WorldWideScience

Sample records for childhood obesity epidemic

  1. Atherosclerosis prevention starts in childhood: the obesity epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina-Ruiz, Arturo

    2011-01-01

    The atherosclerotic process begins in childhood and advances rapidly triggered by multiple genetic and environmental factors, including obesity. Obesity has reach epidemic proportions mainly by the consumption of junk food and a sedentary lifestyle. Our children spend long time inactive in front of the television and video games, further aggravated by the consumption of excessive calories of unhealthy food bombardment from TV commercials. The health related expenses of the obese is in average $1,500 annually higher than for persons with normal weight. The annual cost of diseases associated to obesity is estimated on $147 billion in the United States, a 10% of the national medical expenses. We must uncover strategies conducting to healthier lifestyles. School and home initiatives together with community and governmental efforts are necessary to stimulate our youngsters to live healthy lifestyles. The commitment of the food industry is critical to achieve the difficult goal of reducing childhood obesity to the prevalent 5% of the 1970's.

  2. The "childhood obesity epidemic": health crisis or social construction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffat, Tina

    2010-03-01

    There has been a meteoric rise over the past two decades in the medical research and media coverage of the so-called global childhood obesity epidemic. Recently, in response to this phenomenon, there has been a spate of books and articles in the fields of critical sociology and cultural studies that have argued that this "epidemic" is socially constructed, what Natalie Boero (2007) dubs a "postmodern epidemic." As an anthropologist who has studied child nutrition and obesity in relation to poverty and the school environment, I am concerned about both the lack of reflexivity among medical researchers as well as critical scholars' treatment of the problem as entirely socially constructed. In this article I present both sides of this debate and then discuss how wee can attempt to navigate a middle course that recognizes this health issue but also offers alternative approaches to those set by the biomedical agenda.

  3. The childhood obesity epidemic: A mini review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lubna Mahmood

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a medical condition resulting from the accumulation of excess fat in the human body to the extent that it might have great harm effects on the human health by increasing the diseases lowering the average life expectancy. A person who has a body mass index (BMI of more than 30 kg/m 2 is classified as obese; this is how obesity can be defined for adult, which is different than that in children. To account for variability by sex and age, BMI in children must be compared with sex- and age-specific reference values (Centers for Disease Control growth chart. The terminology that is used for high BMI-for-age in children in has been based on the recommendation of an expert committee convened by federal agencies. Parents can be a good example for their children by modeling healthful eating behaviors and being physically active. Parents can also be effective advocates by being involved in efforts in their schools, and community to expand the access and availability of opportunities for physical activity and healthful eating. In the case of being an obese child, that means suffering from many health problems and obesity-related diseases such as elevated blood pressure, high cholesterol, diabetes and heart diseases. Diabetes is considered as one of the obesity-related diseases; type 2 diabetes in children has linked with obesity; when the pancreas starts to produce the insulin hormone, excess body fat will not allow child's body to use the insulin as it should be which can lead to being a diabetic patient. Schools also play a vital role in teaching the students on how to eat properly and select the best meal with keeping their bodies flexible by doing physical activities. It is important in order to keep children away from being in disasters by having a lot of obesity-related diseases (e.g., heart attacks and diabetes, which can lead to premature death in obese children. Children must be healthy since those children growing up in today's world

  4. The Role of School Counselors in the Childhood Obesity Epidemic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larrier, Yvonne I.; Bakerson, Michelle A.; Linton, Jeremy M.; Walker, Lynne R.; Woolford, Susan J.

    2011-01-01

    Childhood obesity is a significant public health concern. Since 1960, the prevalence of childhood obesity in the United States increased dramatically from 5% to 16.9%. To date many interventions to address obesity in schools have focused on healthy changes to the content of vending machines, school lunches, and the addition of after school…

  5. A Call to Action: Addressing the Childhood Obesity Epidemic through Comprehensive School Counseling Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belser, Christopher T.; Morris, Jessica A.; Hasselbeck, Jennifer M.

    2012-01-01

    The need for school-based interventions targeting the childhood obesity epidemic has been well documented. The risk factors associated with childhood obesity are physical, mental, psychosocial, academic, and economic. With training in developing comprehensive programs and interventions, professional school counselors are positioned to assist…

  6. Stable intergenerational associations of childhood overweight during the development of the obesity epidemic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adeltoft, Teresa Ajslev; Ängquist, Lars; Silventoinen, Karri;

    2015-01-01

    of children born to parents with and without childhood overweight. METHODS: The study population was from the Copenhagen School Health Records Register, which includes age- and sex-specific body mass index (BMI; kg/m(2) ) of children. This study used BMI values from 7-year-old children born 1952-1989 and from......: Parent-child resemblance in childhood overweight showed small changes during the development of the obesity epidemic, suggesting that the obesogenic environment inducing the epidemic in Denmark influenced children irrespective of their familial predisposition.......OBJECTIVE: The obesity epidemic may have developed as a response to the obesogenic environment among the genetically predisposed. This investigation examined whether the intergenerational resemblances in childhood overweight changed across the development of the obesity epidemic in groups...

  7. The global childhood obesity epidemic and the association between socio-economic status and childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Youfa; Lim, Hyunjung

    2012-06-01

    Abstract This paper describes the current prevalence and time trends of childhood obesity worldwide, and the association between childhood obesity and socio-economic status (SES). Childhood obesity has become a global public health crisis. The prevalence is highest in western and industrialized countries, but still low in some developing countries. The prevalence also varies by age and gender. The WHO Americas and eastern Mediterranean regions had higher prevalence of overweight and obesity (30-40%) than the European (20-30%), south-east Asian, western Pacific, and African regions (10-20% in the latter three). A total of 43 million children (35 million in developing countries) were estimated to be overweight or obese; 92 million were at risk of overweight in 2010. The global overweight and obesity prevalence has increased dramatically since 1990, for example in preschool-age children, from approximately 4% in 1990 to 7% in 2010. If this trend continues, the prevalence may reach 9% or 60 million people in 2020. The obesity-SES association varies by gender, age, and country. In general, SES groups with greater access to energy-dense diets (low-SES in industrialized countries and high-SES in developing countries) are at increased risk of being obese than their counterparts.

  8. International epidemic of childhood obesity and television viewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guran, T; Bereket, A

    2011-12-01

    Childhood obesity is one of the most serious global public health challenges of the 21st century. The prevalence of this problem has increased at an alarming rate in many countries. The main causes of childhood obesity are; sedentary lifestyle, unhealthy eating patterns, genetic factors, socio-economic status, race/ethnicity, media and marketing, and the physical environment. Children are clearly being targeted as a receptive market by the manufacturing industry. Undoubtedly, television provides one of the most powerful media through which products can be advertised. Furthermore, food advertising accounted for the largest percentage of these advertisements in virtually all countries. Detailed nutritional analysis of food advertisements identified that up to 90% of food products have a high fat, sugar or salt content. Therefore TV viewing is recently identified as one of the risk factors contributing to development of childhood obesity by several mechanisms. This review provides some facts and figures about the global trend of rising obesity among children, amount and content of television and especially food advertisements being watched by children and its possible mechanisms how to cause adverse effects on children's health and contribute to childhood obesity.

  9. Childhood obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heitmann, Berit L; Koplan, Jeffrey; Lissner, Lauren

    2009-01-01

    Despite progress toward assuring the health of today's young population, the 21(st) century began with an epidemic of childhood obesity. There is general agreement that the situation must be addressed by means of primary prevention, but relatively little is known about how to intervene effectively....... The evidence behind the assumption that childhood obesity can be prevented was discussed critically in this roundtable symposium. Overall, there was general agreement that action is needed and that the worldwide epidemic itself is sufficient evidence for action. As the poet, writer, and scholar Wittner Bynner...... (1881-1968) wrote, "The biggest problem in the world could have been solved when it was small"....

  10. Childhood obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Wilkinson, Justine; Howard, Simon

    2006-01-01

    Childhood obesity has important consequences for health and wellbeing both during childhood and also in later adult life. The rising prevalence of childhood obesity poses a major public health challenge in both developed and developing countries by increasing the burden of chronic non-communicable diseases. Despite the urgent need for effective preventative strategies, there remains disagreement over its definition due to a lack of evidence on the optimal cut-offs linking childhood BMI to dis...

  11. Childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seth, Anju; Sharma, Rajni

    2013-04-01

    Childhood obesity is an issue of serious medical and social concern. In developing countries including India, it is a phenomenon seen in higher socioeconomic strata due to the adoption of a western lifestyle. Consumption of high calorie food, lack of physical activity and increased screen time are major risk factors for childhood obesity apart from other genetic, prenatal factors and socio-cultural practices. Obese children and adolescents are at increased risk of medical and psychological complications. Insulin resistance is commonly present especially in those with central obesity and manifests as dyslipidemia, type 2 diabetes mellitus, impaired glucose tolerance, hypertension, polycystic ovarian syndrome and metabolic syndrome. Obese children and adolescents often present to general physicians for management. The latter play a key role in prevention and treatment of obesity as it involves lifestyle modification of the entire family. This article aims at discussing the approach to diagnosis and work-up, treatment and preventive strategies for childhood obesity from a general physician's perspective.

  12. Childhood Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuca, Sevil Ari, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    This book aims to provide readers with a general as well as an advanced overview of the key trends in childhood obesity. Obesity is an illness that occurs due to a combination of genetic, environmental, psychosocial, metabolic and hormonal factors. The prevalence of obesity has shown a great rise both in adults and children in the last 30 years.…

  13. Fighting an Epidemic: The Role of Schools in Reducing Childhood Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyle, Sara A.; Sharkey, Jill; Yetter, Georgette; Felix, Erika; Furlong, Michael J.; Poston, W. S. Carlos

    2006-01-01

    Obesity among children and adolescents is a major public health concern affecting the physical and emotional health of youth while increasing their risk of reduced quality and duration of life. Schools and communities have begun to galvanize to address this epidemic and need quality empirical information to guide their policy, programming, and…

  14. Trends in Parent-Child Correlations of Childhood Body Mass Index during the Development of the Obesity Epidemic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adeltoft, Teresa Ajslev; Ängquist, Lars Henrik; Silventoinen, Karri;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The intergenerational resemblance in body mass index may have increased during the development of the obesity epidemic due to changes in environment and/or expression of genetic predisposition. OBJECTIVES: This study investigates trends in intergenerational correlations of childhood...... body mass index (BMI; kg/m2) during the emergence of the obesity epidemic. METHODS: The study population was derived from the Copenhagen School Health Records Register, which includes height and weight measurements since birth year 1930. Mothers and fathers with BMIs available at ages 7 (n = 25......,923 and n = 20,972) or 13 years (n = 26,750 and n = 21,397), respectively, were linked through the civil registration system introduced in 1968 to their children with BMIs available at age 7 years. Age- and sex-specific BMI z-scores were calculated. Correlations were estimated across eight intervals...

  15. Childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, R

    1999-01-01

    Approximately 10% of children are obese. Twin and adoption studies demonstrate a large genetic component to obesity, especially in adults. However, the increasing prevalence of obesity over the last 20 years can only be explained by environmental factors. In most obese individuals, no measurable differences in metabolism can be detected. Few children engage in regular physical activity. Obese children and adults uniformly underreport the amount of food they eat. Obesity is particularly related to increased consumption of high-fat foods. BMI is a quick and easy way to screen for childhood obesity. Treating childhood obesity relies on positive family support and lifestyle changes involving the whole family. Food preferences are influenced early by parental eating habits, and when developed in childhood, they tend to remain fairly constant into adulthood. Children learn to be active or inactive from their parents. In addition, physical activity (or more commonly, physical inactivity) habits that are established in childhood tend to persist into adulthood. Weight loss is usually followed by changes in appetite and metabolism, predisposing individuals to regain their weight. However, when the right family dynamics exist--a motivated child with supportive parents--long-term success is possible.

  16. The Obesity Epidemic

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-07-18

    Learn about obesity and the community initiatives taking place to prevent and reduce this epidemic.  Created: 7/18/2011 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity and Obesity.   Date Released: 7/18/2011.

  17. Childhood Obesity

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-08-06

    In this podcast, Dr. Tom Frieden, CDC Director, discusses the decrease in childhood obesity rates and what strategies have been proven to work to help our children grow up and thrive.  Created: 8/6/2013 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control.   Date Released: 3/6/2014.

  18. Self-esteem and cognitive development in the era of the childhood obesity epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, F; Veugelers, P J

    2008-11-01

    Consequences of obesity for mental health and cognitive development are not established to the same degree as those for chronic diseases. This study aims to document the interrelationships between body weight, self-esteem and school performance in childhood. Height and weight measurements and self-report of self-esteem, diet quality and physical activity of 4945 grade 5 students were linked with standardized literacy test results. Structural equation models were applied to confirm hypothesized relationships between body weight, self-esteem and school performance, and revealed that body weight affected self-esteem negatively and that school performance affected self-esteem positively. Body weight did not affect school performance, and self-esteem did affect neither body weight nor school performance. Subsequent multi-level logistic regression showed that obese students, relative to normal weight students, were more likely (1.44; 95% CI: 1.12-1.84), and students with good school performance, relative to those performing poor, were less likely (0.39; 95% CI: 0.26-0.58), to have low self-esteem. Diet quality and active living had positive effects on both school performance and self-esteem. The study findings further establish obesity as a risk factor for low self-esteem and add to the rationale to promote healthy eating and active living among children and youth as this will prevent chronic diseases and improve mental health and cognitive development.

  19. Stability of the association between birth weight and childhood overweight during the development of the obesity epidemic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rugholm, Susi; Baker, Jennifer Lyn; Olsen, Lina W;

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess whether changes in the birth weight distribution or changes in the association of birth weight with the later risk of childhood overweight have contributed to the development of the obesity epidemic. RESEARCH METHODS AND PROCEDURES: A Danish population-based cohort study of 124......,615 girls and 128,346 boys (ages 6 to 13 years), born between 1936 and 1983, were studied. Birth weight and annual measurements of height and weight were obtained from school health records. Overweight was defined by BMI in relation to internationally accepted criteria. The relative risk of being overweight...... by birth weight was calculated separately for each age, sex, and time period. RESULTS: The birth weight distribution remained relatively stable over time. Compared with children with a birth weight of 3.0 to 3.5 kg, the risk of overweight increased consistently with each increase in birth weight category...

  20. Childhood Obesity Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Childhood Obesity Facts Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On ... Children (WIC) Program, 2000–2014 Prevalence of Childhood Obesity in the United States, 2011-2014 Childhood obesity ...

  1. Hierarchical multiple informants models: examining food environment contributions to the childhood obesity epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Jonggyu; Sánchez, Brisa N; Sanchez-Vaznaugh, Emma V

    2014-02-20

    Methods for multiple informants help to estimate the marginal effect of each multiple source predictor and formally compare the strength of their association with an outcome. We extend multiple informant methods to the case of hierarchical data structures to account for within cluster correlation. We apply the proposed method to examine the relationship between features of the food environment near schools and children's body mass index z-scores (BMIz). Specifically, we compare the associations between two different features of the food environment (fast food restaurants and convenience stores) with BMIz and investigate how the association between the number of fast food restaurants or convenience stores and child's BMIz varies across distance from a school. The newly developed methodology enhances the types of research questions that can be asked by investigators studying effects of environment on childhood obesity and can be applied to other fields.

  2. Childhood obesity epidemic characteristics and its influencing factors%儿童肥胖流行特征及其影响因素研究现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王星云(综述); 刘洋; 闻德亮(审校)

    2016-01-01

    全球儿童肥胖呈逐年增加趋势,引起全世界的关注。超重和肥胖不仅在发达国家流行,而且已波及到发展中国家。我国已进入全人群儿童肥胖流行阶段。研究显示肥胖不仅影响儿童的身心健康,而且对健康的危害会延续到成年期,导致成人2型糖尿病、冠心病等心脑血管疾病提前发生或发病率增加。肥胖的原因包括遗传、生命早期事件、体力活动模式、饮食和社会心理因素等。该文对近年来国内外儿童肥胖流行现状及其影响因素的相关研究作一综述。%The growing trend of childhood obesity has attracted much attention globally.Overweight and obesity are not only popular in developed countries,but have spread to developing countries.China has entered an overall epidemic stage of childhood obesity.Studies have shown that obesity does not only impairs children's health,but also leads to health hazards in adult stage.Diabetes,coronary heart disease and other cardiovascular diseases may take place sooner or the incidence may become higher.The causes of obesity include genetic,early life events,physical activity patterns,diet and social psychological factors.This article reviews the current epi-demic status and the influencing factors of childhood obesity worldwide.

  3. Childhood Obesity and the Right to Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ó Cathaoir, Katharina Eva

    2016-01-01

    Childhood obesity is now a global health epidemic, yet the obligations of states to prevent obesity through fulfillment of the right to health have received limited consideration. This article examines the childhood obesity recommendations of the UN Committee on the Rights of the Child (the...... on the CRC with a more systematic basis for advising and assessing preventive measures taken by states. Moreover, while the interim report envisages a central role for states in childhood obesity prevention, it pays inadequate attention to their obligations under international human rights law. It is hoped...

  4. Childhood obesity, prevalence and prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merchant Anwar T

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Childhood obesity has reached epidemic levels in developed countries. Twenty five percent of children in the US are overweight and 11% are obese. Overweight and obesity in childhood are known to have significant impact on both physical and psychological health. The mechanism of obesity development is not fully understood and it is believed to be a disorder with multiple causes. Environmental factors, lifestyle preferences, and cultural environment play pivotal roles in the rising prevalence of obesity worldwide. In general, overweight and obesity are assumed to be the results of an increase in caloric and fat intake. On the other hand, there are supporting evidence that excessive sugar intake by soft drink, increased portion size, and steady decline in physical activity have been playing major roles in the rising rates of obesity all around the world. Consequently, both over-consumption of calories and reduced physical activity are involved in childhood obesity. Almost all researchers agree that prevention could be the key strategy for controlling the current epidemic of obesity. Prevention may include primary prevention of overweight or obesity, secondary prevention or prevention of weight regains following weight loss, and avoidance of more weight increase in obese persons unable to lose weight. Until now, most approaches have focused on changing the behaviour of individuals in diet and exercise. It seems, however, that these strategies have had little impact on the growing increase of the obesity epidemic. While about 50% of the adults are overweight and obese in many countries, it is difficult to reduce excessive weight once it becomes established. Children should therefore be considered the priority population for intervention strategies. Prevention may be achieved through a variety of interventions targeting built environment, physical activity, and diet. Some of these potential strategies for intervention in children can be

  5. Junk Food in Schools and Childhood Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datar, Ashlesha; Nicosia, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    Despite limited empirical evidence, there is growing concern that junk food availability in schools has contributed to the childhood obesity epidemic. In this paper, we estimate the effects of junk food availability on body mass index (BMI), obesity, and related outcomes among a national sample of fifth graders. Unlike previous studies, we address…

  6. Childhood Overweight and Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Prevention and Wellness Food and Nutrition Healthy Food Choices Childhood Overweight and Obesity Childhood Overweight and Obesity Family HealthFood and NutritionHealthy Food ChoicesKids and TeensPrevention and WellnessWeight Loss and Diet ...

  7. Battling the Obesity Epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Mark; Moag-Stahlberg, Alicia

    2002-01-01

    Describes causes of overweight and obesity in children; cites research linking good nutrition and a child's capacity to learn; includes six Web-based links to resources to help principals and teachers reduce the serious problem of overweight and obese children. (PKP)

  8. Childhood Obesity: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, John J.

    2007-01-01

    This article reviews recent research evidence, largely from systematic reviews, on a number of aspects of childhood obesity: its definition and prevalence; consequences; causes and prevention. The basis of the body mass index (BMI) as a means of defining obesity in children and adolescents is discussed: a high BMI for age constitutes obesity. In…

  9. Childhood environment and obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    US children are at risk for developing childhood obesity. Currently, 23% of children ages 2–5 are overweight or obese, i.e., at or above the 85th percentile. This prevalence becomes even higher as children age, with 34% of children ages 6–11 being overweight or obese. Ethnic minority children are at...

  10. Parental Perceptions of the Schools' Role in Addressing Childhood Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Maureen; Polivka, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    As childhood obesity has increased, schools have struggled with their role in this epidemic. Parents with a school-age child in a suburban latchkey program were surveyed regarding their perceptions of childhood obesity, body mass index, and the school's role in prevention and treatment of obesity. More than 80% of participants identified…

  11. The Obesity Epidemic: A Call for Health Educators to Lead--A Commentary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snelling, Anastasia

    2012-01-01

    The childhood obesity epidemic is one of the defining health challenges of this decade and perhaps the 21st century. Obesity rates among youths have nearly tripled in the past three decades. Solving the obesity epidemic requires that students understand and accept the changes within the environment and ultimately modify their health behaviors to…

  12. Childhood Obesity: Common Misconceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of childhood obesity. Yes, hypothyroidism (a deficit in thyroid secretion) and other rarer and more severe genetic and metabolic disorders (eg, Prader-Willi syndrome, Turner syndrome, Cushing syndrome) ...

  13. Childhood Obesity and the Right to Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ó Cathaoir, Katharina Eva

    2016-01-01

    Childhood obesity is now a global health epidemic, yet the obligations of states to prevent obesity through fulfillment of the right to health have received limited consideration. This article examines the childhood obesity recommendations of the UN Committee on the Rights of the Child (the...... committee on the CRC), the Special Rapporteur on the right to health, and the UN High Commissioner on Human Rights. It suggests how their engagement might be strengthened. It concludes that the final report of the World Health Organization’s Commission on Ending Childhood Obesity could provide the committee...... on the CRC with a more systematic basis for advising and assessing preventive measures taken by states. Moreover, while the interim report envisages a central role for states in childhood obesity prevention, it pays inadequate attention to their obligations under international human rights law. It is hoped...

  14. Genetics of Childhood Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhua Zhao

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a major health problem and an immense economic burden on the health care systems both in the United States and the rest of the world. The prevalence of obesity in children and adults in the United States has increased dramatically over the past decade. Besides environmental factors, genetic factors are known to play an important role in the pathogenesis of obesity. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS have revealed strongly associated genomic variants associated with most common disorders; indeed there is general consensus on these findings from generally positive replication outcomes by independent groups. To date, there have been only a few GWAS-related reports for childhood obesity specifically, with studies primarily uncovering loci in the adult setting instead. It is clear that a number of loci previously reported from GWAS analyses of adult BMI and/or obesity also play a role in childhood obesity.

  15. Age at puberty and the emerging obesity epidemic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aksglaede, Lise; Juul, Anders; Olsen, Lina W;

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recent studies have shown that puberty starts at younger ages than previously. It has been hypothesized that the increasing prevalence of childhood obesity is contributing to this trend. The purpose of this study was to analyze the association between prepubertal body mass index (BMI....... Irrespective of level of BMI at age seven, there was a downward trend in the age at attaining puberty in both boys and girls, which suggests that the obesity epidemic is not solely responsible for the trend....

  16. Junk Food in Schools and Childhood Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Datar, Ashlesha; Nicosia, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    Despite limited empirical evidence, there is growing concern that junk food availability in schools has contributed to the childhood obesity epidemic. In this paper, we estimate the effects of junk food availability on BMI, obesity, and related outcomes among a national sample of fifth-graders. Unlike previous studies, we address the endogeneity of the school food environment by controlling for children’s BMI at school entry and estimating instrumental variables regressions that leverage vari...

  17. Cultivating childhood obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Greene-Martin, DeCleasha

    2013-01-01

    In recent years the levels of obesity in the United States has risen greatly especially amongst children. Doctors, psychologists, and other scientists have been studying the growing problem for years. Implications for childhood obesity not only have enormous physical consequences but emotional repercussions which can affect the child’s academic and social development. A number of factors have been identified as having an effect on these children; family life reveals the grocery store habits o...

  18. "Salud America!" Developing a National Latino Childhood Obesity Research Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Amelie G.; Chalela, Patricia; Gallion, Kipling J.; Green, Lawrence W.; Ottoson, Judith

    2011-01-01

    U.S. childhood obesity has reached epidemic proportions, with one third of children overweight or obese. Latino children have some of the highest obesity rates, a concern because they are part of the youngest and fastest-growing U.S. minority group. Unfortunately, scarce research data on Latinos hinders the development and implementation of…

  19. Childhood obesity and prevention approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Dilek Yildiz; Berna Eren Fidanci; Derya Suluhan

    2015-01-01

    Childhood obesity has increased dramatically during the past two decades. The growing incidence of childhood obesity is alarming, given the significant short and long term health problems associated with obesity. Being overweight or obese may increase the rate of non-communicable diseases such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease in adulthood. It may contribute to shortening life expectancy and adversely affects the quality of life. Therefore, it is important to prevent childhood obe...

  20. [Childhood obesity: definition, consequences, and prevalence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiolero, A; Lasserre, A M; Paccaud, F; Bovet, P

    2007-05-16

    Since the 1980s, an epidemic of obesity is occurring worldwide among adults and children. The body mass index (BMI) is useful to determine whether a child is overweight or obese because BMI relates strongly to body fat mass. However, contrary to adults, BMI changes with sex and age in children. Sex- and age-specific norms for BMI of the International obesity task force (IOTF) are now widely used. Approximately 15-20% of schoolchildren in Switzerland are currently overweight (or obese) and 2-5% are obese. Obesity is a major public health challenge. It is associated with numerous short and long term health hazards (in particular cardiovascular and metabolic disorders, e.g. diabetes) and it tracks form childhood throughout adulthood. This emphasizes the need for programs and polices aimed at preventing paediatric obesity.

  1. Childhood Obesity and Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indra Narang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The global epidemic of childhood and adolescent obesity and its immediate as well as long-term consequences for obese individuals and society as a whole cannot be overemphasized. Obesity in childhood and adolescence is associated with an increased risk of adult obesity and clinically significant consequences affecting the cardiovascular and metabolic systems. Importantly, obesity is additionally complicated by obstructive sleep apnea (OSA, occurring in up to 60% of obese children. OSA, which is diagnosed using the gold standard polysomnogram (PSG, is characterised by snoring, recurrent partial (hypopneas or complete (apneas obstruction of the upper airway. OSA is frequently associated with intermittent oxyhemoglobin desaturations, sleep disruption, and sleep fragmentation. There is emerging data that OSA is associated with cardiovascular burden including systemic hypertension, changes in ventricular structure and function, arterial stiffness, and metabolic syndromes. Thus, OSA in the context of obesity may independently or synergistically magnify the underlying cardiovascular and metabolic burden. This is of importance as early recognition and treatment of OSA in obese children are likely to result in the reduction of cardiometabolic burden in obese children. This paper summarizes the current state of understanding of obesity-related OSA. Specifically, this paper will discuss epidemiology, pathophysiology, cardiometabolic burden, and management of obese children and adolescents with OSA.

  2. Obesity and growth during childhood and puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcovecchio, M Loredana; Chiarelli, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    Growth during childhood and adolescence occurs at different rates and is influenced by the interaction between genetic and environmental factors. Nutritional status plays an important role in regulating growth, and excess body weight early in life can influence growth patterns. Childhood obesity is a growing and alarming problem, associated with several short-term and long-term metabolic and cardiovascular complications. In addition, there is evidence suggesting that excess adiposity during childhood influences growth patterns and pubertal development. Several studies have shown that during prepubertal years obese children have higher height velocity and accelerated bone age compared to lean subjects. However, this prepubertal advantage in growth tends to gradually decrease during puberty, when obese children show a reduced growth spurt compared with lean subjects. Growth hormone (GH) secretion in obese children is reduced, therefore suggesting that increased growth is GH independent. Factors which have been implicated in the accelerated growth in obese children include increased leptin and insulin levels, adrenal androgens, insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1, IGF-binding protein-1 and GH-binding proteins. Excess body weight during childhood can also influence pubertal development, through an effect on timing of pubertal onset and levels of pubertal hormonal levels. There is clear evidence indicating that obesity leads to early appearance of pubertal signs in girls. In addition, obese girls are also at increased risk of hyperandrogenism. In boys, excess adiposity has been associated with advanced puberty in some studies, whereas others have reported a delay in pubertal onset. The existing evidence on the association between childhood and adolescence obesity underlines a further reason for fighting the epidemics of childhood obesity; that is preventing abnormal growth and pubertal patterns.

  3. Epidemics of overweight and obesity among growing childhood in China between 1997 and 2009: Impact of Family Income, Dietary Intake, and Physical Activity Dynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chang Su; Bing Zhang; You-Fa Wang; Xiao-Fang Jia; Hong Xue; Hui-Jun Wang

    2015-01-01

    Background:Obesity has become a major health problem among children and adolescents worldwide.This study aimed to examine the trends of overweight and obesity among childhood in China and assess their associations with family income,dietary intake,and physical activity (PA) between 1997 and 2009.Methods:Two waves of cross-sectional data of Chinese children and adolescents aged 7-17 years from the China Health and Nutrition Survey were used.Weight and height were measured following standardized procedures.Dietary intake was assessed by 3 consecutive 24-h recalls.Childhood overweight and obesity were defined using the International Obesity Task Force-recommended body mass index cut-offs.Multivariate linear regression analysis was used to examine the associations of family income with diet intakes and PA.Multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted to assess the associations of overweight and obesity with family income,dietary intake,and PA.Results:The prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity increased from 12.6% in 1997 to 22.1% in 2009,particularly in the medium-and high-family income groups,which increased by 102.7% and 90.3%,respectively.Higher fat intake (% energy),and moderate and vigorous PA were significantly associated with overweight and obesity in final model (odds ratio [OR] =1.01,95% confidence interval [CI]:1.00-1.02,P =0.004;and OR =0.99,95% CI:0.98-1.00,P =0.036,respectively).Conclusions:The prevalence of overweight and obesity among Chinese children and adolescents has increased between 1997 and 2009.Reducing fat intake and increasing PA may help obesity prevention.

  4. Childhood Obesity: Prediction and Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Michael D.

    Obesity in children is a problem both insidious and acute. Childhood obesity has been indicated as a forerunner of adult obesity; it is also an immediate problem for the child. Given the lack of evidence for long term maintenance of any weight loss, this paper investigates the etiology of the disorder as a prelude to prevention. Upon review of the…

  5. Childhood Obesity. Special Reference Briefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winick, Myron

    This reference brief deals with the problem of childhood obesity and how it can lead to obesity in the adult. Eighty-four abstracts are presented of studies on the identification, prevention, and treatment of obesity in children, focusing on diet and psychological attitudes. Subjects of the studies were children ranging in age from infancy through…

  6. Childhood Obesity: The Caregiver's Role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haschke, Bernadette

    2003-01-01

    Describes the role caregivers play in helping young children dealing with obesity. Examines: (1) causes of childhood obesity; (2) caregiver's position; (3) learning nutrition concepts; (4) preparing and serving healthy foods; (5) encouraging physical activity; (6) working with parents; and (7) assisting an obese child. (SD)

  7. Etiology, Treatment, and Prevention of Obesity in Childhood and Adolescence: A Decade in Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spruijt-Metz, Donna

    2011-01-01

    Childhood obesity has become an epidemic on a worldwide scale. This article gives an overview of the progress made in childhood and adolescent obesity research in the last decade, with a particular emphasis on the transdisciplinary and complex nature of the problem. The following topics are addressed: (1) current definitions of childhood and…

  8. A break in the obesity epidemic?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Visscher, T L S; Heitmann, B L; Rissanen, A

    2015-01-01

    Recent epidemiologic papers are presenting prevalence data suggesting breaks and decreases in obesity rates. However, before concluding that the obesity epidemic is not increasing anymore, the validity of the presented data should be discussed more thoroughly. We had a closer look into the litera......, focusing on trends in waist circumference rather than BMI leads to a less optimistic conclusion: the public health problem of obesity is still increasing.International Journal of Obesity advance online publication, 22 July 2014; doi:10.1038/ijo.2014.98.......Recent epidemiologic papers are presenting prevalence data suggesting breaks and decreases in obesity rates. However, before concluding that the obesity epidemic is not increasing anymore, the validity of the presented data should be discussed more thoroughly. We had a closer look...... into the literature presented in recent reviews to address the major potential biases and distortions, and to develop insights about how to interpret the presented suggestions for a potential break in the obesity epidemic. Decreasing participation rates, the use of reported rather than measured data and small sample...

  9. Childhood obesity: prevention is better than cure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandita A

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Aakash Pandita,1 Deepak Sharma,2 Dharti Pandita,3 Smita Pawar,4 Mir Tariq,5 Avinash Kaul6 1Department of Pediatrics, SMGS Hospital Jammu, Jammu and Kashmir, India; 2Department of Pediatrics, Pt Bhagwat Dayal Sharma Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Rohtak, Haryana, India; 3Department of Microbiology Jammu University, Jammu, Jammu and Kashmir, India; 4Department of OBG Fernandez Hospital, Hyderabad,Telangana, India; 5Department of Orthopedics, Kokilaben Dhirubhai Ambani Hospital, Mumbai, India; 6Department of Surgery, Acharya Shri Chander College of Medical Sciences and Hospital, Jammu, Jammu and Kashmir, India Abstract: Obesity and its associated comorbidities have emerged as a major health problem garnering interests from both public health agencies and mainstream media consumers. With increasing awareness on its impact on health, finances, and community at large, it has come to the forefront for scientific research and development of health plans. The need for better strategies and novel interventions to manage obesity is now being recognized by the entire health care system. Obesity and overweight is now the fifth leading global risk factor for mortality. Strategic investment is thus urgently needed to implement population-based childhood obesity prevention programmes which are effective and also culturally appropriate. Population-based prevention is crucial to stem this rising tide of childhood obesity which is fast reaching epidemic proportions. Obesity has its onset very early in life; therefore, children constitute a major group of this disease. It is thus imperative to lay utmost importance on prevention of obesity in children and herald its progress, if present already. Furthermore, treatment is still in preliminary stage, so early prevention holds better than treatment at later stages. This article is an attempt to lay emphasis on childhood obesity as a problem that needs to be recognized early and measures for its

  10. Factors associated with childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, W

    1991-01-01

    Childhood obesity is associated with host factors that enhance susceptibility and environmental factors that increase food intake and decrease energy expenditure. Obese children underreport food intake and probably consume more food to maintain their weight at increased levels. Prevalence of obesity is related to family variables, including parental obesity, family size and age, and socioeconomic status. Television viewing is strongly associated with the prevalence of obesity through its impact on food intake and activity. How these environmental variables are behaviorally interrelated to the genesis of obesity is unclear.

  11. The Role of the Gut Microbiota in Childhood Obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pihl, Andreas Friis; Fonvig, Cilius Esmann; Stjernholm, Theresa

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Childhood and adolescent obesity has reached epidemic proportions worldwide. The pathogenesis of obesity is complex and multifactorial, in which genetic and environmental contributions seem important. The gut microbiota is increasingly documented to be involved in the dysmetabolism...... associated with obesity. METHODS: We conducted a systematic search for literature available before October 2015 in the PubMed and Scopus databases, focusing on the interplay between the gut microbiota, childhood obesity, and metabolism. RESULTS: The review discusses the potential role of the bacterial...... component of the human gut microbiota in childhood and adolescent-onset obesity, with a special focus on the factors involved in the early development of the gut bacterial ecosystem, and how modulation of this microbial community might serve as a basis for new therapeutic strategies in combating childhood...

  12. General Overview on Childhood Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevil İnal

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Until recently, it has not been put much emphasis on obesity in children and the view of “obese child is healthy” is widely accepted by families. However, understanding that a close relation exists between obesity prevalence and childhood obesity, which increased in recent years both across the world and in our country, and many diseases such as hypertension, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases changed the opinion of both of health care professionals and the society about childhood obesity in Turkey, like it changed the opinion in all around the world. Although there are no studies in our country, which have been conducted to investigate obesity prevalence and affecting factors in children nationwide, it is reported in studies carried out in various cities that rate of overweight children in preschool children is between 4-13%, whereas rate of obese children is between 9-27%. In the literature, a positive correlation was found between the frequency of taking the children to fast-food restaurants, compelling children to eat foods on their dishes, one or two of the parents being obese and obesity of children in Turkey. In this review will focus on the risk factors of childhood obesity in Turkey. (Journal of Current Pediatrics 2013; 11: 27-30

  13. Sociological Factors Affecting Childhood Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster-Scott, Latisha

    2007-01-01

    According to data from the National Center for Health Statistics, childhood obesity rates are highest among ethnic minorities. It is very helpful to consider the role of culture when attempting to analyze and explain obesity rates in ethnic minority populations. Culture influences the attitudes and beliefs toward exercise, food and nutrition, and…

  14. Childhood Obesity for Pediatric Gastroenterologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jeannie S.; Barlow, Sarah E.; Quiros-Tejeira, Ruben E.; Scheimann, Ann; Skelton, Joseph; Suskind, David; Tsai, Patrika; Uko, Victor; Warolin, Joshua P.; Xanthakos, Stavra A.

    2014-01-01

    Obesity in childhood is one of the major health issues in pediatric health care today. As expected, the prevalence of obesity-related comorbidities has risen in parallel with that of obesity. Consultation regarding these concomitant diseases and subsequent management by subspecialists, including pediatric gastroenterologists, is now common and has resulted in obesity being recognized as a chronic disease requiring coordination of care. Although medications and even surgery may provide effective, though often temporary, treatments for obesity and its comorbidities, behavioral interventions addressing healthy dietary and physical activity habits remain a mainstay in the obesity treatment paradigm. Therefore, the issue of weight management must be addressed by both general practitioner and subspecialist alike. In this report, we review select aspects of pediatric obesity and obesity-related management issues because it relates in particular to the field of pediatric gastroenterology and hepatology. PMID:23282941

  15. Obesity and diabetes epidemics: cancer repercussions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjartåker, Anette; Langseth, Hilde; Weiderpass, Elisabete

    2008-01-01

    The prevalence of overweight (body mass index, BMI, between 25 and 30 kg/m2) and obesity (BMI of 30 kg/m2 or higher) is increasing rapidly worldwide, especially in developing countries and countries undergoing economic transition to a market economy. One consequence of obesity is an increased risk of developing type II diabetes. Overall, there is considerable evidence that overweight and obesity are associated with risk for some of the most common cancers. There is convincing evidence of a positive association between overweight/obesity and risk for adenocarcinoma of the oesophagus and the gastric cardia, colorectal cancer, postmenopausal breast cancer, endometrial cancer and kidney cancer (renal-cell). Premenopausal breast cancer seems to be inversely related to obesity. For all other cancer sites the evidence of an association between overweight/obesity and cancer is inadequate, although there are studies suggesting an increased risk of cancers of the liver, gallbladder, pancreas, thyroid gland and in lymphoid and haematopoietic tissue. Far less is known about the association between diabetes mellitus type I (also called insulin dependent diabetes mellitus or juvenile diabetes), type II diabetes (called non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus or adult onset diabetes mellitus) and cancer risk. The most common type of diabetes mellitus, type II, seems to be associated with liver and pancreas cancer and probably with colorectal cancer. Some studies suggest an association with endometrial and postmenopausal breast cancer. Studies reporting on the association between type I diabetes mellitus, which is relatively rare in most populations and cancer risk are scanty, but suggest a possible association with endometrial cancer. Overweight and obesity, as well as type II diabetes mellitus are largely preventable through changes in lifestyle. The fundamental causes of the obesity epidemic-and consequently the diabetes type II epidemic-are societal, resulting from an

  16. Secular trends in new childhood epidemics: insights from evolutionary medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brüne, Martin; Hochberg, Ze'ev

    2013-10-21

    In the last few decades, pediatric medicine has observed a dramatic increase in the prevalence of hitherto rare illnesses, among which obesity, diabetes, allergies and other autoimmune diseases stand out. In addition, secular trends towards earlier onset of puberty and sexual activity contribute to the psychological problems of youth and adolescents. All this has occurred in spite of the improved health care provision for children, yet traditional concepts of medicine have failed to explain these new "epidemics". A recent conference and science school of the European Society of Paediatric Endocrinology (ESPE) in Acre, Israel, has taken up this challenge. Experts across disciplines including medicine, anthropology and developmental psychology discussed potential causes of childhood ill-health from an evolutionary point-of-view. Seen from an evolutionary vantage point, the "epidemics" of childhood obesity, diabetes and psychological dysfunction appear, in part, to be related to a mismatch between ancestral adaptations and novel environmental contingencies. These include changing exposures to pathogens, which impact on the function of the immune system, as well as changing patterns of parenting, which influence the timing of puberty and the risk for developing psychopathology.

  17. Reducing Childhood Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the NHLBI Obesity Education Initiative. (See accompanying article, " Obesity Research: A New Approach. ") We Can! focuses on three important behaviors: improved food choices, increased physical activity, and reduced recreational screen time. ...

  18. Childhood Obesity – Prevention Begins with Breastfeeding

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-08-02

    This podcast is based on the August, 2011 CDC Vital Signs report. Childhood obesity is an epidemic in the US. Breastfeeding can help prevent obesity, but one in three moms stop without hospital support. About 95% of hospitals lack policies that fully support breastfeeding moms. Hospitals need to do more to help moms start and continue breastfeeding.  Created: 8/2/2011 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 8/2/2011.

  19. The association between sleep duration and childhood obesity in China : a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Xiaoye; 吴晓烨

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Obesity has become one of the major global public epidemic problems while the knowledge of childhood obesity is a bit limited within Chinese study. This review examined the association between sleep duration and childhood overweight and obesity in China. Methods: This systematic review was conducted by searching online electronic resources of papers from PubMed and Chinese database CNKI published up to 2013. The keywords of “sleep” OR “risk factors” AND “obesity OR overweight” ...

  20. Maternal Employment and Childhood Obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gwozdz, Wencke; Sousa-Poza, Alfonso; Reisch, Lucia

    The substantial increase in female employment rates in Europe over the past two decades has often been linked in political and public rhetoric to negative effects on child development, including obesity. We analyse this association between maternal employment and childhood obesity using rich...... objective reports of various anthropometric and other measures of fatness from the IDEFICS study of children aged 2-9 in 16 regions of eight European countries. Based on such data as accelerometer measures and information from nutritional diaries, we also investigate the effects of maternal employment...... on obesity's main drivers: calorie intake and physical activity. Our analysis provides little evidence for any association between maternal employment and childhood obesity, diet or physical activity....

  1. Maternal Employment and Childhood Obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gwozdz, Wencke; Sousa-Poza, Alfonso; Reisch, Lucia

    2013-01-01

    The substantial increase in female employment rates in Europe over the past two decades has often been linked in political and public rhetoric to negative effects on child development, including obesity. We analyse this association between maternal employment and childhood obesity using rich...... objective reports of various anthropometric and other measures of fatness from the IDEFICS study of children aged 2-9 in 16 regions of eight European countries. Based on such data as accelerometer measures and information from nutritional diaries, we also investigate the effects of maternal employment...... on obesity's main drivers: calorie intake and physical activity. Our analysis provides little evidence for any association between maternal employment and childhood obesity, diet or physical activity....

  2. CDC Vital Signs: Progress on Childhood Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Read the MMWR Science Clips Progress on Childhood Obesity Many States Show Declines Language: English Español (Spanish) ... 8 preschoolers is obese in the US. 19 Obesity among low-income preschoolers declined, from 2008 through ...

  3. Childhood obesity: pathophysiology and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klish, W J

    1995-02-01

    Childhood obesity is among the most difficult problems which pediatricians treat. It is frequently ignored by the pediatrician or viewed as a form of social deviancy, and blame for treatment failure placed on the patients or their families. The definition of obesity is difficult. Using total body electrical conductivity (TOBEC) technology, total body fat ranges between 12% and 30% of total body weight in normal children and adolescents. This is influenced not only by age, but also by physical fitness. Anthropometry is the easiest way to define obesity. Children whose weight exceeds 120% of that expected for their height are considered overweight. Skinfold thickness and body mass index are indices of obesity that are more difficult to apply to the child. Childhood obesity is associated with obese parents, a higher socioeconomic status, increased parental education, small family size and a sedentary lifestyle. Genetics also clearly plays a role. Studies have demonstrated that obese and non-obese individuals have similar energy intakes implying that obesity results from very small imbalances of energy intake and expenditure. An excess intake of only 418 kJ per day can result in about 4.5 kg of excess weight gain per year. Small differences in basal metabolic rate or the thermic effects of food may also account for the difference in energy balance between the obese and non-obese. In the Prader Willi Syndrome, there appears to be a link between appetite and body fatness. When placed on growth hormone, lean body mass increases, body fat decreases, sometimes to normal, and appetite becomes more normal.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. Severe childhood obesity matters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slootweg, O.H.

    2014-01-01

    To date, obesity represents a major public health challenge. Obesity is at any age a concern but in pediatric populations it is particularly alarming because of its immediate biomedical and psychosocial consequences and the expectation that it will lead to an increase in morbidity and mortality and

  5. Combating Childhood Obesity: Changing Our Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, Anna,

    2007-01-01

    A review of literature was conducted to identify risk factors and prevention strategies for childhood obesity. Factors contributing to childhood obesity include poor food choices, physical inactivity, and genetics. Complications of obesity include respiratory, musculoskeletal, cardiovascular, and endocrine diseases, cancer, gallbladder disease, poor health status, depression, low self-esteem, and social withdrawal. Since childhood obesity, largely due to the environment that children live in ...

  6. Childhood Obesity PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-08-06

    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the August 2013 CDC Vital Signs report. The rate of obesity among low-income preschoolers has declined, but one in eight is still obese. This program briefly discusses what can be done.  Created: 8/6/2013 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 8/6/2013.

  7. Assortative marriages by body mass index have increased simultaneously with the obesity epidemic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adeltoft, Teresa Ajslev; Ängquist, Lars Henrik; Silventoinen, Karri;

    2012-01-01

    Background: The genetic predisposition to obesity may have contributed to the obesity epidemic through assortative mating. We investigated whether spouses were positively assorted by body mass index (BMI; = kg/m(2)) in late childhood, and whether changes in assorted marriage by upper BMI......-percentiles occurred during the obesity epidemic. Methods: In the Copenhagen School Health Records Register (CSHRR) boys and girls with measures of BMI at age 13 years later became 37,792 spousal-pairs who married between 1945 and 2010. Trends in the spousal BMI correlations using sex-, age-, and birth cohort......-specific BMI z-scores across time were investigated. Odds ratios (ORs) of marriage among spouses both with BMI z-scores >90th or >95th percentile compared with marriage among spouses ≤90th percentile were analyzed for marriages entered during the years prior to (1945-1970), and during the obesity epidemic...

  8. [Childhood obesity and dyslipidemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Díaz, Rita Angélica; Wacher-Rodarte, Niels H

    2014-01-01

    Screening and treatment of plasma lipid abnormalities secondary to obesity are among the interventions that should be implemented in children who are overweight or obese, in order to prevent a cardiovascular event. Dyslipidemias are a group of asymptomatic diseases that are commonly caused by abnormal levels of lipoproteins in blood; they are a comorbidity that is commonly related to obesity, without considering the age of the patient. Among dyslipidemias, hypertriglyceridemia has the highest prevalence. The etiology of the dyslipidemia should be identified; it allows the proper selection of therapy for the patients and their family. The goal is the prevention of cardiovascular complications. Reduced caloric intake and a structured physical activity plan should be considered for initial treatment for all the overweight and obese patients. For adherence to treatment to be successful, the participation of the primary care physician and a multidisciplinary team is required. With treatment, the risks and complications can be reduced. The participation of a specialist in handling the pediatric obese patient with dyslipidemia should be limited to severe cases or those at risk for having pancreatitis.

  9. Games and childhood obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Videogames can be used to help children change their obesity-related diet and physical activity behaviors. A review of the relevant literature in this special issue of the Games for Health Journal indicated that video games did influence children's adiposity, but only among children who were alread...

  10. Determinants, consequences and prevention of childhood overweight and obesity: An Indian context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harish Ranjani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of obesity in adolescents and children has risen to alarming levels globally, and this has serious public health consequences. Sedentary lifestyle and consumption of calorie-dense foods of low nutritional value are speculated to be two of the most important etiological factors responsible for escalating rate of childhood overweight in developing nations. To tackle the childhood obesity epidemic we require comprehensive multidisciplinary evidence-based interventions. Some suggested strategies for childhood obesity prevention and management include increasing physical activity, reducing sedentary time including television viewing, personalized nutrition plans for very obese kids, co-curriculum health education which should be implemented in schools and counseling for children and their parents. In developing countries like India we will need practical and cost-effective community-based strategies with appropriate policy changes in order to curb the escalating epidemic of childhood obesity.

  11. A social contagious model of the obesity epidemic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, He; Yan, Zhijun; Chen, Yahong; Liu, Fangyan

    2016-11-01

    Obesity has been recognized as a global epidemic by WHO, followed by many empirical evidences to prove its infectiousness. However, the inter-person spreading dynamics of obesity are seldom studied. A distinguishing feature of the obesity epidemic is that it is driven by a social contagion process which cannot be perfectly described by the infectious disease models. In this paper, we propose a novel belief decision model based on the famous Dempster-Shafer theory of evidence to model obesity epidemic as the competing spread of two obesity-related behaviors: physical inactivity and physical activity. The transition of health states is described by an SIS model. Results reveal the existence of obesity epidemic threshold, above which obesity is quickly eradicated. When increasing the fading level of information spread, enlarging the clustering of initial obese seeds, or introducing small-world characteristics into the network topology, the threshold is easily met. Social discrimination against the obese people plays completely different roles in two cases: on one hand, when obesity cannot be eradicated, social discrimination can reduce the number of obese people; on the other hand, when obesity is eradicable, social discrimination may instead cause it breaking out.

  12. The fundamental drivers of the obesity epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, W P T

    2008-03-01

    Most policy makers do not yet understand that the obesity epidemic is a normal population response to the dramatic reduction in the demand for physical activity and the major changes in the food supply of countries over the last 40 years. A national focus on individual behaviour reflects a failure to confront the facts. Thus, the changes in food supply and physical environment are socioeconomically driven, and the health sector simply picks up the consequences. Urbanization alone in China has reduced daily energy expenditure by about 300-400 kcal d(-1) and cycling/bussing or going to work by car determines another variation of 200 kcal d(-1). Thus, energy demands may have dropped with additional TV/media, mechanization and computerized changes by 400-800 kcal d(-1), so weight gain and obesity are inevitable for most or all the population. Food intake should have fallen substantially despite the community's focus on the value of food after all the food crises of the past. Yet, Chinese fat and sugar intakes are escalating, and these policy-mediated features are amplified by the primeval biological drive for those commodities with specialized taste buds for fatty acids, meat, sugar and salt. Yet, traditionally, Chinese diets had negligible sugar, and 25-year-old data show that the optimum diet for Chinese contains 15% fat. Policies relating to food imports, agriculture, food quality standards, appropriate food traffic light labelling, price adjustments and controlled access to unhealthy foods are all within the grasp of the Chinese government. China has traditionally been far more responsive to the value of policies which limit inequalities and establish standards of care than many western governments, who have yet to recognize that the individualistic free-market approach to obesity prevention is guaranteed to fail. China could therefore lead the way: if it follows western approaches, the health and economic burden will become unsustainable.

  13. Childhood obesity: are we missing the big picture?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maziak, W; Ward, K D; Stockton, M B

    2008-01-01

    Childhood obesity is increasing worldwide, raising alarm about future trends of cardiovascular disease, diabetes and cancer. This article discusses what may underlie our failure to respond effectively to the obesity epidemic, and presents a wider perspective for future research and public health agendas. So far targeting individual-level determinants and clinical aspects of childhood obesity has produced limited success. There is growing interest in understanding the wider determinants of obesity such as the built environment (e.g. walkability), social interactions, food marketing and prices, but much needs to be learned. Particularly, we need to identify distal modifiable factors with multiple potential that would make them attractive for people and policymakers alike. For example, walking-biking-friendly cities can reduce obesity as well as energy consumption, air pollution and traffic delays. Such agenda needs to be driven by strong evidence from research involving multi-level influences on behaviour, as well as the study of wider politico-economic trends affecting people's choices. This article highlights available evidence and arguments for research and policy needed to curb the obesity epidemic. The upstream approach underlying these arguments aims to make healthy choices not only the most rational, but also the most feasible and affordable.

  14. Psychological consequences of childhood obesity: psychiatric comorbidity and prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, Jean; Matthews, Lynsay; Cobley, Stephen; Han, Ahreum; Sanders, Ross; Wiltshire, Huw D; Baker, Julien S

    2016-01-01

    Childhood obesity is one of the most serious public health challenges of the 21st century with far-reaching and enduring adverse consequences for health outcomes. Over 42 million children children will be OW or OB by 2025. The purpose of this review was to focus on psychiatric, psychological, and psychosocial consequences of childhood obesity (OBy) to include a broad range of international studies. The aim was to establish what has recently changed in relation to the common psychological consequences associated with childhood OBy. A systematic search was conducted in MEDLINE, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library for articles presenting information on the identification or prevention of psychiatric morbidity in childhood obesity. Relevant data were extracted and narratively reviewed. Findings established childhood OW/OBy was negatively associated with psychological comorbidities, such as depression, poorer perceived lower scores on health-related quality of life, emotional and behavioral disorders, and self-esteem during childhood. Evidence related to the association between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and OBy remains unconvincing because of various findings from studies. OW children were more likely to experience multiple associated psychosocial problems than their healthy-weight peers, which may be adversely influenced by OBy stigma, teasing, and bullying. OBy stigma, teasing, and bullying are pervasive and can have serious consequences for emotional and physical health and performance. It remains unclear as to whether psychiatric disorders and psychological problems are a cause or a consequence of childhood obesity or whether common factors promote both obesity and psychiatric disturbances in susceptible children and adolescents. A cohesive and strategic approach to tackle this current obesity epidemic is necessary to combat this increasing trend which is compromising the health and well-being of the young generation and seriously

  15. Economic Evaluation of Childhood Obesity Interventions: Reflections and Suggestions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frew, Emma

    2016-08-01

    Rising levels of childhood obesity present a serious global public health problem amounting to 7 % of GDP in developed countries and affecting 14 % of children. As such, many countries are investing increasingly large quantities of resource towards treatment and prevention. Whilst it is important to demonstrate the clinical effectiveness of any intervention, it is equally as important to demonstrate cost effectiveness as policy makers strive to get the best value for money from increasingly limited public resources. Economic evaluation assists with making these investment decisions and whilst it can offer considerable support in many healthcare contexts, applying it to a childhood obesity context is not straightforward. Childhood obesity is a complex disease with interventions being multi-component in nature. Furthermore, the interventions are implemented in a variety of settings such as schools, the community, and the home, and have costs and benefits that fall outside the health sector. This paper provides a reflection from a UK perspective on the application of the conventional approach to economic evaluation to childhood obesity. It offers suggestions for how evaluations should be designed to fit better within this context, and to meet the needs of local decision makers. An excellent example is the need to report costs using a micro-costing format and for benefit measurement to go beyond a health focus. This is critical as the organisation and commissioning of childhood obesity services is done from a Local Authority setting and this presents further challenges for what is the most appropriate economic evaluation approach to use. Given that adult obesity is now of epidemic proportions, the accurate assessment of childhood obesity interventions to support public health decision making is critical.

  16. [Economical costs and consequences of childhood obesity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Cortés, Rosa

    2014-01-01

    There is some concern because the generations born in the last decades of the 20th century could have lower longevity than the previous ones as a result of the diseases caused by obesity. Mexico has the highest index of prevalence of childhood obesity, and it has increased very fast. It is fundamental to generate healthcare models focused on obese patients, and oriented to the prevention of complications. Implementing preventive actions since childhood must be the priority. Health education in childhood obesity will be the only realistic way to solve the problem.

  17. Do School Lunches Contribute to Childhood Obesity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schanzenbach, Diane Whitmore

    2009-01-01

    This paper assesses whether school lunches contribute to childhood obesity. I employ two methods to isolate the causal impact of school lunches on obesity. First, using panel data, I ?nd that children who consume school lunches are more likely to be obese than those who brown bag their lunches even though they enter kindergarten with the same…

  18. Polygenic Risk, Rapid Childhood Growth, and the Development of Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belsky, Daniel W.; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Houts, Renate; Bennett, Gary G.; Biddle, Andrea K.; Blumenthal, James A.; Evans, James P.; Harrington, HonaLee; Sugden, Karen; Williams, Benjamin; Poulton, Richie; Caspi, Avshalom

    2012-01-01

    Objective To test how genomic loci identified in genome-wide association studies influence the development of obesity. Design A 38-year prospective longitudinal study of a representative birth cohort. Setting The Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study, Dunedin, New Zealand. Participants One thousand thirty-seven male and female study members. Main Exposures We assessed genetic risk with a multilocus genetic risk score. The genetic risk score was composed of single-nucleotide polymorphisms identified in genome-wide association studies of obesity-related phenotypes. We assessed family history from parent body mass index data collected when study members were 11 years of age. Main Outcome Measures Body mass index growth curves, developmental phenotypes of obesity, and adult obesity outcomes were defined from anthropometric assessments at birth and at 12 subsequent in-person interviews through 38 years of age. Results Individuals with higher genetic risk scores were more likely to be chronically obese in adulthood. Genetic risk first manifested as rapid growth during early childhood. Genetic risk was unrelated to birth weight. After birth, children at higher genetic risk gained weight more rapidly and reached adiposity rebound earlier and at a higher body mass index. In turn, these developmental phenotypes predicted adult obesity, mediating about half the genetic effect on adult obesity risk. Genetic associations with growth and obesity risk were independent of family history, indicating that the genetic risk score could provide novel information to clinicians. Conclusions Genetic variation linked with obesity risk operates, in part, through accelerating growth in the early childhood years after birth. Etiological research and prevention strategies should target early childhood to address the obesity epidemic. PMID:22665028

  19. Birth cohort effect on the obesity epidemic in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Lina W; Baker, Jennifer Lyn; Holst, Claus;

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In Denmark, the obesity epidemic has developed in phases. To investigate if this has been a birth cohort phenomenon, we explored the secular trend in the prevalence of obesity among boys and young men. METHODS: We calculated body mass index (BMI; kg/m) over time for 163,835 Danish boys...

  20. Obesity in childhood and adolescence, genetic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memedi, Rexhep; Tasic, Velibor; Nikolic, Erieta; Jancevska, Aleksandra; Gucev, Zoran

    2013-01-01

    Obesity and overweight are a pandemic phenomenon in the modern world. Childhood and adolescent obesity often ends up in obesity in adults. The costs of obesity and its consequences are staggering for any society, crippling for countries in development. The etiology is complex, but most often idiopathic. Hormonal, syndromic and medication-induced obesity are well investigated. Genetic causes are increasingly described. Novel technologies such as whole exome sequencing identify ever more candidate genes influencing or causing obesity. All insights into the complex problem of obesity in a team approach to treatment: diet, psychology, medications and surgery. We briefly review epidemiology, etiology, consequences and treatment approaches in childhood and adolescent obesity, with special emphasis on emerging knowledge of its genetics.

  1. Psychological consequences of childhood obesity: psychiatric comorbidity and prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rankin J

    2016-11-01

    from studies. OW children were more likely to experience multiple associated psychosocial problems than their healthy-weight peers, which may be adversely influenced by OBy stigma, teasing, and bullying. OBy stigma, teasing, and bullying are pervasive and can have serious consequences for emotional and physical health and performance. It remains unclear as to whether psychiatric disorders and psychological problems are a cause or a consequence of childhood obesity or whether common factors promote both obesity and psychiatric disturbances in susceptible children and adolescents. A cohesive and strategic approach to tackle this current obesity epidemic is necessary to combat this increasing trend which is compromising the health and well-being of the young generation and seriously impinging on resources and economic costs. Keywords: pediatric obesity, psychological comorbidity, mental health, ADHD, depression, anxiety, obesity stigma, teasing, bullying

  2. Vitamin D deficiency and childhood obesity: interactions, implications, and recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peterson CA

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Catherine A Peterson Department of Nutrition and Exercise Physiology, University of Missouri-Columbia, Columbia, MO, USA Abstract: Vitamin D deficiency and childhood obesity have been classified as epidemics throughout the world, and both share some common risk factors including poor diet and inactivity. Observational and clinical studies show that vitamin D status and fat mass are inversely correlated. It is not clear whether vitamin D deficiency contributes to, or is a consequence of obesity, or whether there are regulatory interactions between excess adiposity and vitamin D activity. The effects of this deficiency in childhood obesity appear to have negative influences on overall health, including insulin resistance, inflammation, and impeded bone mineralization, as well as increased future risk of type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and osteoporosis. The rather ubiquitous distribution of the vitamin D receptor and the 25-hydroxyvitamin D 1a-hydroxylase throughout the body, including evidence for a role of vitamin D in adipogenesis and adipocyte metabolism, may in part explain these widespread effects. Most of the findings to date suggest that the vitamin D needs of obese children are greater than the nonobese. Although ultraviolet B-induced skin synthesis is a main source of vitamin D, its use is neither feasible nor prudent due to limited sun availability for many and concerns for skin cancer. Likewise, obtaining adequate vitamin D from natural food sources alone is generally not achievable, and even in countries that allow fortification, vitamin D intakes are low. Therefore, in obese children, vitamin D supplementation is warranted. Weight loss interventions using energy restriction and physical activity may also improve the poor vitamin D status associated with obesity. More research is needed to define optimal vitamin D status in this vulnerable population, including investigations to determine the efficacy of vitamin D

  3. Food Away from Home and Childhood Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancino, Lisa; Todd, Jessica E; Guthrie, Joanne; Lin, Biing-Hwan

    2014-12-01

    Childhood obesity is associated with a number of serious health risks that can persist into adulthood. While trends in food away from home and fast-food consumption have paralleled trends in childhood obesity, it is important to identify whether this is a causal relationship. This paper reviews recent literature in this area to summarize if there is a consensus in research findings. We group the literature into two areas - consumption of and access to food away from home (FAFH). While no consensus findings have been reached in either area, the evidence of an association between FAFH consumption and childhood obesity has gained strength. Further, there is evidence that FAFH meals add calories to children's diets. The literature on the role of FAFH access and childhood obesity has continued producing mixed results.

  4. Childhood obesity treatment and prevention. Psychological perspectives of clinical approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Catena Quattropani; Teresa Buccheri

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This work focuses on clinical psychologist’ presence within childhood obesity prevention programmes in several countries. Method: The Authors collected articles considering psychological, biological and social aspects linked to childhood obesity. Results: Studies reveal that childhood obesity prevention programmes are based on biological, medical and educational aspects; clinical psychologists up until now have been engaged almost exclusively in the treatment of obesity. Conclusion...

  5. Is Childhood Obesity Related to TV Addiction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves, David

    1988-01-01

    Excessive television viewing is associated with obesity in children because it decreases time spent on physical activity, and promotes overeating of snacks and high calorie foods. Childhood obesity demands physicians' concern because of the physical and psychological damage which follows its victims into adulthood. (IAH)

  6. Childhood obesity : medical, cultural and psychological factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Radhakishun, N.N.E.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to examine medical, cultural and psychological factors of childhood obesity in a multi-ethnic cohort. Medical factors Several associations between weight measured and hormones were determined in obese children between 6 and 18 years. Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) was a

  7. Childhood obesity: medical, cultural and psychological factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Radhakishun, N.N.E.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to examine medical, cultural and psychological factors of childhood obesity in a multi-ethnic cohort. Medical factors Several associations between weight measured and hormones were determined in obese children between 6 and 18 years. Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) was

  8. "Let's Move!" to End Childhood Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obama, Michelle

    2011-01-01

    Childhood obesity rates in America have tripled in the last three decades. Almost one in three children are considered overweight or obese. Pediatricians are now treating children for adult diseases like type II diabetes and hypertension. All parents want the best for their children. They want children to succeed in school, fulfill their dreams,…

  9. [Regulation of food advertising on television for the prevention of childhood obesity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, Catalina González; Samur, Eduardo Atalah

    2011-09-01

    Obesity is a serious global epidemic and the prevention strategies implemented have been insufficient. Numerous environmental factors have been associated with risk of obesity and their full consideration in prevention policies is important. The connection between food advertising on television and childhood obesity has been demonstrated. The large number of advertisements for unhealthy foods targeted at children through television and its possible impact on health has led some countries to legislate on this matter. However, a conceptual framework of reference enabling legislation must be internationally defined in order to achieve a real impact in preventing childhood obesity. This paper reviews scientific evidence on the relationship between food advertising and childhood obesity as a basis for developing public policies to regulate food marketing on television.

  10. Overweight and obesity in Massachusetts: epidemic, hype or policy opportunity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Katharine Kranz; Man, Lynne H

    2007-01-23

    In 2005, more than 56 percent of Massachusetts adults were overweight, a 40 percent increase from rates reported in 1990. Overall, nearly 21 percent of Massachusetts adults are obese. Both Blacks and Hispanics in the state are more likely than whites to be both overweight and obese, whereas Asians are the least likely to be overweight or obese. Nationally, rates of overweight and obesity are even higher. Obesity is a risk factor for multiple serious health problems in adults, including heart disease, hardening of the arteries, high cholesterol, high blood pressure, certain types of cancer, stroke, diabetes, muscle and bone disorders and gallbladder disease. In Massachusetts, it is estimated that direct costs for obesity-related medical expenditures came to a total of $1.8 billion (4.7% of total medical expenditures) in 2003. Medical expenditures for obese people are estimated to be 25-27% higher than normal weight people, and 44% higher among people who are very obese. Costs are largely attributed to higher rates of coronary heart disease, hypertension and diabetes, and longer hospital stays. Indirect costs associated with obesity approached $3.9 billion in 1995 reflecting 39.2 million lost workdays, 239 million restricted activity days, 89.5 million hospital bed-days, and 62.6 million physician visits. Causes of obesity include the wide availability of unhealthy foods, increased consumption, changing eating habits, high-calorie beverages, advertising and lack of physical activity. Although a number federal, state and local programs, policies and initiatives aimed at curbing the obesity epidemic have been implemented, more needs to be done. What is the responsibility of government in curbing the obesity epidemic, and how much of the burden should be left up to the individual? These important questions will be discussed at the Massachusetts Health Policy Forum on January 23, 2007. Overweight and obesity continue to climb steadily in the United States among both

  11. Survey of American food trends and the growing obesity epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Qin; Chin, Khew-Voon

    2011-06-01

    The rapid rise in the incidence of obesity has emerged as one of the most pressing global public health issues in recent years. The underlying etiological causes of obesity, whether behavioral, environmental, genetic, or a combination of several of them, have not been completely elucidated. The obesity epidemic has been attributed to the ready availability, abundance, and overconsumption of high-energy content food. We determined here by Pearson's correlation the relationship between food type consumption and rising obesity using the loss-adjusted food availability data from the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Economic Research Services (ERS) as well as the obesity prevalence data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) and the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Our analysis showed that total calorie intake and consumption of high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) did not correlate with rising obesity trends. Intake of other major food types, including chicken, dairy fats, salad and cooking oils, and cheese also did not correlate with obesity trends. However, our results surprisingly revealed that consumption of corn products correlated with rising obesity and was independent of gender and race/ethnicity among population dynamics in the U.S. Therefore, we were able to demonstrate a novel link between the consumption of corn products and rising obesity trends that has not been previously attributed to the obesity epidemic. This correlation coincides with the introduction of bioengineered corns into the human food chain, thus raising a new hypothesis that should be tested in molecular and animal models of obesity.

  12. Physical activity and obesity mediate the association between childhood motor function and adolescents’ academic achievement

    OpenAIRE

    Kantomaa, Marko T.; Stamatakis, Emmanuel; Kankaanpää, Anna; Kaakinen, Marika; Rodriguez, Alina; Taanila, Anja; Ahonen, Timo; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Tammelin, Tuija

    2012-01-01

    The global epidemic of obesity and physical inactivity may have detrimental implications for young people’s cognitive function and academic achievement. This prospective study investigated whether childhood motor function predicts later academic achievement via physical activity, fitness, and obesity. The study sample included 8,061 children from the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986, which contains data about parent-reported motor function at age 8 y and self-reported physical activity, pre...

  13. 76 FR 55205 - National Childhood Obesity Awareness Month, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-06

    ... childhood obesity within a generation. Let's Move! aims to help ensure we can make healthy choices about the... communities where nutritious food is limited or unavailable. Childhood obesity cuts across all cultural and... September 6, 2011 Part III The President Proclamation 8702--National Childhood Obesity Awareness Month,...

  14. Family Counseling and Childhood Obesity: A Review of Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrissette, Patrick J.; Taylor, Daniel

    2002-01-01

    Childhood obesity continues to be one of the most refractory and resistant problems encountered by children. This article provides a comprehensive review of the literature and addresses the presumed influence of family members in relation to childhood obesity. Directions for future family counseling research into childhood obesity are also…

  15. A community-based behavior modification intervention for childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillis, David; Brauner, Michal; Granot, Esther

    2007-02-01

    Childhood obesity, caused by reduced physical activity and increased food consumption, has reached epidemic proportions. We hypothesized that a single practitioner could enable a child to reduce BMI by educating towards a healthier lifestyle and then reinforcing the message in a structured manner. In this study, intervention group participants and their parents received a half-hour talk on exercise and diet, repeated after 3 months. They were instructed to fill weekly diaries and were called weekly by telephone. Controls received the initial instruction only. Twenty-seven (14 intervention) obese children were recruited. Anthropometric parameters, fitness and biochemical data were collected before intervention and after 6 months in both groups. Sustained but not statistically significant improvements in attitude, BMI SDS and LDL-cholesterol were noted in the intervention group. These promising results support a need for further work to evaluate the efficacy and applicability of our approach in the population at large.

  16. Childhood obesity: medical, cultural and psychological factors

    OpenAIRE

    Radhakishun, N.N.E.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to examine medical, cultural and psychological factors of childhood obesity in a multi-ethnic cohort. Medical factors Several associations between weight measured and hormones were determined in obese children between 6 and 18 years. Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) was associated with age and sex standardized body mass index (Z-BMI), impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance, high total cholesterol, high LDL-cholesterol and high triglycerides. There wer...

  17. The Obesity Epidemic Comes to Campuses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strout, Erin

    2007-01-01

    The American College Health Association estimates that three out of every 10 college students are overweight or obese. Both terms denote ranges of weight that are greater than what is considered healthy for a given height and have been shown to increase the likelihood of diseases. Over the past two decades, the number of American children who are…

  18. Physical activity and obesity mediate the association between childhood motor function and adolescents' academic achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantomaa, Marko T; Stamatakis, Emmanuel; Kankaanpää, Anna; Kaakinen, Marika; Rodriguez, Alina; Taanila, Anja; Ahonen, Timo; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Tammelin, Tuija

    2013-01-29

    The global epidemic of obesity and physical inactivity may have detrimental implications for young people's cognitive function and academic achievement. This prospective study investigated whether childhood motor function predicts later academic achievement via physical activity, fitness, and obesity. The study sample included 8,061 children from the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986, which contains data about parent-reported motor function at age 8 y and self-reported physical activity, predicted cardiorespiratory fitness (cycle ergometer test), obesity (body weight and height), and academic achievement (grades) at age 16 y. Structural equation models with unstandardized (B) and standardized (β) coefficients were used to test whether, and to what extent, physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness, and obesity at age 16 mediated the association between childhood motor function and adolescents' academic achievement. Physical activity was associated with a higher grade-point average, and obesity was associated with a lower grade-point average in adolescence. Furthermore, compromised motor function in childhood had a negative indirect effect on adolescents' academic achievement via physical inactivity (B = -0.023, 95% confidence interval = -0.031, -0.015) and obesity (B = -0.025, 95% confidence interval = -0.039, -0.011), but not via cardiorespiratory fitness. These results suggest that physical activity and obesity may mediate the association between childhood motor function and adolescents' academic achievement. Compromised motor function in childhood may represent an important factor driving the effects of obesity and physical inactivity on academic underachievement.

  19. Changes in lipidemia during chronic care treatment of childhood obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Tenna Ruest Haarmark; Gamborg, Michael; Fonvig, Cilius Esmann

    2012-01-01

    Childhood obesity and related co-morbidities are increasing. This intervention study assessed the associations between weight changes and lipidemia in obese children and adolescents.......Childhood obesity and related co-morbidities are increasing. This intervention study assessed the associations between weight changes and lipidemia in obese children and adolescents....

  20. Childhood obesity treatment and prevention. Psychological perspectives of clinical approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Catena Quattropani

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This work focuses on clinical psychologist’ presence within childhood obesity prevention programmes in several countries. Method: The Authors collected articles considering psychological, biological and social aspects linked to childhood obesity. Results: Studies reveal that childhood obesity prevention programmes are based on biological, medical and educational aspects; clinical psychologists up until now have been engaged almost exclusively in the treatment of obesity. Conclusions: There is a clear need to consider psychological aspects (emotional, cognitive and relational related to the childhood obesity’s causes and involve psychologists in its prevention projects. Keywords: childhood obesity, overweight, multidisciplinary approach, clinical psychology, prevention, treatment

  1. Childhood obesity in transition zones: an analysis using structuration theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Christine; Deave, Toity; Greenhalgh, Trisha

    2010-07-01

    Childhood obesity is particularly prevalent in areas that have seen rapid economic growth, urbanisation, cultural transition, and commodification of food systems. Structuration theory may illuminate the interaction between population and individual-level causes of obesity. We conducted in-depth ethnographies of six overweight/obese and four non-overweight preschool children in Hong Kong, each followed for 12-18 months. Analysis was informed by Stones' strong structuration theory. Risk factors played out differently for different children as social structures were enacted at the level of family and preschool. The network of caregiving roles and relationships around the overweight/obese child was typically weak and disjointed, and the primary caregiver appeared confused by mixed messages about what is normal, expected and legitimate behaviour. In particular, external social structures created pressure to shift childcare routines from the logic of nurturing to the logic of consumption. Our findings suggest that threats to what Giddens called ontological security in the primary caregiver may underpin the poor parenting, family stress and weak mealtime routines that mediate the relationship between an obesogenic environment and the development of obesity in a particular child. This preliminary study offers a potentially transferable approach for studying emerging epidemics of diseases of modernity in transition societies.

  2. Large heterogeneity of the obesity epidemic in Danish adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heitmann, Berit L; Strøger, Ulla; Lyngby Mikkelsen, Kim

    2004-01-01

    were irregular, different among men and women, and different in the different age and birth cohorts. The obesity problem in middle-aged and older men of certain birth cohorts poses a specific public health challenge. Future studies of determinants behind the heterogeneity in the development......OBJECTIVE: To examine to what extent the obesity epidemic is a general phenomenon in adults by assessing the secular change, by birth cohort and age, in the prevalence of obesity and median body mass index (BMI) in Danish men and women measured between 1964 and 1994. DESIGN: Multiple cross......-sectional population surveys. SETTING: The greater Copenhagen area of Denmark. SUBJECTS: The study included 17,065 men (30 336 observations) and 13,417 women (24,065 observations), aged 20-84 years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Trends in median BMI and prevalence of obesity estimated from measured height and weight in 10...

  3. Disorders of childhood growth and development: childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez, Robert; Grissom, Maureen

    2013-07-01

    The incidence of childhood obesity in the United States is estimated at 17%, or 12 million children ages 2 to 19 years. Obesity is a multifactorial condition with syndromic and nonsyndromic variants. Genetic, social, ethnic, endocrinologic, and behavioral issues are all potential etiologic factors. Preventive efforts should begin with monitoring from birth and include breastfeeding until age 6 months, avoiding juices, and promoting fruit and vegetable consumption and adequate exercise. Childhood obesity is diagnosed based on body mass index; a child is considered overweight at the 85th to 95th percentiles and obese at or above the 95th percentile. After obesity is diagnosed, testing should include blood pressure levels, fasting lipid profile, diabetes screening, and liver function tests. The physician should obtain a detailed history of the physical activity level and food intake and assess possible complications of obesity, including depression and hypertension, annually. Lifestyle interventions with family involvement are the mainstay of management, with pharmacotherapy or bariatric surgery considered for adolescents only if intensive lifestyle modifications have failed and in the presence of comorbidities. Intervention by multiple disciplines (ie, medicine, nutrition, psychology) is recommended, and family physicians are encouraged to become more involved in encouraging physical activity and improved nutrition for children.

  4. The potential role of sports psychology in the obesity epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelli, Vincent; Davis, Carolyn

    2013-06-01

    Sports psychologists play an important role in enhancing performance among athletes. In conjunction with team physicians, they can also shed light on psychological disorders common in athletes, such as mood and eating disorders, and overtraining syndrome. Sports psychologists can also lend their expertise to assist with injury prevention and recovery and compliance issues. Sports psychology has a role in helping to reverse the growing obesity epidemic among school-aged children. These professionals, working with coaches, can increase children's levels of physical activity. Cognitive-behavioral techniques could lead to enhanced enjoyment, increased participation, improved school performance, and a reduction in obesity.

  5. Chaos Versus Noisy Periodicity: Alternative Hypotheses for Childhood Epidemics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, L. F.; Schaffer, W. M.

    1990-08-01

    Whereas case rates for some childhood diseases (chickenpox) often vary according to an almost regular annual cycle, the incidence of more efficiently transmitted infections such as measles is more variable. Three hypotheses have been proposed to account for such fluctuations. (i) Irregular dynamics result from random shocks to systems with stable equilibria. (ii) The intrinsic dynamics correspond to biennial cycles that are subject to stochastic forcing. (iii) Aperiodic fluctuations are intrinsic to the epidemiology. Comparison of real world data and epidemiological models suggests that measles epidemics are inherently chaotic. Conversely, the extent to which chickenpox outbreaks approximate a yearly cycle depends inversely on the population size.

  6. Childhood obesity: Determinants, evaluation, and prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moutusi Raychaudhuri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Childhood obesity is a grave issue, which needs to be addressed urgently because it leads to several medical and psychosocial problems in children. High prevalence is being increasingly reported in children from developing countries as well. The combination of our genetic propensity to store fat, the ready availability of calorie dense foods, and sedentary lifestyle promotes overweight. The child′s food environment at home and parental obesity are strong determinants. Urban poor in developed countries and urban rich in developing countries are both at risk. In developing countries, a number of beliefs passed down over generations are other important determinants. Evaluation includes assessing the child′s lifestyle, excluding weight-promoting medication history; poor linear growth needs endocrine evaluation; genetic syndromes should be considered if there are clinical pointers. Overweight children should be evaluated for hypertension, dyslipidemia, T2DM, and NAFLD. Therapeutic lifestyle changes targeting food habits and physical activity through parental participation and social support are the cornerstones of preventing childhood obesity. Active travel and play by making the built environment more accessible, ban on ′junk′ food advertising, and effective health education through active participation of clinicians, school systems, and the media will go a long way in reversing anticipated trends in childhood obesity.

  7. Disease Risks of Childhood Obesity in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN-PING LI; XIAO-GUANG YANG; FENG-YING ZHAI; JIAN-HUA PIAO; WEN-HUA ZHAO; JIAN ZHANG; GUAN-SHENG MA

    2005-01-01

    .3% obese boys and all obese girls had metabolic syndrome, while only15.5% normal weight boys and 18.8% normal weight girls had metabolic syndrome. Four risk factors for metabolic syndrome were found in 8.3% obese boys while none in normal weight boys and girls. The prevalence of MetS among normal weight,overweight, and obesity groups was 1.5%, 18.3%, and 38.1% respectively. Conclusion The cardiovascular disease (CVD)risk factors are clustered in obese Chinese children. Our observations strongly suggest that efforts should be made to prevent the onset of overweight and its associated diseases during early childhood.

  8. Getting to grips with the obesity epidemic in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuschieri, Sarah; Mamo, Julian

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a global epidemic. It is responsible for increased patient morbidity and mortality. Significant related pathologies including diabetes mellitus compound the overall risks. Obesity is a significant financial burden. This includes direct and indirect medical costs, amounting to millions of euros each year. Multiple European studies have outlined a steady incline in obesity prevalence rates. Tackling obesity is no easy task. Policy makers aiming to reduce obesity rates should adopt an evidence-based approach. This entails adopting both micro- and macro-interventions tweaked to each country’s individual requirements. The ideal way forward would be to tackle obesity from the individual, population-wide and food industry angles. The key towards a successful intervention is for each country to carry out well-planned health examination studies, in an attempt to pin point local risk factors. Having a correct individualized picture, each country can move forward and draw policies and interventional procedures. The aim should be to primarily improve the quality of life. Second, the country’s capital expenditure is also reduced. PMID:27708778

  9. Childhood Obesity in Primary Care : Not yet General Practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.D. Paulis (Winifred)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractThe prevalence of childhood obesity has at least doubled the last 30 years. Childhood obesity is associated with an increased likelihood to develop adult obesity, which translates into increased risk for chronic diseases, including diabetes mellitus type 2, cardiovascular disease and

  10. Childhood obesity: a role for gut microbiota?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Marina; Panahi, Shirin; Tremblay, Angelo

    2014-12-23

    Obesity is a serious public health issue affecting both children and adults. Prevention and management of obesity is proposed to begin in childhood when environmental factors exert a long-term effect on the risk for obesity in adulthood. Thus, identifying modifiable factors may help to reduce this risk. Recent evidence suggests that gut microbiota is involved in the control of body weight, energy homeostasis and inflammation and thus, plays a role in the pathophysiology of obesity. Prebiotics and probiotics are of interest because they have been shown to alter the composition of gut microbiota and to affect food intake and appetite, body weight and composition and metabolic functions through gastrointestinal pathways and modulation of the gut bacterial community. As shown in this review, prebiotics and probiotics have physiologic functions that contribute to changes in the composition of gut microbiota, maintenance of a healthy body weight and control of factors associated with childhood obesity through their effects on mechanisms controlling food intake, fat storage and alterations in gut microbiota.

  11. Childhood Obesity: A Role for Gut Microbiota?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Sanchez

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a serious public health issue affecting both children and adults. Prevention and management of obesity is proposed to begin in childhood when environmental factors exert a long-term effect on the risk for obesity in adulthood. Thus, identifying modifiable factors may help to reduce this risk. Recent evidence suggests that gut microbiota is involved in the control of body weight, energy homeostasis and inflammation and thus, plays a role in the pathophysiology of obesity. Prebiotics and probiotics are of interest because they have been shown to alter the composition of gut microbiota and to affect food intake and appetite, body weight and composition and metabolic functions through gastrointestinal pathways and modulation of the gut bacterial community. As shown in this review, prebiotics and probiotics have physiologic functions that contribute to changes in the composition of gut microbiota, maintenance of a healthy body weight and control of factors associated with childhood obesity through their effects on mechanisms controlling food intake, fat storage and alterations in gut microbiota.

  12. [Focus of childhood obesity from pediatrics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtado-López, Erika F; Macías-Rosales, Rocío

    2014-01-01

    The prevalences of overweight and obesity have increased dramatically in the last two decades in the adult and children population. The Organization for Cooperation and Economic Development reported in 2010 that Mexico ranks first worldwide in childhood obesity. The 2006 National Health and Nutrition Survey reported that one of every three teenagers are overweight and obese. In the last decades, pediatric hospitals in different parts of the world reported the prevalence of secondary malnutrition, since in those days overweight and obesity did not represent health problems. Currently, the prevalence of overweight and obesity has been scarcely studied in pediatric hospitals. In the Hospital de Pediatría (Children's Hospital) of the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social's Centro Médico Nacional de Occidente it is reported a prevalence of overweight of 15.4 % and obesity of 12.2 %, which reflects a nutritional transition.Due to the high prevalence of overweight and obesity in this pediatric hospital of reference, one could conclude that the pediatrician should be able to make a correct evaluation of the nutritional state, because, if he does not detect these problems, we will be condemning children to suffer from a chronic disease for the rest of their lives, and with all the implications in the short, medium and long term.

  13. Vegetarian diets and childhood obesity prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabaté, Joan; Wien, Michelle

    2010-05-01

    The increased prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity is not unique to industrialized societies; dramatic increases are occurring in urbanized areas of developing countries. In light of the consensus that obesity is a significant public health concern and that many weight-loss interventions have been unsuccessful in the long term, an exploration of food patterns that are beneficial in the primary prevention of obesity is warranted. The focus of this article is to review the relation between vegetarian diets and obesity, particularly as they relate to childhood obesity. Epidemiologic studies indicate that vegetarian diets are associated with a lower body mass index (BMI) and a lower prevalence of obesity in adults and children. A meta-analysis of adult vegetarian diet studies estimated a reduced weight difference of 7.6 kg for men and 3.3 kg for women, which resulted in a 2-point lower BMI (in kg/m(2)). Similarly, compared with nonvegetarians, vegetarian children are leaner, and their BMI difference becomes greater during adolescence. Studies exploring the risk of overweight and food groups and dietary patterns indicate that a plant-based diet seems to be a sensible approach for the prevention of obesity in children. Plant-based diets are low in energy density and high in complex carbohydrate, fiber, and water, which may increase satiety and resting energy expenditure. Plant-based dietary patterns should be encouraged for optimal health and environmental benefits. Food policies are warranted to support social marketing messages and to reduce the cultural and economic forces that make it difficult to promote plant-based dietary patterns.

  14. Towards health in all policies for childhood obesity prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendriks, Anna-Marie; Kremers, Stef P J; Gubbels, Jessica S; Raat, Hein; de Vries, Nanne K; Jansen, Maria W J

    2013-01-01

    The childhood obesity epidemic can be best tackled by means of an integrated approach, which is enabled by integrated public health policies, or Health in All Policies. Integrated policies are developed through intersectoral collaboration between local government policy makers from health and nonhealth sectors. Such intersectoral collaboration has been proved to be difficult. In this study, we investigated which resources influence intersectoral collaboration. The behavior change wheel framework was used to categorize motivation-, capability-, and opportunity-related resources for intersectoral collaboration. In-depth interviews were held with eight officials representing 10 non-health policy sectors within a local government. Results showed that health and non-health policy sectors did not share policy goals, which decreased motivation for intersectoral collaboration. Awareness of the linkage between health and nonhealth policy sectors was limited, and management was not involved in creating such awareness, which reduced the capability for intersectoral collaboration. Insufficient organizational resources and structures reduced opportunities for intersectoral collaboration. To stimulate intersectoral collaboration to prevent childhood obesity, we recommend that public health professionals should reframe health goals in the terminology of nonhealth policy sectors, that municipal department managers should increase awareness of public health in non-health policy sectors, and that flatter organizational structures should be established.

  15. Towards Health in All Policies for Childhood Obesity Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna-Marie Hendriks

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The childhood obesity epidemic can be best tackled by means of an integrated approach, which is enabled by integrated public health policies, or Health in All Policies. Integrated policies are developed through intersectoral collaboration between local government policy makers from health and nonhealth sectors. Such intersectoral collaboration has been proved to be difficult. In this study, we investigated which resources influence intersectoral collaboration. The behavior change wheel framework was used to categorize motivation-, capability-, and opportunity-related resources for intersectoral collaboration. In-depth interviews were held with eight officials representing 10 non-health policy sectors within a local government. Results showed that health and non-health policy sectors did not share policy goals, which decreased motivation for intersectoral collaboration. Awareness of the linkage between health and nonhealth policy sectors was limited, and management was not involved in creating such awareness, which reduced the capability for intersectoral collaboration. Insufficient organizational resources and structures reduced opportunities for intersectoral collaboration. To stimulate intersectoral collaboration to prevent childhood obesity, we recommend that public health professionals should reframe health goals in the terminology of nonhealth policy sectors, that municipal department managers should increase awareness of public health in non-health policy sectors, and that flatter organizational structures should be established.

  16. Lifestyle Triple P: a parenting intervention for childhood obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerards Sanne MPL

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reversing the obesity epidemic requires the development and evaluation of childhood obesity intervention programs. Lifestyle Triple P is a parent-focused group program that addresses three topics: nutrition, physical activity, and positive parenting. Australian research has established the efficacy of Lifestyle Triple P, which aims to prevent excessive weight gain in overweight and obese children. The aim of the current randomized controlled trial is to assess the effectiveness of the Lifestyle Triple P intervention when applied to Dutch parents of overweight and obese children aged 4–8 years. This effectiveness study is called GO4fit. Methods/Design Parents of overweight and obese children are being randomized to either the intervention or the control group. Those assigned to the intervention condition receive the 14-week Lifestyle Triple P intervention, in which they learn a range of nutritional, physical activity and positive parenting strategies. Parents in the control group receive two brochures, web-based tailored advice, and suggestions for exercises to increase active playing at home. Measurements are taken at baseline, directly after the intervention, and at one year follow-up. Primary outcome measure is the children’s body composition, operationalized as BMI z-score, waist circumference, and fat mass (biceps and triceps skinfolds. Secondary outcome measures are children’s dietary behavior and physical activity level, parenting practices, parental feeding style, parenting style, parental self-efficacy, and body composition of family members (parents and siblings. Discussion Our intervention is characterized by a focus on changing general parenting styles, in addition to focusing on changing specific parenting practices, as obesity interventions typically do. Strengths of the current study are the randomized design, the long-term follow-up, and the broad range of both self-reported and objectively measured

  17. Chronobesity: role of the circadian system in the obesity epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laermans, J; Depoortere, I

    2016-02-01

    Although obesity is considered to result from an imbalance between energy uptake and energy expenditure, the strategy of dietary changes and physical exercise has failed to tackle the global obesity epidemic. In search of alternative and more adequate treatment options, research has aimed at further unravelling the mechanisms underlying this excessive weight gain. While numerous studies are focusing on the neuroendocrine alterations that occur after bariatric Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery, an increasing amount of chronobiological studies have started to raise awareness concerning the pivotal role of the circadian system in the development and exacerbation of obesity. This internal timekeeping mechanism rhythmically regulates metabolic and physiological processes in order to meet the fluctuating demands in energy use and supply throughout the 24-h day. This review elaborates on the extensive bidirectional interaction between the circadian system and metabolism and explains how disruption of body clocks by means of shift work, frequent time zone travelling or non-stop consumption of calorie-dense foods can evoke detrimental metabolic alterations that contribute to obesity. Altering the body's circadian rhythms by means of time-related dietary approaches (chrononutrition) or pharmacological substances (chronobiotics) may therefore represent a novel and interesting way to prevent or treat obesity and associated comorbidities.

  18. Impact of infant feeding practices on childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butte, Nancy F

    2009-02-01

    Childhood obesity is a complex disease influenced by genetic and environmental factors and their interactions. The current surge in childhood obesity in the United States is attributable to an interaction between a genetic predisposition toward obesity and a permissive environment. Several recent systematic reviews and meta-analyses have been published on the association between breast-feeding and childhood obesity. In these analyses, adjustment for confounding factors attenuated or nullified the protective effect of breast-feeding on later obesity. The Viva La Familia Study was designed to identify genetic and environmental factors affecting obesity and its comorbidities in 1030 Hispanic children from 319 families. Odds ratios for potential risk factors associated with childhood overweight were computed using binary logistic regression for panel data. Early infant-feeding practices were not significant. Salient independent risk factors for childhood obesity in this cohort of Hispanic children were age, birth weight, maternal obesity, paternal obesity, number of children in the family, and the percentage of awake time spent in sedentary activity. Breast-feeding may have a small protective effect against childhood obesity, although residual confounding may exist. Human milk is exquisitely fitted for optimal infant growth and development and may uniquely modulate neuroendocrine and immunologic pathways involved in the regulation of body weight. Nevertheless, other genetic and environmental determinants such as socioeconomic status, parental obesity, smoking, birth weight, and rapid infancy weight gain far supersede infant-feeding practices as risk factors for childhood obesity.

  19. Childhood obesity in Asia: the value of accurate body composition methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hills, Andrew P; Mokhtar, Najat; Brownie, Sharon; Byrne, Nuala M

    2014-01-01

    Childhood obesity, a significant global public health problem, affects an increasing number of low- and middle-income countries, including in Asia. The obesity epidemic has been fuelled by the rapid nutrition and physical activity transition with the availability of more energy-dense nutrient-poor foods and lifestyles of many children dominated by physical inactivity. During the growing years the pace and quality of grow this best quantified by a combination of anthropometric and body composition measures. However, where normative data are available, this has typically been collected on Caucasian children. To better define and characterise overweight and obesity in Asian children, and to monitor nutrition and physical activity interventions, there is a need to increase the use of standardized anthropometric and body composition methodologies. The current paper reports on initiatives facilitated by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and outlines future research needs for the prevention and management of childhood obesity in Asia.

  20. Overweight and obesity epidemic among children. Answer from European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lissau, I

    2004-01-01

    -1998 within a period of 9 months. Height and weight were included as optional questions and 13 European countries, Israel and United States participated. METHODS: In both papers, body mass index (BMI) was used. In the first paper, measured BMI was used and prevalence of overweight was calculated using IOTF......OBJECTIVE: To investigate the methods and results used and conclusions found in available published papers on childhood overweight and obesity in Europe. SURVEYS: This paper compares the two available published papers on the prevalence of child and adolescent overweight and obesity in Europe...... cutoff points. In the other paper, overweight and obesity prevalences were calculated from self-reported height and weight using an internal study reference standard. RESULTS: The first paper found a north-south trend in overweight in Europe, whereas the second found a more equal distribution...

  1. Childhood obesity: a societal problem to solve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, M B; Puhl, R

    2003-02-01

    In contrast to other threats to American children's health, the treatment and prevention of childhood obesity are considered the responsibility of individual children and their parents. This pressure exists in the context of the societal stigmatization of overweight children and the powerful environmental inducements aimed directly at children to eat nutritionally poor foods. Parents of overweight children are left in the difficult position of fearing the social and health consequences of their child's obesity, and fighting a losing battle against the omnipotent presence of the media and constant exposure to unhealthy foods. This paper brings together several literatures to provide a comprehensive examination of the major challenges facing obese children and their families. In particular, this paper documents the extent of stigmatization towards overweight children and reviews evidence of the conflicting advice given to parents about how to help children develop healthful eating in the face of biological and learned food preferences. We conclude with a call for a shift in thinking about the role of our society in the aetiology, treatment and prevention of childhood obesity.

  2. From Sleep Duration to Childhood Obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Börnhorst, Claudia; Hense, Sabrina; Ahrens, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    Sleep duration has been identified as risk factor for obesity already in children. Besides investigating the role of fat mass (FM), this study addressed the question whether endocrine mechanisms act as intermediates in the association between sleep duration and overweight/obesity. Within......-specific measure of sleep duration was derived to account for alteration in sleep duration during childhood/period of growth. Multivariate linear regression and quantile regression models confirmed an inverse relationship between sleep duration and measures of overweight/obesity. The estimate for the association...... of sleep duration and body mass index (BMI) was approximately halved after adjustment for FM, but remained significant. The strength of this association was also markedly attenuated when adjusting for insulin mainly for the upper BMI quantiles (Q80, β = −0.36 vs. β = −0.26; Q95, β = −0.87 vs. β = −0...

  3. Whole of Systems Trial of Prevention Strategies for Childhood Obesity: WHO STOPS Childhood Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Allender

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Community-based initiatives show promise for preventing childhood obesity. They are characterized by community leaders and members working together to address complex local drivers of energy balance. Objectives: To present a protocol for a stepped wedge cluster randomized trial in ten communities in the Great South Coast Region of Victoria, Australia to test whether it is possible to: (1 strengthen community action for childhood obesity prevention, and (2 measure the impact of increased action on risk factors for childhood obesity. Methods: The WHO STOPS intervention involves a facilitated community engagement process that: creates an agreed systems map of childhood obesity causes for a community; identifies intervention opportunities through leveraging the dynamic aspects of the system; and, converts these understandings into community-built, systems-oriented action plans. Ten communities will be randomized (1:1 to intervention or control in year one and all communities will be included by year three. The primary outcome is childhood obesity prevalence among grade two (ages 7–8 y, grade four (9–10 y and grade six (11–12 y students measured using our established community-led monitoring system (69% school and 93% student participation rate in government and independent schools. An additional group of 13 external communities from other regions of Victoria with no specific interventions will provide an external comparison. These communities will also allow us to assess diffusion of the intervention to control communities during the first three years of the trial. Conclusion: This trial will test effectiveness, over a five-year period, of community-owned, -supported and -led strategies designed to address complex and dynamic causes of childhood obesity.

  4. A Systematic Review of Health Videogames on Childhood Obesity Prevention and Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Amy Shirong; Kharrazi, Hadi; Gharghabi, Fardad; Thompson, Debbe

    2013-06-01

    Childhood obesity is a global epidemic. Health videogames are an emerging intervention strategy to combat childhood obesity. This systematic review examined published research on the effect of health videogames on childhood obesity. Fourteen articles examining 28 health videogames published between 2005 and 2013 in English were selected from 2433 articles identified through five major search engines. Results indicated that academic interest in using health videogames for childhood obesity prevention has increased during this time. Most games were commercially available. Most studies were of short duration. Diverse player and game play patterns have been identified. Most studies involved players of both genders with slightly more boys. The majority of players were non-white. Most studies had the players play the games at home, whereas some extended the play setting to school and sports/recreational facilities. Most of the games were commercially available. Positive outcomes related to obesity were observed in about 40 percent of the studies, all of which targeted overweight or obese participants.

  5. State Legislation to Address Childhood Obesity. Program Results Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiester, Leila

    2012-01-01

    An estimated 12.5 million American children and teens are obese. Over time, the diseases and disabilities associated with obesity may undermine this population's health and result in substantial social and economic costs. Policies that address children's nutrition and physical activity are an important tool in reversing the obesity epidemic. More…

  6. Sleep and the epidemic of obesity in children and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Cauter, Eve; Knutson, Kristen L

    2008-12-01

    Sleep is an important modulator of neuroendocrine function and glucose metabolism in children as well as in adults. In recent years, sleep curtailment has become a hallmark of modern society with both children and adults having shorter bedtimes than a few decades ago. This trend for shorter sleep duration has developed over the same time period as the dramatic increase in the prevalence of obesity. There is rapidly accumulating evidence from both laboratory and epidemiological studies to indicate that chronic partial sleep loss may increase the risk of obesity and weight gain. The present article reviews laboratory evidence indicating that sleep curtailment in young adults results in a constellation of metabolic and endocrine alterations, including decreased glucose tolerance, decreased insulin sensitivity, elevated sympathovagal balance, increased evening concentrations of cortisol, increased levels of ghrelin, decreased levels of leptin, and increased hunger and appetite. We also review cross-sectional epidemiological studies associating short sleep with increased body mass index and prospective epidemiological studies that have shown an increased risk of weight gain and obesity in children and young adults who are short sleepers. Altogether, the evidence points to a possible role of decreased sleep duration in the current epidemic of obesity.

  7. Childhood obesity: State of art and future research directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz García Cortés

    2016-04-01

    It is expected to clarify agreements and dissonances in the proposals to combat and prevent childhood obesity. Furthermore, this study aims to project recommendations for future studies involving childhood obesity throw the causes that have been associated disease in the reviewed literature.

  8. Motivational interviewing to prevent childhood obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Döring, Nora; Ghaderi, Ata; Bohman, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective was to evaluate a manualized theory-driven primary preventive intervention aimed at early childhood obesity. The intervention was embedded in Swedish child health services, starting when eligible children were 9 to 10 months of age and continuing until the children reached...... in motivational interviewing, focusing on healthy food habits and physical activity. Families in the control group received care as usual. Primary outcomes were children's BMI, overweight prevalence, and waist circumference at age 4. Secondary outcomes were children's and mothers' food and physical activity...

  9. Is Maternal Employment Related to Childhood Obesity?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gwozdz, Wencke

    2016-01-01

    of working mothers may spend more time in the care of others, whose childcare quality may vary substantially. While a majority of US studies support this hypothesis and have clear policy implications, recent studies in other countries are less conclusive, largely because institutional arrangements differ......Childhood obesity has been rising steadily in most parts of the world. Popular speculation attributes some of that increase to rising maternal employment. Employed mothers spend less time at home and thus less time with their children, whose diets and physical activity may suffer. Also, children...

  10. Measured parental weight status and familial socio-economic status correlates with childhood overweight and obesity at age 9.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eimear Keane

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Parental obesity is a predominant risk factor for childhood obesity. Family factors including socio-economic status (SES play a role in determining parent weight. It is essential to unpick how shared family factors impact on child weight. This study aims to investigate the association between measured parent weight status, familial socio-economic factors and the risk of childhood obesity at age 9. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Cross sectional analysis of the first wave (2008 of the Growing Up in Ireland (GUI study. GUI is a nationally representative study of 9-year-old children (N = 8,568. Schools were selected from the national total (response rate 82% and age eligible children (response rate 57% were invited to participate. Children and their parents had height and weight measurements taken using standard methods. Data were reweighted to account for the sampling design. Childhood overweight and obesity prevalence were calculated using International Obesity Taskforce definitions. Multinomial logistic regression examined the association between parent weight status, indicators of SES and child weight. Overall, 25% of children were either overweight (19.3% or obese (6.6%. Parental obesity was a significant predictor of child obesity. Of children with normal weight parents, 14.4% were overweight or obese whereas 46.2% of children with obese parents were overweight or obese. Maternal education and household class were more consistently associated with a child being in a higher body mass index category than household income. Adjusted regression indicated that female gender, one parent family type, lower maternal education, lower household class and a heavier parent weight status significantly increased the odds of childhood obesity. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Parental weight appears to be the most influential factor driving the childhood obesity epidemic in Ireland and is an independent predictor of child obesity across SES groups. Due

  11. Childhood Obesity – Prevention Begins with Breastfeeding PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-08-02

    This 60 second Public Service Announcement (PSA) is based on the August, 2011 CDC Vital Signs report. Childhood obesity is an epidemic in the US. Breastfeeding can help prevent obesity, but one in three moms stop without hospital support. About 95% of hospitals lack policies that fully support breastfeeding moms. Hospitals need to do more to help moms start and continue breastfeeding.  Created: 8/2/2011 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 8/2/2011.

  12. Childhood obesity: a simple equation with complex variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strock, Gregory A; Cottrell, Erika R; Abang, Anthony E; Buschbacher, Ralph M; Hannon, Tamara S

    2005-01-01

    The prevalence of childhood obesity is rising rapidly, as are the associated medical complications, including type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and coronary heart disease. This has significant medical and socioeconomic implications. The definition of obesity in adults is based on body mass index (BMI), which has been correlated with morbidity and mortality. Similarly, the definition of childhood obesity is currently based on BMI; however, there are currently no data to relate morbidity and mortality to BMI values in children. The known and potential causes of childhood obesity are many, but they can be categorized as genetic, endocrine, prenatal/early life, physical activity, diet, and socioeconomic. These factors influence the basic equation: energy input = energy output. Imbalances in this equation can result in obesity. Here we present a review of recent literature and highlight the etiologies, certain complications, and potential prevention and treatment strategies of childhood obesity.

  13. Childhood obesity and cardiac remodeling: from cardiac structure to myocardial mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadic, Marijana; Cuspidi, Cesare

    2015-08-01

    Epidemic of obesity, especially morbid obesity, among children and adolescents, is a key factor associated with the dramatic increase in prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus, arterial hypertension, and metabolic syndrome in this population. Furthermore, childhood obesity represents a very important predictor of obesity in adulthood that is related to cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. Overweight and obesity in children and adolescents are associated with impairment of cardiac structure and function. The majority of studies investigated the influence of obesity on left ventricular remodeling. However, the impact of obesity on the right ventricle, both the atria, and myocardial mechanics has been insufficiently studied. The aim of this review article is to summarize all data about heart remodeling in childhood, from cardiac size, throughout systolic and diastolic function, to myocardial mechanics, using a wide range of mainly echocardiographic techniques and parameters. Additionally, we sought to present current knowledge about the influence of weight loss, achieved by various therapeutic approaches, on the improvement of cardiac geometry, structure, and function in obese children and adolescents.

  14. Predicting adult obesity from childhood obesity: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmonds, M; Llewellyn, A; Owen, C G; Woolacott, N

    2016-02-01

    A systematic review and meta-analysis was performed to investigate the ability of simple measures of childhood obesity such as body mass index (BMI) to predict future obesity in adolescence and adulthood. Large cohort studies, which measured obesity both in childhood and in later adolescence or adulthood, using any recognized measure of obesity were sought. Study quality was assessed. Studies were pooled using diagnostic meta-analysis methods. Fifteen prospective cohort studies were included in the meta-analysis. BMI was the only measure of obesity reported in any study, with 200,777 participants followed up. Obese children and adolescents were around five times more likely to be obese in adulthood than those who were not obese. Around 55% of obese children go on to be obese in adolescence, around 80% of obese adolescents will still be obese in adulthood and around 70% will be obese over age 30. Therefore, action to reduce and prevent obesity in these adolescents is needed. However, 70% of obese adults were not obese in childhood or adolescence, so targeting obesity reduction solely at obese or overweight children needs to be considered carefully as this may not substantially reduce the overall burden of adult obesity.

  15. NFC as a Childhood Obesity Treatment Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Hellín, P; Fontecha, J; Hervás, R; Bravo, J

    2015-09-01

    Childhood Obesity is associated with a wide range of serious health complications and constitutes an increased risk of premature syndromes, including diabetes or heart diseases. Its treatment seems to be complicated. So, in order to help parents we have developed a system that will try to make easier the process of choosing foodstuff for overweight and obese children at the supermarket. To interact with the system, Near Field Communication mobile phones and tags are used. Those tags would have nutritional information such as energy or fat contain of each product. When the interaction takes place, the system will generate an alert determining if the product is adequate for the user diet or not. Decision will be influenced by specific prescript diets, which would have been previously generated by the system based on user profile parameters. At the same time the diet is established, the shopping list would be generated automatically. Therefore, the user could download and print both things at home easily by the PC application. The system also takes into account physical activity of the user. Children mobile phone includes an accelerometer that will detect and collect user activities in order to modify calorical requirements and, if necessary, to change physical activity too. In the future, it would be possible to extend this project system for adults, managing diets not just for obese and overweight, but also to diabetic or celiac people.

  16. Neonatal anthropometrics and correlation to childhood obesity--data from the Danish Children's Obesity Clinic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lausten-Thomsen, Ulrik; Bille, Dorthe Sadowa; Nässlund, Ida

    2013-01-01

    UNLABELLED: Recent evidence has demonstrated the prenatal initiation of childhood obesity as epidemiological studies and animal studies have illustrated the effect of the intrauterine milieu for subsequent development of childhood obesity. This study investigates the relationship between severe...... childhood obesity and the preceding in utero conditions expressed by birth weight and birth length, birth-weight-for-gestational-age and neonatal ponderal index in a Danish cohort of 1,171 severely obese children (median age 11.48 years, range 3.13 to 17.98 years) with a mean body mass index...... that the prenatal period can be considered as a potential window of opportunity for prevention of childhood overweight and obesity and anthropological measurements may in theory be used to help identify neonates at high risk for developing childhood obesity....

  17. Crowdsourcing novel childhood predictors of adult obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten E Bevelander

    Full Text Available Effective and simple screening tools are needed to detect behaviors that are established early in life and have a significant influence on weight gain later in life. Crowdsourcing could be a novel and potentially useful tool to assess childhood predictors of adult obesity. This exploratory study examined whether crowdsourcing could generate well-documented predictors in obesity research and, moreover, whether new directions for future research could be uncovered. Participants were recruited through social media to a question-generation website, on which they answered questions and were able to pose new questions that they thought could predict obesity. During the two weeks of data collection, 532 participants (62% female; age  =  26.5±6.7; BMI  =  29.0±7.0 registered on the website and suggested a total of 56 unique questions. Nineteen of these questions correlated with body mass index (BMI and covered several themes identified by prior research, such as parenting styles and healthy lifestyle. More importantly, participants were able to identify potential determinants that were related to a lower BMI, but have not been the subject of extensive research, such as parents packing their children's lunch to school or talking to them about nutrition. The findings indicate that crowdsourcing can reproduce already existing hypotheses and also generate ideas that are less well documented. The crowdsourced predictors discovered in this study emphasize the importance of family interventions to fight obesity. The questions generated by participants also suggest new ways to express known predictors.

  18. IV. The cognitive implications of obesity and nutrition in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Naiman A; Raine, Lauren B; Donovan, Sharon M; Hillman, Charles H

    2014-12-01

    The prevalence of childhood obesity in the United States has tripled since the 1980s and is strongly linked to the early onset of several metabolic diseases. Recent studies indicate that lower cognitive function may be another complication of childhood obesity. This review considers the research to date on the role of obesity and nutrition on childhood cognition and brain health. Although a handful of studies point to a maladaptive relationship between obesity and aspects of cognitive control, remarkably little is known regarding the impact of fat mass on brain development and cognitive function. Further, missing from the literature is the role of nutrition in the obesity-cognition interaction. Nutrition may directly or indirectly influence cognitive performance via several pathways including provision of key substrates for optimal brain health, modulation of gut microbiota, and alterations in systemic energy balance. However, in the absence of malnutrition, the functional benefits of specific nutrient intake on particular cognitive domains are not well characterized. Here, we examine the literature linking childhood obesity and cognition while considering the effects of nutritional intake. Possible mechanisms for these relationships are discussed and suggestions are made for future study topics. Although childhood obesity prevalence rates in some developed countries have recently stabilized, significant disparities remain among groups based on sex and socioeconomic status. Given that the elevated prevalence of pediatric overweight and obesity may persist for the foreseeable future, it is crucial to develop a comprehensive understanding of the influence of obesity and nutrition on cognition and brain health in the pediatric population.

  19. Impact of social marketing in the prevention of childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracia-Marco, Luis; Moreno, Luis A; Vicente-Rodríguez, Germán

    2012-07-01

    Obesity, mainly childhood obesity, is a worldwide concern. Childhood obesity continues to adulthood, and it is associated with multiple noncommunicable diseases. One important aspect in the fight against obesity is prevention, the earlier, the better. Social marketing is a novel concept being increasingly used as an approach to address social problems and more and more included in the community-based interventions aiming to change unhealthy behaviors. Although there is limited evidence of its effectiveness, it seems that when conscientiously applied, social marketing principles may be useful to change behaviors and thus better health outcomes.

  20. Interventions to Promote an Integrated Approach to Public Health Problems: An Application to Childhood Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna-Marie Hendriks

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Experts stress the need to bring the childhood obesity epidemic under control by means of an integrated approach. The implementation of such an approach requires the development of integrated enabling policies on public health by local governments. A prerequisite for developing such integrated public health policies is intersectoral collaboration. Since the development of integrated policies is still in its early stages, this study aimed to answer the following research question: “What interventions can promote intersectoral collaboration and the development of integrated health policies for the prevention of childhood obesity?” Data were collected through a literature search and observations of and interviews with stakeholders. Based on a theoretical framework, we categorized potential interventions that could optimize an integrated approach regarding children's physical activity and diet. The intervention categories included education, persuasion, incentivization, coercion, training, restriction, environmental restructuring, modeling, and enablement.

  1. Current & future medical costs of childhood obesity in Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guettabi, Mouhcine

    2014-09-01

    This study examines the medical costs of childhood obesity in Alaska, today and in the future. We estimate that 15.2 percent of those ages 2 to 19 in Alaska are obese. Using parameters from published reports and studies, we estimate that the total excess medical costs due to obesity for both adults and children in Alaska in 2012 were $226 million, with medical costs of obese children and adolescents accounting for about $7 million of that total. And those medical costs will get much higher over time, as today's children transition into adulthood. Aside from the 15.2 percent currently obese, another estimated 20 percent of children who aren't currently obese will become obese as adults, if current national patterns continue. We estimate that the 20-year medical costs--discounted to present value--of obesity among the current cohort of Alaska children and adolescents will be $624 million in today's dollars. But those future costs could be decreased if Alaskans found ways to reduce obesity. We consider how reducing obesity in several ways could reduce future medical costs: reducing current rates of childhood obesity, rates of obese children who become obese adults, or rates of non-obese children and adolescents who become obese adults. We undertake modest reductions to showcase the potential cost savings associated with each of these channels. Clearly the financial savings are a direct function of the obesity reductions and therefore the magnitude of the realized savings will vary accordingly. Also keep in mind that these figures are only for the current cohort of children and adolescents; over time more generations of Alaskans will grow from children into adults, repeating the same cycle unless rates of obesity decline. And finally, remember that medical costs are only part of the broader range of social and economic costs obesity creates.

  2. Avoiding Childhood Obesity (A Minute of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-01-31

    Maintaining a healthy weight in childhood can prevent many health-related problems later in life. This podcast discusses what can be done to prevent childhood obesity.  Created: 1/31/2013 by MMWR.   Date Released: 1/31/2013.

  3. Avoiding Childhood Obesity (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-01-31

    Maintaining a healthy weight in childhood can prevent many health-related problems later in life. In this podcast, Dr. Jackson Sekhobo discusses the importance of avoiding obesity in childhood.  Created: 1/31/2013 by MMWR.   Date Released: 1/31/2013.

  4. Stabilisation of the prevalence of childhood obesity in Switzerland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aeberli, I.; Henschen, I.; Molinari, L.; Zimmermann, M.B.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of childhood obesity is increasing rapidly in most industrialised countries, but several countries, including Switzerland, have recently reported a levelling off or even a reversal of this alarming trend. Study aim: Our aim was to evaluate the prevalence of childhood obesi

  5. 77 FR 55093 - National Childhood Obesity Awareness Month, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-06

    ..., encourage healthy food choices, create healthy starts for children, and ensure families have the tools they... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8852 of August 31, 2012 National Childhood Obesity Awareness Month, 2012 By... obesity has become a serious public health issue that puts millions of our sons and daughters at risk....

  6. 75 FR 54755 - National Childhood Obesity Awareness Month, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-08

    ... obesity, including providing healthier food in schools, ensuring access to healthy affordable food... information about the products they sell, enabling all Americans to make more informed choices about the foods... Proclamation 8554--National Childhood Obesity Awareness Month, 2010 #0; #0; #0; Presidential Documents #0;...

  7. Determinants of childhood overweight and obesity in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li Yanping,; Zhai, F.; Yang, X.; Schouten, E.G.; Hu, X.; He, Y.; Luan, D.; Ma, Guansheng

    2007-01-01

    In order to investigate the determinants of childhood overweight and obesity in China, the prevalence of overweight (including obesity) was compared according to different dietary and physical activity patterns and parental body weight status. A total of 6826 children aged 7-17 years from the 2002 C

  8. Childhood obesity: a life-long health risk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Matthias BARTON*

    2012-01-01

    Childhood obesity has become major health concern for physicians,parents,and health agencies around the world.Childhood obesity is associated with an increased risk for other diseases not only during youth but also later in life,including diabetes,arterial hypertension,coronary artery disease,and fatty liver disease.Importantly,obesity accelerates atherosclerosis progression already in children and young adults.With regard to pathophysiological changes in the vasculature,the striking similarities between physiological changes related to aging and obesity-related abnormalities are compatible with the concept that obesity causes “premature” vascular aging.This article reviews factors underlying the accelerated vascular disease development due to obesity.It also highlights the importance of recognizing childhood obesity as a disease condition and its permissive role in aggravating the development of other diseases.The importance of childhood obesity for disease susceptibility later in life,and the need for prevention and treatment are also discussed.

  9. Social influence in childhood obesity interventions: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalali, M S; Sharafi-Avarzaman, Z; Rahmandad, H; Ammerman, A S

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this study is to understand the pathways through which social influence at the family level moderates the impact of childhood obesity interventions. We conducted a systematic review of obesity interventions in which parents' behaviours are targeted to change children's obesity outcomes, because of the potential social and environmental influence of parents on the nutrition and physical activity behaviours of children. PubMed (1966-2013) and the Web of Science (1900-2013) were searched, and 32 studies satisfied our inclusion criteria. Results for existing mechanisms that moderate parents' influence on children's behaviour are discussed, and a causal pathway diagram is developed to map out social influence mechanisms that affect childhood obesity. We provide health professionals and researchers with recommendations for leveraging family-based social influence mechanisms to increase the efficacy of obesity intervention programmes. © 2016 World Obesity.

  10. Is the worldwide epidemic of obesity a communicable feature of globalization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, S R; Ehrhart-Bornstein, M; Wong, M L; Licinio, J

    2008-09-01

    Globalization has a major impact on both economic and social determinants in public health. The current worldwide epidemic in obesity needs to be considered in the context of globalization as a communicable rather than non-communicable process. There is increasing evidence that global trends in lifestyle, eating behavior and cultural adaptation contribute to the rapid increase in obesity around the world. Thus, obesity may be defined as a "socially-contagious" feature of globalization. Furthermore, infectious agents are being identified that may cause obesity by central mechanisms or by modulating adipocyte function or at least by contributing to the chronic inflammatory milieu of the metabolic syndrome. Therefore, globalization may indeed form a critical platform for these pathogens to fuel the obesity epidemic. Understanding obesity in the light of globalization as a communicable disorder will allow outlining better avenues of prevention and treatment.

  11. The effect of prenatal and postnatal care on childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seipel, Michael M O; Shafer, Kevin

    2013-07-01

    Childhood obesity continues to be a major public health problem in the United States. If this problem is unresolved, some children will be at risk for disorders such as type 2 diabetes, high blood pressure, and cancer and will become a high economic and social burden for society. Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, Child and Young Adult sample (N = 6,643), this study examined the relationship between the effect of pre- and postnatal characteristics and obesity. The findings of this study show that the probability of childhood obesity can be lessened if pregnant women do not smoke and do not gain significant pregnancy-related weight. Moreover, breast feeding and health insurance were also found to be correlated to avoiding childhood obesity.

  12. Obesity as malnutrition: the role of capitalism in the obesity global epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Jonathan C K

    2012-01-01

    The global obesity epidemic remains poorly understood, partly because it has emerged alongside persisting under-nutrition in many populations. At an abstract level, obesity develops from exposure to the "obesogenic niche," comprising diverse factors predisposing to weight gain. This article first explores how susceptibility to the obesogenic niche is influenced by developmental and life-history experience. Human growth is sensitive to early-life ecological conditions, under the transducing effect of maternal phenotype. Such plasticity is associated with subsequent variability in body composition and metabolism, impacting susceptibility to the obesogenic niche, albeit with heterogeneity across populations. Both nutritional constraint and nutritional excess during early life are associated with variability in relevant molecular pathways. The article then considers the fundamental contribution of capitalist economics to population under-nutrition and over-nutrition. Historically, capitalism contributed to the under-nutrition of many populations through demand for cheap labor. As the limiting factor for economic growth switched to consumption, capitalism has increasingly driven consumer behavior inducing widespread over-nutrition. In populations undergoing nutritional transition, many individuals encounter both under- and over-nutrition within the life course, elevating both susceptibility and exposure to the obesogenic niche. The interactions between global economic forces and nutritional shifts are distributed across generations, and are strongly transduced by maternal effects. The structural connections between undernourished and overnourished worldwide and between under- and over-nutrition within individual life-courses highlight the central role of capitalist economics in the global obesity epidemic. Prevention policies targeting individual behavior have proved ineffective and economic policies are arguably the optimal target for intervention.

  13. What money can buy: family income and childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Young

    2014-12-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between family income and childhood obesity. Using the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998-99 (ECLS-K), I report three new findings. First, family income and childhood obesity are generally negatively correlated, but for children in very low-income families, they are positively correlated. Second, the negative association between family income and Body Mass Index (BMI) is especially strong and significant among high-BMI children. Third, the difference in obesity rates between children from low- and high-income families increases as children age. This study further investigates potential factors that might contribute to a rapid increase in the obesity rate among low-income children. I find that their faster weight gain, rather than slower height growth, is a greater contributor to the rapid increase in their BMI over time. On the other hand, I also find that the faster weight gain by low-income children cannot be attributed to any single factor, such as participation in school meal programs, parental characteristics, or individual characteristics. These findings add to the current obesity debate by demonstrating that the key to curbing childhood obesity may lie in factors generating different obesity rates across income levels.

  14. Increasing genetic variance of body mass index during the Swedish obesity epidemic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rokholm, Benjamin; Silventoinen, Karri; Tynelius, Per;

    2011-01-01

    There is no doubt that the dramatic worldwide increase in obesity prevalence is due to changes in environmental factors. However, twin and family studies suggest that genetic differences are responsible for the major part of the variation in adiposity within populations. Recent studies show...... that the genetic effects on body mass index (BMI) may be stronger when combined with presumed risk factors for obesity. We tested the hypothesis that the genetic variance of BMI has increased during the obesity epidemic....

  15. Childhood cardiovascular risk factors in South Asians: A cause of concern for adult cardiovascular disease epidemic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duggirala Sivaram Prasad

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular risk factors in children are increasing at an alarming rate in the western world. However, there is limited information regarding these in the South Asian children. This review attempts at summarizing such evidence. South Asians are remarkable for the earlier onset of adult cardiovascular disease (CVD by almost a decade compared to the Caucasians. We identified published literature, mainly on PubMed, Embase and Cochrane library using specific search terms such as lipid abnormalities, high blood pressure, hyperglycemia, tobacco use, obesity, physical inactivity, and unhealthy dietary practices. Atherosclerotic CVD processes begin early in childhood and are influenced over the life course by genetic and potentially modifiable risk factors and environmental exposure. 80% of adult CVD burden will fall on the developing nations by 2020. The concept of primordial prevention is fast emerging as a necessary prevention tool to curb adult CVD epidemic. Established guidelines and proven preventive strategies on cardiovascular health exist; however, are always implemented half-heartedly. Composite screening and prediction tools for adults can be adapted and validated in children tailored to South Asian population. South Asian children could be at a greater risk of developing cardiovascular risk factors at an earlier stage, thus, timely interventions are imperative.

  16. The blind spot in the drive for childhood obesity prevention: bringing eating disorders prevention into focus as a public health priority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, S Bryn

    2011-06-01

    Public health attention to childhood obesity has increased in tandem with the growing epidemic, but despite this intense focus, successes in prevention have lagged far behind. There is a blind spot in our drive for childhood obesity prevention that prevents us from generating sufficiently broad solutions. Eating disorders and the constellation of perilous weight-control behaviors are in that blind spot. Evidence is mounting that obesity and eating disorders are linked in myriad ways, but entrenched myths about eating disorders undermine our ability to see the full range of leverage points to target in obesity preventive intervention studies. Our efforts to prevent childhood obesity can no longer afford to ignore eating disorders and the assemblage of related behaviors that persist unabated.

  17. The relation between childhood obesity and adenotonsillar hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daar, Ghaniya; Sarı, Kamran; Gencer, Zeliha Kapusuz; Ede, Hüseyin; Aydın, Reha; Saydam, Levent

    2016-02-01

    Childhood obesity is a common and significant public health problem all over the world. As a well-known fact obese children have an increased risk of obesity-associated comorbidities, including obstructive sleep apnea, diabetes, and cardiovascular disorders at an earlier age compared to their normal weight peers. They also have an increased risk of poor self-esteem, greater body dissatisfaction, and increased peer teasing that lead to a lower health-related quality of life. While the presence of adenoid hypertrophy and increased rate of obstructive sleep apnea frequently co-exists in majority of cases. We have limited knowledge about the effect of adenotonsillar hypertrophy on development of childhood obesity. In this study, we aimed to investigate the association between obesity, presence of adenotonsillar hypertrophy and the quality of life parameters in obese children as measured by the OSA-18 quality of life questionnaire. Fifty obese children aged between 3 and 18 years and 50 age- and gender-matched otherwise children were enrolled to the study. All subjects were routinely examined by the otolaryngologist before enrollment. The size of adenoid hypertrophy was measured using lateral cephalometric radiographs. The tonsils were also graded using the schema recommended by Brodsky et al. We used OSA-18 questionnaires to evaluate the subjects' quality of life issues. We found, 34 % of obese group had tonsillar hypertrophy while the rate was 6 % in control group. Similarly 16 % of obese group had tonsillar hypertrophy compared to only 4 % in non-obese group. It was also noted that total OSA-18 scores of obese group were significantly higher than those of non-obese group. In subgroup analysis of obese group, total OSA-18 score of obese subjects with either adenoid and/or tonsillar hypertrophy was significantly higher than that of obese subjects without adenoid or tonsillar hypertrophy. As the related literature suggests that the impact of adenotonsillar size on OSA

  18. Childhood Asthma May Encourage Obesity, Study Suggests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Human Services. More Health News on: Asthma in Children Obesity in Children Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Asthma in Children Obesity in Children About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer ...

  19. Interactions between Obesity-Related Copy Number Variants and Dietary Behaviors in Childhood Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dandan Zhang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Copy number variants (CNVs have been implicated as an important genetic marker of obesity, and gene-environment interaction has been found to modulate risk of obesity. To evaluate the associations between CNVs and childhood obesity, as well as the interactions between CNVs and dietary behaviors, we recruited 534 obese children and 508 controls from six cities in China and six candidate CNVs were screened through published genome-wide studies (GWAS on childhood obesity. We found three loci (10q11.22, 4q25 and 11q11 to be significantly associated with obesity after false discovery rate (FDR correction (all the p ≤ 0.05. Cumulative effect of the three positive loci was measured by the genetic risk score (GRS, showing a significant relationship with the risk of obesity (Ptrend < 0.001. The OR of obesity increased to 21.38 (95% CI = 21.19–21.55 among the 10q11.22 deletion carriers who had meat-based diets, indicating prominent multiplicative interaction (MI between deletions of 10q11.22 and preference for a meat-based diet. Simultaneous deletions of 5q13.2 and duplications of 6q14.1 had significant MI with a preference for salty foods. Our results suggested that CNVs may contribute to the genetic susceptibility of childhood obesity, and the CNV-diet interactions modulate the risk of obesity.

  20. Metabolic effects of exercise on childhood obesity: a current view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Tavares Paes

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To review the current literature concerning the effects of physical exercise on several metabolic variables related to childhood obesity. DATA SOURCE: A search was performed in Pubmed/MEDLINE and Web of Science databases. The keywords used were as follows: Obesity, Children Obesity, Childhood Obesity, Exercise and Physical Activity. The online search was based on studies published in English, from April 2010 to December 2013. DATA SYNTHESIS: Search queries returned 88,393 studies based on the aforementioned keywords; 4,561 studies were selected by crossing chosen keywords. After applying inclusion criteria, four studies were selected from 182 eligible titles. Most studies found that aerobic and resistance training improves body composition, lipid profile and metabolic and inflammatory status of obese children and adolescents; however, the magnitude of these effects is associated with the type, intensity and duration of practice. CONCLUSIONS: Regardless of the type, physical exercise promotes positive adaptations to childhood obesity, mainly acting to restore cellular and cardiovascular homeostasis, to improve body composition, and to activate metabolism; therefore, physical exercise acts as a co-factor in fighting obesity.

  1. Metabolic effects of exercise on childhood obesity: a current view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paes, Santiago Tavares; Marins, João Carlos Bouzas; Andreazzi, Ana Eliza

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review the current literature concerning the effects of physical exercise on several metabolic variables related to childhood obesity. DATA SOURCE: A search was performed in Pubmed/MEDLINE and Web of Science databases. The keywords used were as follows: Obesity, Children Obesity, Childhood Obesity, Exercise and Physical Activity. The online search was based on studies published in English, from April 2010 to December 2013. DATA SYNTHESIS: Search queries returned 88,393 studies based on the aforementioned keywords; 4,561 studies were selected by crossing chosen keywords. After applying inclusion criteria, four studies were selected from 182 eligible titles. Most studies found that aerobic and resistance training improves body composition, lipid profile and metabolic and inflammatory status of obese children and adolescents; however, the magnitude of these effects is associated with the type, intensity and duration of practice. CONCLUSIONS: Regardless of the type, physical exercise promotes positive adaptations to childhood obesity, mainly acting to restore cellular and cardiovascular homeostasis, to improve body composition, and to activate metabolism; therefore, physical exercise acts as a co-factor in fighting obesity. PMID:25662015

  2. Examining the temporal relationships between childhood obesity and asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Tiffany L

    2014-07-01

    Childhood obesity has become an issue of increasing concern to health researchers and policymakers in the United States. One important chronic health condition linked to obesity is pediatric asthma. Although researchers have speculated that both conditions may have common origins, the majority of research in this area has focused on a unidirectional relationship between obesity and later asthma. However, much of the literature is limited by its reliance on cross-sectional data and its failure to examine the possibility that asthma may influence weight fluctuations through changes in physical and sedentary activity. Using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Cohort (ECLS-K), I explore the bidirectional relationships between childhood obesity and asthma. The results in this paper suggest that past asthma levels are positively correlated with changes in BMI and the onset of obesity. However, only new onset asthma is positively correlated with subsequent changes in BMI. The potential mechanisms are unclear, as I find little evidence that asthma is structurally related to changes in physical or sedentary activity over time. When testing the prevailing hypothesis that obesity is related to subsequent asthma, I find that lagged weight status is strongly related to asthma prevalence levels but that the onset of overweight or obesity is not associated with the subsequent onset of asthma. These results suggest that the onset of asthma may be related to subsequent weight gain over time.

  3. Might video games help remedy childhood obesity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obesity is the most prevalent health problem among children in the United States and globally, leading to diverse health problems and staggering costs. Most child obesity prevention interventions are not working well, or not at all. Part of the problem is that the causes of child obesity are not cle...

  4. Gooey Stuff, Intra-Activity, and Differential Obesities: Foregrounding Agential Adiposity within Childhood Obesity Stories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Land, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    In Canada, forces such as the media, medical discourse, and public policy work to position childhood obesity as increased body fat content or excess adiposity due to various personal, social, and economic factors. Drawing on Barad's "agential realist ontology", this article aims to inhabit-with obesity in an effort to disrupt dominant…

  5. The role of parents in preventing childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Ana C; Sussner, Katarina M; Kim, Juhee; Gortmaker, Steven

    2006-01-01

    As researchers continue to analyze the role of parenting both in the development of childhood overweight and in obesity prevention, studies of child nutrition and growth are detailing the ways in which parents affect their children's development of food- and activity-related behaviors. Ana Lindsay, Katarina Sussner, Juhee Kim, and Steven Gortmaker argue that interventions aimed at preventing childhood overweight and obesity should involve parents as important forces for change in their children's behaviors. The authors begin by reviewing evidence on how parents can help their children develop and maintain healthful eating and physical activity habits, thereby ultimately helping prevent childhood overweight and obesity. They show how important it is for parents to understand how their roles in preventing obesity change as their children move through critical developmental periods, from before birth and through adolescence. They point out that researchers, policymakers, and practitioners should also make use of such information to develop more effective interventions and educational programs that address childhood obesity right where it starts-at home. The authors review research evaluating school-based obesity-prevention interventions that include components targeted at parents. Although much research has been done on how parents shape their children's eating and physical activity habits, surprisingly few high-quality data exist on the effectiveness of such programs. The authors call for more programs and cost-effectiveness studies aimed at improving parents' ability to shape healthful eating and physical activity behaviors in their children. The authors conclude that preventing and controlling childhood obesity will require multifaceted and community-wide programs and policies, with parents having a critical role to play. Successful intervention efforts, they argue, must involve and work directly with parents from the earliest stages of child development to support

  6. Relation between Childhood Obesity and Adult Cardiovascular Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darren M. Allcock

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of overweight and obesity is rising at an alarming pace in the pediatric population, just as in the adult population. The adult comorbidities associated with this risk factor are well-recognized and are being further elucidated continually. Additionally, we are gradually developing a better understanding of the risks of overweight and obesity among children while they are still young. However, there is now a growing body of evidence showing that childhood obesity not only leads all too frequently to adult obesity, but is in itself a risk factor for cardiometabolic syndrome and resultant cardiovascular risk in adulthood. If current trends continue, the problem of pediatric overweight and obesity will become of unmanageable proportions once these individuals reach adulthood. Future research efforts toward understanding this complex problem will need to focus on those overweight and obese children who later went on to change their metabolic course and become normal-weight adults.

  7. Prevention of childhood obesity: sociocultural and familial factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruss, Mozhdeh B; Morris, Joseph; Dannison, Linda

    2003-08-01

    This study examined sociocultural and familial factors related to the prevention of childhood obesity. Primary caregivers of 6- to 10-year-old children representing several ethnic populations in Saipan participated in 4 focus groups (N=32). Trained moderators used semi-structured interviews and qualitative methods were used in data analysis. A central theme with several related factors emerged. The theme was a conflict expressed by the primary caregiver between sociocultural values, family expectations, traditional dietary beliefs and attitudes, and knowledge about food and disease. These findings have important implications for designing culturally sensitive interventions for prevention of childhood obesity.

  8. Mental health, wellness, and childhood overweight/obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell-Mayhew, Shelly; McVey, Gail; Bardick, Angela; Ireland, Alana

    2012-01-01

    Childhood obesity is a growing concern, and while progress has been made to understand the association between multiple biological factors (i.e., genetics, nutrition, exercise etc.), little is known about the relationship between mental health and childhood obesity. In this paper, we offer a review of current evidence about the association between mental health and childhood obesity. A systematic literature search of peer-reviewed, English-language studies published between January 2000 and January 2011 was undertaken and resulted in 759 unique records, of which 345 full-text articles were retrieved and 131 articles were included. A theoretical model is proposed to organize the paper and reflect the current state of the literature and includes psychological factors (i.e., depression and anxiety, self-esteem, body dissatisfaction, eating disordered symptoms, and emotional problems); psychosocial mediating variables (i.e., weight-based teasing and concern about weight and shape), and wellness factors (i.e., quality of life and resiliency/protective factors). We conclude with a number of recommendations to support the creation of solutions to the rise in childhood obesity rates that do not further marginalize overweight and obese children and youth and that can potentially improve the well-being of all children and youth regardless of their weight status.

  9. Mental Health, Wellness, and Childhood Overweight/Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelly Russell-Mayhew

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Childhood obesity is a growing concern, and while progress has been made to understand the association between multiple biological factors (i.e., genetics, nutrition, exercise etc., little is known about the relationship between mental health and childhood obesity. In this paper, we offer a review of current evidence about the association between mental health and childhood obesity. A systematic literature search of peer-reviewed, English-language studies published between January 2000 and January 2011 was undertaken and resulted in 759 unique records, of which 345 full-text articles were retrieved and 131 articles were included. A theoretical model is proposed to organize the paper and reflect the current state of the literature and includes psychological factors (i.e., depression and anxiety, self-esteem, body dissatisfaction, eating disordered symptoms, and emotional problems; psychosocial mediating variables (i.e., weight-based teasing and concern about weight and shape, and wellness factors (i.e., quality of life and resiliency/protective factors. We conclude with a number of recommendations to support the creation of solutions to the rise in childhood obesity rates that do not further marginalize overweight and obese children and youth and that can potentially improve the well-being of all children and youth regardless of their weight status.

  10. Childhood maltreatment and obesity: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danese, A; Tan, M

    2014-05-01

    Obesity is a prevalent global-health problem associated with substantial morbidity, impairment and economic burden. Because most readily available forms of treatment are ineffective in the long term, it is essential to advance knowledge of obesity prevention by identifying potentially modifiable risk factors. Findings from experimental studies in non-human primates suggest that adverse childhood experiences may influence obesity risk. However, observations from human studies showed heterogeneous results. To address these inconsistencies, we performed Medline, PsycInfo and Embase searches till 1 August 2012 for articles examining the association between childhood maltreatment and obesity. We then conducted a meta-analysis of the identified studies and explored the effects of various possible sources of bias. A meta-analysis of 41 studies (190 285 participants) revealed that childhood maltreatment was associated with elevated risk of developing obesity over the life-course (odds ratio=1.36; 95% confidence interval=1.26-1.47). Results were not explained by publication bias or undue influence of individual studies. Overall, results were not significantly affected by the measures or definitions used for maltreatment or obesity, nor by confounding by childhood or adult socioeconomic status, current smoking, alcohol intake or physical activity. However, the association was not statistically significant in studies of children and adolescents, focusing on emotional neglect, or adjusting for current depression. Furthermore, the association was stronger in samples including more women and whites, but was not influenced by study quality. Child maltreatment is a potentially modifiable risk factor for obesity. Future research should clarify the mechanisms through which child maltreatment affects obesity risk and explore methods to remediate this effect.

  11. Childhood Obesity Among Children of Mexican Descent: A Binational Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Rosas, Lisa G.

    2008-01-01

    The prevalence of childhood obesity has increased dramatically in the United States over the past 30 years, especially among children of Mexican origin. Children of Mexican origin are an especially high-risk group because of their increased risk for morbidities associated with obesity in adulthood, such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease and uncontrolled hypertension compared to other racial and ethnic groups. This study takes a binational approach to understanding the health disparity in ...

  12. Modelling obesity outcomes : reducing obesity risk in adulthood may have greater impact than reducing obesity prevalence in childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lhachimi, S. K.; Nusselder, W. J.; Lobstein, T. J.; Smit, H. A.; Baili, P.; Bennett, K.; Kulik, M. C.; Jackson-Leach, R.; Boshuizen, H. C.; Mackenbach, J. P.

    2013-01-01

    A common policy response to the rise in obesity prevalence is to undertake interventions in childhood, but it is an open question whether this is more effective than reducing the risk of becoming obese during adulthood. In this paper, we model the effect on health outcomes of (i) reducing the preval

  13. Modelling obesity outcomes: reducing obesity risk in adulthood may have grater impact than reducing obesity prevalence in childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lhachimi, S.K.; Nusselder, W.J.; Lobstein, T.J.; Smit, H.A.; Baili, P.; Bennett, K.; Kulik, M.C.; Jackson-Leach, R.; Boshuizen, H.C.; Mackenbach, J.P.

    2013-01-01

    A common policy response to the rise in obesity prevalence is to undertake interventions in childhood, but it is an open question whether this is more effective than reducing the risk of becoming obese during adulthood. In this paper, we model the effect on health outcomes of (i) reducing the preval

  14. Gendered dimensions of obesity in childhood and adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sweeting Helen N

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The literature on childhood and adolescent obesity is vast. In addition to producing a general overview, this paper aims to highlight gender differences or similarities, an area which has tended not to be the principal focus of this literature. Methods Databases were searched using the terms 'obesity' and 'child', 'adolescent', 'teenager', 'youth', 'young people', 'sex', 'gender', 'masculine', 'feminine', 'male', 'female', 'boy' and 'girl' (or variations on these terms. In order to limit the potential literature, the main focus is on other reviews, both general and relating to specific aspects of obesity. Results The findings of genetic studies are similar for males and females, and differences in obesity rates as defined by body mass index are generally small and inconsistent. However, differences between males and females due to biology are evident in the patterning of body fat, the fat levels at which health risks become apparent, levels of resting energy expenditure and energy requirements, ability to engage in certain physical activities and the consequences of obesity for the female reproductive system. Differences due to society or culture include food choices and dietary concerns, overall physical activity levels, body satisfaction and the long-term psychosocial consequences of childhood and adolescent obesity. Conclusion This review suggests differences between males and females in exposure and vulnerability to obesogenic environments, the consequences of child and adolescent obesity, and responses to interventions for the condition. A clearer focus on gender differences is required among both researchers and policy makers within this field.

  15. The Obesity Epidemic and Consequences for Rheumatoid Arthritis Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Michael D; Baker, Joshua F

    2016-01-01

    With the prevalence of obesity increasing dramatically worldwide over the past several decades, an increasing body of literature has examined the impact of obesity in the context of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Epidemiologic studies suggest that obesity may be associated with a modestly increased risk for the development of RA, although these studies have shown conflicting results. Among patients with established RA, obesity has been observed to be associated with greater subjective measures of disease activity and poor treatment response, but also with a decreased risk of joint damage and lower mortality. A comprehensive evaluation of the influence of obesity on the measurement of disease, response to therapies, and long-term prognosis is critical in order to understand these observations. This review therefore focuses on recent observations, potential explanations for these findings, and implications for clinicians and investigators caring for and studying patients with RA.

  16. Breastfeeding reduces the risk of obesity in childhood and adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleni-Maria Papatesta

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Childhood obesity has increased dramatically over the last decades, representing one of the most serious public health hazards of the 21st century. Efforts must be made by healthcare professionals to prevent it, as it is associated with short- and long-term risks for physical and mental health and because of the increased possibility to persist during adulthood. From antiquity human breast milk was considered the ideal nourishment for the newborn. Breastfeeding is beneficial for the mother-child dyad. Among others, existing data suggest that it reduces the risk for childhood and adolescence obesity. The mechanisms for this are numerous and include the feeding behavior breastfeeding infants acquire, their growth rate, the ‘early protein hypothesis’, the role of leptin that is found in increased levels in human milk, the dietary choices the breastfed infants make during childhood and adolescence and finally the differences in their bowel flora. Meta-analyses provide sufficient evidence for this protective effect, with a dose-response effect as to the duration of breastfeeding. Healthcare professionals involved in the care of the mother-infant dyad must encourage and support mothers to breastfeed their infants for a long period of time, if obesity were to be prevented. Aim of this review is to provide an account of existing data on the association of breastfeeding and the reduced risk of obesity in childhood and adulthood.

  17. Motivational interviewing in childhood obesity treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria eBorrello

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is one of today’s most diffused and severe public health problems worldwide. It affects both adults and children with critical physical, social and psychological consequences. The aim of this review is to appraise the studies that investigated the effects of motivational interviewing techniques in treating overweight and obese children. The electronic databases PubMed and PsychINFO were searched for articles meeting inclusion criteria. The review included studies based on the application of MI components and having the objective of changing BMI in overweight or obese children from age 2 to age 11. Six articles have been selected and included in this review. Three studies reported that MI had a statistically significant positive effect on BMI and on secondary obesity-related behaviour outcomes. MI can be applicable in the treatment of overweight and obese children, but its efficacy cannot be proved given the lack of studies carried out on this specific sample.

  18. Exploiting social networks to mitigate the obesity epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahr, David B; Browning, Raymond C; Wyatt, Holly R; Hill, James O

    2009-04-01

    Despite significant efforts, obesity continues to be a major public health problem, and there are surprisingly few effective strategies for its prevention and treatment. We now realize that healthy diet and activity patterns are difficult to maintain in the current physical environment. Recently, it was suggested that the social environment also contributes to obesity. Therefore, using network-based interaction models, we simulate how obesity spreads along social networks and predict the effectiveness of large-scale weight management interventions. For a wide variety of conditions and networks, we show that individuals with similar BMIs will cluster together into groups, and if left unchecked, current social forces will drive these groups toward increasing obesity. Our simulations show that many traditional weight management interventions fail because they target overweight and obese individuals without consideration of their surrounding cluster and wider social network. The popular strategy for dieting with friends is shown to be an ineffective long-term weight loss strategy, whereas dieting with friends of friends can be somewhat more effective by forcing a shift in cluster boundaries. Fortunately, our simulations also show that interventions targeting well-connected and/or normal weight individuals at the edges of a cluster may quickly halt the spread of obesity. Furthermore, by changing social forces and altering the behavior of a small but random assortment of both obese and normal weight individuals, highly effective network-driven strategies can reverse current trends and return large segments of the population to a healthier weight.

  19. Obesity, insulin resistance and diabetes--a worldwide epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidell, J C

    2000-03-01

    Obesity is now commonly defined in adults as a BMI > 30 kg/m2. The prevalence of obesity in established market economies (Europe, USA, Canada, Australia, etc.) varies greatly, but a weighed estimate suggests an average prevalence in the order of 15-20%. The prevalence in these countries generally shows increasing trends over time. Obesity is also relatively common in Latin America, but much less so in sub-Saharan Africa and Asia where the majority of the world population lives. Nevertheless obesity rates are increasing there as well and, more importantly, rates of diabetes are increasing even more quickly, particularly in Asian countries. The risks of type 2 diabetes mellitus in these countries tend to increase sharply at levels of BMI generally classified as acceptable in European and North American white people. There have been suggestions to adopt specific classifications of obesity in Asians (e.g. BMI 23 for overweight and 25 or 27 kg/m2 for obesity) and this will greatly affect the prevalence estimates of obesity worldwide (currently at about 250 million people). Particularly for health promotion purposes BMI may be replaced by a classification based on waist circumference, but also specific classifications for different ethnic groups may be necessary. The number of diabetics has been projected to increase from 135 million in 1995 to 300 million in 2025. Much of this increase will be seen in Asia. In summary, both obesity and type 2 diabetes are common consequences of changing lifestyles (increased sedentary lifestyles and increased energy density of diets). Both are potentially preventable through lifestyle modification on a population level, but this requires a coherent and multifaceted strategy. Such strategies are not developed or implemented. These developments point toward the great urgency to develop global and national plans for adequate prevention and management of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  20. Prenatal Cocaine Exposure and Childhood Obesity at Nine Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaGasse, Linda L.; Gaskins, Ronnesia B.; Bada, Henrietta S.; Shankaran, Seetha; Liu, Jing; Lester, Barry M.; Bauer, Charles R.; Higgins, Rosemary D.; Das, Abhik; Roberts, Mary

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about the association between prenatal cocaine exposure and obesity. We tested whether prenatal cocaine exposure increases the likelihood of obesity in 561 9-year-old term children from the Maternal Lifestyle Study (MLS). Overall, 21.6% of children met criterion for obesity (body mass index [BMI] ≥ 95th percentile, age and sex-specific). While there was no overall cocaine effect on obesity, multivariate logistic analysis revealed that children exposed to cocaine but not alcohol were 4 times more likely to be obese (OR 4.11, CI 2.04–9.76) than children not exposed to either drug. No increase in obesity prevalence was found in children exposed to alcohol but not cocaine (OR 1.08, CI .59–1.93) or both (OR 1.21, CI 0.66–2.22). Alcohol exposure may attenuate the effect of cocaine exposure on obesity. Increased obesity associated with cocaine but not alcohol exposure was first observed at 7 years. BMI was also elevated from 3 to 9 years in children exposed to cocaine but not alcohol, due to increasing weight but normal height. Prenatal exposure to cocaine may alter the neuroendocrine system and metabolic processes resulting in increased weight gain and childhood obesity. PMID:21109003

  1. The Obesity Epidemic – What Can Be Done? PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-08-03

    This 60 second PSA is based on the August 2010 CDC Vital Signs report which provides information on obesity and what you can do to help fight the epidemic.  Created: 8/3/2010 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 8/3/2010.

  2. Social sciences and humanities contribution to tackle the obesity epidemic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Lotte; Sandøe, Peter; Nielsen, Morten Ebbe Juul

    establishing strong networks and building bridges between the natural sciences and social sciences and humanities that can address obesity as a complex societal challenge and help minimise the gap between research, markets, and citizens. The objectives of the workshop were to create a cross‐European forum...... for identifying, describing, and discussing future potential in obesity research, to establish new and to nurture existing networks and collaborations between researchers across the social sciences and humanities and the natural sciences with an interest in obesity research, and thereby to mobilise significant...

  3. Genetic variance in the adiponutrin gene family and childhood obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lovisa E Johansson

    Full Text Available AIM: The adiponutrin gene family consists of five genes (PNPLA1-5 coding for proteins with both lipolytic and lipogenic properties. PNPLA3 has previously been associated with adult obesity. Here we investigated the possible association between genetic variants in these genes and childhood and adolescent obesity. METHODS/RESULTS: Polymorphisms in the five genes of the adiponutrin gene family were selected and genotyped using the Sequenom platform in a childhood and adolescent obesity case-control study. Six variants in PNPLA1 showed association with obesity (rs9380559, rs12212459, rs1467912, rs4713951, rs10947600, and rs12199580, p0.05. When analyzing these SNPs in relation to phenotypes, two SNPs in the PNPLA3 gene showed association with insulin sensitivity (rs12483959: beta = -0.053, p = 0.016, and rs2072907: beta = -0.049, p = 0.024. No associations were seen for PNPLA2, PNPLA4, and PNPLA5. CONCLUSIONS: Genetic variation in the adiponutrin gene family does not seem to contribute strongly to obesity in children and adolescents. PNPLA1 exhibited a modest effect on obesity and PNPLA3 on insulin sensitivity. These data, however, require confirmation in other cohorts and ethnic groups.

  4. A new insight into food addiction in childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keser, Alev; Yüksel, Ayşegül; Yeşiltepe-Mutlu, Gül; Bayhan, Asuman; Özsu, Elif; Hatun, Şükrü

    2015-01-01

    Uncontrolled eating behavior in obese subjects is very similar to behavior in food addiction, suggesting a relationship. This study was designed to evaluate the relationship between childhood obesity and food addiction and to determine the frequency of food addiction among obese children and adolescents. The study included 100 overweight and obese children. Food addiction was evaluated by the Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS). The cutoff value for food addiction was defined as the presence of 3 or more symptoms. Participants were between 10 and 18 years of age; 63% were girls. Of the participants, 71% had food addiction. The most addictive foods were chocolate, ice cream, carbonated beverages, French fries, white bread, rice, candy, chips and pasta, in decreasing order of frequency. Experiencing a frequent feeling of hunger was associated with a 2.2-fold increase in food addiction risk, while consumption of French fries ≥1-2 times per week was associated with a 2.3-fold increase in risk (pfood addiction plays an important role in childhood obesity. Evaluation of food addiction in more detail may open a new perspective on the prevention and treatment of obesity.

  5. Psychological and physiological correlates of childhood obesity in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Kuo-Hsuan; Chiou, Hung-Yi; Chen, Yi-Hua

    2015-11-27

    Evidence of associations between psychopathology and obesity in childhood remains inconsistent, and most studies have been conducted in Western countries. This study investigated psychological and physiological correlates of obesity in a community sample of children in Taiwan. In total, 302 children (157 overweight/obese and 145 healthy-weight children) were selected from first- and fourth-grade schoolchildren in eight elementary schools in 2009. These children participated in a comprehensive health examination, including a physical examination, blood sample analysis, and questionnaire administration. We found that regarding physiological characteristics, compared with the healthy-weight children, the overweight/obese children had significantly higher values for body fat estimated using the bioelectrical impedance method (p overweight/obesity was significantly associated with lower self-concept (odds ratio [OR] = 0.96, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.93-0.99) and less disruptive behavior (OR = 0.96, 95% CI = 0.92-0.99). Less disruptive behavior and the lack of a higher prevalence of anxiety and depression in childhood obesity appear to be a unique pattern in Taiwan that warrants further investigation.

  6. Beyond fast food and slow motion: weighty contributors to the obesity epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cizza, G; Rother, K I

    2012-02-01

    Decreased physical activity and marketing-driven increased consumption of "junk" food, dubbed "The Big Two", are generally regarded as the most important contributors to the obesity epidemic. However, the full picture contains many more pieces of the puzzle. We address several additional issues and review current clinical developments in obesity research. In spite of dramatic advancements in our understanding of the adipose organ and its endocrine and immune products, the ultimate causes of the obesity epidemic remain elusive. Treatment is plagued by poor adherence to life style modifications, and available pharmacological options are marginally effective, often also associated with major side effects. Surgical treatments, albeit effective in decreasing body weight, are invasive and expensive. Thus, our approaches to finding the causes, improving the existing treatments, and inventing novel therapies must be manifold.

  7. Beyond fast food and slow motion: Weighty contributors to the obesity epidemic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cizza, G.; Rother, K.I.

    2012-01-01

    Decreased physical activity and marketing-driven increased consumption of “junk” food, dubbed “The Big Two”, are generally regarded as the most important contributors to the obesity epidemic. However, the full picture contains many more pieces of the puzzle. We address several additional issues and review current clinical developments in obesity research. In spite of dramatic advancements in our understanding of the adipose organ and its endocrine and immune products, the ultimate causes of the obesity epidemic remain elusive. Treatment is plagued by poor adherence to life style modifications, and available pharmacological options are marginally effective, often also associated with major side effects. Surgical treatments, albeit effective in decreasing body weight, are invasive and expensive. Thus, our approaches to finding the causes, improving the existing treatments, and inventing novel therapies must be manifold. PMID:22183119

  8. Stability of the associations between early life risk indicators and adolescent overweight over the evolving obesity epidemic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lise Graversen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pre- and perinatal factors and preschool body size may help identify children developing overweight, but these factors might have changed during the development of the obesity epidemic. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to assess the associations between early life risk indicators and overweight at the age of 9 and 15 years at different stages of the obesity epidemic. METHODS: We used two population-based Northern Finland Birth Cohorts including 4111 children born in 1966 (NFBC1966 and 5414 children born in 1985-1986 (NFBC1986. In both cohorts, we used the same a priori defined prenatal factors, maternal body mass index (BMI, birth weight, infant weight (age 5 months and 1 year, and preschool BMI (age 2-5 years. We used internal references in early childhood to define percentiles of body size (90 and generalized linear models to study the association with overweight, according to the International Obesity Taskforce (IOTF definitions, at the ages of 9 and 15 years. RESULTS: The prevalence of overweight at the age of 15 was 9% for children born in 1966 and 16% for children born in 1986. However, medians of infant weight and preschool BMI changed little between the cohorts, and we found similar associations between maternal BMI, infant weight, preschool BMI, and later overweight in the two cohorts. At 5 years, children above the 90th percentile had approximately a 12 times higher risk of being overweight at the age of 15 years compared to children below the 50th percentile in both cohorts. CONCLUSIONS: The associations between early body size and adolescent overweight showed remarkable stability, despite the increase in prevalence of overweight over the 20 years between the cohorts. Using consequently defined internal percentiles may be a valuable tool in clinical practice.

  9. The link between the epidemics of obesity and allergic diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hersoug, Lars-Georg; Linneberg, A

    2007-01-01

    There is increasing epidemiological evidence that obesity increases the risk of asthma, atopic, and autoimmune diseases. We hypothesize that the increase in these diseases is caused, at least in part, by decreased immunological tolerance as a consequence of immunological changes induced by adipok......There is increasing epidemiological evidence that obesity increases the risk of asthma, atopic, and autoimmune diseases. We hypothesize that the increase in these diseases is caused, at least in part, by decreased immunological tolerance as a consequence of immunological changes induced......-lymphocytes (Tregs). Additionally, adiponectin, which decreases with increasing obesity, down-regulates the secretion of IL10 from macrophages and adipocytes. These changes in IL6, leptin, and IL10 decrease the regulatory effect of Tregs resulting in decreased immunological tolerance to antigens. In pregnant women......, these obesity-induced immunological changes might be transmitted to the fetus by epigenetic inheritance thereby increasing the risk of atopic disease. We propose that obesity results in immunological changes resulting in decreased immunological tolerance to antigens and skewing of the immune system towards a Th...

  10. Oxidative Stress Status in Childhood Obesity: A Potential Risk Predictor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilic, Elif; Özer, Ömer Faruk; Erek, Aybala Toprak; Erman, Hayriye; Torun, Emel; Ayhan, Sıddıka Kesgin; Caglar, Hifa Gülru; Selek, Sahbettin; Kocyigit, Abdurrahim

    2016-01-01

    Background Childhood obesity characterized by excessive fat in the body is one of the most serious health problems worldwide due to the social, medical, and physiological complications. Obesity and associated diseases are triggering factors for oxidative stress and inflammation. The aim of this study was to explore the possible association between childhood obesity and inflammatory and oxidative status. Material/Methods Thirty-seven obese children and 37 healthy controls selected from among children admitted to BLIND University Paediatrics Department were included in the study. Anthropometric measurements were performed using standard methods. Glucose, lipid parameters, CRP, insulin, total oxidant status (TOS), total anti-oxidant status (TAS) levels, and total thiol levels (TTL) were measured in serum. HOMA index (HOMA-IR) were calculated. The differences between the groups were evaluated statistically using the Mann-Whitney U test. Results Body mass index was significantly higher in the obese group (median: 28.31(pLDL cholesterol, and triglyceride levels were significantly higher in the obese group (p<0.001). TAS (med: 2.5 μmol Trolox eq/L (1.7–3.3)) and TOS (med: 49.1 μmol H2O2 eq/L (34.5–78.8)) levels and TTL (med: 0.22 mmol/L (0.16–0.26)) were significantly higher in the obese group (p=0.001). CRP levels showed positive correlation with TOS and negative correlation with TTL levels (p=0.005, r=0.473; p=0.01, r=−0.417; respectively). TTL levels exhibited negative correlation with TOS levels (p=0.03, r=−0.347). Conclusions In conclusion, obese children were exposed to more oxidative burden than children with normal weight. Increased systemic oxidative stress induced by childhood obesity can cause development of obesity-related complications and diseases. Widely focussed studies are required on the use of oxidative parameters as early prognostic parameters in detection of obesity-related complications. PMID:27733746

  11. Report on Childhood Obesity in China (4) Prevalence and Trends of Overweight and Obesity in Chinese Urban School-age Children and Adolescents, 1985-2000

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG-YE JI; WORKING GROUP ON OBESITY IN CHINA (WGOC)

    2007-01-01

    Objective To describe the nationwide prevalence of childhood overweight/obesity, and their group variations and trends over the past 20 years in the Chinese urban population. Methods Data sets of boys and girls at the age of 7-18 years collected from the series of Chinese national surveillance on students' constitution and health (CNSSCH) between 1985 and 2000 were divided into five socioeconomic and demographic groups, while BMI classification reference proposed by Working Group on Obesity in China (WGOC) was used as screening reference to calculate the prevalence and trends of overweight/obesity in these groups. Results In 2000, the prevalence of obesity and overweight in boys aged 7-18 years was 11.3% and 6.5% in Beijing, 13.2% and 4.9% in Shanghai, 9.9% and 4.5% in coastal big cities, and 5.8% and 2.0% in coastal medium/small-sized cities, respectively, while the prevalence of of obesity and overweight in girls of the same age group was 8.2% and 3.7% in Beijing, 7.3% and 2.6% in Shanghai, 5.9% and 2.8% in coastal big cities, and 4.8% and 1.7% in coastal medium/small-sized cities, respectively. The prevalence of obesity was low in most of the inland cities at an early stage of epidemic overweight. The epidemic manifested a gradient distribution in groups, which was closely related to socioeconomic status (SES) of the study population. However, a dramatic and steady increasing trend was witnessed among all sex-age subgroups in the five urban groups, and such a trend was stronger in boys than in girls, and much stronger in children than in adolescents. Conclusion Although China is at an early stage of epidemic obesity by and large, the prevalence of obesity in her urban population, particularly in coastal big cities has reached the average level of developed countries. The increasing trend has been rapid since early 1990s, and the increments in obesity and overweight are exceptionally high. The prospect of epidemic obesity in China is in no way optimistic

  12. Designing Insurance to Promote Use of Childhood Obesity Prevention Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly J. Rask

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Childhood obesity is a recognized public health crisis. This paper reviews the lessons learned from a voluntary initiative to expand insurance coverage for childhood obesity prevention and treatment services in the United States. In-depth telephone interviews were conducted with key informants from 16 participating health plans and employers in 2010-11. Key informants reported difficulty ensuring that both providers and families were aware of the available services. Participating health plans and employers are beginning new tactics including removing enrollment requirements, piloting enhanced outreach to selected physician practices, and educating providers on effective care coordination and use of obesity-specific billing codes through professional organizations. The voluntary initiative successfully increased private health insurance coverage for obesity services, but the interviews described variability in implementation with both best practices and barriers identified. Increasing utilization of obesity-related health services in the long term will require both family- and provider-focused interventions in partnership with improved health insurance coverage.

  13. Childhood obesity, adipose tissue distribution, and the pediatric practitioner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slyper, A H

    1998-07-01

    The prevalence of pediatric obesity is increasing in the United States. Sequelae from pediatric obesity are increasingly being seen, and long-term complications can be anticipated. Obesity is the most common cause of abnormal growth acceleration in childhood. Obesity in females is associated with an early onset of puberty and early menarche. Puberty is now occurring earlier in females than in the past, and this is probably related either directly or indirectly to the population increase in body weight. The effect of obesity on male pubertal maturation is more variable, and obesity can lead to both early and delayed puberty. Pubertal gynecomastia is a common problem in the obese male. Many of the complications of obesity seen in adults appear to be related to increased accumulation of visceral fat. It has been proposed that subcutaneous fat may be protective against the adverse effects of visceral fat. Males typically accumulate fat in the upper segment of the body, both subcutaneously and intraabdominally. In females, adiposity is usually subcutaneous and is found particularly over the thighs, although visceral fat deposition also occurs. Gender-related patterns of fat deposition become established during puberty and show significant familial associations. There are no reliable means for assessing childhood and adolescent visceral fat other than radiologically. Noninsulin-dependent diabetes is being seen more commonly in the pediatric population. Diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance are noted particularly in obese children with a family history of diabetes. In this situation, a glucose tolerance test may be indicated, even in the presence of fasting normoglycemia. Hypertriglyceridemia and low high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels are the primary lipid abnormalities of obesity and are related primarily to the amount of visceral fat. Low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels are not typically elevated in simple obesity. The offspring of parents with early

  14. Poverty, Food Programs, and Childhood Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofferth, Sandra L.; Curtin, Sally

    2005-01-01

    Sixteen percent of children 6-11 years of age were classified as overweight in 1999-2002, four times the percentage in 1965. Although poverty has traditionally been associated with underweight as a result of poor diet, researchers have recently pointed to a paradox in the U.S., which is that low income and obesity can coexist in the same…

  15. Stopping Childhood Obesity before It Begins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzeo, Deborah; Arens, Sheila A.; Germeroth, Carrie; Hein, Heather

    2012-01-01

    Preschool is a crucial time for obesity prevention, as children are developing eating and physical activity habits. A lack of physical activity at preschool may contribute more to overweight children than parental influences such as modeling and supporting physical activity or providing fitness equipment in the home. Let Me Play is a comprehensive…

  16. Metabolic syndrome & obesity: co-epidemics could overwhelm home health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Linda C

    2003-06-01

    Our nation's battle with the bulge has contributed to the current co-epidemics of obesity and metabolic syndrome. The US Surgeon General's office reports that these disease risks may soon cause as much disease and death as cigarette smoking (HHS, 2001). In the United States, one in four adults has metabolic syndrome, which includes about 15 million persons with type 2 diabetes (Ford, 2002). About 50 percent of the estimated 47 million individuals with metabolic syndrome also have insulin resistance, which is a major factor in type 2 diabetes (Ford, 2002; Blackburn, 2001). Overweight and obese adults have a 50 to 100 percent increased risk for premature death compared to those of normal weight (HHS, 2001). The co-epidemics of obesity and metabolic syndrome are costly, as well, having an estimated price tag in 2000 of over $117 billion (HHS, 2001). This article will define the co-epidemics of obesity and metabolic syndrome and describe recommended prevention and management procedures to be adopted in home care.

  17. Community Stakeholders' Perceptions of Major Factors Influencing Childhood Obesity, the Feasibility of Programs Addressing Childhood Obesity, and Persisting Gaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganter, Claudia; Aftosmes-Tobio, Alyssa; Chuang, Emmeline; Blaine, Rachel E; Land, Thomas; Davison, Kirsten K

    2016-04-01

    Prior research has identified numerous factors contributing to increased rates of childhood obesity. However, few studies have focused explicitly on the experience of community stakeholders in low-income communities. This study sought to capture the perspectives of these on-the-ground experts regarding major factors contributing to childhood obesity as well as gaps in current prevention and control efforts. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 39 stakeholders from different community sectors (e.g., healthcare providers, childcare providers, teachers). Data were drawn from the Massachusetts Childhood Obesity Research Demonstration project, a multi-level, multi-sector intervention designed to reduce childhood obesity being implemented in two low-income communities in Massachusetts. Interviews were conducted at baseline, transcribed, coded using grounded theory approach, and analyzed in NVivo 10.0. The vast majority of stakeholders had recently participated in obesity prevention strategies, and nearly all of them identified gaps in prevention efforts either within their organizations or in the broader community. In addition to factors previously identified in the literature, several themes emerged including the need to change policies to increase physical activity during school, offer healthier snacks in schools and afterschool programs, and increase communication and collaboration within the community in prevention efforts. Community stakeholders can impact the success of interventions by bridging the gap between science and lived experience. The results of this study can guide future research by highlighting the importance of including stakeholders' frontline experiences with target populations, and using information on identified gaps to augment intervention planning efforts.

  18. Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome Among Adult Survivors of Childhood Leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Todd M; Ehrhardt, Matthew J; Ness, Kirsten K

    2016-04-01

    Treatment-related obesity and the metabolic syndrome in adult survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) are risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Both conditions often begin during therapy. Preventive measures, including dietary counseling and tailored exercise, should be initiated early in the course of survivorship, with referral to specialists to optimize success. However, among adults who develop obesity or the metabolic syndrome and who do not respond to lifestyle therapy, medical intervention may be indicated to manage underlying pathology, such as growth hormone deficiency, or to mitigate risk factors of cardiovascular disease. Because no specific clinical trials have been done in this population to treat metabolic syndrome or its components, clinicians who follow adult survivors of childhood ALL should use the existing American Heart Association/National Heart Lung and Blood Institute Scientific Statement to guide their approach.

  19. Childhood obesity treatment: targeting parents exclusively v. parents and children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golan, Moria; Kaufman, Vered; Shahar, Danit R

    2006-05-01

    There is a consensus that interventions to prevent and treat childhood obesity should involve the family; however, the extent of the child's involvement has received little attention. The goal of the present study was to evaluate the relative efficacy of treating childhood obesity via a family-based health-centred intervention, targeting parents alone v. parents and obese children together. Thirty-two families with obese children of 6-11 years of age were randomised into groups, in which participants were provided for 6 months a comprehensive educational and behavioural programme for a healthy lifestyle. These groups differed in their main agent of change: parents-only v. the parents and the obese child. In both groups, parents were encouraged to foster authoritative parenting styles (parents are both firm and supportive; assume a leadership role in the environmental change with appropriate granting of child's autonomy). Only the intervention aimed at parents-only resulted in a significant reduction in the percentage overweight at the end of the programme (P=0.02) as well as at the 1-year follow-up meeting. The differences between groups at both times were significant (Pparents-only group. In both groups, the parents' weight status did not change. Regression analysis shows that the level of attendance in sessions explained 28 % of the variability in the children's weight status change, the treatment group explained another 10 %, and the improvement in the obesogenic load explained 11 % of the variability. These results suggest that omitting the obese child from active participation in the health-centred programme may be beneficial for weight loss and for the promotion of a healthy lifestyle among obese children.

  20. Sleep and the epidemic of obesity in children and adults

    OpenAIRE

    Van Cauter, Eve; Knutson, Kristen L.

    2008-01-01

    Sleep is an important modulator of neuroendocrine function and glucose metabolism in children as well as in adults. In recent years, sleep curtailment has become a hallmark of modern society with both children and adults having shorter bedtimes than a few decades ago. This trend for shorter sleep duration has developed over the same time period as the dramatic increase in the prevalence of obesity. There is rapidly accumulating evidence from both laboratory and epidemiological studies to indi...

  1. Childhood Development Cross Culturally:Implications for Designing Childhood Obesity Interventions and Providing Culturally Competent Care

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiying Ling; PhD.MS.RN.Vicki Hines-Martin; PhD.CNS.RN.FAAN Hong Ji; MSN

    2013-01-01

    United States is experiencing significant growth in its foreign -born population , especially Chinese American population comprising of 1.2% of the U.S.population.Many healthcare providers are challenged in their efforts to provide culturally competent healthcare to this population. To provide culturally competent healthcare ,healthcare providers should understand variations in cultural at-tributes that impact health. One group in which cultural variation holds great influence is that of children. Culture influences a child's be-havior,development and health. This article provides a cross -cultural,comparative examination of important cultural influences on child behaviors development and health in China and the U. S.Using the findings about these two populations ,interventions for childhood obesity cross culturally are addressed through the analysis of a U. S.based Children's Obesity Program. The author suggests that uniquely different approaches to childhood obesity intervention research are needed based upon the cultural differences identified within this paper.

  2. Childhood Obesity & Dental Disease: Common Causes, Common Solutions. Oral Health & Obesity Policy Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Children Now, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Too many California children suffer from high rates of preventable chronic conditions associated with childhood obesity and dental disease. The state is experiencing a crisis in both areas. Fortunately, common factors that contribute to both conditions--including the rates of breastfeeding, access to healthy food and the consumption of…

  3. Psychosocial Perspectives and the Issue of Prevention in Childhood Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel eStein; Weinberger-Litman, Sarah L.; Yael eLatzer

    2014-01-01

    A dramatic increase in childhood overweight/obesity has been recognized globally over the past 50 years. This observed increase may reflect genetic, as well as psychological, environmental, and socio-cultural influences. In the first part of this review we present an updated summary of the psychosocial factors associated with this change and discuss possible ways in which they operate. Among these factors , lower socio economic status (in both industrialized and non-industrialized countries),...

  4. The Agatston Urban Nutrition Initiative: Working to Reverse the Obesity Epidemic through Academically Based Community Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Francis E.

    2009-01-01

    The Agatston Urban Nutrition Initiative (AUNI) presents a fruitful partnership between faculty and students at a premier research university and members of the surrounding community aimed at addressing the problem of childhood obesity. AUNI uses a problem-solving approach to learning by focusing course activities, including service-learning, on…

  5. Fetal Origins of Life Stage Disease: A Zebrafish Model for the Obesity Epidemic

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the U.S., childhood obesity has more than doubled in children and quadrupled in adolescents in the past 30 years, affects 35% of adults, and costs the U.S. healthcare industry >$200 billion annually. The chemical environment in the womb may cause susceptibility to different...

  6. Obesity epidemic requires federal intervention: "Healthy Kids" key to nation's healthy future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, James P

    2010-01-01

    The Healthy Kids Act (H.R. 4053) legislation does three things: (1) establishes an office of Childhood Overweight and Obesity Prevention and Treatment within the Department of Health and Human Services to provide information and promote action on healthy eating, (2) institutes a three-tier system for labeling foods, and (3) enables regulatory action to curb food commercials targeting children.

  7. Psychosocial perspectives and the issue of prevention in childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Daniel; Weinberger-Litman, Sarah L; Latzer, Yael

    2014-01-01

    A dramatic increase in childhood overweight/obesity has been recognized globally over the past 50 years. This observed increase may reflect genetic, as well as psychological, environmental, and socio-cultural influences. In the first part of this review, we present an updated summary of the psychosocial factors associated with this change and discuss possible ways in which they operate. Among these factors, lower socio economic status (in both industrialized and non-industrialized countries), being female, belonging to a minority group, and being exposed to adverse life events may all be associated with a greater risk of childhood overweight/obesity. These influences may be mediated via a variety of mechanisms, in particular above-average food intake of low nutritional quality and reduction in physical activity. Other important psychosocial mediators include the influence of the family and peer environment, and exposure to the media. In the second part of the review, we discuss the potential of psychosocial prevention programs to intervene in the processes involved in the rise of childhood overweight/obesity. Two points are emphasized. First, prevention programs should be multidisciplinary, combining the knowledge of experts from different professions, and taking into consideration the important role of the family environment and relevant influential social organizations, particularly school. Second, effective change is unlikely to occur without large-scale programs carried out on a public policy level.

  8. Psychosocial perspectives and the issue of prevention in childhood obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel eStein

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A dramatic increase in childhood overweight/obesity has been recognized globally over the past 50 years. This observed increase may reflect genetic, as well as psychological, environmental, and socio-cultural influences. In the first part of this review we present an updated summary of the psychosocial factors associated with this change and discuss possible ways in which they operate. Among these factors , lower socio economic status (in both industrialized and non-industrialized countries, being female, belonging to a minority group, and being exposed to adverse life events may all be associated with a greater risk of childhood overweight/obesity. These influences may be mediated via a variety of mechanisms, in particular above average food intake of low nutritional quality, and reduction in physical activity. Other important psychosocial mediators include the influence of the family and peer environment, and exposure to the media.In the second part of the review we discuss the potential of psychosocial prevention programs to intervene in the processes involved in the rise of childhood overweight/obesity. Two points are emphasized. Firstly, prevention programs should be multidisciplinary, combining the knowledge of experts from different professions, and taking into consideration the important role of the family environment and relevant influential social organizations, particularly school. Secondly, effective change is unlikely to occur without large-scale programs carried out on a public policy level.

  9. The obesity epidemic and food addiction: clinical similarities to drug dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortuna, Jeffrey L

    2012-01-01

    As of 2010 nearly 70% of adult Americans were overweight or obese. Specifically, 35.7% of adult Americans are obese, and this is the highest level of obesity in the recorded history of the United States. A number of environmental factors, most notably the number of fast food outlets, have contributed to the obesity epidemic as well as to the binge prone dynamic. There is evidence that bingeing on sugar-dense, palatable foods increases extracellular dopamine in the striatum and thereby possesses addictive potential. Moreover, elevated blood glucose levels catalyze the absorption of tryptophan through the large neutral amino acid (LNAA) complex and its subsequent conversion into the mood-elevating chemical serotonin. There appear to be several biological and psychological similarities between food addiction and drug dependence including craving and loss of control. Nonetheless there is at least one apparent difference: acute tryptophan depletion does not appear to induce a relapse in recovering drug-dependent individuals, although it may induce dysphoria. In some individuals, palatable foods have palliative properties and can be viewed as a form of self medication. This article will examine environmental factors that have contributed to the obesity epidemic, and will compare the clinical similarities and differences of food addiction and drug dependence.

  10. Assessment and management of obesity in childhood and adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baur, Louise A; Hazelton, Briony; Shrewsbury, Vanessa A

    2011-11-01

    The increased prevalence of obesity in childhood and adolescence highlights the need for effective treatment approaches. Initial assessments of these patients should include taking a careful history (investigating comorbidities, family history and potentially modifiable behaviors) and physical examination with BMI plotted on a BMI-for-age chart. The degree of investigation is dependent on the patient's age and severity of obesity, the findings on history and physical examination, and associated familial risk factors. There are several broad principles of conventional management: management of comorbidities; family involvement; taking a developmentally appropriate approach; the use of a range of behavior change techniques; long-term dietary change; increased physical activity; and decreased sedentary behaviors. Orlistat can be useful as an adjunct to lifestyle changes in severely obese adolescents and metformin can be used in older children and adolescents with clinical insulin resistance. Bariatric surgery should be considered in those who are severely obese, with recognition of the need for management in centers with multidisciplinary weight management teams and for surgery to be performed in tertiary institutions experienced in bariatric surgery. Finally, given the high prevalence and chronic nature of obesity, coordinated models of care for health-service delivery for the management of pediatric obesity are needed.

  11. Childhood obesity in low- and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poskitt, E M E

    2014-11-01

    Overweight and obesity in childhood is an increasing problem for the less affluent countries of the world. The prevalence of overweight/obesity varies, not only between countries but across countries, depending on the environments in which children live. Changes in physical activity and diet are having adverse effects on children's nutrition. Greater affluence and urbanisation with more technology such as television in homes are associated with overweight. Affluence also brings the ability to purchase commercial, prepared 'fast-food' items, leading too often to disadvantageous effects on children's diets. The solutions to this rising tide of overweight/obesity seem to lie with broad-based programmes initiated at central government level or at more local community level but which are designed to reach across and throughout societies to enable families and communities to modify the unhealthy lifestyle which too often accompanies increasing affluence and development.

  12. Systematic review of childhood obesity prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wofford, Linda G

    2008-02-01

    This systematic review identified the current state of the evidence related to the prevention of obesity in young children. The results indicate five areas of emphasis in the literature: prevalence of the problem; prevention as the best option; preschool population as the target; crucial parental involvement; and numerous guidelines. Because the gap between clear articulation of the problem as well as population and the best strategies to impact the prevention of the problem is evident, health care practitioners must be involved in well-constructed implementation and evaluation studies that build on the limited base of current evidence.

  13. The contribution of childhood and adult socioeconomic position to adult obesity and smoking behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Power, Chris; Graham, Hilary; Due, Pernille

    2005-01-01

    Our objective was to investigate the contribution of childhood and adult socioeconomic position (SEP) to adult obesity and smoking behaviour, in particular to establish the role of childhood circumstances across different studies in Europe and the US.......Our objective was to investigate the contribution of childhood and adult socioeconomic position (SEP) to adult obesity and smoking behaviour, in particular to establish the role of childhood circumstances across different studies in Europe and the US....

  14. WEIGHING THE OPTIONS: A LEGAL APPROACH TO CHILDHOOD OBESITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Solomon

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Growing childhood obesity rates are increasingly putting the lives of Canadian children at risk. Using schools as the foundation for tackling childhood obesity is significantly more achievable than attempting to place blanket measures that intrude into Canadian homes. Measures should be taken to address childhood obesity by promoting healthy eating, education and exercise. Yet it is important to recognise obesity both as a medical and as a pyschosocial problem in order to construct these preventative policies: by doing so we can begin to understand the potential challenges such as stigma along with negative exogenous influences in the home and as consumers.   Les taux croissants d’obésité juvénile montrent que les enfants canadiens sont de plus en plus exposés à un risque pour leur santé. Il est beaucoup plus réaliste de passer par les écoles pour s’attaquer au problème de l’obésité juvénile que de tenter de mettre en œuvre des mesures générales qui constituent une ingérence dans les foyers canadiens. Il faut prendre des mesures pour lutter contre l’obésité juvénile en encourageant les saines habitudes alimentaires, l’éducation et l’exercice. Il importe aussi de reconnaître l’obésité comme un problème d’ordre tant médical que psychosocial avant d’élaborer ces politiques préventives : de cette façon, nous pourrons commencer à comprendre les difficultés possibles telles que l’ostracisme et les influences exogènes négatives dans les foyers et comme consommateurs.

  15. Neighborhoods, Schools and Obesity: The Potential for Place-Based Approaches to Reduce Childhood Obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Elbel

    Full Text Available A common policy approach to reducing childhood obesity aims to shape the environment in which children spend most of their time: neighborhoods and schools. This paper uses richly detailed data on the body mass index (BMI of all New York City public school students in grades K-8 to assess the potential for place-based approaches to reduce child obesity. We document variation in the prevalence of obesity across NYC public schools and census tracts, and then estimate the extent to which this variation can be explained by differences in individual-level predictors (such as race and household income. Both unadjusted and adjusted variability across neighborhoods and schools suggest place-based policies have the potential to meaningfully reduce child obesity, but under most realistic scenarios the improvement would be modest.

  16. Global School-Based Childhood Obesity Interventions: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melinda J. Ickes

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The issue of childhood overweight and obesity has become a global public health crisis. School-based interventions have been developed and implemented to combat this growing concern. The purpose of this review is to compare and contrast U.S. and international school-based obesity prevention interventions and highlight efficacious strategies. Methods: A systematic literature review was conducted utilizing five relevant databases. Inclusion criteria were: (1 primary research; (2 overweight or obesity prevention interventions; (3 school-based; (4 studies published between 1 January 2002 through 31 December 2013; (5 published in the English language; (6 child-based interventions, which could include parents; and (7 studies that reported outcome data. Results: A total of 20 interventions met the inclusion criteria. Ten interventions each were implemented in the U.S. and internationally. International interventions only targeted elementary-aged students, were less likely to target low-income populations, and were less likely to be implemented for two or more years in duration. However, they were more likely to integrate an environmental component when compared to U.S. interventions. Discussion: Interventions implemented in the U.S. and internationally resulted in successful outcomes, including positive changes in student BMI. Yet, varying approaches were used to achieve success, reinforcing the fact that a one-size-fits-all approach is not necessary to impact childhood obesity. However, building on successful interventions, future school-based obesity prevention interventions should integrate culturally specific intervention strategies, aim to incorporate an environmental component, and include parents whenever possible. Consideration should be given to the potential impact of long-term, frequent dosage interventions, and subsequent follow-up should be given attention to determine long-term efficacy.

  17. Obesity in patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia in childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iughetti Lorenzo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Acute lymphoblastic leukemia is the most common malignancy in childhood. Continuous progress in risk-adapted treatment for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia has secured 5-year event-free survival rates of approximately 80% and 8-year survival rates approaching 90%. Almost 75% of survivors, however, have a chronic health condition negatively impacting on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Obesity can be considered one of the most important health chronic conditions in the general population, with an increasing incidence in patients treated for childhood cancers and especially in acute lymphoblastic leukemia survivors who are, at the same time, more at risk of experiencing precocious cardiovascular and metabolic co-morbidities. The hypothalamic-pituitary axis damage secondary to cancer therapies (cranial irradiation and chemotherapy or to primary tumor together with lifestyle modifications and genetic factors could affect long-term outcomes. Nevertheless, the etiology of obesity in acute lymphoblastic leukemia is not yet fully understood. The present review has the aim of summarizing the published data and examining the most accepted mechanisms and main predisposing factors related to weight gain in this particular population.

  18. Perception of Childhood Obesity and Support for Prevention Policies among Latinos and Whites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas M. Puricelli Perin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional survey was administered to Latino and White residents of Omaha, NE, to assess perception of the childhood obesity problem, attribution of responsibility, and support for obesity-related policies. The sample included 40.8% (n=271 Latinos and 59.2% (n=393 Whites. Among Latinos, 25% did not see childhood obesity as a problem, compared to 6% of Whites (P<0.001. This difference persisted after adjusting for age, gender, and education level (odds ratio (OR 2.10, 95% confidence interval (CI 1.07–4.14. Latinos were more likely to agree that government was responsible for addressing childhood obesity compared to Whites (OR 2.81, 95% CI 1.82–4.35. Higher support for policy interventions was observed among individuals who perceived childhood obesity as a big problem compared to those who did not, independent of race, sex, age, or education level. The relationship between support for tax-based policies and perception of the childhood obesity problem was mainly evident among Latinos rather than Whites. Despite city-wide efforts to address obesity, differential penetration in community subgroups appears evident. There is room to further engage Latinos in the cause of obesity. Deepening community awareness about the consequences and complexity of childhood obesity can lead to stronger support for childhood obesity policy interventions.

  19. Parenthood--a contributing factor to childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, Fatma G; Kanikireddy, Sankarabharan; Patel, Manthan

    2010-07-01

    Prevalence of childhood obesity and its complications have increased world-wide. Parental status may be associated with children's health outcomes including their eating habits, body weight and blood cholesterol. The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) for the years 1988-1994, provided a unique opportunity for matching parents to children enabling analyses of joint demographics, racial differences and health indicators. Specifically, the NHANES III data, 1988-1994, of 219 households with single-parents and 780 dual-parent households were analyzed as predictors for primary outcome variables of children's Body Mass Index (BMI), dietary nutrient intakes and blood cholesterol. Children of single-parent households were significantly (p single-parent households than dual-parent households (p single-parent status and excess weight in children. Further studies are needed to explore the dynamics of single-parent households and its influence on childhood diet and obesity. Parental involvement in the development of school- and community-based obesity prevention programs are suggested for effective health initiatives. Economic constraints and cultural preferences may be communicated directly by family involvement in these much needed public health programs.

  20. Parenthood—A Contributing Factor to Childhood Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma G. Huffman

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Prevalence of childhood obesity and its complications have increased world-wide. Parental status may be associated with children’s health outcomes including their eating habits, body weight and blood cholesterol. The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES for the years 1988–1994, provided a unique opportunity for matching parents to children enabling analyses of joint demographics, racial differences and health indicators. Specifically, the NHANES III data, 1988–1994, of 219 households with single-parents and 780 dual-parent households were analyzed as predictors for primary outcome variables of children’s Body Mass Index (BMI, dietary nutrient intakes and blood cholesterol. Children of single-parent households were significantly (p < 0.01 more overweight than children of dual-parent households. Total calorie and saturated fatty acid intakes were higher among children of single-parent households than dual-parent households (p < 0.05. On average, Black children were more overweight (p < 0.04 than children of other races. The study results implied a strong relationship between single-parent status and excess weight in children. Further studies are needed to explore the dynamics of single-parent households and its influence on childhood diet and obesity. Parental involvement in the development of school- and community-based obesity prevention programs are suggested for effective health initiatives. Economic constraints and cultural preferences may be communicated directly by family involvement in these much needed public health programs.

  1. The levelling off of the obesity epidemic since the year 1999--a review of evidence and perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rokholm, B; Baker, J L; Sørensen, T I A

    2010-01-01

    The purpose was to investigate a possible levelling off in the obesity epidemic, by systematically reviewing literature and web-based sources. Eligible studies and data sources were required to have at least two measures of obesity prevalence since 1999. A literature and Internet search resulted...... in 52 studies from 25 different countries. The findings supported an overall levelling off of the epidemic in children and adolescents from Australia, Europe, Japan and the USA. In adults, stability was found in the USA, while increases were still observed in some European and Asian countries. Some...... obesity trends to identify the driving forces behind the epidemic. It is important to emphasize that the levelling off is not tantamount to calling off the epidemic. Additionally, it is worthwhile to keep in mind that previous stable phases have been followed by further increases in the prevalence...

  2. No influence of sugar, snacks and fast food intake on the degree of obesity or treatment effect in childhood obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trier, Cæcilie; Fonvig, C. E.; Bojsoe, C.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Increased consumption of sweetened beverages has previously been linked to the degree of childhood obesity. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to assess whether the intake of sweetened beverages, candy, snacks or fast food at baseline in a multidisciplinary childhood obesity....... There were no associations between the baseline intake of sweetened beverages, candy, snacks, and/or fast food and BMI SDS at baseline or the change in BMI SDS during treatment. CONCLUSIONS: The intake of sweetened beverages, candy, snacks or fast food when entering a childhood obesity treatment program...... treatment program was associated with the baseline degree of obesity or the treatment effect. METHODS: This prospective study included 1349 overweight and obese children (body mass index standard deviation scores (BMI SDS) ≥ 1.64) enrolled in treatment at The Children's Obesity Clinic, Copenhagen University...

  3. Perceptions of Childhood Obesity among Rural Parents, Teachers, and School Administrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripp, Paula J.; Choi, Jin Young

    2015-01-01

    The purposes of this exploratory qualitative research were to describe perceptions related to childhood obesity of rural parents, teachers, and school administrators and to examine how their perceptions shape their choices and behaviors for children's eating and physical exercise. The results showed that the perceptions of childhood obesity in the…

  4. The Gene-Diet Attica investigation on childhood obesity (GENDAI) : overview of the study design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papoutsakis, Constantina; Vidra, Nikoleta V; Hatzopoulou, Ioanna; Tzirkalli, Maria; Farmaki, Anastasia-Eleni; Evagelidaki, Evagelia; Kapravelou, Garifallia; Kontele, Ioanna G; Skenderi, Katerina P; Yannakoulia, Mary; Dedoussis, George V; Vidra, Nikoletta

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is limited evidence on the role of genetic and environmental factors in the etiology of childhood obesity, a major health problem worldwide. METHODS: The Gene-Diet Attica Investigation on childhood obesity (GENDAI) evaluates the contributions to and pivotal interactions of genetic,

  5. Childhood Obesity: Causes and Prevention. Symposium Proceedings (Washington, DC, October 27, 1998).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Food, Nutrition, and Consumer Services (USDA), Washington, DC. Center for Nutrition Policy and Promotion.

    This report documents the proceedings of a 1998 symposium on the causes and prevention of childhood obesity sponsored by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Center for Nutrition Policy and Promotion to focus attention on the growing problem of childhood obesity in the United States and the link between nutrition and health. Following opening…

  6. Keeping Children Active: What You Can Do to Fight Childhood Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pica, Rae

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author talks about childhood obesity and explores ways to fight this condition. The author shares some activities to get children moving to positively impact childhood obesity. These include: "Stand Up/Sit Down;" "Quick Clean-Up;" and "Get Ready Spaghetti."

  7. Parental care in Childhood and Obesity in Adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vámosi, Marianne; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm; Heitmann, Berit Lilienthal;

    2011-01-01

    that one of the twins should have a BMI between 20 and 25 kg/m² (normal weight) and the co-twin a BMI ≥ 30 kg/m² (obesity). In total 236 out of 289 (81.7%) eligible twin individuals participated in an interview and a physical examination. A part of the Childhood Experience of Care and Abuse, the parental...... care and neglect questionnaire, by Bifulco et al, was used to assess perceived parental antipathy and neglect. Data were analyzed by means of intra-pair comparisons. Our results showed that recalled maternal antipathy (p = 0.04) and maternal neglect (p= 0.01) were both associated with adult obesity...

  8. Family involvement in the treatment of childhood obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbæk, Helle Nergaard; Madsen, Svend Aage Lykke; Michaelsen, Kim F.

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The objective of this study was to assess the impacts of a family-based childhood obesity treatment on anthropometry and predictors of dropout and successful weight loss. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The 18-month treatment consisted of a intensive period (IP) including physical exercise...... had limited education and in immigrant families. CONCLUSIONS: This treatment with a psychological approach is feasible and results in significant weight loss during the programme. Future research should focus on how to improve the results of families with limited education and immigrants with non...

  9. Obesity and Cytokines in Childhood-Onset Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

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    Nailú Angélica Sinicato

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. In systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE, atherosclerosis is attributed to traditional and lupus related risk factors, including metabolic syndrome (MetS, obesity, and inflammation. Objective. To evaluate the association between obesity, measures of body fat content, serum tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α, and interleukin (IL-6 and -10 levels in childhood-onset SLE (cSLE. Methods. We screened consecutive cSLE patients followed up in the Pediatric Rheumatology Outpatient Clinic of the State University of Campinas. cSLE patients were assessed for disease and damage. Obesity was definite as body mass index (BMI ≥30 kg/m2. Serum TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-10 levels were measured by ELISA. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to determine total fat mass, lean mass, and percent of body fat. Results. We included 52 cSLE patients and 52 controls. cSLE patients had higher serum TNF-α  (P=0.004, IL-6 (P=0.002, and IL-10 (P<0.001 levels compared to controls. We observed higher serum TNF-α  (P=0.036 levels in cSLE patients with obesity. An association between serum TNF-α levels and body fat percent (P=0.046 and total fat mass on trunk region (P=0.035 was observed. Conclusion. Serum TNF-α levels were associated with obesity and body fat content in cSLE. Our finding suggests that obesity may contribute to the increase of serum TNF-α levels in cSLE.

  10. Mesenteric Lymphadenopathy in Childhood Epidemic Aseptic Meningitis: Sonographic Features and Clinical Significance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mun, Sung Hee; Park, Young Chan; Lee, Young Hwan [Catholic University of Daegu, College of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-09-15

    To evaluate the sonographic features of mesenteric lymphadenopathy in childhood epidemic aseptic meningitis and to assess their clinical significance. Thirty-three patients (25 male, 8 female: mean age, 8.6 years) with a diagnosis of aseptic meningitis were prospectively evaluated with abdominal ultrasonography for the presence of enlarged mesenteric nodes. The size and number of enlarged mesenteric lymph nodes were analyzed in relationship with the patient's age, between the patients with abdominal pain or diarrhea (16 cases, 48%) and asymptomatic patients (17 cases, 52%). Mesenteric lymphadenopathy was seen in 31 patients (94%), all 16 symptomatic and 15 of the 17 asymptomatic patients. The number of enlarged nodes was most prevalent between 6-10, seen in 16 patients (52%) and the largest node ranged in size from 4 to 8 mm. Among the 31 patients with mesenteric lymphadenopathy, the mean size of the largest node was statistically different between the symptomatic (6.0 mm) and asymptomatic (5.0 mm) groups (p = 0.021). The number of enlarged nodes and the patient's age were not statistically different between the two groups. Mesenteric lymphadenopathy was seen in almost all cases of childhood epidemic aseptic meningitis, and may be related to the mesenteric lymphadenitis caused by enterovirus

  11. Obesity Prevention: Parenting Styles Make a Difference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Suzanne M.

    2009-01-01

    Childhood obesity is epidemic in the United States and other industrialized countries across the globe. This trend is alarming, because childhood obesity is associated with the early onset of serious health problems, including Type II diabetes, cardiovascular disease, orthopedic problems, behavioral disorders, and asthma. Mounting evidence also…

  12. Childhood maltreatment and pre-pregnancy obesity: a comparison of obese, overweight, and normal weight pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagl, Michaela; Steinig, Jana; Klinitzke, Grit; Stepan, Holger; Kersting, Anette

    2016-04-01

    Pre-pregnancy overweight and obesity is associated with poor health outcomes for the mother and the child. General population studies suggest that childhood maltreatment is associated with obesity in adulthood. The aim of our study was to examine the association between pre-pregnancy overweight and obesity and a history of childhood abuse or neglect including different stages of severity of abuse and neglect. Three hundred twenty-six normal weight, overweight, or obese pregnant women reported demographic data, height and weight, and general psychological distress at 18-22 weeks of gestation. Childhood maltreatment was assessed using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. Associations were examined using logistic regression analyses and a reference group of normal weight women. Fifty percent reported a history of abuse or neglect. After adjusting for age, education, income, marital status, and the number of previous children, pre-pregnancy overweight and obesity were strongly associated with severe physical abuse (overweight: OR = 8.33, 95% CI 1.48-47.03; obesity: OR = 6.31, 95% CI 1.06-37.60). Women with severe physical neglect (OR = 4.25, 95% CI 1.23-14.74) were at increased risk of pregnancy overweight. We found a dose-response relationship between physical abuse and pre-pregnancy overweight and obesity. Whereas other studies report an association between childhood maltreatment and pre-pregnancy obesity, this is the first study that found an association between childhood maltreatment and pre-pregnancy overweight. Considering the severe health risks of pre-pregnancy overweight and obesity and the long-term consequences of childhood maltreatment, affected women constitute a subgroup with special needs in prenatal care. Further research is needed to improve the understanding of the underlying mechanisms.

  13. Predicting childhood obesity prevention behaviors using social cognitive theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Manoj; Wagner, Donald I; Wilkerson, Janice

    Four commonly suggested public health strategies to combat childhood obesity are limiting television viewing, encouraging daily physical activity, increasing fruit and vegetable intake, and increasing water consumption. This study examined the extent to which selected social cognitive theory constructs can predict these four behaviors in upper elementary children. A 52-item valid and reliable scale was administered to 159 fifth graders. Minutes of physical activity was predicted by self-efficacy to exercise and number of times taught at school (R2 = 0.072). Hours of TV watching were predicted by number of times taught about healthy eating at school and self-control through goal setting (R2 = 0.055). Glasses of water consumed were predicted by expectations for drinking water (R2 = 0.091). Servings of fruits and vegetables consumed were predicted by self-efficacy of eating fruits and vegetables (R2 = 0.137). Social cognitive theory offers a practically useful framework for designing primary prevention interventions to reduce childhood obesity.

  14. A genome-wide association meta-analysis identifies new childhood obesity loci

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bradfield, Jonathan P.; Taal, H. Rob; Timpson, Nicholas J.; Scherag, Andre; Lecoeur, Cecile; Warrington, Nicole M.; Hypponen, Elina; Holst, Claus; Valcarcel, Beatriz; Thiering, Elisabeth; Salem, Rany M.; Schumacher, Fredrick R.; Cousminer, Diana L.; Sleiman, Patrick M. A.; Zhao, Jianhua; Berkowitz, Robert I.; Vimaleswaran, Karani S.; Jarick, Ivonne; Pennell, Craig E.; Evans, David M.; St Pourcain, Beate; Berry, Diane J.; Mook-Kanamori, Dennis O.; Hofman, Albert; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; van der Valk, Ralf J. P.; de Jongste, Johan C.; Postma, Dirkje S.; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Gauderman, W. James; Hassanein, Mohamed T.; Lindgren, Cecilia M.; Magi, Reedik; Boreham, Colin A. G.; Neville, Charlotte E.; Moreno, Luis A.; Elliott, Paul; Pouta, Anneli; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Li, Mingyao; Raitakari, Olli; Lehtimaki, Terho; Eriksson, Johan G.; Palotie, Aarno; Dallongeville, Jean; Das, Shikta; Deloukas, Panos; McMahon, George; Ring, Susan M.; Kemp, John P.; Buxton, Jessica L.; Blakemore, Alexandra I. F.; Bustamante, Mariona; Guxens, Monica; Hirschhorn, Joel N.; Gillman, Matthew W.; Kreiner-Moller, Eskil; Bisgaard, Hans; Gilliland, Frank D.; Heinrich, Joachim; Wheeler, Eleanor; Barroso, Ines; O'Rahilly, Stephen; Meirhaeghe, Aline; Sorensen, Thorkild I. A.; Power, Chris; Palmer, Lyle J.; Hinney, Anke; Widen, Elisabeth; Farooqi, I. Sadaf; McCarthy, Mark I.; Froguel, Philippe; Meyre, David; Hebebrand, Johannes; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Smith, George Davey; Hakonarson, Hakon; Grant, Struan F. A.

    2012-01-01

    Multiple genetic variants have been associated with adult obesity and a few with severe obesity in childhood; however, less progress has been made in establishing genetic influences on common early-onset obesity. We performed a North American, Australian and European collaborative meta-analysis of 1

  15. Invited Commentary: Childhood and Adolescent Obesity--Psychological and Behavioral Issues in Weight Loss Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarwer, David B.; Dilks, Rebecca J.

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of childhood and adolescent obesity has tripled in the past three decades. This increase has been accompanied by a dramatic rise in obesity-related health complications among American youth. Thus, many obese youth are now experiencing illnesses that will threaten their life expectancy in the absence of significant weight loss.…

  16. Evidence that dirty electricity is causing the worldwide epidemics of obesity and diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milham, Samuel

    2014-01-01

    The epidemics of obesity and diabetes most apparent in recent years had their origins with Thomas Edison's development of distributed electricity in New York City in 1882. His original direct current (DC) generators suffered serious commutator brush arcing which is a major source of high-frequency voltage transients (dirty electricity). From the onset of the electrical grid, electrified populations have been exposed to dirty electricity. Diesel generator sets are a major source of dirty electricity today and are used almost universally to electrify small islands and places unreachable by the conventional electric grid. This accounts for the fact that diabetes prevalence, fasting plasma glucose and obesity are highest on small islands and other places electrified by generator sets and lowest in places with low levels of electrification like sub-Saharan Africa and east and Southeast Asia.

  17. Understanding and Acting on the Growing Childhood and Adolescent Weight Crisis: A Role for Social Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Shawn; Hazlett, Rebekah; Hightower, Peggy

    2010-01-01

    The childhood and adolescent overweight and obesity rates are rising at an alarming rate. Numerous individual, family, community, and social factors contribute to overweight and obesity in children and are explored. If left unaddressed, the epidemic of childhood and adolescent overweight and obesity may lead to amplified problems for individual…

  18. Evaluation of the Relationship between Childhood Traumas and Adulthood Obesity Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutlu, Hayrettin; Bilgiç, Vedat; Erten, Sebahattin; Aras, Şükrü; Tayfur, Muhittin

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to delineate the relationship between childhood traumas and adulthood obesity. A total of 314 individuals (157 obese and 157 nonobese) were recruited in the study. After obtaining anthropometric and sociodemographic variables, the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) was administered to the participants. Overall scores of CTQ were determined to be 42.6 ± 10.5 (higher trauma) in obese group and 37.2 ± 6.6 (lower trauma) in nonobese group (P childhood traumatic experience were found to be 68.8% for obese people and 38.8% for nonobese people. In conclusion, an increased risk for adulthood obesity development was significantly associated with childhood traumatic experience.

  19. Systems Science and Childhood Obesity: A Systematic Review and New Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asheley Cockrell Skinner

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available As a public health problem, childhood obesity operates at multiple levels, ranging from individual health behaviors to school and community characteristics to public policies. Examining obesity, particularly childhood obesity, from any single perspective is likely to fail, and systems science methods offer a possible solution. We systematically reviewed studies that examined the causes and/or consequences of obesity from a systems science perspective. The 21 included studies addressed four general areas of systems science in obesity: (1 translating interventions to a large scale, (2 the effect of obesity on other health or economic outcomes, (3 the effect of geography on obesity, and (4 the effect of social networks on obesity. In general, little research addresses obesity from a true, integrated systems science perspective, and the available research infrequently focuses on children. This shortcoming limits the ability of that research to inform public policy. However, we believe that the largely incremental approaches used in current systems science lay a foundation for future work and present a model demonstrating the system of childhood obesity. Systems science perspective and related methods are particularly promising in understanding the link between childhood obesity and adult outcomes. Systems models emphasize the evolution of agents and their interactions; such evolution is particularly salient in the context of a developing child.

  20. A randomised controlled trial for overweight and obese parents to prevent childhood obesity - Early STOPP (STockholm Obesity Prevention Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cao Yingting

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Overweight and obesity have a dramatic negative impact on children's health not only during the childhood but also throughout the adult life. Preventing the development of obesity in children is therefore a world-wide health priority. There is an obvious urge for sustainable and evidenced-based interventions that are suitable for families with young children, especially for families with overweight or obese parents. We have developed a prevention program, Early STOPP, combating multiple obesity-promoting behaviors such unbalanced diet, physical inactivity and disturbed sleeping patterns. We also aim to evaluate the effectiveness of the early childhood obesity prevention in a well-characterized population of overweight or obese parents. This protocol outlines methods for the recruitment phase of the study. Design and methods This randomized controlled trial (RCT targets overweight and/or obese parents with infants, recruited from the Child Health Care Centers (CHCC within the Stockholm area. The intervention starts when infants are one year of age and continues until they are six and is regularly delivered by a trained coach (dietitian, physiotherapist or a nurse. The key aspects of Early STOPP family intervention are based on Swedish recommendations for CHCC, which include advices on healthy food choices and eating patterns, increasing physical activity/reducing sedentary behavior and regulating sleeping patterns. Discussion The Early STOPP trial design addresses weaknesses of previous research by recruiting from a well-characterized population, defining a feasible, theory-based intervention and assessing multiple measurements to validate and interpret the program effectiveness. The early years hold promise as a time in which obesity prevention may be most effective. To our knowledge, this longitudinal RCT is the first attempt to demonstrate whether an early, long-term, targeted health promotion program focusing on healthy

  1. Trends in Measures of Childhood Obesity in Korea From 1998 to 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinwook Bahk

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: During the last several decades, the number of children who are overweight or obese has reached alarming levels worldwide. The purpose of the present study was to examine trends in measures of childhood obesity among Korean children aged 2–19 from 1998 to 2012. Methods: Height, weight, and waist circumference (WC were measured, and body mass index (BMI was calculated. Age-adjusted means of WC and BMI were compared between years. We used three international criteria (International Obesity Task Force [IOTF], World Health Organization [WHO], United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC] and a Korean national reference standard (Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [KCDC] to calculate age-standardized prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity. Results: Despite differences in absolute prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity according to the four different criteria, the time trends of prevalence were generally similar across criteria. The prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity generally stabilized from 2001–2012 in both boys and girls. WC decreased from 2001–2012 in both boys and girls aged 2–19. Conclusions: Further studies exploring the factors causing plateaued trends of childhood obesity measures are needed to implement effective policies for reducing the prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity.

  2. Making the Grade: Reversing Childhood Obesity in Schools Toolkit--Why Use It?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Today, obesity is one of the most critical health concerns for children in the United States. Nearly one-third of children and teens are overweight or obese--and physical inactivity is a leading contributor to the epidemic. Regrettably, as a result of budget cuts and pressure to ensure students perform well on academic tests, physical education…

  3. Keeping Kids Moving: How Equitable Transportation Policy Can Prevent Childhood Obesity--What It Is

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The nation faces an obesity crisis, especially among low-income children and children of color. Today, nearly one-third of children and adolescents are overweight or obese, and physical inactivity is a leading cause of this epidemic. Equitable transportation policy that fosters healthy, opportunity-rich communities has a critical role to play in…

  4. Family mealtimes: a contextual approach to understanding childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiese, Barbara H; Hammons, Amber; Grigsby-Toussaint, Diana

    2012-12-01

    There has been a growing interest in the role that shared family mealtimes may play in promoting the health and well-being of children. Families that regularly eat their main meal together four or more times a week are more likely to have children who do better in school, are of average weight, less likely to use drugs and alcohol at an early age, and consume more fruits and vegetables. The mere fact that families eat together does not address the process by which shared family mealtimes may protect children from unhealthy weight gain. Just as there is no simple explanation for the rising rates of obesity, the link between shared family mealtimes and childhood obesity is a complex one including socioeconomic and cultural context. In this paper, we provide an overview of how shared family mealtimes are embedded in a socio-cultural context that may either support or derail healthy eating patterns for children and youth. Evidence from an observational study of 200 family mealtimes demonstrates the complex interplay between socio-economic factors, family mealtime behaviors, and child obesity status. Families who had a child of healthy weight spent more time engaged with each other during the meal, expressed more positive communication, and considered mealtimes more important and meaningful than families who had a child who was overweight or obese. Using a cumulative risk model, it was found that the combination of family level and neighborhood risk factors predicted child overweight status. Recommendations are made for future research directions and policies directed toward families living in diverse economic circumstances.

  5. Promoting healthy lifestyles: Behavior modification and motivational interviewing in the treatment of childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limbers, Christine A; Turner, Erlanger A; Varni, James W

    2008-06-01

    Childhood obesity has increased dramatically during the past two decades. The growing incidence of childhood obesity is alarming, given the significant short- and long-term health consequences associated with obesity and the strong tracking of obesity from childhood to adulthood. Lifestyle plays an important role in the development and maintenance of obesity. Behavior modification programs targeting eating, exercise, and diet behaviors continue to be the mainstay for treating obese children. Although family-based behavioral weight management programs have resulted in significant improvements in weight status, maintaining improvements in weight status continues to be a challenge, with many interventions resulting in considerable relapse. Motivational interviewing is one innovative approach, used alone or in conjunction with standard behavioral modification programs, which has been proposed to have the potential to enhance motivation for change and therefore improve long-term treatment outcomes for obese children. A broad literature search using two electronic databases, Medline and PsycINFO, to identify studies that used an intervention with a motivational interviewing component to modify diet and/or physical activity in the prevention or treatment of childhood obesity identified two studies that targeted weight as a primary outcome. The studies reviewed indicate that, although initial findings are encouraging, further research is needed to determine the effectiveness of motivational interviewing for prevention and treatment of childhood obesity. Concerted efforts are clearly needed to elucidate the mechanisms for maintenance of initial treatment gains, as well as the ultimate achievement of more ideal weight once formal treatment ceases.

  6. Energy imbalance underlying the development of childhood obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butte, Nancy F; Christiansen, Edmund; Sørensen, Thorkild I A

    2007-01-01

    /d of walking at 2.5 mph. DISCUSSION: Halting the development or progression of childhood obesity, as observed in these Hispanic children and adolescents, by counteracting its total energy costs will require a sizable decrease in energy intake and/or reciprocal increase in physical activity......., and to a total energy intake of 2695 (1890 to 3730), 3127 (2191 to 4335), and 3551 (2487 to 4930) kcal/d, respectively. If weight gain is caused by a change in PAL alone and PAL(0) = 1.5 at baseline t = 0, the model indicates a drop in PAL of 0.22 (0.08 to 0.34) units, which is equivalent to 60 (18 to 105) min...

  7. Communities of Color Creating Healthy Environments to Combat Childhood Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subica, Andrew M; Grills, Cheryl T; Douglas, Jason A; Villanueva, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    Ethnic and racial health disparities present an enduring challenge to community-based health promotion, which rarely targets their underlying population-level determinants (e.g., poverty, food insecurity, health care inequity). We present a novel 3-lens prescription for using community organizing to treat these determinants in communities of color based on the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation's Communities Creating Healthy Environments initiative, the first national project to combat childhood obesity in communities of color using community organizing strategies. The lenses--Social Justice, Culture-Place, and Organizational Capacity-Organizing Approach--assist health professional-community partnerships in planning and evaluating community organizing-based health promotion programs. These programs activate community stakeholders to alter their community's disease-causing, population-level determinants through grassroots policy advocacy, potentially reducing health disparities affecting communities of color.

  8. Behavioral counseling to prevent childhood obesity – study protocol of a pragmatic trial in maternity and child health care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustila Taina

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prevention is considered effective in combating the obesity epidemic. Prenatal environment may increase offspring's risk for obesity. A child starts to adopt food preferences and other behavioral habits affecting weight gain during preschool years. We report the study protocol of a pragmatic lifestyle intervention aiming at primary prevention of childhood obesity. Methods/Design A non-randomized controlled pragmatic trial in maternity and child health care clinics. The control group was recruited among families who visited the same clinics one year earlier. Eligibility criteria was mother at risk for gestational diabetes: body mass index ≥ 25 kg/m2, macrosomic newborn in any previous pregnancy, immediate family history of diabetes and/or age ≥ 40 years. All maternity clinics in town involved in recruitment. The gestational intervention consisted of individual counseling on diet and physical activity by a public health nurse, and of two group counseling sessions. Intervention continues until offspring’s age of five years. An option to participate a group counseling at child’s age 1 to 2 years was offered. The intervention includes advice on healthy diet, physical activity, sedentary behavior and sleeping pattern. The main outcome measure is offspring BMI z-score and its changes by the age of six years. Discussion Early childhood is a critical time period for prevention of obesity. Pragmatic trials targeting this period are necessary in order to find effective obesity prevention programs feasible in normal health care practice. Trial registration Clinical Trials gov NCT00970710

  9. Measuring growth and obesity across childhood and adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, H David

    2014-05-01

    The dramatic rise in childhood obesity has driven the demand for tools better able to assess and define obesity and risk for related co-morbidities. In addition, the early life origins of non-communicable diseases including type 2 diabetes are associated with subtle alterations in growth and body composition, including total and regional body fatness, limb/trunk length and skeletal muscle mass (SMM). Consequently improved tools based on national reference data, which capture these body components must be developed as the limitations of BMI as a measure of overweight and obesity and associated cardiometabolic risk are now recognised. Furthermore, waist circumference as a measure of abdominal fatness in children is now endorsed by the International Diabetes Federation and National Institute for Clinical and Health Excellence for diagnostic and monitoring purposes. The present paper aims to review the research on growth-related variations in body composition and proportions, together with how national references for percentage body fat, SMM and leg/trunk length have been developed. Where collection of these measures is not possible, alternative proxy measures including thigh and hip circumferences are suggested. Finally, body ratios including the waist:height and muscle:fat ratios are highlighted as potential measures of cardiometabolic disease risk. In conclusion, a collection of national references for individual body measures have been produced against which children and youths can be assessed. Collectively, they have the capacity to build a better picture of an individual's phenotype, which represents their risk for cardiometabolic disease beyond that of the capability of BMI.

  10. Exploring Service Providers' Perspectives in Improving Childhood Obesity Prevention among CALD Communities in Victoria, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyril, Sheila; Green, Julie; Nicholson, Jan M.; Agho, Kingsley; Renzaho, Andre M. N.

    2016-01-01

    Background Childhood obesity rates have been increasing disproportionately among disadvantaged communities including culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) migrant groups in Australia due to their poor participation in the available obesity prevention initiatives. We sought to explore service providers’ perceptions of the key factors influencing the participation of CALD communities in the existing obesity prevention services and the service requirements needed to improve CALD communities’ participation in these services. Methods We conducted a qualitative study using focus group discussions involving fifty-nine service providers from a range of services, who are involved in the health and wellbeing of children from CALD groups living in four socioeconomically disadvantaged areas in Victoria, Australia. Results Thematic analysis of the data showed three major themes including community-level barriers to CALD engagement in childhood obesity prevention services; service-level barriers to the delivery of these services; and proposed changes to current childhood obesity prevention approaches. Integrating obesity prevention messages within existing programs, better coordination between prevention and treatment services and the establishment of a childhood obesity surveillance system, were some of the important changes suggested by service providers. Conclusion This study has found that low CALD health literacy, lack of knowledge of cultural barriers among service providers and co-existing deficiencies in the structure and delivery of obesity prevention services negatively impacted the participation of CALD communities in obesity prevention services. Cultural competency training of service providers would improve their understanding of the cultural influences of childhood obesity and incorporate them into the design and development of obesity prevention initiatives. Service providers need to be educated on the pre-migratory health service experiences and health

  11. Parental neglect during childhood and increased risk of obesity in young adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lissau, I; Sørensen, T I

    1994-01-01

    The association of various features of family life with obesity in childhood is well established, but less is known about the effect of these influences on the risk of later obesity. In this prospective, population-based study, we examined the influence of parental care in childhood on the risk...... children had a much greater risk of adult obesity than averagely groomed children (9.8 [3.5-28.2]). However, being an only child, receiving overprotective parental support, or being well-groomed had no effect. Parental neglect during childhood predicts a great risk of obesity in young adulthood...... of obesity in the offspring in young adulthood. In 1974, 1258 pupils aged 9-10 years were randomly selected from the third grade of Copenhagen schools. Information on 987 pupils was obtained from the form teachers on family structure and the perceived support from the parents; school medical services...

  12. Family-based models for childhood-obesity intervention: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung-Chan, P; Sung, Y W; Zhao, X; Brownson, R C

    2013-04-01

    Effective interventions are needed to address the growing epidemic of childhood obesity. In the past 35 years, family-based approach has gradually developed as a preferred intervention. This review aimed to examine the methodological rigour and treatment effectiveness of family-based interventions according to intervention types and theoretical orientations. A total of 15 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of family-based lifestyle interventions for children and adolescents aged 2-19 years were included. The adapted Methodological Quality Rating Scales (MQRS) and a four-grade qualitative scoring scheme were adopted to evaluate the methodological rigour and the effectiveness of treatment, respectively. The average MQRS score was 7.93 out of 14 points. Ten of the 15 RCTs had well aligned their research questions with appropriate research methods. The overall short-term outcome of the15 RCTs were satisfactory with an average score of 3.1. Family-based interventions rooted in behaviour theory achieved better results than those theoretically connected to family systems theory in terms of treatment effectiveness. Results suggest future studies to improve the methodological design and continue to explore the potential of the family systems approach.

  13. Governing childhood obesity: framing regulation of fast food advertising in the Australian print media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Julie; Coveney, John; Ward, Paul; Taylor, Anne

    2009-11-01

    Childhood obesity is widely constructed as reaching epidemic proportions with consumption of fast food viewed as a contributing factor. This paper analyses media reporting of the regulation of fast food consumption to children. A media search of five Australian newspapers for the period January 2006 to June 2008 elicited 100 articles relating to the regulation of fast food advertising to children. Content and thematic analysis of the articles reveal conflicting perspectives on the role of the state; the level of accountability of the food and advertising industries; and responsibilities of parents for regulating fast food consumption in children. The Federal Government, food and advertising industries and free to air broadcasters favour industry self-regulation and personal responsibility for fast food consumption while the proponents of government regulation include consumer groups, state government health ministers, nutrition and public health academics and medical and health foundations. The regulation of fast food advertising to children is discussed in relation to ideas about governance and the public health strategies which follow from these ideas. The paper argues that all proposed solutions are indicative of a neoliberal approach to the governance of health insofar as the responsibility for regulation of food marketing is viewed as lying with industry and the regulation of lifestyle risk is viewed as an individual responsibility.

  14. Association between eating behavior scores and obesity in Chilean children

    OpenAIRE

    Amador Paola; Obregón Ana M; Cataldo Rodrigo; Domínguez-Vásquez Patricia; Smalley Susan V; González Andrea; Ho-Urriola Judith A; Santos José L; Weisstaub Gerardo; Hodgson M Isabel

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Inadequate eating behavior and physical inactivity contribute to the current epidemic of childhood obesity. The aim of this study was to assess the association between eating behavior scores and childhood obesity in Chilean children. Design and methods We recruited 126 obese, 44 overweight and 124 normal-weight Chilean children (6-12 years-old; both genders) according to the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) criteria. Eating behavior scores were calculated using the ...

  15. The levelling off of the obesity epidemic since the year 1999--a review of evidence and perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rokholm, B; Baker, J L; Sørensen, T I A

    2010-01-01

    The purpose was to investigate a possible levelling off in the obesity epidemic, by systematically reviewing literature and web-based sources. Eligible studies and data sources were required to have at least two measures of obesity prevalence since 1999. A literature and Internet search resulted...... in 52 studies from 25 different countries. The findings supported an overall levelling off of the epidemic in children and adolescents from Australia, Europe, Japan and the USA. In adults, stability was found in the USA, while increases were still observed in some European and Asian countries. Some...... evidence for heterogeneity in the obesity trends across socioeconomic status (SES) groups was found. The levelling off was less evident in the lower-SES groups. No obvious differences between genders were identified. We discussed potential explanations for a levelling off and the utility of investigating...

  16. Expanding Exposure: Can Increasing the Daily Duration of Head Start Reduce Childhood Obesity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisvold, David E.; Lumeng, Julie C.

    2011-01-01

    Coinciding with the work requirements of welfare reform in the mid-1990s, the early childhood education program, Head Start, significantly expanded to increase the availability of full-day classes. Using unique administrative data, we examine the effect of full-day compared to half-day attendance on childhood obesity. This effect is identified…

  17. Obesity Prevention Interventions in Early Childhood Education and Care Settings with Parental Involvement: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Heather; Skouteris, Helen; Edwards, Susan; Rutherford, Leonie

    2015-01-01

    Partnering early childhood education and care (ECEC) and the home together may be more effective in combating obesogenic risk factors in preschool children. Thus, an evaluation of ECEC obesity prevention interventions with a parental component was conducted, exploring parental engagement and its effect on obesity and healthy lifestyle outcomes. A…

  18. School Context Matters: The Impacts of Concentrated Poverty and Racial Segregation on Childhood Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piontak, Joy Rayanne; Schulman, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Schools are important sites for interventions to prevent childhood obesity. This study examines how variables measuring the socioeconomic and racial composition of schools and counties affect the likelihood of obesity among third to fifth grade children. Methods: Body mass index data were collected from third to fifth grade public…

  19. An Examination of Educators' Perceptions of the School's Role in the Prevention of Childhood Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sharon Kay Harris

    2011-01-01

    Childhood obesity is a prevalent subject of research currently, and many researchers have studied the effectiveness of school programs in battling obesity among students. This case study, utilizing ethnographic tools of observation, interviews, and investigation of artifacts, examines educators' perceptions of the role of the school in the…

  20. The Governmentality of Childhood Obesity: Coca-Cola, Public Health and Primary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Darren; Gard, Michael

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we examine the emergence of what might seem an unexpected policy outcome--a large multinational corporation, frequently blamed for exacerbating childhood obesity, operating as an officially sanctioned driver of anti-obesity initiatives in primary schools across the globe. We draw on Foucault's notion of governmentality to examine…

  1. Childhood Health Consequences of Maternal Obesity during Pregnancy: A Narrative Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Gaillard (Romy); S. Santos (Susana); L. Duijts (Liesbeth); J.F. Felix (Janine)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Obesity is a major public health problem among women of reproductive age. In a narrative review, we examined the influence of maternal obesity during pregnancy on fetal outcomes and childhood adiposity, cardio-metabolic, respiratory and cognitive-related health outcomes. We d

  2. Perceptions of Local Parents and School Staff on Childhood Obesity Prevention Interventions in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behnoush Mohammadpour-Ahranjani

    2014-09-01

    Conclusions: This study provided important contextual data on where the emphasis should be placed in developing the childhood obesity prevention interventions for the school children in Tehran. The findings further highlight the importance of involving a wide range of stakeholders, and including multiple components to maximise the chances of success. Keywords: Child, Obesity, Prevention, Intervention, Qualitative research, Iran

  3. Childhood obesity: the extent of the problem among 6-year-old Irish national school children.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Evans, D S

    2011-05-01

    Childhood obesity is rapidly increasing worldwide. In Ireland, the number of overweight children has trebled over the last decade. The study aimed to provide an assessment of the prevalence of obesity of 6-year-old children in one region of Ireland.

  4. Managing early childhood obesity in the primary care setting: a behavior modification approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drohan, Samantha H

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to encourage primary care pediatric nurses to begin behavioral-based obesity treatment efforts as early as the preschool years. By examining the critical periods for obesity development and how the formation of food and activity behaviors interacts with those critical periods during the preschool years, the value of initiating early obesity treatment will be highlighted. Furthermore, the theory of behavior modification is presented and core principles are applied to early childhood weight management efforts.

  5. A genome-wide association meta-analysis identifies new childhood obesity loci

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bradfield, Jonathan P; Taal, H Rob; Timpson, Nicholas J

    2012-01-01

    Multiple genetic variants have been associated with adult obesity and a few with severe obesity in childhood; however, less progress has been made in establishing genetic influences on common early-onset obesity. We performed a North American, Australian and European collaborative meta-analysis o......-analysis of 14 studies consisting of 5,530 cases (≥95th percentile of body mass index (BMI)) and 8,318 controls (...

  6. Parental neglect during childhood and increased risk of obesity in young adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lissau, I; Sørensen, T I

    1994-01-01

    reported on the child's general hygiene. 756 (86%) of the 881 eligible participants were followed up 10 years later. The influence of family factors in childhood on the risk of obesity (body-mass index > 95th centile) in young adulthood was estimated by odds ratios with control for age and body-mass index...... children had a much greater risk of adult obesity than averagely groomed children (9.8 [3.5-28.2]). However, being an only child, receiving overprotective parental support, or being well-groomed had no effect. Parental neglect during childhood predicts a great risk of obesity in young adulthood...

  7. Childhood conditions and education as determinants of adult height and obesity among Greenland Inuit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Peter

    2011-01-01

    , alcohol problems in childhood home, and education among both men and women. Obesity was associated with mother's place of birth (for men) and with alcohol problems (for women). In General Linear Models, men with an all rural background and no education beyond primary school measured on average 165.1 cm......Height and obesity are risk factors for cardiovascular disease and other physical and mental health conditions. Their association with childhood socioeconomic position has been demonstrated in studies among European and a few third world populations. In a random sample of adult Greenland Inuit (N...... = 2302) we studied the association between childhood socioeconomic conditions and height as well as prevalence of obesity (BMI > or = 30) in a cross sectional design. In block recursive graphical independence models, height was associated with mother's place of birth, birth cohort, childhood residence...

  8. Exploring the relationship between childhood obesity and proximity to the coast: A rural/urban perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Sophie L; Demougin, Philippe R; Higgins, Sahran; Husk, Kerryn; Wheeler, Benedict W; White, Mathew

    2016-07-01

    Childhood obesity is one of the 21st century's most serious global health challenges. Research suggests that better access to 'greenspace' (e.g. parks) may encourage physical activity and reduce the risk of obesity amongst children. We extend earlier work by considering childhood obesity in relation to proximity to the coast, using data from England's National Child Measurement Programme. Results suggest that although the overall prevalence of childhood obesity is slightly lower at the coast (-0.68% points comparing 20km, pcoast) was found for rural areas and smaller cities and towns, it was not present among large urban conurbations (interaction p-value<0.001). Coastal environments and access to them are changing in many areas, and research to explore potential impacts on child health is warranted.

  9. Actions of nurses and teachers in the prevention and combat of childhood obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiane Dias da Rosa dos Santos

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to know how nurses and teachers contribute to prevent and combat childhood obesity. It is a qualitative study, conducted in 2012, with data collected through interviews with three nurses from a basic health unit and eight teachers from a public school in southern Brazil. Thematic analysis pointed out as factors that contribute to childhood obesity eating unhealthy foods and the families’ food culture. As actions of prevention and combat there is the promotion of breast feeding, the mother’s educational process and the use of recreational activities that promote children’s learning about obesity. It was concluded that joint and systematic actions among nurses and teachers are important to fight childhood obesity.

  10. Mixed reality virtual pets to reduce childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnsen, Kyle; Ahn, Sun Joo; Moore, James; Brown, Scott; Robertson, Thomas P; Marable, Amanda; Basu, Aryabrata

    2014-04-01

    Novel approaches are needed to reduce the high rates of childhood obesity in the developed world. While multifactorial in cause, a major factor is an increasingly sedentary lifestyle of children. Our research shows that a mixed reality system that is of interest to children can be a powerful motivator of healthy activity. We designed and constructed a mixed reality system that allowed children to exercise, play with, and train a virtual pet using their own physical activity as input. The health, happiness, and intelligence of each virtual pet grew as its associated child owner exercised more, reached goals, and interacted with their pet. We report results of a research study involving 61 children from a local summer camp that shows a large increase in recorded and observed activity, alongside observational evidence that the virtual pet was responsible for that change. These results, and the ease at which the system integrated into the camp environment, demonstrate the practical potential to impact the exercise behaviors of children with mixed reality.

  11. Childhood sexual violence in Zimbabwe: evidence for the epidemic against girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumble, Lauren; Mungate, Taizivei; Chigiji, Handrick; Salama, Peter; Nolan, Anthony; Sammon, Elayn; Muwoni, Leon

    2015-08-01

    Sexual abuse during childhood is a public health and human rights concern throughout the world, including Sub-Saharan Africa. In 2011, Zimbabwe initiated national prevalence data collection on violence against children to inform government policy and programs. We interviewed 567 females and 589 males, aged 18-24 years following standardized and previously tested survey methods from the region. Of females 32.5%, and of males 8.9%, reported experiencing sexual violence before age 18. Most female (62.7%) and male (47.9%) victims of sexual violence experienced more than one incident of sexual violence prior to age 18 years. Three in four females (77.7%) and one in four males (26.7%) of those who experienced sexual violence reported that the first incident was perpetrated by a boyfriend or girlfriend. Few victims received professional help (2.7% of females and 2.4% of males who had reported experiencing sexual violence). Violence against girls is at epidemic levels in Zimbabwe. Most sexual violence against girls occurs within the context of peer relationships. Child victims who seek potentially life-saving support tend not to receive it. This study is evidence of a national public health and child rights emergency in the country and a case for increased, longer-term investment by the government and its development partners in policy reform for enhancing adolescent girls' empowerment and protection.

  12. Report on Childhood Obesity in China (7)Comparison of NCHS and WGOC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YI-QUN XU; CHENG-YE JI; COOPERATIVE STUDY ON CHILDHOOD OBESITY:WORKING GRO

    2008-01-01

    To test the validity of Working Group on Obesity in China (WGOC) reference in screening childhood obesity using obesity-related metabolic syndrome (MS) and its components as disease risk evidence. Methods A total of 2020 adolescents (1007 boys and 1013 girls) aged 14-16 years were sampled in Beijing, China. Anthropometxic and biochemical measurements, as well as blood pressure parameters were available. Prevalence of overweight/obesity and related MS risk factors were analyzed across different body mass index (BMI) categories. The sensitivity and specificity of the WGOC cut-offs were compared with those of National Central Health Statistics (NCHS). Results Significantly high prevalence of MS and its components were found both in the obesity and overweight groups, which were classified by the WGOC and NCHS references. Similar distribution pattern of MS risk factors existed among different BMI categories, hut the frequency and clustering of these factors in the obesity group classified by the NCHS were much higher. Owing to its irrelevant high cut-offs for overweight/obesity (especially for girls since the mid-adolescence), the NCHS reference had a high specificity but a low sensitivity. By contrast, the WGOC reference with a high sensitivity (90.1% for boys and 89.2% for girls) and a relative high specificity (96.4% and 92.8% for obese boys and girls, 78.1% and 68.9% for overweight boys and girls respectively) was more suitable to support the need for early screening, intervention, and treatment of childhood obesity in China. Conclusion High sensitivity is more important than specificity in choosing appropriate screening tools for childhood obesity. Validity test demonstrates that it is rational to use the WGOC reference, established on the basis of the Chinese own reference population as a uniform screening tool for childhood obesity, which can effectively overcome the unnecessary treatment and psychosocial implications of stigmatization caused by misclassification.

  13. Modeling social transmission dynamics of unhealthy behaviors for evaluating prevention and treatment interventions on childhood obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leah M Frerichs

    Full Text Available Research evidence indicates that obesity has spread through social networks, but lever points for interventions based on overlapping networks are not well studied. The objective of our research was to construct and parameterize a system dynamics model of the social transmission of behaviors through adult and youth influence in order to explore hypotheses and identify plausible lever points for future childhood obesity intervention research. Our objectives were: (1 to assess the sensitivity of childhood overweight and obesity prevalence to peer and adult social transmission rates, and (2 to test the effect of combinations of prevention and treatment interventions on the prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity. To address the first objective, we conducted two-way sensitivity analyses of adult-to-child and child-to-child social transmission in relation to childhood overweight and obesity prevalence. For the second objective, alternative combinations of prevention and treatment interventions were tested by varying model parameters of social transmission and weight loss behavior rates. Our results indicated child overweight and obesity prevalence might be slightly more sensitive to the same relative change in the adult-to-child compared to the child-to-child social transmission rate. In our simulations, alternatives with treatment alone, compared to prevention alone, reduced the prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity more after 10 years (1.2-1.8% and 0.2-1.0% greater reduction when targeted at children and adults respectively. Also, as the impact of adult interventions on children was increased, the rank of six alternatives that included adults became better (i.e., resulting in lower 10 year childhood overweight and obesity prevalence than alternatives that only involved children. The findings imply that social transmission dynamics should be considered when designing both prevention and treatment intervention approaches. Finally

  14. Lipoprotein lipase gene polymorphisms and risks of childhood obesity in Chinese preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li N; Yu, Qing; Xiong, Yan; Liu, Lin F; Zhang, Zhen; Zhang, Xue N; Cheng, Hao; Wang, Bei

    2011-10-01

    Childhood obesity is increasingly prevalent in the community and is related to many adult diseases. Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) plays a central role in dyslipidemia, and polymorphisms of the LPL gene may result in the disturbance in the lipid's metabolism. The aim of this study is to test the hypothesis that genetic variants of LPL and serum lipid levels are associated with the risk of childhood obesity. We genotyped +495T > G and PvuII T > C in an LPL gene and measured the serum lipid levels in a case-control study of 124 obese children and 346 frequency-matched normal controls in preschool Chinese children. The variant genotypes of LPL + 495GG and PvuII CC were associated with a significantly increased risk of childhood obesity [adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 2.39, 95% CI = 1.09-5.23 for +495 GG; adjusted OR = 2.00, 95% CI = 1.04-3.83 for PvuII CC], compared with their wild-type genotypes, respectively. In addition, compared with the lower serum level cut off by the control median, the higher level of serum triglyceride (TG) (>0.59 mmol/L) was associated with a 1.32-fold increased risk of childhood obesity, and the higher level of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC) (>1.14 mmol/L) was associated with a 36% decrease in risk of childhood obesity. Furthermore, the median levels of TG were higher in obese children carrying LPL +495TT/TG and PvuII TT/CT genotypes than those in controls, the HDLC levels were lower in obese children carrying LPL +495TG and PvuII CT/CC genotypes than those in controls. In conclusion, the LPL gene +495T > G and PvuII T > C polymorphisms may modulate the magnitude of dyslipidemia in Chinese early-onset obesity.

  15. School-Based Obesity Interventions: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaya, Fadia T.; Flores, David; Gbarayor, Confidence M.; Wang, Jingshu

    2008-01-01

    Background: Childhood obesity is an impending epidemic. This article is an overview of different interventions conducted in school settings so as to guide efforts for an effective management of obesity in children, thus minimizing the risk of adult obesity and related cardiovascular risk. Methods: PubMed and OVID Medline databases were searched…

  16. Combating the Epidemic of Obesity and Cardiovascular Disease: Perspectives from School-aged Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavon Young

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to assess students’ perceptions of the obstacles to positive dietary practices and increased physical activity and to solicit the students’ recommendations for addressing and possibly reducing the negative practices that are associated with the rise in obesity and the development of cardiovascular diseases. Data for the study were obtained from the administration of the 2005 Project Health High School Survey (PHHSS which measured the students’ perceptions regarding obstacles to eating more nutritious, healthier foods and obstacles to participating in daily physical activity. The reasons for students’ lack of interest in practicing more life-healthy behaviors are ranked and recorded. Some of the students indicated that they usually ate what they liked to eat, and the decision about what to eat was made because of the taste of the food without regard for any health consequence or negative health outcomes. Finding ways to reach these students at their young ages is the key to successfully combating the high prevalence of obesity and the development of other chronic diseases in childhood, as well as in adulthood.

  17. Effect of a 1-Year Obesity Intervention (KLAKS Program) on Preexisting Autonomic Nervous Dysfunction in Childhood Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blüher, Susann; Petroff, David; Keller, Alexandra; Wagner, Antje; Classen, Joseph; Baum, Petra

    2015-08-01

    Childhood obesity may involve autonomic nervous system dysfunction. Whether it improves following weight loss remains unclear. Thirty-one obese children (body mass index standard deviation scores 2.33 ± 0.47; age 11.2 ± 2.0) completed a 1-year lifestyle intervention (KLAKS: Concept Leipzig: Adiposity Therapy for School-Aged Children). Anthropometric/biochemical parameters and autonomic nervous system function (heart rate variability, quantitative pupillography) were assessed at baseline and follow-up. A multivariate model for changes in body mass index standard deviation scores considered age, gender, and changes in autonomic nervous system function. Weight status (Δ body mass index standard deviation scores: 0.16 [0.05, 0.29], P = .008), glycemic control, and free fatty acids (all P nervous system dysfunction in childhood obesity.

  18. EPODE approach for childhood obesity prevention: methods, progress and international development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borys, J-M; Le Bodo, Y; Jebb, S A; Seidell, J C; Summerbell, C; Richard, D; De Henauw, S; Moreno, L A; Romon, M; Visscher, T L S; Raffin, S; Swinburn, B

    2012-04-01

    Childhood obesity is a complex issue and needs multi-stakeholder involvement at all levels to foster healthier lifestyles in a sustainable way. 'Ensemble Prévenons l'Obésité Des Enfants' (EPODE, Together Let's Prevent Childhood Obesity) is a large-scale, coordinated, capacity-building approach for communities to implement effective and sustainable strategies to prevent childhood obesity. This paper describes EPODE methodology and its objective of preventing childhood obesity. At a central level, a coordination team, using social marketing and organizational techniques, trains and coaches a local project manager nominated in each EPODE community by the local authorities. The local project manager is also provided with tools to mobilize local stakeholders through a local steering committee and local networks. The added value of the methodology is to mobilize stakeholders at all levels across the public and the private sectors. Its critical components include political commitment, sustainable resources, support services and a strong scientific input--drawing on the evidence-base--together with evaluation of the programme. Since 2004, EPODE methodology has been implemented in more than 500 communities in six countries. Community-based interventions are integral to childhood obesity prevention. EPODE provides a valuable model to address this challenge.

  19. Parental depression, family functioning and obesity among African American children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Melvin; Young, LaShun; Davis, Sheila P; Moll, George

    2008-01-01

    Obesity has reached an epidemic level in America (National Center for Health Statistics [NCHS] 1999), and this epidemic is more acute for African Americans than for other groups of Americans. In this study, 44 parent-child dyads completed measurements of height, depression, and body fat composition. In addition, parents completed a demographic questionnaire, and instruments, which measured family functioning, parental psychopathology, child behavior, and cardiovascular risks. Several models emerged for predicting childhood and parental body mass index, parental depression, and child behavioral problems. Findings indicated a role for parental depression in childhood obesity. These findings are discussed in light of Bandura's Social Cognitive Theory, and the family's role in childhood obesity.

  20. The role of both parents’ attachment pattern in understanding childhood obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia eMazzeschi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Within the research area on the determinants of childhood obesity, a relatively new approach is the use of attachment theory to explore the mechanisms underlying children’s obesity risk, especially considered as emotion regulation strategies in parent-child relationship. Few are the empirical researches that have addressed this issue. The empirical investigations have used self-report measures to assess adult attachment. In attachment studies, the use of interview methods and/or performance-based instruments is advised to evaluate the entire range of possible adult attachment patterns and comprehensively explain the emotional strategies, correlates and consequences of individual differences in attachment system functioning. The aim of this study was to explore the extent to which both parents’ attachment patterns serve as self-regulative mechanisms related to childhood overweight/obesity by the Adult Attachment Projective Picture System (AAP in a sample of 44 mothers and fathers of children referred for obesity. Insecure attachment was found as a risk factor both for mothers’ and fathers’. Also unresolved/disorganization was found to play a significant role in childhood obesity. The role of father’s attachment was explored and findings suggested considering it in etiology and treatment of childhood obesity.

  1. The role of both parents' attachment pattern in understanding childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzeschi, Claudia; Pazzagli, Chiara; Laghezza, Loredana; Radi, Giulia; Battistini, Dalila; De Feo, Pierpaolo

    2014-01-01

    Within the research area on the determinants of childhood obesity, a relatively new approach is the use of attachment theory to explore the mechanisms underlying children's obesity risk, especially considered as emotion regulation strategies in parent-child relationship. Few are the empirical researches that have addressed this issue. The empirical investigations have used self-report measures to assess adult attachment. In attachment studies, the use of interview methods and/or performance-based instruments is advised to evaluate the entire range of possible adult attachment patterns and comprehensively explain the emotional strategies, correlates, and consequences of individual differences in attachment system functioning. The aim of this study was to explore the extent to which both parents' attachment patterns serve as self-regulative mechanisms related to childhood overweight/obesity by the Adult Attachment Projective Picture System (AAP) in a sample of 44 mothers and fathers of children referred for obesity. Insecure attachment was found as a risk factor both for mothers and fathers. Also unresolved/disorganization was found to play a significant role in childhood obesity. The role of father's attachment was explored and findings suggested considering it in etiology and treatment of childhood obesity.

  2. The effect of childrens' eating behaviors and parental feeding style on childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Dilek; Bektas, Murat

    2017-03-22

    In is important to determine the factors that affect obesity in childhood, in order to raise generations of healthy children. This study aims to determine the effect of primary school students' eating behaviors and parental feeding styles on obesity in childhood. This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted with 1201 children and their parents between September 2014 and March 2015. The data were collected using the socio-demographic data collection form for children and parents, the Children's Eating Behavior Questionnaire and the Parental Feeding Style Questionnaire. The data were analyzed using percentage calculators, mean, Spearman's correlation analysis, Pearson's correlation analysis and multiple regression analysis. Of the children, 16.9% were found to be obese. Three models were created considering the relationships between the variables in this study and the occurrence of obesity. In the first model, the factors that affect childhood obesity were found to be enjoyment of food, emotional overeating, food responsiveness, satiety responsiveness and food fussiness. In the second model, the factors were prompting/encouragement and control over eating. Enjoyment of food, emotional overeating, food responsiveness, satiety responsiveness, emotional feeding and food fussiness were also found to be the factors in the third model (pfeeding style affect the occurrence of obesity in childhood.

  3. Lessons Learned from the Implementation of a Provincial Breastfeeding Policy in Nova Scotia, Canada and the Implications for Childhood Obesity Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara F. L. Kirk

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Healthy public policy plays a central role in creating environments that are supportive of health. Breastfeeding, widely supported as the optimal mode for infant feeding, is a critical factor in promoting infant health. In 2005, the Canadian province of Nova Scotia introduced a provincial breastfeeding policy. This paper describes the process and outcomes of an evaluation into the implementation of the policy. This evaluation comprised focus groups held with members of provincial and district level breastfeeding committees who were tasked with promoting, protecting and supporting breastfeeding in their districts. Five key themes were identified, which were an unsupportive culture of breastfeeding; the need for strong leadership; the challenges in engaging physicians in dialogue around breastfeeding; lack of understanding around the International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes; and breastfeeding as a way to address childhood obesity. Recommendations for other jurisdictions include the need for a policy, the value of leadership, the need to integrate policy with other initiatives across sectors and the importance of coordination and support at multiple levels. Finally, promotion of breastfeeding offers a population-based strategy for addressing the childhood obesity epidemic and should form a core component of any broader strategies or policies for childhood obesity prevention.

  4. On childhood obesity prevention:"Exercise is medicine" vs."exercise is vaccine"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ang; Chen

    2012-01-01

    <正>The most recent report on the obesity epidemic by the U.S. Institute of Medicine(IOM) has painted a bleak picture of reality in the U.S.It reports that two third of adults and almost one third of children are either overweight or obese by any counts of measures.Situations in other countries do not seem optimistic either.According to the World Health Organization (WHO),the numbers of obese children have increased during the last decade to an estimated 35 million in developing countries and 8 million in developed countries

  5. Determinants of Childhood Obesity in Representative Sample of Children in North East of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fereshteh Baygi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Childhood obesity has become, a global public health problem, and epidemiological studies are important to identify its determinants in different populations. This study aimed to investigate factors associated with obesity in a representative sample of children in Neishabour, Iran. This study was conducted among 1500 randomly selected 6–12-year-old students from urban areas of Neishabour, northeast of Iran. Then, through a case-control study, 114 obese (BMI≥95th percentile of Iranian reference children were selected as the case group and were compared with 102 controls (15th≤BMI<85th percentile. Factors suggested to be associated with weight status were investigated, for example, parental obesity, child physical activity levels, socio-economic status (SES, and so forth. The analysis was conducted using univariate and multivariate logistic regression (MLR in SPSS version 16. In univariate logistic regression model, birth weight, birth order, family extension, TV watching, sleep duration, physical activity, parents’ job, parents’ education, parental obesity history, and SES were significantly associated with children’s obesity. After MLR analysis, physical activity and parental obesity history remained statistically significant in the model. Our findings showed that physical activity and parental obesity history are the most important determinants for childhood obesity in our population. This finding should be considered in implementation of preventive interventions.

  6. Do rapid BMI growth in childhood and early-onset obesity offer cardiometabolic protection to obese adults in mid-life?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howe, Laura D; Zimmermann, Esther; Weiss, Ram

    2014-01-01

    that rapid BMI growth in childhood or early-onset obesity was associated with either MHO or the MANW phenotype, for example, among obese men in mid-life, the OR for MHO comparing early-onset obesity with non-early-onset obesity was 0.97 (95% CI 0.85 to 1.10). CONCLUSIONS: We found no robust evidence......OBJECTIVE: Some obese individuals have no cardiometabolic abnormalities; they are 'metabolically healthy, but obese' (MHO). Similarly, some non-obese individuals have cardiometabolic abnormalities, that is, 'metabolically at risk, normal weight' (MANW). Previous studies have suggested that early...... evidence...

  7. Predicting childhood obesity prevention behaviors using social cognitive theory among upper elementary African-American children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmore, Shakeyrah; Sharma, Manoj

    Childhood obesity is a major public health problem in the African-American community. Commonly suggested public health strategies to reduce childhood obesity are limiting television viewing, encouraging daily moderately intense physical activity of at least 60 minutes per day, increasing fruit and vegetable intake to five or more cups per day, and increasing water consumption. This study examined the extent to which selected social cognitive theory constructs can predict these four behaviors in African-American upper elementary children. A 56-item valid and reliable scale was administered to 222 students. Glasses of water consumed were predicted by self-control for drinking water and self-efficacy for drinking water (R2 = 0.123). Fruits and vegetables consumed were predicted by self-efficacy for eating fruits and vegetables (R2 = 0.083). For designing primary prevention interventions to reduce childhood obesity in the African-American community, social cognitive theory provides a useful framework.

  8. The genetic and environmental influences on childhood obesity: a systematic review of twin and adoption studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silventoinen, K; Rokholm, B; Kaprio, J;

    2010-01-01

    a substantial effect in mid-childhood, but this effect disappeared at adolescence. Adoption studies supported the role of family environment in childhood obesity as correlations were found between adoptees and adoptive parents; however, correlations were substantially stronger between parents......In this systematic review, we aimed to collect together all previous twin and adoption studies on childhood and adolescent obesity up to the age of 18 years. Using several sources, we identified nine twin and five adoption studies; all of these studies had used relative weight as an indicator...... of obesity. Except the two twin studies from the Korean population, all studies represented Caucasian populations. In a meta-analysis of these twin studies, we found that genetic factors had a strong effect on the variation of body mass index (BMI) at all ages. The common environmental factors showed...

  9. An increasing socioeconomic gap in childhood overweight and obesity in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wei; James, Sherman A; Merli, M Giovanna; Zheng, Hui

    2014-01-01

    We used a new conceptual framework that integrates tenets from health economics, social epidemiology, and health behavior to analyze the impact of socioeconomic forces on the temporal changes in the socioeconomic status (SES) gap in childhood overweight and obesity in China. In data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey for 1991 to 2006, we found increased prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity across all SES groups, but a greater increase among higher-SES children, especially after 1997, when income inequality dramatically increased. Our findings suggest that for China, the increasing SES gap in purchasing power for obesogenic goods, associated with rising income inequality, played a prominent role in the country's increasing SES gap in childhood obesity and overweight.

  10. Association between childhood obesity and oral hygiene status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Gomes Ferraz

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the oral hygiene status in pediatric obese patients. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted from 2011 to 2012, which evaluated 180 Brazilian pediatric patients, 6-14 years old, girls and boys, recruited according to two Body Mass Index (BMI categories: obese and non-obese (healthy weight. For the evaluation the oral hygiene status, the study used Oral Hygiene Index (OHI and Gingival Bleeding Index (GBI. Results: According to the total sample, 5/60 obese (8.3% and 57/120 non-obese (47.5% had good OHI, while 23/60 obese (38.4% and 3/120 non-obese (2.5% were classified in a low level of OHI, with a significance between the groups (p < 0.001, even after sorting by age. According to the classification of GBI, 60/60 obese (100.0% and 89/120 non-obese (74.2% had GBI 1 (bleeding gingiva, and 0/60 obese and 31/120 non-obese (25.8% were classified as GBI 0 (healthy gingiva, with a significance between the groups (p < 0.001, even after sorting by age. Conclusions: This study indicated that OHI and GBI were significantly higher in the obese children group.

  11. Understanding and preventing childhood obesity and related disorders--IDEFICS: a European multilevel epidemiological approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrens, W; Bammann, K; de Henauw, S; Halford, J; Palou, A; Pigeot, I; Siani, A; Sjöström, M

    2006-05-01

    The environment of children has drastically changed in Europe during the last decades as reflected in unhealthy dietary habits and sedentary lifestyle. Nutrition obviously plays a part in the development of overweight in childhood. However, dietary factors and physical activity are also involved in the development of metabolic syndrome, type II diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, osteoporosis, and postural deformities like scoliosis, effects related in part to excessive weight gain. To stop the resulting epidemic of diet- and lifestyle-induced morbidity, efficient evidence-based approaches are needed. These issues are the focus of IDEFICS (Identification and prevention of dietary- and lifestyle-induced health effects in children and infants), a five-year project proposed under the sixth EU framework. The IDEFICS consortium comprises 25 research centres and SMEs across Europe. The planned prospective study will identify risk profile inventories for children susceptible to any of these disorders with emphasis on obesity and its co-morbid conditions. Genetic and non-genetic factors, psychosocial factors and social settings will be considered. The project will devise tailored prevention strategies that are effective, easy to implement and that account for the needs of different social groups. Population-based studies will investigate the impact of sensory perception and provide results concerning internal and external triggers of food choices and children's consumer behaviour. The ethical implications of a "right not to know" of genetic factors will be addressed. We will propose knowledge-based guidelines on dietary and lifestyle activities for health promotion and disease prevention in children for health professionals, stakeholders and consumers.

  12. Childhood obesity and risk of allergy or asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, Dinesh; Kabra, Sushil K; Lodha, Rakesh

    2014-11-01

    The simultaneous increment in the prevalence of obesity and allergic diseases suggests a possible link between them. This review focuses on the consequences of obesity on allergic diseases, especially asthma in children and adolescents, and evaluates the available evidence on the possible mechanisms. Obesity is related more strongly to nonatopic than atopic asthma, suggesting non-eosinophilic inflammation and Th1 polarization. Among other allergic diseases, the association is more consistent with eczema compared to allergic rhinitis/rhinoconjunctivitis. The mechanisms of asthma in obese individuals could involve mechanical effects of obesity on lung function, adipokines-mediated inflammation, shared factors (diet, genetics, sedentary lifestyle) and comorbidities.

  13. Competitive Food Sales in Schools and Childhood Obesity: A Longitudinal Study

    OpenAIRE

    Van Hook, Jennifer; Altman, Claire E.

    2011-01-01

    The vast majority of American middle schools and high schools sell what is known as “competitive foods”, such as soft drinks, candy bars, and chips, to children. The relationship between consumption of sugar-sweetened drinks and snacks and childhood obesity is well established but it remains unknown whether competitive food sales in schools are related to unhealthy weight gain among children. We examined this association using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study Kindergarten Coho...

  14. Childhood obesity in Italian primary schools: eating habits, physical activity and perception of weight by parents

    OpenAIRE

    Giancarlo Scarafile

    2015-01-01

    Childhood obesity is the worst not infectious disease in the world with few clinical treatment options. The purpose of this review is to analyze the epidemiological differences related to childhood obesity in the age group of 6-11 years, both in the United States and Italy which are the most affected by this disease. Among the main causes, three were analyzed: eating habits, physical activity and the perception of the body weight of children by their parents. The review also reports a series ...

  15. Personality traits, education, physical exercise, and childhood neurological function as independent predictors of adult obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Cheng

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether personality traits, education, physical exercise, parental socio-economic conditions, and childhood neurological function are independently associated with obesity in 50 year old adults in a longitudinal birth cohort study. METHOD: The sample consisted of 5,921 participants born in Great Britain in 1958 and followed up at 7, 11, 33, 42, and 50 years with data on body mass index measured at 42 and 50 years. RESULTS: There was an increase of adult obesity from 14.2% at age 42 to 23.6% at 50 years. Cohort members who were reported by teachers on overall clumsiness as "certainly applied" at age 7 were more likely to become obese at age 50. In addition, educational qualifications, traits Conscientiousness and Extraversion, psychological distress, and physical exercise were all significantly associated with adult obesity. The associations remained to be significant after controlling for birth weight and gestation, maternal and paternal BMI, childhood BMI, childhood intelligence and behavioural adjustment, as well as diet. CONCLUSION: Neurological function in childhood, education, trait Conscientiousness, and exercise were all significantly and independently associated with adult obesity, each explained unique individual variability.

  16. Personality Traits, Education, Physical Exercise, and Childhood Neurological Function as Independent Predictors of Adult Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Helen; Furnham, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether personality traits, education, physical exercise, parental socio-economic conditions, and childhood neurological function are independently associated with obesity in 50 year old adults in a longitudinal birth cohort study. Method The sample consisted of 5,921 participants born in Great Britain in 1958 and followed up at 7, 11, 33, 42, and 50 years with data on body mass index measured at 42 and 50 years. Results There was an increase of adult obesity from 14.2% at age 42 to 23.6% at 50 years. Cohort members who were reported by teachers on overall clumsiness as “certainly applied” at age 7 were more likely to become obese at age 50. In addition, educational qualifications, traits Conscientiousness and Extraversion, psychological distress, and physical exercise were all significantly associated with adult obesity. The associations remained to be significant after controlling for birth weight and gestation, maternal and paternal BMI, childhood BMI, childhood intelligence and behavioural adjustment, as well as diet. Conclusion Neurological function in childhood, education, trait Conscientiousness, and exercise were all significantly and independently associated with adult obesity, each explained unique individual variability. PMID:24250828

  17. The International Study of Childhood Obesity, Lifestyle and the Environment (ISCOLE): design and methods

    OpenAIRE

    Peter T. Katzmarzyk; Barreira, Tiago V.; Stephanie T Broyles; Champagne, Catherine M.; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Fogelholm, Mikael; Hu, Gang; Johnson, William D.; Kuriyan, Rebecca; Kurpad, Anura; Estelle V. Lambert; Maher, Carol; Maia, José; Matsudo, Victor; Olds, Tim

    2013-01-01

    Background The primary aim of the International Study of Childhood Obesity, Lifestyle and the Environment (ISCOLE) was to determine the relationships between lifestyle behaviours and obesity in a multi-national study of children, and to investigate the influence of higher-order characteristics such as behavioural settings, and the physical, social and policy environments, on the observed relationships within and between countries. Methods/design The targeted sample included 6000 10-year old c...

  18. Research contributions on childhood obesity from a public-private partnership

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Background Childhood obesity remains a significant global problem with immediate and long-term individual health and societal consequences. Targets for change should include the most potent and predictive factors for obesity at all levels of the personal, social and physical environments. The Michael & Susan Dell Center for Healthy Living (‘the Center’) is a public-private partnership that was developed to address child health issues through research, service, and education. This overview pap...

  19. Teeth and heavyset kids: Intervention similarities between childhood obesity and oral health interventions within Native American societies

    OpenAIRE

    Haring, Rodney C; Skye, Warren, Jr.; Battleson, Brenda L; Brings-Him-Back-Janis, Maxine; Teufel-Shone, Nicolette

    2014-01-01

    A systematic literature review was conducted focusing on childhood obesity and oral health interventions which may have relevance to Native American children, their families, and their communities. Childhood obesity and oral health have become a significant problem across Indian Country. Subsequently, a number of oral health and obesity interventions are emerging developed for ethnic minority populations including Native Americans. The objective of this review was to determine best practices ...

  20. Detection of hepatitis B surface antigen subtype adr in an epidemic of papular acrodermatitis of childhood (Gianotti's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanzaki,Susumu

    1981-12-01

    Full Text Available Papular acrodermatitis of childhood (PAC has recently been reported to be associated with hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg subtype ayw. Between September, 1978, and June, 1979, we saw 14 patients with PAC in a small epidemic occurring in Iwakuni City, Japan. HBsAg was detected in sera from all patients. Subtyping of HBsAg in 11 patients showed that 8 had a determinant adr and 3 had no detectable determinant because of low antigen titers. The result suggests that factors other than the specific HBsAg subtype contribute to the development of PAC.

  1. Detection of hepatitis B surface antigen subtype adr in an epidemic of papular acrodermatitis of childhood (Gianotti's disease).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanzaki, S; Kanda, S; Terada, K; Nohno, S; Kumano, K; Narahara, K; Hayashi, H; Kimoto, H

    1981-12-01

    Papular acrodermatitis of childhood (PAC) has recently been reported to be associated with hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) subtype ayw. Between September, 1978, and June, 1979, we saw 14 patients with PAC in a small epidemic occurring in Iwakuni City, Japan. HBsAg was detected in sera from all patients. Subtyping of HBsAg in 11 patients showed that 8 had a determinant adr and 3 had no detectable determinant because of low antigen titers. The result suggests that factors other than the specific HBsAg subtype contribute to the development of PAC.

  2. Effects of a Family-Based Childhood Obesity Treatment Program on Parental Weight Status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trier, Cæcilie; Dahl, Maria; Stjernholm, Theresa;

    2016-01-01

    initiation. Both the mothers and fathers lost weight during their child's treatment with a mean decrease in BMI in the mothers of 0.5 (95% CI: 0.2-0.8, p = 0.0006) and in the fathers of 0.4 (95% CI: 0.2-0.6, p = 0.0007). Of the overweight/obese parents, 60% of the mothers and 58% of the fathers lost weight...... during their child's treatment. CONCLUSION: There is a high prevalence of overweight/obesity among parents of children entering childhood obesity treatment. Family-based childhood obesity treatment with a focus on the child has a positive effect on parental BMI with both mothers and fathers losing weight......OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of overweight/obesity among parents of children entering childhood obesity treatment and to evaluate changes in the parents' weight statuses during their child's treatment. METHODS: The study included parents of 1,125 children...

  3. Breast, Formula and Combination Feeding in Relation to Childhood Obesity in Nova Scotia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossiter, Melissa D; Colapinto, Cynthia K; Khan, Mohammad K A; McIsaac, Jessie-Lee D; Williams, Patricia L; Kirk, Sara F L; Veugelers, Paul J

    2015-09-01

    Breastfeeding has been rigorously studied in relation to childhood obesity prevention. Few studies have examined whether combination feeding—breast milk and formula—may also be protective against obesity. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between breastfeeding duration, combination feeding and overweight and obesity among Canadian school children. We analyzed data from a 2011 cross-sectional, population based survey (n = 5,560), which included self-reported infant feeding behaviours, a food frequency questionnaire and measured height and weight. Multilevel regression methods were used to examine the association between breastfeeding duration and overweight and obesity adjusting for socioeconomic status, diet quality and physical activity. Thirty-four percent of children were breastfed for feeding, appears to have a protective effect on childhood obesity. While combination feeding confers less benefit than only breastfeeding, it is more desirable than formula feeding alone. Strategies and social policies are needed to promote exclusive and longer breastfeeding duration and should be integrated with comprehensive efforts to prevent childhood obesity and to reduce the burden of chronic diseases in the long term.

  4. Childhood obesity stigma: association with television, videogame, and magazine exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latner, Janet D; Rosewall, Juliet K; Simmonds, Murray B

    2007-06-01

    Although the stigmatization of obesity among children is highly prevalent, its origins and relationship to mass media exposure are largely unknown. Ninety boys and 171 girls aged 10-13 years (mean BMI=19.84) were asked to rank, in order of liking, 12 figures of peers depicted both with and without various disabilities or obesity, and to rate their attitudes towards the obese child on visual analogue scales. Weekly time spent watching television, watching videogames, and reading magazines on weekdays and weekends was assessed. Total media use, magazine use, and videogame use were significantly correlated with more negative reactions to obese girls and boys. Regression analyses revealed that greater dislike of obese children relative to their non-overweight peers was uniquely predicted by magazine reading time. Thus, media exposure was associated with stigmatizing attitudes towards obese children. Mass media sources may lead children to devalue and stigmatize peers with above-average body weights.

  5. Beliefs about the Role of Parenting in Feeding and Childhood Obesity among Mothers of Lower Socioeconomic Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinowski, Alison; Krause, Kylene; Berdejo, Carla; Harrell, Kristina; Rosenblum, Katherine; Lumeng, Julie C.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine beliefs about the role of parenting in feeding and childhood obesity among mothers of lower socioeconomic status. Methods: Individual semistructured, audiotaped interview with 91 mothers of preschool-aged children (49% of mothers obese, 21% of children obese) in the midwestern United States. Participant comments were…

  6. New insights into the field of children and adolescents' obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flodmark, C-E; Lissau, I; Moreno, L A

    2004-01-01

    EDITOR'S NOTE: The problem of childhood obesity is accelerating throughout the world. The following is a position paper from The European Childhood Obesity Group (ECOG) that outlines the nature of the problem of childhood obesity along with treatment and prevention methods available today....... The paucity of literature on prevention and treatment of obesity in children as documented in this paper points out the need for much additional research on obesity in children. OBJECTIVES: The awareness of childhood obesity as a major health problem and an uncontrolled worldwide epidemic has to be increased...... in the society. DESIGN: In order to improve the quality of the health care and to minimize the cost it is important to investigate and standardize pediatric obesity prevention and treatment and to adapt to social and cultural aspects. RESULTS: Obesity is the result of excess body fat. The different norms...

  7. Technology: The Problem or the Solution to Childhood Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverstone, Susan; Teatum, Jim

    2011-01-01

    One-third of the population of US children is considered obese and two-thirds of the adult population falls into the same category. These figures have tripled over the last 30 years. This demonstrates that the existing strategies to combat obesity do not work and it is time to look for alternatives. The recommendation is to turn the problem into a…

  8. Vital Signs – Childhood Obesity

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-08-06

    This podcast is based on the August 2013 CDC Vital Signs report. The rate of obesity among low-income preschoolers has declined, but one in eight is still obese. This program briefly discusses what can be done.  Created: 8/6/2013 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 8/6/2013.

  9. Policy Approaches to Offset Childhood Food Insecurity and Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broberg, Danielle M.; Broberg, Katharine A.; McGuire, Jenifer K.

    2009-01-01

    Policies originally designed to address food insecurity are in need of revision due to rising rates of obesity among those they serve. Within the context of national policies, this article uses an ecological perspective to consider the links between food insecurity and obesity. The recommendations include adjusting the nutritional standards of the…

  10. Active Generations: An Intergenerational Approach to Preventing Childhood Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Danilea; Teufel, James; Holtgrave, Peter L.; Brown, Stephen L.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Over the last 3 decades, US obesity rates have increased dramatically as more children and more adults become obese. This study explores an innovative program, Active Generations, an intergenerational nutrition education and activity program implemented in out-of-school environments (after school and summer camps). It utilizes older…

  11. Childhood obesity in relation to poor asthma control and exacerbations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahmadizar, Fariba; Vijverberg, Susanne; Arets, Hubertus; De Boer, Anthonius; Lang, Jason; Kattan, Meyer; Palmer, Colin; Mukhopadhyay, Somnath; Turner, Steve; Van Der Zee, Anke-Hilse Maitland

    2016-01-01

    Background: The relationship between obesity and asthma severity in children is inconsistent across studies. Objectives: To estimate the association between obesity and poor asthma control/ risk of exacerbations in asthmatic children and adolescents, and to assess whether these associations are diff

  12. Weight and weight gain during early infancy predict childhood obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lise Geisler; Holst, Claus; Michaelsen, Kim F.

    2012-01-01

    Infant weight and weight gain are positively associated with later obesity, but whether there is a particular critical time during infancy remains uncertain.......Infant weight and weight gain are positively associated with later obesity, but whether there is a particular critical time during infancy remains uncertain....

  13. The Future of Children: Spring 2006. Childhood Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paxson, Christina, Ed.; Donahue, Elisabeth, Ed.; Orleans, Tracy, Ed.; Grisso, Jeane Ann, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    The third volume of "The Future of Children" examines the causes and consequences of increasing rates of obesity and overweight among children. It also reviews specific policies and programs aimed at reducing obesity and overweight and the related health problems that result. Contents include: (1) Introducing the Issue (Christina Paxson, Elisabeth…

  14. 75 FR 12493 - Task Force on Childhood Obesity: Request for Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-16

    ... healthy. It will help children be more physically active and allow them to make healthy food choices... information to help parents make healthy choices about food and physical activity? 13. Specifically with... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Task Force on Childhood Obesity: Request...

  15. Dose response association of pregnancy cigarette smoke exposure, childhood stature, overweight and obesity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Koshy; A. Delpisheh; B.J. Brabin

    2011-01-01

    The combined dose response effects of pregnancy cigarette smoke exposure on childhood overweight, obesity and short stature have not been reported. A community based cross-sectional survey of 3038 children aged 5-11 years from 15 primary schools in Merseyside, UK. Self-completed parental questionnai

  16. A Longitudinal Study of Childhood Obesity, Weight Status Change, and Subsequent Academic Performance in Taiwanese Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li-Jung; Fox, Kenneth R.; Ku, Po-Wen; Wang, Ching-Hui

    2012-01-01

    Backround: This study examined the association among childhood obesity, weight status change, and subsequent academic performance at 6-year follow-up. Methods: First-grade students from one elementary school district in Taichung City, Taiwan were followed for 6 years (N = 409). Academic performance was extracted from the school records at the end…

  17. Obesity and Skill Attainment in Early Childhood. NBER Working Paper No. 13997

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cawley, John; Spiess, C. Katharina

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates the association between obesity and skill attainment in early childhood (aged 2-4 years). Data from the German Socio-Economic Panel Study are used to estimate models of developmental functioning in four critical areas (verbal skills, activities of daily living, motor skills, and social skills) as a function of various…

  18. Competitive Food Sales in Schools and Childhood Obesity: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hook, Jennifer; Altman, Claire E.

    2012-01-01

    The vast majority of American middle schools and high schools sell what are known as "competitive foods," such as soft drinks, candy bars, and chips, to children. The relationship between consumption of sugar-sweetened drinks and snacks and childhood obesity is well established, but it remains unknown whether competitive food sales in…

  19. The Preschool Nap as a Protective Factor in the Fight against Childhood Obesity: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kihm, Holly Spencer; Rolling, Peggy

    2014-01-01

    Although the prevalence of childhood obesity has not increased in recent years, it remains unacceptably high and warrants continued study. The purpose of this study was to explore the potential relationship between weight status and length of sleep (both daytime and nighttime) among preschool children. Special attention was given to the role…

  20. Treatment of Childhood and Adolescent Obesity: An Integrative Review of Recent Recommendations from Five Expert Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschenbaum, Daniel S.; Gierut, Kristen

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To compare and contrast 5 sets of expert recommendations about the treatment of childhood and adolescent obesity. Method: We reviewed 5 sets of recent expert recommendations: 2007 health care organizations' four stage model, 2007 Canadian clinical practice guidelines, 2008 Endocrine Society recommendations, 2009 seven step model, and…

  1. Socioeconomic determinants of childhood overweight and obesity in China: the long arm of institutional power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Qiang; George, Linda K

    2015-07-01

    Previous studies have widely reported that the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and childhood overweight and obesity in China is significant and positive, which lends little support to the fundamental-cause perspective. Using multiple waves (1997, 2000, 2004 and 2006) of the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) (N = 2,556, 2,063, 1,431 and 1,242, respectively) and continuous BMI cut-points obtained from a polynomial method, (mixed-effect) logistic regression analyses show that parental state-sector employment, an important, yet overlooked, indicator of political power during the market transformation has changed from a risk factor for childhood overweight/obesity in 1997 to a protective factor for childhood overweight/obesity in 2006. Results from quantile regression analyses generate the same conclusions and demonstrate that the protective effect of parental state sector employment at high percentiles of BMI is robust under different estimation strategies. By bridging the fundamental causes perspective and theories of market transformation, this research not only documents the effect of political power on childhood overweight/obesity but also calls for the use of multifaceted, culturally-relevant stratification measures in testing the fundamental cause perspective across time and space.

  2. Influence of Perceptions on School Nurse Practices to Prevent Childhood Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quelly, Susan B.

    2014-01-01

    Comprehensive childhood obesity prevention (COP) strategies should include increasing school nurse involvement. This study was conducted to determine the influence of key school nurse perceptions (self-efficacy, perceived benefits, and perceived barriers) on participation in COP practices at the individual child and school level. Florida…

  3. Elementary School Personnel's Perceptions on Childhood Obesity: Pervasiveness and Facilitating Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odum, Mary; McKyer, E. Lisako J.; Tisone, Christine A.; Outley, Corliss W.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Researchers in numerous disciplines have investigated the effects of the school environment on childhood obesity (CHO), one of the greatest current health concerns in the United States. There is a gap in current empirical evidence, however, on school personnel's perspectives of this issue. This study examined school personnel's…

  4. Implementation of intersectoral community approaches targeting childhood obesity: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleij, R. van der; Coster, N.; Verbiest, M.; Assema, P. van; Paulussen, T.; Reis, R.; Crone, M.

    2015-01-01

    The implementation of intersectoral community approaches targeting childhood obesity (IACO) is considered challenging. To help overcome these challenges, an overview of the evidence to date is needed. We searched four databases to identify papers that reported on the determinants of successful imple

  5. Maternal BMI and migration status as predictors of childhood obesity in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Cruz, A.; Wojcicki, J. M.; Bacardí-Gascón, M.; Castellón-Zaragoza, A.; García-Gallardo, J. L.; Schwartz, N.; Heyman, M. B.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To assess the association of maternal migration to Baja California, body mass index (BMI) status, children’s perceived food insecurity, and childhood lifestyle behaviors with overweight (BMI > 85% ile), obesity (BMI > 95% ile) and abdominal obesity (Waist Circumference > 90% ile). Methods Convenience sampling methods were used to recruit a cross-sectional sample of 4th, 5th and 6th grade children and their parents at Tijuana and Tecate Public Schools. Children‘s and parents’ weights and heights were measured. Children were considered to have migrant parents if parents were not born in Baja California. Results One hundred and twenty-two children and their parents were recruited. The mean age of the children was 10.1 ± 1.0 years. Forty nine per cent of children were overweight or obese. Children with obese parents (BMI > 30) had greater odds of being obese, Odds Ratio (OR) 4.9 (95% Confidence Interval (CI), 1.2–19, p = 0.03). Children with migrant parents had greater odds of being obese, OR= 3.7 (95% CI, 1.6–8.3), p = 0.01) and of having abdominal obesity, OR = 3.2 (95% CI, 1.4–7.1, p = 0.01). Children from migrant parents have greater risk of higher consumption of potato chips, OR = 8.0 (95% CI, 2.1–29.1, p = 0.01). Children from non-migrant parents had greater odds of being at risk of hunger. Conclusions Parental obesity and migration are associated with increased risk of obesity among Mexican children. Children whose parents were born in Baja California have greater odds of being at risk of hunger. Further studies should evaluate the role of migration on risk for childhood obesity. PMID:21519746

  6. Risk factors for childhood obesity at age 5: Analysis of the Millennium Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyons Ronan A

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Weight at age 5 is a predictor for future health of the individual. This study examines risk factors for childhood obesity with a focus on ethnicity. Methods Data from the Millennium Cohort study were used. 17,561 singleton children of White/European (n = 15,062, Asian (n = 1,845 or African (n = 654 background were selected. Logistic regression and likelihood ratio tests were used to examine factors associated with obesity at age 5. All participants were interviewed in their own homes. The main exposures examined included; Birth weight, sedentary lifestyle, family health behaviours, ethnicity, education and income. Results Children with a sedentary lifestyle, large at birth, with high risk family health behaviours (overweight mothers, smoking near the child, missing breakfast and from a family with low income or low educational attainment, were more likely to be obese regardless of ethnicity. Feeding solid food before 3 months was associated with obesity in higher income White/European families. Even when controlling for socioeconomic status, ethnic background is an important independent risk factor for childhood obesity [Odds ratio of obesity; was 1.7 (95%CI: 1.2-2.3 for Asian and 2.7 (95%CI: 1.9-3.9 for African children, compared to White/European]. The final adjusted model suggests that increasing income does not have a great impact on lowering obesity levels, but that higher academic qualifications are associated with lower obesity levels [Odds of obesity: 0.63 (95%CI: 0.52-0.77 if primary carer leaves school after age 16 compared at age 16]. Conclusions Education of the primary carer is an important modifiable factor which can be targeted to address rising obesity levels in children. Interventions should be family centred supporting and showing people how they can implement lifestyle changes in their family.

  7. Economic Evaluation of Obesity Prevention in Early Childhood: Methods, Limitations and Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Döring, Nora; Mayer, Susanne; Rasmussen, Finn; Sonntag, Diana

    2016-01-01

    Despite methodological advances in the field of economic evaluations of interventions, economic evaluations of obesity prevention programmes in early childhood are seldom conducted. The aim of the present study was to explore existing methods and applications of economic evaluations, examining their limitations and making recommendations for future cost-effectiveness assessments. A systematic literature search was conducted using PubMed, Cochrane Library, the British National Health Service Economic Evaluation Databases and EconLit. Eligible studies included trial-based or simulation-based cost-effectiveness analyses of obesity prevention programmes targeting preschool children and/or their parents. The quality of included studies was assessed. Of the six studies included, five were intervention studies and one was based on a simulation approach conducted on secondary data. We identified three main conceptual and methodological limitations of their economic evaluations: Insufficient conceptual approach considering the complexity of childhood obesity, inadequate measurement of effects of interventions, and lack of valid instruments to measure child-related quality of life and costs. Despite the need for economic evaluations of obesity prevention programmes in early childhood, only a few studies of varying quality have been conducted. Moreover, due to methodological and conceptual weaknesses, they offer only limited information for policy makers and intervention providers. We elaborate reasons for the limitations of these studies and offer guidance for designing better economic evaluations of early obesity prevention. PMID:27649218

  8. Economic Evaluation of Obesity Prevention in Early Childhood: Methods, Limitations and Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Döring

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite methodological advances in the field of economic evaluations of interventions, economic evaluations of obesity prevention programmes in early childhood are seldom conducted. The aim of the present study was to explore existing methods and applications of economic evaluations, examining their limitations and making recommendations for future cost-effectiveness assessments. A systematic literature search was conducted using PubMed, Cochrane Library, the British National Health Service Economic Evaluation Databases and EconLit. Eligible studies included trial-based or simulation-based cost-effectiveness analyses of obesity prevention programmes targeting preschool children and/or their parents. The quality of included studies was assessed. Of the six studies included, five were intervention studies and one was based on a simulation approach conducted on secondary data. We identified three main conceptual and methodological limitations of their economic evaluations: Insufficient conceptual approach considering the complexity of childhood obesity, inadequate measurement of effects of interventions, and lack of valid instruments to measure child-related quality of life and costs. Despite the need for economic evaluations of obesity prevention programmes in early childhood, only a few studies of varying quality have been conducted. Moreover, due to methodological and conceptual weaknesses, they offer only limited information for policy makers and intervention providers. We elaborate reasons for the limitations of these studies and offer guidance for designing better economic evaluations of early obesity prevention.

  9. The emerging epidemic of hypertension in Asian children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chong Guk

    2014-12-01

    Hypertension has become a serious global public health burden because of its high incidence and concomitant risk of cardiovascular disease. Many studies have verified that risk factors, such as hypertension and obesity which are responsible for cardiovascular disease, start in early childhood. In Asian countries, the prevalence of hypertension in the pediatric age group has become more prevalent than ever before with the increasing obesity epidemic. To tackle the epidemic of cardiovascular disease, a leading cause of death and disability of non-communicable diseases in Asian countries, population-based measures aiming at reducing harmful environmental factors to blood pressure and body weight must be applied to individuals in their early childhood, as early as the fetal stage. This review focused on the prevalence of pediatric hypertension in Asian countries and outlined several considerations for accurate blood pressure (BP) measurement and evaluation, along with an overview of pathophysiology of fetal programming and obesity related with childhood hypertension.

  10. Home visitation programs: An untapped opportunity for the delivery of early childhood obesity prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvy, Sarah-Jeanne; de la Haye, Kayla; Galama, Titus; Goran, Michael I.

    2016-01-01

    Background Extant obesity efforts have had limited impact among low-income underserved children, in part because of limitations inherent to existing programs: 1) short duration and low intensity; 2) late timing of implementation, when children are already overweight or obese; 3) intervention delivery limiting their accessibility and sustainability; and 4) failure to address barriers such as a lack of culturally competent services, poverty and housing instability, which interfere with healthy lifestyle changes. Objective This concept paper proposes an innovative model of obesity prevention implemented in infancy and sustained throughout early childhood to address the limitations of current obesity prevention efforts. Specifically, we propose to integrate sustained, weekly, in-home obesity prevention as part of the services already delivered by ongoing Home Visitation Programs, which currently do not target obesity prevention. Conclusion The home visiting structure represents an ideal model for impactful obesity prevention as home visitation programs: (1) already provide comprehensive services to diverse low-income infants and families who are most at risk for obesity and poor health due to socio-economic and structural conditions; (2) services are initiated in infancy and sustained throughout critical developmental periods for the formation of healthy/unhealthy behaviors; and (3) have been in place for more than 40 years, with a widespread presence across the United States and nationwide, which is critical for the scalability and sustainability of obesity prevention. PMID:27911984

  11. The association between childhood obesity and tooth eruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Must, Aviva; Phillips, Sarah M; Tybor, David J; Lividini, Keith; Hayes, Catherine

    2012-10-01

    Obesity is a growth-promoting process as evidenced by its effect on the timing of puberty. Although studies are limited, obesity has been shown to affect the timing of tooth eruption. Both the timing and sequence of tooth eruption are important to overall oral health. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between obesity and tooth eruption. Data were combined from three consecutive cycles (2001-2006) of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and analyzed to examine associations between the number of teeth erupted (NET) and obesity status (BMI z-score >95th percentile BMI relative to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) growth reference) among children 5 up to 14 years of age, controlling for potential confounding by age, gender, race, and socioeconomic status (SES). Obesity is significantly associated with having a higher average NET during the mixed dentition period. On average, teeth of obese children erupted earlier than nonobese children with obese children having on average 1.44 more teeth erupted than nonobese children, after adjusting for age, gender, and race/ethnicity (P malocclusions.

  12. Genetic susceptibility to obesity and metabolic syndrome in childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Concepción M. Aguilera

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is one of the major public health problems worldwide. It is a chronic, complex, and multifactorial-origin disease characterised by body fat excess mainly due to an imbalance between dietary intake and energy expenditure. One of the major complications of obesity is metabolic syndrome, which comprises anthropometrical, clinical, and metabolic dysfunctions that predispose the affected individual to the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases. It is hypothesised that the variability in the susceptibility to obesity-mediated metabolic complications involves both environmental and genetic factors. Whereas advances in the knowledge of the variations in the human genome have led to the identification of susceptibility genes that contribute to obesity and related disorders, relatively few studies have specifically focused on the interactions between obesity and genetic polymorphisms and the development of metabolic complications. Despite these limited efforts, an increasing amount of evidence suggests that the effects of some gene variants on metabolic traits are modified by or present only in the setting of obesity. Furthermore, some of these loci may have larger effects on metabolic phenotypes in the presence of certain dietary or lifestyle factors. In the present manuscript, we reviewed the genes and their variants that have been evidenced to play a role in obesity-associated metabolic complications through genetic association studies, including candidate gene and genome-wide association approaches in adults and children.

  13. Genetic susceptibility to obesity and metabolic syndrome in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera, Concepción M; Olza, Josune; Gil, Angel

    2013-09-01

    Obesity is one of the major public health problems worldwide. It is a chronic, complex, and multifactorial origin disease characterised by body fat excess mainly due to an imbalance between dietary intake and energy expenditure. One of the major complications of obesity is metabolic syndrome, which comprises anthropometrical, clinical, and metabolic dysfunctions that predispose the affected individual to the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases. It is hypothesised that the variability in the susceptibility to obesity-mediated metabolic complications involves both environmental and genetic factors. Whereas advances in the knowledge of the variations in the human genome have led to the identification of susceptibility genes that contribute to obesity and related disorders, relatively few studies have specifically focused on the interactions between obesity and genetic polymorphisms and the development of metabolic complications. Despite these limited efforts, an increasing amount of evidence suggests that the effects of some gene variants on metabolic traits are modified by or present only in the setting of obesity. Furthermore, some of these loci may have larger effects on metabolic phenotypes in the presence of certain dietary or lifestyle factors. In the present manuscript, we reviewed the genes and their variants that have been evidenced to play a role in obesity-associated metabolic complications through genetic association studies, including candidate gene and genome-wide association approaches in adults and children.

  14. The empowerment of low-income parents engaged in a childhood obesity intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurkowski, Janine M; Lawson, Hal A; Green Mills, Lisa L; Wilner, Paul G; Davison, Kirsten K

    2014-01-01

    Parents influence children's obesity risk factors but are infrequently targeted for interventions. This study targeting low-income parents integrated a community-based participatory research approach with the Family Ecological Model and Empowerment Theory to develop a childhood obesity intervention. This article (1) examines pre- to postintervention changes in parents' empowerment; (2) determines the effects of intervention dose on empowerment, and (3) determines whether changes in parent empowerment mediate previous changes identified in food-, physical activity-, and screen-related parenting. The pre-post quasi-experimental design evaluation demonstrated positive changes in parent empowerment and empowerment predicted improvement in parenting practices. The integrated model applied in this study provides a means to enhance intervention relevance and guide translation to other childhood obesity and health disparities studies.

  15. Childhood obesity and parks and playgrounds: A review of issues of equality, gender and social support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hammad Ali Qazi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The childhood obesity has been a growing concern over the last decade all over the world. Built environmental characteristics such as parks and playgrounds serves as a reference point for physical activity in children. The equality issues related to ethnicity, Social Economic Status (SES, gender and social support have been related with both physical activity and presence and quality of parks and playgrounds. However, only limited studies have addressed these issues in children. The current paper is a general enumerative review that would discusses the above issues with respect to obesity in all age groups, giving particular emphasis to childhood obesity. The importance of this review is to further explore the importance and highlight the findings related to these issues, so that future original studies could be planned keeping these associations in mind.

  16. Experience of major life events during childhood and development of obesity in adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jindong Ding; Heitmann, B. L.; Kyle, R.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The etiology of adult obesity is still poorly understood, even if often simply attributed to too much food and too little exercise. A few studies have suggested that adverse psychological factors may predispose the development of adult obesity among normal weight children Aims The aim...... of this study was to examine if separation from parents, parental loss and living in a "children's home" during childhood could be associated with development of adult obesity Key Methods: A total of 146 complete adult twin pairs discordant for BMI (one had a normal BMI and the co-twin a BMI > 30 kg/m) were...... identified from the Danish Twin Registry. The twins gave an interview and a physical examination in 2006. The Childhood Family Relationship Questionnaire (CFRQ) was used to assess life events Results: Before age 17, 20.8% of the participants had been separated from mother, 26.1% had been separated from...

  17. School based interventions versus family based interventions in the treatment of childhood obesity- a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The prevalence of childhood obesity, which has seen a rapid increase over the last decade, is now considered a major public health problem. Current treatment options are based on the two important frameworks of school- and family-based interventions; however, most research has yet to compare the two frameworks in the treatment of childhood obesity. The objective of this review is to compare the effectiveness of school-based intervention with family-based intervention in the treatment of childhood obesity. Methods Databases such as Medline, Pub med, CINAHL, and Science Direct were used to execute the search for primary research papers according to inclusion criteria. The review included a randomised controlled trial and quasi-randomised controlled trials based on family- and school-based intervention frameworks on the treatment of childhood obesity. Results The review identified 1231 articles of which 13 met the criteria. Out of the thirteen studies, eight were family-based interventions (n = 8) and five were school-based interventions (n = 5) with total participants (n = 2067). The participants were aged between 6 and 17 with the study duration ranging between one month and three years. Family-based interventions demonstrated effectiveness for children under the age of twelve and school-based intervention was most effective for those aged between 12 and 17 with differences for both long-term and short-term results. Conclusions The evidence shows that family- and school-based interventions have a considerable effect on treating childhood obesity. However, the effectiveness of the interventional frameworks depends on factors such as age, short- or long-term outcome, and methodological quality of the trials. Further research studies are required to determine the effectiveness of family- and school-based interventions using primary outcomes such as weight, BMI, percentage overweight and waist circumference in addition to the aforementioned

  18. Early life course risk factors for childhood obesity: the IDEFICS case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Bammann

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The early life course is assumed to be a critical phase for childhood obesity; however the significance of single factors and their interplay is not well studied in childhood populations. OBJECTIVES: The investigation of pre-, peri- and postpartum risk factors on the risk of obesity at age 2 to 9. METHODS: A case-control study with 1,024 1:1-matched case-control pairs was nested in the baseline survey (09/2007-05/2008 of the IDEFICS study, a population-based intervention study on childhood obesity carried out in 8 European countries in pre- and primary school settings. Conditional logistic regression was used for identification of risk factors. RESULTS: For many of the investigated risk factors, we found a raw effect in our study. In multivariate models, we could establish an effect for gestational weight gain (adjusted OR = 1.02; 95%CI 1.00-1.04, smoking during pregnancy (adjusted OR = 1.48; 95%CI 1.08-2.01, Caesarian section (adjusted OR = 1.38; 95%CI 1.10-1.74, and breastfeeding 4 to 11 months (adjusted OR = 0.77; 95%CI 0.62-0.96. Birth weight was related to lean mass rather than to fat mass, the effect of smoking was found only in boys, but not in girls. After additional adjustment for parental BMI and parental educational status, only gestational weight gain remained statistically significant. Both, maternal as well as paternal BMI were the strongest risk factors in our study, and they confounded several of the investigated associations. CONCLUSIONS: Key risk factors of childhood obesity in our study are parental BMI and gestational weight gain; consequently prevention approaches should target not only children but also adults. The monitoring of gestational weight seems to be of particular importance for early prevention of childhood obesity.

  19. Synergy of nature and nurture in the development of childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, B E

    2009-04-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest that maternal undernutrition, obesity and diabetes during gestation and lactation can all produce obesity in human offspring. Animal models provide a means of assessing the independent consequences of altering the pre- vs postnatal environments on a variety of metabolic, physiological and neuroendocrine functions, which lead to the development of offspring obesity, diabetes, hypertension and hyperlipidemia. During the gestational period, maternal malnutrition, obesity, type 1 and type 2 diabetes, and psychological and pharmacological stressors can all promote offspring obesity. Normal postnatal nutrition can sometimes reduce the adverse effect of some of these prenatal factors, but may also exacerbate the development of obesity and diabetes in offspring of dams that are malnourished during gestation. The genetic background of the individual is also an important determinant of outcome when the perinatal environment is perturbed. Individuals with an obesity-prone genotype are more likely to be adversely affected by factors such as maternal obesity and high-fat diets. Many perinatal manipulations are associated with reorganization of the central neural pathways which regulate food intake, energy expenditure and storage in ways that enhance the development of obesity and diabetes in offspring. Both leptin and insulin have strong neurotrophic properties so that an excess or an absence of either of them during the perinatal period may underlie some of these adverse developmental changes. As perinatal manipulations can permanently and adversely alter the systems that regulate energy homeostasis, it behooves us to gain a better understanding of the factors during this period that promote the development of offspring obesity as a means of stemming the tide of the emerging worldwide obesity epidemic.

  20. Childhood abuse, adult interpersonal abuse, and depression in individuals with extreme obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salwen, Jessica K; Hymowitz, Genna F; Vivian, Dina; O'Leary, K Daniel

    2014-03-01

    This study sought to examine (a) a mediational model of childhood abuse, adult interpersonal abuse, and depressive symptoms and (b) the impact of weight-related teasing on rates and correlates of childhood abuse. Charts of 187 extremely obese individuals seeking psychological clearance for bariatric (weight-loss) surgery were retrospectively examined. Among the participants, 61% reported a history of childhood abuse, 30.5% reported adult interpersonal abuse, and 15% reported clinically significant depressive symptoms. Initially, the relationship between childhood abuse and current depressive symptoms was significant (pinterpersonal abuse as a mediator in the model reduced the magnitude of its significance (Sobel's test p=.01). The associations between childhood abuse and adult interpersonal abuse and between adult interpersonal abuse and depressive symptoms were significant (prelationship between childhood and adult interpersonal abuse. Bariatric surgery patients report elevated rates of childhood abuse that are comparable to rates in psychiatric populations (e.g., eating disorders, depression), and higher than those in community samples and other medical populations. The relationship between child abuse and depressive symptomatology may be partially explained by the presence of adult interpersonal abuse; additionally, the relationship between childhood and adult interpersonal abuse was stronger for those who did not endure weight-related teasing than for those who did.

  1. Childhood Obesity Is a Chronic Disease Demanding Specific Health Care - a Position Statement from the Childhood Obesity Task Force (COTF) of the European Association for the Study of Obesity (EASO)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farpour-Lambert, Nathalie J; Baker, Jennifer L; Hassapidou, Maria

    2015-01-01

    . Such a classification will enhance the development of novel preventive and treatment approaches, health care policies and systems, and the education of healthcare workers. The management of obesity prior to the appearance of co-morbidities may prevent their escalation into significant medical and psychosocial problems......Childhood obesity is one of the greatest health challenges of the 21st century. The EASO COTF is convinced that classifying obesity as a chronic disease in children and adolescents is a crucial step for increasing individual and societal awareness, and for improving early diagnosis and intervention...

  2. Childhood Obesity. A Concern for the Physical Educator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plimpton, Carol E.

    1987-01-01

    Physical educators can help obese children to realize their worth and become healthy individuals. Physical educators should encourage a positive attitude toward exercise and fitness, individual counseling, nutrition instruction, and development of high self-esteem. (CB)

  3. Childhood Overweight/Obesity and Pediatric Asthma: The Role of Parental Perception of Child Weight Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    the STRONG Kids Research Team

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Childhood obesity and asthma are on the rise in the U.S. Clinical and epidemiological data suggest a link between the two, in which overweight and obese children are at higher risk for asthma. Prevention of childhood obesity is preferred over treatment, however, in order to be receptive to messages, parents must perceive that their child is overweight. Many parents do not accurately assess their child’s weight status. Herein, the relation between parental perceptions of child weight status, observed body mass index (BMI percentiles, and a measure of child feeding practices were explored in the context of asthma, food allergy, or both. Out of the children with asthma or food allergy that were classified as overweight/obese by BMI percentiles, 93% were not perceived as overweight/obese by the parent. Mean scores for concern about child weight were higher in children with both asthma and food allergy than either condition alone, yet there were no significant differences among the groups in terms of pressure to eat and restrictive feeding practices. In summary, parents of children with asthma or food allergy were less likely to recognize their child’s overweight/obese status and their feeding practices did not differ from those without asthma and food allergy.

  4. Childhood overweight/obesity and pediatric asthma: the role of parental perception of child weight status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musaad, Salma M A; Paige, Katie N; Teran-Garcia, Margarita; Donovan, Sharon M; Fiese, Barbara H; The Strong Kids Research Team

    2013-09-23

    Childhood obesity and asthma are on the rise in the U.S. Clinical and epidemiological data suggest a link between the two, in which overweight and obese children are at higher risk for asthma. Prevention of childhood obesity is preferred over treatment, however, in order to be receptive to messages, parents must perceive that their child is overweight. Many parents do not accurately assess their child's weight status. Herein, the relation between parental perceptions of child weight status, observed body mass index (BMI) percentiles, and a measure of child feeding practices were explored in the context of asthma, food allergy, or both. Out of the children with asthma or food allergy that were classified as overweight/obese by BMI percentiles, 93% were not perceived as overweight/obese by the parent. Mean scores for concern about child weight were higher in children with both asthma and food allergy than either condition alone, yet there were no significant differences among the groups in terms of pressure to eat and restrictive feeding practices. In summary, parents of children with asthma or food allergy were less likely to recognize their child's overweight/obese status and their feeding practices did not differ from those without asthma and food allergy.

  5. Unique transcriptomic signature of omental adipose tissue in Ossabaw swine: a model of childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toedebusch, Ryan G; Roberts, Michael D; Wells, Kevin D; Company, Joseph M; Kanosky, Kayla M; Padilla, Jaume; Jenkins, Nathan T; Perfield, James W; Ibdah, Jamal A; Booth, Frank W; Rector, R Scott

    2014-05-15

    To better understand the impact of childhood obesity on intra-abdominal adipose tissue phenotype, a complete transcriptomic analysis using deep RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) was performed on omental adipose tissue (OMAT) obtained from lean and Western diet-induced obese juvenile Ossabaw swine. Obese animals had 88% greater body mass, 49% greater body fat content, and a 60% increase in OMAT adipocyte area (all P development, 2) cellular function and maintenance, and 3) connective tissue development and function, while transcripts associated with RNA posttranslational modification, lipid metabolism, and small molecule biochemistry were reduced. DAVID and Gene Ontology analyses showed that many of the classically recognized gene pathways associated with adipose tissue dysfunction in obese adults including hypoxia, inflammation, angiogenesis were not altered in OMAT in our model. The current study indicates that obesity in juvenile Ossabaw swine is characterized by increases in overall OMAT transcript number and provides novel data describing early transcriptomic alterations that occur in response to excess caloric intake in visceral adipose tissue in a pig model of childhood obesity.

  6. Looking at childhood obesity through the lens of Baumrind's parenting typologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luther, Brenda

    2007-01-01

    Obesity is becoming the leading negative health outcome for the current generation of children to a greater degree than for any previous generation. Pediatric orthopaedic nurses encounter many patients and families with concerns about obesity and need the ability to promote parenting capacity in order to detect, prevent, or treat childhood obesity. Parenting is a complex process with numerous two-way interactions between the parent and child. Pediatric orthopaedic nurses affect parenting capacity daily as they care for families in all care settings. Many family researchers use Baumrind's parenting typologies (styles) and their correlations to child health outcomes in research. Understanding Baumrind's theories can help pediatric orthopaedic nurses understand the mechanisms parents use to affect the health outcomes related to the obesity of their children. Baumrind's is one parenting theory that can help demonstrate how parental behaviors and practices affect a child's self-concept and self-care development and ultimately a child's health promotion beliefs and practices related to obesity prevention and care that continue into adulthood. Nurses can use reviews of literature and application to practice of parenting styles to expand their repertoire of parent guidance and anticipatory teaching directed to the prevention and care of childhood obesity.

  7. Prevalance of Obesity in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Bansal, Ankita; Diwan, Shraddha; Diwan, Jasmin; Vyas, Neeta

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Obesity are epidemic among children and adolescents. There is worldwide tendency of increasing prevalence of obesity in children. Cerebral palsy (CP) is leading cause of childhood disability.studies have proposed mechanism of children with disability leading towards obesity and related health risks. So this study is aimed at determining whether such trend of obesity exists in children with CP in terms of BMI and WHR.

  8. Utility and applicability of the "Childhood Obesity Risk Evaluation" (CORE)-index in predicting obesity in childhood and adolescence in Greece from early life: the "National Action Plan for Public Health".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manios, Yannis; Vlachopapadopoulou, Elpis; Moschonis, George; Karachaliou, Feneli; Psaltopoulou, Theodora; Koutsouki, Dimitra; Bogdanis, Gregory; Carayanni, Vilelmine; Hatzakis, Angelos; Michalacos, Stefanos

    2016-12-01

    Early identification of infants being at high risk to become obese at their later childhood or adolescence can be of vital importance in any obesity prevention initiative. The aim of the present study was to examine the utility and applicability of the "Childhood Obesity Risk Evaluation (CORE)" index as a screening tool for the early prediction of obesity in childhood and adolescence. Anthropometric, socio-demographic data were collected cross-sectionally and retrospectively from a representative sample of 5946 children, and adolescents and were combined for calculating the CORE-index score. Logistic regression analyses were performed to examine the associations of the CORE-index score with obesity by gender and age group, and cut-off point analysis was also applied to identify the optimal value of the CORE-index score that differentiates obese from non-obese children. Mean CORE-index score in the total sample was 3.06 (sd 1.92) units (range 0-11 units). Each unit increase in the CORE-index score was found to be associated with a 30 % (95 % C.I. 1.24-1.36) increased likelihood for obesity in childhood or adolescence, while the optimal cut-off value of the CORE-index score that predicted obesity with the highest possible sensitivity and specificity was found to be 3.5.

  9. Multi-Vitamin Intake During Pregnancy: Is it a Causative Factor for Childhood Obesity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naci Topaloglu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was conducted to investigate whether multivitamin intake can be one of the reasons of childhood obesity. Material and Method: : We carried out a prospective case-control study. The first group included 50 children, as case group who was diagnosed with obesity according to body mass index (BMI and the second group 50 healty children as control group. Premature babies, children with mental motor reterdation and chronic illness, syndromic children and mothers who couldn%u2019t answer the questions efficiently were excluded. The study was conducted with a questionnaire that was filled out by mothers. Anthropometric measurements including body weight and height were measured by the same researcher (NK. Results: The mean age of the case group was 10,34 ± 3,68 years and 8,88 ± 3,96 years in control group. There were no statistically significant difference between two groups in terms of multivitamin intake during pregnancy so multivitamin intake was not found related with childhood obesity, mode of delivery, gestational age at delivery and birth weight as well. Discussion: In our study; multivitamin supplements had no effect on childhood obesity. Further studies are needed with larger populations to asses it detailed.

  10. Childhood obesity: food, nutrient, and eating-habit trends and influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roblin, Lynn

    2007-08-01

    The need has never been greater to support healthy eating and physical activity in children and youth; the numbers of overweight and obese children have doubled and tripled, respectively, over the past 3 decades. Poor eating habits, including inadequate intake of vegetables, fruit, and milk, and eating too many high-calorie snacks, play a role in childhood obesity. Grain products provide the highest percentage (31%) of daily calories, followed by "other foods," which have limited nutritional value (22% of daily calories). Snacks account for 27% of total daily calories, which is more than the calories consumed at breakfast (18%) and lunch (24%), but not dinner (31%). For Canadians older than 4 years of age, more than 41% of daily snack calories come from other foods, such as chips, chocolate bars, soft drinks, fruit drinks, sugars, syrup, preserves, fats, and oils. Habits that protect against childhood obesity include eating more vegetables and fruit, eating meals with family, and being physically active. Children's food habits and choices are influenced by family, caregivers, friends, schools, marketing, and the media. Successful interventions for preventing childhood obesity combine family- and school-based programs, nutrition education, dietary change, physical activity, family participation, and counseling.

  11. Interventions for Childhood Obesity Control in Cyprus: An analysis and Evaluation of Programmes and Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgianna Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last twenty years, there has been an increase in the prevalence of obesity with a simultaneous increase in chronic diseases.Aim: The aim of this literature review is to discuss available interventions for childhood obesity (2-11 years and to propose effective prevention policies for the Republic of Cyprus.Methods: Childhood obesity prevention and intervention programs in Cyprus were analysed using SWOT analysis and evaluation protocols for compatibility and sustainability among health professionals andgovernment partners.Results: The preliminary literature review reveals that there are specific short comings with regards to the existing NHS and public health. The sustainability of existing health policies and implemented programs is questionable as there are no coherent monitoring systems in place. There are many worthwhile programsand organizations that are often delayed due to conflict of interest.Conclusions: Analysis shows that the implementation, via a Cypriot National Health System, of public health strategies could be effective means of addressing specifically childhood obesity. This includes a more active role for the family physician and policies of a multi- level strategy, aiming as fostering innovative public-private healthcare collaborations, supported by educational institutions, infrastructure, legislation and the wider society.However, such strategies are needed on a long-term basis and throughout a person’s life span.

  12. Reduced genetic influence on childhood obesity in small for gestational age children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Dug Yeo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Children born small-for-gestational-age (SGA are at increased risk of developing obesity and metabolic diseases later in life, a risk which is magnified if followed by accelerated postnatal growth. We investigated whether common gene variants associated with adult obesity were associated with increased postnatal growth, as measured by BMI z-score, in children born SGA and appropriate for gestational age (AGA in the Auckland Birthweight Collaborative. Methods A total of 37 candidate SNPs were genotyped on 547 European children (228 SGA and 319 AGA. Repeated measures of BMI (z-score were used for assessing obesity status, and results were corrected for multiple testing using the false discovery rate. Results SGA children had a lower BMI z-score than non-SGA children at assessment age 3.5, 7 and 11 years. We confirmed 27 variants within 14 obesity risk genes to be individually associated with increasing early childhood BMI, predominantly in those born AGA. Conclusions Genetic risk variants are less important in influencing early childhood BMI in those born SGA than in those born AGA, suggesting that non-genetic or environmental factors may be more important in influencing childhood BMI in those born SGA.

  13. Multi-Institutional Sharing of Electronic Health Record Data to Assess Childhood Obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Charles Bailey

    Full Text Available To evaluate the validity of multi-institutional electronic health record (EHR data sharing for surveillance and study of childhood obesity.We conducted a non-concurrent cohort study of 528,340 children with outpatient visits to six pediatric academic medical centers during 2007-08, with sufficient data in the EHR for body mass index (BMI assessment. EHR data were compared with data from the 2007-08 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES.Among children 2-17 years, BMI was evaluable for 1,398,655 visits (56%. The EHR dataset contained over 6,000 BMI measurements per month of age up to 16 years, yielding precise estimates of BMI. In the EHR dataset, 18% of children were obese versus 18% in NHANES, while 35% were obese or overweight versus 34% in NHANES. BMI for an individual was highly reliable over time (intraclass correlation coefficient 0.90 for obese children and 0.97 for all children. Only 14% of visits with measured obesity (BMI ≥95% had a diagnosis of obesity recorded, and only 20% of children with measured obesity had the diagnosis documented during the study period. Obese children had higher primary care (4.8 versus 4.0 visits, p<0.001 and specialty care (3.7 versus 2.7 visits, p<0.001 utilization than non-obese counterparts, and higher prevalence of diverse co-morbidities. The cohort size in the EHR dataset permitted detection of associations with rare diagnoses. Data sharing did not require investment of extensive institutional resources, yet yielded high data quality.Multi-institutional EHR data sharing is a promising, feasible, and valid approach for population health surveillance. It provides a valuable complement to more resource-intensive national surveys, particularly for iterative surveillance and quality improvement. Low rates of obesity diagnosis present a significant obstacle to surveillance and quality improvement for care of children with obesity.

  14. To be an immigrant: a risk factor for developing overweight and obesity during childhood and adolescence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchengast, Sylvia; Schober, Edith

    2006-09-01

    Childhood overweight and obesity, especially among migrant children, are current health problems in several European countries. In the present study the prevalence of overweight and obesity among migrant children from Turkey and the former Yugoslavia was documented and compared with that of Austrian children in Vienna. Anthropometric data from 1,786 children were collected at the ages of 6, 10 and 15 years. Body mass was estimated by means of the body mass index and percentile curves were used to determine weight status. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was found to be significantly higher among migrant children. Children and adolescents from the former Yugoslavia and Turkish girls exhibited especially high rates of overweight and obesity. Biosocial and cultural factors are discussed as causes of these observations.

  15. Nutrition in the First 1000 Days: The Origin of Childhood Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mameli, Chiara; Mazzantini, Sara; Zuccotti, Gian Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    Childhood obesity is a major global issue. Its incidence is constantly increasing, thereby offering a threatening public health perspective. The risk of developing the numerous chronic diseases associated with this condition from very early in life is significant. Although complex and multi-factorial, the pathophysiology of obesity recognizes essential roles of nutritional and metabolic aspects. Particularly, several risk factors identified as possible determinants of later-life obesity act within the first 1000 days of life (i.e., from conception to age 2 years). The purpose of this manuscript is to review those key mechanisms for which a role in predisposing children to obesity is supported by the most recent literature. Throughout the development of the human feeding environment, three different stages have been identified: (1) the prenatal period; (2) breast vs. formula feeding; and (3) complementary diet. A deep understanding of the specific nutritional challenges presented within each phase might foster the development of future preventive strategies. PMID:27563917

  16. Nutrition in the First 1000 Days: The Origin of Childhood Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Mameli

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Childhood obesity is a major global issue. Its incidence is constantly increasing, thereby offering a threatening public health perspective. The risk of developing the numerous chronic diseases associated with this condition from very early in life is significant. Although complex and multi-factorial, the pathophysiology of obesity recognizes essential roles of nutritional and metabolic aspects. Particularly, several risk factors identified as possible determinants of later-life obesity act within the first 1000 days of life (i.e., from conception to age 2 years. The purpose of this manuscript is to review those key mechanisms for which a role in predisposing children to obesity is supported by the most recent literature. Throughout the development of the human feeding environment, three different stages have been identified: (1 the prenatal period; (2 breast vs. formula feeding; and (3 complementary diet. A deep understanding of the specific nutritional challenges presented within each phase might foster the development of future preventive strategies.

  17. Limited availability of childhood overweight and obesity treatment programmes in Danish paediatric departments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eg, Marianne; Cortes, Dina; Johansen, Anders;

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The prevalence of children and adolescents with overweight and obesity has tripled over the past 30 years. One in five children in Denmark is overweight, a condition which is accompanied by serious medical and psychosocial complications. So far, an overview of the Danish treatment...... of departments offered less comprehensive programmes. The final third offered no multidisciplinary treatment programme for the target group. The criteria for referral to the paediatric departments that offered obesity programmes were heterogeneous. FUNDING: Funding for this study was received from Region...... of childhood overweight and obesity has been lacking. METHODS: Telephone interviews with all Danish paediatric departments were conducted in 2014. The results, constituting a baseline, were analysed using the clinical guidelines for overweight and obesity published by the Danish Paediatric Society's Overweight...

  18. Limited availability of childhood overweight and obesity treatment programmes in Danish paediatric departments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorentzen, Vibeke; Eg, Marianne; Cortes, Dina;

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The prevalence of children and adolescents with overweight and obesity has tripled over the past 30 years. One in five children in Denmark is overweight, a condition which is accompanied by serious medical and psychosocial complications. So far, an overview of the Danish treatment...... of childhood overweight and obesity has been lacking. METHODS: Telephone interviews with all Danish paediatric departments were conducted in 2014. The results, constituting a baseline, were analysed using the clinical guidelines for overweight and obesity published by the Danish Paediatric Society’s Overweight...... consultation. Body mass index was the primary parameter used to decide whether obesity management was indicated, varying from the > 90 to the > 99 percentile for sex and age. CONCLUSIONS: In Denmark, one third of paediatric departments nearly complied with the national clinical guidelines. Another third...

  19. Environmental influences on childhood obesity: ethnic and cultural influences in context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumanyika, Shiriki K

    2008-04-22

    Ethnicity is associated with differences in food-related beliefs, preferences, and behaviors, and cultural influences may contribute to the higher than average risk of obesity among children and youth in U.S. ethnic minority populations. However, cultural attitudes and beliefs are not the only potential source of ethnic variation in childhood obesity prevalence and should not be studied in isolation. Demographic, socio-structural, and environmental variables must also be considered. Available evidence indicates ethnic differences along several pathways that may increase risks of obesity development during gestation, infancy, childhood and adolescence. These include above-average prevalence of obesity in adult females and of maternal diabetes during pregnancy, parental attitudes and practices that may lead to overfeeding children, above-average levels of consumption of certain high calorie foods and beverages, and inadequate physical activity. Environments with lower than average neighborhood availability of healthful foods and higher than average availability of fast food restaurants, along with exposure to ethnically targeted food marketing may contribute to reliance on high calorie foods and beverages, and these foods may be socially and culturally valued. Attitudes about and environmental contexts for physical activity are also relevant. Increasingly, it is acknowledged that individual behaviors and lifestyles, e.g. food choices or child feeding practices, are responsive to the ecological contexts in which they are practiced. Focusing attention on the fluid interactions of cultural influences with contextual factors, of recognized importance for the study of childhood undernutrition, can also lead to further understanding of how to address ethnic disparities in childhood obesity.

  20. Reducing childhood obesity by eliminating 100% fruit juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojcicki, Janet M; Heyman, Melvin B

    2012-09-01

    The Healthy Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010 presents an opportunity to change the nutritional quality of foods served in low-income childcare centers, including Head Start centers. Excessive fruit juice consumption is associated with increased risk for obesity. Moreover, there is recent scientific evidence that sucrose consumption without the corresponding fiber, as is commonly present in fruit juice, is associated with the metabolic syndrome, liver injury, and obesity. Given the increasing risk of obesity among preschool children, we recommend that the US Department of Agriculture's Child and Adult Food Care Program, which manages the meal patterns in childcare centers such as Head Start, promote the elimination of fruit juice in favor of whole fruit for children.

  1. Childhood Obesity and Nutrition Issues in the United States: An Update on School-based Policies and Practices. Education Policy Brief, Volume 10, Number 1, Spring 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spradlin, Terry; Gard, Greta; Huang, Vivian; Kopp, Beth; Malik, Alanna

    2012-01-01

    This Education Policy Brief examines the latest research and statistics regarding childhood obesity. In addition to providing an overview of current trends and effects of childhood obesity, this brief considers the reasons for the increase in obesity rates among children, as well as the latest federal and state initiatives created to combat…

  2. Family Environment and Childhood Obesity: A New Framework with Structural Equation Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hui; Wan Mohamed Radzi, Che Wan Jasimah Bt; Salarzadeh Jenatabadi, Hashem

    2017-02-13

    The main purpose of the current article is to introduce a framework of the complexity of childhood obesity based on the family environment. A conceptual model that quantifies the relationships and interactions among parental socioeconomic status, family food security level, child's food intake and certain aspects of parental feeding behaviour is presented using the structural equation modeling (SEM) concept. Structural models are analysed in terms of the direct and indirect connections among latent and measurement variables that lead to the child weight indicator. To illustrate the accuracy, fit, reliability and validity of the introduced framework, real data collected from 630 families from Urumqi (Xinjiang, China) were considered. The framework includes two categories of data comprising the normal body mass index (BMI) range and obesity data. The comparison analysis between two models provides some evidence that in obesity modeling, obesity data must be extracted from the dataset and analysis must be done separately from the normal BMI range. This study may be helpful for researchers interested in childhood obesity modeling based on family environment.

  3. Factors Associated with Successful Mentoring of Parents Addressing Childhood Obesity: A Mixed Methods Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Abigail Villanueva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Parents mentoring other parents as a behavioral intervention for child obesity is novel with limited data describing the experience and dynamics of this approach. This study aimed to describe the experiences of parent mentors and the self-efficacy and attitudes of their mentees in the context of a clinical trial for childhood obesity. Methods. The context for this study was a randomized clinical trial using either parent mentors or a community health worker engaging parents of obese children in behavioral change over six months. Parent mentors were interviewed at the mid-point of the intervention using a semistructured questionnaire to elicit their perceptions and experiences during the process of mentoring. Parent mentees completed a survey assessing their self-efficacy, perception of the parent mentor, and attitudes and beliefs related to their child’s weight. Results. The qualitative analysis of parent mentor interviews indicated high commitment despite their nonprofessional status, facing challenges of engagement with fellow parents and attitudes of persistence and being nonjudgmental. The parent mentee ratings of parent mentors were overall very high and similar to the ratings of a community health worker (paraprofessional. Conclusion. The data suggest that a parent mentor model of intervention for child obesity is an acceptable mode of approaching behavior change in the Hispanic population around childhood obesity with potential for scalability if proven effective.

  4. Family Environment and Childhood Obesity: A New Framework with Structural Equation Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Huang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the current article is to introduce a framework of the complexity of childhood obesity based on the family environment. A conceptual model that quantifies the relationships and interactions among parental socioeconomic status, family food security level, child’s food intake and certain aspects of parental feeding behaviour is presented using the structural equation modeling (SEM concept. Structural models are analysed in terms of the direct and indirect connections among latent and measurement variables that lead to the child weight indicator. To illustrate the accuracy, fit, reliability and validity of the introduced framework, real data collected from 630 families from Urumqi (Xinjiang, China were considered. The framework includes two categories of data comprising the normal body mass index (BMI range and obesity data. The comparison analysis between two models provides some evidence that in obesity modeling, obesity data must be extracted from the dataset and analysis must be done separately from the normal BMI range. This study may be helpful for researchers interested in childhood obesity modeling based on family environment.

  5. School Nurses' Experiences with Motivational Interviewing for Preventing Childhood Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonde, Ane Høstgaard; Bentsen, Peter; Hindhede, Anette Lykke

    2014-01-01

    Motivational interviewing is a counseling method used to bring about behavior change; its application by school nurses for preventing obesity in children is still new. This study, based on in-depth interviews with 12 school nurses, shows how school nurses adapted motivational interviewing and integrated it into their daily practice along with…

  6. Glycemic index, glycemic load and childhood obesity: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hossein Rouhani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Several evidences have been reported so far in terms of the relationship between obesity and glycemic index and glycemic load in children. However, the number of review studies that have dealt with recent findings is quite low. The purpose of present study is to review the existing evidences in this regard. Materials and Methods: First of all, the phrases: "Glycaemic index", "Glycaemic load", "Glycemic index" OR "Glycemic load" accompanied by one of the words: "Adolescent", "Young", "Youth" "Children" OR "Child" were searched in texts of articles existing in ISI and PUBMED databases which were obtained out of 1001 articles. Among these, some articles, which reviewed the relationship of obesity with glycemic index and glycemic load, were selected. Finally, 20 articles were studied in current review study. Results: The majority of cross-sectional studies have found children′s obesity directly linked with glycemic index and glycemic load; however, cohort studies found controversial results. Also, the intervention studies indicate the negative effect of glycemic index and glycemic load on obesity in children. Conclusion: Published evidences reported inconsistent results. It seems that existing studies are not sufficient and more studies are needed in this regard.

  7. Childhood Obesity: Harnessing the Power of Public and Private Partnerships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malepati, Sarath; Pirani, Hafiza; Surie, Diya; Dietz, David; Lee, Jason; Ramos, Lauren Raskin; Petersen, Brittney

    2007-01-01

    In this report the National Institute for Health Care Management Foundation (NIHCM) and the Association of State and Territorial Health Officials (ASTHO) focus on selective, exemplary collaborations between state health agencies and health plans to reduce overweight and obesity in children. The idea of collaboration is simple. Partner A agrees to…

  8. Dietary patterns and their associations with childhood obesity in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiguo; Wang, Huijun; Wang, Youfa; Xue, Hong; Wang, Zhihong; Du, Wenwen; Su, Chang; Zhang, Ji; Jiang, Hongru; Zhai, Fengying; Zhang, Bing

    2015-06-28

    Dietary patterns represent the combined effects of foods, and illustrate efficaciously the impact of diet on health outcomes. Some findings of previous studies have limited applicability to Chinese children due to cultural factors. The present study was designed to identify dietary patterns and determine their relationships with obesity among Chinese children and adolescents. Data collected from 1282 children and adolescents aged 7-17 years from the 2011 China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) were used. Dietary patterns were identified using factor analysis of data from three consecutive 24-h dietary recalls. Weight and height were measured following standard methods, and BMI was calculated. Three dietary patterns were identified: modern (high intakes of milk, fast foods and eggs), traditional north (high intakes of wheat, tubers and other cereals) and traditional south (high intakes of vegetables, rice and pork). After adjusting for some confounders and total energy intake, subjects in the highest quartiles of the modern and traditional north patterns were found to have significantly greater risk of obesity (OR 3·10, 95 % CI 1·52, 6·32, and OR 2·42, 95 % CI 1·34, 4·39, respectively). In conclusion, the modern dietary pattern and the traditional north dietary pattern were associated with higher risk of obesity. Promoting healthier eating patterns could help prevent obesity in Chinese children.

  9. Developmental Trajectories of Childhood Obesity and Risk Behaviors in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, David Y. C.; Lanza, H. Isabella; Wright-Volel, Kynna; Anglin, M. Douglas

    2013-01-01

    Using group-based trajectory modeling, this study examined 5156 adolescents from the child sample of the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to identify developmental trajectories of obesity from ages 6-18 and evaluate associations of such trajectories with risk behaviors and psychosocial health in adolescence. Four distinctive obesity…

  10. Effects of a Family-Based Childhood Obesity Treatment Program on Parental Weight Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trier, Cæcilie; Dahl, Maria; Stjernholm, Theresa; Nielsen, Tenna R. H.; Bøjsøe, Christine; Fonvig, Cilius E.; Pedersen, Oluf; Hansen, Torben; Holm, Jens-Christian

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of overweight/obesity among parents of children entering childhood obesity treatment and to evaluate changes in the parents’ weight statuses during their child’s treatment. Methods The study included parents of 1,125 children and adolescents aged 3–22 years, who were enrolled in a multidisciplinary childhood obesity treatment program. At baseline, weight and height of the parents were obtained by self-reported information and parental body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Weight and height of the children were measured in the clinic and BMI standard deviation scores were calculated. Furthermore, anthropometric data from parents of 664 children were obtained by telephone interview after a mean of 2.5 years of treatment (ranging 16 days to 7 years), and changes in parental BMI were analyzed. Results Data on changes in BMI were available in 606 mothers and 479 fathers. At baseline, the median BMI of the mothers was 28.1 kg/m2 (range: 16.9–66.6), and the median BMI of the fathers was 28.9 kg/m2 (range: 17.2–48.1). Seventy percent of the mothers and 80% of the fathers were overweight or obese at the time of their child’s treatment initiation. Both the mothers and fathers lost weight during their child’s treatment with a mean decrease in BMI in the mothers of 0.5 (95% CI: 0.2–0.8, p = 0.0006) and in the fathers of 0.4 (95% CI: 0.2–0.6, p = 0.0007). Of the overweight/obese parents, 60% of the mothers and 58% of the fathers lost weight during their child’s treatment. Conclusion There is a high prevalence of overweight/obesity among parents of children entering childhood obesity treatment. Family-based childhood obesity treatment with a focus on the child has a positive effect on parental BMI with both mothers and fathers losing weight. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00928473 PMID:27560141

  11. Canada-United States-Mexico Trilateral Cooperation on Childhood Obesity Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabadán-Diehl, Cristina; Safdie, Margarita; Rodin, Rachel

    2016-08-01

    Childhood obesity is an important public health problem that affects countries in the Americas. In 2014, Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) Member States agreed on a Plan of Action for the Prevention of Obesity in Children and Adolescents in an effort to address the impact of this disorder in the Americas region. The interventions laid out in this regional plan are multi-faceted and require multi-sectoral partnerships. Building on a strong history of successful trilateral collaboration, Canada, Mexico, and the United States formed a partnership to address the growing epidemic of childhood obesity in the North American region. This collaborative effort, known as the Trilateral Cooperation on Childhood Obesity Initiative, is the first initiative in the region to address chronic noncommunicable diseases by bringing together technical and policy experts, with strong leadership and support from the secretaries and ministers of health. The Initiative's goals include increasing levels of physical activity and reducing sedentary behavior through 1) increased social mobilization and citizen engagement, 2) community- based outreach, and 3) changes to the built (man-made) environment. This article describes the background and development process of the Initiative; specific goals, activities, and actions achieved to date; and opportunities and next steps. This information may be useful for those forming other partnerships designed to address childhood obesity or other complex public health challenges in the region. RESUMEN La obesidad infantil es un problema de salud pública importante que afecta a los países de las Américas. En el 2014, los Estados Miembros de la Organización Panamericana de la Salud (OPS) acordaron un Plan de acción para la prevención de la obesidad en la niñez y la adolescencia con el fin de hacer frente a las repercusiones de este trastorno en la Región de las Américas. Las intervenciones que componen este plan regional son multifacéticas y

  12. Stress and obesity/metabolic syndrome in childhood and adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pervanidou, Panagiota; Chrousos, George P

    2011-09-01

    Chronic distress contributes to the development of obesity and comorbid states. Stress is the disturbance of the complex dynamic equilibrium that all organisms must maintain, and is associated with activation of the Stress system comprising of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and the arousal/sympathetic nervous systems. The stress system functions in a baseline circadian fashion and interacts with other systems of the organism to regulate a variety of behavioral, endocrine, metabolic, immune and cardiovascular functions. The experience of perceived or real uncontrollable intense and/or chronic stress (distress) may lead to several psychopathologic conditions, including anxiety, depressive and psychosomatic disorders, substance abuse, obesity and the metabolic syndrome, and osteoporosis, as well as impaired reproductive and immune functions. Developing children and adolescents are particularly vulnerable to the effects of chronic stress. Both behavioral and biological pathways are involved in the connection between chronic stress and obesity in adults and children. Emotional "comfort" eating, lack of sleep, impulsive behaviours and selection of specific foods often characterize stressed individuals. In addition to specific behaviours, dysregulation of the stress system through increased secretion of cortisol and catecholamines, especially in the evening hours, and in concert with concurrently elevated insulin concentrations, leads to development of central obesity, insulin resistance and the metabolic syndrome. In children, chronic alterations in cortisol secretion may have additional effects on cognitive and emotional development, timing of puberty and final stature. Obese children and adolescents are frequently entangled in a vicious cycle between distress, impairing self-image and distorted self-image, maintaining and worsening distress.

  13. Food Types in the Diet and the Nutrient Intake of Obese and Non−Obese Children

    OpenAIRE

    Garipağaoğlu, Muazzez; Sahip, Yusuf; Budak, Nurten; Akdikmen, Öznur; Altan, Tuğçe; Baban, Melis

    2008-01-01

    Background: Childhood obesity has reached epidemic proportions world−wide. Objective: To compare the types of food in the diet and the nutrient intake of obese children with those of non−obese children. Methods: A total of 95 obese and 592 non−obese children aged between 6 and 10 years participated in the study. A body mass index (BMI) value exceeding the 95th percentile for age and gender was taken as the criterion for obesity. Three−day food consumption was recorded and evaluated according ...

  14. Food insecurity and childhood obesity: beyond categorical and linear representations

    OpenAIRE

    Kuku-Shittu, Oluyemisi; Gundersen, Craig; Garasky, Steven B.

    2008-01-01

    Previous work on the relationship between food insecurity and childhood overweight has lead to a wide array of answers – some have found a positive relationship, others no relationship, and still others a negative relationship. This previous work has shared one thing in common – all have used parametric models. In this paper we move beyond parametric models by using non-parametric models. With data from the 1999-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and a wide array p...

  15. Public health framing of news regarding childhood obesity in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Katherine W; Linvill, Darren L

    2010-12-01

    Five U.S. newspapers were searched for stories regarding childhood obesity. Of the 201 stories appearing in 1996, 2001, or 2006, 97 incorporated a public health frame (i.e., connects problem to the larger social and environmental context; exposes risk factors; includes information regarding preventatives and correctives). Significant risk factors were identified as unhealthy eating practices, lack of physical activity, and ads for junk food directed at children. Prevalent categories of preventatives and correctives focused on changes in diet, particularly in the home or in areas controlled by parents. Offered less frequently were suggestions regarding increases in physical activity. Consistent with previous research, the majority of both preventatives and correctives focused on individual-level as opposed to societal-level factors. Implications of these findings for the framing of news regarding childhood obesity are discussed.

  16. The Young Gottingen Minipig as a Model of Childhood and Adolescent Obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Berit; Golozoubova, Valeria; Pacini, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Gender and sex hormones influence the development of obesity and metabolic syndrome in humans and Gottingen minipigs. The aim of this study was to investigate possible gender differences in the metabolic response to a high energy diet in young Gottingen minipigs as a model of childhood......, and beta-cell function measured by oral and intravenous glucose tolerance tests. Results: At 11 to 12 weeks of age, after 2 weeks diet feeding, both genders on HED had increased fat percentage, glucose intolerance, decreased insulin sensitivity, and increased plasma levels of cholesterol and triglycerides...... Gottingen minipig, and especially the female gender, seems to be a potential model for diet induced childhood/adolescent obesity and metabolic syndrome....

  17. Parental perception of childhood obesity in an inner-city area of Palermo, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianco Antonino

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: The objective of this study was to evaluate in a sample of parents living in an inner-city area of Palermo, Italy, the perception of weight excess as a problem in childhood and the awareness about the role of physical activity, beliefs about contributors and parties having responsibility in counteracting the obesity crisis.

    Methods: A cross-sectional survey was performed on a convenience sample of parents of 6-13 year-old children who attended grades 1, 3 and 5 of primary and grades 1 and 3 of secondary public schools, respectively. Thirteen schools were selected in an inner urban district of Palermo, Italy, this district being characterized by having a population of low to medium income residents. Parents were asked to come to the school and participate in the investigation. The survey was administered in the spring of 2006. After a descriptive analysis, role of specific demographic and social characteristics – education, gender, age class and BMI - of respondents was assessed by univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis.

    Results: Three hundred eleven parents completed the questionnaire. Eighty-three percent believed that being obese in childhood is a serious health hazard, but one third still interpreted the child’s weight excess as an expression of health. The most significant contributors to childhood obesity were thought to be junk food and beverages (78.0% and fast food (63.2%, followed by lack of exercise in school curriculum (48.7%. Beliefs about responsibilities for combating childhood obesity significantly varied according to education level.

    Conclusions: Public support for environmental changes could more effectively rise with the increasing public awareness that many interrelated obesogenic factors in the modern environment are playing a key role.

  18. Identification of contrastive and comparable school neighborhoods for childhood obesity and physical activity research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoffel Katherine

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The neighborhood social and physical environments are considered significant factors contributing to children's inactive lifestyles, poor eating habits, and high levels of childhood obesity. Understanding of neighborhood environmental profiles is needed to facilitate community-based research and the development and implementation of community prevention and intervention programs. We sought to identify contrastive and comparable districts for childhood obesity and physical activity research studies. We have applied GIS technology to manipulate multiple data sources to generate objective and quantitative measures of school neighborhood-level characteristics for school-based studies. GIS technology integrated data from multiple sources (land use, traffic, crime, and census tract and available social and built environment indicators theorized to be associated with childhood obesity and physical activity. We used network analysis and geoprocessing tools within a GIS environment to integrate these data and to generate objective social and physical environment measures for school districts. We applied hierarchical cluster analysis to categorize school district groups according to their neighborhood characteristics. We tested the utility of the area characterizations by using them to select comparable and contrastive schools for two specific studies. Results We generated school neighborhood-level social and built environment indicators for all 412 Chicago public elementary school districts. The combination of GIS and cluster analysis allowed us to identify eight school neighborhoods that were contrastive and comparable on parameters of interest (land use and safety for a childhood obesity and physical activity study. Conclusion The combination of GIS and cluster analysis makes it possible to objectively characterize urban neighborhoods and to select comparable and/or contrasting neighborhoods for community-based health studies.

  19. Glycemic index, glycemic load and childhood obesity: A systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Background: Several evidences have been reported so far in terms of the relationship between obesity and glycemic index and glycemic load in children. However, the number of review studies that have dealt with recent findings is quite low. The purpose of present study is to review the existing evidences in this regard. Materials and Methods: First of all, the phrases: "Glycaemic index", "Glycaemic load", "Glycemic index" OR "Glycemic load" accompanied by one of the words: "Adolescent", "Y...

  20. Timing of the introduction of complementary feeding and risk of childhood obesity: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, J; Taylor, M A; Langley-Evans, S C

    2013-10-01

    The World Health Organisation recommends exclusive breastfeeding until 6 months of age and continued breastfeeding until 2 years of age or beyond. Appropriate complementary foods should be introduced in a timely fashion, beginning when the infant is 6 months old. In developing countries, early or inappropriate complementary feeding may lead to malnutrition and poor growth, but in countries such as the United Kingdom and United States of America, where obesity is a greater public health concern than malnutrition, the relationship to growth is unclear. We conducted a systematic review of the literature that investigated the relationship between the timing of the introduction of complementary feeding and overweight or obesity during childhood. Electronic databases were searched from inception until 30 September 2012 using specified keywords. Following the application of strict inclusion/exclusion criteria, 23 studies were identified and reviewed by two independent reviewers. Data were extracted and aspects of quality were assessed using an adapted Newcastle-Ottawa scale. Twenty-one of the studies considered the relationship between the time at which complementary foods were introduced and childhood body mass index (BMI), of which five found that introducing complementary foods at childhood. Seven of the studies considered the association between complementary feeding and body composition but only one study reported an increase in the percentage of body fat among children given complementary foods before 15 weeks of age. We conclude that there is no clear association between the timing of the introduction of complementary foods and childhood overweight or obesity, but some evidence suggests that very early introduction (at or before 4 months), rather than at 4-6 months or >6 months, may increase the risk of childhood overweight.

  1. The Relationship between School-Level Characteristics and Implementation Fidelity of a Coordinated School Health Childhood Obesity Prevention Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederer, Alyssa M.; King, Mindy H.; Sovinski, Danielle; Seo, Dong-Chul; Kim, Nayoung

    2015-01-01

    Background: Curtailing childhood obesity is a public health imperative. Although multicomponent school-based programs reduce obesity among children, less is known about the implementation fidelity of these interventions. This study examines process evaluation findings for the Healthy, Energetic Ready, Outstanding, Enthusiastic, Schools (HEROES)…

  2. Development and Feasibility of a Childhood Obesity Prevention Program for Rural Families: Application of the Social Cognitive Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knol, Linda L.; Myers, Harriet H.; Black, Sheila; Robinson, Darlene; Awololo, Yawah; Clark, Debra; Parker, Carson L.; Douglas, Joy W.; Higginbotham, John C.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Effective childhood obesity prevention programs for preschool children are limited in number and focus on changes in the child care environment rather than the home environment. Purpose: The purpose of this project was to develop and test the feasibility of a home environment obesity prevention program that incorporates mindful eating…

  3. “Culture Is So Interspersed”: Child-Minders' and Health Workers' Perceptions of Childhood Obesity in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltzman, Jaclyn; Jarick Metcalfe, Jessica; Wiley, Angela

    2017-01-01

    Introduction. Forty-one million children globally are overweight or obese, with most rapid rate increases among low- and middle-income nations. Child-minders and health workers play a crucial role in obesity prevention efforts, but their perceptions of childhood obesity in low- and middle-income countries are poorly understood. This study aims to (1) explore child-minders and health workers' perceptions of the causes, consequences, potential strategies, and barriers for childhood obesity prevention and intervention in Cape Town, South Africa and (2) to provisionally test the fit of a socioecological framework to explain these perceptions. Methods. Twenty-one interviews were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed through analytic induction. Results. Participants identified multilevel factors and contexts, as well as potential consequences and priorities of interest in addressing childhood obesity. An adapted childhood obesity perceptions model was generated, which introduces an overarching cultural dimension embedded across levels of the socioecological framework. Conclusions. Culture plays a pivotal role in explaining obesogenic outcomes, and the results of this study demonstrate the need for further research investigating how obesity perceptions are shaped by cultural frames (e.g., social, political, and historical). Understanding the causes, consequences, and potential interventions to address obesity through a cultural lens is critical for promoting health in low- and middle-income nations.

  4. Chemical and non-chemical s tressors affecting childhood obesity: a state-of-the-science-review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childhood obesity has tripled in the last three decades and now affects 17% of children in the United States (US). In 2010, the percentage of obese children in the US was nearly 18% for both 6-11 and 12-19 years of age. Recent evidence in the literature suggests that exposure to ...

  5. Exergaming as a Strategic Tool in the Fight against Childhood Obesity: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carminda Maria Goersch Fontenele Lamboglia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Improper use of electronic media is considered a major contributing factor to childhood obesity. However, exergames, a new generation of active games, have made it possible to combine electronic entertainment with physical exercise. The purpose of this systematic review was to analyze the use of exergaming as a strategic tool in the fight against childhood obesity. Information was retrieved from the databases SciELO, LILACS, Pubmed, Ebsco, and Science Direct, using the search words “egames,” “exergames,” “exergaming,” “new generation of video games,” “active video games,” “energy expenditure,” “body composition,” and “physical activity” in English and Portuguese, covering the period January 2008 to April 2012. Nine articles met the inclusion criteria. Exergaming was found to increase physical activity levels, energy expenditure, maximal oxygen uptake, heart rate, and percentage of physical activity engaged in and to reduce waist circumference and sedentary screen time. Thus, exergaming may be considered a highly relevant strategic tool for the adoption of an active and healthy lifestyle and may be useful in the fight against childhood obesity.

  6. Childhood maltreatment and the risk of pre-pregnancy obesity and excessive gestational weight gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diesel, Jill C; Bodnar, Lisa M; Day, Nancy L; Larkby, Cynthia A

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate whether maternal history of childhood maltreatment was associated with pre-pregnancy obesity or excessive gestational weight gain. Pregnant women (n = 472) reported pre-pregnancy weight and height and gestational weight gain and were followed up to 16 years post-partum when they reported maltreatment on the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ). CTQ score ranged from no maltreatment (25) to severe maltreatment (125). Prenatal mental health modified the association between CTQ score and maternal weight (P alcohol use, a one standard deviation (1 SD) increase in CTQ score was associated with a 45% increase in the risk of pre-pregnancy obesity among the 141 women with elevated anxiety (≥75th percentile on the State Trait Anxiety Inventory) [relative risk, RR (95% confidence interval, CI): 1.45 (1.12, 1.88)], but was not associated among less anxious (maltreatment and weight gain. Factors such as psychological status and traumatic experiences in early childhood may contribute to pre-pregnancy obesity and excessive gestational weight gain.

  7. Childhood obesity in Italian primary schools: eating habits, physical activity and perception of weight by parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giancarlo Scarafile

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Childhood obesity is the worst not infectious disease in the world with few clinical treatment options. The purpose of this review is to analyze the epidemiological differences related to childhood obesity in the age group of 6-11 years, both in the United States and Italy which are the most affected by this disease. Among the main causes, three were analyzed: eating habits, physical activity and the perception of the body weight of children by their parents. The review also reports a series of targeted measures adopted by specialized physicians whose main aim is to fight and reduce, in the shortest period possible, the prevalence of childhood obesity. Overeating, often unaware of energy dense foods and beverages, and a sedentary lifestyle habits as well the increase of body weight. The wrong timing of meals, jumping breakfast, eating few fruit and vegetables all day long and drinking sugary and/or carbonated drinks are more frequent and deep-rooted habits among children. To correct these habits and promote a healthy eating it is necessary to plan targeted interventions.

  8. The association between maltreatment in childhood and pre-pregnancy obesity in women attending an antenatal clinic in Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharine Hollingsworth

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Obesity in pregnancy is associated with increased risk of complications and adverse outcomes in mother and child. Childhood adverse experiences are known to have numerous negative physical and emotional sequelae. We aimed to examine if exposure to abuse and/or neglect in childhood increased the likelihood of pre-pregnancy obesity. METHODS: Demographic and clinical data including weight, height, mental health as measured by the General Health Questionnaire and exposure to childhood trauma as measured by the childhood trauma questionnaire was collected from 239 women attending antenatal care at an Australian tertiary hospital. RESULTS: More than one quarter of women were obese prior to pregnancy and approximately 20% of women self reported experiencing moderate to severe physical, sexual or emotional abuse. Almost 60% of women scored in the clinical range on the GHQ. Pre-pregnancy obesity in women attending antenatal care was associated with a self-reported history of emotional or physical abuse with those exposed to moderate or severe emotional or physical abuse having increased odds of being obese prior to pregnancy (O.R. and 95% CI: 2.40; 1.19-4.84 and 2.38; 1.18-4.79 respectively. There was no significant association between other forms of childhood maltreatment, demographic or current mental health status and pre-pregnancy obesity. CONCLUSIONS: The high rates of obesity, mental health problems and self reported childhood maltreatment in the Australian antenatal population are serious public health concerns due to the extra health risks conferred on mother and offspring. Exposure to physical or emotional abuse during childhood increases the likelihood of obesity in women attending antenatal care. Further research is required to determine reasons for this association.

  9. Unpacking vertical and horizontal integration: childhood overweight/obesity programs and planning, a Canadian perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley Lisa

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increasingly, multiple intervention programming is being understood and implemented as a key approach to developing public health initiatives and strategies. Using socio-ecological and population health perspectives, multiple intervention programming approaches are aimed at providing coordinated and strategic comprehensive programs operating over system levels and across sectors, allowing practitioners and decision makers to take advantage of synergistic effects. These approaches also require vertical and horizontal (v/h integration of policy and practice in order to be maximally effective. Discussion This paper examines v/h integration of interventions for childhood overweight/obesity prevention and reduction from a Canadian perspective. It describes the implications of v/h integration for childhood overweight and obesity prevention, with examples of interventions where v/h integration has been implemented. An application of a conceptual framework for structuring v/h integration of an overweight/obesity prevention initiative is presented. The paper concludes with a discussion of the implications of vertical/horizontal integration for policy, research, and practice related to childhood overweight and obesity prevention multiple intervention programs. Summary Both v/h integration across sectors and over system levels are needed to fully support multiple intervention programs of the complexity and scope required by obesity issues. V/h integration requires attention to system structures and processes. A conceptual framework is needed to support policy alignment, multi-level evaluation, and ongoing coordination of people at the front lines of practice. Using such tools to achieve integration may enhance sustainability, increase effectiveness of prevention and reduction efforts, decrease stigmatization, and lead to new ways to relate the environment to people and people to the environment for better health for children.

  10. The International Study of Childhood Obesity, Lifestyle and the Environment (ISCOLE): design and methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The primary aim of the International Study of Childhood Obesity, Lifestyle and the Environment (ISCOLE) was to determine the relationships between lifestyle behaviours and obesity in a multi-national study of children, and to investigate the influence of higher-order characteristics such as behavioural settings, and the physical, social and policy environments, on the observed relationships within and between countries. Methods/design The targeted sample included 6000 10-year old children from 12 countries in five major geographic regions of the world (Europe, Africa, the Americas, South-East Asia, and the Western Pacific). The protocol included procedures to collect data at the individual level (lifestyle, diet and physical activity questionnaires, accelerometry), family and neighborhood level (parental questionnaires), and the school environment (school administrator questionnaire and school audit tool). A standard study protocol was developed for implementation in all regions of the world. A rigorous system of training and certification of study personnel was developed and implemented, including web-based training modules and regional in-person training meetings. Discussion The results of this study will provide a robust examination of the correlates of adiposity and obesity in children, focusing on both sides of the energy balance equation. The results will also provide important new information that will inform the development of lifestyle, environmental, and policy interventions to address and prevent childhood obesity that may be culturally adapted for implementation around the world. ISCOLE represents a multi-national collaboration among all world regions, and represents a global effort to increase research understanding, capacity and infrastructure in childhood obesity. PMID:24079373

  11. Joint effects of child temperament and maternal sensitivity on the development of childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tiejian; Dixon, Wallace E; Dalton, William T; Tudiver, Fred; Liu, Xuefeng

    2011-05-01

    The interplay between child characteristics and parenting is increasingly implicated as crucial to child health outcomes. This study assessed the joint effects of children's temperamental characteristics and maternal sensitivity on children's weight status. Data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development's Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development were utilized. Infant temperament, assessed at child's age of 6 months by maternal report, was categorized into three types: easy, average, and difficult. Maternal sensitivity, assessed at child's age of 6 months by observing maternal behaviors during mother-child semi-structured interaction, was categorized into two groups: sensitive and insensitive. Children's height and weight were measured longitudinally from age 2 years to Grade 6, and body mass index (BMI) was calculated. BMI percentile was obtained based on the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's BMI charts. Children, who had a BMI ≥ the 85th percentile, were defined as overweight-or-obese. Generalized estimating equations were used to analyze the data. The proportions of children overweight-or-obese increased with age, 15.58% at 2 years old to 34.34% by Grade 6. The joint effects of children's temperament and maternal sensitivity on a child's body mass status depended on the child's age. For instance, children with difficult temperament and insensitive mothers had significantly higher risks for being overweight-or-obese during the school age phase but not during early childhood. Specific combinations of child temperament and maternal sensitivity were associated with the development of obesity during childhood. Findings may hold implications for childhood obesity prevention/intervention programs targeting parents.

  12. Childhood cardiometabolic outcomes of maternal obesity during pregnancy: the Generation R Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaillard, Romy; Steegers, Eric A P; Duijts, Liesbeth; Felix, Janine F; Hofman, Albert; Franco, Oscar H; Jaddoe, Vincent W V

    2014-04-01

    Maternal prepregnancy obesity is associated with impaired cardiometabolic health in offspring. Whether these associations reflect direct intrauterine causal mechanisms remains unclear. In a population-based prospective cohort study among 4871 mothers, fathers, and their children, we examined the associations of both maternal and paternal prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) with childhood body fat distribution and cardiometabolic outcomes and explored whether any association was explained by pregnancy, birth, and childhood factors. We measured childhood BMI, total body and abdominal fat distribution, blood pressure, and blood levels of lipids, insulin, and C-peptide at the age of 6 years. We observed that higher maternal and paternal prepregnancy BMI were associated with higher childhood BMI, total body and abdominal fat mass measures, systolic blood pressure, and insulin levels and lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels (Peffect estimates for these outcomes were observed for paternal obesity. In conclusion, higher maternal and paternal prepregnancy BMI were associated with an adverse cardiometabolic profile in offspring, with stronger associations present for maternal prepregnancy BMI. These findings suggest that maternal prepregnancy BMI may influence the cardiometabolic health of offspring through direct intrauterine mechanisms.

  13. Childhood obesity: parents fail to recognise, general practitioners fail to act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, A; O'Brien, B; Houlihan, T; Darker, C; O'Shea, B

    2012-01-01

    General Practitioners (GPs) have an important role to play in recognition of and intervention against childhood obesity in Ireland. Data were collected prospectively on a cohort of children aged 4-14 and their parents (n = 101 pairs) who attended consecutively to a semi-rural group general practice. Parents estimated their child's weight status. Actual weight status was determined for both parent and child using the United States Centres' for Disease Control's BMI-for-age references. 15 (14.9%) of the children and 49 (51.6%) of the parents were overweight or obese. While 71 (95.5%) of normal weight status children were correctly identified, parents showed poor concordance in identifying their children as overweight 2 (18.2%) or obese 0 (0%). BMI was only evidently recorded in the clinical records of 1 out of 15 cases of overweight children identified. With parents failing to recognise childhood obesity, GPs have a responsibility in tackling this problem at a family level.

  14. Childhood obesity: parents fail to recognise, general practitioners fail to act.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    White, A

    2012-01-01

    General Practitioners (GPs) have an important role to play in recognition of and intervention against childhood obesity in Ireland. Data were collected prospectively on a cohort of children aged 4-14 and their parents (n = 101 pairs) who attended consecutively to a semi-rural group general practice. Parents estimated their child\\'s weight status. Actual weight status was determined for both parent and child using the United States Centres\\' for Disease Control\\'s BMI-for-age references. 15 (14.9%) of the children and 49 (51.6%) of the parents were overweight or obese. While 71 (95.5%) of normal weight status children were correctly identified, parents showed poor concordance in identifying their children as overweight 2 (18.2%) or obese 0 (0%). BMI was only evidently recorded in the clinical records of 1 out of 15 cases of overweight children identified. With parents failing to recognise childhood obesity, GPs have a responsibility in tackling this problem at a family level.

  15. Delivery by caesarean section and risk of childhood obesity: analysis of a Peruvian prospective cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo M. Carrillo-Larco

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. We aimed to assess if Caesarean section is a risk factor for overnutrition in early- and late-childhood, and to assess the magnitude of the effect of child- versus family-related variables in these risk estimates.Methods. Longitudinal data from Peruvian children from the Young Lives Study was used. Outcomes assessed were overweight, obesity, overnutrition (overweight plus obesity, and central obesity (waist circumference at the age 5 (first follow-up and 7 (second follow-up years. The exposure of interests was delivery by Caesarean section. Relative risks (RR and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI were calculated using multivariable models adjusted for child-related (e.g., birth weight and family-related (e.g., maternal nutritional status variables.Results. At baseline, mean age was 11.7 (± 3.5 months and 50.1% were boys. Children born by Caesarean section were 15.6%. The 10.5% of the children were overweight and 2.4% were obese. For the obesity outcome, data from 6,038 and 9,625 children-years was included from baseline to the first and second follow-up, respectively. Compared to those who did not experience Caesarean delivery, the risk of having obesity was higher in the group born by Caesarean: RRs were higher at early-childhood (first follow-up: 2.25; 95% CI [1.36–3.74] than later in life (second follow-up: 1.57; 95% CI [1.02–2.41]. Family-related variables had a greater effect in attenuating the risk estimates for obesity at the first, than at the second follow-up.Conclusion. Our results suggest a higher probability of developing obesity, but not overweight, among children born by Caesarean section delivery. The magnitude of risk estimates decreased over time, and family-related variables had a stronger effect on the risk estimates at early-childhood.

  16. Design and methods for evaluating an early childhood obesity prevention program in the childcare center setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natale Ruby

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many unhealthy dietary and physical activity habits that foster the development of obesity are established by the age of five. Presently, approximately 70 percent of children in the United States are currently enrolled in early childcare facilities, making this an ideal setting to implement and evaluate childhood obesity prevention efforts. We describe here the methods for conducting an obesity prevention randomized trial in the child care setting. Methods/design A randomized, controlled obesity prevention trial is currently being conducted over a three year period (2010-present. The sample consists of 28 low-income, ethnically diverse child care centers with 1105 children (sample is 60% Hispanic, 15% Haitian, 12% Black, 2% non-Hispanic White and 71% of caregivers were born outside of the US. The purpose is to test the efficacy of a parent and teacher role-modeling intervention on children’s nutrition and physical activity behaviors. . The Healthy Caregivers-Healthy Children (HC2 intervention arm schools received a combination of (1 implementing a daily curricula for teachers/parents (the nutritional gatekeepers; (2 implementing a daily curricula for children; (3 technical assistance with meal and snack menu modifications such as including more fresh and less canned produce; and (4 creation of a center policy for dietary requirements for meals and snacks, physical activity and screen time. Control arm schools received an attention control safety curriculum. Major outcome measures include pre-post changes in child body mass index percentile and z score, fruit and vegetable and other nutritious food intake, amount of physical activity, and parental nutrition and physical activity knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs, defined by intentions and behaviors. All measures were administered at the beginning and end of the school year for year one and year two of the study for a total of 4 longitudinal time points for assessment

  17. The fault, dear viewer, lies not in the screens, but in ourselves: relationships between screen media and childhood overweight/obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKetta, Sarah; Rich, Michael

    2011-12-01

    This article summarizes recent findings about associations between electronic screen media and childhood overweight/obesity, hypothesized mechanisms, and mediators. Recommendations are made for parents and clinicians.

  18. The Epidemic of Extreme Obesity Among American Indian and Alaska Native Adults With Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlton Wilson, MD

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionThe purpose of this study was to describe the prevalence of obesity among American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN adults with diabetes and to examine the temporal trends for class I, II, and III obesity in this high-risk group during a 10-year period.MethodsWe used data on body mass index (BMI from the annual Diabetes Care and Outcomes Audit to estimate the prevalence of class I, II, and III obesity (class I = 30.0–34.9 kg/m2, class II = 35.0–39.9 kg/m2, and class III ≥40.0 kg/m2 in each year from 1995 through 2004. We also investigated trends in mean BMI during the 10-year period and the role of treatment in these trends using multivariable linear regression models.ResultsObesity was highly prevalent in this population in 2004 (class I, 28.9%; class II, 20.4%; class III, 20.3%. From 1995 through 2004, the percentage of obese adults increased from 16.7% to 20.4% in class II and 11.5% to 20.3% in class III (P <.001, and the mean BMI increased from 32.1 kg/m2 to 34.4 kg/m2. The increase in BMI was greater in the younger age groups. Adjusted mean BMI increased significantly over 10 years for each of three treatment categories.ConclusionExtreme degrees of obesity are a common and increasing problem among AI/AN adults with diabetes. We did not find an association between the type of diabetes treatment and the trend toward extreme degrees of obesity. The increase in extreme obesity could potentially affect the burden of morbidity and mortality among AI/AN adults with diabetes. Effective and culturally appropriate weight management interventions are needed.

  19. Increasing Rates of Obesity Among HIV-Infected Persons During the HIV Epidemic

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    overweight /obese at diagnosis and during HIV infection. Weight gain appears to reflect improved health status and mirror trends in the general...study results may be related to differences in timing of HIV diagnosis and treatment, socioeconomic status , and access to medical care. Of note, our...America Abstract Background: The prevalence and factors associated with overweight /obesity among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)- infected persons are

  20. Muscle Strength and Fitness in Pediatric Obesity: a Systematic Review from the European Childhood Obesity Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thivel, David; Ring-Dimitriou, Susanne; Weghuber, Daniel; Frelut, Marie-Laure; O'Malley, Grace

    2016-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of paediatric obesity and related metabolic complications has been mainly associated with lower aerobic fitness while less is known regarding potential musculoskeletal impairments. The purpose of the present systematic review was to report the evidence regarding muscular fitness in children and adolescents with obesity. A systematic article search was conducted between November 2014 and June 2015 using MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL psycINFO, SPORTDiscus and SocINDEX. Articles published in English and reporting results on muscle strength and muscular fitness in children and adolescents aged 6 to 18 years were eligible. Of 548 identified titles, 36 studies were included for analyses. While laboratory-based studies described higher absolute muscular fitness in youth with obesity compared with their lean peers, these differences are negated when corrected for body weight and lean mass, then supporting field-based investigations. All interventional studies reviewed led to improved muscular fitness in youth with obesity. Children and adolescents with obesity display impaired muscular fitness compared to healthy-weight peers, which seems mainly due to factors such as excessive body weight and increased inertia of the body. Our analysis also points out the lack of information regarding the role of age, maturation or sex in the current literature and reveals that routinely used field tests analysing overall daily muscular fitness in children with obesity provide satisfactory results when compared to laboratory-based data.

  1. Muscle Strength and Fitness in Pediatric Obesity: a Systematic Review from the European Childhood Obesity Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Thivel

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The increasing prevalence of paediatric obesity and related metabolic complications has been mainly associated with lower aerobic fitness while less is known regarding potential musculoskeletal impairments. The purpose of the present systematic review was to report the evidence regarding muscular fitness in children and adolescents with obesity. A systematic article search was conducted between November 2014 and June 2015 using MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL psycINFO, SPORTDiscus and SocINDEX. Articles published in English and reporting results on muscle strength and muscular fitness in children and adolescents aged 6 to 18 years were eligible. Of 548 identified titles, 36 studies were included for analyses. While laboratory-based studies described higher absolute muscular fitness in youth with obesity compared with their lean peers, these differences are negated when corrected for body weight and lean mass, then supporting field-based investigations. All interventional studies reviewed led to improved muscular fitness in youth with obesity. Children and adolescents with obesity display impaired muscular fitness compared to healthy-weight peers, which seems mainly due to factors such as excessive body weight and increased inertia of the body. Our analysis also points out the lack of information regarding the role of age, maturation or sex in the current literature and reveals that routinely used field tests analysing overall daily muscular fitness in children with obesity provide satisfactory results when compared to laboratory-based data.

  2. Artificial sweeteners are not the answer to childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swithers, Susan E

    2015-10-01

    While no single factor is responsible for the recent, dramatic increases in overweight and obesity, a scientific consensus has emerged suggesting that consumption of sugar-sweetened products, especially beverages, is casually linked to increases in risk of chronic, debilitating diseases including type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, hypertension and stroke. One approach that might be beneficial would be to replace sugar-sweetened items with products manufactured with artificial sweeteners that provide sweet tastes but with fewer calories. Unfortunately, evidence now indicates that artificial sweeteners are also associated with increased risk of the same chronic diseases linked to sugar consumption. Several biologically plausible mechanisms may explain these counterintuitive negative associations. For example, artificial sweeteners can interfere with basic learning processes that serve to anticipate the normal consequences of consuming sugars, leading to overeating, diminished release of hormones such as GLP-1, and impaired blood glucose regulation. In addition, artificial sweeteners can alter gut microbiota in rodent models and humans, which can also contribute to impaired glucose regulation. Use of artificial sweeteners may also be particularly problematic in children since exposure to hyper-sweetened foods and beverages at young ages may have effects on sweet preferences that persist into adulthood. Taken as a whole, current evidence suggests that a focus on reducing sweetener intake, whether the sweeteners are caloric or non-caloric, remains a better strategy for combating overweight and obesity than use of artificial sweeteners.

  3. Increased asthma risk and asthma-related health care complications associated with childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Mary Helen; Zhou, Hui; Takayanagi, Miwa; Jacobsen, Steven J; Koebnick, Corinna

    2013-10-01

    Asthma is the most common chronic condition of childhood, yet the relationship between obesity and asthma risk and the impact of obesity on clinical asthma outcomes are not well understood. For this population-based, longitudinal study, demographic and clinical data were extracted from administrative and electronic health records of 623,358 patients aged 6-19 years who were enrolled in the Kaiser Permanente Southern California health plan in 2007-2011. Crude asthma incidence ranged from 16.9 per 1,000 person-years among normal-weight youth to 22.3 per 1,000 person-years among extremely obese youth. The adjusted risks of asthma for overweight, moderately obese, and extremely obese youth relative to those of normal weight youth were 1.16 (95% confidence interval: 1.13, 1.20), 1.23 (95% confidence interval: 1.19, 1.28), and 1.37 (95% confidence interval: 1.32, 1.42), respectively (Ptrend obesity and asthma risk was strongest in Asian/Pacific Islanders and in the youngest girls (aged 6-10 years), compared with other groups. Among youth who developed asthma, those who were moderately or extremely obese had more frequent asthma exacerbations requiring emergency department services and/or treatment with oral corticosteroids. In conclusion, obese youth are not only more likely to develop asthma, but they may be more likely to have severe asthma, resulting in a greater need for health care utilization and aggressive asthma treatment.

  4. Nutrition in pregnancy and early childhood and associations with obesity in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhenyu; Huffman, Sandra L

    2013-01-01

    Concerns about the increasing rates of obesity in developing countries have led many policy makers to question the impacts of maternal and early child nutrition on risk of later obesity. The purposes of the review are to summarise the studies on the associations between nutrition during pregnancy and infant feeding practices with later obesity from childhood through adulthood and to identify potential ways for preventing obesity in developing countries. As few studies were identified in developing countries, key studies in developed countries were included in the review. Poor prenatal dietary intakes of energy, protein and micronutrients were shown to be associated with increased risk of adult obesity in offspring. Female offspring seem to be more vulnerable than male offspring when their mothers receive insufficient energy during pregnancy. By influencing birthweight, optimal prenatal nutrition might reduce the risk of obesity in adults. While normal birthweights (2500-3999 g) were associated with higher body mass index (BMI) as adults, they generally were associated with higher fat-free mass and lower fat mass compared with low birthweights (developed countries, increased weight gain during the first 2 years of life was associated with a higher BMI in adulthood. However, recent studies in developing countries showed that higher BMI was more related to greater lean body mass than fat mass. It appears that increased length at 2 years of age was positively associated with height, weight and fat-free mass, and was only weakly associated with fat mass. The protective associations between breastfeeding and obesity may differ in developing countries compared to developed countries because many studies in developed countries used formula feeding as a control. Future research on the relationship between breastfeeding, timely introduction of complementary feeding or rapid weight gain and obesity are warranted in developing countries. The focus of interventions to reduce

  5. Obesity in Infants to Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is childhood obesity? Overweight in Children BMI in Children Is Childhood Obesity an Issue in Your Home? Addressing your Child's Weight at the Doctor Preventing Childhood Obesity: Tips for Parents and Caretakers Obesity in Infants ...

  6. HIF3A DNA Methylation Is Associated with Childhood Obesity and ALT.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuo Wang

    Full Text Available Gene polymorphisms associated so far with body mass index (BMI can explain only 1.18-1.45% of observed variation in BMI. Recent studies suggest that epigenetic modifications, especially DNA methylation, could contribute to explain part of the missing heritability, and two epigenetic genome-wide analysis studies (EWAS have reported that Hypoxia Inducible Factor 3 Alpha Subunit (HIF3A methylation was associated with BMI or BMI change. We therefore assessed whether the HIF3A methylation is associated with obesity and other obesity-related phenotypes in Chinese children. The subjects included 110 severe obese cases aged 7-17y and 110 normal-weight controls matched by age and gender for measurement of blood DNA methylation levels at the HIF3A gene locus using the Sequenom's MassARRAY system. We observed significantly higher methylation levels in obese children than in controls at positions 46801642 and 46801699 in HIF3A gene (P<0.05, and found positive associations between methylation and alanine aminotransferase (ALT levels adjusted by gender, age and BMI at the position 46801699 (r = 0.226, P = 0.007. These results suggest that HIF3A DNA methylation is associated with childhood obesity, and has a BMI-independent association with ALT. The results provide evidence for identifying epigenetic factors of elivated ALT and may be useful for risk assessment and personalized medicine of liver diseases such as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD.

  7. Childhood body-mass index and the risk of coronary heart disease in adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, Jennifer Lyn; Olsen, Lina Wøhlk; Sørensen, Thorkild I A

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The worldwide epidemic of childhood obesity is progressing at an alarming rate. Risk factors for coronary heart disease (CHD) are already identifiable in overweight children. The severity of the long-term effects of excess childhood weight on CHD, however, remains unknown. METHODS: We...

  8. Health and wealth. The late-20th century obesity epidemic in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagorsky, Jay L

    2005-07-01

    Obesity is a rapidly growing public health issue. This paper investigates obesity's relationship to individuals' wealth by analyzing data from a large U.S. longitudinal socio-economic survey. The results show a large negative association between BMI and White female's net worth, a smaller negative association for Black women and White males and no relationship for Black males. Weight changes and dieting also appear associated with wealth changes. Individuals who lose small amounts of weight experience little change in net worth, but those who lose large amounts of weight have a dramatically improved financial position, with Whites showing larger changes than Blacks.

  9. Factors that encourage and discourage policy-making to prevent childhood obesity: Experience in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkow, Lainie; Jones-Smith, Jesse; Walters, Hannah J; O'Hara, Marguerite; Bleich, Sara N

    2016-12-01

    Policy-makers throughout the world seek to address childhood obesity prevention, yet little is known about factors that influence policy-makers' decisions on this topic. From September 2014 to April 2015, we conducted 43 semi-structured interviews about factors that encourage and discourage policy-makers' support for childhood obesity prevention policies. We interviewed policy-makers (n = 12) and two other groups engaged with childhood obesity prevention policies: representatives of non-governmental organizations (n = 24) and academics (n = 7). Factors that encourage policy-makers' support for childhood obesity prevention policies included: positive impact on government finances, an existing evidence base, partnerships with community-based collaborators, and consistency with policy-makers' priorities. Factors that discourage policy-makers' support included the following: perceptions about government's role, food and beverage industry opposition, and policy-makers' beliefs about personal responsibility. As public health practitioners, advocates, and others seek to advance childhood obesity prevention in the U.S. and elsewhere, the factors we identified offer insights into ways to frame proposed policies and strategies to influence policy-makers.

  10. Preschool enrollment is associated with lower odds of childhood obesity among WIC participants in LA County.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koleilat, Maria; Harrison, Gail G; Whaley, Shannon; McGregor, Samar; Jenks, Eloise; Afifi, Abdelmonem

    2012-04-01

    The prevalence of obesity among children in the United States has increased rapidly during the past few decades. Research into social and behavioral determinants of obesity could lead to innovative strategies for prevention. The objective of the present study was to examine the association between childhood obesity and preschool enrollment and number of hours in child care among low-income preschool-aged children who were participants in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC). We conducted a case-control study including 556 3- to 4-year-old children who were either obese (BMI > 95th percentile of reference standard) or normal-weight (BMI 25-75th percentile). The population was largely (96%) Hispanic, an ethnic group that has one of the highest rates of overweight and obesity in adults and children in the US. In multiple logistic regression analysis, controlling for a variety of psychosocial and cognitive home environment variables, key demographics and maternal variables, the odds ratio of being obese was 0.61 for children who attended preschool more than 4 days a week (95% CI: 0.41-0.90). Watching television or videos for an hour or more on a typical day (odds ratio 1.71 (95% CI 1.07-2.75)), and higher maternal BMI (odds ratio 1.08 (95% CI 1.05-1.11)) were independently related to odds of obesity. The impact of preschool attendance and TV viewing are potentially instructive in terms of preventive interventions for children at this age.

  11. The obesity epidemic slows among the middle-aged population in Sweden while the socioeconomic gap widens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernt Lindahl

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obesity prevalence has continuously increased in Northern Sweden as elsewhere. A cohort effect has been shown and an increasing proportion of the middle-aged population is maintaining body weight. Objective: To test the hypothesis that the obesity epidemic continues but at different speeds that are dependent on socioeconomic status. Design: Cross-sectional (103,940 adults and longitudinal (26,872 adults data from the Västerbotten Intervention Program 1990–2007 were included. All adults in Västerbotten County are invited to a health examination at the ages of 40, 50, and 60 years. Body mass index (BMI and socioeconomic status, assessed by residence location, marital status, and education were evaluated. Results: BMI increased in all groups but was greater among men. During 1990–1995 and 2002–2007, mean BMIs were 25.9 and 26.8 among men and 25.2 and 25.9 among women. The trend of increasing BMI slowed around the year 2000 (p<0.001, but this was only observed among the highly educated adults in the most urbanized area. The difference between educational groups increased throughout the study period (men p=0.014, women p=0.002. Longitudinal data for both sexes showed a twofold higher baseline prevalence of obesity among individuals with basic compared to high education and it nearly doubled in all groups during the 10-year follow-up. Low education, living in a rural environment, and living alone were independent predictors of obesity development. The overall cumulative 10-year incidence was 9.4% in men, 9.1% in women, and twofold higher among those with basic and mid-level education who live in rural areas compared to those with high education who live in cities. Conclusion: The trend of increasing obesity has slowed in this middle-aged Northern Sweden population, but this trend shift occurred primarily among those with high education who live in an urban environment. Greater efforts to combat obesogenic environments are needed

  12. The Obesity Epidemic – What Can Be Done?

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-08-03

    This podcast is based on the August, 2010 CDC Vital Signs report which promotes policies and programs in the community and at school and work that make the healthy choice the easy choice to reduce obesity.  Created: 8/3/2010 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 8/3/2010.

  13. Pregnancy Weight Gain and Childhood Body Weight: A Within-Family Comparison

    OpenAIRE

    Ludwig, David S.; Rouse, Heather L.; Janet Currie

    2013-01-01

    Editors' Summary Background Childhood obesity has become a worldwide epidemic. For example, in the United States, the number of obese children has more than doubled in the past 30 years. 7% of American children aged 6–11 years were obese in 1980, compared to nearly 18% in 2010. Because of the rising levels of obesity, the current generation of children may have a shorter life span than their parents for the first time in 200 years. Childhood obesity has both immediate and long-term effects on...

  14. The underlying interactome of childhood obesity: the potential role of sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spruyt, Karen; Gozal, David

    2012-02-01

    Fine-tuning and integration between social rhythms and biological rhythms should be a priority for all, especially for children. As such, the opportunity to sleep should fit the evolving needs for sleep in a child. Unfortunately, children today are highly unlikely to obtain sufficient sleep or live under stable and regular schedules. Poor or dysregulated sleep affects the regulation of homeostatic and hormonal systems underlying somatic and intellectual growth, maturation, and bioenergetics. Therefore, in the prevention and management of childhood obesity, assessments of the “obesogenic” lifestyle, such as dietary and physical activity patterns, need to be coupled with accurate evaluation of the quality and quantity of sleep and with the potential co-existence of sleep-disordered breathing or other sleep disorders. Incorporation of sleep as an integral component of many childhood research studies on obesity should be done a priori rather than as an afterthought. Although parents and health professionals have meticulously delineated,observed, and quantified normal patterns of activities such as eating or playing, the absence of reliable sleep health data in children is all the more puzzling considering that young children engage in sleeping activities more than in any other activity during the 24-hour cycle. Therefore, the most forgotten, overlooked, or even actively ignored behavior of this century is undoubtedly childhood sleep. Trends aiming to reduce sleep in children have emerged, and regrettably continue to gain momentum. In parallel with such undesirable consequences, leading to the blatant disregard of sleep as a vital function rather than a commodity, a reciprocal increase in obesity rates has emerged. The mechanistic links between sleep and metabolism are now emerging, and should prompt incorporation of measures aiming to align sleep with any other antiobesity campaign. To paraphrase a well-known dictum “Somni sano in corpore sano” (healthy sleep

  15. Has blood pressure increased in children in response to the obesity epidemic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiolero, Arnaud; Bovet, Pascal; Paradis, Gilles; Paccaud, Fred

    2007-03-01

    The associations between elevated blood pressure and overweight, on one hand, and the increasing prevalence over time of pediatric overweight, on the other hand, suggest that the prevalence of elevated blood pressure could have increased in children over the last few decades. In this article we review the epidemiologic evidence available on the prevalence of elevated blood pressure in children and trends over time. On the basis of the few large population-based surveys available, the prevalence of elevated blood pressure is fairly high in several populations, whereas there is little direct evidence that blood pressure has increased during the past few decades despite the concomitant epidemic of pediatric overweight. However, a definite conclusion cannot be drawn yet because of the paucity of epidemiologic studies that have assessed blood pressure trends in the same populations and the lack of standardized methods used for the measurement of blood pressure and the definition of elevated blood pressure in children. Additional studies should examine if favorable secular trends in other determinants of blood pressure (eg, dietary factors, birth weight, etc) may have attenuated the apparently limited impact of the epidemic of overweight on blood pressure in children.

  16. Factors associated with obesity in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwin Kumar

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Childhood obesity is a major public health crisis nationally and internationally. The prevalence of childhood obesity has increased over few years. It is caused by imbalance between calorie intake and calories utilized. One or more factors (genetic, behavioral, and environmental cause obesity in children. Physical, psychological, and social health problems are caused due to childhood obesity. Hence, effective intervention strategies are being used to prevent and control obesity in children. The purpose of this paper is to address various factors influencing childhood obesity, a variety of interventions and governmental actions addressing obesity and the challenges ahead for managing this epidemic. In order to collect materials for this review a detailed search of CINAHL, MEDLINE, ERIC, Academic Search Premier databases was carried out for the time period 1999 2011. Some of the interventions used were family based, school based, community based, play based, and hospital based. The effective school based interventions were seen targeting physical activity along with healthy diet education. The major challenges faced by these intervention programs are financial, along with stigmatization of obese children. Governments along with other health care organizations are taking effective actions like policy changing and environmentally safe interventions for children to improve physical activity. Childhood obesity can be tackled at the population level by education, prevention and sustainable interventions related to healthy nutrition practices and physical activity promotion.

  17. Factors associated with obesity in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwin Kumar

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Childhood obesity is a major public health crisis nationally and internationally. The prevalence of childhood obesity has increased over few years. It is caused by imbalance between calorie intake and calories utilized. One or more factors (genetic, behavioral, and environmental cause obesity in children. Physical, psychological, and social health problems are caused due to childhood obesity. Hence, effective intervention strategies are being used to prevent and control obesity in children. The purpose of this paper is to address various factors influencing childhood obesity, a variety of interventions and governmental actions addressing obesity and the challenges ahead for managing this epidemic. In order to collect materials for this review a detailed search of CINAHL, MEDLINE, ERIC, Academic Search Premier databases was carried out for the time period 1999‑2011. Some of the interventions used were family based, school based, community based, play based, and hospital based. The effective school‑based interventions were seen targeting physical activity along with healthy diet education. The major challenges faced by these intervention programs are financial, along with stigmatization of obese children. Governments along with other health care organizations are taking effective actions like policy changing and environmentally safe interventions for children to improve physical activity. Childhood obesity can be tackled at the population level by education, prevention and sustainable interventions related to healthy nutrition practices and physical activity promotion.

  18. The types of food introduced during complementary feeding and risk of childhood obesity: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, J; Langley-Evans, S C

    2013-04-01

    The determinants of childhood overweight and obesity are complex, but infant feeding and the early diet are important contributing factors. The complementary feeding period in particular, is a time during which children are nutritionally vulnerable, and a time where life-long eating habits may be established. We conducted a systematic review of the literature that investigated the relationship between the types of food consumed by infants during the complementary feeding period and overweight or obesity during childhood. Electronic databases were searched from inception until June 2012 using specified keywords. Following the application of strict inclusion/exclusion criteria, 10 studies were identified and reviewed by two independent reviewers. Data were extracted and aspects of quality were assessed using an adapted Newcastle-Ottawa scale. Studies were categorised into three groups: macronutrient intake, food type/group and adherence to dietary guidelines. Some association was found between high protein intakes at 2-12 months of age and higher body mass index (BMI) or body fatness in childhood, but was not the case in all studies. Higher energy intake during complementary feeding was associated with higher BMI in childhood. Adherence to dietary guidelines during weaning was associated with a higher lean mass, but consuming specific foods or food groups made no difference to children's BMI. We concluded that high intakes of energy and protein, particularly dairy protein, in infancy could be associated with an increase in BMI and body fatness, but further research is needed to establish the nature of the relationship. Adherence to dietary guidelines during weaning is recommended.

  19. The genetic and environmental influences on childhood obesity: a systematic review of twin and adoption studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silventoinen, K; Rokholm, B; Kaprio, J;

    2010-01-01

    of obesity. Except the two twin studies from the Korean population, all studies represented Caucasian populations. In a meta-analysis of these twin studies, we found that genetic factors had a strong effect on the variation of body mass index (BMI) at all ages. The common environmental factors showed...... and their biological offspring, further supporting the importance of genetic factors. In the future, more studies implementing genetic and environmental measures into twin models are needed as they allow estimation of the proportion of total genetic variation explained by candidate genes and analyses of gene......In this systematic review, we aimed to collect together all previous twin and adoption studies on childhood and adolescent obesity up to the age of 18 years. Using several sources, we identified nine twin and five adoption studies; all of these studies had used relative weight as an indicator...

  20. [Preliminary results of a therapeutic program for childhood obesity in primary health care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temboury Molina, M C; Sacristán Martín, A; San Frutos Fernández, M A; Rodríguez Alfaro, F; Llorente González, R

    1993-05-01

    The high prevalence of childhood obesity in our society, its adverse consequences in the psychosocial development of the child, together with its risk of persistence into adulthood, prompted us to carry out this treatment program in our Primary Care Unit. It is based fundamentally on four aspects: diet, physical exercise, psychological and family support. Thirty children, between 4 and 14 years of age, were controlled for 11 months. These children's personal and family characteristics, their habits and psychological aspects were described. An average reduction of the IMC of 2.50 was obtained. The best results were obtained in children with two or more siblings, with a good adherence to the diet and with adequate family support. Sex, obesity of other family members, initial age, previous habits, etc., were not found to be influential. The importance of prevention and family collaboration is emphasized.

  1. A Novel tool for Health Literacy: Using Comic Books to Combat Childhood Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarver, Talicia; Woodson, Deidra; Fechter, Nick; Vanchiere, John; Olmstadt, Willam; Tudor, Charlie

    2016-01-01

    Childhood obesity remains a serious problem that requires health literacy projects to engage both parents and children in making healthy choices. This paper describes an award-funded project designed by LSU Health Shreveport (LSUHS) faculty from the Health Sciences Library and the Department of Pediatrics who created a comic book to help children and their parents learn practical ways children can make healthier lifestyle choices. LSUHS also collaborated with LSU-Shreveport to recruit a student artist, who illustrated the comic and designed promotional items used to promote the print and online versions of the book throughout the community.

  2. Associations of PON1 and genetic ancestry with obesity in early childhood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Huen

    Full Text Available Obesity in children has become an epidemic in the U.S. and is particularly prominent in minority populations such as Mexican-Americans. In addition to physical activity and diet, genetics also plays a role in obesity etiology. A few studies in adults and adolescents suggest a link between obesity and paraoxonase 1 (PON1, a multifunctional enzyme that can metabolize organophosphate pesticides and also has antioxidant properties. We determined PON1192 genotype and arylesterase levels (ARYase, measure of PON1 enzyme quantity, to characterize the relationship between PON1 and obesity in young Mexican-American children (n = 373 living in an agricultural community in California. Since PON1 polymorphisms and obesity both vary between ethnic groups, we estimated proportional genetic ancestry using 106 ancestral informative markers (AIMs. Among children, PON1192 allele frequencies were 0.5 for both alleles, and the prevalence of obesity was high (15% and 33% at ages two and five, respectively. The average proportion of European, African, and Native American ancestry was 0.40, 0.09, and 0.51, yet there was wide inter-individual variation. We found a significantly higher odds of obesity (9.3 and 2.5- fold in PON1192QQ children compared to PON1192RR children at ages two and five, respectively. Similar relationships were seen with BMI Z-scores at age two and waist circumference at age five. After adjusting for genetic ancestry in models of PON1 and BMI Z-score, effect estimates for PON1192 genotype changed 15% and 9% among two and five year old children, respectively, providing evidence of genetic confounding by population stratification. However even after adjustment for genetic ancestry, the trend of increased BMI Z-scores with increased number of PON1192 Q alleles remained. Our findings suggest that PON1 may play a role in obesity independent of genetic ancestry and that studies of PON1 and health outcomes, especially in admixed populations, should

  3. The Contribution of Expanding Portion Sizes to the US Obesity Epidemic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Lisa R.; Nestle, Marion

    2002-01-01

    Objectives. Because larger food portions could be contributing to the increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity, this study was designed to weigh samples of marketplace foods, identify historical changes in the sizes of those foods, and compare current portions with federal standards. Methods. We obtained information about current portions from manufacturers or from direct weighing; we obtained information about past portions from manufacturers or contemporary publications. Results. Marketplace food portions have increased in size and now exceed federal standards. Portion sizes began to grow in the 1970s, rose sharply in the 1980s, and have continued in parallel with increasing body weights. Conclusions. Because energy content increases with portion size, educational and other public health efforts to address obesity should focus on the need for people to consume smaller portions. PMID:11818300

  4. 150 years of Sigmund Freud: What would Freud have said about the obesity epidemic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, S R; Wong, M-L; Licinio, J

    2006-12-01

    The 150th birthday of Sigmund Freud has triggered widespread interest and media coverage on his unique contribution and impact on society. Recent evidence from neuroscience and advanced imaging technology has provided support for some of his major concepts including the unconscious and the key role of early life events. In this perspective, we attempt to write on his behalf an updated version of a Freudian way of thinking focused on the current high rates of obesity and depression.

  5. Obesity Epidemics: The Potential Role of Retailing Sector in Promoting Fruit and Vegetable Consumption

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    After a deep review of the main economic studies and applications about the emerging problem of obesity, this paper focuses on a particular aspect of the issue: the improvement of FRUIT AND VEGETABLE purchasing in retailing sector. First of all it has been analyzed the actual presence of strategies aimed at improving FRUIT AND VEGETABLE consumption in the main retailing companies operating in Italy. Then the study investigates the role of price in consumers’ purchasing choices. High price ela...

  6. Obesity epidemic: the role of retailing sector in promoting fruit and vegetable consumption

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    After a deep review of the main economic studies and applications about the emerging problem of obesity, this paper focuses on a particular aspect of the issue: the improvement of fruit and vegetable purchasing in retailing sector. First of all it has been analyzed the actual presence of strategies aimed at improving fruit and vegetable consumption in the main retailing companies operating in Italy. Then the study investigates the role of price in consumers’ purchasing choices. High price ela...

  7. Increasing rates of obesity among HIV-infected persons during the HIV epidemic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Crum-Cianflone

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The prevalence and factors associated with overweight/obesity among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-infected persons are unknown. METHODS: We evaluated prospective data from a U.S. Military HIV Natural History Study (1985-2004 consisting of early diagnosed patients. Statistics included multivariate linear regression and longitudinal linear mixed effects models. RESULTS: Of 1682 patients, 2% were underweight, 37% were overweight, and 9% were obese at HIV diagnosis. Multivariate predictors of a higher body mass index (BMI at diagnosis included more recent year of HIV diagnosis, older age, African American race, and earlier HIV stage (all p<0.05. The majority of patients (62% gained weight during HIV infection. Multivariate factors associated with a greater increase in BMI during HIV infection included more recent year of diagnosis, lower BMI at diagnosis, higher CD4 count, lower HIV RNA level, lack of AIDS diagnosis, and longer HIV duration (all p<0.05. Nucleoside agents were associated with less weight gain; other drug classes had no significant impact on weight change in the HAART era. CONCLUSIONS: HIV-infected patients are increasingly overweight/obese at diagnosis and during HIV infection. Weight gain appears to reflect improved health status and mirror trends in the general population. Weight management programs may be important components of HIV care.

  8. Effect of childhood obesity prevention programmes on blood lipids: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, L; Wu, Y; Cheskin, L J; Wilson, R F; Wang, Y

    2014-12-01

    We aimed to assess the effects of childhood obesity prevention programmes on blood lipids in high-income countries. We searched MEDLINE®, Embase, PsychInfo, CINAHL®, clinicaltrials.gov, and the Cochrane Library up to 22 April 2013 for relevant randomized controlled trials, quasi-experimental studies and natural experiments published in English. Studies were included if they implemented diet and/or physical activity intervention(s) with ≥1 year follow-up (or ≥6 months for school-based intervention studies) in 2-18-year-olds, and were excluded if they targeted only overweight/obese children, or those with a pre-existing medical condition. Seventeen studies were finally included. For total cholesterol, the pooled intervention effect was -0.97 mg dL(-1) [95% confidence interval (CI): -3.26, 1.32; P = 0.408]; for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), -6.06 mg dL(-1) (95% CI: -11.09, -1.02; P = 0.018); for high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), 1.87 mg dL(-1) (95% CI: 0.39, 3.34; P = 0.013); and for triglycerides, -1.95 mg dL(-1) (95% CI: -4.94, 1.04; P = 0.202). Most interventions (70%) showed similar significant or no effects on adiposity- and lipids outcomes: 15% interventions improved both adiposity- and lipids outcomes; 55% had no significant effects on either. Childhood obesity prevention programmes had a significant desirable effect on LDL-C and HDL-C. Two-thirds of interventions showed similar significant or no effects in adiposity- and lipids outcomes. Assessing lipids outcomes provide additional useful information on obesity prevention programme benefits.

  9. Fighting childhood obesity through performance-based regulation of the food industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugarman, Stephen D; Sandman, Nirit

    2007-04-01

    That childhood obesity is an alarming public health problem is clear and widely appreciated. What is altogether unclear is what our society should do about it. Some people think the solution lies in using tort law to sue McDonald's, Coca-Cola, and other corporations. We reject that notion. Others believe that government should order specific changes in the behavior of food companies and school officials--and yet, there is little reason for confidence that these "command and control" strategies will make a difference. Instead, we propose "performance-based regulation" of the food industry. This is analogous to the approach our country is now taking with respect to elementary and secondary education (most prominently in the No Child Left Behind legislation). Schools are not told how to achieve better educational results, but better outcomes are demanded of them. This strategy has also been used in the environmental context to reduce harmful power plant emissions, and it has been briefly proposed as a way of regulating cigarette companies. In this Article, we propose that large firms selling food and drink that is high in sugar or fat will be assigned the responsibility of reducing obesity rates in a specific pool of children. A firm's share of the overall responsibility will be based on its share of the "bad' food market, and the children assigned to it will be organized by geographically proximate schools where obesity rates are currently above the plan's nationwide target rate of 8 percent (the actual childhood obesity rate today is approximately 16 percent). Firms that fail to achieve their goals will be subject to serious financial penalties.

  10. Design of a Digital-Based, Multicomponent Nutrition Guidance System for Prevention of Early Childhood Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keriann H. Uesugi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Interventions targeting parenting focused modifiable factors to prevent obesity and promote healthy growth in the first 1000 days of life are needed. Scale-up of interventions to global populations is necessary to reverse trends in weight status among infants and toddlers, and large scale dissemination will require understanding of effective strategies. Utilizing nutrition education theories, this paper describes the design of a digital-based nutrition guidance system targeted to first-time mothers to prevent obesity during the first two years. The multicomponent system consists of scientifically substantiated content, tools, and telephone-based professional support delivered in an anticipatory and sequential manner via the internet, email, and text messages, focusing on educational modules addressing the modifiable factors associated with childhood obesity. Digital delivery formats leverage consumer media trends and provide the opportunity for scale-up, unavailable to previous interventions reliant on resource heavy clinic and home-based counseling. Designed initially for use in the United States, this system’s core features are applicable to all contexts and constitute an approach fostering healthy growth, not just obesity prevention. The multicomponent features, combined with a global concern for optimal growth and positive trends in mobile internet use, represent this system’s future potential to affect change in nutrition practice in developing countries.

  11. Using Metabolomic Profiles as Biomarkers for Insulin Resistance in Childhood Obesity: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A growing body of evidence has shown the intimate relationship between metabolomic profiles and insulin resistance (IR in obese adults, while little is known about childhood obesity. In this review, we searched available papers addressing metabolomic profiles and IR in obese children from inception to February 2016 on MEDLINE, Web of Science, the Cochrane Library, ClinicalTrials.gov, and EMASE. HOMA-IR was applied as surrogate markers of IR and related metabolic disorders at both baseline and follow-up. To minimize selection bias, two investigators independently completed this work. After critical selection, 10 studies (including 2,673 participants were eligible and evaluated by using QUADOMICS for quality assessment. Six of the 10 studies were classified as “high quality.” Then we generated all the metabolites identified in each study and found amino acid metabolism and lipid metabolism were the main affected metabolic pathways in obese children. Among identified metabolites, branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs, aromatic amino acids (AAAs, and acylcarnitines were reported to be associated with IR as biomarkers most frequently. Additionally, BCAAs and tyrosine seemed to be relevant to future metabolic risk in the long-term follow-up cohorts, emphasizing the importance of early diagnosis and prevention strategy. Because of limited scale and design heterogeneity of existing studies, future studies might focus on validating above findings in more large-scale and longitudinal studies with elaborate design.

  12. Design of a Digital-Based, Multicomponent Nutrition Guidance System for Prevention of Early Childhood Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Maureen M.; Saavedra, Jose M.

    2016-01-01

    Interventions targeting parenting focused modifiable factors to prevent obesity and promote healthy growth in the first 1000 days of life are needed. Scale-up of interventions to global populations is necessary to reverse trends in weight status among infants and toddlers, and large scale dissemination will require understanding of effective strategies. Utilizing nutrition education theories, this paper describes the design of a digital-based nutrition guidance system targeted to first-time mothers to prevent obesity during the first two years. The multicomponent system consists of scientifically substantiated content, tools, and telephone-based professional support delivered in an anticipatory and sequential manner via the internet, email, and text messages, focusing on educational modules addressing the modifiable factors associated with childhood obesity. Digital delivery formats leverage consumer media trends and provide the opportunity for scale-up, unavailable to previous interventions reliant on resource heavy clinic and home-based counseling. Designed initially for use in the United States, this system's core features are applicable to all contexts and constitute an approach fostering healthy growth, not just obesity prevention. The multicomponent features, combined with a global concern for optimal growth and positive trends in mobile internet use, represent this system's future potential to affect change in nutrition practice in developing countries. PMID:27635257

  13. Obesity and craniopharyngioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruzzi Patrizia

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract An epidemic of pediatric obesity has occurred across the world in recent years. There are subgroups within the population at high-risk of becoming obese and especially of having experience of precocious cardiovascular and metabolic co-morbidities of obesity. One of these subgroups comprises patients treated for childhood cancers and namely survivors of craniopharyngioma. The high incidence of obesity in this group makes these patients an important disease model to better understand the metabolic disturbances and the mechanisms of weight gain among cancer survivors. The hypothalamic-pituitary axis damage secondary to cancer therapies or to primary tumor location affect long-term outcomes. Nevertheless, the aetiology of obesity in craniopharyngioma is not yet fully understood. The present review has the aim of summarizing the published data and examining the most accepted mechanisms and main predisposing factors related to weight gain in this particular population.

  14. Childhood Obesity Is a Chronic Disease Demanding Specific Health Care - a Position Statement from the Childhood Obesity Task Force (COTF of the European Association for the Study of Obesity (EASO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie J. Farpour-Lambert

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Childhood obesity is one of the greatest health challenges of the 21st century. The EASO COTF is convinced that classifying obesity as a chronic disease in children and adolescents is a crucial step for increasing individual and societal awareness, and for improving early diagnosis and intervention. Such a classification will enhance the development of novel preventive and treatment approaches, health care policies and systems, and the education of healthcare workers. The management of obesity prior to the appearance of co-morbidities may prevent their escalation into significant medical and psychosocial problems, and reduce their economic and societal impact. Childhood is a unique window of opportunity to influence lifetime effects on health, quality of life, prevention of non-communicable chronic diseases and disabilities. The Convention on the Rights of the Child by UNICEF states that parties shall strive to ensure that no child is deprived of his or her right of access to health care services. The EASO COTF is aiming to address these issues via educational activities for health care workers, identification of research agendas, and the promotion of collaborations among clinicians, researchers, health institutions, organizations and states across Europe.

  15. Weight history from birth through childhood and youth in relation to adult lung function, in Danish juvenile obese and non-obese men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bua, J; Prescott, E; Schack-Nielsen, L

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the associations of birth weight, body mass index (BMI) during childhood and youth, and current BMI with adult lung function. DESIGN: Population-based longitudinal study of juvenile obese and non-obese men, who were identified at draft board examination (age range: 19-27 y......) and who participated in a follow-up examination in 1981-1983 (age range: 25-48 y). Birth weight, childhood weight and height measurements from 7 to 13 y of age were obtained from school health records. Current BMI and lung function were assessed at follow-up. SETTING: Copenhagen and adjacent regions....... RESULTS: After adjusting for current BMI, smoking and education, birth weight was positively related to FEV(1), although only with borderline statistical significance. BMI at age 7 y was positively associated with both FEV(1) and FVC, whereas BMI at later ages in childhood and in youth was not associated...

  16. Evaluation of the overweight/obese child--practical tips for the primary health care provider: recommendations from the Childhood Obesity Task Force of the European Association for the Study of Obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, Jennifer L; Farpour-Lambert, Nathalie J; Nowicka, Paulina

    2010-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity among children and adolescents is on the rise. The majority of overweight or obese children are treated by primary health care providers including paediatricians, family practitioners, dieticians, nurses, and school health services - and not by specialists. The majority...... of obese children have no underlying medical disorder causing their obesity yet a significant proportion might suffer from obesity-related co-morbidities. This text is aimed at providing simple and practical tools for the identification and management of children with or at risk of overweight and obesity...... in the primary care setting. The tips and tools provided are based on data from the recent body of work that has been published in this field, official statements of several scientific societies along with expert opinion provided by the members of the Childhood Obesity Task Force (COTF) of the European...

  17. Evaluation of the overweight/obese child--practical tips for the primary health care provider: recommendations from the Childhood Obesity Task Force of the European Association for the Study of Obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, Jennifer L; Farpour-Lambert, Nathalie J; Nowicka, Paulina

    2010-01-01

    of obese children have no underlying medical disorder causing their obesity yet a significant proportion might suffer from obesity-related co-morbidities. This text is aimed at providing simple and practical tools for the identification and management of children with or at risk of overweight and obesity...... in the primary care setting. The tips and tools provided are based on data from the recent body of work that has been published in this field, official statements of several scientific societies along with expert opinion provided by the members of the Childhood Obesity Task Force (COTF) of the European......The prevalence of obesity among children and adolescents is on the rise. The majority of overweight or obese children are treated by primary health care providers including paediatricians, family practitioners, dieticians, nurses, and school health services - and not by specialists. The majority...

  18. Functional and clinical relevance of novel and known PCSK1 variants for childhood obesity and glucose metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Löffler

    2017-03-01

    Conclusions: We identified and functionally characterized two rare novel PCSK1 variants of which c.1095 + 1G > A caused complete loss of protein function. In addition to confirming rs6232 and rs6234 in PCSK1 as polygenic risk variants for childhood obesity, we describe an association of rs725522 with insulin metabolism. Our results support the contribution of PCSK1 variants to obesity predisposition in children.

  19. The Advance of Childhood Obesity%儿童肥胖症的相关研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张亚茹(综述); 杨琍琦(审校)

    2015-01-01

    The cause of obesity is very complex,which is in addition to dietary factors,childhood o-besity is also working with a variety of factors,such as genetic factors,intrauterine growth,etc.As the rising incidence of obesity in children and younger age , the metabolic syndrome and other high inci-dences caused by it has seriously endanger human's physical and mental health.Therefore,study of the causes of childhood obesity deeply,clear the dangers of childhood obesity,prevent and control children's obesity scientificly is very important.%肥胖的成因十分复杂,目前认为除饮食因素外,儿童肥胖还与遗传因素、宫内生长发育等多种因素有关。随着儿童肥胖发病率的持续上升和不断的低龄化,其所引起的心血管疾病、糖尿病、代谢综合征和其他高发病已严重地危及人类的身心健康。因此,深入研究儿童肥胖的病因,明确儿童肥胖的危害,科学的预防和控制儿童肥胖显得尤为重要。

  20. Family-Based Behavioral Treatment for Childhood Obesity: Caretaker-Reported Barriers and Facilitators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staiano, Amanda E.; Marker, Arwen M.; Comeaux, James; Frelier, Johannah M.; Hsia, Daniel S.; Broyles, Stephanie T.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Family-based behavioral treatments are effective ways to promote children's weight management through healthy eating and exercise. However, programs typically have high attrition and low attendance. The aim of this study was to obtain in-depth caregiver input on barriers and facilitators to participate in a family-based, behavioral childhood obesity treatment program. Methods: Three focus groups were facilitated among 21 parents/guardians at 2 school-based health centers and 1 federally qualified health center. Audio recordings were transcribed and uploaded into NVivo software to assist in thematic coding. Results: Focus group participants were females aged 18-57 years, of whom 71% were black, and 81% were not married. Participants listed numerous barriers: lack of time, frustration from prior unsuccessful weight-loss attempts, and the perceived cost of healthy foods and exercise options. Facilitators included a convenient location, a supportive weight-loss program leader, and rewards for the child's progress. Conclusion: Future interventions should incorporate caregivers' perspectives to develop sustainable, feasible strategies for the treatment of childhood obesity. PMID:28331454

  1. New directions in childhood obesity research: how a comprehensive biorepository will allow better prediction of outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woo Jessica G

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood obesity is associated with the early development of diseases such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Unfortunately, to date, traditional methods of research have failed to identify effective prevention and treatment strategies, and large numbers of children and adolescents continue to be at high risk of developing weight-related disease. Aim To establish a unique 'biorepository' of data and biological samples from overweight and obese children, in order to investigate the complex 'gene × environment' interactions that govern disease risk. Methods The 'Childhood Overweight BioRepository of Australia' collects baseline environmental, clinical and anthropometric data, alongside storage of blood samples for genetic, metabolic and hormonal profiles. Opportunities for longitudinal data collection have also been incorporated into the study design. National and international harmonisation of data and sample collection will achieve required statistical power. Results Ethical approval in the parent site has been obtained and early data indicate a high response rate among eligible participants (71% with a high level of compliance for comprehensive data collection (range 56% to 97% for individual study components. Multi-site ethical approval is now underway. Conclusions In time, it is anticipated that this comprehensive approach to data collection will allow early identification of individuals most susceptible to disease, as well as facilitating refinement of prevention and treatment programs.

  2. Predicting childhood obesity prevention behaviors using social cognitive theory: children in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murnan, Judy; Sharma, Manoj; Lin, Danhua

    Four commonly suggested public health strategies to combat childhood obesity are limiting television viewing, encouraging daily physical activity, increasing fruit and vegetable intake, and increasing water consumption. This study examined the extent to which selected social cognitive theory constructs can predict these four behaviors in upper elementary Chinese children. A 55-item valid and reliable scale was administered to 282 fifth-graders. Minutes of physical activity was predicted by self-efficacy to exercise and number of times taught at school (R2 = 0.198). Hours of TV watching was predicted by self-efficacy of watching less than two hours of TV (R2 = 0.155). Glasses of water consumed was predicted by self-efficacy for drinking water, gender, and number of times taught about physical activity at school (R2 = 0.100). Servings of fruits and vegetables consumed was predicted by self-efficacy of eating fruits and vegetables (R2 = 0.197). Social cognitive theory offers a useful framework for designing primary prevention interventions to reduce childhood obesity.

  3. Dose-response associations between maternal smoking during pregnancy and subsequent childhood obesity: effect modification by maternal race/ethnicity in a low-income US cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Andrea J; Cogswell, Mary E; Li, Ruowei

    2008-11-01

    Studies suggest that children exposed to cigarette smoke in utero are at risk of becoming obese. Few researchers have evaluated the dose-response association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and childhood obesity or whether this association varies by maternal race/ethnicity. The authors obtained retrospective cohort data by linking records from the Pregnancy Nutrition Surveillance System and the Pediatric Nutrition Surveillance System on 155,411 low-income children born during 1995-2001 in 9 US states and 2 tribal nations. The authors examined maternal smoking status, duration of smoking, quantity of smoking, and both duration and quantity combined. Childhood obesity was based on a body mass index greater than or equal to the 95th percentile for sex and age, assessed at age 2-4 years. Maternal race/ethnicity modified the association between smoking during pregnancy and childhood obesity. Among non-Hispanic White mothers, both duration and quantity of smoking were positively associated with childhood obesity in a dose-response manner. Among non-Hispanic Black mothers, only heavy smoking was positively associated with childhood obesity. Among Hispanics, American Indians/Alaska Natives, and Asians/Pacific Islanders, smoking was not associated with childhood obesity. The inconsistent association between smoking during pregnancy and childhood obesity across race/ethnicity categories merits further investigation into potential explanations for this variation, which may include confounding, reporting bias, or unexplored biologic mechanisms.

  4. Zoning for health: the obesity epidemic and opportunities for local policy intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Susan E; Florax, Raymond J G M

    2010-06-01

    Several states and local communities have started to experiment with policy initiatives that affect the built-up environment in an attempt to decrease the prevalence of obesity. The focus of these policy measures has generally been to eliminate geographical disparities in access to food. Recent policy proposals include the use of zoning laws to create a healthier food environment by providing incentives for chain grocers to open stores in disadvantaged, underserved areas and providing incentives for existing food retailers to offer healthier products. The economic feasibility of implementing these types of interventions depends on the policymaker's ability to identify communities most at need. We use computer simulations, based on introducing new chain grocers in targeted areas, to map the effects on BMI of this modification in the food environment. In this study, we show that targeting economically disadvantaged communities with high prevalence of obesity-related diseases can provide an effective means of identifying areas where policy implementation will be most beneficial for improvements in health outcomes such as BMI.

  5. Common variants in LEPR, IL6, AMD1, and NAMPT do not associate with risk of juvenile and childhood obesity in Danes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hollensted, Mette; Ahluwalia, Tarun Veer Singh; Have, Christian Theil;

    2015-01-01

    with obesity and related traits in Indian children. The current study aimed to examine the effect of these variants on risk of childhood/juvenile onset obesity and on obesity-related quantitative traits in two Danish cohorts. METHODS: Genotype information was obtained for 1461 young Caucasian men from...... the Genetics of Overweight Young Adults (GOYA) study (overweight/obese: 739 and normal weight: 722) and the Danish Childhood Obesity Biobank (TDCOB; overweight/obese: 1022 and normal weight: 650). Overweight/obesity was defined as having a body mass index (BMI) ≥25 kg/m(2); among children and youths, this cut...... previously found to associate among Indian children did not associate with risk of obesity or obesity-related quantitative measures among Caucasian children and juvenile men from Denmark....

  6. Small for Gestational Age and Higher Birth Weight Predict Childhood Obesity in Preterm Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaskins, Ronnesia B.; LaGasse, Linda L.; Liu, Jing; Shankaran, Seetha; Lester, Barry M.; Bada, Henrietta S.; Bauer, Charles R.; Das, Abhik; Higgins, Rosemary D.; Roberts, Mary

    2010-01-01

    We sought to determine the association between small for gestational age (SGA), birth weight, and childhood obesity within preterm polysubstance exposed children. We sampled 312 preterm children with 11-year body mass index (BMI; age- and sex-specific) data from the Maternal Lifestyle Study (51% girls, 21.5% SGA, 46% prenatal cocaine, and 55% tobacco exposed). Multinomial regression analyzed the association between 11-year obesity (OBE) and overweight (OW) and SGA, birth weight, first-year growth velocity, diet, and physical activity variables. Overall, 24% were OBE (BMI for age ≥95th percentile) and 16.7% were OW (BMI ≥85th and <95th percentiles). In adjusted analyses, SGA was associated with OW (odds ratio [OR]=3.4, confidence interval [CI] 1.5 to 7.5). Higher birth weight was associated with OBE (OR = 1.8, CI 1.3 to 2.4) and OW (OR=1.4, CI 1.1 to 2.0). Growth velocity was associated with OBE (OR=2.7, CI 1.8 to 4.0) and OW (OR=1.6, CI 1.1 to 2.4). Low exercise was associated with OBE (OR=2.1, CI 1.0 to 4.4) and OW (OR=2.1, CI 1.0 to 4.5). There was no effect of substance exposure on obesity outcomes. Many (41%) of these high-risk preterm 11-year-olds were obese/overweight. Multiple growth-related processes may be involved in obesity risk for preterm children, including fetal programming as indicated by the SGA effect. PMID:20408111

  7. Modifying the food environment for childhood obesity prevention: challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penney, Tarra L; Almiron-Roig, Eva; Shearer, Cindy; McIsaac, Jessie-Lee; Kirk, Sara F L

    2014-05-01

    The prevention of childhood obesity is a global priority. However, a range of complex social and environmental influences is implicated in the development of obesity and chronic disease that goes beyond the notion of individual choice. A population-level approach recognises the importance of access to and availability of healthy foods outside the home. These external food environments, in restaurants, supermarkets, and in school, or recreation and sports settings, are often characterised by energy dense, nutrient-poor food items that do not reflect the current nutritional guidelines for health. In addition, our understanding of these broader influences on nutritional intake is still limited. Particularly, lacking is a clear understanding of what constitutes the food environment, as well as robust measures of components of the food environment across different contexts. Therefore, this review summarises the literature on food environments of relevance to childhood obesity prevention, with a focus on places where children live, learn and play. Specifically, the paper highlights the approaches and challenges related to defining and measuring the food environment, discusses the aspects of the food environment unique to children and reports on environmental characteristics that are being modified within community, school and recreational settings. Results of the review show the need for a continued focus on understanding the intersection between individual behaviour and external factors; improved instrument development, especially regarding validity and reliability; clearer reported methodology including protocols for instrument use and data management; and considering novel study design approaches that are targeted at measuring the relationship between the individual and their food environment.

  8. [Evaluation of an education intervention for childhood obesity prevention in basic schools in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobos Fernández, Luz Lorena; Leyton Dinamarca, Bárbara; Kain Bercovich, Juliana; Vio del Río, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate a comprehensive intervention in nutrition education and physical activity to prevent childhood obesity in primary school children of low socioeconomic status in Macul county in Chile, with a two year follow-up (2008 and 2009) of the children. The intervention consisted in teacher nutrition training in healthy eating and the implementation of educational material based on Chilean dietary guidelines. In addition, there was an increase in physical education classes to 3-4 hours per week and physical education teachers were recruited for that purpose. Weight, height and six minutes walk test (6MWT) were measured and body mass index (BMI), BMI Z score, prevalence of normal, overweight and obese children were calculated with WHO 2007reference. Changes between baseline and BMI Z in each period and 6MWT/height, and changes in nutrition knowledge through questionnaires were measured. There was no significant difference in BMI Z score between the initial and final periods and in the evolution of the nutritional status of children. Nutrition knowledge improved significantly between the two measurements. There was a significant increase in 6MWT/height (10 meters between baseline and follow-up, p < 0.001). We conclude that although there was an improvement in nutrition knowledge and physical fitness of children, there was a stabilization of BMI Z score in the period of the study. New educational interventions are required according to the reality of each community to obtain a positive impact to prevent childhood obesity in primary schools.

  9. Economic Disruption and Childhood Obesity: Distraction, Disconnection, Displacement of Children's Health, and a Need for Social Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balog, Joseph E.

    2015-01-01

    Using and adopting Simon Szreter's framework on how economic growth had a deleterious effect on children's health during the Industrial Revolution, this article presents a parallel argument that economic growth, in modern times, also has disrupted the lives of our children expressed by increasing rates of childhood obesity. A comprehensive…

  10. OB CITY-Definition of a Family-Based Intervention for Childhood Obesity Supported by Information and Communication Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ruofei; Cancela, Jorge; Arredondo Waldmeyer, Maria Teresa; Cea, Gloria; Vlachopapadopoulou, Elpis-Athina; Fotiadis, Dimitrios I; Fico, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Childhood obesity is becoming one of the 21st century's most important public health problems. Nowadays, the main treatment of childhood obesity is behavior intervention that aims at improve children's lifestyle to arrest the disease. Information and communication technologies (ICTs) have not been widely employed in this intervention, and most of existing ICTs systems are not having a long-term effect. The purpose of this paper is to define a system to support family-based intervention through a state-of-the-art analysis of family-based interventions and related technological solutions first, and then using the analytic hierarchy process to derive a childhood obesity family-based behavior intervention model, and finally to provide a prototype of a system called OB CITY. The system makes use of applied behavior analysis, affective computing technologies, as well as serious game and gamification techniques, to offer long term services in all care dimensions of the family-based behavioral intervention aiming to provide positive effects to the treatment of childhood obesity.

  11. Childhood Obesity Study: A Pilot Study of the Effect of the Nutrition Education Program "Color My Pyramid"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Jean Burley; Pawloski, Lisa Renee; Goldberg, Patricia; Oh, Kyeung Mi; Stoehr, Ana; Baghi, Heibatollah

    2009-01-01

    The need for successful nutrition interventions is critical as the prevalence of childhood obesity increases. Thus, this pilot project examines the effect of a nutrition education program, "Color My Pyramid", on children's nutrition knowledge, self-care practices, activity levels, and nutrition status. Using a pretest-posttest,…

  12. Obesitas bij kinderen in China: prevalentie, determinanten en gezondheid = Childhood obesity in China: prevalence, determinants and health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li Yanping,

    2007-01-01

    Over the past two decades, China has been undergoing rapid socio-economic and nutrition transitions. Along with these transitions, childhood obesity and its related metabolic and psychological abnormalities are becoming serious public health problems in China. However, no national figures on the occ

  13. Childhood Obesity Study: A Pilot Study of the Effect of the Nutrition Education Program "Color My Pyramid"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Jean Burley; Pawloski, Lisa Renee; Goldberg, Patricia; Oh, Kyeung Mi; Stoehr, Ana; Baghi, Heibatollah

    2009-01-01

    The need for successful nutrition interventions is critical as the prevalence of childhood obesity increases. Thus, this pilot project examines the effect of a nutrition education program, "Color My Pyramid", on children's nutrition knowledge, self-care practices, activity levels, and nutrition status. Using a pretest-posttest, quasiexperimental…

  14. Vitamin D deficiency in childhood obesity is associated with high levels of circulating inflammatory mediators, and low insulin sensitivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reyman, M.; Verrijn Stuart, A.A.; van Summeren, M.J.H.; Rakhshandehroo, M.; Nuboer, R.; de Boer, F.K.; van den Ham, H.J.; Kalkhoven, E.; Prakken, B.J.; Schipper, H.S.

    2014-01-01

    HYPOTHESIS: Childhood obesity is accompanied by low-grade systemic inflammation, which contributes to the development of insulin resistance and cardiovascular complications later in life. As vitamin D exhibits profound immunomodulatory functions and vitamin D deficiency is highly prevalent in childh

  15. A multidisciplinary lifestyle intervention for childhood obesity : effects on body composition, exercise tolerance, quality of life and gut hormones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, Rimke Cathelijne

    2011-01-01

    The general aim of the studies described in this thesis is the effect evaluation of a family-based multidisciplinary cognitive behavioral treatment on several domains related to childhood obesity compared to standard care. The main findings from these studies are a modest long-term reduction of both

  16. Are School Nurses an Overlooked Resource in Reducing Childhood Obesity? A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Krista; Travers, Jasmine; Smaldone, Arlene

    2016-01-01

    Background: Schools are a key setting for childhood obesity interventions, yet nurses are not often included in delivering these interventions. The objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to examine school-based interventions involving nurses in a role beyond anthropometric measurement for effect on change in body measures.…

  17. Online Course Increases Nutrition Professionals' Knowledge, Skills, and Self-Efficacy in Using an Ecological Approach to Prevent Childhood Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Christina M.; Graham-Kiefer, Meredith L.; Devine, Carol M.; Dollahite, Jamie S.; Olson, Christine M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To assess the impact of an online continuing education course on the knowledge, skills, and self-efficacy of nutrition professionals to use an ecological approach to prevent childhood obesity. Design: Quasi-experimental design using intervention and delayed intervention comparison groups with pre/post-course assessments. Setting: Online…

  18. Obesity intervention on the healthy lifestyle in childhood: results of the PRESTO (PrEvention STudy of Obesity Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Dietrich

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: Due to increasing problems with childhood and adolescent obesity in Austria PRESTO (PrEvention STudy of Obesity created a school based intervention program for promoting a healthy lifestyle in Austrian youth.

    Methods: PRESTO was carried out by a multi-disciplinary team including a physician, a psychologist, a nutritionist and an exercise physiologist. The study was carried out in 12 first grade school classes in Austria (2002-2004, mainly in Vienna (N=260. The control group consisted of 231 subjects. Medical examinations were performed and the participantsf knowledge on good nutrition and dietary habits were collected. Twelve nutrition sessions, one hour per week in each class, were conducted. Teachers were advised to discuss health issues in their classes and specific exercise physiologists were informed about how to integrate appropriate exercises into their lessons.

    Results: In comparison with control group, classes who performed PRESTO showed a significant knowledge of nutrition, consuming less unhealthy foods. These effects could be observed in the short term (14 weeks and at follow up (10 months. 24% subjects could be classified as being overweight (BMI .90.Perc..

    Conclusions: School-oriented intervention programs/studies, like PRESTO, are a potential way to demonstrate positive effect on nutrition, physical activity and healthy behaviours in youth, especially if carried out on a long-term basis. Ultimately PRESTO has proven to be a suitable programme to be disseminated onto schools throughout Austria.

  19. Treating Obesity As a Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Restaurant Deciphering the Menu Ordering Your Meal Eating Fast Food Dining Out Tips by Cuisine Physical Activity Fitness ... Childhood Obesity What is childhood obesity? Overweight in Children BMI in Children Is Childhood Obesity an Issue ...

  20. Neighbourhood Deprivation, Individual-Level Familial and Socio-Demographic Factors and Diagnosed Childhood Obesity: A Nationwide Multilevel Study from Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinjun Li

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To examine whether there is an association between neighbourhood deprivation and diagnosed childhood obesity, after accounting for family- and individual-level socio-demographic characteristics. Methods: An open cohort of all children aged 0-14 years was followed between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2010. Childhood residential locations were geocoded and classified according to neighbourhood deprivation. Data were analysed by multilevel logistic regression, with family- and individual-level characteristics at the first level and level of neighbourhood deprivation at the second level. Results: During the study period, among a total of 948,062 children, 10,799 were diagnosed with childhood obesity. Age-adjusted cumulative incidence for diagnosed childhood obesity increased with increasing level of neighbourhood deprivation. Incidence of diagnosed childhood obesity increased with increasing neighbourhood-level deprivation across all family and individual-level socio-demographic categories. The odds ratio (OR for diagnosed childhood obesity for those living in high-deprivation neighbourhoods versus those living in low-deprivation neighbourhoods was 2.44 (95% confidence interval (CI = 2.22-2.68. High neighbourhood deprivation remained significantly associated with higher odds of diagnosed childhood obesity after adjustment for family- and individual-level socio-demographic characteristics (OR = 1.70, 95% CI = 1.55-1.89. Age, middle level family income, maternal marital status, low level education, living in large cities, advanced paternal and maternal age, family history of obesity, parental history of diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, alcoholism and personal history of diabetes were all associated with higher odds of diagnosed childhood obesity. Conclusions: Our results suggest that neighbourhood characteristics affect the odds of diagnosed childhood obesity independently of family- and individual-level socio

  1. Exploring the relationship between parental concern and the management of childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Lucas C; Harris, Carole V; Bradlyn, Andrew S

    2012-05-01

    Parental concern about child weight has been identified as a factor in parental monitoring and regulation of child diet. However, little is known about factors that influence parental concern or about how concern may influence parent management of child physical activity. The objectives of the current study were to identify the factors associated with parental concern about child weight and determine if parental concern is associated with specific actions to improve diet and increase physical activity. A stratified random sample of 1,500 parents of children in kindergarten, 2nd, 4th, 5th, 7th, and 9th grade were interviewed. Interviews addressed: (a) child and parent physical activity, (b) child and family nutrition, (c) child and parent BMI weight category, (d) interactions with health care providers, (e) parent obesity knowledge, (f) school assessment of BMI, and (g) parent perception of and concern about child weight. Child gender, weight status, and parent perception of child weight were significant predictors of parental concern. Parents were significantly more likely to report concern if their child was female, they believed their child to be overweight/obese, or their child was overweight/obese as indicated by BMI percentile. Concerned parents were significantly more likely to limit child screen time, take steps to improve child diet, and increase child physical activity than were parents who reported no concern. Treatment and prevention efforts should emphasize parental concern and awareness about child weight by providing accurate feedback on child weight status and education regarding the health risks associated with childhood overweight and obesity. Schools can play an important role in this process through the incorporation of BMI screenings.

  2. The nutrition-based comprehensive intervention study on childhood obesity in China (NISCOC: a randomised cluster controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Guifa

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood obesity and its related metabolic and psychological abnormalities are becoming serious health problems in China. Effective, feasible and practical interventions should be developed in order to prevent the childhood obesity and its related early onset of clinical cardiovascular diseases. The objective of this paper is to describe the design of a multi-centred random controlled school-based clinical intervention for childhood obesity in China. The secondary objective is to compare the cost-effectiveness of the comprehensive intervention strategy with two other interventions, one only focuses on nutrition education, the other only focuses on physical activity. Methods/Design The study is designed as a multi-centred randomised controlled trial, which included 6 centres located in Beijing, Shanghai, Chongqing, Shandong province, Heilongjiang province and Guangdong province. Both nutrition education (special developed carton style nutrition education handbook and physical activity intervention (Happy 10 program will be applied in all intervention schools of 5 cities except Beijing. In Beijing, nutrition education intervention will be applied in 3 schools and physical activity intervention among another 3 schools. A total of 9750 primary students (grade 1 to grade 5, aged 7-13 years will participate in baseline and intervention measurements, including weight, height, waist circumference, body composition (bioelectrical impendence device, physical fitness, 3 days dietary record, physical activity questionnaire, blood pressure, plasma glucose and plasma lipid profiles. Data concerning investments will be collected in our study, including costs in staff training, intervention materials, teachers and school input and supervising related expenditure. Discussion Present study is the first and biggest multi-center comprehensive childhood obesity intervention study in China. Should the study produce comprehensive results, the

  3. Evaluation of the childhood obesity prevention program Kids - 'Go for your life'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gibbs Lisa

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Kids - 'Go for your life' (K-GFYL is an award-based health promotion program being implemented across Victoria, Australia. The program aims to reduce the risk of childhood obesity by improving the socio-cultural, policy and physical environments in children's care and educational settings. Membership of the K-GFYL program is open to all primary and pre-schools and early childhood services across the State. Once in the program, member schools and services are centrally supported to undertake the health promotion (intervention activities. Once the K-GFYL program 'criteria' are reached the school/service is assessed and 'awarded'. This paper describes the design of the evaluation of the statewide K-GFYL intervention program. Methods/Design The evaluation is mixed method and cross sectional and aims to: 1 Determine if K-GFYL award status is associated with more health promoting environments in schools/services compared to those who are members only; 2 Determine if children attending K-GFYL award schools/services have higher levels of healthy eating and physical activity-related behaviors compared to those who are members only; 3 Examine the barriers to implementing and achieving the K-GFYL award; and 4 Determine the economic cost of implementing K-GFYL in primary schools Parent surveys will capture information about the home environment and child dietary and physical activity-related behaviors. Environmental questionnaires in early childhood settings and schools will capture information on the physical activity and nutrition environment and current health promotion activities. Lunchbox surveys and a set of open-ended questions for kindergarten parents will provide additional data. Resource use associated with the intervention activities will be collected from primary schools for cost analysis. Discussion The K-GFYL award program is a community-wide intervention that requires a comprehensive, multi-level evaluation. The evaluation

  4. A childhood obesity intervention developed by families for families: results from a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davison Kirsten K

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ineffective family interventions for the prevention of childhood obesity have, in part, been attributed to the challenges of reaching and engaging parents. With a particular focus on parent engagement, this study utilized community-based participatory research to develop and pilot test a family-centered intervention for low-income families with preschool-aged children enrolled in Head Start. Methods During year 1 (2009–2010, parents played an active and equal role with the research team in planning and conducting a community assessment and using the results to design a family-centered childhood obesity intervention. During year 2 (2010–2011, parents played a leading role in implementing the intervention and worked with the research team to evaluate its results using a pre-post cohort design. Intervention components included: (1 revisions to letters sent home to families reporting child body mass index (BMI; (2 a communication campaign to raise parents’ awareness of their child’s weight status; (3 the integration of nutrition counseling into Head Start family engagement activities; and (4 a 6-week parent-led program to strengthen parents’ communication skills, conflict resolution, resource-related empowerment for healthy lifestyles, social networks, and media literacy. A total of 423 children ages 2–5 years, from five Head Start centers in upstate New York, and their families were exposed to the intervention and 154 families participated in its evaluation. Child outcome measures included BMI z-score, accelerometer-assessed physical activity, and dietary intake assessed using 24-hour recall. Parent outcomes included food-, physical activity- and media-related parenting practices and attitudes. Results Compared with pre intervention, children at post intervention exhibited significant improvements in their rate of obesity, light physical activity, daily TV viewing, and dietary intake (energy and macronutrient intake

  5. Prevention of childhood obesity - what type of evidence should we consider relevant?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doak, C; Heitmann, B L; Summerbell, C

    2009-01-01

    , explain discrepant results. Differences in results were compared by inclusion criteria and outcome definitions. The most important summary recommendations for inclusion/exclusion criteria were to exclude all non-peer review articles, to maintain a 6-month lower limit for duration of study, to include......Two reviews, one by Summerbell et al. and the other by Doak et al. came to very different conclusions about the effectiveness of childhood obesity interventions. The aim of this commentary is to assess the extent to which inclusion and exclusion criteria, and the definition of effective outcomes...... and applying agreed exclusion criteria leaves 30 interventions; 50% are positive. Excluding studies without an aim specific to preventing weight gain leaves 10/24 (42%) positive interventions. The differences in the results of these two reviews relate to the inclusion criteria and outcome assessments...

  6. The Modern Obesity Epidemic, Ancestral Hunter-Gatherers, and the Sensory/Reward Control of Food Intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Bruce M.

    2013-01-01

    Obesity has become a true pandemic. In the United States, over two thirds of adults are obese or overweight. The prevalence of obesity has doubled since 1980. The increase in the prevalence of obese and overweight individuals has happened too rapidly for it to be due to an alteration in the genome. The gastrointestinal, sensory (taste and…

  7. Parental depression, family functioning, and obesity among African American children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Melvin; Young, LaShun; Davis, Sheila P; Moll, George

    2011-01-01

    Obesity has reached an epidemic level in America (National Center for Health Statistics [NCHS] 1999), and this epidemic is more acute for African Americans than for other groups ofAmericans. In this study, 44 parent-child dyads completed measurements of height, weight, depression, and body fat composition. In addition, parents completed a demographic questionnaire, and instruments, which measured family functioning, parental psychopathology, child behavior, and cardiovascular risks. Several models emerged for predicting childhood and parental body mass index, parental depression, and child behavioral problems. Findings indicated a role for parental depression in childhood obesity. These findings are discussed in light of Bandura 's Social Cognitive Theory, and the family's role in childhood obesity.

  8. A narrative literature review of the development of obesity in infancy and childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Sally; Yardy, Katie; Carter, Victoria

    2012-12-01

    This narrative review explains the development of excess weight gain in babies and children. It takes a life course approach which includes genetics, pre-conception, pregnancy, infancy and childhood. The paper focuses on feeding behaviours, physical activity, parental influences and the wider social and environmental context. Risk factors which can cumulatively lead to excess childhood weight gain include: under- or overweight during pregnancy; the presence of diabetes during pregnancy; low or high birth weight; having obese parents; early weaning; prolonged formula feeding; rapid weight gain in the first year; disinhibited eating patterns and the consistent availability of energy dense food at home; feeding practices which are not responsive to the child's cues; insufficient sleep among preschool children; sedentary parents; low parental education; living in poor socio-economic circumstances; absence, or perceived absence, of safe play areas; parents who lack time or confidence to authoritatively parent; environments where there is poor access to affordable lower energy dense foods; and parents who do not accept that excess weight is a health problem. Recommendations for health professionals are made.

  9. Obesity Rates in Special Populations of Children and Potential Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcomb, Matthew J.; Pufpaff, Lisa A.; McIntosh, David E.

    2009-01-01

    Childhood obesity has become a problem of epidemic proportions in the United States, but much of the research has focused on prevention and intervention programs, which target the general population of school children. Overlooked in the literature are children with special needs (including autism, genetic disorders, Down syndrome, and Prader-Willi…

  10. A call for research exploring social media influences on mothers' child feeding practices and childhood obesity risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doub, Allison E; Small, Meg; Birch, Leann L

    2016-04-01

    There is increasing interest in leveraging social media to prevent childhood obesity, however, the evidence base for how social media currently influences related behaviors and how interventions could be developed for these platforms is lacking. This commentary calls for research on the extent to which mothers use social media to learn about child feeding practices and the mechanisms through which social media influences their child feeding practices. Such formative research could be applied to the development and dissemination of evidence-based childhood obesity prevention programs that utilize social media. Mothers are identified as a uniquely important target audience for social media-based interventions because of their proximal influence on children's eating behavior and their high engagement with social media platforms. Understanding mothers' current behaviors, interests, and needs as they relate to their social media use and child feeding practices is an integral first step in the development of interventions that aim to engage mothers for obesity prevention. This commentary highlights the importance of mothers for childhood obesity prevention; discusses theoretical and analytic frameworks that can inform research on social media and mothers' child feeding practices; provides evidence that social media is an emerging context for social influences on mothers' attitudes and behaviors in which food is a salient topic; and suggests directions for future research.

  11. ON MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES TO PREVENT CHILDHOOD OBESITY AND OFFSET FROM THE EDUCATIONAL FIELD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto José García Rubio

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Currently, childhood obesity is one of the most important problems in the world health since in recent years has increased significantly in developed countries. The origin of this problem is due to a lifestyle based on little or no physical activity, coupled with poor and unbalanced diet. This condition, in turn, may adversely affect the formation of students due to low self esteem, depression and other psychological problems. The measures proposed are constant to the families of the students and the students themselves, through weekly lectures and workshops, which will take place in the school itself up. In addition, another measure would be to increase the number of hours of physical activity within the school timetable, taking advantage schedules for recreation and dining.The objective of the above work is to make a proposal, as a tool to prevent and treat overweight and obesity among children from the same education.The hypothesis of the project is that the BMI of the sample of the selected school will be reduced significantly due to changes in habits, promoted from this initiative, thereby improving their school performance. No conclusive results because it has not been implemented so far. 

  12. 小儿肥胖与围生期保健的关系研究进展%Childhood Obesity and Perinatal Health Care

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏艳花

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, the incidence of childhood obesity is increasing significantly.The etiology and pathogenesis of childhood obesity are complex and diverse.Pediatric disorders associated with obesity have been increasing as well.Obesity can disturb glucose and lipid metabolisms.In some cases, childhood obesity can extend into adolescent obesity and adult obesity.Obesity underlies all chronic diseases, such as diabetes, coronary heart disease, and hypertension, which seriously affect the health and growth of children.This article reviews the etiology of childhood obesity in assoication with perinatal health care.%近年来,小儿肥胖的发生率明显增加,病因及发病机制十分复杂,而且呈多样性.随之而来的与小儿肥胖相关的疾病也日渐增多.肥胖可引起糖、脂代谢紊乱,而且有一部分小儿肥胖可延伸为青春期肥胖和成人期肥胖,肥胖又是一切慢性病的根源,如糖尿病、冠状动脉粥样硬化性心脏病、高血压等,严重影响小儿的健康成长.现就小儿肥胖的病因机制与围生期保健予以阐述.

  13. Chronic Low-Grade Inflammation in Childhood Obesity Is Associated with Decreased IL-10 Expression by Monocyte Subsets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattos, Rafael T.; Medeiros, Nayara I.; Menezes, Carlos A.; Fares, Rafaelle C. G.; Franco, Eliza P.; Dutra, Walderez O.; Rios-Santos, Fabrício; Correa-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Gomes, Juliana A. S.

    2016-01-01

    Chronic low-grade inflammation is related to the development of comorbidities and poor prognosis in obesity. Monocytes are main sources of cytokines and play a pivotal role in inflammation. We evaluated monocyte frequency, phenotype and cytokine profile of monocyte subsets, to determine their association with the pathogenesis of childhood obesity. Children with obesity were evaluated for biochemical and anthropometric parameters. Monocyte subsets were characterized by flow cytometry, considering cytokine production and activation/recognition molecules. Correlation analysis between clinical parameters and immunological data delineated the monocytes contribution for low-grade inflammation. We observed a higher frequency of non-classical monocytes in the childhood obesity group (CO) than normal-weight group (NW). All subsets displayed higher TLR4 expression in CO, but their recognition and antigen presentation functions seem to be diminished due to lower expression of CD40, CD80/86 and HLA-DR. All subsets showed a lower expression of IL-10 in CO and correlation analyses showed changes in IL-10 expression profile. The lower expression of IL-10 may be decisive for the maintenance of the low-grade inflammation status in CO, especially for alterations in non-classical monocytes profile. These cells may contribute to supporting inflammation and loss of regulation in the immune response of children with obesity. PMID:27977792

  14. PCSK1 rs6232 Is Associated with Childhood and Adult Class III Obesity in the Mexican Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalobos-Comparán, Marisela; Villamil-Ramírez, Hugo; Villarreal-Molina, Teresa; Larrieta-Carrasco, Elena; León-Mimila, Paola; Romero-Hidalgo, Sandra; Jacobo-Albavera, Leonor; Liceaga-Fuentes, Adriana E.; Campos-Pérez, Francisco J.; López-Contreras, Blanca E.; Tusié-Luna, Teresa; del Río-Navarro, Blanca E.; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A.; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel

    2012-01-01

    Background Common variants rs6232 and rs6235 in the PCSK1 gene have been associated with obesity in European populations. We aimed to evaluate the contribution of these variants to obesity and related traits in Mexican children and adults. Methodology/Principal Findings Rs6232 and rs6235 were genotyped in 2382 individuals, 1206 children and 1176 adults. Minor allele frequencies were 0.78% for rs6232 and 19.99% for rs6235. Rs6232 was significantly associated with childhood obesity and adult class III obesity (OR = 3.01 95%CI 1.64–5.53; P = 4×10−4 in the combined analysis). In addition, this SNP was significantly associated with lower fasting glucose levels (P = 0.01) and with increased insulin levels and HOMA-B (P = 0.05 and 0.01, respectively) only in non-obese children. In contrast, rs6235 showed no significant association with obesity or with glucose homeostasis parameters in any group. Conclusion/Significance Although rs6232 is rare in the Mexican population, it should be considered as an important risk factor for extreme forms of obesity. PMID:22737226

  15. Nature and strength of epidemiological evidence for origins of childhood and adulthood obesity in the first year of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stettler, N

    2007-07-01

    Increased interest in early life origins of chronic disease, a concept often referred to as programming, has resulted in several studies investigating the origins of childhood or adulthood obesity during infancy. Rapid infancy weight gain as a risk factor and breastfeeding as a protective factor for later obesity have been most thoroughly studied. The association between rapid infancy weight gain and later obesity is supported by several observational studies, but not by the two, relatively small, randomized trials. This association is strong, suggests a dose-response effect and has biological plausibility, but is not consistent between study designs. Rapid infancy weight gain as a risk factor for later obesity has been experimentally reproduced in animal models, but not in humans. The protective effect of breastfeeding on obesity is also supported by several observational studies, but randomized trials are not available. Considering the potential for residual confounding factors, current evidence is insufficient to demonstrate origins of obesity during infancy or to change public health recommendations, but the potential for obesity prevention during infancy is promising.

  16. Childhood Obesity, Overweight, Socio-Demographic and Life Style Determinants among Preschool Children in Babol, Northern Iran.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karimollah Hajian-Tilaki

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Childhood obesity and overweight are a general public health concern in a transition society. Thus, the objective of the study was to determine the prevalence of overweight, obesity and their correlates with socio-demographic and life style related factors.This cross-sectional study was conducted on 760 representative samples of preschool children aged 2 to 5 years in urban area of Babol, northern Iran. The weight and height were measured with standard method and the socio-demographic and life style data were collected by interviewing their parents. The diagnosis of overweight and obesity was based on CDC criteria.The prevalence rate of overweight and obesity were 11.8%, 15% respectively. There was no significant difference observed between sexes. The odds of overweight/obesity was elevated more than double in age 4-5 years compared with 2-3 years(OR=2.53, 95%CI:1.71-3.73. By parental education at university level, the odds ratio significant decreased compared with primary level (OR=0.34, 95%CI: 0.31-0.90 and OR=0.49, 95%CI: 0.34-0.98 for mothers and fathers respectively. Parental obesity is positively associated with overweight/obesity risk OR=2.67(95%CI: 1.75, 4.07 and 1.61(95% CI: 1.04-2.150 for mothers and fathers respectively. While spending ≥2 hours per day for Tv watching and ≥1 hours for playing with computer games tended to elevate the risk but not significant.The findings indicate that overweight and obesity are high in preschool children in Babol. Increasing child age, parental obesity, spending more times on TV and playing with computer games are positively associated with overweight/obesity while parental education at university level is inversely associated.

  17. Etiology of obesity: two "key issues" and other emerging factors

    OpenAIRE

    Lluis Serra-Majem; Inmaculada Bautista-Castaño

    2013-01-01

    The current obesity epidemic is known to have coincided with profound societal changes involving both physical activity levels and food consumption patterns as well as demographic and cultural changes affecting the conduct of human beings in various ways. On the other hand, obesity is a complex and multifactorial chronic disease that usually becomes manifest in childhood and adolescence. Its origin is a genetic and environmental interchange, of which environmental or behavioral factors play t...

  18. La epidemia de obesidad y sus factores relacionados: el caso de España The obesity epidemic and related factors: the case of Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Luis Gutiérrez-Fisac

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available La epidemia de obesidad es un fenómeno universal que no parece reconocer límites ni geográficos ni sociodemográficos. Las investigaciones sobre los factores responsables de la epidemia se centran sobre algunas de las condiciones sociales y económicas que imperan en las sociedades actuales. El presente artículo muestra la situación de la obesidad en España y la tendencia de una serie de factores potencialmente relacionados. El incremento en la prevalencia de obesidad se acompañó de importantes cambios en el patrón de alimentación de la población a pesar de una tendencia estabilizada en la ingesta calórica total y de grasas. Diversos indicadores indirectos muestran la tendencia sedentaria de la población, a pesar de que un mayor porcentaje de la población declara realizar ejercicio físico en su tiempo libre. Los factores dependientes del gasto energético parecen tan o más importantes que los derivados del ingreso. Para explicar la situación paradójica de los distintos indicadores de sedentarismo se sugiere la hipótesis de un aumento del "stock de tiempo libre" en las sociedades actuales.The obesity epidemic is a global phenomenon that does not respect geographic or socio-demographic boundaries. Thus, research on factors related to the obesity epidemic has focused on social and economic characteristics of modern societies. This article discusses obesity in Spain and trends in several associated factors. Together with the increase in the prevalence of obesity, important changes in the population's dietary pattern have been observed, although total energy and fat intake appear to be stable. According to several indirect indicators, sedentary behavior predominates, although the percentage of the population reporting some leisure exercise is increasing. An increase in the amount of leisure time in modern societies is suggested as an explanation for this paradox. Factors related to energy expenditure could be as important as

  19. Differential Influences of Parenting Dimensions and Parental Physical Abuse during Childhood on Overweight and Obesity in Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas Mößle; Sören Kliem; Anna Lohmann; Marie Christine Bergmann; Dirk Baier

    2017-01-01

    Besides other explanatory variables, parenting styles and parental violence might also be responsible for setting a path towards overweight/obesity in childhood. While this association has consistently been observed for adults, findings for adolescents still remain scarce and inconsistent. Therefore, the goal of this study is to add evidence on this topic for children and adolescents. Analyses are based on a sample of 1729 German, ninth-grade students. To analyze associations between parentin...

  20. Proposing a conceptual framework for integrated local public health policy, applied to childhood obesity - the behavior change ball

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Background Childhood obesity is a ‘wicked’ public health problem that is best tackled by an integrated approach, which is enabled by integrated public health policies. The development and implementation of such policies have in practice proven to be difficult, however, and studying why this is the case requires a tool that may assist local policy-makers and those assisting them. A comprehensive framework that can help to identify options for improvement and to systematically develop solutions...

  1. Incorporating primary and secondary prevention approaches to address childhood obesity prevention and treatment in a low-income, ethnically diverse population

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is consensus that development and evaluation of a systems-oriented approach for child obesity prevention and treatment that includes both primary and secondary prevention efforts is needed. This article describes the study design and baseline data from the Texas Childhood Obesity Research Demo...

  2. Lessons Learned by Community Stakeholders in the Massachusetts Childhood Obesity Research Demonstration (MA-CORD) Project, 2013–2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganter, Claudia; Aftosmes-Tobio, Alyssa; Chuang, Emmeline; Kwass, Jo-Ann; Land, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Childhood obesity is a multifaceted disease that requires sustainable, multidimensional approaches that support change at the individual, community, and systems levels. The Massachusetts Childhood Obesity Research Demonstration project addressed this need by using clinical and public health evidence-based methods to prevent childhood obesity. To date, little information is known about successes and lessons learned from implementing such large-scale interventions. To address this gap, we examined perspectives of community stakeholders from various sectors on successes achieved and lessons learned during the implementation process. Methods We conducted 39 semistructured interviews with key stakeholders from 6 community sectors in 2 low-income communities from November 2013 through April 2014, during project implementation. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed, and analyzed by using the constant comparative method. Data were analyzed by using QSR NVivo 10. Results Successes included increased parental involvement in children’s health and education, increased connections within participating organizations and within the broader community, changes in organizational policies and environments to better support healthy living, and improvements in health behaviors in children, parents, and stakeholders. Lessons learned included the importance of obtaining administrative and leadership support, involving key stakeholders early in the program planning process, creating buffers that allow for unexpected changes, and establishing opportunities for regular communication within and across sectors. Conclusion Study findings indicate that multidisciplinary approaches support health behavior change and provide insight into key issues to consider in developing and implementing such approaches in low-income communities. PMID:28125400

  3. The role of parental motivation in family-based treatment for childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnarsdottir, Thrudur; Njardvik, Urdur; Olafsdottir, Anna S; Craighead, Linda W; Bjarnason, Ragnar

    2011-08-01

    This study investigated the role of parental motivation (importance, confidence and readiness) for predicting dropout and outcome from family-based behavioral treatment for childhood obesity. Parent and child demographics, adherence to treatment, and weight loss parameters were also explored as potential predictors. Eighty-four obese children (BMI-standard deviation scores (SDS) >2.14) and a participating parent with each child started treatment consisting of 12 weeks of group and individual treatment sessions (24 sessions total) delivered over a period of 18 weeks. Sixty-one families (73%) completed treatment and attended follow-up at 1 year after treatment. Child session attendance and completion of self-monitoring records served as measures of adherence. In regression analyses, parent reports (pretreatment) of confidence for doing well in treatment was the strongest predictor of treatment completion (P = 0.003) as well as early treatment response (weight loss at week 5) (P = 0.003). This variable remained a significant predictor of child weight loss at post-treatment (P = 0.014), but was not associated with child outcome at 1-year follow-up (P > 0.05). The only significant predictor of child weight loss at that point was child baseline weight (P = 0.001). However, pretreatment parent ratings of importance of and readiness for treatment did not predict dropout or weight loss at any point. The results underscore the importance of addressing parental motivation, specifically parental confidence for changing lifestyle related behaviors, early in the treatment process. Doing so may reduce treatment dropout and enhance treatment outcome.

  4. Factors Associated with Overweight and Obesity among Kuwaiti Elementary Male School Children Aged 6–10 Years

    OpenAIRE

    Abdulwahab Naser Al-Isa; Jennifer Campbell; Ediriweera Desapriya

    2010-01-01

    Background. Childhood obesity is becoming a global epidemic which may result in increased morbidity and mortality during young adulthood. Objectives. To identify factors associated with overweight and that of obesity among Kuwaiti elementary male school children aged 6–10 years. Methods. Weights and heights of 662 students at a randomly selected school were collected to obtain body mass index (BMI). Results. The prevalence of overweight and obesity among the students were 20.2% and 16.8...

  5. The relation between an adverse psychological and social environment in childhood and the development of adult obesity: a systematic literature review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vámosi, M; Heitmann, B L; Kyvik, K O

    2010-01-01

    weight children for later development of obesity. The purpose of this study was to systematically review current literature on associations between psychological factors in childhood and development of obesity in adulthood. A systematic search was conducted in three electronic databases MEDLINE...... disorders. In addition, depression in adolescence tended to be related to adult obesity but among young girls only. Learning difficulties and scholastic proficiencies below average were also risk factors. The current literature suggests that specific psychosocial factors in childhood may act as determinants...

  6. A randomized controlled trial to prevent childhood obesity through early childhood feeding and parenting guidance: Rationale and design of study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Early and rapid growth in infants is strongly associated with early development and persistence of obesity in young children. Substantial research has linked child obesity/overweight to increased risks for serious health outcomes, which include adverse physical, psychological, behavioral, or social ...

  7. Risk factors for childhood obesity in elementary school-age Taiwanese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jyu-Lin; Kennedy, Christine; Yeh, Chao-Hsing; Kools, Susan

    2005-01-01

    A cross-sectional study design was used to examine factors that contribute to high relative weight in children in Taiwan. A total sample of 331 Chinese children (ages 7 and 8) and their parents participated in the study. Parents completed questionnaires regarding demographic information, family functioning, parenting styles, physical activity, and dietary intake. Children completed physical fitness tests and questionnaires regarding physical activity, dietary intake, coping strategies, and self-esteem. The weight-for-length index was used to measure children's relative weight. The findings revealed that four variables contributed to higher weight-for-length index in boys compared with girls and explained 37.7% of the variance: high maternal body mass index, poor aerobic capacity, healthy family role functioning, and poor family affective responsiveness. Two variables were found to contribute to higher weight-for-length index in girls and explained 12.8% of the variance: high household income and high maternal body mass index. Taken together, the results indicate the importance of assessment of children's weight status, maternal weight status, and family functioning as part of routine child health care and the need for developmentally appropriate and gender-specific approaches to prevent childhood obesity.

  8. Serious game development as a strategy for health promotion and tackling childhood obesity 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Jéssica David; Mekaro, Marcelo Shinyu; Cheng Lu, Jennifer Kaon; Otsuka, Joice Lee; Fonseca, Luciana Mara Monti; Zem-Mascarenhas, Silvia Helena

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives: to develop and assess a serious game on healthy eating and physical activity to promote health and tackle childhood obesity. Method: a descriptive, applied and methodological study.For the development of the game, the following steps were taken: conceptualization, pre-production with the development of the game documentation, prototyping, production and assessment of thecomputer and health experts. Results: a prototype has been developed up to beta version. The game was positively assessed both in terms of gameplay and mechanics, and in relation to the content presented, standing out as a powerful strategy for health promotion. The information from the assessment phase contributed to the settings in the software in order to make it available in the future for the target population of this research. The greatest advantage of the proposed game is the fact that it is an open educational resource. Conclusions: the expert assessments showed that the game has great educational potential and it is considered suitable for future application to the target audience.The serious game can become a technological teaching resource available for use in schools and health facilities, and can also be reused for the production of other educational games by accessing its source code. PMID:27533268

  9. Serious game development as a strategy for health promotion and tackling childhood obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jéssica David Dias

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objectives: to develop and assess a serious game on healthy eating and physical activity to promote health and tackle childhood obesity. Method: a descriptive, applied and methodological study.For the development of the game, the following steps were taken: conceptualization, pre-production with the development of the game documentation, prototyping, production and assessment of thecomputer and health experts. Results: a prototype has been developed up to beta version. The game was positively assessed both in terms of gameplay and mechanics, and in relation to the content presented, standing out as a powerful strategy for health promotion. The information from the assessment phase contributed to the settings in the software in order to make it available in the future for the target population of this research. The greatest advantage of the proposed game is the fact that it is an open educational resource. Conclusions: the expert assessments showed that the game has great educational potential and it is considered suitable for future application to the target audience.The serious game can become a technological teaching resource available for use in schools and health facilities, and can also be reused for the production of other educational games by accessing its source code.

  10. [Recommendations of the Spanish Paediatric Endocrinology Society Working Group on Obesity on eating habits for the prevention of obesity and cardiovascular risk factors in childhood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomo Atance, E; Bahíllo Curieses, P; Bueno Lozano, G; Feliu Rovira, A; Gil-Campos, M; Lechuga-Sancho, A M; Ruiz Cano, R; Vela Desojo, A

    2016-03-01

    Childhood obesity is associated with a high risk of cardiovascular disease and early mortality. This paper summarises the currently available evidence on the implications of dietary factors on the development and prevention of obesity in paediatric patients. Evidence-based recommendations are: promote the consumption of slowly absorbed carbohydrates and reduce those with a high-glycaemic-index, avoid intake of sugar-sweetened beverages. Fat may provide up to 30-35% of the daily energy intake and saturated fat should provide no more than 10% of daily energy intake; reduce cholesterol intake, avoid formula milk with a high protein content during the first year; promote higher fibre content in the diet, reduce sodium intake, and have at least four meals a day, avoiding regular consumption of fast food and snacks.

  11. The Assessment of Eating Behaviour in Children Who Are Obese: A Psychological Approach. A Position Paper from the European Childhood Obesity Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Braet

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This paper introduces health professionals to the different psychological models thought to influence eating behaviour in the absence of hunger in children who are obese and to propose a method of assessing these behaviours in practice. Methods: Clinical researchers from the European Childhood Obesity Group (ECOG adopted an evidence-based approach to examine the literature concerning the assessment of eating behaviour in children who are obese. Studies published in English were filtered out of the medical and psychological literature from 1960 to the present, and the resulting bibliography was searched for relevant articles. Key themes from the current evidence were compiled and classified according to the underpinning psychological models. Based on the current evidence and the authors' combined clinical experience, a three-staged approach to assessment was agreed by consensus. Results: Valid and reliable tools for assessing and monitoring each of the three identified models (Dietary Restraint Theory, Emotional Eating and the Diathesis-Stress Model are suggested for use in clinical practice, and the ECOG three-staged approach to assessing eating behaviours in the absence of hunger is described. Conclusions: This paper presents practical guidance on how to assess eating behaviour in the absence of hunger in children who are clinically obese and suggests a focus for future research.

  12. Risk factors and outcomes of childhood obesity in Hong Kong: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, S Y; Lai, Y K; Lam, T H; Chan, V; Mak, K K; Lo, W S

    2013-06-01

    1. Onset of obesity is related to age, gender, pubertal stage, dietary habits, and parental occupation. Targeting the high riskgroups may help curb obesity in children. 2. Obesity may lead to poor self-esteem and potential psychosocial risk. The psychosocial impact of obesity could be more pronounced in girls than boys. 3. The association between obesity and psychosocial health could be bi-directional. Improving psychosocial health could be beneficial in weight management for normal-weight and obese children. 4. Obesity is associated with higher blood pressures.

  13. Impact of early psychosocial factors (childhood socioeconomic factors and adversities on future risk of type 2 diabetes, metabolic disturbances and obesity: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamayo Teresa

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Psychological factors and socioeconomic status (SES have a notable impact on health disparities, including type 2 diabetes risk. However, the link between childhood psychosocial factors, such as childhood adversities or parental SES, and metabolic disturbances is less well established. In addition, the lifetime perspective including adult socioeconomic factors remains of further interest. We carried out a systematic review with the main question if there is evidence in population- or community-based studies that childhood adversities (like neglect, traumata and deprivation have considerable impact on type 2 diabetes incidence and other metabolic disturbances. Also, parental SES was included in the search as risk factor for both, diabetes and adverse childhood experiences. Finally, we assumed that obesity might be a mediator for the association of childhood adversities with diabetes incidence. Therefore, we carried out a second review on obesity, applying a similar search strategy. Methods Two systematic reviews were carried out. Longitudinal, population- or community-based studies were included if they contained data on psychosocial factors in childhood and either diabetes incidence or obesity risk. Results We included ten studies comprising a total of 200,381 individuals. Eight out of ten studies indicated that low parental status was associated with type 2 diabetes incidence or the development of metabolic abnormalities. Adjustment for adult SES and obesity tended to attenuate the childhood SES-attributable risk but the association remained. For obesity, eleven studies were included with a total sample size of 70,420 participants. Four out of eleven studies observed an independent association of low childhood SES on the risk for overweight and obesity later in life. Conclusions Taken together, there is evidence that childhood SES is associated with type 2 diabetes and obesity in later life. The database on the role of

  14. Parents' beliefs about appropriate infant size, growth and feeding behaviour: implications for the prevention of childhood obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swift Judy A

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A number of risk factors are associated with the development of childhood obesity which can be identified during infancy. These include infant feeding practices, parental response to infant temperament and parental perception of infant growth and appetite. Parental beliefs and understanding are crucial determinants of infant feeding behaviour; therefore any intervention would need to take account of their views. This study aimed to explore UK parents' beliefs concerning their infant's size, growth and feeding behaviour and parental receptiveness to early intervention aimed at reducing the risk of childhood obesity. Method Six focus groups were undertaken in a range of different demographic localities, with parents of infants less than one year of age. The focus groups were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and thematic analysis applied using an interpretative, inductive approach. Results 38 parents (n = 36 female, n = 2 male, age range 19-45 years (mean 30.1 years, SD 6.28 participated in the focus groups. 12/38 were overweight (BMI 25-29.99 and 8/38 obese (BMI >30. Five main themes were identified. These were a parental concern about breast milk, infant contentment and growth; b the belief that the main cause of infant distress is hunger is widespread and drives inappropriate feeding; c rationalisation for infants' larger size; d parental uncertainty about identifying and managing infants at risk of obesity and e intentions and behaviour in relation to a healthy lifestyle. Conclusions There are a number of barriers to early intervention with parents of infants at risk of developing obesity. Parents are receptive to prevention prior to weaning and need better support with best practice in infant feeding. In particular, this should focus on helping them understand the physiology of breast feeding, how to differentiate between infant distress caused by hunger and other causes and the timing of weaning. Some parents also need

  15. Interventions for Preventing Childhood Obesity with Smartphones and Wearable Device: A Protocol for a Non-Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hye Jung; Kang, Jae-Heon; Kim, Ok Hyun; Choi, Mona; Oh, Myungju; Nam, Jihyun; Sung, Eunju

    2017-01-01

    Background: Childhood obesity is a critical health issue, both currently and for the foreseeable future. To prevent obesity, behavior changes are essential. Smartphones can be a good tool, as the number of child smartphone users is rapidly increasing. We have developed a mobile platform system named “HAPPY ME,” which is a smartphone application coupled with a wearable device, designed to improve healthy behaviors to prevent childhood obesity. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of obesity prevention among children 10–12 years of age using HAPPY ME. Methods: A total of 1000 participants, all fifth and sixth graders from four schools, were assigned to either control or intervention groups by school. Students in the intervention group used HAPPY ME. The study comprises a safety test, a 12-week efficacy test, and a six-month follow-up test to determine the long-term effects of preventive intervention via the integrated service platform. The integrated service platform aims to facilitate child-parent-school participation, involving the child-parent mobile application, a child-teacher mobile web, and a school website. Primary outcome measures are behavioral changes, including healthy eating, increased physical activity, and fitness. Secondary outcome measures are changes in anthropometric parameters (body weight, height, body mass index z-score, and waist circumference), body mass index (BMI) percentiles (obesity rate), and psychological perceptions among participants. Conclusions: The results of this study will offer evidence of the effectiveness of a mobile platform service with a multi-component intervention program based on a comprehensive approach. PMID:28208839

  16. Association between eating behavior scores and obesity in Chilean children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amador Paola

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inadequate eating behavior and physical inactivity contribute to the current epidemic of childhood obesity. The aim of this study was to assess the association between eating behavior scores and childhood obesity in Chilean children. Design and methods We recruited 126 obese, 44 overweight and 124 normal-weight Chilean children (6-12 years-old; both genders according to the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF criteria. Eating behavior scores were calculated using the Child Eating Behavior Questionnaire (CEBQ. Factorial analysis in the culturally-adapted questionnaire for Chilean population was used to confirm the original eight-factor structure of CEBQ. The Cronbach's alpha statistic (>0.7 in most subscales was used to assess internal consistency. Non-parametric methods were used to assess case-control associations. Results Eating behavior scores were strongly associated with childhood obesity in Chilean children. Childhood obesity was directly associated with high scores in the subscales "enjoyment of food" (P Conclusion Our study shows a strong and graded association between specific eating behavior scores and childhood obesity in Chile.

  17. The impact of overweight and obesity on breast cancer: data from Switzerland, so far a country little affected by the current global obesity epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kann, Simone; Schmid, Seraina Margaretha; Eichholzer, Monika; Huang, Dorothy Jane; Amann, Esther; Güth, Uwe

    2014-08-01

    This review presents results from the project "The Impact of Overweight/Obesity on Breast Cancer: data from Switzerland". Swiss data is interesting because the general female population is distinctive in two areas when compared to that of most other industrialized countries: Switzerland has comparatively low rates of overweight (22-23%) and obesity (7-8%) and has rather stable rates of overweight and obesity. The entire project comprised three major issues: (I) etiology of breast cancer (BC). There is a consistently shown association between obesity and postmenopausal BC risk in countries with high obesity prevalence rates in the literature. In our Swiss study group, however, we did not find higher rates of overweight and obesity in postmenopausal BC cases than in the general population. A possible explanation for this observation may be a curvilinear dose-response relationship between BMI and postmenopausal BC risk, so that an increased risk may only be observed in populations with a high prevalence of obese/very obese women; (II) tumor characteristics. BMI was significantly associated with tumor size; this applied not only to the cases where the tumor was found by self-detection, but also to lesions detected by radiological breast examinations. In addition, a higher BMI was positively correlated with advanced TNM stage, unfavorable grading and a higher St. Gallen risk score. No associations were observed between BMI and histological subtype, estrogen receptor status, HER2 status and triple negative BC; (III) patient compliance and persistence towards adjuvant BC therapy. Many studies found that the prognosis of overweight/obese BC patients was significantly lower than that of normal weight patients. However, failure of compliance and persistence towards therapy on the part of the patient is not a contributing factor for this observed unfavorable prognosis. In most therapy modes, patients with increasing BMI demonstrated greater motivation and perseverance towards

  18. Differential Influences of Parenting Dimensions and Parental Physical Abuse during Childhood on Overweight and Obesity in Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Mößle

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Besides other explanatory variables, parenting styles and parental violence might also be responsible for setting a path towards overweight/obesity in childhood. While this association has consistently been observed for adults, findings for adolescents still remain scarce and inconsistent. Therefore, the goal of this study is to add evidence on this topic for children and adolescents. Analyses are based on a sample of 1729 German, ninth-grade students. To analyze associations between parenting dimensions and weight status, non-parametric conditional inference trees were applied. Three gender-specific pathways for a heightened risk of overweight/obesity were observed: (1 female adolescents who report having experienced severe parental physical abuse and medium/high parental warmth in childhood; (2 male adolescents who report having experienced low or medium parental monitoring in childhood; and (3 this second pathway for male adolescents is more pronounced if the families receive welfare. The importance of promoting parenting styles characterized by warmth and a lack of physical abuse is also discussed. This is one of only a few studies examining the association of parenting dimensions/parental physical abuse and weight status in adolescence. Future studies should include even more parenting dimensions, as well as parental physical abuse levels, in order to detect and untangle gender-specific effects on weight status.

  19. Differential Influences of Parenting Dimensions and Parental Physical Abuse during Childhood on Overweight and Obesity in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mößle, Thomas; Kliem, Sören; Lohmann, Anna; Bergmann, Marie Christine; Baier, Dirk

    2017-03-07

    Besides other explanatory variables, parenting styles and parental violence might also be responsible for setting a path towards overweight/obesity in childhood. While this association has consistently been observed for adults, findings for adolescents still remain scarce and inconsistent. Therefore, the goal of this study is to add evidence on this topic for children and adolescents. Analyses are based on a sample of 1729 German, ninth-grade students. To analyze associations between parenting dimensions and weight status, non-parametric conditional inference trees were applied. Three gender-specific pathways for a heightened risk of overweight/obesity were observed: (1) female adolescents who report having experienced severe parental physical abuse and medium/high parental warmth in childhood; (2) male adolescents who report having experienced low or medium parental monitoring in childhood; and (3) this second pathway for male adolescents is more pronounced if the families receive welfare. The importance of promoting parenting styles characterized by warmth and a lack of physical abuse is also discussed. This is one of only a few studies examining the association of parenting dimensions/parental physical abuse and weight status in adolescence. Future studies should include even more parenting dimensions, as well as parental physical abuse levels, in order to detect and untangle gender-specific effects on weight status.

  20. Child fitness and father's BMI are important factors in childhood obesity: a school based cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinead Brophy

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This study examines obesity and factors associated with obesity in children aged 11-13 years in the UK. METHODS: 1147 children from ten secondary schools participated in a health survey that included blood samples, fitness test and anthropometric measures. Factors associated with obesity were examined using multilevel logistic regression. FINDINGS: Of the children examined (490 male; 657 female a third were overweight, 1 in 6 had elevated blood pressure, more than 1 in 10 had high cholesterol, 58% consumed more fat than recommended, whilst 37% were classified as unfit. Children in deprived areas had a higher proportion of risk factors; for example, they had higher blood pressure (20% (deprived compared to 11% (non-deprived, difference: 9.0% (95%CI: 4.7%-13.4%. Obesity is associated with risk factors for heart disease and diabetes. Maintaining fitness is associated with a reduction in the risk factors for heart disease (high blood pressure and cholesterol but not on risk factors for diabetes (insulin levels. In order of importance, the main risk factors for childhood obesity are being unfit, having an obese father, and being large at birth. CONCLUSION: The high proportion of children with risk factors suggests future interventions need to focus on community and policy change to shift the population norm rather than targeting the behaviour of high risk individuals. Interventions need to focus on mothers' lifestyle in pregnancy, fathers' health, as well as promoting fitness among children. Obesity was not associated with deprivation. Therefore, strategies should be adopted in both deprived and non deprived areas.