WorldWideScience

Sample records for childhood programs process

  1. A process evaluation of a social cognitive theory-based childhood obesity prevention intervention: the Comics for Health program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branscum, Paul; Sharma, Manoj; Wang, Lihshing Leigh; Wilson, Bradley; Rojas-Guyler, Liliana

    2013-03-01

    Process evaluations are an often overlooked yet essential component of health promotion interventions. This study reports the results of a comprehensive process evaluation for the "Comics for Health" program, a childhood obesity prevention intervention implemented at 12 after-school programs. Qualitative and quantitative process data were collected using surveys, field notes, and open-item questionnaires, which assessed program fidelity, dose delivered, dose received, reach, recruitment, and context. Triangulation of methods was also employed to better understand how the program was implemented and received by the facilitator, staff members, and children in the program. Results indicated that program implementation had an almost perfect rate of fidelity with most lessons recording 100% tasks completed. Lessons were implemented in their intended order and lasted approximately 30 minutes as planned. After-school staff members reported that the program was well received by children, and this program should be replicated in the future. Attendance records showed that a majority of the children attended each lesson on the initial day of delivery (70.4%) and informal make-up lessons were implemented to compensate for the other children. Finally, several known sources of contamination were found such as past and concurrent exposure to similar health promotion interventions, which could potentially influence study outcomes. These findings will be used to help explain the results of this intervention and make recommendations for future intervention efforts.

  2. Evidence of the Adoption and Implementation of a Statewide Childhood Obesity Prevention Initiative in the New York State WIC Program: The "NY Fit WIC" Process Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekhobo, Jackson P.; Egglefield, Katherine; Edmunds, Lynn S.; Shackman, Gene

    2012-01-01

    Process evaluations are critical in determining whether outcome evaluations are warranted. This study assessed the extent to which a childhood obesity prevention initiative, "NY Fit WIC", was adopted and implemented by the New York State Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC). Process data came from…

  3. Narrative Processes across Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvaney, Matthew Keefe

    2011-01-01

    According to the narrative perspective on personality development, personality is constructed largely by interpreting and representing experience in story format (scripts) over the course of the lifespan. The focus of this paper is to describe briefly the narrative perspective on personality development during childhood and adolescence, to discuss…

  4. Prenatal programming of childhood overweight and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jennifer S; Lee, Tiffany A; Lu, Michael C

    2007-09-01

    To review the scientific evidence for prenatal programming of childhood overweight and obesity, and discuss its implications for MCH research, practice, and policy. A systematic review of observational studies examining the relationship between prenatal exposures and childhood overweight and obesity was conducted using MOOSE guidelines. The review included literature posted on PubMed and MDConsult and published between January 1975 and December 2005. Prenatal exposures to maternal diabetes, malnutrition, and cigarette smoking were examined, and primary study outcome was childhood overweight or obesity as measured by body mass index (BMI) for children ages 5 to 21. Four of six included studies of prenatal exposure to maternal diabetes found higher prevalence of childhood overweight or obesity among offspring of diabetic mothers, with the highest quality study reporting an odds ratio of adolescent overweight of 1.4 (95% CI 1.0-1.9). The Dutch famine study found that exposure to maternal malnutrition in early, but not late, gestation was associated with increased odds of childhood obesity (OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.5-2.4). All eight included studies of prenatal exposure to maternal smoking showed significantly increased odds of childhood overweight and obesity, with most odds ratios clustering around 1.5 to 2.0. The biological mechanisms mediating these relationships are unknown but may be partially related to programming of insulin, leptin, and glucocorticoid resistance in utero. Our review supports prenatal programming of childhood overweight and obesity. MCH research, practice, and policy need to consider the prenatal period a window of opportunity for obesity prevention.

  5. Assessing The Quality In Different U S Early Childhood Education Programs

    OpenAIRE

    BULDU, Dr. Mehmet; YILMAZ, Arif

    2013-01-01

    : The aim of this study was to assess the quality of different types of early childhood education programs in a Midwestern university town in the US This study reveals the structural and process characteristics observed in the classrooms according to the results from the application of the Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale Revised Edition ECERS R Additional evidences such as sketches of classrooms photographs of classrooms daily classroom schedules overall program philosophy an...

  6. Revealing the programming process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennedsen, Jens; Caspersen, Michael Edelgaard

    2005-01-01

    One of the most important goals of an introductory programming course is that the students learn a systematic approach to the development of computer programs. Revealing the programming process is an important part of this; however, textbooks do not address the issue -- probably because...... the textbook medium is static and therefore ill-suited to expose the process of programming. We have found that process recordings in the form of captured narrated programming sessions are a simple, cheap, and efficient way of providing the revelation.We identify seven different elements of the programming...

  7. Process control program development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dameron, H.J.

    1985-01-01

    This paper details the development and implementation of a ''Process Control Program'' at Duke Power's three nuclear stations - Oconee, McGuire, and Catawba. Each station is required by Technical Specification to have a ''Process Control Program'' (PCP) to control all dewatering and/or solidification activities for radioactive wastes

  8. Financing Early Childhood Education Programs: State, Federal, and Local Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hustedt, Jason T.; Barnett, W. Steven

    2011-01-01

    The landscape of financing early childhood education in the U.S. is complex. Programs run the gamut from tuition-supported private centers to public programs supported by federal, state, or local funds. Different funding streams are poorly coordinated. The federal government funds several major targeted programs that are available only to specific…

  9. Five-Star Schools: Defining Quality in Early Childhood Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertzog, Nancy B.

    2012-01-01

    Hakeem, Emily, Jose, and Latisha are all entering preschool in the fall. Their mothers are looking for the highest quality early childhood program they can find. Is there a guide for them to find a five-star program? Are all certified or accredited programs of equal quality? How do these parents and guardians know what defines quality in early…

  10. Curricular Ethics in Early Childhood Education Programming: A Challenge to the Ontario Kindergarten Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heydon, Rachel M.; Wang, Ping

    2006-01-01

    Through a case study of a key Canadian early childhood education program, The Kindergarten Program (Ontario Ministry of Education and Training, 1998a), we explore the relationship between curricular paradigms and early childhood education (ECE) models, and the opportunities that each creates for enacting ethical teaching and learning…

  11. School Nutrition Programs and the Incidence of Childhood Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millimet, Daniel L.; Tchernis, Rusty; Husain, Muna

    2010-01-01

    Given the recent rise in childhood obesity, the School Breakfast Program (SBP) and National School Lunch Program (NSLP) have received renewed attention. Using panel data on more than 13,500 primary school students, we assess the relationship between SBP and NSLP participation and (relatively) long-run measures of child weight. After documenting a…

  12. Assessing Costs and Benefits of Early Childhood Intervention Programs. Overview and Applicaton to the Starting Early Starting Smart Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Karoly, Lynn

    2001-01-01

    Agency and program administrators and decisionmakers responsible for implementing early childhood intervention programs are becoming more interested in quantifying the costs and benefits of such programs...

  13. Investing in Kids: Early Childhood Programs and Local Economic Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartik, Timothy J.

    2011-01-01

    Early childhood programs, if designed correctly, pay big economic dividends down the road because they increase the skills of their participants. And since many of those participants will remain in the same state or local area as adults, the local economy benefits: more persons with better skills attract business, which provides more and better…

  14. Using Intervention Mapping for child development and wellbeing programs in early childhood education and care settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Amanda; Blewitt, Claire; Nolan, Andrea; Skouteris, Helen

    2018-06-01

    Supporting children's social and emotional learning benefits all elements of children's development and has been associated with positive mental health and wellbeing, development of values and life skills. However, literature relating to the creation of interventions designed for use within the early childhood education and care settings to support children's social and emotional skills and learning is lacking. Intervention Mapping (IM) is a systematic intervention development framework, utilising principles centred on participatory co-design methods, multiple theoretical approaches and existing literature to enable effective decision-making during the development process. Early childhood pedagogical programs are also shaped by these principles; however, educators tend to draw on implicit knowledge when working with families. IM offers this sector the opportunity to formally incorporate theoretical, evidence-based research into the development of early childhood education and care social and emotional interventions. Emerging literature indicates IM is useful for designing health and wellbeing interventions for children within early childhood education and care settings. Considering the similar underlying principles of IM, existing applications within early childhood education and care and development of interventions beyond health behaviour change, it is recommended IM be utilised to design early childhood education and care interventions focusing on supporting children's social and emotional development. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Attachment in Middle Childhood: Associations with Information Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Peter; Iwanski, Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    Attachment theory suggests that internal working models of self and significant others influence adjustment during development by controlling information processing and self-regulation. We provide a conceptual overview on possible mechanisms linking attachment and information processing and review the current literature in middle childhood.…

  16. A Mobile Application That Allows Children in the Early Childhood to Program Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kryscia Ramírez-Benavides

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Children born in the Information Age are digital natives; this characteristic should be exploited to improve the learning process through the use of technology. This paper addresses the design, construction, and evaluation process of TITIBOTS, a programming assistance tool for mobile devices that allows children in the early childhood to create programs and execute them using robots. We present the results of using TITIBOTS in different scenarios with children between 4 and 6 years old. The insight obtained in the development and evaluation of the tool could be useful when creating applications for children in the early childhood. The results were promising; children liked the application and were willing to continue using it to program robots to solve specific tasks, developing the skills of the 21st century.

  17. 76 FR 12978 - Advisory Committee on the Maternal, Infant and Early Childhood Home Visiting Program Evaluation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-09

    ... and Early Childhood Home Visiting Program Evaluation will meet for its first session on Wednesday... Administration for Children and Families Advisory Committee on the Maternal, Infant and Early Childhood Home...: Advisory Committee on the Maternal, Infant and Early Childhood Home Visiting Program Evaluation. Date and...

  18. Early Childhood Program Participation, Results from the National Household Education Surveys Program of 2016. First Look. NCES 2017-101

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, Lisa; Steinley, Katrina

    2017-01-01

    This report presents findings from the Early Childhood Program Participation Survey of the National Household Education Surveys Program of 2016 (NHES:2016). The Early Childhood Program Participation Survey collected data on children's participation in relative care, nonrelative care, and center-based care arrangements. It also collected…

  19. Enhanced Processing of Vocal Melodies in Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Michael W.; Schellenberg, E. Glenn; Trehub, Sandra E.; Dawber, Emily J.

    2015-01-01

    Music cognition is typically studied with instrumental stimuli. Adults remember melodies better, however, when they are presented in a biologically significant timbre (i.e., the human voice) than in various instrumental timbres (Weiss, Trehub, & Schellenberg, 2012). We examined the impact of vocal timbre on children's processing of melodies.…

  20. Translating policies into practice: a framework to prevent childhood obesity in afterschool programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beets, Michael W; Webster, Collin; Saunders, Ruth; Huberty, Jennifer L

    2013-03-01

    Afterschool programs (3-6 p.m.) are positioned to play a critical role in combating childhood obesity. To this end, state and national organizations have developed policies related to promoting physical activity and guiding the nutritional quality of snacks served in afterschool programs. No conceptual frameworks, however, are available that describe the process of how afterschool programs will translate such policies into daily practice to reach eventual outcomes. Drawing from complex systems theory, this article describes the development of a framework that identifies critical modifiable levers within afterschool programs that can be altered and/or strengthened to reach policy goals. These include the policy environment at the national, state, and local levels; individual site, afterschool program leader, staff, and child characteristics; and existing outside organizational partnerships. Use of this framework and recognition of its constituent elements have the potential to lead to the successful and sustainable adoption and implementation of physical activity and nutrition policies in afterschool programs nationwide.

  1. Analyzing Process Quality of Early Childhood Education with Many Facet Rash Measurement Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basturk, Ramazan; Isikoglu, Nesrin

    2008-01-01

    Quality of early childhood education institutions specifically, dimensions of process quality should be evaluated. Purpose of this study is to analyze process quality of early childhood education by using many-facet Rasch measurement model (MFRM). In this study, data were collected from twelve early childhood education institutions by four…

  2. Perinatal programming of childhood asthma: early fetal size, growth trajectory during infancy, and childhood asthma outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Steve

    2012-01-01

    The "fetal origins hypothesis" or concept of "developmental programming" suggests that faltering fetal growth and subsequent catch-up growth are implicated in the aetiology of cardiovascular disease. Associations between reduced birth weight, rapid postnatal weight gain, and asthma suggest that there are fetal origins to respiratory disease. The present paper first summarises the literature relating birth weight and post natal growth trajectories to asthma outcomes. Second, issues regarding the interpretation of antenatal fetal ultrasound measurements are discussed. Finally, recent reports linking antenatal measurement and growth trajectory to early childhood asthma outcomes are discussed. Understanding the nature and timing of factors which influence antenatal growth may give important insight into the antecedents of early-onset asthma with implications for interventions.

  3. The Culture of Family: How a Model Early Childhood Teacher Preparation Program Navigates a Limited Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitecki, Elena

    2012-01-01

    This article examines an extraordinarily successful early childhood education teacher preparation program at an urban 2-year college struggling with retention. The Early Childhood Education Program in this case study is able to maintain a graduation rate that is over four times greater than that of the college average and has a reputation for…

  4. The Influence of an Early Childhood Program on Parental Involvement: Perceptions of Former Head Start Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croft, Stacey

    2017-01-01

    A key component of effective early childhood programs is collaborative relationships between schools, families, and the community (Fiese, Eckert, & Spagnola, 2005). One of these early childhood programs, Head Start, stands out among the others in its efforts to work with children, families, and communities to promote parental involvement. Some…

  5. STREAM: A First Programming Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caspersen, Michael Edelgaard; Kölling, Michael

    2009-01-01

    to derive a programming process, STREAM, designed specifically for novices. STREAM is a carefully down-scaled version of a full and rich agile software engineering process particularly suited for novices learning object-oriented programming. In using it we hope to achieve two things: to help novice......Programming is recognized as one of seven grand challenges in computing education. Decades of research have shown that the major problems novices experience are composition-based—they may know what the individual programming language constructs are, but they do not know how to put them together....... Despite this fact, textbooks, educational practice, and programming education research hardly address the issue of teaching the skills needed for systematic development of programs. We provide a conceptual framework for incremental program development, called Stepwise Improvement, which unifies best...

  6. Assessing Costs and Benefits of Early Childhood Intervention Programs. Overview and Application to the Starting Early Starting Smart Program. Executive Summary

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Karoly, Lynn

    2001-01-01

    Agency and program administrators and decisionmakers responsible for implementing early childhood intervention programs are becoming more interested in quantifying the costs and benefits of such programs...

  7. Making Childhood Asthma Management Education Happen in the Community: Translating Health Behavioral Research into Local Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krutzch, Christine B.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    A technology transfer project for getting initial community adoption of childhood asthma management programs is described. The evolution of the project, including development of programs, packaging considerations, establishment of partnerships, implementation, and evaluation are discussed. (Author/CH)

  8. Interrelated Processes toward Quality of Life in Survivors of Childhood Cancer: A Grounded Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsonis, Miranda; McDougall, Janette; Mandich, Angela; Irwin, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Past research has not adequately addressed the quality of life (QOL) of survivors of childhood cancer. The purpose of this study was to understand how QOL is experienced for individuals who have survived childhood cancer. Specific research questions included: (a) How do childhood cancer survivors define the concept of QOL and (b) What processes do…

  9. Psychometric characteristics of process evaluation measures for a school-based childhood obesity prevention study: Louisiana Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Process evaluations of large-scale school based programs are necessary to aid in the interpretation of the outcome data. The Louisiana Health (LA Health) study is a multi-component childhood obesity prevention study for middle school children. The Physical Education (PEQ), Intervention (IQ), and F...

  10. Unpacking vertical and horizontal integration: childhood overweight/obesity programs and planning, a Canadian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maclean, Lynne M; Clinton, Kathryn; Edwards, Nancy; Garrard, Michael; Ashley, Lisa; Hansen-Ketchum, Patti; Walsh, Audrey

    2010-05-17

    Increasingly, multiple intervention programming is being understood and implemented as a key approach to developing public health initiatives and strategies. Using socio-ecological and population health perspectives, multiple intervention programming approaches are aimed at providing coordinated and strategic comprehensive programs operating over system levels and across sectors, allowing practitioners and decision makers to take advantage of synergistic effects. These approaches also require vertical and horizontal (v/h) integration of policy and practice in order to be maximally effective. This paper examines v/h integration of interventions for childhood overweight/obesity prevention and reduction from a Canadian perspective. It describes the implications of v/h integration for childhood overweight and obesity prevention, with examples of interventions where v/h integration has been implemented. An application of a conceptual framework for structuring v/h integration of an overweight/obesity prevention initiative is presented. The paper concludes with a discussion of the implications of vertical/horizontal integration for policy, research, and practice related to childhood overweight and obesity prevention multiple intervention programs. Both v/h integration across sectors and over system levels are needed to fully support multiple intervention programs of the complexity and scope required by obesity issues. V/h integration requires attention to system structures and processes. A conceptual framework is needed to support policy alignment, multi-level evaluation, and ongoing coordination of people at the front lines of practice. Using such tools to achieve integration may enhance sustainability, increase effectiveness of prevention and reduction efforts, decrease stigmatization, and lead to new ways to relate the environment to people and people to the environment for better health for children.

  11. Unpacking vertical and horizontal integration: childhood overweight/obesity programs and planning, a Canadian perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley Lisa

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increasingly, multiple intervention programming is being understood and implemented as a key approach to developing public health initiatives and strategies. Using socio-ecological and population health perspectives, multiple intervention programming approaches are aimed at providing coordinated and strategic comprehensive programs operating over system levels and across sectors, allowing practitioners and decision makers to take advantage of synergistic effects. These approaches also require vertical and horizontal (v/h integration of policy and practice in order to be maximally effective. Discussion This paper examines v/h integration of interventions for childhood overweight/obesity prevention and reduction from a Canadian perspective. It describes the implications of v/h integration for childhood overweight and obesity prevention, with examples of interventions where v/h integration has been implemented. An application of a conceptual framework for structuring v/h integration of an overweight/obesity prevention initiative is presented. The paper concludes with a discussion of the implications of vertical/horizontal integration for policy, research, and practice related to childhood overweight and obesity prevention multiple intervention programs. Summary Both v/h integration across sectors and over system levels are needed to fully support multiple intervention programs of the complexity and scope required by obesity issues. V/h integration requires attention to system structures and processes. A conceptual framework is needed to support policy alignment, multi-level evaluation, and ongoing coordination of people at the front lines of practice. Using such tools to achieve integration may enhance sustainability, increase effectiveness of prevention and reduction efforts, decrease stigmatization, and lead to new ways to relate the environment to people and people to the environment for better health for children.

  12. Home safe home: Evaluation of a childhood home safety program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Tanya Charyk; Clark, Andrew; Gilliland, Jason; Miller, Michael R; Edwards, Jane; Haidar, Tania; Batey, Brandon; Vogt, Kelly N; Parry, Neil G; Fraser, Douglas D; Merritt, Neil

    2016-09-01

    The London Health Sciences Centre Home Safety Program (HSP) provides safety devices, education, a safety video, and home safety checklist to all first-time parents for the reduction of childhood home injuries. The objective of this study was to evaluate the HSP for the prevention of home injuries in children up to 2 years of age. A program evaluation was performed with follow-up survey, along with an interrupted time series analysis of emergency department (ED) visits for home injuries 5 years before (2007-2013) and 2 years after (2013-2015) implementation. Spatial analysis of ED visits was undertaken to assess differences in home injury rates by dissemination areas controlling differences in socioeconomic status (i.e., income, education, and lone-parent status) at the neighborhood level. A total of 3,458 first-time parents participated in the HSP (a 74% compliance rate). Of these, 20% (n = 696) of parents responded to our questionnaire, with 94% reporting the program to be useful (median, 6; interquartile range, 2 on a 7-point Likert scale) and 81% learning new strategies for preventing home injuries. The median age of the respondent's babies were 12 months (interquartile range, 1). The home safety check list was used by 87% of respondents to identify hazards in their home, with 95% taking action to minimize the risk. The time series analysis demonstrated a significant decline in ED visits for home injuries in toddlers younger than2 years of age after HSP implementation. The declines in ED visits for home injuries remained significant over and above each socioeconomic status covariate. Removing hazards, supervision, and installing safety devices are key facilitators in the reduction of home injuries. Parents found the HSP useful to identify hazards, learn new strategies, build confidence, and provide safety products. Initial finding suggests that the program is effective in reducing home injuries in children up to 2 years of age. Therapeutic/care management study

  13. The Current State of Early Childhood Education Programs: How Early Childhood Center Directors Manage Their Human Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arend, Lauren E.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Research in the field of early childhood education (ECE) demonstrated the association between skilled directors and high quality programs. Still, most state licensing requirements do not delineate the requisite knowledge or experience necessary to be an effective director. Many ECE directors advance to their position directly from the…

  14. A Call to Action: Addressing the Childhood Obesity Epidemic through Comprehensive School Counseling Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belser, Christopher T.; Morris, Jessica A.; Hasselbeck, Jennifer M.

    2012-01-01

    The need for school-based interventions targeting the childhood obesity epidemic has been well documented. The risk factors associated with childhood obesity are physical, mental, psychosocial, academic, and economic. With training in developing comprehensive programs and interventions, professional school counselors are positioned to assist…

  15. Early Childhood Development Policy and Programming in India: Critical Issues and Directions for Paradigm Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Adarsh; Sen, Rekha Sharma; Gulati, Renu

    2008-01-01

    The critical importance of the early childhood years and the rights perspective to human development has made policy and programming for early childhood development an imperative for every nation. In India, poverty, changing economic and social structures resulting in the breakdown of traditional coping mechanisms and family care systems, and the…

  16. Memory suppression is an active process that improves over childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro M Paz-Alonso

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available We all have memories that we prefer not to think about. The ability to suppress retrieval of unwanted memories has been documented in behavioral and neuroimaging research using the Think/No-Think (TNT paradigm with adults. Attempts to stop memory retrieval are associated with increased activation of lateral prefrontal cortex (PFC and concomitant reduced activation in medial temporal lobe (MTL structures. However, the extent to which children have the ability to actively suppress their memories is unknown. This study investigated memory suppression in middle childhood using the TNT paradigm. Forty children aged 8 to 12 and 30 young adults were instructed either to remember (Think or suppress (No-Think the memory of the second word of previously studied word-pairs, when presented with the first member as a reminder. They then performed two different cued recall tasks, testing their memory for the second word in each pair after the Think/No-Think phase using the same first studied word within the pair as a cue (intra-list cue and also an independent cue (extra-list cue. Children exhibited age-related improvements in memory suppression from age 8 to 12 in both memory tests, against a backdrop of overall improvements in declarative memory over this age range. These findings suggest that memory suppression is an active process that develops during late childhood, likely due to an age-related refinement in the ability to engage PFC to down-regulate activity in areas involved in episodic retrieval.

  17. Put Your Robot In, Put Your Robot Out: Sequencing through Programming Robots in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazakoff, Elizabeth R.; Bers, Marina Umaschi

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the impact of programming robots on sequencing ability in early childhood. Thirty-four children (ages 4.5-6.5 years) participated in computer programming activities with a developmentally appropriate tool, CHERP, specifically designed to program a robot's behaviors. The children learned to build and program robots over three…

  18. SENSORY PROCESSING DURING CHILDHOOD IN PRETERM INFANTS: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Ana Carolina Cabral de Paula; Oliveira, Suelen Rosa de; Magalhães, Lívia de Castro; Miranda, Débora Marques de; Bouzada, Maria Cândida Ferrarez

    2017-01-01

    To conduct a systematic search for grounded and quality evidence of sensory processing in preterm infants during childhood. The search of the available literature on the theme was held in the following electronic databases: Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (Medline)/PubMed, Latin American and Caribbean Literature in Health Sciences (Lilacs)/Virtual Library in Health (BVS), Índice Bibliográfico Español de Ciencias de la Salud (IBECS)/BVS, Scopus, and Web of Science. We included only original indexed studies with a quantitative approach, which were available in full text on digital media, published in Portuguese, English, or Spanish between 2005 and 2015, involving children aged 0-9years. 581 articles were identified and eight were included. Six studies (75%) found high frequency of dysfunction in sensory processing in preterm infants. The association of sensory processing with developmental outcomes was observed in three studies (37.5%). The association of sensory processing with neonatal characteristics was observed in five studies (62.5%), and the sensory processing results are often associated with gestational age, male gender, and white matter lesions. The current literature suggests that preterm birth affects the sensory processing, negatively. Gestational age, male gender, and white matter lesions appear as risk factors for sensoryprocessing disorders in preterm infants. The impairment in the ability to receivesensory inputs, to integrateand to adapt to them seems to have a negative effect on motor, cognitive, and language development of these children. We highlight the feasibility of identifying sensory processing disorders early in life, favoring early clinical interventions.

  19. Treating Childhood Malnutrition in Rural Haiti: Program Outcomes and Obstacles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuneo, C Nicholas; Dansereau, Emily; Habib, Anand R; Davies, Mary; Ware, Samuel; Kornetsky, Kenneth

    Haiti has the worst malnutrition rate in the Western hemisphere. In October 2010, a cholera epidemic erupted and spread rapidly throughout the country, straining Haiti's already fragile health infrastructure across all levels of care. This study reviews data from an outpatient therapeutic feeding program (OTP) for acute childhood malnutrition at a clinic in rural Haiti with a focus on the effect of the 2010 cholera epidemic on program operations. A retrospective chart review was conducted for the complete set of patients who were enrolled in the OTP from its inception in March 2009 through January 2014. A total of 187 charts were retrieved representing 176 unique patients, of whom 5 were currently enrolled in care. At admission, 96 (51.3%) met criteria for severe acute malnutrition, 88 (47.1%) met criteria for moderate acute malnutrition, and 3 (1.6%) did not meet criteria for acute malnutrition. Of the 182 completed charts, 119 (65.4%) reached their target weight (≥-1 weight-for-height z-score) by discharge (ie, were "cured"), 43 (23.6%) defaulted, 11 (6.0%) were discharged prematurely, 8 (4.4%) died, and 1 (0.5%) was hospitalized. A total of 11 patients (6.3%) who were initially admitted relapsed after discharge and were later readmitted. Data from 170 complete records (93.4%) were included in a multivariate logistic regression. Severe (vs moderate) acute malnutrition was negatively associated with likelihood of being cured when controlling for other patient- and care-related factors (OR = 0.261, P = .002). Average cholera burden was negatively correlated with likelihood of OTP treatment cure when controlling for patient- and care-related variables (OR = 0.859, P = .002) but was insignificant when controlling for year. Results from the study have been used to inform a restructuring of the clinic's acute malnutrition program toward a more community-centered model of management, the context and implications of which are discussed in relation to the existing

  20. Creating, Constructing, and Cultivating Professional Development within a Reggio-Inspired Early Childhood Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haigh, Karen M.

    2009-01-01

    The study examined the professional development system of an early childhood education program which was influenced by the Reggio Emilia Approach to early learning. This multi-site program thrived within low-income, inner-city communities of Chicago. Literature connected to the program's historical context of the Settlement House and the Reggio…

  1. Is Something Better than Nothing? An Evaluation of Early Childhood Programs in Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Nirmala; Sun, Jin; Pearson, Veronica; Pearson, Emma; Liu, Hongyun; Constas, Mark A.; Engle, Patrice L.

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the relative effectiveness of home-based, community-based, and state-run early childhood programs across Cambodia. A total of 880 five-year-olds (55% girls) from 6 rural provinces in Cambodia attending State Preschools, Community Preschools, Home-Based Programs, or no programs were assessed twice using the Cambodian…

  2. Rationale, Design, and Methods for Process Evaluation in the Childhood Obesity Research Demonstration Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Sitara; Stevens, Andria M; Ledoux, Tracey; O'Connor, Teresia M; O'Connor, Daniel P; Thompson, Debbe

    2015-01-01

    The cross-site process evaluation plan for the Childhood Obesity Research Demonstration (CORD) project is described here. The CORD project comprises 3 unique demonstration projects designed to integrate multi-level, multi-setting health care and public health interventions over a 4-year funding period. Three different communities in California, Massachusetts, and Texas. All CORD demonstration projects targeted 2-12-year-old children whose families are eligible for benefits under Title XXI (CHIP) or Title XIX (Medicaid). The CORD projects were developed independently and consisted of evidence-based interventions that aim to prevent childhood obesity. The interventions promote healthy behaviors in children by applying strategies in 4 key settings (primary care clinics, early care and education centers, public schools, and community institutions). The CORD process evaluation outlined 3 main outcome measures: reach, dose, and fidelity, on 2 levels (researcher to provider, and provider to participant). The plan described here provides insight into the complex nature of process evaluation for consortia of independently designed multi-level, multi-setting intervention studies. The process evaluation results will provide contextual information about intervention implementation and delivery with which to interpret other aspects of the program. Copyright © 2015 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. All rights reserved.

  3. Efficient separations & processing crosscutting program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    The Efficient Separations and Processing Crosscutting Program (ESP) was created in 1991 to identify, develop, and perfect chemical and physical separations technologies and chemical processes which treat wastes and address environmental problems throughout the DOE complex. The ESP funds several multiyear tasks that address high-priority waste remediation problems involving high-level, low-level, transuranic, hazardous, and mixed (radioactive and hazardous) wastes. The ESP supports applied research and development (R & D) leading to the demonstration or use of these separations technologies by other organizations within the Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Environmental Management.

  4. Childhood and education: between medicalization and subjectivation processes in school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Donizetti Pereira Leite

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study we assessed the thematic of child’s pathological process and we indicated a perspective view in which one has a series of possibilities of exercising the difference. If for some researchers this is a one-way street due to the advancement and evolution of scientific advances in Psychiatry, for others it is seen as the radicalization of the social control policy function through a process of standardization and straightening of differences. It is well known that problems of medicalization in Education has got strength in previous years. It directly involves disciplinary issues, in both sense of learning and «childish behavior». Among several factors explored in this study, we discussed the impact of the homogenization of the understanding of what learning is and the forms regarded as adequate for children behavior. In summary, this article aims (1 to problematize the «pathologization» of the education and of the child based on Michel Foucault’s analysis of the psychiatric power (and its implications for thinking about human development, (2 to point a perspective in which the childhood acquires other possibilities of exercising the difference based on Gilles Deleuze’s philosophy, (3 and to indicate some clues for thinking a non-medicalized education (or a pedagogy around the subjectivities.

  5. Analysis of the Education Program Approval Process: A Program Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fountaine, Charles A.; And Others

    A study of the education program approval process involving the Veterans Administration (VA) and the State Approving Agencies (SAAs) had the following objectives: to describe the present education program approval process; to determine time and costs associated with the education program approval process; to describe the approval process at…

  6. Moderating effects of childhood maltreatment on associations between social information processing and adult aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, P.; Coccaro, E. F.; Lee, R.; Jacobson, K. C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Associations between early life maltreatment, social information processing (SIP) and aggression in childhood and adolescence have been widely documented. Few studies have examined the importance of childhood maltreatment independent of SIP in the etiology of adult aggression. Furthermore, moderating effects of childhood maltreatment on the SIP–aggression links have not been explored. Method Hierarchical, multi-level models were fitted to data from n=2752 twins aged 20–55 years from the PennTwins Cohort. Adult aggression was assessed with the Life History of Aggression questionnaire. Childhood maltreatment was measured using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. Two aspects of SIP were examined : hostile attribution biases (HAB) ; negative emotional responses (NER). Results Childhood maltreatment was positively correlated with adult aggression, independently of HAB and NER. In addition, childhood maltreatment moderated the relationships between both aspects of SIP and adult aggression. Specifically, the relationship between NER and aggression was stronger among individuals with higher levels of childhood maltreatment and NER was not associated with aggression for adults who experienced low levels of childhood maltreatment. Moderating effects of childhood maltreatment on the NER–aggression link were supported for total childhood maltreatment, emotional neglect and emotional abuse. In contrast, HAB was more strongly associated with adult aggression at lower levels of emotional abuse and physical neglect. Conclusions The current study provides insight into the mechanisms by which early life experiences influence adult aggression. Our findings suggest that childhood maltreatment may not only lead to increased levels of aggression in adulthood but may also modify the associations between SIP and adult aggression. PMID:22008562

  7. Shifting Views: Exploring the Potential for Technology Integration in Early Childhood Education Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietze, Beverlie; Kashin, Diane

    2013-01-01

    Using technology with children in play-based early learning programs creates questions for some within the Early Childhood Education (ECE) community. This paper presents how two faculty who teach in ECE-related degree programs integrated educational technology into their teaching pedagogy as a way to model to their students how it can be used to…

  8. Standards & Procedures for Voluntary Accreditation of Early Childhood Education Programs in Missouri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missouri State Dept. of Elementary and Secondary Education, Jefferson City.

    Missouri has no laws or state regulations establishing accreditation requirements for early childhood education programs. State statutes authorize the Division of Family Services, Department of Social Services to license day care programs that operate more than 4 hours a day. However, these statutes presently exempt from licensure day care…

  9. Sensitive Situations. The DLM Early Childhood Program Professional Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiller, Pam

    Teachers know how to educate young children, but many feel ill-prepared when faced with students' emotional issues in the classroom. This book is intended as a resource for early childhood teachers who find themselves in the middle of such "sensitive situations." The information is presented by using a fictional, but typical, scenario…

  10. Steps to Implementing Technology in Inclusive Early Childhood Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Catherine D.; Tredwell, Claire T.

    2015-01-01

    Twenty-first-century preschool children, with and without disabilities, may be found using technology, including assistive technologies, on a daily basis in their homes, schools, and communities. Early childhood educators are exploring opportunities to integrate technology and interactive media into the present-day curriculum. The authors suggest…

  11. The Importance of Father Involvement in Early Childhood Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ancell, Katherine S.; Bruns, Deborah A.; Chitiyo, Jonathan

    2018-01-01

    Active family involvement in Early Childhood Special Education (ECSE) is regarded as a beneficial factor in young children's learning and development. One definition of family involvement is the active role parents take in their child's development and the knowledge and participation they share with professionals who are part of the child's daily…

  12. Cost-benefit analysis of childhood asthma management through school-based clinic programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Teresa; Bame, Sherry I

    2011-04-01

    Asthma is a leading chronic illness among American children. School-based health clinics (SBHCs) reduced expensive ER visits and hospitalizations through better healthcare access and monitoring in select case studies. The purpose of this study was to examine the cost-benefit of SBHC programs in managing childhood asthma nationwide for reduction in medical costs of ER, hospital and outpatient physician care and savings in opportunity social costs of lowing absenteeism and work loss and of future earnings due to premature deaths. Eight public data sources were used to compare costs of delivering primary and preventive care for childhood asthma in the US via SBHC programs, including direct medical and indirect opportunity costs for children and their parents. The costs of nurse staffing for a nationwide SBHC program were estimated at $4.55 billion compared to the estimated medical savings of $1.69 billion, including ER, hospital, and outpatient care. In contrast, estimated total savings for opportunity costs of work loss and premature death were $23.13 billion. Medical savings alone would not offset the expense of implementing a SBHC program for prevention and monitoring childhood asthma. However, even modest estimates of reducing opportunity costs of parents' work loss would be far greater than the expense of this program. Although SBHC programs would not be expected to affect the increasing prevalence of childhood asthma, these programs would be designed to reduce the severity of asthma condition with ongoing monitoring, disease prevention and patient compliance.

  13. Childhood trauma exposure disrupts the automatic regulation of emotional processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marusak, Hilary A; Martin, Kayla R; Etkin, Amit; Thomason, Moriah E

    2015-03-13

    Early-life trauma is one of the strongest risk factors for later emotional psychopathology. Although research in adults highlights that childhood trauma predicts deficits in emotion regulation that persist decades later, it is unknown whether neural and behavioral changes that may precipitate illness are evident during formative, developmental years. This study examined whether automatic regulation of emotional conflict is perturbed in a high-risk urban sample of trauma-exposed children and adolescents. A total of 14 trauma-exposed and 16 age-, sex-, and IQ-matched comparison youth underwent functional MRI while performing an emotional conflict task that involved categorizing facial affect while ignoring an overlying emotion word. Engagement of the conflict regulation system was evaluated at neural and behavioral levels. Results showed that trauma-exposed youth failed to dampen dorsolateral prefrontal cortex activity and engage amygdala-pregenual cingulate inhibitory circuitry during the regulation of emotional conflict, and were less able to regulate emotional conflict. In addition, trauma-exposed youth showed greater conflict-related amygdala reactivity that was associated with diminished levels of trait reward sensitivity. These data point to a trauma-related deficit in automatic regulation of emotional processing, and increase in sensitivity to emotional conflict in neural systems implicated in threat detection. Aberrant amygdala response to emotional conflict was related to diminished reward sensitivity that is emerging as a critical stress-susceptibility trait that may contribute to the emergence of mental illness during adolescence. These results suggest that deficits in conflict regulation for emotional material may underlie heightened risk for psychopathology in individuals that endure early-life trauma.

  14. Community Stakeholders' Perceptions of Major Factors Influencing Childhood Obesity, the Feasibility of Programs Addressing Childhood Obesity, and Persisting Gaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganter, Claudia; Aftosmes-Tobio, Alyssa; Chuang, Emmeline; Blaine, Rachel E; Land, Thomas; Davison, Kirsten K

    2016-04-01

    Prior research has identified numerous factors contributing to increased rates of childhood obesity. However, few studies have focused explicitly on the experience of community stakeholders in low-income communities. This study sought to capture the perspectives of these on-the-ground experts regarding major factors contributing to childhood obesity as well as gaps in current prevention and control efforts. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 39 stakeholders from different community sectors (e.g., healthcare providers, childcare providers, teachers). Data were drawn from the Massachusetts Childhood Obesity Research Demonstration project, a multi-level, multi-sector intervention designed to reduce childhood obesity being implemented in two low-income communities in Massachusetts. Interviews were conducted at baseline, transcribed, coded using grounded theory approach, and analyzed in NVivo 10.0. The vast majority of stakeholders had recently participated in obesity prevention strategies, and nearly all of them identified gaps in prevention efforts either within their organizations or in the broader community. In addition to factors previously identified in the literature, several themes emerged including the need to change policies to increase physical activity during school, offer healthier snacks in schools and afterschool programs, and increase communication and collaboration within the community in prevention efforts. Community stakeholders can impact the success of interventions by bridging the gap between science and lived experience. The results of this study can guide future research by highlighting the importance of including stakeholders' frontline experiences with target populations, and using information on identified gaps to augment intervention planning efforts.

  15. Operator programs and operator processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Walters, P.

    2003-01-01

    We define a notion of program which is not a computer program but an operator program: a detailed description of actions performed and decisions taken by a human operator (computer user) performing a task to achieve a goal in a simple setting consisting of that user, one or more computers and a

  16. Perinatal Programming of Childhood Asthma: Early Fetal Size, Growth Trajectory during Infancy, and Childhood Asthma Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Turner

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The “fetal origins hypothesis” or concept of “developmental programming” suggests that faltering fetal growth and subsequent catch-up growth are implicated in the aetiology of cardiovascular disease. Associations between reduced birth weight, rapid postnatal weight gain, and asthma suggest that there are fetal origins to respiratory disease. The present paper first summarises the literature relating birth weight and post natal growth trajectories to asthma outcomes. Second, issues regarding the interpretation of antenatal fetal ultrasound measurements are discussed. Finally, recent reports linking antenatal measurement and growth trajectory to early childhood asthma outcomes are discussed. Understanding the nature and timing of factors which influence antenatal growth may give important insight into the antecedents of early-onset asthma with implications for interventions.

  17. The Better Early Childhood Development Program: An Innovative Brazilian Public Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Alessandra; Ramires, Vera Regina; Paiva, Maria da Graca Gomes; Almeida, Leila

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the pioneering experience of the Programa Primeira Infancia Melhor (the Better Early Childhood Development Program), also known as "PIM" that has been developed since 2003 in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. PIM's goal is to "provide guidance to families, based on their own culture and experiences, to…

  18. Reducing Early Childhood Tooth Decay: Strategies for State Medicaid and CHIP Dental Program Managers

    OpenAIRE

    Colin Reusch; Meg Booth; Leslie Foster

    2015-01-01

    Young children who are enrolled in Medicaid or the Children’s Health Insurance Program (CHIP) can be at risk for developing early childhood caries (ECC). ECC is a chronic bacterial infection that causes severe tooth decay and can begin to develop before baby teeth erupt.

  19. The Impact of the Shifting Knowledge Base, from Development to Achievement, on Early Childhood Education Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Kathleen P.

    2012-01-01

    Interest in child development as a knowledge base for early childhood education programs flourished in the 1970s as a result of the theories and philosophies of Jean Piaget and other cognitive developmentalists. During subsequent decades in America, reform movements emphasizing accountability and achievement became a political and social…

  20. Applicability and evaluation of a psychosocial intervention program for childhood cancer patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk-Lokkart, Elisabeth M.; Braam, Katja I.; Kaspers, Gertjan J L; van Dulmen-den Broeder, Eline; Takken, Tim; Grootenhuis, Martha A.; Streng, Isabelle C.; Bierings, Marc; Merks, Johannes H.; Eibrink, Marry; Veening, Margreet A.; Huisman, Jaap

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the applicability of a psychosocial intervention in childhood cancer patients. This individualized structured psychosocial program to enhance social-emotional functioning and coping with disease-related effects includes six sessions for children and two

  1. The Effect of Early Childhood Developmental Program Attendance on Future School Enrollment in Rural North India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazarika, Gautam; Viren, Vejoya

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of prior participation in early childhood developmental programs, considered endogenous, upon 7-18 years olds' school enrollment in rural North India. Analyses by age group of data from the World Bank's 1997-98 Survey of Living Conditions in Uttar Pradesh and Bihar reveal that 7-10 year olds, 11-14 year olds, and…

  2. Early Childhood Education Intervention Programs in the Netherlands: Still Searching for Empirical Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driessen, Geert

    2018-01-01

    Early childhood education (ECE) intervention programs nowadays are the core of the educational disadvantage policy in the Netherlands. They offer institutional compensatory activities to young children who lack educational stimulation in the home environment. Target groups mainly comprise children from deprived socioeconomic backgrounds and of…

  3. Together and Equal: Fostering Cooperative Play and Promoting Gender Equity in Early Childhood Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlank, Carol Hilgartner; Metzger, Barbara

    Noting the need to promote gender equity and foster cooperative play between boys and girls in early childhood programs, this guide presents ways that teachers and parents of young children can help all children realize their potential, regardless of gender, and help children learn to work and play together. Chapter 1, "Teaching for…

  4. Identifying Local Benefits of Early Childhood Development Programs Using Regional Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temple, Judy A.; Rolnick, Arthur J.

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a review of "Investing in Kids: Early Childhood Programs and Local Economic Development" by Timothy J. Bartik. Timothy Bartik's timely book contributes to an important conversation about the role of government in promoting investments in children in the years before traditional public schooling typically begins. Until…

  5. Can Authorization Reduce Poverty among Undocumented Immigrants? Evidence from the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals Program

    OpenAIRE

    Amuedo-Dorantes, Catalina; Antman, Francisca M.

    2016-01-01

    We explore the impact of authorization on the poverty exposure of households headed by undocumented immigrants. The identification strategy makes use of the 2012 Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) program, which provided a temporary work authorization and reprieve from deportation to eligible immigrants. Using a difference-in-differences approach, we compare DACA-eligible to DACA-ineligible likely unauthorized immigrants, before and after the program implementation. We find that DA...

  6. Community-level Moderators of a School-Based Childhood Sexual Assault Prevention Program

    OpenAIRE

    Morris, Matthew C.; Kouros, Chrystyna D.; Janecek, Kim; Freeman, Rachel; Mielock, Alyssa; Garber, Judy

    2016-01-01

    Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is highly prevalent and associated with a wide variety of negative mental and physical health outcomes. School-based CSA education and prevention programs have shown promise, but it is unclear to what extent community-level characteristics are related to their effectiveness. The present cluster randomized controlled trial evaluated community-level moderators of the Safe@Last program compared to a waitlist control condition. Knowledge gains from pre- to post-interv...

  7. Sustainable childhood obesity prevention through community engagement (SCOPE) program: evaluation of the implementation phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Bonnie; Daly, Amelia; Mâsse, Louise C; Collet, Jean-Paul; Higgins, Joan Wharf; Naylor, Patti-Jean; Amed, Shazhan

    2015-10-01

    Childhood obesity rates are steadily rising. Sustainable Childhood Obesity Prevention Through Community Engagement (SCOPE) is a community-based participatory action research (PAR) program aimed at preventing childhood obesity. This study aimed to describe community perspectives on, and elicit feedback about, SCOPE's first phase of implementation in two pilot cities in British Columbia, Canada. A case study was implemented using interviews and questionnaires to obtain feedback about SCOPE from two groups: SCOPE coordinators and stakeholders (i.e., individuals and organizations that were a member of the community and engaged with SCOPE coordinators). Participants were recruited via email and (or) by telephone. Coordinators completed a telephone interview. Stakeholders completed a questionnaire and (or) a telephone interview. Thematic analysis was conducted. Participants included 2 coordinators and 15 stakeholders. Participants similarly interpreted SCOPE as a program focused on raising awareness about childhood obesity prevention, while engaging multiple community sectors. Overall, participants valued the program's role in facilitating networking and partnership development, providing evidence-based resources, technical expertise, and contributing funding. Participants felt that SCOPE is sustainable. However, participants felt that barriers to achieving healthy weights among children included those related to the built environment, and social, behavioral, and economic obstacles. Perspectives on factors that facilitated and acted as barriers to SCOPE's first phase of implementation were obtained from the SCOPE communities and may be used to enhance the sustainability of SCOPE and its applicability to other BC communities.

  8. Childhood Obesity Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Local Programs Related Topics Diabetes Nutrition Childhood Obesity Facts Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On ... Children (WIC) Program, 2000-2014 Prevalence of Childhood Obesity in the United States Childhood obesity is a ...

  9. The Development of a Program of Study for a Bachelor's Degree in Early Childhood Education in Belize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez Valladares, Melissa Dilieth

    2017-01-01

    Presently, the highest degree a person interested in teaching at the early childhood level in Belize is the Associate's Degree in Early Childhood Education. The purpose of this project was to design a program of undergraduate coursework in the area of teacher preparation that will meet university qualifications for a Bachelor's Degree in Early…

  10. Childhood Adversity and Men’s Relationships in Adulthood: Life Course Processes and Racial Disadvantage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomeer, Mieke Beth; Williams, Kristi; Thomas, Patricia A.; Liu, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Prior U.S. population studies have found that childhood adversity influences the quality of relationships in adulthood, with emerging research suggesting that this association might be especially strong for black men. We theorize psychosocial and behavioral coping responses to early life adversity and how these responses may link early life adversity to strain in men’s relationships with their indeterminate partners and children across the life course, with attention to possible racial variation in these experiences and implications for later life well-being. Method: We analyze in-depth interviews with 15 black men and 15 white men. We use qualitative analysis techniques to connect childhood experiences to psychosocial processes in childhood and behavioral coping strategies associated with relationship experiences throughout adulthood. Results: Black men describe much stronger and more persistent childhood adversity than do white men. Findings further suggest that childhood adversity contributes to psychosocial processes (e.g., diminished sense of mastery) that may lead to ways of coping with adversity (e.g., self-medication) that are likely to contribute to relationship difficulties throughout the life span. Discussion: A life course perspective directs attention to the early life origins of cumulative patterns of social disadvantage, patterns that extend to later life. Our findings suggest psychosocial and behavioral pathways through which early life adversity may constrain and strain men’s relationships, possibly contributing to racial inequality in family relationships across the life span. PMID:26589348

  11. The early childhood oral health program: a qualitative study of the perceptions of child and family health nurses in South Western Sydney, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veale, Maxine; Ajwani, Shilpi; Johnson, Maree; Nash, Linda; Patterson, Tiffany; George, Ajesh

    2016-05-16

    Early childhood caries affects nearly half the population of Australian children aged 5 years and has the potential to negatively impact their growth and development. To address this issue, an Early Childhood Oral Health (ECOH) program, facilitated by Child and Family Health Nurses (CFHNs), commenced in 2007 in New South Wales, Australia. This study builds on the previous evaluation of the program. It aims to explore the perceptions of CFHNs regarding the implementation of the ECOH program in South Western Sydney and the challenges and barriers related to its sustainability. A descriptive qualitative design was used in this study. Two focus groups were conducted with 22 CFHNs who were sampled from two Community Health Centres in South Western Sydney, Australia. Data were transcribed verbatim and thematic analysis was undertaken. Most CFHNs acknowledged the importance of early childhood oral health promotion and were providing education, oral assessments and referrals during child health checks. Many stressed the need for collaboration with other health professionals to help broaden the scope of the program. Some barriers to implementing the program included confusion regarding the correct referral process, limited feedback from dental services and the lack of oral health awareness among parents. The study findings suggest that the ECOH program is being sustained and effectively implemented into practice by CFHNs. Improvement in the referral and feedback process as well as enhancing parental knowledge of the importance of infant and child oral health could further strengthen the effectiveness of the program. Expanding oral health education opportunities into general practice is advocated, while regular on-line training for CFHNs is preferred. Future research should include strategies to reduce non-attendances, and an assessment of the impact on the prevalence of childhood caries of the ECOH program.

  12. [Preoperative psychoprophylaxis in childhood. Results of a hospital program].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Admetlla i Admetlla, I A; Jover i Fulgueira, S

    1988-05-01

    Results of a surgical psychoprophylaxis program, theoretically and technically framed within psychoanalytic theory is presented. It also comprises a description of the method used, as well as criteria by which authors have determined whether or not a child is ready for surgery. Results obtained with 134 children and a description of those who showed post-surgical disturbances are presented. Analysis is carried out of the percentage of disorders according to age group, showing that highest risk is among children up to five years of age, coinciding with the finding put forth by other authors. Finally some conclusions in relation to prevention of psychologic iatrogenic disorders in pediatric surgery are drawn.

  13. Causes and patterns of referral to a tertiary, multidisciplinary program for the treatment of childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaeger-Yarom, Gili; Nemet, Dan; Eliakim, Alon

    2011-01-01

    Despite the childhood obesity epidemic, few obese children receive therapy and relatively few weight management multidisciplinary programs exist. The objective of this study was to examine the patterns and causes for obese children referrals to a tertiary multidisciplinary childhood obesity treatment program. A total of 227 children (10.6 +/- 2.6 years; 108 boys, 119 girls) were evaluated at the beginning of the programs for personal and familial demographic and anthropometric details, the referring agent to the program, and the main reasons for participation and for the child's desire to lose weight. The majority of participants had an obese family member (83%), in particular an obese parent (62%). The majority of patients were self-referred (86.8%), mainly by their mothers (74%). Only a small fraction were referred by healthcare providers (15.4%). The desire to improve appearance (44.5%), social/psychological issues (39.2%) and the will to improve fitness (29.5%) were the main reasons for joining the program. Understanding the motives for participation and referral patterns can improve recruitment and participation of obese children in weight reduction intervention programs.

  14. Self-Regulation Processes and Thriving in Childhood and Adolescence: A View of the Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Richard M.; Lerner, Jacqueline V.; Bowers, Edmond P.; Lewin-Bizan, Selva; Gestsdottir, Steinunn; Urban, Jennifer Brown

    2011-01-01

    Both organismic and intentional self-regulation processes must be integrated across childhood and adolescence for adaptive developmental regulations to exist and for the developing person to thrive, both during the first two decades of life and through the adult years. To date, such an integrated, life-span approach to self-regulation during…

  15. Associations between structural quality aspects and process quality in Dutch early childhood education and care settings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slot, P.L.; Leseman, P.P.M.; Verhagen, J.; Mulder, H.

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between structural quality and process quality in early childhood education and care (ECEC) has been addressed in several studies. However, the findings are not conclusive. The present study was conducted in the Netherlands, which has a strongly regulated mid-quality ECEC system

  16. Grief and Coping in Early Childhood: The Role of Communication in the Mourning Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostler, Teresa

    2010-01-01

    This article draws on interviews with women who experienced the death of their mothers during early childhood to explore the grieving process of a child for a lost parent. The author describes the women's recollections of how the loss was talked about, or not, in their families and how this impacted the women's mourning and coping. Most women who…

  17. The Role of Occupational Therapy in Community-Based Programming: Addressing Childhood Health Promotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Kugel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obesity and poor health habits impact youth’s health and occupational participation. Occupational therapy’s role in preventing and treating obesity continues to emerge in the research literature. This article explores the impact of a community-based program emphasizing health and wellness for female youth. Methods: Five girls 11 to 13 years of age participated in the healthy occupations program. Before and after the program, the participants engaged in an individual semi-structured interview and completed the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure and the CATCH Kids Club Questionnaire. The youth participated in a focus group midprogram. Results: The participants were receptive to information regarding healthy behaviors and initiated positive health behavior changes after implementation of a 7-week healthy lifestyle community- based program. Conclusion: Occupational therapy can collaborate with community partners to provide programming focused on health promotion and prevention as part of the interprofessional approach to preventing and treating childhood obesity and building healthier communities.

  18. Evaluation of the childhood obesity prevention program Kids - 'Go for your life'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gibbs Lisa

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Kids - 'Go for your life' (K-GFYL is an award-based health promotion program being implemented across Victoria, Australia. The program aims to reduce the risk of childhood obesity by improving the socio-cultural, policy and physical environments in children's care and educational settings. Membership of the K-GFYL program is open to all primary and pre-schools and early childhood services across the State. Once in the program, member schools and services are centrally supported to undertake the health promotion (intervention activities. Once the K-GFYL program 'criteria' are reached the school/service is assessed and 'awarded'. This paper describes the design of the evaluation of the statewide K-GFYL intervention program. Methods/Design The evaluation is mixed method and cross sectional and aims to: 1 Determine if K-GFYL award status is associated with more health promoting environments in schools/services compared to those who are members only; 2 Determine if children attending K-GFYL award schools/services have higher levels of healthy eating and physical activity-related behaviors compared to those who are members only; 3 Examine the barriers to implementing and achieving the K-GFYL award; and 4 Determine the economic cost of implementing K-GFYL in primary schools Parent surveys will capture information about the home environment and child dietary and physical activity-related behaviors. Environmental questionnaires in early childhood settings and schools will capture information on the physical activity and nutrition environment and current health promotion activities. Lunchbox surveys and a set of open-ended questions for kindergarten parents will provide additional data. Resource use associated with the intervention activities will be collected from primary schools for cost analysis. Discussion The K-GFYL award program is a community-wide intervention that requires a comprehensive, multi-level evaluation. The evaluation

  19. The Effect of a Classroom-Based Intensive Robotics and Programming Workshop on Sequencing Ability in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazakoff, Elizabeth R.; Sullivan, Amanda; Bers, Marina U.

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of programming robots on sequencing ability during a 1-week intensive robotics workshop at an early childhood STEM magnet school in the Harlem area of New York City. Children participated in computer programming activities using a developmentally appropriate tangible programming language CHERP, specifically designed…

  20. ENDF/B-V processing programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DayDay, N.

    1980-07-01

    A description and operating instructions are supplied for the following ENDF/B-V Processing Programs: CHECKER, CRECT, STNDRD, FIZCON, PSYCHE, RESEND, INTER, INTEND, SUMRIZ, PLOTEF, LSTFCV, RIGEL. These programs can be obtained on magnetic tape, free of charge, from the IAEA Nuclear Data Section. (author)

  1. Consumption of ultra-processed foods and body fat during childhood and adolescence: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Caroline Santos; Del-Ponte, Bianca; Assunção, Maria Cecília Formoso; Santos, Iná Silva

    2018-01-01

    To review the available literature on the association between consumption of ultra-processed foods and body fat during childhood and adolescence. A systematic review was conducted in the PubMed, Web of Science and LILACS databases. Studies that evaluated the association between consumption of ultra-processed food (exposure) and body fat (outcome) during childhood and adolescence were eligible. Healthy children and adolescents. Twenty-six studies that evaluated groups of ultra-processed foods (such as snacks, fast foods, junk foods and convenience foods) or specific ultra-processed foods (soft drinks/sweetened beverages, sweets, chocolate and ready-to-eat cereals) were selected. Most of the studies (n 15) had a cohort design. Consumption was generally evaluated by means of FFQ or food records; and body composition, by means of double indirect methods (bioelectrical impedance analysis and skinfolds). Most of the studies that evaluated consumption of groups of ultra-processed foods and soft drinks/sweetened beverages found positive associations with body fat. Our review showed that most studies have found positive associations between consumption of ultra-processed food and body fat during childhood and adolescence. There is a need to use a standardized classification that considers the level of food processing to promote comparability between studies.

  2. Maladaptive social information processing in childhood predicts young men's atypical amygdala reactivity to threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Daniel Ewon; Shaw, Daniel S; Forbes, Erika E

    2015-05-01

    Maladaptive social information processing, such as hostile attributional bias and aggressive response generation, is associated with childhood maladjustment. Although social information processing problems are correlated with heightened physiological responses to social threat, few studies have examined their associations with neural threat circuitry, specifically amygdala activation to social threat. A cohort of 310 boys participated in an ongoing longitudinal study and completed questionnaires and laboratory tasks assessing their social and cognitive characteristics the boys were between 10 and 12 years of age. At age 20, 178 of these young men underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging and a social threat task. At age 22, adult criminal arrest records and self-reports of impulsiveness were obtained. Path models indicated that maladaptive social information-processing at ages 10 and 11 predicted increased left amygdala reactivity to fear faces, an ambiguous threat, at age 20 while accounting for childhood antisocial behavior, empathy, IQ, and socioeconomic status. Exploratory analyses indicated that aggressive response generation - the tendency to respond to threat with reactive aggression - predicted left amygdala reactivity to fear faces and was concurrently associated with empathy, antisocial behavior, and hostile attributional bias, whereas hostile attributional bias correlated with IQ. Although unrelated to social information-processing problems, bilateral amygdala reactivity to anger faces at age 20 was unexpectedly predicted by low IQ at age 11. Amygdala activation did not mediate associations between social information processing and number of criminal arrests, but both impulsiveness at age 22 and arrests were correlated with right amygdala reactivity to anger facial expressions at age 20. Childhood social information processing and IQ predicted young men's amygdala response to threat a decade later, which suggests that childhood social

  3. Early Childhood Stuttering and Electrophysiological Indices of Language Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber-Fox, Christine; Wray, Amanda Hampton; Arnold, Hayley

    2013-01-01

    We examined neural activity mediating semantic and syntactic processing in 27 preschool-age children who stutter (CWS) and 27 preschool-age children who do not stutter (CWNS) matched for age, nonverbal IQ and language abilities. All participants displayed language abilities and nonverbal IQ within the normal range. Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were elicited while participants watched a cartoon video and heard naturally spoken sentences that were either correct or contained semantic or syntactic (phrase structure) violations. ERPs in CWS, compared to CWNS, were characterized by longer N400 peak latencies elicited by semantic processing. In the CWS, syntactic violations elicited greater negative amplitudes for the early time window (150–350 ms) over medial sites compared to CWNS. Additionally, the amplitude of the P600 elicited by syntactic violations relative to control words was significant over the left hemisphere for the CWNS but showed the reverse pattern in CWS, a robust effect only over the right hemisphere. Both groups of preschoolage children demonstrated marked and differential effects for neural processes elicited by semantic and phrase structure violations; however, a significant proportion of young CWS exhibit differences in the neural functions mediating language processing compared to CWNS despite normal language abilities. These results are the first to show that differences in event-related brain potentials reflecting language processing occur as early as the preschool years in CWS and provide the first evidence that atypical lateralization of hemispheric speech/language functions previously observed in the brains of adults who stutter begin to emerge near the onset of developmental stuttering. PMID:23773672

  4. The Program for the Prevention of Childhood Asthma: a specialized care program for children with wheezing or asthma in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urrutia-Pereira, Marilyn; Avila, Jennifer; Solé, Dirceu

    2016-01-01

    To present the Programa Infantil de Prevenção de Asma (PIPA, Program for the Prevention of Childhood Asthma) and the characteristics of the patients followed in this program. Implemented in the city of Uruguaiana, Brazil, PIPA has as its target population children and adolescents ( 3 years of age, respectively. Physician-diagnosed asthma was reported in 26.5% and 82.2%, respectively. In the sample as a whole, the prevalence of passive smoking was high (> 36%), occurring during pregnancy in > 15%; > 40% of the patients had been born by cesarean section; and 30% had a mother who had had < 8 years of schooling. A prevention program for children with asthma is an effective strategy for controlling the disease. Knowledge of local epidemiological and environmental characteristics is essential to reducing the prevalence of the severe forms of asthma, to improving the use of health resources, and to preventing pulmonary changes that could lead to COPD in adulthood.

  5. Software Engineering Program: Software Process Improvement Guidebook

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide experience-based guidance in implementing a software process improvement program in any NASA software development or maintenance community. This guidebook details how to define, operate, and implement a working software process improvement program. It describes the concept of the software process improvement program and its basic organizational components. It then describes the structure, organization, and operation of the software process improvement program, illustrating all these concepts with specific NASA examples. The information presented in the document is derived from the experiences of several NASA software organizations, including the SEL, the SEAL, and the SORCE. Their experiences reflect many of the elements of software process improvement within NASA. This guidebook presents lessons learned in a form usable by anyone considering establishing a software process improvement program within his or her own environment. This guidebook attempts to balance general and detailed information. It provides material general enough to be usable by NASA organizations whose characteristics do not directly match those of the sources of the information and models presented herein. It also keeps the ideas sufficiently close to the sources of the practical experiences that have generated the models and information.

  6. Positive emotions: A psychological tool for promoting resilience process in childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Greco

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this theoretical work is to assess the relation between the capacity to experiment positive emotions and the process of resilience throughout childhood. Our interest arises from two research works being carried out in the province of Mendoza, in Argentina (INCIHUSA-CRICYT-CONICET, directed by Dr Mirta Ison. One the so called “Assessment of resilience in childhood maltreatment”, and the other “ Positive emotions as psycological tools for fostering mental health throughout childhood within vulnerable social contexts”. Resilience is always associated to risky or vulnerable social situations. Positive emotions constitute a resource favorable to the development of resilience. This working hypothesis is based on previous studies which hold that positive emotions favor creative thinking for the solution of interpersonal problems, promote cognitive flexibility, reduce risks at decision making, promote replies to generosity and altruism, increase intelectual resources and counteract depressive tendencies among others. Other authors support the fact that the features a resilient child holds are closely connected to cognitive flexibility, to creative capacity, to the capacity for solving interpersonal problems, to self esteem and attachment links among others. Thus, positive emotions are believed to be one of the psycological resources and tools needed for the development of resilience throughout childhood

  7. Effect of Childhood Obesity Prevention Programs on Blood Pressure: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Li; Wu, Yang; Wilson, Renee F.; Segal, Jodi B.; Kim, Miyong T.; Wang, Youfa

    2015-01-01

    Background Childhood overweight and obesity are associated with elevated blood pressure (BP). However, little is known about how childhood obesity lifestyle prevention programs affect BP. We assessed the effects of childhood obesity prevention programs on BP in children in developed countries. Methods and Results We searched databases up to April 22, 2013 for relevant randomized controlled trials, quasi-experimental studies, and natural experiments. Studies were included if they applied a diet and/or physical activity intervention(s) and were followed for ≥1 year (or ≥ 6 months for school-based intervention studies); they were excluded if they targeted only overweight/obese subjects or those with a medical condition. In our meta-analysis, intervention effects were calculated for systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) using weighted random effects models. Of the 23 included intervention studies (involving 18,925 participants), 21 involved a school setting. Our meta-analysis included 19 studies reporting on SBP and 18 on DBP. The pooled intervention effect was −1.64 mmHg (95% CI: -2.56, −0.71; P=0.001) for SBP and -1.44 mmHg (95% CI: −2.28, −0.60; P=0.001) for DBP. The combined diet and physical activity interventions led to a significantly greater reduction in both SBP and DBP than the diet-only or physical activity-only intervention. Thirteen interventions (46%) had a similar effect on both adiposity-related outcomes and BP; while 11 interventions (39%) showed a significant desirable effect on BP, but not on adiposity-related outcomes. Conclusions Obesity prevention programs have a moderate effect on reducing BP and those targeting at both diet and physical activity seem to be more effective. PMID:24552832

  8. Effect of childhood obesity prevention programs on blood pressure: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Li; Wu, Yang; Wilson, Renee F; Segal, Jodi B; Kim, Miyong T; Wang, Youfa

    2014-05-06

    Childhood overweight and obesity are associated with elevated blood pressure (BP). However, little is known about how childhood obesity lifestyle prevention programs affect BP. We assessed the effects of childhood obesity prevention programs on BP in children in developed countries. We searched databases up to April 22, 2013, for relevant randomized, controlled trials, quasi-experimental studies, and natural experiments. Studies were included if they applied a diet or physical activity intervention(s) and were followed for ≥ 1 year (or ≥ 6 months for school-based intervention studies); they were excluded if they targeted only overweight/obese subjects or those with a medical condition. In our meta-analysis, intervention effects were calculated for systolic BP and diastolic BP with the use of weighted random-effects models. Of the 23 included intervention studies (involving 18 925 participants), 21 involved a school setting. Our meta-analysis included 19 studies reporting on systolic BP and 18 on diastolic BP. The pooled intervention effect was -1.64 mm Hg (95% confidence interval, -2.56 to -0.71; P=0.001) for systolic BP and -1.44 mm Hg (95% confidence interval, -2.28 to -0.60; P=0.001) for diastolic BP. The combined diet and physical activity interventions led to a significantly greater reduction in both systolic BP and diastolic BP than the diet-only or physical activity-only intervention. Thirteen interventions (46%) had a similar effect on both adiposity-related outcomes and BP, whereas 11 interventions (39%) showed a significant desirable effect on BP but not on adiposity-related outcomes. Obesity prevention programs have a moderate effect on reducing BP, and those targeting both diet and physical activity seem to be more effective.

  9. You Must Not Spank Your Children in America: Hmong Parenting Values, Corporal Punishment, and Early Childhood Intervention Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Mary Kay

    Conflicts between traditional Hmong values and traditional American parenting values are explored, drawing on the experiences of a coordinator of an Even Start program serving Hmong parents. Even Start is a state-funded early childhood intervention program with a literacy component for parents with less than an eighth grade proficiency in reading…

  10. Development and Feasibility of a Childhood Obesity Prevention Program for Rural Families: Application of the Social Cognitive Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knol, Linda L.; Myers, Harriet H.; Black, Sheila; Robinson, Darlene; Awololo, Yawah; Clark, Debra; Parker, Carson L.; Douglas, Joy W.; Higginbotham, John C.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Effective childhood obesity prevention programs for preschool children are limited in number and focus on changes in the child care environment rather than the home environment. Purpose: The purpose of this project was to develop and test the feasibility of a home environment obesity prevention program that incorporates mindful eating…

  11. SOLTECH 92 proceedings: Solar Process Heat Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-03-01

    This document is a limited Proceedings, documenting the presentations given at the symposia conducted by the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Solar Industrial Program and Solar Thermal Electrical Program at SOLTECH92. The SOLTECH92 national solar energy conference was held in Albuquerque, New Mexico during the period February 17--20, 1992. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory manages the Solar Industrial Program; Sandia National Laboratories (Albuquerque) manages the Solar Thermal Electric Program. The symposia sessions were as follows: (1) Solar Industrial Program and Solar Thermal Electric Program Overviews, (2) Solar Process Heat Applications, (3) Solar Decontamination of Water and Soil; (4) Solar Building Technologies, (5) Solar Thermal Electric Systems, (6) PV Applications and Technologies. For each presentation given in these symposia, these Proceedings provide a one- to two-page abstract and copies of the viewgraphs and/or 35mm slides utilized by the speaker. Some speakers provided additional materials in the interest of completeness. The materials presented in this document were not subjected to a peer review process.

  12. Webinar Presentation: Exposures to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Childhood Growth Trajectories and Body Composition: Linkages to Disrupted Self-Regulatory Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation, Exposures to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Childhood Growth Trajectories and Body Composition: Linkages to Disrupted Self-Regulatory Processes, was given at the NIEHS/EPA Children's Centers 2016 Webinar Series: Childhood Obesity

  13. [Advances in early childhood development: from neurons to big scale programs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael; Rizzoli-Córdoba, Antonio; Alonso-Cuevas, Aranzazú; Reyes-Morales, Hortensia

    Early childhood development (ECD) is the basis of countries' economic and social development and their ability to meet the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Gestation and the first three years of life are critical for children to have adequate physical, psychosocial, emotional and cognitive development for the rest of their lives. Nurturing care and protection of children during gestation and early childhood are necessary for the development of trillions of neurons and trillions of synapses necessary for development. ECD requires access to good nutrition and health services from gestation, responsive caregiving according to the child's developmental stage, social protection and child welfare, and early stimulation and learning opportunities. Six actions are recommended to improve national ECD programs: expand political will and funding; create a supportive, evidence-based policy environment; build capacity through inter-sectoral coordination; ensure fair and transparent governance of programs and services; increase support for multidisciplinary research; and promote the development of leaders. Mexico has made significant progress under the leadership of the Health Ministry, but still faces significant challenges. The recent creation of a national inter-sectoral framework to enable ECD with support of international organizations and the participation of civil society organizations can help overcome these challenges. Copyright © 2017 Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  14. A Diagnostic Marker to Discriminate Childhood Apraxia of Speech from Speech Delay: III. Theoretical Coherence of the Pause Marker with Speech Processing Deficits in Childhood Apraxia of Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shriberg, Lawrence D.; Strand, Edythe A.; Fourakis, Marios; Jakielski, Kathy J.; Hall, Sheryl D.; Karlsson, Heather B.; Mabie, Heather L.; McSweeny, Jane L.; Tilkens, Christie M.; Wilson, David L.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Previous articles in this supplement described rationale for and development of the pause marker (PM), a diagnostic marker of childhood apraxia of speech (CAS), and studies supporting its validity and reliability. The present article assesses the theoretical coherence of the PM with speech processing deficits in CAS. Method: PM and other…

  15. Psychometric characteristics of process evaluation measures for a rural school-based childhood obesity prevention study: Louisiana Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Robert L; Thomson, Jessica L; Rau, Kristi K; Ragusa, Shelly A; Sample, Alicia D; Singleton, Nakisha N; Anton, Stephen D; Webber, Larry S; Williamson, Donald A

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the implementation of intervention components of the Louisiana Health study, which was a multicomponent childhood obesity prevention program conducted in rural schools. Content analysis. Process evaluation assessed implementation in classrooms, gym classes, and cafeterias. Classroom teachers (n  =  232), physical education teachers (n  =  53), food service managers (n  =  33), and trained observers (n  =  9). Five process evaluation measures were created: Physical Education Questionnaire (PEQ), Intervention Questionnaire (IQ), Food Service Manager Questionnaire (FSMQ), Classroom Observation (CO), and School Nutrition Environment Observation (SNEO). Interrater reliability and internal consistency were assessed on all measures. Analysis of variance and χ(2) were used to compare differences across study groups on questionnaires and observations. The PEQ and one subscale from the FSMQ were eliminated because their reliability coefficients fell below acceptable standards. The subscale internal consistencies for the IQ, FSMQ, CO, and SNEO (all Cronbach α > .60) were acceptable. After the initial 4 months of intervention, there was evidence that the Louisiana Health intervention was being implemented as it was designed. In summary, four process evaluation measures were found to be sufficiently reliable and valid for assessing the delivery of various aspects of a school-based obesity prevention program. These process measures could be modified to evaluate the delivery of other similar school-based interventions.

  16. Process-aware web programming with Jolie

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montesi, F.

    2016-01-01

    We extend the Jolie programming language to capture the native modelling of process-aware web information systems, i.e., web information systems based upon the execution of business processes. Our main contribution is to offer a unifying approach for the programming of distributed architectures...... on the web, which can capture web servers, stateful process execution, and the composition of services via mediation. We discuss applications of this approach through a series of examples that cover, e.g., static content serving, multiparty sessions, and the evolution of web systems. Finally, we present...... a performance evaluation that includes a comparison of Jolie-based web systems to other frameworks and a measurement of its scalability. © 2016 Elsevier B.V....

  17. Early childhood experiences, parenting and the process of drug dependency among young people in Tehran, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirlashari, Jila; Demirkol, Apo; Salsali, Mahvash; Rafiey, Hassan; Jahanbani, Jahanfar

    2012-06-01

    Substance abuse has become a major public health problem in Iran. The process of developing an addiction is complex and multifaceted. Early childhood experiences are thought to be one of the important determinants of addictive behaviour. The aim of this qualitative study is to explore the early childhood experiences, especially the experiences within the immediate family, of current substance-using young adults in Iran. The study is qualitative in nature. In-depth interviews were conducted with 15 young men and women who were either in treatment for their addiction or were active drug users at the time of the interviews. Moreover, four interviews have been conducted with family members of participants. The majority of the participants experienced traumatic events during childhood and came from dysfunctional families. There appears to be a significant disconnect between these individuals and their families. An obedience-instilling parenting style and parents' knowledge and attitude toward drug using and prevention were also identified as important determinants of substance use. The results of this research point out the need for early interventions for at-risk families as well as at-risk individuals. © 2011 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  18. Sex-Specific Effects of Childhood Poverty on Neurocircuitry of Processing of Emotional Cues: A Neuroimaging Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash Javanbakht

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is accumulating evidence on the negative impacts of childhood poverty on physical and mental health. Previous work has suggested hyperactive neural response to social fear cues, as well as impairment in neural regulatory functions. However, despite differences found between males and females in stress-related and anxiety disorders, possible sex-specific effects of poverty on emotional processing have not been explored. Methods: We analyzed data from three previously reported experiments of childhood poverty effects on emotional processing and regulation, for sex-specific effects. Participants were 52 healthy Caucasian males and females, from a longitudinal cohort of poverty development study, who were recruited for examining the long-term effects of childhood poverty and stress. The three functional MRI studies included emotion regulation task, emotional face assessment task, and shifted attention emotion appraisal task. Brain activations that associated with childhood poverty previously were entered into a regression analysis with interaction of gender by childhood income-to-need ratio as the independent variable, and age and current income-to-need ratio as variables of no interest, separately for males and females. Results: Amygdala reactivity to implicitly processed fearful faces was positively correlated with childhood income-to-need in adult females but not males. On the other hand, activation in dorsolateral and ventrolateral prefrontal regions during emotion regulation by reappraisal was positively correlated with childhood income-to-need in males. Conclusion: Childhood poverty may exert sex-specific effects in adulthood as presented by hypersensitive emotional reactivity of the amygdala in females, and impaired emotion regulatory function of the prefrontal cortex in males. Results suggest further focus on sex-specific effects of childhood poverty.

  19. Training in childhood obesity management in the United States: a survey of pediatric, internal medicine-pediatrics and family medicine residency program directors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhodes Erinn T

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Information about the availability and effectiveness of childhood obesity training during residency is limited. Methods We surveyed residency program directors from pediatric, internal medicine-pediatrics (IM-Peds, and family medicine residency programs between September 2007 and January 2008 about childhood obesity training offered in their programs. Results The response rate was 42.2% (299/709 and ranged by specialty from 40.1% to 45.4%. Overall, 52.5% of respondents felt that childhood obesity training in residency was extremely important, and the majority of programs offered training in aspects of childhood obesity management including prevention (N = 240, 80.3%, diagnosis (N = 282, 94.3%, diagnosis of complications (N = 249, 83.3%, and treatment (N = 242, 80.9%. However, only 18.1% (N = 54 of programs had a formal childhood obesity curriculum with variability across specialties. Specifically, 35.5% of IM-Peds programs had a formal curriculum compared to only 22.6% of pediatric and 13.9% of family medicine programs (p Conclusions While most residents receive training in aspects of childhood obesity management, deficits may exist in training quality with a minority of programs offering a formal childhood obesity curriculum. Given the high prevalence of childhood obesity, a greater emphasis should be placed on development and use of effective training strategies suitable for all specialties training physicians to care for children.

  20. Training in childhood obesity management in the United States: a survey of pediatric, internal medicine-pediatrics and family medicine residency program directors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Margaret S; Rhodes, Erinn T; Ludwig, David S

    2010-02-17

    Information about the availability and effectiveness of childhood obesity training during residency is limited. We surveyed residency program directors from pediatric, internal medicine-pediatrics (IM-Peds), and family medicine residency programs between September 2007 and January 2008 about childhood obesity training offered in their programs. The response rate was 42.2% (299/709) and ranged by specialty from 40.1% to 45.4%. Overall, 52.5% of respondents felt that childhood obesity training in residency was extremely important, and the majority of programs offered training in aspects of childhood obesity management including prevention (N = 240, 80.3%), diagnosis (N = 282, 94.3%), diagnosis of complications (N = 249, 83.3%), and treatment (N = 242, 80.9%). However, only 18.1% (N = 54) of programs had a formal childhood obesity curriculum with variability across specialties. Specifically, 35.5% of IM-Peds programs had a formal curriculum compared to only 22.6% of pediatric and 13.9% of family medicine programs (p obesity training was competing curricular demands (58.5%). While most residents receive training in aspects of childhood obesity management, deficits may exist in training quality with a minority of programs offering a formal childhood obesity curriculum. Given the high prevalence of childhood obesity, a greater emphasis should be placed on development and use of effective training strategies suitable for all specialties training physicians to care for children.

  1. BUILDING A WORKFORCE COMPETENCY-BASED TRAINING PROGRAM IN INFANT/EARLY CHILDHOOD MENTAL HEALTH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priddis, Lynn E; Matacz, Rochelle; Weatherston, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    This article describes findings from a project conducted in Western Australia (Mental Health Commission WA, 2015) that investigated the education and training needs of the Infant/Early Childhood Mental Health (I/ECMH) workforce. We examined international training programs and models of delivery in infant mental health, including a review of the current training available in Australia. Data collected from over 60 interviews were analyzed, and a staged delivery model for I/ECMH training and supervision that aligned with the Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health (2014) Competency Guidelines was recommended. These findings led to the purchase of the Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health (2014) for use in Western Australia. In a very short time, use of the Michigan Competency Framework by the Australian Association for Infant Mental Health West Australian Branch Incorporated has begun to change the training and education opportunities for upskilling the infant and early childhood workforce in Western Australia. It has resulted in a map to guide and develop training in the I/ECMH field for individual practitioners and professionals as well as for workplaces that will ultimately benefit Western Australian infants, young children, and their families during the perinatal period and in the early years. © 2015 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  2. Effects of a Family-Based Childhood Obesity Treatment Program on Parental Weight Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trier, Cæcilie; Dahl, Maria; Stjernholm, Theresa; Nielsen, Tenna R H; Bøjsøe, Christine; Fonvig, Cilius E; Pedersen, Oluf; Hansen, Torben; Holm, Jens-Christian

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of overweight/obesity among parents of children entering childhood obesity treatment and to evaluate changes in the parents' weight statuses during their child's treatment. The study included parents of 1,125 children and adolescents aged 3-22 years, who were enrolled in a multidisciplinary childhood obesity treatment program. At baseline, weight and height of the parents were obtained by self-reported information and parental body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Weight and height of the children were measured in the clinic and BMI standard deviation scores were calculated. Furthermore, anthropometric data from parents of 664 children were obtained by telephone interview after a mean of 2.5 years of treatment (ranging 16 days to 7 years), and changes in parental BMI were analyzed. Data on changes in BMI were available in 606 mothers and 479 fathers. At baseline, the median BMI of the mothers was 28.1 kg/m2 (range: 16.9-66.6), and the median BMI of the fathers was 28.9 kg/m2 (range: 17.2-48.1). Seventy percent of the mothers and 80% of the fathers were overweight or obese at the time of their child's treatment initiation. Both the mothers and fathers lost weight during their child's treatment with a mean decrease in BMI in the mothers of 0.5 (95% CI: 0.2-0.8, p = 0.0006) and in the fathers of 0.4 (95% CI: 0.2-0.6, p = 0.0007). Of the overweight/obese parents, 60% of the mothers and 58% of the fathers lost weight during their child's treatment. There is a high prevalence of overweight/obesity among parents of children entering childhood obesity treatment. Family-based childhood obesity treatment with a focus on the child has a positive effect on parental BMI with both mothers and fathers losing weight. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00928473.

  3. The Efficient Separations and Processing Integrated Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhn, W.L.; Gephart, J.M.

    1994-08-01

    The Efficient Separations and Processing Integrated Program (ESPIP) was created in 1991 to identify, develop, and perfect separations technologies and processes to treat wastes and address environmental problems throughout the US Department of Energy (DOE) complex. The ESPIP funds several multiyear tasks that address high-priority waste remediation problems involving high-level, low-level, transuranic, hazardous, and mixed (radioactive and hazardous) wastes. The ESPIP supports applied R ampersand D leading to demonstration or use of these separations technologies by other organizations within DOE's Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management. Examples of current ESPIP-funded separations technologies are described here

  4. Temporal trends in childhood mortality in Ghana: impacts and challenges of health policies and programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gbenga A. Kayode

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Following the adoption of the Millennium Development Goal 4 (MDG 4 in Ghana to reduce under-five mortality by two-thirds between 1990 and 2015, efforts were made towards its attainment. However, impacts and challenges of implemented intervention programs have not been examined to inform implementation of Sustainable Development Goal 3.2 (SDG 3.2 that seeks to end preventable deaths of newborns and children aged under-five. Thus, this study aimed to compare trends in neonatal, infant, and under-five mortality over two decades and to highlight the impacts and challenges of health policies and intervention programs implemented. Design: Ghana Demographic and Health Survey data (1988–2008 were analyzed using trend analysis. Poisson regression analysis was applied to quantify the incidence rate ratio of the trends. Implemented health policies and intervention programs to reduce childhood mortality in Ghana were reviewed to identify their impact and challenges. Results: Since 1988, the annual average rate of decline in neonatal, infant, and under-five mortality in Ghana was 0.6, 1.0, and 1.2%, respectively. From 1988 to 1989, neonatal, infant, and under-five mortality declined from 48 to 33 per 1,000, 72 to 58 per 1,000, and 108 to 83 per 1,000, respectively, whereas from 1989 to 2008, neonatal mortality increased by 2 per 1,000 while infant and under-five mortality further declined by 6 per 1,000 and 17 per 1,000, respectively. However, the observed declines were not statistically significant except for under-five mortality; thus, the proportion of infant and under-five mortality attributed to neonatal death has increased. Most intervention programs implemented to address childhood mortality seem not to have been implemented comprehensively. Conclusion: Progress towards attaining MDG 4 in Ghana was below the targeted rate, particularly for neonatal mortality as most health policies and programs targeted infant and under-five mortality

  5. The Program for the Prevention of Childhood Asthma: a specialized care program for children with wheezing or asthma in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilyn Urrutia-Pereira

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective : To present the Programa Infantil de Prevenção de Asma (PIPA, Program for the Prevention of Childhood Asthma and the characteristics of the patients followed in this program. Methods : Implemented in the city of Uruguaiana, Brazil, PIPA has as its target population children and adolescents ( 3 years of age, respectively. Physician-diagnosed asthma was reported in 26.5% and 82.2%, respectively. In the sample as a whole, the prevalence of passive smoking was high (> 36%, occurring during pregnancy in > 15%; > 40% of the patients had been born by cesarean section; and 30% had a mother who had had < 8 years of schooling. Conclusions : A prevention program for children with asthma is an effective strategy for controlling the disease. Knowledge of local epidemiological and environmental characteristics is essential to reducing the prevalence of the severe forms of asthma, to improving the use of health resources, and to preventing pulmonary changes that could lead to COPD in adulthood.

  6. Processes of Metastudy: A Study of Psychosocial Adaptation to Childhood Chronic Health Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David B. Nichola

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Metastudy introduces a systematically aggregated interpretive portrayal of a body of literature, based on saturation and the synthesis of findings. In this metastudy, the authors examined qualitative studies addressing psychosocial adaptation to childhood chronic health conditions, published over a 30-year period (1970–2000. They describe metastudy processes, including study identification, strategies for study search and retrieval, adjudication of difference in study design and rigor, and analysis of findings. They also illustrate metastudy components through examples drawn from this project and discuss implications for practice and recommendations.

  7. Measuring Satisfaction with Family-Professional Partnership in Early Intervention and Early Childhood Special Education Programs in Qatar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hadad, Nawal Khalil

    2010-01-01

    Family-professional partnership has been considered a recommended practice in Early Intervention/Early Childhood Special Education (EI/ECSE) programs for young children with disabilities and their families for the past two decades. The importance of establishing successful partnerships between families and professionals in educational planning has…

  8. Childhood Obesity Study: A Pilot Study of the Effect of the Nutrition Education Program "Color My Pyramid"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Jean Burley; Pawloski, Lisa Renee; Goldberg, Patricia; Oh, Kyeung Mi; Stoehr, Ana; Baghi, Heibatollah

    2009-01-01

    The need for successful nutrition interventions is critical as the prevalence of childhood obesity increases. Thus, this pilot project examines the effect of a nutrition education program, "Color My Pyramid", on children's nutrition knowledge, self-care practices, activity levels, and nutrition status. Using a pretest-posttest,…

  9. Negative attitude of highly educated parents and health care workers towards future vaccinations in the Dutch childhood vaccination program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hak, E; Schönbeck, Y; De Melker, H; Van Essen, G A; Sanders, E A M

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is unknown whether further expansion of the Dutch childhood vaccination program with other vaccines will be accepted and whom should be targeted in educational strategies. AIM: To determine attitudes of parents towards possible future vaccinations for their children and the

  10. Process of pulmonary rehabilitation and program organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wouters, E F M; Augustin, I M L

    2011-09-01

    Pulmonary rehabilitation programs are highly directed to return patients suffering from chronic lung diseases to a state of self-help. These programs are largely organized as temporary interventions in a highly fragmented delivery care system for patients with chronic respiratory conditions. In an optimal health care organizational structure, pulmonary rehabilitation needs to be considered as an essential part of an individualized, integrated care process, organized from the vantage point of the patient and the patients'health continuum. Pulmonary rehabilitation programs need to become organized as patient-centered care, respectful of and responsive to individual patient preferences, needs and values. Partnering and communication skills are considered as drivers for successful rehabilitation. Assessment is considered as the cornerstone to evaluate the individual needs and problems in order to develop an individualized intervention. Pulmonary rehabilitation programs need to move away from a supply-driven functional organizational structure towards integrated structures, including the full range of medical expertise, technical skills and specialized facilities needed to compete on added value in the management of patients with chronic respiratory diseases.

  11. Addressing Prediabetes in Childhood Obesity Treatment Programs: Support from Research and Current Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grow, H. Mollie; Fernandez, Cristina; Lukasiewicz, Gloria J.; Rhodes, Erinn T.; Shaffer, Laura A.; Sweeney, Brooke; Woolford, Susan J.; Estrada, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and prediabetes have increased in prevalence among overweight and obese children, with significant implications for long-term health. There is little published evidence on the best approaches to care of prediabetes among overweight youth or the current practices used across pediatric weight management programs. Methods: This article reviews the literature and summarizes current practices for screening, diagnosis, and treatment of prediabetes at childhood obesity treatment centers. Findings regarding current practice were based on responses to an online survey from 28 pediatric weight management programs at 25 children's hospitals in 2012. Based on the literature reviewed, and empiric data, consensus support statements on prediabetes care and T2DM prevention were developed among representatives of these 25 children's hospitals' obesity clinics. Results: The evidence reviewed demonstrates that current T2DM and prediabetes diagnostic parameters are derived from adult-based studies with little understanding of clinical outcomes among youth. Very limited evidence exists on preventing progression of prediabetes. Some evidence suggests that a significant proportion of obese youth with prediabetes will revert to normoglycemia without pharmacological management. Evidence supports lifestyle modification for children with prediabetes, but further study of specific lifestyle changes and pharmacological treatments is needed. Conclusion: Evidence to guide management of prediabetes in children is limited. Current practice patterns of pediatric weight management programs show areas of variability in practice, reflecting the limited evidence base. More research is needed to guide clinical care for overweight youth with prediabetes. PMID:25055134

  12. Home visitation programs: An untapped opportunity for the delivery of early childhood obesity prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvy, Sarah-Jeanne; de la Haye, Kayla; Galama, Titus; Goran, Michael I.

    2016-01-01

    Background Extant obesity efforts have had limited impact among low-income underserved children, in part because of limitations inherent to existing programs: 1) short duration and low intensity; 2) late timing of implementation, when children are already overweight or obese; 3) intervention delivery limiting their accessibility and sustainability; and 4) failure to address barriers such as a lack of culturally competent services, poverty and housing instability, which interfere with healthy lifestyle changes. Objective This concept paper proposes an innovative model of obesity prevention implemented in infancy and sustained throughout early childhood to address the limitations of current obesity prevention efforts. Specifically, we propose to integrate sustained, weekly, in-home obesity prevention as part of the services already delivered by ongoing Home Visitation Programs, which currently do not target obesity prevention. Conclusion The home visiting structure represents an ideal model for impactful obesity prevention as home visitation programs: (1) already provide comprehensive services to diverse low-income infants and families who are most at risk for obesity and poor health due to socio-economic and structural conditions; (2) services are initiated in infancy and sustained throughout critical developmental periods for the formation of healthy/unhealthy behaviors; and (3) have been in place for more than 40 years, with a widespread presence across the United States and nationwide, which is critical for the scalability and sustainability of obesity prevention. PMID:27911984

  13. The Programming of the Social Brain by Stress During Childhood and Adolescence: From Rodents to Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzanoulinou, Stamatina; Sandi, Carmen

    2017-01-01

    The quality and quantity of social experience is fundamental to an individual's health and well-being. Early life stress is known to be an important factor in the programming of the social brain that exerts detrimental effects on social behaviors. The peri-adolescent period, comprising late childhood and adolescence, represents a critical developmental window with regard to the programming effects of stress on the social brain. Here, we discuss social behavior and the physiological and neurobiological consequences of stress during peri-adolescence in the context of rodent paradigms that model human adversity, including social neglect and isolation, social abuse, and exposure to fearful experiences. Furthermore, we discuss peri-adolescent stress as a potent component that influences the social behaviors of individuals in close contact with stressed individuals and that can also influence future generations. We also discuss the temporal dynamics programmed by stress on the social brain and debate whether social behavior alterations are adaptive or maladaptive. By revising the existing literature and defining open questions, we aim to expand the framework in which interactions among peri-adolescent stress, the social brain, and behavior can be better conceptualized.

  14. Home visitation programs: an untapped opportunity for the delivery of early childhood obesity prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvy, S-J; de la Haye, K; Galama, T; Goran, M I

    2017-02-01

    Extant obesity efforts have had limited impact among low-income underserved children, in part because of limitations inherent to existing programs: (i) short duration and low intensity; (ii) late timing of implementation, when children are already overweight or obese; (iii) intervention delivery limiting their accessibility and sustainability; and (iv) failure to address barriers such as a lack of culturally competent services, poverty and housing instability, which interfere with healthy lifestyle changes. This concept paper proposes an innovative model of obesity prevention implemented in infancy and sustained throughout early childhood to address the limitations of current obesity prevention efforts. Specifically, we propose to integrate sustained, weekly, in-home obesity prevention as part of the services already delivered by ongoing Home Visitation Programs, which currently do not target obesity prevention. The home visiting structure represents an ideal model for impactful obesity prevention as home visitation programs: (i) already provide comprehensive services to diverse low-income infants and families who are most at risk for obesity and poor health because of socio-economic and structural conditions; (ii) services are initiated in infancy and sustained throughout critical developmental periods for the formation of healthy/unhealthy behaviors; and (iii) have been in place for more than 40 years, with a widespread presence across the United States and nationwide, which is critical for the scalability and sustainability of obesity prevention. © 2016 World Obesity Federation.

  15. Logic-programming language enriches design processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitson, B.; Ow-Wing, K.

    1984-03-22

    With the emergence of a set of high-level CAD tools for programmable logic devices, designers can translate logic into functional custom devices simply and efficiently. The core of the package is a blockstructured hardware description language called PLPL, for ''programmable-logic programming language.'' The cheif advantage of PLPL lies in its multiple input formats, which permit different design approaches for a variety of design problems. The higher the level of the approach, the closer PLPL will come to directly specifying the desired function. Intermediate steps in the design process can be eliminated, along with the errors that might have been generated during those steps.

  16. School program for screening students at risk for diabetes: the School Nurse Childhood Obesity Prevention Education program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schantz, Shirley; Bobo, Nichole

    2009-07-01

    Accurate height and weight and BMI assessment by the school nurse is the first step in identifying students at risk for developing type 2 diabetes or other health consequences. Additional screening for children at or above the 95th percentile for BMI identifies those students most at risk. MAP affiliate sites indicate that when this assessment and communication is done in a private, sensitive, and caring manner--with emphasis on the health of the child-parents/ guardians are receptive to the information. School nurses, with the knowledge and skills provided by the S.C.O.P.E. program, alert parents/guardians to address their children's health risks and contact their health care providers. School nurses are also taught how they can provide guidance for school leadership and community coalitions to incorporate effective changes to food and physical activity offerings to students. The S.C.O.P.E. program can enhance the role of the school nurse in the global fight against childhood obesity so school-age children are healthy and ready to learn.

  17. Design and methods for evaluating an early childhood obesity prevention program in the childcare center setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natale Ruby

    2013-01-01

    . Discussion Although few attempts have been made to prevent obesity during the first years of life, this period may represent the best opportunity for obesity prevention. Findings from this investigation will inform both the fields of childhood obesity prevention and early childhood research about the effects of an obesity prevention program housed in the childcare setting. Trial registration Trial registration number: NCT01722032

  18. Design and methods for evaluating an early childhood obesity prevention program in the childcare center setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natale, Ruby; Scott, Stephanie Hapeman; Messiah, Sarah E; Schrack, Maria Mesa; Uhlhorn, Susan B; Delamater, Alan

    2013-01-28

    during the first years of life, this period may represent the best opportunity for obesity prevention. Findings from this investigation will inform both the fields of childhood obesity prevention and early childhood research about the effects of an obesity prevention program housed in the childcare setting. NCT01722032.

  19. Suitability of a structured Fundamental Movement Skills program for long day care centres: a process evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrunoff, Nick; Lloyd, Beverley; Watson, Natalie; Morrisey, David

    2009-04-01

    Early childhood presents an opportunity to encourage development of Fundamental Movement Skills (FMS). Implementation of a structured program in the Long Day Care (LDC) setting presents challenges. Implementation of a structured FMS program FunMoves was assessed in LDC in metropolitan New South Wales. LDC staff attended a training session conducted by trained Health Promotion Officers (HPOs) and completed an evaluation. During implementation HPOs completed lesson observations. De-identified attendance data was collected and director and staff feedback on the program including barriers to implementation was obtained via questionnaire. Qualitative information relevant to process evaluation was obtained via open questions on questionnaires, and a de-brief diary recording feedback from directors and staff. Knowledge of FMS and FunMoves and staff confidence to deliver the program were high after training. On average, staff stated they ran lessons more than the suggested twice weekly and the majority of children attended 1-3 lessons per week. However, lesson delivery was not as designed, and staff found FunMoves disruptive and time consuming. Six directors and the majority of staff thought that FunMoves could be improved. Structured program delivery was hampered by contextual issues including significant staff turnover and program length and structure being at odds with the setting. Implementation could be enhanced by guidelines for more flexible delivery options including less structured approaches, shorter and simpler lessons, ongoing conversations with the early childhood sector, in-centre engagement of staff and post-training support.

  20. Ameliorating the biological impacts of childhood adversity: A review of intervention programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purewal Boparai, Sukhdip K; Au, Vanessa; Koita, Kadiatou; Oh, Debora Lee; Briner, Susan; Burke Harris, Nadine; Bucci, Monica

    2018-05-01

    Childhood adversity negatively impacts the biological development of children and has been linked to poor health outcomes across the life course. The purpose of this literature review is to explore and evaluate the effectiveness of interventions that have addressed an array of biological markers and physical health outcomes in children and adolescents affected by adversity. PubMed, CINAHL, PsychInfo, Sociological Abstracts databases and additional sources (Cochrane, WHO, NIH trial registries) were searched for English language studies published between January 2007 and September 2017. Articles with a childhood adversity exposure, biological health outcome, and evaluation of intervention using a randomized controlled trial study design were selected. The resulting 40 intervention studies addressed cortisol outcomes (n = 20) and a range of neurological, epigenetic, immune, and other outcomes (n = 22). Across institutional, foster care, and community settings, intervention programs demonstrated success overall for improving or normalizing morning and diurnal cortisol levels, and ameliorating the impacts of adversity on brain development, epigenetic regulation, and additional outcomes in children. Factors such as earlier timing of intervention, high quality and nurturant parenting traits, and greater intervention engagement played a role in intervention success. This study underlines progress and promise in addressing the health impacts of adversity in children. Ongoing research efforts should collect baseline data, improve retention, replicate studies in additional samples and settings, and evaluate additional variables, resilience factors, mediators, and long-term implications of results. Clinicians should integrate lessons from the intervention sciences for preventing and treating the health effects of adversity in children and adolescents. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Shaping the “Habits of mind” of diverse learners in early childhood teacher education programs through powerpoint: An illustrative case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirova Anna

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the use of PowerPoint as a teaching tool in a workplace- embedded program aimed at bridging immigrant/refugee early childhood educators into post-secondary studies, and how, in the process, it shapes students’ “habits of mind” (Turkle, 2004. The premise of the study is that it is not only the bodies of knowledge shaping teacher education programs which must be interrogated, but also the ways in which instructors and programs choose to represent and impart these understandings to students. The use of PowerPoint to advance an authoritative western, linear, rule-governed form of logic is analyzed based on McLuhan and McLuhan’s (1988 and Adams’ (2006 tetrads. The findings demonstrate that Power- Point enhances western authoritative ways of being through its modes of communication and representation, means of organizing information, forms of representing content and pedagogical approaches, thus obsolescing or displacing immigrant/refugee students’ own indigenous ways of knowing. Since learning always involves the development, integration, and reorganization of tools, and the medium is an extension of the self (McLuhan, 2003, the students should have multimodal opportunities to engage with and represent knowledge. When such opportunities are not provided, the life experiences and cultural knowledges of immigrant/refugee students are silenced. Expanding communicative and representative forms in early childhood teacher education programs is necessary to promote a more inclusive environment.

  2. General programmed system for physiological signal processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tournier, E; Monge, J; Magnet, C; Sonrel, C

    1975-01-01

    Improvements made to the general programmed signal acquisition and processing system, Plurimat S, are described, the aim being to obtain a less specialized system adapted to the biological and medical field. In this modified system the acquisition will be simplified. The standard processings offered will be integrated to a real advanced language which will enable the user to create his own processings, the loss of speed being compensated by a greater flexibility and universality. The observation screen will be large and the quality of the recording very good so that a large signal fraction may be displayed. The data will be easily indexed and filed for subsequent display and processing. This system will be used for two kinds of task: it can either be specialized, as an integral part of measurement and diagnostic preparation equipment used routinely in clinical work (e.g. vectocardiographic examination), or its versatility can be used for studies of limited duration to gain information in a given field or to study new diagnosis or treatment methods.

  3. Spatial Processing in Infancy Predicts Both Spatial and Mathematical Aptitude in Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauer, Jillian E; Lourenco, Stella F

    2016-10-01

    Despite considerable interest in the role of spatial intelligence in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) achievement, little is known about the ontogenetic origins of individual differences in spatial aptitude or their relation to later accomplishments in STEM disciplines. The current study provides evidence that spatial processes present in infancy predict interindividual variation in both spatial and mathematical competence later in development. Using a longitudinal design, we found that children's performance on a brief visuospatial change-detection task administered between 6 and 13 months of age was related to their spatial aptitude (i.e., mental-transformation skill) and mastery of symbolic-math concepts at 4 years of age, even when we controlled for general cognitive abilities and spatial memory. These results suggest that nascent spatial processes present in the first year of life not only act as precursors to later spatial intelligence but also predict math achievement during childhood.

  4. Ensuring childhood vaccination among slums dwellers under the National Immunization Program in India - Challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sanjeev; Sahu, Damodar; Agrawal, Ashish; Vashi, Meeta Dhaval

    2018-04-04

    Almost, one third of the world's urban population resides in slums and the number would double by 2030. Slums denotes collection of people from various communities having a meagre income and living in unhygienic conditions thus making themselves most vulnerable for outbreaks of communicable diseases. India contributes substantially to the global disease burden and under-five mortality rates i.e. 20% attributable to vaccine preventable diseases. Immunization plays a crucial role in combating high childhood mortality rates attributable to vaccine preventable diseases across the globe. This systematic review, provides insights on immunization status in slums, identifies various factors influencing it thus, exploring opportunities that may be available to improve vaccination coverage under the National Immunization Program. Taking into account the above aspects, a review of literature was undertaken in various databases that included studies published between 2006 and 2017. In India, ~33% of the urban population lives in slums with suboptimal vaccination coverage ranging from 14% to upto 90%. Few of the important causes for low coverage included socioeconomic factors such as poor community participation, lack of awareness, frequent migration, and loss of daily income. Hence, mere presence of vaccines in the National Immunization Program doesn't do the job, there is a definite unmet need to emphasize upon the importance of immunization among slums dwellers and take necessary steps. For instance, delivering immunization services at the doorstep (e.g. pulse polio program), community-based education, text messaging as reminders and incentivized immunization services are some of the opportunities that can be explored and implemented to improve immunization status in the slums. Thus, in addition to inclusion of more and more vaccines in the National Immunization Program, there is a definite need to focus on people living in high risk areas in order to improve coverage and

  5. Community-level moderators of a school-based childhood sexual assault prevention program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Matthew C; Kouros, Chrystyna D; Janecek, Kim; Freeman, Rachel; Mielock, Alyssa; Garber, Judy

    2017-01-01

    Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is highly prevalent and associated with a wide variety of negative mental and physical health outcomes. School-based CSA education and prevention programs have shown promise, but it is unclear to what extent community-level characteristics are related to their effectiveness. The present cluster randomized controlled trial evaluated community-level moderators of the Safe@Lastprogramcomparedtoawaitlistcontrolcondition.(*) Knowledge gains from pre- to post-intervention were assessed in 5 domains: safe versus unsafe people; safe choices; problem-solving; clear disclosure; and assertiveness. Participants were 1177 students (46% White, 26% African American, 15% Hispanic, 4% Asian American, 6% Other) in grades 1 through 6 from 14 public schools in Tennessee. Multilevel models accounting for the nesting of children within schools revealed large effect sizes for the intervention versus control across all knowledge domains (d's ranged from 1.56 to 2.13). The effectiveness of the program was moderated by mean per capita income and rates of substantiated cases of child abuse and neglect in the community. Intervention effects were stronger for youth living in lower as compared to higher income counties, and for youth attending schools in counties with lower as compared to higher abuse/neglect rates. Child characteristics (sex, race) did not moderate intervention effects. This research identified two community-level factors that predicted the effectiveness of a CSA education and prevention program designed to improve children's knowledge of personal safety skills. School-based CSA prevention programs may require modification for communities with higher rates of child abuse and neglect. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Recommendations for pneumococcal immunization outside routine childhood immunization programs in Western Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castiglia, Paolo

    2014-10-01

    The global burden of pneumococcal diseases is high, with young children and adults≥50 years of age at highest risk of infection. Two types of vaccine are available for the prevention of pneumococcal diseases caused by specific Streptococcus pneumoniae serotypes: the pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV23) and the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7, PCV10, and PCV13). Despite pneumococcal immunization programs in adults and children, the burden in adults has remained high. Most European countries have national or local/regional vaccination recommendations. The objective of this review was to provide an overview of the government recommendations for pneumococcal vaccination outside routine childhood vaccination programs for 16 Western European countries as of August 2014. We found that recommendations for pneumococcal immunization across Europe are complex and vary greatly among countries in terms of age groups and risk groups recommended for vaccination, as well as which vaccine should be administered. Clarifying or simplifying these recommendations and improving their dissemination could help to increase pneumococcal vaccine uptake and decrease the high burden of pneumococcal diseases in adults, both through a direct effect of the vaccine and via a herd effect in unvaccinated individuals.

  7. Depathologising gender diversity in childhood in the process of ICD revision and reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suess Schwend, Amets; Winter, Sam; Chiam, Zhan; Smiley, Adam; Cabral Grinspan, Mauro

    2018-01-24

    From 2007 on, the World Health Organisation (WHO) has been revising its diagnostic manual, the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD), with approval of ICD-11 due in 2018. The ICD revision has prompted debates on diagnostic classifications related to gender diversity and gender development processes, and specifically on the 'Gender incongruence of childhood' (GIC) code. These debates have taken place at a time an emergent trans depathologisation movement is becoming increasingly international, and regional and international human rights bodies are recognising gender identity as a source of discrimination. With reference to the history of diagnostic classification of gender diversity in childhood, this paper conducts a literature review of academic, activist and institutional documents related to the current discussion on the merits of retaining or abandoning the GIC code. Within this broader discussion, the paper reviews in more detail recent publications arguing for the abandonment of this diagnostic code drawing upon clinical, bioethical and human rights perspectives. The review indicates that gender diverse children engaged in exploring their gender identity and expression do not benefit from diagnosis. Instead they benefit from support from their families, their schools and from society more broadly.

  8. INDIAN CHILDHOOD AND OTHER CHILDHOODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alceu Zoia

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to show how children of the Indian community Terena, from North Mato Grosso, live, how they are educated, and what are the conceptions of childhood among the members of this community. Taking childhood in various contexts, we seek to analyze how this education process has been carried out.

  9. Childhood fever management program for Korean pediatric nurses: A comparison between blended and face-to-face learning method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Yong Sun; Kim, Jin Sun

    2014-01-01

    A blended learning can be a useful learning strategy to improve the quality of fever and fever management education for pediatric nurses. This study compared the effects of a blended and face-to-face learning program on pediatric nurses' childhood fever management, using theory of planned behavior. A nonequivalent control group pretest-posttest design was used. A fever management education program using blended learning (combining face-to-face and online learning components) was offered to 30 pediatric nurses, and 29 pediatric nurses received face-to-face education. Learning outcomes did not significantly differ between the two groups. However, learners' satisfaction was higher for the blended learning program than the face-to-face learning program. A blended learning pediatric fever management program was as effective as a traditional face-to-face learning program. Therefore, a blended learning pediatric fever management-learning program could be a useful and flexible learning method for pediatric nurses.

  10. Myelination Is Associated with Processing Speed in Early Childhood: Preliminary Insights.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Chevalier

    Full Text Available Processing speed is an important contributor to working memory performance and fluid intelligence in young children. Myelinated white matter plays a central role in brain messaging, and likely mediates processing speed, but little is known about the relationship between myelination and processing speed in young children. In the present study, processing speed was measured through inspection times, and myelin volume fraction (VFM was quantified using a multicomponent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI approach in 2- to 5-years of age. Both inspection times and VFM were found to increase with age. Greater VFM in the right and left occipital lobes, the body of the corpus callosum, and the right cerebellum was significantly associated with shorter inspection times, after controlling for age. A hierarchical regression showed that VFM in the left occipital lobe predicted inspection times over and beyond the effects of age and the VFM in the other brain regions. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that myelin supports processing speed in early childhood.

  11. Childhood Obesity Causes & Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Local Programs Related Topics Diabetes Nutrition Childhood Obesity Causes & Consequences Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... determine how a community is designed. Consequences of Obesity More Immediate Health Risks Obesity during childhood can ...

  12. Healthy Children, Healthy Lives: The Wellness Guide for Early Childhood Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergen, Sharon; Robertson, Rachel

    2013-01-01

    Early childhood is a critical time in human development. Understanding and supporting children's wellness early on can make the greatest impact on physical, social and emotional, and cognitive health throughout childhood and adulthood. "Healthy Children, Healthy Lives" provides a comprehensive collection of checklists and research ­based…

  13. Process Evaluation for a Prison-based Substance Abuse Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staton, Michele; Leukefeld, Carl; Logan, T. K.; Purvis, Rick

    2000-01-01

    Presents findings from a process evaluation conducted in a prison-based substance abuse program in Kentucky. Discusses key components in the program, including a detailed program description, modifications in planned treatment strategies, program documentation, and perspectives of staff and clients. Findings suggest that prison-based programs have…

  14. Scaling–up public sector childhood diarrhea management program: Lessons from Indian states of Gujarat, Uttar Pradesh and Bihar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sanjeev; Roy, Rajashree; Dutta, Sucharita

    2015-01-01

    Background Diarrhea remains a leading cause of death among children under five in India. Public health sector is an important source for diarrhea treatment with oral rehydration salts (ORS) and zinc. In 2010, Micronutrient Initiative started a project to improve service delivery for childhood diarrhea management through public health sector in Gujarat, Uttar Pradesh (UP) and Bihar. This paper aims to highlight feasible strategies, experiences and lessons learned from scaling–up zinc and ORS for childhood diarrhea management in the public sector in three Indian states. Methods The project was implemented in six districts of Gujarat, 12 districts of UP and 15 districts of Bihar, which includes 10.5 million children. Program strategies included capacity building of health care providers, expanding service delivery through community health workers (CHWs), providing supportive supervision to CHWs, ensuring supplies and conducting monitoring and evaluation. The lessons described in this paper are based on program data, government documents and studies that were used to generate evidence and inform program scale–up. Results 140 000 health personnel, including CHWs, were trained in childhood diarrhea management. During three years, CHWs had sustained knowledge and have treated and reported more than three million children aged 2–59 months having diarrhea, of which 84% were treated with both zinc and ORS. The successful strategies were scaled–up. Conclusion It is feasible and viable to introduce and scale–up zinc and ORS for childhood diarrhea treatment through public sector. Community–based service delivery, timely and adequate supplies, trained staff and pro–active engagement with government were essential for program success. PMID:26682047

  15. Scaling-up public sector childhood diarrhea management program: Lessons from Indian states of Gujarat, Uttar Pradesh and Bihar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sanjeev; Roy, Rajashree; Dutta, Sucharita

    2015-12-01

    Diarrhea remains a leading cause of death among children under five in India. Public health sector is an important source for diarrhea treatment with oral rehydration salts (ORS) and zinc. In 2010, Micronutrient Initiative started a project to improve service delivery for childhood diarrhea management through public health sector in Gujarat, Uttar Pradesh (UP) and Bihar. This paper aims to highlight feasible strategies, experiences and lessons learned from scaling-up zinc and ORS for childhood diarrhea management in the public sector in three Indian states. The project was implemented in six districts of Gujarat, 12 districts of UP and 15 districts of Bihar, which includes 10.5 million children. Program strategies included capacity building of health care providers, expanding service delivery through community health workers (CHWs), providing supportive supervision to CHWs, ensuring supplies and conducting monitoring and evaluation. The lessons described in this paper are based on program data, government documents and studies that were used to generate evidence and inform program scale-up. 140 000 health personnel, including CHWs, were trained in childhood diarrhea management. During three years, CHWs had sustained knowledge and have treated and reported more than three million children aged 2-59 months having diarrhea, of which 84% were treated with both zinc and ORS. The successful strategies were scaled-up. It is feasible and viable to introduce and scale-up zinc and ORS for childhood diarrhea treatment through public sector. Community-based service delivery, timely and adequate supplies, trained staff and pro-active engagement with government were essential for program success.

  16. One Step In and One Step Out : The Lived Experience of the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals Program

    OpenAIRE

    Kosnac, Hillary Sue

    2014-01-01

    After over a decade of congressional stalemate on the Development, Relief and Education for Alien Minors (DREAM) Act, the Obama administration announced the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) program in the summer of 2012. A form of prosecutorial discretion, DACA offers certain undocumented youth a two-year reprieve from deportation, employment authorization and, in some states like California, a driver's license. Nevertheless, because DACA does not provide a pathway to citizenship...

  17. Deficits in Sequential Processing Manifest in Motor and Linguistic Tasks in a Multigenerational Family with Childhood Apraxia of Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Beate; Button, Le; Stoel-Gammon, Carol; Chapman, Kathy; Raskind, Wendy H.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate a global deficit in sequential processing as candidate endophenotypein a family with familial childhood apraxia of speech (CAS). Of 10 adults and 13 children in a three-generational family with speech sound disorder (SSD) consistent with CAS, 3 adults and 6 children had past or present SSD diagnoses. Two…

  18. The Decision-Making Processes of Early Childhood Teachers When Working with Children Experiencing Parental Separation and Divorce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahony, L.; Lunn, J.; Petriwskyj, A.; Walsh, K.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the pedagogical decision-making processes of 21 Australian early childhood teachers working with children experiencing parental separation and divorce were examined. Transcripts from interviews and a focus group with teachers were analysed using grounded theory methodology. The findings showed that as teachers interacted with young…

  19. A program for activation analysis data processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janczyszyn, J.; Loska, L.; Taczanowski, S.

    1978-01-01

    An ALGOL program for activation analysis data handling is presented. The program may be used either for single channel spectrometry data or for multichannel spectrometry. The calculation of instrumental error and of analysis standard deviation is carried out. The outliers are tested, and the regression line diagram with the related observations are plotted by the program. (author)

  20. The cognitive processing potential of infants: Exploring the impact of an early childhood development programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Van Eeden

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Many South African learners seem unprepared for formal education, and a need for intervention during early childhood has been identified. Aim: The present study explored the effect of infant exposure to an early childhood development programme aimed at the sensory developmental stage of the infant’s brain. Setting: Participants were recruited through local baby clinics and nursery schools in the Western Cape. Participants were from the middle-income sector and the sample consisted of 63 infants between the ages of 3 and 12 months – gender representation was approximately equal and 17% of the infants were of mixed race, 8% black and 75% white. Methods: A pretest–posttest design was used involving an intervention group (N = 29 and a control group (N = 34 of infants. There was no known bias in group allocation. Intervention was provided in the form of the Numbers in Nappies programme and cognitive performance was assessed with the BSID (III before and after the intervention for both groups. Results: The intervention group showed theory expectant increases, most notably on the Cognitive Scale and the Social-Emotional Scale of the BSID (III. The performance of the intervention and the control group on the cognitive subscales (Cognitive, Language and Motor was compared before and after the intervention. The only significant difference was on the Cognitive Scale after the intervention. Conclusion: The findings indicate that appropriate intervention taps into the cognitive processing potential of infants, thus increasing their cognitive ability and enhancing their social–emotional functioning. The stimulation provided by parents and primary caregivers is essential in enhancing this experience-dependent development and the Numbers in Nappies programme provides a cost-effective intervention suitable for a home environment.

  1. A novice's process of object-oriented programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caspersen, Michael Edelgaard; Kölling, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Exposing students to the process of programming is merely implied but not explicitly addressed in texts on programming which appear to deal with 'program' as a noun rather than as a verb.We present a set of principles and techniques as well as an informal but systematic process of decomposing...... a programming problem. Two examples are used to demonstrate the application of process and techniques.The process is a carefully down-scaled version of a full and rich software engineering process particularly suited for novices learning object-oriented programming. In using it, we hope to achieve two things...

  2. Development of neural mechanisms of conflict and error processing during childhood: implications for self-regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Checa, Purificación; Castellanos, M C; Abundis-Gutiérrez, Alicia; Rosario Rueda, M

    2014-01-01

    Regulation of thoughts and behavior requires attention, particularly when there is conflict between alternative responses or when errors are to be prevented or corrected. Conflict monitoring and error processing are functions of the executive attention network, a neurocognitive system that greatly matures during childhood. In this study, we examined the development of brain mechanisms underlying conflict and error processing with event-related potentials (ERPs), and explored the relationship between brain function and individual differences in the ability to self-regulate behavior. Three groups of children aged 4-6, 7-9, and 10-13 years, and a group of adults performed a child-friendly version of the flanker task while ERPs were registered. Marked developmental changes were observed in both conflict processing and brain reactions to errors. After controlling by age, higher self-regulation skills are associated with smaller amplitude of the conflict effect but greater amplitude of the error-related negativity. Additionally, we found that electrophysiological measures of conflict and error monitoring predict individual differences in impulsivity and the capacity to delay gratification. These findings inform of brain mechanisms underlying the development of cognitive control and self-regulation.

  3. Development of neural mechanisms of conflict and error processing during childhood: Implications for self-regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purificación eCheca

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Regulation of thoughts and behavior requires attention, particularly when there is conflict between alternative responses or when errors are to be prevented or corrected. Conflict monitoring and error processing are functions of the executive attention network, a neurocognitive system that greatly matures during childhood. In this study, we examined the development of brain mechanisms underlying conflict and error processing with event-related potentials (ERPs, and explored the relationship between brain function and individual differences in the ability to self-regulate behavior. Three groups of children aged 4 to 6, 7 to 9, and 10 to 13 years, and a group of adults performed a child-friendly version of the flanker task while ERPs were registered. Marked developmental changes were observed in both conflict processing and brain reactions to errors. After controlling by age, higher self-regulation skills are associated with smaller amplitude of the conflict effect but greater amplitude of the error-related negativity. Additionally, we found that electrophysiological measures of conflict and error monitoring predict individual differences in impulsivity and the capacity to delay gratification. These findings inform of brain mechanisms underlying the development of cognitive control and self-regulation.

  4. Development of neural mechanisms of conflict and error processing during childhood: implications for self-regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Checa, Purificación; Castellanos, M. C.; Abundis-Gutiérrez, Alicia; Rosario Rueda, M.

    2014-01-01

    Regulation of thoughts and behavior requires attention, particularly when there is conflict between alternative responses or when errors are to be prevented or corrected. Conflict monitoring and error processing are functions of the executive attention network, a neurocognitive system that greatly matures during childhood. In this study, we examined the development of brain mechanisms underlying conflict and error processing with event-related potentials (ERPs), and explored the relationship between brain function and individual differences in the ability to self-regulate behavior. Three groups of children aged 4–6, 7–9, and 10–13 years, and a group of adults performed a child-friendly version of the flanker task while ERPs were registered. Marked developmental changes were observed in both conflict processing and brain reactions to errors. After controlling by age, higher self-regulation skills are associated with smaller amplitude of the conflict effect but greater amplitude of the error-related negativity. Additionally, we found that electrophysiological measures of conflict and error monitoring predict individual differences in impulsivity and the capacity to delay gratification. These findings inform of brain mechanisms underlying the development of cognitive control and self-regulation. PMID:24795676

  5. Dual-memory processes in crack cocaine dependents: The effects of childhood neglect on recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tractenberg, Saulo G; Viola, Thiago W; Gomes, Carlos F A; Wearick-Silva, Luis Eduardo; Kristensen, Christian H; Stein, Lilian M; Grassi-Oliveira, Rodrigo

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to adversities during sensitive periods of neurodevelopment is associated with the subsequent development of substance dependence and exerts harmful, long-lasting effects upon memory functioning. In this study, we investigated the relationship between childhood neglect (CN) and memory using a dual-process model that quantifies recollective and non-recollective retrieval processes in crack cocaine dependents. Eighty-four female crack cocaine-dependent inpatients who did (N = 32) or did not (N = 52) report a history of CN received multiple opportunities to study and recall a short list composed of familiar and concrete words and then received a delayed-recall test. Crack cocaine dependents with a history of CN showed worse performance on free-recall tests than did dependents without a history of CN; this finding was associated with declines in recollective retrieval (direct access) rather than non-recollective retrieval. In addition, we found no evidence of group differences in forgetting rates between immediate- and delayed-recall tests. The results support developmental models of traumatology and suggest that neglect of crack cocaine dependents in early life disrupts the adult memory processes that support the retrieval of detailed representations of events from the past.

  6. Working Memory Integration Processes in Benign Childhood Epilepsy with Centrotemporal Spikes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kárpáti, Judit; Donauer, Nándor; Somogyi, Eszter; Kónya, Anikó

    2015-12-01

    Benign epilepsy of childhood with centrotemporal spikes (BECTS) is the most frequent focal epilepsy in children; however, the pattern of affected memory processes remains controversial. Previous studies in BECTS imply deficits in complex working memory tasks, but not in simple modality-specific tasks. We studied working memory processes in children with BECTS by comparing performance in memory binding tasks of different complexities. We compared 17 children with BECTS (aged 6 to 13 years) to 17 healthy children matched for age, sex, and intelligence quotient. We measured spatial and verbal memory components separately and jointly on three single-binding tasks (binding of what and where; what and when; and where and when) and a combined-binding task (integration of what, where, and when). We also evaluated basic visuospatial memory functions with subtests of the Children's Memory Scale, and intellectual abilities with verbal tasks of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition and the Raven Progressive Matrices. We found no difference between the BECTS and control groups in single-binding tasks; however, the children with BECTS performed significantly worse on the combined task, which included integration of spatial, verbal, and temporal information. We found no deficits in their intellectual abilities or basic visuospatial memory functions. Children with BECTS may have intact simple maintenance processes of working memory, but difficulty with high-level functions requiring attentional and executive resources. Our findings imply no specific memory dysfunction in BECTS, but suggest difficulties in integrating information within working memory, and possible frontal lobe disturbances.

  7. Test Review for Preschool-Wide Evaluation Tool (PreSET) Manual: Assessing Universal Program-Wide Positive Behavior Support in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Billie Jo

    2013-01-01

    The Preschool-Wide Evaluation Tool (PreSET; Steed & Pomerleau, 2012) is published by Paul H. Brookes Publishing Company in Baltimore, MD. The PreSET purports to measure universal and program-wide features of early childhood programs' implementation fidelity of program-wide positive behavior intervention and support (PW-PBIS) and is,…

  8. Idaho Chemical Processing Plant training program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    Objectives, regulations and requirements, training methods, certification and recertification, progression and incentives, and coverage of the ICPP operator training program are discussed in detail. (LK)

  9. Methodology of the comprehensive program on prevention and control of overweight and obesity in Iranian children and adolescents: The IRAN-Ending childhood obesity (IRAN-ECHO program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali-Akbar Sayyari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The World Health Organization program on Ending Childhood Obesity (WHO-ECHO has developed a comprehensive and integrated package of recommendations to address childhood obesity. The present study, entitled IRAN-ECHO, was designed and implemented in the framework of the WHO-ECHO program. Methods: The IRAN-ECHO program is implementing multicomponent interventions by considering life course dimensions. The program has two parts: a population approach and an individual approach. The population approach considers different periods in life, including prenatal, infancy, childhood, and adolescence, as well as family and society. The individual approach targets those children or adolescents with overweight or obesity; this part is conducted as a referral system that is now integrated in the current national health system. As part of the population approach, a quasi-experimental study was conducted in six provinces to compare the status before and after implementing parts of the interventions. By intersectoral collaboration with different organizations, multicomponent interventions are conducted for different age groups. Results: The IRAN-ECHO program is being conducted in six provinces, and will be considered in all provinces in the near future. Its main effects could be assessed in future years. Part of this program that was conducted as a quasi-experimental survey comprised 7149 students and showed that a high percentage of students had acceptable knowledge about adverse health effects of overweight and obesity. However, the knowledge about the low nutritional value of unhealthy snacks such as potato chips, puffs, industrial juices, and carbonated drinks was not appropriate. Many participants had the undesirable attitude of skipping one of the main meals when attempting to lose weight. Conclusions: The IRAN-ECHO program is presenting the feasibility of conducting the WHO-ECHO recommendations in Iran. The scope of potential policy

  10. Methodology of the Comprehensive Program on Prevention and Control of Overweight and Obesity in Iranian Children and Adolescents: The IRAN-Ending Childhood Obesity (IRAN-ECHO) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayyari, Ali-Akbar; Abdollahi, Zahra; Ziaodini, Hassan; Olang, Beheshteh; Fallah, Hossein; Salehi, Forouzan; Heidari-Beni, Motahar; Imanzadeh, Farid; Abasalti, Zahra; Fozouni, Fereshteh; Jafari, Sakineh; Lashkarlouki, Farhad; Sahebdel, Mahnoush; Siadati, Arash; Aslani, Hamideh; Hosseini, Mostafa; Goodarzi, Azam; Yngve, Agneta; Kelishadi, Roya

    2017-01-01

    Background: The World Health Organization program on Ending Childhood Obesity (WHO-ECHO) has developed a comprehensive and integrated package of recommendations to address childhood obesity. The present study, entitled IRAN-ECHO, was designed and implemented in the framework of the WHO-ECHO program. Methods: The IRAN-ECHO program is implementing multicomponent interventions by considering life course dimensions. The program has two parts: a population approach and an individual approach. The population approach considers different periods in life, including prenatal, infancy, childhood, and adolescence, as well as family and society. The individual approach targets those children or adolescents with overweight or obesity; this part is conducted as a referral system that is now integrated in the current national health system. As part of the population approach, a quasi-experimental study was conducted in six provinces to compare the status before and after implementing parts of the interventions. By intersectoral collaboration with different organizations, multicomponent interventions are conducted for different age groups. Results: The IRAN-ECHO program is being conducted in six provinces, and will be considered in all provinces in the near future. Its main effects could be assessed in future years. Part of this program that was conducted as a quasi-experimental survey comprised 7149 students and showed that a high percentage of students had acceptable knowledge about adverse health effects of overweight and obesity. However, the knowledge about the low nutritional value of unhealthy snacks such as potato chips, puffs, industrial juices, and carbonated drinks was not appropriate. Many participants had the undesirable attitude of skipping one of the main meals when attempting to lose weight. Conclusions: The IRAN-ECHO program is presenting the feasibility of conducting the WHO-ECHO recommendations in Iran. The scope of potential policy recommendations to decrease

  11. SAFE START: AN EARLY CHILDHOOD MENTAL HEALTH PROGRAM IN A TERTIARY HEALTHCARE SETTING-A CRITICAL REVIEW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirani, Julien; Raad, Hala; Akoury-Dirani, Leyla

    2018-01-01

    Early childhood mental health programs are vital for the current and future mental health and brain development of infants, toddlers, and preschoolers. Founded in 2014, Safe Start is the only early childhood mental health program in Beirut, Lebanon. It aims at being the prototype of such services at the national level. A retrospective analysis of the outcomes of the first year of operations has resulted in important findings about the age of the participants, their diagnoses, previous therapies that the participants have undergone, types of referrals recommended, and the number of participants who were lost to follow-up. This first analysis pointed at the need for more in-depth research to encompass the gaps and benefits of such services. It shows the pivotal importance of designing awareness strategies about the importance of early childhood mental health services and care; to move from a diagnostic seeking behavior to commitment to psychotherapy and follow-up interventions. © 2017 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  12. Assessment of Social Information Processing in Early Childhood: Development and Initial Validation of the Schultz Test of Emotion Processing--Preliminary Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, David; Ambike, Archana; Logie, Sean Kevin; Bohner, Katherine E.; Stapleton, Laura M.; VanderWalde, Holly; Min, Christopher B.; Betkowski, Jennifer A.

    2010-01-01

    Crick and Dodge's (Psychological Bulletin 115:74-101, 1994) social information processing model has proven very useful in guiding research focused on aggressive and peer-rejected children's social-cognitive functioning. Its application to early childhood, however, has been much more limited. The present study responds to this gap by developing and…

  13. Disrupted Prenatal Maternal Cortisol, Maternal Obesity, and Childhood Wheeze. Insights into Prenatal Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Kate; Chiu, Yueh-Hsiu Mathilda; Wright, Robert O.; Fein, Rebecca; Cohen, Sheldon; Coull, Brent A.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale: Exploring prenatal factors influencing childhood wheeze may inform programming mechanisms. Objectives: We examined associations among prenatal maternal cortisol profiles, maternal obesity, and repeated wheeze up to age 2 years (n = 261). Methods: Salivary cortisol was collected five times per day over 3 days at 29.0 ± 4.9 weeks gestation. Mothers were categorized as obese (body mass index ≥ 30 kg/m2) versus nonobese (body mass index cortisol metrics (level at each time point, morning rise, diurnal and afternoon slopes) and obesity on wheeze adjusting for covariates. Linear mixed models were implemented to examine associations between cortisol trajectories and wheezing. Interactions between maternal cortisol and obesity were considered. Measurements and Main Results: Mothers were primarily minority (56.5% Hispanic, 24.1% African American), 61% had less than or equal to 12 years of education, 34% were obese, and 8.4% of children had repeated wheeze. An interquartile range increase in mean log cortisol at bedtime (odds ratio, 2.2; 95% confidence interval, 1.09–4.09) and maternal obesity (odds ratio, 3.43; 95% confidence interval, 1.26–9.35) were independently associated with wheeze. Linear mixed models revealed an association between a flatter afternoon slope (slower decline in log cortisol per hour) and repeated wheeze in children of obese mothers (children with [−0.017 change] and without [−0.061 change] wheeze [P = 0.009 for time × wheeze interaction]), but not in children of nonobese mothers (with [−0.050 change] and without [−0.061 change] wheeze [P = 0.51]). Conclusions: Maternal prenatal cortisol disruption and obesity were independently associated with children’s wheeze. Obese women with adverse cortisol profiles were most likely to have children with repeated wheeze. PMID:23590260

  14. Programming of respiratory health in childhood: influence of outdoor air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Rosalind J; Brunst, Kelly J

    2013-04-01

    This overview highlights recent experimental and epidemiological evidence for the programming effects of outdoor air pollution exposures during early development on lung function and chronic respiratory disorders, such as asthma and related allergic disorders. Air pollutants may impact anatomy and/or physiological functioning of the lung and interrelated systems. Programming effects may result from pollutant-induced shifts in a number of molecular, cellular, and physiological states and their interacting systems. Specific key regulatory systems susceptible to programming may influence lung development and vulnerability to respiratory diseases, including both central and peripheral components of neuroendocrine pathways and autonomic nervous system (ANS) functioning which, in turn, influence the immune system. Starting in utero, environmental factors, including air pollutants, may permanently organize these systems toward trajectories of enhanced pediatric (e.g., asthma, allergy) as well as adult disease risk (e.g., chronic obstructive pulmonary disease). Evidence supports a central role of oxidative stress in the toxic effects of air pollution. Additional research suggests xenobiotic metabolism and subcellular components, such as mitochondria are targets of ambient air pollution and play a role in asthma and allergy programming. Mechanisms operating at the level of the placenta are being elucidated. Epigenetic mechanisms may be at the roots of adaptive developmental programming. Optimal coordinated functioning of many complex processes and their networks of interaction are necessary for normal lung development and the maintenance of respiratory health. Outdoor air pollution may play an important role in early programming of respiratory health and is potentially amenable to intervention.

  15. A karate program for improving self-concept and quality of life in childhood epilepsy: results of a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conant, Kerry D; Morgan, Amy K; Muzykewicz, David; Clark, Derrick C; Thiele, Elizabeth A

    2008-01-01

    The potential cognitive and psychosocial effects of childhood epilepsy have significant implications for a child's self-image and academic achievement. This study focuses on a 10-week karate program for children and adolescents with epilepsy aimed at increasing social confidence, self-concept, and quality of life, as well as reducing parental anxiety. Eleven children (8-16 years old) and their parents participated in this questionnaire study, and complete data were available for nine of these families. Measures consisted of the Piers-Harris Children's Self-Concept Scale, the Quality of Life in Childhood Epilepsy (QOLCE) questionnaire, and the Parental Stress Index. By parental report, significant improvement in memory function and largely positive trends in quality of life on multiple subscales were observed. By child report, intellectual self-esteem and social confidence also improved. Parental stress decreased, although not significantly, suggesting a potential benefit and indicating a role for future interventions targeting family anxiety.

  16. Sensory processes modulate differences in multi-component behavior and cognitive control between childhood and adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gohil, Krutika; Bluschke, Annet; Roessner, Veit; Stock, Ann-Kathrin; Beste, Christian

    2017-10-01

    Many everyday tasks require executive functions to achieve a certain goal. Quite often, this requires the integration of information derived from different sensory modalities. Children are less likely to integrate information from different modalities and, at the same time, also do not command fully developed executive functions, as compared to adults. Yet still, the role of developmental age-related effects on multisensory integration processes has not been examined within the context of multicomponent behavior until now (i.e., the concatenation of different executive subprocesses). This is problematic because differences in multisensory integration might actually explain a significant amount of the developmental effects that have traditionally been attributed to changes in executive functioning. In a system, neurophysiological approach combining electroencephaloram (EEG) recordings and source localization analyses, we therefore examined this question. The results show that differences in how children and adults accomplish multicomponent behavior do not solely depend on developmental differences in executive functioning. Instead, the observed developmental differences in response selection processes (reflected by the P3 ERP) were largely dependent on the complexity of integrating temporally separated stimuli from different modalities. This effect was related to activation differences in medial frontal and inferior parietal cortices. Primary perceptual gating or attentional selection processes (P1 and N1 ERPs) were not affected. The results show that differences in multisensory integration explain parts of transformations in cognitive processes between childhood and adulthood that have traditionally been attributed to changes in executive functioning, especially when these require the integration of multiple modalities during response selection. Hum Brain Mapp 38:4933-4945, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Improving Defense Health Program Medical Research Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-08

    research , including a Business Cell; 87 Research Development, 88 Research Oversight, 89 and Research Compliance offices;90 and the Center...needed for DHP medical research , such as the Army’s Clinical and Translational Research Program Office, 38 the Navy’s Research Methods Training Program... research stated, “key infrastructure for a learning health system will encompass three core elements: data networks, methods , and workforce.” 221

  18. Enhancing early child care quality and learning for toddlers at risk: the responsive early childhood program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, Susan H; Zucker, Tricia A; Taylor, Heather B; Swank, Paul R; Williams, Jeffrey M; Assel, Michael; Crawford, April; Huang, Weihua; Clancy-Menchetti, Jeanine; Lonigan, Christopher J; Phillips, Beth M; Eisenberg, Nancy; Spinrad, Tracy L; de Villiers, Jill; de Villiers, Peter; Barnes, Marcia; Starkey, Prentice; Klein, Alice

    2014-02-01

    Despite reports of positive effects of high-quality child care, few experimental studies have examined the process of improving low-quality center-based care for toddler-age children. In this article, we report intervention effects on child care teachers' behaviors and children's social, emotional, behavioral, early literacy, language, and math outcomes as well as the teacher-child relationship. The intervention targeted the use of a set of responsive teacher practices, derived from attachment and sociocultural theories, and a comprehensive curriculum. Sixty-five childcare classrooms serving low-income 2- and 3-year-old children were randomized into 3 conditions: business-as-usual control, Responsive Early Childhood Curriculum (RECC), and RECC plus explicit social-emotional classroom activities (RECC+). Classroom observations showed greater gains for RECC and RECC+ teachers' responsive practices including helping children manage their behavior, establishing a predictable schedule, and use of cognitively stimulating activities (e.g., shared book reading) compared with controls; however, teacher behaviors did not differ for focal areas such as sensitivity and positive discipline supports. Child assessments demonstrated that children in the interventions outperformed controls in areas of social and emotional development, although children's performance in control and intervention groups was similar for cognitive skills (language, literacy, and math). Results support the positive impact of responsive teachers and environments providing appropriate support for toddlers' social and emotional development. Possible explanations for the absence of systematic differences in children's cognitive skills are considered, including implications for practice and future research targeting low-income toddlers.

  19. SEL's Software Process-Improvement Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basili, Victor; Zelkowitz, Marvin; McGarry, Frank; Page, Jerry; Waligora, Sharon; Pajerski, Rose

    1995-01-01

    The goals and operations of the Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) is reviewed. For nearly 20 years the SEL has worked to understand, assess, and improve software and the development process within the production environment of the Flight Dynamics Division (FDD) of NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. The SEL was established in 1976 with the goals of reducing: (1) the defect rate of delivered software, (2) the cost of software to support flight projects, and (3) the average time to produce mission-support software. After studying over 125 projects of FDD, the results have guided the standards, management practices, technologies, and the training within the division. The results of the studies have been a 75 percent reduction in defects, a 50 percent reduction in cost, and a 25 percent reduction in development time. Over time the goals of SEL have been clarified. The goals are now stated as: (1) Understand baseline processes and product characteristics, (2) Assess improvements that have been incorporated into the development projects, (3) Package and infuse improvements into the standard SEL process. The SEL improvement goal is to demonstrate continual improvement of the software process by carrying out analysis, measurement and feedback to projects with in the FDD environment. The SEL supports the understanding of the process by study of several processes including, the effort distribution, and error detection rates. The SEL assesses and refines the processes. Once the assessment and refinement of a process is completed, the SEL packages the process by capturing the process in standards, tools and training.

  20. Process and impact evaluation of the Romp & Chomp obesity prevention intervention in early childhood settings: lessons learned from implementation in preschools and long day care settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Silva-Sanigorski, Andrea M; Bell, Andrew C; Kremer, Peter; Park, Janet; Demajo, Lisa; Smith, Michael; Sharp, Sharon; Nichols, Melanie; Carpenter, Lauren; Boak, Rachel; Swinburn, Boyd

    2012-06-01

    The Romp & Chomp controlled trial, which aimed to prevent obesity in preschool Australian children, was recently found to reduce the prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity and improve children's dietary patterns. The intervention focused on capacity building and policy implementation within various early childhood settings. This paper reports on the process and impact evaluation of this trial and the lessons learned from this complex community intervention. Process data was collected throughout and audits capturing nutrition and physical activity-related environments and practices were completed postintervention by directors of Long Day Care (LDC) centers (n = 10) and preschools (n = 41) in intervention and comparison (n = 161 LDC and n = 347 preschool) groups. The environmental audits demonstrated positive impacts in both settings on policy, nutrition, physical activity opportunities, and staff capacity and practices, although results varied across settings and were more substantial in the preschool settings. Important lessons were learned in relation to implementation of such community-based interventions, including the significant barriers to implementing health-promotion interventions in early childhood settings, lack of engagement of for-profit LDC centers in the evaluation, and an inability to attribute direct intervention impacts when the intervention components were delivered as part of a health-promotion package integrated with other programs. These results provide confidence that obesity prevention interventions in children's settings can be effective; however, significant efforts must be directed toward developing context-specific strategies that invest in policies, capacity building, staff support, and parent engagement. Recognition by funders and reviewers of the difficulties involved in implementing and evaluating such complex interventions is also critical to strengthening the evidence base on the effectiveness of such public health

  1. Employee Orientation: A Process, Not a Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemke, Ron

    1989-01-01

    No or poor orientation can reduce new employees' effectiveness and contribute to dissatisfaction and turnover, costing the company money. The orientation programs of large companies such as Disney, Texas Instruments, and Corning Glass are successful due to high expectations, supervisor and senior management involvement, anxiety reduction, and…

  2. An Analysis of the Credit Card Program Using Process Innovation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Braney, Ronald

    1999-01-01

    .... This goes a long way toward improving and streamlining the contracting process. One of the key reform initiatives in streamlining the process is the implementation of the Government-wide credit card program...

  3. Threads: theory of Vygotsky to learning processes and child development in early childhood education mediated by toy construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Tadeu Reina

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This article has the objectivity to point out some of the threads of the cultural historical theory of Vygotsky partner to the process of learning and development of children in early childhood education mediated by the construction of toys and games. In this direction, looking to approach the foundations of this theory in order to internalize the reader in his work in search of reflections and readings on the theme proposed here.

  4. Computer program for source distribution process in radiation facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Kassiri, H.; Abdul Ghani, B.

    2007-08-01

    Computer simulation for dose distribution using Visual Basic has been done according to the arrangement and activities of Co-60 sources. This program provides dose distribution in treated products depending on the product density and desired dose. The program is useful for optimization of sources distribution during loading process. there is good agreement between calculated data for the program and experimental data.(Author)

  5. A Meta-Analysis of Class Sizes and Ratios in Early Childhood Education Programs: Are Thresholds of Quality Associated with Greater Impacts on Cognitive, Achievement, and Socioemotional Outcomes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowne, Jocelyn Bonnes; Magnuson, Katherine A.; Schindler, Holly S.; Duncan, Greg J.; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu

    2017-01-01

    This study uses data from a comprehensive database of U.S. early childhood education program evaluations published between 1960 and 2007 to evaluate the relationship between class size, child-teacher ratio, and program effect sizes for cognitive, achievement, and socioemotional outcomes. Both class size and child-teacher ratio showed nonlinear…

  6. Childhood Craniopharyngioma with Hypothalamic Obesity - No Long-term Weight Reduction due to Rehabilitation Programs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sterkenburg, A. S.; Hoffmann, A.; Gebhardt, U.; Waldeck, E.; Springer, S.; Mueller, H. L.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Severe obesity due to hypothalamic involvement has major impact on prognosis in long-term survivors of childhood craniopharyngioma. The long-term effects of rehabilitation efforts on weight development and obesity in these patients are not analyzed up to now. Patients and Methods: 108

  7. Childhood Craniopharyngioma with Hypothalamic Obesity - No Long-term Weight Reduction due to Rehabilitation Programs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sterkenburg, A. S.; Hoffmann, A.; Gebhardt, U.; Waldeck, E.; Springer, S.; Mueller, H. L.

    Background: Severe obesity due to hypothalamic involvement has major impact on prognosis in long-term survivors of childhood craniopharyngioma. The long-term effects of rehabilitation efforts on weight development and obesity in these patients are not analyzed up to now. Patients and Methods: 108

  8. Poverty and Malnutrition in Latin America. Early Childhood Intervention Programs: A Report to the Ford Foundation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollitt, Ernesto; And Others

    This book presents a comprehensive review of empirical research on early childhood education and human development in Latin America. Commissioned in 1976 by the Office of Latin America and the Caribbean, part of the International Division of the Ford Foundation, New York, the study was two-faceted. First, researchers were instructed to review…

  9. Rain: A New Concurrent Process-Oriented Programming Language

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Neil C.C.

    2006-01-01

    This paper details the design of a new concurrent process-oriented programming language, Rain. The language borrows heavily from occam-p and C++ to create a new language based on process-oriented programming, marrying channel-based communication, a clear division between statement and expression, and elements of functional programming. An expressive yet simple type system, coupled with templates, underpins the language. Modern features such as Unicode support and 64-bit integers are included ...

  10. SDIO Producibility and Manufacturing Intelligent Processing Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stottlemyer, Greg

    1992-01-01

    SDIO has to fashion a comprehensive strategy to insert the capability of an industrial base into ongoing design tradeoffs. This means that there is not only a need to determine if something can be made to the precision needed to meet system performance, but also what changes need to be made in that industry sector to develop a deterministic approach to fabrication precision components. Developing and introducing advanced production and quality control systems is part of this success. To address this situation, SDIO has developed the MODIL (Manufacturing Operations Development and Integration Labs) program. MODILs were developed into three areas: Survivable Optics, Electronics and Sensors, and Spacecraft Fabrication and Test.

  11. Process Evaluation of a Workers' Health Surveillance Program for Meat Processing Workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Holland, Berry J; Brouwer, Sandra; de Boer, Michiel R; Reneman, Michiel F; Soer, Remko

    2017-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the implementation process of a workers' health surveillance (WHS) program in a Dutch meat processing company. Methods Workers from five plants were eligible to participate in the WHS program. The program consisted of four evaluative components and an intervention component.

  12. Process Evaluation of a Workers' Health Surveillance Program for Meat Processing Workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Holland, Berry; Brouwer, Sandra; de Boer, Michiel R; Reneman, Michiel F; Soer, Remko

    Objective To evaluate the implementation process of a workers' health surveillance (WHS) program in a Dutch meat processing company. Methods Workers from five plants were eligible to participate in the WHS program. The program consisted of four evaluative components and an intervention component.

  13. Efficient separations and processing crosscutting program overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerdes, K.D. [Department of Energy, Germantown, MD (United States); Harness, J.L. [Department of Energy, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kuhn, W.L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1997-10-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) established the Office of Science and Technology (formerly the Office of Technology Development), as part of the Office of Environmental Management (EM) in November 1989. EM manages remediation of all DOE sites and wastes from current operations. The goal of the EM program is to minimize risks to human health, safety, and the environment and to bring all DOE sites into compliance with federal, state, and local regulations by the year 2019. The Office of Science and Technology (EM-50) is charged with developing and implementing new technologies that are safer, faster, more effective, and less expensive than current methods. To focus resources and address opportunities, EM-50 has targeted four major remediation and waste management problem areas within the DOE complex for action based on risk, prevalence, or need for technology development to meet environmental requirements and regulations. Other areas may be added or current areas further partitioned to ensure that research technology development programs remain focused on EM`s most pressing remediation and waste management needs. These major problem areas, called Focus Areas are: high-level waste tank remediation; mixed waste characterization, treatment, and disposal; subsurface contaminants; and facility transitioning, decommissioning, and final disposition.

  14. Development and psychometric testing of the childhood obesity perceptions (COP) survey among African American caregivers: A tool for obesity prevention program planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Dayna S; Alfonso, Moya L; Cao, Chunhua

    2016-12-01

    Currently, public health practitioners are analyzing the role that caregivers play in childhood obesity efforts. Assessing African American caregiver's perceptions of childhood obesity in rural communities is an important prevention effort. This article's objective is to describe the development and psychometric testing of a survey tool to assess childhood obesity perceptions among African American caregivers in a rural setting, which can be used for obesity prevention program development or evaluation. The Childhood Obesity Perceptions (COP) survey was developed to reflect the multidimensional nature of childhood obesity including risk factors, health complications, weight status, built environment, and obesity prevention strategies. A 97-item survey was pretested and piloted with the priority population. After pretesting and piloting, the survey was reduced to 59-items and administered to 135 African American caregivers. An exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted to test how well the survey items represented the number of Social Cognitive Theory constructs. Twenty items were removed from the original 59-item survey and acceptable internal consistency of the six factors (α=0.70-0.85) was documented for all scales in the final COP instrument. CFA resulted in a less than adequate fit; however, a multivariate Lagrange multiplier test identified modifications to improve the model fit. The COP survey represents a promising approach as a potentially comprehensive assessment for implementation or evaluation of childhood obesity programs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Personalizing the Approach to Childhood Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Childhood Asthma Share | Personalizing the approach to childhood asthma Published Online: March 24, 2104 Clinicians treating asthmatic ... classifying 1,041 asthmatics who participated in the Childhood Asthma Management Program (CAMP) clinical trial that assessed long- ...

  16. Impact of the introduction of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in the Brazilian routine childhood national immunization program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Marta; Cintra, Otavio; Harriague, Julie; Hausdorff, William P; Hoet, Bernard

    2016-05-27

    Brazil introduced the 10-valent pneumococcal non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV, Synflorix™, GSK Vaccines) in the routine childhood immunization program in 2010 with a 3+1 schedule (with catch-up for children media. Nasopharyngeal carriage of vaccine-type and any-type pneumococci decreased after the primary doses, with no early signs of replacement with other pathogens. Finally, herd protection against vaccine-type invasive pneumococcal disease and pneumonia in unvaccinated subjects was shown in some studies for some age groups. In conclusion, pneumococcal disease decreased after the introduction of PHiD-CV into the Brazilian national immunization program. Further follow-up is needed to evaluate the long-term overall impact of PHiD-CV in the Brazilian population. Copyright © 2016 GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals SA. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Programs for low-energy nuclear physics data processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antuf'ev, Yu.P.; Dejneko, A.S.; Ekhichev, O.I.; Kuz'menko, V.A.; Mashkarov, Yu.G.; Nemashkalo, B.A.; Skakun, E.A.; Storizhko, V.E.; Shlyakhov, N.A.

    1978-01-01

    Purpose of six computer programs developed in KhPTI of AN USSR for the processing of the experimental data on low energy nuclear physics ia friendly described. The programs are written in Algol-60 language. They are applied to some types of nuclear reactions and permit to process differential cross sections and γ spectra, to compute statistical tensors and excitation functions as well as to analyze some processes by means of theoretical models

  18. Integrate Science and Arts Process Skills in the Early Childhood Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Kathy

    2012-01-01

    Linking science and art explorations makes sense in early childhood education for a number of reasons. Young children have a natural curiosity about their world and how it works. Young children are also natural artists. Most are delighted to participate in open-ended art activities, dramatic play, singing, and dancing. For young children, the…

  19. Interaction of neuropeptide Y genotype and childhood emotional maltreatment on brain activity during emotional processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Opmeer, E.M.; Kortekaas, R.; van Tol, M.J.; van der Wee, N.J.A.; Woudstra, S.; van Buchem, M.A.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.; Veltman, D.J.; Aleman, A.

    2014-01-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) has been associated with stress reactivity in affective disorders and is most densely expressed in the amygdala. An important stressor associated with affective disorders is the experience of childhood emotional maltreatment (CEM). We investigated whether the interaction of NPY

  20. Interaction of neuropeptide Y genotype and childhood emotional maltreatment on brain activity during emotional processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Opmeer, Esther M.; Kortekaas, Rudie; van Tol, Marie-Jose; van der Wee, Nic J. A.; Woudstra, Saskia; van Buchem, Mark A.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; Veltman, Dick J.; Aleman, Andre

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) has been associated with stress reactivity in affective disorders and is most densely expressed in the amygdala. An important stressor associated with affective disorders is the experience of childhood emotional maltreatment (CEM). We investigated whether the interaction of NPY

  1. Memories of Childhood Sexual Abuse: Narrative Analyses of Types, Experiences, and Processes of Remembering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, M. Sue

    2007-01-01

    The study explored types of memory for childhood sexual abuse (CSA) in a clinical sample of 30 women and identified factors that led some women (n = 24) to report recovered memories. Questionnaires produced three types of memory: always (n = 6), recovered (n = 14), both (n = 10); however, analysis of narrative data also revealed the use of…

  2. Survey of Publication Outlets in Early Childhood Education: Descriptive Data, Review Processes, and Advice to Authors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amodei, Michelle L.; Jalongo, Mary Renck; Myers, Jacqueline; Onchwari, Jacqueline; Gargiulo, Richard M.

    2013-01-01

    Publishing outlets in the field of early childhood vary widely in terms of emphasis on theory, practice, and research as they relate to the care and education of the very young; these outlets also have different readerships (i.e., primarily for teachers, the teachers of their teachers, or the fellow scholars/researchers). Included in the mixture…

  3. When Work Starts in Childhood: The Anticipatory Socialization Process of Classical Musicians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabor, Elena

    2009-01-01

    Classical music is distinguished among professions in several ways: work has to start in childhood in order to achieve proficiency; the training takes an average of 16 years in order to become a professional musician (Manturzewska, 1990); the cost of training is high; a high level of discipline is required to develop performance abilities…

  4. Childhood cancer survivorship educational resources in North American pediatric hematology/oncology fellowship training programs: a survey study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan, Paul C; Schiffman, Joshua D; Huang, Sujuan; Landier, Wendy; Bhatia, Smita; Eshelman-Kent, Debra; Wright, Jennifer; Oeffinger, Kevin C; Hudson, Melissa M

    2011-12-15

    Childhood cancer survivors require life-long care by clinicians with an understanding of the specific risks arising from the prior cancer and its therapy. We surveyed North American pediatric hematology/oncology training programs to evaluate their resources and capacity for educating medical trainees about survivorship. An Internet survey was sent to training program directors and long-term follow-up clinic (LTFU) directors at the 56 US and Canadian centers with pediatric hematology/oncology fellowship programs. Perceptions regarding barriers to and optimal methods of delivering survivorship education were compared among training program and LTFU clinic directors. Responses were received from 45/56 institutions of which 37/45 (82%) programs require that pediatric hematology/oncology fellows complete a mandatory rotation focused on survivorship. The rotation is 4 weeks or less in 21 programs. Most (36/45; 80%) offer didactic lectures on survivorship as part of their training curriculum, and these are considered mandatory for pediatric hematology/oncology fellows at 26/36 (72.2%). Only 10 programs (22%) provide training to medical specialty trainees other than pediatric hematology/oncology fellows. Respondents identified lack of time for trainees to spend learning about late effects as the most significant barrier to providing survivorship teaching. LTFU clinic directors were more likely than training program directors to identify lack of interest in survivorship among trainees and survivorship not being a formal or expected part of the fellowship training program as barriers. The results of this survey highlight the need to establish standard training requirements to promote the achievement of basic survivorship competencies by pediatric hematology/oncology fellows. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. NMRFx Processor: a cross-platform NMR data processing program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norris, Michael; Fetler, Bayard; Marchant, Jan; Johnson, Bruce A.

    2016-01-01

    NMRFx Processor is a new program for the processing of NMR data. Written in the Java programming language, NMRFx Processor is a cross-platform application and runs on Linux, Mac OS X and Windows operating systems. The application can be run in both a graphical user interface (GUI) mode and from the command line. Processing scripts are written in the Python programming language and executed so that the low-level Java commands are automatically run in parallel on computers with multiple cores or CPUs. Processing scripts can be generated automatically from the parameters of NMR experiments or interactively constructed in the GUI. A wide variety of processing operations are provided, including methods for processing of non-uniformly sampled datasets using iterative soft thresholding. The interactive GUI also enables the use of the program as an educational tool for teaching basic and advanced techniques in NMR data analysis.

  6. NMRFx Processor: a cross-platform NMR data processing program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norris, Michael; Fetler, Bayard [One Moon Scientific, Inc. (United States); Marchant, Jan [University of Maryland Baltimore County, Howard Hughes Medical Institute (United States); Johnson, Bruce A., E-mail: bruce.johnson@asrc.cuny.edu [One Moon Scientific, Inc. (United States)

    2016-08-15

    NMRFx Processor is a new program for the processing of NMR data. Written in the Java programming language, NMRFx Processor is a cross-platform application and runs on Linux, Mac OS X and Windows operating systems. The application can be run in both a graphical user interface (GUI) mode and from the command line. Processing scripts are written in the Python programming language and executed so that the low-level Java commands are automatically run in parallel on computers with multiple cores or CPUs. Processing scripts can be generated automatically from the parameters of NMR experiments or interactively constructed in the GUI. A wide variety of processing operations are provided, including methods for processing of non-uniformly sampled datasets using iterative soft thresholding. The interactive GUI also enables the use of the program as an educational tool for teaching basic and advanced techniques in NMR data analysis.

  7. Maternal childhood trauma, postpartum depression, and infant outcomes: Avoidant affective processing as a potential mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Karmel W; Sikkema, Kathleen J; Vythilingum, Bavi; Geerts, Lut; Faure, Sheila C; Watt, Melissa H; Roos, Annerine; Stein, Dan J

    2017-03-15

    Women who have experienced childhood trauma may be at risk for postpartum depression, increasing the likelihood of negative outcomes among their children. Predictive pathways from maternal childhood trauma to child outcomes, as mediated by postpartum depression, require investigation. A longitudinal sample of South African women (N=150) was followed through pregnancy and postpartum. Measures included maternal trauma history reported during pregnancy; postpartum depression through six months; and maternal-infant bonding, infant development, and infant physical growth at one year. Structural equation models tested postpartum depression as a mediator between maternal experiences of childhood trauma and children's outcomes. A subset of women (N=33) also participated in a lab-based emotional Stroop paradigm, and their responses to fearful stimuli at six weeks were explored as a potential mechanism linking maternal childhood trauma, postpartum depression, and child outcomes. Women with childhood trauma experienced greater depressive symptoms through six months postpartum, which then predicted negative child outcomes at one year. Mediating effects of postpartum depression were significant, and persisted for maternal-infant bonding and infant growth after controlling for covariates and antenatal distress. Maternal avoidance of fearful stimuli emerged as a potential affective mechanism. Limitations included modest sample size, self-report measures, and unmeasured potential confounders. Findings suggest a mediating role of postpartum depression in the intergenerational transmission of negative outcomes. Perinatal interventions that address maternal trauma histories and depression, as well as underlying affective mechanisms, may help interrupt cycles of disadvantage, particularly in high-trauma settings such as South Africa. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. A theory-informed, process-oriented Resident Scholarship Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thammasitboon, Satid; Darby, John B; Hair, Amy B; Rose, Karen M; Ward, Mark A; Turner, Teri L; Balmer, Dorene F

    2016-01-01

    The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education requires residency programs to provide curricula for residents to engage in scholarly activities but does not specify particular guidelines for instruction. We propose a Resident Scholarship Program that is framed by the self-determination theory (SDT) and emphasize the process of scholarly activity versus a scholarly product. The authors report on their longitudinal Resident Scholarship Program, which aimed to support psychological needs central to SDT: autonomy, competence, and relatedness. By addressing those needs in program aims and program components, the program may foster residents' intrinsic motivation to learn and to engage in scholarly activity. To this end, residents' engagement in scholarly processes, and changes in perceived autonomy, competence, and relatedness were assessed. Residents engaged in a range of scholarly projects and expressed positive regard for the program. Compared to before residency, residents felt more confident in the process of scholarly activity, as determined by changes in increased perceived autonomy, competence, and relatedness. Scholarly products were accomplished in return for a focus on scholarly process. Based on our experience, and in line with the SDT, supporting residents' autonomy, competence, and relatedness through a process-oriented scholarship program may foster the curiosity, inquisitiveness, and internal motivation to learn that drives scholarly activity and ultimately the production of scholarly products.

  9. A theory-informed, process-oriented Resident Scholarship Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thammasitboon, Satid; Darby, John B.; Hair, Amy B.; Rose, Karen M.; Ward, Mark A.; Turner, Teri L.; Balmer, Dorene F.

    2016-01-01

    Background The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education requires residency programs to provide curricula for residents to engage in scholarly activities but does not specify particular guidelines for instruction. We propose a Resident Scholarship Program that is framed by the self-determination theory (SDT) and emphasize the process of scholarly activity versus a scholarly product. Methods The authors report on their longitudinal Resident Scholarship Program, which aimed to support psychological needs central to SDT: autonomy, competence, and relatedness. By addressing those needs in program aims and program components, the program may foster residents’ intrinsic motivation to learn and to engage in scholarly activity. To this end, residents’ engagement in scholarly processes, and changes in perceived autonomy, competence, and relatedness were assessed. Results Residents engaged in a range of scholarly projects and expressed positive regard for the program. Compared to before residency, residents felt more confident in the process of scholarly activity, as determined by changes in increased perceived autonomy, competence, and relatedness. Scholarly products were accomplished in return for a focus on scholarly process. Conclusions Based on our experience, and in line with the SDT, supporting residents’ autonomy, competence, and relatedness through a process-oriented scholarship program may foster the curiosity, inquisitiveness, and internal motivation to learn that drives scholarly activity and ultimately the production of scholarly products. PMID:27306995

  10. Challenges of Engaging Local Stakeholders for Statewide Program Development Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Michael J.; Leuci, Mary; Stewart, Mark

    2014-01-01

    The University of Missouri Extension needed to develop an annual program review process that collaboratively engaged county-level stakeholders. The results from the first 2 years highlight the results, challenges, and implications of the design process. The annual review process needs to be adaptive, responsive, and reflective from year to year…

  11. Assessment of Social Information Processing in early childhood: development and initial validation of the Schultz Test of Emotion Processing-Preliminary Version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, David; Ambike, Archana; Logie, Sean Kevin; Bohner, Katherine E; Stapleton, Laura M; Vanderwalde, Holly; Min, Christopher B; Betkowski, Jennifer A

    2010-07-01

    Crick and Dodge's (Psychological Bulletin 115:74-101, 1994) social information processing model has proven very useful in guiding research focused on aggressive and peer-rejected children's social-cognitive functioning. Its application to early childhood, however, has been much more limited. The present study responds to this gap by developing and validating a video-based assessment tool appropriate for early childhood, the Schultz Test of Emotion Processing-Preliminary Version (STEP-P). One hundred twenty-five Head Start preschool children participated in the study. More socially competent children more frequently attributed sadness to the victims of provocation and labeled aggressive behaviors as both morally unacceptable and less likely to lead to positive outcomes. More socially competent girls labeled others' emotions more accurately. More disruptive children more frequently produced physically aggressive solutions to social provocations, and more disruptive boys less frequently interpreted social provocations as accidental. The STEP-P holds promise as an assessment tool that assesses knowledge structures related to the SIP model in early childhood.

  12. Static Mapping of Functional Programs: An Example in Signal Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack B. Dennis

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Complex signal-processing problems are naturally described by compositions of program modules that process streams of data. In this article we discuss how such compositions may be analyzed and mapped onto multiprocessor computers to effectively exploit the massive parallelism of these applications. The methods are illustrated with an example of signal processing for an optical surveillance problem. Program transformation and analysis are used to construct a program description tree that represents the given computation as an acyclic interconnection of stream-processing modules. Each module may be mapped to a set of threads run on a group of processing elements of a target multiprocessor. Performance is considered for two forms of multiprocessor architecture, one based on conventional DSP technology and the other on a multithreaded-processing element design.

  13. Image Processing Algorithms in the Secondary School Programming Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerják, István

    2017-01-01

    Learning computer programming for students of the age of 14-18 is difficult and requires endurance and engagement. Being familiar with the syntax of a computer language and writing programs in it are challenges for youngsters, not to mention that understanding algorithms is also a big challenge. To help students in the learning process, teachers…

  14. CM Process Improvement and the International Space Station Program (ISSP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Ginny

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the Configuration Management (CM) process improvements planned and undertaken for the International Space Station Program (ISSP). It reviews the 2004 findings and recommendations and the progress towards their implementation.

  15. NHDOT : process for municipally managed state aid highway program projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-05-23

    The design and construction of Municipally Managed State Aid Highway Program projects must comply with the requirements in this guideline in order to receive State Aid under the applicable provisions of RSA 235. Under this process, State Aid Construc...

  16. Effect Of A Large-Scale Social Franchising And Telemedicine Program On Childhood Diarrhea And Pneumonia Outcomes In India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanan, Manoj; Babiarz, Kimberly S; Goldhaber-Fiebert, Jeremy D; Miller, Grant; Vera-Hernández, Marcos

    2016-10-01

    Despite the rapid growth of social franchising, there is little evidence on its population impact in the health sector. Similar in many ways to private-sector commercial franchising, social franchising can be found in sectors with a social objective, such as health care. This article evaluates the World Health Partners (WHP) Sky program, a large-scale social franchising and telemedicine program in Bihar, India. We studied appropriate treatment for childhood diarrhea and pneumonia and associated health care outcomes. We used multivariate difference-in-differences models to analyze data on 67,950 children ages five and under in 2011 and 2014. We found that the WHP-Sky program did not improve rates of appropriate treatment or disease prevalence. Both provider participation and service use among target populations were low. Our results do not imply that social franchising cannot succeed; instead, they underscore the importance of understanding factors that explain variation in the performance of social franchises. Our findings also highlight, for donors and governments in particular, the importance of conducting rigorous impact evaluations of new and potentially innovative health care delivery programs before investing in scaling them up. Published by Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  17. Outcomes of group-based treatment program with parental involvement for the management of childhood and adolescent obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiprabhob, Jeerunda; Leewanun, Chanin; Limprayoon, Kawewan; Kiattisakthavee, Pornpimol; Wongarn, Renu; Aanpreung, Prapun; Likitmaskul, Supawadee

    2014-10-01

    An uncontrolled study was conducted to evaluate the effects of a group-based program on weight control, metabolic profiles, and obesity-related complications in obese youth. The program consisted of an initial in-patient session and five group sessions, one, two, three, six, and nine months into the study, providing participants and their parents with information about the consequences of obesity and lifestyle modifications. The severity of obesity and obesity-related complications were evaluated at baseline and 12 months after the intervention. The participants' and their parents' perceptions of the program were assessed. Of the obese youth recruited (n=126), 115 completed the study. Their percentage weight for height and percentage body fat decreased significantly (both pchildhood obesity, improving metabolic profiles, and alleviating certain obesity-related complications. A group-based program that provides education and raises the awareness of obese children and their parents about the consequences of obesity is an effective model for treating childhood obesity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of a family-based childhood obesity treatment program on parental weight status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trier, Cæcilie; Dahl, Maria; Stjernholm, Theresa

    2016-01-01

    during their child's treatment. Conclusion: There is a high prevalence of overweight/obesity among parents of children entering childhood obesity treatment. Family-based childhood obesity treatment with a focus on the child has a positive effect on parental BMI with both mothers and fathers losing weight...... available in 606 mothers and 479 fathers. At baseline, the median BMI of the mothers was 28.1 kg/m2 (range: 16.9-66.6), and the median BMI of the fathers was 28.9 kg/m2 (range: 17.2-48.1). Seventy percent of the mothers and 80% of the fathers were overweight or obese at the time of their child's treatment...... initiation. Both the mothers and fathers lost weight during their child's treatment with a mean decrease in BMI in the mothers of 0.5 (95% CI: 0.2-0.8, p = 0.0006) and in the fathers of 0.4 (95% CI: 0.2-0.6, p = 0.0007). Of the overweight/obese parents, 60% of the mothers and 58% of the fathers lost weight...

  19. Process monitoring using a Quality and Technical Surveillance Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafferty, C.A.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of process monitoring using a Quality and Technical Surveillance Program was to help ensure manufactured clad vents sets fully met technical and quality requirements established by the manufacturer and the customer, and that line and program management were immediately alerted if any aspect of the manufacturing activities drifted out of acceptable limits. The Quality and Technical Surveillance Program provided a planned, scheduled approach to monitor key processes and documentation illuminated potential problem areas early enough to permit timely corrective actions to reverse negative trends that, if left uncorrected, could have resulted in deficient hardware. Significant schedule and cost impacts were eliminated

  20. Process Evaluation and Continuous Improvement in Community Youth Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer V. Trachtenberg

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A method of using process evaluation to provide improvement plans in order to promote community youth programs is described. The core elements of this method include the following: (1 collection and analysis of baseline data, (2 feedback provided to programs describing their strengths and limitations, (3 programs provided with assistance in preparing improvement plans in regard to their baseline data, and (4 follow-up evaluation assessed program changes based on their improvement plans and baseline data. A case study of an inner-city neighborhood youth center is used to demonstrate this method.

  1. Rowing the Weaves of Community Participation: Good Practices in Early Childhood Development (ECD) Program in Rural Central Lombok, West Nusa Tenggara

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdillah, Ali

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the rural community participation within the context of an integrated early childhood development program initiated by the government of Indonesia in partnership with UNICEF and AusAID in Central Lombok (2008-2010). Based on purposive interviews with relevant stakeholders, as well as an analysis of past documents, researchers'…

  2. Psychotropic and Anticonvulsant Drug Usage in Early Childhood Special Education Programs I. Phase One: A Preliminary Report: Prevalence, Attitude, Training, and Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadow, Kenneth D.

    As part of a three phase study designed to survey the teachers and parents of children receiving psychotropic and anticonvulsant drugs, 208 teachers of preschool special education children on medication were mailed questionnaires. The Early Childhood Medication Questionnaire used in the survey included items relating to teacher, program, and…

  3. Impacts of an In-Service Education Program on Promoting Language Development in Young Children: A Pilot Study with Early Childhood Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarinci, Nerina; Rose, Tanya; Pee, Jerrine; Webb, Kylie

    2015-01-01

    Early childhood educators (ECEs) play an important role in fostering language development in young children. In-service education, led by speech-language pathologists (SLPs), has a potential role in educating ECEs about language development. In this pilot study, 42 ECEs attended an in-service education program and completed pre- and…

  4. Crossing the Cultural Divide in Early Childhood Teacher Education Programs: A Study of Chinese Graduate Students' Perceptions of American Early Care and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Nili; Gilliard, Jennifer L.

    2006-01-01

    To effectively teach young children, early childhood teachers must be prepared to collaborate with families of diverse backgrounds. Studying the unique cultural contexts of children and families in American early care and education programs and communities will offer early educators information needed to develop empathy for the families with whom…

  5. Training for Quality: Improving Early Childhood Programs through Systematic Inservice Training. Monographs of the High/Scope Educational Research Foundation, Number Nine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Ann S.

    The Training of Trainers (ToT) Evaluation investigated the efficacy of the High/Scope model for improving the quality of early childhood programs on a national scale. To address this question, the High/Scope Foundation undertook a multimethod evaluation that collected anecdotal records from the consultants and 793 participants in 40 ToT projects,…

  6. Evaluating an Enrichment Program in Early Childhood: A Multi-Methods Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Aswegen, Christa; Pendergast, Donna

    2015-01-01

    This article reports on the evaluation of one topic in an enrichment program designed for children in their early years of learning. The program is responsive to an increased understanding of the benefits for very young children of programs that not only take advantage of the sensitive periods for learning but that also assist parents to a take a…

  7. Constructing the ScratchJr Programming Language in the Early Childhood Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portelance, Dylan J.; Strawhacker, Amanda L.; Bers, Marina Umaschi

    2016-01-01

    This paper seeks to contribute to the growing literature on children and computer programming by focusing on a programming language for children in Kindergarten through second grade. Sixty-two students were exposed to a 6-week curriculum using ScartchJr. They learned foundational programming concepts and applied those concepts to create personally…

  8. Process evaluation of the Regional Biomass Energy Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, C.R.; Brown, M.A.; Perlack, R.D.

    1994-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) established the Regional Biomass Energy Program (RBEP) in 1983 to increase the production and use of biomass energy resources. Through the creation of five regional program (the Great Lakes, Northeast, Pacific Northwest, Southeast, and West), the RBEP focuses on regionally specific needs and opportunities. In 1992, Oak Ridge National (ORNL) conducted a process evaluation of the RBEP Program designed to document and explain the development of the goals and strategies of the five regional programs; describe the economic and market context surrounding commercialization of bioenergy systems; assess the criteria used to select projects; describe experiences with cost sharing; identify program accomplishments in the transfer of information and technology; and offer recommendations for program improvement.

  9. The Judicial Process as a Form of Program Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellsberry, James

    1980-01-01

    Maintaining that the judicial process is particularly effective as a form of program evaluation, this article details organizational procedures and lists the following advantages for use of the judicial process: issues are investigated in an open forum, the community can participate, and exciting opportunities for teaching and learning are…

  10. Improved Childhood Diarrhea Treatment Practices in Ghana: A Pre-Post Evaluation of a Comprehensive Private-Sector Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Khoury, Marianne; Banke, Kathryn; Sloane, Phoebe

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Diarrhea is the fourth leading cause of child mortality in Ghana. In 2010, Ghana endorsed guidelines from the World Health Organization and the United Nations Children’s Fund for use of zinc with low-osmolarity oral rehydration salts (ORS) for the treatment of acute childhood diarrhea. From late 2011 through 2014, the Strengthening Health Outcomes through the Private Sector (SHOPS) project implemented a comprehensive program in 3 regions of Ghana to increase the availability and use of ORS and zinc and to decrease incorrect use of antibiotics and antidiarrheals. The program included (1) partnering with local pharmaceutical firms to introduce and market locally produced zinc products, (2) collaborating with the Ghanaian Pharmacy Council to provide training and supportive supervision of private-sector providers on diarrhea management, and (3) conducting mass media campaigns to raise caregiver awareness. We evaluated the effect of this program using a baseline survey of 754 caregivers of children under 5 with diarrhea at the start of the intervention in 2012 and a follow-up survey of 751 caregivers in 2014. Regression analysis showed that use of ORS with zinc increased from 0.8% in 2012 to 29.2% in 2014 (Pzinc. Additional efforts are required to reduce persistent incorrect antibiotic use. PMID:27353619

  11. Nutrition intervention program and childhood malnutrition: a comparative study of two rural riverine communities in bayelsa state, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, W; Ordinioha, B; Abuwa, Pnc

    2013-07-01

    The prevalence of malnutrition is high in the Niger delta region of Nigeria, in spite of the region's oil wealth and nutrition intervention programs have been found to be effective in similar circumstance. This study is to assess the nutrition intervention program, implemented by UNICEF in some rural communities of Bayelsa State, one of the six States in the Niger delta region of Nigeria. The study was carried out in 2009 in Toruorua and Gbaranbiri, two rural riverine communities, in Baylesa State. Toruorua benefited from the nutrition intervention program of UNICEF between 1999 and 2008, while Gbaranbiri did not benefit. A comparative, cross-sectional study design was used, with the data collected using anthropometry and semi-structured questionnaire, administered on 105 respondents, chosen with the cluster sampling technique, popularized by UNICEF, from each of the study communities. Data were analyzed using EPI-INFO version 2002, Microsoft Excel software, and manually. Differences between the study communities were tested using the student's t-test for means, and Chi-square test for proportions. Significant values were set at P childhood malnutrition.

  12. Process Evaluation of a Workers' Health Surveillance Program for Meat Processing Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Holland, Berry J; Brouwer, Sandra; de Boer, Michiel R; Reneman, Michiel F; Soer, Remko

    2017-09-01

    Objective To evaluate the implementation process of a workers' health surveillance (WHS) program in a Dutch meat processing company. Methods Workers from five plants were eligible to participate in the WHS program. The program consisted of four evaluative components and an intervention component. Qualitative and quantitative methods were used to evaluate seven process aspects. Data were gathered by interviews with stakeholders, participant questionnaires, and from registries of the company and occupational health service. Results Two recruitment strategies were used: open invitation or automatic participation. Of the 986 eligible workers, 305 participated in the program. Average reach was 53 %. Two out of five program components could not be assessed on dose delivered, dose received and fidelity. If components were assessable, 85-100 % of the components was delivered, 66-100 % of the components was received by participants, and fidelity was 100 %. Participants were satisfied with the WHS program (mean score 7.6). Contextual factors that facilitated implementation were among others societal developments and management support. Factors that formed barriers were program novelty and delayed follow-up. Conclusion The WHS program was well received by participants. Not all participants were offered the same number of program components, and not all components were performed according to protocol. Deviation from protocol is an indication of program failure and may affect program effectiveness.

  13. Processing sequence annotation data using the Lua programming language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Yutaka; Arita, Masanori; Kumagai, Toshitaka; Asai, Kiyoshi

    2003-01-01

    The data processing language in a graphical software tool that manages sequence annotation data from genome databases should provide flexible functions for the tasks in molecular biology research. Among currently available languages we adopted the Lua programming language. It fulfills our requirements to perform computational tasks for sequence map layouts, i.e. the handling of data containers, symbolic reference to data, and a simple programming syntax. Upon importing a foreign file, the original data are first decomposed in the Lua language while maintaining the original data schema. The converted data are parsed by the Lua interpreter and the contents are stored in our data warehouse. Then, portions of annotations are selected and arranged into our catalog format to be depicted on the sequence map. Our sequence visualization program was successfully implemented, embedding the Lua language for processing of annotation data and layout script. The program is available at http://staff.aist.go.jp/yutaka.ueno/guppy/.

  14. The lived experiences of aboriginal adolescent survivors of childhood cancer during the recovering process in Taiwan: A descriptive qualitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ya-Chun; Huang, Chu-Yu; Wu, Wei-Wen; Chang, Shu-Chuan; Lee-Hsieh, Jane; Liang, Shu-Yuan; Cheng, Su-Fen

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand the experiences of Taiwanese aboriginal adolescent survivors of childhood cancer during the process of recovery. A snowball sampling strategy was used to recruit participants from the pediatrics unit of a medical center in the eastern region of Taiwan. In-depth interviews were conducted with 11 aboriginal adolescent childhood cancer survivors. The data were analyzed using content analysis. The results revealed three major themes with subthemes within each theme. The three major themes are: roots of resilience, transformation and growth, and meaning of traditional rituals for resilience. The three subthemes within "roots of resilience" include: "feeling secure through company of family, care and financial support", "receiving support from the important others and religion" and "learning to self-adjust". The three subthemes revealed within "transformation and growth" are: restructuring the relationship with peers, "appreciating parents' hard work", and "learning to seize the moment". The two subthemes within "meaning of traditional rituals to resilience" include: "feeling blessed with the power of ancestral spirits" and "strengthening ethnic identity". This study provided insight into the experiences of aboriginal adolescents as they recovered from childhood cancer. The experiences made positive impacts by inspiring growth in maturity and consolidating aboriginal ethnic identity. The adolescents were empowered by support from family, friends and clansmen, and by their participation in aboriginal rituals. As healthcare professionals care for the aboriginal adolescents, it is critical to consider this culturally and ethnically specific knowledge/experience of surviving cancer to improve quality of care. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Super Efficient Refrigerator Program (SERP) evaluation. Volume 1: Process evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandahl, L.J.; Ledbetter, M.R.; Chin, R.I.; Lewis, K.S.; Norling, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted this study for the US Department of Energy (DOE) as part of the Super Efficient Refrigerator Program (SERP) Evaluation. This report documents the SERP formation and implementation process, and identifies preliminary program administration and implementation issues. The findings are based primarily on interviews with those familiar with the program, such as utilities, appliance manufacturers, and SERP administrators. These interviews occurred primarily between March and April 1995, when SERP was in the early stages of program implementation. A forthcoming report will estimate the preliminary impacts of SERP within the industry and marketplace. Both studies were funded by DOE at the request of SERP Inc., which sought a third-party evaluation of its program.

  16. Spacecraft Testing Programs: Adding Value to the Systems Engineering Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britton, Keith J.; Schaible, Dawn M.

    2011-01-01

    Testing has long been recognized as a critical component of spacecraft development activities - yet many major systems failures may have been prevented with more rigorous testing programs. The question is why is more testing not being conducted? Given unlimited resources, more testing would likely be included in a spacecraft development program. Striking the right balance between too much testing and not enough has been a long-term challenge for many industries. The objective of this paper is to discuss some of the barriers, enablers, and best practices for developing and sustaining a strong test program and testing team. This paper will also explore the testing decision factors used by managers; the varying attitudes toward testing; methods to develop strong test engineers; and the influence of behavior, culture and processes on testing programs. KEY WORDS: Risk, Integration and Test, Validation, Verification, Test Program Development

  17. School Meal Program Participation and Its Association with Dietary Patterns and Childhood Obesity. Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleason, Philip; Briefel, Ronette; Wilson, Ander; Dodd, Allison Hedley

    2009-01-01

    We used data from the School Nutrition Dietary Assessment III Study to examine the dietary patterns of school meal program participants and nonparticipants and the relationship between school meal participation and children's BMI and risk of overweight or obesity. School Breakfast Program (SBP) participants consumed more low nutrient energy dense…

  18. 34 CFR 674.58 - Cancellation for service in an early childhood education program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... complete academic year, or its equivalent. (5) In order to qualify for cancellation, the borrower's salary may not exceed the salary of a comparable employee working in the local educational agency of the area..., emotional, and physical development. (3) A child care program is a program that is licensed or regulated by...

  19. Effects of a Self-Management Educational Program for the Control of Childhood Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Maria Gabriela; Feldman, Lya; Caballero, Fernan

    1999-01-01

    Evaluates the effects of a self-management educational program on 29 children and their parents. Program consists of six sessions of information giving and cognitive-behavioral strategies for the children, and two talks and a brochure for the parents. Results indicate a significant effect on children's asthma knowledge and practice of…

  20. Processing a programming handbook for visual designers and artists

    CERN Document Server

    Reas, Casey

    2014-01-01

    The visual arts are rapidly changing as media moves into the web, mobile devices, and architecture. When designers and artists learn the basics of writing software, they develop a new form of literacy that enables them to create new media for the present, and to imagine future media that are beyond the capacities of current software tools. This book introduces this new literacy by teaching computer programming within the context of the visual arts. It offers a comprehensive reference and text for Processing (www.processing.org), an open-source programming language that can be used by students, artists, designers, architects, researchers, and anyone who wants to program images, animation, and interactivity. Written by Processing's cofounders, the book offers a definitive reference for students and professionals. Tutorial chapters make up the bulk of the book; advanced professional projects from such domains as animation, performance, and installation are discussed in interviews with their creators. This secon...

  1. Agriculture and Food Processes Branch program summary document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-06-01

    The work of the Agriculture and Food Processes Branch within the US DOE's Office of Industrial Programs is discussed and reviewed. The Branch is responsible for assisting the food and agricultural sectors of the economy in increasing their energy efficiency by cost sharing with industry the development and demonstration of technologies industry by itself would not develop because of a greater than normal risk factor, but have significant energy conservation benefits. This task is made more difficult by the diversity of agriculture and the food industry. The focus of the program is now on the development and demonstration of energy conservation technology in high energy use industry sectors and agricultural functions (e.g., sugar processing, meat processing, irrigation, and crop drying, high energy use functions common to many sectors of the food industry (e.g., refrigeration, drying, and evaporation), and innovative concepts (e.g., energy integrated farm systems. Specific projects within the program are summarized. (LCL)

  2. Measuring learning, student engagement, and program effectiveness: a strategic process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jantzi, Julie; Austin, Connie

    2005-01-01

    What if there was an effective way to address the age-old question from students, "Why do we have to do this assignment?" And from faculty, "How do we know our students are really learning?" And from administrators, "How will we demonstrate to our peers, our accrediting agencies, and other program stakeholders that our programs are educationally effective?" As it undertook a curriculum redesign, faculty in a baccalaureate school of nursing developed a 9-step process for curriculum implementation. The authors discuss how they applied the 9 steps strategically, positioning the program for 2 successful accreditation self-studies and concurrently addressing, with greater confidence, some of these age-old questions.

  3. Effects of a short-term parental education program on childhood atopic dermatitis: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Futamura, Masaki; Masuko, Ikuyo; Hayashi, Keiichi; Ohya, Yukihiro; Ito, Komei

    2013-01-01

    Parental education is important in managing childhood atopic dermatitis (AD). We evaluated the long-term effects of a 2-day parental education program (PEP) on childhood AD. In an investigator-blinded, randomized controlled trial, 59 children age 6 months to 6 years with moderate to severe AD and their mothers were recruited in Japan. Participants were given a booklet about AD and received conventional treatment alone or in combination with a 2-day PEP comprising three lectures, three practical sessions, and a group discussion. The primary outcome was evaluation of eczema severity using SCORing Atopic Dermatitis (SCORAD) at 6 months. Secondary outcomes included changes in symptom scores, amount of corticosteroid used, parental quality of life as determined according to the Dermatitis Family Impact questionnaire, and change in parental anxiety regarding the use of corticosteroids in their children. Participants in the PEP group had a significantly lower SCORAD score than those in the control group at 6 months (mean difference 10.0, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.3-17.7, p = 0.01) and objective SCORAD score (mean difference 7.1, 95% CI = 0.8-13.5, p = 0.03). The sleeplessness symptom score (mean difference 1.6, 95% CI = 0.0-3.1, p = 0.048) and corticosteroid anxiety score (p = 0.02) in the PEP group were significantly better than in the control group at 6 months. There was no significant difference between groups in the amount of corticosteroid used or quality of life. The PEP had positive long-term effects on eczema severity and parental anxiety about corticosteroid usage. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Programming of Adiposity in Childhood and Adolescence: Associations With Birth Weight and Cord Blood Adipokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Joy; Smith, Andrew D A C; Fraser, Abigail; Sattar, Naveed; Lindsay, Robert S; Ring, Susan M; Tilling, Kate; Davey Smith, George; Lawlor, Debbie A; Nelson, Scott M

    2017-02-01

    Exposure to maternal adiposity during pregnancy is associated with higher offspring birth weight and greater adiposity through childhood and adult life. As birth weight reflects the summation of lean and fat mass, the extent to which fat mass at birth tracks into later life is unknown. To determine whether fat mass at birth is associated with child and adolescent adiposity. UK birth cohort with markers of neonatal fat mass; cord blood leptin, adiponectin, and birth weight and adiposity outcomes at age 9 (n = 2775) and 17 years (n = 2138). Offspring body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry-determined fat mass, and obesity at age 9 and 17 years. Higher cord blood leptin was associated with higher z scores of fat mass [difference in mean per 10 pg/mL: 0.03 standard deviation (SD); 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.00 to 0.06], waist circumference (0.04 SD; 95% CI, 0.00 to 0.07), and BMI (0.04 SD; 95% CI, 0.00 to 0.08) at age 9. However, by age 17 the adjusted results were attenuated to the null. Cord blood adiponectin was not associated with measures of adiposity at age 9. At age 17, cord blood adiponectin was positively associated with fat mass (0.02 SD per 10 μg/mL; 95% CI, 0.02 to 0.03) and waist circumference (0.04 SD per 10 μg/mL; 95% CI, 0.03 to 0.05). Birth weight was positively associated with waist circumference (0.03 SD per 100 g; 95% CI, 0.02 to 0.04) and BMI (0.02 SD per 100 g; 95% CI, 0.00 to 0.03), but not fat mass or odds of obesity. Cord blood leptin and adiponectin were not associated with obesity at either age. Increased cord blood leptin and adiponectin, known surrogates of fetal fat mass, were weakly associated with increased fat mass in late childhood and adolescence, respectively.

  5. White Matter Fractional Anisotropy Correlates With Speed of Processing and Motor Speed in Young Childhood Cancer Survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aukema, Eline J.; Caan, Matthan W.A.; Oudhuis, Nienke; Majoie, Charles; Vos, Frans M.; Reneman, Liesbeth; Last, Bob F.; Grootenhuis, Martha A.; Schouten-van Meeteren, Antoinette Y.N.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether childhood medulloblastoma and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) survivors have decreased white matter fractional anisotropy (WMFA) and whether WMFA is related to the speed of processing and motor speed. Methods and Materials: For this study, 17 patients (6 medulloblastoma, 5 ALL treated with high-dose methotrexate (MTX) (4 x 5 g/m 2 ) and 6 with low-dose MTX (3 x 2 g/m 2 )) and 17 age-matched controls participated. On a 3.0-T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was performed, and WMFA values were calculated, including specific regions of interest (ROIs), and correlated with the speed of processing and motor speed. Results: Mean WMFA in the patient group, mean age 14 years (range 8.9 - 16.9), was decreased compared with the control group (p = 0.01), as well as WMFA in the right inferior fronto-occipital fasciliculus (IFO) (p = 0.03) and in the genu of the corpus callosum (gCC) (p = 0.01). Based on neurocognitive results, significant positive correlations were present between processing speed and WMFA in the splenium (sCC) (r = 0.53, p = 0.03) and the body of the corpus callosum (bCC) (r = 0.52, p = 0.03), whereas the right IFO WMFA was related to motor speed (r = 0.49, p < 0.05). Conclusions: White matter tracts, using a 3.0-T MRI scanner, show impairment in childhood cancer survivors, medulloblastoma survivors, and also those treated with high doses of MTX. In particular, white matter tracts in the sCC, bCC and right IFO are positively correlated with speed of processing and motor speed.

  6. Improved Childhood Diarrhea Treatment Practices in Ghana: A Pre-Post Evaluation of a Comprehensive Private-Sector Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Khoury, Marianne; Banke, Kathryn; Sloane, Phoebe

    2016-06-20

    Diarrhea is the fourth leading cause of child mortality in Ghana. In 2010, Ghana endorsed guidelines from the World Health Organization and the United Nations Children's Fund for use of zinc with low-osmolarity oral rehydration salts (ORS) for the treatment of acute childhood diarrhea. From late 2011 through 2014, the Strengthening Health Outcomes through the Private Sector (SHOPS) project implemented a comprehensive program in 3 regions of Ghana to increase the availability and use of ORS and zinc and to decrease incorrect use of antibiotics and antidiarrheals. The program included (1) partnering with local pharmaceutical firms to introduce and market locally produced zinc products, (2) collaborating with the Ghanaian Pharmacy Council to provide training and supportive supervision of private-sector providers on diarrhea management, and (3) conducting mass media campaigns to raise caregiver awareness. We evaluated the effect of this program using a baseline survey of 754 caregivers of children under 5 with diarrhea at the start of the intervention in 2012 and a follow-up survey of 751 caregivers in 2014. Regression analysis showed that use of ORS with zinc increased from 0.8% in 2012 to 29.2% in 2014 (P<.001), and antibiotic use declined from 66.2% to 38.2% (P<.001) during the same period. The magnitude and statistical significance of these results remained the same after including potential confounding factors as covariates. Inappropriate antibiotic use, however, remained high at follow-up. We conclude that similar programs applied in other settings have the potential to rapidly scale up use of ORS and zinc. Additional efforts are required to reduce persistent incorrect antibiotic use. © El-Khoury et al.

  7. The NASA Commercial Crew Program (CCP) Mission Assurance Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canfield, Amy

    2016-01-01

    In 2010, NASA established the Commercial Crew Program in order to provide human access to the International Space Station and low earth orbit via the commercial (non-governmental) sector. A particular challenge to NASA has been how to determine the commercial providers transportation system complies with Programmatic safety requirements. The process used in this determination is the Safety Technical Review Board which reviews and approves provider submitted Hazard Reports. One significant product of the review is a set of hazard control verifications. In past NASA programs, 100 percent of these safety critical verifications were typically confirmed by NASA. The traditional Safety and Mission Assurance (SMA) model does not support the nature of the Commercial Crew Program. To that end, NASA SMA is implementing a Risk Based Assurance (RBA) process to determine which hazard control verifications require NASA authentication. Additionally, a Shared Assurance Model is also being developed to efficiently use the available resources to execute the verifications. This paper will describe the evolution of the CCP Mission Assurance process from the beginning of the Program to its current incarnation. Topics to be covered include a short history of the CCP; the development of the Programmatic mission assurance requirements; the current safety review process; a description of the RBA process and its products and ending with a description of the Shared Assurance Model.

  8. SIP: A Web-Based Astronomical Image Processing Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonetti, J. H.

    1999-12-01

    I have written an astronomical image processing and analysis program designed to run over the internet in a Java-compatible web browser. The program, Sky Image Processor (SIP), is accessible at the SIP webpage (http://www.phys.vt.edu/SIP). Since nothing is installed on the user's machine, there is no need to download upgrades; the latest version of the program is always instantly available. Furthermore, the Java programming language is designed to work on any computer platform (any machine and operating system). The program could be used with students in web-based instruction or in a computer laboratory setting; it may also be of use in some research or outreach applications. While SIP is similar to other image processing programs, it is unique in some important respects. For example, SIP can load images from the user's machine or from the Web. An instructor can put images on a web server for students to load and analyze on their own personal computer. Or, the instructor can inform the students of images to load from any other web server. Furthermore, since SIP was written with students in mind, the philosophy is to present the user with the most basic tools necessary to process and analyze astronomical images. Images can be combined (by addition, subtraction, multiplication, or division), multiplied by a constant, smoothed, cropped, flipped, rotated, and so on. Statistics can be gathered for pixels within a box drawn by the user. Basic tools are available for gathering data from an image which can be used for performing simple differential photometry, or astrometry. Therefore, students can learn how astronomical image processing works. Since SIP is not part of a commercial CCD camera package, the program is written to handle the most common denominator image file, the FITS format.

  9. Life course pathways of adverse childhood experiences toward adult psychological well-being: A stress process analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurius, Paula S; Green, Sara; Logan-Greene, Patricia; Borja, Sharon

    2015-07-01

    Growing evidence suggests that toxic stressors early in life not only convey developmental impacts but also augment risk of proliferating chains of additional stressors that can overwhelm individual coping and undermine recovery and health. Examining trauma within a life course stress process perspective, we posit that early childhood adversity carries a unique capacity to impair adult psychological well-being both independent of and cumulative with other contributors, including social disadvantage and stressful adult experiences. This study uses data from a representative population-based health survey (N=13,593) to provide one of the first multivariate assessments of unique, cumulative, and moderated effects of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) toward explaining 3 related yet distinct measures of adult mental health: perceived well-being, psychological distress, and impaired daily activities. Results demonstrate support for each set of hypothesized associations, including exacerbation and amelioration of ACEs effects by adult stress and resilience resources, respectively. Implications for services and future research are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. 76 FR 22713 - Advisory Committee on the Maternal, Infant and Early Childhood Home Visiting Program Evaluation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-22

    ... specified in the Affordable Care Act (such as maternal and child health status, school readiness, and domestic violence, among others); (b) the effectiveness of such programs on different populations...

  11. SOLTECH 92 proceedings: Solar Process Heat Program. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-03-01

    This document is a limited Proceedings, documenting the presentations given at the symposia conducted by the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Solar Industrial Program and Solar Thermal Electrical Program at SOLTECH92. The SOLTECH92 national solar energy conference was held in Albuquerque, New Mexico during the period February 17--20, 1992. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory manages the Solar Industrial Program; Sandia National Laboratories (Albuquerque) manages the Solar Thermal Electric Program. The symposia sessions were as follows: (1) Solar Industrial Program and Solar Thermal Electric Program Overviews, (2) Solar Process Heat Applications, (3) Solar Decontamination of Water and Soil; (4) Solar Building Technologies, (5) Solar Thermal Electric Systems, (6) PV Applications and Technologies. For each presentation given in these symposia, these Proceedings provide a one- to two-page abstract and copies of the viewgraphs and/or 35mm slides utilized by the speaker. Some speakers provided additional materials in the interest of completeness. The materials presented in this document were not subjected to a peer review process.

  12. SOLTECH 1992 proceedings: Solar Process Heat Program, volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-03-01

    This document is a limited Proceedings, documenting the presentations given at the symposia conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Solar Industrial Program and Solar Thermal Electrical Program at SOLTECH92. The SOLTECH92 national solar energy conference was held in Albuquerque, New Mexico during the period February 17-20, 1992. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory manages the Solar Industrial Program; Sandia National Laboratories (Albuquerque) manages the Solar Thermal Electric Program. The symposia sessions were as follows: (1) Solar Industrial Program and Solar Thermal Electric Program Overviews, (2) Solar Process Heat Applications, (3) Solar Decontamination of Water and Soil, (4) Solar Building Technologies, (5) Solar Thermal Electric Systems, and (6) Photovoltaic (PV) Applications and Technologies. For each presentation given in these symposia, these Proceedings provide a one- to two-page abstract and copies of the viewgraphs and/or 35 mm slides utilized by the speaker. Some speakers provided additional materials in the interest of completeness. The materials presented in this document were not subjected to a peer review process.

  13. Characteristics of Volunteer Coaches in a Clinical Process Improvement Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morley, Katharine E; Barysauskas, Constance M; Carballo, Victoria; Kalibatas, Orinta; Rao, Sandhya K; Jacobson, Joseph O; Cummings, Brian M

    The Partners Clinical Process Improvement Leadership Program provides quality improvement training for clinicians and administrators, utilizing graduates as volunteer peer coaches for mentorship. We sought to understand the factors associated with volunteer coach participation and gain insight into how to improve and sustain this program. Review of coach characteristics from course database and survey of frequent coaches. Out of 516 Partners Clinical Process Improvement Leadership Program graduates from March 2010 to June 2015, 117 (23%) individuals volunteered as coaches. Sixty-one (52%) individuals coached once, 31 (27%) coached twice, and 25 (21%) coached 3 or more times. There were statistically significant associations between coaching and occupation (P = .005), Partners Clinical Process Improvement Leadership Program course taken (P = .001), and course location (P = .007). Administrators were more likely to coach than physicians (odds ratio: 1.75, P = .04). Reasons for volunteering as a coach included further development of skills, desire to stay involved with program, and enjoying mentoring. Reasons for repeated coaching included maintaining quality improvement skills, expanding skills to a wider variety of projects, and networking. A peer graduate volunteer coach model is a viable strategy for interprofessional quality improvement mentorship. Strategies that support repeat coaching and engage clinicians should be promoted to ensure an experienced and diversified group of coaches.

  14. Programas de Educacion Inicial en America Latina y los Curriculos Nacionales en el siglo XXI. [Latin American Early Childhood Educational Programs and National Curriculum in the 21st Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peralta, Maria Victoria

    2003-01-01

    Describes the history of early childhood education in Chile and recent educational reforms. Offers an overview of the Chilean Early Childhood Education program and discusses the new national curriculum and issues arising from its implementation. Describes methods taken to help implement the new curriculum nationwide and to assist teachers in…

  15. Specific cognitive-neurophysiological processes predict impulsivity in the childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder combined subtype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluschke, A; Roessner, V; Beste, C

    2016-04-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most prevalent neuropsychiatric disorders in childhood. Besides inattention and hyperactivity, impulsivity is the third core symptom leading to diverse and serious problems. However, the neuronal mechanisms underlying impulsivity in ADHD are still not fully understood. This is all the more the case when patients with the ADHD combined subtype (ADHD-C) are considered who are characterized by both symptoms of inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity. Combining high-density electroencephalography (EEG) recordings with source localization analyses, we examined what information processing stages are dysfunctional in ADHD-C (n = 20) compared with controls (n = 18). Patients with ADHD-C made more impulsive errors in a Go/No-go task than healthy controls. Neurophysiologically, different subprocesses from perceptual gating to attentional selection, resource allocation and response selection processes are altered in this patient group. Perceptual gating, stimulus-driven attention selection and resource allocation processes were more pronounced in ADHD-C, are related to activation differences in parieto-occipital networks and suggest attentional filtering deficits. However, only response selection processes, associated with medial prefrontal networks, predicted impulsive errors in ADHD-C. Although the clinical picture of ADHD-C is complex and a multitude of processing steps are altered, only a subset of processes seems to directly modulate impulsive behaviour. The present findings improve the understanding of mechanisms underlying impulsivity in patients with ADHD-C and might help to refine treatment algorithms focusing on impulsivity.

  16. Process monitoring using a quality and technical surveillance program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafferty, C.A.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of process monitoring using a quality and technical surveillance program was to help ensure that manufactured clad went sets fully met technical and quality requirements established by the manufacturer and the customer and that line and program management were immediately alerted if any aspect of the manufacturing activities drifted out of acceptable limits. The quality and technical surveillance program provided a planned, scheduled approach to monitor key processes and documentation and certification systems to prevent noncompliances or any manufacturing discrepancies. These surveillances illuminated potential problem areas early enough to permit timely corrective actions to reverse negative trends that, if left uncorrected, could have resulted in deficient hardware. Significant schedule and cost impacts were eliminated. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  17. Radioimmunoassay data processing program for IBM PC computers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-06-01

    The Medical Applications Section of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has previously developed several programs for use on the Hewlett-Packard HP-41C programmable calculator to facilitate better quality control in radioimmunoassay through improved data processing. The program described in this document is designed for off-line analysis using an IBM PC (or compatible) for counting data from standards and unknown specimens (i.e. for analysis of counting data previously recorded by a counter), together with internal quality control (IQC) data both within and between batch. The greater computing power of the IBM PC has enabled the imprecision profile and IQC control curves which were unavailable on the HP-41C version. It is intended that the program would make available good data processing capability to laboratories having limited financial resources and serious problems of quality control. 3 refs

  18. PSSGP : Program for Simulation of Stationary Gaussian Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    This report describes the computer program PSSGP. PSSGP can be used to simulate realizations of stationary Gaussian stochastic processes. The simulation algorithm can be coupled with some applications. One possibility is to use PSSGP to estimate the first-passage density function of a given system...

  19. Statistical Process Control in the Practice of Program Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posavac, Emil J.

    1995-01-01

    A technique developed to monitor the quality of manufactured products, statistical process control (SPC), incorporates several features that may prove attractive to evaluators. This paper reviews the history of SPC, suggests how the approach can enrich program evaluation, and illustrates its use in a hospital-based example. (SLD)

  20. Programming signal processing applications on heterogeneous wireless sensor platforms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buondonno, L.; Fortino, G.; Galzarano, S.; Giannantonio, R.; Giordano, A.; Gravina, R.; Guerrieri, A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes the SPINE frameworks (SPINE1.x and SPINE2) for the programming of signal processing applications on heterogeneous wireless sensor platforms. In particular, two integrable approaches based on the proposed frameworks are described that allow to develop applications for wireless

  1. RELABEL2007, Labels FORTRAN Statements in ENDF Format Processing Programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: RELABEL labels a ENDF/B pre-processing program so that statement labels are in increasing order in increments of 10 within each routine, and cards are identified in columns 73-80 by three alphanumeric characters in columns 73-75 and sequence numbers in columns 76-80 in increments of 10. IAEA1314/10: This version include the updates up to January 30, 2007. Changes in ENDF/B-VII Format and procedures, as well as the evaluations themselves, make it impossible for versions of the ENDF/B pre-processing codes earlier than PREPRO 2007 (2007 Version) to accurately process current ENDF/B-VII evaluations. The present code can handle all existing ENDF/B-VI evaluations through release 8, which will be the last release of ENDF/B-VI. Modifications from previous versions: Relabel VERS. 2007-1 (JAN. 2007): No change since March 2004 version 2 - Method of solution: 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: RELABEL is designed to maintain ENDF/B processing programs which use a restricted set of FORTRAN statements. As such, this program is not completely general

  2. Effectiveness of a parenting program in Bangladesh to address early childhood health, growth and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboud, Frances E; Singla, Daisy R; Nahil, Md Imam; Borisova, Ivelina

    2013-11-01

    A stratified cluster design was used to evaluate a 10-month parenting program delivered to mothers of children in rural Bangladesh. Intervention mothers through a combination of group meetings and home visits received messages along with an illustrative card concerning hygiene, responsive feeding, play, communication, gentle discipline, and nutritious foods. Control mothers received the standard government care. Three months prior, 463 children between 4 and 14 months in a subdistrict of western Bangladesh were administered the cognitive, receptive language and expressive language Bayley III subtests, their length was taken and past week illness recorded. Gross motor milestones were reported by the mother and verified through observation. Mothers were interviewed concerning their practices: preventive health practices, dietary diversity, home stimulation, and knowledge about development milestones. Maternal depressive symptoms were assessed as a measure of emotional availability. Family sociodemographic variables included maternal education, family assets, decision-making and mobility autonomy. One month after the end of the program, mothers and their children were again assessed. Comparisons were made between intervention and control children who were under-12 months vs. 12 months and older at the start of the program. This may be a critical age, when children begin to be upright and mobile enough to explore on their own and be less dependent on parenting stimulation. Analyses yielded strong intervention effects on the three Bayley subtests and on parenting practices related to stimulation and knowledge of development milestones. Age effects were found only for dietary diversity in that younger children in the program benefited more than older ones. However, all children became more stunted. Findings are discussed in terms of theories of behaviour change and parenting, critical ages for parenting programs, and implications for program delivery. Copyright © 2013

  3. Vitamin D prenatal programming of childhood metabolomics profiles at age 3 y

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blighe, Kevin; Chawes, Bo L; Kelly, Rachel S

    2017-01-01

    was to analyze the programming role of in utero vitamin D exposure on children's metabolomics profiles.Design: First, unsupervised clustering was done with plasma metabolomics profiles from a case-control subset of 245 children aged 3 y with and without asthma from the Vitamin D Antenatal Asthma Reduction Trial...... children can be clustered into distinct biologically meaningful groups by their metabolomics profiles. The clusters differed in concentrations of inflammatory mediators, and cluster membership was influenced by in utero vitamin D exposure, suggesting a prenatal programming role of vitamin D on the child...

  4. Associations between Prenatal and Early Childhood Fish and Processed Food Intake, Conduct Problems, and Co-Occurring Difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesirow, Maurissa Sc; Cecil, Charlotte; Maughan, Barbara; Barker, Edward D

    2017-07-01

    Little is known about early life diet as a risk factor for early-onset persistent conduct problems (EOP CP). To investigate this, we used data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, a UK-based prospective epidemiological birth cohort. 5727 mother-child pairs (49.9 % boys) monitored since pregnancy (delivery date between 1 April, 1991 and 31 December, 1992) reported intake of fish and processed foods at 32 weeks gestation and, for the child, at 3 years; EOP (n = 666) and Low conduct problem (Low CP, n = 5061) trajectories were measured from 4 to 13 years; hyperactivity and emotional difficulties were assessed in childhood (4-10 years) and early adolescence (12-13 years), in addition to potential confounding factors (family adversity, birth complications, income). Compared to Low CP, mothers of EOP children consumed less fish (p processed food (p processed food at 3 years (p processed food (vs. less than one serving/day, p processed food, and low in fish, associate with an EOP CP trajectory and co-occurring difficulties in early adolescence. As small effect size differences were found, further studies are needed to investigate the long-term impact of early unhealthy diet.

  5. Quality Assurance Program description, Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maslar, S.R.

    1992-01-01

    This document describes the Westinghouse Savannah River Company's (WSRC) Quality Assurance Program for Defense Waste Processing at the Savannah River Site (SRS). WSRC is the operating contractor for the US Department of Energy (DOE) at the SRS. The following objectives are achieved through developing and implementing the Quality Assurance Program: (1) Ensure that the attainment of quality (in accomplishing defense high-level waste processing objectives at the SRS) is at a level commensurate with the government's responsibility for protecting public health and safety, the environment, the public investment, and for efficiently and effectively using national resources. (2) Ensure that high-level waste from qualification and production activities conform to requirements defined by OCRWM. These activities include production processes, equipment, and services; and products that are planned, designed, procured, fabricated, installed, tested, operated, maintained, modified, or produced

  6. Promoting an Alcohol-Free Childhood: A Novel Home-Based Parenting Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, Denise M.; Hayes, Kim A.; Jackson, Christine; Ennett, Susan T.; Lawson, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    Few alcohol prevention programs focus on elementary school-aged youth, yet children develop expectancies and norms about alcohol use during the elementary school years, and many elementary school children are allowed to have sips or tastes of alcohol at home. Research on consequences of early alcohol use indicates that it can put children at…

  7. Temporal trends in childhood mortality in Ghana: impacts and challenges of health policies and programs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kayode, Gbenga A.; Grobbee, Diederick E.; Koduah, Augustina; Amoakoh-Coleman, Mary; Agyepong, Irene A.; Ansah, Evelyn; Dijk, van Han; Klipstein-grobusch, Kerstin

    2016-01-01

    Background: Following the adoption of the Millennium Development Goal 4 (MDG 4) in Ghana to reduce under-five mortality by two-thirds between 1990 and 2015, efforts were made towards its attainment. However, impacts and challenges of implemented intervention programs have not been examined to inform

  8. Temporal trends in childhood mortality in Ghana : impacts and challenges of health policies and programs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kayode, Gbenga A; Grobbee, Diederick E; Koduah, Augustina; Amoakoh-Coleman, Mary; Agyepong, Irene A; Ansah, Evelyn; van Dijk, Han; Klipstein-Grobusch, Kerstin

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Following the adoption of the Millennium Development Goal 4 (MDG 4) in Ghana to reduce under-five mortality by two-thirds between 1990 and 2015, efforts were made towards its attainment. However, impacts and challenges of implemented intervention programs have not been examined to inform

  9. Children and Caregivers' Exposure to Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACES): Association with Children's and Caregivers' Psychological Outcomes in a Therapeutic Preschool Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziv, Yair; Sofri, Inbar; Capps Umphlet, Kristen L; Olarte, Stephanie; Venza, Jimmy

    2018-03-31

    Exposure to adverse childhood experiences (ACE) has been found to have a profound negative impact on multiple child outcomes, including academic achievement, social cognition patterns, and behavioral adjustment. However, these links have yet to be examined in preschool children that are already experiencing behavior or social-emotional problems. Thus, the present study examined the links between the caregiver's and the child's exposure to ACE and multiple child and caregiver's outcomes in a sample of 30 preschool children enrolled in a Therapeutic Nursery Program (TNP). Children are typically referred to this TNP due to significant delays in their social emotional development that often result in difficulty functioning in typical childcare, home, and community settings. Analyses revealed some contradictory patterns that may be specific to this clinical sample. Children with higher exposure to ACE showed more biased social information processing patterns and their caregivers reported lower child social skills than caregivers of children with less exposure, however their inhibitory control levels were higher (better control) and staff reported that these children exhibited better social skills as well as better approaches to learning than children with less exposure. No such contradictions were found in relation to the caregiver's exposure to ACE, as it was positively associated with a number of negative child and caregiver outcomes.

  10. Children and Caregivers’ Exposure to Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACES: Association with Children’s and Caregivers’ Psychological Outcomes in a Therapeutic Preschool Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yair Ziv

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to adverse childhood experiences (ACE has been found to have a profound negative impact on multiple child outcomes, including academic achievement, social cognition patterns, and behavioral adjustment. However, these links have yet to be examined in preschool children that are already experiencing behavior or social-emotional problems. Thus, the present study examined the links between the caregiver’s and the child’s exposure to ACE and multiple child and caregiver’s outcomes in a sample of 30 preschool children enrolled in a Therapeutic Nursery Program (TNP. Children are typically referred to this TNP due to significant delays in their social emotional development that often result in difficulty functioning in typical childcare, home, and community settings. Analyses revealed some contradictory patterns that may be specific to this clinical sample. Children with higher exposure to ACE showed more biased social information processing patterns and their caregivers reported lower child social skills than caregivers of children with less exposure, however their inhibitory control levels were higher (better control and staff reported that these children exhibited better social skills as well as better approaches to learning than children with less exposure. No such contradictions were found in relation to the caregiver’s exposure to ACE, as it was positively associated with a number of negative child and caregiver outcomes.

  11. Pyrochemical and Dry Processing Methods Program. A selected bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDuffie, H.F.; Smith, D.H.; Owen, P.T.

    1979-03-01

    This selected bibliography with abstracts was compiled to provide information support to the Pyrochemical and Dry Processing Methods (PDPM) Program sponsored by DOE and administered by the Argonne National Laboratory. Objectives of the PDPM Program are to evaluate nonaqueous methods of reprocessing spent fuel as a route to the development of proliferation-resistant and diversion-resistant methods for widespread use in the nuclear industry. Emphasis was placed on the literature indexed in the ERDA--DOE Energy Data Base (EDB). The bibliography includes indexes to authors, subject descriptors, EDB subject categories, and titles

  12. Pyrochemical and Dry Processing Methods Program. A selected bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDuffie, H.F.; Smith, D.H.; Owen, P.T.

    1979-03-01

    This selected bibliography with abstracts was compiled to provide information support to the Pyrochemical and Dry Processing Methods (PDPM) Program sponsored by DOE and administered by the Argonne National Laboratory. Objectives of the PDPM Program are to evaluate nonaqueous methods of reprocessing spent fuel as a route to the development of proliferation-resistant and diversion-resistant methods for widespread use in the nuclear industry. Emphasis was placed on the literature indexed in the ERDA--DOE Energy Data Base (EDB). The bibliography includes indexes to authors, subject descriptors, EDB subject categories, and titles.

  13. Less efficient and costly processes of frontal cortex in childhood chronic fatigue syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Kei; Tanaka, Masaaki; Tanabe, Hiroki C.; Joudoi, Takako; Kawatani, Junko; Shigihara, Yoshihito; Tomoda, Akemi; Miike, Teruhisa; Imai-Matsumura, Kyoko; Sadato, Norihiro; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi

    2015-01-01

    The ability to divide one's attention deteriorates in patients with childhood chronic fatigue syndrome (CCFS). We conducted a study using a dual verbal task to assess allocation of attentional resources to two simultaneous activities (picking out vowels and reading for story comprehension) and functional magnetic resonance imaging. Patients exhibited a much larger area of activation, recruiting additional frontal areas. The right middle frontal gyrus (MFG), which is included in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, of CCFS patients was specifically activated in both the single and dual tasks; this activation level was positively correlated with motivation scores for the tasks and accuracy of story comprehension. In addition, in patients, the dorsal anterior cingulate gyrus (dACC) and left MFG were activated only in the dual task, and activation levels of the dACC and left MFG were positively associated with the motivation and fatigue scores, respectively. Patients with CCFS exhibited a wider area of activated frontal regions related to attentional resources in order to increase their poorer task performance with massive mental effort. This is likely to be less efficient and costly in terms of energy requirements. It seems to be related to the pathophysiology of patients with CCFS and to cause a vicious cycle of further increases in fatigue. PMID:26594619

  14. Less efficient and costly processes of frontal cortex in childhood chronic fatigue syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Kei; Tanaka, Masaaki; Tanabe, Hiroki C; Joudoi, Takako; Kawatani, Junko; Shigihara, Yoshihito; Tomoda, Akemi; Miike, Teruhisa; Imai-Matsumura, Kyoko; Sadato, Norihiro; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi

    2015-01-01

    The ability to divide one's attention deteriorates in patients with childhood chronic fatigue syndrome (CCFS). We conducted a study using a dual verbal task to assess allocation of attentional resources to two simultaneous activities (picking out vowels and reading for story comprehension) and functional magnetic resonance imaging. Patients exhibited a much larger area of activation, recruiting additional frontal areas. The right middle frontal gyrus (MFG), which is included in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, of CCFS patients was specifically activated in both the single and dual tasks; this activation level was positively correlated with motivation scores for the tasks and accuracy of story comprehension. In addition, in patients, the dorsal anterior cingulate gyrus (dACC) and left MFG were activated only in the dual task, and activation levels of the dACC and left MFG were positively associated with the motivation and fatigue scores, respectively. Patients with CCFS exhibited a wider area of activated frontal regions related to attentional resources in order to increase their poorer task performance with massive mental effort. This is likely to be less efficient and costly in terms of energy requirements. It seems to be related to the pathophysiology of patients with CCFS and to cause a vicious cycle of further increases in fatigue.

  15. Less efficient and costly processes of frontal cortex in childhood chronic fatigue syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kei Mizuno

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The ability to divide one's attention deteriorates in patients with childhood chronic fatigue syndrome (CCFS. We conducted a study using a dual verbal task to assess allocation of attentional resources to two simultaneous activities (picking out vowels and reading for story comprehension and functional magnetic resonance imaging. Patients exhibited a much larger area of activation, recruiting additional frontal areas. The right middle frontal gyrus (MFG, which is included in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, of CCFS patients was specifically activated in both the single and dual tasks; this activation level was positively correlated with motivation scores for the tasks and accuracy of story comprehension. In addition, in patients, the dorsal anterior cingulate gyrus (dACC and left MFG were activated only in the dual task, and activation levels of the dACC and left MFG were positively associated with the motivation and fatigue scores, respectively. Patients with CCFS exhibited a wider area of activated frontal regions related to attentional resources in order to increase their poorer task performance with massive mental effort. This is likely to be less efficient and costly in terms of energy requirements. It seems to be related to the pathophysiology of patients with CCFS and to cause a vicious cycle of further increases in fatigue.

  16. Home literacy experiences and early childhood disability: a descriptive study using the National Household Education Surveys (NHES) program database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breit-Smith, Allison; Cabell, Sonia Q; Justice, Laura M

    2010-01-01

    The present article illustrates how the National Household Education Surveys (NHES; U.S. Department of Education, 2009) database might be used to address questions of relevance to researchers who are concerned with literacy development among young children. Following a general description of the NHES database, a study is provided that examines the extent to which parent-reported home literacy activities and child emergent literacy skills differ for children with (a) developmental disabilities versus those who are developing typically, (b) single disability versus multiple disabilities, and (c) speech-language disability only versus other types of disabilities. Four hundred and seventy-eight preschool-age children with disabilities and a typically developing matched sample (based on parent report) were identified in the 2005 administration of the Early Childhood Program Participation (ECPP) Survey in the NHES database. Parent responses to survey items were then compared between groups. After controlling for age and socioeconomic status, no significant differences were found in the frequency of home literacy activities for children with and without disabilities. Parents reported higher levels of emergent literacy skills for typically developing children relative to children with disabilities. These findings suggest the importance of considering the home literacy experiences and emergent literacy skills of young children with disabilities when making clinical recommendations.

  17. From Undocumented to DACAmented: Benefits and Limitations of the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) Program, Three Years Following its Announcement

    OpenAIRE

    Patler, Caitlin; Cabrera, Jorge; Dream Team Los Angeles

    2015-01-01

    Announced by President Obama in June 2012, the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) program offers eligible undocumented youth and young adults a reprieve from deportation and temporary work authorization. This study assesses DACA’s impacts on the educational and socioeconomic trajectories and health and wellbeing of young adults in Southern California, comparing DACA recipients with undocumented youth who do not have DACA status. The study took place 2.5 years after DACA’s initiatio...

  18. An application of object-oriented programming to process simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, J.T.; Otaduy, P.J.

    1988-01-01

    This paper discusses the application of object-oriented programming to dynamic simulation of continuous processes. Processes may be modeled using this technique as a collection of objects which communicate with each other via message passing. Arriving messages invoke methods that describe the state and/or dynamic behavior of the receiving object. The objects fall into four broad categories actual plant components such as pumps, pipes, and tanks, abstract objects such as heat sources and conductors, plant systems such as flow loops, and simulation control and interface objects. This technique differs from traditional approaches to process simulation, in which the process is represented by either a system of differential equations or a block diagram of mathematical operators. The use of objects minimizes the representational gap between the model and actual process. From the users point of view, construction of a simulation model becomes equivalent to drawing a plant schematic. As an example application, a package developed for the simulation of nuclear power plants is described. The package allows users to build simulation models by selecting iconic representations of plant components from a menu and connecting them with a mouse. Objects for generating a mathematical model of the system and for controlling the simulation are automatically generated, freeing the user to concentrate on describing his process. This example illustrates the use of object-oriented programming to create a highly interactive and automated simulation environment. 2 figs

  19. The extended Infant Feeding, Activity and Nutrition Trial (InFANT Extend Program: a cluster-randomized controlled trial of an early intervention to prevent childhood obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen J. Campbell

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding how we can prevent childhood obesity in scalable and sustainable ways is imperative. Early RCT interventions focused on the first two years of life have shown promise however, differences in Body Mass Index between intervention and control groups diminish once the interventions cease. Innovative and cost-effective strategies seeking to continue to support parents to engender appropriate energy balance behaviours in young children need to be explored. Methods/Design The Infant Feeding Activity and Nutrition Trial (InFANT Extend Program builds on the early outcomes of the Melbourne InFANT Program. This cluster randomized controlled trial will test the efficacy of an extended (33 versus 15 month and enhanced (use of web-based materials, and Facebook® engagement, version of the original Melbourne InFANT Program intervention in a new cohort. Outcomes at 36 months of age will be compared against the control group. Discussion This trial will provide important information regarding capacity and opportunities to maximize early childhood intervention effectiveness over the first three years of life. This study continues to build the evidence base regarding the design of cost-effective, scalable interventions to promote protective energy balance behaviors in early childhood, and in turn, promote improved child weight and health across the life course. Trial registration ACTRN12611000386932 . Registered 13 April 2011.

  20. Associations among Measures of Sequential Processing in Motor and Linguistics Tasks in Adults with and without a Family History of Childhood Apraxia of Speech: A Replication Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Button, Le; Peter, Beate; Stoel-Gammon, Carol; Raskind, Wendy H.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to address the hypothesis that childhood apraxia of speech (CAS) is influenced by an underlying deficit in sequential processing that is also expressed in other modalities. In a sample of 21 adults from five multigenerational families, 11 with histories of various familial speech sound disorders, 3 biologically…

  1. Childhood obesity case statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Paul W; Caskey, Paul; Heaton, Lisa E; Otsuka, Norman

    2013-04-01

    The goal of this publication is to raise awareness of the impact of childhood obesity on the musculoskeletal health of children and its potential long-term implications. Relevant articles dealing with musculoskeletal disorders either caused by or worsened by childhood obesity were reviewed through a Pub Med search. Efforts to recognize and combat the childhood obesity epidemic were also identified through Internet search engines. This case statement was then reviewed by the members of the pediatric specialty group of the US Bone and Joint Initiative, which represents an extensive number of organizations dealing with musculoskeletal health. Multiple musculoskeletal disorders are clearly caused by or worsened by childhood obesity. The review of the literature clearly demonstrates the increased frequency and severity of many childhood musculoskeletal disorders. Concerns about the long-term implications of these childhood onset disorders such as pain and degenerative changes into adulthood are clearly recognized by all the member organizations of the US Bone and Joint Initiative. It is imperative to recognize the long-term implications of musculoskeletal disorders caused by or worsened by childhood obesity. It is also important to recognize that the ability to exercise comfortably is a key factor to developing a healthy lifestyle and maintaining a healthy body weight. Efforts to develop reasonable and acceptable programs to increase physical activity by all facets of society should be supported. Further research into the long-term implications of childhood musculoskeletal disorders related to childhood obesity is necessary. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Impact of Metabolic Hormones Secreted in Human Breast Milk on Nutritional Programming in Childhood Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badillo-Suárez, Pilar Amellali; Rodríguez-Cruz, Maricela; Nieves-Morales, Xóchitl

    2017-09-01

    Obesity is the most common metabolic disease whose prevalence is increasing worldwide. This condition is considered a serious public health problem due to associated comorbidities such as diabetes mellitus and hypertension. Perinatal morbidity related to obesity does not end with birth; this continues affecting the mother/infant binomial and could negatively impact on metabolism during early infant nutrition. Nutrition in early stages of growth may be essential in the development of obesity in adulthood, supporting the concept of "nutritional programming". For this reason, breastfeeding may play an important role in this programming. Breast milk is the most recommended feeding for the newborn due to the provided benefits such as protection against obesity and diabetes. Health benefits are based on milk components such as bioactive molecules, specifically hormones involved in the regulation of food intake. Identification of these molecules has increased in recent years but its action has not been fully clarified. Hormones such as leptin, insulin, ghrelin, adiponectin, resistin, obestatin and insulin-like growth factor-1 copeptin, apelin, and nesfatin, among others, have been identified in the milk of normal-weight women and may influence the energy balance because they can activate orexigenic or anorexigenic pathways depending on energy requirements and body stores. It is important to emphasize that, although the number of biomolecules identified in milk involved in regulating food intake has increased considerably, there is a lack of studies aimed at elucidating the effect these hormones may have on metabolism and development of the newborn. Therefore, we present a state-of-the-art review regarding bioactive compounds such as hormones secreted in breast milk and their possible impact on nutritional programming in the infant, analyzing their functions in appetite regulation.

  3. The Effect of Early Childhood Language Training Programs on the Contemporary Formation of Grammar Skills

    OpenAIRE

    Kamhöfer, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    While there is a big literature on the benefits of pre-school education, only little is known why kindergarten attendance improves later-life outcomes. This is partly because most studies analyze the effect of complete 2 years pre-school programs. In order to shed light into the black box of kindergarten education, I am using the German National Educational Panel Study and regress the level of grammar skills - a main intelligence component - on the participation in a nationwide-used language ...

  4. Zeolite Vitrification Demonstration Program nonradioactive-process operations summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryan, G.H.; Knox, C.A.; Goles, R.G.; Ethridge, L.J.; Siemens, D.H.

    1982-09-01

    The Submerged Demineralizer System is a process developed to decontaminate high-activity level water at Three Mile Island by sorbing the activity (primarily Cs and Sr) onto beds of zeolite. Pacific Northwest Laboratory's Zeolite Vitrification Demonstration Program has the responsibility of demonstrating the full-scale vitrification of this zeolite material. The first phase of this program has been to develop a glass formulation and demonstrate the vitrification process with the use of nonradioactive materials. During this phase, four full-scale nonradioactive demonstration runs were completed. The same zeolite mixture being used in the SDS system was loaded with nonradioactive isotopes of Cs and Sr, dried, blended with glass-forming chemicals and fed to a canister in an in-can melter furnace. During each run, the gaseous effluents were sampled. After each run, glass samples were removed and analyzed

  5. The one year exercise and lifestyle intervention program KLAKS: Effects on anthropometric parameters, cardiometabolic risk factors and glycemic control in childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blüher, Susann; Petroff, David; Wagner, Antje; Warich, Katja; Gausche, Ruth; Klemm, Thorsten; Wagner, Mario; Keller, Alexandra

    2014-03-01

    Regular physical exercise within structured lifestyle programs may improve weight status and minimize metabolic risk factors in childhood obesity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the one-year combined physical exercise/lifestyle program KLAKS on anthropometric and metabolic parameters and glycemic control in childhood obesity. 142 overweight/obese (BMI>90th percentile) candidates (7-18years) were enrolled, 115 participants completed the program. Anthropometrics and biochemical parameters were obtained at beginning and completion. An oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed in a subgroup of participants. Course of glucose and insulin levels within OGTT was correlated with several parameters and is reported here for those who completed the program. The mean standard deviation scores (SDS) decreased significantly for BMI, waist circumference, waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) and percentage body fat (all p≤0.01). Improved metabolic risk markers included mean glucose levels within an OGTT at follow-up compared to baseline (pexercise/lifestyle program KLAKS significantly improves markers of obesity and glycemic control. Impaired cardiometabolic risk markers, even subclinical, are also favorably influenced by program participation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. ELSHIM: Program to simulate elastic processes of heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Ginneken, A.

    1992-05-01

    The Monte Carlo code ELSIM simulates elastic and quasi-elastic, i.e., of limited energy loss, processes of high energy hadrons in a thick target with particular attention to scattering off edges and the like. Its main applications concern accelerator beam loss, beam scraping, etc. Particles which only participate in elastic processes and are then reflected back into the aperture may cause problems elsewhere in the accelerator lattice -- often far removed from where the beam loss occurs. Therefore ELSIM is often run in conjunction with an accelerator tracking program. It can also be used as the first stage in energy deposition studies. For example, when beam is lost in a superconducting magnet ELSIM can provide energy deposition by the incident particles along with a file specifying coordinates and momenta of the inelastic interactions. The latter can then be processed by a program such as CASIM to complete the energy deposition simulation. A new version of this program, called ELSHIM is introduced here which extends ELSIM to include heavy ions as projectiles

  7. Early Childhood Caries and the Impact of Current U.S. Medicaid Program: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bussma Ahmed Bugis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pediatric dental caries is the most common chronic disease among children. Above 40% of the U.S. children aged 2–11 years have dental caries; more than 50% of them come from low-income families. Under dental services of the Medicaid program, children enrolled in Medicaid must receive preventive dental services. However, only 1/5 of them utilize preventive dental services. The purpose of this overview is to measure the impact of Medicaid dental benefits on reducing oral health disparities among Medicaid-eligible children. This paper explains the importance of preventive dental care, children at high risk of dental caries, Medicaid dental benefits, utilization of dental preventive services by Medicaid-eligible children, dental utilization influencing factors, and outcome evaluation of Medicaid in preventing dental caries among children. In conclusion, despite the recent increase of children enrolled in Medicaid, utilizing preventive dental care is still a real challenge that faces Medicaid.

  8. Ontario's emergency department process improvement program: the experience of implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotteau, Leahora; Webster, Fiona; Salkeld, Erin; Hellings, Chelsea; Guttmann, Astrid; Vermeulen, Marian J; Bell, Robert S; Zwarenstein, Merrick; Rowe, Brian H; Nigam, Amit; Schull, Michael J

    2015-06-01

    In recent years, Lean manufacturing principles have been applied to health care quality improvement efforts to improve wait times. In Ontario, an emergency department (ED) process improvement program based on Lean principles was introduced by the Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care as part of a strategy to reduce ED length of stay (LOS) and to improve patient flow. This article aims to describe the hospital-based teams' experiences during the ED process improvement program implementation and the teams' perceptions of the key factors that influenced the program's success or failure. A qualitative evaluation was conducted based on semistructured interviews with hospital implementation team members, such as team leads, medical leads, and executive sponsors, at 10 purposively selected hospitals in Ontario, Canada. Sites were selected based, in part, on their changes in median ED LOS following the implementation period. A thematic framework approach as used for interviews, and a standard thematic coding framework was developed. Twenty-four interviews were coded and analyzed. The results are organized according to participants' experience and are grouped into four themes that were identified as significantly affecting the implementation experience: local contextual factors, relationship between improvement team and support players, staff engagement, and success and sustainability. The results demonstrate the importance of the context of implementation, establishing strong relationships and communication strategies, and preparing for implementation and sustainability prior to the start of the project. Several key factors were identified as important to the success of the program, such as preparing for implementation, ensuring strong executive support, creation of implementation teams based on the tasks and outcomes of the initiative, and using multiple communication strategies throughout the implementation process. Explicit incorporation of these factors into the

  9. Radiation processing in India. Current status and future program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mittal, Jai Pal

    2003-01-01

    Radiation processing is an alternative to conventional methods such as thermal and chemical processing in many industrial applications. In India, this technology has found extensive applications in area of healthcare, agriculture, food preservation, industry and environment. Both gamma radiation and electron beam accelerators are being utilized for this purpose. Presently, 6 commercial gamma irradiators housing about 1.5 million curie Co-60 and an annual turnover of over US$ 2 million and 3 commercial electron beam (EB) accelerators with installed capacity of 185 kW are commercially operating in India. Five demonstration plants housing a total of 0.5 million curie Co-60 have been set up to assess the techno-commercial viability of the processes such as radiation vulcanization of natural rubber latex, decontamination of spices, hygienization of sewage sludge, shelf-life extension of onions. The new areas being explored include use of electron beam treated pulp for viscose-rayon process, radiation processed 'hydrogel' burn/wound dressings and radiation processing of natural polymers. In the present paper, the current status of this program, especially the recent developments and future direction of radiation processing technology in India is reviewed. (author)

  10. Comparison of performance on process- and product-oriented assessments of fundamental motor skills across childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Samuel W; Barnett, Lisa M; Goodway, Jacqueline D; Stodden, David F

    2017-04-01

    Process-oriented motor competence (MC) assessments evaluate how a movement is performed. Product-oriented assessments evaluate the outcome of a movement. Determining the concurrent validity of process and product assessments is important to address the predictive utility of motor competence for health. The current study aimed to: (1) compare process and product assessments of the standing long jump, hop and throw across age groups and (2) determine the capacity of process assessments to classify levels of MC. Participants included 170 children classified into three age groups: 4-5, 7-8 and 10-11 years old. Participants' skills were examined concurrently using three process assessments ((Test of Gross Motor Development-2nd edition [TGMD-2]), Get Skilled; Get Active, and developmental sequences) and one product measure (throw speed, jump and hop distance). Results indicate moderate to strong correlations between (1) process assessments across skills and age groups (r range = .37-70) and (2) process and product assessments across skills and age groups (r range = .26-.88). In general, sensitivity to detect advanced skill level is lowest for TGMD-2 and highest for developmental sequences for all three skills. The use of process and product assessments is suggested to comprehensively capture levels of MC in human movement.

  11. Neural Indices of Semantic Processing in Early Childhood Distinguish Eventual Stuttering Persistence and Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreidler, Kathryn; Wray, Amanda Hampton; Usler, Evan; Weber, Christine

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Maturation of neural processes for language may lag in some children who stutter (CWS), and event-related potentials (ERPs) distinguish CWS who have recovered from those who have persisted. The current study explores whether ERPs indexing semantic processing may distinguish children who will eventually persist in stuttering…

  12. Process improvement program evolves into compliance program at an integrated delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyk, R C; Hylton, P G

    1998-09-01

    An integrated delivery system discovered questionable practices when it undertook a process-improvement initiative for its revenue-to-cash cycle. These discoveries served as a wake-up call to the organization that it needed to develop a comprehensive corporate compliance program. The organization engaged legal counsel to help it establish such a program. A corporate compliance officer was hired, and a compliance committee was set up. They worked with counsel to develop the structure and substance of the program and establish a corporate code of conduct that became a part of the organization's policies and procedures. Teams were formed in various areas of the organization to review compliance-related activities and suggest improvements. Clinical and nonclinical staff attended mandatory educational sessions about the program. By approaching compliance systematically, the organization has put itself in an excellent position to avoid fraudulent and abusive activities- and the government scrutiny they invite.

  13. [Design of an HACCP program for a cocoa processing facility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López D'Sola, Patrizia; Sandia, María Gabriela; Bou Rached, Lizet; Hernández Serrano, Pilar

    2012-12-01

    The HACCP plan is a food safety management tool used to control physical, chemical and biological hazards associated to food processing through all the processing chain. The aim of this work is to design a HACCP Plan for a Venezuelan cocoa processing facility.The production of safe food products requires that the HACCP system be built upon a solid foundation of prerequisite programs such as Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) and Sanitation Standard Operating Procedures (SSOP). The existence and effectiveness of these prerequisite programs were previously assessed.Good Agriculture Practices (GAP) audit to cocoa nibs suppliers were performed. To develop the HACCP plan, the five preliminary tasks and the seven HACCP principles were accomplished according to Codex Alimentarius procedures. Three Critical Control Points (CCP) were identified using a decision tree: winnowing (control of ochratoxin A), roasting (Salmonella control) and metallic particles detection. For each CCP, Critical limits were established, the Monitoring procedures, Corrective actions, Procedures for Verification and Documentation concerning all procedures and records appropriate to these principles and their application was established. To implement and maintain a HACCP plan for this processing plant is suggested. Recently OchratoxinA (OTA) has been related to cocoa beans. Although the shell separation from the nib has been reported as an effective measure to control this chemical hazard, ochratoxin prevalence study in cocoa beans produced in the country is recommended, and validate the winnowing step as well

  14. Vitamin D prenatal programming of childhood metabolomics profiles at age 3 y.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blighe, Kevin; Chawes, Bo L; Kelly, Rachel S; Mirzakhani, Hooman; McGeachie, Michael; Litonjua, Augusto A; Weiss, Scott T; Lasky-Su, Jessica A

    2017-10-01

    Background: Vitamin D deficiency is implicated in a range of common complex diseases that may be prevented by gestational vitamin D repletion. Understanding the metabolic mechanisms related to in utero vitamin D exposure may therefore shed light on complex disease susceptibility. Objective: The goal was to analyze the programming role of in utero vitamin D exposure on children's metabolomics profiles. Design: First, unsupervised clustering was done with plasma metabolomics profiles from a case-control subset of 245 children aged 3 y with and without asthma from the Vitamin D Antenatal Asthma Reduction Trial (VDAART), in which pregnant women were randomly assigned to vitamin D supplementation or placebo. Thereafter, we analyzed the influence of maternal pre- and postsupplement vitamin D concentrations on cluster membership. Finally, we used the metabolites driving the clustering of children to identify the dominant metabolic pathways that were influential in each cluster. Results: We identified 3 clusters of children characterized by 1 ) high concentrations of fatty acids and amines and low maternal postsupplement vitamin D (mean ± SD; 27.5 ± 11.0 ng/mL), 2 ) high concentrations of amines, moderate concentrations of fatty acids, and normal maternal postsupplement vitamin D (34.0 ± 14.1 ng/mL), and 3 ) low concentrations of fatty acids, amines, and normal maternal postsupplement vitamin D (35.2 ± 15.9 ng/mL). Adjusting for sample storage time, maternal age and education, and both child asthma and vitamin D concentration at age 3 y did not modify the association between maternal postsupplement vitamin D and cluster membership ( P = 0.0014). Maternal presupplement vitamin D did not influence cluster membership, whereas the combination of pre- and postsupplement concentrations did ( P = 0.03). Conclusions: Young children can be clustered into distinct biologically meaningful groups by their metabolomics profiles. The clusters differed in concentrations of

  15. Prenatal Stress, Methylation in Inflammation-Related Genes, and Adiposity Measures in Early Childhood: the Programming Research in Obesity, Growth Environment and Social Stress Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shaowei; Gennings, Chris; Wright, Rosalind J; Wilson, Ander; Burris, Heather H; Just, Allan C; Braun, Joseph M; Svensson, Katherine; Zhong, Jia; Brennan, Kasey J M; Dereix, Alexandra; Cantoral, Alejandra; Schnaas, Lourdes; Téllez-Rojo, Martha Maria; Wright, Robert O; Baccarelli, Andrea A

    2018-01-01

    Maternal stress during pregnancy may influence childhood growth and adiposity, possibly through immune/inflammatory programming. We investigated whether exposure to prenatal stress and methylation in inflammation-related genes were associated with childhood adiposity in 424 mother-child pairs in Mexico City, Mexico. A stress index was created based on four prenatally administered stress-related scales (Exposure to Violence, Crisis in Family Systems, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale). We measured weight, height, body fat mass (BFM), percentage body fat (PBF), and waist circumference in early childhood (age range, 4-6 years). Body mass index (BMI) z scores were calculated according to World Health Organization standards. DNA methylation in gene promoters of tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin 8, and interleukin 6 (IL6) in umbilical cord blood were determined by pyrosequencing. An interquartile range increase in stress index (27.3) was associated with decreases of 0.14 unit in BMI z score (95% confidence interval [CI] = -0.28 to -0.005), 5.6% in BFM (95% CI = -9.7 to -1.4), 3.5% in PBF (95% CI = -6.3 to -0.5), and 1.2% in waist circumference (95% CI = -2.4 to -0.04) in multivariable-adjusted models. An interquartile range increase in IL6 methylation (3.9%) was associated with increases of 0.23 unit in BMI z score (95% CI = 0.06-0.40), 8.1% (95% CI = 2.3-14.3) in BFM, 5.5% (95% CI = 1.7-9.5) in PBF, and 1.7% (95% CI = 0.2-3.3) in waist circumference. Prenatal stress was associated with decreased childhood adiposity, whereas cord blood IL6 methylation was associated with increased childhood adiposity in Mexican children.

  16. Living with childhood obesity: the experience of children enrolled in a multidisciplinary monitoring program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Veridiana Zamparoni Victorino

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to understand the perceptions of obesity from the perspective of obese children enrolled in a multidisciplinary monitoring program. Descriptive exploratory study of qualitative nature. Data collection occurred in December 2013, along with eight children accompanied by a child and adolescent obesity group in a municipality in northwestern Paraná, Brazil, through semi-structured interviews. Data were submitted to content analysis, from which four categories emerged: “Obesity in children’s perspective”; “Being an obese child”; “Eating and the practice of physical exercise in the routine of obese children”; and “Living with obesity: social and family implications for children.” It was verified the negative impact of obesity on children’s lives, justifying the importance of multidisciplinary follow-up through group activities, seeking a comprehensive care. Nursing is accountable for planning activities of health promotion and control of this disease, in order to improve the quality of life.

  17. Integrated Lecture and Laboratory Chemistry Components of Science Education Program for Early and Middle Childhood Education Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunsford, S. K.

    2004-05-01

    Two new chemistry courses were developed for early childhood and middle childhood education majors. The results of a pre- and posttest in the courses indicate success in developing student content knowledge and ability to problem solve. In addition these courses are designed to develop preservice teachers' understanding of the National Science Education Standards and foster support for implementing these standards in their classrooms. These courses provide materials, resources, and guidance in implementing the standards in their future teaching careers.

  18. The Effectiveness of the Teens Reaching Youth 4-H Model in a Childhood Nutirition and Physical Activity Education Program

    OpenAIRE

    Stokes Strong, Kristen Rae

    2009-01-01

    Childhood obesity rates are on the rise. There are detrimental physical and psychological health effects associated with childhood obesity. Society needs proven methods of delivering nutrition and physical activity education to children. The Teens Reaching Youth (TRY) 4-H model has been shown to be effective at delivering curriculum in a variety of topics. To assess the effectiveness of the TRY 4-H model at delivering nutrition and physical activity education to youth, grades third throug...

  19. The relationship between childhood adversity, attachment, and internalizing behaviors in a diversion program for child-to-mother violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowakowski-Sims, Eva; Rowe, Amanda

    2017-10-01

    Very little research has been conducted on the role of childhood adversity in child-to-parent violence. Childhood adversity places youth at risk for internalizing behaviors (i.e. anxiety and depression) and externalizing behaviors (i.e. aggression). The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships between childhood adversity, child-mother attachment, and internalizing behaviors among a sample of 80 youth who have been arrested for domestic battery against a mother. This study reported high prevalence rates of childhood adversity (mean score of 10 out of 17 events). Multiple regression analysis indicated that insecure attachment predicted depression among females (F(6, 73)=4.87, p<0.001), and previous experience with child maltreatment and/or witness to parental violence predicted anxiety among females (F(6, 73)=3.08, p<0.01). This study is the first study to explore childhood adversity among a sample of perpetrators of child-to-mother violence and notably adds to our understanding of the multiple pathways connecting childhood adversity, child-mother attachment, and depression and anxiety among a difficult to treat youth population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Childhood contact predicts hemispheric asymmetry in cross-race face processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Megan M; Hudson, Sean M; Ma, Debbie S; Correll, Joshua

    2016-06-01

    Participants typically process same-race faces more quickly and more accurately than cross-race faces. This deficit is amplified in the right hemisphere of the brain, presumably due to its involvement in configural processing. The present research tested the idea that cross-race contact tunes cognitive and perceptual systems, influencing this asymmetric race-based deficit in face processing. Participants with high and low levels of contact performed a lateralized recognition task with same- and cross-race faces. Replicating prior work, participants with minimal contact showed cross-race deficits in processing that were larger in the right hemisphere. For participants with more contact, this lateralized deficit disappeared. This effect of contact seems to be independent of race-based attitudes (e.g., prejudice).

  1. Generative design visualize, program, and create with processing

    CERN Document Server

    Bohnacker, Hartmut; Laub, Julia; Lazzeroni, Claudius

    2012-01-01

    Generative design is a revolutionary new method of creating artwork, models, and animations from sets of rules, or algorithms. By using accessible programming languages such as Processing, artists and designers are producing extravagant, crystalline structures that can form the basis of anything from patterned textiles and typography to lighting, scientific diagrams, sculptures, films, and even fantastical buildings. Opening with a gallery of thirty-five illustrated case studies, Generative Design takes users through specific, practical instructions on how to create their own visual experiments by combining simple-to-use programming codes with basic design principles. A detailed handbook of advanced strategies provides visual artists with all the tools to achieve proficiency. Both a how-to manual and a showcase for recent work in this exciting new field, Generative Design is the definitive study and reference book that designers have been waiting for.

  2. SOLVEX: a computer program for simulation of solvent extraction processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scotten, W.C.

    1975-09-01

    SOLVEX is a FORTRAN IV computer program that simulates the dynamic behavior of solvent extraction processes conducted in mixer-settlers and centrifugal contactors. Two options permit terminating dynamic phases by time or by achieving steady state, and a third option permits artificial rapid close to steady state. Thus the program is well suited to multiple phases of dynamic problems and multiple input of steady state problems. Changes from the previous problem are the only inputs required for each succeeding problem. Distribution data can be supplied by two-variable third-power polynomial equations or by three-variable tables in any one of 16 different combinations involving phase concentrations or distribution coefficients (ratio of phase concentrations) or their logarithms

  3. Program package for processing energy spectra of gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stejskalova, E.

    1985-01-01

    A library of programs for processing energy spectra of nuclear radiation using an ICL 4-72 computer is described. The library is available at the computer centre of the Prague universities and bears the acronym JADSPE. The programs perform the computation of positions, areas and half-widths of lines in the energy spectrum of the radiation, they give a graphic representation of the course of energy spectra on the printer and on the CALCOMP recorder; they also perform the addition or subtraction of energy spectra with possible aligning of the beginnings or ends of the spectra or of maximums of chosen lines. A model function in the form of a symmetric Gaussian function is used for the computation of parameters of spectral lines, and the variation of the background with energy is assumed to be linear. (author)

  4. System engineering in the Nuclear Regulatory Commission licensing process: Program architecture process and structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romine, D.T.

    1989-01-01

    In October 1987, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) established the Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses at Southwest Research Institute in San Antonio, Texas. The overall mission of the center is to provide a sustained level of high-quality research and technical assistance in support of NRC regulatory responsibilities under the Nuclear Waste Policy Act (NWPA). A key part of that mission is to assist the NRC in the development of the program architecture - the systems approach to regulatory analysis for the NRC high-level waste repository licensing process - and the development and implementation of the computer-based Program Architecture Support System (PASS). This paper describes the concept of program architecture, summarizes the process and basic structure of the PASS relational data base, and describes the applications of the system

  5. Image Processing of Welding Procedure Specification and Pre-process program development for Finite Element Modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, K. S.; Lee, H. J.

    2009-11-01

    PRE-WELD program, which generates automatically the input file for the finite element analysis on the 2D butt welding at the dissimilar metal weld part, was developed. This program is pre-process program of the FEM code for analyzing the residual stress at the welding parts. Even if the users have not the detail knowledge for the FEM modelling, the users can make the ABAQUS INPUT easily by inputting the shape data of welding part, the weld current and voltage of welding parameters. By using PRE-WELD program, we can save the time and the effort greatly for preparing the ABAQUS INPUT for the residual stress analysis at the welding parts, and make the exact input without the human error

  6. National Household Education Surveys Program of 2012: Data File User's Manual. Parent and Family Involvement in Education Survey. Early Childhood Program Participation Survey. NCES 2015-030

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPhee, C.; Bielick, S.; Masterton, M.; Flores, L.; Parmer, R.; Amchin, S.; Stern, S.; McGowan, H.

    2015-01-01

    The 2012 National Household Education Surveys Program (NHES:2012) Data File User's Manual provides documentation and guidance for users of the NHES:2012 data files. The manual provides information about the purpose of the study, the sample design, data collection procedures, data processing procedures, response rates, imputation, weighting and…

  7. Reactor materials program process water component failure probability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daugherty, W. L.

    1988-01-01

    The maximum rate loss of coolant accident for the Savannah River Production Reactors is presently specified as the abrupt double-ended guillotine break (DEGB) of a large process water pipe. This accident is not considered credible in light of the low applied stresses and the inherent ductility of the piping materials. The Reactor Materials Program was initiated to provide the technical basis for an alternate, credible maximum rate LOCA. The major thrust of this program is to develop an alternate worst case accident scenario by deterministic means. In addition, the probability of a DEGB is also being determined; to show that in addition to being mechanistically incredible, it is also highly improbable. The probability of a DEGB of the process water piping is evaluated in two parts: failure by direct means, and indirectly-induced failure. These two areas have been discussed in other reports. In addition, the frequency of a large bread (equivalent to a DEGB) in other process water system components is assessed. This report reviews the large break frequency for each component as well as the overall large break frequency for the reactor system

  8. Childhood Lead Poisoning Associated with Gold Ore Processing: a Village-Level Investigation—Zamfara State, Nigeria, October–November 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Yi-Chun; Dooyema, Carrie A.; Neri, Antonio; Durant, James; Jefferies, Taran; Medina-Marino, Andrew; de Ravello, Lori; Thoroughman, Douglas; Davis, Lora; Dankoli, Raymond S.; Samson, Matthias Y.; Ibrahim, Luka M.; Okechukwu, Ossai; Umar-Tsafe, Nasir T.; Dama, Alhassan H.

    2012-01-01

    Background: During May–June 2010, a childhood lead poisoning outbreak related to gold ore processing was confirmed in two villages in Zamfara State, Nigeria. During June–September of that year, villages with suspected or confirmed childhood lead poisoning continued to be identified in Zamfara State. Objectives: We investigated the extent of childhood lead poisoning [≥ 1 child with a blood lead level (BLL) ≥ 10 µg/dL] and lead contamination (≥ 1 soil/dust sample with a lead level > 400 parts per million) among villages in Zamfara State and identified villages that should be prioritized for urgent interventions. Methods: We used chain-referral sampling to identify villages of interest, defined as villages suspected of participation in gold ore processing during the previous 12 months. We interviewed villagers, determined BLLs among children lead. Results: We identified 131 villages of interest and visited 74 (56%) villages in three local government areas. Fifty-four (77%) of 70 villages that completed the survey reported gold ore processing. Ore-processing villages were more likely to have ≥ 1 child lead poisoning (68% vs. 50%, p = 0.17) or death following convulsions (74% vs. 44%, p = 0.02). Soil/dust contamination and BLL ≥ 45 µg/dL were identified in ore-processing villages only [50% (p lead poisoning or lead contamination was 3.5 times as high in ore-processing villages than the other villages (95% confidence interval: 1.1, 11.3). Conclusion: Childhood lead poisoning and lead contamination were widespread in surveyed areas, particularly among villages that had processed ore recently. Urgent interventions are required to reduce lead exposure, morbidity, and mortality in affected communities. PMID:22766030

  9. Heterogeneous Multicore Parallel Programming for Graphics Processing Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francois Bodin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid parallel multicore architectures based on graphics processing units (GPUs can provide tremendous computing power. Current NVIDIA and AMD Graphics Product Group hardware display a peak performance of hundreds of gigaflops. However, exploiting GPUs from existing applications is a difficult task that requires non-portable rewriting of the code. In this paper, we present HMPP, a Heterogeneous Multicore Parallel Programming workbench with compilers, developed by CAPS entreprise, that allows the integration of heterogeneous hardware accelerators in a unintrusive manner while preserving the legacy code.

  10. Links between social information processing in middle childhood and involvement in bullying. [IF 0.95

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Camodeca, M.; Goossens, F.A.; Schuengel, C.; Meerum Terwogt, M.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the way in which bullies, victims, bully/victims, and those not involved process social information. A peer nomination measure of bullying and victimization was administered twice over an interval of one year. The sample consisted of 236 (126 girls and 110

  11. Assessment of Sensory Processing and Executive Functions in Childhood: Development, Reliability, and Validity of the EPYFEI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dulce Romero-Ayuso

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the psychometric properties of the “Assessment of Sensory Processing and Executive Functions in Childhood” (EPYFEI, a questionnaire designed to assess the sensory processing and executive functions of children aged between 3 and 11 years. The EPYFEI was completed by a sample of 1,732 parents of children aged between 3 and 11 years who lived in Spain. An exploratory factor analysis was conducted and showed five main factors: (1 executive attention, working memory, and initiation of actions; (2 general sensory processing; (3 emotional and behavioral self-regulation; (4 supervision, correction of actions, and problem solving; and (5 inhibitory. The reliability of the analysis was high both for the whole questionnaire and for the factors it is composed of. Results provide evidence of the potential usefulness of the EPYFEI in clinical contexts for the early detection of neurodevelopmental disorders, in which there may be a deficit of executive functions and sensory processing.

  12. Process-Oriented Parallel Programming with an Application to Data-Intensive Computing

    OpenAIRE

    Givelberg, Edward

    2014-01-01

    We introduce process-oriented programming as a natural extension of object-oriented programming for parallel computing. It is based on the observation that every class of an object-oriented language can be instantiated as a process, accessible via a remote pointer. The introduction of process pointers requires no syntax extension, identifies processes with programming objects, and enables processes to exchange information simply by executing remote methods. Process-oriented programming is a h...

  13. Programming list processes. SLIP: symmetric list processor - applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broudin, Y.

    1966-06-01

    Modern aspects of programming languages are essentially turned towards list processing. The ordinary methods of sequential treatment become inadequate and we must substitute list processes for them, where the cells of a group have no neighbourhood connection, but where the address of one cell is contained in the preceding one. These methods are required in 'time sharing' solving problems. They also allow us to treat new problems and to solve others in the shortest time. Many examples are presented after an abstract of the most usual list languages and a detailed study of one of them : SLIP. Among these examples one should note: locating of words in a dictionary or in a card index, treatment of non numerical symbols, formal derivation. The problems are treated in Fortran II on an IBM 7094 machine. The subroutines which make up the language are presented in an appendix. (author) [fr

  14. Consideration of a Learning Programming Process based on Software Design for Beginners

    OpenAIRE

    大村, 基将; 紅林, 秀治

    2016-01-01

    We considered a learning programming process based on software design for technology education. Lessons of computer program-aided measurement and control are for beginners to learn programming. These lessons are efficient to learn the step of programming, but the main of the lessons are works of typing the sample programming and debugging. Therefore, these lessons have a fundamental lack of the concept of design. Then we considered learning processes of programming and applied the process of ...

  15. The NOURISH randomised control trial: positive feeding practices and food preferences in early childhood - a primary prevention program for childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Lynne A; Magarey, Anthea; Battistutta, Diana; Nicholson, Jan M; Farrell, Ann; Davidson, Geoffrey; Cleghorn, Geoffrey

    2009-10-14

    Primary prevention of childhood overweight is an international priority. In Australia 20-25% of 2-8 year olds are already overweight. These children are at substantially increased the risk of becoming overweight adults, with attendant increased risk of morbidity and mortality. Early feeding practices determine infant exposure to food (type, amount, frequency) and include responses (eg coercion) to infant feeding behaviour (eg. food refusal). There is correlational evidence linking parenting style and early feeding practices to child eating behaviour and weight status. A focus on early feeding is consistent with the national focus on early childhood as the foundation for life-long health and well being. The NOURISH trial aims to implement and evaluate a community-based intervention to promote early feeding practices that will foster healthy food preferences and intake and preserve the innate capacity to self-regulate food intake in young children. This randomised controlled trial (RCT) aims to recruit 820 first-time mothers and their healthy term infants. A consecutive sample of eligible mothers will be approached postnatally at major maternity hospitals in Brisbane and Adelaide. Initial consent will be for re-contact for full enrolment when the infants are 4-7 months old. Individual mother- infant dyads will be randomised to usual care or the intervention. The intervention will provide anticipatory guidance via two modules of six fortnightly parent education and peer support group sessions, each followed by six months of regular maintenance contact. The modules will commence when the infants are aged 4-7 and 13-16 months to coincide with establishment of solid feeding, and autonomy and independence, respectively. Outcome measures will be assessed at baseline, with follow up at nine and 18 months. These will include infant intake (type and amount of foods), food preferences, feeding behaviour and growth and self-reported maternal feeding practices and parenting

  16. The NOURISH randomised control trial: Positive feeding practices and food preferences in early childhood - a primary prevention program for childhood obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farrell Ann

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Primary prevention of childhood overweight is an international priority. In Australia 20-25% of 2-8 year olds are already overweight. These children are at substantially increased the risk of becoming overweight adults, with attendant increased risk of morbidity and mortality. Early feeding practices determine infant exposure to food (type, amount, frequency and include responses (eg coercion to infant feeding behaviour (eg. food refusal. There is correlational evidence linking parenting style and early feeding practices to child eating behaviour and weight status. A focus on early feeding is consistent with the national focus on early childhood as the foundation for life-long health and well being. The NOURISH trial aims to implement and evaluate a community-based intervention to promote early feeding practices that will foster healthy food preferences and intake and preserve the innate capacity to self-regulate food intake in young children. Methods/Design This randomised controlled trial (RCT aims to recruit 820 first-time mothers and their healthy term infants. A consecutive sample of eligible mothers will be approached postnatally at major maternity hospitals in Brisbane and Adelaide. Initial consent will be for re-contact for full enrolment when the infants are 4-7 months old. Individual mother- infant dyads will be randomised to usual care or the intervention. The intervention will provide anticipatory guidance via two modules of six fortnightly parent education and peer support group sessions, each followed by six months of regular maintenance contact. The modules will commence when the infants are aged 4-7 and 13-16 months to coincide with establishment of solid feeding, and autonomy and independence, respectively. Outcome measures will be assessed at baseline, with follow up at nine and 18 months. These will include infant intake (type and amount of foods, food preferences, feeding behaviour and growth and self

  17. Patient and Process Factors Associated With Type of First Neuroimaging and Delayed Diagnosis in Childhood Arterial Ischemic Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daverio, Marco; Bressan, Silvia; Gregori, Dario; Babl, Franz E; Mackay, Mark T

    2016-09-01

    In-hospital factors contribute more to delayed diagnosis of childhood arterial ischemic stroke (AIS) than prehospital factors. We aimed to explore process and patient factors associated with type of and timing to neuroimaging in childhood AIS in the emergency department (ED). This was a retrospective hospital registry-based study of children with AIS, presenting to an Australian tertiary pediatric ED between January 2003 and December 2012. Neuroimaging data and timelines of care were also collected from referring hospitals for transferred patients. Seventy-one AIS episodes and 19 transient ischemic attacks were recorded. The majority (56%) were initially seen at a referring hospital. Patients underwent computed tomography (CT) as first scan more frequently than magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as first scan (61% vs. 32%) at both the referring and the tertiary hospitals. Time to first scan as CT was significantly shorter compared with MRI (median = 1.5 hours vs. 10.9 hours, p first presenting to a referring hospital and those directly accessing the tertiary center. Patient characteristics including age, past medical history, conscious state, focal symptoms, and signs on arrival were not associated with the type of first neuroimaging or time to diagnostic MRI. Patients presenting during weekends were less likely to receive an MRI as first scan (odds ratio [OR] = 0.3, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.1-0.8), while time to MRI was significantly longer for children presenting after hours (5 pm-8 am; median = 17.6 hours vs. 8.4 hours, p = 0.026). MRI overall and as first scan was associated with a higher use of sedation than CT (OR = 6.5, 95% CI = 1.3-32.9; and OR = 3.9, 95% CI = 1.3-11.8), particularly for children younger than 5 years of age (OR = 12.5, 95% CI = 3-52.4). Strategies to improve rapid diagnosis of pediatric stroke should include shared regional hospital networks protocols to optimize local imaging strategies and where possible rapid transfer to the

  18. Teens Implementing a Childhood Obesity Prevention Program in the Community: Feasibility and Perceptions of a Partnership with HSTA and iCook 4-H

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca L. Hagedorn

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available High school student researchers and teen leaders from the Health Science Technology Academy (HSTA, under the supervision of HSTA teachers, led a childhood obesity prevention (COP program (iCook 4-H. The objective was to evaluate the feasibility and perceptions of having teen leaders implement a COP program for dyads of youth (9–10 years old and their primary adult food preparer. Behavior change and perceptions were assessed through surveys and open-ended interviews. Across eight HSTA organizations, 43 teen leaders participated in teaching the iCook 4-H program to 24 dyads. Increased frequency of culinary skills, physical activity and mealtime behavior were reported by youth. Almost all adults (93% reported that their youth had learned kitchen skills and that the program provided youth-adult quality time and developed culinary skills. Youth echoed adult perceptions with additional themes of food safety and physical activity. HSTA teen leaders perceived the program to be successful and reported the training they received to implement the program was adequate 98% of the time. HSTA teachers found the program to be beneficial for HSTA students in improving leadership, confidence and responsibility. iCook 4-H was feasible to be disseminated through teen leaders in the HSTA program. This teen-led approach could serve as a model for youth health-related programming.

  19. Efficient Separations and Processing Crosscutting Program. Technology summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-06-01

    The Efficient Separations and Processing (ESP) Crosscutting Program was created in 1991 to identify, develop, and perfect separations technologies and processes to treat wastes and address environmental problems throughout the DOE Complex. The ESP funds several multi-year tasks that address high-priority waste remediation problems involving high-level, low-level, transuranic, hazardous, and mixed (radioactive and hazardous) wastes. The ESP supports applied research and development (R and D) leading to demonstration or use of these separations technologies by other organizations within DOE-EM. Treating essentially all DOE defense wastes requires separation methods that concentrate the contaminants and/or purify waste streams for release to the environment or for downgrading to a waste form less difficult and expensive to dispose of. Initially, ESP R and D efforts focused on treatment of high-level waste (HLW) from underground storage tanks (USTs) because of the potential for large reductions in disposal costs and hazards. As further separations needs emerge and as waste management and environmental restoration priorities change, the program has evolved to encompass the breadth of waste management and environmental remediation problems

  20. Childhood Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Childhood Stress KidsHealth / For Parents / Childhood Stress What's in this ... and feel stress to some degree. Sources of Stress Stress is a function of the demands placed ...

  1. Childhood Emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... SUBSCRIBE Emergency 101 Share this! Home » Emergency 101 Childhood Emergencies Keeping children healthy and safe is every ... and tools to prevent, recognize and address a childhood emergency is the first step in keeping your ...

  2. Children's Healthy Living (CHL) Program for remote underserved minority populations in the Pacific region: rationale and design of a community randomized trial to prevent early childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilken, Lynne R; Novotny, Rachel; Fialkowski, Marie K; Boushey, Carol J; Nigg, Claudio; Paulino, Yvette; Leon Guerrero, Rachael; Bersamin, Andrea; Vargo, Don; Kim, Jang; Deenik, Jonathan

    2013-10-09

    Although surveillance data are limited in the US Affiliated Pacific, Alaska, and Hawaii, existing data suggest that the prevalence of childhood obesity is similar to or in excess of other minority groups in the contiguous US. Strategies for addressing the childhood obesity epidemic in the region support the use of community-based, environmentally targeted interventions. The Children's Healthy Living Program is a partnership formed across institutions in the US Affiliated Pacific, Alaska, and Hawaii to design a community randomized environmental intervention trial and a prevalence survey to address childhood obesity in the region through affecting the food and physical activity environment. The Children's Healthy Living Program community randomized trial is an environmental intervention trial in four matched-pair communities in American Samoa, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, Guam, and Hawaii and two matched-pair communities in Alaska. A cross-sectional sample of children (goal n = 180) in each of the intervention trial communities is being assessed for outcomes at baseline and at 24 months (18 months post-intervention). In addition to the collection of the participant-based measures of anthropometry, diet, physical activity, sleep and acanthosis nigricans, community assessments are also being conducted in intervention trial communities. The Freely Associated States of Micronesia (Federated States of Micronesia, and Republics of Marshall Islands and Palau) is only conducting elements of the Children's Healthy Living Program sampling framework and similar measurements to provide prevalence data. In addition, anthropometry information will be collected for two additional communities in each of the 5 intervention jurisdictions to be included in the prevalence survey. The effectiveness of the environmental intervention trial is being assessed based on the RE-AIM (reach, effectiveness, adoption, implementation, maintenance) framework. The Children

  3. Effects of Center-Based Early Childhood Education Programs on Children’s Language, Literacy, and Math Skills: A Comprehensive Meta-Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Kholoptseva, Evgenia

    2016-01-01

    This study examines effects of early childhood education (ECE) programs on children’s language, literacy, and math skills using a meta-analytic database that includes information about evaluations conducted between 1960 and 2007 for children between birth and 5 years of age. The study extends upon prior syntheses by examining treatment effects separately on language, literacy, and math outcomes. Findings indicate that ECE attendance has small-to-moderate impacts of between 1/10th to 1/3rd of...

  4. Childhood Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Trandafir, Laura Mihaela; Ioniuc, Ileana; Miron, Ingrith

    2017-01-01

    Childhood obesity has important consequences for health and wellbeing both during childhood and also in later adult life. The rising prevalence of childhood obesity poses a major public health challenge in both developed and developing countries by increasing the burden of chronic non-communicable diseases. Despite the urgent need for effective preventative strategies, there remains disagreement over its definition due to a lack of evidence on the optimal cut-offs linking childhood BMI to dis...

  5. Processing flowsheet for the accelerator transmutation of waste (ATW) program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewey, H.; Walker, R.; Yarbro, S.

    1992-01-01

    At Los Alamos, an innovative approach to transmuting long-lived radioactive waste is under investigation. The concept is to use a linear proton accelerator coupled to a solid target to produce an intense neutron flux. The intense stream of neutrons can then be used to fission or transmute long-lived radionuclides to either stable or shorter-lived isotopes. For the program to be successful, robust chemical separations with high efficiencies (>10 5 ) are required. The actual mission, either defense or commercial, will determine what suite of unit operations will be needed. If the mission is to process commercial spent fuel, there are several options available for feed preparation and blanket processing. The baseline option would be an improved PUREX system with the main alternative being the current ATW actinide blanket processing flowsheet. 99 Tc and 129 I are more likely to reach the biosphere than the actinides. Many models have been developed for predicting how the radionuclides will behave in a repository over long time periods. The general conclusion is that the actinides will be sorbed by the soil. Therefore, over a long time period, e.g., a million years their hazard will be lessened because of radioactive decay and dispersion. However, some of the long-lived fission products are not sorbed and could potentially reach the environment over a few thousand year period. Hence, they could present a significant safety hazard. Because of limited resources, most of the priority has been focused on the actinide and technetium blanket assemblies

  6. Attachment and Family Processes in Children's Psychological Adjustment in Middle Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demby, Kimberly P; Riggs, Shelley A; Kaminski, Patricia L

    2017-03-01

    This study examined the links between parent-child attachment, whole family interaction patterns, and child emotional adjustment and adaptability in a sample of 86 community families with children between the ages of 8 and 11 years. Family interactions were observed and coded with the System for Coding Interactions and Family Functioning (SCIFF; Lindahl, 2001). Both parents and each target child completed the appropriate form of the Behavior Assessment System for Children-2nd Edition (BASC-2; Reynolds & Kamphaus, 2004). Target children also completed the Children's Coping Strategies Questionnaire (CCSQ; Yunger, Corby, & Perry, 2005). Hierarchical multiple regressions indicated that Secure mother-child attachment was a robust predictor of children's emotional symptoms, but father-child attachment strategies were not significant independent predictors. Positive Affect in family interactions significantly increased the amount of variance accounted for in children's emotional symptoms. In addition, Family Cohesion and Positive Affect moderated the relationship between father-child attachment and children's emotional symptoms. When data from all BASC-2 informants (mother, father, child) were considered simultaneously and multidimensional constructs were modeled, mother-child security directly predicted children's adjustment and adaptive skills, but the influence of father-child security was fully mediated through positive family functioning. Results of the current study support the utility of considering dyadic attachment and family interaction patterns conjointly when conceptualizing and fostering positive emotional and behavioral outcomes in children. © 2015 Family Process Institute.

  7. From cognitive motor preparation to visual processing: The benefits of childhood fitness to brain health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berchicci, M; Pontifex, M B; Drollette, E S; Pesce, C; Hillman, C H; Di Russo, F

    2015-07-09

    The association between a fit body and a fit brain in children has led to a rise of behavioral and neuroscientific research. Yet, the relation of cardiorespiratory fitness on premotor neurocognitive preparation with early visual processing has received little attention. Here, 41 healthy, lower and higher fit preadolescent children were administered a modified version of the Eriksen flanker task while electroencephalography (EEG) and behavioral measures were recorded. Event-related potentials (ERPs) locked to the stimulus onset with an earlier than usual baseline (-900/-800 ms) allowed investigation of both the usual post-stimulus (i.e., the P1, N1 and P2) as well as the pre-stimulus ERP components, such as the Bereitschaftspotential (BP) and the prefrontal negativity (pN component). At the behavioral level, aerobic fitness was associated response accuracy, with higher fit children being more accurate than lower fit children. Fitness-related differences selectively emerged at prefrontal brain regions during response preparation, with larger pN amplitude for higher than lower fit children, and at early perceptual stages after stimulus onset, with larger P1 and N1 amplitudes in higher relative to lower fit children. Collectively, the results suggest that the benefits of being aerobically fit appear at the stage of cognitive preparation prior to stimulus presentation and the behavioral response during the performance of a task that challenges cognitive control. Further, it is likely that enhanced activity in prefrontal brain areas may improve cognitive control of visuo-motor tasks, allowing for stronger proactive inhibition and larger early allocation of selective attention resources on relevant external stimuli. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Seismic Record Processing Program (SRP), Version 1.03

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karabalis, D.L.; Cokkinides, G.J.; Rizos, D.C.

    1992-04-01

    The Seismic Record Processing Program (SRP) is an interactive computer code developed for the calculation of artificial earthquake records that comply with the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission Standard Review Plan. The basic objective of SRP is the calculation of artificial seismic time histories that correspond to Design Response Spectra specified in the US Atomic Energy Commission Regulatory Guide 1.60 and/or the Power Spectral Density (PSD) requirements of the NRC Standard Review Plan. However, SRP is a general computer code and can accommodate any arbitrarily specified Target Response Spectra (TRS) or PSD requirements. In addition, among its other futures, SRP performs quadratic baseline correction and calculates correlations factors for a set of up to three earthquake records. This manual is prepared in two parts. The first part describes the methodologies and criteria used while the second is a user's manual. In section 1 of the first part, the techniques used for the adjustment of a given earthquake record to a required TRS family of curves for a set of specified damping ratios are presented. Similarly, in section 2 of the first part, the PSD of an earthquake record is compared to a target PSD and adjusted accordingly. Sections 3 and 4 of the first part deal with the subjects of baseline correction and correlation of earthquake records, respectively. The second part is the user's manual. The user's manual contains a list of the computer hardware requirements, instructions for the program installation, a description of the user generated input files, and a description of all the program menus and commands

  9. Adult Outcomes as a Function of an Early Childhood Educational Program: An Abecedarian Project Follow-Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Frances A.; Pungello, Elizabeth P.; Burchinal, Margaret; Kainz, Kirsten; Pan, Yi; Wasik, Barbara H.; Barbarin, Oscar A.; Sparling, Joseph J.; Ramey, Craig T.

    2012-01-01

    Adult (age 30) educational, economic, and social-emotional adjustment outcomes were investigated for participants in the Abecedarian Project, a randomized controlled trial of early childhood education for children from low-income families. Of the original 111 infants enrolled (98% African American), 101 took part in the age 30 follow-up. Primary…

  10. A Conceptual Model for Youth-Led Programs as a Promising Approach to Early Childhood Care and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponguta, Liliana Angelica; Rasheed, Muneera Abdul; Reyes, Chin Regina; Yousafzai, Aisha Khizar

    2018-01-01

    The international community has set forth global targets that include calls for universal access to high-quality early childhood care and education (ECCE), as indicated in the United Nations' Sustainable Development Goals. One major impediment to achieving this target is the lack of a skilled workforce. In this paper, we argue the case for…

  11. High prevalence of early hypothalamic-pituitary damage in childhood brain tumor survivors: need for standardized follow-up programs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clement, Sarah C.; Meeteren, Antoinette Y. N. Schouten-van; Kremer, Leontien C. M.; van Trotsenburg, A. S. Paul; Caron, Huib N.; van Santen, Hanneke M.

    2014-01-01

    Childhood brain tumor survivors (CBTS) are at increased risk to develop endocrine disorders. Alerted by two cases who experienced delay in diagnosis of endocrine deficiencies within the first 5 years after brain tumor diagnosis, our aim was to investigate the current screening strategy and the

  12. Design Application Early Childhood Education Based Mobile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annah

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to make learning media for Early Childhood Education in the form especially its mobile applications for Android-based smartphones. In the process of teaching and learning for Early Childhood Education is still often found constraints experienced teaching force is limited props so that learners are less eager to learn. In addition, parents also have difficulty returning to guide or teach the learning materials at home because it has no alternative instructional media. In compiling this research report author uses the Android-based Mobile Devices Applications created using the Java programming language through the Eclipse editor. Based on the results of the research, concluded that these applications can be applied in the latest version of the Android platform to its current platform version of Jellybean. Application of Learning can be used as an alternative way of learning for Early Childhood Education so as to overcome the lack of props in institutions of Early Childhood Education, can be used to be taught at home, and provide new teaching methods to early childhood so that a form of learning that is obtained is not the monotony of one form of learning how.

  13. Encoding, Memory, and Transcoding Deficits in Childhood Apraxia of Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shriberg, Lawrence D.; Lohmeier, Heather L.; Strand, Edythe A.; Jakielski, Kathy J.

    2012-01-01

    A central question in Childhood Apraxia of Speech (CAS) is whether the core phenotype is limited to transcoding (planning/programming) deficits or if speakers with CAS also have deficits in auditory-perceptual "encoding" (representational) and/or "memory" (storage and retrieval of representations) processes. We addressed this and other questions…

  14. A qualitative study of the views of patients with human immunodeficiency virus and childhood trauma on the consent process for a neurocognitive and neuroimaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Helen; Seedat, Soraya; Lester, Helen

    2014-10-01

    To investigate the informed consent experiences of women with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and childhood trauma involved in a neurocognitive and neuroimaging study. There is no previous research on the consent process for people with both HIV and childhood trauma, conditions that are syndemic in South Africa. Research on the consent process for each individual condition has shown that individuals with either of these conditions may be vulnerable research participants. This study aimed to investigate the opinions of the women involved in order to refine future consent processes and ensure that they are appropriate for this population. A qualitative semi-structured interview was conducted with women from Khayelitsha township in South Africa involved in a cohort study on neurocognitive and neuroimaging outcomes in HIV and childhood trauma, who agreed to participate in an interview immediately following their final study appointment. Aspects most frequently commented upon by participants during the interview were community recruitment, incentives for participation, quality of information provided, and misunderstandings and unexpected events. The overarching finding was that of therapeutic misconception; participants expected, and highlighted as incentives for participation, health benefits that were not part of the study. A minority of participants reported discomfort from questions concerning their traumatic experiences. Despite this, the consent process was well received and there was good understanding of confidentiality issues and the voluntariness of participation. Full disclosure of true benefits from participation must be emphasised throughout the recruitment process. This is particularly important for participants with HIV who appear to participate because of perceived health incentives. Providing prior notification that questions about traumatic experiences will be asked may improve the experiences of participants. A generic but thoroughly conducted

  15. Childhood respiratory illness presentation and service utilisation in primary care: a six-year cohort study in Wellington, New Zealand, using natural language processing (NLP) software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowell, Anthony; Darlow, Ben; Macrae, Jayden; Stubbe, Maria; Turner, Nikki; McBain, Lynn

    2017-08-01

    To identify childhood respiratory tract-related illness presentation rates and service utilisation in primary care by interrogating free text and coded data from electronic medical records. Retrospective cohort study. Data interrogation used a natural language processing software inference algorithm. 36 primary care practices in New Zealand. Data analysed from January 2008 to December 2013. The records from 77 582 children enrolled were reviewed over a 6-year period to estimate the presentation of childhood respiratory illness and service utilisation. This cohort represents 268 919 person-years of data and over 650 000 unique consultations. Childhood respiratory illness presentation rate to primary care practice, with description of seasonal and yearly variation. Respiratory conditions constituted 46% of all child-general practitioner consultations with a stable year-on-year pattern of seasonal peaks. Upper respiratory tract infection was the most common respiratory category accounting for 21.0% of all childhood consultations, followed by otitis media (12.2%), wheeze-related illness (9.7%), throat infection (7.4%) and lower respiratory tract infection (4.4%). Almost 70% of children presented to their general practitioner with at least one respiratory condition in their first year of life; this reduced to approximately 25% for children aged 10-17. This is the first study to assess the primary care incidence and service utilisation of childhood respiratory illness in a large primary care cohort by interrogating electronic medical record free text. The study identified the very high primary care workload related to childhood respiratory illness, especially during the first 2 years of life. These data can enable more effective planning of health service delivery. The findings and methodology have relevance to many countries, and the use of primary care 'big data' in this way can be applied to other health conditions. © Article author(s) (or their employer

  16. Thinking processes used by high-performing students in a computer programming task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marietjie Havenga

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Computer programmers must be able to understand programming source code and write programs that execute complex tasks to solve real-world problems. This article is a trans- disciplinary study at the intersection of computer programming, education and psychology. It outlines the role of mental processes in the process of programming and indicates how successful thinking processes can support computer science students in writing correct and well-defined programs. A mixed methods approach was used to better understand the thinking activities and programming processes of participating students. Data collection involved both computer programs and students’ reflective thinking processes recorded in their journals. This enabled analysis of psychological dimensions of participants’ thinking processes and their problem-solving activities as they considered a programming problem. Findings indicate that the cognitive, reflective and psychological processes used by high-performing programmers contributed to their success in solving a complex programming problem. Based on the thinking processes of high performers, we propose a model of integrated thinking processes, which can support computer programming students. Keywords: Computer programming, education, mixed methods research, thinking processes.  Disciplines: Computer programming, education, psychology

  17. Efficient separations and processing crosscutting program: Develop and test sorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bray, L.A.

    1995-09-01

    This report summarizes work performed during FY 1995 under the task open-quotes Develop and Test Sorbents,close quotes the purpose of which is to develop high-capacity, selective solid extractants to recover cesium, strontium, and technetium from nuclear wastes. This work is being done for the Efficient Separations and Processing Crosscutting Program (ESP), operated by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Management's Office of Technology Development. The task is under the direction of staff at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) with key participation from industrial and university staff at 3M, St. Paul, Minnesota; IBC Advanced Technologies, Inc., American Forks, Utah; AlliedSignal, Inc., Des Plaines, Illinois, and Texas A ampersand M University, College Station, Texas. 3M and IBC are responsible for ligand and membrane technology development; AlliedSignal and Texas A ampersand M are developing sodium titanate powders; and PNL is testing the materials developed by the industry/university team members. Major accomplishments for FY 1995 are summarized in this report

  18. Vacuolar processing enzyme in plant programmed cell death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriyuki eHatsugai

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Vacuolar processing enzyme (VPE is a cysteine proteinase originally identified as the proteinase responsible for the maturation and activation of vacuolar proteins in plants, and it is known to be an orthologue of animal asparaginyl endopeptidase (AEP/VPE/legumain. VPE has been shown to exhibit enzymatic properties similar to that of caspase 1, which is a cysteine protease that mediates the programmed cell death (PCD pathway in animals. Although there is limited sequence identity between VPE and caspase 1, their predicted three-dimensional structures revealed that the essential amino-acid residues for these enzymes form similar pockets for the substrate peptide YVAD. In contrast to the cytosolic localization of caspases, VPE is localized in vacuoles. VPE provokes vacuolar rupture, initiating the proteolytic cascade leading to PCD in the plant immune response. It has become apparent that the VPE-dependent PCD pathway is involved not only in the immune response, but also in the responses to a variety of stress inducers and in the development of various tissues. This review summarizes the current knowledge on the contribution of VPE to plant PCD and its role in vacuole-mediated cell death, and it also compares VPE with the animal cell death executor caspase 1.

  19. Data Processing and Programming Applied to an Environmental Radioactivity Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trinidad, J. A.; Gasco, C.; Palacios, M. A.

    2009-01-01

    This report is the original research work presented for the attainment of the author master degree and its main objective has been the resolution -by means of friendly programming- of some of the observed problems in the environmental radioactivity laboratory belonging to the Department of Radiological Surveillance and Environmental Radioactivity from CIEMAT. The software has been developed in Visual Basic for applications in Excel files and it solves by macro orders three of the detected problems: a) calculation of characteristic limits for the measurements of the beta total and beta rest activity concentrations according to standards MARLAP, ISO and UNE and the comparison of the three results b) Pb-210 and Po-210 decontamination factor determination in the ultra-low level Am-241 analysis in air samples by alpha spectrometry and c) comparison of two analytical techniques for measuring Pb-210 in air ( direct-by gamma spectrometry- and indirect -by radiochemical separation and alpha spectrometry). The organization processes of the different excel files implied in the subroutines, calculations and required formulae are explained graphically for its comprehension. The advantage of using this kind of programmes is based on their versatility and the ease for obtaining data that lately are required by tables that can be modified as time goes by and the laboratory gets more data with the special applications for describing a method (Pb-210 decontamination factors for americium analysis in air) or comparing temporal series of Pb-210 data analysed by different methods (Pb-210 in air). (Author)

  20. Participation in the special supplemental nutrition program for women, infants, and children is not associated with early childhood socioemotional development: Results from a longitudinal cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abigail Arons, MPAff

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Socioemotional development in early childhood has long-term impacts on health status and social outcomes, and racial and socioeconomic disparities in socioemotional skills emerge early in life. The Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC is an early childhood nutrition intervention with the potential to ameliorate these disparities. Our objective was to assess the impact of WIC on early socioemotional development in a longitudinal study. We examined the association between WIC participation and scores on the Brief Infant Toddler Social Emotional Assessment (BITSEA in 327 predominantly African American mother–child dyads who were participants in the longitudinal Conditions Affecting Neurocognitive Development in Early Life (CANDLE Study (Memphis, TN. To account for selection bias, we used within-child fixed effects to model the variability in each child's BITSEA scores over two measurement occasions (ages 12 and 24 months. Final models were adjusted for time-varying characteristics including child age, maternal stress, mental health, child abuse potential, marital status, and food stamp participation. In fully adjusted models, we found no statistically significant effect of WIC on change in socioemotional development (β = 0.22 [SD = 0.39] and β = −0.58 [SD = 0.79] for BITSEA Competence and Problem subdomains, respectively. Using rigorous methods and a longitudinal study design, we found no significant association between WIC and socioemotional development in a high needs population. This finding suggests that early childhood interventions that more specifically target socioemotional development are necessary if we are to reduce racial disparities in socioemotional skills and prevent poor social and health outcomes across the life course.

  1. Process of a cyclotron modeling with SNOP program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnov, V.L.

    2015-01-01

    The description of the SNOP program developed in JINR and intended for numerical modeling of a beam dynamics in accelerating setups of cyclotron type is presented. The main methods of work with program components, and also stages of numerical modeling of a cyclotron, the analysis of the main characteristics of the accelerated bunch by means of the SNOP are given. The explanation of some algorithms and procedures used in the program is given. [ru

  2. Formative evaluation of a proposed mHealth program for childhood illness management in a resource-limited setting in Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Calderón

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To conduct a formative evaluation of a proposed mobile health (mHealth program designed to educate caregivers about management of common childhood illnesses. METHODS: A cluster-randomized sample (n = 220 of mothers in Cono Norte, Arequipa, Peru with at least one child under five completed an iPad-based survey. This descriptive study examined trends in mobile phone ownership and feasibility of and interest in mHealth across sociodemographic categories. Fisher's exact tests were used to evaluate associations. Univariate logistic regression models were fitted to calculate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS: Of 220 participants, 82.3% and 95.0% reported mobile phone ownership and access, respectively. Ownership was significantly associated with educational level (P = 0.031; however, even among mothers with the lowest education, ownership approached 80%. Educational level and age, respectively, were associated with the ability to open (P < 0.001; P < 0.001, read (P < 0.001; P < 0.001, write (P < 0.001; P < 0.001, and send (P = 0.006; P = 0.047 text messages. Over 85% of mothers were interested in using their mobile phones to receive health advice for their child and to seek help during illness. Regression analyses revealed that ability to use a mobile phone was positively associated with the mother's intention to participate in the mHealth program. CONCLUSIONS: The study findings confirm widespread access to mobile phones and sufficient ability to utilize text messaging within this population of caregivers. In addition to access and feasibility, high levels of interest in using mobile phones for health-related purposes suggest the potential value associated with an mHealth program designed to improve childhood illness management in this community.

  3. Psychiatric Aspects of Childhood Epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Raman Deep PATTANAYAK; Rajesh SAGAR

    2012-01-01

    How to Cite this Article: Pattanayak RD, Sagar R. Psychiatric Aspects of Childhood Epilepsy. Iran J Child Neurol 2012;6(2):9-18.Childhood epilepsy is a chronic, recurrent disorder of unprovoked seizures. Theonset of epilepsy in childhood has significant implications for brain growth anddevelopment. Seizures may impair the ongoing neurodevelopmental processes and compromise the child’s intellectual and cognitive functioning, leading totremendous cognitive, behavioral and psychosocial consequen...

  4. Collaboration between science teacher educators and science faculty from arts and sciences for the purpose of developing a middle childhood science teacher education program: A case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Gayle A.

    1998-12-01

    The science teacher educators at a midwestern university set a goal to establish a collaborative relationship between themselves and representatives from the College of Arts & Sciences for the purpose of developing a middle childhood science education program. The coming together of these two faculties provided a unique opportunity to explore the issues and experiences that emerge as such a collaborative relationship is formed. In order to gain a holistic perspective of the collaboration, a phenomenological case study design and methods were utilized. The study took a qualitative approach to allow the experiences and issues to emerge in a naturalistic manner. The question, 'What are the issues and experiences that emerge as science teacher educators and science faculty attempt to form a collaborative relationship for the purpose of developing a middle childhood science teacher program?' was answered by gathering a wealth of data. These data were collected by means of semi-structured interviews, observations and written document reviews. An overall picture was painted of the case by means of heuristic, phenomenological, and issues analyses. The researcher followed Moustakas' Phases of Heuristic Research to answer the questions 'What does science mean to me?' and 'What are my beliefs about the issues guiding this case?' prior to completing the phenomenological analysis. The phenomenological analysis followed Moustakas' 'Modification of the Van Kaam Methods of Analysis of Phenomenological Data'. This inquiry showed that the participants in this study came to the collaboration for many different reasons and ideas about the purpose for such a relationship. The participants also had very different ideas about how such a relationship should be conducted. These differences combined to create some issues that affected the development of curriculum and instruction. The issues involved the lack of (a) mutual respect for the work of the partners, (b) understanding about the

  5. Impact of a social franchising program on uptake of oral rehydration solution plus zinc for childhood diarrhea in myanmar: a community-level randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aung, Tin; Montagu, Dominic; Su Su Khin, Hnin; Win, Zaw; San, Ang Kyaw; McFarland, Willi

    2014-06-01

    Diarrhea's impact on childhood morbidity can be reduced by administering oral rehydration solution (ORS) with zinc; challenges to wider use are changing health-seeking behavior and ensuring access. We conducted a randomized controlled trial to increase ORS plus zinc uptake in rural Myanmar. Village tracts, matched in 52 pairs, were randomized to standard ORS access vs. a social franchising program training community educators and supplying ORS plus zinc. Intervention and control communities were comparable on demographics, prevalence of diarrhea and previous use of ORS. One year after randomization, ORS plus zinc use was 13.7% in the most recent case of diarrhea in intervention households compared with 1.8% in control households (p franchising increased optimal treatment of childhood diarrhea in rural Myanmar. Scale-up stands to reduce morbidity among children in similar settings. Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN73606238. © The Author [2014]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. 76 FR 59863 - Application and Approval Process for New Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-27

    ... jobs or occupations stemming from the program. We invite comments on the proposed wage analysis... description of the CIP to Sec. 600.2, Definitions. Under this section, the CIP would be defined as ``a taxonomy of instructional program classifications and descriptions developed by the U.S. Department of...

  7. Nutrition Program Quality Assurance through a Formalized Process of On-Site Program Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paddock, Joan Doyle; Dollahite, Jamie

    2012-01-01

    A protocol for a systematic onsite review of the Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program and Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program-Education was developed to support quality programming and ensure compliance with state guidelines and federal regulations. Onsite review of local nutrition program operations is one strategy to meet this…

  8. Developing the quality of early childhood mentoring institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Hartini

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The study was to uncover the concept of quality improvement, the supporting and the inhibiting factors within the quality improve and the quality improvement in the early childhood mentoring institutions/kindergarten. The study was a qualitative research. The subjects in the study were kindergarten principals, kindergarten teachers and parents. The data were gathered by means of observation, interview and documentation. For the data analysis, the researcher selected the qualitative descriptive data analysis method. The results of the study were as follows. First, the concept of educational quality improvement in the early childhood mentoring institutions/ kindergarten has been improveed from the vision, the mission and the objectives and the concept includes the aspects of planning, process and output which has synergy from one to another. The planning has been formulated in the curriculum, the syllabus and the daily activity plan. Second, the approach, the strategy and the technique of quality improvement has maximized the well-qualified schools’ resources, have been supported by the sufficient facilities and have been funded by the sufficient budget. Third, the supporting factors within the quality improvement of early childhood mentoring institutions/kindergarten have been the increasing awareness within the society toward the significance of early childhood mentoring institutions, the massive socialization conducted by the Office of Education through the provision of training programs in relation to the early childhood mentoring institution/kindergarten management and the human resources empowerment toward developing the quality of early childhood mentoring institutions. Fourth, the inhibiting factors within the quality improvement of early childhood mentoring institutions have been the lack of society care and participation, the less quality human resources that early childhood mentoring institutions have, the fund limitation, the

  9. 77 FR 36983 - Processed Raspberry Promotion, Research and Information Program; Request for Extension and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-20

    ..., consumer information, advertising, sales promotion, producer information, market development, and product... Raspberry Promotion, Research and Information Program; Request for Extension and Revision of a Currently... National Processed Raspberry Promotion, Research, and Information Program. DATES: Comments on this document...

  10. Upper Midwest Gap Analysis Program, Image Processing Protocol

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lillesand, Thomas

    1998-01-01

    This document presents a series of technical guidelines by which land cover information is being extracted from Landsat Thematic Mapper data as part of the Upper Midwest Gap Analysis Program (UMGAP...

  11. Universal file processing program for field programmable integrated circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freytag, D.R.; Nelson, D.J.

    1985-01-01

    A computer program is presented that translates logic equations into promburner files (or the reverse) for programmable logic devices of various kinds, namely PROMs FPLAs, FPLSs and PALs. The program achieves flexibility through the use of a database containing detailed information about the devices to be programmed. New devices can thus be accommodated through simple extensions of the database. When writing logic equations, the user can define logic combinations of signals as new logic variables for use in subsequent equations. This procedure yields compact and transparent expressions for logic operations, thus reducing the chances for error. A logic simulation program is also provided so that an independent check of the design can be performed at the software level

  12. Parts, Materials, and Processes Control Program for Expendable Launch Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-21

    cycle cost ; and 4. Improve procurement and test of small quantities of parts and materials that meet system requirements. This document supersedes...the reliability of program PMP to reduce PMP failures at all levels of assembly and test 3. Reduce program lifecycle cost 4. Improve procurement and...part shall be procured in single lots directly from the manufacturer or its authorized franchised distributor. The contractor shall be able to

  13. 78 FR 4478 - Federal Employees Dental and Vision Insurance Program: Application Process for Contract Awards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-22

    ... process is being changed to be in line with the process used for the Federal Employees Health Benefits... OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT Federal Employees Dental and Vision Insurance Program: Application... Process for Federal Employees Dental and Vision Insurance Program Contract Awards. SUMMARY: The U. S...

  14. BIOPEP database and other programs for processing bioactive peptide sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minkiewicz, Piotr; Dziuba, Jerzy; Iwaniak, Anna; Dziuba, Marta; Darewicz, Małgorzata

    2008-01-01

    This review presents the potential for application of computational tools in peptide science based on a sample BIOPEP database and program as well as other programs and databases available via the World Wide Web. The BIOPEP application contains a database of biologically active peptide sequences and a program enabling construction of profiles of the potential biological activity of protein fragments, calculation of quantitative descriptors as measures of the value of proteins as potential precursors of bioactive peptides, and prediction of bonds susceptible to hydrolysis by endopeptidases in a protein chain. Other bioactive and allergenic peptide sequence databases are also presented. Programs enabling the construction of binary and multiple alignments between peptide sequences, the construction of sequence motifs attributed to a given type of bioactivity, searching for potential precursors of bioactive peptides, and the prediction of sites susceptible to proteolytic cleavage in protein chains are available via the Internet as are other approaches concerning secondary structure prediction and calculation of physicochemical features based on amino acid sequence. Programs for prediction of allergenic and toxic properties have also been developed. This review explores the possibilities of cooperation between various programs.

  15. The Influence of Parental Health Literacy Status on Reach, Attendance, Retention, and Outcomes in a Family-Based Childhood Obesity Treatment Program, Virginia, 2013-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoellner, Jamie M; Hill, Jennie; You, Wen; Brock, Donna; Frisard, Madlyn; Alexander, Ramine; Silva, Fabiana; Price, Bryan; Marshall, Ruby; Estabrooks, Paul A

    2017-09-28

    Few interventions have evaluated the influence of parent health literacy (HL) status on weight-related child outcomes. This study explores how parent HL affects the reach, attendance, and retention of and outcomes in a 3-month multicomponent family-based program to treat childhood obesity (iChoose). This pre-post, quasiexperimental trial occurred in the Dan River Region, a federally designated medically underserved area. iChoose research protocol and intervention strategies were designed using an HL universal precautions approach. We used validated measures, standardized data collection techniques, and generalized linear mixed-effect parametric models to determine the moderation effect of parent HL on outcomes. No significant difference in HL scores were found between parents who enrolled their child in the study and those who did not. Of 94 enrolled parents, 34% were low HL, 49% had an annual household income of less than $25,000, and 39% had a high school education or less. Of 101 enrolled children, 60% were black, and the mean age was 9.8 (standard deviation, 1.3) years. Children of parents with both low and high HL attended and were retained at similar rates. Likewise, parent HL status did not significantly influence improvements in effectiveness outcomes (eg, child body mass index [BMI] z scores, parent BMI, diet and physical activity behaviors, quality of life), with the exception of child video game/computer screen time; low HL decreased and high HL increased screen time (coefficient = 0.52, standard error, 0.11, P parents, children of parents with low HL engaged in and benefited from a family-based childhood obesity treatment program similar to children of parents with high HL.

  16. [A SAS marco program for batch processing of univariate Cox regression analysis for great database].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Rendong; Xiong, Jie; Peng, Yangqin; Peng, Xiaoning; Zeng, Xiaomin

    2015-02-01

    To realize batch processing of univariate Cox regression analysis for great database by SAS marco program. We wrote a SAS macro program, which can filter, integrate, and export P values to Excel by SAS9.2. The program was used for screening survival correlated RNA molecules of ovarian cancer. A SAS marco program could finish the batch processing of univariate Cox regression analysis, the selection and export of the results. The SAS macro program has potential applications in reducing the workload of statistical analysis and providing a basis for batch processing of univariate Cox regression analysis.

  17. The effectiveness of web-based programs on the reduction of childhood obesity in school-aged children: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antwi, Flora; Fazylova, Natalya; Garcon, Marie-Carmel; Lopez, Liliana; Rubiano, Rosagna; Slyer, Jason T

    The objective of this review is to synthesise the best available evidence on the effectiveness of web-based programs on the reduction of childhood obesity in school age children. Childhood obesity is one of the most serious public health challenges of the 21st century. The problem is global and is steadily affecting many low- and middle-income countries, particularly in urban settings.[1] The prevalence has increased at an alarming rate globally.[2] The International Association for the Study of Obesity; estimates that up to 200 million school aged children are either overweight or obese, of those 40-50 million are classified as obese. Obesity has negative health impact in childhood, as well as in the long term.Overweight and obesity are defined as abnormal or excessive fat accumulation that may impair health. Body mass index (BMI) is a simple index of weight-for-height that is commonly used to classify overweight and obesity. It is defined as a person's weight in kilograms divided by the square of his/her height in meters (kg/m). The World Health Organization defines overweight as BMI greater than or equal to 25 and BMI greater than or equal to 30 as obesity. Children two years of age or older with a BMI between the 85 and 94 percentile on age-growth charts are considered overweight; children with a BMI greater than the 95 percentile are considered obese. BMI provides the most useful population-level measure of overweight and obesity as it is the same for both sexes and for all ages worldwide. Measures of central obesity such as the waist:hip ratio and waist circumference can provide more robust indices of overall obesity-related health risk than BMI alone. A BMI z-score is a quantitative measure of the deviation of a specific BMI percentile from the mean of that population. A positive z-score indicates a child is heavier than the mean and a negative z-score indicates a child is lighter than the mean. Thus, a z-score compares the BMI of a given child to the BMI

  18. Associations among measures of sequential processing in motor and linguistics tasks in adults with and without a family history of childhood apraxia of speech: a replication study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Button, Le; Peter, Beate; Stoel-Gammon, Carol; Raskind, Wendy H

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to address the hypothesis that childhood apraxia of speech (CAS) is influenced by an underlying deficit in sequential processing that is also expressed in other modalities. In a sample of 21 adults from five multigenerational families, 11 with histories of various familial speech sound disorders, 3 biologically related adults from a family with familial CAS showed motor sequencing deficits in an alternating motor speech task. Compared with the other adults, these three participants showed deficits in tasks requiring high loads of sequential processing, including nonword imitation, nonword reading and spelling. Qualitative error analyses in real word and nonword imitations revealed group differences in phoneme sequencing errors. Motor sequencing ability was correlated with phoneme sequencing errors during real word and nonword imitation, reading and spelling. Correlations were characterized by extremely high scores in one family and extremely low scores in another. Results are consistent with a central deficit in sequential processing in CAS of familial origin.

  19. Exergames: the role of ergonomics and design in helping to control childhood obesity through physical and functional exercise program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Marina; Neves, André; Correia, Walter; Soares, Marcelo

    2012-01-01

    In the area of the design and physiotherapy, the using of virtual technologies for immersion of users are spreading. And this affirmation extends to several areas of knowledge. In games, the quote is, resources are being used to work cognitive skills, attention, memory, among other factors beside the children. Currently, at the expense of usability, low cost, virtual technologies of perception and interaction, as Nintendo Wii, X-Box 360, among others, arises therefore a new class of games called Exergames, which is the union of physical activity the game. This fact gives users the development of sensory and motor skills through virtual reality mechanisms suitable for certain needs. This literature review aimed to provide an overview of the current context of Exergames, especially in use for controlling childhood obesity, which is growing alarmingly, with some features, applications and possibilities for use at the design and other areas such as physiotherapy.

  20. From myth to the individual: The dynamic process of cultural integration in groups of psychodrama in childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Sordano

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes how the work methodology through the tale and psychodrama with children and adolescents focuses on the development of symbolic constructions figuratively organized which draw directly from the unconscious world of the participants and the mythic dimensions that organize their story. The psychodramatic group in childhood and adolescence may promote the social integration of people ethnically and culturally diverse through the recovery of those mythical and deep aspects that play a role in the unconscious of the individual.Keywords: Psychodrama; Adolescents; Mith

  1. Process Document for the Conservation Competitive Bidding Pilot Program.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1990-09-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (Bonneville) is proposing to test competitive bidding for Conservation Resources to expand its existing resource acquisition capabilities. Competitive bidding may target specific types of electric end-uses or end-use sectors. It is a new acquisition approach through which Bonneville seeks to acquire resources that are not acquired through other existing or planned conservation programs. This proposal describes the conservation component of the all-source competitive acquisition approach that will be developed. It is expected that the combined resource acquisition effort will target about 100 average megawatts (aMW) as proposed in the 1990 Resource Program, although the exact amount has not yet been determined. Increasing the acquisition target will, to some extent, depend on whether the proposed pilot program is large enough to establish confidence in the approach.

  2. Benchmarking processes for managing large international space programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandell, Humboldt C., Jr.; Duke, Michael B.

    1993-01-01

    The relationship between management style and program costs is analyzed to determine the feasibility of financing large international space missions. The incorporation of management systems is considered to be essential to realizing low cost spacecraft and planetary surface systems. Several companies ranging from large Lockheed 'Skunk Works' to small companies including Space Industries, Inc., Rocket Research Corp., and Orbital Sciences Corp. were studied. It is concluded that to lower the prices, the ways in which spacecraft and hardware are developed must be changed. Benchmarking of successful low cost space programs has revealed a number of prescriptive rules for low cost managements, including major changes in the relationships between the public and private sectors.

  3. National toxicology program chemical nomination and selection process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selkirk, J.K. [National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    1990-12-31

    The National Toxicology Program (NTP) was organized to support national public health programs by initiating research designed to understand the physiological, metabolic, and genetic basis for chemical toxicity. The primary mandated responsibilities of NTP were in vivo and vitro toxicity testing of potentially hazardous chemicals; broadening the spectrum of toxicological information on known hazardous chemicals; validating current toxicological assay systems as well as developing new and innovative toxicity testing technology; and rapidly communicating test results to government agencies with regulatory responsibilities and to the medical and scientific communities. 2 figs.

  4. Emergency Management Operations Process Mapping: Public Safety Technical Program Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    services Operational Activity Collect and Manage Cash Donations Once activated, refer cash donations to appropriate voluntary organizations...recovery operations. Operational Activity Conduct Euthanasia /Disposal Provide humane methods to euthanize affected animals to stop the spread of the...issue stop movement orders, and initiate animal vaccination and treatment programs, euthanasia efforts, or other protective measures designed to control

  5. Closing the Loop on a Continuous Program Improvement Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Vickie; Booth, Larry

    2010-01-01

    The WebBSIT, a Bachelor of Science in Information Technology, is a fully online degree offered through a consortium of five University System of Georgia institutions. This paper begins by summarizing the change management system developed for continuous program improvement. Analysis of data should drive improvement, closing the loop. The balance…

  6. Use of GIS technologies to facilitate the transportation project programming process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-01

    Transportation project programming in a transportation agency is a process of matching : potential projects with available funds to accomplish the agencys mission and goals of a : given period of time. Result of this process is normally a transpor...

  7. Childhood Cancer Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Watchdog Ratings Feedback Contact Select Page Childhood Cancer Statistics Home > Cancer Resources > Childhood Cancer Statistics Childhood Cancer Statistics – Graphs and Infographics Number of Diagnoses Incidence Rates ...

  8. 76 FR 71037 - Proposed National Toxicology Program (NTP) Review Process for the Report on Carcinogens: Request...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Proposed National Toxicology Program (NTP) Review Process...: Division of the National Toxicology Program (DNTP), National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences.... Bucher, Associate Director, National Toxicology Program. [FR Doc. 2011-29615 Filed 11-15-11; 8:45 am...

  9. Hierarchical programming language for modal multi-rate real-time stream processing applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geuns, S.J.; Hausmans, J.P.H.M.; Bekooij, Marco Jan Gerrit

    2014-01-01

    Modal multi-rate stream processing applications with real-time constraints which are executed on multi-core embedded systems often cannot be conveniently specified using current programming languages. An important issue is that sequential programming languages do not allow for convenient programming

  10. From Safety Critical Java Programs to Timed Process Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Bent; Luckow, Kasper Søe; Thomsen, Lone Leth

    2015-01-01

    frameworks, we have in recent years pursued an agenda of translating hard-real-time embedded safety critical programs written in the Safety Critical Java Profile [33] into networks of timed automata [4] and subjecting those to automated analysis using the UPPAAL model checker [10]. Several tools have been...... built and the tools have been used to analyse a number of systems for properties such as worst case execution time, schedulability and energy optimization [12–14,19,34,36,38]. In this paper we will elaborate on the theoretical underpinning of the translation from Java programs to timed automata models...... and briefly summarize some of the results based on this translation. Furthermore, we discuss future work, especially relations to the work in [16,24] as Java recently has adopted first class higher order functions in the form of lambda abstractions....

  11. EvoBuild: A Quickstart Toolkit for Programming Agent-Based Models of Evolutionary Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagh, Aditi; Wilensky, Uri

    2018-04-01

    Extensive research has shown that one of the benefits of programming to learn about scientific phenomena is that it facilitates learning about mechanisms underlying the phenomenon. However, using programming activities in classrooms is associated with costs such as requiring additional time to learn to program or students needing prior experience with programming. This paper presents a class of programming environments that we call quickstart: Environments with a negligible threshold for entry into programming and a modest ceiling. We posit that such environments can provide benefits of programming for learning without incurring associated costs for novice programmers. To make this claim, we present a design-based research study conducted to compare programming models of evolutionary processes with a quickstart toolkit with exploring pre-built models of the same processes. The study was conducted in six seventh grade science classes in two schools. Students in the programming condition used EvoBuild, a quickstart toolkit for programming agent-based models of evolutionary processes, to build their NetLogo models. Students in the exploration condition used pre-built NetLogo models. We demonstrate that although students came from a range of academic backgrounds without prior programming experience, and all students spent the same number of class periods on the activities including the time students took to learn programming in this environment, EvoBuild students showed greater learning about evolutionary mechanisms. We discuss the implications of this work for design research on programming environments in K-12 science education.

  12. Childhood Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... acute types. Symptoms include Infections Fever Loss of appetite Tiredness Easy bruising or bleeding Swollen lymph nodes Night sweats Shortness of breath Pain in the bones or joints Risk factors for childhood leukemia include having a brother ...

  13. 38 CFR 36.4347 - Lender Appraisal Processing Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... appropriate corrective action(s) in the appraisal review process when discrepancies or problems are identified...) Fees. The Secretary may require mortgagees to pay an application fee and/or annual fees, including...

  14. 38 CFR 36.4348 - Servicer Appraisal Processing Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... prescribe appropriate corrective action(s) in the appraisal review process when discrepancies or problems... of SAPP authority. (g) Fees. The Secretary will require servicers to pay a $100.00 application fee...

  15. Space and Missile Systems Center Standard: Parts, Materials, and Processes Control Program for Space Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-12

    preparation , implementation, and operation of a Parts, Materials, and Processes (PMP) control program for use during the design, development...Processes List CDR Critical Design Review CDRL Contract Data Requirements List CMOS Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor CONOPS Concept of Operations...Failure Review Board GFE Government Furnished Equipment GIDEP Government Industry Data Exchange Program HBT Heterojunction Bipolar Transistor IPT

  16. A data collection and processing procedure for evaluating a research program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuseppe Rensi; H. Dean Claxton

    1972-01-01

    A set of computer programs compiled for the information processing requirements of a model for evaluating research proposals are described. The programs serve to assemble and store information, periodically update it, and convert it to a form usable for decision-making. Guides for collecting and coding data are explained. The data-processing options available and...

  17. A phase II clinical trial of a dental health education program delivered by aboriginal health workers to prevent early childhood caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blinkhorn Fiona

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Early Childhood Caries (ECC is a widespread problem in Australian Aboriginal communities causing severe pain and sepsis. In addition dental services are difficult to access for many Aboriginal children and trying to obtain care can be stressful for the parents. The control of dental caries has been identified as a key indictor in the reduction of Indigenous disadvantage. Thus, there is a need for new approaches to prevent ECC, which reflect the cultural norms of Aboriginal communities. Methods/Design This is a Phase II single arm trial designed to gather information on the effectiveness of a dental health education program for Aboriginal children aged 6 months, followed over 2 years. The program will deliver advice from Aboriginal Health Workers on tooth brushing, diet and the use of fluoride toothpaste to Aboriginal families. Six waves of data collection will be conducted to enable estimates of change in parental knowledge and their views on the acceptability of the program. The Aboriginal Health Workers will also be interviewed to record their views on the acceptability and program feasibility. Clinical data on the child participants will be recorded when they are 30 months old and compared with a reference population of similar children when the study began. Latent variable modeling will be used to interpret the intervention effects on disease outcome. Discussion The research project will identify barriers to the implementation of a family centered Aboriginal oral health strategy, as well as the development of evidence to assist in the planning of a Phase III cluster randomized study. Trial registration ACTRN12612000712808

  18. ASSEMBLER program group for preliminary data processing on-line with ES-1010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pshenichnyj, V.A.; Gritsaj, E.A.

    1981-01-01

    The paper deals with programs on the ASSEMBLER language for processing of physical data, obtained in a time-of-flight neutron spectrometer. A program which provides the connection between a measuring room with a computer is given. There are also auxilliary programs for spectra processing recorded on a magnetic disk, spectra plotting and for calculation of areas under peaks for a ν-spectrum ed on a magnetic disk, spectra plotting and for cal

  19. BEST PRACTICE IN INDIVIDUAL SUPERVISION OF PSYCHOLOGISTS WORKING IN THE FRENCH CAPEDP PREVENTIVE PERINATAL HOME-VISITING PROGRAM: RESULTS OF A DELPHI CONSENSUS PROCESS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greacen, Tim; Welniarz, Bertrand; Purper-Ouakil, Diane; Wendland, Jaqueline; Dugravier, Romain; Saïas, Thomas; Tereno, Susana; Tubach, Florence; Haddad, Alain; Guedeney, Antoine

    2017-03-01

    Individual supervision of home-visiting professionals has proved to be a key element for perinatal home-visiting programs. Although studies have been published concerning quality criteria for supervision in North American contexts, little is known about this subject in other national settings. In the context of the CAPEDP program (Compétences parentales et Attachement dans la Petite Enfance: Diminution des risques liés aux troubles de santé mentale et Promotion de la résilience; Parental Skills and Attachment in Early Childhood: Reducing Mental Health Risks and Promoting Resilience), the first randomized controlled perinatal mental health promotion research program to take place in France, this article describes the results of a study using the Delphi consensus method to identify the program supervisors' points of view concerning best practice for the individual supervision of home visitors involved in such programs. The final 18 recommendations could be grouped into four general themes: the organization and setting of supervision sessions; supervisor competencies; relationship between supervisor and supervisee; and supervisor intervention strategies within the supervision process. The quality criteria identified in this perinatal home-visiting program in the French cultural context underline the importance of clinical supervision and not just reflective supervision when working with families with multiple, highly complex needs. © 2017 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  20. Environmental process improvement feasibility study and demonstration program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Rodger L.

    1994-01-01

    This report is the final product of an environmental study conducted by Western Commercial Space Center, Inc. under contract to Tennessee-Calspan Center for Space Transportation and Applied Research. The purpose of this investigation is to accurately document the current environmental and permitting processes associated with commercial space launch activity at Vandenberg AFB, and make recommendations to streamline those processes. The particular areas of interest focus on: identifying applicable Federal, state, and local laws, Department of Defense directives, and Air force regulations; defining the environmental process on Vandenberg AFB and how it relates with other agencies, including Federal and state regulatory agencies; and defining the air quality permit process. Study investigation results are applied to an example Pilot Space Launch Vehicle (PSLV) planning to launch from Vandenberg AFB. The PSLV space hardware is analyzed with respect to environmental and permitting issues associated with vehicle processing, facilities required (existing or new), and launch. The PSLV verified the earlier findings of the study and gave insight into streamlining recommendations.

  1. Parent engagement and attendance in PEACH™ QLD – an up-scaled parent-led childhood obesity program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan L. Williams

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parenting, Eating and Activity for Child Health (PEACH™ is a multicomponent treatment program delivered over ten group sessions to parents of overweight/obese primary school-aged children. It has been shown to be efficacious in an RCT and was recently translated to a large-scale community intervention funded by the Queensland (Australia Government. Engagement (enrolment and attendance was critical to achieving program outcomes and was challenging. The purpose of the present study was to examine sample characteristics and mediating factors that potentially influenced program attendance. Methods Data collected from parents who attended at least one PEACH™ Queensland session delivered between October 2013 and October 2015 (47 programs implemented in 29 discrete sites, was used in preliminary descriptive analyses of sample characteristics and multilevel single linear regression analyses. Mediation analysis examined associations between socio-demographic and parent characteristics and attendance at group sessions and potential mediation by child and parent factors. Results 365/467 (78% enrolled families (92% mothers including 411/519 (79% children (55% girls, mean age 9 ± 2 years attended at least one session (mean 5.6 ± 3.2. A majority of families (69% self-referred to the program. Program attendance was greater in: advantaged (5.9 ± 3.1 sessions vs disadvantaged families (5.4 ± 3.4 sessions (p < 0.05; partnered (6.1 ± 3.1 sessions vs un-partnered parents (5.0 ± 3.1 sessions (p < 0.01; higher educated (6.1 ± 3.0 sessions vs lower educated parents (5.1 ± 3.3 sessions (p = 0.02; and self-referral (6.1 ± 3.1 vs professional referral (4.7 ± 3.3 (p < 0.001. Child (age, gender, pre-program healthy eating and parent (perceptions of child weight, self-efficacy factors did not mediate these relationships. Conclusions To promote reach and effectiveness of up-scaled programs, it is important to

  2. Nutrition Interventions for Prevention and Management of Childhood Obesity: What Do Parents Want from an eHealth Program?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracy Burrows

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available With the growth of Internet technologies, offering interventions for child and family weight management in an online format may address barriers to accessing services. This study aimed to investigate (i whether an eHealth family healthy lifestyle program would be of interest to parents; and (ii preferences and/or expectations for program components and features. Parents of children aged four to18 years were recruited through social media and completed an online survey (54 items including closed and open-ended questions. Responses were collated using descriptive statistics and thematic analysis. Seventy-five participants were included (92% mothers, mean age 39.1 ± 8.6 years, mean BMI 27.6 ± 6.3 kg/m2. The index child had a mean age of 11 ± 6.2 years with 24% overweight/obese. The majority of parents (90.3% reported interest in an online program, with preference expressed for a non-structured program to allow flexibility users to log-on and off as desired. Parents wanted a program that was easy to use, practical, engaging, endorsed by a reputable source, and able to provide individual tailoring and for their children to be directly involved. The current study supports the need for online delivery of a healthy lifestyle program that targets greater parental concerns of diet rather than child weight.

  3. Parent engagement and attendance in PEACH™ QLD - an up-scaled parent-led childhood obesity program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Susan L; Van Lippevelde, Wendy; Magarey, Anthea; Moores, Carly J; Croyden, Debbie; Esdaile, Emma; Daniels, Lynne

    2017-06-09

    Parenting, Eating and Activity for Child Health (PEACH™) is a multicomponent treatment program delivered over ten group sessions to parents of overweight/obese primary school-aged children. It has been shown to be efficacious in an RCT and was recently translated to a large-scale community intervention funded by the Queensland (Australia) Government. Engagement (enrolment and attendance) was critical to achieving program outcomes and was challenging. The purpose of the present study was to examine sample characteristics and mediating factors that potentially influenced program attendance. Data collected from parents who attended at least one PEACH™ Queensland session delivered between October 2013 and October 2015 (47 programs implemented in 29 discrete sites), was used in preliminary descriptive analyses of sample characteristics and multilevel single linear regression analyses. Mediation analysis examined associations between socio-demographic and parent characteristics and attendance at group sessions and potential mediation by child and parent factors. 365/467 (78%) enrolled families (92% mothers) including 411/519 (79%) children (55% girls, mean age 9 ± 2 years) attended at least one session (mean 5.6 ± 3.2). A majority of families (69%) self-referred to the program. Program attendance was greater in: advantaged (5.9 ± 3.1 sessions) vs disadvantaged families (5.4 ± 3.4 sessions) (p parents (5.0 ± 3.1 sessions) (p parents (5.1 ± 3.3 sessions) (p = 0.02); and self-referral (6.1 ± 3.1) vs professional referral (4.7 ± 3.3) (p parent (perceptions of child weight, self-efficacy) factors did not mediate these relationships. To promote reach and effectiveness of up-scaled programs, it is important to identify ways to engage less advantaged families who carry higher child obesity risk. Understanding differences in referral source and parent readiness for change may assist in tailoring program content. The influence of program

  4. Impact evaluation of "Have Fun - Be Healthy" program: A community based health promotion intervention to prevent childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathirana, Thanya; Stoneman, Rebecca; Lamont, Amanda; Harris, Neil; Lee, Patricia

    2018-04-01

    Childhood obesity is rising in prevalence in Australia. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of the "Have Fun-Be Healthy" (HFBH) intervention, delivered in the Playgroup setting, to generate short term changes in dietary, physical activity and sedentary behaviours of children under 5 years and self-efficacy of parents and primary carers. This intervention consisted of eight structured cooking and physical play sessions delivered over a period of 8 weeks by trained facilitators. Pre- and post-intervention data collection was performed using survey questionnaires administered to parents and carers of children under 5 years from low socioeconomic backgrounds recruited through convenience sampling. A total of 640 pre-intervention surveys and 312 post-intervention surveys were returned. The matched response rate was 45.5%. There was an improvement in mean intake of healthy foods and mean physical activity with a decrease in mean intake of unhealthy food and mean screen time in children (P > .05). Following the intervention, parental/carer self-efficacy in promoting healthy eating and limiting screen time of children improved significantly (P < .05). Children's physical activity levels and consumption of healthy foods were positively correlated with parental/carer self-efficacy (P < .01) while screen time and consumption of unhealthy foods were negatively correlated (P < .01). HFBH intervention was successful in improving the dietary, physical activity and screen time in children and parental self-efficacy. SO WHAT?: Being amongst the first of its' kind in Australia, the findings of this study can have implications for developing and implementing similar future health promotion interventions in comparable settings. © 2017 Australian Health Promotion Association.

  5. Devil is in the details: Using logic models to investigate program process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyton, David J; Scicchitano, Michael

    2017-12-01

    Theory-based logic models are commonly developed as part of requirements for grant funding. As a tool to communicate complex social programs, theory based logic models are an effective visual communication. However, after initial development, theory based logic models are often abandoned and remain in their initial form despite changes in the program process. This paper examines the potential benefits of committing time and resources to revising the initial theory driven logic model and developing detailed logic models that describe key activities to accurately reflect the program and assist in effective program management. The authors use a funded special education teacher preparation program to exemplify the utility of drill down logic models. The paper concludes with lessons learned from the iterative revision process and suggests how the process can lead to more flexible and calibrated program management. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The Burden of the Fellowship Interview Process on General Surgery Residents and Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Shawna L; Hollis, Robert H; Oladeji, Lasun; Xu, Shin; Porterfield, John R; Ponce, Brent A

    This study evaluated the effect of the fellowship interview process in a cohort of general surgery residents. We hypothesized that the interview process would be associated with significant clinical time lost, monetary expenses, and increased need for shift coverage. An online anonymous survey link was sent via e-mail to general surgery program directors in June 2014. Program directors distributed an additional survey link to current residents in their program who had completed the fellowship interview process. United States allopathic general surgery programs. Overall, 50 general surgery program directors; 72 general surgery residents. Program directors reported a fellowship application rate of 74.4%. Residents most frequently attended 8 to 12 interviews (35.2%). Most (57.7%) of residents reported missing 7 or more days of clinical training to attend interviews; these shifts were largely covered by other residents. Most residents (62.3%) spent over $4000 on the interview process. Program directors rated fellowship burden as an average of 6.7 on a 1 to 10 scale of disruption, with 10 being a significant disruption. Most of the residents (57.3%) were in favor of change in the interview process. We identified potential areas for improvement including options for coordinated interviews and improved content on program websites. The surgical fellowship match is relatively burdensome to residents and programs alike, and merits critical assessment for potential improvement. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. The Wound CARE Instrument: the process for developing standards for wound management education and programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsted, Heather L; Woodbury, M Gail; Stevenson, Kimberly

    2012-06-01

    This article describes the collaborative process undertaken by the Canadian Association for Enterostomal Therapy and the Canadian Association of Wound Care in an effort to improve the quality of wound prevention and management education and programming. The end result of this process is the Wound CARE Instrument which promotes an interprofessional, collaborative appraisal process to support the development, adoption or adaption of wound management educational events and programs. © 2011 The Authors. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd and Medicalhelplines.com Inc.

  8. Materials evaluation programs at the Defense Waste Processing Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gee, J.T.; Iverson, D.C.; Bickford, D.F.

    1992-01-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) has been operating a nuclear fuel cycle since the 1950s to produce nuclear materials in support of the national defense effort. About 83 million gallons of high-level waste produced since operations began has been consolidated by evaporation into 33 million gallons at the waste tank farm. The Department of Energy authorized the construction of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), the function of which is to immobilize the waste as a durable borosilicate glass contained in stainless steel canisters prior to the placement of the canisters in a federal repository. The DWPF is now mechanically complete and is undergoing commissioning and run-in activities. A brief description of the DWPF process is provided

  9. Agile Processes in Software Engineering and Extreme Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The volume constitutes the proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Agile Software Development, XP 2017, held in Cologne, Germany, in May 2017. The 14 full and 6 short papers presented in this volume were carefully reviewed and selected from 46 submissions. They were organized in topical...... sections named: improving agile processes; agile in organization; and safety critical software. In addition, the volume contains 3 doctoral symposium papers (from 4 papers submitted)....

  10. Reactor Materials Program process water piping indirect failure frequency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daugherty, W.L.

    1989-01-01

    Following completion of the probabilistic analyses, the LOCA Definition Project has been subject to various external reviews, and as a result the need for several revisions has arisen. This report updates and summarizes the indirect failure frequency analysis for the process water piping. In this report, a conservatism of the earlier analysis is removed, supporting lower failure frequency estimates. The analysis results are also reinterpreted in light of subsequent review comments

  11. The efficacy of the enhanced Aussie Optimism Positive Thinking Skills Program in improving social and emotional learning in middle childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Myles-Pallister, Jacqueline D.; Hassan, Sharinaz; Rooney, Rosanna M.; Kane, Robert T.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to investigate the effects of the modified and enhanced Aussie Optimism Positive Thinking Skills Program (AO-PTS) on Year 4 and 5 children's social and emotional learning (SEL) skills. AO-PTS is a universal-school based program that is implemented by class teachers as part of regular school curricula and was developed for the prevention of depression and anxiety. The study comprised a total of 683 Year 4 and 5 students from 10 private primary schools in Wester...

  12. Influence of the washing program on the blood processing performance of a continuous autotransfusion device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Chiyul; Noh, Seungwoo; Lee, Jung Chan; Ko, Sung Ho; Ahn, Wonsik; Kim, Hee Chan

    2014-03-01

    The continuous autotransfusion system has been widely used in surgical operations. It is known that if oil is added to blood, and this mixture is then processed by an autotransfusion device, the added oil is removed and reinfusion of fat is prevented by the device. However, there is no detailed report on the influence of the particular washing program selected on the levels of blood components including blood fat after continuous autotransfusion using such a system. Fresh bovine blood samples were processed by a commercial continuous autotransfusion device using the "emergency," "quality," and "high-quality" programs, applied in random order. Complete blood count (CBC) and serum chemistry were analyzed to determine how the blood processing performance of the device changes with the washing program applied. There was no significant difference in the CBC results obtained with the three washing programs. Although all of the blood lipids in the processed blood were decreased compared to those in the blood before processing, the levels of triglyceride, phospholipid, and total cholesterol after processing via the emergency program were significantly higher than those present after processing via the quality and high-quality programs. Although the continuous autotransfusion device provided consistent hematocrit quality, the levels of some blood lipid components showed significant differences among the washing programs.

  13. Listening to victims: use of a Critical Incident Reporting System to enable adult victims of childhood sexual abuse to participate in a political reappraisal process in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rassenhofer, Miriam; Spröber, Nina; Schneider, Thekla; Fegert, Jörg M

    2013-09-01

    Recent revelations about the scope and severity of past child sexual abuse in German institutions set off a broad public debate on this issue, and led to the establishment of a politically appointed Round Table committee and an Independent Commissioner whose mandates were to reappraise the issue and develop recommendations for future policies. A media campaign was launched to publicize the establishment of a Critical Incident Reporting System (CIRS) whereby now-adult victims of past abuse could anonymously provide testimonials and let policy makers know what issues were important to them. Respondents could either call a hotline number or communicate by mail or email. The information collected was documented and analyzed by a research team, and the results of interim reports were included in the recommendations of the Independent Commissioner and the Round Table committee. Most of the respondents described severe and repeated occurrences of childhood sexual abuse. For many, priorities were improvements in therapy and counseling services, the abolishment of the statute of limitations on prosecuting offenders, and financial compensation. Based on the recommendations of the Round Table and the Independent Commissioner, two new laws were adopted as well as an action plan and some guidelines. In addition to rules for recompensation of victims in an institutional context a fund for victims of sexual abuse in intrafamilial context was established by the Federal Government. Another effect of this process was raising societal sensitivity to the problem of child sexual abuse. The use of a CIRS enabled those directly affected by childhood sexual abuse to have some input into a political process designed to address this issue. Such an approach could have applicability in other countries or in other domains of public health and other forms of societal conflict as well. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Translating an early childhood obesity prevention program for local community implementation: a case study of the Melbourne InFANT Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Laws

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While there is a growing interest in the field of research translation, there are few published examples of public health interventions that have been effectively scaled up and implemented in the community. This paper provides a case study of the community-wide implementation of the Melbourne Infant, Feeding, Activity and Nutrition Trial (InFANT, an obesity prevention program for parents with infants aged 3–18 months. The study explored key factors influencing the translation of the Program into routine practice and the respective role of policy makers, researchers and implementers. Methods Case studies were conducted of five of the eight prevention areas in Victoria, Australia who implemented the Program. Cases were selected on the basis of having implemented the Program for 6 months or more. Data were collected from January to June 2015 and included 18 individual interviews, one focus group and observation of two meetings. A total of 28 individuals, including research staff (n = 4, policy makers (n = 2 and implementers (n = 22, contributed to the data collected. Thematic analysis was conducted using cross case comparisons and key themes were verified through member checking. Results Key facilitators of implementation included availability of a pre-packaged evidence based program addressing a community need, along with support and training provided by research staff to local implementers. Partnerships between researchers and policy makers facilitated initial program adoption, while local partnerships supported community implementation. Community partnerships were facilitated by local coordinators through alignment of program goals with existing policies and services. Workforce capacity for program delivery and administration was a challenge, largely overcome by embedding the Program into existing roles. Adapting the Program to fit local circumstance was critical for feasible and sustainable delivery, however

  15. Radiation processing program at the Malaysian Nuclear Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khairul Zaman

    2007-01-01

    Radiation processing technology has been proven to enhance industrial efficiency and productivity, improve product quality and competitiveness. For many years, variety of radiation crosslinkable materials based on synthetic polymers have been studied at the Malaysian Nuclear Agency either in the form of thermoplastic resins, polymer blends or composites. At present, effort is focused towards developing new materials based on natural polymers such as natural rubber and rubber based products, palm oil and palm oil based products and polysaccharide. In this respect, the most challenging issues are to develop new materials/products that have commercial value and to bring the products from laboratory to market. (author)

  16. Preventing childhood anxiety disorders: Is an applied game as effective as a cognitive behavioral therapy-based program?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoneveld, E.A.; Lichtwarck-Aschoff, A.; Granic, I.

    2018-01-01

    A large proportion of children experience subclinical levels of anxiety and cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) aimed at preventing anxiety disorders is moderately effective. However, most at-risk children do not seek help or drop out of programs prematurely because of stigma, lack of motivation, and

  17. Factors influencing childhood cancer patients to participate in a combined physical and psychosocial intervention program : Quality of Life in Motion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Dijk-Lokkart, Elisabeth M.; Braam, Katja I.; Huisman, Jaap; Kaspers, Gertjan Jl; Takken, Tim; Veening, Margreet A.; Bierings, MB; Merks, Hans; Grootenhuis, Martha A.; Eibrink, Marry; Streng, Isabelle C.; Van Dulmen-Den Broeder, Eline

    Background For a multi-center randomized trial investigating the effects of a 12-week physical and psychosocial intervention program for children with cancer, we invited 174 patients (8-18 years old) on treatment or within 1 year after treatment; about 40% participated. Reasons for non-participation

  18. Implementation of Text-Messaging and Social Media Strategies in a Multilevel Childhood Obesity Prevention Intervention: Process Evaluation Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Ivory H; Schwendler, Teresa; Trude, Angela C B; Anderson Steeves, Elizabeth T; Cheskin, Lawrence J; Lange, Sarah; Gittelsohn, Joel

    2018-01-01

    Social media and text messaging show promise as public health interventions, but little evaluation of implementation exists. The B'more Healthy Communities for Kids (BHCK) was a multilevel, multicomponent (wholesalers, food stores, recreation centers) childhood obesity prevention trial that included social media and text-messaging components. The BHCK was implemented in 28 low-income areas of Baltimore City, Maryland, in 2 waves. The texting intervention targeted 241 low-income African American caregivers (of 283), who received 3 texts/week reinforcing key messages, providing nutrition information, and weekly goals. Regular posting on social media platforms (Facebook, Instagram, Twitter) targeted community members and local stakeholders. High implementation standards were set a priori (57 for social media, 11 for texting), with low implementation defined as social media implementation improved from low-moderate to high reach, dose delivered, and fidelity. Text messaging increased from moderate to high in reach and dose delivered, fidelity decreased from high to moderate. Data were used to monitor and revise the BHCK intervention throughout implementation. Our model for evaluating text messaging-based and social media-based interventions may be applicable to other settings.

  19. A framework for monitoring social process and outcomes in environmental programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Sarah

    2014-12-01

    When environmental programs frame their activities as being in the service of human wellbeing, social variables need to be integrated into monitoring and evaluation (M&E) frameworks. This article draws upon ecosystem services theory to develop a framework to guide the M&E of collaborative environmental programs with anticipated social benefits. The framework has six components: program need, program activities, pathway process variables, moderating process variables, outcomes, and program value. Needs are defined in terms of ecosystem services, as well as other human needs that must be addressed to achieve outcomes. The pathway variable relates to the development of natural resource governance capacity in the target community. Moderating processes can be externalities such as the inherent capacity of the natural system to service ecosystem needs, local demand for natural resources, policy or socio-economic drivers. Internal program-specific processes relate to program service delivery, targeting and participant responsiveness. Ecological outcomes are expressed in terms of changes in landscape structure and function, which in turn influence ecosystem service provision. Social benefits derived from the program are expressed in terms of the value of the eco-social service to user-specified goals. The article provides suggestions from the literature for identifying indicators and measures for components and component variables, and concludes with an example of how the framework was used to inform the M&E of an adaptive co-management program in western Kenya. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Maternal, Infant, and Early Childhood Home Visiting Program (MIECHV): Building Health and Early Development with the Pediatric Family-Centered Medical Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, David W.

    2013-01-01

    President Obama announced his Early Learning Agenda during his Second Inaugural Address. This announcement has galvanized a special focus on early childhood policy and practices, for the prenatal to 5-year-old period, to improve educational outcomes for America's youth. The emergent science of early childhood development places an emphasis on…

  1. Developing an Interdisciplinary, Team-Based Quality Improvement Leadership Training Program for Clinicians: The Partners Clinical Process Improvement Leadership Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Sandhya K; Carballo, Victoria; Cummings, Brian M; Millham, Frederick; Jacobson, Joseph O

    Although there has been tremendous progress in quality improvement (QI) education for students and trainees in recent years, much less has been published regarding the training of active clinicians in QI. The Partners Clinical Process Improvement Leadership Program (CPIP) is a 6-day experiential program. Interdisciplinary teams complete a QI project framed by didactic sessions, interactive exercises, case-based problem sessions, and a final presentation. A total of 239 teams composed of 516 individuals have graduated CPIP. On completion, participant satisfaction scores average 4.52 (scale 1-5) and self-reported understanding of QI concepts improved. At 6 months after graduation, 66% of survey respondents reported sustained QI activity. Three opportunities to improve the program have been identified: (1) increasing faculty participation through online and tiered course offerings, (2) integrating the faculty-focused program with the trainee curriculum, and (3) developing a postgraduate curriculum to address the challenges of sustained improvement.

  2. Childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabin, M A; Shield, J P H

    2008-01-01

    The prevalence of childhood obesity continues to increase worldwide. Its presence is associated with significant adverse effects on health including an increased propensity to type II diabetes, cardiovascular, respiratory, and liver disease. In the vast majority of children, obesity is lifestyle-related, yet there is a dearth of evidence on how to best develop effective prevention and treatment strategies. This review outlines the importance of childhood and adolescent growth on long-term health, the definitions used to define obesity in children (along with up-to-date prevalence data), causes and consequences, and aspects of prevention and management.

  3. Para I Famagu'on-Ta: Fruit and Vegetable Intake, Food Store Environment, and Childhood Overweight/Obesity in the Children's Healthy Living Program on Guam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matanane, Lenora; Fialkowski, Marie Kainoa; Silva, Joshua; Li, Fenfang; Nigg, Claudio; Leon Guerrero, Rachael T; Novotny, Rachel

    2017-08-01

    This cross-sectional study examined the: (1) association between food store environment (FSE), fruit and vegetable (FV) availability and access, and prevalence of early childhood overweight/obesity (COWOB); and (2) influence of young child actual FV intake on the relationship between the FSE and early COWOB prevalence. Anthropometric and socio-demographic data of children (2 to 8 years; N=466) in baseline communities on Guam participating in the Children's Healthy Living (CHL) Program community trial were included. CDC year 2000 growth charts were used to calculate BMI z-scores and categories. FSE factors (fresh FV scores, store type) were assessed using the CX3 Food Availability and Marketing Survey amended for CHL. ArcGIS maps were constructed with geographic coordinates of participant residences and food stores to calculate food store scores within 1 mile of participant's residences. A sub-sample of participants (n = 355) had Food and Activity Log data to calculate FV and energy intakes. Bivariate correlations and logistic regression evaluated associations. Of 111 stores surveyed, 73% were small markets, 16% were convenience stores, and 11% were large grocery/supermarkets. Supermarkets/large grocery stores averaged the highest FV scores. Most participants did not meet FV intake recommendations while nearly half exceeded energy intake recommendations. Living near a small market was negatively correlated with BMI z-score (r = - 0.129, P associations. The high density of small markets may be an opportunity for FSE intervention but further investigation of Guam's FSE influence on health is needed.

  4. Preventing childhood anxiety disorders: Is an applied game as effective as a cognitive behavioral therapy-based program?

    OpenAIRE

    Schoneveld, E.A.; Lichtwarck-Aschoff, A.; Granic, I.

    2018-01-01

    A large proportion of children experience subclinical levels of anxiety and cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) aimed at preventing anxiety disorders is moderately effective. However, most at-risk children do not seek help or drop out of programs prematurely because of stigma, lack of motivation, and accessibility barriers. Applied games have received increased attention as viable alternatives and have shown promising results, but direct comparisons between applied games and the gold-standard ...

  5. The Efficacy of the Enhanced Aussie Optimism Positive Thinking Skills Program in Improving Social and Emotional Learning in Middle Childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline D Myles-Pallister

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the current study was to investigate the effects of the modified and enhanced Aussie Optimism Positive Thinking Skills Program (AO-PTS on Year 4 and 5 children’s social and emotional learning (SEL skills. AO-PTS is a universal-school based program that is implemented by class teachers as part of regular school curricula and was developed for the prevention of depression and anxiety. The study comprised a total of 683 Year 4 and 5 students from 10 private primary schools in Western Australia. Students were assessed on two subscales of emotional attribution at school whilst parents reported on their children’s externalizing and internalizing problems outside of school and at home. Two analyses were conducted: seven intervention schools were assessed at pre- and post-test (Analysis 1 and pre-post change in three intervention schools were compared to pre-post change in three matched control schools (Analysis 2. Results from Analysis 1 showed that the intervention children had increased in their overall emotional attribution accuracy and decreased in total difficulties and hyperactivity; Results from Analysis 2 revealed no intervention effect on emotional attribution accuracy or internalizing or externalizing problems. These findings suggest that the enhanced AO-PTS’s effects on SEL were not evident in the short-term period after intervention. The non-significant findings and future directions for AO-PTS research and program modification were discussed.

  6. A Process and Outcome Evaluation of Police Working with Youth Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen A. Anderson

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available A process and outcome evaluation of 10 Police Working with Youth Programs was conducted. Process results indicated that the core components of the programs were consistent with those identified in previous literature as characteristic of quality youth development programs. Outcome results indicated that youth participants reported significantly improved attitudes toward police and social support received from significant, non-familial adults. Two subgroups of youth, most notably minority youth and younger participants in lower grade levels, reported positive changes in their capacity to resist peer pressures. Minority youth reported positive changes in their sense of mastery over stressful life situations. Relationships between core program components and youth outcomes also were examined. Implications of the findings and future process and outcome evaluations of youth programs are discussed.

  7. New FORTRAN computer programs to acquire and process isotopic mass-spectrometric data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.H.

    1982-08-01

    The computer programs described in New Computer Programs to Acquire and Process Isotopic Mass Spectrometric Data have been revised. This report describes in some detail the operation of these programs, which acquire and process isotopic mass spectrometric data. Both functional and overall design aspects are addressed. The three basic program units - file manipulation, data acquisition, and data processing - are discussed in turn. Step-by-step instructions are included where appropriate, and each subsection is described in enough detail to give a clear picture of its function. Organization of file structure, which is central to the entire concept, is extensively discussed with the help of numerous tables. Appendices contain flow charts and outline file structure to help a programmer unfamiliar with the programs to alter them with a minimum of lost time

  8. A new microcomputer program for processing data in neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beeley, P.A.; Page, J.A.; Heimlich, M.S.; Queen's Univ., Kingston, ON; Edward, J.B.; Bennett, L.G.I.

    1993-01-01

    A new utility program for processing data in neutron activation analysis (NAA) has been developed for use on MS-DOS microcomputers. Peak areas are read from ASCII data files of gamma-ray spectra which have been processed by a Gaussian peak fitting program, GAMANAL-PC. Elemental concentrations are then calculated by this new program, QUACANAL, via a semi-absolute algorithm that uses pre-determined activation constants. User-defined ASCII library files are employed to specify the elements of interest required for analysis, and (n, p) and (n, α) interferences are taken into account. The program has been written in turbo PASCAL, is menu driven and contains options for processing data from cyclic NAA. An interactive philosophy has been used in designing the program. (author) 12 refs.; 2 figs.; 1 tab

  9. Radiation processing program at the Malaysian Nuclear Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khairul Zaman Hj. Mohd Dahlan

    2008-01-01

    Radiation processing technology has been proven to enhance industrial efficiency and productivity, improve product quality and competitiveness. For many years, varieties of radiation crosslinkable materials based on synthetic polymers have been studied at the Malaysian Nuclear Agency either in the form of thermoplastic resins, polymer blends or composites. At present, effort is focused towards developing new materials based on natural polymers such as natural rubber and rubber based products, palm oil and palm oil based products and polysaccharide. Hydrogel based on sago starch has been developed and commercialized for face mask. As for wound dressing application, sago hydrogel is still subjected to the clinical evaluation. Sago starch has also been modified for biodegradable products such as bio-film and bio-foam for packaging purposes. On the other hand palm oil based acrylate resins have been synthesized at the Nuclear Malaysia for pressure sensitive adhesive and printing ink applications. Meanwhile, natural rubber is used in a polymer blend and composites for automotive components. All of these products are at various stages of commercialization. (author)

  10. Tank waste remediation system privatization infrastructure program requirements and document management process guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ROOT, R.W.

    1999-01-01

    This guide provides the Tank Waste Remediation System Privatization Infrastructure Program management with processes and requirements to appropriately control information and documents in accordance with the Tank Waste Remediation System Configuration Management Plan (Vann 1998b). This includes documents and information created by the program, as well as non-program generated materials submitted to the project. It provides appropriate approval/control, distribution and filing systems

  11. Dialando: tangible programming for the novice with scratch, processing and arduino

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Smith, Andrew C

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Programming for the Novice with Scratch, Processing and Arduino Andrew Cyrus Smith CSIR Meraka Institute, PO Box 395, Pretoria, 0001, South Africa acsmith @ csir.co.za Abstract This paper reports on a tangible programming system designed... the Arduino controlling circuitry which is connected to the laptop computer using a USB cable. 2. Our Approach Our research aims to provide the novice user a gentle introduction to the abstract programming abilities of the PC. In order to achieve...

  12. Public Relations for Brazilian Libraries: Process, Principles, Program Planning, Planning Techniques and Suggestions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kies, Cosette N.

    A brief overview of the functions of public relations in libraries introduces this manual, which provides an explanation of the public relations (PR) process, including fact-finding, planning, communicating, evaluating, and marketing; some PR principles; a 10-step program that could serve as a model for planning a PR program; a discussion of PR…

  13. Building Bridges to Connect the Disconnects: An Analysis of Business Program Design Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Debra L.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze current trends of design processes and redesign efforts for business programs. A review of the literature suggests business schools are not preparing graduates of their programs with the necessary knowledge, skills and dispositions as deemed appropriate to succeed in the world of work. Some research studies…

  14. The Data-to-Action Framework: A Rapid Program Improvement Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakocs, Ronda; Hill, Jessica A.; Brown, Pamela; Wheaton, Jocelyn; Freire, Kimberley E.

    2015-01-01

    Although health education programs may benefit from quality improvement methods, scant resources exist to help practitioners apply these methods for program improvement. The purpose of this article is to describe the Data-to-Action framework, a process that guides practitioners through rapid-feedback cycles in order to generate actionable data to…

  15. The Curriculum Planning Process for Undergraduate Game Degree Programs in the United Kingdom and United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGill, Monica M.

    2012-01-01

    Digital games are marketed, mass-produced, and consumed by an increasing number of people and the game industry is only expected to grow. In response, postsecondary institutions in the UK and the U.S. have started to create game degree programs. Though curriculum theorists provide insight into the process of creating a new program, no formal…

  16. Collaborative Learning Processes in the Context of a Public Health Professional Development Program: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Marie-Claude; Richard, Lucie; Brousselle, Astrid; Chiocchio, François; Beaudet, Nicole

    2017-01-01

    The health promotion laboratory (HPL-Canada) is a public health professional development program building on a collaborative learning approach in order to support long-term practice change in local health services teams. This study aims to analyse the collaborative learning processes of two teams involved in the program during the first year of…

  17. 77 FR 77005 - Subsistence Management Program for Public Lands in Alaska; Rural Determination Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-31

    ...-R7-SM-2012-N248;FXFR13350700640-134-FF07J00000] Subsistence Management Program for Public Lands in Alaska; Rural Determination Process AGENCIES: Forest Service, Agriculture; Fish and Wildlife Service... the Interior initiated a review of the Federal Subsistence Management Program. An ensuing directive...

  18. Utilizing the Theoretical Framework of Collective Identity to Understand Processes in Youth Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Futch, Valerie A.

    2016-01-01

    This article explores collective identity as a useful theoretical framework for understanding social and developmental processes that occur in youth programs. Through narrative analysis of past participant interviews (n = 21) from an after-school theater program, known as "The SOURCE", it was found that participants very clearly describe…

  19. Office of Academic Assessment provides workshops on the program assessment process

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Meghan

    2008-01-01

    The Office of Academic Assessment is once again providing a series of workshops on the program assessment process during the spring semester. The workshops will offer a wide range of resources to assist faculty and administrators as they focus on teaching and learning in their programs.

  20. Process and Outcome Evaluation of an Art Therapy Program for People Living with HIV/AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Matthew B.; Betts, Donna J.; Blausey, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Program evaluation offers an opportunity for improving the implementation and impact of art therapy. This article describes a process and outcomes evaluation of an art therapy program within the mental health services unit of a community-based organization for people living with HIV/AIDS. The aims were to assess utilization patterns and program…

  1. Understanding the design research process: The evolution of a professional development program in Indian slums

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McKenney, Susan; Raval, Harini; Pieters, Jules

    2011-01-01

    McKenney, S., Raval, H., & Pieters, J. (2011, 8-12 April). Understanding the design research process: The evolution of a professional development program in Indian slums. Presentation at AERA annual meeting, New Orleans.

  2. Understanding the design research process: The evolution of a professional development program in Indian slums

    OpenAIRE

    McKenney, Susan; Raval, Harini; Pieters, Jules

    2011-01-01

    McKenney, S., Raval, H., & Pieters, J. (2011, 8-12 April). Understanding the design research process: The evolution of a professional development program in Indian slums. Paper presentation at AERA annual meeting, New Orleans.

  3. Understanding the design research process: The evolution of a professional development program in Indian slums

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McKenney, Susan; Raval, Harini; Pieters, Jules

    2012-01-01

    McKenney, S., Raval, H., & Pieters, J. (2011, 8-12 April). Understanding the design research process: The evolution of a professional development program in Indian slums. Paper presentation at AERA annual meeting, New Orleans.

  4. 77 FR 11677 - Medicaid Program; Review and Approval Process for Section 1115 Demonstrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-27

    ... for Medicare & Medicaid Services 42 CFR Part 431 Department of the Treasury 31 CFR Part 33 Department of Health and Human Services 45 CFR Part 155 Medicaid Program; Review and Approval Process for... Regulations#0;#0; [[Page 11678

  5. Algorithms and programs for processing of satellite data on ozone layer and UV radiation levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borkovskij, N.B.; Ivanyukovich, V.A.

    2012-01-01

    Some algorithms and programs for automatic retrieving and processing ozone layer satellite data are discussed. These techniques are used for reliable short-term UV-radiation levels forecasting. (authors)

  6. Program software for the automated processing of gravity and magnetic survey data for the Mir computer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyubimov, G.A.

    1980-01-01

    A presentation is made of the content of program software for the automated processing of gravity and magnetic survey data for the small Mir-1 and Mir-2 computers as worked out on the Voronezh geophysical expedition.

  7. Customizing Process to Align with Purpose and Program: The 2003 MS PHD'S in Ocean Sciences Program Evaluative Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, V. A.; Pyrtle, A. J.

    2004-12-01

    How did the 2003 Minorities Striving and Pursuing Higher Degrees of Success (MS PHD'S) in Ocean Sciences Program customize evaluative methodology and instruments to align with program goals and processes? How is data captured to document cognitive and affective impact? How are words and numbers utilized to accurately illustrate programmatic outcomes? How is compliance with implicit and explicit funding regulations demonstrated? The 2003 MS PHD'S in Ocean Sciences Program case study provides insightful responses to each of these questions. MS PHD'S was developed by and for underrepresented minorities to facilitate increased and sustained participation in Earth system science. Key components of this initiative include development of a community of scholars sustained by face-to-face and virtual mentoring partnerships; establishment of networking activities between and among undergraduate, graduate, postgraduate students, scientists, faculty, professional organization representatives, and federal program officers; and provision of forums to address real world issues as identified by each constituent group. The evaluative case study of the 2003 MS PHD'S in Ocean Sciences Program consists of an analysis of four data sets. Each data set was aligned to document progress in the achievement of the following program goals: Goal 1: The MS PHD'S Ocean Sciences Program will successfully market, recruit, select, and engage underrepresented student and non-student participants with interest/ involvement in Ocean Sciences; Goal 2: The MS PHD'S Ocean Sciences Program will provide meaningful engagement for participants as determined by quantitative analysis of user-feedback; Goal 3: The MS PHD'S Ocean Sciences Program will provide meaningful engagement for participants as determined by qualitative analysis of user-feedback, and; Goal 4: The MS PHD'S Ocean Sciences Program will develop a constituent base adequate to demonstrate evidence of interest, value, need and sustainability in

  8. Childhood depression: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lima NNR

    2013-09-01

    concerning childhood depression are not always taken into consideration. In this context, this review demonstrated that childhood-onset depression commonly leads to other psychiatric disorders and co-morbidities. Many of the retrieved studies also confirmed the hypothesis that human resources (eg, health care team in general are not yet adequately trained to address childhood depression. Thus, further research on the development of programs to prepare health care professionals to deal with childhood depression is needed, as well as complementary studies, with larger and more homogeneous samples, centered on prevention and treatment of childhood depression. Keywords: child, depression, depressive disorder, mental health, mental disorders

  9. The Efficacy of a Family-Based Intervention Program on Childhood Obesity: A Quasi-Experimental Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chia-Ying; Kao, Chia-Chan; Hsu, Hsiu-Yueh; Wang, Ruey-Hsia; Hsu, Shu-Hua

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this quasi-experimental study was to assess the efficacy of a family-based (FB) weight-loss and behavior-modification intervention among overweight/obese children (age 9-11 years) and their parents in Taiwan. The intervention group (52 child-parent dyads) participated in an FB program for 7 weeks. The control group (55 child-parent dyads) received an educational pamphlet about obesity prevention. The children's body mass index (BMI) z-scores were the primary outcome variable. The parents' BMI, high-calorie (HC) food-intake behaviors, screen-related behaviors, and restrictions on children's consumption of HC foods and screen-related behaviors and the availability of HC foods at home were the secondary outcome variables. Outcome variables were measured at baseline (T0), at the end of the intervention (T1), and 4 weeks after the end of the intervention (T2). A linear mixed model was used to assess the efficacy of the FB program. Results indicated that the children's BMI z-scores decreased significantly more from T0 to T2 in the experimental group than in the control group. The decreases in parents' HC food-intake behaviors and availability of HC foods at home and the increase in parental restrictions on children's consumption of HC foods were significantly greater in the experimental than in the control group from T0 to T1 and T0 to T2. The FB program was effective in modifying parental behaviors and the weight of overweight/obese children in a Taiwanese population. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. AUTOMR: An automatic processing program system for the molecular replacement method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuura, Yoshiki

    1991-01-01

    An automatic processing program system of the molecular replacement method AUTMR is presented. The program solves the initial model of the target crystal structure using a homologous molecule as the search model. It processes the structure-factor calculation of the model molecule, the rotation function, the translation function and the rigid-group refinement successively in one computer job. Test calculations were performed for six protein crystals and the structures were solved in all of these cases. (orig.)

  11. The influence of language deprivation in early childhood on L2 processing: An ERP comparison of deaf native signers and deaf signers with a delayed language acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skotara, Nils; Salden, Uta; Kügow, Monique; Hänel-Faulhaber, Barbara; Röder, Brigitte

    2012-05-03

    To examine which language function depends on early experience, the present study compared deaf native signers, deaf non-native signers and hearing German native speakers while processing German sentences. The participants watched simple written sentences while event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded. At the end of each sentence they were asked to judge whether the sentence was correct or not. Two types of violations were introduced in the middle of the sentence: a semantically implausible noun or a violation of subject-verb number agreement. The results showed a similar ERP pattern after semantic violations (an N400 followed by a positivity) in all three groups. After syntactic violations, native German speakers and native signers of German sign language (DGS) with German as second language (L2) showed a left anterior negativity (LAN) followed by a P600, whereas no LAN but a negativity over the right hemisphere instead was found in deaf participants with a delayed onset of first language (L1) acquisition. The P600 of this group had a smaller amplitude and a different scalp distribution as compared to German native speakers. The results of the present study suggest that language deprivation in early childhood alters the cerebral organization of syntactic language processing mechanisms for L2. Semantic language processing instead was unaffected.

  12. Evaluating a community-based early childhood education and development program in Indonesia: study protocol for a pragmatic cluster randomized controlled trial with supplementary matched control group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Menno; Brinkman, Sally A; Beatty, Amanda; Maika, Amelia; Satriawan, Elan; de Ree, Joppe; Hasan, Amer

    2013-08-16

    This paper presents the study protocol for a pragmatic cluster randomized controlled trial (RCT) with a supplementary matched control group. The aim of the trial is to evaluate a community-based early education and development program launched by the Government of Indonesia. The program was developed in collaboration with the World Bank with a total budget of US$127.7 million, and targets an estimated 738,000 children aged 0 to 6 years living in approximately 6,000 poor communities. The aim of the program is to increase access to early childhood services with the secondary aim of improving school readiness. The study is being conducted across nine districts. The baseline survey contained 310 villages, of which 100 were originally allocated to the intervention arm, 20 originally allocated to a 9-month delay staggered start, 100 originally allocated to an 18-month delay staggered start and 90 allocated to a matched control group (no intervention). The study consists of two cohorts, one comprising children aged 12 to 23 months and the other comprising children aged 48 to 59 months at baseline. The data collection instruments include child observations and task/game-based assessments as well as a questionnaire suite, village head questionnaire, service level questionnaires, household questionnaire, and child caretaker questionnaire. The baseline survey was conducted from March to April 2009, midline was conducted from April to August 2010 and endline conducted early 2013. The resultant participation rates at both the district and village levels were 90%. At the child level, the participation rate was 99.92%. The retention rate at the child level at midline was 99.67%. This protocol paper provides a detailed record of the trial design including a discussion regarding difficulties faced with compliance to the randomization, compliance to the dispersion schedule of community block grants, and procurement delays for baseline and midline data collections. Considering the

  13. Childhood Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuca, Sevil Ari, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    This book aims to provide readers with a general as well as an advanced overview of the key trends in childhood obesity. Obesity is an illness that occurs due to a combination of genetic, environmental, psychosocial, metabolic and hormonal factors. The prevalence of obesity has shown a great rise both in adults and children in the last 30 years.…

  14. Survey of the US materials processing and manufacturing in space program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckannan, E. C.

    1981-01-01

    To promote potential commercial applications of low-g technology, the materials processing and manufacturing in space program is structured to: (1) analyze the scientific principles of gravitational effects on processes used in producing materials; (2) apply the research toward the technology used to control production process (on Earth or in space, as appropriate); and (3) establish the legal and managerial framework for commercial ventures. Presently federally funded NASA research is described as well as agreements for privately funded commercial activity, and a proposed academic participation process. The future scope of the program and related capabilities using ground based facilities, aircraft, sounding rockets, and space shuttles are discussed. Areas of interest described include crystal growth; solidification of metals and alloys; containerless processing; fluids and chemical processes (including biological separation processes); and processing extraterrestrial materials.

  15. TSPP - A Collection of FORTRAN Programs for Processing and Manipulating Time Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boore, David M.

    2008-01-01

    This report lists a number of FORTRAN programs that I have developed over the years for processing and manipulating strong-motion accelerograms. The collection is titled TSPP, which stands for Time Series Processing Programs. I have excluded 'strong-motion accelerograms' from the title, however, as the boundary between 'strong' and 'weak' motion has become blurred with the advent of broadband sensors and high-dynamic range dataloggers, and many of the programs can be used with any evenly spaced time series, not just acceleration time series. This version of the report is relatively brief, consisting primarily of an annotated list of the programs, with two examples of processing, and a few comments on usage. I do not include a parameter-by-parameter guide to the programs. Future versions might include more examples of processing, illustrating the various parameter choices in the programs. Although these programs have been used by the U.S. Geological Survey, no warranty, expressed or implied, is made by the USGS as to the accuracy or functioning of the programs and related program material, nor shall the fact of distribution constitute any such warranty, and no responsibility is assumed by the USGS in connection therewith. The programs are distributed on an 'as is' basis, with no warranty of support from me. These programs were written for my use and are being publically distributed in the hope that others might find them as useful as I have. I would, however, appreciate being informed about bugs, and I always welcome suggestions for improvements to the codes. Please note that I have made little effort to optimize the coding of the programs or to include a user-friendly interface (many of the programs in this collection have been included in the software usdp (Utility Software for Data Processing), being developed by Akkar et al. (personal communication, 2008); usdp includes a graphical user interface). Speed of execution has been sacrificed in favor of a code that

  16. Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), Modular CSSX Unit (CSSX), and Waste Transfer Line System of Salt Processing Program (U)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CHANG, ROBERT

    2006-01-01

    All of the waste streams from ARP, MCU, and SWPF processes will be sent to DWPF for vitrification. The impact these new waste streams will have on DWPF's ability to meet its canister production goal and its ability to support the Salt Processing Program (ARP, MCU, and SWPF) throughput needed to be evaluated. DWPF Engineering and Operations requested OBU Systems Engineering to evaluate DWPF operations and determine how the process could be optimized. The ultimate goal will be to evaluate all of the Liquid Radioactive Waste (LRW) System by developing process modules to cover all facilities/projects which are relevant to the LRW Program and to link the modules together to: (1) study the interfaces issues, (2) identify bottlenecks, and (3) determine the most cost effective way to eliminate them. The results from the evaluation can be used to assist DWPF in identifying improvement opportunities, to assist CBU in LRW strategic planning/tank space management, and to determine the project completion date for the Salt Processing Program

  17. Poor Speech Perception Is Not a Core Deficit of Childhood Apraxia of Speech: Preliminary Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuk, Jennifer; Iuzzini-Seigel, Jenya; Cabbage, Kathryn; Green, Jordan R.; Hogan, Tiffany P.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: Childhood apraxia of speech (CAS) is hypothesized to arise from deficits in speech motor planning and programming, but the influence of abnormal speech perception in CAS on these processes is debated. This study examined speech perception abilities among children with CAS with and without language impairment compared to those with…

  18. Impact of a process improvement program in a production software environment: Are we any better?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Gerard H.; Page, Gerald T.

    1990-01-01

    For the past 15 years, Computer Sciences Corporation (CSC) has participated in a process improvement program as a member of the Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL), which is sponsored by GSFC. The benefits CSC has derived from involvement in this program are analyzed. In the environment studied, it shows that improvements were indeed achieved, as evidenced by a decrease in error rates and costs over a period in which both the size and the complexity of the developed systems increased substantially. The principles and mechanics of the process improvement program, the lessons CSC has learned, and how CSC has capitalized on these lessons are also discussed.

  19. Using Software Zelio Soft in Educational Process to Simulation Control Programs for Intelligent Relays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalik, Peter; Mital, Dusan; Zajac, Jozef; Brezikova, Katarina; Duplak, Jan; Hatala, Michal; Radchenko, Svetlana

    2016-10-01

    Article deals with point to using intelligent relay and PLC systems in practice, to their architecture and principles of programming and simulations for education process on all types of school from secondary to universities. Aim of the article is proposal of simple examples of applications, where is demonstrated methodology of programming on real simple practice examples and shown using of chosen instructions. In practical part is described process of creating schemas and describing of function blocks, where are described methodologies of creating program and simulations of output reactions on changeable inputs for intelligent relays.

  20. Preventing Childhood Anxiety Disorders: Is an Applied Game as Effective as a Cognitive Behavioral Therapy-Based Program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoneveld, Elke A; Lichtwarck-Aschoff, Anna; Granic, Isabela

    2018-02-01

    A large proportion of children experience subclinical levels of anxiety and cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) aimed at preventing anxiety disorders is moderately effective. However, most at-risk children do not seek help or drop out of programs prematurely because of stigma, lack of motivation, and accessibility barriers. Applied games have received increased attention as viable alternatives and have shown promising results, but direct comparisons between applied games and the gold-standard CBT are lacking. Our aim was to investigate whether the applied game MindLight is as effective as CBT (i.e., Coping Cat) within an indicated prevention context. We conducted a randomized controlled non-inferiority trial with a sample of 174 children (7- to 12-year olds) with elevated levels of anxiety, comparing MindLight to CBT. Anxiety was assessed with self- and parent-reports at pre- and post-program, and at 3- and 6-month follow-ups. Intention-to-treat and completers-only confidence interval approach and latent growth curve modeling showed an overall significant quadratic decrease in child- and parent-reported anxiety symptoms over time and, as predicted, the magnitude of improvement was the same for MindLight and CBT. The within-group effect sizes were small to medium at post-test (- 0.32 to - 0.63), and medium to large (- 0.60 to - 1.07) at 3- and 6-month follow-ups. Furthermore, MindLight and CBT were rated equally anxiety inducing, difficult, and appealing; CBT was rated as more relevant to daily life than MindLight. The current study adds to the growing research on applied games for mental health and shows that these games hold potential as alternative delivery models for evidence-based therapeutic techniques.

  1. Development program for the high-temperature nuclear process heat system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiacoletti, R.J.

    1975-09-01

    A comprehensive development program plan for a high-temperature nuclear process heat system with a very high temperature gas-cooled reactor heat source is presented. The system would provide an interim substitute for fossil-fired sources and ultimately the vehicle for the production of substitute and synthetic fuels to replace petroleum and natural gas. The dwindling domestic reserves of petroleum and natural gas dictate major increases in the utilization of coal and nuclear sources to meet the national energy demand. The nuclear process heat system has significant potential in a unique combination of the two sources that is environmentally and economically attractive and technically sound: the production of synthetic fuels from coal. In the longer term, it could be the key component in hydrogen production from water processes that offer a substitute fuel and chemical feedstock free of dependence on fossil-fuel reserves. The proposed development program is threefold: a process studies program, a demonstration plant program, and a supportive research and development program. Optional development scenarios are presented and evaluated, and a selection is proposed and qualified. The interdependence of the three major program elements is examined, but particular emphasis is placed on the supportive research and development activities. A detailed description of proposed activities in the supportive research and development program with tentative costs and schedules is presented as an appendix with an assessment of current status and planning

  2. Studies and research concerning BNFP: process monitoring and process surveillance demonstration program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kight, H R

    1979-11-01

    Computerized methods of monitoring process functions and alarming off-standard conditions were implemented and demonstrated during the FY 1979 Uranium Run. In addition, prototype applications of instruments for the purpose of tamper indication and surveillance were tested.

  3. The Process of Adoption of Evidence-based Tobacco Use Prevention Programs in California Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Melissa A.; Pokhrel, Pallav; Sussman, Steve; Rohrbach, Louise Ann

    2014-01-01

    Although there are a number of research-validated substance use prevention programs available for wide-scale dissemination, very little is known about the factors that influence adoption of evidence-based prevention programs in schools. We tested a model of the mechanisms of program adoption in schools that was guided by diffusion of innovations and social ecological theories. Cross-sectional data were collected from a sample of school district and county office of education tobacco use prevention education coordinators throughout California. Structural equation modeling was used to test the effects of community- and organizational variables on the adoption of prevention programs via school administrators’ beliefs and the organization’s receipt of funding for the program. Results supported the hypothesis that the process of adoption begins with forming beliefs about the program, leading to adoption through the receipt of funding. In addition, we found direct effects of various community- and organizational-level factors on beliefs, receipt of funding, and adoption. These results are likely to inform policies that affect school districts’ use of evidence-based substance use prevention programming, which should ultimately lead to reductions in negative health outcomes among adolescents. Specifically, this study identifies various factors that could be targeted for improvement to enhance evidence-based program adoption. To our knowledge, this is the first study to empirically elucidate the process of adoption of evidence-based tobacco prevention programs in schools. PMID:24398826

  4. A Conceptual Schema of the Programming Process in the Complex Adult Education Organization with Special Emphasis on Its Sociological Aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boone, Edgar J.; And Others

    Objectives of this paper were to define the concept of programing, to discuss programing in a complex adult education organization, and to point out aspects of programing of a sociological nature. Programing is a decision-making process. In a complex adult education organization, the process can be divided into eight phases: formulating the…

  5. [Process evaluation in relation to effectiveness assessment: experiences with school-based programs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariza, Carles; Villalbí, Joan R; Sánchez-Martínez, Francesca; Nebot, Manel

    2011-06-01

    Evaluation of public health interventions usually focus on the quality of design and research methods, and less on the quality of the intervention or process evaluation. In process evaluation of school-based interventions, key issues are how completely the intervention is carried out and adherence to the protocol. In addition, exploration of intermediate variables, such as those that influence (and often predict) preventable behavior, is highly useful. This article describes the basic concepts in this topic, using examples of the effectiveness of some preventive interventions carried out in schools. The interventions discussed were mainly quasi-experimental studies, based on data from programs promoted by public health teams in the city of Barcelona. Data from process evaluation of preventive programs in secondary schools that underwent formal assessment of their effectiveness is provided. The examples are drawn from preventive programs of HIV infection or unprotected sexual intercourse (PRESSEC program) and drug consumption prevention (the PASE, PASE.bcn and x kpts programs). These examples show why the intervention process influences the impact of the programs and their results. Thorough planning of process evaluation is essential to obtain valid indicators that will identify, in the effectiveness evaluation of the intervention, the most efficacious strategies to obtain positive outcomes. Copyright © 2011 Sociedad Española de Salud Pública y Administración Sanitaria. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  6. Early Childhood Caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumiko Kawashita

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Dental caries is one of the most common childhood diseases, and people continue to be susceptible to it throughout their lives. Although dental caries can be arrested and potentially even reversed in its early stages, it is often not self-limiting and progresses without proper care until the tooth is destroyed. Early childhood caries (ECC is often complicated by inappropriate feeding practices and heavy infection with mutans streptococci. Such children should be targeted with a professional preventive program that includes oral hygiene instructions for mothers or caregivers, along with fluoride and diet counseling. However, these strategies alone are not sufficient to prevent dental caries in high-risk children; prevention of ECC also requires addressing the socioeconomic factors that face many families in which ECC is endemic. The aim of this paper is to systematically review information about ECC and to describe why many children are suffering from dental caries.

  7. The Future of Nearshore Processes Research: U.S. Integrated Coastal Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elko, N.; Feddersen, F.; Foster, D. L.; Hapke, C. J.; Holman, R. A.; McNinch, J.; Mulligan, R. P.; Ozkan-Haller, H. T.; Plant, N. G.; Raubenheimer, B.

    2016-02-01

    The authors, representing the acting Nearshore Advisory Council, have developed an implementation plan for a U.S. Nearshore Research Program based on the 2015 Future of Nearshore Processes report that was authored by the nearshore community. The objectives of the plan are to link research programs across federal agencies, NGOs, industry, and academia into an integrated national program and to increase academic and NGO participation in federal agency nearshore processes research. A primary recommendation is interagency collaboration to build a research program that will coordinate and fund U.S. nearshore processes research across three broad research themes: 1) long-term coastal evolution due to natural and anthropogenic processes; 2) extreme events; and 3) physical, biological and chemical processes impacting human and ecosystem health. The plan calls for a new program to be developed by an executive committee of federal agency leaders, NGOs, and an academic representative, created similarly to the existing NOPP program. This leadership will be established prior to the 2016 Ocean Sciences meeting and will have agreed on responsibilities and a schedule for development of the research program. To begin to understand the scope of today's U.S. coastal research investment, a survey was distributed to ten federal agency R&D program heads. Six of the ten agencies indicated that they fund coastal research, with a combined annual coastal research budget of nearly 100 million (NSF has not responded). The priority of the three research themes were ranked nearly equally and potential research support ranged from 15-19 million for each theme, with approximately 12 million as direct contribution to academic research. Beyond addressing our fundamental science questions, it is critical that the nearshore community stay organized to represent academic interests on the new executive committee. The program goal is the integration of academic, NGO, and federal agencies.

  8. How a Fully Automated eHealth Program Simulates Three Therapeutic Processes: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holter, Marianne T S; Johansen, Ayna; Brendryen, Håvar

    2016-06-28

    eHealth programs may be better understood by breaking down the components of one particular program and discussing its potential for interactivity and tailoring in regard to concepts from face-to-face counseling. In the search for the efficacious elements within eHealth programs, it is important to understand how a program using lapse management may simultaneously support working alliance, internalization of motivation, and behavior maintenance. These processes have been applied to fully automated eHealth programs individually. However, given their significance in face-to-face counseling, it may be important to simulate the processes simultaneously in interactive, tailored programs. We propose a theoretical model for how fully automated behavior change eHealth programs may be more effective by simulating a therapist's support of a working alliance, internalization of motivation, and managing lapses. We show how the model is derived from theory and its application to Endre, a fully automated smoking cessation program that engages the user in several "counseling sessions" about quitting. A descriptive case study based on tools from the intervention mapping protocol shows how each therapeutic process is simulated. The program supports the user's working alliance through alliance factors, the nonembodied relational agent Endre and computerized motivational interviewing. Computerized motivational interviewing also supports internalized motivation to quit, whereas a lapse management component responds to lapses. The description operationalizes working alliance, internalization of motivation, and managing lapses, in terms of eHealth support of smoking cessation. A program may simulate working alliance, internalization of motivation, and lapse management through interactivity and individual tailoring, potentially making fully automated eHealth behavior change programs more effective.

  9. Impact of Maternal Diet on the Epigenome during In Utero Life and the Developmental Programming of Diseases in Childhood and Adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho-Sun Lee

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to environmental factors in early life can influence developmental processes and long-term health in humans. Early life nutrition and maternal diet are well-known examples of conditions shown to influence the risk of developing metabolic diseases, including type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases, in adulthood. It is increasingly accepted that environmental compounds, including nutrients, can produce changes in the genome activity that, in spite of not altering the DNA sequence, can produce important, stable and, in some instances, transgenerational alterations in the phenotype. Epigenetics refers to changes in gene function that cannot be explained by changes in the DNA sequence, with DNA methylation patterns/histone modifications that can make important contributions to epigenetic memory. The epigenome can be considered as an interface between the genome and the environment that is central to the generation of phenotypes and their stability throughout the life course. To better understand the role of maternal health and nutrition in the initiation and progression of diseases in childhood and adulthood, it is necessary to identify the physiological and/or pathological roles of specific nutrients on the epigenome and how dietary interventions in utero and early life could modulate disease risk through epigenomic alteration.

  10. Intervention mapping: a process for developing theory- and evidence-based health education programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholomew, L K; Parcel, G S; Kok, G

    1998-10-01

    The practice of health education involves three major program-planning activities: needs assessment, program development, and evaluation. Over the past 20 years, significant enhancements have been made to the conceptual base and practice of health education. Models that outline explicit procedures and detailed conceptualization of community assessment and evaluation have been developed. Other advancements include the application of theory to health education and promotion program development and implementation. However, there remains a need for more explicit specification of the processes by which one uses theory and empirical findings to develop interventions. This article presents the origins, purpose, and description of Intervention Mapping, a framework for health education intervention development. Intervention Mapping is composed of five steps: (1) creating a matrix of proximal program objectives, (2) selecting theory-based intervention methods and practical strategies, (3) designing and organizing a program, (4) specifying adoption and implementation plans, and (5) generating program evaluation plans.

  11. A quality assurance program for environmental data operations involving waste management processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, G.L.; Blacker, S.M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the 'core' elements needed in an effective Quality Program for environmental data operations involving nuclear, mixed, or non-nuclear wastes. For each core element, this paper examines the minimum components needed for an effective Quality Program for EDOs, and compares approaches to Quality Programs currently required by the U.S. DOE and the U.S. EPA. The comparison suggests how the Quality Program requirements used at DOE, and defined by NQA-1 and its supplements, and those used by EPA through its QAMS program guidance, may provide a basis for developing a harmonized Quality Program for EDOs involving any waste management processes, nuclear, non-nuclear, or mixed. (orig./DG)

  12. Eye conditions and blindness in children: Priorities for research, programs, and policy with a focus on childhood cataract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare Gilbert

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The major causes of blindness in children encompass intrauterine and acquired infectious diseases, teratogens and developmental and molecular genetics, nutritional factors, the consequences of preterm birth, and tumors. A multidisciplinary approach is therefore needed. In terms of the major avoidable causes (i.e., those that can be prevented or treated the available evidence shows that these vary in importance from country to country, as well as over time. This is because the underlying causes closely reflect socioeconomic development and the social determinants of health, as well as the provision of preventive and therapeutic programs and services from the community through to tertiary levels of care. The control of blindness in children therefore requires not only strategies that reflect the local epidemiology and the needs and priorities of communities, but also a well functioning, accessible health system which operates within an enabling and conducive policy environment. In this article we use cataract in children as an example and make the case for health financing systems that do not lead to ′catastrophic health expenditure′ for affected families, and the integration of eye health for children into those elements of the health system that work closely with mothers and their children.

  13. Transforming process models : executable rewrite rules versus a formalized Java program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Gorp, P.M.E.; Eshuis, H.; Petriu, D.C.; Rouquette, N.

    2010-01-01

    In the business process management community, transformations for process models are usually programmed using imperative languages (such as Java). The underlying mapping rules tend to be documented using informal visual rules whereas they tend to be formalized using mathematical set constructs. In

  14. Transforming process models : executable rewrite rules versus a formalized Java program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Gorp, P.M.E.; Eshuis, H.

    2010-01-01

    In the business process management community, transformations for process models are usually programmed using imperative languages. The underlying mapping rules tend to be documented using informal visual rules whereas they tend to be formalized using mathematical set constructs. In the Graph and

  15. 76 FR 64882 - Inquiry Into Disbursement Process for the Universal Service Fund Low Income Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-19

    ...] Inquiry Into Disbursement Process for the Universal Service Fund Low Income Program AGENCY: Federal... payments would replace the current administrative process, under which the Universal Service Administrative... Wireline Competition Bureau (WCB) seeks comment on a proposal for disbursing Universal Service Fund low...

  16. Childhood vitiligo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aparna Palit

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Childhood vitiligo is often encountered in dermatological practice. When present in infancy or early childhood, various nevoid and hereditary disorders are to be differentiated. In many cases, familial aggregation of the disease is seen and other autoimmune disorders may be associated. Segmental presentation is more common, and limited body surface area involvement is usual in this age group. Children with vitiligo often suffer from anxiety and depression because of their unusual appearance. Management of vitiligo in children is difficult as therapeutic options are restricted when compared to that in adult patients. Selection of treatment should be careful in these patients with the aim to achieve best results with minimal side effects as well as relieving patients′ and parents′ anxiety.

  17. [Childhood obesity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chueca, M; Azcona, C; Oyárzabal, M

    2002-01-01

    Obesity during childhood and adolescence is an increasingly frequent cause for medical consultation. The increase in the prevalence of this disease, which has been considered as an epidemic by the World Health Organisation, is worrying. Obesity is a complex disease, whose aetiology still remains to be clarified due to the numerous factors involved: environmental, genetic, life style and behavioural, neuroendocrinological and metabolic. The persistence of childhood obesity until adulthood significantly increases the risk of suffering from diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, cholecystitis and cholelithiasis. Treatment of obesity is complicated and few patients regularly attend follow up examinations. A multidisciplinary team is required to carry out a suitable treatment, composed of paediatricians, dieticians, nurses, psychologists and psychiatrists. Successful treatment of obesity resides in reducing the calorie intake in relation to energy expenditure, and at the time providing instruction in appropriate eating habits and life styles that in the long term will promote the maintenance of the ideal weight.

  18. Economic evaluation of a mentorship and enhanced supervision program to improve quality of integrated management of childhood illness care in rural Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzi, Anatole; Mugunga, Jean Claude; Iyer, Hari S; Magge, Hema; Nkikabahizi, Fulgence; Hirschhorn, Lisa R

    2018-01-01

    Integrated management of childhood illness (IMCI) can reduce under-5 morbidity and mortality in low-income settings. A program to strengthen IMCI practices through Mentorship and Enhanced Supervision at Health centers (MESH) was implemented in two rural districts in eastern Rwanda in 2010. We estimated cost per improvement in quality of care as measured by the difference in correct diagnosis and correct treatment at baseline and 12 months of MESH. Costs of developing and implementing MESH were estimated in 2011 United States Dollars (USD) from the provider perspective using both top-down and bottom-up approaches, from programmatic financial records and site-level data. Improvement in quality of care attributed to MESH was measured through case management observations (n = 292 cases at baseline, 413 cases at 12 months), with outcomes from the intervention already published. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to assess uncertainty under different assumptions of quality of care and patient volume. The total annual cost of MESH was US$ 27,955.74 and the average cost added by MESH per IMCI patient was US$1.06. Salary and benefits accounted for the majority of total annual costs (US$22,400 /year). Improvements in quality of care after 12 months of MESH implementation cost US$2.95 per additional child correctly diagnosed and $5.30 per additional child correctly treated. The incremental costs per additional child correctly diagnosed and child correctly treated suggest that MESH could be an affordable method for improving IMCI quality of care elsewhere in Rwanda and similar settings. Integrating MESH into existing supervision systems would further reduce costs, increasing potential for spread.

  19. Building better bones in childhood: a randomized controlled study to test the efficacy of a dietary intervention program to increase calcium intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, D R; Stark, L J; Ittenbach, R F; Stallings, V A; Zemel, B S

    2017-06-01

    Many children do not consume the recommended daily allowance of calcium. Inadequate calcium intake in childhood may limit bone accrual. The objective of this study was to determine if a behavioral modification and nutritional education (BM-NE) intervention improved dietary calcium intake and bone accrual in children. 139 (86 female) healthy children, 7-10 years of age, were enrolled in this randomized controlled trial conducted over 36 months. Participants randomized to the BM-NE intervention attended five sessions over a 6-week period designed to increase calcium intake to 1500 mg/day. Participants randomized to the usual care (UC) group received a single nutritional counseling session. The Calcium Counts Food Frequency Questionnaire was used to assess calcium intake; dual energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to assess areal bone mineral density (aBMD) and bone mineral content (BMC). Longitudinal mixed effects models were used to assess for an effect of the intervention on calcium intake, BMC and aBMD. BM-NE participants had greater increases in calcium intake that persisted for 12 months following the intervention compared with UC. The intervention had no effect on BMC or aBMD accrual. Secondary analyses found a negative association between calcium intake and adiposity such that greater calcium intake was associated with lesser gains in body mass index and fat mass index. A family-centered BM-NE intervention program in healthy children was successful in increasing calcium intake for up to 12 months but had no effect on bone accrual. A beneficial relationship between calcium intake and adiposity was observed and warrants future study.

  20. Using a profiling process to insure program quality: Volume I - a self-instructional manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaser, J.S.; Roody, D.S.; Raizen, S.A.

    1996-11-01

    Between 1990 and 1995 the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Center for Improving Science Education (National Center) developed a system for ongoing evaluation of K-12 educational programs in the DOE-supported national energy Laboratories. As part of the formative evaluation component of this collaborative endeavor, field staff in the Laboratories began creating profiles of their programs. However, many individuals within DOE Headquarters were not familiar with this profiling process and were unprepared to use the valuable information that the profiles generated. This manual was produced to orient Headquarters staff to profiling. It focuses on how Headquarters staff can use the profiling process to help their funded programs establish and/or maintain high quality. Its purpose, then, is not to train Headquarters staff to become proficient in profiling, but to show them how to draw on the Laboratories` use of profiling to bring about program improvement. Profiling is the process of systematically examining and describing a program`s elements against a set of components that define Effective Practice. The instrument used to capture the data for analysis is called a template, and most of this manual focuses on the templates and how to read and interpret them. However, since it is important to understand these data in context, the authors also describe what should accompany each template in a complete profiling packet and offer guidelines for reviewing complete packets and providing feedback to program managers.

  1. A systematic writing program as a tool in the grief process: part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furnes, Bodil; Dysvik, Elin

    2010-12-06

    The basic aim of this paper is to suggest a flexible and individualized writing program as a tool for use during the grief process of bereaved adults. An open, qualitative approach following distinct steps was taken to gain a broad perspective on the grief and writing processes, as a platform for the writing program. Following several systematic methodological steps, we arrived at suggestions for the initiation of a writing program and its structure and substance, with appropriate guidelines. We believe that open and expressive writing, including free writing and focused writing, may have beneficial effects on a person experiencing grief. These writing forms may be undertaken and systematized through a writing program, with participation in a grief writing group and with diary writing, to achieve optimal results. A structured writing program might be helpful in promoting thought activities and as a tool to increase the coherence and understanding of individuals in the grief process. Our suggested program may also be a valuable guide to future program development and research.

  2. Business process modeling for the Virginia Department of Transportation : a demonstration with the integrated six-year improvement program and the statewide transportation improvement program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    This effort demonstrates business process modeling to describe the integration of particular planning and programming activities of a state highway agency. The motivations to document planning and programming activities are that: (i) resources for co...

  3. Business process modeling for the Virginia Department of Transportation : a demonstration with the integrated six-year improvement program and the statewide transportation improvement program : executive summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    This effort demonstrates business process modeling to describe the integration of particular planning and programming activities of a state highway agency. The motivations to document planning and programming activities are that: (i) resources for co...

  4. Promoting School and Life Success through Early Childhood Family Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swick, Kevin J.

    2009-01-01

    Early childhood family literacy programs have great potential to positively influence children and families. This article presents the core values and key components of high quality early childhood family literacy programs. The benefits and cost effectiveness of these programs are also discussed.

  5. Programming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, M.A.

    1982-01-01

    The programmer's task is often taken to be the construction of algorithms, expressed in hierarchical structures of procedures: this view underlies the majority of traditional programming languages, such as Fortran. A different view is appropriate to a wide class of problem, perhaps including some problems in High Energy Physics. The programmer's task is regarded as having three main stages: first, an explicit model is constructed of the reality with which the program is concerned; second, this model is elaborated to produce the required program outputs; third, the resulting program is transformed to run efficiently in the execution environment. The first two stages deal in network structures of sequential processes; only the third is concerned with procedure hierarchies. (orig.)

  6. Inhibitory Control as a Core Process of Creative Problem Solving and Idea Generation from Childhood to Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassotti, Mathieu; Agogué, Marine; Camarda, Anaëlle; Houdé, Olivier; Borst, Grégoire

    2016-01-01

    Developmental cognitive neuroscience studies tend to show that the prefrontal brain regions (known to be involved in inhibitory control) are activated during the generation of creative ideas. In the present article, we discuss how a dual-process model of creativity--much like the ones proposed to account for decision making and reasoning--could…

  7. From Preschool to Prosperity: The Economic Payoff to Early Childhood Education. WE Focus Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartik, Timothy J.

    2014-01-01

    This book is the author's second book on preschool. His first book, "Investing in Kids: Early Childhood Programs and Local Economic Development" (2011), explored the connection between early childhood programs and the economic development of American states and metro areas, and compared early childhood programs with business tax…

  8. A Dynamic Simulation Program for a Hydriodic Acid Concentration and Decomposition Process in the VHTR-SI Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Ji Woon; Shin, Young Joon; Lee, Tae Hoon; Lee, Ki Young; Kim, Yong Wan; Chang, Jong Hwa; Youn, Cheung

    2011-01-01

    The Sulfur-Iodine (SI) cycle which can produce hydrogen by using nuclear heat consists of a Bunsen reaction (Section 1), a sulfur acid concentration and decomposition (Section 2), and a hydriodic acid concentration and decomposition (Section 3). The heat required in the SI process can be supplied through an intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) by a Very High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor (VHTR). The Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute-Dynamic Simulation Code (KAERI-DySCo) based on the Visual C++ is an integration application software that simulates the dynamic behavior of the SI process. KAERI-DySCo was prepared to solve dynamic problem of the seven chemical reactors which consist of Sections 2 and 3. Section 3 is the key part of the SI process, because the strong non-ideality and the partial immiscibility of the binary HI.H 2 O and the ternary HI.I 2 .H 2 O (HIX solution) mixture make it difficult to model and simulate the dynamic behavior of the system. Therefore, it is necessary to compose separately a dynamic simulation program for Section 3 in KAERI-DySCo optimization. In this paper, a simulation program to analyze the dynamic behavior of Section 3 is introduced using the prepared KAERI-DySCo, and results of dynamic simulation are represented by running the program

  9. The issue resolution process in the Civilian Radioactive Waste Transportation Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holm, J.A.; Denny, S.

    1987-01-01

    The Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) Program consists of various technical and institutional program activities which engender concern from the general public and from policymakers at federal, state, and local levels. Most familiar are the concerns centered around selection of a site for a repository; however, the transportation portion of the OCRWM program also engenders similar concerns for safety, efficiency and effectiveness. The major Transportation institutional issues were detailed in the Institutional Plan, issued in 1986, and include topics such as liability, defense waste, routing, emergency response, risk identification and mitigation, cash integrity, inspection and enforcement of high-level waste shipments and use of overweight trucks as part of the modal mix. This paper will define the process being used to identify and resolve institutional issues, show how the technical and institutional issues interface and are addressed, and briefly describe four specific activities which illustrate the process of resolving institutional issues in the Transportation program

  10. A computer program for processing experimental Compton profile of solids and liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, G.P.

    1984-01-01

    A computer program COMPRO has been developed for processing experimental Compton profile data of solids and liquids generated by inelastic gamma ray scattering using a solid state detector and a multichannel analyser. It also calculates the fourier transform of the profile yielding the one electron autocorrelation function in position space. The theory behind the method of calculation is outlined and the various data processing steps needed to be applied on the raw experimental data have been discussed in detail. A flow chart of the program is given and the various subroutines of the program, method of feeding the input data and the method of presenting the final result are briefly described. The procedure is illustrated by measurement on a polycrystalline sample of manganese. The actual listing of the program along with the test run input data and the test run output data is also given. (M.G.B.)

  11. Astrofood, Priorities and Pandemics: Reflections of an Ultra-Processed Breakfast Program and Contemporary Dysbiotic Drift

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan C. Logan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Recognizing the importance of nutrition as part of the grand challenges faced by humanity—the current epidemic of non-communicable diseases (NCDs, sustainability and maintenance of Planetary Health—the United Nations (UN has declared 2016–2025 the Decade of Nutrition. Research continues to underscore the extent to which ultra-processed foods dominate the contemporary nutritional landscape. Moreover, the dual role played by food technology and marketing in the expansion of ultra-processed foods is under increased scrutiny. As public health experts and clinicians contend with a crisis of NCDs, attempting to untangle a knotted assortment of interrelated strands of causation, an examination of the early origins of highly-marketed ultra-processed foods can provide valuable lessons. Here, we illuminate a little-known piece of history in the annals of ultra-processed nutritional science and childhood welfare. Astrofood was a commercially-marketed, collaborative government-industry effort that brought soy protein-enriched Twinkies as a nutritive breakfast cake to disadvantaged children; its concept and delivery demonstrated an unwillingness to deal with root-cause challenges. Although its official tenure was only about 7 years, we argue that Astrofood and its total food engineering still resonate throughout the global ultra-processed nutritional landscape. New scientific advances in nutritional psychiatry and the microbiome are on a collision course with the profits, marketing and intellectual dishonesty of the ultra-processed food industry. Solutions to the grand challenges of the Decade of Nutrition may be found in lessons from Astrofood. They provide clues to undoing the tangled knots which otherwise maintain an untenable status quo.

  12. A process model of voluntary travel behavior modification and effects of Travel Feedback Programs (TFPs)

    OpenAIRE

    Taniguchi, Ayako

    2007-01-01

    This study tested an integrated process model of travel behavior modification. We used a model that combined the theory of planned behavior (TPB), norm activation theory (NAT), a theory of implementation intention, and theories of habit. To test the integrated model, we used panel data (n = 208) obtained before and after travel feedback programs (TFPs); the TFP is a communication program aimed at voluntary travel behavior modification, from automobile use to non-auto means of travel such as p...

  13. Seismic qualification program plan for continued operation at DOE-SRS nuclear material processing facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talukdar, B.K.; Kennedy, W.N.

    1991-01-01

    The Savannah River Facilities for the most part were constructed and maintained to standards that were developed by Du Pont and are not rigorously in compliance with the current General Design Criteria (GDC); DOE Order 6430.IA requirements. In addition, many of the facilities were built more than 30 years ago, well before DOE standards for design were issued. The Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) his developed a program to address the evaluation of the Nuclear Material Processing (NMP) facilities to GDC requirements. The program includes a facility base-line review, assessment of areas that are not in compliance with the GDC requirements, planned corrective actions or exemptions to address the requirements, and a safety assessment. The authors from their direct involvement with the Program, describe the program plan for seismic qualification including other natural phenomena hazards,for existing NMP facility structures to continue operation Professionals involved in similar effort at other DOE facilities may find the program useful

  14. Bilingual language processing after a lesion in the left thalamic and temporal regions. A case report with early childhood onset

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    van Lieshout, P.; Renier, W.; Eling, P.; de Bot, K.; Slis, I.

    1990-01-01

    This case study concerns an 18-year-old bilingual girl who suffered a radiation lesion in the left (dominant) thalamic and temporal region when she was 4 years old. Language and memory assessment revealed deficits in auditory short-term memory, auditory word comprehension, nonword repetition, syntactic processing, word fluency, and confrontation naming tasks. Both languages (English and Dutch) were found to be affected in a similar manner, despite the fact that one language (English) was acquired before and the other (Dutch) after the period of lesion onset. Most of the deficits appear to be related to verbal (short-term) memory dysfunction. Several hypotheses of subcortical involvement in memory processes are discussed with reference to existing theories in this area

  15. Childhood Leukemia and Primary Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Todd P.; Metayer, Catherine; Wiemels, Joseph L.; Singer, Amanda W.; Miller, Mark D.

    2016-01-01

    Leukemia is the most common pediatric cancer, affecting 3,800 children per year in the United States. Its annual incidence has increased over the last decades, especially among Latinos. Although most children diagnosed with leukemia are now cured, many suffer long-term complications, and primary prevention efforts are urgently needed. The early onset of leukemia – usually before age five – and the presence at birth of “pre-leukemic” genetic signatures indicate that pre- and postnatal events are critical to the development of the disease. In contrast to most pediatric cancers, there is a growing body of literature – in the United States and internationally – that has implicated several environmental, infectious, and dietary risk factors in the etiology of childhood leukemia, mainly for acute lymphoblastic leukemia, the most common subtype. For example, exposures to pesticides, tobacco smoke, solvents, and traffic emissions have consistently demonstrated positive associations with the risk of developing childhood leukemia. In contrast, intake of vitamins and folate supplementation during the pre-conception period or pregnancy, breastfeeding, and exposure to routine childhood infections have been shown to reduce the risk of childhood leukemia. Some children may be especially vulnerable to these risk factors, as demonstrated by a disproportionate burden of childhood leukemia in the Latino population of California. The evidence supporting the associations between childhood leukemia and its risk factors – including pooled analyses from around the world and systematic reviews – is strong; however, the dissemination of this knowledge to clinicians has been limited. To protect children’s health, it is prudent to initiate programs designed to alter exposure to well-established leukemia risk factors rather than to suspend judgement until no uncertainty remains. Primary prevention programs for childhood leukemia would also result in the significant co

  16. Quantification of diffusion tensor imaging in normal white matter maturation of early childhood using an automated processing pipeline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, K B; Ramli, N; Tan, L K; Roziah, M; Rahmat, K; Ariffin, H

    2012-07-01

    The degree and status of white matter myelination can be sensitively monitored using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). This study looks at the measurement of fractional anistropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) using an automated ROI with an existing DTI atlas. Anatomical MRI and structural DTI were performed cross-sectionally on 26 normal children (newborn to 48 months old), using 1.5-T MRI. The automated processing pipeline was implemented to convert diffusion-weighted images into the NIfTI format. DTI-TK software was used to register the processed images to the ICBM DTI-81 atlas, while AFNI software was used for automated atlas-based volumes of interest (VOIs) and statistical value extraction. DTI exhibited consistent grey-white matter contrast. Triphasic temporal variation of the FA and MD values was noted, with FA increasing and MD decreasing rapidly early in the first 12 months. The second phase lasted 12-24 months during which the rate of FA and MD changes was reduced. After 24 months, the FA and MD values plateaued. DTI is a superior technique to conventional MR imaging in depicting WM maturation. The use of the automated processing pipeline provides a reliable environment for quantitative analysis of high-throughput DTI data. Diffusion tensor imaging outperforms conventional MRI in depicting white matter maturation. • DTI will become an important clinical tool for diagnosing paediatric neurological diseases. • DTI appears especially helpful for developmental abnormalities, tumours and white matter disease. • An automated processing pipeline assists quantitative analysis of high throughput DTI data.

  17. Processes and Procedures of the Higher Education Programs at Marshall Space Flight Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heard, Pamala D.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of my research was to investigate the policies, processes, procedures and timelines for the higher education programs at Marshall Space Flight Center. The three higher education programs that comprised this research included: the Graduate Student Researchers Program (GSRP), the National Research Council/Resident Research Associateships Program (NRC/RRA) and the Summer Faculty Fellowship Program (SFFP). The GSRP award fellowships each year to promising U.S. graduate students whose research interest coincides with NASA's mission. Fellowships are awarded for one year and are renewable for up to three years to competitively selected students. Each year, the award provides students the opportunity to spend a period in residence at a NASA center using that installation's unique facilities. This program is renewable for three years, students must reapply. The National Research Council conducts the Resident Research Associateships Program (NRC/RRA), a national competition to identify outstanding recent postdoctoral scientists and engineers and experience senior scientists and engineers, for tenure as guest researchers at NASA centers. The Resident Research Associateship Program provides an opportunity for recipients of doctoral degrees to concentrate their research in association with NASA personnel, often as a culmination to formal career preparation. The program also affords established scientists and engineers an opportunity for research without any interruptions and distracting assignments generated from permanent career positions. All opportunities for research at NASA Centers are open to citizens of the U.S. and to legal permanent residents. The Summer Faculty Fellowship Program (SFFP) is conducted each summer. NASA awards research fellowships to university faculty through the NASA/American Society for Engineering Education. The program is designed to promote an exchange of ideas between university faculties, NASA scientists and engineers. Selected

  18. Child involvement, alliance, and therapist flexibility: process variables in cognitive-behavioural therapy for anxiety disorders in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Jennifer L; Kendall, Philip C; Chu, Brian C; Gosch, Elizabeth; Martin, Erin; Taylor, Alan; Knight, Ashleigh

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the relations between treatment process variables and child anxiety outcomes. Independent raters watched/listened to taped therapy sessions of 151 anxiety-disordered (6-14 yr-old; M = 10.71) children (43% boys) and assessed process variables (child alliance, therapist alliance, child involvement, therapist flexibility and therapist functionality) within a manual-based cognitive-behavioural treatment. Latent growth modelling examined three latent variables (intercept, slope, and quadratic) for each process variable. Child age, gender, family income and ethnicity were examined as potential antecedents. Outcome was analyzed using factorially derived clinician, mother, father, child and teacher scores from questionnaire and structured diagnostic interviews at pretreatment, posttreatment and 12-month follow-up. Latent growth models demonstrated a concave quadratic curve for child involvement and therapist flexibility over time. A predominantly linear, downward slope was observed for alliance, and functional flexibility remained consistent over time. Increased alliance, child involvement and therapist flexibility showed some albeit inconsistent, associations with positive treatment outcome. Findings support the notion that maintaining the initial high level of alliance or involvement is important for clinical improvement. There is some support that progressively increasing alliance/involvement also positively impacts on treatment outcome. These findings were not consistent across outcome measurement points or reporters. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Quantification of diffusion tensor imaging in normal white matter maturation of early childhood using an automated processing pipeline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loh, K.B.; Ramli, N.; Tan, L.K.; Roziah, M.; Rahmat, K.; Ariffin, H.

    2012-01-01

    The degree and status of white matter myelination can be sensitively monitored using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). This study looks at the measurement of fractional anistropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) using an automated ROI with an existing DTI atlas. Anatomical MRI and structural DTI were performed cross-sectionally on 26 normal children (newborn to 48 months old), using 1.5-T MRI. The automated processing pipeline was implemented to convert diffusion-weighted images into the NIfTI format. DTI-TK software was used to register the processed images to the ICBM DTI-81 atlas, while AFNI software was used for automated atlas-based volumes of interest (VOIs) and statistical value extraction. DTI exhibited consistent grey-white matter contrast. Triphasic temporal variation of the FA and MD values was noted, with FA increasing and MD decreasing rapidly early in the first 12 months. The second phase lasted 12-24 months during which the rate of FA and MD changes was reduced. After 24 months, the FA and MD values plateaued. DTI is a superior technique to conventional MR imaging in depicting WM maturation. The use of the automated processing pipeline provides a reliable environment for quantitative analysis of high-throughput DTI data. (orig.)

  20. Quantification of diffusion tensor imaging in normal white matter maturation of early childhood using an automated processing pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loh, K.B.; Ramli, N.; Tan, L.K.; Roziah, M. [University of Malaya, Department of Biomedical Imaging, University Malaya Research Imaging Centre (UMRIC), Faculty of Medicine, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Rahmat, K. [University of Malaya, Department of Biomedical Imaging, University Malaya Research Imaging Centre (UMRIC), Faculty of Medicine, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); University Malaya, Biomedical Imaging Department, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Ariffin, H. [University of Malaya, Department of Paediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2012-07-15

    The degree and status of white matter myelination can be sensitively monitored using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). This study looks at the measurement of fractional anistropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) using an automated ROI with an existing DTI atlas. Anatomical MRI and structural DTI were performed cross-sectionally on 26 normal children (newborn to 48 months old), using 1.5-T MRI. The automated processing pipeline was implemented to convert diffusion-weighted images into the NIfTI format. DTI-TK software was used to register the processed images to the ICBM DTI-81 atlas, while AFNI software was used for automated atlas-based volumes of interest (VOIs) and statistical value extraction. DTI exhibited consistent grey-white matter contrast. Triphasic temporal variation of the FA and MD values was noted, with FA increasing and MD decreasing rapidly early in the first 12 months. The second phase lasted 12-24 months during which the rate of FA and MD changes was reduced. After 24 months, the FA and MD values plateaued. DTI is a superior technique to conventional MR imaging in depicting WM maturation. The use of the automated processing pipeline provides a reliable environment for quantitative analysis of high-throughput DTI data. (orig.)

  1. Payment in Heaven: Can Early Childhood Education Policies Help Women Too?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newberry, Jan; Marpinjun, Sri

    2018-01-01

    Based on research and activism on early childhood education and care in the area of Yogyakarta, Indonesia, we argue that the Indonesian government's focus on early childhood has come at a cost to local women. Community-based early childhood programs are delivered by women whose work is unpaid or underpaid. Although early childhood education in the…

  2. Measuring Science Inquiry Skills in Youth Development Programs: The Science Process Skills Inventory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary E. Arnold

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years there has been an increased emphasis on science learning in 4-H and other youth development programs. In an effort to increase science capacity in youth, it is easy to focus only on developing the concrete skills and knowledge that a trained scientist must possess. However, when science learning is presented in a youth-development setting, the context of the program also matters. This paper reports the development and testing of the Science Process Skills Inventory (SPSI and its usefulness for measuring science inquiry skill development in youth development science programs. The results of the psychometric testing of the SPSI indicated the instrument is reliable and measures a cohesive construct called science process skills, as reflected in the 11 items that make up this group of skills. The 11 items themselves are based on the cycle of science inquiry, and represent the important steps of the complete inquiry process.

  3. Adapting high-level language programs for parallel processing using data flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standley, Hilda M.

    1988-01-01

    EASY-FLOW, a very high-level data flow language, is introduced for the purpose of adapting programs written in a conventional high-level language to a parallel environment. The level of parallelism provided is of the large-grained variety in which parallel activities take place between subprograms or processes. A program written in EASY-FLOW is a set of subprogram calls as units, structured by iteration, branching, and distribution constructs. A data flow graph may be deduced from an EASY-FLOW program.

  4. The Process of Becoming an Embedded Curriculum Librarian in Multiple Health Sciences Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Gwen

    2015-01-01

    Higher education is moving to offer more fully online programs, and the health science fields are no different. These programs are either hybrid or completely online. It is up to the health sciences librarian to adapt services offered by the academic library to these types of courses. This column discusses the multiple ways a librarian can be an embedded librarian in a course using a learning management system (LMS). The process of creating a customized embedded librarian program, results, and lessons learned from the different embedded librarian roles are also discussed.

  5. Current role of the USNRC safety research program in support of the regulatory process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levine, S.

    1979-01-01

    The current role of the USNRC's safety research program is shown. Some aspects of this role in the wake of the TMI accident are discused as well as some historical perspective on the development of USNRC's program, its relationship with the NRC mission, an overview of the program activities and some recent research results, and finally the impact of the TMI accident in clarifiying needs for expedited and new research activities, including the need for a greatly enhanced use of probabilistic analysis techniques to improve the coherence of its regulatory process. (author)

  6. Childhood Overweight and Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Nutrition Healthy Food Choices Childhood Overweight and Obesity: Helping Your Child Achieve a Healthy Weight Childhood Overweight and Obesity: Helping Your Child Achieve a Healthy Weight Share ...

  7. The dual process of adolescent immigration and relocation: from country to country and from childhood to adolescence--its reflection in psychodynamic psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharabany, Ruth; Israeli, Etziona

    2008-01-01

    This chapter presents psychological issues and processes in adolescent patients who have also migrated or relocated from one country to another. Theoretical perspectives related to attachment processes illumine both migration and adolescence as changes for which secure bases are most needed, lost, and sometimes rediscovered. The psychodynamic processes underlying the difficulties encountered by such adolescents, and their meaning, are presented. Relationships with parents, which normally go through separation-individuation and renegotiation of the oedipal crisis, both of which are central to adolescence, are disrupted by migration. Migration poses new challenges and choices while identity formation is evolving during adolescence. These include adopting a new identity, embracing and letting go of the old, and accepting and integrating the new. The dual relationship with identity finds expression, for example, in language. Fluctuations in understanding and not understanding the new and the old language represent the ambivalence toward the new and the old. The developmental roller-coaster of adolescence, which involves more intense use of defense mechanisms, is heightened during immigration. Processes of idealization (of parents, therapist, old country, new culture) rapidly fade with the devaluation of the same targets. Mechanisms of splitting between good and bad, as well as massive repression of issues that are too hard to deal with at this crossroad, are profuse. Hopeful fantasies of rebirth are concurrent with despair, depression, and, in some cases, suicidal thoughts and attempts. Excerpts from a case in psychodynamic psychotherapy are presented, focusing on the evolving new balances: integrating the old and the new by maintaining attachments to the one while forming attachments to the other; relinquishing and mourning the lost paradise of childhood, as well as the old country, friends, culture, smells, and tastes; accepting disappointments when the shining new

  8. THE PROGRAMMING NEURO-LINGUISTICS AND THEIR APPLICABILITY IN THE PROCESS OF RECRUITMENT AND SELECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilma Álamo Sánchez

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available He/she is carried out a study referred to tools of Programming Neuro-linguistics (PNL for the Selection, Employment and Training that allow choosing the appropriate personnel taking the language and the behavior as a result. For their development theories were revised referred to the PNL and the recruitment process and selection sustained in the process of the interview. The summations are oriented to the importance and convenience for the Management of Human resources of applying the Programming Neuro-linguistics as selection tool of personal. Finally it is recommended to apply the proposal inside the mark of adaptability according to the necessities and demands of each organization.

  9. A guide to processing bat acoustic data for the North American Bat Monitoring Program (NABat)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichert, Brian; Lausen, Cori; Loeb, Susan; Weller, Ted; Allen, Ryan; Britzke, Eric; Hohoff, Tara; Siemers, Jeremy; Burkholder, Braden; Herzog, Carl; Verant, Michelle

    2018-06-14

    The North American Bat Monitoring Program (NABat) aims to improve the state of conservation science for all species of bats shared by the United States, Canada, and Mexico. To accomplish this goal, NABat offers guidance and standardized protocols for acoustic monitoring of bats. In this document, “A Guide to Processing Bat Acoustic Data for the North American Bat Monitoring Program (NABat),” we provide general recommendations and specific workflows for the process of identifying bat species from acoustic files recorded using the NABat stationary point and mobile transect acoustic monitoring protocols.

  10. New FORTRAN computer programs to acquire and process isotopic mass spectrometric data: Operator's manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.H.; McKown, H.S.

    1993-09-01

    This TM is one of a pair that describes ORNL-developed software for acquisition and processing of isotope ratio mass spectral data. This TM is directed at the laboratory analyst. No technical knowledge of the programs and programming is required. It describes how to create and edit files, how to acquire and process data, and how to set up files to obtain the desired results. The aim of this TM is to serve as a utilitarian instruction manual, a open-quotes how toclose quotes approach rather than a open-quotes why?close quotes

  11. Inhibitory Control as a Core Process of Creative Problem Solving and Idea Generation from Childhood to Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassotti, Mathieu; Agogué, Marine; Camarda, Anaëlle; Houdé, Olivier; Borst, Grégoire

    2016-01-01

    Developmental cognitive neuroscience studies tend to show that the prefrontal brain regions (known to be involved in inhibitory control) are activated during the generation of creative ideas. In the present article, we discuss how a dual-process model of creativity-much like the ones proposed to account for decision making and reasoning-could broaden our understanding of the processes involved in creative ideas generation. When generating creative ideas, children, adolescents, and adults tend to follow "the path of least resistance" and propose solutions that are built on the most common and accessible knowledge within a specific domain, leading to fixation effect. In line with recent theory of typical cognitive development, we argue that the ability to resist the spontaneous activation of design heuristics, to privilege other types of reasoning, might be critical to generate creative ideas at all ages. In the present review, we demonstrate that inhibitory control at all ages can actually support creativity. Indeed, the ability to think of something truly new and original requires first inhibiting spontaneous solutions that come to mind quickly and unconsciously and then exploring new ideas using a generative type of reasoning. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Childhood psoriasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dogra Sunil

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Psoriasis is a common dermatosis in children with about one third of all patients having onset of disease in the first or second decade of life. A chronic disfiguring skin disease, such as psoriasis, in childhood is likely to have profound emotional and psychological effects, and hence requires special attention. Psoriasis in children has been reported to differ from that among adults being more frequently pruritic; plaque lesions are relatively thinner, softer, and less scaly; face and flexural involvement is common and guttate type is the characteristic presentation. Whether onset in childhood predicts a more severe form of psoriasis is a matter of controversy, it may cause significant morbidity particularly if it keeps relapsing. Most children have mild form of psoriasis which can be generally treated effectively with topical agents such as emollients, coal tar, corticosteroids, dithranol, calcipotriol etc. according to age and the sites affected. Narrow band UVB is the preferred form of phototherapy in children for moderate to severe disease or in patients not responding to topical therapy alone. Systemic therapies are reserved for more severe and extensive cases that cannot be controlled with topical treatment and/or phototherapy such as severe plaque type, unstable forms like erythrodermic and generalized pustular psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis. There are no controlled trials of systemic therapies in this age group, most experience being with retinoids and methotrexate with favorable results. Cyclosporine can be used as a short-term intermittent crisis management drug. There is an early promising experience with the use of biologics (etanercept and infliximab in childhood psoriasis. Systemic treatments as well as phototherapy have limited use in children due to cumulative dose effects of drugs, low acceptance, and risk of gonadal toxicity. More evidence-based data is needed about the effectiveness and long-term safety of topical

  13. Program controlled system for mathematical processing the αp-experiment data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glagolev, V.V.; Govorun, N.N.; Dirner, A.; Ivanov, V.G.; Kretov, A.P.; Mirolyubov, V.P.; Pervushov, V.V.; Shelontsev, I.I.

    1982-01-01

    ZEUS system which allows one mathematical processing of bubble chamber pictures for αp-experiment with computer control is descibed. The comparison and basic defect of traditional processing of film information is considered. The structure, operation and further development of this system are described. It consists of the monitoring programs, directory file, input request language, data bank and documentation. ZEUS system is developed for processing αp-experiment from JINR one-meter-hydrogen liquid chamber. It makes possible to eliminate big manual work at organization of mass data processing by a computer. The system is realized on the CDC-6500 computer

  14. Implementing a customer focused continual business improvement program to improve the maintenance process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kharshafdjian, G.; Fisher, C.; Beres, T.; Brooks, S.; Forbes, S.; Krause, M.; McAuley, K.; Wendorf, M.

    2006-01-01

    Global market pressures and increasing competition demands that successful companies establish a continual business improvement program as part of implementing its business strategy. Such programs must be driven by the definition of quality from the customer's perspective. This customer quality focus often requires a change in all aspects of the business including products, services, processes and culture. This paper will describe how Atomic Energy of Canada Limited implemented a Continual Business Improvement Program in their Nuclear Laboratories Business Unit. In particular, to review how the techniques were applied to improve the maintenance process and the status of the project. Customer (internal users of the processes at CRL) feedback has shown repeatedly there is dissatisfaction of the maintenance process. Customers complain about jobs not getting done to schedule or being deferred. A project has been launched with the following goals: to improve the maintenance process customer satisfaction and increase trades wrench time by 30 minutes / trade / day. DMAIC (Define-Measure-Analyze-Improve-Control) methodology was applied to find out the Root Cause(s) of the problem, provide solutions, and implement improvements. The expected Operational Benefits include: Executing work efficiently to quality standards and business performance of the site, improve maintenance efficiencies, reduce cycle time for maintenance process and improve process yield, and improve customer and employee satisfaction. (author)

  15. Implementing a customer focused continual business improvement program to improve the maintenance process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kharshafdjian, G.; Fisher, C.; Beres, T.; Brooks, S.; Forbes, S.; Krause, M.; McAuley, K.; Wendorf, M. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    Global market pressures and increasing competition demands that successful companies establish a continual business improvement program as part of implementing its business strategy. Such programs must be driven by the definition of quality from the customer's perspective. This customer quality focus often requires a change in all aspects of the business including products, services, processes and culture. This paper will describe how Atomic Energy of Canada Limited implemented a Continual Business Improvement Program in their Nuclear Laboratories Business Unit. In particular, to review how the techniques were applied to improve the maintenance process and the status of the project. Customer (internal users of the processes at CRL) feedback has shown repeatedly there is dissatisfaction of the maintenance process. Customers complain about jobs not getting done to schedule or being deferred. A project has been launched with the following goals: to improve the maintenance process customer satisfaction and increase trades wrench time by 30 minutes / trade / day. DMAIC (Define-Measure-Analyze-Improve-Control) methodology was applied to find out the Root Cause(s) of the problem, provide solutions, and implement improvements. The expected Operational Benefits include: Executing work efficiently to quality standards and business performance of the site, improve maintenance efficiencies, reduce cycle time for maintenance process and improve process yield, and improve customer and employee satisfaction. (author)

  16. Students' perceptions of the admissions process for a program for internationally-trained dentists

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Patricia Ann

    This study is designed to analyze the students' perceptions of the application process for a foreign-trained dental program. The goal was to add to the knowledge base the views of students who have experienced the application process of this type of program. Using a quantitative approach, the method of data collection was through a link to an online Likert survey which was emailed to graduates, first-year and second-year current students of the International Dental Studies (IDS) program at the University of the Pacific Arthur A. Dugoni School of Dentistry. Respondents were students who had experienced the IDS application process and had been accepted into the program. The study identified three topics: background, motivation and perception of fairness. The background information identified whether the participant was male/female and whether they were a current first-/second-year student or a graduate of the program. Motivation for applying was identified through questions about knowing someone who was in or had completed the program, and/or applied because of the program's reputation. Perception of fairness was determined by asking how the student felt about each required element of the process. By using structure based upon construct, which provides the researcher with a methodical review and configuration of the information, the study found that students had some views about application elements that, at times, conflicted with school's requirements. However, in general, the students felt the school was requiring the right elements for their application and were, therefore, basing their acceptance decisions on the correct requisites.

  17. Childhood rhabdomyosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Córdoba Rovira, S M; Inarejos Clemente, E J

    Rhabdomyosarcoma is the most common soft-tissue sarcoma in children; it can appear in any part of the body. Its biological behavior varies widely, and despite the absence of specific clinical or radiological characteristics, rhabdomyosarcoma should be taken into account in the differential diagnosis of solid tumors in children. This review focuses primarily on the imaging findings and anatomical distribution of the histological subtypes of childhood rhabdomyosarcoma and secondarily on the differential findings in histological studies. Copyright © 2016 SERAM. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Lessons Learned for Cx PRACA. Constellation Program Problem Reporting, Analysis and Corrective Action Process and System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelle, Pido I.; Ratterman, Christian; Gibbs, Cecil

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the Constellation Program Problem Reporting, Analysis and Corrective Action Process and System (Cx PRACA). The goal of the Cx PRACA is to incorporate Lessons learned from the Shuttle, ISS, and Orbiter programs by creating a single tool for managing the PRACA process, that clearly defines the scope of PRACA applicability and what must be reported, and defines the ownership and responsibility for managing the PRACA process including disposition approval authority. CxP PRACA is a process, supported by a single information gathering data module which will be integrated with a single CxP Information System, providing interoperability, import and export capability making the CxP PRACA a more effective and user friendly technical and management tool.

  19. Process evaluation of a school-based weight gain prevention program: the Dutch Obesity Intervention in Teenagers (DOiT)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Singh, A.S.; Chin A Paw, J.M.M.; Brug, J.; Mechelen, van W.

    2009-01-01

    Health promotion programs benefit from an accompanying process evaluation since it can provide more insight in the strengths and weaknesses of a program. A process evaluation was conducted to assess the reach, implementation, satisfaction and maintenance of a school-based program aimed at the

  20. Managing complex processing of medical image sequences by program supervision techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crubezy, Monica; Aubry, Florent; Moisan, Sabine; Chameroy, Virginie; Thonnat, Monique; Di Paola, Robert

    1997-05-01

    Our objective is to offer clinicians wider access to evolving medical image processing (MIP) techniques, crucial to improve assessment and quantification of physiological processes, but difficult to handle for non-specialists in MIP. Based on artificial intelligence techniques, our approach consists in the development of a knowledge-based program supervision system, automating the management of MIP libraries. It comprises a library of programs, a knowledge base capturing the expertise about programs and data and a supervision engine. It selects, organizes and executes the appropriate MIP programs given a goal to achieve and a data set, with dynamic feedback based on the results obtained. It also advises users in the development of new procedures chaining MIP programs.. We have experimented the approach for an application of factor analysis of medical image sequences as a means of predicting the response of osteosarcoma to chemotherapy, with both MRI and NM dynamic image sequences. As a result our program supervision system frees clinical end-users from performing tasks outside their competence, permitting them to concentrate on clinical issues. Therefore our approach enables a better exploitation of possibilities offered by MIP and higher quality results, both in terms of robustness and reliability.

  1. DNAStat, version 2.1--a computer program for processing genetic profile databases and biostatistical calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berent, Jarosław

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the new DNAStat version 2.1 for processing genetic profile databases and biostatistical calculations. The popularization of DNA studies employed in the judicial system has led to the necessity of developing appropriate computer programs. Such programs must, above all, address two critical problems, i.e. the broadly understood data processing and data storage, and biostatistical calculations. Moreover, in case of terrorist attacks and mass natural disasters, the ability to identify victims by searching related individuals is very important. DNAStat version 2.1 is an adequate program for such purposes. The DNAStat version 1.0 was launched in 2005. In 2006, the program was updated to 1.1 and 1.2 versions. There were, however, slight differences between those versions and the original one. The DNAStat version 2.0 was launched in 2007 and the major program improvement was an introduction of the group calculation options with the potential application to personal identification of mass disasters and terrorism victims. The last 2.1 version has the option of language selection--Polish or English, which will enhance the usage and application of the program also in other countries.

  2. An effective streamflow process model for optimal reservoir operation using stochastic dual dynamic programming

    OpenAIRE

    Raso , L.; Malaterre , P.O.; Bader , J.C.

    2017-01-01

    International audience; This article presents an innovative streamflow process model for use in reservoir operational rule design in stochastic dual dynamic programming (SDDP). Model features, which can be applied independently, are (1) a multiplicative process model for the forward phase and its linearized version for the backward phase; and (2) a nonuniform time-step length that is inversely proportional to seasonal variability. The advantages are (1) guaranteeing positive streamflow values...

  3. The LEU target development and conversion program for the MAPLE reactors and new processing facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malkoske, G.R.

    2003-01-01

    The availability of isotope grade, Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU), from the United States for use in the manufacture of targets for molybdenum-99 production in AECL's NRU research reactor has been a key factor to enable MDS Nordion to develop a reliable, secure supply of medical isotopes for the international nuclear medicine community. The molybdenum extraction process from HEU targets is a proven and established method that has reliably produced medical isotopes for several decades. The HEU process provides predictable, consistent yields for our high-volume, molybdenum-99 production. Other medical isotopes such as I-131 and Xe-133, which play an important role in nuclear medicine applications, are also produced from irradiated HEU targets as a by-product of the molybdenum-99 process. To ensure a continued reliable and timely supply of medical isotopes, MDS Nordion is completing the commissioning of two MAPLE reactors and an associated isotope processing facility (the New Processing Facility). The new MAPLE facilities, which will be dedicated exclusively to medical isotope production, will provide an essential contribution to a secure, robust global healthcare system. Design and construction of these facilities has been based on a life cycle management philosophy for the isotope production process. This includes target irradiation, isotope extraction and waste management. The MAPLE reactors will operate with Low Enriched Uranium (LEU) fuel, a significant contribution to the objectives of the RERTR program. The design of the isotope production process in the MAPLE facilities is based on an established process - extraction of isotopes from HEU target material. This is a proven technology that has been demonstrated over more than three decades of operation. However, in support of the RERTR program and in compliance with U.S. legislation, MDS Nordion has undertaken a LEU Target Development and Conversion Program for the MAPLE facilities. This paper will provide an

  4. Functional process descriptions for the program to develop the Nuclear Waste Management System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, T.W.

    1991-09-01

    The Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) is executing a plan for improvement of the systems implemented to carry out its responsibilities under the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (NWPA). As part of the plan, OCRWM is performing a systems engineering analysis of both the physical system, i.e., the Nuclear Waste Management System (NWMS), and the programmatic functions that must be accomplished to bring the physical system into being. The purpose of the program analysis is to provide a systematic identification and definition of all program functions, functional process flows, and function products necessary and sufficient to provide the physical system. The analysis resulting from this approach provides a basis for development of a comprehensive and integrated set of policies, standard practices, and procedures for the effective and efficient execution of the program. Thus, this analysis will form a basis for revising current OCRWM policies and procedures, or developing new ones is necessary. The primary purposes of this report are as follows: (1) summarizes the major functional processes and process flows that have been developed as a part of the program analysis, and (2) provide an introduction and assistance in understanding the detailed analysis information contained in the three volume report titled The Analysis of the Program to Develop the Nuclear Waste Management System (Woods 1991a)

  5. Functional process descriptions for the program to develop the Nuclear Waste Management System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woods, T.W.

    1991-09-01

    The Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) is executing a plan for improvement of the systems implemented to carry out its responsibilities under the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (NWPA). As part of the plan, OCRWM is performing a systems engineering analysis of both the physical system, i.e., the Nuclear Waste Management System (NWMS), and the programmatic functions that must be accomplished to bring the physical system into being. The purpose of the program analysis is to provide a systematic identification and definition of all program functions, functional process flows, and function products necessary and sufficient to provide the physical system. The analysis resulting from this approach provides a basis for development of a comprehensive and integrated set of policies, standard practices, and procedures for the effective and efficient execution of the program. Thus, this analysis will form a basis for revising current OCRWM policies and procedures, or developing new ones is necessary. The primary purposes of this report are as follows: (1) summarizes the major functional processes and process flows that have been developed as a part of the program analysis, and (2) provide an introduction and assistance in understanding the detailed analysis information contained in the three volume report titled The Analysis of the Program to Develop the Nuclear Waste Management System (Woods 1991a).

  6. An Analysis of OpenACC Programming Model: Image Processing Algorithms as a Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Mišić

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Graphics processing units and similar accelerators have been intensively used in general purpose computations for several years. In the last decade, GPU architecture and organization changed dramatically to support an ever-increasing demand for computing power. Along with changes in hardware, novel programming models have been proposed, such as NVIDIA’s Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA and Open Computing Language (OpenCL by Khronos group. Although numerous commercial and scientific applications have been developed using these two models, they still impose a significant challenge for less experienced users. There are users from various scientific and engineering communities who would like to speed up their applications without the need to deeply understand a low-level programming model and underlying hardware. In 2011, OpenACC programming model was launched. Much like OpenMP for multicore processors, OpenACC is a high-level, directive-based programming model for manycore processors like GPUs. This paper presents an analysis of OpenACC programming model and its applicability in typical domains like image processing. Three, simple image processing algorithms have been implemented for execution on the GPU with OpenACC. The results were compared with their sequential counterparts, and results are briefly discussed.

  7. Childhood immunization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romain, Sandra; Schillaci, Michael A.

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To examine childhood immunization levels relative to the number of family physicians, pediatricians, and public health nurses in Ontario. DESIGN Retrospective comparative analysis of publicly available data on immunization coverage levels and the relative number of family physicians, pediatricians, and public health nurses. SETTING Ontario. PARTICIPANTS Seven-year-old children, family physicians, pediatricians, and public health nurses in Ontario. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES The association between immunization coverage levels and the relative number of family physicians, pediatricians, and public health nurses. RESULTS We found correlations between immunization coverage levels and the relative number (ie, per 1000 Ontario residents) of family physicians (ρ = 0.60) and pediatricians (ρ = 0.70) and a lower correlation with the relative number of public health nurses (ρ = 0.40), although none of these correlations was significant. A comparison of temporal trends illustrated that variation in the relative number of family physicians and pediatricians in Ontario was associated with similar variation in immunization coverage levels. CONCLUSION Increasing the number of family physicians and pediatricians might help to boost access to immunizations and perhaps other components of cost-saving childhood preventive care. PMID:19910599

  8. Manipulation and handling processes off-line programming and optimization with use of K-Roset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gołda, G.; Kampa, A.

    2017-08-01

    Contemporary trends in development of efficient, flexible manufacturing systems require practical implementation of modern “Lean production” concepts for maximizing customer value through minimizing all wastes in manufacturing and logistics processes. Every FMS is built on the basis of automated and robotized production cells. Except flexible CNC machine tools and other equipments, the industrial robots are primary elements of the system. In the studies, authors look for wastes of time and cost in real tasks of robots, during manipulation processes. According to aspiration for optimization of handling and manipulation processes with use of the robots, the application of modern off-line programming methods and computer simulation, is the best solution and it is only way to minimize unnecessary movements and other instructions. The modelling process of robotized production cell and offline programming of Kawasaki robots in AS-Language will be described. The simulation of robotized workstation will be realized with use of virtual reality software K-Roset. Authors show the process of industrial robot’s programs improvement and optimization in terms of minimizing the number of useless manipulator movements and unnecessary instructions. This is realized in order to shorten the time of production cycles. This will also reduce costs of handling, manipulations and technological process.

  9. Advancing MEMS Technology Usage through the MUMPS (Multi-User MEMS Processes) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koester, D. A.; Markus, K. W.; Dhuler, V.; Mahadevan, R.; Cowen, A.

    1995-01-01

    In order to help provide access to advanced micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) technologies and lower the barriers for both industry and academia, the Microelectronic Center of North Carolina (MCNC) and ARPA have developed a program which provides users with access to both MEMS processes and advanced electronic integration techniques. The four distinct aspects of this program, the multi-user MEMS processes (MUMP's), the consolidated micro-mechanical element library, smart MEMS, and the MEMS technology network are described in this paper. MUMP's is an ARPA-supported program created to provide inexpensive access to MEMS technology in a multi-user environment. It is both a proof-of-concept and educational tool that aids in the development of MEMS in the domestic community. MUMP's technologies currently include a 3-layer poly-silicon surface micromachining process and LIGA (lithography, electroforming, and injection molding) processes that provide reasonable design flexibility within set guidelines. The consolidated micromechanical element library (CaMEL) is a library of active and passive MEMS structures that can be downloaded by the MEMS community via the internet. Smart MEMS is the development of advanced electronics integration techniques for MEMS through the application of flip chip technology. The MEMS technology network (TechNet) is a menu of standard substrates and MEMS fabrication processes that can be purchased and combined to create unique process flows. TechNet provides the MEMS community greater flexibility and enhanced technology accessibility.

  10. Children’s Healthy Living (CHL) Program for remote underserved minority populations in the Pacific region: rationale and design of a community randomized trial to prevent early childhood obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Although surveillance data are limited in the US Affiliated Pacific, Alaska, and Hawaii, existing data suggest that the prevalence of childhood obesity is similar to or in excess of other minority groups in the contiguous US. Strategies for addressing the childhood obesity epidemic in the region support the use of community-based, environmentally targeted interventions. The Children’s Healthy Living Program is a partnership formed across institutions in the US Affiliated Pacific, Alaska, and Hawaii to design a community randomized environmental intervention trial and a prevalence survey to address childhood obesity in the region through affecting the food and physical activity environment. Methods/Design The Children’s Healthy Living Program community randomized trial is an environmental intervention trial in four matched-pair communities in American Samoa, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, Guam, and Hawaii and two matched-pair communities in Alaska. A cross-sectional sample of children (goal n = 180) in each of the intervention trial communities is being assessed for outcomes at baseline and at 24 months (18 months post-intervention). In addition to the collection of the participant-based measures of anthropometry, diet, physical activity, sleep and acanthosis nigricans, community assessments are also being conducted in intervention trial communities. The Freely Associated States of Micronesia (Federated States of Micronesia, and Republics of Marshall Islands and Palau) is only conducting elements of the Children’s Healthy Living Program sampling framework and similar measurements to provide prevalence data. In addition, anthropometry information will be collected for two additional communities in each of the 5 intervention jurisdictions to be included in the prevalence survey. The effectiveness of the environmental intervention trial is being assessed based on the RE-AIM (reach, effectiveness, adoption, implementation, maintenance

  11. NTC operator training program viewed from SAT-based training process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Yoshio

    1996-01-01

    The Nuclear Power Training Center Ltd. (NTC) was established in June 1972 to train PWR plant operators. Operator training was started in Apr. 1974. Presently we have three full-scope, control-room simulators. Recently IAEA recommended that its Systematic Approach to Training (SAT) be used for the training of NPP personnel. We thoroughly examined the SAT-based process and compared it against the NTC training program. As a result, we have recognized that the NTC training program satisfies the SAT-based training process. We now intend to improve the feedback step of the NTC training system. Our efforts continue to produce a relevant program at the forefront of our profession. (author)

  12. Processes, barriers and facilitators to implementation of a participatory ergonomics program among eldercare workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Charlotte Diana Nørregaard; Lindberg, Naja Klærke; Ravn, Marie Højbjerg; Jørgensen, Marie Birk; Søgaard, Karen; Holtermann, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the processes of a participatory ergonomics program among 594 eldercare workers with emphasis on identified risk factors for low back pain and solutions, and reveal barriers and facilitators for implementation. Sixty-nine per cent of the identified risk factors were physical ergonomic, 24% were organisational and 7% were psychosocial risk factors. Most solutions were organisational (55%), followed by physical (43%) and psychosocial solutions (2%). Internal factors (e.g. team or management) constituted 47% of the barriers and 75% of the facilitators. External factors (e.g. time, financial resources, collaboration with resident or relatives) constituted 53% of the barriers and 25% of the facilitators. This study revealed the processes and implementation of a participatory ergonomics program among eldercare workers. The findings can be transferred to workers, workplaces, health and safety professionals, and researchers to improve future participatory ergonomics programs. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. EXPANSION OF TURBO PROLOGUE PROGRAMMING SYSTEM BY PREDICATES FOR LIST PROCESSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. T. Kovalkov

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Lists are considered as a main data structure in logic Turbo Prologue programming language. However the language does not contain in-set predicates (procedures for list processing. In order to facilitate a problem programming process where lists are used it is proposed to apply a Turbo Prologue version that has a set of predicates in the form of recursive rules for executing frequently repeated operations with lists such as unification of lists, italicization and deletion of some list elements, sorting-out, list reversing and many others. The modified version contains a reference to new input predicates. The proposed Turbo Prologue version is easily expanded by new rules. Usage of this version makes programmer’s work easier and promotes development of new programs where it is necessary to work with lists.

  14. Long-term impact of prevention programs to promote effective parenting: lasting effects but uncertain processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandler, Irwin N; Schoenfelder, Erin N; Wolchik, Sharlene A; MacKinnon, David P

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews findings from 46 randomized experimental trials of preventive parenting interventions. The findings of these trials provide evidence of effects to prevent a wide range of problem outcomes and to promote competencies from one to 20 years later. However, there is a paucity of evidence concerning the processes that account for program effects. Three alternative pathways are proposed as a framework for future research on the long-term effects of preventive parenting programs: (a) through program effects on parenting skills, perceptions of parental efficacy, and reduction in barriers to effective parenting; (b) through program-induced reductions in short-term problems of youth that persist over time, improvements in youth adaptation to stress, and improvements in youth belief systems concerning the self and their relationships with others; and (c) through effects on contexts in which youth become involved and on youth-environment transactions.

  15. Cameco engineered tailings program: linking applied research with industrial processes for improved tailings performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotzer, T.G.

    2010-01-01

    'Full text:' Mine tailings at Cameco's operations are by-products of milling uranium ore having variable concentrations of uranium, metals, oxyanions and trace elements or elements of concern (EOC). Cameco has undertaken an Engineered Tailings (ET) program to optimize tailings performance and minimize environmental EOC impacts, regardless of the milled ore source. Applied geochemical and geotechnical tailings research is key within the ET program. In-situ drilling and experimental programs are used to understand long-term tailings behaviour and help validate source term predictions. Within this, the ET program proactively aids in the development of mill-based processes for production of tailings having improved long-term stability. (author)

  16. USING DISTANCE LEARNING TECHNOLOGIES IN THE LEARNING PROCESS OF MODERN PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariia A. Umryk

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the research it was reviewed the use of distance learning technologies in the organization of research tasks while studying modern programming languages. The article contains an example of a training project on the subject "Modern programming languages". The authors argue the necessity of the use of modern information and communication technologies, in particular in modern programming languages distance learning, for the formation of students' 21st century skills that are essential in the process of programming (it is skills such as self-organization and self-discipline, communication skills, teamwork skills etc.. It is pointed out the structural units of the training project in accordance with the use of distance learning technologies. It is described the general characteristics and the use of appropriate methods of modern information and communication technologies.

  17. ACTIV - a program for automatic processing of gamma-ray spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zlokazov, V.B.

    1982-01-01

    Program ACTIV is intended for precise analysis of γ-rays and X-ray spectra and allows the user to carry out the full cycle of automatic processing of a series of spectra, i.e. calibration, automatic peak search, determination of peak positions and areas, identification of the radioisotopes and the transformation of the areas found into masses of isotopes in the irradiated sample. ACTIV uses a complex mathematical technique and is oriented mainly to large computers, but using overlaid loading, it can be run also on small computers like the PDP 11/70. Compared with other similar programs, ACTIV has some advantages in accuracy of peak shape description and in the reliability of the peak search and its least-square analysis. The program can be used for the purpose of activation analysis. The program can analyze spectra with poor statistics and with broad and narrow peaks. (orig.)

  18. The Childhood Obesity Declines Project: Implications for Research and Evaluation Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young-Hyman, Deborah; Morris, Kathryn; Kettel Khan, Laura; Dawkins-Lyn, Nicola; Dooyema, Carrie; Harris, Carole; Jernigan, Jan; Ottley, Phyllis; Kauh, Tina

    2018-03-01

    Childhood obesity remains prevalent and is increasing in some disadvantaged populations. Numerous research, policy and community initiatives are undertaken to impact this pandemic. Understudied are natural experiments. The need to learn from these efforts is paramount. Resulting evidence may not be readily available to inform future research, community initiatives, and policy development/implementation. We discuss the implications of using an adaptation of the Systematic Screening and Assessment (SSA) method to evaluate the Childhood Obesity Declines (COBD) project. The project examined successful initiatives, programs and policies in four diverse communities which were concurrent with significant declines in child obesity. In the context of other research designs and evaluation schemas, rationale for use of SSA is presented. Evidence generated by this method is highlighted and guidance suggested for evaluation of future studies of community-based childhood obesity prevention initiatives. Support for the role of stakeholder collaboratives, in particular the National Collaborative on Childhood Obesity Research, as a synergistic vehicle to accelerate research on childhood obesity is discussed. SSA mapped active processes and provided contextual understanding of multi-level/component simultaneous efforts to reduce rates of childhood obesity in community settings. Initiatives, programs and policies were not necessarily coordinated. And although direct attribution of intervention/initiative/policy components could not be made, the what, by who, how, to whom was temporally associated with statistically significant reductions in childhood obesity. SSA provides evidence for context and processes which are not often evaluated in other data analytic methods. SSA provides an additional tool to layer with other evaluation approaches.

  19. Early Evolution of the Toxicity Identification Evaluation Process: Contributions from the USEPA Effluent Testing Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    As part of its whole effluent testing program, the USEPA developed an effects-directed analysis (EDA) approach to identifying the cause of toxicity in toxic effluents or ambient waters, an EDA process termed a “Toxicity Identification Evaluation” (TIE), which is the focus of this...

  20. Industrial Technologies Program Research Plan for Energy-Intensive Process Industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapas, Richard B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Colwell, Jeffery A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2007-10-01

    In this plan, the Industrial Technologies Program (ITP) identifies the objectives of its cross-cutting strategy for conducting research in collaboration with industry and U.S. Department of Energy national laboratories to develop technologies that improve the efficiencies of energy-intensive process industries.