal sentence comprehension or with the formation of analogies; making inferences was correlated with working memory capacity but not with social knowledge; and producing speech acts was not correlated either with sentence construction or with social knowledge. These associations and dissociations reveal some of the correlates of impaired discourse processing after closed head injury in childhood and adolescence, as well as bearing on theoretical questions concerning the nature of normally developing discourse processes.

  12. Working hours associated with unintentional sleep at work among airline pilots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Cristina Marqueze

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE Tto identify factors associated with unintentional sleep at work of airline pilots. METHODS This is a cross-sectional epidemiological study conducted with 1,235 Brazilian airline pilots, who work national or international flights. Data collection has been performed online. We carried out a bivariate and multiple logistic regression analysis, having as dependent variable unintentional sleep at work. The independent variables were related to biodemographic data, characteristics of the work, lifestyle, and aspects of sleep. RESULTS The prevalence of unintentional sleep while flying the airplane was 57.8%. The factors associated with unintentional sleep at work were: flying for more than 65 hours a month, frequent technical delays, greater need for recovery after work, work ability below optimal, insufficient sleep, and excessive sleepiness. CONCLUSIONS The occurrence of unintentional sleep at work of airline pilots is associated with factors related to the organization of the work and health.

  13. Unintentional Exposure to Online Sexual Content and Sexual Behavior Intentions Among College Students in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingwen; Jemmott, John B

    2015-07-01

    This study examined the relations of unintentional exposure to Internet sexual content to intentions for sex and condom use and potential mediators of these relations, including attitudes, norms, and self-efficacy, among college students in China. A sample of 524 Chinese college students completed an online questionnaire. Mediation path analyses were conducted to test the theory of planned behavior as a model of the relations between unintentional exposure and intentions to have sex and use condoms. On average, students reported being unintentionally exposed to Internet sexual content about 3 to 4 times during the past month. Unintentional exposure was indirectly associated with intention to have sex, mediated through descriptive and injunctive norms. Descriptive norm was a stronger mediator for females than males. In contrast, unintentional exposure was unrelated to condom-use intention and mediators. The theory of planned behavior provides a model for the development of Internet-based interventions with these students.

  14. Long-Term Outcomes Associated with Traumatic Brain Injury in Childhood and Adolescence: A Nationwide Swedish Cohort Study of a Wide Range of Medical and Social Outcomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Sariaslan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI is the leading cause of disability and mortality in children and young adults worldwide. It remains unclear, however, how TBI in childhood and adolescence is associated with adult mortality, psychiatric morbidity, and social outcomes.In a Swedish birth cohort between 1973 and 1985 of 1,143,470 individuals, we identified all those who had sustained at least one TBI (n = 104,290 or 9.1% up to age 25 y and their unaffected siblings (n = 68,268 using patient registers. We subsequently assessed these individuals for the following outcomes using multiple national registries: disability pension, specialist diagnoses of psychiatric disorders and psychiatric inpatient hospitalisation, premature mortality (before age 41 y, low educational attainment (not having achieved secondary school qualifications, and receiving means-tested welfare benefits. We used logistic and Cox regression models to quantify the association between TBI and specified adverse outcomes on the individual level. We further estimated population attributable fractions (PAF for each outcome measure. We also compared differentially exposed siblings to account for unobserved genetic and environmental confounding. In addition to relative risk estimates, we examined absolute risks by calculating prevalence and Kaplan-Meier estimates. In complementary analyses, we tested whether the findings were moderated by injury severity, recurrence, and age at first injury (ages 0-4, 5-9, 6-10, 15-19, and 20-24 y. TBI exposure was associated with elevated risks of impaired adult functioning across all outcome measures. After a median follow-up period of 8 y from age 26 y, we found that TBI contributed to absolute risks of over 10% for specialist diagnoses of psychiatric disorders and low educational attainment, approximately 5% for disability pension, and 2% for premature mortality. The highest relative risks, adjusted for sex, birth year, and birth order, were found for

  15. Long-Term Outcomes Associated with Traumatic Brain Injury in Childhood and Adolescence: A Nationwide Swedish Cohort Study of a Wide Range of Medical and Social Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sariaslan, Amir; Sharp, David J; D'Onofrio, Brian M; Larsson, Henrik; Fazel, Seena

    2016-08-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the leading cause of disability and mortality in children and young adults worldwide. It remains unclear, however, how TBI in childhood and adolescence is associated with adult mortality, psychiatric morbidity, and social outcomes. In a Swedish birth cohort between 1973 and 1985 of 1,143,470 individuals, we identified all those who had sustained at least one TBI (n = 104,290 or 9.1%) up to age 25 y and their unaffected siblings (n = 68,268) using patient registers. We subsequently assessed these individuals for the following outcomes using multiple national registries: disability pension, specialist diagnoses of psychiatric disorders and psychiatric inpatient hospitalisation, premature mortality (before age 41 y), low educational attainment (not having achieved secondary school qualifications), and receiving means-tested welfare benefits. We used logistic and Cox regression models to quantify the association between TBI and specified adverse outcomes on the individual level. We further estimated population attributable fractions (PAF) for each outcome measure. We also compared differentially exposed siblings to account for unobserved genetic and environmental confounding. In addition to relative risk estimates, we examined absolute risks by calculating prevalence and Kaplan-Meier estimates. In complementary analyses, we tested whether the findings were moderated by injury severity, recurrence, and age at first injury (ages 0-4, 5-9, 6-10, 15-19, and 20-24 y). TBI exposure was associated with elevated risks of impaired adult functioning across all outcome measures. After a median follow-up period of 8 y from age 26 y, we found that TBI contributed to absolute risks of over 10% for specialist diagnoses of psychiatric disorders and low educational attainment, approximately 5% for disability pension, and 2% for premature mortality. The highest relative risks, adjusted for sex, birth year, and birth order, were found for psychiatric

  16. Cognitive complaints after mild traumatic brain injury: things are not always what they seem.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stulemeijer, M.; Vos, P.E.; Bleijenberg, G.; Werf, S.P. van der

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare nonreferred, emergency department (ED)-admitted mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) patients with and without self-reported cognitive complaints on (1) demographic variables and injury characteristics; (2) neuropsychological test performance; (3) 12-day self-monitoring of

  17. Cognitive complaints after mild traumatic brain injury: things are not always what they seem.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stulemeijer, M.; Vos, P.E.; Bleijenberg, G.; Werf, S.P. van der

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare nonreferred, emergency department (ED)-admitted mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) patients with and without self-reported cognitive complaints on (1) demographic variables and injury characteristics; (2) neuropsychological test performance; (3) 12-day self-monitoring of percei

  18. What Predicts Injury from Physical Punishment? A Test of the Typologies of Violence Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Miriam; Durrant, Joan E.; Chabot, Martin; Trocme, Nico; Brown, Jason

    2008-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the power of child, perpetrator, and socio-economic characteristics to predict injury in cases of reported child physical abuse. The study was designed to assess the validity of the assumption that physically injurious incidents of child physical abuse are qualitatively different from those that do not result in…

  19. Unintentional overdose of analgesia secondary to acute dental pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, M D; Graham, C A

    2002-08-24

    Three cases of unintentional overdose with simple analgesics are presented. Over a two month period, these patients presented to the accident and emergency (A&E) department with acute dental pain, outside normal working hours, having been unable to access emergency dental care. In one case the patient's reason for attendance was to obtain further supplies of analgesics. The patients required admission for assessment of the severity of the overdose in addition to advice about appropriate use of analgesics and advice on access to dental care. None of the patients required treatment for the overdose. These cases serve as a timely reminder of the importance of taking an accurate drug history in emergency situations. They also raise issues of patient education for self medication and access to emergency dental services outside normal working hours.

  20. Unsteady steady-states: central causes of unintentional force drift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambike, Satyajit; Mattos, Daniela; Zatsiorsky, Vladimir M; Latash, Mark L

    2016-12-01

    We applied the theory of synergies to analyze the processes that lead to unintentional decline in isometric fingertip force when visual feedback of the produced force is removed. We tracked the changes in hypothetical control variables involved in single fingertip force production based on the equilibrium-point hypothesis, namely the fingertip referent coordinate (R FT) and its apparent stiffness (C FT). The system's state is defined by a point in the {R FT; C FT} space. We tested the hypothesis that, after visual feedback removal, this point (1) moves along directions leading to drop in the output fingertip force, and (2) has even greater motion along directions that leaves the force unchanged. Subjects produced a prescribed fingertip force using visual feedback and attempted to maintain this force for 15 s after the feedback was removed. We used the "inverse piano" apparatus to apply small and smooth positional perturbations to fingers at various times after visual feedback removal. The time courses of R FT and C FT showed that force drop was mostly due to a drift in R FT toward the actual fingertip position. Three analysis techniques, namely hyperbolic regression, surrogate data analysis, and computation of motor-equivalent and non-motor-equivalent motions, suggested strong covariation in R FT and C FT stabilizing the force magnitude. Finally, the changes in the two hypothetical control variables {R FT; C FT} relative to their average trends also displayed covariation. On the whole, the findings suggest that unintentional force drop is associated with (a) a slow drift of the referent coordinate that pulls the system toward a low-energy state and (b) a faster synergic motion of R FT and C FT that tends to stabilize the output fingertip force about the slowly drifting equilibrium point.

  1. Gender Stereotype Conformity and Age as Determinants of Preschoolers' Injury-Risk Behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Granie, Marie-Axelle

    2010-01-01

    Unintentional injuries continue to be a serious public-health problem for children and are higher for boys than for girls, from infancy through adulthood. Literature on differential socialization concerning risky behaviors and gender stereotypes suggests that sex differences in unintentional injuries could be explained by children's differential feedback to social pressure, leading to behaviors which conform to masculine and feminine stereotypes. We made the prediction that boys' and girls' c...

  2. Routine computed tomography after recent operative exploration for penetrating trauma: What injuries do we miss?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, April E; Wybourn, Christopher A; Charles, Anthony G; Campbell, Andre R; Cairns, Bruce A; Knudson, Margaret M

    2017-10-01

    Patients with penetrating trauma who cannot be stabilized undergo operative intervention without preoperative imaging. In such cases, postoperative imaging may reveal additional injuries not identified during the initial operative exploration. The purpose of this study is to explore the utility of postoperative CT imaging in the setting of penetrating trauma. This was a retrospective analysis of patients with penetrating trauma treated at an urban Level 1 trauma center between 2010 and 2015. Patients were included if they underwent an emergent laparotomy without preoperative imaging. Patients were excluded if they had prior imaging or concomitant blunt injury. For the purposes of this study, occult injury was defined as a CT scan finding not mentioned in the first operative report. Descriptive statistics were used to compare patient characteristics who had received imaging immediately postoperatively with those who had not. During the 5-year study period, 328 patients who had a laparotomy for penetrating trauma over the study period, 225 patients met the inclusion criteria. Seventy-three (32%) patients underwent CT scanning immediately postoperatively with occult injuries identified in 38 (52%) patients. The most frequent occult injuries were orthopedic (20 of 43) and genitourinary (9 of 43). Importantly, 10 (26%) of the 38 patients required an intervention for these occult injuries. Those selected for immediate postoperative imaging were more likely to have sustained gunshot wounds and were significantly more severely injured (higher Injury Severity Score and longer length of hospital stay) when compared to patients who did not receive immediate imaging. We recommend the use of immediate postoperative CT after emergent laparotomy especially when there is a high index of suspicion for spine or genitourinary injuries and in patients who have sustained ballistic penetrating injuries. Therapeutic/care management, level IV; diagnostic tests or criteria, level IV.

  3. A Multiple Mediational Test of the Relationship between Childhood Maltreatment and Non-Suicidal Self-Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenk, Chad E.; Noll, Jennie G.; Cassarly, Jennifer A.

    2010-01-01

    Post-traumatic stress symptoms, depressive symptoms, and psychological dysregulation have been shown to mediate the relationship between child maltreatment and non-suicidal self-injury. However, these proposed mediators often co-occur and previous research has not tested mediation when all variables are assessed simultaneously. The current study…

  4. Peroneal Tendon Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page. Please enable Javascript in your browser. Peroneal Tendon Injuries What Are the Peroneal Tendons? A tendon is a band of tissue that ... protect them from sprains. Causes & Symptoms of Peroneal Tendon Injuries Peroneal tendon injuries may be acute (occurring ...

  5. Preventing Knee Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Our Newsletter Donate Blog Skip breadcrumb navigation Preventing Knee Injuries Knee injuries in children and adolescent athletes ... this PDF Share this page: WHAT ARE COMMON KNEE INJURIES? Pain Syndromes One of the most common ...

  6. Years of life lost because of premature death due to intentional and unintentional accidents in Ghazvin province from 2004 till 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahid Jafari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Accidents are the second cause of death in Iran and one of the significant challenges in public health. They can affect people in all ages. In this study, we try to calculate years of life lost due to intentional and unintentional injuries, which is considered as one of the main indicators for prioritizing public health problems.  Methods: This study is a practical cross sectional survey research HSR (health system research that uses secondary analysis on the death data of Ghazvin province. The calculations also take into account the WHO standards in age group, sex and years of life lost (YLL due to death.  Results: This study showed that the unintentional accidents were the leading cause of death based on YLL from 2004 until 2008 in Ghazvin province. The number of deaths due to intentional and unintentional accidents was 3796 deaths as of which 2954 (77.8% was male and 842 (22.2% female. In general three quarter of the YLL due to early death relates to accidents for males and less than a quarter relates to accidents for females. Between 2004 until 2008, the maximum number of years of life lost (YLL in both sexes is for the age group of 15 to 49.  Conclusion: Considering the high level of years of life lost (YLL due to accident in this province, especially in men, more appropriate interventions for the more risk prone age groups and male in general need to be taken into account.

  7. What parents know and want to learn about healthy eating and body image in preschool children: a triangulated qualitative study with parents and Early Childhood Professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Laura M; Damiano, Stephanie R; Cornell, Chelsea; Paxton, Susan J

    2015-07-02

    Interventions for parents to encourage healthy eating in children often do not address parental feeding practices and body image development. The current study investigated what parents (of children aged 1-6 years) understand about child healthy eating and body image, and what they would like in future interventions, by using structured focus groups with parents, and individual interviews with Early Childhood Professionals. Forty three parents (M(age) = 36.95 years, 93% female, 79% university degree) participated across 9 focus groups. Eleven Early Childhood Professionals (M(age) = 51.04, 100% female, 64% university degree, 64% Maternal and Child Health Nurses, 36% Childcare Centre Directors) completed individual telephone interviews. Parents described healthy eating as a variety, balance, and range of foods as well as limiting certain foods, such as the intake of sugar, salt, and processed foods. Most often parents defined child body image as a child's physical appearance and did not mention thoughts and feelings related to appearance or body experiences. Body image was most commonly considered a problem in early adolescence and often not an issue of relevance in early childhood. Parents appeared knowledgeable about nutrition and accessed information about healthy eating across a range of resources though rarely accessed information about child body image. They desired more practical information about how to avoid encouraging negative body image when promoting healthy eating. Professionals' responses confirmed these findings. Results suggest future interventions need to stress the important role positive body image plays in encouraging healthy attitudes to food and weight management, and the benefits positive body image can have on the health and mental health of preschool children.

  8. What is the potential of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells to successfully treat human spinal cord injury?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeung Trevor M

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spinal cord injury is a serious and debilitating condition, affecting millions of people worldwide. Long seen as a permanent injury, recent advances in stem cell research have brought closer the possibility of repairing the spinal cord. One such approach involves injecting oligodendrocyte progenitor cells, derived from human embryonic stem cells, into the injured spinal cord in the hope that they will initiate repair. A phase I clinical trial of this therapy was started in mid 2010 and is currently underway. Discussion The theory underlying this approach is that these myelinating progenitors will phenotypically replace myelin lost during injury whilst helping to promote a repair environment in the lesion. However, the importance of demyelination in the pathogenesis of human spinal cord injury is a contentious issue and a body of literature suggests that it is only a minor factor in the overall injury process. Summary This review examines the validity of the theory underpinning the on-going clinical trial as well as analysing published data from animal models and finally discussing issues surrounding safety and purity in order to assess the potential of this approach to successfully treat acute human spinal cord injury.

  9. What Is Childhood Leukemia?

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    ... Center Volunteer Learning Center Follow Us Twitter Facebook Instagram Cancer Information, Answers, and Hope. Available Every Minute ... 227.2345 Live Chat Follow Us Twitter Facebook Instagram help site map privacy accessibility terms of use ...

  10. Stereotype activation is unintentional: Behavioural and event-related potenials evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pei; Yang, Ya-Ping; Tan, Chen-Hao; Zhao, Xiang-Xia; Liu, Yong-He; Lin, Chong-De

    2016-04-01

    In this study, a priming Stroop paradigm was used to determine whether stereotype activation is unintentional. Priming conditions (priming/no-priming) and the relationship between priming and target (consistent/inconsistent/no-relation) were the independent variables; accuracy, reaction time and N400 amplitude were used as dependent variables. The reaction time revealed that stereotype activation is, to some extent, unintentional. Furthermore, the event-related potenial (ERP) results showed that N400 amplitude was larger for inconsistent conditions than for consistent conditions. This result supported the notion that stereotype activation is an unintentional and automatic process.

  11. Smartphones as assistive technology following traumatic brain injury: a preliminary study of what helps and what hinders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Dana; Sinclair, Kelly; Seabrook, Elizabeth; McKay, Adam; Ponsford, Jennie

    2017-11-01

    Smartphones have great potential as a convenient, multifunction tool to support cognition and independence following traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, there has been limited investigation of their helpful and less helpful aspects for people with TBI. We aimed to investigate patterns of smartphone use amongst individuals with TBI, identify potential barriers to use, and examine the relationships between smartphone use and daily functioning. Twenty-nine participants with TBI and 33 non-injured participants completed the Smartphone Survey, and measures of subjective and objective cognitive functioning, mood, and community integration. Smartphone use was equally common in both groups, and patterns of app use were similar. More participants with TBI than the comparison group listed using their smartphone as a memory aid as its main benefit. Difficulty in learning how to use the smartphone was identified by participants with TBI, however only 10% had been shown how to use it by a clinician. Those with poorer subjective cognitive function used memory/organisational apps more frequently; and higher communication app use with better social integration, in participants with TBI. These findings suggest that smartphones have potential in improving independence following TBI, but receiving support in using them is vital. Implications for Rehabilitation Smartphones are accessible, acceptable, convenient devices for most individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI), and are perceived as a useful memory and organizational aid as well as having multiple other helpful functions. Use of communication apps such as text messages and social media is associated with better social and community integration in people with TBI. Direct instruction on how to use smartphone apps is more important for people with TBI than for non-injured individuals. Developers of apps designed for this population should prioritize ease of app use, large displays, and availability of technical support

  12. Caesarean delivery complicated by unintentional subdural block and conversion disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsharkawy, Hesham; Khanna, Ashish K; Barsoum, Sabri

    2013-01-01

    Combined spinal epidural (CSE) can provide excellent labor analgesia. Subdural block is also a potential but rare complication of attempted epidural placement during a CSE procedure, which may present as a block that is usually patchy in nature, with a component of sensory and/or motor deficit and a variable duration of action. In addition, a conversion disorder or a functional neurological disorder has been described with epidural and spinal anesthesia in obstetric patients. In this clinical report, we describe a 33-year-old G4P3 at 40 weeks gestation that received an unintentional subdural block as part of her labor analgesia and after an uneventful caesarean delivery presented with a conversion disorder. The rarity of the association between a subdural block and a conversion disorder complicated by the fact that the neurological deficit produced by the subdural block and that produced by a conversion disorder are similar in distribution made the clinical presentation and diagnosis a challenge for the obstetric anesthesia team. A functional neurological disorder of this nature complicating a subdural block in an obstetric anesthesia clinical practice has not been described so far.

  13. Early Childhood Educators Working with Children Who Have Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Parents: What Does the Literature Tell Us?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloughessy, Kathy; Waniganayake, Manjula

    2014-01-01

    Early childhood (EC) educators are expected to cater for all types of families from diverse backgrounds. Research involving EC educators and the spaces they create indicate the dominance of heteronormative practices. This silences programmes, policies, experiences and interactions that could reflect and support children with parents who identify…

  14. Cognitive correlates of psychosocial outcome following traumatic brain injury in early childhood: comparisons between groups of children aged under and over 10 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonks, James; Williams, W Huw; Yates, Phil; Slater, Alan

    2011-04-01

    Children with traumatic brain injuries (TBI) commonly present with socioemotional difficulties, as well as accompanying multiple cognitive impairments. Often difficulties worsen at around 10 years old. This change is associated with frontal system changes, and tests of executive function (EF) predict outcome. However, children with TBI sometimes present with socioemotional difficulties despite apparent cognitive recovery. Our aims were to explore potential cognitive and socioemotional effects following childhood TBI, before and after the age of 10 years. We also wanted to identify cognitive correlates of psychosocial dysfunction. Measures of cognitive function and socioemotional disturbance administered to 14 children with TBI aged 8-10 years, and 14 children with TBI aged 10-16 years, were compared to control data from 22 non-injured 8- to 10 year-olds and 67 non-injured 10- to 16-year-olds. Results indicated that only the older group of children with TBI were impaired in tests of EF, but significant socioemotional difficulties were commonly evident in both groups. Processing speed (as well as EF) was found to correlate with socioemotional disturbance. We conclude that poor processing speed may also index the risk of socioemotional difficulties, but our general findings indicate that cognitive functions relevant to socioemotional functioning are not readily testable in younger children and are not strongly associated with such outcomes as they may be in adults.

  15. On the Necessity of Distinguishing Between Unintentional and Intentional Mind Wandering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seli, Paul; Risko, Evan F; Smilek, Daniel

    2016-05-01

    In recent years, there has been an enormous increase in the number of studies examining mind wandering. Although participants' reports of mind wandering are often assumed to largely reflect spontaneous, unintentional thoughts, many researchers' conceptualizations of mind wandering have left open the possibility that at least some of these reports reflect deliberate, intentional thought. Critically, however, in most investigations on the topic, researchers have not separately assessed each type of mind wandering; instead, they have measured mind wandering as a unitary construct, thereby conflating intentional and unintentional types. We report the first compelling evidence that an experimental manipulation can have qualitatively different effects on intentional and unintentional types of mind wandering. This result provides clear evidence that researchers interested in understanding mind wandering need to consider the distinction between unintentional and intentional occurrences of this phenomenon.

  16. Self-regulation as a mediator of the effects of childhood traumatic brain injury on social and behavioral functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesalingam, Kalaichelvi; Sanson, Ann; Anderson, Vicki; Yeates, Keith Owen

    2007-03-01

    This study builds on our earlier investigation (see Ganesalingam et al., 2006). We showed previously that children with moderate to severe traumatic brain injuries (TBI) had poorer self-regulation and social and behavioral functioning than their uninjured peers and that self-regulation predicted significant variance in parent- and teacher-rated social and behavioral outcomes, regardless of the presence or absence of TBI. In this study, we examine self-regulation as a mediator of the relationship between TBI and the outcomes. Participants included 65 children with moderate to severe TBI and 65 children without TBI matched for age and gender. Participants were between 6 and 11 years of age. Children completed an assessment of cognitive, emotional, and behavioral self-regulation, and social and behavioral functioning. Mediation was assessed using a bootstrapping approach (a relatively novel statistical method for assessing specific indirect effects in models with multiple mediators). Analyses indicated that, after controlling for socioeconomic status (SES), aspects of self-regulation accounted for individual variation in the outcomes, and acted as a significant mediator of the effects of TBI on the outcomes. Self-regulatory deficits may reflect the relative vulnerability of the prefrontal cortex to TBI and may help account for post-injury difficulties in social and behavioral functioning.

  17. Hierarchical linear modeling of California Verbal Learning Test--Children's Version learning curve characteristics following childhood traumatic head injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warschausky, Seth; Kay, Joshua B; Chi, PaoLin; Donders, Jacobus

    2005-03-01

    California Verbal Learning Test-Children's Version (CVLT-C) indices have been shown to be sensitive to the neurocognitive effects of traumatic brain injury (TBI). The effects of TBI on the learning process were examined with a growth curve analysis of CVLT-C raw scores across the 5 learning trials. The sample with history of TBI comprised 86 children, ages 6-16 years, at a mean of 10.0 (SD=19.5) months postinjury; 37.2% had severe injury, 27.9% moderate, and 34.9% mild. The best-fit model for verbal learning was with a quadratic function. Greater TBI severity was associated with lower rate of acquisition and more gradual deceleration in the rate of acquisition. Intelligence test index scores, previously shown to be sensitive to severity of TBI, were positively correlated with rate of acquisition. Results provide evidence that the CVLT-C learning slope is not a simple linear function and further support for specific effects of TBI on verbal learning. ((c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Cuts to the offender's own hand--unintentional self-infliction in the course of knife attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Ulrike; Faller-Marquardt, Maria; Tatschner, Thomas; Walter, Klaus; Pollak, Stefan

    2004-12-01

    In a knife attack the perpetrator can unintentionally injure his own hand, if the knife does not have an adequate handguard and the tip of the blade hits a solid, mostly bony structure while being violently thrust into the victim's body. The injuries occurring under these conditions are localized on the flexor side of the knife-holding hand and may include the index, middle, ring and little fingers. They are seen particularly often on the little finger at the level of the proximal phalanx and in the skin fold of the proximal interphalangeal joint. The majority of these cuts run transversely to the longitudinal axis of the fingers and can show a step-like arrangement with different distances to the metacarpophalangeal joints, often from ulnar-proximal to radial-distal. In the six cases presented the injuries were most pronounced on the ulnar side of the hand. When the flexor tendons of the fingers are also severed and the tendon stumps are strongly retracted this indicates that the fist was firmly closed at the time of the injury.

  19. Nonsuicidal Self-Injury: What Physical and Sport Educators Should Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo, Natasha P.

    2015-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) among children and youth suggests that increased awareness, attention, and training must be disseminated to frontline personnel. Physical and sport educators have an increased chance of identifying students who are currently engaging in NSSI because of the nature of their work. This…

  20. Nonsuicidal Self-Injury: What Physical and Sport Educators Should Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo, Natasha P.

    2015-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) among children and youth suggests that increased awareness, attention, and training must be disseminated to frontline personnel. Physical and sport educators have an increased chance of identifying students who are currently engaging in NSSI because of the nature of their work. This…

  1. Preventing ACL Injuries in Females: What Physical Educators Need to Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toscano, Lisa; Carroll, Brianne

    2015-01-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries happen at a frequent rate, especially in girls and women. While there are many factors that contribute to ACL tears, teaching proper landing techniques and strengthening certain muscles can decrease the incidence of ACL tears, especially in women. This article reviews some of the high-risk factors that…

  2. Preventing ACL Injuries in Females: What Physical Educators Need to Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toscano, Lisa; Carroll, Brianne

    2015-01-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries happen at a frequent rate, especially in girls and women. While there are many factors that contribute to ACL tears, teaching proper landing techniques and strengthening certain muscles can decrease the incidence of ACL tears, especially in women. This article reviews some of the high-risk factors that…

  3. Caregivers of veterans with "invisible" injuries: what we know and implications for social work practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Bina R

    2015-01-01

    Today, as a result of the longest volunteer-fought conflict in U.S. history, there are many wounded coming home not only with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but also with traumatic brain injury (TBI), which together have been called the "signature" or "invisible" injuries of the Iraq and Afghanistan wars. Caregivers are an important part of their recovery, yet little is known about them, as previous research on caregivers mostly focused on geriatric populations. According to one estimate 275,000 to 1 million people are currently caring or have cared for loved ones who have returned from Iraq and Afghanistan. These caregivers are unique in that they are younger, some with children, and they are caring for a unique under-studied population for longer periods of time. This article summarizes literature on caregivers of veterans who suffer from PTSD, TBI, or both; provides a theoretical framework; and discusses implications for social workers in assisting caregivers and their families.

  4. A kinematic study on (unintentional imitation in bottlenose dolphins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa eSartori

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of observing other’s movements on subsequent performance in bottlenose dolphins. The imitative ability of non-human animals has intrigued a number of researchers. So far, however, studies in dolphins have been confined to intentional imitation concerned with the explicit request to imitate other agents. In the absence of instruction to imitate, do dolphins (unintentionally replicate other’s movement features? To test this, dolphins were filmed while reaching and touching a stimulus before and after observing another dolphin (i.e., model performing the same action. All videos were reviewed and segmented in order to extract the relevant movements. A marker was inserted post-hoc via software on the videos upon the anatomical landmark of interest (i.e. rostrum and was tracked throughout the time course of the movement sequence. The movement was analyzed using an in-house software developed to perform two-dimensional (2D post-hoc kinematic analysis. The results indicate that dolphins’ kinematics is sensitive to other’s movement features. Movements performed for the ‘visuomotor priming’ condition were characterized by a kinematic pattern similar to that performed by the observed dolphin (i.e., model. Addressing the issue of spontaneous imitation in bottlenose dolphins might allow ascertaining whether the potential or impulse to produce an imitative action is generated, not just when they intend to imitate, but whenever they watch another conspecific’s behavior. In closing, this will clarify whether motor representational capacity is a by-product of factors specific to humans or whether more general characteristics such as processes of associative learning prompted by high level of encephalization could help to explain the evolution of this ability.

  5. Pattern of injury mortality by age-group in children aged 0–14 years in Scotland, 2002–2006, and its implications for prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stone David H

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Knowledge of the epidemiology of injuries in children is essential for the planning, implementation and evaluation of preventive measures but recent epidemiological information on injuries in children both in general and by age-group in Scotland is scarce. This study examines the recent pattern of childhood mortality from injury by age-group in Scotland and considers its implications for prevention. Methods Routine mortality data for the period 2002–2006 were obtained from the General Register Office for Scotland and were analysed in terms of number of deaths, mean annual mortality rates per 100,000 population, leading causes of death, and causes of injury death. Mid-year population estimates were used as the denominator. Chi-square tests were used to determine statistical significance. Results 186 children aged 0–14 died from an injury in Scotland during 2002–06 (MR 4.3 per 100,000. Injuries were the leading cause of death in 1–14, 5–9 and 10–14 year-olds (causing 25%, 29% and 32% of all deaths respectively. The leading individual causes of injury death (0–14 years were pedestrian and non-pedestrian road-traffic injuries and assault/homicide but there was variation by age-group. Assault/homicide, fire and suffocation caused most injury deaths in young children; road-traffic injuries in older ones. Collectively, intentional injuries were a bigger threat to the lives of under-15s than any single cause of unintentional injury. The mortality rate from assault/homicide was highest in infants ( Conclusion Injuries continue to be a leading cause of death in childhood in Scotland. Variation in causes of injury death by age-group is important when targeting preventive efforts. In particular, the threats of assault/homicide in infants, fire in 1–4 year-olds, pedestrian injury in 5–14 year-olds, and suicide in 10–14 year-olds need urgent consideration for preventive action.

  6. Air University Athletic Programs and Related Sport Injuries: What You Should Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-04-01

    upsurge in popularity is attributable to increased concern with physical fitness and a growing dissatisfaction with sedentary lifestyles . Certainly within...the military community, running is an accessible and highly aerobic form of exercise with linkage to a healthier life and improved physical ...with the Physical Therapy Department should be gotten. Grade II and III strains may require post injury muscle stretching and strengthening exercises

  7. [What happens after the accident? Psychosocial needs of people with traumatic brain injury and their families].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gifre, Mariona; Gil, Ángel; Pla, Laura; Roig, Teresa; Monreal-Bosch, Pilar

    2015-09-01

    To identify factors that people with a traumatic brain injury and their families perceived as helping to improve their quality of life. Three focus groups and five interviews were conducted with a total of 37 participants: 14 persons with traumatic brain injury and 23 caregivers. A content analysis was conducted. The constant comparative method was applied. We detected five factors that improved the quality of life of persons with a traumatic brain and their families: 1) Informal support (family and friends); 2) formal support (counseling, employment, built and bureaucratic environment); 3) type of clinical characteristics; 4) social participation, and 5) social visibility. The needs expressed by our participants primarily focused on social and emotional factors. For persons with severe traumatic brain injury attempting to achieve the best possible community integration, a new semiology is required, not limited to medical care, but also involving social and psychological care tailored to the needs of each individual and family and their environment. Copyright © 2014 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  8. Contributing Factors for Acute Illness/Injury from Childhood Pesticide Exposure in North Carolina, USA, 2007–2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirmalla Barros

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Between 2007 and 2013, there were 685 events with evidence of a relationship between pesticide exposure and acute illness/injury among persons less than 18 years old in North Carolina (United States. Median age of children affected was 4.3 years (range: 0.2–17.9. Distribution by gender was similar across all age groups. One fatality and four high severity events were observed. The greatest proportion (42% of events had ocular exposures, followed by dermal (25% and inhalation (18% exposures. When more than one route of exposure occurred, dermal and ocular routes were the most common (46%. Almost all events took place indoors and 32 events involved contact with pets. Insecticides (53% and insect repellants (31% were the most frequent agents contributing to these events. Manual application of pesticides contributed to the greatest number of events (25%, while application through a pressurized can and use of a trigger pump were involved in 21% and 15% of events, respectively. Additional contributors were due to inappropriate storage of pesticides and improper use of the pesticide. These contributing factors can be removed or minimized if pesticides are stored outside the residence or out of the reach of children and pets, and adequate ventilation is ensured whenever pesticides are applied.

  9. Self versus family ratings of the frontal systems behaviour scale and measured executive functions: adult outcomes following childhood traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Robert D; McLellan, Tracey L; McKinlay, Audrey

    2013-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) frequently occurs during childhood and adolescence with long-term neuropsychological and behavioral effects. Greater personal awareness of injury is associated with better outcomes. However, personal awareness is often assessed using ratings obtained from family members or significant others. Surprisingly, the accuracy of family-ratings compared with self-ratings has not been well studied in the TBI population. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine self versus family-ratings of frontal dysfunction and secondly, the association between self/family reported frontal dysfunction and measured executive function outcomes. A total of 60 participants, approximately 10 years post-TBI, comprised 3 groups including; moderate/severe TBI (N=26; mean age 22.9, SD=3.0), mild TBI (N=20; mean age, 21.7, SD=2.7), and control (N=14: mean age, 21.6, SD=3.7). Neuropsychological testing was used to obtain domain scores for executive function and working memory/attention for each participant, and nominated family members and participants with TBI were asked to complete the Frontal Systems Behaviour Scale (FrSBe), consisting of three sub-scales; apathy, disinhibition, and executive dysfunction. Using the FrSBe there was no significant difference between the groups in executive function score, but the moderate/severe and mild groups had significantly lower working memory/attention scores compared with the control group (p<0.05). Repeated measures analysis of variance showed higher self-ratings on all sub-scales compared with family in each group (p<0.05). Scores on executive function and working memory/attention domains correlated with self, but not family reported executive dysfunction. Self-rated executive dysfunction explained 36% of the variance in executive function (p<0.001). While agreement between self-rated and family-rated total FrSBe scores was significant in all groups (p<0.001), our results showed that self-ratings were of higher

  10. Self versus family ratings of the frontal systems behaviour scale and measured executive functions: adult outcomes following childhood traumatic brain injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert D Barrett

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI frequently occurs during childhood and adolescence with long-term neuropsychological and behavioral effects. Greater personal awareness of injury is associated with better outcomes. However, personal awareness is often assessed using ratings obtained from family members or significant others. Surprisingly, the accuracy of family-ratings compared with self-ratings has not been well studied in the TBI population. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine self versus family-ratings of frontal dysfunction and secondly, the association between self/family reported frontal dysfunction and measured executive function outcomes. A total of 60 participants, approximately 10 years post-TBI, comprised 3 groups including; moderate/severe TBI (N=26; mean age 22.9, SD=3.0, mild TBI (N=20; mean age, 21.7, SD=2.7, and control (N=14: mean age, 21.6, SD=3.7. Neuropsychological testing was used to obtain domain scores for executive function and working memory/attention for each participant, and nominated family members and participants with TBI were asked to complete the Frontal Systems Behaviour Scale (FrSBe, consisting of three sub-scales; apathy, disinhibition, and executive dysfunction. Using the FrSBe there was no significant difference between the groups in executive function score, but the moderate/severe and mild groups had significantly lower working memory/attention scores compared with the control group (p<0.05. Repeated measures analysis of variance showed higher self-ratings on all sub-scales compared with family in each group (p<0.05. Scores on executive function and working memory/attention domains correlated with self, but not family reported executive dysfunction. Self-rated executive dysfunction explained 36% of the variance in executive function (p<0.001. While agreement between self-rated and family-rated total FrSBe scores was significant in all groups (p<0.001, our results showed that self-ratings were of

  11. Symptoms from repeated intentional and unintentional head impact in soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Walter F; Kim, Namhee; Ifrah, Chloe S; Lipton, Richard B; Bachrach, Tamar A; Zimmerman, Molly E; Kim, Mimi; Lipton, Michael L

    2017-02-28

    To determine the rate and differential contribution of heading vs unintentional head impacts (e.g., head to head, goal post) to CNS symptoms in adult amateur soccer players. Amateur soccer players completed baseline and serial on-line 2-week recall questionnaires (HeadCount) and reported (1) soccer practice and games, (2) heading and unintentional soccer head trauma, and (3) frequency and severity (mild to very severe) of CNS symptoms. For analysis, CNS symptoms were affirmed if one or more moderate, severe, or very severe episodes were reported in a 2-week period. Repeated measures logistic regression was used to assess if 2-week heading exposure (i.e., 4 quartiles) or unintentional head impacts (i.e., 0, 1, 2+) were associated with CNS symptoms. A total of 222 soccer players (79% male) completed 470 HeadCount questionnaires. Mean (median) heading/2 weeks was 44 (18) for men and 27 (9.5) for women. One or more unintentional head impacts were reported by 37% of men and 43% of women. Heading-related symptoms were reported in 20% (93 out of 470) of the HeadCounts. Heading in the highest quartile was significantly associated with CNS symptoms (odds ratio [OR] 3.17, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.57-6.37) when controlling for unintentional exposure. Those with 2+ unintentional exposures were at increased risk for CNS symptoms (OR 6.09, 95% CI 3.33-11.17) as were those with a single exposure (OR 2.98, 95% CI 1.69-5.26) when controlling for heading. Intentional (i.e., heading) and unintentional head impacts are each independently associated with moderate to very severe CNS symptoms. © 2017 American Academy of Neurology.

  12. Intentional and unintentional multi-joint movements: their nature and structure of variance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, T; Zhang, L; Latash, M L

    2015-03-19

    We tested predictions of a hierarchical scheme on the control of natural movements with referent body configurations. Subjects occupied an initial hand position against a bias force generated by a HapticMaster robot. A smooth force perturbation was applied to the hand consisting of an increase in the bias force, keeping it at a new level for 5s, and decreasing it back to the bias value. When the force returned to the bias value, the arm stopped at a position different from the initial one interpreted as an involuntary movement. We then asked subjects to make voluntary movements to targets corresponding to the measured end-position of the unintentional movements. No target for hand orientation was used. The joint configuration variance was compared between intentional and unintentional movements within the framework of the uncontrolled manifold hypothesis. Our central hypothesis was that both unintentional and intentional movements would be characterized by structure of joint configuration variance reflecting task-specific stability of salient performance variables, such as hand position and orientation. The analysis confirmed that most variance at the final steady states was compatible with unchanged values of both hand position and orientation following both intentional and unintentional movements. We interpret unintentional movements as consequences of back-coupling between the actual and referent configurations at the task level. The results suggested that both intentional and unintentional movements resulted from shifts of the body referent configuration produced intentionally or as a result of the hypothesized back-coupling. Inter-trial variance signature reflects similar task-specific stability properties of the system following both types of movements, intentional and unintentional. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Critical appraisal of neuroprotection trials in head injury: what have we learned?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolias, Christos M; Bullock, M Ross

    2004-01-01

    To date, despite very encouraging preclinical results, almost all phase II/III clinical neuroprotection trials in traumatic brain injury (TBI) have failed to show any consistent improvement in outcome for TBI patients. To understand the reasons behind such developments we need to review and evaluate the evolution of trial design as a result of our changing understanding of the pathophysiology of brain cell death and progress of translational research from the laboratory bench to the bedside. This paper attempts to critically appraise these neuroprotection trials, rationalize the paucity of effectiveness, review any recent developments in the field, and try to draw some conclusions on how to move forward.

  14. Preoperative evaluation of peripheral nerve injuries: What is the place for ultrasound?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toia, Francesca; Gagliardo, Andrea; D'Arpa, Salvatore; Gagliardo, Cesare; Gagliardo, Giuseppe; Cordova, Adriana

    2016-09-01

    OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of ultrasound in the preoperative workup of peripheral nerve lesions and illustrate how nerve ultrasonography can be integrated in routine clinical and neurophysiological evaluation and in the management of focal peripheral nerve injuries. The diagnostic role and therapeutic implications of ultrasonography for different neuropathies are described. METHODS The authors analyzed the use of ultrasound in 119 entrapment, tumoral, posttraumatic, or postsurgical nerve injuries of limbs evaluated in 108 patients during 2013 and 2014. All patients were candidates for surgery, and in all cases the evaluation included clinical examination, electrodiagnostic studies (nerve conduction study and electromyography), and ultrasound nerve study. Ultrasound was used to explore the nerve fascicular echotexture, continuity, and surrounding tissues. The maximum cross-sectional area (CSA) and the presence of epineurial hyperechogenicity or intraneural hyper- or hypoechogenicity, of anatomical anomalies, dynamic nerve dislocations, or compressions were recorded. The concordance rate of neurophysiological and ultrasonographic data was analyzed, classifying ultrasound findings as confirming, contributive, or nonconfirming with respect to electrodiagnostic data. The correlation between maximum nerve CSA and neurophysiological severity degree in entrapment syndromes was statistically analyzed. RESULTS Ultrasonography confirmed electrodiagnostic findings in 36.1% of cases and showed a contributive role in the diagnosis and surgical planning in 53.8% of all cases; the findings were negative ("nonconfirming") in only 10.1% of the patients. In 16% of cases, ultrasound was not only contributive, but had a key diagnostic role in the presence of doubtful electrodiagnostic findings. The contributive role differed according to etiology, being higher for tumors (100%) and for posttraumatic or postsurgical neuropathies (72.2%) than for

  15. Clarifying the effect of behavioral and clinical factors on traumatic dental injuries in childhood: a hierarchical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Paulo Floriani; Feldens, Eliane Gerson; Bruch, Cristina Montini; Ferreira, Simone Helena; Feldens, Carlos Alberto

    2015-06-01

    To explore associations between traumatic dental injuries (TDI) in Brazilian preschool children and clinical, behavioral, and socio-demographic factors using a hierarchical approach. A cross-sectional study was conducted involving 1316 children aged 0-5 years at public preschools in the city of Canoas (southern Brazil). Demographic (sex and age), socioeconomic (mother's schooling, income and family structure) and behavioral (use of pacifier, breastfeeding duration and bottle use at 12 months) factors were collected through a questionnaire. TDI (Andreasen criteria) and malocclusion (overjet and anterior open bite) were recorded by trained and calibrated examiners. Poisson regression was employed to determine factors associated with TDI using a hierarchical approach. The prevalence of TDI was 13.3%. In the final model, the probability of TDI was 50% higher in children who used a pacifier (PR: 1.50; 95% CI: 1.08-2.10), 77% higher in children with overjet between 3 and 5 mm (PR: 1.77; 95% CI: 1.22-2.57) and nearly threefold higher in children with overjet > 5 mm (PR: 2.73; 95% CI: 1.77-4.20) compared with children with overjet ≤ 2 mm. Additional analysis demonstrated that overjet represented the pathway by which pacifier use was associated with TDI. Pacifier use is strongly associated with the occurrence of TDI in the primary dentition, and accentuated overjet represents a pathway to this association. These findings suggest the need for prevention strategies that address early counseling on pacifier use to reduce the occurrence of TDI. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Peer Bullying During Early Childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Uysal, Hatice; DİNÇER, Çağlayan

    2012-01-01

    Peer bullying during early childhood is discussed along with the literature reviewed in this article with the purpose of drawing attention to peer bullying during early childhood and its significance, and contributing to studies which are few in number in Turkey. Peer bullying during early childhood was considered with its definition and types, people who play key roles in peer bullying, factors (gender, age, parents, and friendship) that relate to peer bullying, and what should be done befor...

  17. What can providers learn from childhood body mass index trajectories: a study of a large, safety-net clinical population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Emily V; Dickinson, L Miriam; Haemer, Matthew A; Knierim, Shanna D; Hambidge, Simon J; Davidson, Arthur J

    2014-01-01

    To describe childhood weight gain using body mass index (BMI) z-score trajectories in a low-income urban safety-net population and identify among gender- and race/ethnicity-specific groups any trends for increased risk. A retrospective cohort study was conducted among 2- to 12-year-old patients (2006-2013) visiting a safety-net provider. BMI z-score trajectories were calculated overall, for gender- and race/ethnicity-specific groups, and for peak BMI percentile subgroups to describe weight gain longitudinally. From 2006 to 2013, a total of 26,234 eligible children were followed for an average of 3.7 years. At baseline (mean age, 4.2 years), 74% of patients were at a normal weight compared to 65% at most recent observation (mean age, 7.8 years). All gender and race/ethnicity subgroups showed increasing average BMI z-scores during childhood. Children consistently under the 50th percentile and those of white race had the most stable BMI z-score trajectories. BMI z-score increased with increasing age in all subgroups. Hispanic boys and black girls had the most significant increase in BMI z-score during this observation period. Children observed in early childhood and whose BMI exceeded the 95th percentile at any time were often already overweight (20%) or obese (36%) by 3 years of age. The entire population demonstrated an upward trend in BMI z-score trajectory. This trend was most notable among black girls and Hispanic boys. Many obese children were already overweight by age 3, and persistence of obesity after 3 years of age was high, suggesting that intervention before age 3 may be essential to curbing unhealthy weight trajectories. Copyright © 2014 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Cardiovascular Dysfunction Following Burn Injury: What We Have Learned from Rat and Mouse Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley N. Guillory

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Severe burn profoundly affects organs both proximal and distal to the actual burn site. Cardiovascular dysfunction is a well-documented phenomenon that increases morbidity and mortality following a massive thermal trauma. Beginning immediately post-burn, during the ebb phase, cardiac function is severely depressed. By 48 h post-injury, cardiac function rebounds and the post-burn myocardium becomes tachycardic and hyperinflammatory. While current clinical trials are investigating a variety of drugs targeted at reducing aspects of the post-burn hypermetabolic response such as heart rate and cardiac work, there is still a paucity of knowledge regarding the underlying mechanisms that induce cardiac dysfunction in the severely burned. There are many animal models of burn injury, from rodents, to sheep or swine, but the majority of burn related cardiovascular investigations have occurred in rat and mouse models. This literature review consolidates the data supporting the prevalent role that β-adrenergic receptors play in mediating post-burn cardiac dysfunction and the idea that pharmacological modulation of this receptor family is a viable therapeutic target for resolving burn-induced cardiac deficits.

  19. Dealing with Sports Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Print A A A What's in this article? Prevention First Types of Sports Injuries What To Do Where Injuries Happen Getting Back ... Game en español Cómo afrontar las lesiones deportivas Prevention First The best way to deal with sports injuries is to keep them from happening in the ...

  20. What can the Samoan "Fa'afafine" teach us about the Western concept of gender identity disorder in childhood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasey, Paul L; Bartlett, Nancy H

    2007-01-01

    This article examines whether gender identity disorder in childhood (GIDC) constitutes a mental disorder as outlined by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DSM-IV-TR). Data were collected in Samoa, a culture that is characterized by a high degree of social tolerance towards feminine males who are known locally as fa'afafine. The study location was chosen because, unlike Western locales, it afforded the opportunity to examine whether gender-atypical behavior, gender-atypical identity, and sex-atypical identity, in and of themselves, cause distress in sex/gender variant individuals, while simultaneously controlling for the confounding effects of extreme societal intolerance towards such individuals. Because of our focus on the DSM-IV-TR's diagnosis of GIDC, we were specifically interested in ascertaining whether adult fa'afafine recalled a strong and persistent cross-gender identification in childhood, a sense of inappropriateness in the male-typical gender role, a discomfort with their sex, or distress associated with any of the above. In addition, we sought to determine whether parental encouragement or discouragement of cross-gender behaviors influence feelings of distress in relation to the behaviors in question. Based on the cross-cultural information presented here, we conclude that the diagnostic category of GIDC should not occur in its current form in future editions of the DSM, as there is no compelling evidence that cross-gender behaviors or identities, in and of themselves, cause distress in the individual.

  1. Outpatient Provider Contact Prior to Unintentional Opioid Overdose Among VHA Service Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lewei Allison; Bohnert, Amy S B; Ilgen, Mark A; Pfeiffer, Paul N; Ganoczy, Dara; Blow, Frederic C

    2015-11-01

    Prescription opioid medications are the most commonly implicated substances in unintentional overdoses. Outpatient health care encounters represent a potential opportunity to intervene to reduce opioid overdose risk. This study assessed the timing and type of outpatient provider contacts prior to death from unintentional prescription opioid overdose. This study examined all adult patients nationally in the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) who died from unintentional prescription opioid overdose in fiscal years 2004-2007 and who used VHA services anytime within two years of their deaths (N=1,813). For those whose final treatment contact was in an outpatient setting (N=1,457), demographic, clinical, and treatment characteristics were compared among patients categorized by the location of their last contact. Among individuals last seen in outpatient settings, 33% were seen within one week of their overdose and 62% within one month of their overdose. A substantial proportion of patients (30%) were last seen within one month of death in mental health or substance use disorder outpatient settings. The majority of patients (86%) did not fill an opioid prescription on their last outpatient visit prior to death from unintentional opioid overdose. Most patients who died by unintentional prescription opioid overdose were seen in outpatient settings within a month of their overdose. These settings may provide an opportunity to prevent patients from dying from prescription opioid overdoses. Interventions to reduce risk should not be limited to visits during which an opioid is prescribed.

  2. Bodygraphic Injury Surveillance System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuboi, Toshiki; Kitamura, Koji; Nishida, Yoshihumi; Motomura, Yoichi; Takano, Tachio; Yamanaka, Tatsuhiro; Mizoguchi, Hiroshi

    This paper proposes a new technology,``a bodygraphic injury surveillance system (BISS)'' that not only accumulates accident situation data but also represents injury data based on a human body coordinate system in a standardized and multilayered way. Standardized and multilayered representation of injury enables accumulation, retrieval, sharing, statistical analysis, and modeling causalities of injury across different fields such as medicine, engineering, and industry. To confirm the effectiveness of the developed system, the authors collected 3,685 children's injury data in cooperation with a hospital. As new analyses based on the developed BISS, this paper shows bodygraphically statistical analysis and childhood injury modeling using the developed BISS and Bayesian network technology.

  3. How to avoid exercise injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000859.htm How to avoid exercise injuries To use the sharing features on this ... injury and stay safe during exercise. What Causes Exercise Injuries? Some of the most common causes of ...

  4. Unintentional gallium incorporation in InGaN layers during epitaxial growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Kun; Ren, Huaijin; Ikeda, Masao; Liu, Jianping; Ma, Yi; Gao, Songxin; Tang, Chun; Li, Deyao; Zhang, Liquan; Yang, Hui

    2017-01-01

    Unintentional gallium incorporation was observed and investigated in the epitaxial growth of InGaN by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy. InGaN was grown without intentional gallium precursor and the gallium incorporation rate was found not dependent on TEGa source but was significantly influenced by temperature and TMIn source flow. The source of the unintentional gallium incorporation is confirmed to be from the flow distributor of the reactor. The incorporation mechanism was analyzed to be the diffusion of resultant of transmetalation reaction between TMIn or its decomposed products (for example DMIn) and residual gallium. Due to the unintentional gallium incorporation, the growth rate and indium content of InGaN layer are determined by indium source, gallium source and the growth temperature.

  5. A crisis in the marketplace: how food marketing contributes to childhood obesity and what can be done.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Jennifer L; Pomeranz, Jennifer L; Lobstein, Tim; Brownell, Kelly D

    2009-01-01

    Reducing food marketing to children has been proposed as one means for addressing the global crisis of childhood obesity, but significant social, legal, financial, and public perception barriers stand in the way. The scientific literature documents that food marketing to children is (a) massive; (b) expanding in number of venues (product placements, video games, the Internet, cell phones, etc.); (c) composed almost entirely of messages for nutrient-poor, calorie-dense foods; (d) having harmful effects; and (e) increasingly global and hence difficult to regulate by individual countries. The food industry, governmental bodies, and advocacy groups have proposed a variety of plans for altering the marketing landscape. This article reviews existing knowledge of the impact of marketing and addresses the value of various legal, legislative, regulatory, and industry-based approaches to change.

  6. What doesn't kill you makes you stronger and weaker: how childhood trauma relates to temperament traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudbrack, Roberto; Manfro, Pedro H; Kuhn, Isadora M; de Carvalho, Hudson W; Lara, Diogo R

    2015-03-01

    Childhood trauma arises from damaging experiences and the absence of a secure and reliable environment for child development. Despite many studies on the risk for developing psychiatric disorders, much less is known on the relationship between traumatic experiences and personality traits. A total of 10,800 participants (mean age 27.7 ± 7.8 years old, 69.8% women) anonymously answered the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) and the Affective and Emotional Composite Temperament Scale (AFECTS) in the Brazilian Internet Study on Temperament and Psychopathology (BRAINSTEP). The results showed that total trauma score was associated with lower levels of positive traits (volition, control, coping, and stability), higher scores of negative traits (sensitivity, anger, anxiety) and a higher frequency of depressive and cyclothymic temperaments. Linear regression analysis showed similar findings for emotional abuse and neglect, whereas physical abuse and neglect were positively associated with more volition and coping as well as less fear, sensitivity and anxiety traits, especially in men. This study has a cross-sectional design and the sole use of self-reporting as the main limitations. In conclusion, dysfunctional temperament profiles were associated mainly with emotional trauma and sexual abuse. Some adaptive traits were associated with physical abuse and neglect, especially in men. These results reinforce the negative impact of emotional trauma and people's resilience to physical trauma, which may even translate into adaptive trait expression in males particularly. We propose that the "context-dependent nature" of stress should be further studied to break down the influence of specific types and contexts of adversity on psychological and psychiatric outcomes.

  7. School's out … now what? Objective estimates of afterschool sedentary time and physical activity from childhood to adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickel, Eric E; Belton, Sarahjane

    2016-08-01

    To describe the change in afterschool levels of sedentary time and physical activity from childhood to adolescence. Longitudinal. 375 youth (50% boys) from the Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (United States) provided accelerometer data at 9 (2000/01) and 15 yrs (2006/07). Average time spent in sedentary, light, moderate, vigorous, and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA; minh(-1)) was reported across the afterschool period (15:00-22:00) and separately across whole days. Mean comparisons were conducted to report between- and within-group differences in afterschool data. Analysis of covariance was used to determine the effect of sex, ethnicity, and baseline body mass index (BMI) on the 6-yr change in afterschool sedentary time and MVPA before and after adjusting for covariates (baseline afterschool sedentary/MVPA time, change in non-afterschool sedentary/MVPA time, difference in afterschool wear time, and socioeconomic status). From 9 to 15 yrs, sedentary time increased and activity decreased during the afterschool period. After covariate adjustment, the decline in afterschool MVPA was significantly greater among girls, compared to boys (B coefficient (95%CI)=-0.94 (-1.47, -0.40)), and among overweight/obese youth, compared to youth with normal BMI values (B coefficient (95%CI)=-0.65 (-1.22, -0.08)). During the transition from childhood to adolescence, afterschool activity (minh(-1)) decreases while sedentary time increases. Programs are needed throughout this period that promote the maintenance of activity or encourage additional activity with age. Copyright © 2015 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Signaling proteins that influence energy intake may affect unintentional weight loss in elderly persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wernette, Catherine M; White, B Douglas; Zizza, Claire A

    2011-06-01

    After age 70 to 75 years, average body weight decreases both in ailing and healthy people because of a loss of appetite that results in reduced energy intake and the loss of body fat and lean muscle tissue. This so-called anorexia of aging predisposes elderly people to continued pathologic weight loss and malnutrition-major causes of morbidity and mortality. Health care professionals must understand the many factors involved in the anorexia of aging to help older adults prevent unintentional weight loss. Psychological, social, and cultural factors are important effectors; however, physiological factors are emphasized here because they are not thoroughly understood and they make it inherently difficult for most people to alter their body weight. Monoamines, steroid hormones (glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids), endocannabinoids, and proteins all influence body weight. This review is an analysis of proteins from the brain, pancreas, adipose tissue, and gastrointestinal tract that are known to affect energy intake and energy balance, with an attempt to identify those factors that may change with aging. The articles included in this review were obtained by a PubMed database search using the keywords mouse OR rat OR human AND aged OR aging OR older OR elderly AND adult AND anorexia OR "unintentional weight loss," and each of the individual proteins discussed, as well as from the reference lists of those articles. The results reveal that some proteins may be important in the development of unintentional weight loss in elderly persons, whereas others may not have a significant role. However, many of the proteins that could conceivably have a role in unintentional weight loss have not yet been studied with that question in mind. Preventing unintentional weight loss in older adults is an important goal and further research on the role of proteins important for the maintenance of energy balance and the development of unintentional weight loss in elderly persons is

  9. The Relationship between Childhood Psychological Abuse and Neglect and Self Injurious Behavior of Students in Higher Vocational Colleges%童年心理虐待与忽视和高职生自伤行为的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    代辰旭; 张野; 张珊珊; 李紫糸

    2016-01-01

    为了研究童年心理虐待与忽视和高职生自伤行为的关系,采用儿童心理虐待与忽视量表和青少年自我伤害问卷对辽宁省某职业技术学校的730名高职生进行调查,结果表明:大部分高职生存在心理虐待与忽视和自伤行为,性别、生源地、独生子女均存在显著性差异;二者呈正相关,且自伤行为可以解释童年心理虐待与忽视。文章对心理虐待与忽视和自伤行为的原因进行分析,并从不同角度提出对策。%In order to study the relationship between childhood psychological abuse and neglect and the self injurious behavior of students in higher vocational colleges, the child psychological abuse and neglect scale and adolescent self harm questionnaire on a vocational technical school in Liaoning Province 730 vocational college students were investigated. The results showed that most of the students in higher vocational colleges had psychological abuse and neglect and self injurious behavior, and there were significant differences in gender, origin and only child. They were positively correlated, and self injurious behavior can explain childhood psychological abuse and neglect. This article carries on the analysis on the causes of psychological abuse and neglect and self injurious behavior, and puts forward the countermeasures from different angles.

  10. Genetics and outcomes after traumatic brain injury (TBI): what do we know about pediatric TBI?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurowski, Brad; Martin, Lisa J; Wade, Shari L

    2012-01-01

    Human genetic association studies in individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI) have increased rapidly over the past few years. Recently, several review articles evaluated the association of genetics with outcomes after TBI. However, almost all of the articles discussed in these reviews focused on adult TBI. The primary objective of this review is to gain a better understanding of which genes and/or genetic polymorphisms have been evaluated in pediatric TBI. Our initial search identified 113 articles. After review of these articles only 5 genetic association studies specific to pediatric TBI were identified. All five of these studies evaluated the apolipoprotein (APOE) gene. The study design and methods of these identified papers will be discussed. An additional search was then performed to evaluate genes beyond APOE that have been evaluated in adult TBI; findings from these studies are highlighted. Larger genetic studies will need to be performed in the future to better elucidate the association of APOE and other genes with outcomes after TBI in children. There is great potential to utilized genetic information to inform prognosis and management after TBI in children; however, we have much work ahead of us to reach the goal of individualized management.

  11. What Is the Meaning of Increased Myocardial Injury Enzymes during Hemodialysis? A Tissue Doppler Imaging Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, Gürsel; Kayataş, Mansur; Candan, Ferhan; Yilmaz, Mehmet Birhan; Zorlu, Ali; Sarikaya, Savaş

    2013-07-01

    Cardiovascular death is decreasing in the general population; however, it appears in still higher rates and even increases gradually in hemodialysis (HD) patients. This situation has led to a debate about cardiovascular adverse effects of HD which lead to significant changes in cardiac and hemodynamic events. It is known that troponins are often elevated in HD patients, and high levels of troponin are associated with increased mortality. Therefore, it is difficult to interpret the value of elevations in chronic kidney disease patients. Echocardiographic and biochemical parameters of 41 patients treated with HD were evaluated before and after a HD session. HD led to an increased heart rate, and tissue Doppler imaging parameters such as early diastolic mitral peak velocity (E)/early diastolic myocardial peak velocity (é) and septal é decreased significantly after HD. HD caused an increase in troponin I, myoglobin and cardiac creatine kinase (CK MB) levels (p = 0.019, p increased levels of cardiac damage markers (group 2) compared to those without increased levels of cardiac damage markers (group 1) in HD. A decrease in LV S' velocity was found to be an independent predictor of an increase of myocardial injury enzymes in HD (odds ratio = 1.099; p = 0.039). We concluded that HD may lead to significant acute stress upon the myocardium.

  12. What is the efficacy of physical therapeutics for treating neuropathic pain in spinal cord injury patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattal, C; Kong-A-Siou, D; Gilbert, C; Ventura, M; Albert, T

    2009-03-01

    Evaluate the place and level of proof of physical therapeutics for treating neuropathic pain in spinal cord injury (SCI) patients. Literature review from three databases: PubMed, Embase, Pascal. The following keywords were selected: chronic neuropathic pain/non-pharmacological treatment; transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation, physiotherapy, acupuncture, physical therapy, transcranial magnetic stimulation, heat therapy, ice therapy, cold therapy, massage, ultrasound, alternative treatment, complementary treatment, occupational therapy. The articles were analyzed using the double-reading mode. Three techniques emerge from the literature: magnetic or electrical transcranial stimulation, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation and acupuncture. Even though the first method is not easily accessible on a daily basis it is the one that yields the most promising results validated by Grade B studies. Healthcare professionals remain faithful to pain-relieving transcutaneous neurostimulation for both segmental neuropathic pain and below-level central neuropathic pain. Acupuncture is advocated by Canadian teams and could offer some interesting options; however, to this day, it does not have the methodological support and framework required to validate its efficacy. All other physical therapies are used in a random way. Only below-level massages are advocated by the patients themselves. To this day, no study can validate the integration of physical therapy as part of the array of therapeutics used for treating neuropathic pain in SCI patients. In the future, it will require controlled and randomized therapeutic studies on homogenous groups of SCI patients, to control the various confusion factors.

  13. Chronic endocrine consequences of traumatic brain injury - what is the evidence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klose, Marianne; Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla

    2017-09-08

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major public health problem with potentially debilitating consequences for the individual. Hypopituitarism after TBI has received increasing attention over the past decade; development of the condition as a consequence of TBI was previously hardly mentioned in textbooks on the subject. Hypopituitarism has been reported in more than 25% of patients with TBI and is now thought to be one of the most important causes of treatable morbidity in TBI survivors. However, most clinicians dealing with neuroendocrine diseases and TBI generally do not see such a high incidence of hypopituitarism. This disproportion is not clearly explained, but recent data indicate that diagnostic testing, which is designed for high-risk populations and not for a cohort of patients with, for example, de novo isolated growth hormone deficiency (the predominant finding in TBI), might have overestimated the true risk and disease burden of hypopituitarism. In this Opinion article, we discuss current recommendations for post-traumatic hypopituitarism in light of recent evidence.

  14. The challenges of translating stem cells for spinal cord injury and related disorders: what are the barriers and opportunities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewson, Stephanie M; Fehlings, Lauren N; Messih, Mark; Fehlings, Michael G

    2013-02-01

    Stem cell therapies have significant potential to treat spinal cord injury (SCI), but it remains difficult to translate these therapies from 'bench to bedside'. Identifying barriers to translation and understanding how these barriers are viewed by stakeholders in the field of stem cell research are key steps to clinical translation. The Stem Cell Global Blueprint Conference, held in Toronto (ON, Canada) presented a unique opportunity to analyze the perspectives of multiple stakeholders on the future of stem cell therapies for SCI treatment. This article is an analysis of data collected at the conference, including a consensus-building process and pre- and in-conference questionnaires. The authors used these data to assess current perceptions of stem cell research and compared the findings with the literature. The authors identified the major barriers according to a wide range of stakeholders and what strategies they suggested to overcome these obstacles, with the aim of forwarding discussion on stem cell research. It is not a systematic review of the area, but rather a presentation of expert opinion with literature citations to give context and support to their arguments and suggestions. The authors believe that the international SCI community is ready for larger-scale clinical translation, which will require the continued cooperation of all stakeholders in the stem cell and SCI communities.

  15. A Tewo Tibetan Childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rdo rje tshe brtan

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Rdo rje tshe brtan (b. 1986 describes his childhood in Dredze Village, Yiwa Township, Tewo County, Gannan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Gansu Province, China, as well as being a student in Xining City, Qinghai Province. Topics covered include his family, childhood injuries and illnesses, education, Terang (malicious household deities, mountain deities and associated rituals and sacrifices, death, conflict with other locals, collecting local plants, a birth in the village, stealing fruit, a wedding, plowing, a visit to a hot spring, a lost yak, slaughtering pigs, government confiscation of fields, and slaughtering pigs. Photos provide additional detail.

  16. Treating childhood trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terr, Lenore C

    2013-01-01

    This review begins with the question "What is childhood trauma?" Diagnosis is discussed next, and then the article focuses on treatment, using 3 basic principles-abreaction, context, and correction. Treatment modalities and complications are discussed, with case vignettes presented throughout to illustrate. Suggestions are provided for the psychiatrist to manage countertransference as trauma therapy proceeds.

  17. What mediates the link between childhood maltreatment and depression? The role of emotion dysregulation, attachment, and attributional style

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Schierholz

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Childhood maltreatment (CM has been shown to be related to a severe and/or chronic course of depression. This study investigated which psychological processes mediate this relationship. Method: A large sample of acute or recovered depressed individuals (N=340 participated in an online survey assessing characteristics of depression, trauma exposure, and potential mediators (emotion regulation difficulties, attributional style, and attachment. Results: The experience of CM was related to more severe depression and more depressive episodes. In multiple mediation models, emotion dysregulation, a depressogenic attributional style, and avoidance in close relationships conjointly mediated the relationship between CM and depression severity as well as number of depressive episodes. However, a significant direct path between CM and depression characteristics remained. Exploratory analyses suggested that posttraumatic stress disorder symptom severity was an important additional mediator in our sample. Conclusions: Our findings provide preliminary evidence for psychological mediators between CM and depression that may be promising targets for interventions tailored for the treatment of depression in this subgroup.

  18. What are the Differences in Injury Proportions Between Different Populations of Runners? : A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kluitenberg, Bas; van Middelkoop, Marienke; Diercks, Ron; van der Worp, Henk

    2015-01-01

    Background Many runners suffer from injuries. No information on high-risk populations is available so far though. Objectives The aims of this study were to systematically review injury proportions in different populations of runners and to compare injury locations between these populations. Data Sou

  19. Missed and Missing Cases of Abusive Injuries: The Magnitude and the Measurement of the Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadwick, David L.; Castillo, Edward M.; Kuelbs, Cynthia; Cox, Susan A.; Lindsay, Suzanne P.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The authors' objective is to describe the disparity between the case-fatality rates for inflicted versus unintentional injuries of children, and to emphasize its utility as a way of estimating the effectiveness of the ascertainment of inflicted injuries of children. Method: Determination, comparison, and explanation of the…

  20. Retrospective case series analysis of characteristics and trends in unintentional pharmaceutical drug poisoning by methadone, opioid analgesics, antidepressants and benzodiazepines in Clark County, NV 2009-13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Tamara; Pharr, Jennifer R

    2017-06-01

    Poisoning has become the leading cause of injury death in the USA-with opioid analgesic involved in more fatal poisonings than any other drug, including cocaine and heroin. The epidemic of prescription drug poisonings is a public health concern. This study aimed to define potential high-risk groups for unintentional prescription drug poisoning by methadone, opioid analgesics, antidepressants or benzodiazepines. A hospital-based retrospective case series analysis of admissions related to prescription drug poisonings associated with methadone, opioid analgesics, antidepressants or benzodiazepines for hospitals in Clark County, Nevada between 2009 and 2013 was employed. There were 7414 admissions with a primary diagnosis of an unintentional poisoning due to methadone, opioid analgesics, antidepressants or benzodiazepines. Women had the highest rate of admissions particularly in the 45-54 age group. Higher rates of admissions were also found among non-Hispanic whites, single and uninsured populations. There were concerning increases in admissions among 65+ and Native American/Alaskan Native subgroups in 2013. Benzodiazepines and opioid analgesics were the most prevalent drug categories for prescription drug poisoning admissions. Public health professionals can utilize hospital data to identify populations at risk and in need of targeted interventions.

  1. Anogenital warts in children: sexual abuse or unintentional contamination?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesus Lisieux Eyer de

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Anogenital warts (AGW were recently recognized in children, and their significance as an index of childhood sexual abuse is controversial. We report our transdisciplinary approach (including a pediatric surgeon, psychologist, social worker, ethics expert, and occasionally law enforcement agents and its results in a group of 17 children with AGW treated at the public pediatric referral hospital in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, during a 3-year period (1996-1999. All children were treated by electrocauterization of the warts, tested for other STDs, and submitted to perineal examination under anesthesia. Families received psycho-social counseling as necessary and cases were referred to child protection and law enforcement agents when indicated according to Brazilian legislation. We identified a high incidence of sexual abuse (8 children, 5/7 > 5 years old, with 3 patients inconclusive as to sexual abuse and 7 cases of perinatal transmission (5/8 5 years of age. However, strong support and a transdisciplinary approach to the children and their families is necessary to identify it.

  2. Reducing Unintentional Plagiarism amongst International Students in the Biological Sciences: An Embedded Academic Writing Development Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divan, Aysha; Bowman, Marion; Seabourne, Anna

    2015-01-01

    There is general agreement in the literature that international students are more likely to plagiarise compared to their native speaker peers and, in many instances, plagiarism is unintentional. In this article we describe the effectiveness of an academic writing development programme embedded into a Biological Sciences Taught Masters course…

  3. Reducing Unintentional Plagiarism amongst International Students in the Biological Sciences: An Embedded Academic Writing Development Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divan, Aysha; Bowman, Marion; Seabourne, Anna

    2015-01-01

    There is general agreement in the literature that international students are more likely to plagiarise compared to their native speaker peers and, in many instances, plagiarism is unintentional. In this article we describe the effectiveness of an academic writing development programme embedded into a Biological Sciences Taught Masters course…

  4. Self-reported intentional and unintentional non-adherence to medication in a general practice population.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, L. van; Dulmen, S. van; Sluijs, E.; Heerdink, R.; Ridder, D. de; Bensing, J.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Non-adherence to medication is a major public health problem all over the world. Poor adherence to medication regimes accounts for substantial worsening of disease and an increase in health care costs. Few studies on non-adherence distinguished between intentional and unintentional

  5. Evaluation of an Intervention to Help Students Avoid Unintentional Plagiarism by Improving Their Authorial Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elander, James; Pittam, Gail; Lusher, Joanne; Fox, Pauline; Payne, Nicola

    2010-01-01

    Students with poorly developed authorial identity may be at risk of unintentional plagiarism. An instructional intervention designed specifically to improve authorial identity was delivered to 364 psychology students at three post-1992 universities in London, UK, and evaluated with before-and-after measures of beliefs and attitudes about academic…

  6. The empathy impulse: A multinomial model of intentional and unintentional empathy for pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, C Daryl; Spring, Victoria L; Todd, Andrew R

    2017-04-01

    Empathy for pain is often described as automatic. Here, we used implicit measurement and multinomial modeling to formally quantify unintentional empathy for pain: empathy that occurs despite intentions to the contrary. We developed the pain identification task (PIT), a sequential priming task wherein participants judge the painfulness of target experiences while trying to avoid the influence of prime experiences. Using multinomial modeling, we distinguished 3 component processes underlying PIT performance: empathy toward target stimuli (Intentional Empathy), empathy toward prime stimuli (Unintentional Empathy), and bias to judge target stimuli as painful (Response Bias). In Experiment 1, imposing a fast (vs. slow) response deadline uniquely reduced Intentional Empathy. In Experiment 2, inducing imagine-self (vs. imagine-other) perspective-taking uniquely increased Unintentional Empathy. In Experiment 3, Intentional and Unintentional Empathy were stronger toward targets with typical (vs. atypical) pain outcomes, suggesting that outcome information matters and that effects on the PIT are not reducible to affective priming. Typicality of pain outcomes more weakly affected task performance when target stimuli were merely categorized rather than judged for painfulness, suggesting that effects on the latter are not reducible to semantic priming. In Experiment 4, Unintentional Empathy was stronger for participants who engaged in costly donation to cancer charities, but this parameter was also high for those who donated to an objectively worse but socially more popular charity, suggesting that overly high empathy may facilitate maladaptive altruism. Theoretical and practical applications of our modeling approach for understanding variation in empathy are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Impact of team-versus ward-aligned clinical pharmacy on unintentional medication discrepancies at admission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Sharon M; Grimes, Tamasine C; Jago-Byrne, Marie-Claire; Galvin, Mairéad

    2017-02-01

    Background Medication reconciliation at admission to hospital reduces the prevalence of medication errors. Strategies are needed to ensure timely and efficient delivery of this service. Objective To investigate the effect of aligning clinical pharmacy services with consultant teams, by pharmacists attending post-admission ward rounds, in comparison to a ward-based service, on prevalence of unintentional unresolved discrepancies 48 h into admission. Setting A 243-bed public university teaching hospital in Ireland. Method A prospective, uncontrolled before-after observational study. A gold standard preadmission medication list was completed for each patient and compared with the patient's admission medication prescription and discrepancies were noted. Unresolved discrepancies were examined at 48 h after admission to determine if they were intentional or unintentional. Main outcome measured Number of patients with one or more unintentional, unresolved discrepancy 48 h into admission. Results Data were collected for 140 patients, of whom 73.5% were over 65 years of age. There were no differences between before (ward-aligned) and after (team-aligned) groups regarding age, number of medications or comorbidities. There was a statistically significant reduction in the prevalence of unintentional, unresolved discrepancy(s) per patient (67.3 vs. 27.3%, p medication (13.7 vs. 4.1%, p medications and comorbidities (adjusted odds ratio 4.9, 95% confidence interval 2.3-10.6). Conclusion A consultant team-based clinical pharmacy service contributed positively to medication reconciliation at admission, reducing the prevalence of unintentional, unresolved discrepancy(s) present 48 h after admission.

  8. Father-Child Interactions and Children's Risk of Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    StGeorge, Jennifer; Fletcher, Richard; Freeman, Emily; Paquette, Daniel; Dumont, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    Unintentional injury is an important cause of infant and child hospitalisation and parents play a key role in reducing children's risk-taking behaviour. Studies show that maternal and paternal parenting and supervision of children differ, but there is little research showing how fathers' parenting may influence children's tendency to engage in…

  9. Childhood Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kids to Be Smart About Social Media Childhood Stress KidsHealth > For Parents > Childhood Stress Print A A ... and feel stress to some degree. Sources of Stress Stress is a function of the demands placed ...

  10. Childhood Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childhood schizophrenia Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff Childhood schizophrenia is an uncommon but severe mental disorder in which children interpret reality abnormally. Schizophrenia involves a range of problems with thinking (cognitive), ...

  11. The incidence of injury presentations to emergency departments: what we don't know can hurt us.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Meaney, S

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of injury presentations to emergency departments in the Republic of Ireland has not been established. Data were collected relating to all injuries that presented on every eighth day in July-December 2005 to the three hospitals in Cork City. In total, 2,967 injury presentations were recorded. The total, male and female age-adjusted rate of injury presentations was 11,322, 13,933 and 8,550 per 100,000, respectively. The peak male rate was among 15-29 year-olds (26,735 per 100,000), 2.5 times the female rate in the same age range (10,719 per 100,000). The peak female rate was among over 85 year-olds (18,543 per 100,000). Place of injury, activity at time of injury and underlying substance\\/object causing injury were unspecified for 44%, 46% and 43% of recorded injuries. Improving the recording of injury data needs to be prioritised in Irish emergency departments ideally in conjunction with the development of a national injury surveillance system.

  12. Childhood obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Wilkinson, Justine; Howard, Simon

    2006-01-01

    Childhood obesity has important consequences for health and wellbeing both during childhood and also in later adult life. The rising prevalence of childhood obesity poses a major public health challenge in both developed and developing countries by increasing the burden of chronic non-communicable diseases. Despite the urgent need for effective preventative strategies, there remains disagreement over its definition due to a lack of evidence on the optimal cut-offs linking childhood BMI to dis...

  13. Young adult's own and parental social characteristics predict injury morbidity: a register-based follow-up of 135,000 men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remes, Hanna; Martikainen, Pekka

    2015-04-28

    Sociodemographic differences in injury mortality are well-established, but population-level studies on social patterns of injury morbidity remain few in numbers, particularly among young adults. Yet injuries are the leading cause of mortality, morbidity and disability among young people. Studies among children have shown steep social gradients in severe injuries, but less is known on the social patterning of injuries in late adolescence and early adulthood, when young people are in the process of becoming independent adults. This study examines how young adults' current living arrangements, education, main economic activity, and parental social background are associated with hospital-treated injuries in late adolescence and early adulthood. The study uses prospective, individual-level data gathered from several administrative sources. From a representative 11% sample of the total Finnish population, we included young people between ages 17-29 years during the follow-up (N = 134,938). We used incidence rates and Cox proportional hazards models to study hospital-treated injuries and poisonings in 1998-2008. Higher rates of injury were found among young adults living alone, single mothers, the lower educated and the non-employed, as well as those with lower parental social background, experience of childhood family changes or living with a single parent, and those who had left the parental home at a young age. Injury risks were consistently higher among young adults with lower education, but current living arrangements and main economic activity showed some age-related nuances in the associations: both earlier and later than average transitions in education, employment, and family formation associated with increased injury risks. The social differentials were strongest in poisonings, intentional self-harm, and assaults, but social patterns were also found in falls, traffic-related injuries and other unintentional injuries, underlining the existence of multiple

  14. Injuries, Death, and Disability Associated with 11 Years of Conflict in Baghdad, Iraq: A Randomized Household Cluster Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafta, Riyadh; Al-Shatari, Sahar; Cherewick, Megan; Galway, Lindsay; Mock, Charles; Hagopian, Amy; Flaxman, Abraham; Takaro, Tim; Greer, Anna; Kushner, Adam; Burnham, Gilbert

    2015-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to characterize injuries, deaths, and disabilities arising during 11 years of conflict in Baghdad. Methods Using satellite imagery and administrative population estimated size for Baghdad, 30 clusters were selected, proportionate to population size estimates. Interviews were conducted during April and May 2014 in 900 households containing 5148 persons. Details about injuries and disabilities occurring from 2003 through May 2014 and resultant disabilities were recorded. Findings There were 553 injuries reported by Baghdad residents, 225 of which were intentional, and 328 unintentional. For intentional injuries, the fatality rate was 39.1% and the disability rate 56.0%. Gunshots where the major cause of injury through 2006 when blasts/explosions became the most common cause and remained so through 2014. Among unintentional injuries, the fatality rate was 7.3% and the disability rate 77.1%. The major cause of unintentional injuries was falls (131) which have increased dramatically since 2008, followed by traffic related injuries (81), which have steadily increased. The proportion of injuries ending in disabilities remained fairly constant through the survey period. Interpretation Intentional injuries added substantially to the burden of unintentional injuries for the population. For Baghdad, the phases of the Iraqi conflict are reflected in the patterns of injuries and consequent deaths reported. The scale of injuries during conflict is most certainly under-reported. Difficulties recalling injuries in a survey covering 11 years is a limitation, but it is likely that minor injuries were under-reported more than severe injuries. The in- and out-migration of Baghdad populations likely had effects on the events reported which we could not measure or estimate. Damage to the health infrastructure and the flight of health workers may have contributed to mortality and morbidity. Civilian injuries as well as mortality should be

  15. What's Missing in Most of Our Early Childhood Degrees? Focusing More Deeply on Relationships and Learning with Infants, Toddlers, and Their Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Marilyn

    2016-01-01

    Infant-toddler teachers have the least education, the lowest pay, and the highest turnover rate of all adults in the field of early childhood education. In this article, the unique needs of infants, toddlers, and their families are explored at the 2-year associate (AA) and the 4-year bachelor (BA) levels of early childhood higher education degree…

  16. Race, Isolation, and Exclusion: What Early Childhood Teacher Educators Need to Know about the Experiences of Pre-Service Teachers of Color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheruvu, Ranita; Souto-Manning, Mariana; Lencl, Tara; Chin-Calubaquib, Marisa

    2015-01-01

    Historically, in the United States, early childhood teacher education has been a discursive space dominated by White, English-monolingual, middle class perspectives. By and large, this space has remained unexamined even as the field acknowledges the need for more early childhood teachers of color. This study seeks to gain insights into the…

  17. Overuse injuries in running

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lars Henrik; Rasmussen, Sten; Jørgensen, Jens Erik

    2016-01-01

    What is an overuse injury in running? This question is a corner stone of clinical documentation and research based evidence.......What is an overuse injury in running? This question is a corner stone of clinical documentation and research based evidence....

  18. Radiation Injury to the Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tumors Brain Tumors Brain Disorders AVMs Radiosurgery Gamma Knife Linac Radiotherapy Overview Childhood Brain Tumors IMRT Radiation Therapy Radiation Injury Treatment Day Making a Decision Centers of Excellence Publications Definitions Q & ...

  19. Effects of Dislocation on High Temperature Transport Characteristics of Unintentionally Doped GaN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Mao-Jun; SHEN Bo; XU Fu-Jun; WANG Yan; XU Jian; HUANG Sen; YANG Zhi-Jian; QIN Zhi-Xin; ZHANG Guo-Yi

    2007-01-01

    High temperature transport characteristics of unintentionally doped GaN have been investigated by means of high temperature Hall measurements from room temperature to 50CPC. The increment of electron concentration from room temperature to 500°C is found to vary largely for different samples. The dispersion of temperature dependence of electron concentration is found to be directly proportional to the density of dislocations in GaN layers calculated by fitting the FWHM of the rocking curves in x-ray diffraction measurements (XRD). The buildup levels in persistent photoconductivity (PPC) are also shown to be directly proportional to the density of dislocations. The correlation of XRD, Hall and PPC results indicate that the high temperature dependence of electron density in unintentional doped GaN is directly dislocation related.

  20. New onset epilepsy following unintentional durotomy in a patient on anti-psychiatric medication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    West M

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available We would like to present a rare case report describing a case in which new-onset tonic-clonic seizures occurred following an unintentional durotomy during lumbar discectomy and decompression. Unintentional durotomy is a frequent complication of spinal surgical procedures, with a rate as high as 17%. To our knowledge a case of new onset epilepsy has never been reported in the literature. Although dural tears during surgery and CSF hypovolaemia are thought to be the main contributing factors, one postulates on the effects of anti-psychiatric medication with epileptogenic properties. Amisulpride and Olanzapine can lower seizure threshold and should be used with caution in patients previously diagnosed with epilepsy. However manufacturers do not state that in cases where the seizure threshold is already lowered by CSF hypotension, new onset epilepsy might be commoner. Finally, strong caution and aggressive post-operative monitoring is advised for patients with CSF hypotension in combination with possible epileptogenic medication.

  1. Impact of unintentional selective harvesting on the population dynamics of red grouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunnefeld, Nils; Reuman, Daniel C; Baines, David; Milner-Gulland, E J

    2011-11-01

    1. The effect of selective exploitation of certain age, stage or sex classes (e.g., trophy hunting) on population dynamics is relatively well studied in fisheries and sexually dimorphic mammals. 2. Harvesting of terrestrial species with no morphological differences visible between the different age and sex classes (monomorphic species) is usually assumed to be nonselective because monomorphicity makes intentionally selective harvesting pointless and impractical. But harvesting of the red grouse (Lagopus lagopus scoticus), a monomorphic species, was recently shown to be unintentionally selective. This study uses a sex- and age-specific model to explore the previously unresearched effects of unintentional harvesting selectivity. 3. We examine the effects of selectivity on red grouse dynamics by considering models with and without selectivity. Our models include territoriality and parasitism, two mechanisms known to be important for grouse dynamics. 4. We show that the unintentional selectivity of harvesting that occurs in red grouse decreases population yield compared with unselective harvesting at high harvest rates. Selectivity also dramatically increases extinction risk at high harvest rates. 5. Selective harvesting strengthens the 3- to 13-year red grouse population cycle, suggesting that the selectivity of harvesting is a previously unappreciated factor contributing to the cycle. 6. The additional extinction risk introduced by harvesting selectivity provides a quantitative justification for typically implemented 20-40% harvest rates, which are below the maximum sustainable yield that could be taken, given the observed population growth rates of red grouse. 7. This study shows the possible broad importance of investigating in future research whether unintentionally selective harvesting occurs on other species.

  2. 儿童骨盆骨折的合并伤%Associated Injuries of Pelvic Fracture in Childhood (A Clinical Analysis of 35 Cases)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王军; 张新河; 徐新六

    1995-01-01

    回顾了35例骨盆骨折患儿的临床资料,对其合并伤的原因、特点、诊断和治疗进行了讨论分析.%An analysis of the clinical manifestation and management of pelvic fracture in recent 7 years is presented. There were 27 males and 8 females. The age ranged from 2 years to 14 years. Some 89% of pelvic fractures were due to traffic accidents. All of them had two or more associated injuries, including; injury of big vessels in 3 cases, retroperitoneal hematoma in 4, urethra and bladder injuries in 15, rupture of vagina in 3. The diagnosis and treatment of the major associated injuries were discussed in the text.

  3. Factors associated with intentional and unintentional non-adherence to adjuvant endocrine therapy following breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brett, J; Fenlon, D; Boulton, M; Hulbert-Williams, N J; Walter, F M; Donnelly, P; Lavery, B; Morgan, A; Morris, C; Watson, E

    2016-11-30

    Adherence to adjuvant endocrine therapy (AET) following breast cancer is known to be suboptimal despite its known efficacy in reducing recurrence and mortality. This study aims to investigate factors associated with non-adherence and inform the development of interventions to support women and promote adherence. A questionnaire survey to measure level of adherence, side effects experienced, beliefs about medicine, support received and socio-demographic details was sent to 292 women 2-4 years post breast cancer diagnosis. Differences between non-adherers and adherers to AET were explored, and factors associated with intentional and unintentional non-adherence are reported. Approximately one quarter of respondents, 46 (22%), were non-adherers, comprising 29 (14%) intentional non-adherers and 17 (8%) unintentional non-adherers. Factors significantly associated with intentional non-adherence were the presence of side effects (p adherence were younger age (adherence and unintentional non-adherence. Differentiation between the two types of non-adherence may help tailor support and advice interventions. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Benzodiazepines: a major component in unintentional prescription drug overdoses with opioid analgesics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jann, Michael; Kennedy, William Klugh; Lopez, Gaylord

    2014-02-01

    The misuse and abuse of prescription medications in the United States continues to increase despite interventions by health care professionals, regulatory, and law enforcement agencies. Opioid analgesics are the leading class of prescription drugs that have caused unintentional overdose deaths. Benzodiazepines when taken alone are relatively safe agents in overdose. However, a 5-fold increase in deaths attributed to benzodiazepines occurred from 1999 to 2009. Emergency department visits related to opioid analgesics increased by 111% followed by benzodiazepines 89%. During 2003 to 2009, the 2 prescriptions drugs with the highest increase in death rates were oxycodone 264.6% and alprazolam 233.8%. Therefore, benzodiazepines have a significant impact on prescription drug unintentional overdoses second only to the opioid analgesics. The combination prescribing of benzodiazepines and opioid analgesics commonly takes place. The pharmacokinetic drug interactions between benzodiazepines and opioid analgesics are complex. The pharmacodynamic actions of these agents differ as their combined effects produce significant respiratory depression. Physician and pharmacy shopping by patients occurs, and prescription drug-monitoring programs can provide important information on benzodiazepine and opioid analgesic prescribing patterns and patient usage. Health care professionals need to inform patients and work closely with regulatory agencies and legislatures to stem the increasing fatalities from prescription drug unintentional overdoses.

  5. Peer Bullying During Early Childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatice UYSAL

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Peer bullying during early childhood is discussed along with the literature reviewed in this article with the purpose of drawing attention to peer bullying during early childhood and its significance, and contributing to studies which are few in number in Turkey. Peer bullying during early childhood was considered with its definition and types, people who play key roles in peer bullying, factors (gender, age, parents, and friendship that relate to peer bullying, and what should be done before and after peer bullying.

  6. What makes home health workers think about leaving their job? The role of physical injury and organizational support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ahyoung Anna; Jang, Yuri

    2016-01-01

    Based on the job demands-resources (JD-R) model, this study explored the role of physical injury and organizational support in predicting home health workers' turnover intention. In a sample of home health workers in Central Texas (n = 150), about 37% reported turnover intention. The logistic regression model showed that turnover intention was 3.23 times more likely among those who had experienced work-related injury. On the other hand, organizational support was found to reduce the likelihood of turnover intention. Findings suggest that injury and organizational support should be prioritized in prevention and intervention efforts to promote home health workers' safety and retention.

  7. A Wicked Problem: Early Childhood Safety in the Dynamic, Interactive Environment of Home

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Simpson

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Young children being injured at home is a perennial problem. When parents of young children and family workers discussed what influenced parents’ perceptions and responses to child injury risk at home, both “upstream” and “downstream” causal factors were identified. Among the former, complex and interactive facets of society and contemporary living emerged as potentially critical features. The “wicked problems” model arose from the need to find resolutions for complex problems in multidimensional environments and it proved a useful analogy for child injury. Designing dynamic strategies to provide resolutions to childhood injury, may address our over-dependence on ‘tame solutions’ that only deal with physical cause-and-effect relationships and which cannot address the complex interactive contexts in which young children are often injured.

  8. A wicked problem: early childhood safety in the dynamic, interactive environment of home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Jean; Fougere, Geoff; McGee, Rob

    2013-04-24

    Young children being injured at home is a perennial problem. When parents of young children and family workers discussed what influenced parents' perceptions and responses to child injury risk at home, both "upstream" and "downstream" causal factors were identified. Among the former, complex and interactive facets of society and contemporary living emerged as potentially critical features. The "wicked problems" model arose from the need to find resolutions for complex problems in multidimensional environments and it proved a useful analogy for child injury. Designing dynamic strategies to provide resolutions to childhood injury, may address our over-dependence on 'tame solutions' that only deal with physical cause-and-effect relationships and which cannot address the complex interactive contexts in which young children are often injured.

  9. Does health-related quality of life ‎predict injury event?‎

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kambiz Abachizadeh

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Unintentional injury is a leading threat to children's health. Some human ‎factors have been determined as predictor of unintentional injury. Association ‎between Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQOL as a human factor and unintentionalinjuries is unclear. The objective of study is to examine the association between ‎HRQOL and unintentional injuries among primary school children. Methods: This study was a cross-sectional conducted in Ahwaz, a city in Iran. ‎Overall, 3375 children aged 6-10 years were randomly selected from primary school. ‎HRQOL was measured by 56 items taken from seven domains of Netherlands ‎Organization for Applied Scientific Research Academic Medical Center (TNO AZL ‎child quality of life (TACQOL parent form. Parents were interviewed to collect ‎information about incidence, cause and a brief description of injury within the past 12 ‎months prior to the study.‎ Results: The response rate was 3375 of 3792 (89%. There was a significant trend ‎for increasing occurrence of injury with decreasing of HRQOL score (P= Sig. ‎Adjusted OR for injury was significantly higher in very low (2.38, 95% CI: 1.45-‎‎3.86, low (2.18, 95% CI: 1.34-3.56, and medium (1.73, 95%CI: 1.06-2.83 ‎HRQOL groups compared to reference group (very high HRQOL. The median of total ‎HRQOL (P= Sig and all its domains (P=0.017 (except autonomous functioning ‎was lower in injured group compared to uninjured one.‎ Conclusions: This study found an association between HRQOL and unintentionalinjury among primary school children. This is a preliminary finding and further ‎investigations with a well-defined analytical design are needed.‎

  10. What should an ideal spinal injury classification system consist of? A methodological review and conceptual proposal for future classifications.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middendorp, J.J. van; Audige, L.; Hanson, B.; Chapman, J.R.; Hosman, A.J.F.

    2010-01-01

    Since Bohler published the first categorization of spinal injuries based on plain radiographic examinations in 1929, numerous classifications have been proposed. Despite all these efforts, however, only a few have been tested for reliability and validity. This methodological, conceptual review

  11. What factors should be considered in rehabilitation: are anger, social desirability, and forgiveness related in adults with traumatic brain injuries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gisi, T M; D'Amato, R C

    2000-11-01

    This study evaluated the relationship between anger and forgiveness from a moral developmental view, in 51 adults having mild to moderate traumatic brain injuries. Individuals with brain injuries have been reported to display problematic psychosocial sequelae including anger. The Enright Forgiveness Inventory, the State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory, and the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale were used to evaluate the relationship between forgiveness, anger, and social desirability. A significant inverse relationship was found between anger and forgiveness, and between anger and social desirability. Additional insight was obtained from open-ended questions, a demographic sheet relating to the injury, and an anger evoking incident. Findings suggested that practitioners need to attend to psychosocial factors affecting anger when conducting rehabilitation programs with patients having brain injuries.

  12. Brain Injury Safety Tips and Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Address What's this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Brain Injury Safety Tips and Prevention Recommend on Facebook ... not grass or dirt. More HEADS UP Video: Brain Injury Safety and Prevention frame support disabled and/ ...

  13. Relationship Between Health Literacy and Unintentional and Intentional Medication Nonadherence in Medically Underserved Patients With Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jessica H; Lyons, Sarah A; Goodman, Melody S; Blanchard, Melvin S; Kaphingst, Kimberly A

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between health literacy and overall medication nonadherence, unintentional nonadherence, and intentional nonadherence. Limited health literacy may be associated with worse diabetes outcomes, but the literature shows mixed results, and mechanisms remain unclear. Medication adherence is associated with diabetes outcomes and may be a mediating factor. Distinguishing between unintentional and intentional nonadherence may elucidate the relationship between health literacy and nonadherence in patients with type 2 diabetes. Cross-sectional study of 208 patients with type 2 diabetes recruited from a primary care clinic in St. Louis, Missouri. Information was obtained from written questionnaire and patient medical records. Bivariate and multivariable regression were used to examine predictors of medication nonadherence. The majority of patients in the study were low income, publicly insured, and African American, with limited health literacy and a high school/GED education or less. In multivariable models, limited health literacy was significantly associated with increased unintentional nonadherence but not intentional nonadherence. Results suggest differences in factors affecting intentional and unintentional nonadherence. The findings also suggest interventions are needed to decrease unintentional nonadherence among patients with type 2 diabetes and limited health literacy. Efforts to address unintentional medication nonadherence among patients with type 2 diabetes with limited health literacy may improve patient health. © 2016 The Author(s).

  14. Working hours associated with unintentional sleep at work among airline pilots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marqueze, Elaine Cristina; Nicola, Ana Carolina B; Diniz, Dag Hammarskjoeld M D; Fischer, Frida Marina

    2017-06-26

    Tto identify factors associated with unintentional sleep at work of airline pilots. This is a cross-sectional epidemiological study conducted with 1,235 Brazilian airline pilots, who work national or international flights. Data collection has been performed online. We carried out a bivariate and multiple logistic regression analysis, having as dependent variable unintentional sleep at work. The independent variables were related to biodemographic data, characteristics of the work, lifestyle, and aspects of sleep. The prevalence of unintentional sleep while flying the airplane was 57.8%. The factors associated with unintentional sleep at work were: flying for more than 65 hours a month, frequent technical delays, greater need for recovery after work, work ability below optimal, insufficient sleep, and excessive sleepiness. The occurrence of unintentional sleep at work of airline pilots is associated with factors related to the organization of the work and health. Identificar fatores associados aos cochilos não intencionais durante as jornadas de trabalho de pilotos da aviação regular. Estudo epidemiológico transversal conduzido com 1.235 pilotos brasileiros de avião do transporte aéreo regular, que realizavam voos nacionais ou internacionais, sendo a coleta de dados realizada on-line. Foi realizada análise de regressão logística bivariada e múltipla, tendo como variável dependente o cochilo não intencional durante o horário de trabalho. As variáveis independentes foram relacionadas a dados biodemográficos, características do trabalho, estilo de vida e aspectos do sono. A prevalência do cochilo não intencional enquanto pilotava o avião foi de 57,8%. Os fatores associados ao cochilo não intencional foram: voar por mais de 65 horas por mês, atrasos técnicos frequentes, maior necessidade de recuperação após o trabalho, capacidade para o trabalho inferior à ótima, sono insuficiente e sonolência excessiva. A ocorrência do cochilo n

  15. Epidemiology of Child Motor Vehicle Crash Injuries and Fatalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbogast, Kristy B.; Durbin, Dennis R.

    Although children represent only 10-15 % of the overall traffic fatality burden in the United States, motor vehicle crashes (MVCs) remain the leading cause of death and disability for children and young adults; and, close to half of all unintentional injury deaths to children and adolescents (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Web-based Injury Statistics Query and Reporting System [CDC NCIPC WISQARS] 2010). Moreover, their exposure to motor vehicle risk is significant because they travel by motor vehicles nearly as much as adults. Prevention of the fatalities, injuries and disability associated with MVC must be a priority for ensuring our children's overall health.

  16. What are the exercise-based injury prevention recommendations for recreational alpine skiing and snowboarding? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hébert-Losier, Kim; Holmberg, Hans-Christer

    2013-05-01

    Skiing and snowboarding are two activities that significantly contribute to the total number of sports-related injuries reported per year. Strength, endurance and cardiovascular fitness are central components in sports injury prevention. Providing exercises and training recommendations specific to recreational skiers and snowboarders is important in both injury prevention and reducing the prevalence and cost associated with alpine winter sports injuries. The aim of this paper was to systematically review the literature for injury prevention recommendations specific to recreational alpine skiers and snowboarders. The focus was to discern recommendations that targeted physical fitness, exercise and/or training in the prevention of musculoskeletal injuries in these two sports. Fourteen electronic databases were searched in October 2011 using relevant MeSH terms and key words. Articles were included if they addressed injury prevention, recreational alpine skiing or snowboarding and musculoskeletal injuries. Only original research articles published in peer-reviewed journals, and in the English-language, were reviewed. Articles on elite athletes were excluded. Two independent reviewers quality assessed articles meeting inclusion criteria using a modified version of the Downs and Black Quality Assessment Checklist. Data on study population, study design, study location and injury prevention recommendation(s) were extracted from articles using a standard form and subsequently categorized to facilitate data synthesis. A total of 30 articles met the inclusion criteria and were reviewed, having an average ± standard deviation quality score of 72% ± 17% (range: 23-100 %). Overall, 80 recommendations for the prevention of musculoskeletal injuries in recreational alpine skiers and snowboarders were identified and classified into five main groups: equipment (n = 24), education and knowledge (n = 11), awareness and behaviour (n = 15), experience (n = 10) and third

  17. 75 FR 8727 - Advisory Commission on Childhood Vaccines; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-25

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Advisory Commission on Childhood Vaccines...-463), notice is hereby given of the following meeting: Name: Advisory Commission on Childhood Vaccines... limited to: Updates from the Division of Vaccine Injury Compensation (DVIC), Department of...

  18. What Is a Pediatric Neurosurgeon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Text Size Email Print Share What is a Pediatric Neurosurgeon? Page Content Article Body If your child ... childhood and adolescence. What Kind of Training Do Pediatric Neurosurgeons Have? Pediatric neurosurgeons are medical doctors who ...

  19. Risk and prognostic factors of inpatient mortality associated with unintentional insecticide and herbicide poisonings: a retrospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu-Chien Chien

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Pesticide poisoning is an important public health problem worldwide. The study aimed to determine the risk of all-cause and cause-specific inpatient mortality and to identify prognostic factors for inpatient mortality associated with unintentional insecticide and herbicide pesticide poisonings. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study of 3,986 inpatients recruited at hospitalization between 1999 and 2008 in Taiwan. We used the International Classification of Disease, 9th ed., Clinical Modification external causes of injury codes to classify poisoning agents into accidental poisoning by insecticides and herbicides. Comparisons in mortality rates were made between insecticide poisoning patients and herbicide poisoning patients by using the Cox proportional hazards models to estimate multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs. RESULTS: There were 168 deaths during 21,583 person-days of follow-up evaluation (7.8 per 1,000 person-days. The major causes of mortality for insecticide poisonings were the toxic effect of organophosphate and coma, and the major causes of mortality for herbicide poisonings were the toxic effect of other pesticides and the toxic effect of organophosphate. The mortality for herbicide exposure was fourfold higher than that for insecticide exposure. The factors associated with inpatient mortality were herbicide poisonings (HR = 4.58, 95% CI 3.29 to 6.37 and receiving mechanical ventilation treatment (HR = 3.85, 95% CI 2.73 to 5.42. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrated that herbicides stand out as the dominant agent for poisoning-related fatalities. The control of and limiting access to herbicide agents and developing appropriate therapeutic regimens, including emergency care, should be priorities.

  20. Grade II whiplash injuries to the neck: what is the benefit for patients treated by different physical therapy modalities?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krischak Gert

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In a majority of cases, whiplash injuries are a domain of conservative therapy. Nevertheless it remains unclear whether physical therapy is of medical or economic benefit in patients with whiplash injuries. Methods Seventy patients with acute Quebec Task Force (QTF grade II whiplash injuries were randomized to two therapy groups and received either active (APT or passive (PPT physical therapy. Patients were compared with regard to pain and range of motion with data obtained in an earlier study from a group with grade II whiplash injuries in which the therapy recommendation had been "act as usual" (AAU; n = 20. The above-mentioned parameters were assessed at 24 hours and two months after the injury. Furthermore patients' period of disability was documented after two months. Results After two months, patients in both the APT and PPT groups showed significant improvement in the median period of disability (active: 14 days; passive: 14 days compared to the AAU group (49 days. No group difference was observed with regard to median improvement in range of motion (active: 120°; passive: 108°; activity as usual: 70°. The median pain reduction was significantly greater in the APT group (50.5 than in the PPT (39.2 or AAU group (28.8. Conclusion Our data show that active physical therapy results in enhanced pain reduction and shortening of post-injury disability. Therefore, active physical therapy should be considered the treatment of choice in patients with QTF grade II whiplash injuries. Trial registration The study complied with applicable German law and with the principles of the Helsinki Declaration and was approved by the institutional ethics commission.

  1. Preventing gun injuries in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossen, Eric J; Lewis, Brenna; Hoffman, Benjamin D

    2015-02-01

    Firearms are involved in the injury and death of a large number of children each year from both intentional and unintentional causes. Gun ownership in homes with children is common, and pediatricians should incorporate evidence-based means to discuss firearms and protect children from gun-related injuries and violence. Safe storage of guns, including unloaded guns locked and stored separately from ammunition, can decrease risks to children, and effective tools are available that pediatricians can use in clinical settings to help decrease children's access to firearms. Furthermore, several community-based interventions led by pediatricians have effectively reduced firearm-related injury risks to children. Educational programs that focus on children's behavior around guns have not proven effective. © American Academy of Pediatrics, 2015. All rights reserved.

  2. Quality Measurement in Early Childhood Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaslow, Martha, Ed.; Martinez-Beck, Ivelisse, Ed.; Tout, Kathryn, Ed.; Halle, Tamara, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    What constitutes quality in early childhood settings, and how can it best be measured with today's widely used tools and promising new approaches? Find authoritative answers in this book, a must-have for high-level administrators and policymakers as more and more states adopt early childhood Quality Rating and Improvement Systems. The most…

  3. Worldwide Prevalence and Trends in Unintentional Drug Overdose: A Systematic Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Silvia S; Sampson, Laura; Cerdá, Magdalena; Galea, Sandro

    2015-11-01

    Drug overdose is an important, yet an inadequately understood, public health problem. Global attention to unintentional drug overdose has been limited by comparison with the scope of the problem. There has been a substantial increase in drug overdose incidence and prevalence in several countries worldwide over the past decade, contributing to both increased costs and mortality. The aim of this study was to systematically synthesize the peer-reviewed literature to document the global epidemiological profile of unintentional drug overdoses and the prevalence, time trends, mortality rates, and correlates of drug overdoses. We searched different combinations of Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) terms in PubMed for articles published from 1980 until July 2013, and we organized these results in tabular spreadsheets and compared them. We restricted the search to English-language articles that deal with unintentional overdose, focusing on 1 or more of the following key constructs: prevalence, time trends, mortality rates, and correlates. The term "overdose" as a MeSH major topic yielded 1076 publications. In addition, we searched the following combinations of nonmajor MeSH terms: "street drugs" and "overdose" yielded 180, "death" and "overdose" yielded 114, and "poisoning" and "drug users" yielded 17. There was some overlap among the searches. Based on the search and inclusion and exclusion criteria, we selected a total of 169 relevant articles for this article based on a close review of abstracts. We found wide variability in lifetime prevalence of experiencing a nonfatal overdose or witnessing an overdose, and in mortality rates attributable to overdose. Lifetime prevalence of witnessed overdose among drug users (n = 17 samples) ranged from 50% to 96%, with a mean of 73.3%, a median of 70%, and a standard deviation of 14.1%. Lifetime prevalence of drug users personally experiencing a nonfatal overdose (n = 27 samples), ranged from 16.6% to 68.0% with a mean of 45

  4. Source, Managemnt and Quantification of Unintentional POPs (PCDDD/Fs) in Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charitra Sah, Ram

    2010-05-01

    The aim to prepare and present this paper is to highlight the source, management and quantification of the unintentional POPs in an unindustrialized least developing landlocked small country Nepal. The methodology adopted for this is the review of the relevant research documents and national initiative towards addressing this issues complemented with sharing of the first hand experience from the implementation of the POPs management activities undertaken by our organization. Nepal is a small country of size 147181 sq.km but having large sources of POPs including unintentional POPs (PCDD/Fs) mainly because of weak enforcement of the existing environment related laws, standards and international commitment including POPs Convention. Country became homes to about 75 tons of Obsolete Pesticide since last 30 years including about 44 percent (33 tons out of 75) are of known POPs. These obsolete pesticides including identified POPs have been poorly stored in some about 25 locations throughout the country. The major warehouse accommodating about 50 tons at Amlekhgunj has been located just in front of a high school where about 1000 children are being studying and found to have some health related problem due to the gasses emission from the warehouse as well as school playground field contaminated with these POPs pesticides. The playground soil contamination has been found from routine examination of the soil samples. In addition to pesticides including POPs were used in the agriculture and public health field in the past, there are several other practices as well as anthropogenic activities producing PCDD/Fs. The annual inventory of countrywide emission of unintentional POPs was estimated to be 312.55 g TEQ for Nepal (MOE 2004). This is very high for a country like Nepal least developing in terms of industrial and economy. This estimation was based on the UNEP Toolkit which has included the broad categories of waste such as waste incineration, ferrous and non ferrous metal

  5. Unintentional Monuments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannessen, Runa

    2015-01-01

    The Mughrabi Bridge leading to Haram al-Sharif/Temple Mount in the Old City of Jerusalem was built in 2005 with the intent of being a temporary infrastructural solution while a new and permanent bridge was on the drawing table. But the natural forces that had led the old stone ramp to collapse...

  6. Emission characterization of unintentionally produced persistent organic pollutants from iron ore sintering process in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Bo; Huang, Jun; Wang, Bin; Deng, Shubo; Yu, Gang

    2012-10-01

    Emission of unintentionally produced persistent organic pollutants (Unintentional POPs), including polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), polychorinated biphenyls (PCBs), hexachlorobenzene (HxCBz) and pentachlorobenzene (PeCBz), were investigated in four typical iron ore sintering plants in China. The emission factors and annual mass releases of the Unintentional POPs were calculated. The results indicated that PCDFs contributed more than 60% to the overall toxic equivalent quantity (TEQ) values, while the contribution of the dl-PCBs is relatively low, and only in the range of 8-9%. The dominant congeners of PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs contributing most to the total TEQ were 1,2,3,7,8-PeCDD, 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF and PCB-126. With regard to the TEQ contributions, the most abundant homologues were PeCDFs and HxCDD/Fs, followed by PeCDDs and non-ortho dl-PCB, whereas HpCDD/Fs, OCDD/Fs and mono-ortho dl-PCBs almost made no contributions. Due to the massive use of recycled waste in the feeding materials, the average emission factor of PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs of the four plants was 3.95 μg WHO-TEQ ton(-1). Based on the results, the annual release of PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs in 2007-2009 were estimated to be 2070 g, 2212 g, and 2307 gWHO-TEQ, respectively. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Unintentional Complications After Uneventful Rhinoplasty Operations: Case Reports and a Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keleş, Musa Kemal; Aksakal, İbrahim Alper; Park, Tae Hwan; Yağmur, Çağlayan; Küçüker, İsmail

    2016-02-01

    No surgical procedure is free of complications; however, some of these complications are unintentional. Plastic surgeons may be unfamiliar with certain complications after rhinoplasty operations. In this study, we aimed to present four unintentional complications that have occurred in our patients and review the literature related to these complications. In this study, we conducted a review of 1400 patients who were operated on from 2007 to 2015. The medical recordings of all patients were investigated. Four patients with unintentional complications after rhinoplasty operations are presented and the related literature was reviewed. Cases 1 and 2: These patients included a 26-year-old woman and a 30-year-old man who developed herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections after a primary septorhinoplasty. Case 3: This was a 25-year-old woman who developed periorbital emphysema after a primary rhinoplasty operation. Case 4: This was a 22-year-old woman who developed a second-degree burn on the nasal dorsum. All patients healed without sequel or scars. Many unexpected complications have been reported in the literature. Some of these complications include bleeding disorders, allergic reactions, dermatitis, visual loss, gastric bleeding, benign paroxysmal positional vertigo, false aneurysm after rhinoplasty, pneumocephalus, Tapia's syndrome, cavernous sinus syndrome, and skin reactions to prolene. Meticulous patient histories, consistent surgical routines, careful radiologic examinations, and frequent patient visits can help surgeons control these types of complications. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each submission to which Evidence-Based Medicine rankings are applicable. This excludes Review Articles, Book Reviews, and manuscripts that concern Basic Science, Animal Studies, Cadaver Studies, and Experimental Studies. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online

  8. [Economic crisis, poverty and childhood. What are the expected short- and long-term effects for the "children of the crisis"? SESPAS report 2014].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Manuel; García-Gómez, Pilar; Zunzunegui, María-Victoria

    2014-06-01

    The way a person will develop over the lifespan is largely determined by the first few years of life. A substantial share of the inequalities in health and socioeconomic status observed in adult life originate during childhood (and even while in utero). In this paper, we first review the literature on the impact of childhood conditions throughout the life cycle. We next discuss some of the social and biological mechanisms behind the transmission of the effects of poverty during the prenatal period, childhood, and adulthood. We then analyze several international experiences aimed at reducing intergenerational transmission of poverty. The article ends with some critical thoughts and policy recommendations to avoid the possible long-term effects of the current crisis on the health and socioeconomic status of the "children of the crisis" in Spain.

  9. What should an ideal spinal injury classification system consist of? A methodological review and conceptual proposal for future classifications.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middendorp, J.J. van; Audige, L.; Hanson, B.; Chapman, J.R.; Hosman, A.J.F.

    2010-01-01

    Since Bohler published the first categorization of spinal injuries based on plain radiographic examinations in 1929, numerous classifications have been proposed. Despite all these efforts, however, only a few have been tested for reliability and validity. This methodological, conceptual review summa

  10. THE CONCEPT OF CHILDHOOD IN LITERATURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Igorevna KRUPENINA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the nature, types, characteristics of the phenomenon of childhood as a social phenomenon of our time. The author notes the complexity of the definition of “childhood” and its different interpretations. The author also notes that social “construction” considers not childhood itself in its entirety but childhood through the "prism of adulthood". Childhood is often seen as something natural through which goes everyone and something that everybody must have as a result of education and development. At the same time, is lost the understanding of childhood as a valuable phenomenon in itself. The author draws attention to different ways of studying childhood in psychology, literature and history and correlates concepts of childhood in psychology, history and culturology. The author considers the childhood concept by Philippe Aries in correlation with the image of childhood in the novels by Charles Dickens. This choice is determined by specific periodizations of childhood in history and culture what makes the specific development of the world of childhood dependent on the evolution of the world of grown-ups and its culture. 

  11. A preliminary investigation of unintentional POP emissions from thermal wire reclamation at industrial scrap metal recycling parks in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Zhiqiang; Zheng, Minghui; Liu, Guorui; Liu, Wenbin; Lv, Pu; Zhang, Bing; Su, Guijin; Gao, Lirong; Xiao, Ke

    2012-05-15

    Thermal wire reclamation is considered to be a potential source of unintentional persistent organic pollutants (unintentional POPs). In this study, unintentional POP concentrations, including PCDD/Fs, dioxin like PCBs (dl-PCBs), polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs), hexachlorobenzene (HxCBz) and pentachlorobenzene (PeCBz), were quantified in flue gas and residual ash emissions from thermal wire reclamation at scrap metal dismantling parks in Zhejiang Province, China. The total average TEQ emissions of the investigated unintentional POPs from flue gas and residual ash in two typical scrap metal recycling plants ranged from 13.1 to 48.3ngTEQNm(-3) and 0.08 to 2.8ngTEQg(-1), respectively. The dominant PCDD/F congeners were OCDD, 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDD, OCDF and 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDF, while PCB-126 and PCB-169 were the main contributors to the toxicity of the dl-PCBs. There were clear differences in the distribution dl-PCBs congeners contributing to the TEQ concentrations in the flue gas samples from the two plants. The PCN TEQs were dominated by PCN-66/67 and PCN-73. Although thermal wire reclamation in incinerators has been proposed as an alternative to open burning, there are still considerable environmental risks associated with regulated incinerators, and unintentional POP emissions from thermal wire reclamation sites need to be controlled by local government agencies.

  12. Unintentional carbon monoxide poisoning hospitalization and emergency department counts and rates by county, year, and fire-relatedness among California residents,2000-2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Environmental Health Tracking Program — This dataset contains case counts, rates, and confidence intervals of unintentional carbon monoxide poisoning (CO) inpatient hospitalizations and emergency...

  13. Childhood Emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... emergency physicians. They receive comprehensive training in treating childhood emergencies and have more training in pediatric emergencies than other physicians, including pediatricians. Does Your Child's School Know About Food Allergies? - 8/10/2015 The nation's emergency physician ...

  14. What Is Best for the Child? Early Childhood Education and Care for Children under 3 Years of Age in Brazil and in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutanen, Niina; de Souza Amorim, Katia; Colus, Katia Miguel; Piattoeva, Nelli

    2014-01-01

    Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC) policies and practices are local, historically and socially context-specific constructions. In addition to local ideals and policies, discursive practices concerning ECEC are influenced by universal ideals that are described and assigned by the member states of the United Nations Convention on the Rights…

  15. Epidemiologic characteristics, knowledge and risk factors of unintentional burns in rural children in Zunyi, Southwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Shangpeng; Yang, Huajun; Hui, Ya; Zhou, Xiang; Wang, Tao; Luo, Ya; Xiang, Huiyun; Shi, Xiuquan

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the knowledge level and risk factors for pediatric unintentional burns in rural Southwest China with an aim to provide basic evidence for the prevention strategies. A stratified sampling method was used to recruit 1842 rural children from 9 schools. Self-reported burns during the past 12 months and relevant risk factors were collected by questionnaires. The burn incidence of all surveyed children was 12.7% (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 11.2–14.2%). We found that burn incidence had a trend to increase with the increasing school grade level and a trend to decrease with increasing knowledge scores on burns. The top two causes of burns were hot liquids (36.3%) and hot object (29.5%). More than 30% of children had little knowledge about preventive measures and how to give first-aid after burns. The main risk factors for burns included female gender, left-behind children by parents who were working in cities, and poor mother school education level. As the incidence of pediatric unintentional burns was high in rural southwest China, schools, families, and local public health agencies should put efforts into health education targeting burn prevention and first-aid measures after burns, particularly in “left-behind” children and those with mothers with poor education. PMID:27748426

  16. Unintentional selection, unanticipated insights: introductions, stocking and the evolutionary ecology of fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchings, J A

    2014-12-01

    Natural environmental change has produced countless opportunities for species to disperse into and persist in habitats where they previously did not exist. Introduction and stocking programmes have facilitated similar sorts of colonization opportunities across considerably greater geographical scales and often in much shorter periods of time. Even though the mechanism of colonization differs, the result can be the same: evolutionary change in the colonizing population in response to novel selection pressures. As a consequence, some human-mediated fish transfers have unintentionally yielded novel research opportunities to study how phenotypes and genes interact with their environment and affect ecological and evolutionary change. The primary purpose here is to explore how work, directly or indirectly involved with human-mediated transfers, has unintentionally yielded novel research and research opportunities in fish ecology and evolution. Insights have produced new knowledge or altered previously held perceptions on topics such as local adaptation, rate of evolutionary change, phenotypic plasticity, alternative reproductive strategies, population structure and colonization probability. Well-documented stocking programmes, especially in terms of history, numbers and original population sources, can provide highly fertile ground for generating further insights on the ecology and evolution of fishes and of the factors likely to influence the success of conservation-based, restoration programmes.

  17. Making waves in the brain: What are oscillations, and why modulating them makes sense for brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr ePevzner

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI can result in persistent cognitive, behavioral and emotional deficits. However, the vast majority of patients are not chronically hospitalized; rather they have to manage their disabilities once they are discharged to home. Promoting recovery to pre-injury level is important from a patient care as well as a societal perspective. Electrical neuromodulation is one approach that has shown promise in alleviating symptoms associated with neurological disorders such as in Parkinson’s disease and epilepsy. Consistent with this perspective, both animal and clinical studies have revealed that TBI alters physiological oscillatory rhythms. More recently several studies demonstrated that low frequency stimulation improves cognitive outcome in models of TBI. Specifically, stimulation of the septohippocampal circuit in the theta frequency entrained oscillations and improved spatial learning following traumatic brain injury. In order to evaluate the potential of electrical deep brain stimulation for clinical translation we review the basic neurophysiology of oscillations, their role in cognition and how they are changed post-TBI. Furthermore, we highlight several factors for future pre-clinical and clinical studies to consider, with the hope that it will promote a hypothesis driven approach to subsequent experimental designs and ultimately successful translation to improve outcome in patients with TBI.

  18. Assistance of inhalation injury victims caused by fire in confined spaces: what we learned from the tragedy at Santa Maria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassi, Estevão; Miranda, Leandro Costa; Tierno, Paulo Fernando Guimarães Morando Marzocchi; Ferreira, César Biselli; Cadamuro, Filipe Matheus; Figueiredo, Viviane Rossi; Damasceno, Maria Cecilia de Toledo; Malbouisson, Luiz Marcelo Sá

    2014-01-01

    On January 2013, a disaster at Santa Maria (RS) due to a fire in a confined space caused 242 deaths, most of them by inhalation injury. On November 2013, four individuals required intensive care following smoke inhalation from a fire at the Memorial da América Latina in São Paulo (SP). The present article reports the clinical progression and management of disaster victims presenting with inhalation injury. Patients ERL and OC exhibited early respiratory failure, bronchial aspiration of carbonaceous material, and carbon monoxide poisoning. Ventilation support was performed with 100% oxygen, the aspirated material was removed by bronchoscopy, and cyanide poisoning was empirically treated with sodium nitrite and sodium thiosulfate. Patient RP initially exhibited cough and retrosternal burning and subsequently progressed to respiratory failure due to upper airway swelling and early-onset pulmonary infection, which were treated with protective ventilation and antimicrobial agents. This patient was extubated following improvement of edema on bronchoscopy. Patient MA, an asthmatic, exhibited carbon monoxide poisoning and bronchospasm and was treated with normobaric hyperoxia,bronchodilators, and corticosteroids. The length of stay in the intensive care unit varied from four to 10 days, and all four patients exhibited satisfactory functional recovery. To conclude, inhalation injury has a preponderant role in fires in confined spaces. Invasive ventilation should not be delayed in cases with significant airway swelling. Hyperoxia should be induced early asa therapeutic means against carbon monoxide poisoning, in addition to empiric pharmacological treatment in suspected cases of cyanide poisoning.

  19. Fast and unintentional evaluation of emotional sounds: evidence from brief segment ratings and the affective Simon task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folyi, Tímea; Wentura, Dirk

    2017-02-01

    In the present study, we raised the question of whether valence information of natural emotional sounds can be extracted rapidly and unintentionally. In a first experiment, we collected explicit valence ratings of brief natural sound segments. Results showed that sound segments of 400 and 600 ms duration-and with some limitation even sound segments as short as 200 ms-are evaluated reliably. In a second experiment, we introduced an auditory version of the affective Simon task to assess automatic (i.e. unintentional and fast) evaluations of sound valence. The pattern of results indicates that affective information of natural emotional sounds can be extracted rapidly (i.e. after a few hundred ms long exposure) and in an unintentional fashion.

  20. An unusual case of penetrating head injury in a child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim Tanweer

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Penetrating head injuries can be the result of numerous intentional or unintentional events, including missile wounds, stab wounds, and motor vehicle or occupational accidents (nails, screw-drivers. Penetrating head injuries in children constitute only a small part of the total number of traumatic head injuries seen in casualty. We report a case of neuro-trauma who was operated in our institution. Patient, 4 years male presented in casualty on 15/01/09 with a iron rod penetrating into the skull.

  1. Self-harm, Assault, and Undetermined Intent Injuries Among Pediatric Emergency Department Visits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Elizabeth D; Kalb, Luther G; Vasa, Roma A; Goldstein, Mitchell; Wilcox, Holly C

    2015-12-01

    Although injuries are a known cause of morbidity and mortality among children and adolescents, little is known about the epidemiology of injury-related emergency department (ED) visits in the United States by injury intent. The objective of this analysis was to examine ED outcomes, defined as death in the ED, inpatient admission, and visit cost, among ED visits stratified by injury intent (i.e., self-harm, assault, and injury with undetermined intent, as compared with unintentional injuries). All injury-related ED visits in the United States for children and adolescents, ages 8 to 17 years, were identified using the 2008 Nationwide Emergency Department Sample. Multivariate survey weighted logistic and linear regression analyses were then used to estimate the likelihood of death on ED visit, inpatient admission, and cost across the 4 injury types. In 2008, with the use of weighted estimates, there were 66,895 self-harm, 176,125 assault, 24,144 undetermined injury, and 4,244,589 unintentional injury ED visits among children 8 to 17 years. Visits due to self-harm, assault and undetermined injuries were more likely to result in death during the ED visit compared with visits due to unintentional injuries. Self-harm and undetermined intent were also associated with greater odds of inpatient admission as well as 90% and 60% higher ED visit costs, respectively. Data from this nationwide sample of pediatric ED visits highlight the resource burden of self-harm, undetermined intent, and assault injury visits. Pediatric EDs may provide a window of opportunity for better case identification and intervention with children experiencing violence and injury.

  2. Childhood depression: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lima NNR

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Nádia Nara Rolim Lima,1 Vânia Barbosa do Nascimento,1 Sionara Melo Figueiredo de Carvalho,1 Luiz Carlos de Abreu,1,3 Modesto Leite Rolim Neto,2 Aline Quental Brasil,2 Francisco Telésforo Celestino Junior,2 Gislene Farias de Oliveira,2 Alberto Olavo Advíncula Reis3 1Programa de Pós-graduação em Ciências da Saúde, Faculdade de Medicina do ABC, Santo André, São Paulo, Brazil; 2Departamento de Medicina. Universidade Federal do Ceará, UFC, Barbalha, Ceará, Brazil; 3Departamento de Saúde Materno Infantil, Faculdade de Saúde Pública, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil Abstract: As an important public health issue, childhood depression deserves special attention, considering the serious and lasting consequences of the disease to child development. Taking this into consideration, the present study was based on the following question: what practical contributions to clinicians and researchers does the current literature on childhood depression have to offer? The objective of the present study was to conduct a systematic review of articles regarding childhood depression. To accomplish this purpose, a systematic review of articles on childhood depression, published from January 1, 2010 to November 24, 2012, on MEDLINE and SciELO databases was carried out. Search terms were “depression” (medical subject headings [MeSH], “child” (MeSH, and "childhood depression" (keyword. Of the 180 retrieved studies, 25 met the eligibility criteria. Retrieved studies covered a wide range of aspects regarding childhood depression, such as diagnosis, treatment, prevention and prognosis. Recent scientific literature regarding childhood depression converge to, directly or indirectly, highlight the negative impacts of depressive disorders to the children's quality of life. Unfortunately, the retrieved studies show that childhood depression commonly grows in a background of vulnerability and poverty, where individual and familiar needs

  3. Injury in rugby league.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoskins, W; Pollard, H; Hough, K; Tully, C

    2006-05-01

    It was the purpose of this review to document the range, incidence, location and mechanism of injury occurring in the sport of rugby league. Rugby league is a collision sport played in Europe and the Pacific regions including Australia. The sport is well established and has competitions ranging from junior to elite professional. Due to the contact nature of the game, injury is relatively common. The most common injuries are musculotendinous in nature and afflict the lower limb more frequently than elsewhere. Despite the high incidence of minor (sprains/strains) to moderate musculoskeletal injury (fracture, ligament and joint injury) and minor head injuries such as lacerations, nasal fractures and concussions, rare more serious spinal cord and other injuries causing death have also been recorded. The literature on rugby league injury is small but growing and suffers from a lack of consistent definition of what an injury is, thereby causing variability in the nature and incidence/prevalence of injury. Information is lacking on the injury profiles of different age groups. Importantly, there has been little attempt to establish a coordinated injury surveillance program in rugby league in the junior or professional levels. The implementation of such programs would require a universal definition of injury and a focus on important events and competitions. The implementation could provide important information in the identification and prevention of risk factors for injury.

  4. Ten-year outcome of early childhood traumatic brain injury: Diffusion tensor imaging of the ventral striatum in relation to executive functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faber, J; Wilde, E A; Hanten, G; Ewing-Cobbs, L; Aitken, M E; Yallampalli, R; MacLeod, M C; Mullins, S H; Chu, Z D; Li, X; Hunter, J V; Noble-Haeusslein, L; Levin, H S

    2016-01-01

    The long-term effects of TBI on verbal fluency and related structures, as well as the relation between cognition and structural integrity, were evaluated. It was hypothesized that the group with TBI would evidence poorer performance on cognitive measures and a decrease in structural integrity. Between a paediatric group with TBI and a group of typically-developing children, the long-term effects of traumatic brain injury were investigated in relation to both structural integrity and cognition. Common metrics for diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) were used as indicators of white matter integrity. Using DTI, this study examined ventral striatum (VS) integrity in 21 patients aged 10-18 years sustaining moderate-to-severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) 5-15 years earlier and 16 demographically comparable subjects. All participants completed Delis-Kaplan Executive Functioning System (D-KEFS) sub-tests. The group with TBI exhibited lower fractional anisotropy (FA) and executive functioning performance and higher apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC). DTI metrics correlated with D-KEFS performance (right VS FA with Inhibition errors, right VS ADC with Letter Fluency, left VS FA and ADC with Category Switching). TBI affects VS integrity, even in a chronic phase, and may contribute to executive functioning deficits.

  5. What neuroimaging should be performed in children in whom inflicted brain injury (iBI) is suspected? A systematic review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kemp, A.M. [Department of Child Health, Wales School of Medicine, Cardiff University, Cardiff (United Kingdom); Rajaram, S. [Department of Child Health, Sue Nicholls Centre, Aylesbury (United Kingdom); Mann, M. [Support Unit for Research Evidence, Cardiff University, Cardiff (United Kingdom); Tempest, V. [Department of Child Health, Wales School of Medicine, Cardiff University, Cardiff (United Kingdom); Farewell, D. [Department of Primary Care and Public Health, Cardiff University, Cardiff (United Kingdom); Gawne-Cain, M.L. [Department of Neuroradiology, Wessex Neurological Centre, Southampton University Hospitals Trust (United Kingdom); Jaspan, T. [Imaging Centre, University Hospital, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Maguire, S. [Department of Child Health, Wales School of Medicine, Cardiff University, Cardiff (United Kingdom)], E-mail: sabinemaguire@yahoo.co.uk

    2009-05-15

    Aims: To investigate the optimal neuroradiological investigation strategy to identify inflicted brain injury (iBI). Materials and methods: A systematic review of studies published between 1970-2008 in any language was conducted, searching 20 databases and four websites, using over 100 keywords/phrases, supplemented by hand-searching of references. All studies underwent two independent reviews (with disagreements adjudicated by a third reviewer) by trained reviewers from paediatrics, paediatric neuroradiology and related disciplines, using standardized critical appraisal tools, and strict inclusion/exclusion criteria. We included primary studies that evaluated the diagnostic yield of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), in addition to initial computed tomography (CT), or follow-up CT or ultrasound in children with suspected iBI. Results: Of the 320 studies reviewed, 18 met the inclusion criteria, reflecting data on 367 children with iBI and 12 were published since 1998. When an MRI was conducted in addition to an abnormal early CT examination, additional information was found in 25% (95% CI: 18.3-33.16%) of children. The additional findings included further subdural haematoma, subarachnoid haemorrhage, shearing injury, ischaemia, and infarction; it also contributed to dating of injuries. Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) further enhanced the delineation of ischaemic changes, and assisted in prognosis. Repeat CT studies varied in timing and quality, and none were compared to the addition of an early MRI/DWI. Conclusions: In an acutely ill child, the optimal imaging strategy involves initial CT, followed by early MRI and DWI if early CT examination is abnormal, or there are ongoing clinical concerns. The role of repeat CT imaging, if early MRI is performed, is unclear, as is the place for MRI/DWI if initial CT examination is normal in an otherwise well child.

  6. Subclinical hypothyroidism in childhood.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Grady, M J

    2012-02-01

    Subclinical hypothyroidism (SH) is defined as an elevated thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) in association with a normal total or free thyroxine (T4) or triiodothyronine (T3). It is frequently encountered in both neonatology and general paediatric practice; however, its clinical significance is widely debated. Currently there is no broad consensus on the investigation and treatment of these patients; specifically who to treat and what cut-off level of TSH should be used. This paper reviews the available evidence regarding investigation, treatments and outcomes reported for childhood SH.

  7. The History of Injury Control and the Epidemiology of Child and Adolescent Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, David C.

    2000-01-01

    Presents a historical overview of injury control and prevention in the United States and offers a summary of current knowledge about the importance of different causes of childhood injury, looking at risk and protective factors that have a bearing on preventive efforts. Injury remains the most important cause of death and disability for children…

  8. Childhood MDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Donate Menu About LLS Who We Are Mission Leadership Financials History News Network Our Partners National Awards Nomination What ... Shop Donate About LLS Who We Are Mission Leadership Financials History News Network Our Partners National Awards Nomination What ...

  9. Childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seth, Anju; Sharma, Rajni

    2013-04-01

    Childhood obesity is an issue of serious medical and social concern. In developing countries including India, it is a phenomenon seen in higher socioeconomic strata due to the adoption of a western lifestyle. Consumption of high calorie food, lack of physical activity and increased screen time are major risk factors for childhood obesity apart from other genetic, prenatal factors and socio-cultural practices. Obese children and adolescents are at increased risk of medical and psychological complications. Insulin resistance is commonly present especially in those with central obesity and manifests as dyslipidemia, type 2 diabetes mellitus, impaired glucose tolerance, hypertension, polycystic ovarian syndrome and metabolic syndrome. Obese children and adolescents often present to general physicians for management. The latter play a key role in prevention and treatment of obesity as it involves lifestyle modification of the entire family. This article aims at discussing the approach to diagnosis and work-up, treatment and preventive strategies for childhood obesity from a general physician's perspective.

  10. Eye Injuries from Pencil Lead: Three Cases

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ceyhun Arici; Osman Sevki Arslan; Burcu Görgülü; Rengin Yildirim; Umut Onur

    2017-01-01

      Corneal stromal and/or penetrating ocular injuries from pencils and pencil lead are more common in childhood and may lead to intraocular infection or severe intraocular sterile inflammatory reaction...

  11. Eye Injuries from Pencil Lead: Three Cases

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ceyhun Arıcı; Osman Şevki Arslan; Burcu Görgülü; Rengin Yıldırım; Umut Onur

    2017-01-01

    Corneal stromal and/or penetrating ocular injuries from pencils and pencil lead are more common in childhood and may lead to intraocular infection or severe intraocular sterile inflammatory reaction...

  12. Deep level defects in unintentionally doped 4H-SiC homoepitaxial layer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia Renxu; Zhang Yimen; Zhang Yuming; Wang Yuehu; Zhang Lin

    2009-01-01

    Unintentionally doped 4H-SiC homoepitaxial layers grown by hot-wall chemical vapor deposition (HWCVD) have been studied using photoluminescence (PL) technique in the temperature range of 10 to 240 K. A broadband green luminescence has been observed. Vacancies of carbon (Vc) are revealed by electron spin resonance (ESR) technique at 110 K. The results strongly suggest that the green band luminescence, as shallow donor-deep accepter emission, is attributed to the vacancies of C and the extended defects. The broadband green luminescence spectrum can be fitted by the two Gauss-type spectra using nonlinear optimization technique. It shows that the broad-band green luminescence originates from the combination of two independent radiative transitions. The centers of two energy levels are located 2.378 and 2.130 eV below the conduction band, respectively, and the ends of two energy levels are expanded and superimposed each other.

  13. Investigation of yellow luminescence intensity of N-polar unintentionally doped GaN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Du Da-Chao; Zhang Jin-Cheng; Ou Xin-Xiu; Wang Hao; Chen Ke; Xue Jun-Shuai; Xu Sheng-Rui; Hao Yue

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports that the yellow luminescence intensity of N-polar GaN Epi-layers is much lower than that of Ga-polar ones due to the inverse polarity, and reduces drastically in the N-polar unintentionally-doped GaN after etching in KOH solution. The ratio of yellow luminescence intensity to band-edge emission intensity decreases sharply with the etching time. The full width at half maximum of x-ray diffraction of (10-12) plane falls sharply after etching, and the surface morphology characterized by scanning electron microscope shows a rough surface that changes with the etching time. The mechanism for the generation of the yellow luminescence are explained in details.

  14. Childhood obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heitmann, Berit L; Koplan, Jeffrey; Lissner, Lauren

    2009-01-01

    Despite progress toward assuring the health of today's young population, the 21(st) century began with an epidemic of childhood obesity. There is general agreement that the situation must be addressed by means of primary prevention, but relatively little is known about how to intervene effectively....... The evidence behind the assumption that childhood obesity can be prevented was discussed critically in this roundtable symposium. Overall, there was general agreement that action is needed and that the worldwide epidemic itself is sufficient evidence for action. As the poet, writer, and scholar Wittner Bynner...

  15. Relationship between renal pathology and glomerular podocyte injury in childhood Henoch-Sch(o)nlein purpura nephritis%紫癜性肾炎患儿肾脏病理与足细胞损伤的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任献国; 何旭; 杜丽芳; 高远赋; 樊忠民; 高春林; 茅松; 张沛; 夏正坤

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the relationship between renal pathology and glomerular podocyte injury in childhood Henoch-Sch(o)nlein purpura nephritis (HSPN).Methods Renal pathological types of 72 children suffering from HSPN were reviewed during the period of Jan.2008 to Jan.2011 from Nanjing General Hospital of Nanjing Command.In those cases,grade in pathology and immunofluorescence types were acquired.Podocyte injury was classified by electron microscope.The relationship between podocyte injury and grade in pathology was analyzed.Results Pathological findings were classified,grade Ⅱ in 34 cases(47.2%) and grade m in 38 cases(52.8%).Glomerular podocyte injury was classified by electron microscope as food processes of podocyte fused extensively in 21 cases;food processes of podocyte fused segmental in 35 cases,food processes of podocyte without fusion in 11 cases.There was without renal glamorous in nephridial tissue by electron microscope in 5 cases.Cases with foot process of podocyte fused extensively were more grade Ⅲ1 than those cases with foot process fused segmental and without fusion.According to renal immunofluorescence pathology,IgA + IgM + IgG type was mostly in cases with foot process of podocyte fused extensively,IgA +IgG type was mostly in cases with food processes of podocyte fused segmental and IgA type was mostly in cases with food processes of podocyte without fusion.Conclusions In childhood HSPN,renal pathology changed not only expressing on mesangial cell hyperplasia but also podocyte injury.The more seriously on the degree of podocyte injury,more obviously in pathologic change.%目的 探讨儿童紫癜性肾炎(HSPN)肾脏病理分级、免疫荧光分型和肾小球足细胞损伤的关系.方法 回顾性分析2008年1月至201 1年1月南京军区南京总医院儿科肾活检病理检查诊断为HSPN的住院病例72例,对其进行病理分级和免疫荧光分型,并在电镜下观察足细胞损伤情况;分析足细胞损伤

  16. Unintentional formed PCDDs, PCDFs, and DL-PCBs as impurities in Chinese pentachloronitrobenzene products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jun; Gao, Jie; Yu, Gang; Yamazaki, Norimasa; Deng, Shubo; Wang, Bin; Weber, Roland

    2015-10-01

    Pentachloronitrobenzene (PCNB) products have been reported to contain relatively high levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) as impurities. No data was available for Chinese PCNB products which are still produced and used in China. Therefore, we analysed Chinese PCNB products, including two raw pesticides and three formulations available on the market. In all samples, PCDDs, PCDFs, and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) were detected at levels exceeding Japanese regulation limits. The concentrations of PCDDs and PCDFs (0.16 to 0.93 ng TEQ g(-1)) were lower than the PCNB formulations measured from the Australian market (3.9 ng TEQ g(-1)). However, the Toxic Equivalent (TEQ) contribution from DL-PCBs (0.7 to 2.5 ng TEQ g(-1)) to total TEQ was higher compared to PCDDs and PCDFs. This discovery demonstrated that it is necessary to consider the DL-PCBs impurity in organochlorine pesticides and other organochlorine chemicals in particular chlorinated aromatic compounds for adequate risk assessment. In addition to DL-PCBs, other unintentionally POPs-hexachlorobenzene (HCB) (3.7 to 52 ng g(-1)) and pentachlorobenzene (PeCBz) (0.04 to 0.3 ng g(-1)) which are listed in the Stockholm Convention-were detected in the PCNB samples. The PCNB production steps were assessed for their unintentional POPs formation potential. Thermolysis of the aromatic compounds using iron chloride (FeCl3) as catalyst is suggested as relevant production step for (DL-)PCBs formation. Since the levels in the formulated PCNB recalculated to active ingredient were higher compared to the raw pesticide, the formulation process (e.g., milling) may also have had an influence on additional PCDD/Fs and PCBs formation.

  17. Effect of medication reconciliation on unintentional medication discrepancies in acute hospital admissions of elderly adults: A multicenter study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bemt, P.M.L.A. van den; Schrieck-De Loos, E.M. van der; Linden, C. van der; Theeuwes, A.M.L.J.; Pol, A.G.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the effect of pharmacy-based medication reconciliation on the frequency of unintentional medication discrepancies in acutely admitted individuals aged 65 and older. Design Multicenter intervention study with pre-post design. Setting Twelve Dutch hospitals. Participants One

  18. Effect of medication reconciliation on unintentional medication discrepancies in acute hospital admissions of elderly adults: A multicenter study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bemt, P.M.L.A. van den; Schrieck-De Loos, E.M. van der; Linden, C. van der; Theeuwes, A.M.L.J.; Pol, A.G.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the effect of pharmacy-based medication reconciliation on the frequency of unintentional medication discrepancies in acutely admitted individuals aged 65 and older. Design Multicenter intervention study with pre-post design. Setting Twelve Dutch hospitals. Participants One

  19. Emotion regulation in first episode adolescent non-suicidal self-injury: what difference does a year make?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voon, David; Hasking, Penelope; Martin, Graham

    2014-10-01

    We examined the roles of cognitive reappraisal, expressive suppression, and rumination in first episode non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) among adolescents, and the impact of age-related differences in emotion regulation use. Adverse life events and psychological distress played a significant role in NSSI onset. Being male and less use of cognitive reappraisal contributed to NSSI risk but only in regard to 12-month incidence; this effect was not observed when predicting 24-month incidence. Neither expressive suppression nor rumination was related to NSSI onset in our sample. Age-related differences in emotion regulation were found, but did not modify the above relationships. Findings hint at the possible impact of developmental changes in adolescents' cognitive-emotional processing and their subsequent risk of NSSI. Results support further investigation into prevention and early intervention initiatives aimed at assisting adolescents cope with acute life stressors to prevent/delay first episode NSSI.

  20. Injuries are not accidents: towards a culture of prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonilla-Escobar, Francisco Javier; Gutiérrez, María Isabel

    2014-01-01

    Injuries are the result of an acute exposure to exhort of energy or a consequence of a deficiency in a vital element that exceeds physiological thresholds resulting threatens life. They are classified as intentional or unintentional. Injuries are considered a global health issue because they cause more than 5 million deaths per year worldwide and they are an important contributor to the burden of disease, especially affecting people of low socioeconomic status in low- and middle-income countries. A common misconception exists where injuries are thought to be the same as accidents; however, accidents are largely used as chance events, without taken in consideration that all these are preventable. This review discusses injuries and accidents in the context of road traffic and emphasizes injuries as preventable events. An understanding of the essence of injuries enables the standardization of terminology in public use and facilitates the development of a culture of prevention among all of us.

  1. Perspectives on Young Boys' Reading: A Survey and Conversations with Early Childhood Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyers, Stephanie

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this multi-method study was to describe early childhood teachers' beliefs regarding what motivates and what presents barriers to reading for boys. This study used the two data collection strategies of an online survey and interviews. The research questions guiding this study were: (1) what do early childhood teachers believe boys…

  2. State-Level Lifetime Medical and Work-Loss Costs of Fatal Injuries - United States, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Feijun; Florence, Curtis

    2017-01-13

    Injury-associated deaths have substantial economic consequences in the United States. The total estimated lifetime medical and work-loss costs associated with fatal injuries in 2013 were $214 billion (1). In 2014, unintentional injury, suicide, and homicide (the fourth, tenth, and seventeenth leading causes of death, respectively) accounted for 194,635 deaths in the United States (2). In 2014, a total of 199,756 fatal injuries occurred in the United States, and the associated lifetime medical and work-loss costs were $227 billion (3). This report examines the state-level economic burdens of fatal injuries by extending a previous national-level study (1). Numbers and rates of fatal injuries, lifetime costs, and lifetime costs per capita were calculated for each of the 50 states and the District of Columbia (DC) and for four injury intent categories (all intents, unintentional, suicide, and homicide). During 2014, injury mortality rates and economic burdens varied widely among the states and DC. Among fatal injuries of all intents, the mortality rate and lifetime costs per capita ranged from 101.9 per 100,000 and $1,233, respectively (New Mexico) to 40.2 per 100,000 and $491 (New York). States can engage more effectively and efficiently in injury prevention if they are aware of the economic burden of injuries, identify areas for immediate improvement, and devote necessary resources to those areas.

  3. Injury Prevention Research

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-09-01

    Research provides the knowledge that we need to understand what is possible, what is not, and the best way to proceed in our intervention efforts.  Created: 9/1/2009 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC).   Date Released: 9/1/2009.

  4. Increase in Fracture Risk Following Unintentional Weight Loss in Postmenopausal Women: The Global Longitudinal Study of Osteoporosis in Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compston, Juliet E; Wyman, Allison; FitzGerald, Gordon; Adachi, Jonathan D; Chapurlat, Roland D; Cooper, Cyrus; Díez-Pérez, Adolfo; Gehlbach, Stephen H; Greenspan, Susan L; Hooven, Frederick H; LaCroix, Andrea Z; March, Lyn; Netelenbos, J Coen; Nieves, Jeri W; Pfeilschifter, Johannes; Rossini, Maurizio; Roux, Christian; Saag, Kenneth G; Siris, Ethel S; Silverman, Stuart; Watts, Nelson B; Anderson, Frederick A

    2016-07-01

    Increased fracture risk has been associated with weight loss in postmenopausal women, but the time course over which this occurs has not been established. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of unintentional weight loss of ≥10 lb (4.5 kg) in postmenopausal women on fracture risk at multiple sites up to 5 years after weight loss. Using data from the Global Longitudinal Study of Osteoporosis in Women (GLOW), we analyzed the relationships between self-reported unintentional weight loss of ≥10 lb at baseline, year 2, or year 3 and incident clinical fracture in the years after weight loss. Complete data were available in 40,179 women (mean age ± SD 68 ± 8.3 years). Five-year cumulative fracture rate was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method, and adjusted hazard ratios for weight loss as a time-varying covariate were calculated from Cox multiple regression models. Unintentional weight loss at baseline was associated with a significantly increased risk of fracture of the clavicle, wrist, spine, rib, hip, and pelvis for up to 5 years after weight loss. Adjusted hazard ratios showed a significant association between unintentional weight loss and fracture of the hip, spine, and clavicle within 1 year of weight loss, and these associations were still present at 5 years. These findings demonstrate increased fracture risk at several sites after unintentional weight loss in postmenopausal women. This increase is found as early as 1 year after weight loss, emphasizing the need for prompt fracture risk assessment and appropriate management to reduce fracture risk in this population. © 2016 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  5. Childhood Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuca, Sevil Ari, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    This book aims to provide readers with a general as well as an advanced overview of the key trends in childhood obesity. Obesity is an illness that occurs due to a combination of genetic, environmental, psychosocial, metabolic and hormonal factors. The prevalence of obesity has shown a great rise both in adults and children in the last 30 years.…

  6. Childhood Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuca, Sevil Ari, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    This book aims to provide readers with a general as well as an advanced overview of the key trends in childhood obesity. Obesity is an illness that occurs due to a combination of genetic, environmental, psychosocial, metabolic and hormonal factors. The prevalence of obesity has shown a great rise both in adults and children in the last 30 years.…

  7. Childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, R

    1999-01-01

    Approximately 10% of children are obese. Twin and adoption studies demonstrate a large genetic component to obesity, especially in adults. However, the increasing prevalence of obesity over the last 20 years can only be explained by environmental factors. In most obese individuals, no measurable differences in metabolism can be detected. Few children engage in regular physical activity. Obese children and adults uniformly underreport the amount of food they eat. Obesity is particularly related to increased consumption of high-fat foods. BMI is a quick and easy way to screen for childhood obesity. Treating childhood obesity relies on positive family support and lifestyle changes involving the whole family. Food preferences are influenced early by parental eating habits, and when developed in childhood, they tend to remain fairly constant into adulthood. Children learn to be active or inactive from their parents. In addition, physical activity (or more commonly, physical inactivity) habits that are established in childhood tend to persist into adulthood. Weight loss is usually followed by changes in appetite and metabolism, predisposing individuals to regain their weight. However, when the right family dynamics exist--a motivated child with supportive parents--long-term success is possible.

  8. When the rules of the game are broken: what proportion of high school sports-related injuries are related to illegal activity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, C L; Fields, S K; Comstock, R D

    2008-02-01

    To compare sport and gender differences in injury rates and proportions of injuries related to illegal activity and to describe the epidemiology of injuries related to illegal activity. Descriptive epidemiology study. 100 US high schools. Athletes participating in nine sports: boys' football, soccer, basketball, wrestling, and baseball plus girls' soccer, volleyball, basketball, and softball. Illegal activity-related injuries were analyzed using data from the 2005-06 and 2006-07 National High School Sports-Related Injury Surveillance Study. Nationally, an estimated 98 066 injuries were directly related to an action that was ruled illegal activity by a referee/official or disciplinary committee, giving an injury rate of 0.24 injuries per 1000 athletic competition-exposures. Boys' and girls' soccer had the highest rates of injuries related to illegal activity, and girls' volleyball, girls' softball, and boys' baseball had the lowest. Overall, 6.4% of all high school sports-related injuries were related to illegal activity, with the highest proportion in girls' basketball (14.0%), girls' soccer (11.9%), and boys' soccer (11.4%). A greater proportion of injuries related to illegal activity were to the head/face (32.3%) and were concussions (25.4%) than injuries not related to illegal activity (13.8% (injury proportion ratio 2.35; 95% CI 1.82 to 3.04; preferees/officials may reduce sports-related injuries.

  9. Relationship between overweight/obesity in the first year of age and traumatic dental injuries in early childhood: Findings from a birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Tássia Silvana; Chaffee, Benjamin W; Kramer, Paulo Floriani; Feldens, Eliane Gerson; Vítolo, Márcia Regina; Feldens, Carlos Alberto

    2017-10-01

    The impact of traumatic dental injuries (TDI) in the primary dentition on oral health-related quality of life indicates the need for the planning of prevention strategies. The aim of this study was to assess whether anthropometric characteristics in early life are associated with TDI by preschool age MATERIALS AND METHODS: A birth cohort was recruited from the public healthcare system in the city of Porto Alegre, Brazil. Socio-demographic variables, type of birth, head circumference, weight and length were collected at birth (WHO standards). Head circumference, body mass index for age and height for age were collected at 12 months. TDI (Andreasen criteria) at three years of age (n = 458) were recorded by two examiners who had undergone training and calibration exercises. Multivariable analysis was carried out with Poisson regression with robust variance RESULTS: A total of 31.0% of the children (142/458) exhibited TDI at three years of age. In the final model, the risk of TDI was 47% higher among children with a smaller head circumference upon birth and nearly 60% higher among those who were overweight/obese at 12 months of age (RR: 1.58; 95% CI: 1.15-2.17). The risk of TDI was also significantly higher among boys (RR 1.50; 95% CI: 1.13-2.00), but the outcome was not significantly associated with socioeconomic variables or other anthropometric variables CONCLUSION: Overweight/obesity in early life is a risk factor for TDI in preschool children. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of 3-aminobenzamide on unilateral testicular ischemia-reperfusion injury: what is the role of PARP inhibition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hekimoglu, Askin; Kurcer, Zehra; Aral, Faruk; Baba, Fusun; Atessahin, Ahmet; Sakin, Fatih

    2010-12-01

    The therapeutic effects of poly(adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase inhibition by 3-aminobenzamide (3-AB) were investigated in testicular ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury, using sperm analysis and histopathological and biochemical examinations, including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels. Male rats were divided into 3 groups: sham (n = 12), I/R (n = 12), and I/R with 3-AB (I/R-3-AB) (n = 12). The left testicular artery was occluded for 1 h, followed by 24 h (for biochemical and histopathological examinations) and 30 days (for sperm analysis) of reperfusion. 3-AB treatment intraperitoneally 10 min prior to and 1 h after reperfusion increased the I/R-induced decrease in sperm motility in both testes and reduced the increased abnormal sperm rates in the ipsilateral testis. However, 3-AB treatment failed to prevent the I/R-induced decrease in sperm concentration in both testes. SOD and CAT activities did not change in any group. GSH-Px activity and GSH levels were increased by I/R. 3-AB treatment reversed the I/R-induced increase in GSH-Px activity, similar to the level in sham rats, but did not alter GSH levels. 3-AB treatment significantly increased the I/R-induced decrease in histopathologic score. In conclusion, 3-AB treatment has potential biochemical and histopathological benefits beyond improving sperm quality and may have the potential to decrease damage from testicular torsion.

  11. Childhood Fever: parental beliefs and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, M J; Rosencrantz, A; Kneller, P

    1988-01-01

    Childhood fever is often seen in family-practice. Clinical experience has shown the authors that parental anxiety often initiates early, aggressive treatment of fever with antipyretics. The authors studied parents' beliefs and practices relating to fever control in their children, and who or what their information sources were. The findings indicate that parents are commonly misinformed about the nature of childhood fever and its management, and that physicians need to learn more about conveying information on fever to patients.

  12. Deaths from injuries and induced abortion among rural Bangladeshi women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauveau, V; Blanchet, T

    1989-01-01

    Information about injuries and violence as causes of death of women is scarce and often incomplete, and particularly so regarding women in the rural areas of South Asia. This report provides detailed specific information collected in Matlab, a sub-district of rural Bangladesh. Of 1139 women (aged 15-44 yr) who died there during the 11-yr period from 1976 to 1986, 207 (18%) were victims of unintentional injuries or violence. In this study, unintentional injuries include domestic and traffic accidents, drowning and snake-bites, while violent deaths are defined as due to intentional injury and include homicide, suicide and lethal complications of induced abortion. Injuries and violence accounted for 31% of all deaths among women aged 15-19 yr. This proportion dropped significantly with age to 10% among women aged 35-44 yr. Unmarried women suffered a higher proportion of such deaths (36%) than married women (15%). Violent deaths during pregnancy and complications of induced abortion among young unmarried women deserve special attention. In the male-dominated society under study, suicide and homicide are observed to be two frequent consequences of illegitimate pregnancy. Although this study suffers from the absence of data on non-fatal injuries and attempted violence, it may serve as a basis for recommending preventive measures.

  13. Non-suicidal self-injury, youth, and the Internet: What mental health professionals need to know

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lewis Stephen P

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI content and related e-communication have proliferated on the Internet in recent years. Research indicates that many youth who self-injure go online to connect with others who self-injure and view others’ NSSI experiences and share their own through text and videos platforms. Although there are benefits to this behaviour in terms of receiving peer support, these activities can introduce these young people to risks, such as NSSI reinforcement through the sharing of stories and strategies, as well as, risks for triggering of NSSI urges. Due to the nature of these risks mental health professionals need to know about these risks and how to effectively assess adolescents’ online activity in order to adequately monitor the effects of the purported benefits and risks associated with NSSI content. This article offers research informed clinical guidelines for the assessment, intervention, and monitoring of online NSSI activities. To help bridge the gap between youth culture and mental health culture, these essentials include descriptions of Community, Social Networking, and Video/Photo Sharing websites and the terms associated with these websites. Assessment of these behaviours can be facilitated by a basic Functional Assessment approach that is further informed using specific recommended online questions tailored to NSSI online and an assessment of the frequency, duration, and time of day of the online activities. Intervention in this area should initially assess readiness for change and use motivational interviewing to encourage substitution of healthier online activities for the activities that may currently foster harm.

  14. Non-suicidal self-injury, youth, and the Internet: What mental health professionals need to know

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) content and related e-communication have proliferated on the Internet in recent years. Research indicates that many youth who self-injure go online to connect with others who self-injure and view others’ NSSI experiences and share their own through text and videos platforms. Although there are benefits to this behaviour in terms of receiving peer support, these activities can introduce these young people to risks, such as NSSI reinforcement through the sharing of stories and strategies, as well as, risks for triggering of NSSI urges. Due to the nature of these risks mental health professionals need to know about these risks and how to effectively assess adolescents’ online activity in order to adequately monitor the effects of the purported benefits and risks associated with NSSI content. This article offers research informed clinical guidelines for the assessment, intervention, and monitoring of online NSSI activities. To help bridge the gap between youth culture and mental health culture, these essentials include descriptions of Community, Social Networking, and Video/Photo Sharing websites and the terms associated with these websites. Assessment of these behaviours can be facilitated by a basic Functional Assessment approach that is further informed using specific recommended online questions tailored to NSSI online and an assessment of the frequency, duration, and time of day of the online activities. Intervention in this area should initially assess readiness for change and use motivational interviewing to encourage substitution of healthier online activities for the activities that may currently foster harm. PMID:22463379

  15. Childhood vitiligo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aparna Palit

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Childhood vitiligo is often encountered in dermatological practice. When present in infancy or early childhood, various nevoid and hereditary disorders are to be differentiated. In many cases, familial aggregation of the disease is seen and other autoimmune disorders may be associated. Segmental presentation is more common, and limited body surface area involvement is usual in this age group. Children with vitiligo often suffer from anxiety and depression because of their unusual appearance. Management of vitiligo in children is difficult as therapeutic options are restricted when compared to that in adult patients. Selection of treatment should be careful in these patients with the aim to achieve best results with minimal side effects as well as relieving patients′ and parents′ anxiety.

  16. ThinkFirst National Injury Prevention Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Injury is the leading cause of death and disability among children, teens and young adults. The most frequent causes of these injuries are motor vehicle crashes, violence, falls, sports and recreation. What might surprise you is that ...

  17. Childhood rhabdomyosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Córdoba Rovira, S M; Inarejos Clemente, E J

    Rhabdomyosarcoma is the most common soft-tissue sarcoma in children; it can appear in any part of the body. Its biological behavior varies widely, and despite the absence of specific clinical or radiological characteristics, rhabdomyosarcoma should be taken into account in the differential diagnosis of solid tumors in children. This review focuses primarily on the imaging findings and anatomical distribution of the histological subtypes of childhood rhabdomyosarcoma and secondarily on the differential findings in histological studies.

  18. Childhood pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uretsky, G; Goldschmiedt, M; James, K

    1999-05-01

    Acute pancreatitis is a rare finding in childhood but probably more common than is generally realized. This condition should be considered in the evaluation of children with vomiting and abdominal pain, because it can cause significant morbidity and mortality. Clinical suspicion is required to make the diagnosis, especially when the serum amylase concentration is normal. Recurrent pancreatitis may be familial as a result of inherited biochemical or anatomic abnormalities. Patients with hereditary pancreatitis are at high risk for pancreatic cancer.

  19. Childhood Obesity Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Childhood Obesity Facts Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On ... Children (WIC) Program, 2000–2014 Prevalence of Childhood Obesity in the United States, 2011-2014 Childhood obesity ...

  20. What are the differences in injury patterns of young and elderly traffic accident fatalities considering death on scene and death in hospital?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, Daniela; Holzmann, Christopher; Wagner, Anja; Fischer, Anja; Pfeifer, Roman; Graw, Matthias; Schick, Sylvia

    2017-07-01

    Older traffic participants have higher risks of injury than the population up to 65 years in case of comparable road traffic accidents and further, higher mortality rates at comparable injury severities. Rib fractures as risk factors are currently discussed. However, death on scene is associated with hardly survivable injuries and might not be a matter of neither rib fractures nor age. As 60% of traffic accident fatalities are estimated to die on scene, they are not captured in hospital-based trauma registries and injury patterns remain unknown. Our database comprises 309 road traffic fatalities, autopsied at the Institute of Legal Medicine Munich in 2004 and 2005. Injuries are coded according to Abbreviated Injury Scale, AIS© 2005 update 2008 [1]. Data used for this analysis are age, sex, site of death, site of accident, traffic participation mode, measures of injury severity, and rib fractures. The injury patterns of elderly, aged 65+ years, are compared to the younger ones divided by their site of death. Elderly with death on scene more often show serious thorax injuries and pelvic fractures than the younger. Some hints point towards older fatalities showing less frequently serious abdominal injuries. In hospital, elderly fatalities show lower Injury Severity Scores (ISSs) compared to the younger. The number of rib fractures is significantly higher for the elderly but is not the reason for death. Results show that young and old fatalities have different injury patterns and reveal first hints towards the need to analyze death on scene more in-depth.

  1. Acute hemiplegia in childhood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okuno, Takehiko; Takao, Tatsuo; Itoh, Masatoshi; Konishi, Yukuo; Nakano, Shozo (Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine)

    1983-04-01

    The results of CT in 100 patients with acute hemiplegia in childhood are reported here. The etiology was various: 2 patients had infratentorial brain tumors, 56 had cerebral vascular diseases, 3 had head injuries, 16 had intracranial infectious diseases, one had postinfectious encephalomyelitis, one had multiple sclerosis, 2 had epilepsy, and the diagnosis of 19 were unknown. Eleven patients had a normal CT and a good prognosis. As for the type of onset, there were patients of type 1 with fever and 42 with convulsions and unconsciousness; those of type 2 with convulsions and unconsciousness were 12, and those of type 3 without fever and convulsions were 46. This classification is assumed to be useful, as the type of onset is characteristic of the etiology. Six patients were diagnosed correctly by repeated examinations, although the first CT did not reveal any remarkable findings. Capsular infarction, occlusion of the posterior cerebral artery in acute hemiplegia in childhood, abnormal findings of the internal capsule, thalamus, and midbrain in a patient with postinfectious encephalomyelitis, and a diffuse low density in the CT of the unilateral hemisphere in the patients with acute encephalopathy and acute hemiplegia of an obscure origin have been found after the introduction of computerized tomography.

  2. Critical Questions about Early Intervention and Early Childhood Special Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winer, Abby; Hebbeler, Kathy; Nelson, Robin; Gundler, Darla; Cate, Debbie; Hudson, Laura; Taylor, Cornelia; Peters, Mary Louise

    2015-01-01

    What is a high-quality statewide data system? One characteristic is that it provides the information needed to address important questions about early intervention and early childhood special education. But what are those questions? What questions should data users, such as program directors, advocates, and policymakers, be asking? The Center for…

  3. Reducing Motor Vehicle-Related Injuries at an Arizona Indian Reservation: Ten Years of Application of Evidence-Based Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Unintentional injury is a significant public health burden for American Indians and Alaska Natives and was the leading cause of death among those aged 1 to 44 years between 1999 and 2004. Of those deaths, motor vehicle-related deaths cause the most mortality, justifying the need for intervention at an American Indian Reservation in Arizona (United States). We describe motor vehicle injury prevention program operations from 2004 through 2013. This community-based approach led by a multidiscipl...

  4. On the relation between motivation and retention in educational contexts: The role of intentional and unintentional mind wandering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seli, Paul; Wammes, Jeffrey D; Risko, Evan F; Smilek, Daniel

    2016-08-01

    Highly motivated students often exhibit better academic performance than less motivated students. However, to date, the specific cognitive mechanisms through which motivation increases academic achievement are not well understood. Here we explored the possibility that mind wandering mediates the relation between motivation and academic performance, and additionally, we examined possible mediation by both intentional and unintentional forms of mind wandering. We found that participants reporting higher motivation to learn in a lecture-based setting tended to engage in less mind wandering, and that this decrease in mind wandering was in turn associated with greater retention of the lecture material. Critically, we also found that the influence of motivation on retention was mediated by both intentional and unintentional types of mind wandering. Not only do the present results advance our theoretical understanding of the mechanisms underlying the relation between motivation and academic achievement, they also provide insights into possible methods of intervention that may be useful in improving student retention in educational settings.

  5. Unintentional production of persistent chlorinated and brominated organic pollutants during iron ore sintering processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sumei; Liu, Guorui; Zheng, Minghui; Liu, Wenbin; Li, Jinhui; Wang, Mei; Li, Changliang; Chen, Yuan

    2017-06-05

    Iron ore sintering (SNT) processes are major sources of unintentionally produced chlorinated persistent organic pollutants (POPs), including polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs). However, few studies of emissions of brominated POPs, such as polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PBDD/Fs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), during SNT have been performed. Stack gas and fly ash samples from six typical SNT plants in China were collected and analyzed to determine the concentrations and profiles of PCDD/Fs, PCBs, PCNs, PBDD/Fs, and PBDEs, as well as any correlations among these compounds. The PCDD/F, PCB, PCN, PBDD/F, and PBDE emission factors were 2.47, 0.61, 552, 0.32, and 107μgt(-1), respectively (109, 4.07, 10.4, 4.41 and 0.02ng toxic equivalents t(-1), respectively). PCBs were the most abundant compounds by mass, while PCNs were the next most abundant, contributing 51% and 42% to the total POP concentration, respectively. However, PCDD/Fs were the dominant contributors to the chlorinated and brominated POP toxic equivalent concentrations, contributing 89% to the total toxic equivalent concentration. The PCDD/F and other chlorinated and brominated POP concentrations were positively correlated, indicating that chlorinated and brominated POP emissions could be synergistically decreased using the best available technologies/best environmental practices already developed for PCDD/Fs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Insights into the emission reductions of multiple unintentional persistent organic pollutants from industrial activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guorui; Zheng, Minghui; Jiang, Xiaoxu; Jin, Rong; Zhao, Yuyang; Zhan, Jiayu

    2016-02-01

    Industrial activities result in unintentional production of multiple types of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) at various concentrations. Because of the potential adverse effect of these POPs on the environment, biota and human health, methods for controlling emission of POPs are required. Development and application of techniques for controlling emissions of POPs can be a technical and economic burden for the industry involved. Therefore, from the point of view of cost-benefit analysis, reducing emissions of multiple pollutants at the same time is optimal for sustainable industrial development. Although techniques have been developed for reducing the emissions of individual POPs, such as dioxins, further work is required on multi-POP control emissions from industrial activities. This paper discusses three important aspects that need to be taken to achieve multi-POP control. These aspects include the establishment of a comprehensive system for evaluating the risk from emissions of multiple POPs, determination of indicators for total emissions of multiple POPs, and the preparation and application of functional materials to inhibit formation of multiple POPs. These discussion might be helpful for the future research on the multi-POP control in industry. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Unintentional drinking-water contamination events of unknown origin: surrogate for terrorism preparedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winston, Gary; Leventhal, Alex

    2008-01-01

    Drinking-water is a direct conduit to many human receptors. An intentional attack (e.g. terrorism) on drinking-water systems can shock and disrupt elements of national infrastructures. We report on an unintentional drinking-water contamination event that occurred in Tel Aviv, Israel in July, 2001. Initially of unknown origin, this event involved risk management strategies used by the Ministry of Health for abating a potential public health crisis as might be envisaged of water contamination due to terrorism. In an abrupt event of unknown origin, public health officials need to be responsible for the same level of preparedness and risk communication. This is emphasized by comparison of management strategies between the Tel Aviv event and one of dire consequences that occurred in Camelford, England in 1988. From the onset of the Tel Aviv incident, the public health strategy was to employ the precautionary principle by warning residents of the affected region to not drink tap water, even if boiled. This strategy was in contrast to an earlier crisis that occurred in Camelford, England in 1988. An outcome of this event was heightened awareness that a water crisis can occur in peacetime and not only in association with terrorism. No matter how minor the contamination event or short-term the disruption of delivery of safe drinking-water, psychological, medical and public health impact could be significant.

  8. Unintentional carbide formation evidenced during high-vacuum magnetron sputtering of transition metal nitride thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greczynski, G.; Mráz, S.; Hultman, L.; Schneider, J. M.

    2016-11-01

    Carbide signatures are ubiquitous in the surface analyses of industrially sputter-deposited transition metal nitride thin films grown with carbon-less source materials in typical high-vacuum systems. We use high-energy-resolution photoelectron spectroscopy to reveal details of carbon temporal chemical state evolution, from carbide formed during film growth to adventitious carbon adsorbed upon contact with air. Using in-situ grown Al capping layers that protect the as-deposited transition metal nitride surfaces from oxidation, it is shown that the carbide forms during film growth rather than as a result of post deposition atmosphere exposure. The XPS signature of carbides is masked by the presence of adventitious carbon contamination, appearing as soon as samples are exposed to atmosphere, and eventually disappears after one week-long storage in lab atmosphere. The concentration of carbon assigned to carbide species varies from 0.28 at% for ZrN sample, to 0.25 and 0.11 at% for TiN and HfN, respectively. These findings are relevant for numerous applications, as unintentionally formed impurity phases may dramatically alter catalytic activity, charge transport and mechanical properties by offsetting the onset of thermally-induced phase transitions. Therefore, the chemical state of C impurities in PVD-grown films should be carefully investigated.

  9. Adding the goal to learn strengthens learning in an unintentional learning task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, James R; De Houwer, Jan

    2012-08-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that contingency learning can take place in the absence of the intention to learn. For instance, in the color-word contingency learning task, each distracting word is presented most often in a given target color (e.g., "month" in red and "plate" in green), and less often in the other colors. Participants respond more quickly and accurately when the word is presented in the expected rather than an unexpected color, even though there is no reason why they would have the intention to learn the contingencies between the words and the colors. It remains to be determined, however, whether learning in such situations would benefit or suffer from adding the goal to learn contingencies. In the reported experiment, half of the participants were informed that each word was presented most often in a certain color, and they were instructed to try to learn these contingencies. The other half of the participants were not informed that contingencies would be present. The participants given the learning goal produced a larger response time contingency effect than did the control participants. In contrast to some results from other learning paradigms, these results suggest that intentional learning adds to, rather than interferes with, unintentional learning, and we propose an explanation for some of the conflicting results.

  10. Unintentionally retained foreign bodies after surgical procedures. Analysis of 4547 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dário Vianna Birolini

    Full Text Available Objective: this study aims to explore the experience of Brazilian surgeons on Unintentionally Retained Foreign Bodies (RFB after surgical procedures. Methods: A questionnaire was sent to surgeons by electronic mail, between March and July 2012. The questions analyzed their experience with foreign bodies (FB, foreign bodies' types, clinical manifestations, diagnoses, risk factors and legal implications. Results: in the 2872 eligible questionnaires, 43% of the surgeons asserted that they had already left FB and 73% had removed FB in one or more occasions, totalizing 4547. Of these foreign bodies, 90% were textiles, 78% were discovered in the first year and 14% remained asymptomatic. Among doctors with less than five years after graduation, 36% had already left a FB. The most frequently surgical procedures mentioned were the elective (57% and routine (85% ones. Emergency (26%, lack of counting (25% and inadequate conditions of work contributed (12.5% to the occurrence. In 46% of the cases patients were alerted about the FB, and 26% of them sued the doctors or the institution. Conclusions: challenging medical situations, omission of security protocols and inadequate work conditions contributed to RFB. However, RFB occurs mostly in routine procedures such as cesarean or cholecystectomy, and at the beginning of the professional career, highlighting, particularly in poorest countries, the need for primary prevention. Textiles predominated causing clinical repercussions and they were diagnosed in the first postoperative months. Surgeons were sued in 11.3% of the RFB cases.

  11. Alien plants introduced by different pathways differ in invasion success: unintentional introductions as a threat to natural areas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Pyšek

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Understanding the dimensions of pathways of introduction of alien plants is important for regulating species invasions, but how particular pathways differ in terms of post-invasion success of species they deliver has never been rigorously tested. We asked whether invasion status, distribution and habitat range of 1,007 alien plant species introduced after 1500 A.D. to the Czech Republic differ among four basic pathways of introduction recognized for plants. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Pathways introducing alien species deliberately as commodities (direct release into the wild; escape from cultivation result in easier naturalization and invasion than pathways of unintentional introduction (contaminant of a commodity; stowaway arriving without association with it. The proportion of naturalized and invasive species among all introductions delivered by a particular pathway decreases with a decreasing level of direct assistance from humans associated with that pathway, from release and escape to contaminant and stowaway. However, those species that are introduced via unintentional pathways and become invasive are as widely distributed as deliberately introduced species, and those introduced as contaminants invade an even wider range of seminatural habitats. CONCLUSIONS: Pathways associated with deliberate species introductions with commodities and pathways whereby species are unintentionally introduced are contrasting modes of introductions in terms of invasion success. However, various measures of the outcome of the invasion process, in terms of species' invasion success, need to be considered to accurately evaluate the role of and threat imposed by individual pathways. By employing various measures we show that invasions by unintentionally introduced plant species need to be considered by management as seriously as those introduced by horticulture, because they invade a wide range of seminatural habitats, hence representing even a greater

  12. Early Childhood Socialization: Societal Context and Childrearing Values in Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brayfield, April; Korintus, Marta

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the socio-cultural context of early childhood socialization in Hungary. Using a macroscopic lens, we describe the national demographic situation and the social organization of early childhood education and care. Our analysis then shifts to a microscopic focus on parental values and beliefs about the substance of what young…

  13. Avoiding Childhood Obesity (A Minute of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-01-31

    Maintaining a healthy weight in childhood can prevent many health-related problems later in life. This podcast discusses what can be done to prevent childhood obesity.  Created: 1/31/2013 by MMWR.   Date Released: 1/31/2013.

  14. Early Childhood Education: History, Theory, and Practice. Second Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Harry

    2010-01-01

    Harry Morgan lays the foundations of what early childhood education is by integrating the history of the field with the philosophy and theories behind this discipline. From birth to age eight, when children become integrated into society through their education at school and at home, "Early Childhood Education" examines the education of this age…

  15. Retention of Staff in the Early Childhood Education Workforce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holochwost, Steven J.; DeMott, Kerri; Buell, Martha; Yannetta, Kelly; Amsden, Deborah

    2009-01-01

    What incentives can the administrators of early childhood education facilities offer their staff in order to retain them? In light of research identifying low staff turnover as a key component of high quality early childhood education, the answer to this question has ramifications beyond human-resources management. This paper presents the results…

  16. Multivariate Statistics and Supervised Learning for Predictive Detection of Unintentional Islanding in Grid-Tied Solar PV Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashank Vyas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Integration of solar photovoltaic (PV generation with power distribution networks leads to many operational challenges and complexities. Unintentional islanding is one of them which is of rising concern given the steady increase in grid-connected PV power. This paper builds up on an exploratory study of unintentional islanding on a modeled radial feeder having large PV penetration. Dynamic simulations, also run in real time, resulted in exploration of unique potential causes of creation of accidental islands. The resulting voltage and current data underwent dimensionality reduction using principal component analysis (PCA which formed the basis for the application of Q statistic control charts for detecting the anomalous currents that could island the system. For reducing the false alarm rate of anomaly detection, Kullback-Leibler (K-L divergence was applied on the principal component projections which concluded that Q statistic based approach alone is not reliable for detection of the symptoms liable to cause unintentional islanding. The obtained data was labeled and a K-nearest neighbor (K-NN binomial classifier was then trained for identification and classification of potential islanding precursors from other power system transients. The three-phase short-circuit fault case was successfully identified as statistically different from islanding symptoms.

  17. A Cultural Studies Approach to the Teaching of the Sociology of Children and Childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna King

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available A cultural studies approach to the teaching of the sociology of childhood is presented, including numerous suggested videos. The course begins with the question, "What is childhood?" and proceeds from there to show how childhood has changed over the years as cultural expectations have changed.

  18. Interrelated Processes toward Quality of Life in Survivors of Childhood Cancer: A Grounded Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsonis, Miranda; McDougall, Janette; Mandich, Angela; Irwin, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Past research has not adequately addressed the quality of life (QOL) of survivors of childhood cancer. The purpose of this study was to understand how QOL is experienced for individuals who have survived childhood cancer. Specific research questions included: (a) How do childhood cancer survivors define the concept of QOL and (b) What processes do…

  19. Childhood and adult medulloblastoma: What difference?; Le medulloblastome de l'enfant et de l'adulte: quelle difference?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Padovani, L.; Muracciole, X. [CHU de la Timone-Enfant, Dept. de Radiotherapie, 13 - Marseille (France); Andre, N. [CHU de la Timone-Enfant, Dept. de Oncologie Pediatrique, 13 - Marseille (France); Carrie, C. [Centre Leon-Berard, Dept. de Radiotherapie, 69 - Lyon (France)

    2009-10-15

    Medulloblastoma is the most frequent childhood brain tumor (30%) but account only for less than 1% of adult brain tumor. The overall survival increased significantly during the last two decades with 80% of long survivors at five years whatever the stage. Most children who survive have significant neuro cognitive sequelae. All children are included in national and international prospective studies which propose risk-adapted radiation therapy and chemotherapy after surgery. Quality control of radiotherapy leads to reduce significantly the risk of recurrence and has an impact on survival. Risks of late toxicity should be taken into account at the time of the treatment. Due to the rarity in adult population, no prospective studies and few data about late effects are available. Adult medulloblastoma is a therapeutic challenge and their therapeutic strategies are similar to pediatric protocols. In order to improve the understanding of adult disease and to homogenize the treatment, National Cancer Institute (I.N.C.a.) stimulated the creation of web conference to discuss each case prospectively and to propose a protocol of treatment. A better comprehension of biological processes and abnormal cellular signalling pathways involved in medulloblastoma pathogenesis had led toward a new prognostic classification to adapt the therapeutic strategy and gives hope of new therapeutic tools. (authors)

  20. [What to do to avoid death by starvation? Domestic dynamics and childhood feeding practices in a rural area of extreme poverty in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelcastre-Villafuerte, Blanca; Riquer-Fernández, Florinda; de León-Reyes, Verónica; Reyes-Morales, Hortensia; Gutiérrez-Trujillo, Gonzalo; Bronfman, Mario

    2006-01-01

    To describe and compare household dynamics in terms of structure, beliefs and nutrition-related behavior in the homes of malnourished and well-nourished children less than five years of age. The authors carried out a qualitative ethnographic study using participant observation, and in depth interviews. Interviews were conducted with the child's caretaker or key informants, prior oral informed consent. Child care and childhood feeding practices at home and in the community were the focus of observations. The study included two periods of field work conducted in 2001, in three rural municipalities from the Río Balsas region, in Guerrero state, Mexico. The study's ethical and methodological aspects were approved by the National Research Commission of the Mexican Institute of Social Security. Households were differentially characterized by number of members, composition, type of relationship, source of income, and interactions among household members and with the community. Monoparental structures, in an early stage of the household cycle, give rise to conditions that render the child prone to malnutrition. Extended family structure represented more favorable household dynamics.

  1. Back Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... extending from your neck to your pelvis. Back injuries can result from sports injuries, work around the house or in the garden, ... back is the most common site of back injuries and back pain. Common back injuries include Sprains ...

  2. Electrical Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it can pass through your body and cause injuries. These electrical injuries can be external or internal. You may have one or both types. External injuries are skin burns. Internal injuries include damage to ...

  3. Hidden Wounds? Inflammatory Links Between Childhood Trauma and Psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danese, Andrea; Baldwin, Jessie R

    2017-01-03

    Childhood trauma is a key risk factor for psychopathology. However, little is known about how exposure to childhood trauma is translated into biological risk for psychopathology. Observational human studies and experimental animal models suggest that childhood exposure to stress can trigger an enduring systemic inflammatory response not unlike the bodily response to physical injury. In turn, these "hidden wounds" of childhood trauma can affect brain development, key behavioral domains (e.g., cognition, positive valence systems, negative valence systems), reactivity to subsequent stressors, and, ultimately, risk for psychopathology. Further research is needed to better characterize the inflammatory links between childhood trauma and psychopathology. Detecting and healing these hidden wounds may help prevent and treat psychopathology emerging after childhood trauma.

  4. Childhood psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahé, Emmanuel

    2016-12-01

    Psoriasis is a common chronic inflammatory skin disease. Recently, few data have been published on epidemiology, comorbidity, or therapy in children with psoriasis. Psoriasis affects up to 2% of children in Europe, even during the first months of life. The link between psoriasis and metabolic comorbidities has been highlighted, notably in relation to excessive weight and obesity. The clinical picture of psoriasis in childhood resembles adult disease, however, some clinical features are noteworthy: neonatal diaper rash is relatively specific, face involvement and guttate psoriasis are more common, plaques are often smaller, and scales are finer and softer than in adults. Napkin, guttate and palmoplantar psoriasis appear to have specific features in childhood and prevalence depends on the age of the child. Although benign, the effect of psoriasis on social interaction can be major, especially in children. Topical therapies are the first line of treatment for skin-limited disease. For chronic cases and more severe cases, phototherapy or traditional biologic systemic treatments must be discussed. The great challenge will be to propose international guidelines to manage these children.

  5. Childhood: 1892-1992.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wortham, Sue C.

    Written to celebrate a century of childhood and to mark the centennial year of the Association for Childhood Education International (ACEI), this book describes childhood and childhood education during the past century in the context of the conditions during different periods. The book contains the following chapters: (1) "The American…

  6. Information needs of parents for acute childhood illness: determining ‘what, how, where and when’ of safety netting using a qualitative exploration with parents and clinicians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Caroline H D; Neill, Sarah; Lakhanpaul, Monica; Roland, Damian; Singlehurst-Mooney, Hayley; Thompson, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the views of parents and clinicians regarding the optimal content, format and delivery of safety netting information for acute childhood illness. Design Qualitative study including semistructured focus groups and interviews. Setting First contact care settings, community centres, children's centres and nurseries in the Midlands, UK. Participants 27 parents from a travelling community, Asian British community and white British community. Sixteen clinicians including 10 doctors and 6 nurses from a general practice surgery, an out-of-hours service and two emergency departments (paediatric and combined adult and paediatric). Results Participants described a need for safety netting to contain information on signs and symptoms of serious and common illnesses, illness management and where and when to seek help. Resources should be basic, simple to use and contain simple symbols. A key criterion was professional endorsement of resources. Internet-based information was desired which is reliable, consistent and up-to-date. Participants described a need for different types of information: that which could be delivered during consultations, as well as more general information for parents to access before consulting a healthcare professional. Face-to-face education, written materials and digital media were suggested delivery mechanisms. Audiovisual material was preferred by families with low literacy. Participants commonly suggested internet-based and phone-based resources, but the travelling community was less comfortable with these approaches. Conclusions A multifaceted and tailored approach to safety netting is needed so that effective resources are available for parents with varying information needs, literacy levels and ability to use information technology. We have identified key aspects of content, quality criteria, format and delivery mechanisms for safety netting information from the perspectives of clinicians and parents. Resources should be

  7. Unintentional PCB in chlorophenylsilanes as a source of contamination in environmental samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anezaki, Katsunori, E-mail: anezaki@hro.or.jp [Hokkaido Research Organization, Environmental and Geological Research Department, Institute of Environmental Sciences, N19W12, Kita, Sapporo, Hokkaido (Japan); Nakano, Takeshi [Center for Advanced Science and Innovation, Osaka University, Osaka (Japan)

    2015-04-28

    Highlights: • PCB concentrations were studied in silicone-based adhesives and chlorophenylsilanes. • Congener patterns (CP) were studied in adhesives and chlorophenylsilanes. • High concentrations of PCBs were detected in dichlorodiphenylsilane. • In commercial adhesives, PCBs with similar CP to dichlorodiphenylsilane were found. • CP were affected by the chlorobenzene used for synthesizing chlorophenylsilanes. - Abstract: This paper discusses the concentrations and congener patterns of PCBs unintentionally present in chlorophenylsilanes. Chlorophenylsilanes are used in the production of silicone-based adhesives and phenyl silicones. The concentration of PCBs in adhesives was found to range from not-detectable concentrations to 40 mg/kg. The concentrations of PCBs in trichlorophenylsilane, dichlorodiphenylsilane, chlorotriphenylsilane, and diphenylsilanediol were 0.00072–2.7, 6.5–1,500, 0.019–1.1, and 0.12–120 mg/kg, respectively. Dichlorodiphenylsilane and diphenylsilanediol, in particular, had high PCB concentrations. The PCB concentration of some specimens exceeded the 50 mg/kg limit set by the transportation regulations of the Stockholm Convention. In the adhesives and chlorophenylsilanes, mono- and di-chlorinated biphenyls were detected in high proportions. The congeners detected in dichlorinated biphenyls had a structure in which one chlorine atom was substituted at each of the two aryls of the biphenyl backbone. This indicated that the chlorobenzene used for synthesizing chlorophenylsilanes undergoes dimerization. The congener and homologue patterns of the adhesives containing PCBs were similar to dichlorodiphenylsilane and diphenylsilanediol. It was concluded that the production of the adhesives is based on these substances. In addition, these results indicate that silicone-based products may become a source of PCBs in the environment, leading to irregular PCB values in environmental analysis.

  8. Prevention of unintentional weight loss in nursing home residents: a controlled trial of feeding assistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Sandra F; Keeler, Emmett; Zhuo, Xiaohui; Hickey, Kelly A; Sato, Hui-Wen; Schnelle, John F

    2008-08-01

    To determine the effects of a feeding assistance intervention on food and fluid intake and body weight. Crossover controlled trial. Four skilled nursing homes (NHs). Seventy-six long-stay NH residents at risk for unintentional weight loss. Research staff provided feeding assistance twice per day during or between meals, 5 days per week for 24 weeks. Research staff independently weighed residents at baseline and monthly during a 24-week intervention and 24-week control period. Residents' food and fluid intake and the amount of staff time spent providing assistance to eat was assessed for 2 days at baseline and 3 and 6 months during each 24-week period. The intervention group showed a significant increase in estimated total daily caloric intake and maintained or gained weight, whereas the control group showed no change in estimated total daily caloric intake and lost weight over 24 weeks. The average amount of staff time required to provide the interventions was 42 minutes per person per meal and 13 minutes per person per between-meal snack, versus usual care, during which residents received, on average, 5 minutes of assistance per person per meal and less than 1 minute per person per snack. Two feeding assistance interventions are efficacious in promoting food and fluid intake and weight gain in residents at risk for weight loss. Both interventions require more staff time than usual NH care. The delivery of snacks between meals requires less time than mealtime assistance and thus may be more practical to implement in daily NH care practice.

  9. On the zinc nitride properties and the unintentional incorporation of oxygen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Nunez, C., E-mail: carlos.garcia@uam.es; Pau, J.L.; Hernandez, M.J.; Cervera, M.; Ruiz, E.; Piqueras, J.

    2012-01-01

    Zinc nitride films were prepared by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering in N{sub 2}/Ar ambient using different substrates (glass and thermally-oxidized-Si) and buffer layers (low-temperature Zn{sub 3}N{sub 2} and ZnO). Resonant Rutherford backscattering (RBS) allowed determining Zn{sub x}N{sub y} stoichiometry and thickness. Despite the sputtering system was operated in high vacuum conditions, unintentional oxygen incorporation during growth was detected. Calculations of the relative oxygen concentration showed that the oxygen content was very dependent on the growth rate. Ex-situ oxidation was also analyzed by resonant RBS and compared with the results of as-grown layers. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction revealed that surface morphology and crystal orientation were strongly dependent on the substrate temperature (T{sub s}). In addition, optical transmission measurements show a reduction of the optical energy band gap from 1.46 to 1.25 eV as T{sub s} increased. The electrical properties were examined as a function of growth rate, total working gas flux and T{sub s} aiming to maximize electron mobility. From those studies, it was found that Hall mobility increased significantly as the growth rate decreased. A maximum mobility of 100 cm{sup 2}/Vs and a minimum carrier concentration of 3.2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 18} cm{sup -3} were achieved at a T{sub s} of 423 K and a growth rate of 4.44 nm/min.

  10. International travelers and unintentional fatal drowning in Australia--a 10 year review 2002-12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peden, Amy E; Franklin, Richard C; Leggat, Peter A

    2016-02-01

    . Drowning deaths of travelers are commonly reported in the media, creating a perception that they are at a higher risk of drowning than residents. This may be true, due in part to unfamiliarity with the risks posed by the hazard, however there is limited information about drowning deaths of travelers in Australia. This study aims to identify the incidence of drowning among international travelers in Australia and examine the risk factors to inform prevention strategies. . Data on unintentional fatal drowning in Australian waterways of victims with a residential postcode from outside Australia were extracted from the Royal Life Saving Society-Australia National Fatal Drowning Database. . Between 1 July 2002 and 30 June 2012 drowning deaths among people known to be international travelers accounted for 4.3% (N = 123) of the 2870 drowning deaths reported in Australian waterways. Key locations for drowning deaths included beaches (39.0%), ocean/harbour (22.0%) and swimming pools (12.2%). Leading activities prior to drowning included swimming (52.0%), diving (17.9%) and watercraft incidents (13.0%). . International travelers pose a unique challenge from a drowning prevention perspective. The ability to exchange information on water safety is complicated due to potential language barriers, possible differences in swimming ability, different attitudes to safety in the traveler's home country and culture, a lack of opportunities to discuss safety, a relaxed attitude to safety which may result in an increase in risk taking behaviour and alcohol consumption. . Prevention is vital both to reduce loss of life in the aquatic environment and promote Australia as a safe and enjoyable holiday destination for international travelers. © International Society of Travel Medicine, 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Local extinction and unintentional rewilding of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis on a desert island.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin T Wilder

    Full Text Available Bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis were not known to live on Tiburón Island, the largest island in the Gulf of California and Mexico, prior to the surprisingly successful introduction of 20 individuals as a conservation measure in 1975. Today, a stable island population of ∼500 sheep supports limited big game hunting and restocking of depleted areas on the Mexican mainland. We discovered fossil dung morphologically similar to that of bighorn sheep in a dung mat deposit from Mojet Cave, in the mountains of Tiburón Island. To determine the origin of this cave deposit we compared pellet shape to fecal pellets of other large mammals, and extracted DNA to sequence mitochondrial DNA fragments at the 12S ribosomal RNA and control regions. The fossil dung was 14C-dated to 1476-1632 calendar years before present and was confirmed as bighorn sheep by morphological and ancient DNA (aDNA analysis. 12S sequences closely or exactly matched known bighorn sheep sequences; control region sequences exactly matched a haplotype described in desert bighorn sheep populations in southwest Arizona and southern California and showed subtle differentiation from the extant Tiburón population. Native desert bighorn sheep previously colonized this land-bridge island, most likely during the Pleistocene, when lower sea levels connected Tiburón to the mainland. They were extirpated sometime in the last ∼1500 years, probably due to inherent dynamics of isolated populations, prolonged drought, and (or human overkill. The reintroduced population is vulnerable to similar extinction risks. The discovery presented here refutes conventional wisdom that bighorn sheep are not native to Tiburón Island, and establishes its recent introduction as an example of unintentional rewilding, defined here as the introduction of a species without knowledge that it was once native and has since gone locally extinct.

  12. Local extinction and unintentional rewilding of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) on a desert island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilder, Benjamin T; Betancourt, Julio L; Epps, Clinton W; Crowhurst, Rachel S; Mead, Jim I; Ezcurra, Exequiel

    2014-01-01

    Bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) were not known to live on Tiburón Island, the largest island in the Gulf of California and Mexico, prior to the surprisingly successful introduction of 20 individuals as a conservation measure in 1975. Today, a stable island population of ∼500 sheep supports limited big game hunting and restocking of depleted areas on the Mexican mainland. We discovered fossil dung morphologically similar to that of bighorn sheep in a dung mat deposit from Mojet Cave, in the mountains of Tiburón Island. To determine the origin of this cave deposit we compared pellet shape to fecal pellets of other large mammals, and extracted DNA to sequence mitochondrial DNA fragments at the 12S ribosomal RNA and control regions. The fossil dung was 14C-dated to 1476-1632 calendar years before present and was confirmed as bighorn sheep by morphological and ancient DNA (aDNA) analysis. 12S sequences closely or exactly matched known bighorn sheep sequences; control region sequences exactly matched a haplotype described in desert bighorn sheep populations in southwest Arizona and southern California and showed subtle differentiation from the extant Tiburón population. Native desert bighorn sheep previously colonized this land-bridge island, most likely during the Pleistocene, when lower sea levels connected Tiburón to the mainland. They were extirpated sometime in the last ∼1500 years, probably due to inherent dynamics of isolated populations, prolonged drought, and (or) human overkill. The reintroduced population is vulnerable to similar extinction risks. The discovery presented here refutes conventional wisdom that bighorn sheep are not native to Tiburón Island, and establishes its recent introduction as an example of unintentional rewilding, defined here as the introduction of a species without knowledge that it was once native and has since gone locally extinct.

  13. Local extinction and unintentional rewilding of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) on a desert island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilder, Benjamin T.; Betancourt, Julio L.; Epps, Clinton W.; Crowhurst, Rachel S.; Mead, Jim I.; Ezcurra, Exequiel

    2014-01-01

    Bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) were not known to live on Tiburón Island, the largest island in the Gulf of California and Mexico, prior to the surprisingly successful introduction of 20 individuals as a conservation measure in 1975. Today, a stable island population of ~500 sheep supports limited big game hunting and restocking of depleted areas on the Mexican mainland. We discovered fossil dung morphologically similar to that of bighorn sheep in a dung mat deposit from Mojet Cave, in the mountains of Tiburón Island. To determine the origin of this cave deposit we compared pellet shape to fecal pellets of other large mammals, and extracted DNA to sequence mitochondrial DNA fragments at the 12S ribosomal RNA and control regions. The fossil dung was 14C-dated to 1476–1632 calendar years before present and was confirmed as bighorn sheep by morphological and ancient DNA (aDNA) analysis. 12S sequences closely or exactly matched known bighorn sheep sequences; control region sequences exactly matched a haplotype described in desert bighorn sheep populations in southwest Arizona and southern California and showed subtle differentiation from the extant Tiburón population. Native desert bighorn sheep previously colonized this land-bridge island, most likely during the Pleistocene, when lower sea levels connected Tiburón to the mainland. They were extirpated sometime in the last ~1500 years, probably due to inherent dynamics of isolated populations, prolonged drought, and (or) human overkill. The reintroduced population is vulnerable to similar extinction risks. The discovery presented here refutes conventional wisdom that bighorn sheep are not native to Tiburón Island, and establishes its recent introduction as an example of unintentional rewilding, defined here as the introduction of a species without knowledge that it was once native and has since gone locally extinct.

  14. Unintentional miRNA ablation is a risk factor in gene knockout studies: a short report.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Osokine

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the most powerful techniques for studying the function of a gene is to disrupt the expression of that gene using genetic engineering strategies such as targeted recombination or viral integration of gene trap cassettes. The tremendous utility of these tools was recognized this year with the awarding of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine to Capecchi, Evans, and Smithies for their pioneering work in targeted recombination mutagenesis in mammals. Another noteworthy discovery made nearly a decade ago was the identification of a novel class of non-coding genes called microRNAs. MicroRNAs are among the largest known classes of regulatory elements with more than 1000 predicted to exist in the mouse genome. Over 50% of known microRNAs are located within introns of coding genes. Given that currently about half of the genes in mouse have been knocked out, we investigated the possibility that intronic microRNAs may have been coincidentally deleted or disrupted in some of these mouse models. We searched published murine knockout studies and gene trap embryonic stem cell line databases for cases where a microRNA was located within or near the manipulated genomic loci, finding almost 200 cases where microRNA expression may have been disrupted along with another gene. Our results draw attention to the need for careful planning in future knockout studies to minimize the unintentional disruption of microRNAs. These data also raise the possibility that many knockout studies may need to be reexamined to determine if loss of a microRNA contributes to the phenotypic consequences attributed to loss of a protein-encoding gene.

  15. Maternal smoking during pregnancy and childhood overweight and fat distribution: The KOALA Birth Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmermans, S.H.; Mommers, M.; Gubbels, J.S.; Kremers, S.P.J.; Stafleu, A.; Stehouwer, C.D.A.; Prins, M.H.; Penders, J.; Thijs, C.

    2014-01-01

    What is already known about this subject There is an association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and higher body mass index (BMI) and overweight in childhood. What this study adds The association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and childhood overweight develops with age, starting

  16. Emerging Childhoods and Immanent Becomings: Considering Difference in One Child's Encounters with Popular Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherbine, Kortney

    2016-01-01

    Ongoing debates over children's encounters with popular culture are grounded in representational images of what childhood is and what childhood should be. As such, the tendency to overcode and regulate children's behaviors, relationships, and desires are often part of a greater effort to prepare the child to fit fixed and essentialized notions of…

  17. Socioeconomic Factors and Childhood Overweight in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bammann, K.; Gwozdz, Wencke; Lanfer, A.

    2013-01-01

    What is already known about this subject. Overweight and obesity can be linked to different parental socioeconomic factors already in very young children. In Western developed countries, the association of childhood overweight and obesity and parental socioeconomic status shows a negative gradient....... Ambiguous results have been obtained regarding the association between socioeconomic factors and childhood overweight and obesity in different countries and over time. What this study adds. European regions show heterogeneous associations between socioeconomic factors and overweight and obesity in a multi...... not only of the family but also of region and country on the overweight and obesity prevalence. Objective To assess the association between different macro- and micro-level socioeconomic factors and childhood overweight. Methods Data from the IDEFICS baseline survey is used to investigate the cross...

  18. Risk factors for acute and overuse sport injuries in Swedish children 11 to 15 years old: What about resistance training with weights?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boström, A; Thulin, K; Fredriksson, M; Reese, D; Rockborn, P; Hammar, M L

    2016-03-01

    To determine the 1-year self-reported incidence of overuse and traumatic sport injuries and risk factors for injuries in children participating in a summer sports camp representing seven different sports. 4363 children, 11 to 15 years old participating in a summer camp in seven different sports answered a questionnaire. Injury in this cross-sectional study was defined as a sport-related trauma or overload leading to pain and dysfunction preventing the person from participation in training or competition for at least 1 week. A number of risk factors for injury were investigated such as sex, age, number of hours spent on training in general, and on resistance training with weights. Nearly half [49%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 48-51%] of the participants had been injured as a result of participation in a sport during the preceding year, significantly more boys than girls (53%, 95% CI 50-55% vs 46%, 95% CI 43-48%; P sport injuries: age, sex, and resistance training with weights. Time spent on resistance training with weights was significantly associated with sport injuries in a logistic regression analysis. In children age 11 to 15 years, the risk of having a sport-related injury increased with age and occurred more often in boys than in girls. Weight training was the only modifiable risk factor that contributed to a significant increase in the incidence of sport injuries.

  19. GIS and Injury Prevention and Control: History, Challenges, and Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Schuurman

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Intentional and unintentional injury is the leading cause of death and potential years of life lost in the first four decades of life in industrialized countries around the world. Despite surgical innovations and improved access to emergency care, research has shown that certain populations remain particularly vulnerable to the risks and consequences of injury. Recent evidence has shown that the analytical, data linkage, and mapping tools of geographic information systems (GIS technology provide can further address these determinants and identify populations in need. This paper traces the history of injury prevention and discusses current and future challenges in furthering our understanding of the determinants of injury through the use of GIS.

  20. Are boys and girls that different? An analysis of traumatic brain injury in children.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Collins, Niamh C

    2013-08-01

    The Phillips Report on traumatic brain injury (TBI) in Ireland found that injury was more frequent in men and that gender differences were present in childhood. This study determined when gender differences emerge and examined the effect of gender on the mechanism of injury, injury type and severity and outcome.

  1. Childhood and Citizenship: A Conversation across Modernity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunne, Joseph

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyses the problematic nature of citizenship as a modern achievement faced with the challenge of vindicating ancient ideals in what is increasingly considered to be a "postmodern" world. It offers a parallel analysis of childhood as a characteristically modern construct whose reality in children's life-worlds is threatened by social…

  2. Early childhood health promotion and its life course health consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyer, Bernard; Ma, Sai; Grason, Holly; Frick, Kevin D; Perry, Deborah F; Sharkey, Alyssa; McIntosh, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    To explore whether health promotion efforts targeted at preschool-age children can improve health across the life span and improve future economic returns to society. We selected 4 health topics to review-tobacco exposure, unintentional injury, obesity, and mental health-because they are clinically and epidemiologically significant, and represent the complex nature of health problems in this early period of life. The peer-reviewed literature was searched to assess the level of evidence for short- and long-term health impacts of health promotion and disease prevention interventions for children from before birth to age 5. This review sought to document the monetary burden of poor child health, the cost implications of preventing and treating child health problems, and the net benefit of the interventions. The evidence is compelling that these 4 topics-tobacco exposure, unintentional injury, obesity, and mental health-constitute a significant burden on the health of children and are the early antecedents of significant health problems across the life span. The evidence for the cost consequences of these problems is strong, although more uneven than the epidemiological data. The available evidence for the effectiveness of interventions in this age group was strongest in the case of preventing tobacco exposure and injuries, was limited to smaller-scale clinical interventions in the case of mental health, and was least available for efforts to prevent obesity among preschoolers. Currently available research justifies the implementation of health interventions in the prenatal to preschool period-especially to reduce tobacco exposure and prevent injuries. There is an urgent need for carefully targeted, rigorous research to examine the longitudinal causal relationships and provide stronger economic data to help policy makers make the case that the entire society will benefit from wise investment in improving the health of preschool-age children and their families.

  3. A process to identify military injury prevention priorities based on injury type and limited duty days.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruscio, Bruce A; Jones, Bruce H; Bullock, Steven H; Burnham, Bruce R; Canham-Chervak, Michelle; Rennix, Christopher P; Wells, Timothy S; Smith, Jack W

    2010-01-01

    Injuries, one of the leading public health problems in an otherwise healthy military population, affect operational readiness, increase healthcare costs, and result in disabilities and fatalities. This paper describes a systematic, data-driven, injury prevention-decision making process to rank potential injury prevention targets. Medical surveillance and safety report data on injuries for 2004 were reviewed. Nonfatal injury diagnoses (ICD-9-CM codes) obtained from the Defense Medical Surveillance System were ranked according to incident visit frequency and estimated limited duty days. Data on the top five injury types resulting in the greatest estimated limited duty days were matched with hospitalization and Service Safety Centers' accident investigation data to identify leading causes. Experts scored and ranked the causes using predetermined criteria that considered the importance of the problem, preventability, feasibility, timeliness of intervention establishment/results, and ability to evaluate. Department of Defense (DoD) and Service-specific injury prevention priorities were identified. Unintentional injuries lead all other medical conditions for number of medical encounters, individuals affected, and hospital bed days. The top ten injuries resulted in an estimated 25 million days of limited duty. Injury-related musculoskeletal conditions were a leading contributor to days of limited duty. Sports and physical training were the leading cause, followed by falls. A systematic approach to injury prevention-decision making supports the DoD's goal of ensuring a healthy, fit force. The methodology described here advances this capability. Immediate follow-up efforts should employ both medical and safety data sets to identify and monitor injury prevention priorities. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Childhood Obesity and Cognitive Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Nicole; Johnston, David W; Peeters, Anna

    2015-09-01

    Obese children tend to perform worse academically than normal-weight children. If poor cognitive achievement is truly a consequence of childhood obesity, this relationship has significant policy implications. Therefore, an important question is to what extent can this correlation be explained by other factors that jointly determine obesity and cognitive achievement in childhood? To answer this question, we exploit a rich longitudinal dataset of Australian children, which is linked to national assessments in math and literacy. Using a range of estimators, we find that obesity and body mass index are negatively related to cognitive achievement for boys but not girls. This effect cannot be explained by sociodemographic factors, past cognitive achievement or unobserved time-invariant characteristics and is robust to different measures of adiposity. Given the enormous importance of early human capital development for future well-being and prosperity, this negative effect for boys is concerning and warrants further investigation. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Unintentional conversion of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo caused by repositioning procedures for canalithiasis: transitional BPPV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babic, Borivoj B; Jesic, Snezana D; Milovanovic, Jovica D; Arsovic, Nenad A

    2014-05-01

    BPPV when diagnosed before any repositioning procedure is called primary BPPV. Primary BPPV canalithiasis treatment with repositioning procedures sometimes results in unintentional conversion of BPPV form: transitional BPPV. Objectives were to find transitional BPPV forms, how they influence relative rate of canal involvement and how to be treated. This study is a retrospective case review performed at an ambulatory, tertiary referral center. Participants were 189 consecutive BPPV patients. Main outcome measures were detection of transitional BPPV, outcome of repositioning procedures for transitional canalithiasis BPPV and spontaneous recovery for transitional cupulolithiasis BPPV. Canal distribution of primary BPPV was: posterior canal (Pc): 85.7% (162/189), horizontal canal (Hc): 11.6% (22/189), anterior canal (Ac): 2.6% (5/189); taken together with transitional BPPV it was: Pc: 71.3% (164/230), Hc: 26.5% (61/230), Ac: 2.2% (5/230). Transitional BPPV forms were: Hc canalithiasis 58% (24/41), Hc cupulolithiasis 37% (15/41) and common crux reentry 5% (2/41). Treated with barbecue maneuver transitional Hc canalithiasis cases either resolved in 58% (14/24) or transitioned further to transitional Hc cupulolithiasis in 42% (10/24). In follow-up of transitional Hc cupulolithiasis we confirmed spontaneous recovery in 14/15 cases in less than 2 days. The most frequent transitional BPPV form was Hc canalithiasis so it raises importance of barbecue maneuver treatment. Second most frequent was transitional Hc cupulolithiasis which very quickly spontaneously recovers and does not require any intervention. The rarest found transitional BPPV form was common crux reentry which is treated by Canalith repositioning procedure. Transitional BPPV taken together with primary BPPV may decrease relative rate of Pc BPPV, considerably increase relative rate of Hc BPPV and negligibly influence relative rate of Ac BPPV. Transitional BPPV forms can be produced by repositioning maneuvers

  6. Comparing patient dissatisfaction and rational judgment in intentional medication non-adherence versus unintentional non-adherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iihara, N; Nishio, T; Okura, M; Anzai, H; Kagawa, M; Houchi, H; Kirino, Y

    2014-02-01

    Patients' poor adherence to medications is reported to be related to the individual patients' beliefs and cognitions and their trust of the medical staff. However, the causes of the two forms of non-adherence, intentional and unintentional behaviours, have yet to be clarified. This study compared psychological latent factors associated with intentional and unintentional non-adherence to chronic medication regimens, focusing on the potential effects of (i) patients' dissatisfaction with treatment and their relationships with the medical staff and (ii) patients' subliminal rational thinking processes, which weighed the positive values such as their expectations of benefits from treatment against negative values such as their dissatisfaction. Two cross-sectional surveys were undertaken of patients given medications for chronic diseases, using a questionnaire developed and validated in this study. One survey was undertaken in three hospitals and the other survey, online throughout Japan. We scored the individual latent factors using the questionnaire and calculated the differential score between two negatively correlated latent factors to quantify patients' subliminal rational thinking process. We compared the adjusted odds ratio (OR) of latent factors between intentional and unintentional non-adherence to medication in both surveys. Of the eligible subjects, 149 hospitalized patients and 524 survey participants completed the questionnaire. Intentional non-adherence was associated with patient dissatisfaction with treatment including interpersonal relationships with medical staff in both hospitalized patients and online survey participants (95% confidence interval of adjusted OR for Dissatisfaction, 1·20-16·26 in the hospital-based survey and 1·33-3·45 in the online survey). In both surveys, intentional non-adherence was significantly associated with the differential score between two negatively correlated latent factors, Willingness and Dissatisfaction (P = 0

  7. "Is That What We Do?" Using a Conversation-Analytic Approach to Highlight the Contribution of Dialogic Reading Strategies to Educator-Child Interactions during Storybook Reading in Two Early Childhood Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohrssen, Caroline; Niklas, Frank; Tayler, Collette

    2016-01-01

    In Australia, much emphasis in early childhood education is placed on the importance of supporting young children's literacy development, and book-reading occurs frequently during typical early-childhood education and care programmes. Reading a story to a child presents an opportunity for rich language-learning through reciprocal and extended…

  8. Childhood trauma, country report (Thailand).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junnanond, C; Ruangkanchanasetr, S; Chunharas, A

    1993-10-01

    In Thailand, each year approximately 15,000 people die from accidents, a figure exceeded only by cardiovascular diseases. Motor vehicle accidents (MVA) is the principal cause of death and injuries in children of all ages except preschool group. In 1988 there were 554,452 cases of injuries out of which 10,031 died from MVA. In Bangkok alone MVA accounts for an average of 300 childhood and teenage death and 1,900 cases of injuries each year. Falls, burns and poisonings are relatively high in children less than 4 years old while MVA and injuries from sharp and blunt objects of both accidental and non-accidental cases increase with age and become the two leading causes of injury in older children. The sex ratio (F:M) in preschool ages are 1:1.4 and 1:2 in preteen. Poisonings, though less common, are considered to be very important because of their severity. Drugs, hydrocarbon, insecticides, lead and corrosive substances are leading agents. As for injuries caused by animals, 150 cases of rabies were reported each year while around 5,000 cases of snake bites were found in 1987 and 20 per cent of the victims were children. The study from Ramathibodi Hospital revealed that the majority of accidents (65-72%) occur at home and 20 per cent in the street in children younger than 12 years. Peak incidence were found between 5-9 pm. During weekend and holidays the incidence is higher. Ninety-five per cent of the accidents reported were mild cases, 15 per cent moderate, 3 per cent severe and less than 1 per cent caused death.

  9. Aetiology and outcome of open and closed globe eye injuries in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadappu, Subhashini; Silveira, Sue; Martin, Frank

    2013-07-01

    This paper reports on the aetiology and outcome of childhood open and closed globe eye injuries presenting to the Children's Hospital at Westmead, Sydney, Australia from January 2000 to December 2008. Hospital-based retrospective study. Two hundred three cases of childhood eye injuries identified in a nine-year period, comprising 81 open globe and 122 closed globe injuries. Hospital records were examined for demographic data and injuries were classified into open globe and closed globe, based on the Ocular Trauma Classification. Parameters affecting the final visual outcome such as type of injury, zone of injury, initial visual acuity, wound length (only in open globe injuries) and lens injury were assessed. Most of the eye injuries resulted from the child poking itself or being poked accidentally (26%), with the home being the most common place of injury. A favourable visual outcome was noted with closed globe injuries as compared with open globe injuries (P globe ruptures, zone 3 injuries, poor initial visual acuity, wound length >10 mm and lens trauma. Final visual acuity of 6/12 or better was observed in 68% of injured eyes. This study demonstrated improved visual outcomes when compared with previous studies. However, many unsalvageable childhood eye injuries with little useful vision were evident, and most disconcerting is that the majority of childhood eye injuries in this study were preventable. © 2012 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology © 2012 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  10. Childhood fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, C Y; Allen, D M

    1996-02-01

    Childhood fever is a common symptom, reflective of multiple causes. As the child is often unable to express himself, the physician must rely on parents' observations and the physical examination. The majority of febrile children have non-bacterial upper respiratory tract infection and indiscriminate use of antibiotics is inappropriate, ineffective and leads to drug-resistance such as the emergence of Penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae. In this article, we attempt to identify the possible causes of fever by a simple approach using the presence or absence of associated or localising symptoms. Infants less than 3 months constitute a unique group as the fever may be related to perinatal events and as serious bacterial infections can still occur despite unremarkable physical findings. Management of fever needs to take into account the toxicity, immune status and age of the patients as well as the source of the infection. Zealous overprescription of antipyretics needs to be avoided with attention directed to the cause of the fever, the child's capacity to cope with the illness and parental education.

  11. Patterns of Injury in Hospitalised One-Year-Old Children: Analysis by Trimester of Age Using Coded Data and Textual Description

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debbie Scott

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The second year of life is a time of rapid developmental changes. This paper aims to describe the pattern of unintentional injuries to one-year old children in three-month age bands to better understand the risks associated with developmental stages and, therefore, identify opportunities for proactive prevention. Injury surveillance data were used to identify children admitted to hospital in Queensland, Australia for an unintentional injury from 2002–2012. Falls were the most common injury, followed by burns and scalds, contact injuries and poisonings. Falls and contact injuries remained roughly constant by age, burns and scalds decreased and poisonings (by medications increased. Animal- and transport-related injuries also became more common, immersions and other threats to breathing less common. Within the falls and contact categories falls from play equipment and injuries due to contact with persons increased, while falls down stairs and catching fingers in doors decreased. The pattern of injuries varies over the second year of life and is clearly linked to the child’s increasing mobility and boldness. Preventive measures for young children need to be designed—and evaluated—with their developmental stage in mind, using a variety of strategies, including opportunistic, developmentally specific education of parents; and practitioners should also consider potential for lapses in supervision and possible intentional injury in all injury assessments.

  12. Eye Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    The structure of your face helps protect your eyes from injury. Still, injuries can damage your eye, sometimes severely enough that you could lose your vision. Most eye injuries are preventable. If you play sports or ...

  13. Sports Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sometimes you can injure yourself when you play sports or exercise. Accidents, poor training practices, or improper ... can also lead to injuries. The most common sports injuries are Sprains and strains Knee injuries Swollen ...

  14. Childhood Brain Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brain tumors are abnormal growths inside the skull. They are among the most common types of childhood ... still be serious. Malignant tumors are cancerous. Childhood brain and spinal cord tumors can cause headaches and ...

  15. Constructing Model of Relationship among Behaviors and Injuries to Products Based on Large Scale Text Data on Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomori, Koji; Kitamura, Koji; Motomura, Yoichi; Nishida, Yoshifumi; Yamanaka, Tatsuhiro; Komatsubara, Akinori

    In Japan, childhood injury prevention is urgent issue. Safety measures through creating knowledge of injury data are essential for preventing childhood injuries. Especially the injury prevention approach by product modification is very important. The risk assessment is one of the most fundamental methods to design safety products. The conventional risk assessment has been carried out subjectively because product makers have poor data on injuries. This paper deals with evidence-based risk assessment, in which artificial intelligence technologies are strongly needed. This paper describes a new method of foreseeing usage of products, which is the first step of the evidence-based risk assessment, and presents a retrieval system of injury data. The system enables a product designer to foresee how children use a product and which types of injuries occur due to the product in daily environment. The developed system consists of large scale injury data, text mining technology and probabilistic modeling technology. Large scale text data on childhood injuries was collected from medical institutions by an injury surveillance system. Types of behaviors to a product were derived from the injury text data using text mining technology. The relationship among products, types of behaviors, types of injuries and characteristics of children was modeled by Bayesian Network. The fundamental functions of the developed system and examples of new findings obtained by the system are reported in this paper.

  16. Childhood trauma profile at a tertiary care hospital in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Sumit; Lal, Neena; Lodha, Rakesh; Murmu, Lakhiram

    2009-02-01

    Childhood injuries are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. We evaluated the type of pediatric injuries encountered in the emergency room amongst 225 children (boys 151, girls 64; age range, 2 mo-12 yr). Data were collected using a structured injury proforma over a period of 12 months. Injuries occurred at home (n=137, 60.8%), street (n=38, 16.8%), and playground (n=37, 16.4%). Most frequent injuries were falls (n=144, 64%) and road traffic injuries (RTI) (n=37, 16.4%). Injuries mostly consisted of fractures (n=72, 32%), bruises (n=39, 17.3%), and lacerations (n=35, 15.5%). Child abuse was recognized in 7 (3.5%) children. There was an average delay of 2 hour 50 minutes to reach the medical facility.

  17. Injury Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Certification Import Safety International Recall Guidance Civil and Criminal Penalties Federal Court Orders & Decisions Research & Statistics Research & Statistics Technical Reports Injury Statistics NEISS Injury ...

  18. Prevalence, circumstances and consequences of non-fatal road traffic injuries and other bodily injuries among older people in China, Ghana, India, Mexico, Russia and South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Peltzer, Karl; Phaswana-Mafuya, Nancy; Arokiasamy, Perianayagam; Biritwum, Richard; Yawson, Alfred; Minicuci, Nadia; Stewart Williams, Jennifer; Kowal, Paul; Chatterji, Somnath

    2015-01-01

    Unintentional injuries are one of the main contributors to mortality and disability in elderly populations in low- and middle-income countries. The aim of this study was to examine the annual road traffic and other bodily (not including falls) injury prevalence and associated risk factors among older adults across six lower and upper middle-income countries. A cross-sectional survey involving face-to-face household interviews were conducted in China (n=13,177), Ghana (n=4305), India (n=6560),...

  19. How Do I Deal with Depression and Adjustment to My Spinal Cord Injury?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... yourself with information on what a spinal cord injury is, and what it means in terms of ... thoughts. Depression is common in the spinal cord injury population -- affecting about 1 in 5 people. There ...

  20. How Do I Deal with Depression and Adjustment to My Spinal Cord Injury?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... yourself with information on what a spinal cord injury is, and what it means in terms of ... thoughts. Depression is common in the spinal cord injury population -- affecting about 1 in 5 people. There ...