The atherosclerotic process begins in childhood and advances rapidly triggered by multiple genetic and environmental factors, including obesity. Obesity has reach epidemic proportions mainly by the consumption of junk food and a sedentary lifestyle. Our children spend long time inactive in front of the television and video games, further aggravated by the consumption of excessive calories of unhealthy food bombardment from TV commercials. The health related expenses of the obese is in average $1,500 annually higher than for persons with normal weight. The annual cost of diseases associated to obesity is estimated on $147 billion in the United States, a 10% of the national medical expenses. We must uncover strategies conducting to healthier lifestyles. School and home initiatives together with community and governmental efforts are necessary to stimulate our youngsters to live healthy lifestyles. The commitment of the food industry is critical to achieve the difficult goal of reducing childhood obesity to the prevalent 5% of the 1970's. PMID:22737835
Full Text Available Obesity is a medical condition resulting from the accumulation of excess fat in the human body to the extent that it might have great harm effects on the human health by increasing the diseases lowering the average life expectancy. A person who has a body mass index (BMI of more than 30 kg/m 2 is classified as obese; this is how obesity can be defined for adult, which is different than that in children. To account for variability by sex and age, BMI in children must be compared with sex- and age-specific reference values (Centers for Disease Control growth chart. The terminology that is used for high BMI-for-age in children in has been based on the recommendation of an expert committee convened by federal agencies. Parents can be a good example for their children by modeling healthful eating behaviors and being physically active. Parents can also be effective advocates by being involved in efforts in their schools, and community to expand the access and availability of opportunities for physical activity and healthful eating. In the case of being an obese child, that means suffering from many health problems and obesity-related diseases such as elevated blood pressure, high cholesterol, diabetes and heart diseases. Diabetes is considered as one of the obesity-related diseases; type 2 diabetes in children has linked with obesity; when the pancreas starts to produce the insulin hormone, excess body fat will not allow child's body to use the insulin as it should be which can lead to being a diabetic patient. Schools also play a vital role in teaching the students on how to eat properly and select the best meal with keeping their bodies flexible by doing physical activities. It is important in order to keep children away from being in disasters by having a lot of obesity-related diseases (e.g., heart attacks and diabetes, which can lead to premature death in obese children. Children must be healthy since those children growing up in today's world
Andersen, Lise Geisler; Baker, Jennifer L; Sørensen, Thorkild I A
Prevalence of obesity is the result of preceding incidence of newly developed obesity and persistence of obesity. We investigated whether increasing incidence and/or persistence during childhood drove the prevalence of childhood obesity during the emerging epidemic....
Wang, Youfa; Lim, Hyunjung
This paper describes the current prevalence and time trends of childhood obesity worldwide, and the association between childhood obesity and socio-economic status (SES). Childhood obesity has become a global public health crisis. The prevalence is highest in western and industrialized countries, but still low in some developing countries. The prevalence also varies by age and gender. The WHO Americas and eastern Mediterranean regions had higher prevalence of overweight and obesity (30–40%) t...
Larrier, Yvonne I.; Bakerson, Michelle A.; Linton, Jeremy M.; Walker, Lynne R.; Woolford, Susan J.
Childhood obesity is a significant public health concern. Since 1960, the prevalence of childhood obesity in the United States increased dramatically from 5% to 16.9%. To date many interventions to address obesity in schools have focused on healthy changes to the content of vending machines, school lunches, and the addition of after school…
Belser, Christopher T.; Morris, Jessica A.; Hasselbeck, Jennifer M.
The need for school-based interventions targeting the childhood obesity epidemic has been well documented. The risk factors associated with childhood obesity are physical, mental, psychosocial, academic, and economic. With training in developing comprehensive programs and interventions, professional school counselors are positioned to assist…
Guran, T; Bereket, A
Childhood obesity is one of the most serious global public health challenges of the 21st century. The prevalence of this problem has increased at an alarming rate in many countries. The main causes of childhood obesity are; sedentary lifestyle, unhealthy eating patterns, genetic factors, socio-economic status, race/ethnicity, media and marketing, and the physical environment. Children are clearly being targeted as a receptive market by the manufacturing industry. Undoubtedly, television provides one of the most powerful media through which products can be advertised. Furthermore, food advertising accounted for the largest percentage of these advertisements in virtually all countries. Detailed nutritional analysis of food advertisements identified that up to 90% of food products have a high fat, sugar or salt content. Therefore TV viewing is recently identified as one of the risk factors contributing to development of childhood obesity by several mechanisms. This review provides some facts and figures about the global trend of rising obesity among children, amount and content of television and especially food advertisements being watched by children and its possible mechanisms how to cause adverse effects on children's health and contribute to childhood obesity. PMID:22075803
Ajslev, Teresa A; Ängquist, Lars; Silventoinen, Karri;
OBJECTIVE: The obesity epidemic may have developed as a response to the obesogenic environment among the genetically predisposed. This investigation examined whether the intergenerational resemblances in childhood overweight changed across the development of the obesity epidemic in groups of chil....... CONCLUSIONS: Parent-child resemblance in childhood overweight showed small changes during the development of the obesity epidemic, suggesting that the obesogenic environment inducing the epidemic in Denmark influenced children irrespective of their familial predisposition.......OBJECTIVE: The obesity epidemic may have developed as a response to the obesogenic environment among the genetically predisposed. This investigation examined whether the intergenerational resemblances in childhood overweight changed across the development of the obesity epidemic in groups of...... their parents at ages 7 and 13 years. The available number of parent-child pairs ranged from 17,926 through 42,184. The odds ratios of childhood overweight (BMI z-score >90th percentile) were calculated using logistic regression by parental BMI groups (BMI > or ≤90th percentile) and child birth year...
Heitmann, Berit L; Koplan, Jeffrey; Lissner, Lauren
Despite progress toward assuring the health of today's young population, the 21(st) century began with an epidemic of childhood obesity. There is general agreement that the situation must be addressed by means of primary prevention, but relatively little is known about how to intervene effectively....... The evidence behind the assumption that childhood obesity can be prevented was discussed critically in this roundtable symposium. Overall, there was general agreement that action is needed and that the worldwide epidemic itself is sufficient evidence for action. As the poet, writer, and scholar...
Wieting, J Michael
Childhood obesity has reached epidemic proportions in the United States. As a result, children are at increased risk for myriad preventable acute and chronic medical problems--many of which are associated with increased morbidity and mortality. In addition, childhood obesity has serious psychosocial consequences, such as low self-esteem, lower quality of life, and depression. The multifaceted causes and solutions to this pervasive health issue are discussed in the present review, as are pertinent health policy issues. Osteopathic physicians and other healthcare providers can play an important role in patient and family education, direct care, and advocacy. PMID:18948638
Rugholm, Susi; Baker, Jennifer Lyn; Olsen, Lina W;
OBJECTIVE: To assess whether changes in the birth weight distribution or changes in the association of birth weight with the later risk of childhood overweight have contributed to the development of the obesity epidemic. RESEARCH METHODS AND PROCEDURES: A Danish population-based cohort study of 124...... the obesity epidemic in children of school age operate in the early postnatal period....
Han, Joan C; Lawlor, Debbie A; Kimm, Sue Y S
Worldwide prevalence of childhood obesity has increased greatly during the past three decades. The increasing occurrence in children of disorders such as type 2 diabetes is believed to be a consequence of this obesity epidemic. Much progress has been made in understanding of the genetics and physiology of appetite control and from these advances, elucidation of the causes of some rare obesity syndromes. However, these rare disorders have so far taught us few lessons about prevention or reversal of obesity in most children. Calorie intake and activity recommendations need reassessment and improved quantification at a population level because of sedentary lifestyles of children nowadays. For individual treatment, currently recommended calorie prescriptions might be too conservative in view of evolving insight into the so-called energy gap. Although quality of research into both prevention and treatment has improved, high-quality multicentre trials with long-term follow-up are needed. Meanwhile, prevention and treatment approaches to increase energy expenditure and decrease intake should continue. Recent data suggest that the spiralling increase in childhood obesity prevalence might be abating; increased efforts should be made on all fronts to continue this potentially exciting trend. PMID:20451244
Ajslev, Teresa A; Ängquist, Lars; Silventoinen, Karri;
.001), whereas the increase in father-daughter correlations were insignificant both at ages 7-7 (0.001/year, p = 0.37) and at ages 13-7 years (0.001/year, p = 0.18). CONCLUSION: During the obesity epidemics development, the intergenerational resemblance with mothers remained stable, whereas the father-child BMI......BACKGROUND: The intergenerational resemblance in body mass index may have increased during the development of the obesity epidemic due to changes in environment and/or expression of genetic predisposition. OBJECTIVES: This study investigates trends in intergenerational correlations of childhood...... body mass index (BMI; kg/m2) during the emergence of the obesity epidemic. METHODS: The study population was derived from the Copenhagen School Health Records Register, which includes height and weight measurements since birth year 1930. Mothers and fathers with BMIs available at ages 7 (n = 25,923 and...
Aydın, Ahmet; Koca, Fahrettin; Fıçıcıoğlu, Can; Çam, Halit; Mıkla, Şerare
Management of childhood obesity and its early and late complications are among the most difficult problems confronted by pediatricians and practitioners The purpose of this review is to provide information for the evaluation and treatment of childhood obesity Key nbsp;words: nbsp;Child Obesity Etiology Management Complications
Wilkinson, Justine; Howard, Simon
Childhood obesity has important consequences for health and wellbeing both during childhood and also in later adult life. The rising prevalence of childhood obesity poses a major public health challenge in both developed and developing countries by increasing the burden of chronic non-communicable diseases. Despite the urgent need for effective preventative strategies, there remains disagreement over its definition due to a lack of evidence on the optimal cut-offs linking childhood BMI to dis...
Yuca, Sevil Ari, Ed.
This book aims to provide readers with a general as well as an advanced overview of the key trends in childhood obesity. Obesity is an illness that occurs due to a combination of genetic, environmental, psychosocial, metabolic and hormonal factors. The prevalence of obesity has shown a great rise both in adults and children in the last 30 years.…
Sahoo, Krushnapriya; Sahoo, Bishnupriya; Choudhury, Ashok Kumar; Sofi, Nighat Yasin; Kumar, Raman; Bhadoria, Ajeet Singh
Childhood obesity has reached epidemic levels in developed as well as in developing countries. Overweight and obesity in childhood are known to have significant impact on both physical and psychological health. Overweight and obese children are likely to stay obese into adulthood and more likely to develop non-communicable diseases like diabetes and cardiovascular diseases at a younger age. The mechanism of obesity development is not fully understood and it is believed to be a disorder with m...
González Parra, Gilberto Carlos
This thesis dissertation deals with the mathematical modeling of childhood obesity from a social epidemic point of view for the Spanish region of Valencia. Three mathematical models based on systems of nonlinear ordinary differential equations of first order were constructed. The first one is constructed for simulating childhood obesity for the 3-5 years old population. For this model a nonstandard scheme based on the techniquesn developed by Ronald Mickens is constructed. This model is...
Learn about obesity and the community initiatives taking place to prevent and reduce this epidemic. Created: 7/18/2011 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity and Obesity. Date Released: 7/18/2011.
Merchant Anwar T; Akhtar-Danesh Noori; Dehghan Mahshid
Abstract Childhood obesity has reached epidemic levels in developed countries. Twenty five percent of children in the US are overweight and 11% are obese. Overweight and obesity in childhood are known to have significant impact on both physical and psychological health. The mechanism of obesity development is not fully understood and it is believed to be a disorder with multiple causes. Environmental factors, lifestyle preferences, and cultural environment play pivotal roles in the rising pre...
In this podcast, Dr. Tom Frieden, CDC Director, discusses the decrease in childhood obesity rates and what strategies have been proven to work to help our children grow up and thrive. Created: 8/6/2013 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control. Date Released: 3/6/2014.
The prevalence of obesity among US children and adolescents has rapidly increased in the past several decades, and the epidemic of childhood obesity is currently a serious public health concern in the United States. This dissertation consists of three studies examining individual- and neighborhood-level determinants of childhood obesity. The study area was Los Angeles County in California. Our first study examined the effects of maternal employment, individual socioeconomic status (SES), and ...
Wang, F; Veugelers, P J
Consequences of obesity for mental health and cognitive development are not established to the same degree as those for chronic diseases. This study aims to document the interrelationships between body weight, self-esteem and school performance in childhood. Height and weight measurements and self-report of self-esteem, diet quality and physical activity of 4945 grade 5 students were linked with standardized literacy test results. Structural equation models were applied to confirm hypothesized relationships between body weight, self-esteem and school performance, and revealed that body weight affected self-esteem negatively and that school performance affected self-esteem positively. Body weight did not affect school performance, and self-esteem did affect neither body weight nor school performance. Subsequent multi-level logistic regression showed that obese students, relative to normal weight students, were more likely (1.44; 95% CI: 1.12-1.84), and students with good school performance, relative to those performing poor, were less likely (0.39; 95% CI: 0.26-0.58), to have low self-esteem. Diet quality and active living had positive effects on both school performance and self-esteem. The study findings further establish obesity as a risk factor for low self-esteem and add to the rationale to promote healthy eating and active living among children and youth as this will prevent chronic diseases and improve mental health and cognitive development. PMID:18647242
Primary childhood obesity has reached epidemic levels in industrialized countries particularly in North America. Twenty five percent of children and adolescents in the United States are overweight and 14% are obese. However, the prevalence of obesity is alarmingly rising in other less developed parts of the world, like Asia, the Middle East and some parts of Africa. Overweight and obesity in childhood extend to adulthood and the majority of obese children grew as obese adults. Obesity has sig...
Baek, Jonggyu; Sánchez, Brisa N; Sanchez-Vaznaugh, Emma V
Methods for multiple informants help to estimate the marginal effect of each multiple source predictor and formally compare the strength of their association with an outcome. We extend multiple informant methods to the case of hierarchical data structures to account for within cluster correlation. We apply the proposed method to examine the relationship between features of the food environment near schools and children's body mass index z-scores (BMIz). Specifically, we compare the associations between two different features of the food environment (fast food restaurants and convenience stores) with BMIz and investigate how the association between the number of fast food restaurants or convenience stores and child's BMIz varies across distance from a school. The newly developed methodology enhances the types of research questions that can be asked by investigators studying effects of environment on childhood obesity and can be applied to other fields. PMID:24038440
... Childhood Obesity Facts The prevalence of obesity among low-income children aged 2 through 4 years, by state ... Obesity now affects 1 in 6 children and adolescents in the United States. Childhood Obesity Facts How ...
In examining the childhood obesity epidemic from the perspective of economics, John Cawley looks at both possible causes and possible policy solutions that work through markets. The operation of markets, says Cawley, has contributed to the recent increase in childhood overweight in three main ways. First, the real price of food fell. In…
Childhood obesity has reached epidemic proportions. Many of these children have risk factors for later disease, including cardiovascular disease. For optimal cardiovascular health, health care professionals must be able to identify children and youth at risk and provide appropriate support as needed. The present article reviews the current medical literature on obesity and cardiovascular disease risk factors in the paediatric population, the long-term cardiovascular consequences of childhood ...
Mitchell, Nia; Catenacci, Vicki; Wyatt, Holly R.; Hill, James O.
Despite growing recognition of the problem, the obesity epidemic continues in the U.S., and obesity rates are increasing around the world. The latest estimates are that approximately 34% of adults and 15–20% of children and adolescents in the U.S. are obese. Obesity affects every segment of the U.S. population. Obesity increases the risk of many chronic diseases in children and adults. The epidemic of obesity arose gradually over time, apparently from a small, consistent degree of positive en...
王星云(综述); 刘洋; 闻德亮(审校)
全球儿童肥胖呈逐年增加趋势，引起全世界的关注。超重和肥胖不仅在发达国家流行，而且已波及到发展中国家。我国已进入全人群儿童肥胖流行阶段。研究显示肥胖不仅影响儿童的身心健康，而且对健康的危害会延续到成年期，导致成人2型糖尿病、冠心病等心脑血管疾病提前发生或发病率增加。肥胖的原因包括遗传、生命早期事件、体力活动模式、饮食和社会心理因素等。该文对近年来国内外儿童肥胖流行现状及其影响因素的相关研究作一综述。%The growing trend of childhood obesity has attracted much attention globally.Overweight and obesity are not only popular in developed countries,but have spread to developing countries.China has entered an overall epidemic stage of childhood obesity.Studies have shown that obesity does not only impairs children's health,but also leads to health hazards in adult stage.Diabetes,coronary heart disease and other cardiovascular diseases may take place sooner or the incidence may become higher.The causes of obesity include genetic,early life events,physical activity patterns,diet and social psychological factors.This article reviews the current epi-demic status and the influencing factors of childhood obesity worldwide.
Sahoo, Krushnapriya; Sahoo, Bishnupriya; Choudhury, Ashok Kumar; Sofi, Nighat Yasin; Kumar, Raman; Bhadoria, Ajeet Singh
Childhood obesity has reached epidemic levels in developed as well as in developing countries. Overweight and obesity in childhood are known to have significant impact on both physical and psychological health. Overweight and obese children are likely to stay obese into adulthood and more likely to develop non-communicable diseases like diabetes and cardiovascular diseases at a younger age. The mechanism of obesity development is not fully understood and it is believed to be a disorder with multiple causes. Environmental factors, lifestyle preferences, and cultural environment play pivotal roles in the rising prevalence of obesity worldwide. In general, overweight and obesity are assumed to be the results of an increase in caloric and fat intake. On the other hand, there are supporting evidence that excessive sugar intake by soft drink, increased portion size, and steady decline in physical activity have been playing major roles in the rising rates of obesity all around the world. Childhood obesity can profoundly affect children's physical health, social, and emotional well-being, and self esteem. It is also associated with poor academic performance and a lower quality of life experienced by the child. Many co-morbid conditions like metabolic, cardiovascular, orthopedic, neurological, hepatic, pulmonary, and renal disorders are also seen in association with childhood obesity. PMID:25949965
Kollar, Lenka; Epifano, Evienne; McKneight, Molly; Miskovich, Jeff; Moore, Heather
The incidence of chronic, noncommunicable diseases, such as heart disease, is increasing at an alarming rate on the global scale. The growing prevalence of overweight and obesity have led to an upsurge in cases of diabetes and other obesity-related diseases. About 18 million people die every year from heart disease, of which diabetes and obesity are major predisposing factors. Worldwide, more than 1.1 billion adults are overweight, 312 million of which are obese. The number of children that a...
... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Reducing Childhood Obesity Past Issues / Summer 2007 Table of Contents For ... Ga. were the first three We Can! cities. Obesity Research: A New Approach The percentage of children ...
The prevalence of childhood obesity has steadily increased over the last decades, with approximately 35% of children aged 6-19 classified as overweight or obese. Recently, a plateau in the increasing rates of obesity has been observed. Despite this leveling off, overweight and obese children are hea...
Merchant Anwar T
Full Text Available Abstract Childhood obesity has reached epidemic levels in developed countries. Twenty five percent of children in the US are overweight and 11% are obese. Overweight and obesity in childhood are known to have significant impact on both physical and psychological health. The mechanism of obesity development is not fully understood and it is believed to be a disorder with multiple causes. Environmental factors, lifestyle preferences, and cultural environment play pivotal roles in the rising prevalence of obesity worldwide. In general, overweight and obesity are assumed to be the results of an increase in caloric and fat intake. On the other hand, there are supporting evidence that excessive sugar intake by soft drink, increased portion size, and steady decline in physical activity have been playing major roles in the rising rates of obesity all around the world. Consequently, both over-consumption of calories and reduced physical activity are involved in childhood obesity. Almost all researchers agree that prevention could be the key strategy for controlling the current epidemic of obesity. Prevention may include primary prevention of overweight or obesity, secondary prevention or prevention of weight regains following weight loss, and avoidance of more weight increase in obese persons unable to lose weight. Until now, most approaches have focused on changing the behaviour of individuals in diet and exercise. It seems, however, that these strategies have had little impact on the growing increase of the obesity epidemic. While about 50% of the adults are overweight and obese in many countries, it is difficult to reduce excessive weight once it becomes established. Children should therefore be considered the priority population for intervention strategies. Prevention may be achieved through a variety of interventions targeting built environment, physical activity, and diet. Some of these potential strategies for intervention in children can be
Datar, Ashlesha; Nicosia, Nancy
Despite limited empirical evidence, there is growing concern that junk food availability in schools has contributed to the childhood obesity epidemic. In this paper, we estimate the effects of junk food availability on body mass index (BMI), obesity, and related outcomes among a national sample of fifth graders. Unlike previous studies, we address…
Summerfield, Liane M.
In this discussion of childhood obesity, the medical and psychological problems associated with the condition are noted. Childhood obesity most likely results from an interaction of nutritional, psychological, familial, and physiological factors. Three factors--the family, low-energy expenditure, and heredity--are briefly examined. Early…
US children are at risk for developing childhood obesity. Currently, 23% of children ages 2–5 are overweight or obese, i.e., at or above the 85th percentile. This prevalence becomes even higher as children age, with 34% of children ages 6–11 being overweight or obese. Ethnic minority children are at...
Reilly, John J.
This article reviews recent research evidence, largely from systematic reviews, on a number of aspects of childhood obesity: its definition and prevalence; consequences; causes and prevention. The basis of the body mass index (BMI) as a means of defining obesity in children and adolescents is discussed: a high BMI for age constitutes obesity. In…
Murphy, Maureen; Polivka, Barbara
As childhood obesity has increased, schools have struggled with their role in this epidemic. Parents with a school-age child in a suburban latchkey program were surveyed regarding their perceptions of childhood obesity, body mass index, and the school's role in prevention and treatment of obesity. More than 80% of participants identified…
The childhood obesity epidemic is one of the defining health challenges of this decade and perhaps the 21st century. Obesity rates among youths have nearly tripled in the past three decades. Solving the obesity epidemic requires that students understand and accept the changes within the environment and ultimately modify their health behaviors to…
Han, Joan C.; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Kimm, Sue Y.S.
The worldwide prevalence of childhood obesity has increased greatly over the past 3 decades. The increasing occurrence in children of disorders, such as type 2 diabetes, is believed to be a consequence of this obesity epidemic. Much progress has been made in understanding the genetics and physiology of appetite control and from this, the elucidation of the causes of some rare obesity syndromes. However, these rare disorders have so far taught us only limited lessons on how to prevent or rever...
Ó Cathaoir, Katharina Eva
Childhood obesity is now a global health epidemic, yet the obligations of states to prevent obesity through fulfillment of the right to health have received limited consideration. This article examines the childhood obesity recommendations of the UN Committee on the Rights of the Child (the...... committee on the CRC), the Special Rapporteur on the right to health, and the UN High Commissioner on Human Rights. It suggests how their engagement might be strengthened. It concludes that the final report of the World Health Organization’s Commission on Ending Childhood Obesity could provide the committee...... on the CRC with a more systematic basis for advising and assessing preventive measures taken by states. Moreover, while the interim report envisages a central role for states in childhood obesity prevention, it pays inadequate attention to their obligations under international human rights law. It is...
Full Text Available Obesity is a major health problem and an immense economic burden on the health care systems both in the United States and the rest of the world. The prevalence of obesity in children and adults in the United States has increased dramatically over the past decade. Besides environmental factors, genetic factors are known to play an important role in the pathogenesis of obesity. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS have revealed strongly associated genomic variants associated with most common disorders; indeed there is general consensus on these findings from generally positive replication outcomes by independent groups. To date, there have been only a few GWAS-related reports for childhood obesity specifically, with studies primarily uncovering loci in the adult setting instead. It is clear that a number of loci previously reported from GWAS analyses of adult BMI and/or obesity also play a role in childhood obesity.
Ronald C. Plotnikoff, PhD; Penny Lightfoot, MHSA; Linda Barrett, MSc; Carla Spinola, MA; Gerry Predy, MD, FRCPC
Childhood obesity has reached epidemic levels in the developed world. Recent research and commentary suggest that an ecological approach is required to address childhood obesity, given the multidimensional nature of the problem. We propose a Canadian prototype, the Child Health Ecological Surveillance System, for a regional health authority to address the growing obesity epidemic. This prototype could potentially be used in other jurisdictions to address other child health issues. We present ...
Longjohn, Matt; Sheon, Amy R; Card-Higginson, Paula; Nader, Philip R; Mason, Maryann
Data on childhood obesity collected by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention helped reveal the nation's epidemic of overweight and obese children. But more information is needed. Collecting body mass index (BMI)-the widely accepted measurement of childhood weight status-at the state and local levels can be instrumental in identifying and tracking obesity trends, designing interventions to help overweight children, and guiding broader policy solutions. Approximately thirty states have enacted or proposed BMI surveillance laws and regulations. Arkansas stands out as the state with the highest-quality surveillance data. Innovative strategies being pursued in a number of other states should be explored for broader dissemination. PMID:20194988
Visscher, T L S; Heitmann, B L; Rissanen, A;
epidemic. However, follow-ups of short duration may, in part, explain the apparent break or decrease in the obesity epidemic. On the other hand, a single focus on body mass index (BMI) ⩾25 or ⩾30 kg m(-)(2) is likely to mask a real increase in the obesity epidemic. And, in both children and adults, trends......Recent epidemiologic papers are presenting prevalence data suggesting breaks and decreases in obesity rates. However, before concluding that the obesity epidemic is not increasing anymore, the validity of the presented data should be discussed more thoroughly. We had a closer look...... into the literature presented in recent reviews to address the major potential biases and distortions, and to develop insights about how to interpret the presented suggestions for a potential break in the obesity epidemic. Decreasing participation rates, the use of reported rather than measured data and small sample...
Datar, Ashlesha; Nicosia, Nancy
Despite limited empirical evidence, there is growing concern that junk food availability in schools has contributed to the childhood obesity epidemic. In this paper, we estimate the effects of junk food availability on BMI, obesity, and related outcomes among a national sample of fifth-graders. Unlike previous studies, we address the endogeneity of the school food environment by controlling for children’s BMI at school entry and estimating instrumental variables regressions that leverage vari...
Papoutsi, Georgia; Drichoutis, Andreas; Nayga, Rodolfo
Childhood obesity rates are rapidly rising in many countries. Since it is highly likely that obesity will persist into adulthood, current rates undermine the health and future of people in developed as well as developing countries. This public health epidemic carries significant economic, social as well as individual-level consequences and has become a research topic of significant interest for various disciplines including economics. We survey the literature in economics and related discipli...
Rahman, Tamanna; Cushing, Rachel A; Jackson, Richard J
As childhood obesity has reached epidemic proportions, it is critical to devise interventions that target the root causes of obesity and its risk factors. The two main components of childhood obesity are physical inactivity and improper nutrition, and it is becoming increasingly evident that the built environment can determine the level of exposure to these risk factors. Through a multidisciplinary literature review, we investigated the association between various built environment attributes and childhood obesity. We found that neighborhood features such as walkability/bikeability, mixed land use, accessible destinations, and transit increase resident physical activity; also that access to high-caloric foods and convenience stores increases risk of overweight and obesity, whereas the presence of neighborhood supermarkets and farmers' markets is associated with lower childhood body mass index and overweight status. It is evident that a child's built environment impacts his access to nutritious foods and physical activity. In order for children, as well as adults, to prevent onset of overweight or obesity, they need safe places to be active and local markets that offer affordable, healthy food options. Interventions that are designed to provide safe, walkable neighborhoods with access to necessary destinations will be effective in combating the epidemic of obesity. PMID:21259262
Background: Childhood obesity is a global epidemic posing a significant threat to the health and wellbeing of children. To reverse this epidemic, it is essential that we gain a deeper understanding of the complex array of driving factors at an individual, family and wider ecological level. Using a social-ecological framework, this thesis investigates the direction, magnitude and contribution of risk factors for childhood overweight and obesity at multiple levels of influence, with a particula...
In recent years the levels of obesity in the United States has risen greatly especially amongst children. Doctors, psychologists, and other scientists have been studying the growing problem for years. Implications for childhood obesity not only have enormous physical consequences but emotional repercussions which can affect the child’s academic and social development. A number of factors have been identified as having an effect on these children; family life reveals the grocery store habits o...
Ó Cathaoir, Katharina Eva
Childhood obesity is now a global health epidemic, yet the obligations of states to prevent obesity through fulfillment of the right to health have received limited consideration. This article examines the childhood obesity recommendations of the UN Committee on the Rights of the Child (the...... hoped that this will be remedied in the final report through the adoption of a child-centered approach inspired by the rights to health and play, and the general principles of the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC)....... committee on the CRC), the Special Rapporteur on the right to health, and the UN High Commissioner on Human Rights. It suggests how their engagement might be strengthened. It concludes that the final report of the World Health Organization’s Commission on Ending Childhood Obesity could provide the committee...
Ramirez, Amelie G.; Chalela, Patricia; Gallion, Kipling J.; Green, Lawrence W.; Ottoson, Judith
U.S. childhood obesity has reached epidemic proportions, with one third of children overweight or obese. Latino children have some of the highest obesity rates, a concern because they are part of the youngest and fastest-growing U.S. minority group. Unfortunately, scarce research data on Latinos hinders the development and implementation of…
Dilek Yildiz; Berna Eren Fidanci; Derya Suluhan
Childhood obesity has increased dramatically during the past two decades. The growing incidence of childhood obesity is alarming, given the significant short and long term health problems associated with obesity. Being overweight or obese may increase the rate of non-communicable diseases such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease in adulthood. It may contribute to shortening life expectancy and adversely affects the quality of life. Therefore, it is important to prevent childhood obe...
Sevil İnal; Nejla Canbulat
Until recently, it has not been put much emphasis on obesity in children and the view of “obese child is healthy” is widely accepted by families. However, understanding that a close relation exists between obesity prevalence and childhood obesity, which increased in recent years both across the world and in our country, and many diseases such as hypertension, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases changed the opinion of both of health care professionals and the society about childhood obesity in T...
Du Toit, Dorita; Hannes J.L. van der Walt
The prevalence of childhood obesity has been rapidly increasing over the last decade in both developed and developing countries. To combat the increasing prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity in South Africa, it is essential to understand the extent and intrinsic patterns of the epidemic among children in this developing country. The purpose of this study was to review the available South African literature with regard to the prevalence and intrinsic patterns of childhood overweight ...
Pirgon, Özgür; Aslan, Nagehan
Obesity is becoming the most frequently diagnosed chronic disease in many countries affecting all age groups and specifically the pediatric population. To date, most approaches have focused on changing the behavior of individuals with respect to diet and exercise. Almost all researchers agree that prevention could be the key strategy for controlling the current epidemic of obesity. Prevention may be achieved by changes in lifestyle through a variety of interventions targeting the urban environment, physical activity, time spent watching television and playing computer games and consumption of carbonated drinks. However, as yet, these strategies seem to have had little impact on the growing increase of the obesity epidemic. In this article, we aimed to discuss the effect of rapid urbanization on childhood obesity and to suggest solutions to this problem. PMID:26831548
Full Text Available The global epidemic of childhood and adolescent obesity and its immediate as well as long-term consequences for obese individuals and society as a whole cannot be overemphasized. Obesity in childhood and adolescence is associated with an increased risk of adult obesity and clinically significant consequences affecting the cardiovascular and metabolic systems. Importantly, obesity is additionally complicated by obstructive sleep apnea (OSA, occurring in up to 60% of obese children. OSA, which is diagnosed using the gold standard polysomnogram (PSG, is characterised by snoring, recurrent partial (hypopneas or complete (apneas obstruction of the upper airway. OSA is frequently associated with intermittent oxyhemoglobin desaturations, sleep disruption, and sleep fragmentation. There is emerging data that OSA is associated with cardiovascular burden including systemic hypertension, changes in ventricular structure and function, arterial stiffness, and metabolic syndromes. Thus, OSA in the context of obesity may independently or synergistically magnify the underlying cardiovascular and metabolic burden. This is of importance as early recognition and treatment of OSA in obese children are likely to result in the reduction of cardiometabolic burden in obese children. This paper summarizes the current state of understanding of obesity-related OSA. Specifically, this paper will discuss epidemiology, pathophysiology, cardiometabolic burden, and management of obese children and adolescents with OSA.
Childhood obesity is a global epidemic. Health video games are an emerging intervention strategy to combat childhood obesity. This systematic review examined published research on the effect of health video games on childhood obesity. Fourteen articles examining 28 health video ames published betwee...
Jacoby, E; Grajeda, R; Contreras, A; Hospedales, J
The Pan American Health Organization's approach to preventing child obesity is built on (1) documenting and monitoring the problem and its social and economic impacts; (2) advocating for prevention and control policies through the life-course, within and outside of the health sector; (3) leading initiatives on healthy diet and active living and educating policy makers and the public about obesogenic environments, including policies to reduce the marketing of food and beverages to children; (4) enabling healthy environments for daily life activities, especially for children in schools and community settings; (5) strengthening capacity for integrated management of obesity and noncommunicable diseases with emphasis on primary health care; and (6) mobilizing partners and resources to combat the problem.
Chang Su; Bing Zhang; You-Fa Wang; Xiao-Fang Jia; Hong Xue; Hui-Jun Wang
Background:Obesity has become a major health problem among children and adolescents worldwide.This study aimed to examine the trends of overweight and obesity among childhood in China and assess their associations with family income,dietary intake,and physical activity (PA) between 1997 and 2009.Methods:Two waves of cross-sectional data of Chinese children and adolescents aged 7-17 years from the China Health and Nutrition Survey were used.Weight and height were measured following standardized procedures.Dietary intake was assessed by 3 consecutive 24-h recalls.Childhood overweight and obesity were defined using the International Obesity Task Force-recommended body mass index cut-offs.Multivariate linear regression analysis was used to examine the associations of family income with diet intakes and PA.Multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted to assess the associations of overweight and obesity with family income,dietary intake,and PA.Results:The prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity increased from 12.6％ in 1997 to 22.1％ in 2009,particularly in the medium-and high-family income groups,which increased by 102.7％ and 90.3％,respectively.Higher fat intake (％ energy),and moderate and vigorous PA were significantly associated with overweight and obesity in final model (odds ratio [OR] =1.01,95％ confidence interval [CI]:1.00-1.02,P =0.004;and OR =0.99,95％ CI:0.98-1.00,P =0.036,respectively).Conclusions:The prevalence of overweight and obesity among Chinese children and adolescents has increased between 1997 and 2009.Reducing fat intake and increasing PA may help obesity prevention.
Ebbeling, Cara B; Pawlak, Dorota B; Ludwig, David S
During the past two decades, the prevalence of obesity in children has risen greatly worldwide. Obesity in childhood causes a wide range of serious complications, and increases the risk of premature illness and death later in life, raising public-health concerns. Results of research have provided new insights into the physiological basis of bodyweight regulation. However, treatment for childhood obesity remains largely ineffective. In view of its rapid development in genetically stable populations, the childhood obesity epidemic can be primarily attributed to adverse environmental factors for which straightforward, if politically difficult, solutions exist. PMID:12241736
Lu, Amy Shirong; Kharrazi, Hadi; Gharghabi, Fardad; Thompson, Debbe
Childhood obesity is a global epidemic. Health videogames are an emerging intervention strategy to combat childhood obesity. This systematic review examined published research on the effect of health videogames on childhood obesity. Fourteen articles examining 28 health videogames published between 2005 and 2013 in English were selected from 2433 articles identified through five major search engines. Results indicated that academic interest in using health videogames for childhood obesity pre...
Childhood obesity has become an epidemic on a worldwide scale. This article gives an overview of the progress made in childhood and adolescent obesity research in the last decade, with a particular emphasis on the transdisciplinary and complex nature of the problem. The following topics are addressed: 1) current definitions of childhood and adolescent overweight and obesity; 2) demography of childhood and adolescent obesity both in the US and globally; 3) current topics in the physiology of f...
Larrier, Yvonne; Kijai, Jimmy; Bakerson, Michelle A.; Walker, Lynne; Linton, Jeremy; Woolford-Hunt, Carole; Sallinen, Bethany J.; Woolford, Susan J.
Background: Childhood obesity has become a public health priority in the U.S. and is linked to a number of significant comorbidities including asthma, sleep apnea and depression. In addition, there is an increase in social isolation and peer victimization. Purpose: the purpose of this study was to explore Professional School Counselors (PSC)…
Lagerros, Ylva Trolle; Rössner, Stephan
It is unclear whether the obesity epidemic has come to a halt. Perhaps the incidence is declining, at least in pre-school children. However, the obesity rate is higher than ever before. Prevention is a priority, especially in children, but has not been very successful to date. Treatment has basically offered the same tools for decades. The recent development of obesity pharmacotherapy has regressed with--in most countries--only one drug of modest effect available. Bariatric surgery has therefore been considered one of the few solutions in the adult setting and is gaining increasing attention as a treatment option, even in pediatric extreme obesity. In some countries, government action for prevention has been taken, but too often resources have not been set aside. This review addresses new and old strategies to manage obesity--from childhood and onwards. PMID:21905821
Prevention is the key strategy for controlling the current epidemic levels of childhood obesity. Current statistics show that obesity has more than doubled for preschool children aged 2-5 years and adolescents aged 12-19 years, and it has more than tripled for children aged 6-11 years. It is generally recognized that nutrition education for the…
Henry, Linda L
Childhood obesity is at epidemic proportions in the United States today. This epidemic has created a public health crisis. Although several initiatives are under way to address childhood obesity, including legislative bills before Congress and a call by the National Academy of Sciences for society to band together to stop the rise in the rates of childhood obesity, none of these efforts address what can be done today to help those youth that are considered morbidly obese and who have failed to find solutions with the standard medical treatment plan. This article discusses the use of bariatric surgery as a possible solution, presents a case study to illustrate the impact bariatric surgery can have on youth who are morbidly obese, and defines the pediatric nurse's role in helping to assure that youth are included in the current legislative process. PMID:15794315
Childhood obesity is a serious health problem and prevalence increases dramatically around the world, including Sweden. The aim of the current thesis was to examine parents’ and children’s stress in relation to childhood obesity. Parenting stress, social support, parental worries, and serious life events, as well as children’s temperament, self-esteem, body dissatisfaction, saliva cortisol, weight and height were measured to estimate stress and the relation between stress and childhood obesit...
Vos, Miriam B.; Welsh, Jean
Obesity is a global epidemic and children are affected in increasing numbers. Overweight children are at increased risk of becoming overweight adults with associated chronic diseases. In this update, we present key findings from a review of the current literature focused on potential causes and strategies for preventing childhood obesity. We highlight recent evidence regarding the role of genetics, maternal body mass index, postnatal influences, and environmental effects throughout childhood ...
Tegan K. Boehmer, PhD, MPH; Ross C. Brownson, PhD; Debra Haire-Joshu, PhD; Mariah L. Dreisinger
Introduction Because of the public's growing awareness of the childhood obesity epidemic, health policies that address obesogenic environments by encouraging healthy eating and increased physical activity are gaining more attention. However, there has been little systematic examination of state policy efforts. This study identified and described state-level childhood obesity prevention legislation introduced and adopted from 2003 through 2005 and attempted to identify regional geographic patt...
Ronald C. Plotnikoff, PhD
Full Text Available Childhood obesity has reached epidemic levels in the developed world. Recent research and commentary suggest that an ecological approach is required to address childhood obesity, given the multidimensional nature of the problem. We propose a Canadian prototype, the Child Health Ecological Surveillance System, for a regional health authority to address the growing obesity epidemic. This prototype could potentially be used in other jurisdictions to address other child health issues. We present 8 guiding principles for the development and implementation of a regional framework for action.
Kalarchian, Melissa A; Marcus, Marsha D
The onset of psychiatric symptoms and disorders is relatively common in childhood, occurring among youths across the weight spectrum. However, available research suggests that certain psychiatric comorbidities are more prevalent in obese children and adolescents than in healthy weight youths. First, we review research on disordered eating, including evidence to suggest that loss of control eating is associated with weight gain and obesity in youths, as well as poor outcome in family-based treatment of paediatric obesity. Second, we highlight evidence on the relationship between depression and obesity, especially in girls. Third, we present data on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), particularly the symptoms of impulsivity and inattention, and childhood obesity. We also consider that some medical conditions and psychotropic medications contribute to weight gain and obesity in children and adolescents. Throughout the review, we emphasize that psychiatric comorbidity may be a cause or consequence of childhood obesity, or they may share common aetiological factors. PMID:22724645
Describes the role caregivers play in helping young children dealing with obesity. Examines: (1) causes of childhood obesity; (2) caregiver's position; (3) learning nutrition concepts; (4) preparing and serving healthy foods; (5) encouraging physical activity; (6) working with parents; and (7) assisting an obese child. (SD)
This paper uses longitudinal micro-evidence from the European Community Household Panel to investigate the obesity phenomenon in nine EU countries from 1998 to 2001. The author documents cross-country prevalence, trends and cohort-age profiles of obesity among adults and analyses the socioeconomic factors contributing to the problem. The associated costs of obesity are also investigated, both in terms of health status, health care spending and absenteeism.
Childhood obesity has become an epidemic on a worldwide scale. This article gives an overview of the progress made in childhood and adolescent obesity research in the last decade, with a particular emphasis on the transdisciplinary and complex nature of the problem. The following topics are addressed: (1) current definitions of childhood and…
Brown, Callie L; Halvorson, Elizabeth E; Cohen, Gail M; Lazorick, Suzanne; Skelton, Joseph A
The overweight and obesity epidemic among children and adolescents in the United States continues to worsen, with notable racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic disparities. Risk factors for pediatric obesity include genetics; environmental and neighborhood factors; increased intake of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), fast-food, and processed snacks; decreased physical activity; shorter sleep duration; and increased personal, prenatal, or family stress. Pediatricians can help prevent obesity by measuring body mass index at least yearly and providing age- and development-appropriate anticipatory guidance to families. Public policies and environmental interventions aim to make it easier for children to make healthy nutrition and physical activity choices. Interventions focused on family habits and parenting strategies have also been successful at preventing or treating childhood obesity. PMID:26318950
Mulheron, Joyal; Vonasek, Kara
Studies show that childhood obesity has reached epidemic proportions in the United States. Today, more than 23 million American children--or nearly one in every three--are overweight or obese. If childhood obesity is left unaddressed, a generation of individuals could face health, social, and economic challenges that promise to stress government…
Huang, Jeannie S; Barlow, Sarah E.; Quiros-Tejeira, Ruben E.; Scheimann, Ann; Skelton, Joseph; Suskind, David; Tsai, Patrika; Uko, Victor; Warolin, Joshua P.; Xanthakos, Stavra A.
Obesity in childhood is one of the major health issues in pediatric health care today. As expected, the prevalence of obesity-related comorbidities has risen in parallel with that of obesity. Consultation regarding these concomitant diseases and subsequent management by subspecialists, including pediatric gastroenterologists, is now common and has resulted in obesity being recognized as a chronic disease requiring coordination of care. Although medications and even surgery may provide effecti...
Full Text Available Aakash Pandita,1 Deepak Sharma,2 Dharti Pandita,3 Smita Pawar,4 Mir Tariq,5 Avinash Kaul6 1Department of Pediatrics, SMGS Hospital Jammu, Jammu and Kashmir, India; 2Department of Pediatrics, Pt Bhagwat Dayal Sharma Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Rohtak, Haryana, India; 3Department of Microbiology Jammu University, Jammu, Jammu and Kashmir, India; 4Department of OBG Fernandez Hospital, Hyderabad,Telangana, India; 5Department of Orthopedics, Kokilaben Dhirubhai Ambani Hospital, Mumbai, India; 6Department of Surgery, Acharya Shri Chander College of Medical Sciences and Hospital, Jammu, Jammu and Kashmir, India Abstract: Obesity and its associated comorbidities have emerged as a major health problem garnering interests from both public health agencies and mainstream media consumers. With increasing awareness on its impact on health, finances, and community at large, it has come to the forefront for scientific research and development of health plans. The need for better strategies and novel interventions to manage obesity is now being recognized by the entire health care system. Obesity and overweight is now the fifth leading global risk factor for mortality. Strategic investment is thus urgently needed to implement population-based childhood obesity prevention programmes which are effective and also culturally appropriate. Population-based prevention is crucial to stem this rising tide of childhood obesity which is fast reaching epidemic proportions. Obesity has its onset very early in life; therefore, children constitute a major group of this disease. It is thus imperative to lay utmost importance on prevention of obesity in children and herald its progress, if present already. Furthermore, treatment is still in preliminary stage, so early prevention holds better than treatment at later stages. This article is an attempt to lay emphasis on childhood obesity as a problem that needs to be recognized early and measures for its
Morrill, Allison C; Chinn, Christopher D
We describe the epidemic of obesity in the United States: escalating rates of obesity in both adults and children, and why these qualify as an epidemic; disparities in overweight and obesity by race/ethnicity and sex, and the staggering health and economic consequences of obesity. Physical activity contributes to the epidemic as explained by new patterns of physical activity in adults and children. Changing patterns of food consumption, such as rising carbohydrate intake--particularly in the form of soda and other foods containing high fructose corn syrup--also contribute to obesity. We present as a central concept, the food environment--the contexts within which food choices are made--and its contribution to food consumption: the abundance and ubiquity of certain types of foods over others; limited food choices available in certain settings, such as schools; the market economy of the United States that exposes individuals to many marketing/advertising strategies. Advertising tailored to children plays an important role. PMID:15683071
Pihl, Andreas Friis; Fonvig, Cilius Esmann; Stjernholm, Theresa;
BACKGROUND: Childhood and adolescent obesity has reached epidemic proportions worldwide. The pathogenesis of obesity is complex and multifactorial, in which genetic and environmental contributions seem important. The gut microbiota is increasingly documented to be involved in the dysmetabolism...... associated with obesity. METHODS: We conducted a systematic search for literature available before October 2015 in the PubMed and Scopus databases, focusing on the interplay between the gut microbiota, childhood obesity, and metabolism. RESULTS: The review discusses the potential role of the bacterial...... component of the human gut microbiota in childhood and adolescent-onset obesity, with a special focus on the factors involved in the early development of the gut bacterial ecosystem, and how modulation of this microbial community might serve as a basis for new therapeutic strategies in combating childhood...
La Merrill, Michele; Birnbaum, Linda S.
Childhood and adolescent rates of obesity and overweight are continuing to increase in much of the world. Risk factors such as diet composition, excess caloric intake, decreased exercise, genetics, and the built environment are active areas of etiologic research. The obesogen hypothesis, which postulates that pre- and peri- natal chemical exposure can contribute to risk of childhood and adolescent obesity, remains relatively under-examined. This review surveys numerous classes of chemicals fo...
Full Text Available Until recently, it has not been put much emphasis on obesity in children and the view of “obese child is healthy” is widely accepted by families. However, understanding that a close relation exists between obesity prevalence and childhood obesity, which increased in recent years both across the world and in our country, and many diseases such as hypertension, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases changed the opinion of both of health care professionals and the society about childhood obesity in Turkey, like it changed the opinion in all around the world. Although there are no studies in our country, which have been conducted to investigate obesity prevalence and affecting factors in children nationwide, it is reported in studies carried out in various cities that rate of overweight children in preschool children is between 4-13%, whereas rate of obese children is between 9-27%. In the literature, a positive correlation was found between the frequency of taking the children to fast-food restaurants, compelling children to eat foods on their dishes, one or two of the parents being obese and obesity of children in Turkey. In this review will focus on the risk factors of childhood obesity in Turkey. (Journal of Current Pediatrics 2013; 11: 27-30
James B. Hunt Jr. Institute for Educational Leadership and Policy, 2008
Childhood obesity is on the rise across the country and in North Carolina, with four times as many children exhibiting signs of obesity now as they did 20 years ago. The costs in terms of medical expenses are staggering, with one estimate putting the cost to North Carolina at $16 million a year. Some North Carolina legislators have expressed…
According to data from the National Center for Health Statistics, childhood obesity rates are highest among ethnic minorities. It is very helpful to consider the role of culture when attempting to analyze and explain obesity rates in ethnic minority populations. Culture influences the attitudes and beliefs toward exercise, food and nutrition, and…
Salazar, Maria L.; Lea S Eiland
Childhood obesity is increasing in prevalence in the United States. Comorbid diseases once thought of as adult issues such as hypertension, diabetes, and dyslipidemia, are now being encountered in the pediatric population as a result of obesity. Primary prevention is still the most cost-effective approach to this growing problem. In terms of management, the treatment of obesity in children is not identical to that in adults. Thus far, the only accepted weight loss therapy for children are die...
Ramirez, Amelie G; Chalela, Patricia; Gallion, Kipling J; Green, Lawrence W; Ottoson, Judith
U.S. childhood obesity has reached epidemic proportions, with one third of children overweight or obese. Latino children have some of the highest obesity rates, a concern because they are part of the youngest and fastest-growing U.S. minority group. Unfortunately, scarce research data on Latinos hinders the development and implementation of evidence-based, culturally appropriate childhood obesity interventions. In response, the Salud America! network conducted a national Delphi survey among researchers and stakeholders to identify research priorities to address Latino childhood obesity and compare differences by occupation and race or ethnicity. The resulting first-ever National Latino Childhood Obesity Research Agenda provides a framework to stimulate research and collaboration among investigators, providers, and communities, and inform policy makers about the epidemic's seriousness and specific needs for priority funding. The agenda ranks family as the main ecological level to prevent Latino childhood obesity--followed by community, school, society, and individual-and ranks top research priorities in each level. PMID:21278306
Orio, Francesco; Tafuri, Domenico; Ascione, Antonio; Marciano, Francesca; Savastano, Silvia; Colarieti, Giorgio; Orio, Marcello; Colao, Annamaria; Palomba, Stefano; Muscogiuri, Giovanna
Adulthood and childhood obesity is rapidly becoming an epidemic problem and it has a short and long-term impact on health. Short-term consequences are mostly represented by psychological effects; in fact obese children have more chances to develop psychological or psychiatric problems than non-obese children. The main long-term effect is represented by the fact that childhood obesity continues into adulthood obesity and this results in negative effects in young adult life, since obesity increases the risk to develop morbidity and premature mortality. The obesity-related diseases are mostly represented by hypertension, type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, cardiovascular diseases. Medical treatment should be discouraged in childhood because of the side effects and it should be only reserved for obese children with related medical complications. Lifestyle changes should be encouraged in both adulthood and childhood obesity. This review focuses on the management of obesity both in adulthood and in childhood, paying particular attention to lifestyle changes that should be recommended. PMID:27600645
An important first step in addressing any public health crisis is raising public awareness. However, getting everyone on board to help solve the underlying causes of that crisis is a daunting task. The childhood obesity epidemic poses such a challenge, particularly in terms of how to best engage and assist principals and other school leaders in…
This podcast is based on the August, 2011 CDC Vital Signs report. Childhood obesity is an epidemic in the US. Breastfeeding can help prevent obesity, but one in three moms stop without hospital support. About 95% of hospitals lack policies that fully support breastfeeding moms. Hospitals need to do more to help moms start and continue breastfeeding. Created: 8/2/2011 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Date Released: 8/2/2011.
Sameera Karnik; Amar Kanekar
Introduction: Childhood obesity is a major public health crisis nationally and internationally. The prevalence of childhood obesity has increased over few years. It is caused by imbalance between calorie intake and calories utilized. One or more factors (genetic, behavioral, and environmental) cause obesity in children. Physical, psychological, and social health problems are caused due to childhood obesity. Hence, effective intervention strategies are being used to prevent and control obesity...
Gwozdz, Wencke; Sousa-Poza, Alfonso; Reisch, Lucia;
The substantial increase in female employment rates in Europe over the past two decades has often been linked in political and public rhetoric to negative effects on child development, including obesity. We analyse this association between maternal employment and childhood obesity using rich...... objective reports of various anthropometric and other measures of fatness from the IDEFICS study of children aged 2-9 in 16 regions of eight European countries. Based on such data as accelerometer measures and information from nutritional diaries, we also investigate the effects of maternal employment...... on obesity's main drivers: calorie intake and physical activity. Our analysis provides little evidence for any association between maternal employment and childhood obesity, diet or physical activity....
Gwozdz, Wencke; Sousa-Poza, Alfonso; Reisch, Lucia;
The substantial increase in female employment rates in Europe over the past two decades has often been linked in political and public rhetoric to negative effects on child development, including obesity. We analyse this association between maternal employment and childhood obesity using rich...... objective reports of various anthropometric and other measures of fatness from the IDEFICS study of children aged 2-9 in 16 regions of eight European countries. Based on such data as accelerometer measures and information from nutritional diaries, we also investigate the effects of maternal employment...... on obesity's main drivers: calorie intake and physical activity. Our analysis provides little evidence for any association between maternal employment and childhood obesity, diet or physical activity....
Grant, Struan F A; Jianhua Zhao
Obesity is a major health problem and an immense economic burden on the health care systems both in the United States and the rest of the world. The prevalence of obesity in children and adults in the United States has increased dramatically over the past decade. Besides environmental factors, genetic factors are known to play an important role in the pathogenesis of obesity. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have revealed strongly associated genomic variants associated with most common ...
To date, obesity represents a major public health challenge. Obesity is at any age a concern but in pediatric populations it is particularly alarming because of its immediate biomedical and psychosocial consequences and the expectation that it will lead to an increase in morbidity and mortality and
Health professionals suggest creating achievable goals in childhood obesity. The article recommends correcting factors that distort normal growth and providing positive eating and exercise management to slow weight gain. Rather than trying for weight loss, children must learn positive lifelong eating and exercise patterns and attitudes toward self…
Hao, Lingxin; Kim, Julie J.H.
Immigration is an important population dynamic at work in the U.S. but we know little about its impact on American obesity. Built on nutrition transition and immigration theories, the paper provides explanations for immigrants’ initial body composition advantage, its partial erosion over time, and the gender difference in the erosion. We find evidence that the American obesity epidemic would be much more severe without the mass immigration that began in 1965. In addition to confirming the erosion in immigrants’ body composition advantage, we further find that this erosion is weaker for men than for women. Once immigration’s impact is teased out, racial/ethnic disparities in body composition greatly differ from what appear. This study provides gender-specific estimates for the differences in obesity by nativity and residence duration and the net level of Hispanic-white and Asian-white disparities at the mean body mass index (BMI) as well as the overweight, Stage-1 and Stage-2 obesity cutoffs. Our findings suggest that immigration must be taken into account when addressing public health concerns.
Endocrine diseases (hypothyroidism, growth hormone deficiency, hypercortisolism) are exceptional in obese children and are searched only in case of short stature. It is not necessary to test systematically glucose tolerance (fasting glucose; oral glucose tolerance test) and lipids in order to look for obesity related comorbidities. Decreased caloric intake is the main goal for the treatment. Ways to succeed need to be adapted to each child with pragmatism and without dogmatism. Goals for treatment are reasonable (stabilization of weight excess). Weight loss surgery in obese children may be discussed in some cases with multidisciplinary expert team (doctors, surgeons, psychologist...) and close collaboration between adults teams and paediatricians. PMID:20615656
This 60 second public service announcement is based on the August 2013 CDC Vital Signs report. The rate of obesity among low-income preschoolers has declined, but one in eight is still obese. This program briefly discusses what can be done. Created: 8/6/2013 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Date Released: 8/6/2013.
Skidmore, P M L; Yarnell, J W G
Some 20-25% of UK adults are obese according to the WHO criterion (BMI >/=30 kg/m(2)). Type 2 diabetes, increasingly recognized as a major complication of overweight and obesity, is beginning to appear in UK adolescents, following the trends in the US. Epidemiological data indicate that the prevalence of overweight and obesity has doubled or tripled in the past few decades in the US, in Europe, and even in many developing countries. Thus obesity is increasingly seen as a public health problem requiring concerted action by both governmental and non-governmental organizations. A sound understanding of the root causes is crucial, if strategies for the prevention and treatment of this epidemic are to be developed. Many epidemiological studies suggest that physical activity at work, school or at leisure has declined to minimal levels, and that sedentary behaviours such as television viewing and computer games have become major pastimes. Thus energy requirements are substantially less than those for recent generations. Further, the food industry produces high-calorie foods which children and adults consume as snack meals, giving a substantial surfeit to their daily energy requirement. In children, a few school-based, preventive intervention trials have shown some promising results. Many negative trials have also been reported, and practical difficulties remain in the widespread implementation of appropriate protocols. Initiatives have been introduced by the government to increase the physical education syllabus in school to a minimum of 2 h/week, and the promotion of fruit and vegetables. Further research is required on the physiological and psychological causes of overweight and obesity in children and adults, and randomized, controlled, school and community-based trials are required to pilot preventative initiatives. Monitoring of the progress in prevention at both organizational and outcome level is required, and also of adverse outcomes such as a rise in the
Robinson, T N; Kemby, K M
Childhood obesity represents a worldwide medical and public health challenge. Academic medical centers cannot avoid the effects of the obesity epidemic, and must adopt strategies for their academic, clinical and public policy responses to childhood obesity. The Center for Healthy Weight at Stanford University and Lucile Packard Children's Hospital at Stanford provides an example and model of one such strategy. The design provides both breadth and depth through six cores: Research, Patient Car...
CHANDNA, Preetika; ADLAKHA, Vivek Kumar
Dental caries and obesity represent growing epidemics in the child population. Obesity in childhood can lead to a host of medical and emotional problems in adulthood. Dental caries can have significant detrimental effects on a child's growth due to impairment of oral functions. Since a child regularly encounters pediatricians throughout childhood, it is important that pediatricians be aware of the possible correlations between obesity and dental disease. The purpose of this article is to revi...
Videogames can be used to help children change their obesity-related diet and physical activity behaviors. A review of the relevant literature in this special issue of the Games for Health Journal indicated that video games did influence children's adiposity, but only among children who were alread...
Kelly, Steven; Swinburn, Boyd
New Zealand has an unacceptably high rate of childhood obesity at 11 percent of children. The cause is due to an over consumption of food particularly in the form of junk food. To reverse this serious problem an all-of-society approach with leadership from the government is going to be required. The consequence of ignoring the problem will threaten the future viability of the health service. PMID:26149897
Maziak, W; Ward, K D; Stockton, M B
Childhood obesity is increasing worldwide, raising alarm about future trends of cardiovascular disease, diabetes and cancer. This article discusses what may underlie our failure to respond effectively to the obesity epidemic, and presents a wider perspective for future research and public health agendas. So far targeting individual-level determinants and clinical aspects of childhood obesity has produced limited success. There is growing interest in understanding the wider determinants of obesity such as the built environment (e.g. walkability), social interactions, food marketing and prices, but much needs to be learned. Particularly, we need to identify distal modifiable factors with multiple potential that would make them attractive for people and policymakers alike. For example, walking-biking-friendly cities can reduce obesity as well as energy consumption, air pollution and traffic delays. Such agenda needs to be driven by strong evidence from research involving multi-level influences on behaviour, as well as the study of wider politico-economic trends affecting people's choices. This article highlights available evidence and arguments for research and policy needed to curb the obesity epidemic. The upstream approach underlying these arguments aims to make healthy choices not only the most rational, but also the most feasible and affordable. PMID:18154601
Arbex, Alberto K; Rocha, Denise R.T.W.; Aizenberg, Marisa; Ciruzzi, Maria S.
ABSTRACT The obesity epidemic is rapidly advancing in South America, leading to inevitable health consequences. Argentinian and Brazilian health policies try to become adapted to the new economic and social framework that follows from this epidemic. It is in incipient and ineffective control so far since the prevalence of obesity was not restrained. The Argentine national legislation is more advanced, through the so-called “Ley de Obesidad.” In Brazil, there are numerous local initiatives but...
This paper calls for the United States government â€“ including, but not limited to, the Food and Drug Administration, the Federal Trade Commission, and Health and Human Services â€“ to take definitive and aggressive steps to combat the nationwide obesity epidemic. After providing a history of how and why we now find ourselves in the midst of an obesity epidemic, and highlighting the specifics of our current dilemma, the paper details the devastating causes a...
Johnson, Sarah C.
This paper discusses the public health ramifications of the obesity epidemic among American children and adults. It explores several contributing factors to this epidemic as well as analyzes public policy recommendations for addressing this issue. It also offers an in-depth analysis of the feasibility of litigation against fast food companies by analyzing the initial attempts in this area.
Hilton, Shona; Patterson, Chris; Teyhan, Alison
Obesity is one of the fastest growing and most serious public health challenges facing the world in the 21st century. Correspondingly, over the past decade there has been increased interest in how the obesity epidemic has been framed by the media. This study offers the first large-scale examination of the evolution and framing of the obesity epidemic in UK newspapers, identifying shifts in news coverage about the causal drivers of and potential solutions to the obesity epidemic. Seven UK newspapers were selected and 2,414 articles published between 1 January 1996 and 31 December 2010 were retrieved from electronic databases using keyword searches. The thematic content of articles was examined using manifest content analysis. Over the 15-year period there was an increase in media reporting on obesity and in particular on childhood obesity. There was evidence of a trend away from a focus on individuals towards a greater level of reporting on societal solutions such as regulatory change, with the greatest shift in reporting occurring in mid-market and serious newspapers. Given that the media have a huge influence in shaping public opinion, this shift in reporting might be an early indicator to policymakers of a growing public discourse around a need for regulatory change to tackle the obesogenic environment. PMID:22318314
Rising levels of childhood obesity present a serious global public health problem amounting to 7 % of GDP in developed countries and affecting 14 % of children. As such, many countries are investing increasingly large quantities of resource towards treatment and prevention. Whilst it is important to demonstrate the clinical effectiveness of any intervention, it is equally as important to demonstrate cost effectiveness as policy makers strive to get the best value for money from increasingly limited public resources. Economic evaluation assists with making these investment decisions and whilst it can offer considerable support in many healthcare contexts, applying it to a childhood obesity context is not straightforward. Childhood obesity is a complex disease with interventions being multi-component in nature. Furthermore, the interventions are implemented in a variety of settings such as schools, the community, and the home, and have costs and benefits that fall outside the health sector. This paper provides a reflection from a UK perspective on the application of the conventional approach to economic evaluation to childhood obesity. It offers suggestions for how evaluations should be designed to fit better within this context, and to meet the needs of local decision makers. An excellent example is the need to report costs using a micro-costing format and for benefit measurement to go beyond a health focus. This is critical as the organisation and commissioning of childhood obesity services is done from a Local Authority setting and this presents further challenges for what is the most appropriate economic evaluation approach to use. Given that adult obesity is now of epidemic proportions, the accurate assessment of childhood obesity interventions to support public health decision making is critical. PMID:26968705
Massey-Sokes, Marilyn; Meaney, Karen S.
Childhood obesity has reached epidemic proportions in the U.S. University health and physical education programs have a unique opportunity to assist in childhood obesity prevention through service-learning programs. However, prior to the implementation of service-learning curricula, it is imperative to gain insight in the unique needs of the…
Staniford, Leanne J.; Breckon, Jeff D.; Copeland, Robert J.
Childhood obesity trends have increased dramatically over the past three decade's. The purpose of this quantitative systematic review is to provide an update of the evidence, illustrating the efficacy of childhood obesity treatment, considering whether treatment fidelity has been measured and/or reported and whether this related to the treatment…
Garver, William S.; Newman, Sara B.; Gonzales-Pacheco, Diana M.; Castillo, Joseph J.; Jelinek, David; Heidenreich, Randall A.; Orlando, Robert A.
The genes contributing to childhood obesity are categorized into three different types based on distinct genetic and phenotypic characteristics. These types of childhood obesity are represented by rare monogenic forms of syndromic or non-syndromic childhood obesity, and common polygenic childhood obesity. In some cases, genetic susceptibility to these forms of childhood obesity may result from different variations of the same gene. Although the prevalence for rare monogenic forms of childhood...
Shields, A. Tamlyn
Obesity prevalence has doubled among adults and overweight has tripled among children since 1980. This article discusses behavioral approaches to the obesity epidemic, focusing on recent environmental changes, the resulting behaviors, and possible solutions. Over the last 4 decades, time spent in sedentary activities, the consumption of fast food,…
Schanzenbach, Diane Whitmore
This paper assesses whether school lunches contribute to childhood obesity. I employ two methods to isolate the causal impact of school lunches on obesity. First, using panel data, I ?nd that children who consume school lunches are more likely to be obese than those who brown bag their lunches even though they enter kindergarten with the same…
This paper will examine the recent legal action surrounding one of America's major public health problems; obesity. The discussion begins with a quick presentation of information regarding our nation's obesity epidemic. The discussion will then turn to the recent obesity litigation and proposed legislation. The paper will analyze the strength and shortcomings of the Pelman plaintiffs & arguments against the McDonald's Corporation. Further, the paper will analyze the court's responses to these...
Shao, Qin; Chin, Khew-Voon
The rapid rise in the incidence of obesity has emerged as one of the most pressing global public health issues in recent years. The underlying etiological causes of obesity, whether behavioral, environmental, genetic, or a combination of several of them, have not been completely elucidated. The obesity epidemic has been attributed to the ready availability, abundance, and overconsumption of high-energy content food. We determined here by Pearson's correlation the relationship between food typ...
Memedi, Rexhep; Tasic, Velibor; Nikolic, Erieta; Jancevska, Aleksandra; Gucev, Zoran
Obesity and overweight are a pandemic phenomenon in the modern world. Childhood and adolescent obesity often ends up in obesity in adults. The costs of obesity and its consequences are staggering for any society, crippling for countries in development. The etiology is complex, but most often idiopathic. Hormonal, syndromic and medication-induced obesity are well investigated. Genetic causes are increasingly described. Novel technologies such as whole exome sequencing identify ever more candidate genes influencing or causing obesity. All insights into the complex problem of obesity in a team approach to treatment: diet, psychology, medications and surgery. We briefly review epidemiology, etiology, consequences and treatment approaches in childhood and adolescent obesity, with special emphasis on emerging knowledge of its genetics. PMID:24296635
Wade, Kerri; Summar, Shelly; Dewit, Emily
Childhood obesity is epidemic in the United States. School nurses are in a unique position to address weight with the students they serve. This article provides tools for school nurses to be able to conduct an obesity screening, demonstrate the basic skills of motivational interviewing in treatment of obesity in a school age child, and utilize the 12345 Fit-Tastic program in their practice. This article is the seventh and final article in a series on the topic of childhood obesity and the accompanying comorbidities. PMID:26822132
Huo, Lili; Lyons, Jasmine; Magliano, Dianna J
Over the last two decades, the prevalence of obesity has increased rapidly. While it is intuitively appealing to believe that the causes of obesity are manifestly related to excess dietary intake, combined with a reduced expenditure of energy via a decrease in physical activity, it is also been noted that the evidence for these as the sole causes of the obesity epidemic is incomplete. This has led to the search for other causes of obesity, particularly those which stem from the environment we live in. This review will explore two putative causes of obesity: infections and environmental pollutants. It will focus on the key human infection associated with obesity-human adenovirus 36 (Ad36) and will discuss several environmental pollutants which have been postulated to be involved in the development of obesity: bisphenol A, phthalates and persistent organic pollutants. For each of these, the epidemiology and biological mechanisms underpinning the association of these agents with obesity will be reviewed. PMID:27394433
Thompson, Joseph W; Card-Higginson, Paula
Parents, clinicians, public health officials, and policy makers need readily available information on the extent of the childhood obesity epidemic. As in any epidemic, the strategies and tools used to combat the imminent threat are frequently based on scientific rationale and experience but applied in areas in which we lack complete understanding. The urgent need for information requires execution of decisions that are not risk-free--such is the case of BMI screening obesity. Use of BMI percentiles to classify weight status among youth and quantify the epidemic can inform and engage parents and other key stakeholders. Arkansas has completed its sixth year of BMI screenings for public school students. Through a groundbreaking legislative mandate that requires BMI assessments in public schools, the state has achieved both enhanced awareness among parents and their children and increased engagement by school, clinical, public health, and community leaders in response to the epidemic. External evaluations conducted since institution of BMI assessments have revealed none of the initially feared negative consequences of BMI measurements such as teasing, use of diet pills, or excessive concerns about weight. In the face of this epidemic, the risks of using BMI assessments in clinical or school-based settings must be recognized but can be managed. Arkansas' Act 1220 and BMI-reporting efforts have not only afforded parents detailed information about their children's health but also provided longitudinal data needed to fully understand the scope of childhood and adolescent obesity in the state and to track progress made in combating this epidemic. PMID:19720670
Rosemond, Tiara N; Blake, Christine E; Buff, Scotty M; Blake, Elizabeth W; Dunn, Brianne L; Browne, Teri; Bell, Bethany A; Iachini, Aidyn L
Long-term solutions to the childhood obesity epidemic will require concerted interdisciplinary efforts that are sensitive to both individual and social determinants of health. The Junior Doctors of Health© (JDOH) program involves interprofessional education (IPE) with university students from health science fields (e.g., medicine, pharmacy, social work, public health) who deliver an interactive program in teams to at-risk school-aged youth. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of participation in the JDOH IPE program on university students' beliefs about childhood obesity. Fifty-three of the 71 health sciences students enrolled in the JDOH IPE program between 2011 and 2013 participated in this study. Pre- and post-surveys assessed students' beliefs about the importance, causes of, and responsibility for reducing childhood obesity with both closed- and open-ended questions. In 2013, quantitative data were analyzed using Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-rank tests and qualitative data were analyzed through open coding to identify emergent themes. Results indicate that after participation in the JDOH IPE program, students' identification of social and environmental causes of childhood obesity increased significantly. Further, students' ranking of the importance of obesity was initially higher than those of different issues typically portrayed as social or environmental (e.g., youth violence) but it was similarly ranked after participation in JDOH. This suggests a greater sensitivity to social and environmental challenges faced by youth. Findings suggest that IPE experiences that bring clinical and community-oriented health professions together to engage with disadvantaged youth foster sensitivity to the complexities of childhood obesity in low-income settings. PMID:26876771
Full Text Available Catherine A Peterson Department of Nutrition and Exercise Physiology, University of Missouri-Columbia, Columbia, MO, USA Abstract: Vitamin D deficiency and childhood obesity have been classified as epidemics throughout the world, and both share some common risk factors including poor diet and inactivity. Observational and clinical studies show that vitamin D status and fat mass are inversely correlated. It is not clear whether vitamin D deficiency contributes to, or is a consequence of obesity, or whether there are regulatory interactions between excess adiposity and vitamin D activity. The effects of this deficiency in childhood obesity appear to have negative influences on overall health, including insulin resistance, inflammation, and impeded bone mineralization, as well as increased future risk of type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and osteoporosis. The rather ubiquitous distribution of the vitamin D receptor and the 25-hydroxyvitamin D 1a-hydroxylase throughout the body, including evidence for a role of vitamin D in adipogenesis and adipocyte metabolism, may in part explain these widespread effects. Most of the findings to date suggest that the vitamin D needs of obese children are greater than the nonobese. Although ultraviolet B-induced skin synthesis is a main source of vitamin D, its use is neither feasible nor prudent due to limited sun availability for many and concerns for skin cancer. Likewise, obtaining adequate vitamin D from natural food sources alone is generally not achievable, and even in countries that allow fortification, vitamin D intakes are low. Therefore, in obese children, vitamin D supplementation is warranted. Weight loss interventions using energy restriction and physical activity may also improve the poor vitamin D status associated with obesity. More research is needed to define optimal vitamin D status in this vulnerable population, including investigations to determine the efficacy of vitamin D
Mancino, Lisa; Todd, Jessica E; Guthrie, Joanne; Lin, Biing-Hwan
Childhood obesity is associated with a number of serious health risks that can persist into adulthood. While trends in food away from home and fast-food consumption have paralleled trends in childhood obesity, it is important to identify whether this is a causal relationship. This paper reviews recent literature in this area to summarize if there is a consensus in research findings. We group the literature into two areas - consumption of and access to food away from home (FAFH). While no consensus findings have been reached in either area, the evidence of an association between FAFH consumption and childhood obesity has gained strength. Further, there is evidence that FAFH meals add calories to children's diets. The literature on the role of FAFH access and childhood obesity has continued producing mixed results. PMID:26626922
YANG, Yan; Goldhaber-Fiebert, Jeremy D.; Wein, Lawrence M.
Due to the health and economic costs of childhood obesity, coupled with studies suggesting the benefits of comprehensive (dietary, physical activity and behavioral counseling) intervention, the United States Preventive Services Task Force recently recommended childhood screening and intervention for obesity beginning at age six. Using a longitudinal data set consisting of the body mass index of 3164 children up to age 18 and another longitudinal data set containing the body mass index at ages...
Ji, Cheng Ye; Cheng, Tsung O
China now joins the world epidemic of childhood obesity. Because of the large disparity of environmental conditions across various sub-populations, accurate prevalence of obesity/overweight cannot be estimated by population-based approaches. Using a resident-based targeted approach, we determined the geographical distribution of childhood obesity in China and analyzed the specific factors related to the increasing prevalence of obesity in each of its ten regions. An alarming increase in the prevalence of obesity has spread all over China, except for the poverty western rural areas. In 2005, the prevalence of combined childhood overweight and obesity in China reached 32.5% for males and 17.6% for females in the northern coastal big cities, suggesting that the obesity prevalence in some urban Chinese populations has approached that of the developed countries. The prevalence of obesity in the affluent rural sub-populations first exceeded that in some urban populations; then, as they learned their lessons and revised their lifestyles, the prevalence declined to a lower level approaching that of the transitional societies of other countries. The geographical distribution of obesity prevalence in China is mainly caused by the large disparity in the socioeconomic status related to dietary and lifestyle changes in modern China. Multiple and integrated interventions are urgently needed to halt the epidemic of childhood obesity by tackling its basic causes such as fast food, automobiles, television and lack of exercise. The differing prevalences in different regions of China offer an opportunity to reverse this alarming, growing epidemic of childhood obesity in the world's most populous country. PMID:18765165
Gurnani, Muskaan; Birken, Catherine; Hamilton, Jill
One-third of North American children are overweight or obese. Pathologic obesity accounts for only a small percentage of these cases. The vast majority are the result of a complex interaction of genetic and hormonal, nutritional, physical activity, and physical and social environmental factors. Obesity increases the risk for various cardiometabolic, pulmonary, and psychosocial complications for children, which often continues into adulthood. Multidisciplinary care, focusing on family-centered behavior change, is an evidence-based, essential part of the treatment, along with pharmacologic and surgical options for more complex cases. Prevention and early intervention strategies are key to reversing the obesity epidemic. PMID:26210619
Maria Catena Quattropani; Teresa Buccheri
Objective: This work focuses on clinical psychologist’ presence within childhood obesity prevention programmes in several countries. Method: The Authors collected articles considering psychological, biological and social aspects linked to childhood obesity. Results: Studies reveal that childhood obesity prevention programmes are based on biological, medical and educational aspects; clinical psychologists up until now have been engaged almost exclusively in the treatment of obesity. Conclusion...
Anderson, Patricia M.; Butcher, Kristin F.
The increase in childhood obesity over the past several decades, together with the associated health problems and costs, is raising grave concern among health care professionals, policy experts, children's advocates, and parents. Patricia Anderson and Kristin Butcher document trends in children's obesity and examine the possible underlying causes…
The aim of this thesis was to examine medical, cultural and psychological factors of childhood obesity in a multi-ethnic cohort. Medical factors Several associations between weight measured and hormones were determined in obese children between 6 and 18 years. Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) was
The aim of this thesis was to examine medical, cultural and psychological factors of childhood obesity in a multi-ethnic cohort. Medical factors Several associations between weight measured and hormones were determined in obese children between 6 and 18 years. Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) was a
Excessive television viewing is associated with obesity in children because it decreases time spent on physical activity, and promotes overeating of snacks and high calorie foods. Childhood obesity demands physicians' concern because of the physical and psychological damage which follows its victims into adulthood. (IAH)
... niños: [PODCAST - 1:15 minutes] Childhood Overweight and Obesity Child and Teen BMI Calculator About BMI for Children ... and Support Winnable Battles: Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity On Other Web Sites Letâ€™s Move! Letâ€™s Move! Child Care We Can! ChooseMyPlate.gov The Community Guide: ...
Childhood obesity rates in America have tripled in the last three decades. Almost one in three children are considered overweight or obese. Pediatricians are now treating children for adult diseases like type II diabetes and hypertension. All parents want the best for their children. They want children to succeed in school, fulfill their dreams,…
Druzhinenko, Daria; Podolskiy, Andrey; Podolskiy, Oleg; Schmoll, Patrick
Childhood obesity is one of the most dangerous pathologies; it can lead to serious illness in the absence of medical support. In this article we give an overview of the use of videogames for reducing and normalizing the weight of overweight and obese children. We discuss the categorization of the existing games and their limits, and we outline the perspectives of psychopedagogical research in the domain of game design for treating obese and overweight children. The role of long-term motivatio...
Druzhinenko D.A.; Podolskiy A.I.; Podolskiy O.A.; Schmoll P.A.
Childhood obesity is one of the most dangerous pathologies; it can lead to serious illness in the absence of medical support. In this article we give an overview of the use of videogames for reducing and normalizing the weight of overweight and obese children. We discuss the categorization of the existing games and their limits, and we outline the perspectives of psychopedagogical research in the domain of game design for treating obese and overweight children. The role of long-term motivatio...
Pirgon, Özgür; ASLAN, Nagehan
Obesity is becoming the most frequently diagnosed chronic disease in many countries affecting all age groups and specifically the pediatric population. To date, most approaches have focused on changing the behavior of individuals with respect to diet and exercise. Almost all researchers agree that prevention could be the key strategy for controlling the current epidemic of obesity. Prevention may be achieved by changes in lifestyle through a variety of interventions targeting the urban enviro...
Tegan K. Boehmer, PhD, MPH
Full Text Available IntroductionBecause of the public’s growing awareness of the childhood obesity epidemic, health policies that address obesogenic environments by encouraging healthy eating and increased physical activity are gaining more attention. However, there has been little systematic examination of state policy efforts. This study identified and described state-level childhood obesity prevention legislation introduced and adopted from 2003 through 2005 and attempted to identify regional geographic patterns of introduced legislation.MethodsA scan of legislation from all 50 states identified 717 bills and 134 resolutions that met study inclusion criteria. Analyses examined patterns in the introduction and adoption of legislation by time, topic area, and geography.ResultsOverall, 17% of bills and 53% of resolutions were adopted. The amount of legislation introduced and adopted increased from 2003 through 2005. The topic areas with the most introduced legislation were school nutrition standards and vending machines (n = 238; physical education and physical activity (n = 191; and studies, councils, or task forces (n = 110. Community-related topic areas of walking and biking paths (37%, farmers’ markets (36%, and statewide initiatives (30% had the highest proportion of bills adopted, followed by model school policies (29% and safe routes to school (28%. Some regional geographic patterns in the introduction of legislation were observed. There was no statistical association between state-level adult obesity prevalence and introduction of legislation.ConclusionPublic health and health policy practitioners can use this information to improve advocacy efforts and strengthen the political climate for establishing childhood obesity prevention legislation within state governments. Expanded surveillance (including standardized identification and cataloging of introduced and adopted legislation will enhance the ability to assess progress and identify effective
Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, 2012
In order to reverse the childhood obesity epidemic in the United States, it is critical to elevate the importance of physical education and physical activity as core components of a comprehensive curriculum in schools. It is also essential to explicitly state ways in which the reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA)…
The purpose of this study is to examine the medical costs of childhood obesity in Maine. Primary data collected on school-aged children across the state, supplemented with statistics from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, indicate that 7.8 percent of Maine children and adolescents are obese. These statistics combined with adult obesity rates from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention show that 23.1 percent of the overall Maine population is obese. Using inform...
Boulos, Rebecca; Vikre, Emily Kuross; Oppenheimer, Sophie; Chang, Hannah; Kanarek, Robin B
Obesity is a major public health concern in the United States. Over the last several decades, the prevalence of obesity among both adults and children has grown at an alarming rate and is now reaching epidemic proportions. The increase in obesity has been associated with rises in a host of other chronic conditions including cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, and some cancers. While the causes of obesity are multifaceted, there is growing evidence that television viewing is a major contributor. Results of numerous studies indicate a direct association between time spent watching television and body weight. Possible explanations for this relationship include: 1) watching television acts as a sedentary replacement for physical activity; 2) food advertisements for nutrient-poor, high-calorie foods stimulate food intake; and 3) television viewing is associated with "mindless" eating. In addition to decreasing physical activity and increasing the consumption of highly palatable foods, television viewing can also promote weight gain in indirect ways, such as through the use of targeted product placements in television shows; by influencing social perceptions of body image; and airing programs that portray cooking, eating and losing weight as entertainment. This paper will provide an interdisciplinary review of the direct and indirect ways in which television influences the obesity epidemic, and conclude with ways in which the negative impact of television on obesity could be reduced. PMID:22677722
Kantomaa, Marko T.; Stamatakis, Emmanuel; Kankaanpää, Anna; Kaakinen, Marika; Rodriguez, Alina; Taanila, Anja; Ahonen, Timo; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Tammelin, Tuija,
The global epidemic of obesity and physical inactivity may have detrimental implications for young people’s cognitive function and academic achievement. This prospective study investigated whether childhood motor function predicts later academic achievement via physical activity, fitness, and obesity. The study sample included 8,061 children from the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986, which contains data about parent-reported motor function at age 8 y and self-reported physical activity, pre...
Anderson, Patricia M.; Kristin F. Butcher; Phillip B. Levine
Obesity rates in the U.S. have skyrocketed in the last 30 years. Among adults, obesity rates more than doubled from the early 1970s to the late 1990s. Children obesity rates nearly tripled over the same period. This article discusses why obesity is of interest from an economic perspective. It them examines changes in children's lives, particularly the increase in maternal employment, that may have contributed to increases in children's weight.
Mama, Scherezade K; Soltero, Erica G; Ledoux, Tracey A; Gallagher, Martina R; Lee, Rebecca E
"Science and Community: Ending Obesity Improving Health" (S&C) aimed to reduce obesity in Houston by developing community partnerships to identify research priorities and develop a sustainable obesity reduction program. Partnership members were recruited from S&C events and invited to participate in in-depth interviews to gain insight into obesity prevalence, causes, and solutions. Members (n = 22) completed a 60-90-min in-depth interview. The interview guide consisted of 30 questions about pressing health problems in the community, potential solutions to health problems and obesity and how the environment has impacted obesity and health behaviors in the community. Interviewees (n = 12 women and 10 men) were mostly Hispanic/Latino (n = 9) and African American (n = 7). Common problems identified were childhood obesity, balancing a healthy diet and physical inactivity. Interviewees identified obesity as a major problem in their communities and cited access to quality food and physical activity resources as both a problem and a solution. Additional emergent themes focused on solutions, including increasing awareness and education, coordinated efforts among organizations and using an ecologic approach to combat obesity. Community insight gleaned from this study may be used to enhance relevance and sustainability of programs developed to reduce obesity and suggests possible avenues for participatory research and intervention. PMID:24372868
Magrone, Thea; Jirillo, Emilio
Childhood obesity is characterized by a low-grade inflammation status depending on the multicellular release of cytokines, adipokines, and reactive oxygen species. In particular, the imbalance between anti-inflammatory T regulatory cells and inflammatory T helper 17 cells seems to sustain such a phlogistic condition. Alterations of gut microbiota since childhood also contribute to the maintenance of inflammation. Therefore, besides preventive measures and caloric restrictions, dietary intake ...
Heitmann, Berit L; Strøger, Ulla; Lyngby Mikkelsen, Kim;
OBJECTIVE: To examine to what extent the obesity epidemic is a general phenomenon in adults by assessing the secular change, by birth cohort and age, in the prevalence of obesity and median body mass index (BMI) in Danish men and women measured between 1964 and 1994. DESIGN: Multiple cross......-sectional population surveys. SETTING: The greater Copenhagen area of Denmark. SUBJECTS: The study included 17,065 men (30 336 observations) and 13,417 women (24,065 observations), aged 20-84 years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Trends in median BMI and prevalence of obesity estimated from measured height and weight in 10...... BMI in any group, except for an increasing trend among men aged 50 years and above. CONCLUSION: Although the overall Danish trend for obesity prevalence, similar to trends world-wide, showed a marked increase, the trend was very heterogeneous and generally neither uniform nor significantly positive...
Oliver, Lisa Nicole
Rising rates of childhood obesity in Canada, linked to a changing environment, may have considerable health and societal costs. This dissertation investigates the influence of the neighbourhood environment on childhood overweight and physical activity. This research asks three questions. First, are there disparities in childhood obesity and physical activity by neighbourhood socioeconomic status? Second, are there critical periods during childhood when neighbourhood socioeconomic disparities ...
Wein, Lawrence M.; YANG, Yan; Goldhaber-Fiebert, Jeremy D.
To address growing concerns over childhood obesity, the United States Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recently recommended that children undergo obesity screening beginning at age 6 . An Expert Committee recommends starting at age 2 . Analysis is needed to assess these recommendations and investigate whether there are better alternatives. We model the age- and sex-specific population-wide distribution of body mass index (BMI) through age 18 using National Longitudinal Survey of ...
Moutusi Raychaudhuri; Debmalya Sanyal
Childhood obesity is a grave issue, which needs to be addressed urgently because it leads to several medical and psychosocial problems in children. High prevalence is being increasingly reported in children from developing countries as well. The combination of our genetic propensity to store fat, the ready availability of calorie dense foods, and sedentary lifestyle promotes overweight. The child's food environment at home and parental obesity are strong determinants. Urban poor in developed ...
The aim of this thesis was to examine medical, cultural and psychological factors of childhood obesity in a multi-ethnic cohort. Medical factors Several associations between weight measured and hormones were determined in obese children between 6 and 18 years. Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) was associated with age and sex standardized body mass index (Z-BMI), impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance, high total cholesterol, high LDL-cholesterol and high triglycerides. There wer...
Nielsen, Tenna Ruest Haarmark; Gamborg, Michael; Fonvig, Cilius Esmann;
Childhood obesity and related co-morbidities are increasing. This intervention study assessed the associations between weight changes and lipidemia in obese children and adolescents.......Childhood obesity and related co-morbidities are increasing. This intervention study assessed the associations between weight changes and lipidemia in obese children and adolescents....
Graff, Samantha; Ackerman, Jacob
The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation (RWJF) has committed $500 million to reverse the childhood obesity epidemic by 2015. To accomplish this ambitious goal, RWJF and its partners have developed a movement to tackle childhood obesity as a societal problem, calling for population-based solutions. The movement is borrowing from the "social norm change" approach that has yielded tremendous public health gains in tobacco control. The goal of a social norm change movement is to influence behavior ind...
Stone, William L; Schetzina, Karen; Stuart, Charles
Childhood obesity and its sequelae are a major public health problem in both the USA and globally. This review will focus on a systems medicine approach to obesity. Systems medicine is an integrative approach utilizing the vast amount of data garnered from "omics" technology and integrating these data with conventional pathophysiology as well as diverse environmental factors such as diet, exercise, community dynamics and the intestinal microbiome. Omics technology includes genomics, epigenomics, metagenomics, metabolomics and proteomics. In addition to unraveling etiology, the goals of a systems medicine approach are to provide actionable and evidenced-based clinical approaches. In the case of childhood obesity, an additional goal is characterizing measureable risk factors/biomarkers for obesity at the earliest possible age and devising age-appropriate optimal intervention strategies. It is also important to establish the age at which interventions could be critical. As discussed below, it is possible that some of the pathophysiological and epigenetic changes resulting from childhood obesity could become more irreversible the longer the obesity remains untreated. PMID:27100491
Metabolomics may unravel important biological pathways involved in the pathophysiology of childhood obesity. We aimed to 1) identify metabolites that differ significantly between nonobese and obese Hispanic children; 2) collapse metabolites into principal components (PCs) associated with obesity and...
As a group, Canadian children and youth are heavier than at any time in the recent past. However, to date there has been no critical examination of the factors which are likely to have contributed to these deleterious trends. A review of the evidence suggests that there is robust evidence supporting the role of reduced sleep, increased sedentary time, increased consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages, and secular increases in adult obesity as contributing factors to the current epidemic of c...
Teresa Adeltoft Ajslev
Full Text Available Background: The genetic predisposition to obesity may have contributed to the obesity epidemic through assortative mating. We investigated whether spouses were positively assorted by body mass index (BMI; =kg/m2 in late childhood, and whether changes in assorted marriage by upper BMI-percentiles occurred during the obesity epidemic. Methods: In the Copenhagen School Health Records Register boys and girls with measures of BMI at age 13 years later became 37 792 spousal-pairs who married from 1945–2010. Trends in the spousal BMI correlations using sex-, age- and birth cohort-specific BMI z-scores across time were investigated. Odds ratios (ORs of marriage among spouses both with BMI z-scores >90th or >95th percentile compared with marriage among spouses ≤90th percentile were analysed for marriages entered during the years prior to (1945–1970, and during the obesity epidemic (1971–2010.Findings: Spousal BMI correlations were small and stayed similar across time. ORs of marriage among spouses with BMIs >90th percentile at age 13 were 1.21, 1.05–1.39, in 1945–1970, and increased to 1.63, 1.40–1.91, in 1971–2010 (p=0.006. ORs of marriage among spouses both >95th BMI percentile were higher and increased more; from 1.39, 1.10–1.81, to 2.39, 1.85–3.09 (p=0.004.Interpretation: Spousal correlations by pre-marital BMIs were stable during the past 65 years. Yet, assorted marriages between spouses with BMIs in the upper percentiles were observed and increased significantly across the two marriage periods, and this may possibly influence the following generations’ susceptibility to obesity.
Keen, Valencia Browning; Potts, Claudia Sealey
Remedying childhood obesity cannot take place without first identifying relevant issues commonly influencing gatekeepers of food for children as well as the role modeling for encouraging or discouraging daily activities. Children cannot drive to the store, form grocery lists or complete menu management tasks without adult assistance. Excessive…
Maria Catena Quattropani
Full Text Available Objective: This work focuses on clinical psychologist’ presence within childhood obesity prevention programmes in several countries. Method: The Authors collected articles considering psychological, biological and social aspects linked to childhood obesity. Results: Studies reveal that childhood obesity prevention programmes are based on biological, medical and educational aspects; clinical psychologists up until now have been engaged almost exclusively in the treatment of obesity. Conclusions: There is a clear need to consider psychological aspects (emotional, cognitive and relational related to the childhood obesity’s causes and involve psychologists in its prevention projects. Keywords: childhood obesity, overweight, multidisciplinary approach, clinical psychology, prevention, treatment
Anderson, Patricia M
Using the Early Childhood Longitudinal Survey-Kindergarten Class of 1998-1999 (ECLS-K) data from kindergarten through eighth grade, this paper investigate the relationships among maternal employment, family routines and obesity. More hours worked by the mother tend to be negatively related to positive routines like eating meals as a family or at regular times, or having family rules about hours of television watched. Many of these same routines are significantly related to the probability of being obese, implying that family routines may be a mechanism by which maternal employment intensity affects children's obesity. However, inclusion of family routines in the obesity regression does not appreciably change the estimated effect of maternal employment hours. Thus, the commonly estimated deleterious effect of maternal employment on children's obesity cannot be explained by family routines, leaving the exact mechanisms an open question for further exploration. PMID:22622096
Full Text Available Childhood obesity is one of the most dangerous pathologies; it can lead to serious illness in the absence of medical support. In this article we give an overview of the use of videogames for reducing and normalizing the weight of overweight and obese children. We discuss the categorization of the existing games and their limits, and we outline the perspectives of psychopedagogical research in the domain of game design for treating obese and overweight children. The role of long-term motivation in the treatment of obesity is one of the crucial questions we discuss. We try to understand how videogames can help children and parents maintain motivation during weight-loss treatment. The role of parents is undeniable in ensuring the success of weight-loss programs for overweight or obese children. Perhaps videogames can be the instrument for families’ lifestyle changes.
Kim, Shin Hye
Phthalates are commonly used as plasticizers and vehicles for cosmetic ingredients. Phthalate metabolites have documented biochemical activity including activating peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor and antiandrogenic effects, which may contribute to the development of obesity. In vitro and in vivo studies suggest that phthalates have significant effects on the development of obesity, especially after prenatal exposure at low doses. Although few studies have examined the effects of phthalate on obesity development in humans, some work has shown that phthalates affect humans and animals similarly. In this paper, we review the possible mechanisms of phthalate-induced obesity, and discuss evidence supporting the role of phthalates in the development of obesity in humans. PMID:25077088
J. Gordon Millichap
Full Text Available Researchers at Kaiser Permanente of Southern California studied a possible relation between childhood obesity and pediatric-onset multiple sclerosis (MS or its potential precursor, clinically isolated syndrome (CIS, which encompasses optic neuritis (ON and transverse myelitis (TM.
Mendez, Robert; Grissom, Maureen
The incidence of childhood obesity in the United States is estimated at 17%, or 12 million children ages 2 to 19 years. Obesity is a multifactorial condition with syndromic and nonsyndromic variants. Genetic, social, ethnic, endocrinologic, and behavioral issues are all potential etiologic factors. Preventive efforts should begin with monitoring from birth and include breastfeeding until age 6 months, avoiding juices, and promoting fruit and vegetable consumption and adequate exercise. Childhood obesity is diagnosed based on body mass index; a child is considered overweight at the 85th to 95th percentiles and obese at or above the 95th percentile. After obesity is diagnosed, testing should include blood pressure levels, fasting lipid profile, diabetes screening, and liver function tests. The physician should obtain a detailed history of the physical activity level and food intake and assess possible complications of obesity, including depression and hypertension, annually. Lifestyle interventions with family involvement are the mainstay of management, with pharmacotherapy or bariatric surgery considered for adolescents only if intensive lifestyle modifications have failed and in the presence of comorbidities. Intervention by multiple disciplines (ie, medicine, nutrition, psychology) is recommended, and family physicians are encouraged to become more involved in encouraging physical activity and improved nutrition for children. PMID:23869391
Harish Ranjani; T S Mehreen; Rajendra Pradeepa; Ranjit Mohan Anjana; Renu Garg; Krishnan Anand; Viswanathan Mohan
Background & objectives: Childhood obesity is a known precursor to obesity and other non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in adulthood. However, the magnitude of the problem among children and adolescents in India is unclear due to paucity of well-conducted nationwide studies and lack of uniformity in the cut-points used to define childhood overweight and obesity. Hence an attempt was made to review the data on trends in childhood overweight and obesity reported from India during 1981 to 2013. ...
markdownabstractThe prevalence of childhood obesity has at least doubled the last 30 years. Childhood obesity is associated with an increased likelihood to develop adult obesity, which translates into increased risk for chronic diseases, including diabetes mellitus type 2, cardiovascular disease and certain types of cancer. A complex interaction between the environment and risk factors at a personal level causes childhood obesity. Because of this situation, there is not one e$ective preventio...
Mustila Taina; Keskinen Päivi; Luoto Riitta
Abstract Background Prevention is considered effective in combating the obesity epidemic. Prenatal environment may increase offspring's risk for obesity. A child starts to adopt food preferences and other behavioral habits affecting weight gain during preschool years. We report the study protocol of a pragmatic lifestyle intervention aiming at primary prevention of childhood obesity. Methods/Design A non-randomized controlled pragmatic trial in maternity and child health care clinics. The con...
Olsen, Lina W; Baker, Jennifer Lyn; Holst, Claus;
BACKGROUND: In Denmark, the obesity epidemic has developed in phases. To investigate if this has been a birth cohort phenomenon, we explored the secular trend in the prevalence of obesity among boys and young men. METHODS: We calculated body mass index (BMI; kg/m) over time for 163,835 Danish boys...... examined at ages 7-11 years and for 708,342 male draftees examined at age 19 years. Obesity was defined according to age-specific criteria for boys and as BMI >or=31 kg/m for men. We examined trends in the prevalence of obesity from 1930 through 1999, expressing time as the subjects' year of measurement...... and as year of birth. RESULTS: When expressed by year of measurement, 4 phases in the prevalence of obesity emerged for the boys and the young men, but they occurred at different times. However, when expressed by year of birth, the 2 stable periods and the 2 periods with sharp increases in obesity...
Sabin, Matthew A; Kiess, Wieland
The prevalence of childhood obesity has increased over the last fifty years by approximately 5% per decade, and approximately a quarter of all children are now either overweight or obese. These children have a significantly increased risk of many future health problems including adult obesity, type 2 diabetes and heart disease. Despite this relentless increase, common-sense approaches aimed at prevention and treatment have failed to solve the problem. Current approaches at prevention have faced major challenges with some progress in implementing smaller scale programs and social marketing, but little action on broad public policy approaches which often appears unpalatable to society or individual governments. Meanwhile, treatment approaches have mainly focused on lifestyle change, and novel approaches are urgently needed. Prevention needs to shift to improving maternal health prior to conception, with more research focussed on the impact of early years in programming offspring to future overweight/obesity. Likewise, treatment paradigms need to move from simply thinking that obesity can be solved by readdressing diet and activity levels. Novel approaches are needed which take into consideration the complex physiology which regulates early childhood growth and the development of obesity in susceptible individuals. PMID:26051294
Kim, Shin Hye; Park, Mi Jung
Phthalates are commonly used as plasticizers and vehicles for cosmetic ingredients. Phthalate metabolites have documented biochemical activity including activating peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor and antiandrogenic effects, which may contribute to the development of obesity. In vitro and in vivo studies suggest that phthalates have significant effects on the development of obesity, especially after prenatal exposure at low doses. Although few studies have examined the effects of ph...
Crowle , Jacqueline; Turner, Erin
This Productivity Commission staff working paper (by Jacqueline Crowle and Erin Turner) was released in October 2010. Being overweight or obese as a child has implications for the child’s health now and as an adult. It is a policy concern in Australia and for governments internationally. Preventative health policy aims to manage risk factors such as obesity to decrease the incidence and effect of subsequent health problems. However, such expenditure needs to be justified in terms of effective...
Rothenberg, Joan R
The concern over obesity today has evolved beyond an issue of personal vanity to a serious national health issue affecting millions of Americans. Obesity in children is especially alarming. Overweight children and adolescents are at risk for health problems throughout their lives. While under-nutrition or diet insufficiencies were once major obstacles in the development of healthy infants and children, the epidemic of childhood obesity marks the start of the 21st century with equally menacing health consequences. Childhood obesity creates an increased burden of disease on our economy with increased indirect economic costs of time lost from work for parents and time lost from school for the child. Data raise the possibility that the current generation of children could suffer greater illness or experience a shorter lifespan than that of their parents. Some experts believe that government mandated restrictions on dietary choices would alleviate the obesity problem, while others find such actions to be an unwarranted government intrusion. Still, as concerns about obesity continue to grow, especially regarding children, some say government intervention of some type is necessary to solve the problem. This paper examines the history and factors involved in the childhood obesity epidemic, explores regulatory options for its resolution, and provides an overview of obesity as a serious challenge to public health, and the health of children in particular. The federal agencies who share the responsibility for regulating food in the United States and their efforts to address the obesity problem are discussed as a background to various state and federal regulatory models influencing dietary choices. The effectiveness of proposed regulations and alternatives to government intervention suggest that the resolution of the childhood obesity issue requires a coordinated, multilevel approach. PMID:24475539
P. Malindretos; Doumpali, E; Mouselimi, M; Papamichail, N; Doumpali, Ch; Sianaba, O; Orfanaki, G; Sioulis, A
Background and aim: Childhood obesity represents a rising threat in southern Europe. It is widely accepted that childhood obesity is an important risk factor for the appearance of obesity in adulthood. Our aim was to estimate the prevalence of obesity in school aged children living in one of the poorest districts of Europe, as well as to estimate the association between the frequency of obesity observed in these children and their parents.
Raychaudhuri, Moutusi; Sanyal, Debmalya
Childhood obesity is a grave issue, which needs to be addressed urgently because it leads to several medical and psychosocial problems in children. High prevalence is being increasingly reported in children from developing countries as well. The combination of our genetic propensity to store fat, the ready availability of calorie dense foods, and sedentary lifestyle promotes overweight. The child's food environment at home and parental obesity are strong determinants. Urban poor in developed countries and urban rich in developing countries are both at risk. In developing countries, a number of beliefs passed down over generations are other important determinants. Evaluation includes assessing the child's lifestyle, excluding weight-promoting medication history; poor linear growth needs endocrine evaluation; genetic syndromes should be considered if there are clinical pointers. Overweight children should be evaluated for hypertension, dyslipidemia, T2DM, and NAFLD. Therapeutic lifestyle changes targeting food habits and physical activity through parental participation and social support are the cornerstones of preventing childhood obesity. Active travel and play by making the built environment more accessible, ban on 'junk' food advertising, and effective health education through active participation of clinicians, school systems, and the media will go a long way in reversing anticipated trends in childhood obesity. PMID:23565376
Full Text Available Childhood obesity is a grave issue, which needs to be addressed urgently because it leads to several medical and psychosocial problems in children. High prevalence is being increasingly reported in children from developing countries as well. The combination of our genetic propensity to store fat, the ready availability of calorie dense foods, and sedentary lifestyle promotes overweight. The child′s food environment at home and parental obesity are strong determinants. Urban poor in developed countries and urban rich in developing countries are both at risk. In developing countries, a number of beliefs passed down over generations are other important determinants. Evaluation includes assessing the child′s lifestyle, excluding weight-promoting medication history; poor linear growth needs endocrine evaluation; genetic syndromes should be considered if there are clinical pointers. Overweight children should be evaluated for hypertension, dyslipidemia, T2DM, and NAFLD. Therapeutic lifestyle changes targeting food habits and physical activity through parental participation and social support are the cornerstones of preventing childhood obesity. Active travel and play by making the built environment more accessible, ban on ′junk′ food advertising, and effective health education through active participation of clinicians, school systems, and the media will go a long way in reversing anticipated trends in childhood obesity.
YAN-PING LI; XIAO-GUANG YANG; FENG-YING ZHAI; JIAN-HUA PIAO; WEN-HUA ZHAO; JIAN ZHANG; GUAN-SHENG MA
.3% obese boys and all obese girls had metabolic syndrome, while only15.5% normal weight boys and 18.8% normal weight girls had metabolic syndrome. Four risk factors for metabolic syndrome were found in 8.3% obese boys while none in normal weight boys and girls. The prevalence of MetS among normal weight,overweight, and obesity groups was 1.5%, 18.3%, and 38.1% respectively. Conclusion The cardiovascular disease (CVD)risk factors are clustered in obese Chinese children. Our observations strongly suggest that efforts should be made to prevent the onset of overweight and its associated diseases during early childhood.
One of Public Health England's priorities is to tackle obesity, particularly in children. Health visitors are ideally placed to identify and support families of children at risk from obesity, but research shows they lack the training and confidence to do so. This article describes a short-term local scheme that offered support by a specially trained health visitor to families in their own homes. The health visitor was trained using a family partnership model that teaches how to work with parents and carers to help them implement their own solutions. PMID:26548260
W.D. Paulis (Winifred)
markdownabstractThe prevalence of childhood obesity has at least doubled the last 30 years. Childhood obesity is associated with an increased likelihood to develop adult obesity, which translates into increased risk for chronic diseases, including diabetes mellitus type 2, cardiovascular disease and
Childhood obesity is a complex disease influenced by genetic and environmental factors and their interactions. The current surge in childhood obesity in the United States is attributable to an interaction between a genetic predisposition toward obesity and a permissive environment. Several recent sy...
... obesity at every stage of a child's life. As President, I created a Task Force on Childhood Obesity to... two hundred and thirty-fifth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2010-22590 Filed 9-7-10; 11:15 am] Billing... Proclamation 8554--National Childhood Obesity Awareness Month, 2010 #0; #0; #0; Presidential Documents #0;...
Childhood obesity has become an alarming problem in this country. Risk factors associated with childhood obesity include having obese parents, a history of low or high birth weight, Black or Hispanic ethnicity, and low socioeconomic background. Although most healthy American infants and toddlers have adequate diets, many parents and health…
Full Text Available Obesity is a serious public health issue affecting both children and adults. Prevention and management of obesity is proposed to begin in childhood when environmental factors exert a long-term effect on the risk for obesity in adulthood. Thus, identifying modifiable factors may help to reduce this risk. Recent evidence suggests that gut microbiota is involved in the control of body weight, energy homeostasis and inflammation and thus, plays a role in the pathophysiology of obesity. Prebiotics and probiotics are of interest because they have been shown to alter the composition of gut microbiota and to affect food intake and appetite, body weight and composition and metabolic functions through gastrointestinal pathways and modulation of the gut bacterial community. As shown in this review, prebiotics and probiotics have physiologic functions that contribute to changes in the composition of gut microbiota, maintenance of a healthy body weight and control of factors associated with childhood obesity through their effects on mechanisms controlling food intake, fat storage and alterations in gut microbiota.
Hurtado-López, Erika F; Macías-Rosales, Rocío
The prevalences of overweight and obesity have increased dramatically in the last two decades in the adult and children population. The Organization for Cooperation and Economic Development reported in 2010 that Mexico ranks first worldwide in childhood obesity. The 2006 National Health and Nutrition Survey reported that one of every three teenagers are overweight and obese. In the last decades, pediatric hospitals in different parts of the world reported the prevalence of secondary malnutrition, since in those days overweight and obesity did not represent health problems. Currently, the prevalence of overweight and obesity has been scarcely studied in pediatric hospitals. In the Hospital de Pediatría (Children's Hospital) of the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social's Centro Médico Nacional de Occidente it is reported a prevalence of overweight of 15.4 % and obesity of 12.2 %, which reflects a nutritional transition.Due to the high prevalence of overweight and obesity in this pediatric hospital of reference, one could conclude that the pediatrician should be able to make a correct evaluation of the nutritional state, because, if he does not detect these problems, we will be condemning children to suffer from a chronic disease for the rest of their lives, and with all the implications in the short, medium and long term. PMID:24866318
Van Staveren, Tonia; Dale, Darren
Schools and homes both play a role in contributing to the rising numbers of obese children. School teachers and administrators must do all they can to create a school environment that is conducive to children maintaining a healthy weight. Legislation designed to add quality physical education time to the school curriculum is imperative. Changes to…
Costley, Kevin C.; Leggett, Timothy
The youth of today are faced with a big problem; they are becoming more obese every day. The time of children playing outside all day and being extremely active has been overtaken by the television and video games. The days of sitting down as a family and eating a good healthy meal has been replaced by the rush to the nearest fast food…
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the methods and results used and conclusions found in available published papers on childhood overweight and obesity in Europe. SURVEYS: This paper compares the two available published papers on the prevalence of child and adolescent overweight and obesity in Europe....... The first paper was published in November 2003 and was based on 20 previously conducted surveys performed from 1992 to 2001. The other paper was published in January 2004 and was based on data from the WHO collaborative survey 'Health Behaviour in School Children', which collected the data in 1997...... cutoff points. In the other paper, overweight and obesity prevalences were calculated from self-reported height and weight using an internal study reference standard. RESULTS: The first paper found a north-south trend in overweight in Europe, whereas the second found a more equal distribution...
Full Text Available Childhood obesity is characterized by a low grade inflammation status depending on the multicellular release of cytokines, adipokines and reactive oxygen species. In particular, the imbalance between anti-inflammatory T regulatory cells and inflammatory T helper 17 cells seems to sustain such a phlogistic condition. Alterations of gut microbiota since childhood also contribute to the maintenance of inflammation. Therefore, besides preventive measures and caloric restrictions, dietary intake of natural products endowed with anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities may represent a valid interventional approach for preventing and/or attenuating the pathological consequences of obesity. In this regard, the use of prebiotics, probiotics, polyphenols, polyunsaturated fatty acids, vitamins and melatonin in human clinical trials will be described.
Sabaté, Joan; Wien, Michelle
The increased prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity is not unique to industrialized societies; dramatic increases are occurring in urbanized areas of developing countries. In light of the consensus that obesity is a significant public health concern and that many weight-loss interventions have been unsuccessful in the long term, an exploration of food patterns that are beneficial in the primary prevention of obesity is warranted. The focus of this article is to review the relation between vegetarian diets and obesity, particularly as they relate to childhood obesity. Epidemiologic studies indicate that vegetarian diets are associated with a lower body mass index (BMI) and a lower prevalence of obesity in adults and children. A meta-analysis of adult vegetarian diet studies estimated a reduced weight difference of 7.6 kg for men and 3.3 kg for women, which resulted in a 2-point lower BMI (in kg/m(2)). Similarly, compared with nonvegetarians, vegetarian children are leaner, and their BMI difference becomes greater during adolescence. Studies exploring the risk of overweight and food groups and dietary patterns indicate that a plant-based diet seems to be a sensible approach for the prevention of obesity in children. Plant-based diets are low in energy density and high in complex carbohydrate, fiber, and water, which may increase satiety and resting energy expenditure. Plant-based dietary patterns should be encouraged for optimal health and environmental benefits. Food policies are warranted to support social marketing messages and to reduce the cultural and economic forces that make it difficult to promote plant-based dietary patterns. PMID:20237136
Gerards Sanne MPL
Full Text Available Abstract Background Reversing the obesity epidemic requires the development and evaluation of childhood obesity intervention programs. Lifestyle Triple P is a parent-focused group program that addresses three topics: nutrition, physical activity, and positive parenting. Australian research has established the efficacy of Lifestyle Triple P, which aims to prevent excessive weight gain in overweight and obese children. The aim of the current randomized controlled trial is to assess the effectiveness of the Lifestyle Triple P intervention when applied to Dutch parents of overweight and obese children aged 4–8 years. This effectiveness study is called GO4fit. Methods/Design Parents of overweight and obese children are being randomized to either the intervention or the control group. Those assigned to the intervention condition receive the 14-week Lifestyle Triple P intervention, in which they learn a range of nutritional, physical activity and positive parenting strategies. Parents in the control group receive two brochures, web-based tailored advice, and suggestions for exercises to increase active playing at home. Measurements are taken at baseline, directly after the intervention, and at one year follow-up. Primary outcome measure is the children’s body composition, operationalized as BMI z-score, waist circumference, and fat mass (biceps and triceps skinfolds. Secondary outcome measures are children’s dietary behavior and physical activity level, parenting practices, parental feeding style, parenting style, parental self-efficacy, and body composition of family members (parents and siblings. Discussion Our intervention is characterized by a focus on changing general parenting styles, in addition to focusing on changing specific parenting practices, as obesity interventions typically do. Strengths of the current study are the randomized design, the long-term follow-up, and the broad range of both self-reported and objectively measured
Macpherson-Sánchez, Ann E
Physiological mechanisms promote weight gain after famine. Because eating disorders, obesity, and dieting limit food intake, they are famine-like experiences. The development of the concept of meeting an ideal weight was the beginning of increasing obesity. Weight stigma, the perception of being fat, lack of understanding of normal growth and development, and increased concern about obesity on the part of health providers, parents, and caregivers have reinforced each other to promote dieting. Because weight suppression and disinhibition provoke long-term weight increase, dieting is a major factor producing the obesity epidemic. The integrated eating disorder-obesity theory included in this article emphasizes that, contrary to dieters, lifetime weight maintainers depend on physiological processes to control weight and experience minimal weight change. PMID:25713933
Shelly Russell-Mayhew; Gail McVey; Angela Bardick; Alana Ireland
Childhood obesity is a growing concern, and while progress has been made to understand the association between multiple biological factors (i.e., genetics, nutrition, exercise etc.), little is known about the relationship between mental health and childhood obesity. In this paper, we offer a review of current evidence about the association between mental health and childhood obesity. A systematic literature search of peer-reviewed, English-language studies published between January 2000 and J...
Maoyong Fan; Yanhong Jin
Over the past four decades, paralleling the increasing prevalence of childhood obesity, the share of families with only one child has been rising steadily. Using three waves of the National Survey of Children's Health, we examine the effect of being the only child in a family on childhood obesity and the mechanisms through which singleton status might affect childhood obesity. We find gender-specific and age-dependent singleton effects. That is, singletons have a higher level of body mass ind...
Sugarman, Stephen D; Sandman, Nirit
Background Worldwide, the public health community has recognized the growing problem of childhood obesity. But, unlike tobacco control policy, there is little evidence about what public policies would work to substantially reduce childhood obesity. Public health leaders currently tend to support traditional "command and control" schemes that order private enterprises and governments to stop or start doing specific things that, is it hoped, will yield lower childhood obesity rates. These inclu...
Börnhorst, Claudia; Hense, Sabrina; Ahrens, Wolfgang;
Sleep duration has been identified as risk factor for obesity already in children. Besides investigating the role of fat mass (FM), this study addressed the question whether endocrine mechanisms act as intermediates in the association between sleep duration and overweight/obesity. Within...... the framework of the IDEFICS study, the present research was conducted in 609 German resident children aged 2–9 years with information on fasting insulin, C-reactive protein and cortisol levels next to anthropometric measurements and parental questionnaires. Emphasising methodological aspects, an age......-specific measure of sleep duration was derived to account for alteration in sleep duration during childhood/period of growth. Multivariate linear regression and quantile regression models confirmed an inverse relationship between sleep duration and measures of overweight/obesity. The estimate for the association...
... fullstory_157204.html Varied Diets May Not Curb Childhood Obesity, Study Suggests Kids given more food diversity might ... in young children because of the prevalence of obesity in children and a lack of research on the topic. ...
Sherafat-Kazemzadeh, Roya; Yanovski, Susan Z.; Yanovski, Jack A.
Pediatric obesity is a serious medical condition associated with significant comorbidities during childhood and adulthood. Lifestyle modifications are essential for treating children with obesity, yet many have insufficient response to improve health with behavioral approaches alone. This review summarizes the relatively sparse data on pharmacotherapy for pediatric obesity and presents information on obesity medications in development. Most previously studied medications demonstrated, at best...
Baños Rivera, Rosa María; Cebolla i Martí, Ausiàs Josep; Botella Arbona, Cristina; García Palacios, Azucena; Oliver, Elia; Zaragozá, Irene; Alcañiz, Mariano
Childhood obesity is an increasing public health problem in western culture. Sedentary lifestyles and an “obesogenic environment” are the main influences on children leading to an increase in obesity. The objective of this paper is to describe an e-health platform for the treatment and prevention of childhood obesity called ETIOBE. This e-health platform is an e-therapy system for the treatment of obesity, aimed at improving treatment adherence and promoting the mechanisms of self-control...
An estimated 12.5 million American children and teens are obese. Over time, the diseases and disabilities associated with obesity may undermine this population's health and result in substantial social and economic costs. Policies that address children's nutrition and physical activity are an important tool in reversing the obesity epidemic. More…
Miggiano, G A D; Santoro, C
A growing organism needs to have a steady availability of nutrients, in suitable quantities and in correct ratios, in order to achieve its genetic potential. Overweight and obesity in growing individuals may conceal lack of one or more nutrients. Obesity in childhood is the consequence of an excess of calories compared with the energetic waste because of the interlacing of genetic factors, metabolic factors (cellularity of the adipose tissue, deficit of thermogenesis), excessive food intake, alteration of some neuro-endocrine mechanisms which regulate bodily weight (set point theory), lack of suitable physical exercise; therefore a complicity of endogenous, exogenous, biological, psychological and social factors to which we cannot ascribe singularly a primary role. It is however necessary to start, since the first year of a child's life, a food education program as the latest acquisition shows that degenerative pathologies of metabolism start in a very precocious age and unbalanced nutrition starts since childhood. The most suitable therapeutic approach is that which takes in consideration all the aspects of obesity. This requires an intervention on several aspects: food, psychological mechanisms which sometimes are the cause of hypernutrition, attitude towards physical exercise, and also family and social behaviors concerning the patient. The traditional diet approach towards childhood obesity is based on balanced hypochaloric diets which provide about 1200-1800 kcal per day, distributed in 4 or 5 daily meals. The correct meal division educates the child to self-control and it is advantageous from a metabolic point of view because it avoids both high instability of glyco-insulin, caused by an excess of food, and because improving thermogenesis, induced by the diet, the result will consist in an increase of energetic waste. For the main meals it is advantageous to apply to a main course. PMID:15702660
Gertig, Anna M; Niechciał, Elżbieta; Skowrońska, Bogda
In recent years researchers have become increasingly interested in the particular relation between the function of the thyroid gland and the body mass in the population of obese children. Numerous studies have been conducted and the literature on the related issues has been abounding. Several thereof have strived at pinpointing a significant link between the function of the thyroid axis and the body mass. Yet, it still remains to be clarified whether these subtle changes in the level of thyroid hormones and TSH observed in childhood obesity are responsible for the increased body mass or rather they represent a secondary phenomenon. The mechanism most often put forward by the researchers that links obesity to thyroid function is the increased level of leptin, which affects neurones in the hypothalamus and the thyroid axis causing TRH and TSH secretion. The body mass is positively correlated with serum leptin and elevated level of leptin is connected with an increase in TSH level. However, there is still controversy whether these inconspicuous differences observed in thyroid axis merit the treatment with thyroxine since these changes seem to constitute a consequence rather than a cause of obesity. Therefore, as most authors postulate, primary importance should be placed on lifestyle changes and body weight reduction leaving substitutive treatment as a supplementary option. The purpose of this review is to present the most current issues on child obesity and the related malfunction of the thyroid axis through an overview of international publications from the years 1996-2011. PMID:23146791
Hills, Andrew P; Okely, Anthony D; Baur, Louise A
Obesity is affecting an increasing proportion of children globally. Despite an appreciation that physical activity is essential for the normal growth and development of children and prevents obesity and obesity-related health problems, too few children are physically active. A concurrent problem is that today's young people spend more time than previous generations did in sedentary pursuits, including watching television and engaging in screen-based games. Active behavior has been displaced by these inactive recreational choices, which has contributed to reductions in activity-related energy expenditure. Implementation of multifactorial solutions considered to offer the best chance of combating these trends is urgently required to redress the energy imbalance that characterizes obesity. The counterproductive 'shame and blame' mentality that apportions responsibility for the childhood obesity problem to sufferers, their parents, teachers or health-care providers needs to be changed. Instead, these groups should offer constant support and encouragement to promote appropriate physical activity in children. Failure to provide activity opportunities will increase the likelihood that the children of today will live less healthy (and possibly shorter) lives than their parents. PMID:20736922
Visser, R; Atkinson, R L
The first Pan American Conference on Obesity (PACO I) was held in Aruba in June 2011 and was attended by a wide variety of professionals including scientists, clinicians, Ministers of Health and other government officials from a number of Caribbean, Latin American and North American countries. The conference focused on childhood obesity and the participants discussed public health policies that addressed the problem of childhood obesity. These included multi-level, comprehensive strategies to address childhood obesity based on three principles: (a) that primordial and primary prevention with a life-course approach should be the central component of national programs to stop the obesity epidemic, (b) that the multi-level focus should be working across all sectors to modify the ‘obesogenic' environment that facilitates a positive energy balance and excess weight gain and (c) that developing self-care skills, meaning actions taken by the individual to protect and promote their health and the health of their children, is imperative. At the same time, it was acknowledged that the ‘obesogenic' environment shows wide variability across countries, and therefore any concerted regional action plan must allow for flexibility and adaptation to each local situation. Finally, education was identified as a critical component for the promotion of health and the prevention of childhood obesity.
Must, A; Strauss, R S
This report reviews the risks and consequences associated with childhood and adolescent obesity. Although no consensus definition of childhood obesity exists, the various measures encountered in the literature are moderately well correlated. The paper is organized in three parts. The first section reviews childhood obesity sequelae that occur during childhood. These short-term risks, for orthopedic, neurological, pulmonary, gasteroenterological, and endocrine conditions, although largely limited to severely overweight children, are becoming more common as the prevalence of severe overweight rises. The social burden of pediatric obesity, especially during middle childhood and adolescence, may have lasting effects on self-esteem, body image and economic mobility. The second section examines the intermediate consequences, such as the development of cardiovascular risk factors and persistence of obesity into adulthood. These mid-range effects of early obesity presage later adult disease and premature mortality. In the final section, the small body of research on the long-term morbidity and mortality associated with childhood obesity is reviewed. These studies suggest that risk of cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality is elevated among those who were overweight during childhood. The high prevalence and dramatic secular trend toward increasing childhood obesity suggest that without aggressive approaches to prevention and treatment, the attendant health and social consequences will be both substantial and long-lasting. PMID:10340798
Beatriz García Cortés
It is expected to clarify agreements and dissonances in the proposals to combat and prevent childhood obesity. Furthermore, this study aims to project recommendations for future studies involving childhood obesity throw the causes that have been associated disease in the reviewed literature.
Purpose: The aim of this literature review is to summarise and synthesise the research base concerning childhood obesity and physical activity, particularly in relation to teachers and schools and within a policy context of the UK. The review investigates childhood obesity, physical activity, physical education, the role of teachers, the role of…
Cardinal, Tiffany M.; Lumeng, Julie C.
The rates of overweight in infancy and childhood are rapidly growing. One contributor to the rising tide of childhood obesity, and a target included in many obesity prevention and intervention programs, is television (TV) use. This article examines the amount of media to which young children are exposed, and considers the evidence for the…
The Childhood Obesity Research Demonstration (CORD) project links public health and primary care interventions in three projects described in detail in accompanying articles in this issue of Childhood Obesity. This article describes a comprehensive evaluation plan to determine the extent to which th...
This 60 second Public Service Announcement (PSA) is based on the August, 2011 CDC Vital Signs report. Childhood obesity is an epidemic in the US. Breastfeeding can help prevent obesity, but one in three moms stop without hospital support. About 95% of hospitals lack policies that fully support breastfeeding moms. Hospitals need to do more to help moms start and continue breastfeeding. Created: 8/2/2011 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Date Released: 8/2/2011.
The increasing prevalence of childhood obesity in Latin America has become a cause for concern. The IAEA has worked closely with the Institute of Nutrition and Food Technology (INTA) at the University of Chile since 1997 to address the problem of malnutrition in the country. In Santiago, the Laboratory of Energy Metabolism and Stable Isotopes was established in 1998 with the help of the IAEA to provide an isotope ratio mass spectrometer and training in the use of stable isotope techniques to assess body composition, infant feeding practices and total daily energy expenditure
working mothers may spend more time in the care of others, whose childcare quality may vary substantially. While a majority of US studies support this hypothesis and have clear policy implications, recent studies in other countries are less conclusive, largely because institutional arrangements differ but......Childhood obesity has been rising steadily in most parts of the world. Popular speculation attributes some of that increase to rising maternal employment. Employed mothers spend less time at home and thus less time with their children, whose diets and physical activity may suffer. Also, children of...
Prentice, Andrew M
Thirty years ago international nutritionists were focussing on childhood malnutrition, the 'protein gap' and how to feed the world's burgeoning population, and medical services in the developing world were concentrated on the fight against infectious diseases. Today the World Health Organization (WHO) finds itself needing to deal with the new pandemic of obesity and its accompanying non-communicable diseases (NCDs) while the challenge of childhood malnutrition has far from disappeared, TB and malaria rates are escalating, and the scourge of AIDS has emerged. This has created a 'double burden' of disease that threatens to overwhelm the health services of many resource-poor countries. WHO warns that the greater future burden of obesity and diabetes will affect developing countries, and the projected numbers of new cases of diabetes run into the hundreds of millions within the next 2 decades. The obesity pandemic originated in the US and crossed to Europe and the world's other rich nations before, remarkably, it penetrated even the world's poorest countries especially in their urban areas. The pandemic is transmitted through the vectors of subsidized agriculture and multinational companies providing cheap, highly refined fats, oils, and carbohydrates, labour-saving mechanized devices, affordable motorized transport, and the seductions of sedentary pastimes such as television. This paper briefly reviews these macro-environmental trends as well as considering some of the socio-behavioural influences on weight gain in traditional societies. It concludes, pessimistically, that the pandemic will continue to spread for the foreseeable future, and that, apart from educational campaigns, the governments and health services of poor countries will have few effective public health levers with which they can try to arrest the trend. PMID:16326822
Childhood obesity has become major health concern for physicians, parents, and health agencies around the world. Childhood obesity is associated with an increased risk for other diseases not only during youth but also later in life, including diabetes, arterial hypertension, coronary artery disease, and fatty liver disease. Importantly, obesity accelerates atherosclerosis progression already in children and young adults. With regard to pathophysiological changes in the vasculature, the striki...
Coelho, Filipa; Silva, Ana Lúcia; Ramos, Carlos; Carvalho, Maria Ana; Rito, Ana
BACKGROUND: Childhood obesity has been considered a global epidemic and its prevalence has increased worldwide in the last decades. Such trends as gain special interest in the scientific community and their causes have been large studied. In this context it is recognized the importance of more study on obesity’ influences. According to the literature childhood obesity is linked with some child and maternal features. This study aims to evaluate the relationship between child and maternal varia...
Lausten-Thomsen, Ulrik; Bille, Dorthe Sadowa; Nässlund, Ida;
childhood obesity and the preceding in utero conditions expressed by birth weight and birth length, birth-weight-for-gestational-age and neonatal ponderal index in a Danish cohort of 1,171 severely obese children (median age 11.48 years, range 3.13 to 17.98 years) with a mean body mass index......UNLABELLED: Recent evidence has demonstrated the prenatal initiation of childhood obesity as epidemiological studies and animal studies have illustrated the effect of the intrauterine milieu for subsequent development of childhood obesity. This study investigates the relationship between severe...... that the prenatal period can be considered as a potential window of opportunity for prevention of childhood overweight and obesity and anthropological measurements may in theory be used to help identify neonates at high risk for developing childhood obesity....
Díaz-Hellín, P; Fontecha, J; Hervás, R; Bravo, J
Childhood Obesity is associated with a wide range of serious health complications and constitutes an increased risk of premature syndromes, including diabetes or heart diseases. Its treatment seems to be complicated. So, in order to help parents we have developed a system that will try to make easier the process of choosing foodstuff for overweight and obese children at the supermarket. To interact with the system, Near Field Communication mobile phones and tags are used. Those tags would have nutritional information such as energy or fat contain of each product. When the interaction takes place, the system will generate an alert determining if the product is adequate for the user diet or not. Decision will be influenced by specific prescript diets, which would have been previously generated by the system based on user profile parameters. At the same time the diet is established, the shopping list would be generated automatically. Therefore, the user could download and print both things at home easily by the PC application. The system also takes into account physical activity of the user. Children mobile phone includes an accelerometer that will detect and collect user activities in order to modify calorical requirements and, if necessary, to change physical activity too. In the future, it would be possible to extend this project system for adults, managing diets not just for obese and overweight, but also to diabetic or celiac people. PMID:26254253
Aksglaede, Lise; Juul, Anders; Olsen, Lina W;
BACKGROUND: Recent studies have shown that puberty starts at younger ages than previously. It has been hypothesized that the increasing prevalence of childhood obesity is contributing to this trend. The purpose of this study was to analyze the association between prepubertal body mass index (BMI......) and pubertal timing, as assessed by age at onset of pubertal growth spurt (OGS) and at peak height velocity (PHV), and the secular trend of pubertal timing given the prepubertal BMI. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Annual measurements of height and weight were available in all children born from 1930 to 1969...... who attended primary school in the Copenhagen municipality; 156,835 children fulfilled the criteria for determining age at OGS and PHV. The effect of prepubertal BMI at age seven on these markers of pubertal development within and between birth cohorts was analyzed. BMI at seven years...
Ranjani, Harish; Mehreen, T.S.; Pradeepa, Rajendra; Anjana, Ranjit Mohan; Garg, Renu; Anand, Krishnan; Mohan, Viswanathan
Background & objectives: Childhood obesity is a known precursor to obesity and other non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in adulthood. However, the magnitude of the problem among children and adolescents in India is unclear due to paucity of well-conducted nationwide studies and lack of uniformity in the cut-points used to define childhood overweight and obesity. Hence an attempt was made to review the data on trends in childhood overweight and obesity reported from India during 1981 to 2013. Methods: Literature search was done in various scientific public domains from the last three decades using key words such as childhood and adolescent obesity, overweight, prevalence, trends, etc. Additional studies were also identified through cross-references and websites of official agencies. Results: Prevalence data from 52 studies conducted in 16 of the 28 States in India were included in analysis. The median value for the combined prevalence of childhood and adolescent obesity showed that it was higher in north, compared to south India. The pooled data after 2010 estimated a combined prevalence of 19.3 per cent of childhood overweight and obesity which was a significant increase from the earlier prevalence of 16.3 per cent reported in 2001-2005. Interpretation & conclusions: Our review shows that overweight and obesity rates in children and adolescents are increasing not just among the higher socio-economic groups but also in the lower income groups where underweight still remains a major concern. PMID:27121514
Kirsten E Bevelander
Full Text Available Effective and simple screening tools are needed to detect behaviors that are established early in life and have a significant influence on weight gain later in life. Crowdsourcing could be a novel and potentially useful tool to assess childhood predictors of adult obesity. This exploratory study examined whether crowdsourcing could generate well-documented predictors in obesity research and, moreover, whether new directions for future research could be uncovered. Participants were recruited through social media to a question-generation website, on which they answered questions and were able to pose new questions that they thought could predict obesity. During the two weeks of data collection, 532 participants (62% female; age = 26.5±6.7; BMI = 29.0±7.0 registered on the website and suggested a total of 56 unique questions. Nineteen of these questions correlated with body mass index (BMI and covered several themes identified by prior research, such as parenting styles and healthy lifestyle. More importantly, participants were able to identify potential determinants that were related to a lower BMI, but have not been the subject of extensive research, such as parents packing their children's lunch to school or talking to them about nutrition. The findings indicate that crowdsourcing can reproduce already existing hypotheses and also generate ideas that are less well documented. The crowdsourced predictors discovered in this study emphasize the importance of family interventions to fight obesity. The questions generated by participants also suggest new ways to express known predictors.
Kar, Subhranshu Sekhar; Dube, Rajani; Kar, Sitanshu Sekhar
Childhood obesity is now a global problem throughout the world. The major factors affecting weight regulation and the development of obesity in children are the result of a large number of biological, behavioral, social, environmental, and economic factors and the complex interactions between them that promote a positive energy balance. The changes in the dietary habits with the adoption of sedentary life style increases manifold obesity-related diseases and their complications. An obese chil...
Mandy L Perryman,1 Kara A Sidoti,2 1Department of Leadership and Counselor Education, University of Mississippi, MS, USA; 2Lynchburg College, Lynchburg, VA, USA Abstract: Rates of obesity in children and adolescents appear to be stabilizing, though the prevalence of extreme obesity in this population remains fairly consistent at 4%. Childhood obesity contributes to serious health complications, such as hypertension, orthopedic problems, hormonal imbalances, and adult obesity. Psychological, ...
Döring, Nora; Ghaderi, Ata; Bohman, Benjamin;
OBJECTIVE: The objective was to evaluate a manualized theory-driven primary preventive intervention aimed at early childhood obesity. The intervention was embedded in Swedish child health services, starting when eligible children were 9 to 10 months of age and continuing until the children reached...... in motivational interviewing, focusing on healthy food habits and physical activity. Families in the control group received care as usual. Primary outcomes were children's BMI, overweight prevalence, and waist circumference at age 4. Secondary outcomes were children's and mothers' food and physical activity...... habits and mothers' anthropometrics. Effects were assessed in linear and log-binominal regression models using generalized estimating equations. RESULTS: There were no statistically significant differences in children's BMI (β = -0.11, 95% confidence interval [CI]: -0.31 to 0.08), waist circumference (β...
Bour, Eric S
Despite aims at prevention, obesity in the United States is now an epidemic. Along with the rise in obesity, the United States has experienced a concomitant rise in obesity-related comorbidities. Furthermore overweight and obesity present a major economic public health challenge. Physicians are likely to recommend weight loss to their overweight patients. Diet, exercise, and behavior modification are often effective during the course of treatment but are subject to recidivism and post-treatment weight gain. Obesity intervention mandates that providers consider the need for surgery in many cases. The three most commonly performed weight loss surgical procedures in the United States include gastric banding, gastric bypass, and sleeve gastrectomy. Patients undergoing surgery lose considerable amounts of excess weight and experience marked improvement in many other obesity-related comorbidities. Surgery is a proven therapy for patients who do not respond to less invasive measures and should be considered mainstream therapy in the treatment of the obesity epidemic. PMID:25757004
Gracia-Marco, Luis; Moreno, Luis A; Vicente-Rodríguez, Germán
Obesity, mainly childhood obesity, is a worldwide concern. Childhood obesity continues to adulthood, and it is associated with multiple noncommunicable diseases. One important aspect in the fight against obesity is prevention, the earlier, the better. Social marketing is a novel concept being increasingly used as an approach to address social problems and more and more included in the community-based interventions aiming to change unhealthy behaviors. Although there is limited evidence of its effectiveness, it seems that when conscientiously applied, social marketing principles may be useful to change behaviors and thus better health outcomes. PMID:22798001
Full Text Available Experts stress the need to bring the childhood obesity epidemic under control by means of an integrated approach. The implementation of such an approach requires the development of integrated enabling policies on public health by local governments. A prerequisite for developing such integrated public health policies is intersectoral collaboration. Since the development of integrated policies is still in its early stages, this study aimed to answer the following research question: “What interventions can promote intersectoral collaboration and the development of integrated health policies for the prevention of childhood obesity?” Data were collected through a literature search and observations of and interviews with stakeholders. Based on a theoretical framework, we categorized potential interventions that could optimize an integrated approach regarding children's physical activity and diet. The intervention categories included education, persuasion, incentivization, coercion, training, restriction, environmental restructuring, modeling, and enablement.
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to draw attention to obesity in adolescence and its potential risks and put forward its consequences in terms of public health as well as offer solutions. Today, obesity has become one of the most frequent chronic diseases of childhood. The tendency to obesity is at an alarming level and the annual increase in this age group is gradually rising. In the 2003 report of the International Obesity Commission, it was stated that one out of ten children aged between 5-17 worldwide was overweight or obese. In addition to social and psychological problems resulting from obesity, it is known to be closely related with very serious diseases such as hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. It is also known that obesity shortens life expectancy and that the process starts in the childhood period of many obese adults. Struggling with obesity actually means struggling with many other diseases. It is also of major significance for the future of our country to struggle with especially childhood obesity. In terms of public health, it is of primary importance to detect, avoid and cure obesity in this period. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(2.000: 223-230
Rask, Kimberly J.; Julie A. Gazmararian; Kohler, Susan S.; Hawley, Jonathan N.; Jenny Bogard; Victoria A. Brown
Childhood obesity is a recognized public health crisis. This paper reviews the lessons learned from a voluntary initiative to expand insurance coverage for childhood obesity prevention and treatment services in the United States. In-depth telephone interviews were conducted with key informants from 16 participating health plans and employers in 2010-11. Key informants reported difficulty ensuring that both providers and families were aware of the available services. Participating health plans...
Mozhdeh B Bruss; Linda Dannison; Joseph R. Morris; Jackie Quitugua; Rosa T. Palacios; Judy McGowan; Timothy Michael
This paper presents a community-school-higher education partnership approach to the prevention of childhood obesity. Public elementary school personnel, primarily teachers, participated in the design and delivery of a curriculum targeting primary caregivers of 8-9-year-old children. Theoretical framework and methodological approaches guided the development of a cognitive behavioral lifestyle intervention targeting childhood obesity prevention in the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Island...
Childhood obesity continues to grow in the UK despite multiple prevention and intervention strategies. Research on childhood obesity has tended to focus on quantitative research with parents of overweight children, however recently there has been some qualitative studies done with parents and research is beginning to emerge with overweight children themselves. The purpose of this thesis was therefore to draw together the available qualitative research with parents and to undertake an origin...
Fan, Maoyong; Jin, Yanhong H.
Promoting physical activity in children is an important front battling Childhood obesity. This paper investigates if and by how much neighborhood parks and playgrounds, one of the most important activity-enhancing neighborhood facilities, affect childhood obesity. We employ a covariate matching technique to analyze the 2007 National Survey of Children Health data. We find that neighborhood parks and playgrounds make children more fit. The reduction in body mass index (BMI) as well as the over...
Miranda, Marie Lynn; Edwards, Sharon E.; Anthopolos, Rebecca; DOLINSKY, DIANA H; Kemper, Alex R.
The relationship between childhood obesity and aspects of the built environment characterizing neighborhood social context is understudied. We evaluate the association between seven built environment domains and childhood obesity in Durham, NC. Measures of housing damage, property disorder, vacancy, nuisances, and territoriality were constructed using data from a 2008 community assessment. Renter-occupied housing and crime measures were developed from public databases. We linked these measure...
Individuals are bombarded every day with data on obesity and its health consequences, with information on weight loss treatments and their successes and failures, and with tips on how to reduce caloric intake and increase physical activity. Obesity has become a global epidemic, termed globesity (World Health Organization, 2003), and seen by many…
The obesity epidemic is producing growing interest in public policy measures targeting prevention. We developed a printed survey suitable for mailing to primary care physicians in Louisiana. Questions were asked concerning health policies relating to motorcycle helmet use, smoking, and obesity. W...
Maintaining a healthy weight in childhood can prevent many health-related problems later in life. In this podcast, Dr. Jackson Sekhobo discusses the importance of avoiding obesity in childhood. Created: 1/31/2013 by MMWR. Date Released: 1/31/2013.
Maintaining a healthy weight in childhood can prevent many health-related problems later in life. This podcast discusses what can be done to prevent childhood obesity. Created: 1/31/2013 by MMWR. Date Released: 1/31/2013.
Rokholm, Benjamin; Silventoinen, Karri; Tynelius, Per; Gamborg, Michael; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Rasmussen, Finn
There is no doubt that the dramatic worldwide increase in obesity prevalence is due to changes in environmental factors. However, twin and family studies suggest that genetic differences are responsible for the major part of the variation in adiposity within populations. Recent studies show that...... the genetic effects on body mass index (BMI) may be stronger when combined with presumed risk factors for obesity. We tested the hypothesis that the genetic variance of BMI has increased during the obesity epidemic....
Green, Gregory; Reese, Shirley A.
The greatest health risk facing children today is obesity. The prevalence of childhood obesity in the United States has risen dramatically in the past several decades. Because children on the average spend up to five or six hours a day involved in sedentary activities, including excessive time watching television, using the computer and playing…
... America A Proclamation Since the 1970s, the rate of childhood obesity in our country has tripled, and... others will face obesity-related problems like heart disease, high blood pressure, cancer, and asthma. As... States of America the two hundred and thirty-sixth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2011-22928 Filed...
Childhood obesity has become major health concern for physicians,parents,and health agencies around the world.Childhood obesity is associated with an increased risk for other diseases not only during youth but also later in life,including diabetes,arterial hypertension,coronary artery disease,and fatty liver disease.Importantly,obesity accelerates atherosclerosis progression already in children and young adults.With regard to pathophysiological changes in the vasculature,the striking similarities between physiological changes related to aging and obesity-related abnormalities are compatible with the concept that obesity causes “premature” vascular aging.This article reviews factors underlying the accelerated vascular disease development due to obesity.It also highlights the importance of recognizing childhood obesity as a disease condition and its permissive role in aggravating the development of other diseases.The importance of childhood obesity for disease susceptibility later in life,and the need for prevention and treatment are also discussed.
... Independence of the United States of America the two hundred and thirty- eighth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc... diabetes, cancer, asthma, heart disease, and high blood pressure. While childhood obesity remains a serious... can receive obesity screening and counseling at no out-of-pocket cost to their parents. The...
... obesity. Such strategies include updating child nutrition policies in a way that addresses the best... Register. (Presidential Sig.) THE WHITE HOUSE, WASHINGTON, February 9, 2010 [FR Doc. 2010-3220 Filed 2-17... on Childhood Obesity Memorandum for the Heads of Executive Departments and Agencies Across...
Li Yanping,; Zhai, F.; Yang, X.; Schouten, E.G.; Hu, X.; He, Y.; Luan, D.; Ma, Guansheng
In order to investigate the determinants of childhood overweight and obesity in China, the prevalence of overweight (including obesity) was compared according to different dietary and physical activity patterns and parental body weight status. A total of 6826 children aged 7-17 years from the 2002 C
Jalali, M S; Sharafi-Avarzaman, Z; Rahmandad, H; Ammerman, A S
The objective of this study is to understand the pathways through which social influence at the family level moderates the impact of childhood obesity interventions. We conducted a systematic review of obesity interventions in which parents' behaviours are targeted to change children's obesity outcomes, because of the potential social and environmental influence of parents on the nutrition and physical activity behaviours of children. PubMed (1966-2013) and the Web of Science (1900-2013) were searched, and 32 studies satisfied our inclusion criteria. Results for existing mechanisms that moderate parents' influence on children's behaviour are discussed, and a causal pathway diagram is developed to map out social influence mechanisms that affect childhood obesity. We provide health professionals and researchers with recommendations for leveraging family-based social influence mechanisms to increase the efficacy of obesity intervention programmes. © 2016 World Obesity. PMID:27138986
Green, Tiffany L
Childhood obesity has become an issue of increasing concern to health researchers and policymakers in the United States. One important chronic health condition linked to obesity is pediatric asthma. Although researchers have speculated that both conditions may have common origins, the majority of research in this area has focused on a unidirectional relationship between obesity and later asthma. However, much of the literature is limited by its reliance on cross-sectional data and its failure...
Nadeau, Kristen J.; Maahs, David M; Daniels, Stephen R.; Eckel, Robert H.
The prevalence and severity of pediatric obesity have dramatically increased since the late 1980s, raising concerns about a subsequent increase in cardiovascular outcomes. Strong evidence, particularly from autopsy studies, supports the concept that precursors of adult cardiovascular disease (CVD) begin in childhood, and that pediatric obesity has an important influence on overall CVD risk. Lifestyle patterns also begin early and impact CVD risk. In addition, obesity and other CVD risk factor...
Szucs, Robert Sandor
The purchasing power of youth is considerable; they are the market of the future. , the young generation is the most influenced and vulnerable segment of the economy. The greatest problem of the influencing of our children is the rising cost of childhood obesity. The health care system cannot keep up with the pressure of obesity. Today, the risk of obesity is a bigger problem than smoking or alcoholism. The greatest problem is that youth underestimates the cost and risk of consumption of food...
Dunton, Genevieve Fridlund; Kaplan, Jesse; Wolch, Jennifer; Jerrett, Michael; Reynolds, Kim D.
Increasing rates of childhood obesity in the U.S. and other Western countries are cause for serious public health concern. Neighborhood and community environments are thought to play a contributing role in the development of obesity among youth, but it is not well understood which types of physical environmental characteristics have the most potential to influence obesity outcomes. This paper reports the results of a systematic review of quantitative research examining built and biophysical e...
Messiah, Sarah E; Jiang, Sandy; Kardys, Jack; Hansen, Eric; Nardi, Maria; Forster, Lourdes
Major hindrances to controlling the current childhood obesity epidemic include access to prevention and/or treatment programs that are affordable, provide minimal barriers for participation, and are available to the general public. Moreover, successful childhood obesity prevention efforts will require coordinated partnerships in multiple sectors such as government, health care, school/afterschool, and the community but very few documented sustainable programs currently exist. Effective, community-based health and wellness programs with a focus on maintaining healthy weight via physical activity and healthy eating have the potential to be a powerful referral resource for pediatricians and other healthcare professionals who have young patients who are overweight/obese. The Miami Dade County Department of Parks, Recreation and Open Spaces in partnership with the University of Miami UHealth Systems have created a “Park Prescription Program (Parks Rx 4HealthTM)” that formally coordinates pediatricians, families, parents, caregivers, and child/adolescents to provide daily obesity-prevention activities. This Parks Rx 4HealthTM program that we describe here allows UHealth pediatricians to seamlessly refer their overweight and obese patients to Fit2PlayTM, an evidence-based, park-based afterschool health and wellness program. Measurable outcomes that include body mass index, blood pressure, fitness, and nutrition knowledge are being collected at baseline and at 3-and 6-mo after referral to document patient progress. Results are then shared with the referring physician so they can follow up with the patient if necessary. Identifying successful models that integrate primary care, public health, and community-based efforts is important to accelerating progress in preventing childhood obesity. Effective, community-based health and wellness programs with a focus on physical activity and nutrition education could be a powerful referral resource for pediatricians who have
Messiah, Sarah E; Jiang, Sandy; Kardys, Jack; Hansen, Eric; Nardi, Maria; Forster, Lourdes
Major hindrances to controlling the current childhood obesity epidemic include access to prevention and/or treatment programs that are affordable, provide minimal barriers for participation, and are available to the general public. Moreover, successful childhood obesity prevention efforts will require coordinated partnerships in multiple sectors such as government, health care, school/afterschool, and the community but very few documented sustainable programs currently exist. Effective, community-based health and wellness programs with a focus on maintaining healthy weight via physical activity and healthy eating have the potential to be a powerful referral resource for pediatricians and other healthcare professionals who have young patients who are overweight/obese. The Miami Dade County Department of Parks, Recreation and Open Spaces in partnership with the University of Miami UHealth Systems have created a "Park Prescription Program (Parks Rx 4Health(TM))" that formally coordinates pediatricians, families, parents, caregivers, and child/adolescents to provide daily obesity-prevention activities. This Parks Rx 4Health(TM) program that we describe here allows UHealth pediatricians to seamlessly refer their overweight and obese patients to Fit2Play(TM), an evidence-based, park-based afterschool health and wellness program. Measurable outcomes that include body mass index, blood pressure, fitness, and nutrition knowledge are being collected at baseline and at 3-and 6-mo after referral to document patient progress. Results are then shared with the referring physician so they can follow up with the patient if necessary. Identifying successful models that integrate primary care, public health, and community-based efforts is important to accelerating progress in preventing childhood obesity. Effective, community-based health and wellness programs with a focus on physical activity and nutrition education could be a powerful referral resource for pediatricians who have
Kim, Hae Ok; Kim, Gyo Nam; Park, Euna
Objectives The purpose of this study was to identify the perception of childhood obesity in mothers of preschool children using Q methodology. Methods A total of 38 Q statements about childhood obesity were obtained from 41 participants. The QUANL PC program was used to analyze the results. Results There were three types of perception toward obesity in mothers of preschool children: the “authoritative discipline type,” the “generous home meal focused type,” and the “home meal based on househo...
Rivera-Soto, Winna T.; Linnette Rodríguez-Figueroa
Public concern about childhood obesity and associated health problems calls for the identification of modifiable factors that could halt this epidemic. Parental perceptions of their children’s weight status could be associated to how parents influence children’s eating patterns. We aimed to identify the perceptions Puerto Rican parents have of their children’s weight and children’s own perceptions of weight status as compared to real weight. A cross sectional survey was performed in a represe...
Cardiovascular risk factors in children are increasing at an alarming rate in the western world. However, there is limited information regarding these in the South Asian children. This review attempts at summarizing such evidence. South Asians are remarkable for the earlier onset of adult cardiovascular disease (CVD) by almost a decade compared to the Caucasians. We identified published literature, mainly on PubMed, Embase and Cochrane library using specific search terms such as lipid abnormalities, high blood pressure, hyperglycemia, tobacco use, obesity, physical inactivity, and unhealthy dietary practices. Atherosclerotic CVD processes begin early in childhood and are influenced over the life course by genetic and potentially modifiable risk factors and environmental exposure. 80% of adult CVD burden will fall on the developing nations by 2020. The concept of primordial prevention is fast emerging as a necessary prevention tool to curb adult CVD epidemic. Established guidelines and proven preventive strategies on cardiovascular health exist; however, are always implemented half-heartedly. Composite screening and prediction tools for adults can be adapted and validated in children tailored to South Asian population. South Asian children could be at a greater risk of developing cardiovascular risk factors at an earlier stage, thus, timely interventions are imperative
Nielsen, Louise Aas; Nielsen, Tenna Ruest Haarmark; Holm, Jens-Christian
The prevalence of childhood obesity has reached alarming rates world-wide. The aetiology seems to be an interplay between genetic and environmental factors, and a surrogate measure of this complex interaction is suggested as familial predisposition. Familial predisposition to obesity and related cardiovascular disease (CVD) complications constitute the presence of obesity and/or obesity-related complications in primarily blood-related family members. The approaches of its measurement and applicability vary, and the evidence especially of its influence on obesity and obesity treatment in childhood is limited. Studies have linked a familial predisposition of obesity, CVD (hypertension, dyslipidaemia and thromboembolic events), and type 2 diabetes mellitus to BMI as well as other adiposity measures in children, suggesting degrees of familial aggregation of metabolic derangements. A pattern of predispositions arising from mothers, parents or grandparents as being most influential have been found, but further comprehensive studies are needed in order to specify the exact implications of familial predisposition. In the scope of childhood obesity this article reviews the current literature regarding familial predisposition to obesity and obesity-related complications, and how these familial predispositions may impact obesity in the offspring. PMID:26465142
Austin, S Bryn
Public health attention to childhood obesity has increased in tandem with the growing epidemic, but despite this intense focus, successes in prevention have lagged far behind. There is a blind spot in our drive for childhood obesity prevention that prevents us from generating sufficiently broad solutions. Eating disorders and the constellation of perilous weight-control behaviors are in that blind spot. Evidence is mounting that obesity and eating disorders are linked in myriad ways, but entrenched myths about eating disorders undermine our ability to see the full range of leverage points to target in obesity preventive intervention studies. Our efforts to prevent childhood obesity can no longer afford to ignore eating disorders and the assemblage of related behaviors that persist unabated. PMID:21493926
Mama, Scherezade K.; Soltero, Erica G.; LEDOUX, TRACEY A.; Gallagher, Martina R.; Lee, Rebecca E.
Science and Community: Ending Obesity Improving Health (S&C) aimed to reduce obesity in Houston by developing community partnerships to identify research priorities and develop a sustainable obesity reduction program. Partnership members were recruited from S&C events and invited to participate in in-depth interviews to gain insight into obesity prevalence, causes, and solutions. Members (n = 22) completed a 60–90-min in-depth interview. The interview guide consisted of 30 questions about pre...
Safak Ergul; Asli Kalkim
The aim of this paper is to draw attention to obesity in adolescence and its potential risks and put forward its consequences in terms of public health as well as offer solutions. Today, obesity has become one of the most frequent chronic diseases of childhood. The tendency to obesity is at an alarming level and the annual increase in this age group is gradually rising. In the 2003 report of the International Obesity Commission, it was stated that one out of ten children aged between 5-17 wor...
Daar, Ghaniya; Sarı, Kamran; Gencer, Zeliha Kapusuz; Ede, Hüseyin; Aydın, Reha; Saydam, Levent
Childhood obesity is a common and significant public health problem all over the world. As a well-known fact obese children have an increased risk of obesity-associated comorbidities, including obstructive sleep apnea, diabetes, and cardiovascular disorders at an earlier age compared to their normal weight peers. They also have an increased risk of poor self-esteem, greater body dissatisfaction, and increased peer teasing that lead to a lower health-related quality of life. While the presence of adenoid hypertrophy and increased rate of obstructive sleep apnea frequently co-exists in majority of cases. We have limited knowledge about the effect of adenotonsillar hypertrophy on development of childhood obesity. In this study, we aimed to investigate the association between obesity, presence of adenotonsillar hypertrophy and the quality of life parameters in obese children as measured by the OSA-18 quality of life questionnaire. Fifty obese children aged between 3 and 18 years and 50 age- and gender-matched otherwise children were enrolled to the study. All subjects were routinely examined by the otolaryngologist before enrollment. The size of adenoid hypertrophy was measured using lateral cephalometric radiographs. The tonsils were also graded using the schema recommended by Brodsky et al. We used OSA-18 questionnaires to evaluate the subjects' quality of life issues. We found, 34 % of obese group had tonsillar hypertrophy while the rate was 6 % in control group. Similarly 16 % of obese group had tonsillar hypertrophy compared to only 4 % in non-obese group. It was also noted that total OSA-18 scores of obese group were significantly higher than those of non-obese group. In subgroup analysis of obese group, total OSA-18 score of obese subjects with either adenoid and/or tonsillar hypertrophy was significantly higher than that of obese subjects without adenoid or tonsillar hypertrophy. As the related literature suggests that the impact of adenotonsillar size on OSA
Santiago Tavares Paes
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To review the current literature concerning the effects of physical exercise on several metabolic variables related to childhood obesity. DATA SOURCE: A search was performed in Pubmed/MEDLINE and Web of Science databases. The keywords used were as follows: Obesity, Children Obesity, Childhood Obesity, Exercise and Physical Activity. The online search was based on studies published in English, from April 2010 to December 2013. DATA SYNTHESIS: Search queries returned 88,393 studies based on the aforementioned keywords; 4,561 studies were selected by crossing chosen keywords. After applying inclusion criteria, four studies were selected from 182 eligible titles. Most studies found that aerobic and resistance training improves body composition, lipid profile and metabolic and inflammatory status of obese children and adolescents; however, the magnitude of these effects is associated with the type, intensity and duration of practice. CONCLUSIONS: Regardless of the type, physical exercise promotes positive adaptations to childhood obesity, mainly acting to restore cellular and cardiovascular homeostasis, to improve body composition, and to activate metabolism; therefore, physical exercise acts as a co-factor in fighting obesity.
In Canada, forces such as the media, medical discourse, and public policy work to position childhood obesity as increased body fat content or excess adiposity due to various personal, social, and economic factors. Drawing on Barad's "agential realist ontology", this article aims to inhabit-with obesity in an effort to disrupt dominant…
Alpcan, Ayşegül; Arıkan Durmaz, Şenay
The prevalence of obesity, defined as increased amount of body fat, varies according to race, age, and sex. Obesity prevalence in children and adolescents increases worldwide. The most important reason for the increase is, along with developing technology, limitation of activity, and alterations in nutritional habits and food preferences of the children. Although there is imbalance of calorie intake and utilization in the etiologyof obesity, genetic factors as in monogenic obesity, hundreds o...
Washington, Reginald L.
Although the effects of obesity on children's physical health are well documented, the social consequences of obesity are less well described and may not be addressed in intervention programs. Weight bias may take several forms. It may result in teasing and discrimination and may affect employment and educational opportunities. Health care providers may limit care of overweight or obese children. The media promote weight bias in multiple ways. Some parents are biased against their obese child...
Obesity is the most prevalent health problem among children in the United States and globally, leading to diverse health problems and staggering costs. Most child obesity prevention interventions are not working well, or not at all. Part of the problem is that the causes of child obesity are not cle...
Svensson, V; Jacobsson, J A; Fredriksson, R.; Danielsson, P; Sobko, T; Schiöth, H B; Marcus, C
Objective: To explore the relationship between severity of obesity at age 7 and age 15, age at onset of obesity, and parental body mass index (BMI) in obese children and adolescents. Design: Longitudinal cohort study. Subjects: Obese children (n=231) and their parents (n=462) from the Swedish National Childhood Obesity Centre. Methods: Multivariate regression analyses were applied with severity of obesity (BMI standard deviation score (BMI SDS)) and onset of obesity as dependent variables. Th...
Darren M. Allcock
Full Text Available The incidence of overweight and obesity is rising at an alarming pace in the pediatric population, just as in the adult population. The adult comorbidities associated with this risk factor are well-recognized and are being further elucidated continually. Additionally, we are gradually developing a better understanding of the risks of overweight and obesity among children while they are still young. However, there is now a growing body of evidence showing that childhood obesity not only leads all too frequently to adult obesity, but is in itself a risk factor for cardiometabolic syndrome and resultant cardiovascular risk in adulthood. If current trends continue, the problem of pediatric overweight and obesity will become of unmanageable proportions once these individuals reach adulthood. Future research efforts toward understanding this complex problem will need to focus on those overweight and obese children who later went on to change their metabolic course and become normal-weight adults.
Cizza, G.; Rother, K.I.
Decreased physical activity and marketing-driven increased consumption of “junk” food, dubbed “The Big Two”, are generally regarded as the most important contributors to the obesity epidemic. However, the full picture contains many more pieces of the puzzle. We address several additional issues and review current clinical developments in obesity research. In spite of dramatic advancements in our understanding of the adipose organ and its endocrine and immune products, the ultimate causes of t...
Sun, Guiju; Jia, Genmei; Peng, Honglei; Dickerman, Barbra; Compher, Charlene; Liu, Jianghong
Childhood obesity is worsening at dramatic rates and has become a public health crisis. This study investigated these trends in childhood obesity and examined parental factors that may contribute to overweight and obesity. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated from height and weight measurements taken annually from 2004 to 2007 in a subsample of 136 children (2-4 years old), from the Jintan Child Health Project in China. Parental factors were assessed through a self-administered questionnaire. Prevalence rates of overweight and obesity rose from 6.6% and 2.2% in 2004 to 15.4% and 6.6% in 2007 (p working mothers, on the nutritional benefits of home-cooked meals. PMID:23823460
Baños, Rosa M; Cebolla, Ausias; Botella, Cristina; García-Palacios, Azucena; Oliver, Elia; Zaragoza, Irene; Alcaniz, Mariano
Childhood obesity is an increasing public health problem in western culture. Sedentary lifestyles and an "obesogenic environment" are the main influences on children leading to an increase in obesity. The objective of this paper is to describe an e-health platform for the treatment and prevention of childhood obesity called ETIOBE. This e-health platform is an e-therapy system for the treatment of obesity, aimed at improving treatment adherence and promoting the mechanisms of self-control in patients, to obtain weight loss maintenance and to prevent relapse by establishing healthy lifestyle habits. ETIOBE is composed of three different applications, the Clinician Support System (CSS), the Home Support System (HSS) and the Mobile Support System (MSS). The use of new Information and Communication (ICT) technologies can help clinicians to improve the effectiveness of weight loss treatments, especially in the case of children, and to achieve designated treatment goals. PMID:21559232
Fisher, Kimberly Denise
An animal model to study complications resulting from childhood obesity is lacking. Our objective was to develop a porcine model for studying mechanisms underlying diet-induced childhood obesity. Pre-pubertal female pigs, age 35 d, were fed a high-energy diet (HED; n = 12), containing tallow and refined sugars, or a control corn-based diet (n = 11) for 16 wk. Initially, HED pigs self-regulated energy intake similar to controls, but, by wk 5, consumed more (P < 0.001) energy per kg body wei...
Russell-Mayhew, Shelly; McVey, Gail; Bardick, Angela; Ireland, Alana
Childhood obesity is a growing concern, and while progress has been made to understand the association between multiple biological factors (i.e., genetics, nutrition, exercise etc.), little is known about the relationship between mental health and childhood obesity. In this paper, we offer a review of current evidence about the association between mental health and childhood obesity. A systematic literature search of peer-reviewed, English-language studies published between January 2000 and January 2011 was undertaken and resulted in 759 unique records, of which 345 full-text articles were retrieved and 131 articles were included. A theoretical model is proposed to organize the paper and reflect the current state of the literature and includes psychological factors (i.e., depression and anxiety, self-esteem, body dissatisfaction, eating disordered symptoms, and emotional problems); psychosocial mediating variables (i.e., weight-based teasing and concern about weight and shape), and wellness factors (i.e., quality of life and resiliency/protective factors). We conclude with a number of recommendations to support the creation of solutions to the rise in childhood obesity rates that do not further marginalize overweight and obese children and youth and that can potentially improve the well-being of all children and youth regardless of their weight status. PMID:22778915
Gupta, Nidhi; Goel, Kashish; Shah, Priyali; Misra, Anoop
Rapidly changing dietary practices and a sedentary lifestyle have led to increasing prevalence of childhood obesity (5-19 yr) in developing countries recently: 41.8% in Mexico, 22.1% in Brazil, 22.0% in India, and 19.3% in Argentina. Moreover, secular trends indicate increasing prevalence rates in these countries: 4.1 to 13.9% in Brazil during 1974-1997, 12.2 to 15.6% in Thailand during 1991-1993, and 9.8 to 11.7% in India during 2006-2009. Important determinants of childhood obesity include high socioeconomic status, residence in metropolitan cities, female gender, unawareness and false beliefs about nutrition, marketing by transnational food companies, increasing academic stress, and poor facilities for physical activity. Childhood obesity has been associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus, the early-onset metabolic syndrome, subclinical inflammation, dyslipidemia, coronary artery diseases, and adulthood obesity. Therapeutic lifestyle changes and maintenance of regular physical activity through parental initiative and social support interventions are the most important strategies in managing childhood obesity. Also, high-risk screening and effective health educational programs are urgently needed in developing countries. PMID:22240243
Lhachimi, S. K.; Nusselder, W. J.; Lobstein, T. J.; Smit, H. A.; Baili, P.; Bennett, K.; Kulik, M. C.; Jackson-Leach, R.; Boshuizen, H. C.; Mackenbach, J. P.
A common policy response to the rise in obesity prevalence is to undertake interventions in childhood, but it is an open question whether this is more effective than reducing the risk of becoming obese during adulthood. In this paper, we model the effect on health outcomes of (i) reducing the preval
Lhachimi, S.K.; Nusselder, W.J.; Lobstein, T.J.; Smit, H.A.; Baili, P.; Bennett, K.; Kulik, M.C.; Jackson-Leach, R.; Boshuizen, H.C.; Mackenbach, J.P.
A common policy response to the rise in obesity prevalence is to undertake interventions in childhood, but it is an open question whether this is more effective than reducing the risk of becoming obese during adulthood. In this paper, we model the effect on health outcomes of (i) reducing the preval
Li, Y.; Zhai, F.; X. Yang; Schouten, E. G.; Hu, X.; He, Y.; Luan, D.; Ma, G.
In order to investigate the determinants of childhood overweight and obesity in China, the prevalence of overweight (including obesity) was compared according to different dietary and physical activity patterns and parental body weight status. A total of 6826 children aged 7-17 years from the 2002 China National Nutrition and Health Survey were included in the study. Information for dietary intake was collected using three consecutive 24-h recalls by trained interviewers. The amounts of cooki...
Sweeting Helen N
Abstract Background The literature on childhood and adolescent obesity is vast. In addition to producing a general overview, this paper aims to highlight gender differences or similarities, an area which has tended not to be the principal focus of this literature. Methods Databases were searched using the terms 'obesity' and 'child', 'adolescent', 'teenager', 'youth', 'young people', 'sex', 'gender', 'masculine', 'feminine', 'male', 'female', 'boy' and 'girl' (or variations on these terms). I...
Kersh, Rogan; Stroup, Donna F.; Taylor, Wendell C.
Although obesity rates among US children have increased during the past 3 decades, effective public policies have been limited, and the quest for workable solutions raises ethical questions. To address these concerns, in 2010, the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation convened an expert panel to consider approaches to the ethics problems related to interventions for childhood obesity. On the basis of recommendations from the expert panel, we propose frameworks for policy approaches and ethical aspec...
Bell, Andrew Colin; Wolfenden, Luke; Sutherland, Rachel; Coggan, Lucy; Young, Kylie; Fitzgerald, Michael; Hodder, Rebecca; Orr, Neil; Milat, Andrew J; Wiggers, John
Background Social marketing integrates communication campaigns with behavioural and environmental change strategies. Childhood obesity programs could benefit significantly from social marketing but communication campaigns on this issue tend to be stand-alone. Methods A large-scale multi-setting child obesity prevention program was implemented in the Hunter New England (HNE) region of New South Wales (NSW), Australia from 2005–2010. The program included a series of communication campaigns prom...
Rosas, Lisa G.
The prevalence of childhood obesity has increased dramatically in the United States over the past 30 years, especially among children of Mexican origin. Children of Mexican origin are an especially high-risk group because of their increased risk for morbidities associated with obesity in adulthood, such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease and uncontrolled hypertension compared to other racial and ethnic groups. This study takes a binational approach to understanding the health disparity in ...
Gwozdz, Wencke; Sousa-Poza, Alfonso; Lucia A. Reisch; Ahrens, Wolfgang; De Henauw, Stefaan; Eiben, Gabriele; Fernández-Alvira, Juan M; Hadjigeorgiou, Charalampos; Kovács, Eva; Lauria, Fabio; Veidebaum, Toomas; Williams, Garrath; Bammann, Karin
The substantial increase in female employment rates in Europe over the past two decades has often been linked in political and public rhetoric to negative effects on child development, including obesity. We analyse this association between maternal employment and childhood obesity using rich objective reports of various anthropometric and other measures of fatness from the IDEFICS study of children aged 2-9 in 16 regions of eight European countries. Based on such data as accelerometer measure...
Wilken, Lynne R; Novotny, Rachel; Fialkowski, Marie K; Boushey, Carol J.; Nigg, Claudio; Paulino, Yvette; Leon Guerrero, Rachael; Bersamin, Andrea; Vargo, Don; Kim, Jang; Deenik, Jonathan
Background Although surveillance data are limited in the US Affiliated Pacific, Alaska, and Hawaii, existing data suggest that the prevalence of childhood obesity is similar to or in excess of other minority groups in the contiguous US. Strategies for addressing the childhood obesity epidemic in the region support the use of community-based, environmentally targeted interventions. The Children’s Healthy Living Program is a partnership formed across institutions in the US Affiliated Pacific, A...
Gupta, Nidhi; Shah, Priyali; Nayyar, Sugandha; Misra, Anoop
Rapidly changing dietary practices accompanied by an increasingly sedentary lifestyle predispose to nutrition-related non-communicable diseases, including childhood obesity. Over the last 5 y, reports from several developing countries indicate prevalence rates of obesity (inclusive of overweight) >15 % in children and adolescents aged 5-19 y; Mexico 41.8 %, Brazil 22.1 %, India 22.0 % and Argentina 19.3 %. Moreover, secular trends also indicate an alarming increase in obesity in developing countries; in Brazil from 4.1 % to 13.9 % between 1974 and 1997; in China from 6.4 % to 7.7 % between 1991 and 1997; and in India from 4.9 % to 6.6 % between 2003-04 to 2005-06. Other contributory factors to childhood obesity include: high socio-economic status, residence in metropolitan cities and female gender. Childhood obesity tracks into adulthood, thus increasing the risk for conditions like the metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), polycystic ovarian syndrome, hypertension, dyslipidemia and coronary artery disease later in life. Interestingly, prevalence of the metabolic syndrome was 35.2 % among overweight Chinese adolescents. Presence of central obesity (high waist-to-hip circumference ratio) along with hypertriglyceridemia and family history of T2DM increase the odds of T2DM by 112.1 in young Asian Indians (educational programs for children should be immediately initiated in developing countries, following the successful model program in India (project 'MARG'). PMID:23334584
This 60 second PSA is based on the August 2010 CDC Vital Signs report which provides information on obesity and what you can do to help fight the epidemic. Created: 8/3/2010 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Date Released: 8/3/2010.
Crawford, Patricia B B; Schneider, Constance; Anna C Martin; Spezzano, Theresa; Algert, Susan; Ganthavorn, Chutima; Nicholson, Yvonne; Neelon, Marisa; Wooten Swanson, Patti C; Donohue, Susan S.
Approximately 25 million children in the United States are obese or at risk of becoming obese, with anticipated negative consequences for individual health as well as the nation's future health-care costs. Effective interventions to prevent obesity require more than educating individuals. To bring about change, we must deploy tactics at multiple levels, from community facilities like parks and bike paths to foods offered in schools. The Spectrum of Prevention proposed in 1999 by L. Coh...
Costa-i-Font, Joan; Gil, Joan
Can the rise in obesity among children be attributed to intergenerationally parental influences? How important is a parent’s socioeconomic status in accounting for the emergence of obesity among children? This paper documents evidence of an emerging social gradient of obesity in pre-school children resulting from a combination of income and education effects, as well as less intensive childcare associated with maternal employment, when different forms of intergenerational transmission are con...
Holm, Lotte; Sandøe, Peter; Nielsen, Morten Ebbe Juul;
establishing strong networks and building bridges between the natural sciences and social sciences and humanities that can address obesity as a complex societal challenge and help minimise the gap between research, markets, and citizens. The objectives of the workshop were to create a cross‐European forum...... for identifying, describing, and discussing future potential in obesity research, to establish new and to nurture existing networks and collaborations between researchers across the social sciences and humanities and the natural sciences with an interest in obesity research, and thereby to mobilise significant...
Obesity and overweight are matters of global concern. The rise in obesity has led to a plethora of diet-related diseases that place a heavy financial burden on the citizens as well as their governments. This paper surveys the many regulatory measures that have been enacted in the United States and abroad in an attempt to curb the obesity epidemic. In an environment where more meals are eaten out of frozen dinner trays and outside the home, legislators have attempted to push consumers toward h...
Hersoug, Lars-Georg; Linneberg, A
There is increasing epidemiological evidence that obesity increases the risk of asthma, atopic, and autoimmune diseases. We hypothesize that the increase in these diseases is caused, at least in part, by decreased immunological tolerance as a consequence of immunological changes induced by......-lymphocytes (Tregs). Additionally, adiponectin, which decreases with increasing obesity, down-regulates the secretion of IL10 from macrophages and adipocytes. These changes in IL6, leptin, and IL10 decrease the regulatory effect of Tregs resulting in decreased immunological tolerance to antigens. In pregnant women......, these obesity-induced immunological changes might be transmitted to the fetus by epigenetic inheritance thereby increasing the risk of atopic disease. We propose that obesity results in immunological changes resulting in decreased immunological tolerance to antigens and skewing of the immune system...
Sweeting Helen N
Full Text Available Abstract Background The literature on childhood and adolescent obesity is vast. In addition to producing a general overview, this paper aims to highlight gender differences or similarities, an area which has tended not to be the principal focus of this literature. Methods Databases were searched using the terms 'obesity' and 'child', 'adolescent', 'teenager', 'youth', 'young people', 'sex', 'gender', 'masculine', 'feminine', 'male', 'female', 'boy' and 'girl' (or variations on these terms. In order to limit the potential literature, the main focus is on other reviews, both general and relating to specific aspects of obesity. Results The findings of genetic studies are similar for males and females, and differences in obesity rates as defined by body mass index are generally small and inconsistent. However, differences between males and females due to biology are evident in the patterning of body fat, the fat levels at which health risks become apparent, levels of resting energy expenditure and energy requirements, ability to engage in certain physical activities and the consequences of obesity for the female reproductive system. Differences due to society or culture include food choices and dietary concerns, overall physical activity levels, body satisfaction and the long-term psychosocial consequences of childhood and adolescent obesity. Conclusion This review suggests differences between males and females in exposure and vulnerability to obesogenic environments, the consequences of child and adolescent obesity, and responses to interventions for the condition. A clearer focus on gender differences is required among both researchers and policy makers within this field.
Nestle, M; Jacobson, M. F.
Traditional ways of preventing and treating overweight and obesity have almost invariably focused on changing the behavior of individuals, an approach that has proven woefully inadequate, as indicated by the rising rates of both conditions. Considering the many aspects of American culture that promote obesity, from the proliferation of fast-food outlets to almost universal reliance on automobiles, reversing current trends will require a multifaceted public health policy approach as well as co...
Full Text Available Childhood obesity has increased dramatically over the last decades, representing one of the most serious public health hazards of the 21st century. Efforts must be made by healthcare professionals to prevent it, as it is associated with short- and long-term risks for physical and mental health and because of the increased possibility to persist during adulthood. From antiquity human breast milk was considered the ideal nourishment for the newborn. Breastfeeding is beneficial for the mother-child dyad. Among others, existing data suggest that it reduces the risk for childhood and adolescence obesity. The mechanisms for this are numerous and include the feeding behavior breastfeeding infants acquire, their growth rate, the ‘early protein hypothesis’, the role of leptin that is found in increased levels in human milk, the dietary choices the breastfed infants make during childhood and adolescence and finally the differences in their bowel flora. Meta-analyses provide sufficient evidence for this protective effect, with a dose-response effect as to the duration of breastfeeding. Healthcare professionals involved in the care of the mother-infant dyad must encourage and support mothers to breastfeed their infants for a long period of time, if obesity were to be prevented. Aim of this review is to provide an account of existing data on the association of breastfeeding and the reduced risk of obesity in childhood and adulthood.
This article explores the growing problem of childhood obesity and suggests guidelines for professionals to recommend to parents. Research has shown that an overweight child at 3 years is nearly eight times as likely to become an overweight young adult as is a typically developing 3-year-old. More of America's children are becoming overweight, and…
The rise in childhood obesity is acknowledged as a major health problem in many countries. Health issues directly related to the childhood obesity pandemic are numerous as are the risk factors in its development. No single strategy is likely to be effective in reversing this alarming trend, rather, nurses need to work with children and families by providing education, guidance, and support to promote a change in the many lifestyle factors that have helped to create this health problem. Curriculum, teaching practices and assignment topics based on contemporary health issues of relevance to nursing practice support the importance of educating nursing students on this worrying health issue. The use of a creative strategy to help students learn about the childhood obesity problem can also be utilised to encourage lateral thinking in students. Thus, an assignment can have two significant goals in the development of knowledge and understanding of childhood obesity but also personal discovery of creative ability to design a method that engages children in learning about this health problem and what they can do to avoid its development. PMID:18783989
Millimet, Daniel L.; Tchernis, Rusty; Husain, Muna
Given the recent rise in childhood obesity, the School Breakfast Program (SBP) and National School Lunch Program (NSLP) have received renewed attention. Using panel data on more than 13,500 primary school students, we assess the relationship between SBP and NSLP participation and (relatively) long-run measures of child weight. After documenting a…
Vámosi, Marianne; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm; Heitmann, Berit Lilienthal;
one of the twins should have a BMI between 20 and 25 kg/m² (normal weight) and the co-twin a BMI ≥ 30 kg/m² (obesity). In total 236 out of 289 (81.7%) eligible twin individuals participated in an interview and a physical examination. A part of the Childhood Experience of Care and Abuse, the parental...
Bruss, Mozhdeh B.; Dannison, Linda; Morris, Joseph R.; Quitugua, Jackie; Palacios, Rosa T.; McGowan, Judy; Michael, Timothy
This paper presents a community-school-higher education partnership approach to the prevention of childhood obesity. Public elementary school personnel, primarily teachers, participated in the design and delivery of a curriculum targeting primary caregivers of 8-9-year-old children. Theoretical framework and methodological approaches guided the…
Cizza, G; Rother, K I
Decreased physical activity and marketing-driven increased consumption of "junk" food, dubbed "The Big Two", are generally regarded as the most important contributors to the obesity epidemic. However, the full picture contains many more pieces of the puzzle. We address several additional issues and review current clinical developments in obesity research. In spite of dramatic advancements in our understanding of the adipose organ and its endocrine and immune products, the ultimate causes of the obesity epidemic remain elusive. Treatment is plagued by poor adherence to life style modifications, and available pharmacological options are marginally effective, often also associated with major side effects. Surgical treatments, albeit effective in decreasing body weight, are invasive and expensive. Thus, our approaches to finding the causes, improving the existing treatments, and inventing novel therapies must be manifold. PMID:22183119
Cizza, G.; Rother, K.I.
Decreased physical activity and marketing-driven increased consumption of “junk” food, dubbed “The Big Two”, are generally regarded as the most important contributors to the obesity epidemic. However, the full picture contains many more pieces of the puzzle. We address several additional issues and review current clinical developments in obesity research. In spite of dramatic advancements in our understanding of the adipose organ and its endocrine and immune products, the ultimate causes of the obesity epidemic remain elusive. Treatment is plagued by poor adherence to life style modifications, and available pharmacological options are marginally effective, often also associated with major side effects. Surgical treatments, albeit effective in decreasing body weight, are invasive and expensive. Thus, our approaches to finding the causes, improving the existing treatments, and inventing novel therapies must be manifold. PMID:22183119
Childhood obesity is an increasingly serious problem; 13.9 percent of children two to five years of age, 18.8 percent of children six to 11 years of age, and 17.4 percent of adolescents 12 to 19 years of age in America are obese. Practical strategies that primary care physicians can use to tackle the problem are scarce. The American Medical Association recently convened an expert panel to address this need. Evidence about how best to manage and prevent obesity was reviewed and incorporated into a series of reports. The Expert Committee on the Assessment, Prevention, and Treatment of Child and Adolescent Overweight and Obesity recommends addressing the issue of weight with all children at least once a year. Family physicians are urged to assess key dietary habits (e.g., consumption of sweetened beverages), physical activity habits, readiness to change lifestyle habits, and family history of obesity and obesity-related illnesses. Laboratory testing recommendations depend on the degree of obesity and associated illnesses. For children with a body mass index between the 85th and 94th percentiles but who have no obesity-related illnesses, a fasting lipid profile should be done. Those with the same body mass index and obesity-related illnesses should also have tests for alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, and fasting blood glucose levels. Measurement of blood urea nitrogen and creatinine levels should be added in children with a body mass index above the 95th percentile. A four-stage approach to treatment of childhood obesity is recommended. Many of these recommendations can be carried out by family physicians for treatment and prevention. These include advising families to limit consumption of sweetened beverages and fast food, limit screen time, engage in physical activity for at least 60 minutes per day, and encourage family meals on most, and preferably all, days of the week. PMID:18649611
D. Alexander; Rigby, MJ; Di Mattia, P; Zscheppang, A
AIM: Childhood obesity is an important concern for child health. However, despite widespread concern about the increase in childhood obesity, its causes are not monitored systematically in Europe. In 2007, the Scientific Platform Project on Lifestyle Determinants of Obesity identified routine data sources nationally available in European countries to measure childhood obesity. This work was revisited in 2014 to monitor any progress made. SUBJECT AND METHODS: In 2007, a literature review and p...
CHENG-YE JI; WORKING GROUP ON OBESITY IN CHINA (WGOC)
Objective To describe the nationwide prevalence of childhood overweight/obesity, and their group variations and trends over the past 20 years in the Chinese urban population. Methods Data sets of boys and girls at the age of 7-18 years collected from the series of Chinese national surveillance on students' constitution and health (CNSSCH) between 1985 and 2000 were divided into five socioeconomic and demographic groups, while BMI classification reference proposed by Working Group on Obesity in China (WGOC) was used as screening reference to calculate the prevalence and trends of overweight/obesity in these groups. Results In 2000, the prevalence of obesity and overweight in boys aged 7-18 years was 11.3% and 6.5% in Beijing, 13.2% and 4.9% in Shanghai, 9.9% and 4.5% in coastal big cities, and 5.8% and 2.0% in coastal medium/small-sized cities, respectively, while the prevalence of of obesity and overweight in girls of the same age group was 8.2% and 3.7% in Beijing, 7.3% and 2.6% in Shanghai, 5.9% and 2.8% in coastal big cities, and 4.8% and 1.7% in coastal medium/small-sized cities, respectively. The prevalence of obesity was low in most of the inland cities at an early stage of epidemic overweight. The epidemic manifested a gradient distribution in groups, which was closely related to socioeconomic status (SES) of the study population. However, a dramatic and steady increasing trend was witnessed among all sex-age subgroups in the five urban groups, and such a trend was stronger in boys than in girls, and much stronger in children than in adolescents. Conclusion Although China is at an early stage of epidemic obesity by and large, the prevalence of obesity in her urban population, particularly in coastal big cities has reached the average level of developed countries. The increasing trend has been rapid since early 1990s, and the increments in obesity and overweight are exceptionally high. The prospect of epidemic obesity in China is in no way optimistic
Reisch, Lucia A.; Gwozdz, Wencke
To understand the rising prevalence of obesity in affluent societies, it is necessary to take into account the growing obesity infrastructure, which over past decades has developed into an obesogenic environment. This infrastructure is a direct reflection of the mainstream economic growth paradigm that the literature on consumer culture characterizes as chronic overconsumption. This study examines the effects of one of the constituent factors of consumer societies and a key contributory facto...
Borrello, Maria; Pietrabissa, Giada; Ceccarini, Martina; Manzoni, Gian M.; Castelnuovo, Gianluca
Obesity is one of today’s most diffused and severe public health problems worldwide. It affects both adults and children with critical physical, social, and psychological consequences. The aim of this review is to appraise the studies that investigated the effects of motivational interviewing techniques in treating overweight and obese children. The electronic databases PubMed and PsychINFO were searched for articles meeting inclusion criteria. The review included studies based on the applica...
Levy, Luba Zuk; Petty, Karen
There has been a worldwide increase in the prevalence of children who are obese that is rapidly reaching epidemic proportions. These obese children have associated significant co-morbidities. In the past 30 years the proportion of children in the United States who are obese or overweight has tripled; 15%, or approximately nine million, are obese.…
Full Text Available The association of obesity with noncommunicable diseases, such as cardiovascular complications and diabetes, is considered a major threat to the management of health care worldwide. Epidemiological findings show that childhood obesity is rapidly rising in Western society, as well as in developing countries. This pandemic is not without consequences and can affect the risk of future cardiovascular disease in these children. Childhood obesity is associated with endothelial dysfunction, the first yet still reversible step towards atherosclerosis. Advanced research techniques have added further insight on how childhood obesity and associated comorbidities lead to endothelial dysfunction. Techniques used to measure endothelial function were further brought to perfection, and novel biomarkers, including endothelial progenitor cells, were discovered. The aim of this paper is to provide a critical overview on both in vivo as well as in vitro markers for endothelial integrity. Additionally, an in-depth description of the mechanisms that disrupt the delicate balance between endothelial damage and repair will be given. Finally, the effects of lifestyle interventions and pharmacotherapy on endothelial dysfunction will be reviewed.
Brüne, Martin; Hochberg, Zeev
In the last few decades, pediatric medicine has observed a dramatic increase in the prevalence of hitherto rare illnesses, among which obesity, diabetes, allergies and other autoimmune diseases stand out. In addition, secular trends towards earlier onset of puberty and sexual activity contribute to the psychological problems of youth and adolescents. All this has occurred in spite of the improved health care provision for children, yet traditional concepts of medicine have failed to explain t...
Full Text Available Sunil J WimalawansaRobert Wood Johnson Medical School, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ, USAAbstract: Over the past 40 years, the prevalence of obesity has more than doubled in the United States. Approximately 67% of American adults older than 20 years of age are either obese or overweight. Obesity has now become a critically important issue facing more than 40% of Americans and has become a major burden on the American health care system. Today, obesity cannot be considered a simple lifestyle issue; it is a disease with major public health and economic consequences that requires serious attention by all stakeholders. Each individual has different causes and risk factors that lead to obesity and its associated complications. In addition to preventing becoming overweight, focusing on identifying the causes of obesity and then individualizing care and treatment plans to targeting weight loss, particularly intra-abdominal fat, could potentially generate huge cost savings. Excess intra-abdominal fat (visceral adiposity is linked to excess morbidity and mortality, and positively correlates with the risks of insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, certain cancers, and premature death. Therefore, overweight and obese patients should be offered healthy lifestyle changes including education about causes leading to excess weight, weight-reducing diets, physical activity regimens, and monitoring for progress. Medications and bariatric surgery are effective but are the last options and should be complementary to lifestyle and behavioral changes. The costs associated with managing obesity-related disorders and their complications are astounding; unless we intervene now, these are likely to triple over the next 2 decades. Thus, policymakers must pay serious attention to this progressive, insidious epidemic and determine the right paths for tackling obesity, which requires a paradigm shift in thinking
Van Cauter, Eve; Knutson, Kristen L.
Sleep is an important modulator of neuroendocrine function and glucose metabolism in children as well as in adults. In recent years, sleep curtailment has become a hallmark of modern society with both children and adults having shorter bedtimes than a few decades ago. This trend for shorter sleep duration has developed over the same time period as the dramatic increase in the prevalence of obesity. There is rapidly accumulating evidence from both laboratory and epidemiological studies to indi...
Li, Ji; Hooker, Neal H.
Background: The international prevalence of childhood obesity and obesity-related diseases has received increasing attention. Applying data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, we explore relationships between childhood obesity and school type, National School Lunch Program (NSLP) and School Breakfast Program (SBP) eligibility,…
Kimberly J. Rask
Full Text Available Childhood obesity is a recognized public health crisis. This paper reviews the lessons learned from a voluntary initiative to expand insurance coverage for childhood obesity prevention and treatment services in the United States. In-depth telephone interviews were conducted with key informants from 16 participating health plans and employers in 2010-11. Key informants reported difficulty ensuring that both providers and families were aware of the available services. Participating health plans and employers are beginning new tactics including removing enrollment requirements, piloting enhanced outreach to selected physician practices, and educating providers on effective care coordination and use of obesity-specific billing codes through professional organizations. The voluntary initiative successfully increased private health insurance coverage for obesity services, but the interviews described variability in implementation with both best practices and barriers identified. Increasing utilization of obesity-related health services in the long term will require both family- and provider-focused interventions in partnership with improved health insurance coverage.
Johnston, Francis E.
The Agatston Urban Nutrition Initiative (AUNI) presents a fruitful partnership between faculty and students at a premier research university and members of the surrounding community aimed at addressing the problem of childhood obesity. AUNI uses a problem-solving approach to learning by focusing course activities, including service-learning, on…
Between the 1970s and the mid-1990s the body mass index (BMI) became the standard means of assessing obesity both in populations and in individuals, replacing previously diverse and contested definitions of excess body weight. This article draws on theoretical approaches from the sociology of standards and science and technology studies to describe the development of this important new standard and the ways in which its adoption facilitated the development of obesity science, that is, knowledge about the causes, health effects and treatments of excess body weight. Using an analysis of policy and healthcare literatures, I argue that the adoption of the BMI, along with associated standard cut-off points defining overweight and obesity, was crucial in the framing of obesity as an epidemic. This is because, I suggest, these measures enabled, firstly, the creation of large data sets tracking population-level changes in average body weight, and, secondly, the construction of visual representations of these changes. The production of these two new techniques of representation made it possible for researchers in this field, and others such as policymakers, to argue credibly that obesity should be described as an epidemic. PMID:24640951
Fortuna, Jeffrey L
As of 2010 nearly 70% of adult Americans were overweight or obese. Specifically, 35.7% of adult Americans are obese, and this is the highest level of obesity in the recorded history of the United States. A number of environmental factors, most notably the number of fast food outlets, have contributed to the obesity epidemic as well as to the binge prone dynamic. There is evidence that bingeing on sugar-dense, palatable foods increases extracellular dopamine in the striatum and thereby possesses addictive potential. Moreover, elevated blood glucose levels catalyze the absorption of tryptophan through the large neutral amino acid (LNAA) complex and its subsequent conversion into the mood-elevating chemical serotonin. There appear to be several biological and psychological similarities between food addiction and drug dependence including craving and loss of control. Nonetheless there is at least one apparent difference: acute tryptophan depletion does not appear to induce a relapse in recovering drug-dependent individuals, although it may induce dysphoria. In some individuals, palatable foods have palliative properties and can be viewed as a form of self medication. This article will examine environmental factors that have contributed to the obesity epidemic, and will compare the clinical similarities and differences of food addiction and drug dependence. PMID:22641965
Mazzeo, Deborah; Arens, Sheila A.; Germeroth, Carrie; Hein, Heather
Preschool is a crucial time for obesity prevention, as children are developing eating and physical activity habits. A lack of physical activity at preschool may contribute more to overweight children than parental influences such as modeling and supporting physical activity or providing fitness equipment in the home. Let Me Play is a comprehensive…
Kersh, Rogan; Stroup, Donna F; Taylor, Wendell C
Although obesity rates among US children have increased during the past 3 decades, effective public policies have been limited, and the quest for workable solutions raises ethical questions. To address these concerns, in 2010, the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation convened an expert panel to consider approaches to the ethics problems related to interventions for childhood obesity. On the basis of recommendations from the expert panel, we propose frameworks for policy approaches and ethical aspects of interventions and evaluation. We present these frameworks in the context of other papers in this collection and make recommendations for public health practice. PMID:21843423
Ganter, Claudia; Aftosmes-Tobio, Alyssa; Chuang, Emmeline; Blaine, Rachel E; Land, Thomas; Davison, Kirsten K
Prior research has identified numerous factors contributing to increased rates of childhood obesity. However, few studies have focused explicitly on the experience of community stakeholders in low-income communities. This study sought to capture the perspectives of these on-the-ground experts regarding major factors contributing to childhood obesity as well as gaps in current prevention and control efforts. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 39 stakeholders from different community sectors (e.g., healthcare providers, childcare providers, teachers). Data were drawn from the Massachusetts Childhood Obesity Research Demonstration project, a multi-level, multi-sector intervention designed to reduce childhood obesity being implemented in two low-income communities in Massachusetts. Interviews were conducted at baseline, transcribed, coded using grounded theory approach, and analyzed in NVivo 10.0. The vast majority of stakeholders had recently participated in obesity prevention strategies, and nearly all of them identified gaps in prevention efforts either within their organizations or in the broader community. In addition to factors previously identified in the literature, several themes emerged including the need to change policies to increase physical activity during school, offer healthier snacks in schools and afterschool programs, and increase communication and collaboration within the community in prevention efforts. Community stakeholders can impact the success of interventions by bridging the gap between science and lived experience. The results of this study can guide future research by highlighting the importance of including stakeholders' frontline experiences with target populations, and using information on identified gaps to augment intervention planning efforts. PMID:26433725
Children Now, 2011
Too many California children suffer from high rates of preventable chronic conditions associated with childhood obesity and dental disease. The state is experiencing a crisis in both areas. Fortunately, common factors that contribute to both conditions--including the rates of breastfeeding, access to healthy food and the consumption of…
Golan, Moria; Kaufman, Vered; Shahar, Danit R
There is a consensus that interventions to prevent and treat childhood obesity should involve the family; however, the extent of the child's involvement has received little attention. The goal of the present study was to evaluate the relative efficacy of treating childhood obesity via a family-based health-centred intervention, targeting parents alone v. parents and obese children together. Thirty-two families with obese children of 6-11 years of age were randomised into groups, in which participants were provided for 6 months a comprehensive educational and behavioural programme for a healthy lifestyle. These groups differed in their main agent of change: parents-only v. the parents and the obese child. In both groups, parents were encouraged to foster authoritative parenting styles (parents are both firm and supportive; assume a leadership role in the environmental change with appropriate granting of child's autonomy). Only the intervention aimed at parents-only resulted in a significant reduction in the percentage overweight at the end of the programme (P=0.02) as well as at the 1-year follow-up meeting. The differences between groups at both times were significant (Panalysis shows that the level of attendance in sessions explained 28 % of the variability in the children's weight status change, the treatment group explained another 10 %, and the improvement in the obesogenic load explained 11 % of the variability. These results suggest that omitting the obese child from active participation in the health-centred programme may be beneficial for weight loss and for the promotion of a healthy lifestyle among obese children. PMID:16611394
Rokholm, B; Baker, J L; Sørensen, T I A
The purpose was to investigate a possible levelling off in the obesity epidemic, by systematically reviewing literature and web-based sources. Eligible studies and data sources were required to have at least two measures of obesity prevalence since 1999. A literature and Internet search resulted ...... obesity. Therefore, research into the causes, prevention and treatment of obesity should remain a priority.......The purpose was to investigate a possible levelling off in the obesity epidemic, by systematically reviewing literature and web-based sources. Eligible studies and data sources were required to have at least two measures of obesity prevalence since 1999. A literature and Internet search resulted in...... evidence for heterogeneity in the obesity trends across socioeconomic status (SES) groups was found. The levelling off was less evident in the lower-SES groups. No obvious differences between genders were identified. We discussed potential explanations for a levelling off and the utility of investigating...
Wafa, S.W.; Talib, R.A.; Hamzaid, N.H.; McColl, J. H.; Rajikan, R.; Ng, L.O.; Ramli, A.H.; Reilly, J J
Context. Few randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of interventions for the treatment of childhood obesity have taken place outside the Western world. Aim. To test whether a good practice intervention for the treatment of childhood obesity would have a greater impact on weight status and other outcomes than a control condition in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Methods. Assessor-blinded RCT of a treatment intervention in 107 obese 7- to 11-year olds. The intervention was relatively low intensity (8 hou...
Velickova, Nevenka; Gacova, Marina
Background: Levels of childhood obesity are increasing at alarming rates in many countries, including Macedonia. This rise in the number of overweight children is disturbing because it causes health problems and can lead to social problems. The most common causes are genetic factors, lack of physical activity, unhealthy eating patterns, or a combination of these factors. Methods: Study involves more than 400 school-aged children (two generation with 7 and 10 years) in Stip (Macedonia), ...
Beatriz García Cortés
According to the World Health Organization (WHO), the childhood obesity affects 42 million children worldwide, 35 million of whom live in the developing countries (WHO, 2010). It is not only a social issue but also a political and economic problem that affects a large, vulnerable and strategic population. Because of its multifactorial origin requires a multisectoral approach. The aim of this study is to frame a multidisciplinary state of the art on the issue from a social view. ...
Foster, Byron A.; Aquino, Christian A.; Mario Gil; Gelfond, Jonathan A. L.; Hale, Daniel E.
Objective. To assess the feasibility of a parent mentor model of intervention for early childhood obesity using positive deviance-based methods to inform the intervention. Methods. In this pilot, randomized clinical trial, parent-child dyads (age: 2–5) with children whose body mass index (BMI) was ≥95th percentile were randomized to parent mentor intervention or community health worker comparison. The child’s height and weight were measured at baseline, after the six-month intervention, and s...
Foster, Byron A.; Aquino, Christian A.; Gil, Mario; Gelfond, Jonathan A. L.; Hale, Daniel E.
Objective. To assess the feasibility of a parent mentor model of intervention for early childhood obesity using positive deviance-based methods to inform the intervention. Methods. In this pilot, randomized clinical trial, parent-child dyads (age: 2–5) with children whose body mass index (BMI) was ≥95th percentile were randomized to parent mentor intervention or community health worker comparison. The child's height and weight were measured at baseline, after the six-month intervention, and s...
Burgstahler, Rebecca; Gundersen, Craig; Garasky, Steven B.
The Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) is the largest nutritional assistance program addressing food insecurity in the United States. Due to the programâ€™s reach, SNAP has been called upon to address other nutrition-related challenges facing low-income Americans, including childhood obesity. This study considers the effect of SNAP participation on child weight outcomes after controlling for household financial stress, an important determinant of child overweight status that dis...
Daniel L. Millimet; Tchernis, Rusty; Husain, Muna
In light of the recent rise in childhood obesity, the School Breakfast Program (SBP) and National School Lunch Program (NSLP) have received renewed attention, despite the fact that they have existed for decades. The SBP, in particular, is viewed as a potentially important component of any policy reform designed to combat the increased prevalence of overweight children given the importance attributed to a nutritious breakfast. Using panel data on over 13,500 students from kindergarten through ...
Huffman, Fatma G; Sankarabharan Kanikireddy; Manthan Patel
Prevalence of childhood obesity and its complications have increased world-wide. Parental status may be associated with children’s health outcomes including their eating habits, body weight and blood cholesterol. The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) for the years 1988–1994, provided a unique opportunity for matching parents to children enabling analyses of joint demographics, racial differences and health indicators. Specifically, the NHANES III data, 1988–1994, of 21...
Lissner, L.; Wijnhoven, T.M.A.; Mehlig, K.; Sjöberg, A.; Kunesova, M; Yngve, A.; Petrauskiene, A.; Duleva, V.; Rito, A. I.; Breda, J.
Background: Excess risk of childhood overweight and obesity occurring in socioeconomically disadvantaged families has been demonstrated in numerous studies from high-income regions, including Europe. It is well known that socioeconomic characteristics such as parental education, income and occupation are etiologically relevant to childhood obesity. However, in the pan-European setting, there is reason to believe that inequalities in childhood weight status may vary among countries as a functi...
Jiying Ling; PhD.MS.RN.Vicki Hines-Martin; PhD.CNS.RN.FAAN Hong Ji; MSN
United States is experiencing significant growth in its foreign -born population , especially Chinese American population comprising of 1.2% of the U.S.population.Many healthcare providers are challenged in their efforts to provide culturally competent healthcare to this population. To provide culturally competent healthcare ,healthcare providers should understand variations in cultural at-tributes that impact health. One group in which cultural variation holds great influence is that of children. Culture influences a child's be-havior,development and health. This article provides a cross -cultural,comparative examination of important cultural influences on child behaviors development and health in China and the U. S.Using the findings about these two populations ,interventions for childhood obesity cross culturally are addressed through the analysis of a U. S.based Children's Obesity Program. The author suggests that uniquely different approaches to childhood obesity intervention research are needed based upon the cultural differences identified within this paper.
Valladares-Salgado, Adán; Suárez-Sánchez, Fernando; Burguete-García, Ana I; Cruz, Miguel
Obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) result from sedentary lifestyle, high-carbohydrate diets and genetic predisposition. Epigenetics is a form of genetic regulation in specialized cells that does not involve changes in the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) sequence, but it can be inherited to one or more generations through mitosis or meiosis. Children whose mothers develop gestational diabetes are more likely to become obese and diabetic in adult life. DNA methylation is a major mechanism in the regulation of transcription and gene expression of several genes. High levels of glucose and insulin during pregnancy modify the risk of developing T2DM, suggesting that the expression pattern is modified due to cell memory in a specific tissue. If T2DM is linked to adaptation in utero, the obvious primary prevention is to protect the fetal development. Future epidemiological studies need to employ more accurate indicators or markers of development to show the relationship between a specific disease and the exposure to environmental factors. The mechanisms by which malnutrition, and intrauterine growth retardation produce changes in the metabolism of glucose and insuline are worth to explore in order to control obesity and T2DM. PMID:24866314
Poskitt, E M E
Overweight and obesity in childhood is an increasing problem for the less affluent countries of the world. The prevalence of overweight/obesity varies, not only between countries but across countries, depending on the environments in which children live. Changes in physical activity and diet are having adverse effects on children's nutrition. Greater affluence and urbanisation with more technology such as television in homes are associated with overweight. Affluence also brings the ability to purchase commercial, prepared 'fast-food' items, leading too often to disadvantageous effects on children's diets. The solutions to this rising tide of overweight/obesity seem to lie with broad-based programmes initiated at central government level or at more local community level but which are designed to reach across and throughout societies to enable families and communities to modify the unhealthy lifestyle which too often accompanies increasing affluence and development. PMID:25203842
Power, Chris; Graham, Hilary; Due, Pernille;
Our objective was to investigate the contribution of childhood and adult socioeconomic position (SEP) to adult obesity and smoking behaviour, in particular to establish the role of childhood circumstances across different studies in Europe and the US.......Our objective was to investigate the contribution of childhood and adult socioeconomic position (SEP) to adult obesity and smoking behaviour, in particular to establish the role of childhood circumstances across different studies in Europe and the US....
Silva, A.C.F.; Bortolini, G A; Jaime, P C
In Brazil, overweight and obesity are increasing in all age and income groups. Currently, 7.3% of children under 5 years of age, 30% of children aged 5–9 and 20% of preadolescents aged 10–19 are overweight. In the primary health-care (PHC) environment, activities are carried out to monitor eating habits and nutrition, as well as to prevent unhealthy habits and promote healthy eating behaviors consistent with the dietary guidelines for Brazilian children. Comprehensive care is being provided t...
Reed, Monique; Cygan, Heide; Lui, Karen; Mullen, Mary
Background In the United States, overweight/obesity among youth has reached epidemic proportions. The purpose of this project was to (1) examine primary care provider adherence to American Academy of Pediatrics guidelines; (2) compare adherence based on patients' weight classification, age, race, and gender; and (3) identify areas for improvement in health care delivery. Methods A retrospective chart audit and feedback quality improvement project was conducted with a stratified random sample of 175 charts of 6- to 19-year-olds seen for well-child visits. Frequencies of provider adherence were reported. χ(2) Analyses of weight classification, age, race, or gender influence on adherence was calculated. Results After discussion with the primary care providers, 5 areas were identified as priorities for change (diagnosis based on BMI, parental history of obesity, sleep assessment, endocrine assessment, and attendance of patients at the follow-up visit). Conclusion Cost-efficient, feasible strategies to improve provider adherence to recommendations for identification, prevention and management of childhood overweight and obesity were identified. PMID:26581352
Rokholm, B; Baker, J L; Sørensen, T I A
The purpose was to investigate a possible levelling off in the obesity epidemic, by systematically reviewing literature and web-based sources. Eligible studies and data sources were required to have at least two measures of obesity prevalence since 1999. A literature and Internet search resulted in...
Nowicka, Paulina; Flodmark, Carl-Erik
More than 15 percent of children in Europe are overweight; another 5 percent are obese. The high prevalence of obesity emphasizes the necessity of developing evidence-based treatment programs that are useful in a clinical setting. Management of childhood obesity is commonly based on lifestyle interventions where nutrition, physical activity, and behavior modification are the main targets. To incorporate lifestyle interventions, many childhood obesity treatment models use different psychologic...
Asheley Cockrell Skinner; E. Michael Foster
As a public health problem, childhood obesity operates at multiple levels, ranging from individual health behaviors to school and community characteristics to public policies. Examining obesity, particularly childhood obesity, from any single perspective is likely to fail, and systems science methods offer a possible solution. We systematically reviewed studies that examined the causes and/or consequences of obesity from a systems science perspective. The 21 included studies addressed four ge...
Silva, A C F; Bortolini, G A; Jaime, P C
In Brazil, overweight and obesity are increasing in all age and income groups. Currently, 7.3% of children under 5 years of age, 30% of children aged 5-9 and 20% of preadolescents aged 10-19 are overweight. In the primary health-care (PHC) environment, activities are carried out to monitor eating habits and nutrition, as well as to prevent unhealthy habits and promote healthy eating behaviors consistent with the dietary guidelines for Brazilian children. Comprehensive care is being provided to overweight individuals. The Brazilian Breastfeeding and Complementary Feeding Strategy was launched in 2009 to support health teams to counsel families about healthy feeding, focused on child health and obesity prevention. Within the school environment, the School Health Program offers activities that are developed by PHC teams together with education professionals to focus on assessing health conditions, prevention and health promotion. To improve the nutritional profile of processed foods, terms of cooperation have been signed with the food industry to reduce fat and sodium content. Food industry advertising and marketing to infants and young children are now regulated by the Brazilian Regulation for the Marketing of Foods to Infants and Young Children. PMID:27152158
Silva, A C F; Bortolini, G A; Jaime, P C
In Brazil, overweight and obesity are increasing in all age and income groups. Currently, 7.3% of children under 5 years of age, 30% of children aged 5–9 and 20% of preadolescents aged 10–19 are overweight. In the primary health-care (PHC) environment, activities are carried out to monitor eating habits and nutrition, as well as to prevent unhealthy habits and promote healthy eating behaviors consistent with the dietary guidelines for Brazilian children. Comprehensive care is being provided to overweight individuals. The Brazilian Breastfeeding and Complementary Feeding Strategy was launched in 2009 to support health teams to counsel families about healthy feeding, focused on child health and obesity prevention. Within the school environment, the School Health Program offers activities that are developed by PHC teams together with education professionals to focus on assessing health conditions, prevention and health promotion. To improve the nutritional profile of processed foods, terms of cooperation have been signed with the food industry to reduce fat and sodium content. Food industry advertising and marketing to infants and young children are now regulated by the Brazilian Regulation for the Marketing of Foods to Infants and Young Children.
Ross, Sharon E; Flynn, Jennifer I; Pate, Russell R
Obesity prevention is a public health priority and intervention strategies have focused primarily on healthy eating and physical activity in children and adults. To date, no review has systematically compiled and synthesised the scientific evidence from published review articles to determine whether there is clear consensus on the causes of obesity. A systematic review of the literature was conducted searching PubMed/Medline for narrative and systematic review articles published between January 1990 and October 2014 that examined the causes of obesity. In total, 12 of 65 articles met the inclusion criteria; 7 reviews focused on adults (1 systematic, 6 narrative) and 5 reviews on children (2 systematic, 3 narrative). The most popular cause of obesity identified in reviews of adult studies was "combined physical activity and diet" (3 of 7 studies), whereas the most popular cause specified in reviews of child studies was deemed "inconclusive" (2 of 5 studies). While a number of reviews have examined the causes of obesity, the methodology and conclusions varied widely, and few were conducted systematically. Currently, no consensus exists across published literature reviews regarding the primary cause of the obesity epidemic, and more research, particularly prospective studies using state-of-the-art measures, is warranted. PMID:26400631
Full Text Available A common policy approach to reducing childhood obesity aims to shape the environment in which children spend most of their time: neighborhoods and schools. This paper uses richly detailed data on the body mass index (BMI of all New York City public school students in grades K-8 to assess the potential for place-based approaches to reduce child obesity. We document variation in the prevalence of obesity across NYC public schools and census tracts, and then estimate the extent to which this variation can be explained by differences in individual-level predictors (such as race and household income. Both unadjusted and adjusted variability across neighborhoods and schools suggest place-based policies have the potential to meaningfully reduce child obesity, but under most realistic scenarios the improvement would be modest.
Llewellyn, A; Simmonds, M; Owen, C G; Woolacott, N
Obese children are at higher risk of being obese as adults, and adult obesity is associated with an increased risk of morbidity. This systematic review and meta-analysis investigates the ability of childhood body mass index (BMI) to predict obesity-related morbidities in adulthood. Thirty-seven studies were included. High childhood BMI was associated with an increased incidence of adult diabetes (OR 1.70; 95% CI 1.30-2.22), coronary heart disease (CHD) (OR 1.20; 95% CI 1.10-1.31) and a range of cancers, but not stroke or breast cancer. The accuracy of childhood BMI when predicting any adult morbidity was low. Only 31% of future diabetes and 22% of future hypertension and CHD occurred in children aged 12 or over classified as being overweight or obese. Only 20% of all adult cancers occurred in children classified as being overweight or obese. Childhood obesity is associated with moderately increased risks of adult obesity-related morbidity, but the increase in risk is not large enough for childhood BMI to be a good predictor of the incidence of adult morbidities. This is because the majority of adult obesity-related morbidity occurs in adults who were of healthy weight in childhood. Therefore, targeting obesity reduction solely at obese or overweight children may not substantially reduce the overall burden of obesity-related disease in adulthood. PMID:26440472
Full Text Available Growing childhood obesity rates are increasingly putting the lives of Canadian children at risk. Using schools as the foundation for tackling childhood obesity is significantly more achievable than attempting to place blanket measures that intrude into Canadian homes. Measures should be taken to address childhood obesity by promoting healthy eating, education and exercise. Yet it is important to recognise obesity both as a medical and as a pyschosocial problem in order to construct these preventative policies: by doing so we can begin to understand the potential challenges such as stigma along with negative exogenous influences in the home and as consumers. Les taux croissants d’obésité juvénile montrent que les enfants canadiens sont de plus en plus exposés à un risque pour leur santé. Il est beaucoup plus réaliste de passer par les écoles pour s’attaquer au problème de l’obésité juvénile que de tenter de mettre en œuvre des mesures générales qui constituent une ingérence dans les foyers canadiens. Il faut prendre des mesures pour lutter contre l’obésité juvénile en encourageant les saines habitudes alimentaires, l’éducation et l’exercice. Il importe aussi de reconnaître l’obésité comme un problème d’ordre tant médical que psychosocial avant d’élaborer ces politiques préventives : de cette façon, nous pourrons commencer à comprendre les difficultés possibles telles que l’ostracisme et les influences exogènes négatives dans les foyers et comme consommateurs.
Socha, Piotr; Hellmuth, Christian; Gruszfeld, Dariusz; Demmelmair, Hans; Rzehak, Peter; Grote, Veit; Weber, Martina; Escribano, Joaquin; Closa-Monasterolo, Ricardo; Dain, Elena; Langhendries, Jean-Paul; Riva, Enrica; Verduci, Elvira; Koletzko, Berthold
There is growing evidence of long-term effects of early dietary intervention in infancy on later obesity risk. Many studies showed reduced risk of obesity with breastfeeding in infancy, which could be related to the reduced protein intake with human milk compared to infant formula. In a randomized controlled trial (Childhood Obesity Project), we were able to show that infant formula with reduced protein content results in lower BMI both at 2 and 6 years. These effects seem to be mediated mainly by branched-chain amino acids which stimulate the insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 axis and insulin release. In this trial, we also showed an influence of high-protein diet on larger kidney size, which seems to be partly explained by a significant effect of free IGF-1 on kidney volume. The IGF-1 axis was shown to regulate early growth, adipose tissue differentiation and early adipogenesis in animals and in humans. Leptin and adiponectin can also be regarded as important endocrine regulators of obesity. These markers were tested in observational studies. Leptin seems to be closely correlated with BMI but changes in adiponectin require further exploration. Still, there is a lack of good data or some results are contradictory to indicate the role of either leptin or adiponectin in infancy for determining later obesity risk. PMID:27088335
Douglas M. Puricelli Perin
Full Text Available A cross-sectional survey was administered to Latino and White residents of Omaha, NE, to assess perception of the childhood obesity problem, attribution of responsibility, and support for obesity-related policies. The sample included 40.8% (n=271 Latinos and 59.2% (n=393 Whites. Among Latinos, 25% did not see childhood obesity as a problem, compared to 6% of Whites (P<0.001. This difference persisted after adjusting for age, gender, and education level (odds ratio (OR 2.10, 95% confidence interval (CI 1.07–4.14. Latinos were more likely to agree that government was responsible for addressing childhood obesity compared to Whites (OR 2.81, 95% CI 1.82–4.35. Higher support for policy interventions was observed among individuals who perceived childhood obesity as a big problem compared to those who did not, independent of race, sex, age, or education level. The relationship between support for tax-based policies and perception of the childhood obesity problem was mainly evident among Latinos rather than Whites. Despite city-wide efforts to address obesity, differential penetration in community subgroups appears evident. There is room to further engage Latinos in the cause of obesity. Deepening community awareness about the consequences and complexity of childhood obesity can lead to stronger support for childhood obesity policy interventions.
Fatma G. Huffman
Full Text Available Prevalence of childhood obesity and its complications have increased world-wide. Parental status may be associated with children’s health outcomes including their eating habits, body weight and blood cholesterol. The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES for the years 1988–1994, provided a unique opportunity for matching parents to children enabling analyses of joint demographics, racial differences and health indicators. Specifically, the NHANES III data, 1988–1994, of 219 households with single-parents and 780 dual-parent households were analyzed as predictors for primary outcome variables of children’s Body Mass Index (BMI, dietary nutrient intakes and blood cholesterol. Children of single-parent households were significantly (p < 0.01 more overweight than children of dual-parent households. Total calorie and saturated fatty acid intakes were higher among children of single-parent households than dual-parent households (p < 0.05. On average, Black children were more overweight (p < 0.04 than children of other races. The study results implied a strong relationship between single-parent status and excess weight in children. Further studies are needed to explore the dynamics of single-parent households and its influence on childhood diet and obesity. Parental involvement in the development of school- and community-based obesity prevention programs are suggested for effective health initiatives. Economic constraints and cultural preferences may be communicated directly by family involvement in these much needed public health programs.
Background Social marketing integrates communication campaigns with behavioural and environmental change strategies. Childhood obesity programs could benefit significantly from social marketing but communication campaigns on this issue tend to be stand-alone. Methods A large-scale multi-setting child obesity prevention program was implemented in the Hunter New England (HNE) region of New South Wales (NSW), Australia from 2005–2010. The program included a series of communication campaigns promoting the program and its key messages: drinking water; getting physically active and; eating more vegetables and fruit. Pre-post telephone surveys (n = 9) were undertaken to evaluate awareness of the campaigns among parents of children aged 2–15 years using repeat cross-sections of randomly selected cohorts. A total of 1,367 parents (HNE = 748, NSW = 619) participated. Results At each survey post baseline, HNE parents were significantly more likely to have seen, read or heard about the program and its messages in the media than parents in the remainder of the state (p brand campaign (31%) than those with (20%) but there were no other statistically significant socio-demographic differences in awareness. Conclusions The Good for Kids communication campaigns increased and maintained awareness of childhood obesity prevention messages. Moreover, messages were delivered equitably to diverse socio-demographic groups within the region. PMID:24090174
Winter, Suzanne M.
Childhood obesity is epidemic in the United States and other industrialized countries across the globe. This trend is alarming, because childhood obesity is associated with the early onset of serious health problems, including Type II diabetes, cardiovascular disease, orthopedic problems, behavioral disorders, and asthma. Mounting evidence also…
Feldstein, Ariel E.; Patton-Ku, Dana; Boutelle, Kerri N.
The prevalence of childhood obesity has reached epidemic proportions in the US and many other parts of the world. With obesity comes a variety of adverse health outcomes and metabolic complications. The liver in particular seems to be significantly impacted by fat deposition in the presence of obesity. In this article we discuss several aspects of childhood obesity from epidemiology and associated metabolic complications, to management strategies and therapy with particular attention to the i...
Food, Nutrition, and Consumer Services (USDA), Washington, DC. Center for Nutrition Policy and Promotion.
This report documents the proceedings of a 1998 symposium on the causes and prevention of childhood obesity sponsored by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Center for Nutrition Policy and Promotion to focus attention on the growing problem of childhood obesity in the United States and the link between nutrition and health. Following opening…
Sosa, Erica T.
Childhood obesity continues to increase, disproportionately affecting Mexican American children. The aims of this review are to (a) assess the literature regarding Mexican American mothers' knowledge and perceptions of childhood obesity, prevention, and their role in prevention; (b) critically evaluate the methodological quality of the research…
Jalongo, Mary Renck
Notes that obesity is the primary reason for peer rejection in America; examines effects of obesity on wellness, self-esteem, peer relationships, and social status of children/families and early childhood teachers. Suggests that early childhood educators: (1) educate all stakeholders about nutrition and body size issues; (2) speak out against…
In this article, the author talks about childhood obesity and explores ways to fight this condition. The author shares some activities to get children moving to positively impact childhood obesity. These include: "Stand Up/Sit Down;" "Quick Clean-Up;" and "Get Ready Spaghetti."
Tripp, Paula J.; Choi, Jin Young
The purposes of this exploratory qualitative research were to describe perceptions related to childhood obesity of rural parents, teachers, and school administrators and to examine how their perceptions shape their choices and behaviors for children's eating and physical exercise. The results showed that the perceptions of childhood obesity in the…
Christoffel Katherine; Zhang Xingyou; Mason Maryann; Liu Lin
Abstract The neighborhood social and physical environments are considered significant factors contributing to children's inactive lifestyles, poor eating habits, and high levels of childhood obesity. Understanding of neighborhood environmental profiles is needed to facilitate community-based research and the development and implementation of community prevention and intervention programs. We sought to identify contrastive and comparable districts for childhood obesity and physical activity re...
Siviero-Miachon, Adriana Aparecida; Spinola-Castro, Angela Maria; Guerra-Junior, Gil
As childhood cancer treatment has become more effective, survival rates have improved, and a number of complications have been described while many of these patients reach adulthood. Obesity is a well-recognized late effect, and its metabolic effects may lead to cardiovascular disease. Currently, studies concerning overweight have focused on acute lymphocytic leukemia and brain tumors, since they are at risk for hypothalamic-pituitary axis damage secondary to cancer therapies (cranial irradiation, chemotherapy, and brain surgery) or to primary tumor location. Obesity and cancer have metabolic syndrome features in common. Thus, it remains controversial if overweight is a cause or consequence of cancer, and to date additional mechanisms involving adipose tissue and hypothalamic derangements have been considered, comprising premature adiposity rebound, hyperinsulinemia, leptin regulation, and the role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma. Overall, further research is still necessary to better understand the relationship between adipogenesis and hypothalamic control deregulation following cancer therapy. PMID:19466212
Farley, Thomas A; Dowell, Deborah
After decades of increases, the prevalence of childhood obesity has declined in the past decade in New York City, as measured in children participating in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) and public school students, with the greatest reductions occurring in the youngest children. Possible explanations were changes in demographics; WIC, day care, and school food policies; citywide obesity prevention policies, media messages; and family and community food consumption. Although the decreases cannot be attributed to any one cause, the most plausible explanation is changes in food consumption at home, prompted by media messages and reinforced by school and child care center policy changes. Continued media messages and policy changes are needed to sustain these improvements and extend them to other age groups. PMID:25033123
Lee, Joyce M.; Pilli, Subrahmanyam; Gebremariam, Achamyeleh; Keirns, Carla C.; Davis, Matthew M.; Vijan, Sandeep; Freed, Gary L; Herman, William H.; Gurney, James G.
Context Although recent trends in obesity have been well documented, generational patterns of obesity from early childhood through adulthood across birth cohorts, which account for the recent epidemic of childhood obesity, have not been well described. Such trends may have implications for the prevalence of obesity-associated conditions among population subgroups, including type 2 diabetes. Objective Our objective was to evaluate trajectories of obesity over the life course for the US populat...
Zhou, Nan; Cheah, Charissa S L
Chinese Americans are the largest and fastest growing Asian American subgroup, increasing about one-third during the 2000s. Despite the slender Asian stereotype, nearly one-third of 6-to-11 year old Chinese American children were found to be overweight (above the 85th percentile in BMI). Importantly, unique and severe health risks are associated with being overweight/obese in Chinese. Unfortunately, Chinese immigrant children have been neglected in the literature on obesity. This review aimed to identify factors at various levels of the ecological model that may place Chinese immigrant children at risk for being overweight/obese in the U.S. Key contextual factors at the micro-, meso-, exo-, macro- and chronosystem were identified guided by Bronfenbrenner's ecological systems theory. The corresponding mediating and moderating processes among the factors were also reviewed and proposed. By presenting a conceptual framework and relevant research, this review can provide a basic framework for directing future interdisciplinary research in seeking solutions to childhood obesity within this understudied population. PMID:25728887
Boutelle, Kerri N.; Cafri, Guy; Crow, Scott J.
Parent-only (PO) treatments for childhood obesity are feasible, more cost-effective and potentially easier to disseminate. The objective of this study was to determine whether a PO treatment is not inferior to a parent + child (PC) treatment for childhood obesity. Eighty parent–child dyads with an 8–12 year old overweight or obese child (>85th BMI-P) were recruited and randomized into PO or PC treatment for childhood obesity. Parents or parent–child dyads attended 5-month treatment groups. Ch...
To evaluate the sonographic features of mesenteric lymphadenopathy in childhood epidemic aseptic meningitis and to assess their clinical significance. Thirty-three patients (25 male, 8 female: mean age, 8.6 years) with a diagnosis of aseptic meningitis were prospectively evaluated with abdominal ultrasonography for the presence of enlarged mesenteric nodes. The size and number of enlarged mesenteric lymph nodes were analyzed in relationship with the patient's age, between the patients with abdominal pain or diarrhea (16 cases, 48%) and asymptomatic patients (17 cases, 52%). Mesenteric lymphadenopathy was seen in 31 patients (94%), all 16 symptomatic and 15 of the 17 asymptomatic patients. The number of enlarged nodes was most prevalent between 6-10, seen in 16 patients (52%) and the largest node ranged in size from 4 to 8 mm. Among the 31 patients with mesenteric lymphadenopathy, the mean size of the largest node was statistically different between the symptomatic (6.0 mm) and asymptomatic (5.0 mm) groups (p = 0.021). The number of enlarged nodes and the patient's age were not statistically different between the two groups. Mesenteric lymphadenopathy was seen in almost all cases of childhood epidemic aseptic meningitis, and may be related to the mesenteric lymphadenitis caused by enterovirus
Mun, Sung Hee; Park, Young Chan; Lee, Young Hwan [Catholic University of Daegu, College of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)
To evaluate the sonographic features of mesenteric lymphadenopathy in childhood epidemic aseptic meningitis and to assess their clinical significance. Thirty-three patients (25 male, 8 female: mean age, 8.6 years) with a diagnosis of aseptic meningitis were prospectively evaluated with abdominal ultrasonography for the presence of enlarged mesenteric nodes. The size and number of enlarged mesenteric lymph nodes were analyzed in relationship with the patient's age, between the patients with abdominal pain or diarrhea (16 cases, 48%) and asymptomatic patients (17 cases, 52%). Mesenteric lymphadenopathy was seen in 31 patients (94%), all 16 symptomatic and 15 of the 17 asymptomatic patients. The number of enlarged nodes was most prevalent between 6-10, seen in 16 patients (52%) and the largest node ranged in size from 4 to 8 mm. Among the 31 patients with mesenteric lymphadenopathy, the mean size of the largest node was statistically different between the symptomatic (6.0 mm) and asymptomatic (5.0 mm) groups (p = 0.021). The number of enlarged nodes and the patient's age were not statistically different between the two groups. Mesenteric lymphadenopathy was seen in almost all cases of childhood epidemic aseptic meningitis, and may be related to the mesenteric lymphadenitis caused by enterovirus
Nagl, Michaela; Steinig, Jana; Klinitzke, Grit; Stepan, Holger; Kersting, Anette
Pre-pregnancy overweight and obesity is associated with poor health outcomes for the mother and the child. General population studies suggest that childhood maltreatment is associated with obesity in adulthood. The aim of our study was to examine the association between pre-pregnancy overweight and obesity and a history of childhood abuse or neglect including different stages of severity of abuse and neglect. Three hundred twenty-six normal weight, overweight, or obese pregnant women reported demographic data, height and weight, and general psychological distress at 18-22 weeks of gestation. Childhood maltreatment was assessed using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. Associations were examined using logistic regression analyses and a reference group of normal weight women. Fifty percent reported a history of abuse or neglect. After adjusting for age, education, income, marital status, and the number of previous children, pre-pregnancy overweight and obesity were strongly associated with severe physical abuse (overweight: OR = 8.33, 95 % CI 1.48-47.03; obesity: OR = 6.31, 95 % CI 1.06-37.60). Women with severe physical neglect (OR = 4.25, 95 % CI 1.23-14.74) were at increased risk of pregnancy overweight. We found a dose-response relationship between physical abuse and pre-pregnancy overweight and obesity. Whereas other studies report an association between childhood maltreatment and pre-pregnancy obesity, this is the first study that found an association between childhood maltreatment and pre-pregnancy overweight. Considering the severe health risks of pre-pregnancy overweight and obesity and the long-term consequences of childhood maltreatment, affected women constitute a subgroup with special needs in prenatal care. Further research is needed to improve the understanding of the underlying mechanisms. PMID:26386682
Faubion, Robin Johannsen; Brown, Jessica; Bindler, Ruth C.; Miller, Kris
Background One-third of the US population is obese, and childhood obesity has tripled since the late 1970s. Childhood obesity is a significant health issue requiring interventions on individual, interpersonal, community, organizational, and policy levels. Community coalitions offer successful strategies for engaging community partners with health improvement goals. Community Context In 2008, Yakima County, an agricultural community in eastern Washington, was ranked the eighth fattest city in ...
Ergun, Mehmet Ali; Karaoguz, Meral Yirmibes; Koc, Altug; Camurdan, Orhun; Bideci, Aysun; Yazici, A. Canan; Cinaz, Peyami
Obesity is a multifactorial disease that is influenced by genetic and environmental factors. The apolipoprotein E (Apo E) polymorphism has been reported to influence some lipid profile abnormalities associated with obesity in childhood. In this study, the relationship between the Apo E gene and Taq1A polymorphisms with childhood obesity has been studied. Regarding the Apo E genotypes, e3/4 was the most frequent in both the patient and control groups. Further, there was a significance between ...
the STRONG Kids Research Team; Paige, Katie N.; Margarita Teran-Garcia; Donovan, Sharon M.; Salma M. A. Musaad; Fiese, Barbara H.
Childhood obesity and asthma are on the rise in the U.S. Clinical and epidemiological data suggest a link between the two, in which overweight and obese children are at higher risk for asthma. Prevention of childhood obesity is preferred over treatment, however, in order to be receptive to messages, parents must perceive that their child is overweight. Many parents do not accurately assess their child’s weight status. Herein, the relation between parental perceptions of child weight status, o...
Full Text Available The proximate cause of obesity is an imbalance in the energy input and energy expenditure. It was believed that the sedentary life style of Western Societies which resulted in grossly reduced energy expenditure was the main cause of the imbalance. Studies carried out in recent years have challenged this belief, and have shown that the energy expenditure even in a sedentary life style is not grossly reduced. Although obesity has a genetic basis, it cannot be attributed to a signal gene or even to a few genes. Even though fat storage has an advantage in the animal kingdom, it appears to pose a greater risk for many metabolic diseases in humans. Epigenetic effects particularly fetal and infant nutrition also play a significant role in adult obesity. Over nutrition appears to be the major cause for the current epidemic of obesity. Fast food and soft drinks, coupled with aggressive marketing by food marketers have contributed to over eating. Consequently the energy balance is tilted in favor of excess energy storage.
Mozhdeh B Bruss
Full Text Available This paper presents a community-school-higher education partnership approach to the prevention of childhood obesity. Public elementary school personnel, primarily teachers, participated in the design and delivery of a curriculum targeting primary caregivers of 8-9-year-old children. Theoretical framework and methodological approaches guided the development of a cognitive behavioral lifestyle intervention targeting childhood obesity prevention in the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI, a U.S. commonwealth. This project demonstrated that in populations with health disparity, teachers can be a valuable and accessible resource for identifying key health issues of concern to communities and a vital partner in the development of parent and child interventions. Teachers also benefited by gaining knowledge and skills to facilitate student and parent learning and impact on personal and familial health. Successful community-school-higher education partnerships require consideration of local culture and community needs and resources. Moreover, within any community-school–higher education partnership it is essential that a time sensitive and culturally appropriate feedback loop be designed to ensure that programs are responsive to the needs and resources of all stakeholders, and that leaders and policymakers are highly engaged so they can make informed policy decisions.
Sarwer, David B.; Dilks, Rebecca J.
The prevalence of childhood and adolescent obesity has tripled in the past three decades. This increase has been accompanied by a dramatic rise in obesity-related health complications among American youth. Thus, many obese youth are now experiencing illnesses that will threaten their life expectancy in the absence of significant weight loss.…
Bradfield, Jonathan P; Taal, H Rob; Timpson, Nicholas J;
Multiple genetic variants have been associated with adult obesity and a few with severe obesity in childhood; however, less progress has been made in establishing genetic influences on common early-onset obesity. We performed a North American, Australian and European collaborative meta-analysis of...
This paper responds to Michael Merry's recent contribution on childhood obesity. Merry's analysis highlights the difficulties in finding an appropriate balance between children's and parents' interests in antiobesity interventions and emphasizes the importance of weight stigma and its effects on the obesity debate. He concludes by recommending…
Full Text Available Background: Childhood obesity is a global health problem with short- and long-term health consequences. This systematic review presents a summary of the experiences on different family-, school-, and clinic-based interventions. Materials and Methods: Electronic search was conducted in MEDLINE, PubMed, ISI Web of Science, and Scopus scientific databases. We included those studies conducted among obese individuals aged up to 18 years. Our search yielded 105 relevant papers, 70 of them were conducted as high quality clinical trials. Results: Our findings propose that school-based programs can have long-term effects in a large target group. This can be related to this fact that children spend a considerable part of their time in school, and adopt some parts of lifestyle there. They have remarkable consequences on health behaviors, but as there are some common limitations, their effects on anthropometric measures are not clear. Due to the crucial role of parents in development of children′s behaviors, family-based interventions are reported to have successful effects in some aspects; but selection bias and high dropout rate can confound their results. Clinic-based interventions revealed favorable effects. They include dietary or other lifestyle changes like increasing physical activity or behavior therapy. It seems that a comprehensive intervention including diet and exercise are more practical. When they have different designs, results are controversial. Conclusion: We suggest that among different types of interventional programs, a multidisciplinary approach in schools in which children′s family are involved, can be the best and most sustainable approach for management of childhood obesity.
Lawrence, Shawn; Hazlett, Rebekah; Hightower, Peggy
The childhood and adolescent overweight and obesity rates are rising at an alarming rate. Numerous individual, family, community, and social factors contribute to overweight and obesity in children and are explored. If left unaddressed, the epidemic of childhood and adolescent overweight and obesity may lead to amplified problems for individual…
Full Text Available Abstract Background Overweight and obesity have a dramatic negative impact on children's health not only during the childhood but also throughout the adult life. Preventing the development of obesity in children is therefore a world-wide health priority. There is an obvious urge for sustainable and evidenced-based interventions that are suitable for families with young children, especially for families with overweight or obese parents. We have developed a prevention program, Early STOPP, combating multiple obesity-promoting behaviors such unbalanced diet, physical inactivity and disturbed sleeping patterns. We also aim to evaluate the effectiveness of the early childhood obesity prevention in a well-characterized population of overweight or obese parents. This protocol outlines methods for the recruitment phase of the study. Design and methods This randomized controlled trial (RCT targets overweight and/or obese parents with infants, recruited from the Child Health Care Centers (CHCC within the Stockholm area. The intervention starts when infants are one year of age and continues until they are six and is regularly delivered by a trained coach (dietitian, physiotherapist or a nurse. The key aspects of Early STOPP family intervention are based on Swedish recommendations for CHCC, which include advices on healthy food choices and eating patterns, increasing physical activity/reducing sedentary behavior and regulating sleeping patterns. Discussion The Early STOPP trial design addresses weaknesses of previous research by recruiting from a well-characterized population, defining a feasible, theory-based intervention and assessing multiple measurements to validate and interpret the program effectiveness. The early years hold promise as a time in which obesity prevention may be most effective. To our knowledge, this longitudinal RCT is the first attempt to demonstrate whether an early, long-term, targeted health promotion program focusing on healthy
Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, 2012
Today, obesity is one of the most critical health concerns for children in the United States. Nearly one-third of children and teens are overweight or obese--and physical inactivity is a leading contributor to the epidemic. Regrettably, as a result of budget cuts and pressure to ensure students perform well on academic tests, physical education…
Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, 2012
The nation faces an obesity crisis, especially among low-income children and children of color. Today, nearly one-third of children and adolescents are overweight or obese, and physical inactivity is a leading cause of this epidemic. Equitable transportation policy that fosters healthy, opportunity-rich communities has a critical role to play in…
There is a worldwide epidemic of obesity with far-reaching consequences for the health of our nation. Prevention of obesity, especially in children, has been deemed by public health policy makers to be one of the most important objectives for our country. This prevention project, called Louisiana (L...
Norberg, Margareta; Lindvall, Kristina; Stenlund, Hans; Lindahl, Bernt
Background: Obesity prevalence has continuously increased in Northern Sweden as elsewhere. A cohort effect has been shown and an increasing proportion of the middle-aged population is maintaining body weight. Objective: To test the hypothesis that the obesity epidemic continues but at different speeds that are dependent on socioeconomic status. Design: Cross-sectional (103,940 adults) and longitudinal (26,872 adults) data from the Va¨sterbotten Intervention Program 1990-2007 were included...
Cockrell Skinner, Asheley; Foster, E Michael
As a public health problem, childhood obesity operates at multiple levels, ranging from individual health behaviors to school and community characteristics to public policies. Examining obesity, particularly childhood obesity, from any single perspective is likely to fail, and systems science methods offer a possible solution. We systematically reviewed studies that examined the causes and/or consequences of obesity from a systems science perspective. The 21 included studies addressed four general areas of systems science in obesity: (1) translating interventions to a large scale, (2) the effect of obesity on other health or economic outcomes, (3) the effect of geography on obesity, and (4) the effect of social networks on obesity. In general, little research addresses obesity from a true, integrated systems science perspective, and the available research infrequently focuses on children. This shortcoming limits the ability of that research to inform public policy. However, we believe that the largely incremental approaches used in current systems science lay a foundation for future work and present a model demonstrating the system of childhood obesity. Systems science perspective and related methods are particularly promising in understanding the link between childhood obesity and adult outcomes. Systems models emphasize the evolution of agents and their interactions; such evolution is particularly salient in the context of a developing child. PMID:23710344
Barry, Colleen L; Jarlenski, Marian; Grob, Rachel; Schlesinger, Mark; Gollust, Sarah E
The American public holds mixed views about the desirability of government action to combat childhood obesity. The framing of coverage by news media may affect citizens' views about the causes of childhood obesity and the most appropriate strategies for addressing the problem. We analyzed the content of a 20% random sample of news stories on childhood obesity published in 18 national and regional news sources in the United States over a 10-year period (2000-2009). News media coverage patterns indicated that by 2003, childhood obesity was firmly on the news media's agenda and remained so until 2007, after which coverage decreased. We identified changes in news media framing over time and significant differences according to news source. News coverage of causes of childhood obesity that were linked to the food and beverage industry increased in the early years of the study but then decreased markedly in later years. Similarly, mention of solutions to the problem of childhood obesity that involved restrictions on the food and beverage industry followed a reverse U-shaped pattern over the 10-year study period. News stories consistently mentioned individual behavioral changes most often as a solution to the problem of childhood obesity. Television news was more likely than other news sources to focus on behavior change as a solution, whereas newspapers were more likely to identify system-level solutions such as changes that would affect neighborhoods, schools, and the food and beverage industry. PMID:21690111
Mutlu, Hayrettin; Bilgiç, Vedat; Erten, Sebahattin; Aras, Şükrü; Tayfur, Muhittin
This study aimed to delineate the relationship between childhood traumas and adulthood obesity. A total of 314 individuals (157 obese and 157 nonobese) were recruited in the study. After obtaining anthropometric and sociodemographic variables, the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) was administered to the participants. Overall scores of CTQ were determined to be 42.6 ± 10.5 (higher trauma) in obese group and 37.2 ± 6.6 (lower trauma) in nonobese group (P childhood traumatic experience were found to be 68.8% for obese people and 38.8% for nonobese people. In conclusion, an increased risk for adulthood obesity development was significantly associated with childhood traumatic experience. PMID:27399037
Full Text Available Background: During the last several decades, the number of children who are overweight or obese has reached alarming levels worldwide. The purpose of the present study was to examine trends in measures of childhood obesity among Korean children aged 2–19 from 1998 to 2012. Methods: Height, weight, and waist circumference (WC were measured, and body mass index (BMI was calculated. Age-adjusted means of WC and BMI were compared between years. We used three international criteria (International Obesity Task Force [IOTF], World Health Organization [WHO], United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC] and a Korean national reference standard (Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [KCDC] to calculate age-standardized prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity. Results: Despite differences in absolute prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity according to the four different criteria, the time trends of prevalence were generally similar across criteria. The prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity generally stabilized from 2001–2012 in both boys and girls. WC decreased from 2001–2012 in both boys and girls aged 2–19. Conclusions: Further studies exploring the factors causing plateaued trends of childhood obesity measures are needed to implement effective policies for reducing the prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity.
Ken K Ong; Kate Northstone; Jonathan C K Wells; Carol Rubin; Ness, Andy R; Jean Golding; Dunger, David B.
Editors' Summary Background. Childhood obesity is a rapidly growing problem. Twenty-five years ago, overweight children were rare. Now, 155 million of the world's children are overweight and 30–45 million are obese. Overweight and obese children—those having a higher than average body mass index (BMI; weight divided by height squared) for their age and sex—are at increased risk of becoming obese adults. Such people are more likely to develop heart disease, diabetes, and other health problems ...
Wolfson, Julia A.; Gollust, Sarah E.; Niederdeppe, Jeff; Barry, Colleen L.
Policy PointsThe American public—both men and women and those with and without children in the household—holds parents highly responsible and largely to blame for childhood obesity.High attributions of responsibility to parents for reducing childhood obesity did not universally undermine support for broader policy action. School-based obesity prevention policies were strongly supported, even among those viewing parents as mostly to blame for childhood obesity.Americans who viewed sectors outs...
Ethan Cohen-Cole; Fletcher, Jason M.
This note’s aim is to investigate the sensitivity of Christakis and Fowler’s claim (NEJM July 26, 2007) that obesity has spread through social networks. It is well known in the economics literature that failure to include contextual effects can lead to spurious inference on “social network effects.” We replicate the NEJM results using their specification and a complementary dataset. We find that point estimates of the “social network effect” are reduced and become statistically indistinguisha...
Childhood obesity and chronic disease rates continue to climb, but policy and programme responses are mainly limited to education and awareness activities. These encourage individuals to make responsible lifestyle choices. Regulation and environmental change have a minor role, as they involve more intrusive roles for government, invading traditionally private domains of nutrition and physical activity. But to address children's health needs, today's emphasis on self-management is inappropriate. Children, especially the very young, are dependent and vulnerable. I describe why the current public health strategies, with their political and moral foundations, remain ineffective. The foundations are based primarily upon the traditional liberal understanding of the public/private divide, while neglecting to recognize the legal obligations and implications of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child and theories of justice and citizenship as they apply to children. PMID:21119650
Subica, Andrew M; Grills, Cheryl T; Douglas, Jason A; Villanueva, Sandra
Ethnic and racial health disparities present an enduring challenge to community-based health promotion, which rarely targets their underlying population-level determinants (e.g., poverty, food insecurity, health care inequity). We present a novel 3-lens prescription for using community organizing to treat these determinants in communities of color based on the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation's Communities Creating Healthy Environments initiative, the first national project to combat childhood obesity in communities of color using community organizing strategies. The lenses--Social Justice, Culture-Place, and Organizational Capacity-Organizing Approach--assist health professional-community partnerships in planning and evaluating community organizing-based health promotion programs. These programs activate community stakeholders to alter their community's disease-causing, population-level determinants through grassroots policy advocacy, potentially reducing health disparities affecting communities of color. PMID:26562108
Butte, Nancy F; Christiansen, Edmund; Sørensen, Thorkild I A
/d of walking at 2.5 mph. DISCUSSION: Halting the development or progression of childhood obesity, as observed in these Hispanic children and adolescents, by counteracting its total energy costs will require a sizable decrease in energy intake and/or reciprocal increase in physical activity.......OBJECTIVE: To develop a model based on empirical data and human energetics to predict the total energy cost of weight gain and obligatory increase in energy intake and/or decrease in physical activity level associated with weight gain in children and adolescents. RESEARCH METHODS AND PROCEDURES......: One-year changes in weight and body composition and basal metabolic rate (BMR) were measured in 488 Hispanic children and adolescents. Fat-free mass (FFM) and fat mass (FM) were measured by DXA and BMR by calorimetry. Model specifications include the following: body mass (BM) = FFM + FM, each...
Grønbæk, Helle Nergaard; Madsen, Svend Aage Lykke; Michaelsen, Kim F.
INTRODUCTION: The objective of this study was to assess the impacts of a family-based childhood obesity treatment on anthropometry and predictors of dropout and successful weight loss. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The 18-month treatment consisted of a intensive period (IP) including physical exercise......, nutritional guidance, family psychotherapy, child group sessions and a 1-year follow-up (FU). RESULTS: One hundred children (10-12 years old, >140% of median weight-for-height) participated. The 81 children completing the IP decreased significantly from 2.9 to 2.6 body mass index (BMI) standard deviation...... score (SDS) units (p children completing the FU had a further decrease of 0.2 BMI SDS units (p = 0.003). Weight loss was less in children from immigrant families. Drop-out was higher if the mother...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Prevention is considered effective in combating the obesity epidemic. Prenatal environment may increase offspring's risk for obesity. A child starts to adopt food preferences and other behavioral habits affecting weight gain during preschool years. We report the study protocol of a pragmatic lifestyle intervention aiming at primary prevention of childhood obesity. Methods/Design A non-randomized controlled pragmatic trial in maternity and child health care clinics. The control group was recruited among families who visited the same clinics one year earlier. Eligibility criteria was mother at risk for gestational diabetes: body mass index ≥ 25 kg/m2, macrosomic newborn in any previous pregnancy, immediate family history of diabetes and/or age ≥ 40 years. All maternity clinics in town involved in recruitment. The gestational intervention consisted of individual counseling on diet and physical activity by a public health nurse, and of two group counseling sessions. Intervention continues until offspring’s age of five years. An option to participate a group counseling at child’s age 1 to 2 years was offered. The intervention includes advice on healthy diet, physical activity, sedentary behavior and sleeping pattern. The main outcome measure is offspring BMI z-score and its changes by the age of six years. Discussion Early childhood is a critical time period for prevention of obesity. Pragmatic trials targeting this period are necessary in order to find effective obesity prevention programs feasible in normal health care practice. Trial registration Clinical Trials gov NCT00970710
Watt, Toni Terling; Appel, Louis; Roberts, Kelley; Flores, Bianca; Morris, Sarajane
The nationwide epidemic of pediatric obesity is more prevalent among Hispanic children than white children. Recent literature suggests that obesity has early origins, leading scholars to call for interventions in pregnancy and infancy. However, there is little theoretical or empirical research to guide the development of early prevention programs for Hispanics. The present study seeks to identify risk factors for early childhood obesity among a low-income, predominately Hispanic sample. Data were gathered to inform the design of a primary care childhood obesity prevention program targeting pregnancy through age 12 months. Baseline data were gathered on 153 women attending the clinic for prenatal care or for their child's 2, 6 or 12 month well-check. All women completed surveys on diet, exercise, social support, food security, stress, infant feeding practices, health, and demographics. For women with children (n = 66), survey data were matched with medical records data on infant weight. Results reveal that 55 % of women in the sample had an infant profiling in the 85th percentile or higher, confirming the need for an early childhood obesity intervention. While mothers exhibited several potential risk factors for childhood obesity (e.g. fast food consumption), only maternal consumption of sweets and sugar-sweetened beverages, stress, and SNAP (food stamp receipt) were associated with infant overweight. Findings further reveal that stress and SNAP relate to child overweight, in part, through mothers' sugar-sweetened beverage consumption. Results suggest that obesity prevention efforts must address specific individual choices as well as the external environment that shapes these consumption patterns. PMID:23197136
Adeltoft, Teresa Ajslev; Ängquist, Lars Henrik; Silventoinen, Karri; Gamborg, Michael; Allison, David B; Baker, Jennifer L; Sørensen, Thorkild I A
-percentiles occurred during the obesity epidemic. Methods: In the Copenhagen School Health Records Register (CSHRR) boys and girls with measures of BMI at age 13 years later became 37,792 spousal-pairs who married between 1945 and 2010. Trends in the spousal BMI correlations using sex-, age-, and birth cohort...... percentile were higher and increased more; from 1.39, 1.10-1.81, to 2.39, 1.85-3.09 (p = 0.004). Interpretation: Spousal correlations by pre-marital BMIs were small and stable during the past 65 years. Yet, there were assorted marriages between spouses with high BMI at age 13 years and the tendency increased...
Full Text Available The correlation between physical activity and sedentary life style was investigated as a determinant of the body mass index in children and adolescents in Banjaluka region. The study involved 1204 children and adolescents, 6-17 years old, 578 boys, 626 girls. BMI was calculated from their height and weight using standard formula. Each child, together with their parents answered the questions considering their level of involvement in physical versus sedentary activities. Physical activity was defined as involvement in sports activities, while sedentary life style was defined as time spent on computer, games, video, and TV. The prevalence of overweight and obesity were 12.2% and 6.1% in our study group. Increased physical activity showed strong positive correlation with normal, lower BMI in boys (p<0,05, and girls (p<0.001. Sedentary lifestyle, prolonged TV watching was strongly associated with increased BMI only in girls (p<0.05. However, computer use for 2 hours/day was strongly associated with increased BMI (p<0.05 only in boys, although computer use for more than 3 hours/day was associated with lower BMI in boys. Physical activity and sedentary lifestyle are significant determinants of BMI and risk factors in developing overweight and obesity in childhood, as shown in our study.
Foster, Byron A; Aquino, Christian A; Gil, Mario; Gelfond, Jonathan A L; Hale, Daniel E
Objective. To assess the feasibility of a parent mentor model of intervention for early childhood obesity using positive deviance-based methods to inform the intervention. Methods. In this pilot, randomized clinical trial, parent-child dyads (age: 2-5) with children whose body mass index (BMI) was ≥95th percentile were randomized to parent mentor intervention or community health worker comparison. The child's height and weight were measured at baseline, after the six-month intervention, and six months after the intervention. Feasibility outcomes were recruitment, participation, and retention. The primary clinical outcome was BMI z-score change. Results. Sixty participants were enrolled, and forty-eight completed the six-month intervention. At baseline, the BMI z-score in the parent mentor group was 2.63 (SD = 0.65) and in the community health worker group it was 2.61 (SD = 0.89). For change in BMI z-score over time, there was no difference by randomization group at the end of the intervention: -0.02 (95% CI: -0.26, 0.22). At the end of the intervention, the BMI z-score for the parent mentor group was 2.48 (SD = 0.58) and for the community health worker group it was 2.45 (SD = 0.91), both reduced from baseline, p parent mentor clinical trial is feasible, and both randomized groups experienced small, sustained effects on adiposity in an obese, Hispanic population. PMID:27379182
Amador Paola; Obregón Ana M; Cataldo Rodrigo; Domínguez-Vásquez Patricia; Smalley Susan V; González Andrea; Ho-Urriola Judith A; Santos José L; Weisstaub Gerardo; Hodgson M Isabel
Abstract Background Inadequate eating behavior and physical inactivity contribute to the current epidemic of childhood obesity. The aim of this study was to assess the association between eating behavior scores and childhood obesity in Chilean children. Design and methods We recruited 126 obese, 44 overweight and 124 normal-weight Chilean children (6-12 years-old; both genders) according to the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) criteria. Eating behavior scores were calculated using the ...
Catherine Blow; Alisa Allicock; Carolynn DeSandre; Chandra Cooper-Samuels
A systematic review of the literature was conducted to identify the barriers that prevent practitioners from identifying and counseling parents and caregivers of overweight or obese children. Once identified, barriers were organized into thematic categories (parental, provider, and professional barriers) and recommendations were generated to facilitate discussion about childhood obesity between professionals and parents. Childhood obesity is a significant public health problem. Healthcare pro...
Chodaesessie Wellesley-Cole Morgan
Underage & Overweight: Americas Childhood Obesity Crisis What Every Family Needs to Know was written primarily for parents, teachers, school administrators, doctors, nurses, other health care professionals, and policymakers. The author, Frances M. Berg, has written a thoroughly researched, evidence-based textbook that emphasizes the importance of a multifaceted approach to alleviating the childhood obesity crisis in the United States. Other books have been written about encouraging healthy l...
Wang, Y.; Cai, L.; Wu, Y.; Wilson, R. F.; WESTON, C.; Fawole, O.; Bleich, S. N.; Cheskin, L. J.; Showell, N. N.; Lau, B. D.; Chiu, D T; Zhang, A; Segal, J.
Previous reviews of childhood obesity prevention have focused largely on schools and findings have been inconsistent. Funded by the US Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) and the National Institutes of Health, we systematically evaluated the effectiveness of childhood obesity prevention programmes conducted in high-income countries and implemented in various settings. We searched MEDLINE®, Embase, PsycINFO, CINAHL®, ClinicalTrials.gov and the Cochrane Library from inception thro...
Gooze, Rachel A.; Hughes, Cayce C.; Finkelstein, Daniel M.; Whitaker, Robert C.
Introduction Lowering the prevalence of childhood obesity requires a multilevel approach that targets the home, school, and community. Head Start, the largest federally funded early childhood education program in the United States, reaches nearly 1 million low-income children, and it provides an ideal opportunity for implementing such an approach. Our objective was to describe obesity prevention activities in Head Start that are directed at staff, parents, and community partners. Methods We m...
Ashleigh L. May, MS, PhD; Sonia A. Kim, PhD; Bettylou Sherry, RD, PhD; Heidi M. Blanck, MS, PhD
Introduction States and communities are considering policy and environmental strategies, including enacting legislation, to reduce and prevent childhood obesity. One legislative approach has been to create task forces to understand key issues and develop a course of action. The goal of this study was to describe state-level, childhood obesity task forces in the United States created by legislation from 2001 through 2010. Methods We used the Center for Disease Control and Prevention’s Division...
Carminda Maria Goersch Fontenele Lamboglia; Vanina Tereza Barbosa Lopes da Silva; José Eurico de Vasconcelos Filho; Mônica Helena Neves Pereira Pinheiro; Marilene Calderaro da Silva Munguba; Francisco Valmar Isaias Silva Júnior; Fernando Alberto Ramirez de Paula; Carlos Antônio Bruno da Silva
Improper use of electronic media is considered a major contributing factor to childhood obesity. However, exergames, a new generation of active games, have made it possible to combine electronic entertainment with physical exercise. The purpose of this systematic review was to analyze the use of exergaming as a strategic tool in the fight against childhood obesity. Information was retrieved from the databases SciELO, LILACS, Pubmed, Ebsco, and Science Direct, using the search words “egames,” ...
Sacher, P. M.
Background and aims Childhood obesity is a serious global public health issue. The number of children affected has increased dramatically in recent years, and despite extensive research in this field, no effective generalisable prevention or treatment interventions have been achieved as yet. The aim of this randomised controlled trial (RCT) was to evaluate the efficacy of the Mind, Exercise, Nutrition, Do it (MEND) programme, a multicomponent communitybased childhood obesity intervention. Met...
Fabiane Dias da Rosa dos Santos; Camila Bueno Vitola; Isabel Cristinade Oliveira Arrieira; Maria Cristina da Silveira Chagas; Giovana Calcagno Gomes; Fabiani Weiss Pereira
The objective of this study was to know how nurses and teachers contribute to prevent and combat childhood obesity. It is a qualitative study, conducted in 2012, with data collected through interviews with three nurses from a basic health unit and eight teachers from a public school in southern Brazil. Thematic analysis pointed out as factors that contribute to childhood obesity eating unhealthy foods and the families’ food culture. As actions of prevention and combat there is the promotion o...
Saunders, Milda R.; Kalycia Trishana Watson; Hyo Jung Tak
Background. Few studies have examined how individual and neighborhood poverty in childhood and adulthood influence the likelihood of adult obesity. We used a longitudinal cohort to examine these associations. Methods. Our cohort consisted of children born in Baltimore, MD, USA with followup as adults from ages 27 to 33. We used logistic regression to examine the multivariate association between individual and neighborhood poverty in childhood and adulthood and adult obesity, (body mass index ...
Veerman, J Lennert; van Beeck, Eduard F.; Barendregt, Jan J; Mackenbach, Johan P.
Background: There is evidence suggesting that food advertising causes childhood obesity. The strength of this effect is unclear. To inform decisions on whether to restrict advertising opportunities, we estimate how much of the childhood obesity prevalence is attributable to food advertising on television (TV). Methods: We constructed a mathematical simulation model to estimate the potential effects of reducing the exposure of 6- to 12-year-old US children to TV advertising for food on the pre...
Wood, Sophie L; Demougin, Philippe R; Higgins, Sahran; Husk, Kerryn; Wheeler, Benedict W; White, Mathew
Childhood obesity is one of the 21st century's most serious global health challenges. Research suggests that better access to 'greenspace' (e.g. parks) may encourage physical activity and reduce the risk of obesity amongst children. We extend earlier work by considering childhood obesity in relation to proximity to the coast, using data from England's National Child Measurement Programme. Results suggest that although the overall prevalence of childhood obesity is slightly lower at the coast (-0.68% points comparing 20km, parea type. Specifically, although a coastal proximity gradient (lower obesity rates nearer the coast) was found for rural areas and smaller cities and towns, it was not present among large urban conurbations (interaction p-valueareas, and research to explore potential impacts on child health is warranted. PMID:27262662
Lissau, I; Sørensen, T I
children had a much greater risk of adult obesity than averagely groomed children (9.8 [3.5-28.2]). However, being an only child, receiving overprotective parental support, or being well-groomed had no effect. Parental neglect during childhood predicts a great risk of obesity in young adulthood......The association of various features of family life with obesity in childhood is well established, but less is known about the effect of these influences on the risk of later obesity. In this prospective, population-based study, we examined the influence of parental care in childhood on the risk of...... obesity in the offspring in young adulthood. In 1974, 1258 pupils aged 9-10 years were randomly selected from the third grade of Copenhagen schools. Information on 987 pupils was obtained from the form teachers on family structure and the perceived support from the parents; school medical services...
Döring, Nora; Hansson, Lena M; Andersson, Elina Scheers;
on-going population-based PRIMROSE trial, which targets childhood obesity, is embedded in the regular national (routine) preventive child health services that are available free-of-charge to all young families in Sweden. Of the participants (n = 1369), 489 intervention and 550 control mothers (75......-day food diary. We are not aware of any previous RCT, concerned with the primary prevention of childhood obesity through sessions at CHC that addresses healthy eating habits and physical activity in the context of a routine child health services programme. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN16991919.......BACKGROUND: Childhood obesity is a growing concern in Sweden. Children with overweight and obesity run a high risk of becoming obese as adults, and are likely to develop comorbidities. Despite the immense demand, there is still a lack of evidence-based comprehensive prevention programmes targeting...
Henderson, Julie; Coveney, John; Ward, Paul; Taylor, Anne
Childhood obesity is widely constructed as reaching epidemic proportions with consumption of fast food viewed as a contributing factor. This paper analyses media reporting of the regulation of fast food consumption to children. A media search of five Australian newspapers for the period January 2006 to June 2008 elicited 100 articles relating to the regulation of fast food advertising to children. Content and thematic analysis of the articles reveal conflicting perspectives on the role of the state; the level of accountability of the food and advertising industries; and responsibilities of parents for regulating fast food consumption in children. The Federal Government, food and advertising industries and free to air broadcasters favour industry self-regulation and personal responsibility for fast food consumption while the proponents of government regulation include consumer groups, state government health ministers, nutrition and public health academics and medical and health foundations. The regulation of fast food advertising to children is discussed in relation to ideas about governance and the public health strategies which follow from these ideas. The paper argues that all proposed solutions are indicative of a neoliberal approach to the governance of health insofar as the responsibility for regulation of food marketing is viewed as lying with industry and the regulation of lifestyle risk is viewed as an individual responsibility. PMID:19758736
Chivers, Paola; Parker, Helen; Bulsara, Max; Beilin, Lawrence; Hands, Beth
The influence of parental and early childhood factors on adolescent obesity was investigated using a longitudinal model of body mass index (BMI) from birth to 14 years. Trajectories of BMI using linear mixed model (LMM) analysis were used to investigate the influence of early parental and childhood factors on BMI at 14 years in the Raine birth…
Childhood cancer survivors are at an increased risk of obesity but causes for this elevated risk are uncertain. We evaluated total energy expenditure in childhood cancer survivors using the doubly labeled water method in a cross-sectional study of 17 survivors of pediatric leukemia or lymphoma (medi...
Frisvold, David E.; Lumeng, Julie C.
Coinciding with the work requirements of welfare reform in the mid-1990s, the early childhood education program, Head Start, significantly expanded to increase the availability of full-day classes. Using unique administrative data, we examine the effect of full-day compared to half-day attendance on childhood obesity. This effect is identified…
Ashleigh L. May, MS, PhD
Full Text Available Introduction States and communities are considering policy and environmental strategies, including enacting legislation, to reduce and prevent childhood obesity. One legislative approach has been to create task forces to understand key issues and develop a course of action. The goal of this study was to describe state-level, childhood obesity task forces in the United States created by legislation from 2001 through 2010. Methods We used the Center for Disease Control and Prevention’s Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity database to identify state-level childhood obesity task forces created through legislation from 2001 through 2010. Results We identified 21 states that had enacted legislation creating childhood obesity task forces of which 6 had created more than one task force. Most task forces were charged with both gathering and reviewing information and making recommendations for obesity-prevention actions in the state. Most legislation required that task forces include representation from the state legislature, state agencies, community organizations, and community members. Conclusion Evaluation of the effectiveness of obesity-prevention task forces and the primary components that contribute to their success may help to determine the advantages of the use of such strategies in obesity prevention.
Evans, D S
Childhood obesity is rapidly increasing worldwide. In Ireland, the number of overweight children has trebled over the last decade. The study aimed to provide an assessment of the prevalence of obesity of 6-year-old children in one region of Ireland.
Morris, Heather; Skouteris, Helen; Edwards, Susan; Rutherford, Leonie
Partnering early childhood education and care (ECEC) and the home together may be more effective in combating obesogenic risk factors in preschool children. Thus, an evaluation of ECEC obesity prevention interventions with a parental component was conducted, exploring parental engagement and its effect on obesity and healthy lifestyle outcomes. A…
Genetic variants responsible for susceptibility to obesity and its comorbidities among Hispanic children have not been identified. The VIVA LA FAMILIA Study was designed to genetically map childhood obesity and associated biological processes in the Hispanic population. A genome-wide association stu...
Conclusions: This study provided important contextual data on where the emphasis should be placed in developing the childhood obesity prevention interventions for the school children in Tehran. The findings further highlight the importance of involving a wide range of stakeholders, and including multiple components to maximise the chances of success. Keywords: Child, Obesity, Prevention, Intervention, Qualitative research, Iran
Powell, Darren; Gard, Michael
In this paper, we examine the emergence of what might seem an unexpected policy outcome--a large multinational corporation, frequently blamed for exacerbating childhood obesity, operating as an officially sanctioned driver of anti-obesity initiatives in primary schools across the globe. We draw on Foucault's notion of governmentality to examine…
Johnson, Sharon Kay Harris
Childhood obesity is a prevalent subject of research currently, and many researchers have studied the effectiveness of school programs in battling obesity among students. This case study, utilizing ethnographic tools of observation, interviews, and investigation of artifacts, examines educators' perceptions of the role of the school in the…
Howe, Laura D; Zimmermann, Esther; Weiss, Ram;
OBJECTIVE: Some obese individuals have no cardiometabolic abnormalities; they are 'metabolically healthy, but obese' (MHO). Similarly, some non-obese individuals have cardiometabolic abnormalities, that is, 'metabolically at risk, normal weight' (MANW). Previous studies have suggested that early......-onset obesity may be associated with MHO. We aimed to assess whether body mass index (BMI) in childhood and early-onset obesity are associated with MHO. SETTING: General population longitudinal cohort study, Denmark. PARTICIPANTS: From 362 200 young men (mean age 20) examined for Danish national service between...... that early-onset obesity or rapid BMI growth in childhood is protective for cardiometabolic health....
Natale Ruby; Scott Stephanie Hapeman; Messiah Sarah E; Schrack Maria Mesa; Uhlhorn Susan B; Delamater Alan
Abstract Background Many unhealthy dietary and physical activity habits that foster the development of obesity are established by the age of five. Presently, approximately 70 percent of children in the United States are currently enrolled in early childcare facilities, making this an ideal setting to implement and evaluate childhood obesity prevention efforts. We describe here the methods for conducting an obesity prevention randomized trial in the child care setting. Methods/design A randomi...
Dixon, Brittany; Peña, Michelle-Marie; Taveras, Elsie M.
Eliminating racial/ethnic disparities in health and health care is a national priority, and obesity is a prime target. During the last 30 y in the United States, the prevalence of obesity among children has dramatically increased, sparing no age group. Obesity in childhood is associated with adverse cardio-metabolic outcomes such as hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and type II diabetes and with other long-term adverse outcomes, including both physical and psychosocial consequences. By the presch...
Joseph T. Glessner; Bradfield, Jonathan P.; Wang, Kai; Takahashi, Nagahide; Zhang, Haitao; Sleiman, Patrick M.; Mentch, Frank D.; Kim, Cecilia E; Hou, Cuiping; Thomas, Kelly A.; Garris, Maria L.; Deliard, Sandra; Frackelton, Edward C; Otieno, F. George; Zhao, Jianhua
The prevalence of obesity in children and adults in the United States has increased dramatically over the past decade. Genomic copy number variations (CNVs) have been strongly implicated in subjects with extreme obesity and coexisting developmental delay. To complement these previous studies, we addressed CNVs in common childhood obesity by examining children with a BMI in the upper 5th percentile but excluding any subject greater than three standard deviations from the mean in order to reduc...
Martos-Moreno, Gabriel Á; Barrios, Vicente; Muñoz-Calvo, María T.; Pozo, Jesús; Chowen, Julie A.; Argente, Jesús
Obesity is currently the most prevalent chronic childhood disease in Western countries. It is one of the most frequent consultations in general pediatrics and is even more common in pediatric endocrinology. As might be predicted, the prevalence of obesity-associated comorbidities is also increasing in children and adolescents. It is widely accepted that this increase in obesity results from an imbalance between energy intake and expenditure, with an increase in positive energy balance being c...
Kristin F. Butcher; Robin G. Newberger
Obesity rates for U.S. children have risen precipitously over the past 20 years. According to data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys from 1999–2002, 15 percent of children on average, ages 2–19 are obese. With little evidence that individual weight loss programs can solve the problem, attention is increasingly turning to the environment in which children live, in an effort to understand both the causes of and potential solutions to childhood obesity. Drawing on recent...
Liu, Weijia; Liu, Wei; Lin, Rong; Li, Bai; Pallan, Miranda; Cheng, K.K.; Adab, Peymane
Background Socioeconomic inequalities in childhood obesity prevalence differ according to a country’s stage of nutrition transition. The aim of this study was to determine which socioeconomic factors influence inequalities in obesity prevalence in Chinese primary school children living in an urban setting. Methods We assessed obesity prevalence among 9917 children aged 5–12 years from a stratified random sample of 29 state-funded (residents) and private (migrants) schools in Guangzhou, China....
Fereshteh Baygi; Ahmad Reza Dorosty; Roya Kelishadi; Mostafa Qorbani; Hamid Asayesh; Morteza Mansourian; Kamal Mirkarimi
Childhood obesity has become, a global public health problem, and epidemiological studies are important to identify its determinants in different populations. This study aimed to investigate factors associated with obesity in a representative sample of children in Neishabour, Iran. This study was conducted among 1500 randomly selected 6–12-year-old students from urban areas of Neishabour, northeast of Iran. Then, through a case-control study, 114 obese (BMI ≥ 95th percentile of Iranian refere...
Tirima, Simba; Bartrem, Casey; von Lindern, Ian; von Braun, Margrit; Lind, Douglas; Anka, Shehu Mohammed; Abdullahi, Aishat
Background: From 2010 through 2013, integrated health and environmental responses addressed an unprecedented epidemic lead poisoning in Zamfara State, northern Nigeria. Artisanal gold mining caused widespread contamination resulting in the deaths of > 400 children. Socioeconomic, logistic, and security challenges required remediation and medical protocols within the context of local resources, labor practices, and cultural traditions. Objectives: Our aim was to implement emergency environmental remediation to abate exposures to 17,000 lead poisoned villagers, to facilitate chelation treatment of children ≤ 5 years old, and to establish local technical capacity and lead health advocacy programs to prevent future disasters. Methods: U.S. hazardous waste removal protocols were modified to accommodate local agricultural practices. Remediation was conducted over 4 years in three phases, progressing from an emergency response by international personnel to comprehensive cleanup funded and accomplished by the Nigerian government. Results: More than 27,000 m3 of contaminated soils and mining waste were removed from 820 residences and ore processing areas in eight villages, largely by hand labor, and disposed in constructed landfills. Excavated areas were capped with clean soils (≤ 25 mg/kg lead), decreasing soil lead concentrations by 89%, and 2,349 children received chelation treatment. Pre-chelation geometric mean blood lead levels for children ≤ 5 years old decreased from 149 μg/dL to 15 μg/dL over the 4-year remedial program. Conclusions: The unprecedented outbreak and response demonstrate that, given sufficient political will and modest investment, the world’s most challenging environmental health crises can be addressed by adapting proven response protocols to the capabilities of host countries. Citation: Tirima S, Bartrem C, von Lindern I, von Braun M, Lind D, Anka SM, Abdullahi A. 2016. Environmental remediation to address childhood lead poisoning epidemic
Benjamin W. Chaffee; Abrams, Barbara; Cohen, Alison K.; Rehkopf, David H
Background Lower childhood socioeconomic position is associated with greater risk of adult obesity among women, but not men. Pregnancy-related weight changes may contribute to this gender difference. The objectives of this study were to determine the associations between: 1. childhood socioeconomic disadvantage and midlife obesity; 2. excessive gestational weight gain (GWG) and midlife obesity; and 3. childhood socioeconomic disadvantage and excessive GWG, among a representative sample of chi...
Xu Guifa; Ma Jun; Shang Xianwen; Xu Haiquan; Duan Yifan; Hao Linan; Fang Hongyun; Liu Ailing; Zhang Qian; Hu Xiaoqi; Li Yanping; Du Lin; Li Ying; Guo Hongwei; Li Tingyu
Abstract Background Childhood obesity and its related metabolic and psychological abnormalities are becoming serious health problems in China. Effective, feasible and practical interventions should be developed in order to prevent the childhood obesity and its related early onset of clinical cardiovascular diseases. The objective of this paper is to describe the design of a multi-centred random controlled school-based clinical intervention for childhood obesity in China. The secondary objecti...
Byron A. Foster
Full Text Available Objective. To assess the feasibility of a parent mentor model of intervention for early childhood obesity using positive deviance-based methods to inform the intervention. Methods. In this pilot, randomized clinical trial, parent-child dyads (age: 2–5 with children whose body mass index (BMI was ≥95th percentile were randomized to parent mentor intervention or community health worker comparison. The child’s height and weight were measured at baseline, after the six-month intervention, and six months after the intervention. Feasibility outcomes were recruitment, participation, and retention. The primary clinical outcome was BMI z-score change. Results. Sixty participants were enrolled, and forty-eight completed the six-month intervention. At baseline, the BMI z-score in the parent mentor group was 2.63 (SD = 0.65 and in the community health worker group it was 2.61 (SD = 0.89. For change in BMI z-score over time, there was no difference by randomization group at the end of the intervention: −0.02 (95% CI: −0.26, 0.22. At the end of the intervention, the BMI z-score for the parent mentor group was 2.48 (SD = 0.58 and for the community health worker group it was 2.45 (SD = 0.91, both reduced from baseline, p<0.001. Conclusion. The model of a parent mentor clinical trial is feasible, and both randomized groups experienced small, sustained effects on adiposity in an obese, Hispanic population.
Silventoinen, K; Rokholm, B; Kaprio, J;
In this systematic review, we aimed to collect together all previous twin and adoption studies on childhood and adolescent obesity up to the age of 18 years. Using several sources, we identified nine twin and five adoption studies; all of these studies had used relative weight as an indicator of...... substantial effect in mid-childhood, but this effect disappeared at adolescence. Adoption studies supported the role of family environment in childhood obesity as correlations were found between adoptees and adoptive parents; however, correlations were substantially stronger between parents and their...
Diesel, Jill C; Bodnar, Lisa M; Day, Nancy L; Larkby, Cynthia A
The objective of this study was to estimate whether maternal history of childhood maltreatment was associated with pre-pregnancy obesity or excessive gestational weight gain. Pregnant women (n = 472) reported pre-pregnancy weight and height and gestational weight gain and were followed up to 16 years post-partum when they reported maltreatment on the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ). CTQ score ranged from no maltreatment (25) to severe maltreatment (125). Prenatal mental health modified the association between CTQ score and maternal weight (P childhood may contribute to pre-pregnancy obesity and excessive gestational weight gain. PMID:25138565
Douglas M. Puricelli Perin; Leah Frerichs; Sergio Costa; Ramirez, Amelie G.; Terry T.-K. Huang
A cross-sectional survey was administered to Latino and White residents of Omaha, NE, to assess perception of the childhood obesity problem, attribution of responsibility, and support for obesity-related policies. The sample included 40.8% (n = 271) Latinos and 59.2% (n = 393) Whites. Among Latinos, 25% did not see childhood obesity as a problem, compared to 6% of Whites (P < 0.001). This difference persisted after adjusting for age, gender, and education level (odds ratio (OR) 2.10, 95% conf...
Lissau, I; Sørensen, T I
reported on the child's general hygiene. 756 (86%) of the 881 eligible participants were followed up 10 years later. The influence of family factors in childhood on the risk of obesity (body-mass index > 95th centile) in young adulthood was estimated by odds ratios with control for age and body-mass index...... children had a much greater risk of adult obesity than averagely groomed children (9.8 [3.5-28.2]). However, being an only child, receiving overprotective parental support, or being well-groomed had no effect. Parental neglect during childhood predicts a great risk of obesity in young adulthood...
Shaya, Fadia T.; Flores, David; Gbarayor, Confidence M.; Wang, Jingshu
Background: Childhood obesity is an impending epidemic. This article is an overview of different interventions conducted in school settings so as to guide efforts for an effective management of obesity in children, thus minimizing the risk of adult obesity and related cardiovascular risk. Methods: PubMed and OVID Medline databases were searched…
Fabiane Dias da Rosa dos Santos
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to know how nurses and teachers contribute to prevent and combat childhood obesity. It is a qualitative study, conducted in 2012, with data collected through interviews with three nurses from a basic health unit and eight teachers from a public school in southern Brazil. Thematic analysis pointed out as factors that contribute to childhood obesity eating unhealthy foods and the families’ food culture. As actions of prevention and combat there is the promotion of breast feeding, the mother’s educational process and the use of recreational activities that promote children’s learning about obesity. It was concluded that joint and systematic actions among nurses and teachers are important to fight childhood obesity.
Roland Sturm, PhD
The number of overweight and obese youth has increased in recent decades, and numerous theories on causes have been proposed. Yet almost no data are available to assess how the lives of children have changed during the obesity epidemic. What are children and adolescents now doing with their time that they did not do before? Are they participating less in sports? Watching more television? Doing more homework? Without tracking these broader societal changes, it is difficult to identify the most...
Monteiro, P O A; Victora, C G
The association between obesity and morbidity resulting from chronic diseases is well known. This systematic review addresses studies of the role of rapid growth in infancy and childhood as possible determinants of overweight and obesity later in the life course. We reviewed MEDLINE for studies reporting on growth in infancy and childhood, as well as measures of weight or adiposity in later childhood, adolescence or adulthood. The methodological quality of the papers was assessed using the criteria suggested by Downs and Black. Sixteen articles that fulfilled review criteria were located. There was wide variability in the indicators used for defining rapid growth as well as overweight or obesity. The age range in which weight or adiposity was measured ranged from 3 to 70 years. In spite of differences in definitions used, 13 articles that reported on early rapid growth found significant associations with later overweight or adiposity. Efforts should be made to standardize the definition of rapid growth, as well as that of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents. The most frequent definition for rapid growth in this review was a Z-score change greater than 0.67 in weight for age between two different ages in childhood. Regarding obesity, the definition proposed by the International Obesity Task Force also appears to be most appropriate. The present results indicate that early growth is indeed associated with the prevalence of obesity later in the life course. PMID:15836465
YI-QUN XU; CHENG-YE JI; COOPERATIVE STUDY ON CHILDHOOD OBESITY:WORKING GRO
To test the validity of Working Group on Obesity in China (WGOC) reference in screening childhood obesity using obesity-related metabolic syndrome (MS) and its components as disease risk evidence. Methods A total of 2020 adolescents (1007 boys and 1013 girls) aged 14-16 years were sampled in Beijing, China. Anthropometxic and biochemical measurements, as well as blood pressure parameters were available. Prevalence of overweight/obesity and related MS risk factors were analyzed across different body mass index (BMI) categories. The sensitivity and specificity of the WGOC cut-offs were compared with those of National Central Health Statistics (NCHS). Results Significantly high prevalence of MS and its components were found both in the obesity and overweight groups, which were classified by the WGOC and NCHS references. Similar distribution pattern of MS risk factors existed among different BMI categories, hut the frequency and clustering of these factors in the obesity group classified by the NCHS were much higher. Owing to its irrelevant high cut-offs for overweight/obesity (especially for girls since the mid-adolescence), the NCHS reference had a high specificity but a low sensitivity. By contrast, the WGOC reference with a high sensitivity (90.1% for boys and 89.2% for girls) and a relative high specificity (96.4% and 92.8% for obese boys and girls, 78.1% and 68.9% for overweight boys and girls respectively) was more suitable to support the need for early screening, intervention, and treatment of childhood obesity in China. Conclusion High sensitivity is more important than specificity in choosing appropriate screening tools for childhood obesity. Validity test demonstrates that it is rational to use the WGOC reference, established on the basis of the Chinese own reference population as a uniform screening tool for childhood obesity, which can effectively overcome the unnecessary treatment and psychosocial implications of stigmatization caused by misclassification.
Leah M Frerichs
Full Text Available Research evidence indicates that obesity has spread through social networks, but lever points for interventions based on overlapping networks are not well studied. The objective of our research was to construct and parameterize a system dynamics model of the social transmission of behaviors through adult and youth influence in order to explore hypotheses and identify plausible lever points for future childhood obesity intervention research. Our objectives were: (1 to assess the sensitivity of childhood overweight and obesity prevalence to peer and adult social transmission rates, and (2 to test the effect of combinations of prevention and treatment interventions on the prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity. To address the first objective, we conducted two-way sensitivity analyses of adult-to-child and child-to-child social transmission in relation to childhood overweight and obesity prevalence. For the second objective, alternative combinations of prevention and treatment interventions were tested by varying model parameters of social transmission and weight loss behavior rates. Our results indicated child overweight and obesity prevalence might be slightly more sensitive to the same relative change in the adult-to-child compared to the child-to-child social transmission rate. In our simulations, alternatives with treatment alone, compared to prevention alone, reduced the prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity more after 10 years (1.2-1.8% and 0.2-1.0% greater reduction when targeted at children and adults respectively. Also, as the impact of adult interventions on children was increased, the rank of six alternatives that included adults became better (i.e., resulting in lower 10 year childhood overweight and obesity prevalence than alternatives that only involved children. The findings imply that social transmission dynamics should be considered when designing both prevention and treatment intervention approaches. Finally
Chan, C. M. S.
Background: Obesity is the world's fastest growing epidemic, especially in areas of rapid social and economic transition such as South East Asia. The prevalence of childhood obesity in Hong Kong and China has been rapidly increasing for a decade. The Medline database lists 100,000 articles on obesity, with hundreds of confirmed and putative "causes" and hypothesized (though rarely proven) preventive strategies. Contemporary scholars have called for obesity research to stop focusing on single ...
Rossiter, Melissa D; Colapinto, Cynthia K; Khan, Mohammad K A; McIsaac, Jessie-Lee D; Williams, Patricia L; Kirk, Sara F L; Veugelers, Paul J
Breastfeeding has been rigorously studied in relation to childhood obesity prevention. Few studies have examined whether combination feeding—breast milk and formula—may also be protective against obesity. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between breastfeeding duration, combination feeding and overweight and obesity among Canadian school children. We analyzed data from a 2011 cross-sectional, population based survey (n = 5,560), which included self-reported infant feeding behaviours, a food frequency questionnaire and measured height and weight. Multilevel regression methods were used to examine the association between breastfeeding duration and overweight and obesity adjusting for socioeconomic status, diet quality and physical activity. Thirty-four percent of children were breastfed for examining overweight and obese children separately, those who were only formula fed were more likely obese (OR 1.57, 95% CI 1.10-2.25) relative to their peers who were only breastfed. And those who were combination fed for <6 months relative to those only breastfed were more likely to be overweight (OR 1.29, 95% CI 1.01-1.66). Breastfeeding, in the absence of formula feeding, appears to have a protective effect on childhood obesity. While combination feeding confers less benefit than only breastfeeding, it is more desirable than formula feeding alone. Strategies and social policies are needed to promote exclusive and longer breastfeeding duration and should be integrated with comprehensive efforts to prevent childhood obesity and to reduce the burden of chronic diseases in the long term. PMID:25656729
Nielsen, Louise A; Bøjsøe, Christine; Kloppenborg, Julie T;
INTRODUCTION: The aim was to investigate whether a familial predisposition to obesity related cardiovascular complications was associated with the degree of obesity at baseline and/or changes in the degree of obesity during a multidisciplinary childhood obesity treatment program. METHODS: The study...... included 1421 obese children (634 boys) with a median age of 11.5 years (range 3.1-17.9 years), enrolled in treatment for 0.04 to 5.90 years (median 1.3 years) at the Children's Obesity Clinic, Denmark. At baseline, weight and height were measured, body mass index (BMI) standard deviation score (SDS......) calculated, and self-reported information on familial predisposition to obesity, hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), thromboembolic events, and dyslipidaemia were obtained. A familial predisposition included events in biological parents, siblings, grandparents, uncles, and aunts. The treatment...
Afterschool Alliance, 2006
The obesity crisis in America is ubiquitous and irrefutable, and it's hitting youth so hard that health experts warn that this generation of children will be the first to have a shorter life expectancy than their parents. Tackling and reversing this epidemic will require a comprehensive and sustained effort in every community in America. The…
... has reached epidemic rates. On February 9, 2010, President Obama signed a Presidential Memo... in America are overweight or obese--a rate that has tripled in adolescents and more than doubled in...-related health problems such as heart disease, high blood pressure, cancer, and asthma. Without...
Borys, J-M; Le Bodo, Y; Jebb, S A; Seidell, J C; Summerbell, C; Richard, D; De Henauw, S; Moreno, L A; Romon, M; Visscher, T L S; Raffin, S; Swinburn, B
Childhood obesity is a complex issue and needs multi-stakeholder involvement at all levels to foster healthier lifestyles in a sustainable way. 'Ensemble Prévenons l'Obésité Des Enfants' (EPODE, Together Let's Prevent Childhood Obesity) is a large-scale, coordinated, capacity-building approach for communities to implement effective and sustainable strategies to prevent childhood obesity. This paper describes EPODE methodology and its objective of preventing childhood obesity. At a central level, a coordination team, using social marketing and organizational techniques, trains and coaches a local project manager nominated in each EPODE community by the local authorities. The local project manager is also provided with tools to mobilize local stakeholders through a local steering committee and local networks. The added value of the methodology is to mobilize stakeholders at all levels across the public and the private sectors. Its critical components include political commitment, sustainable resources, support services and a strong scientific input--drawing on the evidence-base--together with evaluation of the programme. Since 2004, EPODE methodology has been implemented in more than 500 communities in six countries. Community-based interventions are integral to childhood obesity prevention. EPODE provides a valuable model to address this challenge. PMID:22106871
Yun, Lourdes; Boles, Richard E.; Haemer, Matthew A.; Knierim, Shanna; Dickinson, L. Miriam; Mancinas, Heather; Hambidge, Simon J.; Davidson, Arthur J.
Background Although Colorado is perceived as a healthy state, in 2010, 14.1 % of children aged 2–5 were overweight and 9.1 % were obese. Despite the high prevalence of obesity in this population, evidence to support particular strategies to treat obese preschoolers is lacking. The efficacy of home-based, childhood obesity interventions to reduce a child’s body mass index is inconclusive. However, this model uniquely provides an opportunity to observe and intervene with the home food and activ...
Sara F. L. Kirk
Full Text Available Healthy public policy plays a central role in creating environments that are supportive of health. Breastfeeding, widely supported as the optimal mode for infant feeding, is a critical factor in promoting infant health. In 2005, the Canadian province of Nova Scotia introduced a provincial breastfeeding policy. This paper describes the process and outcomes of an evaluation into the implementation of the policy. This evaluation comprised focus groups held with members of provincial and district level breastfeeding committees who were tasked with promoting, protecting and supporting breastfeeding in their districts. Five key themes were identified, which were an unsupportive culture of breastfeeding; the need for strong leadership; the challenges in engaging physicians in dialogue around breastfeeding; lack of understanding around the International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes; and breastfeeding as a way to address childhood obesity. Recommendations for other jurisdictions include the need for a policy, the value of leadership, the need to integrate policy with other initiatives across sectors and the importance of coordination and support at multiple levels. Finally, promotion of breastfeeding offers a population-based strategy for addressing the childhood obesity epidemic and should form a core component of any broader strategies or policies for childhood obesity prevention.
Kirk, Sara F L; Sim, Sarah Meaghan; Hemmens, Erin; Price, Sheri L
Healthy public policy plays a central role in creating environments that are supportive of health. Breastfeeding, widely supported as the optimal mode for infant feeding, is a critical factor in promoting infant health. In 2005, the Canadian province of Nova Scotia introduced a provincial breastfeeding policy. This paper describes the process and outcomes of an evaluation into the implementation of the policy. This evaluation comprised focus groups held with members of provincial and district level breastfeeding committees who were tasked with promoting, protecting and supporting breastfeeding in their districts. Five key themes were identified, which were an unsupportive culture of breastfeeding; the need for strong leadership; the challenges in engaging physicians in dialogue around breastfeeding; lack of understanding around the International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes; and breastfeeding as a way to address childhood obesity. Recommendations for other jurisdictions include the need for a policy, the value of leadership, the need to integrate policy with other initiatives across sectors and the importance of coordination and support at multiple levels. Finally, promotion of breastfeeding offers a population-based strategy for addressing the childhood obesity epidemic and should form a core component of any broader strategies or policies for childhood obesity prevention. PMID:22690194
<正>The most recent report on the obesity epidemic by the U.S. Institute of Medicine(IOM) has painted a bleak picture of reality in the U.S.It reports that two third of adults and almost one third of children are either overweight or obese by any counts of measures.Situations in other countries do not seem optimistic either.According to the World Health Organization (WHO),the numbers of obese children have increased during the last decade to an estimated 35 million in developing countries and 8 million in developed countries
Full Text Available Within the research area on the determinants of childhood obesity, a relatively new approach is the use of attachment theory to explore the mechanisms underlying children’s obesity risk, especially considered as emotion regulation strategies in parent-child relationship. Few are the empirical researches that have addressed this issue. The empirical investigations have used self-report measures to assess adult attachment. In attachment studies, the use of interview methods and/or performance-based instruments is advised to evaluate the entire range of possible adult attachment patterns and comprehensively explain the emotional strategies, correlates and consequences of individual differences in attachment system functioning. The aim of this study was to explore the extent to which both parents’ attachment patterns serve as self-regulative mechanisms related to childhood overweight/obesity by the Adult Attachment Projective Picture System (AAP in a sample of 44 mothers and fathers of children referred for obesity. Insecure attachment was found as a risk factor both for mothers’ and fathers’. Also unresolved/disorganization was found to play a significant role in childhood obesity. The role of father’s attachment was explored and findings suggested considering it in etiology and treatment of childhood obesity.
LaGasse, Linda L.; Gaskins, Ronnesia B.; Bada, Henrietta S.; Shankaran, Seetha; Liu, Jing; Lester, Barry M.; Bauer, Charles R.; Higgins, Rosemary D.; Das, Abhik; Roberts, Mary
Little is known about the association between prenatal cocaine exposure and obesity. We tested whether prenatal cocaine exposure increases the likelihood of obesity in 561 9-year-old term children from the Maternal Lifestyle Study (MLS). Overall, 21.6% of children met criterion for obesity (body mass index [BMI] ≥ 95th percentile, age and sex-specific). While there was no overall cocaine effect on obesity, multivariate logistic analysis revealed that children exposed to cocaine but not alcoho...
Everson, Erik; Boles, Myde; Fink, Karol; Topol, Rebecca; Fenaughty, Andrea
Although monitoring childhood obesity prevalence is critical for state public health programs to assess trends and the effectiveness of interventions, few states have comprehensive body mass index measurement systems in place. In some states, however, assorted school districts collect measurements on student height and weight as part of annual health screenings. To estimate childhood obesity prevalence in Alaska, we created a logistic regression model using such annual measurements along with public data on demographics and socioeconomic status. Our mixed-effects model-generated prevalence estimates validated well against weighted estimates, with 95% confidence intervals overlapping between methodologies among 7 of 8 participating school districts. Our methodology accounts for variation in school-level and student-level demographic factors across the state, and the approach we describe can be applied by other states that have existing nonrandom student measurement data to estimate childhood obesity prevalence. PMID:27010843
Chodaesessie Wellesley-Cole Morgan
Full Text Available Underage & Overweight: Americas Childhood Obesity Crisis What Every Family Needs to Know was written primarily for parents, teachers, school administrators, doctors, nurses, other health care professionals, and policymakers. The author, Frances M. Berg, has written a thoroughly researched, evidence-based textbook that emphasizes the importance of a multifaceted approach to alleviating the childhood obesity crisis in the United States. Other books have been written about encouraging healthy lifestyles in children and adolescents, but those authors tend to concentrate on narrowly focused strategies (i.e. diet, exercise, diet and/or exercise to encourage weight loss among children and adolescents. Anyone who is concerned about, or who has an interest in, the issues and complexities of childhood obesity should obtain a copy of this book and keep it as a reference text.
Iachini, Aidyn L; Dunn, Brianne L; Blake, Christine; Blake, Elizabeth W
Interprofessional education (IPE) is needed to prepare health professional students to address the complexities of childhood obesity in practice. This mixed-method study sought to evaluate the perceived impact of a childhood obesity IPE intervention on health professional students' collaborative competency development within two domains: roles/responsibilities and teams/teamwork. Fourteen health professional students participated in this mixed-methods study. Quantitative data were collected through pre/post surveys, while qualitative data were collected through reflection assignments. Survey findings indicated that students reported significant increases in growth within both interprofessional competency domains. Qualitative data elaborated on the types of learning students experienced relative to each domain. Implications of this study for research and practice related to IPE to address complex health issues, such as childhood obesity, are shared. PMID:27152544
Peña, Michelle-Marie; Dixon, Brittany; Taveras, Elsie M.
Childhood obesity is prevalent, is of consequence, and disproportionately affects racial/ethnic minority populations. By the preschool years, racial/ethnic disparities in obesity prevalence and substantial differences in many risk factors for obesity are already present, suggesting that disparities in obesity prevalence have their origins in the earliest stages of life. The reasons for racial/ethnic variation in obesity are complex and may include differences in cultural beliefs and practices...
Maidenberg, Michelle P
Because ofpoverty, the high prevalence of obesity, and the lack of adequate supports, Central Harlem's children, adolescents, and teenagers are at risk for major physiological, psychological, and social issues. This article discusses the public health concerns related to this population, especially the prevalence of obesity. This article identifies the prevalence of illness and obesity in the inner city and stipulates the causes and consequences of obesity among children, adolescents, and teenagers. In addition, it reports on the appropriate community intervention, using a coalition and a community collaborative organization that serve as models to build support for Central Harlem. A proposal is offered for reducing obesity among youths in the community. The intervention outlines a logic model that identifies a multisystemic approach at the micro and macro level for community intervention and policy initiatives to advocate for fundamental change. Further research recommendations are described to reduce the prevalence of childhood, adolescent, and teenage obesity in urban communities. PMID:27263198
Full Text Available A systematic review of the literature was conducted to identify the barriers that prevent practitioners from identifying and counseling parents and caregivers of overweight or obese children. Once identified, barriers were organized into thematic categories (parental, provider, and professional barriers and recommendations were generated to facilitate discussion about childhood obesity between professionals and parents. Childhood obesity is a significant public health problem. Healthcare providers must be able to effectively communicate with caregivers and put childhood obesity at the front of healthcare discussions. This article provides a synthesis of the relevant literature and makes recommendations for healthcare providers to overcome the barriers allowing healthier outcomes for children.
Flodmark, C-E; Lissau, I; Moreno, L A;
. The paucity of literature on prevention and treatment of obesity in children as documented in this paper points out the need for much additional research on obesity in children. OBJECTIVES: The awareness of childhood obesity as a major health problem and an uncontrolled worldwide epidemic has to be increased...... enough as sole tools in children. This has led to focus on multidisciplinary programs especially involving families. Behavioral cognitive therapy is effective in treating childhood obesity as is family therapy. Surgery and drug treatment cannot be recommended without additional research. Clinicians......EDITOR'S NOTE: The problem of childhood obesity is accelerating throughout the world. The following is a position paper from The European Childhood Obesity Group (ECOG) that outlines the nature of the problem of childhood obesity along with treatment and prevention methods available today...
Lissau, I; Sørensen, T I
The association of various features of family life with obesity in childhood is well established, but less is known about the effect of these influences on the risk of later obesity. In this prospective, population-based study, we examined the influence of parental care in childhood on the risk of obesity in the offspring in young adulthood. In 1974, 1258 pupils aged 9-10 years were randomly selected from the third grade of Copenhagen schools. Information on 987 pupils was obtained from the form teachers on family structure and the perceived support from the parents; school medical services reported on the child's general hygiene. 756 (86%) of the 881 eligible participants were followed up 10 years later. The influence of family factors in childhood on the risk of obesity (body-mass index > 95th centile) in young adulthood was estimated by odds ratios with control for age and body-mass index in 1974, sex, and social background. Family structure (biological or other parents and number of siblings) did not significantly affect the risk of adult obesity. Parental neglect greatly increased the risk in comparison with harmonious support (odds ratio 7.1 [95% CI 2.6-19.3]). Dirty and neglected children had a much greater risk of adult obesity than averagely groomed children (9.8 [3.5-28.2]). However, being an only child, receiving overprotective parental support, or being well-groomed had no effect. Parental neglect during childhood predicts a great risk of obesity in young adulthood, independent of age and body-mass index in childhood, sex, and social background. PMID:7905145
Bruyndonckx, Luc; Hoymans, Vicky Y; Lemmens, Katrien; Ramet, José; Vrints, Christiaan J
Childhood obesity jeopardizes a healthy future for our society's children as it is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality later on in life. Endothelial dysfunction, the first step in the development of atherosclerosis, is already present in obese children and may well represent a targetable risk factor. Technological advancements in recent years have facilitated noninvasive measurements of endothelial homeostasis in children. Thereby this topic ultimately starts to get the attention it deserves. In this paper, we aim to summarize the latest insights on endothelial dysfunction in childhood obesity. We discuss methodological advancements in peripheral endothelial function measurement and newly identified diagnostic markers of vascular homeostasis. Finally, future challenges and perspectives are set forth on how to efficiently tackle the catastrophic rise in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality that will be inflicted on obese children if they are not treated optimally. PMID:26866906
Westley, Rosalyne L.; May, Felicity E. B.
Obesity has reached epidemic proportions in the developed world. The progression from obesity to diabetes mellitus type 2, via metabolic syndrome, is recognised, and the significant associated increase in the risk of major human cancers acknowledged. We review the molecular basis of the involvement of morbidly high concentrations of endogenous or therapeutic insulin and of insulin-like growth factors in the progression from obesity to diabetes and finally to cancer. Epidemiological and bioche...
Pérez-Escamilla, R; Hospedales, J; Contreras, A; Kac, G
The objectives of this paper are to present the conclusions from the workshop ‘Education for childhood obesity prevention: a life-course approach', coordinated by the Pan-American Health Organization and the Pan-American Health and Education Foundation, and held on 14 June 2012 in Aruba, as part of the II Pan-American Conference on Childhood Obesity (http://www.paco.aw/). This workshop focused on the need to recognize the life-course framework and education as a social determinant of health t...
Anderson, Sarah E; Keim, Sarah A
This paper describes the epidemiologic evidence linking parent-child relationships, self-regulation, and weight status with a focus on early childhood. The emotional quality of parent-child interactions may influence children's risk for obesity through multiple pathways. Prospective studies linking observer ratings of young children's self-regulation, particularly inhibitory control, to future weight status are discussed. Although findings are preliminary, promoting positive relationships between parents/caregivers and young children holds promise as a component of efforts to prevent childhood obesity. Multi-disciplinary collaborations between researchers with training in developmental science and child health should be encouraged. PMID:27037572
Several recent surveys have asked Americans whether they support policies to reduce childhood obesity. There is reason for skepticism of such surveys because people are not confronted with the tax costs of such policies when they are asked whether they support them. This paper uses contingent valuation (CV), a method frequently used to estimate people's willingness to pay (WTP) for goods or services not transacted in markets, applied to unique survey data from New York State to estimate the willingness to pay to reduce childhood obesity. The willingness to pay data correlate in predictable ways with respondent characteristics. The mean WTP for a 50% reduction in childhood obesity is $46.41 (95% CI: $33.45, $59.15), which implies a total WTP by New York State residents of $690.6 million (95% CI: $497.7, $880.15), which is less than that implied by previous surveys that did not use CV methods but greater than current spending on policies to reduce childhood obesity and greater than the estimated savings in external costs. The findings provide policymakers with useful information about taxpayers' support for, and preferred budget for, anti-obesity policies. PMID:18619930
Background: During the last several decades, the number of children who are overweight or obese has reached alarming levels worldwide. The purpose of the present study was to examine trends in measures of childhood obesity among Korean children aged 2–19 from 1998 to 2012. Methods: Height, weight, and waist circumference (WC) were measured, and body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Age-adjusted means of WC and BMI were compared between years. We used three international criteria (Internati...
Behnoush Mohammadpour-Ahranjani; Morteza Abdollahi; Pallan, Miranda J.; Peymane Adab
Background and Objectives: Childhood obesity is an increasing public health problem in Iran, and there is no evidence for effective prevention strategies to date. The aim of this qualitative study was to identify and prioritise perceived potential interventions by parents and school staff to help inform the development of an obesity prevention intervention for Iranian school children. Materials and Methods: Focus groups were held with the parents of primary school aged children and school ...
Li, Bai; Adab, Peymané; Cheng, Kar Keung
Background The current literature on the influences of family environment on childhood obesity is predominantly based on western populations and has focused on the role of parents. This study examined the influence of grandparents on the development of obesity among Chinese primary school aged children. Methods A mixed methods study was conducted in four socioeconomically distinct primary school communities in two cities of southern China. The qualitative study (17 focus groups and four perso...
Black, Mary Helen; Zhou, Hui; Takayanagi, Miwa; Jacobsen, Steven J.; Koebnick, Corinna
Asthma is the most common chronic condition of childhood, yet the relationship between obesity and asthma risk and the impact of obesity on clinical asthma outcomes are not well understood. For this population-based, longitudinal study, demographic and clinical data were extracted from administrative and electronic health records of 623,358 patients aged 6–19 years who were enrolled in the Kaiser Permanente Southern California health plan in 2007–2011. Crude asthma incidence ranged from 16.9 ...
David Y C Huang; Lanza, H. Isabella; Anglin, M. Douglas
This study examined longitudinal associations of prenatal exposures as well as childhood familial experiences with obesity status from ages 10 to 18. Hierarchical generalized linear modeling (HGLM) was applied to examine 5,156 adolescents from the child sample of the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79). Higher maternal weight, maternal smoking during pregnancy, lower maternal education, and lack of infant breastfeeding were contributors to elevated adolescent obesity risk in e...
SA, Nathan; E, Develin; N, Grove; AB, Zwi
Background Overweight and obesity in Australia has risen at an alarming rate over the last 20 years as in other industrialised countries around the world, yet the policy response, locally and globally, has been limited. Using a childhood obesity summit held in Australia in 2002 as a case study, this paper examines how evidence was used in setting the agenda, influencing the Summit debate and shaping the policy responses which emerged. The study used multiple methods of data collection includi...
Pallan, Miranda; Parry, Jayne; Cheng, K. K.; Adab, Peymané
Objective We report the development of a childhood obesity prevention intervention for UK South Asian primary school-aged children, guided by the UK Medical Research Council (MRC) framework for complex intervention development and evaluation. Methods We combined information gained from a literature review, stakeholder focus groups, an expert group, review of local resources and mapping to the Analysis Grid for Environments Linked to Obesity (ANGELO framework) in an intervention development pr...
Frerichs, Leah M.; Araz, Ozgur M.; Huang, Terry T. – K.
Research evidence indicates that obesity has spread through social networks, but lever points for interventions based on overlapping networks are not well studied. The objective of our research was to construct and parameterize a system dynamics model of the social transmission of behaviors through adult and youth influence in order to explore hypotheses and identify plausible lever points for future childhood obesity intervention research. Our objectives were: (1) to assess the sensitivity o...
Khalife, Natasha; Kantomaa, Marko; Glover, Vivette; Tammelin, Tuija,; Laitinen, Jaana; Ebeling, Hanna; Hurtig, Tuula; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Rodriguez, Alina
Objective To prospectively investigate the association and directionality between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and obesity from childhood to adolescence in the general population. We examined whether obesogenic behaviors, namely, physical inactivity and binge eating, underlie the potential ADHD symptom–obesity association. We explored whether childhood conduct disorder (CD) symptoms are related to adolescent obesity/physical inactivity. Method At 7 to 8 ye...
Appelhans, Bradley M.; Fitzpatrick, Stephanie L.; Li, Hong; Cail, Vernon; Waring, Molly E.; Schneider, Kristin L.; Whited, Matthew C.; Busch, Andrew M.; Pagoto, Sherry L.
Background Childhood obesity disproportionally affects children from low-income households. With the aim of informing interventions, this study examined pathways through which the physical and social home environment may promote childhood overweight/obesity in low-income households. Methods Data on health behaviors and the home environment were collected at home visits in low-income, urban households with either only normal weight (n = 48) or predominantly overweight/obese (n = 55) children a...
Eimear Keane; Richard Layte; Janas Harrington; Kearney, Patricia M.; Perry, Ivan J
Background: Parental obesity is a predominant risk factor for childhood obesity. Family factors including socio-economic status (SES) play a role in determining parent weight. It is essential to unpick how shared family factors impact on child weight. This study aims to investigate the association between measured parent weight status, familial socio-economic factors and the risk of childhood obesity at age 9. Methodology/Principal Findings: Cross sectional analysis of the first wave (2008) o...
Robbins, Rebecca; Niederdeppe, Jeff; Lundell, Helen; Meyerson, Jamie
Introduction No single solution exists to reduce rates of childhood obesity in the United States, but public policy action is essential. A greater understanding of policy maker views on childhood obesity would provide insight into ways that public health advocates can overcome barriers to propose, enact, and implement obesity prevention policies. Methods We conducted 48 in-depth, qualitative interviews with town/city, county, and state policy makers in the state of New York from December 14, ...
Keane, Eimear; Layte, Richard; Harrington, Janas; Patricia M Kearney; Perry, Ivan J
Background Parental obesity is a predominant risk factor for childhood obesity. Family factors including socio-economic status (SES) play a role in determining parent weight. It is essential to unpick how shared family factors impact on child weight. This study aims to investigate the association between measured parent weight status, familial socio-economic factors and the risk of childhood obesity at age 9. Methodology/Principal Findings Cross sectional analysis of the first wave (2008) of ...
Banchonhattakit, Pannee; Tanasugarn, Chanuantong; Pradipasen, Mandhana; Miner, Kathleen R; Nityasuddhi, Dechavudh
This research was designed to test the effectiveness of a school network for childhood obesity prevention (SNOCOP) in primary schools; a program that aimed to improve student behavior in terms of knowledge, attitude, intention towards obesity prevention, and their food consumption behavior. A quasi-experimental pretest-posttest time series study was conducted. By 2-stage stratified sampling selection 180 students from 6 schools were assigned to the intervention group and 195 students from 6 schools to the control group at Saraburi Province, Thailand in 2006- 2007. In addition, thirty-one participants being school administrators, teachers, parents, and community members from six schools formed the social network initiating the intervention. The schoolchildren in the intervention group improved their eating behavior, knowledge, attitude, intention towards obesity preventive behavior. The six schools of the intervention group changed school policies and school activities aiming to reduce the proportion of obesity among their student. No such activities could be observed in the control group. These findings suggest that the School-Social Network of Childhood Obesity Prevention program is an effective means to prevent childhood obesity. PMID:19842420
Gortmaker, Steven L; Wang, Y Claire; Long, Michael W; Giles, Catherine M; Ward, Zachary J; Barrett, Jessica L; Kenney, Erica L; Sonneville, Kendrin R; Afzal, Amna Sadaf; Resch, Stephen C; Cradock, Angie L
Policy makers seeking to reduce childhood obesity must prioritize investment in treatment and primary prevention. We estimated the cost-effectiveness of seven interventions high on the obesity policy agenda: a sugar-sweetened beverage excise tax; elimination of the tax subsidy for advertising unhealthy food to children; restaurant menu calorie labeling; nutrition standards for school meals; nutrition standards for all other food and beverages sold in schools; improved early care and education; and increased access to adolescent bariatric surgery. We used systematic reviews and a microsimulation model of national implementation of the interventions over the period 2015-25 to estimate their impact on obesity prevalence and their cost-effectiveness for reducing the body mass index of individuals. In our model, three of the seven interventions--excise tax, elimination of the tax deduction, and nutrition standards for food and beverages sold in schools outside of meals--saved more in health care costs than they cost to implement. Each of the three interventions prevented 129,000-576,000 cases of childhood obesity in 2025. Adolescent bariatric surgery had a negligible impact on obesity prevalence. Our results highlight the importance of primary prevention for policy makers aiming to reduce childhood obesity. PMID:26526252
Sabin, Matthew A; Russo, Vincenzo C; Azar, Walid J; Yau, Steven W; Kiess, Wieland; Werther, George A
The growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) axis is at the centre of normal human childhood growth. Six well characterised binding proteins (IGFBP-1 to IGFBP-6) act as general carriers of IGF-I, but they also modulate IGF-I bioavailability and activity in a tissue-specific, and developmentally appropriate, manner. Recent findings also point to several binding proteins possessing specific 'lGF-independent' actions and, in particular, there is now substantial evidence linking IGFBP-2 with nutritional status and insulin sensitivity. IGFBP-2 concentrations are reduced in obesity, and further reductions are seen in those with Type 2 diabetes. As IGFBP-2 is the major IGFBP expressed in infancy, and is also the predominant IGFBP produced from adipocytes, it is ideally positioned to act as a keystone between nutrition, growth and metabolism. Childhood obesity is associated with an increased risk of long-term morbidity and mortality, but the factors that determine which obese children will develop these long-term complications are not fully understood. IGFBP-2 may be integrally involved in the molecular processes that govern the development of obesity and subsequent weight-related disease. Within this manuscript, we explore the associations between IGFBP-2 and obesity with a particular emphasis on how an increased understanding of the role of IGFBP-2 in metabolism may lead to improvements in the prevention and treatment of childhood obesity. PMID:21972778
Kalinowski, Alison; Krause, Kylene; Berdejo, Carla; Harrell, Kristina; Rosenblum, Katherine; Lumeng, Julie C.
Objective: To examine beliefs about the role of parenting in feeding and childhood obesity among mothers of lower socioeconomic status. Methods: Individual semistructured, audiotaped interview with 91 mothers of preschool-aged children (49% of mothers obese, 21% of children obese) in the midwestern United States. Participant comments were…
W. van Dorp (Wendy); K. Blijdorp (Karin); J.S.E. Laven (Joop); R. Pieters (Rob); J.A. Visser (Jenny); A-J. van der Lely (Aart-Jan); S.J.C.M.M. Neggers (Bas); M.M. van den Heuvel-Eibrink (Marry)
textabstractObjective: Obesity and gonadal dysfunction are known major side effects of treatment in adult childhood cancer survivors (CCS). In the general population, obesity has a negative influence on female fertility.We aimed to evaluate whether obesity and serum insulin are associated with decre
Must, Aviva; Phillips, Sarah M.; Tybor, David J.; Lividini, Keith; Hayes, Catherine
Obesity is a growth-promoting process as evidenced by its effect on the timing of puberty. Although studies are limited, obesity has been shown to affect the timing of tooth eruption. Both the timing and sequence of tooth eruption are important to overall oral health. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between obesity and tooth eruption. Data were combined from three consecutive cycles (2001–2006) of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and analy...
Anderson, Patricia M.; Kristin F. Butcher; Diane Whitmore Schanzenbach
Obesity has been one of the fastest growing health concerns among children, particularly among disadvantaged children. For children overall, obesity rates have tripled from 5% in the early 1970s to about 15% by the early 2000s. For disadvantaged children, obesity rates are closer to 20%. In this paper, we first examine the impact of various measures of disadvantage on children's weight outcomes over the past 30 years, finding that the disadvantaged have gained weight faster. Over the same per...
Szucs, Robert Sandor; Csapo, Zsolt
The young generation is the most influenced and vulnerable segment of the market. Food with high level of fat, sugar and/or salt are popularised for this segment. At the same time nearly 7 people die of obesity or from complications of obesity in Hungary each hour - one every 9 minutes. Approximately 119 million Americans, or 64.5 percent, of adult Americans are either overweight or obese. 17.5 million obese young persons live in the European Union. The result is the drastic elevation of the ...
Tabassum Nawab; Zulfia Khan; Iqbal M. KHAN; Mohammed A Ansari
Obesity has reached epidemic proportions globally and the prevention of adult obesity will require prevention and management of childhood obesity. A study was conducted to determine the prevalence and behavioral determinants of overweight and obesity in school going adolescents. A total of 660 adolescents from affluent and nonaffluent schools were taken. Overweight and obesity was defined as per World Health Organization 2007 growth reference. Prevalence of overweight and obesity was 9.8% and...
Ramirez, Jennifer C; Milan, Stephanie
We examined whether a history of self-reported childhood sexual abuse (CSA) moderates the relationship between obesity and mental health symptoms (depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorder) in an ethnically diverse sample of low-income women. A community sample of 186 women completed self-report measures and had their weight and height measured. Body mass index and CSA had an interactive effect on all mental health measures, such that obese women with a CSA history reported substantially higher levels of all symptoms. These results give greater specificity to the obesity-mental health link reported in previous studies and provide possible directions for targeted intervention. PMID:26541476
Broberg, Danielle M.; Broberg, Katharine A.; McGuire, Jenifer K.
Policies originally designed to address food insecurity are in need of revision due to rising rates of obesity among those they serve. Within the context of national policies, this article uses an ecological perspective to consider the links between food insecurity and obesity. The recommendations include adjusting the nutritional standards of the…
Andersen, Lise Geisler; Holst, Claus; Michaelsen, Kim F.;
Infant weight and weight gain are positively associated with later obesity, but whether there is a particular critical time during infancy remains uncertain.......Infant weight and weight gain are positively associated with later obesity, but whether there is a particular critical time during infancy remains uncertain....
This podcast is based on the August 2013 CDC Vital Signs report. The rate of obesity among low-income preschoolers has declined, but one in eight is still obese. This program briefly discusses what can be done. Created: 8/6/2013 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Date Released: 8/6/2013.
Werner, Danilea; Teufel, James; Holtgrave, Peter L.; Brown, Stephen L.
Background: Over the last 3 decades, US obesity rates have increased dramatically as more children and more adults become obese. This study explores an innovative program, Active Generations, an intergenerational nutrition education and activity program implemented in out-of-school environments (after school and summer camps). It utilizes older…
Paxson, Christina, Ed.; Donahue, Elisabeth, Ed.; Orleans, Tracy, Ed.; Grisso, Jeane Ann, Ed.
The third volume of "The Future of Children" examines the causes and consequences of increasing rates of obesity and overweight among children. It also reviews specific policies and programs aimed at reducing obesity and overweight and the related health problems that result. Contents include: (1) Introducing the Issue (Christina Paxson, Elisabeth…
Silverstone, Susan; Teatum, Jim
One-third of the population of US children is considered obese and two-thirds of the adult population falls into the same category. These figures have tripled over the last 30 years. This demonstrates that the existing strategies to combat obesity do not work and it is time to look for alternatives. The recommendation is to turn the problem into a…
In the article ''Bariatric Bypass Surgery to Resolve Complicated Childhood Morbid Obesity: Case Report Study'', which appeared in Volume 94, Issue 49 of Medicine, Dr. Elrazek's name was incorrectly presented as Abd Elrazek M. Ali Hussein when it should have read Abd Elrazek Abd Elrazek. The article has since been corrected online. PMID:27231816
Fu, Qiang; George, Linda K
Previous studies have widely reported that the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and childhood overweight and obesity in China is significant and positive, which lends little support to the fundamental-cause perspective. Using multiple waves (1997, 2000, 2004 and 2006) of the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) (N = 2,556, 2,063, 1,431 and 1,242, respectively) and continuous BMI cut-points obtained from a polynomial method, (mixed-effect) logistic regression analyses show that parental state-sector employment, an important, yet overlooked, indicator of political power during the market transformation has changed from a risk factor for childhood overweight/obesity in 1997 to a protective factor for childhood overweight/obesity in 2006. Results from quantile regression analyses generate the same conclusions and demonstrate that the protective effect of parental state sector employment at high percentiles of BMI is robust under different estimation strategies. By bridging the fundamental causes perspective and theories of market transformation, this research not only documents the effect of political power on childhood overweight/obesity but also calls for the use of multifaceted, culturally-relevant stratification measures in testing the fundamental cause perspective across time and space. PMID:26178452
Petersen, Jindong Ding; Heitmann, B. L.; Kyle, R.;
of this study was to examine if separation from parents, parental loss and living in a "children's home" during childhood could be associated with development of adult obesity Key Methods: A total of 146 complete adult twin pairs discordant for BMI (one had a normal BMI and the co-twin a BMI > 30 kg/m) were...
Sallis, James F.; Glanz, Karen
Over the past forty years various changes in the U.S. "built environment" have promoted sedentary lifestyles and less healthful diets. James Sallis and Karen Glanz investigate whether these changes have had a direct effect on childhood obesity and whether improvements to encourage more physical activity and more healthful diets are likely to lower…
G. Koshy; A. Delpisheh; B.J. Brabin
The combined dose response effects of pregnancy cigarette smoke exposure on childhood overweight, obesity and short stature have not been reported. A community based cross-sectional survey of 3038 children aged 5-11 years from 15 primary schools in Merseyside, UK. Self-completed parental questionnai
Quelly, Susan B.
Comprehensive childhood obesity prevention (COP) strategies should include increasing school nurse involvement. This study was conducted to determine the influence of key school nurse perceptions (self-efficacy, perceived benefits, and perceived barriers) on participation in COP practices at the individual child and school level. Florida…