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Sample records for childhood neuropsychiatric disorders

  1. Childhood onset neuropsychiatric disorders in adult eating disorder patients. A pilot study.

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    Wentz, Elisabet; Lacey, J Hubert; Waller, Glenn; Råstam, Maria; Turk, Jeremy; Gillberg, Christopher

    2005-12-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have been suggested to be overrepresented in anorexia nervosa. This study aimed to explore the comorbidity of ASD and other childhood onset neuropsychiatric disorders (COND) [attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD) and tic disorders] in a group of severe eating disorder (ED) patients. Thirty female ED patients from a specialist hospital clinic were examined on measures tapping into COND and personality disorders. In our group of longstanding ED, 53% had at least one COND diagnosis; 23% had ASD, 17% had AD/HD, and 27% had a tic disorder. These preliminary data suggest that COND may be common in patients with severe ED and should be kept in mind when treating these patients.

  2. The potential relevance of docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid to the etiopathogenesis of childhood neuropsychiatric disorders.

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    Tesei, Alessandra; Crippa, Alessandro; Ceccarelli, Silvia Busti; Mauri, Maddalena; Molteni, Massimo; Agostoni, Carlo; Nobile, Maria

    2017-09-01

    Over the last 15 years, considerable interest has been given to the potential role of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) for understanding pathogenesis and treatment of neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders. This review aims to systematically investigate the scientific evidence supporting the hypothesis on the omega-3 PUFAs deficit as a risk factor shared by different pediatric neuropsychiatric disorders. Medline PubMed database was searched for studies examining blood docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) or eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) status in children with neuropsychiatric disorders. Forty-one published manuscripts were compatible with the search criteria. The majority of studies on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism found a significant decrease in DHA levels in patients versus healthy controls. For the other conditions examined-depression, juvenile bipolar disorder, intellectual disabilities, learning difficulties, and eating disorders (EDs)-the literature was too limited to draw any stable conclusions. However, except EDs, findings in these conditions were in line with results from ADHD and autism studies. Results about EPA levels were too inconsistent to conclude that EPA could be associated with any of the conditions examined. Finally, correlational data provided, on one hand, evidence for a negative association between DHA and symptomatology, whereas on the other hand, evidence for a positive association between EPA and emotional well-being. Although the present review underlines the potential involvement of omega-3 PUFAs in the predisposition to childhood neuropsychiatric disorders, more observational and intervention studies across different diagnoses are needed, which should integrate the collection of baseline PUFA levels with their potential genetic and environmental influencing factors.

  3. Autoantibodies in Neuropsychiatric Disorders

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    Carolin Hoffmann

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the etiology of neuropsychiatric disorders. The identification of autoantibodies targeting the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDA-R, which causes neurological and psychiatric symptoms, has reinvigorated the hypothesis that other patient subgroups may also suffer from an underlying autoimmune condition. In recent years, a wide range of neuropsychiatric diseases and autoantibodies targeting ion-channels or neuronal receptors including NMDA-R, voltage gated potassium channel complex (VGKC complex, α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor (AMPA-R, γ-aminobutyric acid receptor (GABA-R and dopamine receptor (DR were studied and conflicting reports have been published regarding the seroprevalence of these autoantibodies. A clear causative role of autoantibodies on psychiatric symptoms has as yet only been shown for the NMDA-R. Several other autoantibodies have been related to the presence of certain symptoms and antibody effector mechanisms have been proposed. However, extensive clinical studies with large multicenter efforts to standardize diagnostic procedures for autoimmune etiology and animal studies are needed to confirm the pathogenicity of these autoantibodies. In this review, we discuss the current knowledge of neuronal autoantibodies in the major neuropsychiatric disorders: psychotic, major depression, autism spectrum, obsessive-compulsive and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorders.

  4. Comparison of clinical characteristics of pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections and childhood obsessive-compulsive disorder.

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    Bernstein, Gail A; Victor, Andrea M; Pipal, Allison J; Williams, Kyle A

    2010-08-01

    The objectives of this study were to identify unique clinical characteristics of children with pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections (PANDAS) compared with a control group of children with non-PANDAS obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) with respect to ancillary symptoms, types of obsessions and compulsions, symptom severity, and co-morbid DSM-IV diagnoses. Classification of PANDAS was based on review of pediatric and psychiatric records using the criteria developed by Swedo and colleagues. Children aged 6-14 with PANDAS (n = 21) and non-PANDAS OCD (n = 18) were assessed by blind independent evaluators using the PANDAS Questionnaire, Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale, Yale Global Tic Severity Scale, and Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule for DSM-IV. PANDAS children were significantly more likely to present with separation anxiety, urinary urgency, hyperactivity, impulsivity, deterioration in handwriting, and decline in school performance during their initial episode of neuropsychiatric illness compared with children with OCD. Total tics and vocal tics were more severe in PANDAS children. Separation anxiety disorder and social phobia were more prevalent in non-PANDAS OCD children. Children with non-PANDAS OCD were significantly more likely to include others in their rituals. There were no significant differences between groups on demographics or severity of OCD. Distinguishing clinical characteristics in PANDAS, which included urinary urgency, hyperactivity, impulsivity, and deterioration in handwriting, are linked to basal ganglia functions. These clinical characteristics will aid in the differentiation of PANDAS children for research and clinical purposes and ultimately advance our understanding and treatment of this disorder.

  5. Neuropsychiatric manifestations in late-onset urea cycle disorder patients.

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    Serrano, Mercedes; Martins, Cecilia; Pérez-Dueñas, Belén; Gómez-López, Lilian; Murgui, Empar; Fons, Carmen; García-Cazorla, Angels; Artuch, Rafael; Jara, Fernando; Arranz, José A; Häberle, Johannes; Briones, Paz; Campistol, Jaume; Pineda, Mercedes; Vilaseca, Maria A

    2010-03-01

    Inherited urea cycle disorders represent one of the most common groups of inborn errors of metabolism. Late-onset urea cycle disorders caused by partial enzyme deficiencies may present with unexpected clinical phenotypes. We report 9 patients followed up in our hospital presenting late-onset urea cycle disorders who initially manifested neuropsychiatric/neurodevelopmental symptoms (the most prevalent neuropsychiatric/neurodevelopmental diagnoses were mental retardation, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder [ADHD], language disorder, and delirium). Generally, these clinical pictures did not benefit from pharmacological treatment. Conversely, dietary treatment improved the symptoms. Regarding biochemical data, 2 patients showed normal ammonium but high glutamine levels. This study highlights the fact that neuropsychiatric/neurodevelopmental findings are common among the initial symptomatology of late-onset urea cycle disorders. The authors recommend that unexplained or nonresponsive neuropsychiatric/neurodevelopmental symptoms appearing during childhood or adolescence be followed by a study of ammonia and amino acid plasmatic levels to rule out a urea cycle disorder.

  6. Fetal programming of neuropsychiatric disorders.

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    Faa, Gavino; Manchia, Mirko; Pintus, Roberta; Gerosa, Clara; Marcialis, Maria Antonietta; Fanos, Vassilios

    2016-09-01

    Starting from the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) hypotheses proposed by David Barker, namely fetal programming, in the past years, there is a growing evidence of the major role played by epigenetic factors during the intrauterine life and the perinatal period. Furthermore, it has been assessed that these factors can affect the health status in infancy and even in adulthood. In this review, we focus our attention on the fetal programming of the brain, analyzing the most recent literature concerning the epigenetic factors that can influence the development of neuropsychiatric disorders such as bipolar disorders, major depressive disorders, and schizophrenia. The perinatal epigenetic factors have been divided in two main groups: maternal factors and fetal factors. The maternal factors include diet, smoking, alcoholism, hypertension, malnutrition, trace elements, stress, diabetes, substance abuse, and exposure to environmental toxicants, while the fetal factors include hypoxia/asphyxia, placental insufficiency, prematurity, low birth weight, drugs administered to the mother or to the baby, and all factors causing intrauterine growth restriction. A better comprehension of the possible mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of these diseases may help researchers and clinicians develop new diagnostic tools and treatments to offer these patients a tailored medical treatment strategy to improve their quality of life. Birth Defects Research (Part C) 108:207-223, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Neuropsychiatric disorders in Cushing's syndrome

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    Pivonello, Rosario; Simeoli, Chiara; De Martino, Maria Cristina; Cozzolino, Alessia; De Leo, Monica; Iacuaniello, Davide; Pivonello, Claudia; Negri, Mariarosaria; Pellecchia, Maria Teresa; Iasevoli, Felice; Colao, Annamaria

    2015-01-01

    Endogenous Cushing's syndrome (CS), a rare endocrine disorder characterized by cortisol hypersecretion, is associated with psychiatric and neurocognitive disorders. Major depression, mania, anxiety, and neurocognitive impairment are the most important clinical abnormalities. Moreover, patients most often complain of impairment in quality of life, interference with family life, social, and work performance. Surprisingly, after hypercortisolism resolution, despite the improvement of the overall prevalence of psychiatric and neurocognitive disorders, the brain volume loss at least partially persists and it should be noted that some patients may still display depression, anxiety, panic disorders, and neurocognitive impairment. This brief review aimed at describing the prevalence of psychiatric and neurocognitive disorders and their characterization both during the active and remission phases of CS. The last section of this review is dedicated to quality of life, impaired during active CS and only partially resolved after resolution of hypercortisolism. PMID:25941467

  8. Modulating Neuroinflammation to Treat Neuropsychiatric Disorders

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    Franziska A. Radtke

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuroinflammation is recognised as one of the potential mechanisms mediating the onset of a broad range of psychiatric disorders and may contribute to nonresponsiveness to current therapies. Both preclinical and clinical studies have indicated that aberrant inflammatory responses can result in altered behavioral responses and cognitive deficits. In this review, we discuss the role of inflammation in the pathogenesis of neuropsychiatric disorders and ask the question if certain genetic copy-number variants (CNVs associated with psychiatric disorders might play a role in modulating inflammation. Furthermore, we detail some of the potential treatment strategies for psychiatric disorders that may operate by altering inflammatory responses.

  9. Positron research in neuropsychiatric disorders

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    Namura, Ikuro; Inoue, Osamu; Yamasaki, Toshiro.

    1984-01-01

    The principal findings revealed by our 18 F-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose ( 18 FDG) and 15 O-oxygen study were reviewed in the former part of this paper. (1) The effect of surgical severing of fiber connections on the terminal gray matter was clearly demonstrated in the following examples. A patient with the injured left optic radiation showed a markedly decreased 18 FDG uptake in the ipsilateral primary visual cortex. The extent of the decrease was larger in the secondary visual cortex (--60%). The patient with bilateral frontal leukotomy (lobotomy) showed about 30% decrease of oxygen accumulation not only in the frontal cortex but in the anterior half of the temporal cortex. (2) The effect of electrical stimulation of the left median nerve can be detected as an increased 18 FDG accumulation in the corresponding sensory and motor areas in the right precentral and postcentral cortices. The slight to moderate increase in the right striatal region was though to be related to the muscle movement caused by the stimulation. (3) The neuro-degenerative disorders such as Huntington's chorea and Parkinsonism could be diagnosed by demonstrating the decrease of 18 FDG in the degenerating focus or the increase in the secondarily affected area. An example was provided by a case of Huntington's chorea patient who showed a markedly decreased 18 FDG uptake in the striatal region in spite that 13 N-ammonia visualized this area. (4) Dementia gives another field where the 18 FDG and 15 O 2 studies are demonstrated to be quite useful. (5) The 18 FDG studies on the intrinsic psychoses are also reviewed. But consistent results seemed to be very difficult in this area by using labeled sugars and oxygens which are nonspecific gray matter imagers. Therefore, new tracers and new techniques in positron emission tomography are briefly described in the latter part of this paper. (author)

  10. The association between childhood autistic traits and adolescent psychotic experiences is explained by general neuropsychiatric problems.

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    Cederlöf, Martin; Pettersson, Erik; Sariaslan, Amir; Larsson, Henrik; Östberg, Per; Kelleher, Ian; Långström, Niklas; Gumpert, Clara Hellner; Lundström, Sebastian; Lichtenstein, Paul

    2016-03-01

    Studies suggest associations between childhood autistic traits and adolescent psychotic experiences. However, recent research suggests that a general neuropsychiatric problems factor predicts adverse outcomes better than specific diagnostic entities. To examine if the alleged association between autistic traits and psychotic experiences could rather be explained by a general neuropsychiatric problems factor comprising symptoms of ADHD, tic disorder, developmental coordination disorder, and learning disorder, we conducted a prospective cohort study based on the Child and Adolescent Twin Study in Sweden. In addition, we examined the genetic and environmental influences on the associations. A total of 9,282 twins with data on childhood autistic traits and other neuropsychiatric problems, and follow-up data on psychotic experiences at ages 15 and/or 18 years were included. First, psychotic experiences were regressed on autistic traits and second, the general neuropsychiatric problems factor was added to the model. Auditory hallucinations were analyzed separately from the other psychotic experiences. Finally, twin analyses were employed to disentangle genetic from environmental influences in the observed associations. Replicating prior research, significant associations were found between autistic traits in childhood and auditory hallucinations at ages 15 and 18. However, after controlling for the general neuropsychiatric problems factor, the associations between autistic traits and auditory hallucinations disappeared, whereas the association between the general neuropsychiatric problems factor and auditory hallucinations persisted after controlling for autistic traits. Twin analyses revealed that the association between the general neuropsychiatric problems factor and auditory hallucinations was driven by shared genetic influences. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Influence of gut microbiota on neuropsychiatric disorders.

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    Cenit, María Carmen; Sanz, Yolanda; Codoñer-Franch, Pilar

    2017-08-14

    The last decade has witnessed a growing appreciation of the fundamental role played by an early assembly of a diverse and balanced gut microbiota and its subsequent maintenance for future health of the host. Gut microbiota is currently viewed as a key regulator of a fluent bidirectional dialogue between the gut and the brain (gut-brain axis). A number of preclinical studies have suggested that the microbiota and its genome (microbiome) may play a key role in neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorders. Furthermore, alterations in the gut microbiota composition in humans have also been linked to a variety of neuropsychiatric conditions, including depression, autism and Parkinson's disease. However, it is not yet clear whether these changes in the microbiome are causally related to such diseases or are secondary effects thereof. In this respect, recent studies in animals have indicated that gut microbiota transplantation can transfer a behavioral phenotype, suggesting that the gut microbiota may be a modifiable factor modulating the development or pathogenesis of neuropsychiatric conditions. Further studies are warranted to establish whether or not the findings of preclinical animal experiments can be generalized to humans. Moreover, although different communication routes between the microbiota and brain have been identified, further studies must elucidate all the underlying mechanisms involved. Such research is expected to contribute to the design of strategies to modulate the gut microbiota and its functions with a view to improving mental health, and thus provide opportunities to improve the management of psychiatric diseases. Here, we review the evidence supporting a role of the gut microbiota in neuropsychiatric disorders and the state of the art regarding the mechanisms underlying its contribution to mental illness and health. We also consider the stages of life where the gut microbiota is more susceptible to the effects of environmental stressors, and

  12. Putative neuroprotective agents in neuropsychiatric disorders.

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    Dodd, Seetal; Maes, Michael; Anderson, George; Dean, Olivia M; Moylan, Steven; Berk, Michael

    2013-04-05

    In many individuals with major neuropsychiatric disorders including depression, bipolar disorder and schizophrenia, their disease characteristics are consistent with a neuroprogressive illness. This includes progressive structural brain changes, cognitive and functional decline, poorer treatment response and an increasing vulnerability to relapse with chronicity. The underlying molecular mechanisms of neuroprogression are thought to include neurotrophins and regulation of neurogenesis and apoptosis, neurotransmitters, inflammatory, oxidative and nitrosative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, cortisol and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, and epigenetic influences. Knowledge of the involvement of each of these pathways implies that specific agents that act on some or multiple of these pathways may thus block this cascade and have neuroprotective properties. This paper reviews the potential of the most promising of these agents, including lithium and other known psychotropics, aspirin, minocycline, statins, N-acetylcysteine, leptin and melatonin. These agents are putative neuroprotective agents for schizophrenia and mood disorders. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Neuropharmacological studies with SPECT in neuropsychiatric disorders

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    Heinz, Andreas; Jones, Douglas W.; Raedler, Thomas; Coppola, Richard; Knable, Michael B.; Weinberger, Daniel R. E-mail: weinberd@intra.nimh.nih.gov

    2000-10-01

    The last decade saw a rapid development of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) from a tool to assess cerebral blood flow to the study of specific neurotransmitter systems. Because of the relatively long half-life of SPECT radioisotopes, it is practical to measure the availability of neuroreceptors and transporters in conditions approaching equilibrium. The cost-efficiency of SPECT allowed studies in relatively large samples of patients with various neuropsychiatric disorders. We have applied this approach in studies of dopaminergic, serotonergic, and muscarinergic neurotransmission in patients with dementia, extrapyramidal disorders, schizophrenia, and alcoholism. No simple associations were observed between a single defect in one neurotransmitter system and a certain neuropsychiatric disease. Instead, complex dysfunction of several neurotransmitter systems in multiple, partially connected brain circuits have been implicated. Treatment effects also have been characterized. Microdialysis and neurotransmitter depletion studies showed that most radioligands and endogenous neurotransmitters compete for binding at receptors and transporters. Future research directions include the assessment of endogenous neurotransmitter concentrations measured by depletion studies and of genetic effects on neuroreceptor and transporter expression.

  14. Neuropharmacological studies with SPECT in neuropsychiatric disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinz, Andreas; Jones, Douglas W.; Raedler, Thomas; Coppola, Richard; Knable, Michael B.; Weinberger, Daniel R.

    2000-01-01

    The last decade saw a rapid development of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) from a tool to assess cerebral blood flow to the study of specific neurotransmitter systems. Because of the relatively long half-life of SPECT radioisotopes, it is practical to measure the availability of neuroreceptors and transporters in conditions approaching equilibrium. The cost-efficiency of SPECT allowed studies in relatively large samples of patients with various neuropsychiatric disorders. We have applied this approach in studies of dopaminergic, serotonergic, and muscarinergic neurotransmission in patients with dementia, extrapyramidal disorders, schizophrenia, and alcoholism. No simple associations were observed between a single defect in one neurotransmitter system and a certain neuropsychiatric disease. Instead, complex dysfunction of several neurotransmitter systems in multiple, partially connected brain circuits have been implicated. Treatment effects also have been characterized. Microdialysis and neurotransmitter depletion studies showed that most radioligands and endogenous neurotransmitters compete for binding at receptors and transporters. Future research directions include the assessment of endogenous neurotransmitter concentrations measured by depletion studies and of genetic effects on neuroreceptor and transporter expression

  15. Redox Modulations, Antioxidants, and Neuropsychiatric Disorders

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    Erik A. Fraunberger

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Although antioxidants, redox modulations, and neuropsychiatric disorders have been widely studied for many years, the field would benefit from an integrative and corroborative review. Our primary objective is to delineate the biological significance of compounds that modulate our redox status (i.e., reactive species and antioxidants as well as outline their current role in brain health and the impact of redox modulations on the severity of illnesses. Therefore, this review will not enter into the debate regarding the perceived medical legitimacy of antioxidants but rather seek to clarify their abilities and limitations. With this in mind, antioxidants may be interpreted as natural products with significant pharmacological actions in the body. A renewed understanding of these often overlooked compounds will allow us to critically appraise the current literature and provide an informed, novel perspective on an important healthcare issue. In this review, we will introduce the complex topics of redox modulations and their role in the development of select neuropsychiatric disorders.

  16. Neuropsychiatric manifestations in late-onset urea cycle disorder patients

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    Serrano Mercedes L.; Martins Cecilia E.; Pérez-Dueñas Belén; Gómez-López Lilian; Murgui Empar; Fons Carmen; García-Cazorla Ángels; Artuch Rafael M D; Jara Fernando; Arranz José Antonio; Häberle Johannes; Briones Paz; Campistol Jaume M D; Pineda Mercè; Vilaseca María Antònia Antonia

    2010-01-01

    Inherited urea cycle disorders represent one of the most common groups of inborn errors of metabolism. Late onset urea cycle disorders caused by partial enzyme deficiencies may present with unexpected clinical phenotypes. We report 9 patients followed up in our hospital presenting late onset urea cycle disorders who initially manifested neuropsychiatric/neurodevelopmental symptoms (the most prevalent neuropsychiatric/neurodevelopmental diagnoses were mental retardation attention deficit hyper...

  17. Psychosocial difficulties from the perspective of persons with neuropsychiatric disorders.

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    Coenen, Michaela; Cabello, Maria; Umlauf, Silvia; Ayuso-Mateos, José Luis; Anczewska, Marta; Tourunen, Jouni; Leonardi, Matilde; Cieza, Alarcos

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to determine whether persons with neuropsychiatric disorders experience a common set of psychosocial difficulties using qualitative data from focus groups and individual interviews. The study was performed in five European countries (Finland, Italy, Germany, Poland and Spain) using the focus groups and individual interviews with persons with nine neuropsychiatric disorders (dementia, depression, epilepsy, migraine, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, stroke and substance dependence). Digitally recorded sessions were analysed using a step-by-step qualitative and quantitative methodology resulting in the compilation of a common set of psychosocial difficulties using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) as a framework. Sixty-seven persons participated in the study. Most persons with neuropsychiatric disorders experience difficulties in emotional functions, sleeping, carrying out daily routine, working and interpersonal relationships in common. Sixteen out of 33 psychosocial difficulties made up the common set. This set includes mental functions, pain and issues addressing activities and participation and provides first evidence for the hypothesis of horizontal epidemiology of psychosocial difficulties in neuropsychiatric disorders. This study provides information about psychosocial difficulties that should be covered in the treatment and rehabilitation of persons with neuropsychiatric disorders regardless of clinical diagnoses. Emotional problems, work and sleep problems should be addressed in all the treatments of neuropsychiatric disorders regardless of their specific diagnosis, etiology and severity. Personality issues should be targeted in the treatment for neurological disorders, whereas communication skill training may also be useful for mental disorders. The effects of medication and social environment on patient's daily life should be considered in all the

  18. Neural markers of errors as endophenotypes in neuropsychiatric disorders

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    Dara S Manoach

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Learning from errors is fundamental to adaptive human behavior. It requires detecting errors, evaluating what went wrong, and adjusting behavior accordingly. These dynamic adjustments are at the heart of behavioral flexibility and accumulating evidence suggests that deficient error processing contributes to maladaptively rigid and repetitive behavior in a range of neuropsychiatric disorders. Neuroimaging and electrophysiological studies reveal highly reliable neural markers of error processing. In this review, we evaluate the evidence that abnormalities in these neural markers can serve as sensitive endophenotypes of neuropsychiatric disorders. We describe the behavioral and neural hallmarks of error processing, their mediation by common genetic polymorphisms, and impairments in schizophrenia, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and autism spectrum disorders. We conclude that neural markers of errors meet several important criteria as endophenotypes including heritability, established neuroanatomical and neurochemical substrates, association with neuropsychiatric disorders, presence in syndromally-unaffected family members, and evidence of genetic mediation. Understanding the mechanisms of error processing deficits in neuropsychiatric disorders may provide novel neural and behavioral targets for treatment and sensitive surrogate markers of treatment response. Treating error processing deficits may improve functional outcome since error signals provide crucial information for flexible adaptation to changing environments. Given the dearth of effective interventions for cognitive deficits in neuropsychiatric disorders, this represents a promising approach.

  19. Neural markers of errors as endophenotypes in neuropsychiatric disorders.

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    Manoach, Dara S; Agam, Yigal

    2013-01-01

    Learning from errors is fundamental to adaptive human behavior. It requires detecting errors, evaluating what went wrong, and adjusting behavior accordingly. These dynamic adjustments are at the heart of behavioral flexibility and accumulating evidence suggests that deficient error processing contributes to maladaptively rigid and repetitive behavior in a range of neuropsychiatric disorders. Neuroimaging and electrophysiological studies reveal highly reliable neural markers of error processing. In this review, we evaluate the evidence that abnormalities in these neural markers can serve as sensitive endophenotypes of neuropsychiatric disorders. We describe the behavioral and neural hallmarks of error processing, their mediation by common genetic polymorphisms, and impairments in schizophrenia, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and autism spectrum disorders. We conclude that neural markers of errors meet several important criteria as endophenotypes including heritability, established neuroanatomical and neurochemical substrates, association with neuropsychiatric disorders, presence in syndromally-unaffected family members, and evidence of genetic mediation. Understanding the mechanisms of error processing deficits in neuropsychiatric disorders may provide novel neural and behavioral targets for treatment and sensitive surrogate markers of treatment response. Treating error processing deficits may improve functional outcome since error signals provide crucial information for flexible adaptation to changing environments. Given the dearth of effective interventions for cognitive deficits in neuropsychiatric disorders, this represents a potentially promising approach.

  20. Sex differences in the brain, behavior, and neuropsychiatric disorders

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    Bao, Ai-Min; Swaab, Dick F.

    2010-01-01

    Sex differences in the brain are reflected in behavior and in the risk for neuropsychiatric disorders. The fetal brain develops in the male direction due to a direct effect of testosterone on the developing neurons, or in the female direction due to the absence of such a testosterone surge. Because

  1. Epigenetic Treatment of Neuropsychiatric Disorders: Autism and Schizophrenia.

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    Moos, Walter H; Maneta, Eleni; Pinkert, Carl A; Irwin, Michael H; Hoffman, Michelle E; Faller, Douglas V; Steliou, Kosta

    2016-03-01

    Neuropsychiatric disorders are a heterogeneous group of conditions that often share underlying mitochondrial dysfunction and biological pathways implicated in their pathogenesis, progression, and treatment. To date, these disorders have proven notoriously resistant to molecular-targeted therapies, and clinical options are relegated to interventional types, which do not address the core symptoms of the disease. In this review, we discuss emerging epigenetic-driven approaches using novel acylcarnitine esters (carnitinoids) that act on master regulators of antioxidant and cytoprotective genes and mitophagic pathways. These carnitinoids are actively transported, mitochondria-localizing, biomimetic coenzyme A surrogates of short-chain fatty acids, which inhibit histone deacetylase and may reinvigorate synaptic plasticity and protect against neuronal damage. We outline these neuroprotective effects in the context of treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders such as autism spectrum disorder and schizophrenia. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. NEUROPSYCHIATRIC DISORDERS IN CUSHING’S SYNDROME

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    Rosario ePivonello

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Endogenous Cushing’s syndrome (CS, a rare endocrine disorder characterized by cortisol hypersecretion, is associated with psychiatric and neurocognitive disorders. Major depression, mania, anxiety and neurocognitive impairment are the most important clinical abnormalities. Moreover, patients most often complain of impairment in quality of life, interference with family life, social and work performance. Surprisingly, after hypercortisolism resolution, despite the improvement of the overall prevalence of psychiatric and neurocognitive disorders, the brain volume loss at least partially persists and it should be noted that some patients may still display depression, anxiety, panic disorders and neurocognitive impairment. This brief review aimed at describing the prevalence of psychiatric and neurocognitive disorders and their characterization both during the active and remission phases of CS. The last section of this review is dedicated to quality of life, impaired during active CS and only partially resolved after resolution of hypercortisolism.

  3. Developmental Vulnerability of Synapses and Circuits Associated with Neuropsychiatric Disorders

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    Penzes, Peter; Buonanno, Andres; Passafarro, Maria; Sala, Carlo; Sweet, Robert A.

    2013-01-01

    Psychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders, including intellectual disability (ID), autism spectrum disorders (ASD), schizophrenia (SZ), and Alzheimer's disease (AD), pose an immense burden to society. Symptoms of these disorders become manifest at different stages of life: early childhood, adolescence, and late adulthood, respectively. Progress has been made in recent years toward understanding the genetic substrates, cellular mechanisms, brain circuits, and endophenotypes of these disorder...

  4. Aspects of animal models for major neuropsychiatric disorders

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    Lefter Radu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We will review the main animal models for the major neuropsychiatric disorders, focusing on schizophrenia, Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, depression, anxiety and autism. Although these mental disorders are specifically human pathologies and therefore impossible to perfectly replicate in animals, the use of experimental animals is based on the physiological and anatomical similarities between humans and animals such as the rat, and mouse, and on the fact that 99% of human and murine genomes are shared. Pathological conditions in animals can be assessed by manipulating the metabolism of neurotransmitters, through various behavioral tests, and by determining biochemical parameters that can serve as important markers of disorders.

  5. Next-generation sequencing in schizophrenia and other neuropsychiatric disorders.

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    Schreiber, Matthew; Dorschner, Michael; Tsuang, Debby

    2013-10-01

    Schizophrenia is a debilitating lifelong illness that lacks a cure and poses a worldwide public health burden. The disease is characterized by a heterogeneous clinical and genetic presentation that complicates research efforts to identify causative genetic variations. This review examines the potential of current findings in schizophrenia and in other related neuropsychiatric disorders for application in next-generation technologies, particularly whole-exome sequencing (WES) and whole-genome sequencing (WGS). These approaches may lead to the discovery of underlying genetic factors for schizophrenia and may thereby identify and target novel therapeutic targets for this devastating disorder. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Immature Dentate Gyrus: An Endophenotype of Neuropsychiatric Disorders

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    Hideo Hagihara

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Adequate maturation of neurons and their integration into the hippocampal circuit is crucial for normal cognitive function and emotional behavior, and disruption of this process could cause disturbances in mental health. Previous reports have shown that mice heterozygous for a null mutation in α-CaMKII, which encodes a key synaptic plasticity molecule, display abnormal behaviors related to schizophrenia and other psychiatric disorders. In these mutants, almost all neurons in the dentate gyrus are arrested at a pseudoimmature state at the molecular and electrophysiological levels, a phenomenon defined as “immature dentate gyrus (iDG.” To date, the iDG phenotype and shared behavioral abnormalities (including working memory deficit and hyperlocomotor activity have been discovered in Schnurri-2 knockout, mutant SNAP-25 knock-in, and forebrain-specific calcineurin knockout mice. In addition, both chronic fluoxetine treatment and pilocarpine-induced seizures reverse the neuronal maturation, resulting in the iDG phenotype in wild-type mice. Importantly, an iDG-like phenomenon was observed in post-mortem analysis of brains from patients with schizophrenia/bipolar disorder. Based on these observations, we proposed that the iDG is a potential endophenotype shared by certain types of neuropsychiatric disorders. This review summarizes recent data describing this phenotype and discusses the data’s potential implication in elucidating the pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric disorders.

  7. Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorders Associated with Streptococcal Infections (PANDAS: An Evolving Concept

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    Antonella Macerollo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcus infections (PANDAS originated from the observational work of Swedo and collaborators, who formalized their definition in 1998 in a set of operational criteria. The application of these criteria, which focuses on tics and obsessive-compulsive symptoms as core symptoms, has encountered difficulties, eventually leading to a high rate of misdiagnosis. In particular, the core feature represented by the association between newly diagnosed infections and neuropsychiatric symptom relapses in youths with this diagnosis could not be demonstrated by longitudinal studies. Exploratory studies aiming to identify clinical or cognitive features that could discriminate PANDAS from other pediatric obsessive-compulsive and tic disorders present methodological limitations, and therefore are not conclusive. Other behavioral features, in addition to obsessive-compulsive symptoms and tics, have been included in pediatric acute-onset neuropsychiatric syndromes (PANS and childhood acute neuropsychiatric syndromes (CANS, two new concepts recently proposed in order to define a much broader clinical spectrum encompassing etiologically diverse entities. Given the uncertainties on the clinical definition of PANDAS, it is not surprising that evidence in support of a post-infectious, immune-mediated pathophysiology is also insufficient. Anti-dopamine receptor antibodies might be relevant to both Sydenham’s chorea (SC—the prototypical post-streptococcal neuropsychiatric disorder—and some rare forms of encephalitis targeting the basal ganglia specifically, but studies exploring their association with children fulfilling Swedo’s criteria for PANDAS have been inconclusive. Moreover, we lack evidence in favor of the efficacy of antibiotic prophylaxis or tonsillectomy in patients fulfilling Swedo’s criteria for PANDAS, whereas a response to immune-mediated treatments like intravenous

  8. Exosomal MicroRNAs as Potential Biomarkers in Neuropsychiatric Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fries, Gabriel R; Quevedo, Joao

    2018-01-01

    This chapter will discuss the potential use of microRNAs, particularly those located in peripherally-isolated exosomes, as biomarkers in neuropsychiatric disorders. These extracellular vesicles are released as a form of cell-to-cell communication and may mediate the soma-to-germline transmission of brain-relevant information, thereby potentially contributing to the inter- or transgenerational transmission of behavioral traits. Recent novel methods allow for the enrichment of peripheral exosomes specifically released by neurons and astrocytes and may provide valuable brain-relevant biosignatures of disease.

  9. Neuropsychiatric disorders and cognitive dysfunction in patients with Cushing's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-fan; Li, Yun-feng; Chen, Xiao; Sun, Qing-fang

    2013-08-01

    To review the main neuropsychiatric disorders and cognitive deficits in patients with Cushing's disease (CD) and the associated pathophysiological mechanisms underlying CD. These mechanistic details may provide recommendations for preventing or treating the cognitive impairments and mood disorders in patients with CD. Data were obtained from papers on psychiatric and cognitive complications in CD published in English within the last 20 years. To perform the PubMed literature search, the following keywords were input: cushing's disease, cognitive, hippocampal, or glucocorticoids. Studies were selected if they contained data relevant to the topic addressed in the particular section. Because of the limited length of this article, we have frequently referenced recent reviews that contain a comprehensive amalgamation of literature rather than the actual source papers. Patients with active CD not only suffer from many characteristic clinical features, but also show some neuropsychiatric disorders and cognitive impairments. Among the psychiatric manifestations, the common ones are emotional instability, depressive disorder, anxious symptoms, impulsivity, and cognitive impairment. Irreversible effects of previous glucocorticoid (GC) excess on the central nervous system, such as hippocampal and the basal ganglia, is the most reasonable reason. Excess secretion of cortisol brings much structural and functional changes in hippocampal, such as changes in neurogenesis and morphology, signaling pathway, gene expression, and glutamate accumulation. Hippocampal volume loss can be found in most patients with CD, and decreased glucose utilization caused by GCs may lead to brain atrophy, neurogenesis impairment, inhibition of long-term potentiation, and decreased neurotrophic factors; these may also explain the mechanisms of GC-induced brain atrophy and hippocampal changes. Brain atrophy and hippocampal changes caused by excess secretion of cortisol are thought to play a significant

  10. Genetic risk for autism spectrum disorders and neuropsychiatric variation in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robinson, Elise B; St Pourcain, Beate; Anttila, Verneri

    2016-01-01

    Almost all genetic risk factors for autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) can be found in the general population, but the effects of this risk are unclear in people not ascertained for neuropsychiatric symptoms. Using several large ASD consortium and population-based resources (total n > 38,000), we...... and developmental traits, the severe tail of which can result in diagnosis with an ASD or other neuropsychiatric disorder. A continuum model should inform the design and interpretation of studies of neuropsychiatric disease biology....

  11. Novel therapeutic targets in neuropsychiatric disorders: the neuroepigenome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremolizzo, Lucio; Rodriguez-Menendez, Virginia; Conti, Elisa; Zoia, Chiara Paola; Cavaletti, Guido; Ferrarese, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    The neuroepigenome, i.e., the epigenome of the nervous system, has become interesting for therapeutics in the last years due to widespread availability of dedicated drugs. A pivotal role for neuroepigenetics is certainly implied, both in physiology and pathology, by the highly dynamic structural and functional rearrangements that constantly occur into the nervous system, globally known as plasticity. Moreover, the idea that the pathophysiology of several neuropsychiatric disorders might involve epigenetic mechanisms is increasingly taking place due to accumulating experimental data and by the evidence of a synergistic interaction between genes and environment beneath most sporadic forms of these diseases. In this paper we will review the available evidence on the use of epigenome-modifying drugs in the field of neuropsychiatry, shortly describing for each disease the underlying assumptions of an epigenetic dysregulation.

  12. Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorders Associated with Streptococcal Infections: Role of Otolaryngologist

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    Emrah Kara

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections, refers to a disorder in children who manifest symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder and/or tic disorders associated with acute exacerbations. Although autoimmune responses following infections with streptococcus have been hypothesized to be responsible, there is still controversies about the pathophysiology and treatment. In this article, the treatment methods of pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections and the role of otolaryngologist were discussed.

  13. Major Channels Involved In Neuropsychiatric Disorders And Therapeutic Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola eImbrici

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Voltage-gated ion channels are important mediators of physiological functions in the central nervous system. The cyclic activation of these channels influences neurotransmitter release, neuron excitability, gene transcription and plasticity, providing distinct brain areas with unique physiological and pharmacological response. A growing body of data has implicated ion channels in the susceptibility or pathogenesis of psychiatric diseases. Indeed, population studies support the association of polymorphisms in calcium and potassium channels with the genetic risk for bipolar disorders or schizophrenia. Moreover, point mutations in calcium, sodium and potassium channel genes have been identified in some childhood developmental disorders. Finally, antibodies against potassium channel complexes occur in a series of autoimmune psychiatric diseases. Here we report recent studies assessing the role of calcium, sodium and potassium channels in bipolar disorder, schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorders, and briefly summarize promising pharmacological strategies targeted on ion channels for the therapy of mental illness and related genetic tests.

  14. Extrapyramidal disorders in childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelini, L.; Nardocci, N.; Balottin, U.; Lanzi, G.

    1987-01-01

    Movement disorders have become significantly interesting as a subject in the Neurosciences. The majority of the data, however, relate to the more specific problems of extrapyramidal disorders in adults. As a disease in childhood it still remains poorly systemized. This book is a collection of certain studies with reference to the most recent advances regarding the morphofunctional organization of the basal ganglia in relation to development. Moreover, the book attempts to systemize the extrapyramidal diseases typical of childhood or at the onset in childhood, focusing on diagnostic and therapeutic criteria. refs.; figs.; tabs

  15. Neural stem cell regulation, fibroblast growth factors, and the developmental origins of neuropsychiatric disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna E Stevens

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing appreciation for the neurodevelopmental underpinnings of many psychiatric disorders. Disorders that begin in childhood such as autism, language disorders or mental retardation as well as adult-onset mental disorders may have origins early in neurodevelopment. Neural stem cells (NSCs can be defined as self-renewing, multipotent cells that are present in both the embryonic and adult brain. Several recent research findings demonstrate that psychiatric illness may begin with abnormal specification, growth, expansion and differentiation of embryonic NSCs. For example, candidate susceptibility genes for schizophrenia, autism and major depression include the signaling molecule Disrupted In Schizophrenia-1 (DISC-1, the homeodomain gene engrailed-2 (EN-2, and several receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs, including MET, brain-derived growth factor (BDNF and fibroblast growth factors (FGF, all of which have been shown to play important roles in NSCs or neuronal precursors. We will discuss here stem cell biology, signaling factors that affect these cells, and the potential contribution of these processes to the etiology of neuropsychiatric disorders. Hypotheses about how some of these factors relate to psychiatric disorders will be reviewed.

  16. Clinical presentation of pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections in research and community settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swedo, Susan E; Seidlitz, Jakob; Kovacevic, Miro; Latimer, M Elizabeth; Hommer, Rebecca; Lougee, Lorraine; Grant, Paul

    2015-02-01

    The first cases of pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections (PANDAS) were described >15 years ago. Since that time, the literature has been divided between studies that successfully demonstrate an etiologic relationship between Group A streptococcal (GAS) infections and childhood-onset obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and those that fail to find an association. One possible explanation for the conflicting reports is that the diagnostic criteria proposed for PANDAS are not specific enough to describe a unique and homogeneous cohort of patients. To evaluate the validity of the PANDAS criteria, we compared clinical characteristics of PANDAS patients identified in two community practices with a sample of children meeting full research criteria for PANDAS. A systematic review of clinical records was used to identify the presence or absence of selected symptoms in children evaluated for PANDAS by physicians in Hinsdale, Illinois (n=52) and Bethesda, Maryland (n=40). RESULTS were compared against data from participants in National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) research investigations of PANDAS (n=48). As described in the original PANDAS cohort, males outnumbered females (95:45) by ∼ 2:1, and symptoms began in early childhood (7.3±2.7 years). Clinical presentations were remarkably similar across sites, with all children reporting acute onset of OCD symptoms and multiple comorbidities, including separation anxiety (86-92%), school issues (75-81%), sleep disruptions (71%), tics (60-65%), urinary symptoms (42-81%), and others. Twenty of the community cases (22%) failed to meet PANDAS criteria because of an absence of documentation of GAS infections. The diagnostic criteria for PANDAS can be used by clinicians to accurately identify patients with common clinical features and shared etiology of symptoms. Although difficulties in documenting an association between GAS infection and symptom onset/exacerbations may

  17. Applications of SPECT imaging of dopaminergic neurotransmission in neuropsychiatric disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kugaya, Akira; Fujita, Masahiro; Innis, R.B. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States). School of Medicine

    2000-02-01

    Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) tracers selective for pre- and post-synaptic targets have allowed measurements of several aspects of dopaminergic (DA) neurotransmission. In this article, we will first review our DA transporter imaging in Parkinson's disease. We have developed the in vivo dopamine transporter (DAT) imaging with [{sup 123}I]{beta}-CIT ((1R)-2{beta}-Carbomethoxy-3{beta}-(4-iodophenyl)tropane). This method showed that patients with Parkinson's disease have markedly reduced DAT levels in striatum, which correlated with disease severity and disease progression. Second, we applied DA imaging techniques in patients with schizophrenia. Using amphetamine as a releaser of DA, we observed the enhanced DA release, which was measured by imaging D2 receptors with [{sup 123}I]IBZM (iodobenzamide), in schizophrenics. Further we developed the measurement of basal synaptic DA levels by AMPT (alpha-methyl-paratyrosine)-induced unmasking of D2 receptors. Finally, we expanded our techniques to the measurement of extrastriatal DA receptors using [{sup 123}I]epidepride. The findings suggest that SPECT is a useful technique to measure DA transmission in human brain and may further our understanding of the pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric disorders. (author)

  18. Drug Repurposing Is a New Opportunity for Developing Drugs against Neuropsychiatric Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeong-Min Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Better the drugs you know than the drugs you do not know. Drug repurposing is a promising, fast, and cost effective method that can overcome traditional de novo drug discovery and development challenges of targeting neuropsychiatric and other disorders. Drug discovery and development targeting neuropsychiatric disorders are complicated because of the limitations in understanding pathophysiological phenomena. In addition, traditional de novo drug discovery and development are risky, expensive, and time-consuming processes. One alternative approach, drug repurposing, has emerged taking advantage of off-target effects of the existing drugs. In order to identify new opportunities for the existing drugs, it is essential for us to understand the mechanisms of action of drugs, both biologically and pharmacologically. By doing this, drug repurposing would be a more effective method to develop drugs against neuropsychiatric and other disorders. Here, we review the difficulties in drug discovery and development in neuropsychiatric disorders and the extent and perspectives of drug repurposing.

  19. Neuropsychiatric disorders among Syrian and Iraqi refugees in Jordan: a retrospective cohort study 2012-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Erica D; Spiegel, Paul; Khalifa, Adam; Mateen, Farrah J

    2015-01-01

    The burden of neuropsychiatric disorders in refugees is likely high, but little has been reported on the neuropsychiatric disorders that affect Syrian and Iraqi refugees in a country of first asylum. This analysis aimed to study the cost and burden of neuropsychiatric disorders among refugees from Syria and Iraq requiring exceptional, United Nations-funded care in a country of first asylum. The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees works with multi-disciplinary, in-country exceptional care committees to review refugees' applications for emergency or exceptional medical care. Neuropsychiatric diagnoses among refugee applicants were identified through a retrospective review of applications to the Jordanian Exceptional Care Committee (2012-2013). Diagnoses were made using International Classification of Disease-10(th) edition codes rendered by treating physicians. Neuropsychiatric applications accounted for 11% (264/2526) of all Exceptional Care Committee applications, representing 223 refugees (40% female; median age 35 years; 57% Syrian, 36% Iraqi, 7% other countries of origin). Two-thirds of neuropsychiatric cases were for emergency care. The total amount requested for neuropsychiatric disorders was 925,674 USD. Syrian refugees were significantly more likely to request neurotrauma care than Iraqis (18/128 vs. 3/80, p = 0.03). The most expensive care per person was for brain tumor (7,905 USD), multiple sclerosis (7,502 USD), and nervous system trauma (6,466 USD), although stroke was the most frequent diagnosis. Schizophrenia was the most costly and frequent diagnosis among the psychiatric disorders (2,269 USD per person, 27,226 USD total). Neuropsychiatric disorders, including those traditionally considered outside the purview of refugee health, are an important burden to health among Iraqi and Syrian refugees. Possible interventions could include stroke risk factor reduction and targeted medication donations for multiple sclerosis, epilepsy, and

  20. Is anorexia nervosa a neuropsychiatric developmental disorder? An illustrative case report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerbeshian, Jacob; Burd, Larry

    2009-01-01

    We propose the concept that anorexia nervosa is a neuropsychiatric developmental disorder. In support of the concept we present a case report of a 12-year-old girl with high functioning autistic disorder who developed Tourette syndrome and obsessive-compulsive disorder. She subsequently experienced

  1. Paedatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorder Associated with Streptococcal Infection in an Indian Adolescent--A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sachin; Vaish, Supriya; Chopra, Saurabh; Singh, Vindyaprakash; Sharma, Priyanka

    2012-01-01

    Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorders associated with Streptococcal infection (PANDAS) is a unique constellation of signs and symptoms that exist in a subset of children with rapid onset or exacerbation of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and/or tic disorders due to an initial autoimmune reaction to a Group A Beta Hemolytic…

  2. The role of sex and gender in neuropsychiatric disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Thibaut, Florence

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence, age of onset, and clinical symptoms of many neuropsychiatric diseases substantially differ between males and females. Factors influencing the relationships between brain development and function and sex or gender may help us understand the differences between males and females in terms of risk or resilience factors in brain diseases.

  3. The role of sex and gender in neuropsychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibaut, Florence

    2016-12-01

    The prevalence, age of onset, and clinical symptoms of many neuropsychiatric diseases substantially differ between males and females. Factors influencing the relationships between brain development and function and sex or gender may help us understand the differences between males and females in terms of risk or resilience factors in brain diseases.

  4. Clinical Presentation of Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorders Associated with Streptococcal infections in Research and Community Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidlitz, Jakob; Kovacevic, Miro; Latimer, M. Elizabeth; Hommer, Rebecca; Lougee, Lorraine; Grant, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: The first cases of pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections (PANDAS) were described>15 years ago. Since that time, the literature has been divided between studies that successfully demonstrate an etiologic relationship between Group A streptococcal (GAS) infections and childhood-onset obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and those that fail to find an association. One possible explanation for the conflicting reports is that the diagnostic criteria proposed for PANDAS are not specific enough to describe a unique and homogeneous cohort of patients. To evaluate the validity of the PANDAS criteria, we compared clinical characteristics of PANDAS patients identified in two community practices with a sample of children meeting full research criteria for PANDAS. Methods: A systematic review of clinical records was used to identify the presence or absence of selected symptoms in children evaluated for PANDAS by physicians in Hinsdale, Illinois (n=52) and Bethesda, Maryland (n=40). Results were compared against data from participants in National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) research investigations of PANDAS (n=48). Results: As described in the original PANDAS cohort, males outnumbered females (95:45) by ∼ 2:1, and symptoms began in early childhood (7.3±2.7 years). Clinical presentations were remarkably similar across sites, with all children reporting acute onset of OCD symptoms and multiple comorbidities, including separation anxiety (86–92%), school issues (75–81%), sleep disruptions (71%), tics (60–65%), urinary symptoms (42–81%), and others. Twenty of the community cases (22%) failed to meet PANDAS criteria because of an absence of documentation of GAS infections. Conclusions: The diagnostic criteria for PANDAS can be used by clinicians to accurately identify patients with common clinical features and shared etiology of symptoms. Although difficulties in documenting an association

  5. Childhood disintegrative disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouridsen, Svend Erik

    2003-01-01

    In 1908 a Viennese remedial educator Theodor Heller described six children under the name of dementia infantilis who had insidiously developed a severe mental regression between the 3rd and 4th years of life after normal mental development. Neuropathological and other medical conditions...... are sometimes associated with this disorder, but contrary to earlier belief this is not typical. Interest in childhood disintegrative disorder has increased markedly in recent years and in this review attention is given to more recently published cases based on ICD-9, ICD-10 and DSM-IV diagnostic systems...

  6. Acute neuropsychiatric disorders in adolescents and young adults with Down syndrome: Japanese case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akahoshi K

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Keiko Akahoshi,1 Hiroshi Matsuda,2 Masuko Funahashi,1 Tomoyuki Hanaoka,3 Yasuyuki Suzuki11Department of Pediatrics, Tokyo Children’s Rehabilitation Hospital, Tokyo; 2Department of Nuclear Medicine, Saitama Medical University, International Medical Center, Saitama; 3Department of Pediatrics, Bihoro Rehabilitation Hospital, Hokkaido, JapanBackground: The aim of this study was to evaluate acute neuropsychiatric disorders in adolescents and young adults with Down syndrome. We report 13 Japanese adolescents or young adults with Down syndrome who developed acute neuropsychiatric disorders including withdrawal, depression, obsessive-compulsive behaviors, and occasional delusions or hallucinations.Methods: The following information was collected from each patient: age at onset of acute neuropsychiatric disorder, complications, signs and symptoms, personality traits before the onset of the acute neuropsychiatric disorder, prescribed medications with their respective doses and the response to treatment, and senile changes observed on magnetic resonance imaging or computed tomography.Results: The mean age at onset of these disorders was 21.2 years. Brain imaging showed almost senile changes; patients responded well to low-dose psychotropic therapy. Patients had an onset at a young age and presented with treatable conditions, although the average age of the onset of Alzheimer’s disease is generally over 40 years of age in patients with Down syndrome.Conclusion: These findings suggest that the pathology of acute neuropsychiatric disorder in patients with Down syndrome may be related to presenile changes; however, these disorders present features and a clinical course that is different from those presented in typical Alzheimer’s disease with Down syndrome.Keywords: Down syndrome, acute neuropsychiatric disorders, Alzheimer’s disease

  7. Annual Research Review: The Promise of Stem Cell Research for Neuropsychiatric Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccarino, Flora M.; Urban, Alexander Eckehart; Stevens, Hanna E.; Szekely, Anna; Abyzov, Alexej; Grigorenko, Elena L.; Gerstein, Mark; Weissman, Sherman

    2011-01-01

    The study of the developing brain has begun to shed light on the underpinnings of both early and adult onset neuropsychiatric disorders. Neuroimaging of the human brain across developmental time points and the use of model animal systems have combined to reveal brain systems and gene products that may play a role in autism spectrum disorders,…

  8. Curcumin for neuropsychiatric disorders: a review of in vitro, animal and human studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopresti, Adrian L

    2017-03-01

    Turmeric has been used in traditional medicine for centuries to treat a range of ailments. Its primary active constituent curcumin, can influence an array of biological activities. Many of these, such as its anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, neuroprotective, and monoaminergic effects are dysregulated in several neuropsychiatric disorders. In this systematic review, in vitro, animal, and human studies investigating the potential of curcumin as a treatment for neuropsychiatric disorders such as major depressive disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), bipolar disorder, psychotic disorders, and autism are reviewed, and directions for future research are proposed. It is concluded that curcumin is a promising, natural agent for many of these conditions, however, further research utilising robust, clinical designs are essential. The problem associated with the poor oral bioavailability of standard curcumin also requires consideration. Currently the greatest support for the efficacy of curcumin is for the treatment of major depressive disorder.

  9. [Auto-immune disorders as a possible cause of neuropsychiatric syndromes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Martinez, P; Molenaar, P C; Losen, M; Hoffmann, C; Stevens, J; de Witte, L D; van Amelsvoort, T; van Os, J; Rutten, B P F

    2015-01-01

    Changes that occur in the behaviour of voltage-gated ion channels and ligand-gated receptor channels due to gene mutations or auto-immune attack are the cause of channelopathies in the central and peripheral nervous system. Although the relation between molecular channel defects and clinical symptoms has been explained in the case of many neuromuscular channelopathies, the pathophysiology of auto-immunity in neuropsychiatric syndromes is still unclear. To review recent findings regarding neuronal auto-immune reactions in severe neuropsychiatric syndromes. Using PubMed, we consulted the literature published between 1990 and August 2014 relating to the occurrence of auto-immune antibodies in severe and persistent neuropsychiatric syndromes. Auto-antibodies have only limited access to the central nervous system, but if they do enter the system they can, in some cases, cause disease. We discuss recent findings regarding the occurrence of auto-antibodies against ligand-activated receptor channels and potassium channels in neuropsychiatric and neurological syndromes, including schizophrenia and limbic encephalitis. Although the occurrence of several auto-antibodies in schizophrenia has been confirmed, there is still no proof of a causal relationship in the syndrome. We still have no evidence of the prevalence of auto-immunity in neuropsychiatric syndromes. The discovery that an antibody against an ion channel is associated with some neuropsychiatric disorders may mean that in future it will be possible to treat patients by means of immunosuppression, which could lead to an improvement in a patient's cognitive abilities.

  10. Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorder Associated with Streptococcal Infections (PANDAS): Experience at a Tertiary Referral Center

    OpenAIRE

    Singer, Harvey S.

    2015-01-01

    The entity Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorders Associated with Streptococcal infections (PANDAS) was initially proposed in 1998 (Swedo, et al. 1998). The formal diagnosis required that the affected individual meet five specific criteria: prepubertal onset, obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) and/or a tic disorder, the dramatic sudden explosive onset of symptoms, a relapsing and remitting course of symptoms that are temporally associated with Group A beta-hemolytic streptococcal (G...

  11. Childhood depressive disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesselhöft, Rikke Thaarup

    2016-10-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a frequent and painful mental disorder considered among the five leading causes of disability in Western countries by the World Health Organization. MDD occurs at all ages, but childhood onset MDD has a more severe course with longer depressive episodes, more suicidality, and more frequent hospitalization, than later onset MDD. Childhood seems to be a window of opportunity for prevention of mental disorders, and subsequently prevention of MDD onset in childhood is recommended. Feasible prevention targets either individuals who present early signs of a given disorder but have not reached diagnostic threshold (indicated prevention) or individuals who are at increased risk for a disorder due to risk factor exposure (selective prevention). Indicated prevention is rational also for depressive disorders, because subthreshold depression (SD) in adults is found to be a precursor to MDD. The purpose of this thesis was to provide information necessary for the prevention of MDD onset in childhood. First, we examined whether the literature supports that SD is a MDD precursor also in children (systematic review). Second, we explored the risk that gender might constitute for pre-pubertal and post-pubertal onset MDD (register study). Third, we estimated the prevalence of SD and MDD in a large-scale pre-pubertal sample, and compared the clinical features of SD and MDD and potential risk factors (population-based study). The systematic review of the literature showed that SD in children and adolescents presents analogous comorbidity and symptom patterns (including self-harm symptoms). It also supports that SD is a precursor to MDD in children and adolescents causing poor outcomes like psychopathology, functional impairment and high use of health service. In the register study of Danish children and adolescents, we found a higher incidence of clinical MDD for girls after puberty compared to boys. Before puberty however, we demonstrated that boys

  12. From autism to eating disorders and more: the role of oxytocin in neuropsychiatric disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adele eRomano

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxytocin (oxy is a nonapeptide hormone synthesized in the paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei of the hypothalamus. Like other neuropeptides, oxy action can simultaneously include regionally and temporally varying combinations of neurotransmitter and neuromodulator activities. Additionally, through the neurohypophysis, oxy is secreted into the systemic circulation to act as a hormone, thereby influencing several body functions. Oxy plays a pivotal role in parturition, milk let-down and maternal behavior and has been demonstrated to be important in the formation of pair bonding between mother and infants as well as in mating pairs. Furthermore oxy is increasingly recognized as an important regulator of social behaviors, including social decision-making, evaluation and response to social stimuli, social interactions and social memory processes. Increasing evidences suggest a crucial role played by oxy in the pathophysiology of certain neuropsychiatric disorders such as autism, eating disorders, schizophrenia, mood and anxiety disorders. The potential use of oxy in these mental health disorders is becoming more and more accepted since many positive effects have been attributed to this neuropeptide.This review will provide an overview of the current understanding on the role played by oxy in different physiological functions and complex behaviors, as well as on its role and impact in different psychiatric disorders, to highlight the need of further investigations on this target that might contribute to the development of novel more efficacious therapies.

  13. Medicinal Plants Used for Neuropsychiatric Disorders Treatment in the Hauts Bassins Region of Burkina Faso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prosper T. Kinda

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: In Burkina Faso, phytotherapy is the main medical alternative used by populations to manage various diseases that affect the nervous system. The aim of the present study was to report medicinal plants with psychoactive properties used to treat neuropsychiatric disorders in the Hauts Bassins region, in the western zone of Burkina Faso. Methods: Through an ethnobotanical survey using structured questionnaire, 53 traditional healers (TH were interviewed about neuropsychiatric disorders, medicinal plants and medical practices used to treat them. The survey was carried out over a period of three months. Results: The results report 66 plant species used to treat neuropsychiatric pathologies. Roots (36.2% and leaves (29% were the main plant parts used. Alone or associated, these parts were used to prepare drugs using mainly the decoction and the trituration methods. Remedies were administered via drink, fumigation and external applications. Conclusions: It appears from this study a real knowledge of neuropsychiatric disorders in the traditional medicine of Hauts Bassins area. The therapeutic remedies suggested in this work are a real interest in the fight against psychiatric and neurological diseases. In the future, identified plants could be used for searching antipsychotic or neuroprotective compounds.

  14. The role of maternal obesity in the risk of neuropsychiatric disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Heidi Michelle Rivera; Kelly J Christiansen; Elinor L Sullivan; Elinor L Sullivan

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence indicates that perinatal exposure to maternal obesity, metabolic disease, including diabetes and hypertension, and unhealthy maternal diet has a long-term impact on offspring behavior and physiology. During the past three decades, the prevalence of both obesity and neuropsychiatric disorders has rapidly increased. Epidemiologic studies provide evidence that maternal obesity and metabolic complications increase the risk of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, autism spectr...

  15. Anxiety disorders and childhood maltreatment as predictors of outcome in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlova, Barbara; Perroud, Nader; Cordera, Paolo; Uher, Rudolf; Alda, Martin; Dayer, Alexandre; Aubry, Jean-Michel

    2018-01-01

    Comorbid anxiety disorders and childhood maltreatment have each been linked with unfavourable outcomes in people with bipolar disorder. Because childhood maltreatment is associated with anxiety disorders in this population, their respective predictive value remains to be determined. In 174 adults with bipolar disorder, we assessed childhood maltreatment using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire and lifetime anxiety disorders with the MINI International Neuropsychiatric Interview. We constructed an overall index of severity of bipolar disorder as a sum of six indicators (unemployment, psychotic symptoms, more than five manic episodes, more than five depressive episodes, suicide attempt, and hospital admission). We tested the relationship between childhood maltreatment, the number of anxiety disorders and the overall severity index using ordered logistic regression. The number of lifetime anxiety disorders was associated with the overall severity index (OR = 1.43, 95%CI = 1.01-2.04, p = 0.047). This relationship was only slightly attenuated when controlled for childhood maltreatment (OR = 1.39, 95%CI = 0.97-2.00, p = 0.069). The relationship between childhood maltreatment and the overall severity index was not statistically significant (OR = 1.26, 95%CI = 0.92-1.74, p = 0.151). Secondary analyses revealed that childhood maltreatment was associated with suicide attempts (OR = 1.70, 95%CI = 1.15-2.51, p = 0.008) and obsessive compulsive disorder was associated with the overall severity index (OR = 9.56, 95%CI = 2.20-41.47, p = 0.003). This was a cross-sectional study with a moderate-sized sample recruited from a specialist program. While comorbid anxiety disorders are associated with the overall severity of bipolar disorder, childhood maltreatment is specifically associated with suicide attempts. Clinicians should systematically assess both factors. Interventions to improve outcomes of people with bipolar disorder with comorbid anxiety disorders and history of childhood

  16. Impaired Functional Connectivity in the Prefrontal Cortex: A Mechanism for Chronic Stress-Induced Neuropsychiatric Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Negrón-Oyarzo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic stress-related psychiatric diseases, such as major depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, and schizophrenia, are characterized by a maladaptive organization of behavioral responses that strongly affect the well-being of patients. Current evidence suggests that a functional impairment of the prefrontal cortex (PFC is implicated in the pathophysiology of these diseases. Therefore, chronic stress may impair PFC functions required for the adaptive orchestration of behavioral responses. In the present review, we integrate evidence obtained from cognitive neuroscience with neurophysiological research with animal models, to put forward a hypothesis that addresses stress-induced behavioral dysfunctions observed in stress-related neuropsychiatric disorders. We propose that chronic stress impairs mechanisms involved in neuronal functional connectivity in the PFC that are required for the formation of adaptive representations for the execution of adaptive behavioral responses. These considerations could be particularly relevant for understanding the pathophysiology of chronic stress-related neuropsychiatric disorders.

  17. Childhood trauma and childhood urbanicity in relation to psychotic disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frissen, Aleida; Lieverse, Ritsaert; Drukker, Marjan; van Winkel, Ruud; Delespaul, Philippe; Bruggeman, Richard; Cahn, Wiepke; de Haan, Lieuwe; Kahn, René; Meije, Carin; Myin-Germeys, Inez; van Os, Jim; Wiersma, Durk

    2015-01-01

    Urban upbringing and childhood trauma are both associated with psychotic disorders. However, the association between childhood urbanicity and childhood trauma in psychosis is poorly understood. The urban environment could occasion a background of social adversity against which any effect of

  18. Childhood trauma and childhood urbanicity in relation to psychotic disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frissen, Aleida; Lieverse, Ritsaert; Drukker, Marjan; van Winkel, Ruud; Delespaul, Philippe; Cahn, W

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Urban upbringing and childhood trauma are both associated with psychotic disorders. However, the association between childhood urbanicity and childhood trauma in psychosis is poorly understood. The urban environment could occasion a background of social adversity against which any effect

  19. The issue of neuropsychiatric disorders in patients with hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kutashov V.A.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was assessment of thyroid function in patients with psychiatric and psychological assistance; to study the structure of AR in patients with hypothyroidism, to reveal alexithymical identifying of personality characteristics of patients with hypothyroidism and AP Materials and Methods. 406 patients with AR at the age of 51.3±4.7 years. To verify the useofTSH hypothyroidism rate and to assess depressive disorder — Hamilton Scale and the Montgomery— Asberg; with clinical and psychopathological study: 1 the scale of self-BH alarm Spielberger (Y. L. Hanin, 2 questionnaire G. Shmisheka 3 Toronto alexithymia scale. Results. Hypothyroidism is set at 116 (28.6% of 406 patients suffering from RA. Among the 374 patients with depressive disorders hypothyroidism was observed in 116: subclinical — in 76 patients (65.5%, symptomatic — in 40 (34.5%. The first group consisted of 258 patients with the presence of depressive disorders and without hypothyroidism; second — 116 patients with the presence of depression and hypothyroidism. TSH in patients suffering AR, without thyroid dysfunction was 5.2 times lower than in patients with the presence of hypothyroidism. Among AP comorbid with hypothyroidism, are predominant depressive with a predominance of mild and moderate forms. Dominating are anxious-depressive, dysphoric, adynamic, sad, depressive disorders. Conclusion. In patients with AR and hypothyroidism predominant types of personality accentuation are dysthymic, anxious, demonstrative and meticulous.

  20. Human iPSC-derived neurons and lymphoblastoid cells for personalized medicine research in neuropsychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurwitz, David

    2016-09-01

    The development and clinical implementation of personalized medicine crucially depends on the availability of high-quality human biosamples; animal models, although capable of modeling complex human diseases, cannot reflect the large variation in the human genome, epigenome, transcriptome, proteome, and metabolome. Although the biosamples available from public biobanks that store human tissues and cells may represent the large human diversity for most diseases, these samples are not always sufficient for developing biomarkers for patient-tailored therapies for neuropsychiatric disorders. Postmortem human tissues are available from many biobanks; nevertheless, collections of neuronal human cells from large patient cohorts representing the human diversity remain scarce. Two tools are gaining popularity for personalized medicine research on neuropsychiatric disorders: human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neurons and human lymphoblastoid cell lines. This review examines and contrasts the advantages and limitations of each tool for personalized medicine research.

  1. Circulating microRNAs as a Novel Class of Potential Diagnostic Biomarkers in Neuropsychiatric Disorders

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    Kichukova Tatyana M.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Neuropsychiatric diseases, such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder (BD, major depressive disorder (MDD and autism spectrum disorder (ASD, are a huge burden on society, impairing the health of those affected, as well as their ability to learn and work. Biomarkers that reflect the dysregulations linked to neuropsychiatric diseases may potentially assist the diagnosis of these disorders. Most of these biomarkers are found in the brain tissue, which is not easily accessible. This is the challenge for the search of novel biomarkers that are present in various body fluids, including serum or plasma. As a group of important endogenous small noncoding RNAs that regulate gene expression at post-transcriptional level, microRNAs (miRNAs play a crucial role in many physiological and pathological processes. Previously, researchers discovered that miRNAs contribute to the neurodevelopment and maturation, including neurite outgrowth, dendritogenesis and dendritic spine formation. These developments underline the significance of miRNAs as potential biomarkers for diagnosing and prognosing central nervous system diseases. Accumulated evidence indicates that there are considerable differences between the cell-free miRNA expression profiles of healthy subjects and those of patients. Therefore, circulating miRNAs are likely to become a new class of noninvasive, sensitive biomarkers. Despite the fact that little is known about the origin and functions of circulating miRNAs, their essential roles in the clinical diagnosis and prognosis of neuropsychiatric diseases make them attractive biomarkers. In this review we cover the increasing amounts of dataset that have accumulated in the last years on the use of circulating miRNAs and their values as potential biomarkers in most areas of neuropsychiatric diseases.

  2. Brain "fog," inflammation and obesity : key aspects of neuropsychiatric disorders improved by luteolin

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    Theoharis Constantin Theoharides

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Brain fog is a constellation of symptoms that include reduced cognition, inability to concentrate and multitask, as well as loss of short and long term memory. Brain fog characterizes patients with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs, celiac disease, chronic fatigue syndrome, fibromyalgia, mastocytosis and postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS, as well as minimal cognitive impairment, an early clinical presentation of Alzheimer’s disease (AD, and other neuropsychiatric disorders. Brain fog may be due to inflammatory molecules, including adipocytokines and histamine released from mast cells (MCs further stimulating microglia activation, and causing focal brain inflammation. Recent reviews have described the potential use of natural flavonoids for the treatment of neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative diseases. The flavone luteolin has numerous useful actions that include: anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, microglia inhibition, neuroprotection, and memory increase. A liposomal luteolin formulation in olive fruit extract improved attention in children with ASDs and brain fog in mastocytosis patients. Methylated luteolin analogues with increased activity and better bioavailability could be developed into effective treatments for neuropsychiatric disorders and brain fog.

  3. Brain "fog," inflammation and obesity: key aspects of neuropsychiatric disorders improved by luteolin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theoharides, Theoharis C; Stewart, Julia M; Hatziagelaki, Erifili; Kolaitis, Gerasimos

    2015-01-01

    Brain "fog" is a constellation of symptoms that include reduced cognition, inability to concentrate and multitask, as well as loss of short and long term memory. Brain "fog" characterizes patients with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), celiac disease, chronic fatigue syndrome, fibromyalgia, mastocytosis, and postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS), as well as "minimal cognitive impairment," an early clinical presentation of Alzheimer's disease (AD), and other neuropsychiatric disorders. Brain "fog" may be due to inflammatory molecules, including adipocytokines and histamine released from mast cells (MCs) further stimulating microglia activation, and causing focal brain inflammation. Recent reviews have described the potential use of natural flavonoids for the treatment of neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative diseases. The flavone luteolin has numerous useful actions that include: anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, microglia inhibition, neuroprotection, and memory increase. A liposomal luteolin formulation in olive fruit extract improved attention in children with ASDs and brain "fog" in mastocytosis patients. Methylated luteolin analogs with increased activity and better bioavailability could be developed into effective treatments for neuropsychiatric disorders and brain "fog."

  4. Executive Dysfunctions: The role in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity and Post-traumatic Stress neuropsychiatric disorders

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    Lía Martínez

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Executive functions (EFs is an umbrella term for various cognitive processes controlled by a complex neural activity, which allow the production of different types of behaviors seeking to achieve specific objectives, one of them being inhibitory control. There is a wide consensus that clinical and behavioral alterations associated with EF, such as inhibitory control, are present in various neuropsychiatric disorders. This paper reviews the research literature on the relationship between executive dysfunction, frontal-subcortical neural circuit changes, and the psychopathological processes associated with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD and Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD. A revision on the role of frontal-subcortical neural circuits and their presumable abnormal functioning and the high frequency of neuropsychiatric symptoms could explain the difficulties with putting effector mechanisms into action, giving individuals the necessary tools to act efficiently in their environment. Although neuronal substrate data about ADHD and PTSD has been reported in the literature, it is isolated. Therefore, this review highlights the overlapping of neural substrates in the symptomatology of ADHD and PTSD disorders concerning EFs, especially in the inhibitory component. Thus, the changes related to impaired EF that accompany disorders like ADHD and PTSD could be explained by disturbances that have a direct or indirect impact on the functioning of these loops. Initially, the theoretical model of EF according to current neuropsychology will be presented, focusing on the inhibitory component. In a second stage, this component will be analyzed for each of the disorders of interest, considering the clinical aspects, the etiology and the neurobiological basis. Additionally, commonalities between the two neuropsychiatric conditions will be taken into consideration from the perspectives of cognitive and emotional inhibition. Finally, the

  5. Executive Dysfunctions: The Role in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity and Post-traumatic Stress Neuropsychiatric Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Lía; Prada, Edward; Satler, Corina; Tavares, Maria C. H.; Tomaz, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Executive functions (EFs) is an umbrella term for various cognitive processes controlled by a complex neural activity, which allow the production of different types of behaviors seeking to achieve specific objectives, one of them being inhibitory control. There is a wide consensus that clinical and behavioral alterations associated with EF, such as inhibitory control, are present in various neuropsychiatric disorders. This paper reviews the research literature on the relationship between executive dysfunction, frontal-subcortical neural circuit changes, and the psychopathological processes associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). A revision on the role of frontal-subcortical neural circuits and their presumable abnormal functioning and the high frequency of neuropsychiatric symptoms could explain the difficulties with putting effector mechanisms into action, giving individuals the necessary tools to act efficiently in their environment. Although, neuronal substrate data about ADHD and PTSD has been reported in the literature, it is isolated. Therefore, this review highlights the overlapping of neural substrates in the symptomatology of ADHD and PTSD disorders concerning EFs, especially in the inhibitory component. Thus, the changes related to impaired EF that accompany disorders like ADHD and PTSD could be explained by disturbances that have a direct or indirect impact on the functioning of these loops. Initially, the theoretical model of EF according to current neuropsychology will be presented, focusing on the inhibitory component. In a second stage, this component will be analyzed for each of the disorders of interest, considering the clinical aspects, the etiology and the neurobiological basis. Additionally, commonalities between the two neuropsychiatric conditions will be taken into consideration from the perspectives of cognitive and emotional inhibition. Finally, the implications and future

  6. Behavioral, Pharmacological, and Immunological Abnormalities after Streptococcal Exposure: A Novel Rat Model of Sydenham Chorea and Related Neuropsychiatric Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brimberg, Lior; Benhar, Itai; Mascaro-Blanco, Adita; Alvarez, Kathy; Lotan, Dafna; Winter, Christine; Klein, Julia; Moses, Allon E; Somnier, Finn E; Leckman, James F; Swedo, Susan E; Cunningham, Madeleine W; Joel, Daphna

    2012-01-01

    Group A streptococcal (GAS) infections and autoimmunity are associated with the onset of a spectrum of neuropsychiatric disorders in children, with the prototypical disorder being Sydenham chorea (SC). Our aim was to develop an animal model that resembled the behavioral, pharmacological, and immunological abnormalities of SC and other streptococcal-related neuropsychiatric disorders. Male Lewis rats exposed to GAS antigen exhibited motor symptoms (impaired food manipulation and beam walking) and compulsive behavior (increased induced-grooming). These symptoms were alleviated by the D2 blocker haloperidol and the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor paroxetine, respectively, drugs that are used to treat motor symptoms and compulsions in streptococcal-related neuropsychiatric disorders. Streptococcal exposure resulted in antibody deposition in the striatum, thalamus, and frontal cortex, and concomitant alterations in dopamine and glutamate levels in cortex and basal ganglia, consistent with the known pathophysiology of SC and related neuropsychiatric disorders. Autoantibodies (IgG) of GAS rats reacted with tubulin and caused elevated calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II signaling in SK-N-SH neuronal cells, as previously found with sera from SC and related neuropsychiatric disorders. Our new animal model translates directly to human disease and led us to discover autoantibodies targeted against dopamine D1 and D2 receptors in the rat model as well as in SC and other streptococcal-related neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:22534626

  7. Clinical neuropsychiatric symptoms in perpetrators of severe crimes against persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Söderström Anckarsäter, Henrik

    2005-01-01

    The objective of the study was to explore the possibility of common signs and symptoms of childhood-onset neuropsychiatric disorders and personality disorders, especially psychopathy, in a cohort of violent offenders. A structured neuropsychiatric status comprising features recorded in childhood-onset neuropsychiatric disorders and adult personality disorders was assessed in 89 perpetrators of severe crimes against other persons, analysed for factor structure, and compared to clinical diagnostics of neuropsychiatric disorders and independent assessments of psychopathy rated by the Psychopathy Checklist Revised (PCL-R). One or several childhood-onset neuropsychiatric disorders [autism, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD), tics and learning disability] affected the majority of adult offenders. A factor analysis yielded four higher-order problem constellations: Executive Dysfunction, Compulsivity, Social Interaction Problems and Superficiality. All four constellations were positively correlated with life histories of aggression, stressing the clinical importance of these problems in adult forensic psychiatry. Compulsivity and Social Interaction Problems were associated with autistic traits and tics, Executive Dysfunction with AD/HD, conduct disorder and psychopathic as well as autistic traits. Superficiality was a distinct aspect of AD/HD and psychopathic traits, especially the PCL-R factor reflecting interpersonal callousness. Neuropsychiatric disorders and personality disorders such as psychopathy share common symptoms. The various facets of psychopathy are associated with executive dysfunction and empathy deficits with superficial understanding of self, others and the rules of communication.

  8. Lyme disease and pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections (PANDAS: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhee H

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Hanna Rhee1, Daniel J Cameron21Medicine, San Diego, CA, 2Northern Westchester Hospital, Mount Kisco, NY, USAAbstract: Lyme disease (LD is a complex, multisystemic illness. As the most common vector-borne disease in the United States, LD is caused by bacterial spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, with potential coinfections from agents of anaplasmosis, babesiosis, and ehrlichiosis. Persistent symptoms and clinical signs reflect multiorgan involvement with episodes of active disease and periods of remission, not sparing the coveted central nervous system. The capability of microorganisms to cause and exacerbate various neuropsychiatric pathology is also seen in pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections (PANDAS, a recently described disorder attributed to bacterium Streptococcus pyogenes of group A beta-hemolytic streptococcus in which neurologic tics and obsessive-compulsive disorders are sequelae of the infection. In the current overview, LD and PANDAS are juxtaposed through a review of their respective infectious etiologies, clinical presentations, mechanisms of disease development, courses of illness, and treatment options. Future directions related to immunoneuropsychiatry are also discussed.Keywords: neuroborreliosis, infection, obsessive-compulsive disorder, tic disorder, Borrelia burgdorferi, strep throat

  9. A systems approach identifies networks and genes linking sleep and stress: implications for neuropsychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Peng; Scarpa, Joseph R; Fitzpatrick, Karrie; Losic, Bojan; Gao, Vance D; Hao, Ke; Summa, Keith C; Yang, He S; Zhang, Bin; Allada, Ravi; Vitaterna, Martha H; Turek, Fred W; Kasarskis, Andrew

    2015-05-05

    Sleep dysfunction and stress susceptibility are comorbid complex traits that often precede and predispose patients to a variety of neuropsychiatric diseases. Here, we demonstrate multilevel organizations of genetic landscape, candidate genes, and molecular networks associated with 328 stress and sleep traits in a chronically stressed population of 338 (C57BL/6J × A/J) F2 mice. We constructed striatal gene co-expression networks, revealing functionally and cell-type-specific gene co-regulations important for stress and sleep. Using a composite ranking system, we identified network modules most relevant for 15 independent phenotypic categories, highlighting a mitochondria/synaptic module that links sleep and stress. The key network regulators of this module are overrepresented with genes implicated in neuropsychiatric diseases. Our work suggests that the interplay among sleep, stress, and neuropathology emerges from genetic influences on gene expression and their collective organization through complex molecular networks, providing a framework for interrogating the mechanisms underlying sleep, stress susceptibility, and related neuropsychiatric disorders. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A Common STEP in the Synaptic Pathology of Diverse Neuropsychiatric Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Micah A.; Lombroso, Paul J.

    2012-01-01

    Synaptic function is critical for proper cognition, and synaptopathologies have been implicated in diverse neuropsychiatric disorders. STriatal-Enriched protein tyrosine Phosphatase (STEP) is a brain-enriched tyrosine phosphatase that normally opposes synaptic strengthening by dephosphorylating key neuronal signaling molecules. STEP targets include N-methyl D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) and α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptors (AMPARs), as well as extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and the tyrosine kinase Fyn. STEP-mediated dephosphorylation promotes the internalization of NMDARs and AMPARs and the inactivation of ERK and Fyn. Regulation of STEP is complex, and recent work has implicated STEP dysregulation in the pathophysiology of several neuropsychiatric disorders. Both high levels and low levels of STEP are found in a diverse group of illnesses. This review focuses on the role of STEP in three disorders in which STEP levels are elevated: Alzheimer’s disease, fragile X syndrome, and schizophrenia. The presence of elevated STEP in all three of these disorders raises the intriguing possibility that cognitive deficits resulting from diverse etiologies may share a common molecular pathway. PMID:23239949

  11. Cognitive Deficits in Schizophrenia and Other Neuropsychiatric Disorders: Convergence of Preclinical and Clinical Evidence

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stuchlík, Aleš; Sumiyoshi, T.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 8, - (2014), s. 444 ISSN 1662-5153 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-03627S; GA ČR(CZ) GBP304/12/G069; GA MZd(CZ) NT13386; GA MŠk(CZ) LH14053 Grant - others:Rada Programu interní podpory projektů mezinárodní spolupráce AV ČR(CZ) M200111204 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : cognition * neuropsychiatric disorders * animal models * clinical studies * preclinical studies Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 3.270, year: 2014

  12. Application of 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor imaging for study of neuropsychiatric disorders and brain functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu Chun; Guan Yihui

    2011-01-01

    In the central nervous system, the widely distributed 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)receptors are involved in regulating a large number of psychological and physiological functions, including mood, sleep, endocrine and autonomic nervous system. Abnormal 5-HT transmission has been implicated in a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders, such as pain, depression and epilepsy. With the development of radioligands, non-invasive nuclear imaging technique with exquisite sensitivity and specificity has been applied for delineation of neurotransmitter function in vivo. It does great benefit for researches of these diseases and development of drugs. This review provided an overview of 5-HT receptors radioligands and recent findings. (authors)

  13. Positron computed tomography studies: potential use in neuro-psychiatric disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamasaki, T.; Tateno, Y.; Shishido, F.

    1982-01-01

    Since November 1979 positron computed tomography (PCT) have been performed to study subjects in a variety of states and varied disorders, using 13 NH 3 , 11 CO and 18 F-2-fluorodeoxyglucose ( 18 FDG) at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Japan. In neuro-psychiatric studies, normal volunteers and patients including schizophrenia, affective disorders, Alzheimer's disease, Huntigton's chorea were studied. Tomographic images were analyzed by visual observation and activity counting in regions selected. In degenerative disorder group, 18 FDG revealed decreased accumulation in target areas, whereas in functional psychosis group both in medicating patients and in non-medicated patients, positron images were basically similar to normal controls. Especially in a patient with Huntington's chorea, 18 FDG accumulation in striatal region was markedly decreased without significant change in the same region on X-ray CT and 13 NH 3 PCT

  14. Social Context, Stress, Neuropsychiatric Disorders, and the Vasopressin 1b Receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather K. Caldwell

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The arginine vasopressin 1b receptor (Avpr1b is involved in the modulation of a variety of behaviors and is an important part of the mammalian hormonal stress axis. The Avpr1b is prominent in hippocampal CA2 pyramidal cells and in the anterior pituitary corticotrophs. Decades of research on this receptor has demonstrated its importance to the modulation of social recognition memory, social forms of aggression, and modulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, particularly under conditions of acute stress. Further, work in humans suggests that the Avpr1b may play a role in human neuropsychiatric disorders and its modulation may have therapeutic potential. This paper reviews what is known about the role of the Avpr1b in the context of social behaviors, the stress axis, and human neuropsychiatric disorders. Further, possible mechanisms for how Avpr1b activation within the hippocampus vs. Avpr1b activation within anterior pituitary may interact with one another to affect behavioral output are proposed.

  15. Detection of endogenous lithium in neuropsychiatric disorders--a model for biological transmutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurup, Ravi Kumar; Kurup, Parameswara Achutha

    2002-01-01

    The human hypothalamus produces an endogenous membrane Na(+)-K(+) ATPase inhibitor, digoxin. A digoxin induced model of cellular/neuronal quantal state and perception has been described by the authors. Biological transmutation has been described in microbial systems in the quantal state. The study focuses on the plasma levels of digoxin, RBC membrane Na(+)-K(+) ATPase activity, plasma levels of magnesium and lithium in neuropsychiatric and systemic disorders. Inhibition of RBC membrane Na(+)-K(+) ATPase activity was observed in most cases along with an increase in the levels of serum digoxin and lithium and a decrease in the level of serum Mg(++). The generation of endogenous lithium would obviously occur due to biological transmutation from magnesium. Digoxin and lithium together can produce added membrane Na(+)-K(+) ATPase inhibition. The role of membrane Na(+)-K(+) ATPase inhibition in the pathogenesis of neuropsychiatric and systemic disorders is discussed. The inhibition of membrane Na(+)-K(+) ATPase can contribute to an increase in intracellular calcium and a decrease in magnesium, which can result in a defective neurotransmitter transport mechanism, mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis, defective golgi body function and protein processing dysfunction, immune dysfunction and oncogenesis. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Glucocorticoid mechanisms of functional connectivity changes in stress-related neuropsychiatric disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baila S. Hall

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Stress—especially chronic, uncontrollable stress—is an important risk factor for many neuropsychiatric disorders. The underlying mechanisms are complex and multifactorial, but they involve correlated changes in structural and functional measures of neuronal connectivity within cortical microcircuits and across neuroanatomically distributed brain networks. Here, we review evidence from animal models and human neuroimaging studies implicating stress-associated changes in functional connectivity in the pathogenesis of PTSD, depression, and other neuropsychiatric conditions. Changes in fMRI measures of corticocortical connectivity across distributed networks may be caused by specific structural alterations that have been observed in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, and other vulnerable brain regions. These effects are mediated in part by glucocorticoids, which are released from the adrenal gland in response to a stressor and also oscillate in synchrony with diurnal rhythms. Recent work indicates that circadian glucocorticoid oscillations act to balance synapse formation and pruning after learning and during development, and chronic stress disrupts this balance. We conclude by considering how disrupted glucocorticoid oscillations may contribute to the pathophysiology of depression and PTSD in vulnerable individuals, and how circadian rhythm disturbances may affect non-psychiatric populations, including frequent travelers, shift workers, and patients undergoing treatment for autoimmune disorders.

  17. Social cognition and neural substrates of face perception: implications for neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazar, Steven M; Evans, David W; Myers, Scott M; Moreno-De Luca, Andres; Moore, Gregory J

    2014-04-15

    Social cognition is an important aspect of social behavior in humans. Social cognitive deficits are associated with neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric disorders. In this study we examine the neural substrates of social cognition and face processing in a group of healthy young adults to examine the neural substrates of social cognition. Fifty-seven undergraduates completed a battery of social cognition tasks and were assessed with electroencephalography (EEG) during a face-perception task. A subset (N=22) were administered a face-perception task during functional magnetic resonance imaging. Variance in the N170 EEG was predicted by social attribution performance and by a quantitative measure of empathy. Neurally, face processing was more bilateral in females than in males. Variance in fMRI voxel count in the face-sensitive fusiform gyrus was predicted by quantitative measures of social behavior, including the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) and the Empathizing Quotient. When measured as a quantitative trait, social behaviors in typical and pathological populations share common neural pathways. The results highlight the importance of viewing neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric disorders as spectrum phenomena that may be informed by studies of the normal distribution of relevant traits in the general population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Glucocorticoid Mechanisms of Functional Connectivity Changes in Stress-Related Neuropsychiatric Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Baila S; Moda, Rachel N; Liston, Conor

    2015-01-01

    Stress-especially chronic, uncontrollable stress-is an important risk factor for many neuropsychiatric disorders. The underlying mechanisms are complex and multifactorial, but they involve correlated changes in structural and functional measures of neuronal connectivity within cortical microcircuits and across neuroanatomically distributed brain networks. Here, we review evidence from animal models and human neuroimaging studies implicating stress-associated changes in functional connectivity in the pathogenesis of PTSD, depression, and other neuropsychiatric conditions. Changes in fMRI measures of corticocortical connectivity across distributed networks may be caused by specific structural alterations that have been observed in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, and other vulnerable brain regions. These effects are mediated in part by glucocorticoids, which are released from the adrenal gland in response to a stressor and also oscillate in synchrony with diurnal rhythms. Recent work indicates that circadian glucocorticoid oscillations act to balance synapse formation and pruning after learning and during development, and chronic stress disrupts this balance. We conclude by considering how disrupted glucocorticoid oscillations may contribute to the pathophysiology of depression and PTSD in vulnerable individuals, and how circadian rhythm disturbances may affect non-psychiatric populations, including frequent travelers, shift workers, and patients undergoing treatment for autoimmune disorders.

  19. Autoantibodies to neurotransmitter receptors and ion channels: from neuromuscular to neuropsychiatric disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar eMartinez-Martinez

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Changes of voltage-gated ion channels and ligand-gated receptor channels caused by mutation or autoimmune attack are the cause of so-called channelopathies in the central and peripheral nervous system. We present the pathophysiology of channelopathies of the neuromuscular junction in terms of loss-of-function and gain-of-function principles. Autoantibodies generally have reduced access to the CNS, but in some cases this is enough to cause disease. A review is provided of recent findings implicating autoantibodies against ligand–activated receptor channels and potassium channels in psychiatric and neurological disorders, including schizophrenia and limbic encephalitis. The emergence of channelopathy-related neuropsychiatric disorders has implications for research and practice.

  20. A review SPECT in neuropsychiatric disorders: neuro biological background, methodology, findings and future perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardner, Ann; Pagani, Marco

    2003-01-01

    The origin of altered radiotracer uptake and distribution in functional brain imaging studies, often considered to reflect regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF), in psychiatric disorders is unknown. Interpreting the magnitude of changes as changes in the magnitude of neuronal activity may be reasonable during normal circumstances, but less reliable in pathologic states. Results of published 99mTc-HMPAO SPECT studies in unmedicated patients with schizophrenia and major depression are discussed in the light of 99mTc-HMPAO properties, and reported findings of altered cell morphology and biochemistry, with emphasis on energy metabolism. We conclude that the SPECT technique using radiotracers with known biochemical properties will become useful in the understanding of cellular dysfunctions at different phases of neuropsychiatric disorders, and that use of automatic interpretation of three-dimensional volumes will allow for easier identification of regional neural correlates of the different psychiatric symptoms (Au)

  1. A dimensional approach to modeling symptoms of neuropsychiatric disorders in the marmoset monkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oikonomidis, Lydia; Santangelo, Andrea M.; Shiba, Yoshiro; Clarke, F. Hannah; Robbins, Trevor W.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Some patients suffering from the same neuropsychiatric disorder may have no overlapping symptoms whilst others may share symptoms common to other distinct disorders. Therefore, the Research Domain Criteria initiative recognises the need for better characterisation of the individual symptoms on which to focus symptom‐based treatment strategies. Many of the disorders involve dysfunction within the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and so the marmoset, due to their highly developed PFC and small size, is an ideal species for studying the neurobiological basis of the behavioural dimensions that underlie these symptoms.Here we focus on a battery of tests that address dysfunction spanning the cognitive (cognitive inflexibility and working memory), negative valence (fear generalisation and negative bias) and positive valence (anhedonia) systems pertinent for understanding disorders such as ADHD, Schizophrenia, Anxiety, Depression and OCD. Parsing the separable prefrontal and striatal circuits and identifying the selective neurochemical modulation (serotonin vs dopamine) that underlie cognitive dysfunction have revealed counterparts in the clinical domain. Aspects of the negative valence system have been explored both at individual‐ (trait anxiety and genetic variation in serotonin transporter) and circuit‐based levels enabling the understanding of generalisation processes, negative biases and differential responsiveness to SSRIs. Within the positive valence system, the combination of cardiovascular and behavioural measures provides a framework for understanding motivational, anticipatory and consummatory aspects of anhedonia and their neurobiological mechanisms. Together, the direct comparison of experimental findings in marmosets with clinical studies is proving an excellent translational model to address the behavioural dimensions and neurobiology of neuropsychiatric symptoms. © 2016 The Authors. Developmental Neurobiology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc

  2. Proteomic and Microscopic Strategies towards the Analysis of the Cytoskeletal Networks in Major Neuropsychiatric Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joëlle V. F. Coumans

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Mental health disorders have become worldwide health priorities. It is estimated that in the next 20 years they will account for a 16 trillion United State dollars (US$ loss. Up to now, the underlying pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders remains elusive. Altered cytoskeleton proteins expression that may influence the assembly, organization and maintenance of cytoskeletal integrity has been reported in major depressive disorders, schizophrenia and to some extent bipolar disorders. The use of quantitative proteomics, dynamic microscopy and super-resolution microscopy to investigate disease-specific protein signatures holds great promise to improve our understanding of these disorders. In this review, we present the currently available quantitative proteomic approaches use in neurology, gel-based, stable isotope-labelling and label-free methodologies and evaluate their strengths and limitations. We also reported on enrichment/subfractionation methods that target the cytoskeleton associated proteins and discuss the need of alternative methods for further characterization of the neurocytoskeletal proteome. Finally, we present live cell imaging approaches and emerging dynamic microscopy technology that will provide the tools necessary to investigate protein interactions and their dynamics in the whole cells. While these areas of research are still in their infancy, they offer huge potential towards the understanding of the neuronal network stability and its modification across neuropsychiatric disorders.

  3. Sociodemographic, neuropsychiatric and cognitive characteristics of pathological gambling and impulse control disorders NOS in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontieri, Francesco E; Assogna, Francesca; Pellicano, Clelia; Cacciari, Claudia; Pannunzi, Sara; Morrone, Annalucia; Danese, Emanuela; Caltagirone, Carlo; Spalletta, Gianfranco

    2015-01-01

    Despite of previous evidence supporting the association between impulse control disorder (ICD) and several demographic, clinical and therapeutic features in Parkinson's disease (PD), the relationships between pathological gambling (PG) or other variants of ICD (ICD-NOS) and specific neuropsychiatric or cognitive domains are not entirely defined. In this study, 155 PD patients without dementia or cognitive impairment underwent: i. the ICD diagnoses, using the Questionnaire for Impulsive-Compulsive Disorders, ii. the mood and anxiety disorders diagnoses, according to the DSM-IV-TR criteria, and iii. a comprehensive battery for measuring severity of psychopathology and neuropsychology domains. Patients were divided in those with pathological gambling (PG), ICDs not otherwise specified (ICD-NOS), or the lack of ICD (No-ICD). There was a progression in age and age at onset from the younger PG subjects throughout ICD-NOS to No-ICD. PG and ICD-NOS subjects had longer disease duration and were taking significantly higher dosages of antiparkinsonian drugs than No-ICD ones. PG subjects had significantly higher severity of depressive and anxious symptoms with respect to the other 2 groups. Both PG and ICD-NOS subjects suffer from increased severity of psychotic symptoms than No-ICD ones. The 3 groups did not differ in any cognitive measure. Our results support the concept that the different sociodemographic and neuropsychiatric profiles of PD patients are associated with different ICDs. Moreover, we clearly demonstrate the lack of relationship between ICD and cognitive performances in undemented PD patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  4. Cannabidiol: Pharmacology and potential therapeutic role in epilepsy and other neuropsychiatric disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devinsky, Orrin; Cilio, Maria Roberta; Cross, Helen; Fernandez-Ruiz, Javier; French, Jacqueline; Hill, Charlotte; Katz, Russell; Di Marzo, Vincenzo; Jutras-Aswad, Didier; Notcutt, William George; Martinez-Orgado, Jose; Robson, Philip J.; Rohrback, Brian G.; Thiele, Elizabeth; Whalley, Benjamin; Friedman, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Objective To present a summary of current scientific evidence about the cannabinoid, cannabidiol (CBD) with regards to their relevance to epilepsy and other selected neuropsychiatric disorders. Methods We summarize the presentations from a conference in which invited participants reviewed relevant aspects of the physiology, mechanisms of action, pharmacology and data from studies with animal models and human subjects. Results Cannabis has been used to treat disease since ancient times. Δ9-THC is the major psychoactive ingredient and cannabidiol (CBD) is the major non-psychoactive ingredient in cannabis. Cannabis and Δ9-THC are anticonvulsant in most animal models but can be proconvulsant in some healthy animals. Psychotropic effects of Δ9-THC limit tolerability. CBD is anticonvulsant in many acute animal models but there is limited data in chronic models. The antiepileptic mechanisms of CBD are not known, but may include effects on the equilibrative nucleoside transporter; the orphan G-protein-coupled receptor GPR55; the transient receptor potential of melastatin type 8 channel; the 5-HT1a receptor; the α3 and α1 glycine receptors; and the transient receptor potential of ankyrin type 1 channel. CBD has neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory effects. CBD appears to be well tolerated in humans but small and methodologically limited studies of CBD in human epilepsy have been inconclusive. More recent anecdotal reports of high-ratio CBD:Δ9-THC medical marijuana have claimed efficacy, but studies were not controlled. Significance CBD bears investigation in epilepsy and other neuropsychiatric disorders, including anxiety, schizophrenia, addiction and neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. However, we lack data from well-powered double-blind randomized, controlled studies on the efficacy of pure CBD for any disorder. Initial dose-tolerability and double-blind randomized, controlled studies focusing on target intractable epilepsy populations such as patients with

  5. Sexual differentiation of the human brain: relation to gender identity, sexual orientation and neuropsychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Ai-Min; Swaab, Dick F

    2011-04-01

    During the intrauterine period a testosterone surge masculinizes the fetal brain, whereas the absence of such a surge results in a feminine brain. As sexual differentiation of the brain takes place at a much later stage in development than sexual differentiation of the genitals, these two processes can be influenced independently of each other. Sex differences in cognition, gender identity (an individual's perception of their own sexual identity), sexual orientation (heterosexuality, homosexuality or bisexuality), and the risks of developing neuropsychiatric disorders are programmed into our brain during early development. There is no evidence that one's postnatal social environment plays a crucial role in gender identity or sexual orientation. We discuss the relationships between structural and functional sex differences of various brain areas and the way they change along with any changes in the supply of sex hormones on the one hand and sex differences in behavior in health and disease on the other. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. CT scan findings and EEG in systemic lupus erythematodes patients with neuro-psychiatric disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kan, Rumiko; Hagiwara, Mariko; Katayose, Keiko; Yashima, Yuko; Kumashiro, Hisashi

    1988-06-01

    In 14 patients with systemic lupus erythematodes presenting with neuro-psychiatric disorders, CT scans were compared with encephalographic (EEG) findings. CT findings were markedly abnormal in 6, slight with a sulcal enlargement in 3, and normal in 5. In the group of markedly abnormal CT findings, focal abnormal low density areas were detected in 2, severe generalized cerebral atrophy in one, and severe atrophy of the right hemisphere in one. EEG findings included focal paroxysmal abnormality of high voltage slow burst at the left frontal dominance and positive spike on the right hemisphere. Epileptic seizure and depressed sensorium seemed to be related to CT abnormality. In 3 patients with epileptic seizures, their symptoms were closely related to CT abnormality. Parkinsonisms and depressed sensorium were also related to CT abnormality. (Namekawa, K).

  7. CT scan findings and EEG in systemic lupus erythematodes patients with neuro-psychiatric disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kan, Rumiko; Hagiwara, Mariko; Katayose, Keiko; Yashima, Yuko; Kumashiro, Hisashi

    1988-01-01

    In 14 patients with systemic lupus erythematodes presenting with neuro-psychiatric disorders, CT scans were compared with encephalographic (EEG) findings. CT findings were markedly abnormal in 6, slight with a sulcal enlargement in 3, and normal in 5. In the group of markedly abnormal CT findings, focal abnormal low density areas were detected in 2, severe generalized cerebral atrophy in one, and severe atrophy of the right hemisphere in one. EEG findings included focal paroxysmal abnormality of high voltage slow burst at the left frontal dominance and positive spike on the right hemisphere. Epileptic seizure and depressed sensorium seemed to be related to CT abnormality. In 3 patients with epileptic seizures, their symptoms were closely related to CT abnormality. Parkinsonisms and depressed sensorium were also related to CT abnormality. (Namekawa, K)

  8. The Effects of Video Games on Cognition and Brain Structure: Potential Implications for Neuropsychiatric Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shams, Tahireh A; Foussias, George; Zawadzki, John A; Marshe, Victoria S; Siddiqui, Ishraq; Müller, Daniel J; Wong, Albert H C

    2015-09-01

    Video games are now a ubiquitous form of entertainment that has occasionally attracted negative attention. Video games have also been used to test cognitive function, as therapeutic interventions for neuropsychiatric disorders, and to explore mechanisms of experience-dependent structural brain changes. Here, we review current research on video games published from January 2011 to April 2014 with a focus on studies relating to mental health, cognition, and brain imaging. Overall, there is evidence that specific types of video games can alter brain structure or improve certain aspects of cognitive functioning. Video games can also be useful as neuropsychological assessment tools. While research in this area is still at a very early stage, there are interesting results that encourage further work in this field, and hold promise for utilizing this technology as a powerful therapeutic and experimental tool.

  9. The Lay Concept of Childhood Mental Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giummarra, Melita J.; Haslam, Nick

    2005-01-01

    The structure of lay people's concepts of childhood mental disorder was investigated in a questionnaire study and examined for convergence with the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-IV). Eighty-four undergraduates who had no formal education in abnormal psychology rated 54 conditions--36 DSM-IV childhood disorders and 18 non-disorders--on…

  10. Childhood antecedents of adolescent personality disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, D P; Cohen, P; Skodol, A; Bezirganian, S; Brook, J S

    1996-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the childhood antecedents of personality disorders that are diagnosed in adolescence. A randomly selected community sample of 641 youths was assessed initially in childhood and followed longitudinally over 10 years. Childhood behavior ratings were based on maternal report; diagnoses of adolescent personality disorders were based on data obtained from both maternal and youth informants. Four composite measures of childhood behavior problems were used: conduct problems, depressive symptoms, anxiety/fear, and immaturity. Adolescent personality disorders were considered present only if the disorders persisted over a 2-year period. For all analyses, personality disorders were grouped into the three clusters (A, B, and C) of DSM-III-R. Logistic regression analyses indicated that all four of the putative childhood antecedents were associated with greater odds of an adolescent personality disorder 10 years later. Childhood conduct problems remained an independent predictor of personality disorders in all three clusters, even when other childhood problems were included in the same regression model. Additionally, depressive symptoms emerged as an independent predictor of cluster A personality disorders in boys, while immaturity was an independent predictor of cluster B personality disorders in girls. No moderating effects of age at time of childhood assessment were found. These results support the view that personality disorders can be traced to childhood emotional and behavioral disturbances and suggest that these problems have both general and specific relationships to adolescent personality functioning.

  11. RAS in the central nervous system: Potential role in neuropsychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Natalia Pessoa; Simões e Silva, Ana Cristina; Prestes, Thiago Ruiz Rodrigues; Feracin, Victor; Machado, Caroline Amaral; Ferreira, Rodrigo Novaes; Teixeira, Antonio Lucio; de Miranda, Aline Silva

    2018-02-25

    The Renin-Angiotensin System (RAS) is a key regulator of cardiovascular and renal homeostasis, but also plays important roles in mediating physiological functions in the central nervous system (CNS). The effects of the RAS were classically described as mediated by angiotensin (Ang) II via angiotensin type 1 (AT1) receptors. However, another arm of the RAS formed by the angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), Ang-(1-7) and the Mas receptor has been a matter of investigation due to its important physiological roles, usually counterbalancing the classical effects exerted by Ang II. We aim to provide an overview of effects elicited by the RAS, especially Ang-(1-7), in the brain. We also aim to discuss the therapeutic potential for neuropsychiatric disorders of the modulation of RAS. We carried out an extensive literature search in PubMed central. Within the brain, Ang-(1-7) contributes to the regulation of blood pressure by acting at regions that control cardiovascular functions. In contrast with Ang II, Ang-(1-7) improves baroreflex sensitivity and plays an inhibitory role in hypothalamic noradrenergic neurotransmission. Ang-(1-7) not only exerts effects related to blood pressure regulation, but also acts as a neuroprotective component of the RAS, for instance, by reducing cerebral infarct size, inflammation, oxidative stress and neuronal apoptosis. Pre-clinical evidence supports a relevant role for ACE2/Ang-(1-7)/Mas receptor axis in several neuropsychiatric conditions, including stress-related and mood disorders, cerebrovascular ischemic and haemorrhagic lesions and neurodegenerative diseases. However, very few data are available regarding the ACE2/Ang-(1-7)/Mas receptor axis in human CNS. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  12. Atomoxetine Use in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Comorbid Tic Disorder in Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorders Associated with Streptococcal Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirkaya, Sevcan Karakoç; Demirkaya, Mithat; Yusufoğlu, Canan; Akın, Elif

    2017-02-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common comorbid disease in children with pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections (PANDAS), in which tic-like involuntary movements are frequently seen clinical conditions. In contrast to psychostimulants, atomoxetine is considered as having minimal effects on tics. Here we report two cases with ADHD and PANDAS who were treated with atomoxetine for their ADHD and comorbid tics.

  13. A novel analytical framework for dissecting the genetic architecture of behavioral symptoms in neuropsychiatric disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony J Deo

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available For diagnosis of neuropsychiatric disorders, a categorical classification system is often utilized as a simple way for conceptualizing an often complex clinical picture. This approach provides an unsatisfactory model of mental illness, since in practice patients do not conform to these prototypical diagnostic categories. Family studies show notable familial co-aggregation between schizophrenia and bipolar illness and between schizoaffective disorders and both bipolar disorder and schizophrenia, revealing that mental illness does not conform to such categorical models and is likely to follow a continuum encompassing a spectrum of behavioral symptoms.We introduce an analytic framework to dissect the phenotypic heterogeneity present in complex psychiatric disorders based on the conceptual paradigm of a continuum of psychosis. The approach identifies subgroups of behavioral symptoms that are likely to be phenotypically and genetically homogenous. We have evaluated this approach through analysis of simulated data with simulated behavioral traits and predisposing genetic factors. We also apply this approach to a psychiatric dataset of a genome scan for schizophrenia for which extensive behavioral information was collected for each individual patient and their families. With this approach, we identified significant evidence for linkage among depressed individuals with two distinct symptom profiles, that is individuals with sleep disturbance symptoms with linkage on chromosome 2q13 and also a mutually exclusive group of individuals with symptoms of concentration problems with linkage on chromosome 2q35. In addition we identified a subset of individuals with schizophrenia defined by language disturbances with linkage to chromosome 2p25.1 and a group of patients with a phenotype intermediate between those of schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder with linkage to chromosome 2p21.The findings presented are novel and demonstrate the efficacy of this

  14. Morphostructural MRI Abnormalities Related to Neuropsychiatric Disorders Associated to Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Bonavita

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple Sclerosis associated neuropsychiatric disorders include major depression (MD, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD, bipolar affective disorder, euphoria, pseudobulbar affect, psychosis, and personality change. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI studies focused mainly on identifying morphostructural correlates of MD; only a few anecdotal cases on OCD associated to MS (OCD-MS, euphoria, pseudobulbar affect, psychosis, personality change, and one research article on MRI abnormalities in OCD-MS have been published. Therefore, in the present review we will report mainly on neuroimaging abnormalities found in MS patients with MD and OCD. All together, the studies on MD associated to MS suggest that, in this disease, depression is linked to a damage involving mainly frontotemporal regions either with discrete lesions (with those visible in T1 weighted images playing a more significant role or subtle normal appearing white matter abnormalities. Hippocampal atrophy, as well, seems to be involved in MS related depression. It is conceivable that grey matter pathology (i.e., global and regional atrophy, cortical lesions, which occurs early in the course of disease, may involve several areas including the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, the orbitofrontal cortex, and the anterior cingulate cortex whose disruption is currently thought to explain late-life depression. Further MRI studies are necessary to better elucidate OCD pathogenesis in MS.

  15. The role of maternal obesity in the risk of neuropsychiatric disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Heidi M.; Christiansen, Kelly J.; Sullivan, Elinor L.

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence indicates that perinatal exposure to maternal obesity, metabolic disease, including diabetes and hypertension, and unhealthy maternal diet has a long-term impact on offspring behavior and physiology. During the past three decades, the prevalence of both obesity and neuropsychiatric disorders has rapidly increased. Epidemiologic studies provide evidence that maternal obesity and metabolic complications increase the risk of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism spectrum disorders, anxiety, depression, schizophrenia, eating disorders (food addiction, anorexia nervosa, and bulimia nervosa), and impairments in cognition in offspring. Animal models of maternal high-fat diet (HFD) induced obesity also document persistent changes in offspring behavior and impairments in critical neural circuitry. Animals exposed to maternal obesity and HFD consumption display hyperactivity, impairments in social behavior, increased anxiety-like and depressive-like behaviors, substance addiction, food addiction, and diminished cognition. During development, these offspring are exposed to elevated levels of nutrients (fatty acids, glucose), hormones (leptin, insulin), and inflammatory factors (C-reactive protein, interleukin, and tumor necrosis factor). Such factors appear to permanently change neuroendocrine regulation and brain development in offspring. In addition, inflammation of the offspring brain during gestation impairs the development of neural pathways critical in the regulation of behavior, such as serotoninergic, dopaminergic, and melanocortinergic systems. Dysregulation of these circuits increases the risk of mental health disorders. Given the high rates of obesity in most developed nations, it is critical that the mechanisms by which maternal obesity programs offspring behavior are thoroughly characterized. Such knowledge will be critical in the development of preventative strategies and therapeutic interventions. PMID:26150767

  16. The role of maternal obesity in the risk of neuropsychiatric disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi Michelle Rivera

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent evidence indicates that perinatal exposure to maternal obesity, metabolic disease, including diabetes and hypertension, and unhealthy maternal diet has a long-term impact on offspring behavior and physiology. During the past three decades, the prevalence of both obesity and neuropsychiatric disorders has rapidly increased. Epidemiologic studies provide evidence that maternal obesity and metabolic complications increase the risk of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, autism spectrum disorders, anxiety, depression, schizophrenia, eating disorders (food addiction, anorexia nervosa, and bulimia nervosa, and cognition in offspring. Animal models of maternal high-fat diet induced obesity also document persistent changes in offspring behavior and impairments in critical neural circuitry. Animals exposed to maternal obesity and high-fat diet consumption display impairments in hyperactivity, social behavior, increased anxiety-like and depressive-like behaviors, substance addiction, food addiction, and diminished cognition. During development, these offspring are exposed to elevated levels of nutrients (fatty acids, glucose, hormones (leptin, insulin, and inflammatory factors (C-reactive protein, interleukin, and tumor necrosis factor. Such factors appear to permanently change neuroendocrine regulation and brain development in offspring. In addition, inflammation of the offspring brain during gestation impairs the development of neural pathways critical in the regulation of behavior, such as serotoninergic, dopaminergic, and melanocortinergic. Dysregulation of these circuits increases the risk of mental health disorders. Given the high rates of obesity in most developed nations, it is critical that the mechanisms by which maternal obesity programs offspring behavioral are thoroughly characterized. Such knowledge will be critical in the development of preventative strategies and therapeutic interventions.

  17. Examining the intersection of sex and stress in modelling neuropsychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, N; Bale, T L

    2009-03-01

    Sex-biased neuropsychiatric disorders, including major depressive disorder and schizophrenia, are the major cause of disability in the developed world. Elevated stress sensitivity has been proposed as a key underlying factor in disease onset. Sex differences in stress sensitivity are associated with corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF) and serotonin neurotransmission, which are important central regulators of mood and coping responses. To elucidate the underlying neurobiology of stress-related disease predisposition, it is critical to develop appropriate animal models of stress pathway dysregulation. Furthermore, the inclusion of sex difference comparisons in stress responsive behaviours, physiology and central stress pathway maturation in these models is essential. Recent studies by our laboratory and others have begun to investigate the intersection of stress and sex where the development of mouse models of stress pathway dysregulation via prenatal stress experience or early-life manipulations has provided insight into points of developmental vulnerability. In addition, examination of the maturation of these pathways, including the functional importance of the organisational and activational effects of gonadal hormones on stress responsivity, is essential for determination of when sex differences in stress sensitivity may begin. In such studies, we have detected distinct sex differences in stress coping strategies where activational effects of testosterone produced females that displayed male-like strategies in tests of passive coping, but were similar to females in tests of active coping. In a second model of elevated stress sensitivity, male mice experiencing prenatal stress early in gestation showed feminised physiological and behavioural stress responses, and were highly sensitive to a low dose of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. Analyses of expression and epigenetic patterns revealed changes in CRF and glucocorticoid receptor genes in these mice

  18. Examining the intersection of sex and stress in modeling neuropsychiatric disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Nirupa; Bale, Tracy L.

    2009-01-01

    Sex-biased neuropsychiatric disorders, including major depressive disorder and schizophrenia, are the major cause of disability in the developed world. Elevated stress sensitivity has been proposed as a key underlying factor in disease onset. Sex differences in stress sensitivity are associated with CRF and serotonin neurotransmission, important central regulators of mood and coping responses. To elucidate the underlying neurobiology of stress-related disease predisposition, it is critical to develop appropriate animal models of stress pathway dysregulation. Further, the inclusion of sex difference comparisons in stress responsive behaviors, physiology, and central stress pathway maturation in these models is essential. Recent studies by our lab and others have begun to investigate the intersection of stress and sex where the development of mouse models of stress pathway dysregulation via prenatal stress experience or early life manipulations has provided insight into points of developmental vulnerability. In addition, examination of the maturation of these pathways including the functional importance of the organizational and activational effects of gonadal hormones on stress responsivity is essential for determination of when sex differences in stress sensitivity may begin. In such studies, we have detected distinct sex differences in stress coping strategies where activational effects of testosterone produced females that displayed male-like strategies in tests of passive coping, but were similar to females in tests of active coping. In a second model of elevated stress sensitivity, male mice experiencing prenatal stress early in gestation showed feminized physiological and behavioral stress responses, and were highly sensitive to a low dose of SSRI. Analyses of expression and epigenetic patterns revealed changes in CRF and glucocorticoid receptor genes in these mice. Mechanistically, stress early in pregnancy produced a significant sex-dependent effect on

  19. Gut Microbiota Profiling and Gut-Brain Crosstalk in Children Affected by Pediatric Acute-Onset Neuropsychiatric Syndrome and Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorders Associated With Streptococcal Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quagliariello, Andrea; Del Chierico, Federica; Russo, Alessandra; Reddel, Sofia; Conte, Giulia; Lopetuso, Loris R; Ianiro, Gianluca; Dallapiccola, Bruno; Cardona, Francesco; Gasbarrini, Antonio; Putignani, Lorenza

    2018-01-01

    Pediatric acute-onset neuropsychiatric syndrome (PANS) and pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections syndrome (PANDAS) are conditions that impair brain normal neurologic function, resulting in the sudden onset of tics, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and other behavioral symptoms. Recent studies have emphasized the crosstalk between gut and brain, highlighting how gut composition can influence behavior and brain functions. Thus, the present study investigates the relationship between PANS/PANDAS and gut microbiota ecology. The gut composition of a cohort of 30 patients with PANS/PANDAS was analyzed and compared to control subjects using 16S rRNA-based metagenomics. Data were analyzed for their α- and β-diversity; differences in bacterial distribution were detected by Wilcoxon and LEfSe tests, while metabolic profile was predicted via PICRUSt software. These analyses demonstrate the presence of an altered bacterial community structure in PANS/PANDAS patients with respect to controls. In particular, ecological analysis revealed the presence of two main clusters of subjects based on age range. Thus, to avoid age bias, data from patients and controls were split into two groups: 4-8 years old and >9 years old. The younger PANS/PANDAS group was characterized by a strong increase in Bacteroidetes; in particular, Bacteroides , Odoribacter , and Oscillospira were identified as potential microbial biomarkers of this composition type. Moreover, this group exhibited an increase of several pathways concerning the modulation of the antibody response to inflammation within the gut as well as a decrease in pathways involved in brain function (i.e., SCFA, D-alanine and tyrosine metabolism, and the dopamine pathway). The older group of patients displayed a less uniform bacterial profile, thus impairing the identification of distinct biomarkers. Finally, Pearson's analysis between bacteria and anti-streptolysin O titer reveled a

  20. Linking Mitochondria to Synapses: New Insights for Stress-Related Neuropsychiatric Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freddy Jeanneteau

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The brain evolved cellular mechanisms for adapting synaptic function to energy supply. This is particularly evident when homeostasis is challenged by stress. Signaling loops between the mitochondria and synapses scale neuronal connectivity with bioenergetics capacity. A biphasic “inverted U shape” response to the stress hormone glucocorticoids is demonstrated in mitochondria and at synapses, modulating neural plasticity and physiological responses. Low dose enhances neurotransmission, synaptic growth, mitochondrial functions, learning, and memory whereas chronic, higher doses produce inhibition of these functions. The range of physiological effects by stress and glucocorticoid depends on the dose, duration, and context at exposure. These criteria are met by neuronal activity and the circadian, stress-sensitive and ultradian, stress-insensitive modes of glucocorticoid secretion. A major hallmark of stress-related neuropsychiatric disorders is the disrupted glucocorticoid rhythms and tissue resistance to signaling with the glucocorticoid receptor (GR. GR resistance could result from the loss of context-dependent glucocorticoid signaling mediated by the downregulation of the activity-dependent neurotrophin BDNF. The coincidence of BDNF and GR signaling changes glucocorticoid signaling output with consequences on mitochondrial respiration efficiency, synaptic plasticity, and adaptive trajectories.

  1. Neural Oscillations and Synchrony in Brain Dysfunction and Neuropsychiatric Disorders: It's About Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathalon, Daniel H; Sohal, Vikaas S

    2015-08-01

    Neural oscillations are rhythmic fluctuations over time in the activity or excitability of single neurons, local neuronal populations or "assemblies," and/or multiple regionally distributed neuronal assemblies. Synchronized oscillations among large numbers of neurons are evident in electrocorticographic, electroencephalographic, magnetoencephalographic, and local field potential recordings and are generally understood to depend on inhibition that paces assemblies of excitatory neurons to produce alternating temporal windows of reduced and increased excitability. Synchronization of neural oscillations is supported by the extensive networks of local and long-range feedforward and feedback bidirectional connections between neurons. Here, we review some of the major methods and measures used to characterize neural oscillations, with a focus on gamma oscillations. Distinctions are drawn between stimulus-independent oscillations recorded during resting states or intervals between task events, stimulus-induced oscillations that are time locked but not phase locked to stimuli, and stimulus-evoked oscillations that are both time and phase locked to stimuli. Synchrony of oscillations between recording sites, and between the amplitudes and phases of oscillations of different frequencies (cross-frequency coupling), is described and illustrated. Molecular mechanisms underlying gamma oscillations are also reviewed. Ultimately, understanding the temporal organization of neuronal network activity, including interactions between neural oscillations, is critical for elucidating brain dysfunction in neuropsychiatric disorders.

  2. Brain oscillations as biomarkers in neuropsychiatric disorders: following an interactive panel discussion and synopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yener, Görsev G; Başar, Erol

    2013-01-01

    This survey covers the potential use of neurophysiological changes as a biomarker in four neuropsychiatric diseases (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), Alzheimer's disease (AD), bipolar disorder (BD), and schizophrenia (SZ)). Great developments have been made in the search of biomarkers in these disorders, especially in AD. Nevertheless, there is a tremendous need to develop an efficient, low-cost, potentially portable, non-invasive biomarker in the diagnosis, course, or treatment of the above-mentioned disorders. Electrophysiological methods would provide a tool that would reflect functional brain dynamic changes within milliseconds and also may be used as an ensemble of biomarkers that is greatly needed in the evaluation of cognitive changes seen in these disorders. The strategies for measuring cognitive changes include spontaneous electroencephalography (EEG), sensory evoked oscillation (SEO), and event-related oscillations (ERO). Further selective connectivity deficit in sensory or cognitive networks is reflected by coherence measurements. Possible candidate biomarkers discussed in an interactive panel can be summarized as follows: for ADHD: (a) elevation of delta and theta, (b) diminished alpha and beta responses in spontaneous EEG; for SZ: (a) decrease of ERO gamma responses, (b) decreased ERO in all other frequency ranges, (c) invariant ERO gamma response in relation to working memory demand; for euthymic BD: (a) decreased event-related gamma coherence, (b) decreased alpha in ERO and in spontaneous EEG; for manic BD: (a) lower alpha and higher beta in ERO, (b) decreased event-related gamma coherence, (c) lower alpha and beta in ERO after valproate; and for AD: (a) decreased alpha and beta, and increased theta and delta in spontaneous EEG, (b) hyperexcitability of motor cortices as shown by transcortical magnetic stimulation, (c) hyperexcitability of visual sensory cortex as indicated by increased SEO theta responses, (d) lower delta ERO, (e

  3. Strategies for the study of neuropsychiatric disorders using endophenotypes in developing countries: a potential databank from China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond C Chan

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Endophenotypic research can be considered to be one of the most promising strategies to bridge the gap between genomic complexity and the phenotypic heterogeneity observed in neuropsychiatric disorders. However, despite the promising and systematic work initiated by our western counterparts, this research strategy is still not well known in developing countries. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to argue the merits and promise of a potentially useful database on phenotypes and endophenotypes for developing countries.

  4. A controlled clinical trial on the effects of exercise on neuropsychiatric disorders and instrumental activities in women with Alzheimer's disease

    OpenAIRE

    Nascimento,Carla M. C.; Teixeira,Camila V. L.; Gobbi,Lilian T. B.; Gobbi,Sebastião; Stella,Florindo

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyze the influence of a six-month exercise program on neuropsychiatric disorders and on the performance of instrumental activities in elderly patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). METHODS: The study included 20 patients with AD in the mild to moderate stages of the Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) divided into two groups: the experimental group, composed of 10 women who participated in the six-month exercise program, and the control group, composed of the 10 remaining AD pati...

  5. Childhood disintegrative disorder misdiagnosed as childhood-onset ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Childhood disintegrative disorder (CDD) is a rare pervasive developmental disorder, which is often misdiagnosed as schizophrenia, probably due to the resultant severe social impairment and withdrawn behaviour with stereotypys that could be mistaken for psychosis. We report a case of CDD that was misdiagnosed by a ...

  6. Affective disorders in childhood and adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Burgić-Radmanović

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Affective disorders in childhood have been more intensively studied in the last three decades. They can be recognized among the children of all ages, but are more frequent among the older children. The main characteristics of mood disorders are similar among children, adolescents and adults, although development factors affect their clinical features. Development factors affect the manifestation of all symptoms. Two main criteria for these disorders in childhood are mood disorders, such as reduced or elevated mood and irritability. These symptoms may result in social or academic damage. Depression among children is a wide-spread, family and recurrent condition, which continues episodically in adulthood. Depression is frequently associated with other psychiatric disorders, increasing the risk of suicidal behaviour, misuse of psychoactive substances and behavioural disorders. Depression in childhood brings about worse psychosocial, academic and family functioning. Family, social and environmental factors have a significant role in affective disorders of children and young people.

  7. Homocisteína e transtornos psiquiátricos Homocysteine and neuropsychiatric disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perminder Sachdev

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available O autor apresenta uma visão geral da literatura atual sobre homocisteína como um fator de risco para os transtornos neuropsiquiátricos. Foram pesquisados os bancos de dados MEDLINE, Current Contents e EMBASE (entre 1966 e 2002 para publicações em língua inglesa utilizando as palavras-chave ''Homocisteína'' e ''AVC''; ''Doença de Alzheimer''; ''Déficit Cognitivo'', ''Epilepsia'', ''Depressão'' ou ''Doença de Parkinson''. Artigos individuais foram pesquisados para referências cruzadas relevantes. É biologicamente plausível que altos níveis de homocisteína possam causar lesão cerebral e transtornos neuropsiquiátricos. A homocisteína é pró-aterogênica e pró-trombótica. Dessa forma, aumenta o risco de acidente vascular cerebral, podendo ter um efeito neurotóxico direto. Evidências de que a homocisteína seja um fator de risco para doença microvascular cerebral são conflitantes, mas justificam maiores estudos. Estudos transversais e alguns longitudinais suportam a crescente prevalência de acidente vascular cerebral e demência vascular em indivíduos com hiper-homocisteinemia. As evidências de crescente neurodegeneração estão se acumulando. A relação com a depressão ainda é experimental, da mesma forma como com a epilepsia. Atualmente, estudos sobre tratamentos são necessários para colocar as evidências sobre bases mais sólidas. Os pacientes de alto risco também devem ser pesquisados para hiper-homocisteínemia, cujo tratamento deve ser feito com ácido fólico. Mais evidências são necessárias antes que pesquisas populacionais possam ser recomendadas.The author presents an overview of the current literature on homocysteine as a risk factor for neuropsychiatric disorders. The databases MEDLINE, Current Contents and EMBASE were searched (between 1966 and 2002 for English language publications with the key words 'Homocysteine' and 'Stroke'; 'Alzheimer Disease'; 'Cognitive Impairment'; 'Epilepsy'; 'Depression

  8. Childhood abuse in patients with conversion disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofs, K.; Keijsers, G.P.J.; Hoogduin, C.A.L.; Näring, G.W.B.; Moene, F.C.

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Despite the fact that the assumption of a relationship between conversion disorder and childhood traumatization has a long history, there is little empirical evidence to support this premise. The present study examined this relation and investigated whether hypnotic susceptibility

  9. Application of gamma-aminobutyric acid type A-benzodiazepine receptor imaging for study of neuropsychiatric disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bao Weiqi; Qiu Chun; Guan Yihui

    2012-01-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid type A-benzodiazepine receptors are heterogeneous polypeptide pentamers widely spread in the central nervous system on the neuron membrane. Different subunit combinations educe various neuro-inhibitory pharmacological effects such as sedative, hypnosis, anticonvulsion and anxiolysis. PET can be utilized to study the binding of the receptors in vivo. PET radioligands of gamma-aminobutyric acid type A-benzodiazepine receptors can be classified into 3 types: antagonists,agonists and reverse agonists, of which antagonist radiotracer 11 C-flumazenil is the most commonly applied in epilepsy, anxiety disorders, depression, vegetative state,addiction and other neuro-psychiatric disorders. (authors)

  10. Autism spectrum disorder - childhood disintegrative disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... part of the larger developmental disorder category of autism spectrum disorder . ... American Psychiatric Association. Autism spectrum disorder. ... VA: American Psychiatric Publishing: 2013;50-59. Raviola GJ, ...

  11. Childhood Disintegrative Disorder as a Complication of Chicken Pox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Jitendra Kumar; Mohapatra, Satyakam

    2016-01-01

    Childhood disintegrative disorder (CDD) is characterized by late onset (>3 years of age) of developmental delays in language, social function and motor skills. Commonly there is no antecedent physical disorder leading to childhood disintegrative disorder. The present case report describes a child who developed childhood disintegrative disorder at the age of 6 years after an episode of chicken pox.

  12. Utility of the Community Integration Questionnaire in a sample of adults with neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders receiving prevocational training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaszewski, Robert; Mitrushina, Maura

    2015-08-03

    To investigate utility of the Community Integration Questionnaire (CIQ) in a mixed sample of adults with neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders. Cross-sectional, interview-based study. Participants were community-dwelling adults with disabilities resulting from neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders (N = 54), who participated in a pre-vocational readiness and social skills training program. Psychometric properties of the Community Integration Questionnaire (CIQ) were assessed and validated against Mayo-Portland Adaptability Inventory (MPAI) and The Problem Checklist from the New York University Head Injury Family Interview (PCL). Based on the revised scoring procedures, psychometric properties of the CIQ Home Competency scale were excellent, followed by the Total score and Social Integration scale. Productive Activity scale had low content validity and a weak association with the total score. Convergent and discriminant validity of the CIQ were demonstrated by correlation patterns with MPAI scales in the expected direction. Significant relationship was found with PCL Physical/Dependency scale. Significant associations were found with sex, living status, and record of subsequent employment. The results provide support for the use of the CIQ as a measure of participation in individuals with neurological and neuropsychiatric diagnoses and resulting disabilities. Implications for Rehabilitation An important goal of rehabilitation and training programs for individuals with dysfunction of the central nervous system is to promote their participation in social, vocational, and domestic activities. The Community Integration Questionnaire (CIQ) is a brief and efficient instrument for measuring these participation domains. This study demonstrated good psychometric properties and high utility of the CIQ in a sample of 54 individuals participating in a prevocational training program.

  13. Critical Issues in BDNF Val66Met Genetic Studies of Neuropsychiatric Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Jen Tsai

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Neurotrophins have been implicated in the pathophysiology of many neuropsychiatric diseases. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF is the most abundant and widely distributed neurotrophin in the brain. Its Val66Met polymorphism (refSNP Cluster Report: rs6265 is a common and functional single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP affecting the activity-dependent release of BDNF. BDNF Val66Met transgenic mice have been generated, which may provide further insight into the functional impact of this polymorphism in the brain. Considering the important role of BDNF in brain function, more than 1,100 genetic studies have investigated this polymorphism in the past 15 years. Although these studies have reported some encouraging positive findings initially, most of the findings cannot be replicated in following studies. These inconsistencies in BDNF Val66Met genetic studies may be attributed to many factors such as age, sex, environmental factors, ethnicity, genetic model used for analysis, and gene–gene interaction, which are discussed in this review. We also discuss the results of recent studies that have reported the novel functions of this polymorphism. Because many BDNF polymorphisms and non-genetic factors have been implicated in the complex traits of neuropsychiatric diseases, the conventional genetic association-based method is limited to address these complex interactions. Future studies should apply data mining and machine learning techniques to determine the genetic role of BDNF in neuropsychiatric diseases.

  14. Sleep Disorders in Childhood Neurogenetic Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Beth Mann Dosier

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Genetic advances in the past three decades have transformed our understanding and treatment of many human diseases including neurogenetic disorders. Most neurogenetic disorders can be classified as “rare disease,” but collectively neurogenetic disorders are not rare and are commonly encountered in general pediatric practice. The authors decided to select eight relatively well-known neurogenetic disorders including Down syndrome, Angelman syndrome, Prader–Willi syndrome, Smith–Magenis syndrome, congenital central hypoventilation syndrome, achondroplasia, mucopolysaccharidoses, and Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Each disorder is presented in the following format: overview, clinical characteristics, developmental aspects, associated sleep disorders, management and research/future directions.

  15. Differential susceptibility to plasticity: a 'missing link' between gene-culture co-evolution and neuropsychiatric spectrum disorders?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wurzman Rachel

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Brüne's proposal that erstwhile 'vulnerability' genes need to be reconsidered as 'plasticity' genes, given the potential for certain environments to yield increased positive function in the same domain as potential dysfunction, has implications for psychiatric nosology as well as a more dynamic understanding of the relationship between genes and culture. In addition to validating neuropsychiatric spectrum disorder nosologies by calling for similar methodological shifts in gene-environment-interaction studies, Brüne's position elevates the importance of environmental contexts - inclusive of socio-cultural variables - as mechanisms that contribute to clinical presentation. We assert that when models of susceptibility to plasticity and neuropsychiatric spectrum disorders are concomitantly considered, a new line of inquiry emerges into the co-evolution and co-determination of socio-cultural contexts and endophenotypes. This presents potentially unique opportunities, benefits, challenges, and responsibilities for research and practice in psychiatry. Please see related manuscript: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7015/10/38

  16. Mood disorders in childhood and adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Botter Maio Rocha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The identification and treatment of mood disorders in children and adolescents has grown over the last decades. Major depression is one of the most common and debilitating disorders worldwide, imposing a massive burden to the youth population. Bipolar disorder is being increasingly recognized as having its roots early in life, and its presentation during childhood and adolescence has been submitted to extensive research. This review aims to highlight clinical aspects of the current knowledge on mood disorders in the pediatric population, presenting updated information on epidemiology, diagnostic procedures, and management strategies. Limitations of available evidence and future directions of research in the field are also discussed.

  17. Traumatic Childhood Events and Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerns, Connor Morrow; Newschaffer, Craig J.; Berkowitz, Steven J.

    2015-01-01

    Traumatic childhood events are associated with a wide range of negative physical, psychological and adaptive outcomes over the life course and are one of the few identifiable causes of psychiatric illness. Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) may be at increased risk for both encountering traumatic events and developing traumatic sequelae;…

  18. Sensory modulation disorders in childhood epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Campen, Jolien S; Jansen, Floor E; Kleinrensink, Nienke J; Joëls, Marian; Braun, Kees Pj; Bruining, Hilgo

    2015-01-01

    Altered sensory sensitivity is generally linked to seizure-susceptibility in childhood epilepsy but may also be associated to the highly prevalent problems in behavioral adaptation. This association is further suggested by the frequent overlap of childhood epilepsy with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), conditions in which altered behavioral responses to sensory stimuli have been firmly established. A continuum of sensory processing defects due to imbalanced neuronal inhibition and excitation across these disorders has been hypothesizedthat may lead to common symptoms of inadequate modulation of behavioral responses to sensory stimuli. Here, we investigated the prevalence of sensory modulation disorders among children with epilepsy and their relation with symptomatology of neurodevelopmental disorders. We used the Sensory Profile questionnaire to assess behavioral responses to sensory stimuli and categorize sensory modulation disorders in children with active epilepsy (aged 4-17 years). We related these outcomes to epilepsy characteristics and tested their association with comorbid symptoms of ASD (Social Responsiveness Scale) and ADHD (Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire). Sensory modulation disorders were reported in 49 % of the 158 children. Children with epilepsy reported increased behavioral responses associated with sensory "sensitivity," "sensory avoidance," and "poor registration" but not "sensory seeking." Comorbidity of ASD and ADHD was associated with more severe sensory modulation problems, although 27 % of typically developing children with epilepsy also reported a sensory modulation disorder. Sensory modulation disorders are an under-recognized problem in children with epilepsy. The extent of the modulation difficulties indicates a substantial burden on daily functioning and may explain an important part of the behavioral distress associated with childhood epilepsy.

  19. Gender differences in the associations between childhood trauma and parental bonding in panic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seganfredo, Ana Carolina Gaspar; Torres, Mariana; Salum, Giovanni Abrahão; Blaya, Carolina; Acosta, Jandira; Eizirik, Cláudio; Manfro, Gisele Gus

    2009-12-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the association between childhood trauma and the quality of parental bonding in panic disorder compared to non-clinical controls. 123 patients and 123 paired controls were evaluated with the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire and the Parental Bonding Instrument. The Parental Bonding Instrument and the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire were highly correlated. Panic disorder patients presented higher rates of emotional abuse (OR = 2.54, p = 0.001), mother overprotection (OR = 1.98, p = 0.024) and father overprotection (OR = 1.84, p = 0.041) as compared to controls. Among men with panic disorder, only mother overprotection remained independently associated with panic disorder (OR = 3.28, p = 0.032). On the other hand, higher father overprotection (OR = 2.2, p = 0.017) and less father warmth (OR = 0.48, p = 0.039) were independently associated with panic disorder among female patients. Higher rates of different types of trauma, especially emotional abuse, are described in panic disorder patients as compared to controls. The differences regarding gender and parental bonding could be explained in the light of the psychodynamic theory.

  20. The merits and problems of Neuropsychiatric Inventory as an assessment tool in people with dementia and other neurological disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lai CKY

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Claudia KY LaiSchool of Nursing, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Special Administrative Region of the People’s Republic of China Objective: The Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI is one of the most commonly used ­assessment scales for assessing symptoms in people with dementia and other neurological disorders. This paper analyzes its conceptual framework, measurement mode, psychometric properties, and merits and problems.Method: All articles discussing the psychometric properties and factor structure of the NPI were searched for in Medline via Ovid. The abstracts of these papers were read to determine their relevance to the purpose of this paper. If deemed appropriate, a full paper was then obtained and read. Results: The NPI has reasonably good content validity and internal consistency, and good test–retest and interrater reliability. There is limited information about its sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and, in particular, responsiveness. Merits of the NPI include being comprehensive, avoiding symptom overlap, ease of use, and flexibility. It has problems in scoring (no multiples of 5, 7, and 11 and, therefore, analysis using parametric tests may not be appropriate. The use of individual subscales also warrants further investigation.Conclusion: In terms of its content and concurrent validity, intra- and interrater reliability, test–retest reliability, and internal consistency, the NPI can be considered as valid and reliable, and can be used across different ethnic groups. The tool is most likely unable to deliver as good a performance in terms of discriminating between different disorders. More studies are required to further evaluate its psychometric properties, particularly in the areas of factor structure and responsiveness. The clinical utility of the NPI also needs to be further explored. Keywords: measurement, neuropsychiatric symptoms, outcome assessment

  1. Conversion Disorder Comorbidity and Childhood Trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akyüz, Fatma; Gökalp, Peykan G; Erdiman, Sezgin; Oflaz, Serap; Karşidağ, Çağatay

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the socio-demographic and clinical characteristics, the presence of comorbidity, and the link with childhood traumatic experiences in patients with conversion disorder (CD) in a psychiatric outpatient clinic. A total of 60 literate, female patients between 18 and 65 years of age who were referred to the general psychiatry outpatient clinic and who were diagnosed with conversion disorder according to the DSM-IV diagnostic criteria were included in the study. A questionnaire on sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS), the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS), the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HARS), the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), and the Dissociative Events Scale (DES) were used to assess the cases. The mean age of the participants was 36.27±11.18 years. 72% of the patients were married and 63% were primary school graduates. The most common symptoms were asthenia (100%), aphasia (96.7%), and crying-convulsions (93%). The most common co-morbidities were depression (50%) and dissociative disorders (48.3%). Among the patients, 53.3% reported a history of exposure to physical violence and 25% reported a history of sexual assault in childhood. Assessment of the Childhood Traumatic Questionnaire revealed a significant positive relation between emotional, physical, and sexual abuse scores and DES score. CD has not yet been fully analyzed in detail in health institutions; co-existence of another mental disorder and the presence of traumatic experiences in the past further complicate the issue. Consideration of these factors during treatment will have a positive impact on the course and prognosis of the disorder.

  2. Aging and Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Naturalistic, Longitudinal Study of the Comorbidities and Behavioral and Neuropsychiatric Symptoms in Adults with ASD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Elizabeth A.; Smith, Marcia D.; Rabins, Peter V.

    2017-01-01

    Little is known about Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) in persons over age 50. In a retrospective, naturalistic review of 74 individuals aged 30 and older meeting DSM-5 criteria for ASD, the point prevalence of behavioral and neuropsychiatric symptoms (BNPS) declined significantly for 12 of 13 BNPS over a mean of 25 years while many other features…

  3. Childhood Trauma and Alexithymia in Patients with Conversion Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooq, Anum; Yousaf, Aasma

    2016-07-01

    To determine the relationship between childhood trauma (physical, sexual, emotional abuse and neglect) and alexithymia in patients with conversion disorder, and to identify it as a predictor of alexithymia in conversion disorder. An analytical study. Multiple public sector hospitals in Lahore, from September 2012 to July 2013. Eighty women with conversion disorder were recruited on the basis of DSM IV-TR diagnostic criteria checklist to screen conversion disorder. Childhood abuse interview to measure childhood trauma and Bermond Vorst Alexithymia Questionnaire, DSM-IV TR Dianostic Criteria Checklist, and Childhood Abuse Interview to assess alexithymia were used, respectively. The mean age of the sample was 18 ±2.2 years. Thirty-six cases had a history of childhood trauma, physical abuse was the most reported trauma (f = 19, 23.8%) in their childhood. Patients with conversion disorder has a significant association with alexithymia (p conversion disorder. Strategies should be devised to reduce this disorder among women in Pakistani society.

  4. Sleep physiology and sleep disorders in childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Shakankiry HM

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Hanan M El ShakankiryKing Fahd University Hospital, Al Dammam University, Al Khobar, Kingdom of Saudi ArabiaAbstract: Sleep has long been considered as a passive phenomenon, but it is now clear that it is a period of intense brain activity involving higher cortical functions. Overall, sleep affects every aspect of a child's development, particularly higher cognitive functions. Sleep concerns are ranked as the fifth leading concern of parents. Close to one third of all children suffer from sleep disorders, the prevalence of which is increased in certain pediatric populations, such as children with special needs, children with psychiatric or medical diagnoses and children with autism or pervasive developmental disorders. The paper reviews sleep physiology and the impact, classification, and management of sleep disorders in the pediatric age group.Keywords: sleep physiology, sleep disorders, childhood, epilepsy

  5. Gut-Microbiota-Brain Axis and Its Effect on Neuropsychiatric Disorders With Suspected Immune Dysregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petra, Anastasia I; Panagiotidou, Smaro; Hatziagelaki, Erifili; Stewart, Julia M; Conti, Pio; Theoharides, Theoharis C

    2015-05-01

    Gut microbiota regulate intestinal function and health. However, mounting evidence indicates that they can also influence the immune and nervous systems and vice versa. This article reviews the bidirectional relationship between the gut microbiota and the brain, termed the microbiota-gut-brain (MGB) axis, and discusses how it contributes to the pathogenesis of certain disorders that may involve brain inflammation. Articles were identified with a search of Medline (starting in 1980) by using the key words anxiety, attention-deficit hypersensitivity disorder (ADHD), autism, cytokines, depression, gut, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, inflammation, immune system, microbiota, nervous system, neurologic, neurotransmitters, neuroimmune conditions, psychiatric, and stress. Various afferent or efferent pathways are involved in the MGB axis. Antibiotics, environmental and infectious agents, intestinal neurotransmitters/neuromodulators, sensory vagal fibers, cytokines, and essential metabolites all convey information to the central nervous system about the intestinal state. Conversely, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, the central nervous system regulatory areas of satiety, and neuropeptides released from sensory nerve fibers affect the gut microbiota composition directly or through nutrient availability. Such interactions seem to influence the pathogenesis of a number of disorders in which inflammation is implicated, such as mood disorder, autism-spectrum disorders, attention-deficit hypersensitivity disorder, multiple sclerosis, and obesity. Recognition of the relationship between the MGB axis and the neuroimmune systems provides a novel approach for better understanding and management of these disorders. Appropriate preventive measures early in life or corrective measures such as use of psychobiotics, fecal microbiota transplantation, and flavonoids are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier HS Journals, Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Limbic system associated membrane protein as a potential target for neuropsychiatric disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eero eVasar

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The studies performed in laboratory animals and psychiatric patients suggest a possible role of limbic system associated membrane protein (LAMP in the mechanisms of psychiatric disorders. Stressful manipulations and genetic invalidation have revealed a role of the Lsamp gene in the regulation of anxiety in rodents. Besides that, Lsamp deficient mice display reduced aggressiveness and impaired adaptation in novel and stressful environments. The behavioural effects of amphetamine were blunted in genetically modified mice. Recent pharmacological and biochemical studies point towards altered function of GABA-, 5-hydroxytryptamine- and dopaminergic systems in Lsamp deficient mice. Moreover, we found an association between the gene polymorphisms of LSAMP and major depressive disorder. Patients suffering from major depressive disorder had significantly increased ratio between risk and protective haplotypes of the LSAMP gene compared to healthy volunteers. However, the impact of these haplotypes for the function of LAMP is not clear and remains to be elucidated in future studies.

  7. Neuronal Surface Autoantibodies in Neuropsychiatric Disorders: Are There Implications for Depression?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shenghua Zong

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Autoimmune diseases are affecting around 7.6–9.4% of the general population. A number of central nervous system disorders, including encephalitis and severe psychiatric disorders, have been demonstrated to associate with specific neuronal surface autoantibodies (NSAbs. It has become clear that specific autoantibodies targeting neuronal surface antigens and ion channels could cause severe mental disturbances. A number of studies have focused or are currently investigating the presence of autoantibodies in specific mental conditions such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorders. However, less is known about other conditions such as depression. Depression is a psychiatric disorder with complex etiology and pathogenesis. The diagnosis criteria of depression are largely based on symptoms but not on the origin of the disease. The question which arises is whether in a subgroup of patients with depression, the symptoms might be caused by autoantibodies targeting membrane-associated antigens. Here, we describe how autoantibodies targeting membrane proteins and ion channels cause pathological effects. We discuss the physiology of these antigens and their role in relation to depression. Finally, we summarize a number of studies detecting NSAbs with a special focus on cohorts that include depression diagnosis and/or show depressive symptoms.

  8. Anxiety, Depression, and Irritability in Children with Autism Relative to Other Neuropsychiatric Disorders and Typical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayes, Susan Dickerson; Calhoun, Susan L.; Murray, Michael J.; Ahuja, Meesha; Smith, Laura A.

    2011-01-01

    Maternal ratings of anxiety, depression, and irritability were analyzed in 1390 children (6-16 years of age), including 233 children with high functioning autism (HFA, IQ greater than or equal to 80), 117 children with low functioning autism (LFA, IQ less than 80), 187 typical children, and 853 children with other disorders. As a group, children…

  9. Dextromethorphan: An update on its utility for neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Linda; Thomas, Kelan L; Lucke-Wold, Brandon P; Cavendish, John Z; Crowe, Molly S; Matsumoto, Rae R

    2016-03-01

    Dextromethorphan (DM) is a commonly used antitussive and is currently the only FDA-approved pharmaceutical treatment for pseudobulbar affect. Its safety profile and diverse pharmacologic actions in the central nervous system have stimulated new interest for repurposing it. Numerous preclinical investigations and many open-label or blinded clinical studies have demonstrated its beneficial effects across a variety of neurological and psychiatric disorders. However, the optimal dose and safety of chronic dosing are not fully known. This review summarizes the preclinical and clinical effects of DM and its putative mechanisms of action, focusing on depression, stroke, traumatic brain injury, seizure, pain, methotrexate neurotoxicity, Parkinson's disease and autism. Moreover, we offer suggestions for future research with DM to advance the treatment for these and other neurological and psychiatric disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Yoga on our Minds: A Systematic Review of Yoga for Neuropsychiatric Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meera eBalasubramaniam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The demand for clinically efficacious, safe, patient acceptable and cost-effective forms of treatment for mental illness is growing. Several studies have demonstrated benefit from yoga in specific psychiatric symptoms and a general sense of well-being. Objective: To systematically examine the evidence for efficacy of yoga in the treatment of selected major psychiatric disorders. Methods: Electronic searches of The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL and the standard bibliographic databases, MEDLINE, EMBASE and PsycINFO, were performed through April 2011 and an updated in June 2011 using the keywords yoga AND psychiatry OR depression OR anxiety OR schizophrenia OR cognition OR memory OR attention AND randomized controlled trial. Studies with yoga as the independent variable and one of the above mentioned terms as the dependent variable were included and exclusion criteria were applied. Results: The search yielded a total of 124 trials, of which 16 met rigorous criteria for the final review. Grade B evidence supporting a potential acute benefit for yoga exists in depression (4 RCTs, as an adjunct to pharmacotherapy in schizophrenia (3 RCTs, in children with ADHD (2 RCTs and Grade C evidence in sleep complaints (3 RCTs. RCTs in cognitive disorders and eating disorders yielded conflicting results. No studies looked at primary prevention, relapse prevention or comparative effectiveness versus pharmacotherapy. Conclusions: There is emerging evidence from randomized trials to support popular beliefs about yoga for depression, sleep disorders, and as an augmentation therapy. Limitations of literature include inability to do double-blind studies, multiplicity of comparisons within small studies and lack of replication. Biomarker and neuroimaging studies, those comparing yoga with standard pharmaco- and psychotherapies, and studies of long-term efficacy are needed to fully translate the promise of yoga for enhancing mental

  11. Yoga on Our Minds: A Systematic Review of Yoga for Neuropsychiatric Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramaniam, Meera; Telles, Shirley; Doraiswamy, P. Murali

    2012-01-01

    Background: The demand for clinically efficacious, safe, patient acceptable, and cost-effective forms of treatment for mental illness is growing. Several studies have demonstrated benefit from yoga in specific psychiatric symptoms and a general sense of well-being. Objective: To systematically examine the evidence for efficacy of yoga in the treatment of selected major psychiatric disorders. Methods: Electronic searches of The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and the standard bibliographic databases, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PsycINFO, were performed through April 2011 and an updated in June 2011 using the keywords yoga AND psychiatry OR depression OR anxiety OR schizophrenia OR cognition OR memory OR attention AND randomized controlled trial (RCT). Studies with yoga as the independent variable and one of the above mentioned terms as the dependent variable were included and exclusion criteria were applied. Results: The search yielded a total of 124 trials, of which 16 met rigorous criteria for the final review. Grade B evidence supporting a potential acute benefit for yoga exists in depression (four RCTs), as an adjunct to pharmacotherapy in schizophrenia (three RCTs), in children with ADHD (two RCTs), and Grade C evidence in sleep complaints (three RCTs). RCTs in cognitive disorders and eating disorders yielded conflicting results. No studies looked at primary prevention, relapse prevention, or comparative effectiveness versus pharmacotherapy. Conclusion: There is emerging evidence from randomized trials to support popular beliefs about yoga for depression, sleep disorders, and as an augmentation therapy. Limitations of literature include inability to do double-blind studies, multiplicity of comparisons within small studies, and lack of replication. Biomarker and neuroimaging studies, those comparing yoga with standard pharmaco- and psychotherapies, and studies of long-term efficacy are needed to fully translate the promise of yoga for enhancing mental

  12. Vitamin D Deficiency in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Patients with Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorders Associated with Streptococcal Infections: A Case Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çelik, Gonca; Taş, Didem; Tahiroğlu, Ayşegül; Avci, Ayşe; Yüksel, Bilgin; Çam, Perihan

    2016-03-01

    Previous studies have indicated that vitamin D deficiency is common in psychiatric patients, particularly in those with neuropsychiatric disorders such as autism and schizophrenia. Vitamin D is an important neurosteroid hormone and immunomodulatory agent that also has bone metabolic effects. There has been an increasing interest in immune-related neuropsychiatric symptoms that are triggered by group A beta-hemolytic streptococcal infections. In this study, we aimed to compare the serum levels of vitamin D between obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) patients with pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections (PANDAS) and control subjects. Thirty-three OCD patients with PANDAS and 20 healthy controls were enrolled in the study. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-(OH) D), calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, and parathormone levels of the two groups were compared. Serum 25-(OH) D levels of vitamin D deficiency. The children's Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (YBOCS) and Clinical Global Impression (CGI) were used to assess the severity of OCD symptoms. There was no significant difference in serum 25-(OH) D levels between the patient and control groups. However, vitamin D deficiency was significantly more frequent in the patient group than in the control group (48.5% vs. 20.0%; p=0.038). Moreover, OCD patients with vitamin D deficiency had higher rates of comorbid ADHD than those without vitamin D deficiency (87.5% vs. 52.6%; p=0.027). While serum phosphorus levels were negatively correlated with age as well as alkaline phosphatase and ASO levels, they were positively correlated with the YBOCS total score and global severity score. Serum parathormone levels were positively correlated with the YBOCS total score, compulsion score, obsession score, and global severity score. This study supports the hypothesis that an association between vitamin D metabolism and PANDAS-related OCD exists. We suggest that biochemical

  13. Childhood disintegrative disorder: distinction from autistic disorder and predictors of outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosman, N Paul; Bergia, Berta M

    2013-12-01

    Childhood disintegrative disorder, a rare, relentlessly progressive neurologic disorder, first described by Heller in 1908, remains a condition of great interest. It has long been debated whether it is a discrete disorder or simply a late-onset variant of childhood autism. We have studied 6 cases of childhood disintegrative disorder, collected over 8 years, and followed for 2.5 to 22 years (mean 8.6 years). Childhood disintegrative disorder begins later in life than autism, and following a period of entirely normal development; the regression is more global and more severe than in autism; seizures are more frequent than in autism, yet demonstrable organicity in childhood disintegrative disorder is decidedly rare. Lastly, the prognosis is usually much worse than in autism, but in those cases with neither seizures nor epileptiform activity on electroencephalography (EEG), the outcome may be more favorable. Childhood disintegrative disorder should be viewed as a condition distinct from childhood autism.

  14. Discrepancies between self- and adult-perceptions of social competence in children with neuropsychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuori, M; Autti-Rämö, I; Junttila, N; Vauras, M; Tuulio-Henriksson, A

    2017-09-01

    The present study examines discrepancies between self- and adult-perceptions of social competence in children with attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and possible co-morbid disruptive behaviour disorders (DBD). Self-reported questionnaires were collected from multiple informants at the baseline of a multi-systemic family intervention programme for children (aged 5-12) with ADHD, ASD and possible co-morbid DBD. In total, out of the 154 families eligible for the study, information was received concerning children from 124 families (children n = 121; mothers n = 117; fathers n = 86; teachers n = 97). In addition to this, a comparison community sample of 318 school-aged children (approximately 10 years old) was utilized to examine the perceptions of children's social competence across intervention and population groups in more detail. Children's self-perceptions in the prosocial dimension of social competence (i.e. cooperating skills, empathy) did not differ between the intervention and comparison groups. Interestingly, the children in the intervention sample expressed more impulsivity and disruptiveness - the antisocial dimension of social competence - when compared with the children in the comparison sample. Adult ratings demonstrated that mothers, fathers and teachers reported decreased prosocial behaviour and increased antisocial behaviour across overall dimensions and sub-dimensions when compared with adults' ratings of elementary school children. Informant discrepancies between self-ratings and adult ratings across intervention groups yielded significant effect sizes (eta-squared) across all domains of social competence ranging from .09 to .25. Children's positive self-ratings of social competence relative to adult ratings increased within intervention sample when compared with population sample. The intervention sample children appeared to acknowledge their social competence deficits, yet self

  15. Impact of metoprolol treatment on mental status of chronic heart failure patients with neuropsychiatric disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu X

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Xuelu Liu,1 Xueming Lou,1 Xianliang Cheng,2 Yong Meng1 1Department of Cardiology, 2Department of Endocrinology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Kunming Medical University, Kunming, Yunnan, People’s Republic of China Background: Metoprolol treatment is well established for chronic heart failure (CHF patients, but the central nervous system side effects are often a potential drawback.Objective: To investigate the impact of metoprolol treatment on change in mental status of CHF patients with clinical psychological disorders (such as depression, anxiety, and burnout syndrome.Methods: From February 2013 to April 2016, CHF patients with clinical mental disorders received metoprolol (23.75 or 47.5 mg, qd PO, dose escalated with 23.75 mg each time until target heart rate [HR] <70 bpm was achieved at the Second Affiliated Hospital of Kunming Medical University. Mental status was assessed by means of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS and the Copenhagen Burnout Inventory (CBI scale. The primary outcome assessed was change in mental status of patients post-metoprolol treatment and the association with reduction in HR achieved by metoprolol.Results: A total of 154 patients (median age: 66.39 years; males: n=101 were divided into eight groups on the basis of their mental status. HR decreased significantly from baseline values in all the groups to <70 bpm in the 12th month, P≤0.0001. The HADS depression and CBI scores significantly increased from baseline throughout the study frame (P≤0.0001 for all groups, but a significant decrease in the HADS anxiety score was observed in patients with anxiety (P≤0.0001 for all groups. Regression analysis revealed no significant correlation in any of the groups between the HR reduction and the change in the HADS/CBI scores, except for a change in the CBI scores of CHF patients with depression (P=0.01, which was HR dependent.Conclusion: Metoprolol treatment worsens the depressive and high burnout

  16. Relationship between maternal depression as a risk factor for childhood trauma and mood disorders in young adults

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    Luana Porto Barbosa

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Maternal depression may be a risk factor for childhood trauma (CT, with resultant offspring development of mood disorders (MD in adult life. Objective To verify the relationship between maternal depression (as a risk factor for childhood trauma and mood disorders in young adults. Methods The sample was composed of 164 young adults and their mothers. Maternal depression was identified through the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (M.I.N.I.. Mood Disorders in the young adults were confirmed with the Structured Interview for the DSM-IV (SCID, whereas the CT was evaluated using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ. Results In the group of young adults with MD, individuals who had depressed mothers presented higher mean scores of CT in comparison to the ones who did not have mothers with Depression (p < 0.005. Childhood trauma was also associated with lower social classes (p < 0.005. In the group of young adults without MD, the only variable that was associated with CT was the young adult’s (not current work (p < 0.005. Discussion Maternal depression was considered to be a risk factor for CT and MD in young adults. Thus, preventing and treating maternal psychiatric disorders may diminish the risk of offspring childhood trauma, and, consequently, avoid negative effects in the offspring’s adult life.

  17. Childhood Abuse and Neglect in Body Dysmorphic Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didie, Elizabeth R.; Tortolani, Christina C.; Pope, Courtney G.; Menard, William; Fay, Christina; Phillips, Katharine A.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: No published studies have examined childhood abuse and neglect in body dysmorphic disorder (BDD). This study examined the prevalence and clinical correlates of abuse and neglect in individuals with this disorder. Methods: Seventy-five subjects (69.3% female, mean age = 35.4 +/- 12.0) with DSM-IV BDD completed the Childhood Trauma…

  18. Optimizing Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Childhood Psychiatric Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piacentini, John

    2008-01-01

    Reports that expand the understanding of the treatment of childhood obsessive-compulsive disorder by using exposure-based cognitive-behavioral therapy in the age group of 5 to 8-year-olds are presented. A model for collecting the common core elements of evidence-based psychosocial treatments for childhood disorders is also presented.

  19. Childhood Gender Identity...Disorder? Developmental, Cultural, and Diagnostic Concerns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragowski, Eliza A.; Scharron-del Rio, Maria R.; Sandigorsky, Amy L.

    2011-01-01

    Childhood gender identity development is reviewed in the context of biological, environmental, cultural, and diagnostic factors. With the upcoming 5th revision of the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders," the authors offer a critical consideration of childhood gender identity disorder, along with proposed diagnostic changes.…

  20. Drug Discovery Targeting Serotonin G Protein-Coupled Receptors in the Treatment of Neuropsychiatric Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felsing, Daniel E.

    Clinical data show that activation of 5-HT2C G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) can treat obesity (lorcaserin/BelviqRTM) and psychotic disorders (aripiprazole/Abilify.), including schizophrenia. 5-HT2C GPCRs are members of the 5-HT2 sub-family of 5-HT GPCRs, which include 5-HT2A, 5-HT2B, and 5-HT 2C GPCRs. 5-HT2C is structurally similar to 5-HT2A and 5-HT2B GPCRs, but activation of 5-HT2A and/or 5-HT 2B causes deleterious effects, including hallucinations and cardiac valvulopathy. Thus, there is a challenge to develop drugs that selectively activate only 5-HT2C. Prolonged activation of GPCRs by agonists reduces their function via a regulatory process called desensitization. This has clinical relevance, as 45% of drugs approved by the FDA target GPCRs, and agonist drugs (e.g., morphine) typically lose efficacy over time due to desensitization, which invites tolerance. Agonists that cause less desensitization may show extended clinical efficacy as well as a more acceptable clinical dose range. We hypothesized that structurally distinct agonists of the 5-HT2C receptor may cause varying degrees of desensitization by stabilizing unique 5-HT2C receptor conformations. Discovery of 5-HT2C agonists that exhibit minimal desensitization is therapeutically relevant for the pharmacotherapeutic treatment of chronic diseases such as obesity and psychotic disorders. The 5-HT7 receptor has recently been discovered as a druggable target, and selective activation of the 5-HT7 receptor has been shown to alleviate locomotor deficits in mouse models of Rett Syndrome. Additionally, buspirone has been shown to display therapeutically relevant affinity at 5-HT 1A and is currently in phase II clinical trials to treat stereotypy in children with autism. The 5-PAT chemical scaffold shows high affinity towards the 5-HT7 and 5-HT1A receptors. Modulations around the 5-phenyl moiety were able to improve selectivity in binding towards the 5-HT 7 receptor, whereas modulations of the alkyl chains

  1. Cognitive symptoms facilitatory for diagnoses in neuropsychiatric disorders: executive functions and locus of control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Trevor; Kostrzewa, Richard M; Beninger, Richard J; Palomo, Tomas

    2008-10-01

    Cognitive symptoms, considered in conjunction both with their regional brain and biomarkers as well as affective, attributional and neurodevelopmental components, demonstrate ever-increasing complexity to facilitate conceptualization yet, unavoidably, bedevil diagnosis in neuropsychiatry even before considerations of the enigmatic processes in memory, such as executive function and working memory, are drawn into the myriads of equations that await remedial interpretations. Prefrontal and limbic regions of the brain are involved in a diversity of expressions of cognition, normal or dysfunctional, at synaptic, intracellular and molecular levels that mobilize a concatenation of signaling entities. Serotoninergic neurotransission at prefrontal regions directs cognitive-affective entities that mediate decision-making and goal-directed behaviour. Clinical, non-clinical and basic studies challenge attempts to consolidate the multitude of evidence in order to obtain therapeutic notions to alleviate the disordered status of the diagnosed and yet-to-be diagnosed individuals. Locus of control, a concept of some utility in health-seeking procedures, is examined in three self-report studies from the perspective of a cognitive-emotional situation through observations of ordinary, 'healthy' young and middle-aged individuals, to assess the predictors of internal and external locus of control. A notion based on high level executive functioning in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) in individuals characterised by internal locus of control is contrasted with a hypofunctional executive DLPFC, characterising individuals that express an external locus of control, is discussed.

  2. Neuropsychiatric Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popescu, Alexandra; Kao, Amy H

    2011-01-01

    Neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus (NPSLE) is the least understood, yet perhaps the most prevalent manifestation of lupus. The pathogenesis of NPSLE is multifactorial and involves various inflammatory cytokines, autoantibodies, and immune complexes resulting in vasculopathic, cytotoxic and autoantibody-mediated neuronal injury. The management of NPSLE is multimodal and has not been subjected to rigorous study. Different treatment regimens include nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, anticoagulation, and immunosuppressives such as cyclophosphamide, azathioprine, mycophenolate mofetil, and methotrexate. For refractory NPSLE, intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG), plasmapheresis, and rituximab have been used. Adjunctive symptomatic treatment complements these therapies by targeting mood disorders, psychosis, cognitive impairment, seizures or headaches. Several new biological agents are being tested including Belimumab, a human monoclonal antibody that targets B lymphocyte stimulator. This review focuses on the pathophysiology, treatment, and new potential therapies for neuropsychiatric manifestations of systemic lupus erythematosus. PMID:22379459

  3. Childhood trauma and psychiatric comorbidities in patients with depressive disorder in primary care in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitriol, Verónica; Cancino, Alfredo; Leiva-Bianchi, Marcelo; Serrano, Carlos; Ballesteros, Soledad; Asenjo, Andrea; Cáceres, Cristian; Potthoff, Soledad; Salgado, Carolina; Orellana, Francisca; Ormazábal, Marcela

    2017-01-01

    Childhood trauma is associated with different psychiatric disorders during adulthood. These disorders are often presented in comorbidity with depression. To establish the relationship between psychiatric comorbidities and childhood traumatic events in patients with depression in Chile. Three hundred and ninety-four patients with major depression were assessed using the MINI International Neuropsychiatric Interview and a screening for childhood trauma. Social anxiety disorder was associated with having witnessed domestic violence during childhood (OR = 2.2, CI 1.2 - 3.8), childhood physical abuse (OR = 2.7, CI 1.6 - 4.4), physical injury associated with physical abuse (OR = 2.3, CI 1.3 - 4.7) and sexual abuse by a non-relative (OR = 2.7, CI 1.3 - 4.2). Posttraumatic stress disorder was associated with physical injury associated with physical abuse (OR = 1.9, CI 1.1 - 3.6), sexual abuse by a relative (OR = 3.2, IC 1.8 - 5.9) and sexual abuse by a non-relative (OR = 2.2, CI 1.2 - 4.1). Antisocial personality disorder was associated with traumatic separation from a caregiver (OR = 3.2, CI 1.2 - 8.5), alcohol abuse by a family member (OR = 3.1, CI 1.1 - 8.1), physical abuse (OR = 2.8, CI 1.1 - 6.9) and sexual abuse by a non-relative (OR = 4.8, CI 1.2 - 11.5). Panic disorder was associated with sexual abuse by a relative (OR = 1.9, CI 1.1 - 3.1). Generalized anxiety disorder was associated with sexual abuse by a non-relative (OR = 1.9, CI 1.1- 3.3). Further clinical recognition is required in patients seeking help for depression in primary care. This recognition must take into account the patient's current psychiatric comorbidities and adverse childhood experiences.

  4. Electric field estimation of deep transcranial magnetic stimulation clinically used for the treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders in anatomical head models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parazzini, Marta; Fiocchi, Serena; Chiaramello, Emma; Roth, Yiftach; Zangen, Abraham; Ravazzani, Paolo

    2017-05-01

    Literature studies showed the ability to treat neuropsychiatric disorders using H1 coil, developed for the deep Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (dTMS). Despite the positive results of the clinical studies, the electric field (E) distributions inside the brain induced by this coil when it is positioned on the scalp according to the clinical studies themselves are not yet precisely estimated. This study aims to characterize the E distributions due to the H1 coil in the brain of two realistic human models by computational electromagnetic techniques and to compare them with the ones due to the figure-of-8 coil, traditionally used in TMS and positioned as such to simulate the clinical experiments. Despite inter-individual differences, our results show that the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex is the region preferentially stimulated by both H1 and figure-of-8 coil when they are placed in the position on the scalp according to the clinical studies, with a more broad and non-focal distribution in the case of H1 coil. Moreover, the H1 coil spreads more than the figure-of-8 coil both in the prefrontal cortex and medial prefrontal cortex and towards some deeper brain structures and it is characterized by a higher penetration depth in the frontal lobe. This work highlights the importance of the knowledge of the electric field distribution in the brain tissues to interpret the outcomes of the experimental studies and to optimize the treatments. Copyright © 2017 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Comprehensive behavioural analysis of Long Evans and Sprague-Dawley rats reveals differential effects of housing conditions on tests relevant to neuropsychiatric disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karly M Turner

    Full Text Available Genetic (G and environmental (E manipulations are known to alter behavioural outcomes in rodents, however many animal models of neuropsychiatric disorders only use a restricted selection of strain and housing conditions. The aim of this study was to examine GxE interactions comparing two outbred rat strains, which were housed in either standard or enriched cages. The strains selected were the albino Sprague-Dawley rat, commonly used for animal models, and the other was the pigmented Long Evans rat, which is frequently used in cognitive studies. Rats were assessed using a comprehensive behavioural test battery and included well-established tests frequently employed to examine animal models of neuropsychiatric diseases, measuring aspects of anxiety, exploration, sensorimotor gating and cognition. Selective strain and housing effects were observed on a number of tests. These included increased locomotion and reduced pre-pulse inhibition in Long Evans rats compared to Sprague Dawley rats; and rats housed in enriched cages had reduced anxiety-like behaviour compared to standard housed rats. Long Evans rats required fewer sessions than Sprague Dawley rats to learn operant tasks, including a signal detection task and reversal learning. Furthermore, Long Evans rats housed in enriched cages acquired simple operant tasks faster than standard housed Long Evans rats. Cognitive phenotypes in animal models of neuropsychiatric disorders would benefit from using strain and housing conditions where there is greater potential for both enhancement and deficits in performance.

  6. Childhood abuse in Chinese patients with borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jianjun; Yang, Yunping; Wu, Jiang; Napolitano, Lisa A; Xi, Yingjun; Cui, Yonghua

    2012-04-01

    This study examined (1) the relative prevalence of childhood abuse and other pathological childhood experiences in China reported by outpatients with borderline personality disorder (BPD), with other personality disorders, and without personality disorders; and, (2) whether the primary predictors of BPD in North America are associated with the development of BPD in China. The childhood experiences of 203 outpatients with BPD, 109 outpatients with other personality disorders, and 70 outpatients without Axis II diagnoses were assessed with the Chinese version of the Childhood Experience of Care and Abuse Questionnaire (CECA.Q). Patients with BPD reported significantly more physical, emotional, and sexual abuse than either comparison group. Four types of childhood experiences were significant predictors of BPD: maternal neglect, paternal antipathy, sexual abuse, and maternal physical abuse. The findings suggest that maternal physical abuse is as strong a predictor of BPD in China as sexual abuse, a finding not replicated in North America.

  7. Childhood sarcoidosis: A rare but fascinating disorder

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    Gedalia Abraham

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Childhood sarcoidosis is a rare multisystemic granulomatous disorder of unknown etiology. In the pediatric series reported from the southeastern United States, sarcoidosis had a higher incidence among African Americans. Most reported childhood cases have occurred in patients aged 13–15 years. Macrophages bearing an increased expression of major histocompatibility class (MHC II molecules most likely initiate the inflammatory response of sarcoidosis by presenting an unidentified antigen to CD4+ Th (helper-inducer lymphocytes. A persistent, poorly degradable antigen driven cell-mediated immune response leads to a cytokine cascade, to granuloma formation, and eventually to fibrosis. Frequently observed immunologic features include depression of cutaneous delayed-type hypersensitivity and a heightened helper T cell type 1 (Th1 immune response at sites of disease. Circulating immune complexes, along with signs of B cell hyperactivity, may also be found. The clinical presentation can vary greatly depending upon the organs involved and age of the patient. Two distinct forms of sarcoidosis exist in children. Older children usually present with a multisystem disease similar to the adult manifestations, with frequent hilar lymphadenopathy and pulmonary infiltrations. Early-onset sarcoidosis is a unique form of the disease characterized by the triad of rash, uveitis, and arthritis in children presenting before four years of age. The diagnosis of sarcoidosis is confirmed by demonstrating a typical noncaseating granuloma on a biopsy specimen. Other granulmatous diseases should be reasonably excluded. The current therapy of choice for sarcoidosis in children with multisystem involvement is oral corticosteroids. Methotrexate given orally in low doses has been effective, safe and steroid sparing in some patients. Alternative immunosuppressive agents, such as azathioprine, cyclophosphamide, chlorambucil, and cyclosporine, have been tried in adult cases

  8. SYNDROMES OF BEHAVIORAL AND SPEECH DISORDERS ASSOCIATED WITH BENIGN EPILEPTIFORM DISCHARGES OF CHILDHOOD ON ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAM

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    I. A. Sadekov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to assess the role and significance of benign epileptiform discharges of childhood (BEDC on electroencephalogram (EEG in development of speech and behaviorial disorders in children.Materials and methods. 90 children aged 3–7 years were included in the study: 30 of them were healthy, 30 had attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, and 30 had expressive language disorder (ELD. We analyzed the role of persistent epileptiform activity (BEDC type in EEG as well as frontal intermittent rhythmic delta activity in the development of some neuropsychiatric disorders and speech disorders in children.Results. We suggest to allocate a special variant of ADHD – epileptiform disintegration of behavior; we also propose the strategies for its therapeutic correction.Conclusion. Detection of epileptiform activity (BEDC type on EEG in children with ELD is a predictor of cognitive disorders development and requires therapeutic correction, which should be aimed at stimulation of brain maturation. Detection of frontal intermittent rhythmic delta activity in children with ELD requires neurovisualization with further determining of treatment strategy.

  9. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in Childhood Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Colin J.

    2011-01-01

    ADHD and epilepsy common are both common childhood disorders and both can have significant negative consequences on a child's behavioural, learning, and social development. Both conditions can co-occur and population studies suggest that the prevalence of ADHD in childhood epilepsy is between 12 and 17%. The prevalence of epilepsy in ADHD is lower…

  10. Childhood trauma in adults with social anxiety disorder and panic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    overprotection) have been associated with the risk for anxiety disorders.2. Although ... childhood trauma in patients with PD4, while a German study ... study also investigated the internal consistency (Cronbach alpha) of the CTQ subscales.

  11. Computed tomography and childhood seizure disorder in Ibadan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Computed tomography and childhood seizure disorder in Ibadan. ... neuroimaging, it offers an opportunity to investigate structural lesions as a cause of seizures ... The presence of neurologic deficit increased the yield of abnormal CT features.

  12. Aging and Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Naturalistic, Longitudinal Study of the Comorbidities and Behavioral and Neuropsychiatric Symptoms in Adults with ASD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Elizabeth A; Smith, Marcia D; Rabins, Peter V

    2017-06-01

    Little is known about Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) in persons over age 50. In a retrospective, naturalistic review of 74 individuals aged 30 and older meeting DSM-5 criteria for ASD, the point prevalence of behavioral and neuropsychiatric symptoms (BNPS) declined significantly for 12 of 13 BNPS over a mean of 25 years while many other features of ASD remained stable. GI disorders (68.9%) and seizure disorders (23%) were common, and 25.7% of the sample had a BMI >30. Females were more likely to engage in screaming (p < 0.05) and oppositional behavior (p < 0.05). Current age did not have a significant effect on BNPS prevalence.

  13. Chronic Manganese Toxicity Associated with Voltage-Gated Potassium Channel Complex Antibodies in a Relapsing Neuropsychiatric Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Cyrus S.H. Ho; Roger C.M. Ho; Amy M.L. Quek

    2018-01-01

    Heavy metal poisoning is a rare but important cause of encephalopathy. Manganese (Mn) toxicity is especially rare in the modern world, and clinicians’ lack of recognition of its neuropsychiatric manifestations can lead to misdiagnosis and mismanagement. We describe the case of a man who presented with recurrent episodes of confusion, psychosis, dystonic limb movement and cognitive impairment and was initially diagnosed with anti-voltage-gated potassium channel (VGKC) complex limbic ence...

  14. Clinical features and pharmacotherapy of childhood monoamine neurotransmitter disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, J; Heales, S J R; Kurian, M A

    2014-08-01

    Childhood neurotransmitter disorders are increasingly recognised as an expanding group of inherited neurometabolic syndromes. They are caused by disturbance in synthesis, metabolism, and homeostasis of the monoamine neurotransmitters, including the catecholamines (dopamine, norepinephrine, and epinephrine) and serotonin. Disturbances in monoamine neurotransmission will lead to neurological symptoms that often overlap with clinical features of other childhood neurological disorders (such as hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy, cerebral palsy, other movement disorders, and paroxysmal conditions); consequently, neurotransmitter disorders are frequently misdiagnosed. The diagnosis of neurotransmitter disorders is made through detailed clinical assessment, analysis of cerebrospinal fluid neurotransmitters, and further supportive diagnostic investigations. Early and accurate diagnosis of neurotransmitter disorders is important, as many are amenable to therapeutic intervention. The principles of treatment for monoamine neurotransmitter disorders are mainly directly derived from understanding these metabolic pathways. In disorders characterized by enzyme deficiency, we aim to increase monoamine substrate availability, boost enzyme co-factor levels, reduce monoamine breakdown, and replace depleted levels of monoamines with pharmacological analogs as clinically indicated. Most monoamine neurotransmitter disorders lead to reduced levels of central dopamine and/or serotonin. Complete amelioration of motor symptoms is achievable in some disorders, such as Segawa's syndrome, and, in other conditions, significant improvement in quality of life can be attained with pharmacotherapy. In this review, we provide an overview of the clinical features and current treatment strategies for childhood monoamine neurotransmitter disorders.

  15. Sensory modulation disorders in childhood epilepsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Campen, Jolien S; Jansen, Floor E; Kleinrensink, Nienke J; Joëls, Marian; Braun, Kees Pj; Bruining, Hilgo

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Altered sensory sensitivity is generally linked to seizure-susceptibility in childhood epilepsy but may also be associated to the highly prevalent problems in behavioral adaptation. This association is further suggested by the frequent overlap of childhood epilepsy with autism spectrum

  16. Childhood Maltreatment and Conduct Disorder: Independent Predictors of Adolescent Substance Use Disorders in Youth with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Sanctis, Virginia A.; Trampush, Joey W.; Harty, Seth C.; Marks, David J.; Newcorn, Jeffrey H.; Miller, Carlin J.; Halperin, Jeffrey M.

    2008-01-01

    Children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at heightened risk for maltreatment and later substance use disorders (SUDs). We investigated the relationship of childhood maltreatment and other risk factors to SUDs among adolescents diagnosed with ADHD in childhood. Eighty adolescents diagnosed with ADHD when they were 7 to 11…

  17. HIV: Neuropsychiatric Aspects of Infection and Therapy

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    Rute Alves

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Since its recognition in the 80s, HIV infection has reached 65 million people worldwide. The presence of the virus in CNS occurs in most patients, increasingly being identified neuropsychiatric disorders associated with infection and / or treatment with ARV. This article intends to briefly review the neuro-pathogenesis and neuropsychiatric disorders associated with HIV infection and treatment with HAART, as well as its therapeutic approach.

  18. Neuropsychiatric Manifestations of Parkinson`s Disease

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    Ana Peixinho

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson’s disease affects about 1% of the world population older than 65 years. It’s most frequently considered a movement disorder, but the neuropsychiatric manifestations associated with the disease and/or its treatment may be of equal or greater significance in some patients. We will discuss briefly the epidemiology, physiopathology and diagnosis of Parkinson’s disease, highlighting the neuropsychiatric manifestations: depression, anxiety, psychosis, dementia, sleep disorders, dopamine dysregulation syndrome.

  19. Childhood Antecedents of Avoidant Personality Disorder: A Retrospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    RETTEW, DAVID C.; ZANARINI, MARY C.; YEN, SHIRLEY; GRILO, CARLOS M.; SKODOL, ANDREW E.; SHEA, M. TRACIE; MCGLASHAN, THOMAS H.; MOREY, LESLIE C.; CULHANE, MELISSA A.; GUNDERSON, JOHN G.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore potential risk factors and early manifestations of avoidant personality disorder (AVPD) by examining retrospective reports of social functioning and adverse childhood experiences. Method Early social functioning and pathological childhood experiences were assessed using the Childhood Experiences Questionnaire-Revised. The responses of 146 adults diagnosed with primary AVPD were compared with a group of 371 patients with other personality disorders as a primary diagnosis and a group of 83 patients with current major depression disorder and no personality disorders, using χ2 analyses. Diagnoses were based on semistructured interviews by trained reliable clinicians. Results Adults with AVPD reported poorer child and adolescent athletic performance, less involvement in hobbies during adolescence, and less adolescent popularity than the depressed comparison group and the other personality disorder group. Reported rates of physical and emotional abuse were higher than the depressed group, but this result was influenced by comorbid diagnoses. Conclusions These results suggest that early manifestations of AVPD are present in childhood but that various forms of abuse are not specific to the disorder. PMID:12960713

  20. A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Ginkgo biloba in Neuropsychiatric Disorders: From Ancient Tradition to Modern-Day Medicine

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    Natascia Brondino

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ginkgo biloba (Gb has demonstrated antioxidant and vasoactive properties as well as clinical benefits in several conditions such as ischemia, epilepsy, and peripheral nerve damage. Additionally, Gb is supposed to act as potential cognitive enhancer in dementia. So far, several trials have been conducted to investigate the potential effectiveness of Gb in neuropsychiatric conditions. However, the results of these studies remain controversial. We conducted a systematic review and a meta-analysis of three randomised controlled trials in patients with schizophrenia and eight randomised controlled trials in patients with dementia. Gb treatment reduced positive symptoms in patients with schizophrenia and improved cognitive function and activities of daily living in patients with dementia. No effect of Gb on negative symptoms in schizophrenic patients was found. The general lack of evidence prevents drawing conclusions regarding Gb effectiveness in other neuropsychiatric conditions (i.e., autism, depression, anxiety, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, and addiction. Our data support the use of Gb in patients with dementia and as an adjunctive therapy in schizophrenic patients.

  1. Prenatal exposure to very severe maternal obesity is associated with adverse neuropsychiatric outcomes in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mina, T H; Lahti, M; Drake, A J; Räikkönen, K; Minnis, H; Denison, F C; Norman, J E; Reynolds, R M

    2017-01-01

    Prenatal maternal obesity has been linked to adverse childhood neuropsychiatric outcomes, including increased symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), internalizing and externalizing problems, affective disorders and neurodevelopmental problems but few studies have studied neuropsychiatric outcomes among offspring born to very severely obese women or assessed potential familial confounding by maternal psychological distress. We evaluated neuropsychiatric symptoms in 112 children aged 3-5 years whose mothers had participated in a longitudinal study of obesity in pregnancy (50 very severe obesity, BMI ⩾40 kg/m2, obese class III and 62 lean, BMI 18.5-25 kg/m2). The mothers completed the Conners' Hyperactivity Scale, Early Symptomatic Syndrome Eliciting Neurodevelopmental Clinical Examination Questionnaire (ESSENCE-Q), Child's Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ), Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), and Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) to assess child neuropsychiatric symptoms. Covariates included child's sex, age, birthweight, gestational age, socioeconomic deprivation levels, maternal age, parity, smoking status during pregnancy, gestational diabetes and maternal concurrent symptoms of anxiety and depression assessed using State Anxiety of Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Index (STAI) and General Health Questionnaire (GHQ), respectively. Children exposed to prenatal maternal very severe obesity had significantly higher scores in the Conners' Hyperactivity Scale; ESSENCE-Q; total sleep problems in CSHQ; hyperactivity, conduct problems and total difficulties scales of the SDQ; higher externalizing and total problems, anxious/depressed, aggressive behaviour and other problem syndrome scores and higher DSM-oriented affective, anxiety and ADHD problems in CBCL. Prenatal maternal very severe obesity remained a significant predictor of child neuropsychiatric problems across multiple scales independent of demographic factors, prenatal factors and

  2. Chronic Manganese Toxicity Associated with Voltage-Gated Potassium Channel Complex Antibodies in a Relapsing Neuropsychiatric Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyrus S.H. Ho

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metal poisoning is a rare but important cause of encephalopathy. Manganese (Mn toxicity is especially rare in the modern world, and clinicians’ lack of recognition of its neuropsychiatric manifestations can lead to misdiagnosis and mismanagement. We describe the case of a man who presented with recurrent episodes of confusion, psychosis, dystonic limb movement and cognitive impairment and was initially diagnosed with anti-voltage-gated potassium channel (VGKC complex limbic encephalitis in view of previous positive autoantibodies. His failure to respond to immunotherapy prompted testing for heavy metal poisoning, which was positive for Mn. This is the first report to examine an association between Mn and VGKC antibodies and the effects of Mn on functional brain activity using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS.

  3. Chronic Manganese Toxicity Associated with Voltage-Gated Potassium Channel Complex Antibodies in a Relapsing Neuropsychiatric Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Cyrus S H; Ho, Roger C M; Quek, Amy M L

    2018-04-18

    Heavy metal poisoning is a rare but important cause of encephalopathy. Manganese (Mn) toxicity is especially rare in the modern world, and clinicians’ lack of recognition of its neuropsychiatric manifestations can lead to misdiagnosis and mismanagement. We describe the case of a man who presented with recurrent episodes of confusion, psychosis, dystonic limb movement and cognitive impairment and was initially diagnosed with anti-voltage-gated potassium channel (VGKC) complex limbic encephalitis in view of previous positive autoantibodies. His failure to respond to immunotherapy prompted testing for heavy metal poisoning, which was positive for Mn. This is the first report to examine an association between Mn and VGKC antibodies and the effects of Mn on functional brain activity using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS).

  4. Chronic Manganese Toxicity Associated with Voltage-Gated Potassium Channel Complex Antibodies in a Relapsing Neuropsychiatric Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Cyrus S.H.; Quek, Amy M.L.

    2018-01-01

    Heavy metal poisoning is a rare but important cause of encephalopathy. Manganese (Mn) toxicity is especially rare in the modern world, and clinicians’ lack of recognition of its neuropsychiatric manifestations can lead to misdiagnosis and mismanagement. We describe the case of a man who presented with recurrent episodes of confusion, psychosis, dystonic limb movement and cognitive impairment and was initially diagnosed with anti-voltage-gated potassium channel (VGKC) complex limbic encephalitis in view of previous positive autoantibodies. His failure to respond to immunotherapy prompted testing for heavy metal poisoning, which was positive for Mn. This is the first report to examine an association between Mn and VGKC antibodies and the effects of Mn on functional brain activity using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). PMID:29669989

  5. Swimming in Deep Water: Childhood Bipolar Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senokossoff, Gwyn W.; Stoddard, Kim

    2009-01-01

    The authors focused on one parent's struggles in finding a diagnosis and intervention for a child who had bipolar disorder. The authors explain the process of identification, diagnosis, and intervention of a child who had bipolar disorder. In addition to the personal story, the authors provide information on the disorder and outline strategies…

  6. Cognitive coping and childhood anxiety disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Legerstee, Jeroen S.; Garnefski, Nadia; Jellesma, Francine C.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Utens, Elisabeth M. W. J.

    2010-01-01

    To investigate differences in cognitive coping strategies between anxiety-disordered and non-anxious 9-11-year-old children. Additionally, differences in cognitive coping between specific anxiety disorders were examined. A clinical sample of 131 anxiety-disordered children and a general population

  7. Physical Punishment, Childhood Abuse and Psychiatric Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afifi, Tracie O.; Brownridge, Douglas A.; Cox, Brian J.; Sareen, Jitender

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: Physical punishment, as a means of disciplining children, may be considered a mild form of childhood adversity. Although many outcomes of physical punishment have been investigated, little attention has been given to the impact of physical punishment on later adult psychopathology. Also, it has been stated that physical punishment by a…

  8. DEVELOPMENT AND DISORDERS OF SPEECH IN CHILDHOOD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    KARLIN, ISAAC W.; AND OTHERS

    THE GROWTH, DEVELOPMENT, AND ABNORMALITIES OF SPEECH IN CHILDHOOD ARE DESCRIBED IN THIS TEXT DESIGNED FOR PEDIATRICIANS, PSYCHOLOGISTS, EDUCATORS, MEDICAL STUDENTS, THERAPISTS, PATHOLOGISTS, AND PARENTS. THE NORMAL DEVELOPMENT OF SPEECH AND LANGUAGE IS DISCUSSED, INCLUDING THEORIES ON THE ORIGIN OF SPEECH IN MAN AND FACTORS INFLUENCING THE NORMAL…

  9. The effect of childhood conduct disorder on human capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webbink, Dinand; Vujić, Sunčica; Koning, Pierre; Martin, Nicholas G

    2012-08-01

    This paper estimates the longer-term effects of childhood conduct disorder on human capital accumulation and violent and criminal behavior later in life using data of Australian twins. We measure conduct disorder with a rich set of indicators based on diagnostic criteria from psychiatry. Using ordinary least squares and twin fixed effects estimation approaches, we find that early-age (pre-18) conduct disorder problems significantly affect both human capital accumulation and violent and criminal behavior over the life course. In addition, we find that conduct disorder is more deleterious if these behaviors occur earlier in life. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Early childhood adversities and risk of eating disorders in women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Janne Tidselbak; Munk-Olsen, Trine; Bulik, Cynthia M

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Previous studies evaluating the association between early childhood adversities and eating disorders have yielded conflicting results. The aim of this study is to examine the association between a range of adversities and risk of anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), and eating...

  11. Sibship size, birth order, family structure and childhood mental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carballo, Juan J; García-Nieto, Rebeca; Alvarez-García, Raquel; Caro-Cañizares, Irene; López-Castromán, Jorge; Muñoz-Lorenzo, Laura; de Leon-Martinez, Victoria; Baca-García, Enrique

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the role that birth order, sibship size and family structure have as risk factors in the development of common childhood mental disorders. A case-control study design was conducted (N = 16,823). The group under study consisted of all those subjects who had consulted with a psychiatrist/psychologist and had received a clinical diagnosis at public mental health centres within the Region of Madrid (Spain), between 1980 and 2008. A multiple logistic regression was used to explore the independent association with each diagnosis: emotional disorders (ED) with onset specific to childhood, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), conduct disorder (CD), mental retardation (MR), and pervasive developmental disorder (PDD). Birth order and family structure significantly predicted the risk of being diagnosed with ED or ADHD. In addition, sibship size and sex predicted the risk of being diagnosed with a childhood mental disorder. We concluded that being the middle child and living with both biological parents appear to be protective factors against the development of ED or ADHD. Living in large families appears to increase the risk of receiving a CD, MR, or PDD diagnosis. Further research is warranted.

  12. Psychiatric Disorders and Intellectual Functioning throughout Development in Velocardiofacial (22q11.2 Deletion) Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Tamar; Gothelf, Doron; Glaser, Bronwyn; Debbane, Martin; Frisch, Amos; Kotler, Moshe; Weizman, Abraham; Eliez, Stephan

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS) is associated with cognitive deficits and high rates of schizophrenia and other neuropsychiatric disorders. We report the data from two large cohorts of individuals with VCFS from Israel and Western Europe to characterize the neuropsychiatric phenotype from childhood to adulthood in a large sample.…

  13. The Relationship between Childhood Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Adulthood Borderline Personality Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mashhadi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD is a risk factor for Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD during adulthood. Studying the relationship between childhood ADHD disorder symptoms and depression and borderline personality disorder symptoms among students was the main aim of this study. Materials and Methods: A total of 291 students, who were studying in Shiraz and Tabriz universities inThe academic year of 2010-2011, were selected from three groups of Humanities, Basic Sciences, and Technical-Engineering Sciences using simple sampling method. They participated in the study through completing Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS, Borderline Personality Scale (STB and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II. Pearsons correlation coefficient and multiple regression analysis were used to analyze the data. Results: The results showed that there is a significant positive relationship between childhood ADHD and borderline Personality Disorder (BPD in adulthood and childhood ADHD is able to predict BPD in adulthood (p<0.01. Similarly, the relationship between symptoms of childhood ADHD and depression was positive and significant (p<0.01. Conclusion: There is a relationship between symptoms of childhood ADHD, BPD and depression in students. It is recommended to pay due attention to the comorbidity disorders such as BPD and depression in the treatment of ADHD disorder.

  14. Childhood Determinants of Adult Psychiatric Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryers, Tom; Brugha, Traolach

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this project was to assess the current evidence from longitudinal studies for childhood determinants of adult mental illness. Because of the variable and often prolonged period between factors in childhood and the identification of mental illness in adults, prospective studies, particularly birth cohorts, offer the best chance of demonstrating associations in individuals. A review was undertaken in 2006 of the published literature from longitudinal studies, together with some large-scale retrospective studies and relevant reviews which provided supplementary evidence. The main focus was upon potentially ameliorable characteristics, experiences or situations of childhood; however, other factors, not determinants but pre-cursors, associated with later mental illness could not be left out. Seven major electronic data-bases of published research were interrogated with a range of key-words and the results supplemented from personal searches, enquiries and reference trails. In excess of 1,500 abstracts were read to select 250 papers for full review. The material was assessed in relation to ten factors: Psychological disturbance; Genetic Influences; Neurological Deviance; Neuroticism; Behaviour; School Performance; Adversity; Child Abuse or Neglect; Parenting and parent-child relationships; Disrupted and Disfunctional Families. In 2011 the search was repeated for the period 2006 to mid-2011, using the same search terms and supplemented in the same manner. Over 1,800 abstracts emerged and almost 200 papers selected for more detailed review. These were then integrated into the original text with modifications where necessary. The whole text was then revised and edited in January / February 2012. There is continuing evidence for the association with later mental ill-health for each of these ten factors, but with different degrees of conviction. The evidence for each is discussed in detail and weighed both separately and in relation to others. These are then

  15. Childhood determinants of adult psychiatric disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryers, Tom; Brugha, Traolach

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this project was to assess the current evidence from longitudinal studies for childhood determinants of adult mental illness. Because of the variable and often prolonged period between factors in childhood and the identification of mental illness in adults, prospective studies, particularly birth cohorts, offer the best chance of demonstrating associations in individuals. A review was undertaken in 2006 of the published literature from longitudinal studies, together with some large-scale retrospective studies and relevant reviews which provided supplementary evidence. The main focus was upon potentially ameliorable characteristics, experiences or situations of childhood; however, other factors, not determinants but pre-cursors, associated with later mental illness could not be left out. Seven major electronic data-bases of published research were interrogated with a range of key-words and the results supplemented from personal searches, enquiries and reference trails. In excess of 1,500 abstracts were read to select 250 papers for full review. The material was assessed in relation to ten factors: Psychological disturbance; Genetic Influences; Neurological Deviance; Neuroticism; Behaviour; School Performance; Adversity; Child Abuse or Neglect; Parenting and parent-child relationships; Disrupted and Disfunctional Families. In 2011 the search was repeated for the period 2006 to mid-2011, using the same search terms and supplemented in the same manner. Over 1,800 abstracts emerged and almost 200 papers selected for more detailed review. These were then integrated into the original text with modifications where necessary. The whole text was then revised and edited in January / February 2012. There is continuing evidence for the association with later mental ill-health for each of these ten factors, but with different degrees of conviction. The evidence for each is discussed in detail and weighed both separately and in relation to others. These are then

  16. The role of positive and negative childhood events in the risk of developing personality disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Chua, M

    2015-01-01

    Existing research has predominantly focused on a limited range of childhood events and personality disorders, such as childhood maltreatment and borderline personality disorder. Moreover, researchers rarely account for multiple risk factors within the same study, despite the reality that childhood events do not occur in isolation. Therefore, the current research aims to contribute to the knowledge on childhood events and personality disorder symptoms by investigating a wider range of risk and...

  17. Personality disorder, temperament, and childhood adversity: findings from a cohort of prisoners in England and Wales

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts, Amanda D.L.; Yang, Min; Zhang, Tianqiang; Coid, Jeremy

    2008-01-01

    Adverse childhood experiences and childhood temperamental features are known to contribute to the development of personality disorder. The aim of this study was to examine associations between personality disorder, childhood temperament, adverse childhood experiences, and victimisation. The Prisoner Cohort Study was carried out as part of the dangerous and severe personality disorder (DSPD) service development programme commissioned by the Home Office. The study comprised 1396 male offenders ...

  18. Association between pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections disease and tumor necrosis factor-? gene?308 g/a, ?850 c/t polymorphisms in 4-12-year-old children in Adana/Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Luleyap, H. Umit; Onatoglu, Dilge; Yilmaz, M. Bertan; Alptekin, Davut; Tahiroglu, Aysegul Y.; Cetiner, Salih; Pazarbasi, Ayfer; Unal, Ilker; Avci, Ayse; Comertpay, Gamze

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorders Associated with Streptococcal Infections (PANDAS) is a newly defined disease in neuropsychiatry and occurs with an autoimmune mechanism after Group A Beta Hemolytic Streptococcus (GABHS) infection. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF), encoded by TNF-α gene has an important role in the apoptotic mechanisms of autoimmune diseases. Recently, TNF-α polymorphisms and autoimmune/psychiatric disorders have been reported to be related. In this regar...

  19. Personality Disorders, Coping Strategies, and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Women with Histories of Childhood Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Dawn M.; Sheahan, Timothy C.; Chard, Kathleen M.

    2003-01-01

    Using a treatment-seeking sample of adult female survivors of childhood sexual abuse, the relationships between coping strategies, personality disorders (PD) and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) were explored. A variety of PDs were found to exist in this population, with avoidant, antisocial, dependent PDs having higher frequencies than…

  20. Childhood Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Future Substance Use Disorders: Comparative Meta-Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charach, Alice; Yeung, Emanuela; Climans, Troy; Lillie, Erin

    2011-01-01

    Objective: In recent years cohort studies have examined childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as a risk factor for substance use disorders (SUDs) in adolescence and young adulthood. The long-term risk is estimated for development of alcohol, cannabis, combined alcohol and psychoactive SUDs, combined SUDs (nonalcohol), and…

  1. A Pilot Study of Abnormal Growth in Autism Spectrum Disorders and Other Childhood Psychiatric Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rommelse, Nanda N. J.; Peters, Cindy T. R.; Oosterling, Iris J.; Visser, Janne C.; Bons, Danielle; van Steijn, Daphne J.; Draaisma, Jos; van der Gaag, Rutger-Jan; Buitelaar, Jan. K.

    2011-01-01

    The aims of the current study were to examine whether early growth abnormalities are (a) comparable in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and other childhood psychiatric disorders, and (b) specific to the brain or generalized to the whole body. Head circumference, height, and weight were measured during the first 19 months of life in 129 children…

  2. Predicting Future Antisocial Personality Disorder in Males from a Clinical Assessment in Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahey, Benjamin B.; Loeber, Rolf; Burke, Jeffrey D.; Applegate, Brooks

    2005-01-01

    It is essential to identify childhood predictors of adult antisocial personality disorder (APD) to target early prevention. It has variously been hypothesized that APD is predicted by childhood conduct disorder (CD), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), or both disorders. To test these competing hypotheses, the authors used data from a…

  3. Deep-brain magnetic stimulation promotes adult hippocampal neurogenesis and alleviates stress-related behaviors in mouse models for neuropsychiatric disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS)/ Deep-brain Magnetic Stimulation (DMS) is an effective therapy for various neuropsychiatric disorders including major depression disorder. The molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the impacts of rTMS/DMS on the brain are not yet fully understood. Results Here we studied the effects of deep-brain magnetic stimulation to brain on the molecular and cellular level. We examined the adult hippocampal neurogenesis and hippocampal synaptic plasticity of rodent under stress conditions with deep-brain magnetic stimulation treatment. We found that DMS promotes adult hippocampal neurogenesis significantly and facilitates the development of adult new-born neurons. Remarkably, DMS exerts anti-depression effects in the learned helplessness mouse model and rescues hippocampal long-term plasticity impaired by restraint stress in rats. Moreover, DMS alleviates the stress response in a mouse model for Rett syndrome and prolongs the life span of these animals dramatically. Conclusions Deep-brain magnetic stimulation greatly facilitates adult hippocampal neurogenesis and maturation, also alleviates depression and stress-related responses in animal models. PMID:24512669

  4. Thyroid disorders after radiation therapy in childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina Ivanovna Bobrova

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available AimThe aim of our study was to analyze thyroid status in adults after treatment for malignancies in childhood and its relationship with dose and type of radiotherapy.Material and methodsThyroid function (TSH, free T4, anti-TPO, thyroid ultrasound and FNA (in case of thyroid nodules more than 1 cm were evaluated in 106 adults with a history of radiotherapy for brain tumors (BT, acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL and Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL in childhood and compared with that in healthy controls (n = 33.Group 1 (cranial irradiation 18 Gy: 11 men and 17 women (median age 21.7 ± 4.2 yrs (range 15–30, 14.6 ± 4 years after treatment for ALL.Group 2 (craniospinal irradiation 35 Gy + boost to the tumor 55 Gy: 28 men and 20 women (median age 19.48 ± 2.76 yrs (range 15 – 26, 7.84 ± 4.68 years after treatment for brain tumors (BT.Group 3 (local irradiation of cervix and mediastinum mean dose 30.9 ± 9.17 Gy: 13 men and 16 women (median age 28.2 ± 6.31 yrs (range 17 – 44, 11.37 ± 7.25 years after treatment for HL.ResultsMaximal incidence of hypothyroidism was in the group 2 – 58.3% (35.4% – primary, 4.2% – central, 18.8% – mixed. Prevalence of hypothyroidism in groups 1 (9.09% and 3 (17.24% doesn't significantly differ from controls. Thyroid volume was lower (mean 4.58±2.39 ml in group 2 (p<0.001 in compare with other groups and control. TSH was higher (mean 3.72±2.51 MEd/l in the same group in compare with group 1 and control (p=0.001. Incidence of thyroid nodules (10.34% – group 1; 8.3% – group 2; 20.7% – group 3 doesn't significantly differ between groups and controls (p=0.277.ConclusionsThese data indicate that treatment of cancer in childhood is associated with development of thyroid abnormality later during the life, and there is a possible link between craniospinal irradiation and incidence of hypo-thyroidism.

  5. Childhood Bipolar Disorder: A Difficult Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Kimberly Kode

    2014-01-01

    Identifying children with emotional or behavior disorders has long been problematic. In a general sense, those children who are most likely to be noticed by teachers and, therefore, referred for possible special education placement are those who exhibit externalizing behaviors, including physical aggression, noncompliance, and rule-breaking. It is…

  6. Life History of Aggression scores are predicted by childhood hyperactivity, conduct disorder, adult substance abuse, and low cooperativeness in adult psychiatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofvander, Björn; Ståhlberg, Ola; Nydén, Agneta; Wentz, Elisabet; degl'Innocenti, Alessio; Billstedt, Eva; Forsman, Anders; Gillberg, Christopher; Nilsson, Thomas; Rastam, Maria; Anckarsäter, Henrik

    2011-01-30

    The prevention of aggressive behaviours is a core priority for psychiatric clinical work, but the association between the diagnostic concepts used in psychiatry and aggression remains largely unknown. Outpatients referred for psychiatric evaluations of childhood-onset neuropsychiatric disorders (n=178) and perpetrators of violent crimes referred to pre-trial forensic psychiatric investigations (n=92) had comprehensive, instrument-based, psychiatric assessments, including the Life History of Aggression (LHA) scales. Total and subscale LHA scores were compared to the categorical and dimensional diagnoses of childhood and adult DSM-IV axis I and II mental disorders, general intelligence (IQ), Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF), and personality traits according to the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI). Overall, the two groups had similar LHA scores, but the offender group scored higher on the Antisocial subscale. Higher total LHA scores were independently associated with the hyperactivity facet of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD), childhood conduct disorder, substance-related disorders, and low scores on the Cooperativeness character dimension according to the TCI. IQ and GAF-scores were negatively correlated with the LHA subscale Self-directed aggression. Autistic traits were inversely correlated with aggression among outpatients, while the opposite pattern was noted in the forensic group. The findings call for assessments of aggression-related behaviours in all psychiatric settings. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Childhood Fish Consumption and Learning and Behavioral Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny L. Carwile

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Fish is a major source of nutrients critical for brain development during early life. The importance of childhood fish consumption is supported by several studies reporting associations of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA supplementation with better behavior and school performance. However, fish may have a different effect than n-3 PUFA alone due to the neurotoxic effects of methylmercury, a frequent contaminant. We investigated associations of childhood fish consumption with learning and behavioral disorders in birth cohort study of the neurotoxic effects of early life exposure to solvent-contaminated drinking water. Childhood (age 7–12 years fish consumption and learning and behavioral problems were reported in self-administered questionnaires (age 23–41 at questionnaire completion. Fish consumption was not meaningfully associated with repeating a grade, tutoring, attending summer school, special class placement, or low educational attainment. However, participants who ate fish several times a week had an elevated odds of Attention Deficit Disorder/Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (odds ratio: 5.2; 95% confidence interval: 1.5–18 compared to participants who did not eat fish. While these findings generally support the safety of the observed level of fish consumption, the absence of a beneficial effect may be attributed to insufficient fish intake or the choice of relatively low n-3 PUFA fish.

  8. Childhood maltreatment and intimate partner violence in dissociative disorder patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webermann, Aliya R; Brand, Bethany L; Chasson, Gregory S

    2014-01-01

    Childhood maltreatment (CM) is a risk factor for subsequent intimate partner violence (IPV) in adulthood, with high rates of retrospectively reported CM among IPV victims and perpetrators. A theorized mechanism of the link between CM and IPV is dissociation. Dissociation may allow perpetrators of violence to remain emotionally distant from their behavior and minimize empathy toward those they victimize, enabling them to commit acts of violence similar to their own experiences. Indeed, elevated rates of dissociation and dissociative disorders (DD) have been found among IPV survivors and perpetrators. In addition, in pilot studies, DD clinicians have reported high levels of violent behavior among DD patients. The present study investigates IPV among DD patients with Dissociative Identity Disorder and Dissociative Disorder Not Otherwise Specified, a group with CM rates of 80-95% and severe dissociative symptoms. DD clinicians reported on rates of CM and IPV among 275 DD patients in outpatient treatment. DD patients also completed a self-report measure of dissociation. Analyses assessed the associations between CM typologies and IPV, as well as trait dissociation and IPV. Physical and emotional child abuse were associated with physical IPV, and childhood witnessing of domestic violence (DV) and childhood neglect were associated with emotional IPV. The present study is the first to provide empirical support for a possible CM to adult IPV developmental trajectory among DD patients. Future research is needed to better understand the link between CM and IPV among those with trauma and DD.

  9. Childhood maltreatment and intimate partner violence in dissociative disorder patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliya R. Webermann

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Childhood maltreatment (CM is a risk factor for subsequent intimate partner violence (IPV in adulthood, with high rates of retrospectively reported CM among IPV victims and perpetrators. A theorized mechanism of the link between CM and IPV is dissociation. Dissociation may allow perpetrators of violence to remain emotionally distant from their behavior and minimize empathy toward those they victimize, enabling them to commit acts of violence similar to their own experiences. Indeed, elevated rates of dissociation and dissociative disorders (DD have been found among IPV survivors and perpetrators. In addition, in pilot studies, DD clinicians have reported high levels of violent behavior among DD patients. Objective: The present study investigates IPV among DD patients with Dissociative Identity Disorder and Dissociative Disorder Not Otherwise Specified, a group with CM rates of 80–95% and severe dissociative symptoms. Methods: DD clinicians reported on rates of CM and IPV among 275 DD patients in outpatient treatment. DD patients also completed a self-report measure of dissociation. Analyses assessed the associations between CM typologies and IPV, as well as trait dissociation and IPV. Results: Physical and emotional child abuse were associated with physical IPV, and childhood witnessing of domestic violence (DV and childhood neglect were associated with emotional IPV. Conclusions: The present study is the first to provide empirical support for a possible CM to adult IPV developmental trajectory among DD patients. Future research is needed to better understand the link between CM and IPV among those with trauma and DD.

  10. RNA-Seq of human neurons derived from iPS cells reveals candidate long non-coding RNAs involved in neurogenesis and neuropsychiatric disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingyan Lin

    Full Text Available Genome-wide expression analysis using next generation sequencing (RNA-Seq provides an opportunity for in-depth molecular profiling of fundamental biological processes, such as cellular differentiation and malignant transformation. Differentiating human neurons derived from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs provide an ideal system for RNA-Seq since defective neurogenesis caused by abnormalities in transcription factors, DNA methylation, and chromatin modifiers lie at the heart of some neuropsychiatric disorders. As a preliminary step towards applying next generation sequencing using neurons derived from patient-specific iPSCs, we have carried out an RNA-Seq analysis on control human neurons. Dramatic changes in the expression of coding genes, long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs, pseudogenes, and splice isoforms were seen during the transition from pluripotent stem cells to early differentiating neurons. A number of genes that undergo radical changes in expression during this transition include candidates for schizophrenia (SZ, bipolar disorder (BD and autism spectrum disorders (ASD that function as transcription factors and chromatin modifiers, such as POU3F2 and ZNF804A, and genes coding for cell adhesion proteins implicated in these conditions including NRXN1 and NLGN1. In addition, a number of novel lncRNAs were found to undergo dramatic changes in expression, one of which is HOTAIRM1, a regulator of several HOXA genes during myelopoiesis. The increase we observed in differentiating neurons suggests a role in neurogenesis as well. Finally, several lncRNAs that map near SNPs associated with SZ in genome wide association studies also increase during neuronal differentiation, suggesting that these novel transcripts may be abnormally regulated in a subgroup of patients.

  11. Childhood Psychiatric Disorders as Risk Factor for Subsequent Substance Abuse: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groenman, Annabeth P; Janssen, Tieme W P; Oosterlaan, Jaap

    2017-07-01

    To assess the prospective risk of developing substance-related disorders after childhood mental health disorders (i.e., attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder [ADHD], oppositional defiant disorder [ODD] or conduct disorder [CD], anxiety disorder, and depression) using meta-analysis. PubMed, Embase, and PsycInfo were searched for relevant longitudinal studies that described childhood (Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Childhood adversity and borderline personality disorder: a focus on adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newnham, Elizabeth A; Janca, Aleksandar

    2014-01-01

    This article explores recent research in the field of childhood exposure to trauma and the development of borderline personality disorder in adolescence. Adolescence is a critical period of development. Exposure to trauma, specifically sexual abuse, prior to and during puberty has specific implications for personality development and heightens risk for borderline personality disorder. Elevated symptom levels in adolescence are likely to decline across adulthood, but social and vocational impairments remain. Impulsivity, difficulties in emotion regulation, and suicidality may characterize adolescent expression of borderline personality disorder, whereas negative affect and functional impairment are more stable features of the disorder. Preliminary findings in treatment models for adults have potential for benefit among adolescence. Further research is required to examine treatment effectiveness and efficiency. Greater attention to low-income and middle-income nations, which are disproportionately affected by adversity, is needed to determine cross-cultural validity and the impact of trauma in adolescent populations.

  13. Clinical utility of neuronal cells directly converted from fibroblasts of patients for neuropsychiatric disorders: studies of lysosomal storage diseases and channelopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kano, Shin-ichi; Yuan, Ming; Cardarelli, Ross A.; Maegawa, Gustavo; Higurashi, Norimichi; Gaval-Cruz, Meriem; Wilson, Ashley M.; Tristan, Carlos; Kondo, Mari A.; Chen, Yian; Koga, Minori; Obie, Cassandra; Ishizuka, Koko; Seshadri, Saurav; Srivastava, Rupali; Kato, Takahiro A.; Horiuchi, Yasue; Sedlak, Thomas W.; Lee, Yohan; Rapoport, Judith L.; Hirose, Shinichi; Okano, Hideyuki; Valle, David; O'Donnell, Patricio; Sawa, Akira; Kai, Mihoko

    2015-01-01

    Methodologies for generating functional neuronal cells directly from human fibroblasts [induced neuronal (iN) cells] have been recently developed, but the research so far has only focused on technical refinements or recapitulation of known pathological phenotypes. A critical question is whether this novel technology will contribute to elucidation of novel disease mechanisms or evaluation of therapeutic strategies. Here we have addressed this question by studying Tay-Sachs disease, a representative lysosomal storage disease, and Dravet syndrome, a form of severe myoclonic epilepsy in infancy, using human iN cells with feature of immature postmitotic glutamatergic neuronal cells. In Tay-Sachs disease, we have successfully characterized canonical neuronal pathology, massive accumulation of GM2 ganglioside, and demonstrated the suitability of this novel cell culture for future drug screening. In Dravet syndrome, we have identified a novel functional phenotype that was not suggested by studies of classical mouse models and human autopsied brains. Taken together, the present study demonstrates that human iN cells are useful for translational neuroscience research to explore novel disease mechanisms and evaluate therapeutic compounds. In the future, research using human iN cells with well-characterized genomic landscape can be integrated into multidisciplinary patient-oriented research on neuropsychiatric disorders to address novel disease mechanisms and evaluate therapeutic strategies. PMID:25732146

  14. Porphyrinuria in childhood autistic disorder: Implications for environmental toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nataf, Robert [Laboratoire Philippe Auguste, Paris (France); Skorupka, Corinne [Association ARIANE, Clichy (France); Amet, Lorene [Association ARIANE, Clichy (France); Lam, Alain [Laboratoire Philippe Auguste, Paris (France); Springbett, Anthea [Department of Statistics, Roslin Institute, Roslin (United Kingdom); Lathe, Richard [Pieta Research, PO Box 27069, Edinburgh EH10 5YW (United Kingdom)

    2006-07-15

    To address a possible environmental contribution to autism, we carried out a retrospective study on urinary porphyrin levels, a biomarker of environmental toxicity, in 269 children with neurodevelopmental and related disorders referred to a Paris clinic (2002-2004), including 106 with autistic disorder. Urinary porphyrin levels determined by high-performance liquid chromatography were compared between diagnostic groups including internal and external control groups. Coproporphyrin levels were elevated in children with autistic disorder relative to control groups. Elevation was maintained on normalization for age or to a control heme pathway metabolite (uroporphyrin) in the same samples. The elevation was significant (P < 0.001). Porphyrin levels were unchanged in Asperger's disorder, distinguishing it from autistic disorder. The atypical molecule precoproporphyrin, a specific indicator of heavy metal toxicity, was also elevated in autistic disorder (P < 0.001) but not significantly in Asperger's. A subgroup with autistic disorder was treated with oral dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) with a view to heavy metal removal. Following DMSA there was a significant (P = 0.002) drop in urinary porphyrin excretion. These data implicate environmental toxicity in childhood autistic disorder.

  15. Porphyrinuria in childhood autistic disorder: Implications for environmental toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nataf, Robert; Skorupka, Corinne; Amet, Lorene; Lam, Alain; Springbett, Anthea; Lathe, Richard

    2006-01-01

    To address a possible environmental contribution to autism, we carried out a retrospective study on urinary porphyrin levels, a biomarker of environmental toxicity, in 269 children with neurodevelopmental and related disorders referred to a Paris clinic (2002-2004), including 106 with autistic disorder. Urinary porphyrin levels determined by high-performance liquid chromatography were compared between diagnostic groups including internal and external control groups. Coproporphyrin levels were elevated in children with autistic disorder relative to control groups. Elevation was maintained on normalization for age or to a control heme pathway metabolite (uroporphyrin) in the same samples. The elevation was significant (P < 0.001). Porphyrin levels were unchanged in Asperger's disorder, distinguishing it from autistic disorder. The atypical molecule precoproporphyrin, a specific indicator of heavy metal toxicity, was also elevated in autistic disorder (P < 0.001) but not significantly in Asperger's. A subgroup with autistic disorder was treated with oral dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) with a view to heavy metal removal. Following DMSA there was a significant (P = 0.002) drop in urinary porphyrin excretion. These data implicate environmental toxicity in childhood autistic disorder

  16. Neuropsychiatric Symptoms in Patients with the Main Etiological Types of Mild Neurocognitive Disorders: A Hospital-Based Case–Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg A. Levada

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe diagnostic construct of mild neurocognitive disorders (MNCDs is substantially congruent with previously proposed criteria for mild cognitive impairment (MCI. MNCD/MCI is associated with neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS. Previous studies have examined the prevalence of NPS in amnestic and non-amnestic MCI subtypes; however, no studies exist for etiological types of MNCD. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of NPS in patients with MNCD due to Alzheimer’s disease (MNCD-AD and subcortical vascular MNCD (ScVMNCD and to determine whether NPS would expand these MNCD phenotypes.MethodsThe sample comprised 70 patients with MNCD-AD, 70 patients with ScVMNCD, and 55 cognitively normal elderly persons (CNEP. The diagnosis of MNCD-AD was made according to DSM-5 criteria for possible MNCD-AD. ScVMNCD patients fulfilled the DSM-5 criteria of the probable vascular MNCD and the diagnostic criteria for subcortical vascular MCI according to Frisoni et al. (1. The prevalence of NPS was based on the neuropsychiatric inventory. The statistical analyses included parametric and non-parametric tests, multivariate regression, and Spearman’s correlation coefficient.ResultsAbout 69.1% of CNEP, 97.1% of MNCD-AD, and 100% of ScVMNCD patients had one or more NPS. The prevalence of NPS in both MNCD groups was significantly higher than that in CNEP. The most prevalent NPS that had significant differential diagnostic value in separating MNCD-AD from ScVMNCD, as well as MNCD from CNEP, were anxiety (81.43% and irritability (67.14% in MNCD-AD and depression (81.43% in ScVMNCD. In both MNCD groups, we observed significant (p < 0.05 correlations between all distinguishing NPS and the differential cognitive disturbances: the amnestic syndrome in MNCD-AD and executive dysfunction in ScVMNCD.ConclusionNPS occur in the majority of persons with MNCD-AD and ScVMNCD. Anxiety and irritability are the most prevalent NPS in MNCD-AD, as well as depression in ScVMNCD. The

  17. Childhood Psychiatric Disorders as Risk Factor for Subsequent Substance Abuse : A Meta-Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenman, Annabeth P.; Janssen, Tieme W. P.; Oosterlaan, Jaap

    Objective: To assess the prospective risk of developing substance-related disorders after childhood mental health disorders (i.e., attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder [ADHD], oppositional defiant disorder [ODD] or conduct disorder [CD], anxiety disorder, and depression) using meta-analysis.

  18. Brief Report: Childhood Disintegrative Disorder as a Likely Manifestation of Vitamin B12 Deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, Savita; Subodh, B. N.; Parakh, Preeti; Lahariya, Sanjay

    2013-01-01

    Childhood disintegrative disorder is a rare disorder, characterized by regression of acquired skills after a period of normal development. The case of childhood disintegrative disorder presented here was found to have vitamin B12 deficiency and hyperhomocysteinemia on extensive evaluation to find a probable cause for regression. This case…

  19. The Blood-Brain Barrier and the EphR/Ephrin System: Perspectives on a Link Between Neurovascular and Neuropsychiatric Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria A. Malik

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Interactions among endothelial cells (EC forming blood vessels and their surrounding cell types are essential to establish the blood-brain barrier (BBB, an integral part of the neurovascular unit (NVU. Research on the NVU has recently seen a renaissance to especially understand the neurobiology of vascular and brain pathologies and their frequently occurring comorbidities. Diverse signaling molecules activated in the near proximity of blood vessels trigger paracellular pathways which regulate the formation and stabilization of tight junctions (TJ between EC and thereby influence BBB permeability. Among regulatory molecules, the erythropoietin-producing-hepatocellular carcinoma receptors (EphR and their Eph receptor-interacting signals (ephrins play a pivotal role in EC differentiation, angiogenesis and BBB integrity. Multiple EphR-ligand interactions between EC and other cell types influence different aspects of angiogenesis and BBB formation. Such interactions additionally control BBB sealing properties and thus the penetration of substances into the brain parenchyma. Thus, they play critical roles in the healthy brain and during the pathogenesis of brain disorders. In this mini-review article, we aim at integrating the constantly growing literature about the functional roles of the EphR/ephrin system for the development of the vascular system and the BBB and in the pathogenesis of neurovascular and neuropsychiatric disorders. We suggest the hypothesis that a disrupted EphR/ephrin signaling at the BBB might represent an underappreciated molecular hub of disease comorbidity. Finally, we propose the possibility that the EphR/ephrin system bears the potential of becoming a novel target for the development of alternative therapeutic treatments, focusing on such comorbidities.

  20. Childhood adversity and conduct disorder: A developmental pathway to violence in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakley, Clare; Harris, Stephanie; Fahy, Thomas; Murphy, Declan; Picchioni, Marco

    2016-04-01

    Both childhood adversity and conduct disorder are over-represented among adult patients with schizophrenia and have been proposed as significant factors that may increase the risk of violence. It is not known how childhood adversity and conduct disorder might interact to contribute towards an increased risk of violence in schizophrenia. This study aimed to explore the relationships between childhood adversity, conduct disorder and violence among men with schizophrenia. 54 male patients with schizophrenia from a range of inpatient and outpatient mental health services were assessed for exposure to a variety of childhood adversities, conduct disorder before the age of 15 and later violent behaviour in adulthood. Exposure to domestic violence during childhood was associated with an increased propensity to violence in adulthood. Symptoms of conduct disorder were associated both with cumulative exposure to childhood adversities and with later propensity to violence. The cumulative number of childhood adversities was associated with adult propensity to violence. This association was significantly attenuated by inclusion of conduct disorder in the model. This is the first study to demonstrate an association between childhood exposure to domestic violence and later violent behaviour in schizophrenia. Conduct disorder may mediate the association between cumulative childhood adversities and adult propensity to violence, indicating an indirect pathway. These results indicate a complex interplay between childhood adversity, conduct disorder and later violent behaviour in schizophrenia, and suggest that there may be shared aetiological risk factors on a common developmental pathway to violence. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Amputatiewens bij 'body integrity identity disorder'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, Rianne M.; Hennekam, Raoul C. M.

    2014-01-01

    Body integrity identity disorder (BIID) is a rare neuropsychiatric disorder in which patients experience a mismatch between the real and experienced body from childhood. BIID results in a strong desire to amputate or paralyse one or more limbs. We describe two BIID patients. A 40-year-old healthy

  2. Childhood life events and childhood trauma in adult patients with depressive, anxiety and comorbid disorders vs. controls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hovens, J.G.F.M.; Wiersma, J.E.; Giltay, E.J.; van Oppen, P.C.; Spinhoven, P.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.; Zitman, F.G.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the association between childhood life events, childhood trauma and the presence of anxiety, depressive or comorbid anxiety and depressive disorders in adulthood. Method: Data are from 1931 adult participants in the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA).

  3. Childhood life events and childhood trauma in adult patients with depressive, anxiety and comorbid disorders vs. controls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hovens, J. G. F. M.; Wiersma, J. E.; Giltay, E. J.; van Oppen, P.; Spinhoven, P.; Penninx, B. W. J. H.; Zitman, F. G.

    Objective: To investigate the association between childhood life events, childhood trauma and the presence of anxiety, depressive or comorbid anxiety and depressive disorders in adulthood. Method: Data are from 1931 adult participants in the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA).

  4. Impact of Childhood Life Events and Childhood Trauma on the Onset and Recurrence of Depressive and Anxiety Disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hovens, Jacqueline G. F. M.; Giltay, Erik J.; Spinhoven, Philip; van Hemert, Albert M.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.

    Objective: To investigate the effect of childhood life events and childhood trauma on the onset and recurrence of depressive and/or anxiety disorders over a 2-year period in participants without current psychopathology at baseline. Method: Longitudinal data in a large sample of participants without

  5. Neuropsychiatric symptoms and celiac disease

    OpenAIRE

    Urban-Kowalczyk, Małgorzata; Œmigielski, Janusz; Gmitrowicz, Agnieszka

    2014-01-01

    Małgorzata Urban-Kowalczyk,1 Janusz Śmigielski,2 Agnieszka Gmitrowicz3 1Affective and Psychotic Disorders Department, Medical University of Łódź, Åódź, Poland; 2Department of Geriatric Medicine Medical University of Åódź, Åódź, Poland; 3Department of Adolescent Psychiatry, Medical University of Åódź, Åódź, Poland Background: Neuropsychiatric symptoms may represent an ...

  6. Cognitive Behavior Therapies (CBT) in Childhood and Adolescent Mood Disorders and Anxiety Disorders: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Nilgün Öngider

    2014-01-01

    In this study, it is aimed to review efficacy of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) and Cognitive Behavioral Group Therapy (CBGT) on childhood and adolescence in mood and anxiety disorders. Many researches have shown that cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) can be effective in the treatment of depression and anxiety in children and adolescents. Child and adolescent depression and anxiety are frequent disorders which may have a recurring and chronic course. PsycINFO, Medline and the Turkish P...

  7. Celiac Disease Is Associated with Childhood Psychiatric Disorders: A Population-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butwicka, Agnieszka; Lichtenstein, Paul; Frisén, Louise; Almqvist, Catarina; Larsson, Henrik; Ludvigsson, Jonas F

    2017-05-01

    To determine the risk of future childhood psychiatric disorders in celiac disease, assess the association between previous psychiatric disorders and celiac disease in children, and investigate the risk of childhood psychiatric disorders in siblings of celiac disease probands. This was a nationwide registry-based matched cohort study in Sweden with 10 903 children (aged celiac disease and 12 710 of their siblings. We assessed the risk of childhood psychiatric disorders (any psychiatric disorder, psychotic disorder, mood disorder, anxiety disorder, eating disorder, psychoactive substance misuse, behavioral disorder, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder [ADHD], autism spectrum disorder [ASD], and intellectual disability). HRs of future psychiatric disorders in children with celiac disease and their siblings was estimated by Cox regression. The association between previous diagnosis of a psychiatric disorder and current celiac disease was assessed using logistic regression. Compared with the general population, children with celiac disease had a 1.4-fold greater risk of future psychiatric disorders. Childhood celiac disease was identified as a risk factor for mood disorders, anxiety disorders, eating disorders, behavioral disorders, ADHD, ASD, and intellectual disability. In addition, a previous diagnosis of a mood, eating, or behavioral disorder was more common before the diagnosis of celiac disease. In contrast, siblings of celiac disease probands were at no increased risk of any of the investigated psychiatric disorders. Children with celiac disease are at increased risk for most psychiatric disorders, apparently owing to the biological and/or psychological effects of celiac disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The role of neuropathological markers in the interpretation of neuropsychiatric disorders: Focus on fetal and perinatal programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanni, Daniela; Gerosa, Clara; Rais, Monica; Ravarino, Alberto; Van Eyken, Peter; Fanos, Vassilios; Faa, Gavino

    2018-03-16

    The study of neuropathological markers in patients affected by mental/psychiatric disorders is relevant for the comprehension of the pathogenesis and the correlation with the clinical symptomatology. The neuropathology of Alzheimer's disease (AD) recognizes intraneuronal and extracellular neurofibrillary formation responsible for neuronal degeneration. Immunohistochemical studies discovered many interesting results for a better interpretation of the AD pathogenesis, while the "metal hypothesis" supports that metal ions might differentially influence the formation of amyloid aggregates. The most relevant pathological findings reported in schizophrenia originate from computer assisted tomography (CT), Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) studies and Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI), suggesting the brain abnormalities involved in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. The theory of fetal programming illustrates the epigenetic factors that may act during the intrauterine life on brain development, with relevant consequences on the susceptibility to develop AD or schizophrenia later in life. The neuropathological interpretation of AD and schizophrenia shows that the presence of severe neuropathological changes is not always associated with severe cognitive impairment. A better dialogue between psychiatrics and pathologists might help to halt insurgence and progression of neurodegenerative diseases. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Neuropsychiatric symptoms and celiac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban-Kowalczyk, Małgorzata; OEmigielski, Janusz; Gmitrowicz, Agnieszka

    2014-01-01

    Neuropsychiatric symptoms may represent an atypical manifestation of celiac disease that occur before a gastroenterological diagnosis is made. Some studies suggest that a gluten-free diet is effective in treating the depression, anxiety, and neurological complications associated with celiac disease. The article describes the case of a patient suffering from chronic, treatment-resistant symptoms of depression and anxiety. The diagnosis of celiac disease and introduction of an elimination diet caused a significant improvement in mental state and everyday functioning in the presenting patient. The presence of persistent anxiety and depressive symptoms, with a poor reaction to pharmacological treatment, indicates a need to identify somatic reasons for the underlying condition. It is important to remember that celiac disease can occur at any age, not only in childhood. The presence of this somatic cause of persistent depressive and anxiety symptoms should be considered in the diagnostic process in adults.

  10. Subthreshold and threshold attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms in childhood: psychosocial outcomes in adolescence in boys and girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norén Selinus, E; Molero, Y; Lichtenstein, P; Anckarsäter, H; Lundström, S; Bottai, M; Hellner Gumpert, C

    2016-12-01

    To examine the association between different levels of childhood attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and sex differences in psychosocial outcomes during adolescence. Swedish children (n = 4635) were screened for neuropsychiatric symptoms at age 9 or 12. ADHD symptoms were divided into three levels: screen-negative, screen-intermediate, and screen-positive. At follow-up (age 15), parents and teenagers filled out questionnaires regarding (i) hyperactivity/inattention, (ii) peer problems, (iii) school problems, (iv) internalizing problems, (v) antisocial behaviour, (vi) alcohol misuse, and (vii) drug misuse. All outcomes were controlled for symptoms of diagnostic categories other than ADHD. Increasing levels of ADHD symptoms in childhood were associated with higher proportions of adolescents who displayed negative psychosocial outcomes. More girls than boys reported internalizing problems (all levels) and risky drug use (screen-intermediate and screen-positive only). More boys reported antisocial behaviour at the screen-negative and screen-intermediate levels, but at the screen-positive level, similar proportions of girls and boys displayed antisocial behaviour. The findings support the view that ADHD symptoms, as well as their negative outcomes, are dimensionally distributed in the population and that adolescent girls and boys display different risk profiles. The findings confirm that ADHD symptoms are associated with higher risk of drug misuse in girls. © 2016 The Authors. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Emotional scars : impact of childhood trauma on depressive and anxiety disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hovens, Jacqueline Gerarda Francisca Maria

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to investigate the effect of childhood trauma and childhood life-events on the development and course of depressive and anxiety disorders, and to identify risk factors contributing to these associations. In brief, our findings indicate that childhood trauma is an important

  12. Impact of childhood life events and trauma on the course of depressive and anxiety disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hovens, J. G. F. M.; Giltay, E. J.; Wiersma, J. E.; Spinhoven, P.; Penninx, B. W. J. H.; Zitman, F. G.

    Hovens JGFM, Giltay EJ, Wiersma JE, Spinhoven P, Penninx BWJH, Zitman FG. Impact of childhood life events and trauma on the course of depressive and anxiety disorders. Objective: Data on the impact of childhood life events and childhood trauma on the clinical course of depressive and anxiety

  13. Cognitive-behavioral therapy for childhood repetitive behavior disorders: tic disorders and trichotillomania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flessner, Christopher A

    2011-04-01

    This article provides an overview of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for repetitive behavior disorders. Because tic disorders and trichotillomania are the most often studied and most debilitating of these conditions, this article focuses on the efficacy of CBT for these 2 conditions. An overview of CBT for children presenting with these concerns is provided. This review focuses particularly on habit reversal training, which is at the core of most CBT-based interventions. Two recent empirical studies on the immense potential of CBT in treating childhood repetitive behavior disorders and future areas of research are also discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Evidence for smaller right amygdala volumes in posttraumatic stress disorder following childhood trauma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veer, I.M.; Oei, N.Y.L.; van Buchem, M.A.; Spinhoven, Ph.; Elzinga, B.M.; Rombouts, S.A.R.B.

    2015-01-01

    Hippocampus and amygdala volumes in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) related to childhood trauma are relatively understudied, albeit the potential importance to the disorder. Whereas some studies reported smaller hippocampal volumes, little evidence was found for abnormal amygdala volumes. Here

  15. Childhood adversities, bonding, and personality in social anxiety disorder with alcohol use disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rambau, Stefanie; Forstner, Andreas J; Wegener, Ingo; Mücke, Martin; Wissussek, Christine T S; Staufenbiel, Sabine M; Geiser, Franziska; Schumacher, Johannes; Conrad, Rupert

    2018-04-01

    Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is frequently associated with alcohol use disorders (abuse/dependence). However, there has been little research on the characteristics of this subgroup so far. In the current study we investigated individuals with SAD and comorbid alcohol use disorder (AUD) with regard to socialization experiences and personality. The sample comprised 410 individuals diagnosed with SAD by the Structured Clinical Interview of DSM-IV. 108 participants with comorbid AUD were compared to 302 participants without comorbid AUD concerning traumatic experiences during childhood and adolescence (Adverse Childhood Experiences Questionnaire; ACE), parental bonding (Parental Bonding Instrument; PBI), and personality (Temperament and Character Inventory; TCI). MANCOVA with covariates sex and depression displayed that individuals with SAD plus AUD reported significantly more traumatic events during childhood and adolescence, lower levels of maternal care, as well as lower cooperativeness. Our results highlight that adverse childhood experiences and unfavourable maternal bonding characterize individuals suffering from SAD plus AUD. These experiences might be reflected in a personality-based tendency to distance themselves from others, which corresponds to low scores on the character dimension cooperativeness. A deeper understanding of personality and specific socialization experiences is necessary to develop new treatment options in this clinically challenging subgroup. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Early childhood experiences shaping vulnerability to Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Barcaccia

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available According to the literature, inflated responsibility/sensitivity to guilt play a pivotal role in both the genesis and maintenance of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD. They may be learned in childhood and adolescence, through particular experiences and parental rearing styles, involving criticism, excessively high standards, and social moralization. Preliminary data on the role of dysfunctional beliefs in the development/maintenance of OCD also show that non-affected family members of OC individuals score higher than controls in domains concerning responsibility, suggesting it might represent a candidate endophenotype for the disorder. Compulsive conducts, that far from being mechanical reactions are instead clearly goal-oriented, may be triggered by the need of preventing responsibility/guilt. Therefore, useful psychological interventions aimed at not only reappraising meanings associated with the specific early experiences connected to hyper-sensitivity to guilt, but also at developing a more general compassionate and forgiving stance towards oneself, may prove particularly effective.

  17. Morphological covariance in anatomical MRI scans can identify discrete neural pathways in the brain and their disturbances in persons with neuropsychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Ravi; Hao, Xuejun; Peterson, Bradley S

    2015-05-01

    using DTI data from a different set of 20 healthy adults (10 males, mean age 29.7 ± 7.7 years). The PCA identified portions of structures that covaried across the brain, the eigenvalues measuring the magnitude of the covariation in morphology along the respective eigenvectors. Our results showed that the eigenvectors, and the DTI fibers tracked from their associated brain regions, corresponded with known neural pathways in the brain. In addition, the eigenvectors that captured morphological covariation across regions, and the principal components along those eigenvectors, identified neural pathways with aberrant morphological features associated with TS. These findings suggest that covariations in brain morphology can identify aberrant neural pathways in specific neuropsychiatric disorders. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. GH response to intravenous clonidine challenge correlates with history of childhood trauma in personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Royce J; Fanning, Jennifer R; Coccaro, Emil F

    2016-05-01

    Childhood trauma is a risk factor for personality disorder. We have previously shown that childhood trauma is associated with increased central corticotrophin-releasing hormone concentration in adults with personality disorder. In the brain, the release of corticotrophin-releasing hormone can be stimulated by noradrenergic neuronal activity, raising the possibility that childhood trauma may affect the hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis by altering brain noradrenergic function. In this study, we sought to test the hypothesis that childhood trauma is associated with blunted growth hormone response to the α-2 adrenergic autoreceptor agonist clonidine. All subjects provided written informed consent. Twenty personality disordered and twenty healthy controls (without personality disorder or Axis I psychopathology) underwent challenge with clonidine, while plasma Growth Hormone (GH) concentration was monitored by intravenous catheter. On a different study session, subjects completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire and underwent diagnostic interviews. Contrary to our a priori hypothesis, childhood trauma was associated with enhanced GH response to clonidine. This positive relationship was present in the group of 40 subjects and in the subgroup 20 personality disordered subjects, but was not detected in the healthy control subjects when analyzed separately. The presence of personality disorder was unrelated to the magnitude of GH response. Childhood trauma is positively correlated with GH response to clonidine challenge in adults with personality disorder. Enhanced rather that blunted GH response differentiates childhood trauma from previously identified negative predictors of GH response, such as anxiety or mood disorder. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Examining the Relationship between Childhood Sexual Abuse and Borderline Personality Disorder: Does Social Support Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elzy, Meredith B.

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between childhood sexual abuse and borderline personality disorder is a prominent issue in the etiological research on borderline personality disorder. This study further explored the relationship between childhood sexual abuse and the development of borderline personality features while evaluating the moderating role of a primary…

  20. Commentary: Differentiated Measures of Temperament and Multiple Pathways to Childhood Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothbart, Mary K.

    2004-01-01

    Provided is a commentary on articles written for a special section on temperament and childhood disorders. Temperament's contributions to the development of childhood disorders are considered both generally and specifically. Questions are raised about the use of terminology in the field, particularly the term difficult. Differentiation of outcomes…

  1. Predictive validity of childhood oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder: implications for the DSM-V.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Jeffrey D; Waldman, Irwin; Lahey, Benjamin B

    2010-11-01

    Data are presented from 3 studies of children and adolescents to evaluate the predictive validity of childhood oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD) as defined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 1994) and the International Classification of Diseases, Version 10 (ICD-10; World Health Organization, 1992). The present analyses strongly support the predictive validity of these diagnoses by showing that they predict both future psychopathology and enduring functional impairment. Furthermore, the present findings generally support the hierarchical developmental hypothesis in DSM-IV that some children with ODD progress to childhood-onset CD, and some youth with CD progress to antisocial personality disorder (APD). Nonetheless, they reveal that CD does not always co-occur with ODD, particularly during adolescence. Importantly, the present findings suggest that ICD-10 diagnostic criteria for ODD, which treat CD symptoms as ODD symptoms when diagnostic criteria for CD are not met, identify more functionally impaired children than the more restrictive DSM-IV definition of ODD. Filling this "hole" in the DSM-IV criteria for ODD should be a priority for the DSM-V. In addition, the present findings suggest that although the psychopathic trait of interpersonal callousness in childhood independently predicts future APD, these findings do not confirm the hypothesis that callousness distinguishes a subset of children with CD with an elevated risk for APD. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved

  2. Specific cognitive-neurophysiological processes predict impulsivity in the childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder combined subtype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluschke, A; Roessner, V; Beste, C

    2016-04-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most prevalent neuropsychiatric disorders in childhood. Besides inattention and hyperactivity, impulsivity is the third core symptom leading to diverse and serious problems. However, the neuronal mechanisms underlying impulsivity in ADHD are still not fully understood. This is all the more the case when patients with the ADHD combined subtype (ADHD-C) are considered who are characterized by both symptoms of inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity. Combining high-density electroencephalography (EEG) recordings with source localization analyses, we examined what information processing stages are dysfunctional in ADHD-C (n = 20) compared with controls (n = 18). Patients with ADHD-C made more impulsive errors in a Go/No-go task than healthy controls. Neurophysiologically, different subprocesses from perceptual gating to attentional selection, resource allocation and response selection processes are altered in this patient group. Perceptual gating, stimulus-driven attention selection and resource allocation processes were more pronounced in ADHD-C, are related to activation differences in parieto-occipital networks and suggest attentional filtering deficits. However, only response selection processes, associated with medial prefrontal networks, predicted impulsive errors in ADHD-C. Although the clinical picture of ADHD-C is complex and a multitude of processing steps are altered, only a subset of processes seems to directly modulate impulsive behaviour. The present findings improve the understanding of mechanisms underlying impulsivity in patients with ADHD-C and might help to refine treatment algorithms focusing on impulsivity.

  3. CHILDHOOD MALTREATMENT AND THE COURSE OF DEPRESSIVE AND ANXIETY DISORDERS: THE CONTRIBUTION OF PERSONALITY CHARACTERISTICS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovens, Jacqueline G F M; Giltay, Erik J; van Hemert, Albert M; Penninx, Brenda W J H

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the effect of childhood maltreatment on predicting the 4-year course of depressive and anxiety disorders and the possible mediating role of personality characteristics in the association between childhood maltreatment and illness course. Longitudinal data in a large sample of participants with baseline depressive and/or anxiety disorders (n = 1,474, 18-65 years) were collected in the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety. At baseline, childhood maltreatment was assessed with a semistructured interview. Personality trait questionnaires (Neuroticism-Extroversion-Openness Five Factor Inventory, Mastery scale, and Leiden Index of Depression Sensitivity), recent stressful life events (List of Threatening Experiences Questionnaire), and psychosocial variables were administered. The Life Chart Interview was used to determine the time to remission of depressive and/or anxiety disorders. At baseline, 846 participants (57.4%) reported any childhood maltreatment. Childhood maltreatment had a negative impact on psychosocial functioning and was predictive of more unfavorable personality characteristics and cognitive reactivity styles (P Childhood maltreatment was a significant predictor of lower likelihood of remission of depressive and/or anxiety disorders (HR = 0.94, P childhood maltreatment and 4-year remission of depressive and anxiety disorders. Certain personality characteristics are key players in the mechanism linking childhood maltreatment to an adverse illness course of depressive and anxiety disorders. Early interventions--reducing neuroticism and hopelessness, and enhancing extraversion and locus of control--might contribute to a better prognosis in a "high-risk" group of depressive and anxiety disorders. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Social, familial and psychological risk factors for mood and anxiety disorders in childhood and early adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyland, Philip; Shevlin, Mark; Elklit, Ask

    2016-01-01

    history of any anxiety and mood disorder, parental history of self-harming behaviour, advanced paternal age, gender, urban dwelling, economic deprivation, family dissolution, and childhood adversity were used to predict diagnosis of both anxiety and mood disorders from ages 10 to 21 years. Results: Binary...... logistic regression analysis showed that being female and a parental history of a mood or anxiety disorder are the strongest predictors of both disorders. Economic deprivation, and family dissolution also increase likelihood of both disorders. Urban dwelling and childhood adversity are predictors...... of anxiety disorders but not mood disorders. Conclusion: Between the ages of 10 and 21 years, anxiety and mood disorders share many common risk factors. However, urban dwelling and childhood adversity appear to be unique predictors of anxiety disorders. Results suggest there is no dominant factor...

  5. Mediating role of borderline personality disorder traits in the effects of childhood maltreatment on suicidal behaviour among mood disorder patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaltonen, K I; Rosenström, T; Baryshnikov, I; Karpov, B; Melartin, T; Suominen, K; Heikkinen, M; Näätänen, P; Koivisto, M; Joffe, G; Isometsä, E

    2017-07-01

    Substantial evidence supports an association between childhood maltreatment and suicidal behaviour. However, few studies have examined factors mediating this relationship among patients with unipolar or bipolar mood disorders. Depressive disorder and bipolar disorder (ICD-10-DCR) patients (n=287) from the Helsinki University Psychiatric Consortium (HUPC) Study were surveyed on self-reported childhood experiences, current depressive symptoms, borderline personality disorder traits, and lifetime suicidal behaviour. Psychiatric records served to complement the information on suicide attempts. We examined by formal mediation analyses whether (1) the effect of childhood maltreatment on suicidal behaviour is mediated through borderline personality disorder traits and (2) the mediation effect differs between lifetime suicidal ideation and lifetime suicide attempts. The impact of childhood maltreatment in multivariate models on either lifetime suicidal ideation or lifetime suicide attempts showed comparable total effects. In formal mediation analyses, borderline personality disorder traits mediated all of the total effect of childhood maltreatment on lifetime suicide attempts, but only one fifth of the total effect on lifetime suicidal ideation. The mediation effect was stronger for lifetime suicide attempts than for lifetime suicidal ideation (P=0.002) and independent of current depressive symptoms. The mechanisms of the effect of childhood maltreatment on suicidal ideation versus suicide attempts may diverge among psychiatric patients with mood disorders. Borderline personality disorder traits may contribute to these mechanisms, although the influence appears considerably stronger for suicide attempts than for suicidal ideation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Clinical and subclinical neuropsychiatric abnormalities in rheumatoid arthritis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman M Khedr

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion Cognitive impairment, depression, anxiety and peripheral neuropathy are common in RA patients. Early diagnosis and management of neuropsychiatric disorders in RA patients may greatly improve the patients′ health-related quality of life.

  7. An Evaluation of Neuropsychiatric Symptoms in Parkinson's Disease ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-09-14

    Sep 14, 2017 ... Parkinson's disease (PD) is a chronic, progressive, and neurodegenerative disease which may present with complaints of tremor, bradykinesia, rigidity, and postural imbalance. Besides motor symptoms, neuropsychiatric symptoms such as depression, hallucination, anxiety, sleep disorders, and psychosis.

  8. Factors influencing childhood conduct disorders: Study of 43 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalili B

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available Conduct disorders are a group of behavior disorders in which the basic rights of others or major age appropriate social norms or rules are violated. To evaluate the factors influencing childhood conduct disorders, we reviewed records of 43 cases (84% boys, mean age 11 years referred to Shahid Esmaili psychiatric hospital, Tehran. All patients fulfilled diagnostic criteria of DSMIV. 15 variables were included; Age and sex and step of patient among sibling, parental educational level, social class of the family, medical and psychiatric history of entire family members and the kind of therapy. The most frequent complaints were aggressiveness, stealing and lying. The dominant age group was 10-14 years. The most frequent family members were 5. Most of the children were 2nd child of the family. The most often educational level of the parents were illiteracy followed by primary school educated. Most of the patients were of low to intermediate socioeconomic classes. The most effective therapy was behavior modification along with appropriate medications.

  9. Childhood psychopathology in children of women with eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barona, M; Nybo Andersen, A-M; Micali, N

    2016-10-01

    We aimed to investigate the effect of maternal eating disorders (ED) on childhood psychopathology, early delays in cognitive, motor and language development, mother and child relationship, and child temperament in a community-based cohort: the Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC). Data were obtained prospectively on 48 403 children at 18 months and 46 156 children at 7 years. Data on cognitive, motor and language development, temperament and attachment were obtained at 18 months; data on child psychopathology were obtained at 7 years of age, using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Children of mothers with lifetime diagnosis of anorexia nervosa (AN, n = 931), lifetime diagnosis of bulimia nervosa (BN, n = 906) and both (AN & BN = 360) were compared to children of mothers without an ED (n = 46 206). Girls of women with lifetime AN had higher odds of having emotional problems, and girls of women with lifetime BN of having conduct problems compared with children of healthy women. Boys of women with lifetime AN had higher odds of total, emotional and conduct problems; boys of women with lifetime BN had higher odds of total, conduct, hyperactivity and peer difficulties compared to children of women without an ED. Boys of women with lifetime AN and BN had higher odds of total, emotional and peer problems compared to children of healthy women. Maternal ED is associated with childhood psychopathology in both boys and girls. Boys seemed at higher risk for psychopathology in this sample. Associations between emotional disorders across genders in children of mothers with lifetime AN, and hyperactivity and peer difficulties in boys of mothers with lifetime BN confirm and extend previous findings and point to possible shared risk between ED and other psychopathology. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Understanding the Covariation among Childhood Externalizing Symptoms: Genetic and Environmental Influences on Conduct Disorder, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, and Oppositional Defiant Disorder Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, Danielle M.; Viken, Richard J.; Kaprio, Jaakko; Pulkkinen, Lea; Rose, Richard J.

    2005-01-01

    Conduct disorder (CD), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) are common childhood externalizing disorders that frequently co-occur. However, the causes of their comorbidity are not well understood. To address that question, we analyzed data from >600 Finnish twin pairs, who completed standardized…

  11. A NOVEL PIPELINE FOR DRUG DISCOVERY IN NEUROPSYCHIATRIC DISORDERS USING HIGH-CONTENT SINGLE-CELL SCREENING OF SIGNALLING NETWORK RESPONSES EX VIVO

    OpenAIRE

    Lago Cooke, Santiago Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    The current work entails the development of a novel high content platform for the measurement of kinetic ligand responses across cell signalling networks at the single-cell level in distinct PBMC subtypes ex vivo. Using automated sample preparation, fluorescent cellular barcoding and flow cytometry the platform is capable of detecting 21, 840 parallel cell signalling responses in each PBMC sample. We apply this platform to characterize the effects of neuropsychiatric treatments and CNS ligand...

  12. Childhood adverse life events, disordered eating, and body mass index in US Military service members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakalar, Jennifer L; Barmine, Marissa; Druskin, Lindsay; Olsen, Cara H; Quinlan, Jeffrey; Sbrocco, Tracy; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian

    2018-03-02

    US service members appear to be at high-risk for disordered eating. Further, the military is experiencing unprecedented prevalence of overweight and obesity. US service members also report a high prevalence of childhood adverse life event (ALE) exposure. Despite consistent links between early adversity with eating disorders and obesity, there is a dearth of research examining the association between ALE exposure and disordered eating and weight in military personnel. An online survey study was conducted in active duty personnel to examine childhood ALE history using the Life Stressor Checklist - Revised, disordered eating using the Eating Disorder Examination - Questionnaire total score, and self-reported body mass index (BMI, kg/m 2 ). Among 179 respondents, multiple indices of childhood ALE were positively associated with disordered eating. Traumatic childhood ALE and subjective impact of childhood ALE were associated with higher BMI and these associations were mediated by disordered eating. Findings support evaluating childhood ALE exposure among service members with disordered eating and weight concerns. Moreover, findings support the need for prospective research to elucidate these relationships. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. [Obesity-related metabolic disorders in childhood and adolescence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeste, D; Carrascosa, A

    2011-08-01

    Obesity is the most frequent nutritional disorder in childhood and adolescence. The rise in its prevalence and severity has underlined the numerous and significant obesity-related metabolic disorders. Altered glucose metabolism, manifested as impaired glucose tolerance, appears early in severely obese children and adolescents. Obese young people with glucose intolerance are characterized by marked peripheral insulin resistance and relative beta-cell failure. Lipid deposition in muscle and the visceral compartment, and not only obesity per se, is related to increased peripheral insulin resistance, the triggering factor of the metabolic syndrome. Other elements of the metabolic syndrome, such as dyslipidaemia, and hypertension, are already present in obese youngsters and worsen with the degree of obesity. The long-term impact of obesity-related insulin resistance on cardiovascular morbidity in these patients is expected to emerge as these youngsters become young adults. Copyright © 2011 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  14. Association among self-compassion, childhood invalidation, and borderline personality disorder symptomatology in a Singaporean sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keng, Shian-Ling; Wong, Yun Yi

    2017-01-01

    Linehan's biosocial theory posits that parental invalidation during childhood plays a role in the development of borderline personality disorder symptoms later in life. However, little research has examined components of the biosocial model in an Asian context, and variables that may influence the relationship between childhood invalidation and borderline symptoms. Self-compassion is increasingly regarded as an adaptive way to regulate one's emotions and to relate to oneself, and may serve to moderate the association between invalidation and borderline symptoms. The present study investigated the association among childhood invalidation, self-compassion, and borderline personality disorder symptoms in a sample of Singaporean undergraduate students. Two hundred and ninety undergraduate students from a large Singaporean university were recruited and completed measures assessing childhood invalidation, self-compassion, and borderline personality disorder symptoms. Analyses using multiple regression indicated that both childhood invalidation and self-compassion significantly predicted borderline personality disorder symptomatology. Results from moderation analyses indicated that relationship between childhood invalidation and borderline personality disorder symptomatology did not vary as a function of self-compassion. This study provides evidence in support of aspects of the biosocial model in an Asian context, and demonstrates a strong association between self-compassion and borderline personality disorder symptoms, independent of one's history of parental invalidation during childhood.

  15. Neuropsychological Functioning in Childhood-Onset Psychosis and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodsky, Kimberly; Willcutt, Erik G.; Davalos, Deana B.; Ross, Randal G.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and childhood-onset psychosis (COP) are chronic, heterogeneous disorders with symptoms that frequently co-occur, but the etiology of their comorbidity is unknown. Studies of each disorder indicate that both ADHD and COP are associated with a range of neuropsychological weaknesses, but few…

  16. Childhood Maltreatment and Conduct Disorder: Independent Predictors of Criminal Outcomes in ADHD Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Sanctis, Virginia A.; Nomura, Yoko; Newcorn, Jeffrey H.; Halperin, Jeffrey M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at heightened risk for maltreatment in childhood and criminality as they enter into adolescence and early adulthood. Here, we investigated the effect of moderate to severe childhood maltreatment on later criminality among adolescents/young adults diagnosed with ADHD in…

  17. CHILDHOOD MALTREATMENT AND THE COURSE OF DEPRESSIVE AND ANXIETY DISORDERS : THE CONTRIBUTION OF PERSONALITY CHARACTERISTICS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hovens, Jacqueline G. F. M.; Giltay, Erik J.; van Hemert, Albert M.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.

    BackgroundWe investigated the effect of childhood maltreatment on predicting the 4-year course of depressive and anxiety disorders and the possible mediating role of personality characteristics in the association between childhood maltreatment and illness course.MethodsLongitudinal data in a large

  18. Hospital contact for mental disorders in survivors of childhood cancer and their siblings in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Lasse Wegener; Winther, Jeanette; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg

    2013-01-01

    Survivors of childhood cancer are known to be at risk for long-term physical and mental effects. However, little is known about how cancers can affect mental health in the siblings of these patients. We aimed to assess the long-term risks of mental disorders in survivors of childhood cancer...... and their siblings....

  19. Childhood adversity and adult depressive disorder: a case-controlled study in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, S F; Maniam, T; Tan, S M K; Badi'ah, Y

    2010-06-01

    To describe the association between childhood adversity and depression in adult depressed patients in a Malaysian population. Fifty-two patients, who met the criteria for major depressive disorder or dysthymia according to the Structured Clinical Interview based on the revised 3rd edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, were used as cases and compared with 52 controls matched for age and sex. Cases and controls were assessed using a sexual and physical abuse questionnaire and a Parental Bonding Instrument. There was a positive relationship between childhood abuse in general and childhood physical abuse with adult depressive disorder in particular. Nearly a quarter (23%) of depressed patients reported being abused in childhood compared with none in the control group. There was no significant association between childhood loss and depression in adulthood. Low level of parental care during childhood was significantly correlated with adult depressive disorder. Clinicians should assiduously seek a history of childhood adversities in adult patients with depression. This information can influence clinical management by way of implementing secondary preventive measures. In all depressed patients, mental health professionals also need to look out for their poor attachment with parents during childhood. This may enable interventions directed at parenting skills and improved attachment relationships with their own children. These types of interventions together with pharmacotherapy may provide the optimal approach to the management of depression in adults and help prevent the cycle of depression perpetuating itself in the next generation.

  20. Childhood and adulthood socio-economic position and midlife depressive and anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stansfeld, Stephen A; Clark, Charlotte; Rodgers, Bryan; Caldwell, Tanya; Power, Chris

    2008-02-01

    This paper investigates how childhood socio-economic position influences the risk for midlife depressive and anxiety disorders at 45 years of age, assessed by the Clinical Interview Schedule in 9377 participants of the 1958 British Birth Cohort. Socio-economic position was measured by Registrar General Social Class in childhood and adulthood. The association of paternal manual socio-economic position with any diagnosis at 45 years of age was accounted for after adjustment for adult socio-economic position. Manual socio-economic position in women at 42 years of age was associated with midlife depressive disorder and any diagnosis; these associations were diminished by adjustment for childhood psychological disorders. Effects of childhood socio-economic position on adult depressive disorders may be mediated through adult socio-economic position.

  1. Sex differences in the genetic and environmental influences on childhood conduct disorder and adult antisocial behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Madeline H; Slutske, Wendy S; Heath, Andrew C; Martin, Nicholas G

    2011-05-01

    Sex differences in the genetic and environmental influences on childhood conduct disorder and adult antisocial behavior were examined in a large community sample of 6,383 adult male, female, and opposite-sex twins. Retrospective reports of childhood conduct disorder (prior to 18 years of age) were obtained when participants were approximately 30 years old, and lifetime reports of adult antisocial behavior (antisocial behavior after 17 years of age) were obtained 8 years later. Results revealed that either the genetic or the shared environmental factors influencing childhood conduct disorder differed for males and females (i.e., a qualitative sex difference), but by adulthood, these sex-specific influences on antisocial behavior were no longer apparent. Further, genetic and environmental influences accounted for proportionally the same amount of variance in antisocial behavior for males and females in childhood and adulthood (i.e., there were no quantitative sex differences). Additionally, the stability of antisocial behavior from childhood to adulthood was slightly greater for males than females. Though familial factors accounted for more of the stability of antisocial behavior for males than females, genetic factors accounted for the majority of the covariation between childhood conduct disorder and adult antisocial behavior for both sexes. The genetic influences on adult antisocial behavior overlapped completely with the genetic influences on childhood conduct disorder for both males and females. Implications for future twin and molecular genetic studies are discussed.

  2. [From conduct disorder in childhood to psychopathy in adult life].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsopelas, Ch; Armenaka, M

    2012-06-01

    were children, without diagnosis of Psychopathic Personality, as such a diagnosis is not appropriate at early childhood or adolescence. Psychopathic or/and antisocial tendencies sometimes are recognized in children and early adolescent age. Such behaviors lead usually to the diagnosis of Conduct Disorder or Oppositional Defiant Disorder or Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder in early years of life and increase the possibility to have a diagnosis of Antisocial Personality Disorder and Psychopathic Personality as an adult. There are many studies on the underlying risk factors for Psychopathic Personality, focusing in genetic, neurobiological, developmental, environmental, social and other factors. There is no effective treatment for Psychopathic Personality in adult life. Children with a specific neurobiological profile or behavioral disturbances that increase the risk of developing a Psychopathic Personality in adult life, have better chances to respond in exceptionally individualized interventions, depending on the character of the child. The parents are educated to supervise their children, to overlook annoying behaviors and to encourage the positive ones. It appears that the punishment does not attribute, on the contrary it strengthens undesirable behaviors. Use of reward appears to have better results. Programs of early highly focused therapeutic interventions in vulnerable members of the population are our best hope for the reduction of fully blown psychopaths in the general adult population.

  3. Correlation of adverse childhood experiences with psychiatric disorders and aggressiveness in adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samardžić Ljiljana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Consequences of individual adverse childhood experiences for adult mental health have been precisely studied during past decades. The focus of past research was mainly on childhood maltreatment and neglect. The aim of this paper was to determine association between multiple adverse childhood experiences and psychiatric disorders, as well as their correlation to the degree and type of aggressiveness in adult psychiatric patients. Methods. One hundred and thirteen psychiatric outpatients were divided into three diagnostic groups: psychotics, non-psychotics and alcoholics and compared with fourty healthy individuals. Adverse childhood experiences data were gathered retrospectively, using the Adverse childhood experiences questionnaire and explanatory interview. Aggressiveness was assessed using Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire. The Student's t test, ANOVA and correlational analysis were used for evaluation of statistical significance of differences among the groups. A value p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results. Our results showed that the mean number of adverse childhood experiences in each group of psychiatric patients, as well as in the whole group of patients, was statistically significantly higher than in the group of healthy individuals (p < 0.001; there was a statistically significant difference in score of physical aggressiveness between the patients exposed to adverse childhood experiences and those who were not exposed to them (p < 0.05; scores of physical aggressiveness were in positive correlation with the number of adverse childhood experiences (p < 0.05. The highest mean score of adverse childhood experiences was evidenced in the group of patients with psychotic disorders. Conclusion. Multiple adverse childhood experiences are significantly associated with psychotic disorders, nonpsychotic disorders and alcohol dependence in adulthood and their presence is important morbidity risk factor for

  4. Childhood Traumatic Experiences, Dissociative Symptoms, and Dissociative Disorder Comorbidity Among Patients With Panic Disorder: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ural, Cenk; Belli, Hasan; Akbudak, Mahir; Tabo, Abdulkadir

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed childhood trauma history, dissociative symptoms, and dissociative disorder comorbidity in patients with panic disorder (PD). A total of 92 psychotropic drug-naive patients with PD, recruited from outpatient clinics in the psychiatry department of a Turkish hospital, were involved in the study. Participants were assessed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Dissociative Disorders (SCID-D), Dissociation Questionnaire, Panic and Agoraphobia Scale, Panic Disorder Severity Scale, and Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. Of the patients with PD, 18 (19%) had a comorbid dissociative disorder diagnosis on screening with the SCID-D. The most prevalent disorders were dissociative disorder not otherwise specified, dissociative amnesia, and depersonalization disorders. Patients with a high degree of dissociation symptoms and dissociative disorder comorbidity had more severe PD than those without (p dissociation and PD. Among all of the subscales, the strongest relationship was with childhood emotional abuse. Logistic regression analysis showed that emotional abuse and severity of PD were independently associated with dissociative disorder. In our study, a significant proportion of the patients with PD had concurrent diagnoses of dissociative disorder. We conclude that the predominance of PD symptoms at admission should not lead the clinician to overlook the underlying dissociative process and associated traumatic experiences among these patients.

  5. Abnormal Hippocampal Morphology in Dissociative Identity Disorder and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Correlates with Childhood Trauma and Dissociative Symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chalavi, Sima; Vissia, Eline M.; Giesen, Mechteld E.; Nijenhuis, Ellert R. S.; Draijer, Nel; Cole, James H.; Dazzan, Paola; Pariante, Carmine M.; Madsen, Sarah K.; Rajagopalan, Priya; Thompson, Paul M.; Toga, Arthur W.; Veltman, Dick J.; Reinders, Antje A. T. S.

    Smaller hippocampal volume has been reported in individuals with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and dissociative identity disorder (DID), but the regional specificity of hippocampal volume reductions and the association with severity of dissociative symptoms and/or childhood traumatization

  6. Abnormal Hippocampal Morphology in Dissociative Identity Disorder and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Correlates with Childhood Trauma and Dissociative Symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chalavi, S.; Vissia, E.M.; Giesen, M.E.; Nijenhuis, E.R.S.; Draijer, N.; Cole, J.H.; Dazzan, P.; Pariante, C.M.; Madsen, S.K.; Rajagopalan, P.; Thompson, P.M.; Toga, A.W.; Veltman, D.J.; Reinders, A.A.T.S

    2015-01-01

    Smaller hippocampal volume has been reported in individuals with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and dissociative identity disorder (DID), but the regional specificity of hippocampal volume reductions and the association with severity of dissociative symptoms and/or childhood traumatization

  7. Age of onset of bipolar disorder : Combined effect of childhood adversity and familial loading of psychiatric disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Post, Robert M.; Altshuler, Lori L.; Kupka, Ralph; McElroy, Susan L.; Frye, Mark A.; Rowe, Michael; Grunze, Heinz; Suppes, Trisha; Keck, Paul E.; Leverich, Gabriele S.; Nolen, Willem A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Family history and adversity in childhood are two replicated risk factors for early onset bipolar disorder. However, their combined impact has not been adequately studied. Methods: Based on questionnaire data from 968 outpatients with bipolar disorder who gave informed consent, the

  8. Childhood Precursors of Adult Borderline Personality Disorder Features: A Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Phebe

    2016-07-01

    This study identifies childhood personality traits that are precursors of adult Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) features. In a longitudinal study, childhood personality traits were assessed at age 11 (N = 100) using the California Child Q-set (CCQ: Block and Block, 1980). A number of these Q-items were found to be significantly correlated (p personality dimensions: Impulsivity and Nonconformity/Aggression. The findings thus provide evidence that childhood personality traits predict adult BPD features. Identifying such childhood precursors provides an opportunity for early intervention.

  9. The relationship between challenging parenting behaviour and childhood anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarus, Rebecca S; Dodd, Helen F; Majdandžić, Mirjana; de Vente, Wieke; Morris, Talia; Byrow, Yulisha; Bögels, Susan M; Hudson, Jennifer L

    2016-01-15

    This research investigates the relationship between challenging parenting behaviour and childhood anxiety disorders proposed by Bögels and Phares (2008). Challenging parenting behaviour involves the playful encouragement of children to go beyond their own limits, and may decrease children's risk for anxiety (Bögels and Phares, 2008). Parents (n=164 mothers and 144 fathers) of 164 children aged between 3.4 and 4.8 years participated in the current study. A multi-method, multi-informant assessment of anxiety was used, incorporating data from diagnostic interviews as well as questionnaire measures. Parents completed self-report measures of their parenting behaviour (n=147 mothers and 138 fathers) and anxiety (n=154 mothers and 143 fathers). Mothers reported on their child's anxiety via questionnaire as well as diagnostic interview (n=156 and 164 respectively). Of these children, 74 met criteria for an anxiety disorder and 90 did not. Fathers engaged in challenging parenting behaviour more often than mothers. Both mothers' and fathers' challenging parenting behaviour was associated with lower report of child anxiety symptoms. However, only mothers' challenging parenting behaviour was found to predict child clinical anxiety diagnosis. Shared method variance from mothers confined the interpretation of these results. Moreover, due to study design, it is not possible to delineate cause and effect. The finding with respect to maternal challenging parenting behaviour was not anticipated, prompting replication of these results. Future research should investigate the role of challenging parenting behaviour by both caregivers as this may have implications for parenting interventions for anxious children. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Adverse childhood experiences in children with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Daniel W; Kaufman, Joan

    2018-03-01

    Recent years have shown an uptick in studies assessing bullying and other adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This article reviews extant findings, and points to gaps in the literature. Children with ASD are bullied by peers at a rate three to four times that of nondisabled peers with negative impacts on academic functioning and mental health symptoms, including increased risk for suicidality. Children with ASD are also at enhanced risk for other ACES, particularly parental divorce and income insufficiency, and as observed in the general population, children with ASD who experience an increased number of ACES are at elevated risk for comorbid psychiatric and medical health problems. Children with ASD with an elevated number of ACES also experience a delay in ASD diagnosis and treatment initiation. There is no evidence of increased risk of child maltreatment within the ASD population. As bullying and other adverse experiences are common and associated with deleterious outcomes in children with ASD, there is a need for additional research on intervention strategies to prevent and mitigate the impact of these experiences. Ongoing work on the assessment of trauma experiences and PTSD symptoms in children on the spectrum is also needed.

  11. Childhood sexual abuse in adult patients with borderline personality disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preethi Menon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Researchers have found elevated rates of childhood sexual abuse (CSA in borderline personality disorder (BPD patients. They have also implicated the role of CSA later in BPD. However, there has been a scarcity of studies regarding this in Indian population. Objectives: To profile the occurrence of CSA and its parameters in BPD patients and to document symptomatology of BPD associated with CSA. Materials and Methods: Thirty-six consecutive patients with BPD were administered with a two-staged semi-structured interview by different interviewers with the first stage for collecting sociodemographic details and confirming BPD diagnosis and the second stage for collecting information about CSA. Results: Of 36 BPD patients, 16 (44.44% reported a history of definite CSA. The majority of CSA associated with BPD were having characteristics of onset at 7–12 years, <10 occasions of abuse, perpetrator being a close relative or a close acquaintance and genital type of CSA. Identity disturbances (P = 0.0354, recurrent suicidal/self-harm behavior (P = 0.0177, and stress-related paranoid/dissociative symptoms (P = 0.0177 were significantly associated with the presence of CSA while unstable interpersonal relationships (P = 0.001 were significantly associated with the absence of CSA. Conclusion: Significant proportion of BPD patients reported CSA. The specific symptom profile of BPD patients can be used to predict the presence of CSA in these patients, which has a direct implication in the treatment of these patients.

  12. Gender-age interaction in incidence rates of childhood emotional disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wesselhoeft, R; Pedersen, C B; Mortensen, P B

    2014-01-01

    were incidence rates and cumulative incidences for unipolar depressive disorder (ICD-10: F32-F33), anxiety disorders (ICD-10: F40-F42), and emotional disorders with onset specific to childhood (ICD-10: F93). RESULTS: Pre-pubertal incidence rates for depressive and anxiety disorders were higher for boys...... rates of emotional disorders throughout childhood. METHOD: This is a population-based cohort study of 907 806 Danish 3- to 18-year-olds. The outcome was assignment of an emotional disorder diagnosis based on in-patient and out-patient data from The Danish Psychiatric Central Register. Outcome measures.......24-2.43) for boys and 3.77% (95% CI 3.64-3.90) for girls. The pre-pubertal male preponderance was also significant for depressive disorders (F32-F33, p = 0.00144) and anxiety disorders (F40-F42, F93, p

  13. Childhood-compared to adolescent-onset bipolar disorder has more statistically significant clinical correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtzman, Jessica N; Miller, Shefali; Hooshmand, Farnaz; Wang, Po W; Chang, Kiki D; Hill, Shelley J; Rasgon, Natalie L; Ketter, Terence A

    2015-07-01

    The strengths and limitations of considering childhood-and adolescent-onset bipolar disorder (BD) separately versus together remain to be established. We assessed this issue. BD patients referred to the Stanford Bipolar Disorder Clinic during 2000-2011 were assessed with the Systematic Treatment Enhancement Program for BD Affective Disorders Evaluation. Patients with childhood- and adolescent-onset were compared to those with adult-onset for 7 unfavorable bipolar illness characteristics with replicated associations with early-onset patients. Among 502 BD outpatients, those with childhood- (adolescent- (13-18 years, N=218) onset had significantly higher rates for 4/7 unfavorable illness characteristics, including lifetime comorbid anxiety disorder, at least ten lifetime mood episodes, lifetime alcohol use disorder, and prior suicide attempt, than those with adult-onset (>18 years, N=174). Childhood- but not adolescent-onset BD patients also had significantly higher rates of first-degree relative with mood disorder, lifetime substance use disorder, and rapid cycling in the prior year. Patients with pooled childhood/adolescent - compared to adult-onset had significantly higher rates for 5/7 of these unfavorable illness characteristics, while patients with childhood- compared to adolescent-onset had significantly higher rates for 4/7 of these unfavorable illness characteristics. Caucasian, insured, suburban, low substance abuse, American specialty clinic-referred sample limits generalizability. Onset age is based on retrospective recall. Childhood- compared to adolescent-onset BD was more robustly related to unfavorable bipolar illness characteristics, so pooling these groups attenuated such relationships. Further study is warranted to determine the extent to which adolescent-onset BD represents an intermediate phenotype between childhood- and adult-onset BD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Childhood conduct problems and young adult outcomes among women with childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Elizabeth B; Hinshaw, Stephen P

    2016-02-01

    We tested whether conduct problems predicted young adult functioning and psychiatric symptoms among women diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) during childhood, in the context of 3 potential adolescent mediators: internalizing problems, peer rejection, and school failure and disciplinary problems. We controlled for childhood ADHD severity, IQ, and demographic factors, and in the mediational tests, for adolescent conduct problems. Data came from 140 participants in the Berkeley Girls With ADHD Longitudinal Study. We used bootstrapping methods to assess indirect effects (mediators). Both childhood, F(1, 118) change = 9.00, p = .003, R2 change = .069, and adolescent, F(1, 109) change = 10.41, p = .002, R2 change = .083, conduct problems were associated with worse overall functioning during young adulthood, controlling for initial ADHD severity, child IQ, and demographics. Results were similar when predicting psychiatric symptoms. Adolescent school failure and disciplinary problems mediated the relations between childhood conduct problems and both young adult functioning and externalizing problems; adolescent internalizing problems and peer conflict mediated the relation between childhood conduct problems and young adult internalizing problems. As is true for boys, childhood and adolescent conduct problems are associated with poor adult outcomes among girls with ADHD, with school failure and disciplinary problems, internalizing problems, and peer conflict functioning as mediators of these relations. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Association Between Childhood to Adolescent Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptom Trajectories and Late Adolescent Disordered Eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Zeynep; Javaras, Kristin N; Baker, Jessica H; Thornton, Laura M; Lichtenstein, Paul; Bulik, Cynthia M; Larsson, Henrik

    2017-08-01

    Disordered eating is more prevalent among adolescents with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Both inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity symptoms show strong associations with disordered eating, but few investigations of these associations have been longitudinal. Thus, we examined the effect of childhood to adolescent inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity symptom trajectories on late adolescent disordered eating. We used growth mixture modeling to identify distinct inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity symptom trajectories (called "classes") across three time points (ages 8-9, 13-14, and 16-17 years) in the Swedish Twin study of CHild and Adolescent Development. The resulting classes were used to predict Eating Disorder Inventory-2 Bulimia, Drive for Thinness, and Body Dissatisfaction subscales at age 16-17 years, with adjustment for sex and body mass index at age 16-17 years. The combined inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity symptom trajectory classes included: a "low symptom" class characterized by low inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity throughout childhood/adolescence; a "predominantly inattention" class characterized by elevated inattention, but not hyperactivity/impulsivity, throughout childhood/adolescence; a "predominantly hyp/imp" class characterized by elevated hyperactivity/impulsivity, but not inattention, throughout childhood/adolescence; and a "both inattention and hyp/imp" class characterized by elevated inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity throughout childhood/adolescence. After adjusting for sex and body mass index or sex and anxiety/depression symptoms, the "both inattention and hyp/imp" (vs. "low symptom") class predicted significantly higher Eating Disorder Inventory-2 subscale scores during late adolescence. Increased vigilance for disordered eating among children who have both inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity symptoms throughout childhood and adolescence could aid in early identification of eating

  16. Autonomic arousal in childhood anxiety disorders: Associations with state anxiety and social anxiety disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkozei, Anna; Creswell, Cathy; Cooper, Peter J.; Allen, John J.B.

    2015-01-01

    Background Psychophysiological theories suggest that individuals with anxiety disorders may evidence inflexibility in their autonomic activity at rest and when responding to stressors. In addition, theories of social anxiety disorder, in particular, highlight the importance of physical symptoms. Research on autonomic activity in childhood (social) anxiety disorders, however, is scarce and has produced inconsistent findings, possibly because of methodological limitations. Method The present study aimed to account for limitations of previous studies and measured respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) and heart rate (HR) using Actiheart heart rate monitors and software (Version 4) during rest and in response to a social and a non-social stressor in 60 anxious (30 socially anxious and 30 ‘other’ anxious), and 30 nonanxious sex-and age-matched 7–12 year olds. In addition, the effect of state anxiety during the tasks was explored. Results No group differences at rest or in response to stress were found. Importantly, however, with increases in state anxiety, all children, regardless of their anxiety diagnoses showed less autonomic responding (i.e., less change in HR and RSA from baseline in response to task) and took longer to recover once the stressor had passed. Limitations This study focused primarily on parasympathetic arousal and lacked measures of sympathetic arousal. Conclusion The findings suggest that childhood anxiety disorders may not be characterized by inflexible autonomic responding, and that previous findings to the contrary may have been the result of differences in subjective anxiety between anxious and nonanxious groups during the tasks, rather than a function of chronic autonomic dysregulation. PMID:25590763

  17. Childhood maltreatment, juvenile disorders and adult post-traumatic stress disorder: a prospective investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breslau, N; Koenen, K C; Luo, Z; Agnew-Blais, J; Swanson, S; Houts, R M; Poulton, R; Moffitt, T E

    2014-07-01

    We examine prospectively the influence of two separate but potentially inter-related factors in the etiology of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD): childhood maltreatment as conferring a susceptibility to the PTSD response to adult trauma and juvenile disorders as precursors of adult PTSD. The Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study (DMHDS) is a birth cohort (n = 1037) from the general population of New Zealand's South Island, with multiple assessments up to age 38 years. DSM-IV PTSD was assessed among participants exposed to trauma at ages 26-38. Complete data were available on 928 participants. Severe maltreatment in the first decade of life, experienced by 8.5% of the sample, was associated significantly with the risk of PTSD among those exposed to adult trauma [odds ratio (OR) 2.64, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.16-6.01], compared to no maltreatment. Moderate maltreatment, experienced by 27.2%, was not associated significantly with that risk (OR 1.55, 95% CI 0.85-2.85). However, the two estimates did not differ significantly from one another. Juvenile disorders (ages 11-15), experienced by 35% of the sample, independent of childhood maltreatment, were associated significantly with the risk of PTSD response to adult trauma (OR 2.35, 95% CI 1.32-4.18). Severe maltreatment is associated with risk of PTSD response to adult trauma, compared to no maltreatment, and juvenile disorders, independent of earlier maltreatment, are associated with that risk. The role of moderate maltreatment remains unresolved. Larger longitudinal studies are needed to assess the impact of moderate maltreatment, experienced by the majority of adult trauma victims with a history of maltreatment.

  18. [Childhood traumatization, dissociation and nonsuicidal self-injurious behavior in borderline personality disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merza, Katalin; Harmatta, János; Papp, Gábor; Kuritárné Szabó, Ildikó

    2017-05-01

    Childhood traumatization plays a significant role in the etiology of borderline personality disorder. Studies found a significant association between childhood traumatization, dissociation, and nonsuicidal self-injurious behavior. The aim of our study was to assess dissociation and nonsuicidal self-injury among borderline inpatients and to reveal the association between childhood traumatization, dissociation, and self-injurious behavior. The sample consisted of 80 borderline inpatients and 73 depressed control patients. Childhood traumatization, dissociation and self-injurious behavior were assessed by questionnaires. Borderline patients reported severe and multiplex childhood traumatization. Cumulative trauma score and sexual abuse were the strongest predictors of dissociation. Furthermore, we have found that cumulative trauma score and dissociation were highly predictive of self-injurious behavior. Our results suggest that self-injurious behavior and dissociation in borderline patients can be regarded as indicators of childhood traumatization. Orv Hetil. 2017; 158(19): 740-747.

  19. Emotional Awareness Moderates the Relationship Between Childhood Abuse and Borderline Personality Disorder Symptom Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westbrook, John; Berenbaum, Howard

    2017-07-01

    To examine pathways to borderline personality disorder (BPD), focusing on childhood abuse and emotional attention and clarity. Among 293 community residents (mean age = 43.1; 53.9% female), measured associations between the BPD symptom factors of disturbed relatedness, affective dysregulation, and behavioral dysregulation and (a) childhood abuse (emotional, physical, and sexual); (b) emotional attention and clarity; and (c) negative affect, using structured interviews, the Schedule for Non-Adaptive and Adaptive Personality-2, the Trait Meta Mood Scale, and the Positive and Negative Affect Scale, respectively. All forms of childhood abuse were associated with BPD symptom factors. Emotional attention and clarity moderated the effects of childhood physical and emotional abuse on behavioral dysregulation and disturbed relatedness. All results held when controlling for negative affect. The relations between childhood abuse and BPD are robust. Emotional attention and clarity may help elucidate the links between childhood abuse and BPD. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Impact of childhood trauma on course of panic disorder: contribution of clinical and personality characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Venter, M; Van Den Eede, F; Pattyn, T; Wouters, K; Veltman, D J; Penninx, B W J H; Sabbe, B G

    2017-06-01

    To investigate the impact of childhood trauma on the clinical course of panic disorder and possible contributing factors. Longitudinal data of 539 participants with a current panic disorder were collected from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA). Childhood trauma was assessed with a structured interview and clinical course after 2 years with a DSM-IV-based diagnostic interview and the Life Chart Interview. At baseline, 54.5% reported childhood trauma, but this was not predictive of persistence of panic disorder. Emotional neglect and psychological abuse were associated with higher occurrence of anxiety disorders other than panic disorder (social phobia) and with higher chronicity of general anxiety symptoms (anxiety attacks or episodes and avoidance). Baseline clinical features (duration and severity of anxiety and depressive symptoms) and personality traits (neuroticism and extraversion) accounted for roughly 30-60% of the total effect of childhood trauma on chronicity of anxiety symptoms and on occurrence of other anxiety disorders. After two years, childhood trauma is associated with chronicity of anxiety symptoms and occurrence of social phobia, rather than persistence of panic disorder. These relationships are partially accounted for by duration and severity of anxiety and depressive symptoms, and neuroticism and extraversion. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. A Five-Factor Model framework for understanding childhood personality disorder antecedents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Clercq, Barbara; De Fruyt, Filip

    2012-12-01

    The present contribution reviews evidence that supports the relevance of childhood antecedents of personality disorders, and advocates that the validity of a Five-Factor Model framework for describing general trait differences in childhood can be extended towards the field of developmental personality difficulties. In addition, we suggest that several traditional childhood Axis I conditions include a substantial trait component that may be responsible for the recurring finding that childhood Axis I disorders are predictive for adult Axis II disorders. Given the valuable information provided by a trait assessment, we further propose to integrate dimensional personality and personality pathology measures as standard tools in mental health assessments at a young age. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Personality © 2012, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. The impact of childhood adversities on anxiety and depressive disorders in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marackova, Marketa; Prasko, Jan; Matousek, Stanislav; Latalova, Klara; Hruby, Radovan; Holubova, Michaela; Slepecky, Milos; Vrbova, Kristyna; Grambal, Ales

    2016-12-01

    The childhood adversities model is generally accepted as a predictor of adult psychopathology vulnerability. It stems from child development theories, but the question remains as of how well solid research supports it. The aim of this article is to give a review of the studies concerning childhood adversities and their impact on the development of anxiety disorders and major depressive disorder in adulthood. A computerized search of the MEDLINE database of publications up to 31 March 2016 was done, using the keywords "childhood adversities, abuse, maltreatment, bullying" and "anxiety disorders, depressive disorder". No backward time constraints were used. Non-original studies, conference abstracts, books and book chapters, commentaries, and dissertations were excluded. The influence of childhood adversities on later age psychopathology is examined in five categories: the negative family atmosphere, abuse, loss of a close person, the social difficulties, and problems at school (including, most importantly bullying). The majority of studies confirmed the connection between childhood adversities and anxiety and depression disorders in adulthood. The character of the adversities is not, apparently, a specific predictor for a concrete psychopathology. Multiple adversities are more frequently connected with depressive and anxiety disorders in adulthood, cumulating together in broader adverse context. Childhood adversities were found to increase vulnerability to the distress, depression, fear and anxiety later in the life. However, specific correlations between a given childhood adversity and a specific form of depression or anxiety disorder were either not found or weak. This is in line with the generally accepted view considering each of these factors a non-specific stressor increasing vulnerability to mood and affect disorders later in life.

  3. Risk factors for secondary substance use disorders in people with childhood and adolescent-onset bipolar disorder: opportunities for prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenneson, Aileen; Funderburk, Jennifer S; Maisto, Stephen A

    2013-07-01

    Compared to other mental illnesses, bipolar disorder is associated with a disproportionately high rate of substance use disorders (SUDs), and the co-occurrence is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Early diagnosis of primary bipolar disorder may provide opportunities for SUD prevention, but little is known about the risk factors for secondary SUD among individuals with bipolar disorder. The purposes of this study were to describe the population of people with childhood and adolescent-onset primary bipolar disorder, and to identify risk factors for secondary SUD in this population. Using data collected from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication study, we identified 158 individuals with childhood-onset (adolescent-onset (13-18 years) primary bipolar disorder (I, II or subthreshold). Survival analysis was used to identify risk factors for SUD. Compared to adolescent-onset, people with childhood-onset bipolar disorder had increased likelihoods of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (adjusted odds ratio=2.81) and suicide attempt (aOR=3.61). Males were more likely than females to develop SUD, and did so at a faster rate. Hazard ratios of risk factors for SUD were: lifetime oppositional defiant disorder (2.048), any lifetime anxiety disorder (3.077), adolescent-onset bipolar disorder (1.653), and suicide attempt (15.424). SUD was not predicted by bipolar disorder type, family history of bipolar disorder, hospitalization for a mood episode, ADHD or conduct disorder. As clinicians struggle to help individuals with bipolar disorder, this study provides information that might be useful in identifying individuals at higher risk for SUD. Future research can examine whether targeting these risk factors may help prevent secondary SUD. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Prevalence of Childhood Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Traits in Adults with Obsessive Compulsive Disorder versus Obsessive Compulsive Personality Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Pinto, Anthony; Greene, Ashley L.; Storch, Eric A.; Simpson, H. Blair

    2014-01-01

    Identifying risk factors of psychopathology has been an important research challenge. Prior studies examining the impact of childhood temperament on adult disorder have largely focused on undercontrolled and inhibited presentations, with little study of overcontrolled traits such as obsessive-compulsive personality traits (OCPTs). We compared rates of childhood OCPTs in adults with OCD (without OCPD) (n = 28) to adults with OCPD (without OCD) (n = 27), adults with both OCD and OCPD (n = 28), ...

  5. Childhood maltreatment and the medical morbidity in bipolar disorder: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosang, Georgina M; Fisher, Helen L; Uher, Rudolf; Cohen-Woods, Sarah; Maughan, Barbara; McGuffin, Peter; Farmer, Anne E

    2017-09-07

    Childhood maltreatment (abuse and neglect) can have long-term deleterious consequences, including increased risk for medical and psychiatric illnesses, such as bipolar disorder in adulthood. Emerging evidence suggests that a history of childhood maltreatment is linked to the comorbidity between medical illnesses and mood disorders. However, existing studies on bipolar disorder have not yet explored the specific influence of child neglect and have not included comparisons with individuals without mood disorders (controls). This study aimed to extend the existing literature by examining the differential influence of child abuse and child neglect on medical morbidity in a sample of bipolar cases and controls. The study included 72 participants with bipolar disorder and 354 psychiatrically healthy controls (average age of both groups was 48 years), who completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, and were interviewed regarding various medical disorders. A history of any type of childhood maltreatment was significantly associated with a diagnosis of any medical illness (adjusted OR = 6.28, 95% confidence intervals 1.70-23.12, p = 0.006) and an increased number of medical illnesses (adjusted OR = 3.77, 95% confidence intervals 1.34-10.57, p = 0.012) among adults with bipolar disorder. Exposure to child abuse was more strongly associated with medical disorders than child neglect. No association between childhood maltreatment and medical morbidity was detected among controls. To summarise, individuals with bipolar disorder who reported experiencing maltreatment during childhood, especially abuse, were at increased risk of suffering from medical illnesses and warrant greater clinical attention.

  6. [NEUROPSYCHIATRIC MANIFESTATIONS OF SYSTEMIC LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stryjer, Rafael; Shriki Tal, Liron; Gizunterman, Alex; Amital, Daniela; Amital, Howard; Kotler, Moshe

    2017-12-01

    This review deals with the neuropsychiatric disorders resulting from systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). SLE is a chronic autoimmune disease that impacts all systems in the human body, including the central nervous system. Neuropsychiatric symptoms in SLE are a common complication of the disease. This complication has significant implications for the severity of the illness. In most cases no thorough psychiatric assessment is performed during initial evaluation of the disease and no protocol or clear guidelines for treating the psychiatric symptoms in SLE are available. Early diagnosis of the psychiatric symptoms in SLE is critical since absence of treatment may result in severe psychiatric complications. Clinical pharmacological studies are needed in order to develop guidelines for treating psychiatric symptoms in SLE.

  7. Interpretation and expectation in childhood anxiety disorders: age effects and social specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creswell, Cathy; Murray, Lynne; Cooper, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Theory and treatment for childhood anxiety disorders typically implicates children's negative cognitions, yet little is known about the characteristics of thinking styles of clinically anxious children. In particular, it is unclear whether differences in thinking styles between children with anxiety disorders and non-anxious children vary as a function of child age, whether particular cognitive distortions are associated with childhood anxiety disorders at different child ages, and whether cognitive content is disorder-specific. The current study addressed these questions among 120 7-12 year old children (53% female) who met diagnostic criteria for social anxiety disorder, other anxiety disorder, or who were not currently anxious. Contrary to expectations, threat interpretation was not inflated amongst anxious compared to non-anxious children at any age, although older (10-12 year old) anxious children did differ from non-anxious children on measures of perceived coping. The notion of cognitive-content specificity was not supported across the age-range. The findings challenge current treatment models of childhood anxiety, and suggest that a focus on changing anxious children's cognitions is not warranted in mid-childhood, and in late childhood cognitive approaches may be better focussed on promoting children's perceptions of control rather than challenging threat interpretations.

  8. Avoidant personality disorder versus social phobia: the significance of childhood neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eikenaes, Ingeborg; Egeland, Jens; Hummelen, Benjamin; Wilberg, Theresa

    2015-01-01

    Avoidant personality disorder (AvPD) and social phobia (SP) are common disorders both in the community and in clinical settings. Whether the two disorders represent different severity levels of social anxiety disorder is currently in dispute. The relationship between AvPD and SP is probably more complex than previously assumed. Several environmental, temperamental, and constitutional factors may play a role in the etiology of AvPD and SP. Better knowledge about childhood experiences may shed light on similarities and differences between the two disorders. The aim of this study was to compare self-reported childhood experiences in AvPD and SP patients. This is a cross-sectional multi-site study of 91 adult patients with AvPD and/ or SP. We compared patients with AvPD with and without SP (AvPD group) to patients with SP without AvPD (SP group). The patients were examined using structured diagnostic interviews and self-report measures, including Child Trauma Questionnaire, Parental Bonding Instrument, and Adult Temperament Questionnaire. Both AvPD and SP were associated with negative childhood experiences. AvPD patients reported more severe childhood neglect than patients with SP, most pronounced for physical neglect. The difference between the disorders in neglect remained significant after controlling for temperamental factors and concurrent abuse. The study indicates that childhood neglect is a risk factor for AvPD and may be one contributing factor to phenomenological differences between AvPD and SP.

  9. Childhood traumatization by primary caretaker and affect dysregulation in patients with borderline personality disorder and somatoform disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annemiek van Dijke

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Affect regulation is often compromised as a result of early life interpersonal traumatization and disruption in caregiving relationships like in situations where the caretaker is emotionally, sexually or physically abusing the child. Prior studies suggest a clear relationship between early childhood attachment-related psychological trauma and affect dysregulation. We evaluated the relationship of retrospectively recalled childhood traumatization by primary caretaker(s (TPC and affect dysregulation in 472 adult psychiatric patients diagnosed with borderline personality disorder (BPD, somatoform disorder (SoD, both BPD and SoD, or disorders other than BPD or SoD, using the Bermond-Vorst Alexithymia Questionnaire, the self-report version of the Structured Interview for Disorders of Extreme Stress, the Self-rating Inventory for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (SRIP and the Traumatic Experiences Checklist. Almost two-thirds of participants reported having experienced childhood TPC, ranging from approximately 50% of patients with SoD or other psychiatric disorders to more than 75% of patients with comorbid BPD + SoD. Underregulation of affect was associated with emotional TPC and TPC occurring in developmental epoch 0–6 years. Over-regulation of affect was associated with physical TPC. Childhood trauma by a primary caretaker is prevalent among psychiatric patients, particularly those with BPD, and differentially associated with underand over-regulation of affect depending on the type of traumatic exposure.For the abstract or full text in other languages, please see Supplementary files under Reading Tools online

  10. School Psychologists and the Assessment of Childhood Internalizing Disorders: Perceived Knowledge, Role Preferences and Training Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, David N.; Jome, Larae M.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the perceptions of a national sample of school psychologists in the United States regarding their knowledge, preferred roles and training needs in the assessment of nine prominent childhood internalizing disorders. Knowledge about all disorders was rated by respondents as being at least fairly important. In particular,…

  11. Adverse Childhood Experiences and Disordered Gambling: Assessing the Mediating Role of Emotion Dysregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Julia C; Kim, Hyoun S; Dobson, Keith S; Hodgins, David C

    2017-12-01

    Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), such as sexual and physical abuse, have been established as risk factors for the development of disordered gambling. The underlying mechanism by which ACEs influence disordered gambling, however, remains unknown. The aims of the present research were to comprehensively investigate ten types of childhood adversity and their relationships to disordered gambling in adulthood, and to test whether emotion dysregulation mediated the relationship between ACEs and disordered gambling. A sample of community gamblers (N = 414) completed self-report measures of ACEs, emotion dysregulation, and gambling severity. Results revealed a significant association between all but one type (physical abuse) of ACEs and disordered gambling. Further, the results highlighted the cumulative impact of ACEs on gambling. Specifically, individuals who experienced three or more types of ACEs were more than three times as likely to report disordered gambling as compared to individuals with no history of childhood adversity. Importantly, as hypothesized, emotion dysregulation mediated the relationship between ACEs and disordered gambling. Findings from this research describe the association between ACEs and gambling and indicate a causal link between childhood adversity and disordered gambling. Results suggest that treatment initiatives may do well to address both ACEs and emotion dysregulation in the treatment of problem gambling.

  12. Feeding and Eating Disorders: Ingestive Problems of Infancy, Childhood, and Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerwin, MaryLouise E.; Berkowitz, Robert I.

    1996-01-01

    The fourth edition of the "Diagnostic Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (DSM) recognizes that feeding problems of infants and children are not typically the same as eating problems of adolescents, thus the addition of a broad diagnostic category, "Feeding and Eating Disorders of Infancy or Early Childhood." Subtypes are…

  13. Validation of Measures of Biosocial Precursors to Borderline Personality Disorder: Childhood Emotional Vulnerability and Environmental Invalidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Shannon E.; Baer, Ruth A.

    2010-01-01

    Linehan's biosocial theory suggests that borderline personality disorder (BPD) results from a transaction of two childhood precursors: emotional vulnerability and an invalidating environment. Until recently, few empirical studies have explored relationships between these theoretical precursors and symptoms of the disorder. Psychometrically sound…

  14. Positive Childhood Experiences: Resilience and Recovery from Personality Disorder in Early Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skodol, Andrew E.; Bender, Donna S.; Pagano, Maria E.; Shea, M. Tracie; Yen, Shirley; Sanislow, Charles A.; Grilo, Carlos M.; Daversa, Maria T.; Stout, Robert L.; Zanarini, Mary C.; McGlashan, Thomas H.; Gunderson, John G.

    2009-01-01

    Objective--Recent follow-along studies of personality disorders have shown significant improvement in psychopathology over time. The purpose of this study was to prospectively investigate the association between positive childhood experiences related to resiliency and remission from personality disorder. Method--Five hundred twenty patients with…

  15. Threat Related Selective Attention Predicts Treatment Success in Childhood Anxiety Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legerstee, Jeroen S.; Tulen, Joke H. M.; Kallen, Victor L.; Dieleman, Gwen C.; Treffers, Philip D. A.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Utens, Elisabeth M. W. J.

    2009-01-01

    Threat-related selective attention was found to predict the success of the treatment of childhood anxiety disorders through administering a pictorial dot-probe task to 131 children with anxiety disorders prior to cognitive behavioral therapy. The diagnostic status of the subjects was evaluated with a semistructured clinical interview at both pre-…

  16. Separation Anxiety Disorder in Childhood as a Risk Factor for Future Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewinsohn, Peter M.; Holm-Denoma, Jill M.; Small, Jason W.; Seeley, John R.; Joiner, Thomas E.

    2008-01-01

    A study to examine the association between childhood separation anxiety disorder (SAD) and the risk of the development of psychopathology during young adulthood was conducted. Results showed that SAD contributed to the risk for the development of internalizing disorders, which are panic and depression, but decreased the risk for externalizing…

  17. Neuropsychiatric Symptoms in People With Korsakoff Syndrome and Other Alcohol-Related Cognitive Disorders Living in Specialized Long-Term Care Facilities: Prevalence, Severity, and Associated Caregiver Distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerridzen, Ineke J; Hertogh, Cees M P M; Depla, Marja F; Veenhuizen, Ruth B; Verschuur, Els M L; Joling, Karlijn J

    2018-03-01

    Caring for people with Korsakoff syndrome (KS) residing in specialized long-term care facilities (LTCFs) can be distressing because of challenging neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS). However, good-quality studies on NPS in this under-researched population are lacking. This study examined the prevalence and severity of NPS in people with KS living in specialized LTCFs and the associated caregiver distress. Cross-sectional, observational study. Data were obtained using structured interviews with care staff, elderly care physicians, and residents. Nine specialized LTCFs in the Netherlands. KS residents admitted for at least 3 months. The prevalence and severity of NPS were measured with the Neuropsychiatric Inventory-Questionnaire (NPI-Q). The associated caregiver distress was assessed with the NPI Distress Scale (NPI-D) according to the nurse or nurse assistant. Almost all of the 281 residents (96.4%) showed at least 1 NPS and 45.8% showed 5 or more symptoms. Irritability/lability (68.3%), agitation/aggression (58.7%), and disinhibition (52.7%) were most prevalent. Although the mean level of severity for all NPS was relatively low, half of the residents (49.1%) had at least 1 severe NPS. Care staff experienced low levels of distress associated with NPS. NPS are highly prevalent in KS residents. Unexpectedly, these did not have any severe impact on residents and care staff. Acquiring more insight into the persistence and course of NPS, and its associations, among KS residents is important to better understand and reduce these symptoms and, ultimately, improve the quality of care for these residents. Copyright © 2017 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Cortical Inhibition in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: New Insights from the Electroencephalographic Response to Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruckmann, Sarah; Hauk, Daniela; Roessner, Veit; Resch, Franz; Freitag, Christine M.; Kammer, Thomas; Ziemann, Ulf; Rothenberger, Aribert; Weisbrod, Matthias; Bender, Stephan

    2012-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is one of the most frequent neuropsychiatric disorders in childhood. Transcranial magnetic stimulation studies based on muscle responses (motor-evoked potentials) suggested that reduced motor inhibition contributes to hyperactivity, a core symptom of the disease. Here we employed the N100 component of the…

  19. Increased prospective health service use for depression among adults with childhood onset bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sala, Regina; Goldstein, Benjamin I; Wang, Shuai; Flórez-Salamanca, Ludwing; Iza, Miren; Blanco, Carlos

    2013-11-01

    To examine the prospective relationship between age of onset of bipolar disorder and the demographic and clinical characteristics, treatment, new onset of psychiatric comorbidity, and psychosocial functioning among adults with bipolar disorder. As part of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, 1600 adults who met lifetime Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition criteria for bipolar disorder-I (n = 1172) and bipolar disorder-II (n = 428) were included. Individuals were evaluated using the Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule-IV version for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition, and data were analyzed from Waves 1 and 2, approximately 3 years apart. Individuals with bipolar disorder were divided into three age at onset groups: childhood (adolescence (13-18 years old, n = 396), and adulthood (>19 year old, n = 1017). After adjusting for confounding factors, adults with childhood-onset bipolar disorder were more likely to see a counselor, have been hospitalized, and have received emergency room treatment for depression compared with those with adulthood-onset bipolar disorder. By contrast, there were no differences in the severity of mania or hypomania, new onset of comorbidity, and psychosocial functioning by age of bipolar disorder onset. Childhood-onset bipolar disorder is prospectively associated with seeking treatment for depression, an important proxy for depressive severity. Longitudinal studies are needed in order to determine whether prompt identification, accurate diagnosis, and early intervention can serve to mitigate the burden of childhood onset on the long-term depressive burden of bipolar disorder. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Genetic and Environmental Determinants of Cognitive Dysfunction and Psychotic-Like Experiences in Neuropsychiatric Patients and Healthy Individuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vreeker, A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Bipolar disorder and schizophrenia are severe neuropsychiatric disorders that are highly heritable. Although both disorders partly share clinical characteristics, it is unclear whether bipolar disorder patients have similar lower IQ as that observed in schizophrenia patients. In the

  1. Current psychiatric disorders in patients with epilepsy are predicted by maltreatment experiences during childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labudda, Kirsten; Illies, Dominik; Herzig, Cornelia; Schröder, Katharina; Bien, Christian G; Neuner, Frank

    2017-09-01

    Childhood maltreatment has been shown to be a risk factor for the development of psychiatric disorders. Although the prevalence of psychiatric disorders is high in epilepsy patients, it is unknown if childhood maltreatment experiences are elevated compared to the normal population and if early maltreatment is a risk factor for current psychiatric comorbidities in epilepsy patients. This is the main purpose of this study. Structured interviews were used to assess current Axis I diagnoses in 120 epilepsy patients from a tertiary Epilepsy Center (34 TLE patients, 86 non-TLE patients). Childhood maltreatment in the family and peer victimization were assessed with validated questionnaires. Patients' maltreatment scores were compared with those of a representative matched control group. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to assess the potential impact of childhood maltreatment on current psychiatric comorbidity in epilepsy patients. Compared to a matched control group, epilepsy patients had higher emotional and sexual maltreatment scores. Patients with a current psychiatric diagnosis reported more family and peer maltreatment than patients without a psychiatric disorder. Family maltreatment scores predicted the likelihood of a current psychiatric disorder. TLE patients did not differ from non-TLE patients according to maltreatment experiences and rates of current psychiatric disorders. Our findings suggest that in epilepsy patients emotional and sexual childhood maltreatment is experienced more often than in the normal population and that early maltreatment is a general risk factor for psychiatric comorbidities in this group. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Gender differences in the effects of childhood adversity on alcohol, drug, and polysubstance-related disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Elizabeth A; Grella, Christine E; Upchurch, Dawn M

    2017-07-01

    To examine gender differences in the associations between childhood adversity and different types of substance use disorders and whether gender moderates these relationships. We analyzed data from 19,209 women and 13,898 men as provided by Wave 2 (2004-2005) of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) to examine whether gender moderates the associations between childhood adversity and DSM-IV defined lifetime occurrence of alcohol, drug, and polysubstance-related disorders. We used multinomial logistic regression, weighted to be representative of the US adult civilian, noninstitutionalized population, and we calculated predicted probabilities by gender, controlling for covariates. To test which specific moderation contrasts were statistically significant, we conducted pair-wise comparisons corrected for multiple comparisons using Bonferroni's method. For each type of substance use disorder, risk was increased by more exposure to childhood adversity, and women had a lower risk than men. However, moderation effects revealed that with more experiences of childhood adversity, the gender gap in predicted probability for a disorder narrowed in relation to alcohol, it converged in relation to drugs such that risk among women surpassed that among men, and it widened in relation to polysubstances. Knowledge regarding substance-specific gender differences associated with childhood adversity exposure can inform evidence-based treatments. It may also be useful for shaping other types of gender-sensitive public health initiatives to ameliorate or prevent different types of substance use disorders.

  3. Childhood trauma in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: focus on personality disorders and psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáez-Francàs, Naia; Calvo, Natalia; Alegre, José; Castro-Marrero, Jesús; Ramírez, Nicolás; Hernández-Vara, Jorge; Casas, Miguel

    2015-10-01

    Personality Disorders (PDs) and childhood traumatic experiences have been considered risk factors for Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS). However, the relationship between these factors and their associated psychopathological impact has not been explored in this population. This study was designed to evaluate the association between different childhood traumas and the presence and number of PDs and current psychopathology in a sample of CFS patients. For this purpose, 166 CFS patients were evaluated with the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire-4+ (PDQ-4+) and the Child Trauma Questionnaire. Other instruments were used to assess the associated psychopathology and the impact of fatigue. Of the total sample, 55 (33.1%) presented childhood trauma, the most frequent of which were emotional neglect (21.7%) and emotional abuse (18.1%). Considering PD presence, 79 (47.6%) patients presented some PD. There were no differences in frequency of physical childhood trauma in patients with and without PD. However, patients with PD had more frequently experienced emotional childhood trauma (OR=2.18, p=0.034). Severity of childhood trauma was related to a higher number of PDs, more severe depressive symptoms (p=0.025) and suicide risk (p=0.001). Patients with PD and any childhood trauma presented more severe depressive and irritable symptoms and a higher suicide risk than those without any PD and non-childhood traumatic event. These patients' psychopathological symptoms were similar to those of patients with childhood trauma and without PD. These results suggest that emotional childhood trauma but not physical childhood trauma is related to higher frequency of PD presence. More severe childhood emotional and physical traumas are related to a higher number of PDs and to more severe psychopathological symptoms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Childhood separation anxiety disorder and adult onset panic attacks share a common genetic diathesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberson-Nay, Roxann; Eaves, Lindon J; Hettema, John M; Kendler, Kenneth S; Silberg, Judy L

    2012-04-01

    Childhood separation anxiety disorder (SAD) is hypothesized to share etiologic roots with panic disorder. The aim of this study was to estimate the genetic and environmental sources of covariance between childhood SAD and adult onset panic attacks (AOPA), with the primary goal to determine whether these two phenotypes share a common genetic diathesis. Participants included parents and their monozygotic or dizygotic twins (n = 1,437 twin pairs) participating in the Virginia Twin Study of Adolescent Behavioral Development and those twins who later completed the Young Adult Follow-Up (YAFU). The Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Assessment was completed at three waves during childhood/adolescence followed by the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R at the YAFU. Two separate, bivariate Cholesky models were fit to childhood diagnoses of SAD and overanxious disorder (OAD), respectively, and their relation with AOPA; a trivariate Cholesky model also examined the collective influence of childhood SAD and OAD on AOPA. In the best-fitting bivariate model, the covariation between SAD and AOPA was accounted for by genetic and unique environmental factors only, with the genetic factor associated with childhood SAD explaining significant variance in AOPA. Environmental risk factors were not significantly shared between SAD and AOPA. By contrast, the genetic factor associated with childhood OAD did not contribute significantly to AOPA. Results of the trivariate Cholesky reaffirmed outcomes of bivariate models. These data indicate that childhood SAD and AOPA share a common genetic diathesis that is not observed for childhood OAD, strongly supporting the hypothesis of a specific genetic etiologic link between the two phenotypes. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Childhood Predictors of Adult Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder : Results from the World Health Organization World Mental Health Survey Initiative

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lara, C.; Fayyad, J.; de Graaf, R.; Kessler, R.C.; Aguilar-Gaxiola, S.; Angermeyer, M.; Demytteneare, K.; De Girolamo, G.; Haro, J.M.; Jin, R.; Karam, E.G.; Lepine, J.P.; Mora, M.E.M.; Ormel, J.; Posada-Villa, J.; Sampson, N.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Although it is known that childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often persists into adulthood, childhood predictors of this persistence have not been widely studied. Methods: Childhood history of ADHD and adult ADHD were assessed in 10 countries in the World Health

  6. Reactive attachment disorder of infancy or early childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Association. Reactive attachment disorder. In: American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders . 5th ed. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing; 2013: ...

  7. Prevalence of Childhood Mental Disorders Among School Children of Kashmir Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Mohd Altaf; Khan, Waheeda

    2018-03-05

    Prevalence of mental disorders among children is affected by armed conflict and same is true in protracted conflict of Kashmir, where the ongoing conflict has affected mental health of children badly. In order to understand mental health condition of school going children, the present study was designed to study the nature and prevalence of mental disorders among school children in Kashmir valley. The present study employed multi-stage sampling and multi-informant reporting of mental health problems in children. A sample of 1000 school children was taken from 12 schools of Shopian district through systematic random sampling method. Data was collected at different levels of screening by using Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) (Teacher form) and Mini International Neuropsychiatric Inventory (MINI-Kid). Socio-demographic data sheet was included to gather relevant information. The prevalence rates of mental disorders among school children were presented at different levels of screening. It was found to be 27.1% based on SDQ and 22.2% when assessed by MINI-Kid at second level of screening. The most commonly found mental disorders were of anxiety (8.5%), followed by mood disorders (6.3%) and then behavioural disorders (4.3%). Percentage of schoolgoing children with mental disorders in Kashmir is much more than in other states of India. The political conflict in the state and lack of mental health facilities give rise to high prevalence rates of mental disorders and warrant our urgent attention.

  8. Association among self-compassion, childhood invalidation, and borderline personality disorder symptomatology in a Singaporean sample

    OpenAIRE

    Keng, Shian-Ling; Wong, Yun Yi

    2017-01-01

    Background Linehan’s biosocial theory posits that parental invalidation during childhood plays a role in the development of borderline personality disorder symptoms later in life. However, little research has examined components of the biosocial model in an Asian context, and variables that may influence the relationship between childhood invalidation and borderline symptoms. Self-compassion is increasingly regarded as an adaptive way to regulate one’s emotions and to relate to oneself, and m...

  9. Intra- and extra-familial adverse childhood experiences and a history of childhood psychosomatic disorders among Japanese university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munemoto Takao

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Japan has been witnessing a considerable increase in the number of children with psychosomatic disorders. The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between the risk of psychosomatic disorder in adolescents and intra- and extra-familial adverse childhood experiences (ACEs. Methods A retrospective cohort study of 1592 Japanese university students (52% male, mean age 19.9 years who completed a survey about intra- and extra-familial ACEs and the incidence of childhood psychosomatic disorders. Intra-familial ACEs included domestic violence, physical violence, emotional abuse, illness in household, parental divorce, no parental affection, and dysfunctional family. Extra-familial ACEs included physical violence or negative recognition by teachers, being bullied in elementary or junior high school, or sexual violence. Results The frequency of psychosomatic disorders among the respondents was 14.8%. Among the 7 intra-familial ACEs, emotional abuse (relative risk, RR = 1.9 and illness in household (RR = 1.7 increased the risk of psychosomatic disorders. Estimates of the relative risk for the 5 extra-familial ACEs were statistically significant and ranged from 1.5 for being bullied in elementary school or physical violence from teachers to 2.4. Students who had 3 or more intra-familial ACEs and 2 or more extra-familial ACEs had a 3.0 relative risk for psychosomatic disorder. Conclusion These results suggest that intra- and extra-familial ACEs are associated with the development of psychosomatic disorders. Therefore, sufficient evaluation of ACEs should be performed in adolescent patients with psychosomatic disorder.

  10. DIAGNOSTIC CLASSIFICATION OF MENTAL HEALTH AND DEVELOPMENTAL DISORDERS OF INFANCY AND EARLY CHILDHOOD DC:0-5: SELECTIVE REVIEWS FROM A NEW NOSOLOGY FOR EARLY CHILDHOOD PSYCHOPATHOLOGY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeanah, Charles H; Carter, Alice S; Cohen, Julie; Egger, Helen; Gleason, Mary Margaret; Keren, Miri; Lieberman, Alicia; Mulrooney, Kathleen; Oser, Cindy

    2016-09-01

    The Diagnostic Classification of Mental Health and Developmental Disorders of Infancy and Early Childhood: Revised Edition (DC:0-5; ZERO TO THREE) is scheduled to be published in 2016. The articles in this section are selective reviews that have been undertaken as part of the process of refining and updating the nosology. They provide the rationales for new disorders, for disorders that had not been included previously in the Diagnostic Classification of Mental Health and Developmental Disorders of Infancy and Early Childhood: Revised Edition (DC:0-3R; ZERO TO THREE, 2005), and for changes in how certain types of disorders are conceptualized. © 2016 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  11. Childhood Maltreatment and Perinatal Mood and Anxiety Disorders: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Karmel W; Sikkema, Kathleen J

    2016-12-01

    Perinatal mood and anxiety disorders (PMADs) compromise maternal and child well-being and may be influenced by traumatic experiences across the life course. A potent and common form of trauma is childhood maltreatment, but its specific impact on PMADs is not well understood. A systematic review was undertaken to synthesize empirical literature on the relationship between maternal histories of childhood maltreatment and PMADs. Of the 876 citations retrieved, 35 reports from a total of 26,239 participants met inclusion criteria, documenting substantial rates of childhood maltreatment and PMADs. Robust trends of association were observed between childhood maltreatment and perinatal depression, as well as post-traumatic stress disorder, but findings for anxiety were less consistent. Examining multivariate results suggested that childhood maltreatment predicts PMADs above and beyond sociodemographic, psychiatric, perinatal, and psychosocial factors, but may also be partially mediated by variables such as later victimization and moderated by protective early relationships. Future research should test mediating and moderating pathways using prospective cohorts, expanding to cross-cultural settings and other disorder outcomes. Treatment and prevention of childhood maltreatment and its sequelae may help mitigate risk for perinatal psychopathology and its impact on maternal and child outcomes. © The Author(s) 2015.

  12. Substantiated childhood maltreatment and young adulthood cannabis use disorders: A pre-birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abajobir, Amanuel Alemu; Najman, Jake Moses; Williams, Gail; Strathearn, Lane; Clavarino, Alexandra; Kisely, Steve

    2017-10-01

    This study investigates the association between exposure to prospectively-substantiated childhood maltreatment between 0 and 14 years of age and lifetime cannabis use, abuse and dependence reported at 21 years. Data were taken from 2526 (51.6% female) participants in the Mater Hospital-University of Queensland Study of Pregnancy, a pre-birth, prospective, cohort study. Prospectively-substantiated cases of childhood maltreatment, reported to the government child protection agencies between 0 and 14 years of age, were linked to CIDI DSM-IV self-report data from the 21-year follow-up. Exposure to any childhood maltreatment, and childhood neglect in particular, predicted subsequent cannabis abuse with adjusted odds ratios (AORs) of 1.79 and 2.62, respectively. Any childhood maltreatment, physical abuse, emotional abuse and neglect predicted cannabis dependence with AORs of 2.47, 2.81, 2.44 and 2.68, respectively. The associations for an early age of onset of cannabis abuse and dependence were significant and consistent for maltreated children. In addition, frequency of maltreatment substantiations predicted cannabis abuse, dependence and an early age of onset of these disorders. The AORs for cannabis ever use without any DSM-IV cannabis disorder were 1.78 for any maltreatment and 2.15 for emotional abuse. Any childhood maltreatment and neglect predicted lifetime ever cannabis use, as well as cannabis use disorder. There was little evidence for any interaction between gender and different forms of childhood maltreatment and its association with cannabis use disorders. Physical abuse, emotional abuse and neglect, as well as multiple episodes of maltreatment independently predicted cannabis use disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Childhood Neurodevelopmental Disorders and Violent Criminality: A Sibling Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundström, Sebastian; Forsman, Mats; Larsson, Henrik; Kerekes, Nora; Serlachius, Eva; Långström, Niklas; Lichtenstein, Paul

    2014-01-01

    The longitudinal relationship between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and violent criminality has been extensively documented, while long-term effects of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), tic disorders (TDs), and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) on criminality have been scarcely studied. Using population-based registers of all…

  14. The scientific status of childhood dissociative identity disorder: a review of published research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boysen, Guy A

    2011-01-01

    Dissociative identity disorder (DID) remains a controversial diagnosis due to conflicting views on its etiology. Some attribute DID to childhood trauma and others attribute it to iatrogenesis. The purpose of this article is to review the published cases of childhood DID in order to evaluate its scientific status, and to answer research questions related to the etiological models. I searched MEDLINE and PsycINFO records for studies published since 1980 on DID/multiple personality disorder in children. For each study I coded information regarding the origin of samples and diagnostic methods. The review produced a total of 255 cases of childhood DID reported as individual case studies (44) or aggregated into empirical studies (211). Nearly all cases (93%) emerged from samples of children in treatment, and multiple personalities was the presenting problem in 23% of the case studies. Four US research groups accounted for 65% of all 255 cases. Diagnostic methods typically included clinical evaluation based on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder criteria, but hypnosis, structured interviews, and multiple raters were rarely used in diagnoses. Despite continuing research on the related concepts of trauma and dissociation, childhood DID itself appears to be an extremely rare phenomenon that few researchers have studied in depth. Nearly all of the research that does exist on childhood DID is from the 1980s and 1990s and does not resolve the ongoing controversies surrounding the disorder. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Stable prediction of mood and anxiety disorders based on behavioral and emotional problems in childhood: a 14-year follow-up during childhood, adolescence, and young adulthood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.J. Roza (Sabine); M.B. Hofstra (Marijke); J. van der Ende (Jan); F.C. Verhulst (Frank)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to predict the onset of mood and anxiety disorders from parent-reported emotional and behavioral problems in childhood across a 14-year period from childhood into young adulthood. METHOD: In 1983, parent reports of behavioral and

  16. Reduced Orbitofrontal Gray Matter Concentration as a Marker of Premorbid Childhood Trauma in Cocaine Use Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keren Bachi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Childhood trauma affects neurodevelopment and promotes vulnerability to impaired constraint, depression, and addiction. Reduced gray matter concentration (GMC in the mesocorticolimbic regions implicated in reward processing and cognitive control may be an underlying substrate, as documented separately in addiction and for childhood trauma. The purpose of this study was to understand the contribution of childhood maltreatment to GMC effects in individuals with cocaine use disorder.Methods: Individuals with cocaine use disorder were partitioned into groups of low vs. high childhood trauma based on median split of the total score of the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ; CUD-L, N = 23; CUD-H, N = 24 and compared with age, race, and gender matched healthy controls with low trauma (N = 29. GMC was obtained using voxel-based morphometry applied to T1-weighted MRI scans. Drug use, depression and constraint were assessed with standardized instruments.Results: Whole-brain group comparisons showed reduced GMC in the right lateral orbitofrontal cortex (OFC in CUD-H as compared with controls (cluster-level pFWE-corr < 0.001 and CUD-L (cluster-level pFWE-corr = 0.035; there were no significant differences between CUD-L and controls. A hierarchical regression analysis across both CUD groups revealed that childhood trauma, but not demographics and drug use, and beyond constraint and depression, accounted for 37.7% of the variance in the GMC in the right lateral OFC (p < 0.001.Conclusions: Beyond other contributing factors, childhood trauma predicted GMC reductions in the OFC in individuals with cocaine use disorder. These findings underscore a link between premorbid environmental stress and morphological integrity of a brain region central for behaviors underlying drug addiction. These results further highlight the importance of accounting for childhood trauma, potentially as a factor predisposing to addiction, when examining and interpreting

  17. Social Learning Family Therapy and the Treatment of Conduct Disorder in Early Childhood: Premise, Procedures and Prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mpofu, Elias

    1997-01-01

    Discusses social learning family therapy hypotheses on the development and sustenance of conduct disorder in early childhood, together with treatment approaches that use parents as the primary agents of change. Reviews research showing that parent training procedures hold much promise for the treatment of conduct disorder in childhood. (JPB)

  18. Impact of childhood adversities on the short-term course of illness in psychotic spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schalinski, Inga; Fischer, Yolanda; Rockstroh, Brigitte

    2015-08-30

    Accumulating evidence indicates an impact of childhood adversities on the severity and course of mental disorders, whereas this impact on psychotic disorders remains to be specified. Effects of childhood adversities on comorbidity, on symptom severity of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale and global functioning across four months (upon admission, 1 and 4 months after initial assessment), as well as the course of illness (measured by the remission rate, number of re-hospitalizations and dropout rate) were evaluated in 62 inpatients with psychotic spectrum disorders. Adverse experiences (of at least 1 type) were reported by 73% of patients. Patients with higher overall level of childhood adversities (n=33) exhibited more co-morbid disorders, especially alcohol/substance abuse and dependency, and higher dropout rates than patients with a lower levels of adverse experiences (n=29), together with higher levels of positive symptoms and symptoms of excitement and disorganization. Emotional and physical neglect were particularly related to symptom severity. Results suggest that psychological stress in childhood affects the symptom severity and, additionally, a more unfavorable course of disorder in patients diagnosed with psychoses. This impact calls for its consideration in diagnostic assessment and psychiatric care. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Childhood trauma and dissociation in women with pseudoseizure-type conversion disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozcetin, Adnan; Belli, Hasan; Ertem, Umit; Bahcebasi, Talat; Ataoglu, Ahmet; Canan, Fatih

    2009-11-01

    Conversion disorder is thought to be associated with psychological factors because of the presence of conflict and other stressors prior to the condition. The aim of this study is to compare adult patients with pseudoseizure-type conversion disorder with healthy control group in terms of childhood trauma, dissociative disorder and family history of psychiatric disorders. 56 female patients were admitted to the general psychiatry hospital outpatient clinic between January and July 2005. All patients had a negative experience about their families just before having the conversion. Diagnosis was made according to the DSM-IV criteria. A control group consisting of similar patient demographics of the disease group has been selected. Socio-demographic information forms, the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) and Dissociation Questionnaire (DIS-Q), were completed on the patients. CTQ total (t=12.12, Pconversion group. DIS-Q mean points were statistically higher in the conversion group (t=11.05, Pconversion disorder) should be included within dissociative disorders in DSM system as in ICD. It is usually uncommon for the patient to tell about childhood trauma without being specially questioned about this issue. Thus, it would be helpful to uncover these experiences by using related scales in conversion disorder patients.

  20. Parental mental health, childhood psychiatric disorders, and asthma attacks in island Puerto Rican youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Alexander N; Goodwin, Renee D; McQuaid, Elizabeth L; Canino, Glorisa

    2004-01-01

    Previous research documents an association of poor parental mental health with asthma in children. This study aims to determine whether the associations between parental mental health problems and childhood asthma attacks persist after controlling for childhood anxiety and depression and other confounding factors. A community household sample of youth ages 4 to 17 years and their primary caregivers from the US Commonwealth of Puerto Rico was studied to determine the associations between parental mental health and childhood asthma attacks. Regression models that predicted asthma attacks in youth controlled for parental mental health problems, childhood anxiety and depression, zone of residence, and parents' age, education, and perception of poverty. After adjusting for children's depressive and anxiety disorders as well as other important confounders, associations between parental depression, suicide attempts, ataque de nervios, and history of mental health treatment and asthma attacks in offspring, by parental report, persisted. Additionally, the frequency of parental mental health problems was associated with children's asthma attacks. Parents with mental health problems were more likely to report histories of asthma attacks in their children compared with parents without mental health problems in Puerto Rico. These associations were not attributable to internalizing disorders in youth but persisted independent of childhood psychopathology and other confounding factors. Clinicians and researchers should recognize the relations between poor parental mental health and childhood asthma and explore the potential role of family psychosocial and behavioral factors related to the manifestation of the disease.

  1. Childhood- versus adolescent-onset antisocial youth with conduct disorder: psychiatric illness, neuropsychological and psychosocial function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Vicki A; Kemp, Andrew H; Heard, Robert; Lennings, Christopher J; Hickie, Ian B

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigates whether youths with childhood-onset antisocial behavior have higher rates of psychiatric illness, neuropsychological and psychosocial dysfunction than youths who engage in antisocial behavior for the first time in adolescence. Prior studies have generally focused on single domains of function in heterogeneous samples. The present study also examined the extent to which adolescent-onset antisocial behavior can be considered normative, an assumption of Moffitt's dual taxonomy model. Forty-three subjects (34 males, 9 females, mean age = 15.31, age range 12-21) with a diagnosis of conduct disorder (CD) were recruited through Headspace Services and the Juvenile Justice Community Centre. We compared childhood-onset antisocial youths (n = 23) with adolescent-onset antisocial youths (n = 20) with a conduct disorder, across a battery of psychiatric, neuropsychological and psychosocial measures. Neuropsychological function of both groups was also compared with normative scores from control samples. The childhood-onset group displayed deficits in verbal learning and memory, higher rates of psychosis, childhood maltreatment and more serious violent behavior, all effects associated with a large effect size. Both groups had impaired executive function, falling within the extremely low range (severely impaired). Childhood-onset CD displayed greater cognitive impairment, more psychiatric symptoms and committed more serious violent offences. The finding of severe executive impairment in both childhood- and adolescent-onset groupings challenges the assumption that adolescent-onset antisocial behavior is a normative process.

  2. Childhood- versus adolescent-onset antisocial youth with conduct disorder: psychiatric illness, neuropsychological and psychosocial function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicki A Johnson

    Full Text Available The present study investigates whether youths with childhood-onset antisocial behavior have higher rates of psychiatric illness, neuropsychological and psychosocial dysfunction than youths who engage in antisocial behavior for the first time in adolescence. Prior studies have generally focused on single domains of function in heterogeneous samples. The present study also examined the extent to which adolescent-onset antisocial behavior can be considered normative, an assumption of Moffitt's dual taxonomy model.Forty-three subjects (34 males, 9 females, mean age = 15.31, age range 12-21 with a diagnosis of conduct disorder (CD were recruited through Headspace Services and the Juvenile Justice Community Centre. We compared childhood-onset antisocial youths (n = 23 with adolescent-onset antisocial youths (n = 20 with a conduct disorder, across a battery of psychiatric, neuropsychological and psychosocial measures. Neuropsychological function of both groups was also compared with normative scores from control samples.The childhood-onset group displayed deficits in verbal learning and memory, higher rates of psychosis, childhood maltreatment and more serious violent behavior, all effects associated with a large effect size. Both groups had impaired executive function, falling within the extremely low range (severely impaired.Childhood-onset CD displayed greater cognitive impairment, more psychiatric symptoms and committed more serious violent offences. The finding of severe executive impairment in both childhood- and adolescent-onset groupings challenges the assumption that adolescent-onset antisocial behavior is a normative process.

  3. Direct and indirect influences of childhood abuse on depression symptoms in patients with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Yumi; Okamoto, Yasumasa; Takagaki, Koki; Okada, Go; Toki, Shigeru; Inoue, Takeshi; Tanabe, Hajime; Kobayakawa, Makoto; Yamawaki, Shigeto

    2015-10-14

    It is known that the onset, progression, and prognosis of major depressive disorder are affected by interactions between a number of factors. This study investigated how childhood abuse, personality, and stress of life events were associated with symptoms of depression in depressed people. Patients with major depressive disorder (N = 113, 58 women and 55 men) completed the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), the Neuroticism Extroversion Openness Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI), the Child Abuse and Trauma Scale (CATS), and the Life Experiences Survey (LES), which are self-report scales. Results were analyzed with correlation analysis and structural equation modeling (SEM), by using SPSS AMOS 21.0. Childhood abuse directly predicted the severity of depression and indirectly predicted the severity of depression through the mediation of personality. Negative life change score of the LES was affected by childhood abuse, however it did not predict the severity of depression. This study is the first to report a relationship between childhood abuse, personality, adulthood life stresses and the severity of depression in depressed patients. Childhood abuse directly and indirectly predicted the severity of depression. These results suggest the need for clinicians to be receptive to the possibility of childhood abuse in patients suffering from depression. SEM is a procedure used for hypothesis modeling and not for causal modeling. Therefore, the possibility of developing more appropriate models that include other variables cannot be excluded.

  4. Impact of common mental disorders during childhood and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We examined the association between early-onset disorders and subsequent educational achievement in a nationally representative sample of 4 351 South African adults. After adjusting for participant demographic characteristics and traumatic life events, post-traumatic stress disorder, major depressive disorder and ...

  5. A Review of Habit Reversal with Childhood Habit Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Douglas W.; Miltenberger, Raymond G.

    1996-01-01

    This paper first reviews four classes of habit disorders in children: motor and vocal tics, nervous habits, stuttering, and Tourette's disorder. It then describes the habit reversal procedure and reviews the literature on its use and variations to treat each of the four classes of habit disorders. Emphasis is on simplified versions of the original…

  6. Mental health trajectories from adolescence to adulthood: Language disorder and other childhood and adolescent risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Lin; Brownlie, E B; Beitchman, Joseph H

    2016-05-01

    Longitudinal research on mental health development beyond adolescence among nonclinical populations is lacking. This study reports on psychiatric disorder trajectories from late adolescence to young adulthood in relation to childhood and adolescent risk factors. Participants were recruited for a prospective longitudinal study tracing a community sample of 5-year-old children with communication disorders and a matched control cohort to age 31. Psychiatric disorders were measured at ages 19, 25, and 31. Known predictors of psychopathology and two school-related factors specifically associated with language disorder (LD) were measured by self-reports and semistructured interviews. The LD cohort was uniquely characterized by a significantly decreasing disorder trajectory in early adulthood. Special education was associated with differential disorder trajectories between LD and control cohorts, whereas maltreatment history, specific learning disorder, family structure, and maternal psychological distress were associated with consistent trajectories between cohorts. From late adolescence to young adulthood, childhood LD was characterized by a developmentally limited course of psychiatric disorder; maltreatment was consistently characterized by an elevated risk of psychiatric disorder regardless of LD history, whereas special education was associated with significantly decreasing risk of psychiatric disorder only in the presence of LD.

  7. Prevalence of Childhood Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Traits in Adults with Obsessive Compulsive Disorder versus Obsessive Compulsive Personality Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Anthony; Greene, Ashley L; Storch, Eric A; Simpson, H Blair

    2015-01-01

    Identifying risk factors of psychopathology has been an important research challenge. Prior studies examining the impact of childhood temperament on adult disorder have largely focused on undercontrolled and inhibited presentations, with little study of overcontrolled traits such as obsessive-compulsive personality traits (OCPTs). We compared rates of childhood OCPTs in adults with OCD (without OCPD) (n = 28) to adults with OCPD (without OCD) (n = 27), adults with both OCD and OCPD (n = 28), and healthy controls (HC) (n= 28), using the Childhood Retrospective Perfectionism Questionnaire, a validated measure of perfectionism, inflexibility, and drive for order. Adults with OCPD (both with and without comorbid OCD) reported higher rates of all three childhood OCPTs relative to HC. Individuals with OCD (without OCPD) reported higher rates of inflexibility and drive for order relative to HC, suggesting that these traits may presage the development of OCD, independent of OCPD. Childhood OCPTs were associated with particular OCD symptom dimensions in adulthood (contamination/cleaning, doubt/checking, and symmetry/ordering), independent of OCD onset age and OCPD diagnosis. Longitudinal prospective studies evaluating OCPTs in children are needed to better understand the progression of these traits from childhood to adulthood and their ability to predict future psychopathology.

  8. Concurrent Use of Cannabis and Alcohol: Neuropsychiatric Effect Consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romaguera, Anna; Torrens, Marta; Papaseit, Esther; Arellano, Ana Lucia; Farré, Magi

    2017-01-01

    Concurrent use of cannabis and alcohol is frequent. According different studies, the prevalence is among 20-34% depending on different samples studied. In contrast with the wide evidence available about neuropsychiatric effects associated to the use of cannabis or alcohol separately, there are few studies of the neuropsychiatric effects of their combination. Our aim was to review the literature regarding this topic. We performed a search in MEDLINE and from 114 potentially eligible studies, 27 were selected. Most of them studied the relation between cannabis and alcohol, and with them combined to other substances of abuse, but only a few considered their concurrent effect among mental disorders (ADHD, bipolar disorder) and neuropsychological performance. More research in the neuropsychiatric effects of the concomitant use of cannabis and alcohol is needed. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  9. Childhood trauma in adults with social anxiety disorder and panic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: The influence of childhood trauma as a specific environmental factor on the development of adult psychopathology is far from being elucidated. As part of a collaborative project between research groups from South Africa (SA) and Sweden focusing on genetic and environmental factors contributing to anxiety ...

  10. Endocrine disorders in childhood cancer survivors: More answers, more questions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clement, S.C.

    2016-01-01

    Treatment of pediatric malignancies has advanced substantially over the past several decades, resulting in a rapidly growing group of long-term childhood cancer survivors (CCS). Improved survival leads to an increasing number of individuals who may be at increased risk of substantial morbidity and

  11. Abnormal Hippocampal Morphology in Dissociative Identity Disorder and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Correlates with Childhood Trauma and Dissociative Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalavi, Sima; Vissia, Eline M.; Giesen, Mechteld E.; Nijenhuis, Ellert R.S.; Draijer, Nel; Cole, James H.; Dazzan, Paola; Pariante, Carmine M.; Madsen, Sarah K.; Rajagopalan, Priya; Thompson, Paul M.; Toga, Arthur W.; Veltman, Dick J.; Reinders, Antje A.T.S.

    2015-01-01

    Smaller hippocampal volume has been reported in individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and dissociative identity disorder (DID), but the regional specificity of hippocampal volume reductions and the association with severity of dissociative symptoms and/or childhood traumatization are still unclear. Brain structural MRI scans were analyzed for 33 outpatients (17 with DID and 16 with PTSD only) and 28 healthy controls (HC), all matched for age, sex, and education. DID patients met criteria for PTSD (PTSD-DID). Hippocampal global and subfield volumes and shape measurements were extracted. We found that global hippocampal volume was significantly smaller in all 33 patients (left: 6.75%; right: 8.33%) compared to HC. PTSD-DID (left: 10.19%; right: 11.37%) and PTSD-only with a history of childhood traumatization (left: 7.11%; right: 7.31%) had significantly smaller global hippocampal volume relative to HC. PTSD-DID had abnormal shape and significantly smaller volume in the CA2-3, CA4-DG and (pre)subiculum compared to HC. In the patient groups, smaller global and subfield hippocampal volumes significantly correlated with higher severity of childhood traumatization and dissociative symptoms. These findings support a childhood trauma-related etiology for abnormal hippocampal morphology in both PTSD and DID and can further the understanding of neurobiological mechanisms involved in these disorders. PMID:25545784

  12. Abnormal hippocampal morphology in dissociative identity disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder correlates with childhood trauma and dissociative symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalavi, Sima; Vissia, Eline M; Giesen, Mechteld E; Nijenhuis, Ellert R S; Draijer, Nel; Cole, James H; Dazzan, Paola; Pariante, Carmine M; Madsen, Sarah K; Rajagopalan, Priya; Thompson, Paul M; Toga, Arthur W; Veltman, Dick J; Reinders, Antje A T S

    2015-05-01

    Smaller hippocampal volume has been reported in individuals with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and dissociative identity disorder (DID), but the regional specificity of hippocampal volume reductions and the association with severity of dissociative symptoms and/or childhood traumatization are still unclear. Brain structural magnetic resonance imaging scans were analyzed for 33 outpatients (17 with DID and 16 with PTSD only) and 28 healthy controls (HC), all matched for age, sex, and education. DID patients met criteria for PTSD (PTSD-DID). Hippocampal global and subfield volumes and shape measurements were extracted. We found that global hippocampal volume was significantly smaller in all 33 patients (left: 6.75%; right: 8.33%) compared with HC. PTSD-DID (left: 10.19%; right: 11.37%) and PTSD-only with a history of childhood traumatization (left: 7.11%; right: 7.31%) had significantly smaller global hippocampal volume relative to HC. PTSD-DID had abnormal shape and significantly smaller volume in the CA2-3, CA4-DG and (pre)subiculum compared with HC. In the patient groups, smaller global and subfield hippocampal volumes significantly correlated with higher severity of childhood traumatization and dissociative symptoms. These findings support a childhood trauma-related etiology for abnormal hippocampal morphology in both PTSD and DID and can further the understanding of neurobiological mechanisms involved in these disorders. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Childhood maltreatment and its link to borderline personality disorder features in children: A systematic review approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Jeyda; Cosgrave, Nicola; Woolgar, Matthew

    2018-01-01

    Borderline personality disorder has repeatedly been associated with a history of maltreatment in childhood; however, research on maltreatment and its link to borderline features in children is limited. The aim of this review is to synthesise the existing data on the association between maltreatment and borderline features in childhood. In total, 10 studies were included in this systematic review. Studies indicated that children with borderline features were more likely to have a history of maltreatment, and that children who had been maltreated were more likely to present with borderline features. Other risk factors such as cognitive and executive functioning deficits, parental dysfunction and genetic vulnerability were also identified across studies. This review adds to the literature by highlighting maltreatment as a risk factor for borderline features in childhood. Longitudinal research is required to establish the link between childhood borderline features and adult borderline features. Implications for early identification, prevention and intervention services are discussed.

  14. Psychopathology, childhood trauma, and personality traits in patients with borderline personality disorder and their sisters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laporte, Lise; Paris, Joel; Guttman, Herta; Russell, Jennifer

    2011-08-01

    The aim of this study was to document and compare adverse childhood experiences, and personality profiles in women with borderline personality disorder (BPD) and their sisters, and to determine how these factors impact current psychopathology. Fifty-six patients with BPD and their sisters were compared on measures assessing psychopathology, personality traits, and childhood adversities. Most sisters showed little evidence of psychopathology. Both groups reported dysfunctional parent-child relationships and a high prevalence of childhood trauma. Subjects with BPD reported experiencing more emotional abuse and intrafamilial sexual abuse, but more similarities than differences between probands and sisters were found. In multilevel analyses, personality traits of affective instability and impulsivity predicted DIB-R scores and SCL-90-R scores, above and beyond trauma. There were few relationships between childhood adversities and other measures of psychopathology. Sensitivity to adverse experiences, as reflected in the development of psychopathology, appears to be influenced by personality trait profiles.

  15. Avoidant personality disorder versus social phobia: the significance of childhood neglect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingeborg Eikenaes

    Full Text Available Avoidant personality disorder (AvPD and social phobia (SP are common disorders both in the community and in clinical settings. Whether the two disorders represent different severity levels of social anxiety disorder is currently in dispute. The relationship between AvPD and SP is probably more complex than previously assumed. Several environmental, temperamental, and constitutional factors may play a role in the etiology of AvPD and SP. Better knowledge about childhood experiences may shed light on similarities and differences between the two disorders. The aim of this study was to compare self-reported childhood experiences in AvPD and SP patients.This is a cross-sectional multi-site study of 91 adult patients with AvPD and/ or SP. We compared patients with AvPD with and without SP (AvPD group to patients with SP without AvPD (SP group.The patients were examined using structured diagnostic interviews and self-report measures, including Child Trauma Questionnaire, Parental Bonding Instrument, and Adult Temperament Questionnaire.Both AvPD and SP were associated with negative childhood experiences. AvPD patients reported more severe childhood neglect than patients with SP, most pronounced for physical neglect. The difference between the disorders in neglect remained significant after controlling for temperamental factors and concurrent abuse.The study indicates that childhood neglect is a risk factor for AvPD and may be one contributing factor to phenomenological differences between AvPD and SP.

  16. Prenatal Valproate Exposure and Risk of Autism Spectrum Disorders and Childhood Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Jakob; Grønborg, Therese Koops; Sørensen, Merete Juul; Schendel, Diana; Parner, Erik Thorlund; Pedersen, Lars Henning; Vestergaard, Mogens

    2015-01-01

    Importance Valproate is used for the treatment of epilepsy and other neuropsychological disorders and may be the only treatment option for women of childbearing potential. However, prenatal exposure to valproate may increase the risk of autism. Objective To determine whether prenatal exposure to valproate is associated with an increased risk of autism in offspring. Design, Setting, and Participants Population-based study of all children born alive in Denmark from 1996 to 2006. National registers were used to identify children exposed to valproate during pregnancy and diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (childhood autism [autistic disorder], Asperger syndrome, atypical autism, and other or unspecified pervasive developmental disorders). We analyzed the risks associated with all autism spectrum disorders as well as childhood autism. Data were analyzed by Cox regression adjusting for potential confounders (maternal age at conception, paternal age at conception, parental psychiatric history, gestational age, birth weight, sex, congenital malformations, and parity). Children were followed up from birth until the day of autism spectrum disorder diagnosis, death, emigration, or December 31, 2010, whichever came first. Main Outcomes and Measures Absolute risk (cumulative incidence) and the hazard ratio (HR) of autism spectrum disorder and childhood autism in children after exposure to valproate in pregnancy. Results Of 655 615 children born from 1996 through 2006, 5437 were identified with autism spectrum disorder, including 2067 with childhood autism. The mean age of the children at end of follow-up was 8.84 years (range, 4-14; median, 8.85). The estimated absolute risk after 14 years of follow-up was 1.53% (95% CI, 1.47%- 1.58%) for autism spectrum disorder and 0.48% (95% CI, 0.46%-0.51%) for childhood autism. Overall, the 508 children exposed to valproate had an absolute risk of 4.42% (95% CI, 2.59%-7.46%) for autism spectrum disorder (adjusted HR, 2.9 [95% CI, 1

  17. Interventions and Adaptations for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder in Inclusive Early Childhood Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodzeller, Katharine L.; Ottley, Jennifer R.; Jung, Jeesun; Coogle, Christan G.

    2018-01-01

    The inclusive education of children with disabilities is considered best practice, yet many early childhood educators feel unprepared to deliver appropriate instruction for children with disabilities and often require supports to successfully meet the children's unique needs. Young children experiencing autism spectrum disorder are being diagnosed…

  18. [Review of risks factors in childhood for schizophrenia and severe mental disorders in adulthood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artigue, Jordi; Tizón, Jorge L

    2014-01-01

    To provide scientific evidence, using a literature review on psychosocial risk factors in mental health, that a high exposure to psychosocial stress situations in childhood increases the risk of mental disorders in adulthood,. A literature review up to December 2011 in the electronic databases from Medline, Universitat de Barcelona, and the Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona. The keywords used were: childhood, prenatal, vulnerability, risk, abuse, neglect, child mental disorder, schizophrenia, and prevention. Inclusion criteria for the studies reviewed: 1) designed to investigate childhood risk factors; 2) Comparative studies with persons without risk factors; 3) Studies with sufficient statistical significance; 4) Studies with "n" participants equal to o more than 30 persons. There are a group of easily identifiable mental health risk factors in childhood that can help in the prevention of mental disorders in the adulthood. They can be grouped into four categories: A) Pregnancy, birth and perinatal problems; B) Poor interpersonal relations with parents; C) Adverse life events in the first two years of life; D) Cognitive deficits in primary school, and social isolation during school years. There are life events that may increase the possibilities of suffering some kind of Psychopathology. It is necessary to consider those events as Risk Factors for Mental Health. The accumulation of these Risk Factors increases vulnerability to Mental Disorders. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. ADHD: Not Just a Childhood Disorder--A Discussion of Evaluation, Diagnosis, and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodson, William

    2008-01-01

    While many people tend to think of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) as a childhood problem, at least two-thirds of children with ADHD maintain symptoms such as inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity into adulthood. This article presents the fifth of a 10-part series exploring ADHD. The author provides some background…

  20. Research Into Childhood Obstructive Sleep-Disordered Breathing : A Systematic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venekamp, Roderick P.; Chandrasekharan, Deepak; Abel, Francois; Blackshaw, Helen; Kreis, Irene A.; E R Evans, Hannah; Schilder, Anne G.M.

    2017-01-01

    Background Despite recent clinical guideline development, the best pathway of care for children with symptoms of obstructive sleep-disordered breathing (oSDB) is still debated. This systematic review aims to map the research in childhood oSDB that has been conducted so far to support further

  1. Role of childhood adversity in the development of medical co-morbidities associated with bipolar disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Post, Robert M.; Altshuler, Lori L.; Leverich, Gabriele S.; Frye, Mark A.; Suppes, Trisha; McElroy, Susan L.; Keck, Paul E.; Nolen, Willem A.; Kupka, Ralph W.; Grunze, Heinz; Rowe, Mike

    Objective: A role for childhood adversity in the development of numerous medical conditions in adults has been described in the general population, but has not been examined in patients with bipolar disorder who have multiple medical comorbidities which contribute to their premature mortality.

  2. Childhood Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Diagnosis, Treatment, and School Reintegration. General Articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook-Cottone, Catherine

    2004-01-01

    Childhood, in our culture, does not preclude exposure to trauma. Sexual abuse, physical abuse, natural disaster, urban violence, school violence, and terrorism result in significant numbers of children with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptomatology. Many factors contribute to symptomatic expression, with some children showing few effects…

  3. Childhood Trauma Questionnaire: factor structure, measurement invariance, and validity across emotional disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spinhoven, P.; Penninx, B.W.; Hickendorff, M.; van Hemert, A.M.; Bernstein, D.P.; Elzinga, B.M.

    2014-01-01

    To study the psychometric properties of the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire-Short Form (CTQ-SF), we determined its dimensional structure, measurement invariance across presence of emotional disorders, the association of the CTQ-SF with an analogous interview-based measure (CTI) across presence of

  4. Treating the Sleep Disorders of Childhood: Current Practice in the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlet, L. B.

    2006-01-01

    Sleep disorders are common in childhood. Their prevalence is especially high in the presence of disability or chronic illness. They cause considerable stress to the children themselves and to their parents. Sleep deprivation leads to daytime behavioral problems and educational difficulties. In assessing sleep problems thorough history taking is…

  5. Deficits in Emotion Regulation Mediate the Relationship between Childhood Abuse and Later Eating Disorder Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Erin E.; Fischer, Sarah; Jackson, Joan L.; Harding, Hilary G.

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the relationship of child maltreatment to both emotion dysregulation and subsequent eating pathology. In an effort to extend previous research, the authors examined the unique impact of childhood emotional abuse (CEA) on emotion dysregulation and eating disorder (ED) symptoms while controlling for the effects of sexual…

  6. The Effects of the Fast Track Preventive Intervention on the Development of Conduct Disorder across Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Child Development, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The impact of the Fast Track intervention on externalizing disorders across childhood was examined. Eight hundred-ninety-one early-starting children (69% male; 51% African American) were randomly assigned by matched sets of schools to intervention or control conditions. The 10-year intervention addressed parent behavior-management, child social…

  7. Relationships with Mothers and Peers Moderate the Association between Childhood Sexual Abuse and Anxiety Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Ryan E.; Bukowski, William M.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The objective of the current study was to assess whether relationships with mothers and peers moderate the association between childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and anxiety disorders. That is, positive and supportive experiences were expected to minimize the effects of CSA whereas nonsupportive experiences were expected to magnify them.…

  8. Aspects of Sexuality in Adolescents and Adults Diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorders in Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Lucrecia Cabral; Gillberg, Carina I.; Cederlund, Mats; Hagberg, Bibbi; Gillberg, Christopher; Billstedt, Eva

    2016-01-01

    The literature concerning sexuality in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) is limited regarding inappropriate sexual behaviours and paraphilias and its relation to age, verbal ability, symptom severity, intellectual ability, or adaptive functioning. A cohort of 184 adolescents and young adults (ages 15-39 years) with ASD diagnosed in childhood,…

  9. Effectiveness of homoeopathic therapeutics in the management of childhood autism disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praful M Barvalia

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: The study has demonstrated usefulness of homoeopathic treatment in management of neuropsychological dysfunction in childhood autism disorder, which is reflected in significant reduction of hyperactivity, behavioral dysfunction, sensory impairment as well as communication difficulty. This was demonstrated well in psychosocial adaptation of autistic children.

  10. Friends or foes ? : predictors of treatment outcome of cognitieve behavioral therapy for childhood anxiety disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liber, Juliëtte Margo

    2008-01-01

    The present dissertation had as its central focus the prediction of outcome of the treatment of childhood anxiety disorders. In the present study a selection of variables that were thought to have prognostic validity for successful cognitive behavioral treatment (CBT) outcome were explored in a

  11. Childhood physical and sexual abuse experiences associated with post-traumatic stress disorder among pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Sixto E; Pineda, Omar; Chaves, Diana Z; Zhong, Qiu-Yue; Gelaye, Bizu; Simon, Gregory E; Rondon, Marta B; Williams, Michelle A

    2017-11-01

    We sought to evaluate the extent to which childhood physical and/or sexual abuse history is associated with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) during early pregnancy and to explore the extent to which the childhood abuse-PTSD association is mediated through, or modified by, adult experiences of intimate partner violence (IPV). In-person interviews collected information regarding history of childhood abuse and IPV from 2,928 women aged 18-49 years old prior to 16 weeks of gestation. PTSD was assessed using the PTSD Checklist-Civilian Version. Multivariate logistic regressions were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Compared to women with no childhood abuse, the odds of PTSD were increased 4.31-fold for those who reported physical abuse only (95% CI, 2.18-8.49), 5.33-fold for sexual abuse only (95% CI, 2.38-11.98), and 8.03-fold for those who reported physical and sexual abuse (95% CI, 4.10-15.74). Mediation analysis showed 13% of the childhood abuse-PTSD association was mediated by IPV. Furthermore, high odds of PTSD were noted among women with histories of childhood abuse and IPV compared with women who were not exposed to either (OR = 20.20; 95% CI, 8.18-49.85). Childhood abuse is associated with increased odds of PTSD during early pregnancy. The odds of PTSD were particularly elevated among women with a history of childhood abuse and IPV. Efforts should be made to prevent childhood abuse and mitigate its effects on women's mental health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Age of onset of bipolar disorder: Combined effect of childhood adversity and familial loading of psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Robert M; Altshuler, Lori L; Kupka, Ralph; McElroy, Susan L; Frye, Mark A; Rowe, Michael; Grunze, Heinz; Suppes, Trisha; Keck, Paul E; Leverich, Gabriele S; Nolen, Willem A

    2016-10-01

    Family history and adversity in childhood are two replicated risk factors for early onset bipolar disorder. However, their combined impact has not been adequately studied. Based on questionnaire data from 968 outpatients with bipolar disorder who gave informed consent, the relationship and interaction of: 1) parental and grandparental total burden of psychiatric illness; and 2) the degree of adversity the patient experienced in childhood on their age of onset of bipolar disorder was examined with multiple regression and illustrated with a heat map. The familial loading and child adversity vulnerability factors were significantly related to age of onset of bipolar and their combined effect was even larger. A heat map showed that at the extremes (none of each factor vs high amounts of both) the average age of onset differed by almost 20 years (mean = 25.8 vs 5.9 years of age). The data were not based on interviews of family members and came from unverified answers on a patient questionnaire. Family loading for psychiatric illness and adversity in childhood combine to have a very large influence on age of onset of bipolar disorder. These variables should be considered in assessment of risk for illness onset in different populations, the need for early intervention, and in the design of studies of primary and secondary prevention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Fertility treatment and risk of childhood and adolescent mental disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Bjørn; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Hvidtjørn, Dorte

    2013-01-01

    To assess the mental health of children born after fertility treatment by comparing their risk of mental disorders with that of spontaneously conceived children.......To assess the mental health of children born after fertility treatment by comparing their risk of mental disorders with that of spontaneously conceived children....

  14. Comorbidity in "DSM" Childhood Mental Disorders: A Functional Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipani, Ennio

    2014-01-01

    In this article, I address the issue of comorbidity and its prevalence in the prior "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" ("DSM") classification systems. The focus on the topography or form of presenting problems as the venue for determining mental disorders is scrutinized as the possible cause. Addressing the…

  15. The Role of Sleep in Childhood Psychiatric Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfano, Candice A.; Gamble, Amanda L.

    2009-01-01

    Although sleep problems often comprise core features of psychiatric disorders, inadequate attention has been paid to the complex, reciprocal relationships involved in the early regulation of sleep, emotion, and behavior. In this paper, we review the pediatric literature examining sleep in children with primary psychiatric disorders as well as…

  16. The poor prognosis of childhood-onset bipolar disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leverich, Gabriele S.; Post, Robert M.; Keck, Paul E.; Altshuler, Lori L.; Frye, Mark A.; Kupka, Ralph W.; Nolen, Willem A.; Suppes, Trisha; McElroy, Susan L.; Grunze, Heinz; Denicoff, Kirk; Moravec, Maria K. M.; Luckenbaugh, David

    Objective We examined age of onset of bipolar disorder as a potential course-of-iflness modifier with the hypothesis that early onset will engender more severe illness. Study design A total of 480 carefully diagnosed adult outpatients with bipolar disorder (mean age, 42.5 +/- 11.6 years) were

  17. Working memory training in children with neuropsychiatric disorders and mild to borderline intellectual functioning, the role of coaching; a double-blind randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roording-Ragetlie, S.; Klip, H.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Slaats-Willemse, D.I.E.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Working memory training (WMT) has been shown to offer therapeutic benefits to both patients with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and patients with mild to borderline Intellectual Disabilities (MBID; 60 < IQ < 85). However, robust evidence for transfer effects and

  18. Childhood neurodevelopmental disorders and violent criminality: a sibling control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundström, Sebastian; Forsman, Mats; Larsson, Henrik; Kerekes, Nora; Serlachius, Eva; Långström, Niklas; Lichtenstein, Paul

    2014-11-01

    The longitudinal relationship between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and violent criminality has been extensively documented, while long-term effects of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), tic disorders (TDs), and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) on criminality have been scarcely studied. Using population-based registers of all child and adolescent mental health services in Stockholm, we identified 3,391 children, born 1984-1994, with neurodevelopmental disorders, and compared their risk for subsequent violent criminality with matched controls. Individuals with ADHD or TDs were at elevated risk of committing violent crimes, no such association could be seen for ASDs or OCD. ADHD and TDs are risk factors for subsequent violent criminality, while ASDs and OCD are not associated with violent criminality.

  19. Childhood life events, immune activation and the development of mood and anxiety disorders: the TRAILS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonker, I; Rosmalen, J G M; Schoevers, R A

    2017-05-02

    The experience of childhood life events is associated with higher vulnerability to develop psychiatric disorders. One of the pathways suggested to lead to this vulnerability is activation of the immune system. The aim of this study is to find out whether the association between childhood life events and the development of mood and anxiety disorders is predicted by the activation of the immune system. This study was performed in TRAILS, a large prospective population cohort, from which a subgroup was selected (N=1084, 54.3% female, mean age 19.0 (s.d., 0.6)). Childhood life events before age 16 were assessed using questionnaires at age 12, 14, 16 and 19. Immune activation was assessed at age 16 by elevated high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and by levels of immunoglobulin G antibodies against the herpes viruses herpes simplex virus 1, cytomegalovirus and Epstein-Barr virus. At age 19, the presence of mood and anxiety disorders was determined using the World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview Version 3.0. Regression analyses were used to study the association between life events, the inflammatory markers and mental health. We found that childhood life events score was associated with risk of mood disorders (B=0.269, P<0.001) and anxiety disorders (B=0.129, P<0.001). Childhood life events score was marginally associated with elevated hsCRP (B=0.076, P=0.006), but not with the antibody levels. This was especially due to separation trauma (P=0.015) and sexual abuse (P=0.019). Associations lost significance after correcting for lifestyle factors such as body mass index and substance abuse (P=0.042). None of the inflammatory markers were associated with development of anxiety disorders or mood disorders. In conclusion, the life event scores predicted the development of anxiety disorders and mood disorders at age 19. Life event scores were associated with elevated hsCRP, which was partly explained by lifestyle factors. Elevated hs

  20. Borderline personality disorder and childhood trauma: exploring the affected biological systems and mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattane, Nadia; Rossi, Roberta; Lanfredi, Mariangela; Cattaneo, Annamaria

    2017-06-15

    According to several studies, the onset of the Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) depends on the combination between genetic and environmental factors (GxE), in particular between biological vulnerabilities and the exposure to traumatic experiences during childhood. We have searched for studies reporting possible alterations in several biological processes and brain morphological features in relation to childhood trauma experiences and to BPD. We have also looked for epigenetic mechanisms as they could be mediators of the effects of childhood trauma in BPD vulnerability. We prove the role of alterations in Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal (HPA) axis, in neurotrasmission, in the endogenous opioid system and in neuroplasticity in the childhood trauma-associated vulnerability to develop BPD; we also confirm the presence of morphological changes in several BPD brain areas and in particular in those involved in stress response. Not so many studies are available on epigenetic changes in BPD patients, although these mechanisms are widely investigated in relation to stress-related disorders. A better comprehension of the biological and epigenetic mechanisms, affected by childhood trauma and altered in BPD patients, could allow to identify "at high risk" subjects and to prevent or minimize the development of the disease later in life.

  1. Childhood dyspraxia predicts adult-onset nonaffective-psychosis-spectrum disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiffman, Jason; Mittal, Vijay; Kline, Emily

    2015-01-01

    abnormalities spanning functionally distinct brain networks) specifically predict adult nonaffective-psychosis-spectrum disorders are consistent with a theory of abnormal connectivity, and they highlight a marked early-stage vulnerability in the pathophysiology of nonaffective-psychosis-spectrum disorders.......Several neurological variables have been investigated as premorbid biomarkers of vulnerability for schizophrenia and other related disorders. The current study examined whether childhood dyspraxia predicted later adult nonaffective-psychosis-spectrum disorders. From a standardized neurological...... showed higher scores on the dyspraxia scale predict nonaffective-psychosis-spectrum disorders relative to other psychiatric disorders and no mental illness outcomes, even after controlling for genetic risk, χ2 (4, 244) = 18.61, p

  2. Social Outcomes in Childhood Brain Disorder: A Heuristic Integration of Social Neuroscience and Developmental Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeates, Keith Owen; Bigler, Erin D.; Dennis, Maureen; Gerhardt, Cynthia A.; Rubin, Kenneth H.; Stancin, Terry; Taylor, H. Gerry; Vannatta, Kathryn

    2010-01-01

    The authors propose a heuristic model of the social outcomes of childhood brain disorder that draws on models and methods from both the emerging field of social cognitive neuroscience and the study of social competence in developmental psychology/psychopathology. The heuristic model characterizes the relationships between social adjustment, peer interactions and relationships, social problem solving and communication, social-affective and cognitive-executive processes, and their neural substrates. The model is illustrated by research on a specific form of childhood brain disorder, traumatic brain injury. The heuristic model may promote research regarding the neural and cognitive-affective substrates of children’s social development. It also may engender more precise methods of measuring impairments and disabilities in children with brain disorder and suggest ways to promote their social adaptation. PMID:17469991

  3. Childhood trauma and dissociative symptoms predict frontal EEG asymmetry in borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popkirov, Stoyan; Flasbeck, Vera; Schlegel, Uwe; Juckel, Georg; Brüne, Martin

    2018-03-15

    Frontal EEG asymmetry (FEA) has been studied as both state and trait parameter in emotion regulation and affective disorders. Its significance in borderline personality disorder (BPD) remains largely unknown. Twenty-six BPD patients and 26 healthy controls underwent EEG before and after mood induction using aversive images. A slight but significant shift from left- to right-sided asymmetry over prefrontal electrodes occurred across all subjects. In BPD baseline FEA over F7 and F8 correlated significantly with childhood trauma and functional neurological "conversion" symptoms as assessed by respective questionnaires. Regression analysis revealed a predictive role of both childhood trauma and dissociative neurological symptoms. FEA offers a relatively stable electrophysiological correlate of BPD psychopathology that responds only minimally to acute mood changes. Future studies should address whether this psychophysiological association is universal for trauma- and dissociation-related disorders, and whether it is responsive to psychotherapy.

  4. The economic impact of subthreshold and clinical childhood mental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatori, Daniel; Salum, Giovanni; Itria, Alexander; Pan, Pedro; Alvarenga, Pedro; Rohde, Luis Augusto; Bressan, Rodrigo; Gadelha, Ary; de Jesus Mari, Jair; Conceição do Rosário, Maria; Manfro, Gisele; Polanczyk, Guilherme; Miguel, Euripedes Constantino; Graeff-Martins, Ana Soledade

    2018-04-28

    Mental disorders are common health problems associated with serious impairment and economic impact. To estimate the costs of clinical and subthreshold mental disorders in a sample of Brazilian children. The High Risk Cohort Study is a community study conducted in two major Brazilian cities. Subjects were 6-14 years old children being registered at school. From an initial pool of 9937 children, two subgroups were further investigated using a random-selection (n = 958) and high-risk group selection procedure (n = 1554), resulting in a sample of 2512 subjects. Mental disorder assessment was made using the Development and Well-Being Assessment. Costs for each child were estimated from the following components: mental health and social services use, school problems and parental loss of productivity. Child subthreshold and clinical mental disorders showed lifetime mean total cost of $1750.9 and $3141.2, respectively. National lifetime cost estimate was $9.9 billion for subthreshold mental disorders and $11.6 billion for clinical mental disorders (values in US$ purchasing power parity). This study provides evidence that child mental disorders have a great economic impact on society. There is an urgent need to plan an effective system of care with cost-effective programs of treatment and prevention to reduce economic burden.

  5. [Comorbidity of compulsive disorders in childhood and adolescence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, K; Jennen-Steinmetz, Ch; Holtmann, M; el-Faddagh, M; Schmidt, M H

    2003-08-01

    The cross-sectional comorbidity of child and adolescent inpatients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) was assessed. The hospital records of all inpatients treated for OCD since 1976 (31 girls, 46 boys) were compared with data from a prospective epidemiological longitudinal study (90 girls, 84 boys) in two age cohorts ( or = 15 years) with regard to comorbid psychiatric diagnoses. Additionally, psychiatric Axis I diagnoses of patients with a supplementary diagnosis of compulsive symptoms (n = 45) were descriptively assessed in the client population. In the subgroup of OCD patients tic disorders. OCD girls > or = 15 years showed a tendency toward more frequent comorbid affective disorders and a significant result regarding concurrent eating disorders. Eighteen of 27 female patients with supplementary compulsive symptoms requiring clinical intervention had an Axis I diagnosis of eating disorder. Due to different criteria of classification, diverging definitions of comorbidity and different age cohorts and samples, studies on comorbidity in OCD patients are difficult to compare. The frequency of comorbid psychiatric disorders may be over-estimated if the general prevalence of psychiatric disorders in terms of gender and age is not taken into account.

  6. Correlates of adverse childhood events among adults with schizophrenia spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Stanley D; Lu, Weili; Mueser, Kim T; Jankowski, Mary Kay; Cournos, Francine

    2007-02-01

    Multiple studies have found that childhood adversity is related to a range of poor mental health, substance abuse, poor physical health, and poor social functioning outcomes in the general population of adults. However, despite the high rates of childhood adversity in schizophrenia, the clinical correlates of these events have not been systematically evaluated. This study evaluated the relationship between adverse experiences in childhood and functional, clinical, and health outcomes among adults with schizophrenia. The authors surveyed 569 adults with schizophrenia regarding adverse childhood events (including physical abuse, sexual abuse, parental mental illnesses, loss of a parent, parental separation or divorce, witnessing domestic violence, and foster or kinship care). The relationships between cumulative exposure to these events and psychiatric, physical, and functional outcomes were evaluated. Increased exposure to adverse childhood events was strongly related to psychiatric problems (suicidal thinking, hospitalizations, distress, and posttraumatic stress disorder), substance abuse, physical health problems (HIV infection), medical service utilization (physician visits), and poor social functioning (homelessness or criminal justice involvement). The findings extend the results of research in the general population by suggesting that childhood adversity contributes to worse mental health, substance abuse, worse physical health, and poor functional outcomes in schizophrenia.

  7. Exploring the relation between childhood trauma, temperamental traits and mindfulness in borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elices, Matilde; Pascual, Juan C; Carmona, Cristina; Martín-Blanco, Ana; Feliu-Soler, Albert; Ruiz, Elisabet; Gomà-I-Freixanet, Montserrat; Pérez, Víctor; Soler, Joaquim

    2015-07-29

    Deficits in mindfulness-related capacities have been described in borderline personality disorder (BPD). However, little research has been conducted to explore which factors could explain these deficits. This study assesses the relationship between temperamental traits and childhood maltreatment with mindfulness in BPD. A total of 100 individuals diagnosed with BPD participated in the study. Childhood maltreatment was assessed using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ-SF), temperamental traits were assessed using the Zuckerman-Khulman Personality Questionnaire (ZKPQ), and mindfulness capabilities were evaluated with the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ). Hierarchical regression analyses were performed including only those CTQ-SF and ZKPQ subscales that showed simultaneous significant correlations with mindfulness facets. Results indicated that neuroticism and sexual abuse were predictors of acting with awareness; and neuroticism, impulsiveness and sexual abuse were significant predictors of non-judging. Temperamental traits did not have a moderator effect on the relationship between childhood sexual abuse and mindfulness facets. These results provide preliminary evidence for the effects of temperamental traits and childhood trauma on mindfulness capabilities in BPD individuals. Further studies are needed to better clarify the impact of childhood traumatic experiences on mindfulness capabilities and to determine the causal relations between these variables.

  8. Neuropsychiatric findings in Cushing syndrome and exogenous glucocorticoid administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starkman, Monica N

    2013-09-01

    This article reviews the neuropsychiatric presentations elicited by spontaneous hypercortisolism and exogenous supraphysiologic glucocorticoids. Patients with Cushing disease and syndrome develop a depressive syndrome: irritable and depressed mood, decreased libido, disrupted sleep and cognitive decrements. Exogenous short-term glucocorticoid administration may elicit a hypomanic syndrome with mood, sleep and cognitive disruptions. Treatment options are discussed. Brain imaging and neuropsychological studies indicate elevated cortisol and other glucocorticoids are especially deleterious to hippocampus and frontal lobe. The research findings also shed light on neuropsychiatric abnormalities in conditions that have substantial subgroups exhibiting elevated and dysregulated cortisol: aging, major depressive disorder and Alzheimer's disease. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Cool and Hot Aspects of Executive Function in Childhood Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hybel, Katja Anna; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Lambek, Rikke

    2017-01-01

    Aspects of executive functioning (EF) have been put forward as endophenotypes in obsessive- compulsive disorder (OCD) and meta-analyses support EF underperformance in adult samples. Childhood-onset OCD has been suggested to constitute a separate neurodevelopmental subtype of the disorder......-17 years of which 70% were female, 50 pairwise age and gender matched non-psychiatric controls (NP) and 38 children and adolescents with mixed anxiety disorders (MA). Participants underwent structured diagnostic interviews and assessment with a battery encompassing cool EF tasks of working memory, set...

  10. Childhood laterality and adult schizophrenia spectrum disorders: a prospective investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiffman, Jason; Pestle, Sarah; Mednick, Sara

    2005-01-01

    Left or mixed-handedness, footedness, and eye dominance are thought to indicate abnormalities in lateralization related to schizophrenia. Increased left or mixed-dominance in schizophrenia suggests possible hemispheric abnormalities associated with the disorder. A related body of research suggests...... between children who later developed a schizophrenia spectrum disorder (n = 26) and those who did not develop a schizophrenia spectrum disorder (n = 216), among a high-risk and control, longitudinal sample. The rate of left or mixed-footedness, eye dominance, and any anomalous lateralization...

  11. [The Influence of Media Consumption During Early Childhood on Media Use and Psychological Disorders in Adolescence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grund, Julius; Schulz, Wolfgang

    2017-10-01

    The Influence of Media Consumption During Early Childhood on Media Use and Psychological Disorders in Adolescence There are many studies that suggest that there is a link between high media consumption and psychological, physiological and social disorders. Nevertheless, there are also inconsistent results, methodical limitations and a lack of longitudinal studies. The present study analyses habits of media consumption in children and adolescents, the influence of different early childhood risk factors on the use of the media in adolescence and the links between early childhood media consumption and disorders in adolescence. The source of the data is the longitudinal project Future Family III. 249 families participated in the last data collection in the adolescence. Adolescents use the media more than five hours per day on average, nearly fifty percent of these adolescents can be considered as internet addicted and a majority consumes violent contents. A low socioeconomic status, low socio-emotional competences and low intelligence of the child as well as unfavorable educational style and psychological stress of the mother are risk factors for the media use in adolescence. Adolescents with a migration background have an increased risk of internet and computer game dependency. On the other hand, the overall utilization of media in the early childhood has only a low predictive power. The results indicate that these connections seem to be more complex than assumed. There is a need for more longitudinal studies in order to get a better understanding of the consequences of media consumption.

  12. Personality disorder diagnosis in substance - dependent women in Iran : Relationship to childhood maltreatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansoureh Nasirian

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available "nObjective : Few study have examined the relationship between childhood maltreatment and personality disorder in later life especially in Eastern Mediterranean countries .The study was conducted to explore the relationship between adverse childhood experiences and personality disorder during Later life in an Iranian sample . a cross - sectional study was conducted in kerman , a city Located in East  sourthern of Iran in 2005 . "n Method : Cases were 148 substance - dependent  women admitted in shahid Beheshti hospital and also kerman women prison  for detoxification.With emphasizing  the confidentiality and obtaining oral consent the subjects were asked to fill out a questionnaire including demographic variables and 27 questions concerning all types of abuse , neglect and household dysfunction . using multivariate Logistic regression the associations between baseline characteristics , childhood maltreatment and household dysfunction variables and  personality disorder were analyzed  . "n Results : The mean age of cases was 33.13 ± 10.94 and Borderline personality disorder (24.3% was the most frequent type of personality disorder in this   sample . Physical abuse (45.4% and emotional abuse (36.2% and emotional   neglect (92.1% were the most frequent type of maltreatment .  while dependency considered as independent variable , with logistic  regression analysis, sexual abuse was the only type of childhood maltreatment which showed significant association statistically with personality disorder . (P - value < 0/05 "n Conclusion: There was significant association statistically between increased prevalence of severe personality disturbances among those experiencing multiple types of abuse  and neglect .such studies are important for a more complete  understanding  of these problems and for practical  efforts to alleviate them.

  13. Childhood laterality and adult schizophrenia spectrum disorders: a prospective investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiffman, Jason; Pestle, Sarah; Mednick, Sara

    2005-01-01

    Left or mixed-handedness, footedness, and eye dominance are thought to indicate abnormalities in lateralization related to schizophrenia. Increased left or mixed-dominance in schizophrenia suggests possible hemispheric abnormalities associated with the disorder. A related body of research suggests...... that some indications of lateralization abnormalities may be evident prior to the onset of schizophrenia, suggesting that disruptions in lateralization are inherent to the developmental course of the disorder. We attempted to replicate and extend upon findings indicating differences in lateralization...... between children who later developed a schizophrenia spectrum disorder (n = 26) and those who did not develop a schizophrenia spectrum disorder (n = 216), among a high-risk and control, longitudinal sample. The rate of left or mixed-footedness, eye dominance, and any anomalous lateralization...

  14. Childhood maltreatment, personality disorders and 3-year persistence of adult alcohol and nicotine dependence in a national sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Jennifer C; Stohl, Malka; Wall, Melanie M; Keyes, Katherine M; Skodol, Andrew E; Eaton, Nicholas R; Shmulewitz, Dvora; Goodwin, Renee D; Grant, Bridget F; Hasin, Deborah S

    2016-05-01

    Persistent cases of alcohol and nicotine dependence are associated with considerable morbidity and mortality, and are predicted by childhood maltreatment and personality disorders. Our aim was to test whether personality disorders (individually or conjointly) mediate the relationship between childhood maltreatment and the persistence of dependence. Personality disorders, modeled dimensionally, were tested as mediators of the relationship between childhood maltreatment and the 3-year persistence of alcohol and nicotine dependence in participants in the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) who had current alcohol and nicotine dependence in their baseline interview. Individual personality disorders were assessed in separate models. Then, those that were significant were examined jointly in multiple mediator models to determine their total and unique effects. A large, nationally representative US survey. Participants ≥ 18 years who completed baseline and 3-year follow-up NESARC interviews who had baseline alcohol dependence (n = 1172; 68% male) or nicotine dependence (n = 4017; 52.9% male). Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule (AUDADIS-IV) measures of childhood maltreatment, personality disorders and alcohol/nicotine dependence. Individual models indicated that many personality disorders mediated the relationship between childhood maltreatment and the 3-year persistence of alcohol and nicotine dependence (each explaining 6-46% of the total effect, Ps Personality disorder symptoms (especially borderline and antisocial) help explain the association between childhood maltreatment and persistent alcohol and nicotine dependence. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  15. Identification of protein sub-networks implicated in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Correia, C.; Diekmann, Y.; Pereira-Leal, J.B.; Vicente, A.M.; Autism Genome Project Consortium

    2011-01-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) represent a group of childhood neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by three primary areas of impairment: social interaction, communication, and restricted and repetitive patterns of interest or behavior. Although autism is one of the most heritable neuropsychiatric disorders, most of the known genetic risk has been traced to rare variants. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have thus far met limited success in the identification of common risk varia...

  16. Fluoxetine treatment is effective in a rat model of childhood-induced post-traumatic stress disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Ariel, Lior; Inbar, Sapir; Edut, Schachaf; Richter-Levin, Gal

    2017-01-01

    Although selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are first-line treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) patients, their therapeutic efficacy is limited. Childhood adversities are considered a risk factor for developing PTSD in adulthood but may trigger PTSD without additional trauma in some individuals. Nevertheless, just as childhood is considered a vulnerable period it may also be an effective period for preventive treatment. Using a rat model of childhood-induced PTSD, ...

  17. Relations between childhood traumatic experiences, dissociation, and cognitive models in obsessive compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvi, Yavuz; Besiroglu, Lutfullah; Aydin, Adem; Gulec, Mustafa; Atli, Abdullah; Boysan, Murat; Celik, Cihat

    2012-03-01

    Previous studies have indicated that obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) is associated with childhood traumatic experiences and higher levels of dissociation. Dissociative tendency may arise when individual attempt to incorporate adverse experiences into cognitive schema. We investigated the possible links among childhood trauma, dissociation, and cognitive processes. We evaluated 95 patients with OCD using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Thought-Action Fusion Scale (TAFS), Metacognitions Questionnaire (MCQ-30), White Bear Suppression Inventory (WBSI), Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES), and Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ-28). The CTQ-28 total scores were not associated with Y-BOCS total, Y-BOCS insight, BDI, TAFS, MCQ-30, and WBSI scores. The TAFS Total, MCQ-30, WBSI, and BDI scores were significantly associated with DES scores. Regression analysis revealed that MCQ-30 and WBSI scores significantly predicted the DES scores. These results suggest that in spite of pathological connotation of dissociative experiences, dissociation may primarily constitute a cognitive trait which is strongly associated with cognitive processes.

  18. Childhood residential mobility, schizophrenia, and bipolar disorder: a population-based study in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paksarian, Diana; Eaton, William W; Mortensen, Preben B; Pedersen, Carsten B

    2015-03-01

    Childhood adversity is gaining increasing attention as a plausible etiological factor in the development of psychotic disorders. Childhood residential mobility is a potential risk factor that has received little attention in this context. We used registry data to estimate associations of residential mobility with narrow and broad schizophrenia and bipolar disorder across the course of childhood among 1.1 million individuals born in Denmark 1971-1991 and followed from age 15 through 2010. We assessed effect modification by sex, family history of mental disorder, the presence of siblings close in age, and distance moved. In individual-year models adjusted for family history, urbanicity at birth, and parental age, mobility at all ages except the year of birth was associated with heightened risk of narrow and broad schizophrenia, and risk increased with age at moving and with the number of moves. Further adjustment for mobility at all ages 0-15 revealed associations mainly during the latter half of childhood, which were strongest during adolescence. Associations between mobility and bipolar disorder were fewer and weaker compared to schizophrenia. There was modest evidence of interaction with family history of psychiatric diagnosis, but little evidence for interaction by sex, the presence of closely-aged siblings, or distance moved. Schizophrenia associations did not appear attributable to increased mobility among adolescents with earlier onset. Mobility may increase risk for psychotic disorders, particularly schizophrenia. Children may be especially vulnerable during adolescence. Future research should investigate the importance of school changes and the potential for interaction with genetic risk. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center 2014. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  19. Premorbid childhood ocular alignment abnormalities and adult schizophrenia-spectrum disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiffman, Jason; Maeda, Justin A; Hayashi, Kentaro

    2005-01-01

    with no parental diagnoses (N=82). In 1992, adult psychiatric outcome data were obtained for 242 of the original subjects. It was found that children who later developed a schizophrenia-spectrum disorder had significantly higher eye exam scale and strabismus scale scores compared to children who developed other...... offspring of parents with other non-psychotic disorder and no mental illness), although the results failed to reach statistical significance. Results from this study suggest a premorbid relation between ocular deficits and schizophrenia-spectrum disorders in childhood prior to onset of psychopathology...... in adulthood. Strabismus may serve as a premorbid marker for spectrum disorders and may have implications for the understanding of early aberrant neurological development related to later schizophrenia-spectrum disorders....

  20. Behavioural and emotional disorders in childhood: A brief overview for paediatricians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogundele, Michael O

    2018-01-01

    Mental health problems in children and adolescents include several types of emotional and behavioural disorders, including disruptive, depression, anxiety and pervasive developmental (autism) disorders, characterized as either internalizing or externalizing problems. Disruptive behavioural problems such as temper tantrums, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, oppositional, defiant or conduct disorders are the commonest behavioural problems in preschool and school age children. The routine Paediatric clinic or Family Medicine/General Practitioner surgery presents with several desirable characteristics that make them ideal for providing effective mental health services to children and adolescents. DSM-5 and ICD-10 are the universally accepted standard criteria for the classification of mental and behaviour disorders in childhood and adults. The age and gender prevalence estimation of various childhood behavioural disorders are variable and difficult to compare worldwide. A review of relevant published literature was conducted, including published meta-analyses and national guidelines. We searched for articles indexed by Ovid, PubMed, PubMed Medical Central, CINAHL, EMBASE, Database of Abstracts and Reviews, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic reviews and other online sources. The searches were conducted using a combination of search expressions including “childhood”, “behaviour”, “disorders” or “problems”. Childhood behaviour and emotional problems with their related disorders have significant negative impacts on the individual, the family and the society. They are commonly associated with poor academic, occupational, and psychosocial functioning. It is important for all healthcare professionals, especially the Paediatricians to be aware of the range of presentation, prevention and management of the common mental health problems in children and adolescents. PMID:29456928

  1. The varying impact of type, timing and frequency of exposure to childhood adversity on its association with adult psychotic disorder.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fisher, H L

    2010-12-01

    Childhood adversity has been associated with onset of psychosis in adulthood but these studies have used only general definitions of this environmental risk indicator. Therefore, we sought to explore the prevalence of more specific adverse childhood experiences amongst those with and without psychotic disorders using detailed assessments in a large epidemiological case-control sample (AESOP).

  2. Functional abdominal pain in childhood and long-term vulnerability to anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelby, Grace D; Shirkey, Kezia C; Sherman, Amanda L; Beck, Joy E; Haman, Kirsten; Shears, Angela R; Horst, Sara N; Smith, Craig A; Garber, Judy; Walker, Lynn S

    2013-09-01

    Cross-sectional studies link functional abdominal pain (FAP) to anxiety and depression in childhood, but no prospective study has evaluated psychiatric status in adulthood or its relation to pain persistence. Pediatric patients with FAP (n = 332) and control subjects (n = 147) were tracked prospectively and evaluated for psychiatric disorders and functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) at follow-up in adolescence and young adulthood (mean age = 20.01 years). Participants were classified according to presence (FGID-POS) or absence (FGID-NEG) of FGIDs at follow-up. Lifetime and current risk of anxiety disorders was higher in FAP than controls (lifetime: 51% vs 20%; current: 30% vs 12%). Controlling for gender and age, the odds ratio was 4.9 (confidence interval = 2.83-7.43) for lifetime anxiety disorder and 3.57 (confidence interval = 2.00-6.36) for current anxiety disorder at follow-up for FAP versus controls. Lifetime risk of depressive disorder was significantly higher in FAP versus controls (40% vs. 16%); current risk did not differ. In most cases, initial onset of anxiety disorders was before pediatric FAP evaluation; onset of depressive disorders was subsequent to FAP evaluation. Within the FAP group, risk of current anxiety disorders at follow-up was significantly higher for FGID-POS versus FGID-NEG (40% vs 24%), and both were higher than controls (12%); current depressive disorders did not differ across FGID-POS, FGID-NEG, and controls. Patients with FAP carry long-term vulnerability to anxiety that begins in childhood and persists into late adolescence and early adulthood, even if abdominal pain resolves.

  3. Development of schizotypal symptoms following psychiatric disorders in childhood or adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagel, Selene S A A; Swaab, Hanna; De Sonneville, Leo M J; Van Rijn, Sophie; Pieterse, Jolijn K; Scheepers, Floor; Van Engeland, Herman

    2013-11-01

    It was examined how juvenile psychiatric disorders and adult schizotypal symptoms are associated. 731 patients of the Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry of the University Medical Centre Utrecht, the Netherlands, with mean age of 12.1 years (SD = 4.0) were reassessed at the mean age of 27.9 years (SD = 5.7) for adult schizotypal symptoms using the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire-Revised (Vollema, Schizophr Bull 26(3):565-575, 2000). Differences between 13 juvenile DSM categories and normal controls (n = 80) on adult schizotypal total and factor scores were analyzed, using (M)ANCOVA. Pervasive developmental disorders (PDD), attention deficit hyperactivity disorders (ADHD), deferred diagnosis, sexual and gender identity disorders and depressive disorders had higher SPQ total scores when compared to normal controls (p gender identity disorders, depressive disorders, disruptive disorders, and the category of 'Other conditions that may be a focus of clinical attention' (p < 0.001). No differences with normal controls were found for adult positive schizotypal symptoms (p < 0.110). The current findings are suggestive of the idea that psychiatric disorders in childhood or adolescence are a more general expression of a liability to schizophrenia spectrum pathology in future life. In addition, specific patterns of adult schizotypal symptomatology are associated with different types of juvenile psychiatric disorder.

  4. Review: Gender Identity Disorders in Childhood and Adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Mohammadi

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Gender identity includes individual sense of being male or female personality. Which will has been typical figured by the ages of 3 or 4 years. There are two criteria in DSM-IV A A strong and steady identification with opposite sex, B Inappropriate permanent feeling with self gender or unsuitable belief in self gender role. The frequency of this disorder have consisted various rates of 6-16% among nonformal epidemiologic studies. In order to evaluate of this disorder, we would already consider the parents reports, behavioral methods projective techniques. Meanwhile depression, behavioral abnormality and personality disorders can he figured as comorbidities of GID. There is no exact known relationship between sexual – orientation and sexual identification. It's been revealed bio-psycho-social etiological influenced factors in this case. On basis of Zucher, Bradly and Coates theorical models, exposed that there are usually two interactive factors which known as the major causes of gender Identity disorder: A general main factor which enforces the child anxiety and as a specific factor that poses dynamically among family members or in child own himself/herself. Behavioral techniques, psychoanalysis and family training can be considered as management modalities, but personal and self authorization, particularly within concern to comorbidities other psychosocial problems are felt so great importance.

  5. The Stigma of Childhood Mental Disorders: A Conceptual Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukolo, Abraham; Heflinger, Craig Anne; Wallston, Kenneth A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To describe the state of the literature on stigma associated with children's mental disorders and highlight gaps in empirical work. Method: We reviewed child mental illness stigma articles in (English only) peer-reviewed journals available through Medline and PsychInfo. We augmented these with adult-oriented stigma articles that focus…

  6. Interplay between childhood physical abuse and familial risk in the onset of psychotic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Helen L; McGuffin, Peter; Boydell, Jane; Fearon, Paul; Craig, Thomas K; Dazzan, Paola; Morgan, Kevin; Doody, Gillian A; Jones, Peter B; Leff, Julian; Murray, Robin M; Morgan, Craig

    2014-11-01

    Childhood abuse is considered one of the main environmental risk factors for the development of psychotic symptoms and disorders. However, this association could be due to genetic factors influencing exposure to such risky environments or increasing sensitivity to the detrimental impact of abuse. Therefore, using a large epidemiological case-control sample, we explored the interplay between a specific form of childhood abuse and family psychiatric history (a proxy for genetic risk) in the onset of psychosis. Data were available on 172 first presentation psychosis cases and 246 geographically matched controls from the Aetiology and Ethnicity of Schizophrenia and Other Psychoses study. Information on childhood abuse was obtained retrospectively using the Childhood Experience of Care and Abuse Questionnaire and occurrence of psychotic and affective disorders in first degree relatives with the Family Interview for Genetic Studies. Parental psychosis was more common among psychosis cases than unaffected controls (adjusted OR = 5.96, 95% CI: 2.09-17.01, P = .001). Parental psychosis was also associated with physical abuse from mothers in both cases (OR = 3.64, 95% CI: 1.06-12.51, P = .040) and controls (OR = 10.93, 95% CI: 1.03-115.90, P = .047), indicative of a gene-environment correlation. Nevertheless, adjusting for parental psychosis did not measurably impact on the abuse-psychosis association (adjusted OR = 3.31, 95% CI: 1.22-8.95, P = .018). No interactions were found between familial liability and maternal physical abuse in determining psychosis caseness. This study found no evidence that familial risk accounts for associations between childhood physical abuse and psychotic disorder nor that it substantially increases the odds of psychosis among individuals reporting abuse. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center.

  7. Joint Effect of Childhood Abuse and Family History of Major Depressive Disorder on Rates of PTSD in People with Personality Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Flory, Janine D.; Yehuda, Rachel; Passarelli, Vincent; Siever, Larry J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective. Childhood maltreatment and familial psychopathology both lead to an increased risk of the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in adulthood. While family history of psychopathology has traditionally been viewed as a proxy for genetic predisposition, such pathology can also contribute to a stress-laden environment for the child. Method. Analyses were conducted to evaluate the joint effect of childhood abuse and a family history of major depressive disorder (MDD) on di...

  8. Monoamine Oxidase-A Genetic Variants and Childhood Abuse Predict Impulsiveness in Borderline Personality Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolla, Nathan J; Meyer, Jeffrey; Sanches, Marcos; Charbonneau, James

    2017-11-30

    Impulsivity is a core feature of borderline personality disorder (BPD) and antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) that likely arises from combined genetic and environmental influences. The interaction of the low activity variant of the monoamine oxidase-A (MAOA-L) gene and early childhood adversity has been shown to predict aggression in clinical and non-clinical populations. Although impulsivity is a risk factor for aggression in BPD and ASPD, little research has investigated potential gene-environment (G×E) influences impacting its expression in these conditions. Moreover, G×E interactions may differ by diagnosis. Full factorial analysis of variance was employed to investigate the influence of monoamine oxidase-A (MAO-A) genotype, childhood abuse, and diagnosis on Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11 (BIS-11) scores in 61 individuals: 20 subjects with BPD, 18 subjects with ASPD, and 23 healthy controls. A group×genotype×abuse interaction was present (F(2,49)=4.4, p =0.018), such that the interaction of MAOA-L and childhood abuse predicted greater BIS-11 motor impulsiveness in BPD. Additionally, BPD subjects reported higher BIS-11 attentional impulsiveness versus ASPD participants (t(1,36)=2.3, p =0.025). These preliminary results suggest that MAOA-L may modulate the impact of childhood abuse on impulsivity in BPD. Results additionally indicate that impulsiveness may be expressed differently in BPD and ASPD.

  9. Hostility and childhood sexual abuse as predictors of suicidal behaviour in Borderline Personality Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraz, Liliana; Portella, Maria J; Vállez, Mónica; Gutiérrez, Fernando; Martín-Blanco, Ana; Martín-Santos, Rocío; Subirà, Susana

    2013-12-30

    Impulsivity is a multidimensional construct and has been previously associated with suicidal behaviour in borderline personality disorder (BPD). This study examined the associations between suicidal behaviour and impulsivity-related personality traits, as well as history of childhood sexual abuse, in 76 patients diagnosed with BPD using both the Structured Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders III (DSM-III) Axis-II diagnoses and the self-personality questionnaire. Impulsivity-related traits were measured using the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11 (BIS-11), the Buss-Durkee Hostility Inventory (BDHI) and the Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised (TCI-R). We found that hostility and childhood sexual abuse, but not impulsivity or other temperament traits, significantly predicted the presence, number and severity of previous suicide attempts. Hostility traits and childhood sexual abuse showed an impact on suicide attempts in BPD. Our results support previous findings indicating that high levels of hostility and having suffered sexual abuse during childhood lead to an increased risk for suicidal behaviour in BPD. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Influence of Sex on Suicidal Phenotypes in Affective Disorder Patients with Traumatic Childhood Experiences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Bernegger

    Full Text Available In the current study, we aimed to investigate the impact of childhood trauma on suicidal behaviour phenotypes in a group of patients with diagnosed affective disorder (unipolar or bipolar affective disorder.Patients with and without a history of childhood abuse, measured by Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ, were assessed to explore risks for suicidal behaviour (including suicide attempt, self-harm and non-suicidal self-injury. The tested sample consisted of 258 patients (111 males and 147 females, in-patients and out-patients at the Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Medical University of Vienna and University Hospital Tulln, Lower Austria. Psychiatric diagnoses were derived from the SCAN (Schedules for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry interview. In addition, patients were administered the Lifetime Parasuicidal Count (LPC, Suicidal Behaviour Questionnaire (SBQ-R, and Viennese Suicide Risk Assessment Scale (VISURIAS questionnaires.In contrast to male suicide attempters, female suicide attempters showed both significantly higher total CTQ scores (p<0.001, and higher CTQ subscores (emotional, physical and sexual abuse, as well as emotional and physical neglect in comparison to the non-suicidal control group. Besides, females with a history of self-harming behaviour (including suicidal intention and Non-Suicidal-Self Injury (NSSI had significantly higher CTQ total scores (p<0.001 than the control group.These findings suggest gender differences in suicidal behaviour after being exposed to childhood trauma.

  11. Moral reasoning in women with posttraumatic stress disorder related to childhood abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazarov, Anthony; Walaszczyk, Victoria; Frewen, Paul; Oremus, Carolina; Lanius, Ruth; McKinnon, Margaret C

    2016-01-01

    Preliminary evidence suggests that relative to healthy controls, patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) show deficits on several inter-related social cognitive tasks, including theory of mind, and emotion comprehension. Systematic investigations examining other aspects of social cognition, including moral reasoning, have not been conducted in PTSD stemming from childhood trauma. To conduct a comprehensive assessment of moral reasoning performance in individuals with PTSD stemming from childhood abuse. Moral reasoning performance was assessed in 28 women with PTSD related to prolonged childhood trauma and 19 matched healthy controls. Performance was assessed using 12 modified moral dilemmas and was queried in three domains: utilitarian/deontological sacrificial dilemmas (personal and impersonal), social order vs. compassion, and altruism vs. self-interest. Participants were asked whether a proposed action was morally acceptable or unacceptable and whether or not they would perform this action under the circumstances described. Women with PTSD were less likely to carry out utilitarian actions in personal, sacrificial moral dilemmas, a choice driven primarily by consequential intrapersonal disapproval. Increased concern regarding intrapersonal disapproval was related to higher symptoms of guilt in the PTSD group. Patients with PTSD demonstrated less altruistic moral reasoning, primarily associated with decreased empathic role-taking for beneficiaries. Women with PTSD due to childhood trauma show alterations in moral reasoning marked by decreased utilitarian judgment and decreased altruism. Childhood trauma may continue to impact moral choices made into adulthood.

  12. Relationships among Childhood Trauma, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Dissociation in Men Living with HIV/AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamen, Charles; Bergstrom, Jessica; Koopman, Cheryl; Lee, Susanne; Gore-Felton, Cheryl

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relationships among dissociation, childhood trauma and sexual abuse, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in HIV-positive men. Data was collected from 167 men enrolled in a randomized clinical trial (Project RISE) that examined a group therapy intervention to decrease HIV-related risk behavior and trauma-related stress symptoms. Participants completed the Trauma History Questionnaire, the Impact of Event Scale - Revised, and the Stanford Acute Stress Reaction Questionnaire. Overall, 35.3% of the participants reported having experienced childhood sexual abuse (CSA). A total of 55.7% of the sample met diagnostic criteria for PTSD. The intensity of dissociative symptoms that participants endorsed was positively associated with experience of childhood sexual abuse (r = .20, p Dissociative symptoms were also positively associated with specific PTSD symptoms, notably hyperarousal (r = .69, p dissociation than childhood sexual abuse. These results suggest that childhood sexual abuse may be involved in the development of dissociative symptoms in the context of adulthood stress reactions. Furthermore, the pattern of the association between dissociation and PTSD is consistent with the possibility of a dissociative PTSD subtype among HIV-positive men. PMID:22211444

  13. Modulation of interpersonal trust in borderline personality disorder by intranasal oxytocin and childhood trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebert, Andreas; Kolb, Meike; Heller, Jörg; Edel, Marc-Andreas; Roser, Patrik; Brüne, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is characterized by interpersonal difficulties, whereby patients are negatively biased concerning the evaluation of others' trustworthiness. Here, we examined the effect of oxytocin on interpersonal behavior of BPD patients in a trust game, emphasizing the assessment of facial attractiveness of the patients' counterparts in the game, and patients' history of childhood trauma. Thirteen BPD patients and thirteen healthy controls played a trust game after receiving oxytocin or placebo in a randomized, double-blind crossover design. Childhood trauma was evaluated using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ). Patients transferred less money in the oxytocin condition compared to placebo. While healthy controls transferred more money units (MUs) to attractive counterparts than to unattractive ones only after the administration of oxytocin, BPD patients showed this pattern in both conditions. Emotional neglect during childhood negatively correlated with the amount of MUs transferred by patients under oxytocin, but not placebo. Oxytocin had a trust-lowering effect in BPD, which was correlated with patients' history of childhood trauma. Patients' evaluation of interpersonal trust seems to depend more on attractiveness features of their counterparts than in controls, a finding that may have important implications for further research on the usefulness of "prosocial" peptides as an adjunct to psychotherapeutic interventions.

  14. Moral reasoning in women with posttraumatic stress disorder related to childhood abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Nazarov

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Preliminary evidence suggests that relative to healthy controls, patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD show deficits on several inter-related social cognitive tasks, including theory of mind, and emotion comprehension. Systematic investigations examining other aspects of social cognition, including moral reasoning, have not been conducted in PTSD stemming from childhood trauma. Objective: To conduct a comprehensive assessment of moral reasoning performance in individuals with PTSD stemming from childhood abuse. Method: Moral reasoning performance was assessed in 28 women with PTSD related to prolonged childhood trauma and 19 matched healthy controls. Performance was assessed using 12 modified moral dilemmas and was queried in three domains: utilitarian/deontological sacrificial dilemmas (personal and impersonal, social order vs. compassion, and altruism vs. self-interest. Participants were asked whether a proposed action was morally acceptable or unacceptable and whether or not they would perform this action under the circumstances described. Results: Women with PTSD were less likely to carry out utilitarian actions in personal, sacrificial moral dilemmas, a choice driven primarily by consequential intrapersonal disapproval. Increased concern regarding intrapersonal disapproval was related to higher symptoms of guilt in the PTSD group. Patients with PTSD demonstrated less altruistic moral reasoning, primarily associated with decreased empathic role-taking for beneficiaries. Conclusions: Women with PTSD due to childhood trauma show alterations in moral reasoning marked by decreased utilitarian judgment and decreased altruism. Childhood trauma may continue to impact moral choices made into adulthood.

  15. DEFINING RELATIONAL PATHOLOGY IN EARLY CHILDHOOD: THE DIAGNOSTIC CLASSIFICATION OF MENTAL HEALTH AND DEVELOPMENTAL DISORDERS OF INFANCY AND EARLY CHILDHOOD DC:0-5 APPROACH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeanah, Charles H; Lieberman, Alicia

    2016-09-01

    Infant mental health is explicitly relational in its focus, and therefore a diagnostic classification system for early childhood disorders should include attention not only to within-the-child psychopathology but also between child and caregiver psychopathology. In this article, we begin by providing a review of previous efforts to introduce this approach that date back more than 30 years. Next, we introduce changes proposed in the Diagnostic Classification of Mental Health and Developmental Disorders of Infancy and Early Childhood DC:0-5 (ZERO TO THREE, in press). In a major change from previous attempts, the DC:0-5 includes an Axis I "Relationship Specific Disorder of Early Childhood." This disorder intends to capture disordered behavior that is limited to one caregiver relationship rather than cross contextually. An axial characterization is continued from the Diagnostic Classification of Mental Health and Developmental Disorders of Infancy and Early Childhood DC:0-3R (ZERO TO THREE, 2005), but two major changes are introduced. First, the DC:0-5 proposes to simplify ratings of relationship adaptation/maladaptation, and to expand what is rated so that in addition to characterizing the child's relationship with his or her primary caregiver, there also is a characterization of the network of family relationships in which the child develops. This includes coparenting relationships and the entire network of close relationships that impinge on the young child's development and adaptation. © 2016 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  16. Neurocognitive Deficits in Borderline Personality Disorder: Associations With Childhood Trauma and Dimensions of Personality Psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, Marianne S; Ruocco, Anthony C; Carcone, Dean; Mathiesen, Birgit B; Simonsen, Erik

    2017-08-01

    The present study evaluates the severity of neurocognitive deficits and assesses their relations with self-reported childhood trauma and dimensions of personality psychopathology in 45 outpatients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) matched to 56 non-psychiatric controls. Participants completed a comprehensive battery of neurocognitive tests, a retrospective questionnaire on early life trauma and a dimensional measure of personality psychopathology. Patients with BPD primarily showed deficits in verbal comprehension, sustained visual attention, working memory and processing speed. Comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and an elevated childhood history of physical trauma were each accompanied by more severe neurocognitive deficits. There were no statistically significant associations between neurocognitive function and dimensions of personality psychopathology. These results suggest that patients with BPD display deficits mainly in higher-order thinking abilities that may be exacerbated by PTSD and substantial early life trauma. Potential relationships between neurocognitive deficits and dimensions of personality psychopathology in BPD need further examination.

  17. Ketogenic diet and childhood neurological disorders other than epilepsy: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verrotti, Alberto; Iapadre, Giulia; Pisano, Simone; Coppola, Giangennaro

    2017-05-01

    In the last years, ketogenic diet (KD) has been experimentally utilized in various childhood neurologic disorders such as mitochondriopathies, alternating hemiplegia of childhood (AHC), brain tumors, migraine, and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The aim of this review is to analyze how KD can target these different medical conditions, highlighting possible mechanisms involved. Areas covered: We have conducted an analysis on literature concerning KD use in mitochondriopathies, AHC, brain tumors, migraine, and ASD. Expert commentary: The role of KD in reducing seizure activity in some mitochondriopathies and its efficacy in pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency is known. Recently, few cases suggest the potentiality of KD in decreasing paroxysmal activity in children affected by AHC. A few data support its potential use as co-adjuvant and alternative therapeutic option for brain cancer, while any beneficial effect of KD on migraine remains unclear. KD could improve cognitive and social skills in a subset of children with ASD.

  18. Adult mood disorders and childhood psychological trauma Transtornos do humor no adulto e trauma psicológico na infância

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Lucrécia Scherer Zavaschi

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between adult mood disorders and childhood psychological trauma in a developing country. METHOD: Adults with and without mood disorders were assessed in a case-control study using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. Assessment of childhood trauma included physical and sexual abuse, frequent exposure to violence, and parental loss. RESULTS: In two independent multivariate analyses, after adjusting for potential confounding factors, we found a higher odds ratio for frequent exposure to violence in the community (p = .037 and for physical abuse by parents or caregivers during childhood/adolescence (p = .012 in the group with mood disorders than in the control group. In secondary analyses splitting the mood disorder group in two subgroups (manic episode, and major depressive episodes/ dysthymia, only manic patients showed significantly higher rates of frequent exposure to violence in the community (p = 0.01 and physical abuse during childhood (p = 0.02 than did patients in the control group. In addition, maniac patients had significantly higher rates of sexual abuse than did controls (p = .03. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings document an association between violence during childhood and adult mood disorders, especially for manic patients, in a developing country.OBJETIVO: Avaliar a associação entre transtornos de humor no adulto e trauma psicológico na infância em um país em desenvolvimento. MÉTODO: Adultos com e sem transtorno de humor foram avaliados em um estudo de caso-controle utilizando a Mini Entrevista Neuropsiquiátrica Internacional. A avaliação de trauma infantil incluiu abuso físico e sexual, exposição freqüente à violência e perda dos pais. RESULTADOS: Em duas análises multivariadas independentes, após o ajuste para fatores potenciais de confusão, encontramos uma razão de chance mais alta de exposição freqüente à violência na comunidade (p = 0,037 e de abuso f

  19. Childhood motor coordination and adult schizophrenia spectrum disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiffman, Jason; Sorensen, Holger J; Maeda, Justin

    2009-01-01

    in May 2007. RESULTS: Children who later developed a schizophrenia spectrum disorder (N=32) displayed significantly higher scores on a scale of coordination deficits compared with those who did not develop a mental illness in this category (N=133). CONCLUSIONS: Results from this study provide further......-13 years old. Adult diagnostic information was available for 244 members of the sample. Participants fell into three groups: children whose mothers or fathers had a psychiatric hospital diagnosis of schizophrenia (N=94); children who had at least one parent with a psychiatric record of hospitalization...... for a nonpsychotic disorder (N=84); and children with no parental records of psychiatric hospitalization (N=66). Psychiatric outcomes of the offspring were assessed through psychiatric interviews in 1992 when participants were 31-33 years of age, as well as through a scan of national psychiatric registers completed...

  20. The Effects of the Fast Track Preventive Intervention on the Development of Conduct Disorder Across Childhood

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    The impact of the Fast Track intervention on externalizing disorders across childhood was examined. Eight hundred-ninety-one early-starting children (69% male; 51% African American) were randomly assigned by matched sets of schools to intervention or control conditions. The 10-year intervention addressed parent behavior-management, child social cognitive skills, reading, home visiting, mentoring, and classroom curricula. Outcomes included psychiatric diagnoses after grades 3, 6, 9, and 12 for...

  1. Traumatic childhood sexual events and secondary sexual health complaints in neurotic disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Sobański, Jerzy A; Müldner-Nieckowski, Łukasz; Katarzyna Klasa,; Dembińska, Edyta; Rutkowski, Krzysztof; Cyranka, Katarzyna

    2013-01-01

    Aim. Assessment of the association between self-reported sexual complaints and recalled childhood sexual adversities in a sample of psychotherapy patients.Material and methods. Coexistence of memories concerning traumatic events and minor sexual adversities and the currently present symptoms were analyzed on the basis of KO”0” Symptom Checklist andLife Inventory completed prior to treatment in the day hospital for neurotic disorders. Questionnaires from 3929 psychotherapy patients were analyz...

  2. Childhood trauma and dissociation among women with genito-pelvic pain/penetration disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Özen B; Özdemir YO; Beştepe EE

    2018-01-01

    Beliz Özen, Y Özay Özdemir, E Emrem Beştepe Erenköy Mental Health and Neurological Diseases Education and Research Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey Objective: Causes such as childhood trauma, negative attitude about sexuality, inadequate sexual knowledge and education, relationship problems, and unconscious motivation are reported about psychosexual development in the etiology of genito-pelvic pain/penetration disorder (GPP/PD). There are few studies that focus directly on res...

  3. Childhood trauma and dissociation among women with genito-pelvic pain/penetration disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Ozen,Beliz; Özdemir,Yusuf Ozay; Bestepe,Engin Emrem

    2018-01-01

    Beliz Özen, Y Özay Özdemir, E Emrem Beştepe Erenköy Mental Health and Neurological Diseases Education and Research Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey Objective: Causes such as childhood trauma, negative attitude about sexuality, inadequate sexual knowledge and education, relationship problems, and unconscious motivation are reported about psychosexual development in the etiology of genito-pelvic pain/penetration disorder (GPP/PD). There are few studies that focu...

  4. Childhood trauma increases the risk of post-traumatic stress disorder in response to first-episode psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendall, Sarah; Alvarez-Jimenez, Mario; Hulbert, Carol A; McGorry, Patrick D; Jackson, Henry J

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between childhood trauma, post-traumatic stress symptoms due to the experience of childhood trauma, and post-traumatic stress symptoms due to the experience of psychosis. The current study assessed childhood trauma and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms as a result of both childhood trauma and psychosis using the Impact of Events Scale - Revised, in a group of 36 people with first-episode psychosis. Reported rates of clinical level post-psychotic PTSD symptoms, childhood trauma and childhood trauma-related clinical level PTSD symptoms were 47% (95% CI 31-64%), 64% (95% CI 48-80%) and 39% (95% CI 23-55%), respectively. Reporting childhood trauma increased the risk of developing post-psychosis PTSD 27-fold (95% CI 2.96-253.80, p = 0.01). Having childhood trauma-related PTSD increased the risk of developing post-psychosis PTSD 20-fold (95% CI 3.38-123.25, p = 0.01). These risks were not explained by illness factors such as duration of untreated psychosis, age of onset or severity of psychotic symptoms. Those without post-psychotic PTSD symptoms at clinical levels were unlikely to report childhood trauma (6%; 95% CI 3-8%). These results suggest the cognitive, social and biological consequences of childhood trauma can prevent effective recovery from the trauma of acute first-episode psychosis resulting in post-psychotic PTSD. Treatment strategies for post-psychotic PTSD must address childhood trauma and related PTSD.

  5. Temperament and parental child-rearing style: unique contributions to clinical anxiety disorders in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindhout, Ingeborg E; Markus, Monica Th; Hoogendijk, Thea H G; Boer, Frits

    2009-07-01

    Both temperament and parental child-rearing style are found to be associated with childhood anxiety disorders in population studies. This study investigates the contribution of not only temperament but also parental child-rearing to clinical childhood anxiety disorders. It also investigates whether the contribution of temperament is moderated by child-rearing style, as is suggested by some studies in the general population. Fifty children were included (25 with anxiety disorders and 25 non-clinical controls). Child-rearing and the child's temperament were assessed by means of parental questionnaire (Child Rearing Practices Report (CRPR) (Block in The Child-Rearing Practices Report. Institute of Human Development. University of California, Berkely, 1965; The Child-Rearing Practices Report (CRPR): a set of Q items for the description of parental socialisation attitudes and values. Unpublished manuscript. Institute of Human Development. University of California, Berkely, 1981), EAS Temperament Survey for Children (Boer and Westenberg in J Pers Assess 62:537-551, 1994; Buss and Plomin in Temperament: early developing personality traits. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc, Hillsdale, 1984s). Analysis of variance showed that anxiety-disordered children scored significantly higher on the temperamental characteristics emotionality and shyness than non-clinical control children. Hierarchical logistic regression analyses showed that temperament (emotionality and shyness) and child-rearing style (more parental negative affect, and less encouraging independence of the child) both accounted for a unique proportion of the variance of anxiety disorders. Preliminary results suggest that child-rearing style did not moderate the association between children's temperament and childhood anxiety disorders. The limited sample size might have been underpowered to assess this interaction.

  6. Toward a theory of childhood learning disorders, hyperactivity, and aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mawson, Anthony R

    2012-01-01

    Learning disorders are often associated with persistent hyperactivity and aggression and are part of a spectrum of neurodevelopmental disorders. A potential clue to understanding these linked phenomena is that physical exercise and passive forms of stimulation are calming, enhance cognitive functions and learning, and are recommended as complementary treatments for these problems. The theory is proposed that hyperactivity and aggression are intense stimulation-seeking behaviors (SSBs) driven by increased brain retinergic activity, and the stimulation thus obtained activates opposing nitrergic systems which inhibit retinergic activity, induce a state of calm, and enhance cognition and learning. In persons with cognitive deficits and associated behavioral disorders, the retinergic system may be chronically overactivated and the nitrergic system chronically underactivated due to environmental exposures occurring pre- and/or postnatally that affect retinoid metabolism or expression. For such individuals, the intensity of stimulation generated by SSB may be insufficient to activate the inhibitory nitrergic system. A multidisciplinary research program is needed to test the model and, in particular, to determine the extent to which applied physical treatments can activate the nitrergic system directly, providing the necessary level of intensity of sensory stimulation to substitute for that obtained in maladaptive and harmful ways by SSB, thereby reducing SSB and enhancing cognitive skills and performance.

  7. The Melbourne Assessment of Schizotypy in Kids: A Useful Measure of Childhood Schizotypal Personality Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harvey P. Jones

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite being identified as a high risk cohort for psychosis, there has been relatively little research on the clinical presentation and assessment of Schizotypal Personality Disorder (SPD in childhood. The current study aimed to develop a measure of childhood SPD (Melbourne Assessment of Schizotypy in Kids (MASK and assess discriminant validity against another neurodevelopmental disorder, autism spectrum disorder (ASD. Sixty-eight children aged between 5 and 12 (21 SPD, 15 ASD, and 32 typically developing and their parents were administered the MASK. The MASK is a 57-item semistructured interview that obtains information from the child, their parents, and the clinician. The results showed high internal consistency for the MASK and higher scores in the SPD group. A factor analysis revealed two MASK factors: social/pragmatic symptoms and positive schizotypal symptoms. Both factors were associated with SPD, while only the social/pragmatic factor was associated with ASD. Within the two clinical groups, a receiver operating characteristic curve showed that the MASK (cut-off score: 132 out of 228 was a good indicator of SPD diagnosis. These preliminary MASK findings were reliable and consistent and suggest that childhood SPD is characterised by complex symptomology distinguishable from ASD.

  8. Relationship between adverse childhood experiences and homelessness and the impact of axis I and II disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roos, Leslie E; Mota, Natalie; Afifi, Tracie O; Katz, Laurence Y; Distasio, Jino; Sareen, Jitender

    2013-12-01

    We investigated the links between homelessness associated with serious mental and physical healthy disparities and adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) in nationally representative data, with Axis I and II disorders as potential mediators. We examined data from the National Epidemiologic Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions in 2001-2002 and 2004-2005, and included 34,653 participants representative of the noninstitutionalized US population who were 20 years old or older. We studied the variables related to 4 classes of Axis I disorders, all 10 Axis II personality disorders, a wide range of ACEs, and a lifetime history of homelessness. Analyses revealed high prevalences of each ACE in individuals experiencing lifetime homelessness (17%-60%). A mediation model with Axis I and II disorders determined that childhood adversities were significantly related to homelessness through direct effects (adjusted odd ratios = 2.04, 4.24) and indirect effects, indicating partial mediation. Population attributable fractions were also reported. Although Axis I and II disorders partially mediated the relationship between ACEs and homelessness, a strong direct association remained. This novel finding has implications for interventions and policy. Additional research is needed to understand relevant causal pathways.

  9. Antisocial personality disorder with and without antecedent childhood conduct disorder: does it make a difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Glenn D; Knight, Raymond A

    2010-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to test whether prior conduct disorder increased deviance in persons diagnosed with antisocial personality disorder. One hundred and three male inmates satisfying adult antisocial and conduct disorder criteria for antisocial personality disorder achieved significantly higher scores on self-report measures of criminal thinking and antisocial attitudes than 137 male inmates satisfying only the adult criteria for antisocial personality disorder and 87 male nonantisocial inmates. Inmates satisfying adult antisocial and conduct disorder criteria for antisocial personality disorder were also more likely to receive disciplinary infractions for misconduct than inmates in the other two conditions. The theoretical, diagnostic, and practical implications of these results are discussed.

  10. Fertility treatment and the risk of childhood and adolescent mental disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Bjørn; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler

    2013-01-01

    conceived children was not increased, except for a borderline significantly increased risk of tic disorders (HR 1.4 (1.0-1.9)). In contrast, children born after ovulation induction with or without insemination had significantly increased risks of any mental disorder (HR 1.2 (1.1-1.3)), autism spectrum...... used in the treatments. Limitations, reason for caution The study did not include information on parental psychiatric history and since it is well known that mental disorders run in families, this could explain our findings if children conceived after OI/IUI were born by parents with a higher......Abstract Study question We compared the risk of mental disorders in childhood and adolescence between children born after fertility treatments with in vitro fertilization (IVF), intra cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) or ovulation induction (OI) with or without insemination (IUI) and children born...

  11. Childhood versus adulthood-onset autoinflammatory disorders: myths and truths intertwined

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Cantarini

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Autoinflammatory disorders are characterized by spontaneous episodes of systemic inflammation deriving from inherited defects of the innate immune system. Childhood is usually the lifetime involved in most inherited autoinflammatory disorders, but a moderate number of patients may experience disease onset during adulthood. Herein we report our experience in the clinical and genetic approach to the diagnosis of autoinflammatory disorders in regard of the first 500 pediatric and adult patients evaluated during the period 2007-2012 in our Center, due to histories of periodically-recurring inflammatory attacks, giving emphasis to the differences observed according to patients’age and to the most relevant data differentiating child and adult-onset autoinflammatory disorders in the medical literature.

  12. Impact of traumatic events on posttraumatic stress disorder among Danish survivors of sexual abuse in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elklit, Ask; Christiansen, Dorte M; Palic, Sabina; Karsberg, Sidsel; Eriksen, Sara Bek

    2014-01-01

    Childhood sexual abuse can be extremely traumatic and lead to lifelong symptomatology. The present study examined the impact of several demographic, abuse, and psychosocial variables on posttraumatic stress disorder severity among a consecutive sample of treatment-seeking, adult child sexual abuse survivors (N = 480). The child sexual abuse sample was characterized by severe trauma exposure, insecure attachment, and significant traumatization, with an estimated 77% suffering from posttraumatic stress disorder, more than twice the level of the comparison group. Regression analyses revealed risk factors associated with the development of posttraumatic stress disorder in which the strongest predictors being additional traumas, negative affectivity, and somatization. The findings add to existing research confirming the stressful nature of child sexual abuse and the variables that contribute to the development and severity of posttraumatic stress disorder.

  13. [Violence and post-traumatic stress disorder in childhood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ximenes, Liana Furtado; de Oliveira, Raquel de Vasconcelos Carvalhães; de Assis, Simone Gonçalves

    2009-01-01

    This study presents the prevalence of symptoms of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) in 500 schoolchildren (6-13 years old) in São Gonçalo, Rio de Janeiro. It also investigates the association between PTSD, violence and other adverse events in the lives of these children. The multi-stage cluster sampling strategy involved three selection stages. Parents were interviewed about their children's behavior. The instrument used to screen symptoms of PTSD was the Child Behavior Checklist-Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Scale (CBCL-PTSD). Conflict Tactics Scales (CTS) were applied to evaluate family violence and other scales to investigate the socioeconomic profile, familiar relationship, characteristics and adverse events in the lives of the children. Multivariate analysis was performed using a hierarchical model with a significance level of 5%. The prevalence of clinical symptoms of PTSD was of 6.5%. The multivariate analysis suggested an explanation model of PTSD characterized by 18 variables, such as the child's characteristics; specific life events; family violence; and other family factors. The results reveal that it is necessary to work with the child in particularly difficult moments of his/her life in order to prevent or minimize the impact of adverse events on their mental and social functioning.

  14. Pattern of childhood neuronal migrational disorders in Oman

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koul, Roshan L.; Alfuitasi, Amna M.; Javad, Hashim; Sankhla, Dilip K.; William, Ranjan R.

    2009-01-01

    To record the pattern of different neuronal migrational disorders (NMD) and their associated neurological conditions. The data were collected at the Child Neurology Services of Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Oman, from January 1993 to September 2006 from all children with psychomotor delay and epilepsy, who underwent brain imaging (mostly MRI). The MR imaging was used for the diagnosis of a neuronal migration anomaly. There were 86 cases of NMD. Corpus callosum agenesis and lissencephaly/pachygyria formed the major group. There were 48 cases of corpus callosum agenesis, and 16 cases of lissencephaly/pachygyria. Other disorders were 10 cases of heterotopias, 5 schizencephaly, 3 holoprosencephaly, 2 polymicrogyria, and one each of hemimegalencephaly, and hydranencephaly. Developmental delay was the most common associated finding noted in 80 (93%) cases. Sixty-seven (77.9%) cases had motor deficit. Forty out of 86 (46.5%) cases had epilepsy. Partial/partial complex seizures were the most common at 13 out of 40 (32.5%). Syndromic seizures were seen in 11 out of 40 (27.5%) cases. The seizures were controlled in only 3/40 (7.5%) cases. The NMD constitute a significant number of child neurology patients with psychomotor delay and intractable epilepsy. Exogenic and genetic factors affecting the early embryonic and fetal development from sixth to twenty-sixth weeks of gestation result in NMD. Recent genetic studies are defining the underlying mechanism and these studies will help in early diagnosis and possible prevention of NMD. (author)

  15. Prevalence of childhood trauma and correlations between childhood trauma, suicidal ideation, and social support in patients with depression, bipolar disorder, and schizophrenia in southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Peng; Wu, Kai; Zheng, Yingjun; Guo, Yangbo; Yang, Yuling; He, Jianfei; Ding, Yi; Peng, Hongjun

    2018-03-01

    Childhood trauma has long-term adverse effects on physical and psychological health. Previous studies demonstrated that suicide and mental disorders were related to childhood trauma. In China, there is insufficient research available on childhood trauma in patients with mental disorders. Outpatients were recruited from a psychiatric hospital in southern China, and controls were recruited from local communities. The demographic questionnaire, the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire-Short Form (CTQ-SF), and the Social Support Rating Scale (SSRS) were completed by all participants, and the Self-rating Idea of Suicide Scale (SIOSS) were completed only by patients. Prevalence rates of childhood trauma were calculated. Kruskal-Wallis test and Dunnett test were used to compare CTQ-SF and SSRS scores between groups. Logistic regression was used to control demographic characteristics and examine relationships between diagnosis and CTQ-SF and SSRS scores. Spearman's rank correlation test was conducted to analyze relationships between suicidal ideation and childhood trauma and suicidal ideation and social support. The final sample comprised 229 patients with depression, 102 patients with bipolar, 216 patient with schizophrenia, and 132 healthy controls. In our sample, 55.5% of the patients with depression, 61.8% of the patients with bipolar disorder, 47.2% of the patients with schizophrenia, and 20.5% of the healthy people reported at least one type of trauma. In patient groups, physical neglect (PN) and emotional neglect (EN) were most reported, and sexual abuse (SA) and physical abuse (PA) were least reported. CTQ-SF and SSRS total scores, and most of their subscale scores in patient groups were significantly different from the control group. After controlling demographic characteristics, mental disorders were associated with higher CTQ-SF scores and lower SSRS scores. CTQ-SF scores and number of trauma types were positively correlated with the SIOSS score. Negative correlations

  16. Childhood IQ and risk of bipolar disorder in adulthood: prospective birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Daniel J; Anderson, Jana; Zammit, Stanley; Meyer, Thomas D; Pell, Jill P; Mackay, Daniel

    2015-06-01

    Intellectual ability may be an endophenotypic marker for bipolar disorder. Within a large birth cohort, we aimed to assess whether childhood IQ (including both verbal IQ (VIQ) and performance IQ (PIQ) subscales) was predictive of lifetime features of bipolar disorder assessed in young adulthood. We used data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), a large UK birth cohort, to test for an association between measures of childhood IQ at age 8 years and lifetime manic features assessed at age 22-23 years using the Hypomania Checklist-32 (HCL-32; n =1881 individuals). An ordinary least squares linear regression model was used, with normal childhood IQ (range 90-109) as the referent group. We adjusted analyses for confounding factors, including gender, ethnicity, handedness, maternal social class at recruitment, maternal age, maternal history of depression and maternal education. There was a positive association between IQ at age 8 years and lifetime manic features at age 22-23 years (Pearson's correlation coefficient 0.159 (95% CI 0.120-0.198), P >0.001). Individuals in the lowest decile of manic features had a mean full-scale IQ (FSIQ) which was almost 10 points lower than those in the highest decile of manic features: mean FSIQ 100.71 (95% CI 98.74-102.6) v . 110.14 (95% CI 107.79-112.50), P >0.001. The association between IQ and manic features was present for FSIQ, VIQ and for PIQ but was strongest for VIQ. A higher childhood IQ score, and high VIQ in particular, may represent a marker of risk for the later development of bipolar disorder. This finding has implications for understanding of how liability to bipolar disorder may have been selected through generations. It will also inform future genetic studies at the interface of intelligence, creativity and bipolar disorder and is relevant to the developmental trajectory of bipolar disorder. It may also improve approaches to earlier detection and treatment of bipolar disorder in adolescents

  17. The best-laid plans go oft awry: synaptogenic growth factor signaling in neuropsychiatric disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aislinn Joanmarie Williams

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Growth factors play important roles in synapse formation. Mouse models of neuropsychiatric diseases suggest that defects in synaptogenic growth factors, their receptors, and signaling pathways can lead to disordered neural development and various behavioral phenotypes, including anxiety, memory problems, and social deficits. Genetic association studies in humans have found evidence for similar relationships between growth factor signaling pathways and neuropsychiatric phenotypes. Accumulating data suggest that dysfunction in neuronal circuitry, caused by defects in growth factor-mediated synapse formation, contributes to the susceptibility to multiple neuropsychiatric diseases, including epilepsy, autism, and disorders of thought and mood (e.g. schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, respectively. In this review, we will focus on how specific synaptogenic growth factors and their downstream signaling pathways might be involved in the development of neuropsychiatric diseases.

  18. Treating attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder beyond symptom control alone in children and adolescents: a review of the potential benefits of long-acting stimulants.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buitelaar, J.K.; Medori, R.

    2010-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), one of the most common neuropsychiatric conditions of childhood, often has a chronic course and persists into adulthood in many individuals. ADHD may have a clinically important impact on health-related quality of life in children, a significant

  19. Assessing childhood maltreatment and mental health correlates of disordered eating profiles in a nationally representative sample of English females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, Cherie; Műllerová, Jana; Fletcher, Shelley; Lagdon, Susan; Burns, Carol Rhonda; Robinson, Martin; Robinson, Jake

    2016-03-01

    Previous research suggests that childhood maltreatment is associated with the onset of eating disorders (ED). In turn, EDs are associated with alternative psychopathologies such as depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and with suicidality. Moreover, it has been reported that various ED profiles may exist. The aim of the current study was to examine the profiles of disordered eating and the associations of these with childhood maltreatment and with mental health psychopathology. The current study utilised a representative sample of English females (N = 4206) and assessed for the presence of disordered eating profiles using Latent Class Analysis. Multinomial logistic regression was implemented to examine the associations of childhood sexual and physical abuse with the disordered eating profiles and the associations of these with PTSD, depression and suicidality. Results supported those of previous findings in that we found five latent classes of which three were regarded as disordered eating classes. Significant relationships were found between these and measures of childhood trauma and mental health outcomes. Childhood sexual and physical abuse increased the likelihood of membership in disordered eating classes and these in turn increased the likelihood of adverse mental health and suicidal outcomes.

  20. Neural Correlates of Memories of Childhood Sexual Abuse in Women With and Without Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bremner, J. Douglas; Narayan, Meena; Staib, Lawrence H.; Southwick, Steven M.; McGlashan, Thomas; Charney, Dennis S.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Childhood sexual abuse is very common in our society, but little is known about the long-term effects of abuse on brain function. The purpose of this study was to measure neural correlates of memories of childhood abuse in sexually abused women with and without the diagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Method Twenty-two women with a history of childhood sexual abuse underwent injection of [15O]H2O, followed by positron emission tomography imaging of the brain while they listened to neutral and traumatic (personalized childhood sexual abuse events) scripts. Brain blood flow during exposure to traumatic and neutral scripts was compared for sexually abused women with and without PTSD. Results Memories of childhood sexual abuse were associated with greater increases in blood flow in portions of anterior prefrontal cortex (superior and middle frontal gyri—areas 6 and 9), posterior cingulate (area 31), and motor cortex in sexually abused women with PTSD than in sexually abused women without PTSD. Abuse memories were associated with alterations in blood flow in medial prefrontal cortex, with decreased blood flow in subcallosal gyrus (area 25), and a failure of activation in anterior cingulate (area 32). There was also decreased blood flow in right hippocampus, fusiform/inferior temporal gyrus, supramarginal gyrus, and visual association cortex in women with PTSD relative to women without PTSD. Conclusions These findings implicate dysfunction of medial prefrontal cortex (subcallosal gyrus and anterior cingulate), hippocampus, and visual association cortex in pathological memories of childhood abuse in women with PTSD. Increased activation in posterior cingulate and motor cortex was seen in women with PTSD. Dysfunction in these brain areas may underlie PTSD symptoms provoked by traumatic reminders in subjects with PTSD. PMID:10553744

  1. Managing childhood and adolescent attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with exercise: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Qin Xiang; Ho, Collin Yih Xian; Chan, Hwei Wuen; Yong, Bob Zheng Jie; Yeo, Wee-Song

    2017-10-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common neuropsychiatric disorders affecting some 8-10% of children worldwide. Increasing research has shed light on the life course of the disorder, suggesting that majority of children with ADHD will continue to have persistent symptoms into adulthood. The mainstay of ADHD management has been pharmacologic and behavioural/psychological interventions, with little attention paid to exercise as a potential management strategy. A systematic review, examining both the short-term and long-term effects of exercise on children with ADHD, is timely and necessary to guide further research in this area. Using the keywords [exercise OR physical OR activity OR sport] AND [attention deficit hyperactivity disorder OR ADHD OR ADDH], a preliminary search on the PubMed and Ovid database yielded 613 papers published in English between 1-Jan-1980 and 1-July-2016. Full articles were also reviewed for references of interest. A total of 30 studies were included in this systematic review. Both short-term and long-term studies support the clinical benefits of physical activity for individuals with ADHD. Cognitive, behavioural and physical symptoms of ADHD were alleviated in most instances, and the largest intervention effects were reported for mixed exercise programs. No adverse effects arising from physical exercise were reported in any of the studies, suggesting that exercise is a well-tolerated intervention. Physical activity, in particular moderate-to-intense aerobic exercise, is a beneficial and well-tolerated intervention for children and adolescents with ADHD. Future research should include more adequately-powered trials and investigate the ideal exercise prescription. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Childhood trauma and dissociation among women with genito-pelvic pain/penetration disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özen B

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Beliz Özen, Y Özay Özdemir, E Emrem Beştepe Erenköy Mental Health and Neurological Diseases Education and Research Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey Objective: Causes such as childhood trauma, negative attitude about sexuality, inadequate sexual knowledge and education, relationship problems, and unconscious motivation are reported about psychosexual development in the etiology of genito-pelvic pain/penetration disorder (GPP/PD. There are few studies that focus directly on research etiology of GPP/PD and use structured scales. The aim of this study was to research childhood trauma and dissociation forms among women with GPP/PD.Patients and methods: Fifty-five women with GPP/PD according to the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders and 61 healthy women with no complaints of sexual function as a control group, in the age range of 18–60 years, were included in this study. Sociodemographic data form, Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ-28, Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES, and Somatoform Dissociation Questionnaire (SDQ-20 were administered to all participants.Results: Sexual abuse, emotional abuse, and emotional neglect scores, which comprise the subgroups of CTQ, were found high among women with GPP/PD compared with the control group (p=0.003, p=0.006, p=0.001. While a significant difference between the two groups’ SDQ scores was obtained (p=0.000, no significant difference was detected between the two groups’ DES scores (p=0.392.Discussion: The results evoke the question are genitopelvic pain conditions, vaginismus and dyspareunia, that cannot be explained with a medical cause and that cause penetration disorder, a kind of dissociative symptom prone to develop in some women with childhood psychogenic trauma. Keywords: dyspareunia, sexual phobia, abuse, sexual dysfunction, intercourse, avoidance 

  3. Childhood trauma and dissociation among women with genito-pelvic pain/penetration disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özen, Beliz; Özdemir, Y Özay; Beştepe, E Emrem

    2018-01-01

    Objective Causes such as childhood trauma, negative attitude about sexuality, inadequate sexual knowledge and education, relationship problems, and unconscious motivation are reported about psychosexual development in the etiology of genito-pelvic pain/penetration disorder (GPP/PD). There are few studies that focus directly on research etiology of GPP/PD and use structured scales. The aim of this study was to research childhood trauma and dissociation forms among women with GPP/PD. Patients and methods Fifty-five women with GPP/PD according to the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders and 61 healthy women with no complaints of sexual function as a control group, in the age range of 18–60 years, were included in this study. Sociodemographic data form, Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ-28), Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES), and Somatoform Dissociation Questionnaire (SDQ-20) were administered to all participants. Results Sexual abuse, emotional abuse, and emotional neglect scores, which comprise the subgroups of CTQ, were found high among women with GPP/PD compared with the control group (p=0.003, p=0.006, p=0.001). While a significant difference between the two groups’ SDQ scores was obtained (p=0.000), no significant difference was detected between the two groups’ DES scores (p=0.392). Discussion The results evoke the question are genitopelvic pain conditions, vaginismus and dyspareunia, that cannot be explained with a medical cause and that cause penetration disorder, a kind of dissociative symptom prone to develop in some women with childhood psychogenic trauma. PMID:29503548

  4. Childhood trauma and dissociation among women with genito-pelvic pain/penetration disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özen, Beliz; Özdemir, Y Özay; Beştepe, E Emrem

    2018-01-01

    Causes such as childhood trauma, negative attitude about sexuality, inadequate sexual knowledge and education, relationship problems, and unconscious motivation are reported about psychosexual development in the etiology of genito-pelvic pain/penetration disorder (GPP/PD). There are few studies that focus directly on research etiology of GPP/PD and use structured scales. The aim of this study was to research childhood trauma and dissociation forms among women with GPP/PD. Fifty-five women with GPP/PD according to the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders and 61 healthy women with no complaints of sexual function as a control group, in the age range of 18-60 years, were included in this study. Sociodemographic data form, Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ-28), Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES), and Somatoform Dissociation Questionnaire (SDQ-20) were administered to all participants. Sexual abuse, emotional abuse, and emotional neglect scores, which comprise the subgroups of CTQ, were found high among women with GPP/PD compared with the control group ( p =0.003, p =0.006, p =0.001). While a significant difference between the two groups' SDQ scores was obtained ( p =0.000), no significant difference was detected between the two groups' DES scores ( p =0.392). The results evoke the question are genitopelvic pain conditions, vaginismus and dyspareunia, that cannot be explained with a medical cause and that cause penetration disorder, a kind of dissociative symptom prone to develop in some women with childhood psychogenic trauma.

  5. Personal Space Regulation in Childhood Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gessaroli, Erica; Santelli, Erica; di Pellegrino, Giuseppe; Frassinetti, Francesca

    2013-01-01

    People appropriately adjust the distance between themselves and others during social interaction, and they may feel discomfort and move away when another person intrudes on their personal space. In the present study, we investigated personal space in children with persistent difficulties in the domain of social behavior, such as children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), and in children with typical development (TD). The stop-distance paradigm was used to derive estimates of interpersonal distance, before and after a brief interaction with an unfamiliar adult confederate. The results showed that ASD children felt comfortable at a greater distance compared to TD children. Moreover, personal space shrunk after interaction with the confederate in TD children, but it failed to do so in ASD children. These findings reveal that autism deeply affects the regulation of personal space, influencing both its size and flexibility. PMID:24086410

  6. Childhood adversity, parental vulnerability and disorder: examining inter-generational transmission of risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bifulco, A; Moran, P M; Ball, C; Jacobs, C; Baines, R; Bunn, A; Cavagin, J

    2002-11-01

    An investigation of intergenerational factors associated with psychiatric disorder in late adolescence/early adulthood was undertaken to differentiate influences from maternal disorder, maternal poor psychosocial functioning and poor parenting, on offspring. The sample comprised an intensively studied series of 276 mother-offspring pairs in a relatively deprived inner-city London area with high rates of lone parenthood and socio-economic disadvantage. The paired sample was collected over two time periods: first a consecutively screened series of mothers and offspring in 1985-90 (n = 172 pairs) and second a 'vulnerable' series of mothers and offspring in 1995-99 (n = 104 pairs). The vulnerable mothers were selected for poor interpersonal functioning and/or low self-esteem and the consecutive series were used for comparison. Rates of childhood adversity and disorder in the offspring were examined in the two groups. Maternal characteristics including psychosocial vulnerability and depression were then examined in relation to risk transmission. Offspring of vulnerable mothers had a fourfold higher rate of yearly disorder than those in the comparison series (43% vs. 11%, p maternal vulnerability and neglect/abuse of offspring provided the best model for offspring disorder. Maternal history of depression had no direct effect on offspring disorder; its effects were entirely mediated by offspring neglect/abuse. Maternal childhood adversity also had no direct effect. Results are discussed in relation to psychosocial models of risk transmission for disorder. Maternal poor psychosocial functioning needs to be identified as a factor requiring intervention in order to stem escalation of risk across generations.

  7. Emotional reasoning and anxiety sensitivity: associations with social anxiety disorder in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkozei, Anna; Cooper, Peter J; Creswell, Cathy

    2014-01-01

    Two specific cognitive constructs that have been implicated in the development and maintenance of anxiety symptoms are anxiety sensitivity and emotional reasoning, both of which relate to the experience and meaning of physical symptoms of arousal or anxiety. The interpretation of physical symptoms has been particularly implicated in theories of social anxiety disorder, where internal physical symptoms are hypothesized to influence the individual's appraisals of the self as a social object. The current study compared 75 children on measures of anxiety sensitivity and emotional reasoning: 25 with social anxiety disorder, 25 with other anxiety disorders, and 25 nonanxious children (aged 7-12 years). Children with social anxiety disorder reported higher levels of anxiety sensitivity and were more likely than both other groups to view ambiguous situations as anxiety provoking, whether physical information was present or not. There were no group differences in the extent to which physical information altered children's interpretation of hypothetical scenarios. This study is the first to investigate emotional reasoning in clinically anxious children and therefore replication is needed. In addition, those in both anxious groups commonly had comorbid conditions and, consequently, specific conclusions about social anxiety disorder need to be treated with caution. The findings highlight cognitive characteristics that may be particularly pertinent in the context of social anxiety disorder in childhood and which may be potential targets for treatment. Furthermore, the findings suggest that strategies to modify these particular cognitive constructs may not be necessary in treatments of some other childhood anxiety disorders. © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Use of evidence-based assessments for childhood anxiety disorders within a regional medical system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sattler, Adam F; Ale, Chelsea M; Nguyen, Kristin; Gregg, Melissa S; Geske, Jennifer R; Whiteside, Stephen P H

    2016-11-01

    Anxiety disorders represent a common and serious threat to mental health in children and adolescents. To effectively treat anxiety in children, clinicians must conduct accurate assessment of patients' symptoms. However, despite the importance of assessment in the treatment of childhood anxiety disorders, the literature lacks a thorough analysis of the practices used by clinicians' when evaluating such disorders in community settings. Thus, the current study examines the quality of assessment for childhood anxiety disorders in a large regional health system. The results suggest that clinicians often provide non-specific diagnoses, infrequently document symptoms according to diagnostic criteria, and rarely administer rating scales and structured diagnostic interviews. Relatedly, diagnostic agreement across practice settings was low. Finally, the quality of assessment differed according to the setting in which the assessment was conducted and the complexity of the patient's symptomatology. These results highlight the need to develop and disseminate clinically feasible evidence-based assessment practices that can be implemented within resource-constrained service settings. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Childhood experiences of parental rearing patterns reported by Chinese patients with borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jianjun; Napolitano, Lisa A; Wu, Jiang; Yang, Yunping; Xi, Yingjun; Li, Yawen; Li, Kai

    2014-02-01

    The primary purposes of this study were to (1) compare the characteristics of childhood experiences of parental rearing patterns in China reported by patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD), patients with other personality disorders and patients without personality disorders; (2) identify the reported parental rearing patterns associated with BPD in China; and (3) determine whether these patterns differ for males and females. One hundred and fifty-two patients with BPD, 79 patients with other personality disorders and 55 patients without Axis II diagnoses were administered the Chinese version of the McLean Screening Instrument for BPD and completed the Egna Minnen av Barndoms Uppfostran (EMBU), a self-report measure of childhood parental rearing patterns. Parental rearing patterns reported by the BPD group were characterized by less emotional warmth, and greater punishment, rejection and control than patterns reported by the other two groups. Within the BPD group, males were more likely than females to report parental punishment, rejection and control. Paternal punishment, low maternal emotional warmth and female gender predicted BPD diagnosis. Negative parental rearing patterns appear to contribute to the development of BPD in China and vary with the gender of the child. Maternal emotional warmth may be a protective factor against BPD. © 2013 International Union of Psychological Science.

  10. Predicting a dissociative disorder from type of childhood maltreatment and abuser-abused relational tie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, Christa; Fletcher, Lizelle

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the types of childhood maltreatment and abuser-abused relational ties that best predict a dissociative disorder (DD). Psychiatric inpatients (n = 116; mean age = 35; F:M = 1.28:1) completed measures of dissociation and trauma. Abuse type and abuser-abused relational ties were recorded in the Traumatic Experiences Questionnaire. Multidisciplinary team clinical diagnosis or administration of the SCID-D-R to high dissociators confirmed DD diagnoses. Logit models described the relationships between abuser-abused relational tie and the diagnostic grouping of patients, DD present (n = 16) or DD absent (n = 100). Fisher's exact tests measured the relative contribution of specific abuse types. There was a positive relationship between abuse frequency and the presence of DD. DD patients experienced more abuse than patients without DDs. Two combinations of abuse type and relational tie predicted a DD: childhood emotional neglect by biological parents/siblings and later emotional abuse by intimate partners. These findings support the early childhood etiology of DDs and subsequent maladaptive cycles of adult abuse. Enquiries about childhood maltreatment should include a history of emotional neglect by biological parents/siblings. Adult emotional abuse by intimate partners should assist in screening for DDs.

  11. Childhood adversity in association with personality disorder dimensions: new findings in an old debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hengartner, M P; Ajdacic-Gross, V; Rodgers, S; Müller, M; Rössler, W

    2013-10-01

    Various studies have reported a positive relationship between child maltreatment and personality disorders (PDs). However, few studies included all DSM-IV PDs and even fewer adjusted for other forms of childhood adversity, e.g. bullying or family problems. We analyzed questionnaires completed by 512 participants of the ZInEP epidemiology survey, a comprehensive psychiatric survey of the general population in Zurich, Switzerland. Associations between childhood adversity and PDs were analyzed bivariately via simple regression analyses and multivariately via multiple path analysis. The bivariate analyses revealed that all PD dimensions were significantly related to various forms of family and school problems as well as child abuse. In contrast, according to the multivariate analysis only school problems and emotional abuse were associated with various PDs. Poverty was uniquely associated with schizotypal PD, conflicts with parents with obsessive-compulsive PD, physical abuse with antisocial PD, and physical neglect with narcissistic PD. Sexual abuse was statistically significantly associated with schizotypal and borderline PD, but corresponding effect sizes were small. Childhood adversity has a serious impact on PDs. Bullying and violence in schools and emotional abuse appear to be more salient markers of general personality pathology than other forms of childhood adversity. Associations with sexual abuse were negligible when adjusted for other forms of adversity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Dysfunctional parental styles perceived during childhood in outpatients with substance use disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Icick, Romain; Lauer, Sophie; Romo, Lucia; Dupuy, Gaël; Lépine, Jean-Pierre; Vorspan, Florence

    2013-12-15

    People who suffer from substance use disorders (SUDs) frequently report to have undergone childhood adversity that is often associated with father or mother dysfunction, or both. Yet that issue has been barely addressed in opiate dependent patients. Therefore we sought to evaluate parent-specific dysfunctional styles perceived during childhood in a clinical sample from an outpatient addiction treatment program using the Measure Of Parental Styles (MOPS) questionnaire. DSM-IV diagnoses of substance use disorders and history of suicide attempts, family structure and changes of caregiver during childhood were obtained from 159 consecutive outpatients, along with their perception of parental bonding with the MOPS, in which mother and father scores are separate. Mother neglect dimension was significantly correlated with an earlier age at onset of several substances' use, the number of prior hospitalizations and of lifetime suicide attempts. Most of these associations remained significant in multivariate models. This was the first assessment of a representative sample of outpatients with SUDs by the MOPS questionnaire. Given its excellent acceptance and its association with several key correlates of SUDs, it should be used to design specific interventions targeted at attachment and familial management as well as in research models on gene × environment interactions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Childhood-onset obsessive-compulsive disorder: a tic-related subtype of OCD?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichstedt, J A; Arnold, S L

    2001-02-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a psychiatric condition characterized by recurrent obsessions or compulsions that cause significant impairment or distress. Although OCD was once perceived to be relatively rare in childhood, current estimates suggest that as many as half of all adult OCD cases may have their onset in childhood or adolescence. In general, there appears to be a great deal of continuity between the clinical presentation of OCD in children and that in adults. Yet, numerous differences have also been found between child and adult OCD, including differences in sex distribution, patterns of comorbidity, and degree of familial loading. These differences raise the issue of whether obsessive-compulsive symptoms that have their onset in childhood, but perhaps persist into adult life, are meaningfully different from those that emerge de novo in adulthood. In this article, current research on child- and adult-onset OCD is critically reviewed. It is proposed that child-onset OCD represents a phenomenologically and etiologically distinct subtype of OCD, bearing a close genetic relationship to tic-disorders and possibly sharing a common or similar pathogenesis. Clinical implications of the child- versus adult-onset OCD distinction are discussed.

  14. Emotional hyperreactivity in response to childhood abuse by primary caregivers in patients with borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobbestael, Jill; Arntz, Arnoud

    2015-09-01

    One of the core postulated features of borderline personality disorder (BPD) is extreme emotional reactivity to a wide array of evocative stimuli. Findings from previous experimental research however are mixed, and some theories suggest specificity of hyper emotional responses, as being related to abuse, rejection and abandonment only. The current experiment examines the specificity of emotional hyperreactivity in BPD. The impact of four film clips (BPD-specific: childhood abuse by primary caregivers; BPD-nonspecific: peer bullying; positive; and neutral) on self-reported emotional affect was assessed in three female groups; BPD-patients (n = 24), cluster C personality disorder patients (n = 17) and non-patient controls (n = 23). Results showed that compared to the neutral film clip, BPD-patients reacted with more overall negative affect following the childhood abuse clip, and with more anger following the peer bullying clip than the two other groups. The current study was restricted to assessment of the impact of evocative stimuli on self-reported emotions, and the order in which the film clips were presented to the participants was fixed. Results suggest that BPD-patients only react generally excessively emotional to stimuli related to childhood abuse by primary caregivers, and with excessive anger to peer-bullying stimuli. These findings are thus not in line with the core idea of general emotional hyperreactvity in BPD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The Importance of Right Otitis Media in Childhood Language Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulino Uclés

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies relating chronic otitis media and language disorders in children have not reported consistent findings. We carried out the first selective study aimed at discerning the role of chronic right otitis media in children less than 3 years of age in language development. A total of 35 children were studied using a full linguistic protocol, auditory brainstem responses, and middle latency responses. Twelve children had a history of chronic exclusive right otitis media. Seventeen age-matched children were selected as controls. Also, three children having a history of chronic left otitis media were compared with three age-matched controls. Linguistic tests showed significant differences between patients and controls in phonetic, phonological, and syntax scores but not semantics. Correlation studies between linguistic scores and auditory evoked responses in the whole cohort showed a significant coefficient in phonetic and phonological domains. These results emphasize the causative effect of right ear chronic otitis media and indicate that it mainly impairs phonetic and phonological coding of sounds, which may have implications for prophylactic treatment of at-risk children.

  16. Diagnosis of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (AD/HD) in Childhood: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, Stephen E.; Clinton, Amanda

    2007-01-01

    This article examines recent literature related to the diagnosis of Attention-deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (AD/HD) in childhood. First, the article discusses diagnostic criteria presented in the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (American Psychiatric Association, 2000). Next, it explores the diagnostic procedures for AD/HD…

  17. Controlling Attention to Gaze and Arrows in Childhood: An fMRI Study of Typical Development and Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidya, Chandan J.; Foss-Feig, Jennifer; Shook, Devon; Kaplan, Lauren; Kenworthy, Lauren; Gaillard, William D.

    2011-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to examine functional anatomy of attention to social (eye gaze) and nonsocial (arrow) communicative stimuli in late childhood and in a disorder defined by atypical processing of social stimuli, Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Children responded to a target word ("LEFT"/"RIGHT") in the context of a…

  18. The correlative analysis between CBF measured by SPECT and Chinese reading test in childhood reading disorder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Yonggang; Su Jianzhi; He Jianjun; Yang Zhiwei; Liu Guofeng

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To investigate changes of cerebral blood flow (CBF) and its association with Chinese reading skill diagnostic test (CRSDT) in childhood reading disorder (RD). Methods: In 25 RD children and 20 age-matched control subjects, the authors quantitatively determined CBF and regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) with SPECT using the non-blood-withdrew method. The authors studied the correlation between the CBF and the total raw scores by CRSDT. Results: CBF in case group was (38.87 +- 3.77) ml·100 g -1 ·min -1 and was significantly lower than that in control group [43.65 +- 2.64) mL·100 g -1 ·min -1 (P < 0.01)]. These reduction in CBF correlated with the total raw scores by CRSDT. Conclusion: These results suggest the children with reading disorder have CBF reduction and SPECT is useful for evaluation of cerebral functioning in reading disorder children

  19. Impact of Traumatic Events on Posttraumatic Stress Disorder among Danish Survivors of Sexual Abuse in Childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elklit, Ask; Christiansen, Dorte Mølgaard; Palic, Sabina

    2014-01-01

    Childhood sexual abuse can be extremely traumatic and lead to lifelong symptomatology. The present study examined the impact of several demographic, abuse, and psychosocial variables on posttraumatic stress disorder severity among a consecutive sample of treatment-seeking, adult child sexual abuse...... survivors (N = 480). The child sexual abuse sample was characterized by severe trauma exposure, insecure attachment, and significant traumatization, with an estimated 77% suffering from posttraumatic stress disorder, more than twice the level of the comparison group. Regression analyses revealed risk...... factors associated with the development of posttraumatic stress disorder in which the strongest predictors being additional traumas, negative affectivity, and somatization. The findings add to existing research confirming the stressful nature of child sexual abuse and the variables that contribute...

  20. Executive function predicts cognitive-behavioral therapy response in childhood obsessive-compulsive disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hybel, Katja Anna; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Lambek, Rikke

    2017-01-01

    Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is considered first-line treatment for childhood obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Despite CBT's efficacy, too many children and adolescents do not fully respond to treatment, making the identification of predictors of treatment response highly relevant...... in CBT for childhood OCD and denotes a possible need for development of enhanced treatments for children and adolescents with OCD and superior EF performance........ Daily life EF behavior in OCD probands improved after treatment relative to controls. The findings suggest that EF performance impacts CBT outcome, and that exposure-based CBT is well-suited for children and adolescents with OCD and poorer EF test performance. This study supports the relevance of EF...

  1. The human histaminergic system in neuropsychiatric disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shan, Ling; Bao, Ai-Min; Swaab, Dick F

    Histaminergic neurons are exclusively located in the hypothalamic tuberomamillary nucleus, from where they project to many brain areas. The histaminergic system is involved in basic physiological functions, such as the sleep-wake cycle, energy and endocrine homeostasis, sensory and motor functions,

  2. Misdiagnoses of a hydrocephaly induced neuropsychiatric disorder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espy, John C; Hipskind, Gregory

    2007-01-01

    The use of shunting for hydrocephalus has a long history of improvements made through basic science, clinical innovations and biomedical engineering. Neuroshunting has dramatically changed the outlook of patients with hydrocephalus, with many of these patients now having normal life expectancies and maintaining intelligence within normal limits. The use of shunts, however, has created many unique problems of shunt dependence with frequent shunt revisions and adjustments being a fundamental part of the lives of hydrocephalic patients. However shunt dependent patients, despite the improvement in mortality and intellectual functioning, are prone to multiple difficulties related to shunt dependency including periodic malfunction. Just as our present level of knowledge is due to a combination of science and clinical observations, future progress in treating hydrocephalus will be realized through continued research into mechanisms of neurological fluid-dynamics and neuro-peristalsis, as well as advances in the use of high resolution imaging such as brain-dedicated Neuro SPECT technology (au)

  3. Effect of childhood maltreatment on brain structure in adult patients with major depressive disorder and healthy participants.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Chaney, Aisling

    2013-07-30

    Background: Childhood maltreatment has been found to play a crucial role in the development of psychiatric disorders. However, whether childhood maltreatment is associated with structural brain changes described for major depressive disorder (MDD) is still a matter of debate. The aim of this study was to investigate whether patients with MDD and a history of childhood maltreatment display more structural changes than patients without childhood maltreatment or healthy controls. Methods: Patients with MDD and healthy controls with and without childhood maltreatment experience were investigated using high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and data were analyzed using voxel-based morphometry. Results: We studied 37 patients with MDD and 46 controls. Grey matter volume was significantly decreased in the hippocampus and significantly increased in the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (DMPFC) and the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) in participants who had experienced childhood maltreatment compared with those who had not. Patients displayed smaller left OFC and left DMPFC volumes than controls. No significant difference in hippocampal volume was evident between patients with MDD and healthy controls. In regression analyses, despite effects from depression, age and sex on the DMPFC, OFC and hippocampus, childhood maltreatment was found to independently affect these regions. Limitations: The retrospective assessment of childhood maltreatment; the natural problem that patients experienced more childhood maltreatment than controls; and the restrictions, owing to sample size, to investigating higher order interactions among factors are discussed as limitations. Conclusion: These results suggest that early childhood maltreatment is associated with brain structural changes irrespective of sex, age and a history of depression. Thus, the study highlights the importance of childhood maltreatment when investigating brain structures.

  4. The importance of health behaviours in childhood for the development of internalizing disorders during adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiu Yun; Kirk, Sara F L; Ohinmaa, Arto; Veugelers, Paul J

    2017-12-12

    Poor mental health constitutes a considerable global public health burden with approximately half of all cases of poor mental health having their onset before the age of 14 years. The identification of modifiable risk factors early in life is therefore essential to prevention, however, there are presently very few longitudinal studies on health behaviours for mental health to inform public health decision makers and to justify preventive action. We examined the importance of diet quality, physical activity (PA) and sedentary behaviours in childhood for internalizing disorder throughout adolescence. We linked data from a population-based lifestyle survey among 10 and 11 year old grade five students in the Canadian province of Nova Scotia with physician diagnoses of internalizing disorders from administrative health records. We applied negative binomial regressions to examine the associations of health behaviours with the number of health care provider contacts with a diagnosis of internalizing disorder. Of the 4875 students, 23.9% had one or more diagnoses for internalizing disorder between the age of 10 or 11 years and 18 years. The number of health care provider contacts with a diagnosis of internalizing disorder was statistically significant higher among students with less variety in their diets, and among students who reported less PA and more time using computers and video games. The number of health care provider contacts was also higher for girls, and for students with low self-esteem and from low-income households. These findings suggest that diets and active lifestyles in childhood affect mental health during adolescence, and imply that succxessful health promotion programs targeting children's diets and activity will contribute to the prevention of mental health disorders in addition to the prevention of chronic diseases later in life.

  5. The role of hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal genes and childhood trauma in borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Blanco, Ana; Ferrer, Marc; Soler, Joaquim; Arranz, Maria Jesús; Vega, Daniel; Calvo, Natalia; Elices, Matilde; Sanchez-Mora, Cristina; García-Martinez, Iris; Salazar, Juliana; Carmona, Cristina; Bauzà, Joana; Prat, Mónica; Pérez, Víctor; Pascual, Juan C

    2016-06-01

    Current knowledge suggests that borderline personality disorder (BPD) results from the interaction between genetic and environmental factors. Research has mainly focused on monoaminergic genetic variants and their modulation by traumatic events, especially those occurring during childhood. However, to the best of our knowledge, there are no studies on the genetics of hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, despite its vulnerability to early stress and its involvement in BPD pathogenesis. The aim of this study was to investigate the contribution of genetic variants in the HPA axis and to explore the modulating effect of childhood trauma in a large sample of BPD patients and controls. DNA was obtained from a sample of 481 subjects with BPD and 442 controls. Case-control differences in allelic frequencies of 47 polymorphisms in 10 HPA axis genes were analysed. Modulation of genetic associations by the presence of childhood trauma was also investigated by dividing the sample into three groups: BPD with trauma, BPD without trauma and controls. Two FKBP5 polymorphisms (rs4713902-C and rs9470079-A) showed significant associations with BPD. There were also associations between BPD and haplotype combinations of the genes FKBP5 and CRHR1. Two FKBP5 alleles (rs3798347-T and rs10947563-A) were more frequent in BPD subjects with history of physical abuse and emotional neglect and two CRHR2 variants (rs4722999-C and rs12701020-C) in BPD subjects with sexual and physical abuse. Our findings suggest a contribution of HPA axis genetic variants to BPD pathogenesis and reinforce the hypothesis of the modulating effect of childhood trauma in the development of this disorder.

  6. Emotional bias of cognitive control in adults with childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurt P. Schulz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Affect recognition deficits found in individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD across the lifespan may bias the development of cognitive control processes implicated in the pathophysiology of the disorder. This study aimed to determine the mechanism through which facial expressions influence cognitive control in young adults diagnosed with ADHD in childhood. Fourteen probands with childhood ADHD and 14 comparison subjects with no history of ADHD were scanned with functional magnetic resonance imaging while performing a face emotion go/no-go task. Event-related analyses contrasted activation and functional connectivity for cognitive control collapsed over face valence and tested for variations in activation for response execution and inhibition as a function of face valence. Probands with childhood ADHD made fewer correct responses and inhibitions overall than comparison subjects, but demonstrated comparable effects of face emotion on response execution and inhibition. The two groups showed similar frontotemporal activation for cognitive control collapsed across face valence, but differed in the functional connectivity of the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, with fewer interactions with the subgenual cingulate cortex, inferior frontal gyrus, and putamen in probands than in comparison subjects. Further, valence-dependent activation for response execution was seen in the amygdala, ventral striatum, subgenual cingulate cortex, and orbitofrontal cortex in comparison subjects but not in probands. The findings point to functional anomalies in limbic networks for both the valence-dependent biasing of cognitive control and the valence-independent cognitive control of face emotion processing in probands with childhood ADHD. This limbic dysfunction could impact cognitive control in emotional contexts and may contribute to the social and emotional problems associated with ADHD.

  7. Emotional bias of cognitive control in adults with childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Kurt P; Bédard, Anne-Claude V; Fan, Jin; Clerkin, Suzanne M; Dima, Danai; Newcorn, Jeffrey H; Halperin, Jeffrey M

    2014-01-01

    Affect recognition deficits found in individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) across the lifespan may bias the development of cognitive control processes implicated in the pathophysiology of the disorder. This study aimed to determine the mechanism through which facial expressions influence cognitive control in young adults diagnosed with ADHD in childhood. Fourteen probands with childhood ADHD and 14 comparison subjects with no history of ADHD were scanned with functional magnetic resonance imaging while performing a face emotion go/no-go task. Event-related analyses contrasted activation and functional connectivity for cognitive control collapsed over face valence and tested for variations in activation for response execution and inhibition as a function of face valence. Probands with childhood ADHD made fewer correct responses and inhibitions overall than comparison subjects, but demonstrated comparable effects of face emotion on response execution and inhibition. The two groups showed similar frontotemporal activation for cognitive control collapsed across face valence, but differed in the functional connectivity of the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, with fewer interactions with the subgenual cingulate cortex, inferior frontal gyrus, and putamen in probands than in comparison subjects. Further, valence-dependent activation for response execution was seen in the amygdala, ventral striatum, subgenual cingulate cortex, and orbitofrontal cortex in comparison subjects but not in probands. The findings point to functional anomalies in limbic networks for both the valence-dependent biasing of cognitive control and the valence-independent cognitive control of face emotion processing in probands with childhood ADHD. This limbic dysfunction could impact cognitive control in emotional contexts and may contribute to the social and emotional problems associated with ADHD.

  8. Predicting borderline personality disorder symptoms in adolescents from childhood physical and relational aggression, depression, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaillancourt, Tracy; Brittain, Heather L; McDougall, Patricia; Krygsman, Amanda; Boylan, Khrista; Duku, Eric; Hymel, Shelley

    2014-08-01

    Developmental cascade models linking childhood physical and relational aggression with symptoms of depression and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD; assessed at ages 10, 11, 12, 13, and 14) to borderline personality disorder (BPD) features (assessed at age 14) were examined in a community sample of 484 youth. Results indicated that, when controlling for within-time covariance and across-time stability in the examination of cross-lagged relations among study variables, BPD features at age 14 were predicted by childhood relational aggression and symptoms of depression for boys, and physical and relational aggression, symptoms of depression, and symptoms of ADHD for girls. Moreover, for boys BPD features were predicted from age 10 ADHD through age 12 depression, whereas for girls the pathway to elevated BPD features at age 14 was from depression at age 10 through physical aggression symptoms at age 12. Controlling for earlier associations among variables, we found that for girls the strongest predictor of BPD features at age 14 was physical aggression, whereas for boys all the risk indicators shared a similar predictive impact. This study adds to the growing literature showing that physical and relational aggression ought to be considered when examining early precursors of BPD features.

  9. Childhood maltreatment and personality disorders in patients with a major depressive disorder: A comparative study between France and Togo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kounou, Kossi B; Dogbe Foli, Ayoko A; Djassoa, G; Amétépé, Léonard K; Rieu, J; Mathur, A; Biyong, I; Schmitt, L

    2015-10-01

    Few studies have examined the association between childhood maltreatment (CM) and personality disorders (PDs) in adulthood in two different cultural contexts, including sub-Saharan Africa. The aims of this study were to compare the frequency of CM between patients in treatment in France and Togo for a major depressive disorder (MDD), to explore the link between CM and PDs, and to examine the mediating effect of personality dimensions in the pathway from CM to PDs in 150 participants (75 in each country). The 28-item Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, the International Personality Item Pool, and the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire (PDQ-4+) were used to assess CM, personality dimensions, and PDs respectively. Togolese participants reported sexual and physical abuse (PA) and emotional and physical neglect significantly more frequently than French participants. In Togo, severe PA was associated with schizoid, antisocial, narcissistic, obsessive-compulsive, depressive, and negativist PDs whereas in France, PA was only linked to paranoid PD. In Togo, emotional instability partly mediated the relationship between CM and PDs while in France, no personality dimension appeared to mediate this link. Our results support the hypothesis that CM is more common in low-income countries and suggest that the links between CM and PDs are influenced by social environment. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. The association of childhood trauma and personality disorders with chronic depression: A cross-sectional study in depressed outpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Jan Philipp; Roniger, Antje; Schweiger, Ulrich; Späth, Christina; Brodbeck, Jeannette

    2015-06-01

    Chronic depression has often been associated with childhood trauma. There may, however, be an interaction between personality pathology, childhood trauma, and chronic depression. This interaction has not yet been studied. This retrospective analysis is based on 279 patients contacted for a randomized trial in an outpatient psychotherapy center over a period of 18 months from 2010 to 2012. Current diagnoses of a personality disorder and presence of chronic depression were systematically assessed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV. Retrospective reports of childhood trauma were collected using the short form of the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ-SF). DSM-IV-defined chronic depression was the primary outcome. The association between chronic depression, childhood trauma, and personality disorders was analyzed using correlations. Variables that had at least a small effect on correlation analysis were entered into a series of logistic regression analyses to determine the predictors of chronic depression and the moderating effect of childhood trauma. The presence of avoidant personality disorder, but no CTQ-SF scale, was associated with the chronicity of depression (odds ratio [OR] = 2.20, P = .015). The emotional abuse subscale of the CTQ-SF did, however, correlate with avoidant personality disorder (OR = 1.15, P = .000). The level of emotional abuse had a moderating effect on the effect of avoidant personality disorder on the presence of chronic depression (OR = 1.08, P = .004). Patients who did not suffer from avoidant personality disorder had a decreased rate of chronic depression if they retrospectively reported more severe levels of emotional abuse (18.9% vs 39.7%, respectively). The presence of avoidant personality pathology may interact with the effect of childhood trauma in the development of chronic depression. This has to be confirmed in a prospective study. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01226238. © Copyright 2015 Physicians

  11. High School Sports Involvement Diminishes the Association Between Childhood Conduct Disorder and Adult Antisocial Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samek, Diana R; Elkins, Irene J; Keyes, Margaret A; Iacono, William G; McGue, Matt

    2015-07-01

    Life course-persistent antisocial behavior manifests as a display of aggressive and antisocial behavior beginning in childhood (conduct disorder [CD]) and lasting through adulthood (adult antisocial personality disorder). This study aimed to build on prior research by evaluating whether involvement in high school sports helped attenuate the association between CD and subsequent adult antisocial behavior (AAB). A prospective sample of 967 male and female adolescents (56% adopted) was used. Structured interviews were used to assess CD (symptoms before the age of 15 years), involvement in sports during high school, and past-year adult antisocial personality disorder symptoms in young adulthood (M age = 22.4 years). As expected, the association between CD and AAB was significantly less for those involved in sports (β = .28; p antisocial behavior in the model (age, gender, adoption status), and results were consistent across males and females. Involvement in other extracurricular activities (e.g., student government, plays, clubs) did not significantly moderate the relationship between CD and AAB. Although selection effects were evident (those with more CD symptoms were less likely to be involved in sports), findings nevertheless suggest high school sports involvement may be a notable factor related to disrupting persistent antisocial behavior beginning in childhood and adolescence and lasting through young adulthood. Implications are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Childhood Trauma and Psychiatric Disorders as Correlates of School Dropout in a National Sample of Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porche, Michelle V.; Fortuna, Lisa R.; Lin, Julia; Alegria, Margarita

    2010-01-01

    The effect of childhood trauma, psychiatric diagnoses, and mental health services on school dropout among U.S. born and immigrant youth is examined using data from the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Surveys (CPES), a nationally representative probability sample of African Americans, Afro-Caribbeans, Asians, Latinos, and non-Latino Whites, including 2532 young adults, ages 21 to 29. The dropout prevalence rate was 16% overall, with variation by childhood trauma, childhood psychiatric diagnosis, race/ethnicity, and nativity. Childhood substance and conduct disorders mediated the relationship between trauma and school dropout. Likelihood of dropout was decreased for Asians, and increased for African Americans and Latinos, compared to non-Latino Whites as a function of psychiatric disorders and trauma. Timing of U.S. immigration during adolescence increased risk of dropout. PMID:21410919

  13. Sexual selection and sex differences in the prevalence of childhood externalizing and adolescent internalizing disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martel, Michelle M

    2013-11-01

    Despite the well-established sex difference in prevalence of many childhood and adolescent psychopathological conditions, no integrative metatheory of sex differences in psychopathology exists. This review attempts to provide a metatheoretical framework to guide empirical examination of sex differences in prevalence of childhood-onset "externalizing" and adolescent-onset "internalizing" disorders, based on sexual selection evolutionary theory. Sexual selection theory suggests important between-sex differences in markers, mechanisms, etiology, and developmental timing of risk and resilience relevant to psychopathology. Namely, sexual selection theory hypothesizes that disinhibition and sensation-seeking may be important proximate risk markers for childhood-onset externalizing disorders in males. The theory suggests that these male-biased markers may be a product of their higher exposure to prenatal testosterone, which makes them more susceptible to prenatal stressors with downstream effects on dopaminergic neurotransmission, especially for those with genetic alleles associated with lower dopaminergic function. In contrast, sexual selection theory hypothesizes that negative emotionality, empathy, and cognitive rumination may be important proximate risk markers for adolescent-onset internalizing disorders in females. The theory suggests that these markers are propagated by rapidly rising levels of estradiol at puberty that interact with cortisol and oxytocin. These hormones exert downstream effects on the serotonergic system in such a way as to increase females' sensitivity to interpersonal stressors particularly at puberty and especially for those with lower functional serotonergic activity. Such a metatheory can help integrate prior ideas about sex differences and can also generate new predictions of sex differences in markers, etiology, mechanisms, and developmental timing of common forms of psychopathology. © 2013 American Psychological Association

  14. Oppositionality and socioemotional competence: interacting risk factors in the development of childhood conduct disorder symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandy, William; Skuse, David; Steer, Colin; St Pourcain, Beate; Oliver, Bonamy R

    2013-07-01

    Oppositional behavior in childhood is a probabilistic risk factor for the subsequent development of more serious conduct problems characteristic of conduct disorder (CD). The capacity to understand the subjective states of others (socioemotional competence) helps regulate antisocial behavior in typical development. We hypothesized that socioemotional competence moderates the developmental relationship between oppositionality and CD symptoms, such that oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) symptoms pose the greatest risk for subsequent CD symptoms in children with poor socioemotional competence. Parent-report data were collected for 6,218 children at 7 and 10 years of age. Bootstrap multiple regression predicting CD symptoms at age 10 was used to test for an interaction between socioemotional competence and ODD symptoms, while also accounting for direct effects and controlling for sex, maternal education, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms, and CD symptoms at 7 years. We further tested whether the interaction applied to both males and females, and to both aggressive and rule-breaking CD symptoms. A significant interaction was found between ODD and socioemotional competence: the association between oppositionality at 7 years and CD traits at 10 years was strongest for children with poor socioemotional capacities. As predicted, this moderation effect was significant in a model predicting aggression, but it was not significant for rule-breaking CD symptoms. Socioemotional competence moderates the developmental relationship between mid-childhood oppositionality and more serious conduct problems in later childhood. A capacity to understand the subjective states of others may buffer the risk posed by oppositionality for later CD symptoms, including aggression. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The Specific Role of Childhood Abuse, Parental Bonding, and Family Functioning in Female Adolescents With Borderline Personality Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infurna, Maria Rita; Brunner, Romuald; Holz, Birger; Parzer, Peter; Giannone, Francesca; Reichl, Corinna; Fischer, Gloria; Resch, Franz; Kaess, Michael

    2016-04-01

    This study examined a broad variety of adverse childhood experiences in a consecutive sample of female adolescent inpatients with borderline personality disorder (BPD; n = 44) compared with a clinical control (CC; n = 47) group with mixed psychiatric diagnoses. BPD was diagnosed using a structured clinical interview; different dimensions of childhood adversity were assessed using the Childhood Experiences of Care and Abuse Questionnaire, the Parental Bonding Instrument, and the Family Assessment Device. A history of childhood adversity was significantly more common in patients with BPD than in the CC group. Using a multivariate model, sexual abuse (OR = 13.8), general family functioning (OR = 8.9), and low maternal care (OR = 7.6) were specific and independent predictors of adolescent BPD. The results increase our knowledge of the specific role of different dimensions of childhood adversity in adolescent BPD. They have important implications for prevention and early intervention as they highlight the need for specific strategies for involving the family.

  16. Long-term outcome and prognosis of dissociative disorder with onset in childhood or adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jans, Thomas; Schneck-Seif, Stefanie; Weigand, Tobias; Schneider, Wolfgang; Ellgring, Heiner; Wewetzer, Christoph; Warnke, Andreas

    2008-07-23

    ). Personality disorders were seen in 47.8% (especially borderline, obsessive-compulsive and negativistic personality disorders). More dissociative symptoms and inpatient treatment in childhood or adolescence were significantly related to a lower level of psychosocial adjustment in adulthood. Treatment strategies have to consider that in a significant portion of young patients initial recovery may not be stable over time. Limitations of the study refer to the small sample size and the low rate of former patients taking part in the follow-up investigation.

  17. Disordered Attention: Implications for Understanding and Treating Internalizing and Externalizing Disorders in Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racer, Kristina Hiatt; Dishion, Thomas J.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we present evidence that disorders of attention are present in wide range of psychological disorders, and that the appropriate assessment and treatment of these attention difficulties can be an important adjunct to traditional therapeutic approaches. We review approaches to attention training in some detail and discuss how…

  18. The impact of conduct disorder and stimulant medication on later substance use in an ethnically diverse sample of individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harty, Seth C; Ivanov, Iliyan; Newcorn, Jeffrey H; Halperin, Jeffrey M

    2011-08-01

    To examine late adolescent substance use outcomes in relation to childhood conduct disorder (CD) and psychostimulant treatment in urban youth found to have attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in childhood. Ninety-seven adolescents, evaluated during childhood, were seen for follow-up on average 9.30 (SD = 1.65) years later along with a well-matched never-ADHD control group. Stimulant treatment history was coded: Never (n = 28), up to 1 year (n = 19), 1 to 5 years (n = 28), and greater than 5 years (n = 22). Substance use at outcome was coded dimensionally for severity (frequency × intensity) and categorically for substance use disorders (SUDs). Individuals with ADHD+CD in childhood had significantly higher rates of SUD and substance use severity than those with childhood ADHD and controls. The ADHD and control groups did not differ significantly. Among those with childhood ADHD, there were no significant differences in SUD status or substance use severity as a function of medication history. Within an ethnically diverse urban sample, the increased rate of substance use associated with ADHD was fully accounted for by the presence of CD. These results extend previous findings indicating little impact of psychostimulant treatment on later substance use to an ethnically diverse urban sample and to individuals who received treatment for up to 12 years.

  19. Differences in the association between childhood trauma history and borderline personality disorder or attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder diagnoses in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, Marc; Andión, Óscar; Calvo, Natalia; Ramos-Quiroga, Josep A; Prat, Mònica; Corrales, Montserrat; Casas, Miguel

    2017-09-01

    Common environmental etiological factors between borderline personality disorder (BPD) and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have not been fully studied. The main aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between childhood trauma histories, assessed by the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire-Short Form (CTQ-SF), with adult BPD, ADHD or BPD-ADHD diagnoses. Comorbid BPD-ADHD patients exhibited significantly higher clinical severity and higher scores in the Total Neglect Scale, compared to BPD and ADHD patients, and only a marginal difference was observed for Sexual Abuse when BPD and ADHD patients were compared. Physical Trauma Scales were associated with ADHD diagnosis, whereas Emotional Abuse and Sexual Abuse Scales were associated with BPD or BPD-ADHD diagnoses. The study findings support the association between experiencing traumatic events in childhood and a higher clinical severity of BPD in adulthood. Furthermore, physical trauma history in childhood could be associated with the persistence of ADHD in adulthood and emotional or sexual abuse with later development of BPD or comorbid BPD-ADHD. Whereas experiencing childhood traumas is associated with later development of more general psychopathology, our study supports that a specific type of traumatic event could increase the risk for the consolidation of a concrete psychiatric disorder in the trajectory from childhood to adulthood of vulnerable subjects.

  20. Time does not heal all wounds: older adults who experienced childhood adversities have higher odds of mood, anxiety, and personality disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raposo, Sarah M; Mackenzie, Corey S; Henriksen, Christine A; Afifi, Tracie O

    2014-11-01

    We aimed to examine the prevalence of several types of childhood adversity across adult cohorts, whether age moderates the effect of childhood adversity on mental health, the relationship between childhood adversity and psychopathology among older adults, the dose-response relationship between number of types of childhood adversities and mental disorders in later life, and whether lifetime mental health treatment reduces the odds of psychopathology among older survivors of childhood adversity. In a population-based, cross-sectional study on a nationally representative U.S. sample, we studied 34,653 community-dwelling Americans 20 years and older, including 7,080 adults 65 years and older from Wave 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Trained lay interviewers assessed past-year mood and anxiety disorders and lifetime personality disorders. Participants self-reported childhood adversity based on questions from the Adverse Childhood Experiences Study. Childhood adversity was prevalent across five age cohorts. In our adjusted models, age did not moderate the effect of childhood adversity on mental disorders. Older adults who experienced childhood adversity had higher odds of having mood (odds ratio: 1.73; 95% confidence interval: 1.32-2.28), anxiety (odds ratio: 1.48; 95% confidence interval: 1.20-1.83), and personality disorders (odds ratio: 2.11; 95% confidence interval: 1.75-2.54) after adjusting for covariates. An increasing number of types of childhood adversities was associated with higher odds of personality disorders and somewhat higher odds of anxiety disorders. Treatment-seeking was associated with a reduced likelihood of anxiety and, especially, mood disorders in older adult childhood adversity survivors. These results emphasize the importance of preventing childhood adversity and intervening once it occurs to avoid the negative mental health effects that can last into old age. Copyright © 2014 American Association for

  1. [Trauma and psychosis--part 1. On the association of early childhood maltreatment in clinical populations with psychotic disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapfhammer, Hans-Peter

    2012-01-01

    A comprehensive literature stresses a high percentage of severe childhood maltreatment in the history of many psychotically ill patients treated in mental health services. Early childhood abuse seems to be associated among other things with a more severe clinical state, a more chronic course of illness and a more unfavourable psychosocial adaptation. In order not to jump to unwarranted causal conclusions, several conceptual und methodological problems have to be clarified before. From a conceptual perspective psychotic disorders diagnosed according to conventional criteria define only a minor subgroup within a much broader psychosis continuum in general population. Early childhood abuse has to be differentiated according to type, severity, timing, and context. The rates of early childhood abuse are high in general population. The methods of measurement of psychotic symptoms on the one side, of early trauma on the other side have to be critically evaluated. There is an empirically well founded association of childhood maltreatment and psychological and psychosomatic morbidity during adult years in general. In order to establish a potential conditional link also to psychotic disorders, clinical populations have to be compared to adequate control groups at least. A systematic literature search shows a very small number of studies including control groups at all. These studies underline that early childhood abuse may be significantly associated to the risk of psychosis indeed. The conditional role of early childhood abuse, however, has to be investigated only within a multifactorial biopsychosocial model of psychotic illness.

  2. Amygdala and hippocampus volumes are differently affected by childhood trauma in patients with bipolar disorders and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janiri, Delfina; Sani, Gabriele; Rossi, Pietro De; Piras, Fabrizio; Iorio, Mariangela; Banaj, Nerisa; Giuseppin, Giulia; Spinazzola, Edoardo; Maggiora, Matteo; Ambrosi, Elisa; Simonetti, Alessio; Spalletta, Gianfranco

    2017-08-01

    Volumetric studies on deep gray matter structures in bipolar disorder (BP) have reported contrasting results. Childhood trauma, a relevant environmental stressor for BP, could account for the variability of the results, modulating differences in the amygdala and hippocampus in patients with BP compared with healthy controls (HC). Our study aimed to test this hypothesis. We assessed 105 outpatients, diagnosed with bipolar disorder type I (BP-I) or bipolar disorder type II (BP-II) according to DSM-IV-TR criteria, and 113 HC subjects. History of childhood trauma was obtained using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ). High-resolution magnetic resonance imaging was performed on all subjects and volumes of the amygdala, hippocampus, nucleus accumbens, caudate, pallidum, putamen, and thalamus were measured using FreeSurfer. Patients with BP showed a global reduction of deep gray matter volumes compared to HCs. However, childhood trauma modulated the impact of the diagnosis specifically on the amygdala and hippocampus. Childhood trauma was associated with bilateral decreased volumes in HCs and increased volumes in patients with BP. The results suggest that childhood trauma may have a different effect in health and disease on volumes of gray matter in the amygdala and hippocampus, which are brain areas specifically involved in response to stress and emotion processing. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Plasma homovanillic acid correlates inversely with history of childhood trauma in personality disordered and healthy control adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Royce; Coccaro, Emil F

    2010-11-01

    Studies of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) level of the dopamine metabolite, homovanillic acid (HVA), suggest a relationship between CSF HVA concentration and history of childhood trauma. In this study, the authors test the hypothesis that this relationship is also present using peripheral levels of HVA in healthy volunteers and in personality disordered subjects. 68 personality disordered (PD) and healthy control (HC) subjects were chosen, in whom morning basal plasma HVA (pHVA) concentrations and an assessment of childhood trauma were obtained. History of childhood trauma was assessed using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ). A significant inverse correlation was found between CTQ Total scores and pHVA concentration across all subjects. In addition, pHVA was lower, and CTQ scores were higher, in PD as compared with HC subjects. Correlations with other personality and behavioral measures were not statistically significant. The data suggest that pHVA concentrations are inversely correlated with history of childhood trauma and that variability in this index of dopamine function may be affected by the history of childhood trauma in healthy and personality disordered subjects.

  4. Correlates of comorbid anxiety and externalizing disorders in childhood obsessive compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langley, Audra K; Lewin, Adam B; Bergman, R Lindsey; Lee, Joyce C; Piacentini, John

    2010-08-01

    The present study examines the influence of diagnostic comorbidity on the demographic, psychiatric, and functional status of youth with a primary diagnosis of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). Two hundred and fifteen children (ages 5-17) referred to a university-based OCD specialty clinic were compared based on DSM-IV diagnostic profile: OCD without comorbid anxiety or externalizing disorder, OCD plus anxiety disorder, and OCD plus externalizing disorder. No age or gender differences were found across groups. Higher OCD severity was found for the OCD + ANX group, while the OCD + EXT group reported greater functional impairment than the other two groups. Lower family cohesion was reported by the OCD + EXT group compared to the OCD group and the OCD + ANX group reported higher family conflict compared to the OCD + EXT group. The OCD + ANX group had significantly lower rates of tic disorders while rates of depressive disorders did not differ among the three groups. The presence of comorbid anxiety and externalizing psychopathology are associated with greater symptom severity and functional and family impairment and underscores the importance of a better understanding of the relationship of OCD characteristics and associated disorders. Results and clinical implications are further discussed.

  5. Childhood maltreatment and differential treatment response and recurrence in adult major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harkness, Kate L; Bagby, R Michael; Kennedy, Sidney H

    2012-06-01

    A substantial number of patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) do not respond to treatment, and recurrence rates remain high. The purpose of this study was to examine a history of severe childhood abuse as a moderator of response following a 16-week acute treatment trial, and of recurrence over a 12-month follow-up. Participants included 203 adult outpatients with MDD (129 women; age 18-60). The design was a 16-week single-center randomized, open label trial of interpersonal psychotherapy, cognitive-behavioral therapy, or antidepressant medication, with a 12-month naturalistic follow-up, conducted at a university psychiatry center in Canada. The main outcome measure was Hamilton Depression Rating Scale scores at treatment end point. Childhood maltreatment was assessed at the completion of treatment using an interview-based contextual measure of childhood physical, sexual, and emotional abuse. Multiple imputation was adopted to estimate missing values. Patients with severe maltreatment were significantly less likely to respond to interpersonal psychotherapy than to cognitive-behavioral therapy or medication (OR = 3.61), whereas no differences among treatments were found in those with no history of maltreatment (ORs therapy than from interpersonal psychotherapy. However, these patients remain vulnerable to recurrence regardless of treatment modality.

  6. Comprehension of affective prosody in women with post-traumatic stress disorder related to childhood abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazarov, A; Frewen, P; Oremus, C; Schellenberg, E G; McKinnon, M C; Lanius, R

    2015-05-01

    Although deficits in memory and cognitive processing are evident in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), difficulties with social cognition and the impact of such difficulties on interpersonal functioning are poorly understood. Here, we examined the ability of women diagnosed with PTSD related to childhood abuse to discriminate affective prosody, a central component of social cognition. Women with PTSD and healthy controls (HCs) completed two computer-based tasks assessing affective prosody: (i) recognition (categorizing foreign-language excerpts as angry, fearful, sad, or happy) and (ii) discrimination (identifying whether two excerpts played consecutively had the 'same' or 'different' emotion). The association of performance with symptom presentation, trauma history, and interpersonal functioning was also explored. Women with PTSD were slower than HCs at identifying happiness, sadness, and fear, but not anger in the speech excerpts. The presence of dissociative symptoms was related to reduced accuracy on the discrimination task. An increased severity of childhood trauma was associated with reduced accuracy on the discrimination task and with slower identification of emotional prosody. Exposure to childhood trauma is associated with long-term, atypical development in the interpretation of prosodic cues in speech. The findings have implications for the intergenerational transmission of trauma. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Affect dysregulation, psychoform dissociation, and adult relational fears mediate the relationship between childhood trauma and complex posttraumatic stress disorder independent of the symptoms of borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijke, Annemiek; Hopman, Juliette A B; Ford, Julian D

    2018-01-01

    Objective : Complex posttraumatic stress disorder (CPTSD) as defined by the Disorders of Extreme Stress Not Otherwise Specified (DESNOS) formulation is associated with childhood relational trauma and involves relational impairment, affect dysregulation, and identity alterations. However, the distinct contributions of relational impairment (operationalized in the form fears of closeness or abandonment), affect dysregulation (operationalized in the form of overregulation and under-regulation of affect), and identity alterations (operationalized in the form of positive or negative psychoform or somatoform dissociation) to the relationship between childhood trauma and CPTSD/DESNOS have not been systematically tested. Method and Results : In a clinical sample of adults diagnosed with severe and chronic psychiatric and personality disorders ( n  = 472; M  = 34.7 years, SD  = 10.1), structural equation modelling with bootstrap 95% confidence intervals demonstrated that the association between childhood trauma and CPTSD/DESNOS symptoms in adulthood was partially mediated by under-regulation of affect, negative psychoform dissociation, and adult relational fears of closeness and of abandonment. These results also were independent of the effects of borderline personality disorder (BPD) symptoms. Conclusions : Some, but not all, hypothesized components of the DESNOS formulation of CPTSD statistically mediate the relationship between childhood trauma and adult CPTSD/DESNOS. These relationships appear specific to CPTSD/DESNOS and not to the effects of another potential sequelae of childhood trauma BPD. Replication with prospective longitudinal studies is needed.

  8. Tourette syndrome and other tic disorders in childhood, adolescence and adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludolph, Andrea G; Roessner, Veit; Münchau, Alexander; Müller-Vahl, Kirsten

    2012-11-01

    Tourette syndrome is a combined motor and vocal tic disorder that begins in childhood and takes a chronic course. It arises in about 1% of all children, with highly varying severity. Transient and usually mild tics are seen in as many as 15% of all children in elementary school. The diagnosis is often delayed by several years. We selectively reviewed the pertinent literature, including the guidelines of the European Society for the Study of Tourette Syndrome for the diagnosis and treatment of tic disorders. Tic disorders usually take a benign course, with spontaneous improvement in adolescence in about 90% of patients. Psychoeducation is the basis of treatment in each case and almost always brings marked emotional relief. Specific treatment is needed only for more severe tics and those that cause evident psychosocial impairment. 80-90% of patients with Tourette syndrome have comorbidities (attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, depression, anxiety, emotional dysregulation, autoaggression), which often impair their quality of life more than the tics do and therefore become the main target of treatment. There is little evidence for the efficacy of treatment for tics. Small-scale controlled studies with a brief follow-up period have been carried out for some neuroleptic drugs. Behavior therapy should be tried before drug treatment. A further option for very severely affected adults is deep brain stimulation. Because of the low level of the available evidence, no definitive recommendations can be made for the treatment of tics.

  9. The feasibility and acceptability of virtual environments in the treatment of childhood social anxiety disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Nina; Beidel, Deborah C.; Spitalnick, Josh

    2013-01-01

    Objective Two significant challenges for the dissemination of social skills training programs are the need to assure generalizability and provide sufficient practice opportunities. In the case of social anxiety disorder, virtual environments may provide one strategy to address these issues. This study evaluated the utility of an interactive virtual school environment for the treatment of social anxiety disorder in preadolescent children. Method Eleven children with a primary diagnosis of social anxiety disorder between 8 to 12 years old participated in this initial feasibility trial. All children were treated with Social Effectiveness Therapy for Children, an empirically supported treatment for children with social anxiety disorder. However, the in vivo peer generalization sessions and standard parent-assisted homework assignments were substituted by practice in a virtual environment. Results Overall, the virtual environment programs were acceptable, feasible, and credible treatment components. Both children and clinicians were satisfied with using the virtual environment technology, and children believed it was a high quality program overall. Additionally, parents were satisfied with the virtual environment augmented treatment and indicated that they would recommend the program to family and friends. Conclusion Virtual environments are viewed as acceptable and credible by potential recipients. Furthermore, they are easy to implement by even novice users and appear to be useful adjunctive elements for the treatment of childhood social anxiety disorder. PMID:24144182

  10. Childhood ADHD and conduct disorder as independent predictors of male alcohol dependence at age 40

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knop, Joachim; Penick, Elizabeth C; Nickel, Elizabeth J

    2009-01-01

    of alcohol misuse was examined. Method: Subjects were selected from a Danish birth cohort (9,125), which included 223 sons of alcoholic fathers (high risk) and 106 matched sons of nonalcoholic fathers (low risk). These subjects have been studied systematically over the past 40 years. They were evaluated...... in their teens (n = 238), later as adults at age 30 (n = 241), and more recently at age 40 (n = 202). At 19-year/20-year follow-ups, an ADHD scale was derived from teacher ratings and a CD scale was derived from a social worker interview. At 30-year and 40-year follow-ups, a psychiatrist used structured...... interviews and criteria from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Third Edition, Revised, to quantify lifetime alcoholism severity and to diagnose alcohol-use disorder. Of the original subjects, 110 had complete data for the two childhood measures and the adult alcoholism outcomes...

  11. Informing early intervention: preschool predictors of anxiety disorders in middle childhood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L Hudson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To inform early intervention practice, the present research examines how child anxiety, behavioural inhibition, maternal overinvolvement, maternal negativity, mother-child attachment and maternal anxiety, as assessed at age four, predict anxiety at age nine. METHOD: 202 children (102 behaviourally inhibited and 100 behaviourally uninhibited aged 3-4 years were initially recruited and the predictors outlined above were assessed. Diagnostic assessments, using the Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule, were then conducted five years later. RESULTS: Behavioural inhibition, maternal anxiety, and maternal overinvolvement were significant predictors of clinical anxiety, even after controlling for baseline anxiety (p.1. CONCLUSIONS: Preschool children who show anxiety, are inhibited, have overinvolved mothers and mothers with anxiety disorders are at increased risk for anxiety in middle childhood. These factors can be used to identify suitable participants for early intervention and can be targeted within intervention programs.

  12. Premorbid childhood ocular alignment abnormalities and adult schizophrenia-spectrum disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiffman, Jason; Maeda, Justin A; Hayashi, Kentaro

    2005-01-01

    non-psychotic psychopathology and children who did not develop a mental illness. The mean rank for children in the high-risk group (offspring of parents with schizophrenia) on the eye scale and the strabismus scale was greater than the mean rank for children in the matched control groups (both...... offspring of parents with other non-psychotic disorder and no mental illness), although the results failed to reach statistical significance. Results from this study suggest a premorbid relation between ocular deficits and schizophrenia-spectrum disorders in childhood prior to onset of psychopathology....... All children whose mothers or fathers had a psychiatric diagnosis of schizophrenia comprised the first group (N=90). Children who had at least one parent with a diagnosis other than schizophrenia comprised the first matched control group (N=93). The second control group consisted of children...

  13. Applying an ESSENCE Framework to Understanding Adult Autism Spectrum Disorder and ADHD: Retrospective Parent Reports of Childhood Problems

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    Stephanie Plenty

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Diagnoses of autism spectrum disorder (ASD and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD are increasingly being made in adulthood. However, assessments can fail to address the diverse range of problems that patients have experienced. The current study applied an early symptomatic syndromes eliciting neurodevelopmental clinical examinations (ESSENCE framework to explore retrospectively reported childhood developmental and behavioral problems. It examined if adult ASD and ADHD patients would show problems outside those reflected in the respective diagnostic criteria, and also if these patient groups would show more extensive childhood problems than other psychiatric patients. Parents of adults with ADHD (n = 130, ASD (n = 57, coexisting ADHD and ASD (n = 38, and other psychiatric disorders (n = 56 reported on a range of childhood problems. Descriptions of the ADHD, ASD, and ADHD+ASD groups reflected greater impairment than descriptions for patients with other psychiatric disorders in most problem areas. Although differences were observed between ADHD and ASD patients in the core diagnostic areas, these syndromes also shared a number of childhood difficulties. The ESSENCE approach can assist in understanding the symptom history of adult ADHD and ASD patients and can be helpful to distinguish their childhood experiences from other psychiatric patients' experiences.

  14. Annual Research Review: The neurobehavioral development of multiple memory systems: implications for childhood and adolescent psychiatric disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Jarid; Marsh, Rachel; Peterson, Bradley S.; Packard, Mark G.

    2014-01-01

    Extensive evidence indicates that mammalian memory is organized into multiple brains systems, including a “cognitive” memory system that depends upon the hippocampus and a stimulus-response “habit” memory system that depends upon the dorsolateral striatum. Dorsal striatal-dependent habit memory may in part influence the development and expression of some human psychopathologies, particularly those characterized by strong habit-like behavioral features. The present review considers this hypothesis as it pertains to psychopathologies that typically emerge during childhood and adolescence. These disorders include Tourette syndrome, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, eating disorders, and autism spectrum disorders. Human and nonhuman animal research shows that the typical development of memory systems comprises the early maturation of striatal-dependent habit memory and the relatively late maturation of hippocampal-dependent cognitive memory. We speculate that the differing rates of development of these memory systems may in part contribute to the early emergence of habit-like symptoms in childhood and adolescence. In addition, abnormalities in hippocampal and striatal brain regions have been observed consistently in youth with these disorders, suggesting that the aberrant development of memory systems may also contribute to the emergence of habit-like symptoms as core pathological features of these illnesses. Considering these disorders within the context of multiple memory systems may help elucidate the pathogenesis of habit-like symptoms in childhood and adolescence, and lead to novel treatments that lessen the habit-like behavioral features of these disorders. PMID:24286520

  15. Childhood obstructive sleep-disordered breathing: a clinical update and discussion of technological innovations and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halbower, Ann C; Ishman, Stacey L; McGinley, Brian M

    2007-12-01

    Childhood sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) has been known to be associated with health and cognitive impacts for more than a century, and yet our understanding of this disorder is in its infancy. Neuropsychological consequences in children with snoring or subtle breathing disturbances not meeting the traditional definition of sleep apnea suggest that "benign, or primary snoring" may be clinically significant, and that the true prevalence of SDB might be underestimated. There is no standard definition of SDB in children. The polysomnographic technology used in many sleep laboratories may be inadequate to diagnose serious but subtle forms of clinically important airflow limitation. In the last several years, advances in digital technology as well as new observational studies of respiratory and arousal patterns in large populations of healthy children have led to alternative views of what constitutes sleep-related breathing and arousal abnormalities that may refine our diagnostic criteria. This article reviews our knowledge of childhood SDB, highlights recent advances in technology, and discusses diagnostic and treatment strategies that will advance the management of children with pediatric SDB.

  16. Effects of childhood trauma on left inferior frontal gyrus function during response inhibition across psychotic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quidé, Y; O'Reilly, N; Watkeys, O J; Carr, V J; Green, M J

    2018-07-01

    Childhood trauma is a risk factor for psychosis. Deficits in response inhibition are common to psychosis and trauma-exposed populations, and associated brain functions may be affected by trauma exposure in psychotic disorders. We aimed to identify the influence of trauma-exposure on brain activation and functional connectivity during a response inhibition task. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine brain function within regions-of-interest [left and right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, right supplementary motor area, right inferior parietal lobule and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex], during the performance of a Go/No-Go Flanker task, in 112 clinical cases with psychotic disorders and 53 healthy controls (HCs). Among the participants, 71 clinical cases and 21 HCs reported significant levels of childhood trauma exposure, while 41 clinical cases and 32 HCs did not. In the absence of effects on response inhibition performance, childhood trauma exposure was associated with increased activation in the left IFG, and increased connectivity between the left IFG seed region and the cerebellum and calcarine sulcus, in both cases and healthy individuals. There was no main effect of psychosis, and no trauma-by-psychosis interaction for any other region-of-interest. Within the clinical sample, the effects of trauma-exposure on the left IFG activation were mediated by symptom severity. Trauma-related increases in activation of the left IFG were not associated with performance differences, or dependent on clinical diagnostic status; increased IFG functionality may represent a compensatory (overactivation) mechanism required to exert adequate inhibitory control of the motor response.

  17. Bullying Mediates Between Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Childhood and Psychotic Experiences in Early Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennig, Timo; Jaya, Edo S; Lincoln, Tania M

    2017-09-01

    Although a childhood diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is known to be linked to psychotic experiences and psychotic disorders in later life, the developmental trajectories that could explain this association are unknown. Using a sample from the prospective population-based Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) (N = 8247), we hypothesized that the previously reported association of ADHD combined subtype in childhood and psychotic experiences in early adolescence is mediated by traumatic events and by involvement in bullying. Moreover, we expected this mediation to be specific to ADHD and tested this by comparison with specific phobia. Children with ADHD combined subtype at age 7 were more often involved in bullying at age 10 (OR 3.635, 95% CI 1.973-6.697) and had more psychotic experiences at age 12 (OR 3.362, 95% CI 1.781-6.348). Moreover, children who were involved in bullying had more psychotic experiences (2.005, 95% CI 1.684-2.388). Bullying was a significant mediator between ADHD and psychotic experiences accounting for 41%-50% of the effect. Traumatic events from birth to age 11 were also significantly associated with ADHD combined subtype and psychotic experiences; however, there was no evidence of mediation. Specific phobia was significantly associated with psychotic experiences, but not with bullying. To conclude, bullying is a relevant translating mechanism from ADHD in childhood to psychotic experiences in early adolescence. Interventions that eliminate bullying in children with ADHD could potentially reduce the risk of having psychotic experiences in later life by up to 50%. Clinicians should thus screen for bullying in routine assessments of children with ADHD. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Childhood trauma and increased peripheral cytokines in young adults with major depressive: Population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrotti Moreira, Fernanda; Wiener, Carolina David; Jansen, Karen; Portela, Luis Valmor; Lara, Diogo R; Souza, Luciano Dias de Mattos; da Silva, Ricardo Azevedo; Oses, Jean Pierre

    2018-06-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of childhood trauma in cytokine serum levels of individuals with MDD. This was a cross-sectional study population-based, with people aged 18 to 35. The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (M.I.N.I) measured to current major depressive disorder (MDD). To evaluate traumatic experiences during childhood, the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) was applied. Serum TNF- α, IL-6 and IL-10 levels were measured by ELISA using a commercial kit. The total sample comprised 166 young adults, of these: 40.4% were subjects with MDD and childhood trauma and 59.6% were diagnosed with MDD without childhood trauma. In relation to serum interleukin levels, subjects with childhood trauma showed a significantly higher serum IL-6 (p = 0.013) and IL-10 levels (p = 0.022) to compare no childhood trauma. Subjects with childhood trauma was observed positive correlation between serum IL-6 and physical abuse (r = 0.232, p = 0.035) and emotional abuse (r = 0.460, p ≤ 0.001). Moreover, IL-10 were positive correlation with physical abuse (r = 0.258, p = 0.013). TNF- α was not associated with childhood trauma. Childhood maltreatment may result higher inflammation dysregulation in individuals with depression than individuals that no has childhood maltreatment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Neuropsychiatric Symptoms in an Inpatient Parkinson’s Disease Sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole C. R. McLaughlin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Neuropsychiatric symptoms are common in idiopathic Parkinson’s disease (PD, and hospitalization for delirium, depression, psychosis, and anxiety is sometimes required. A minimal amount of data exists on these patients. Methods. Charts of all patients admitted to a psychiatric hospital between 2006 and 2009 with a diagnosis of PD were reviewed. Forty-three met entry criteria and were reviewed. Initial and discharge diagnoses, comorbid psychiatric diagnoses, length of stay, and living arrangements before and after hospitalization are described. Results. Consistent with previous research, this study showed evidence of comorbid psychiatric disorders within PD. Conclusions. The long-term goal of this area of study would be to reduce neuropsychiatric symptoms and improve quality of life in order to reduce inpatient hospital stays.

  20. Echolalia as a novel manifestation of neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapor, M; Murphy, F T; Enzenauer, R

    2001-01-01

    "That tongue of yours, by which I have been tricked, shall have its power curtailed and enjoy the briefest use of speech." With these words, Hera, of Greek mythology, deprived the nymph Echo of spontaneous speech, constraining her instead to merely repeating the words of others. Echolalia, which derives from the word "echo," is disordered speech in which an individual persistently repeats what is heard. Echolalia has been described in patients with a number of neuropsychiatric illnesses including autism and Tourette's syndrome. Neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus (NPSLE) is a heterogeneous disease with protean manifestations that may occur in approximately 25% to 50% of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Although the most common manifestations include cognitive dysfunction (50%) and seizures (20%), NPSLE may also present as peripheral neuropathy (15%), psychosis (10%), or other central nervous system abnormalities. We report the case of a 57-year-old woman with SLE and echolalia.

  1. Hospital contacts for endocrine disorders in Adult Life after Childhood Cancer in Scandinavia (ALiCCS): a population-based cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Fine Licht, Sofie; Winther, Jeanette Falck; Gudmundsdottir, Thorgerdur

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The pattern of endocrine disorders in long-term survivors of childhood cancer has not been investigated comprehensively. Here, we aimed to assess the lifetime risk of these disorders in Nordic survivors of childhood cancer. METHODS: From the national cancer registries of Denmark, Finl...

  2. Relationships between self-reported childhood traumatic experiences, attachment style, neuroticism and features of borderline personality disorders in patients with mood disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baryshnikov, Ilya; Joffe, Grigori; Koivisto, Maaria; Melartin, Tarja; Aaltonen, Kari; Suominen, Kirsi; Rosenström, Tom; Näätänen, Petri; Karpov, Boris; Heikkinen, Martti; Isometsä, Erkki

    2017-03-01

    Co-occurring borderline personality disorder (BPD) features have a marked impact on treatment of patients with mood disorders. Overall, high neuroticism, childhood traumatic experiences (TEs) and insecure attachment are plausible aetiological factors for BPD. However, their relationship with BPD features specifically among patients with mood disorders remains unclear. We investigated these relationships among unipolar and bipolar mood disorder patients. As part of the Helsinki University Psychiatric Consortium study, the McLean Screening Instrument (MSI), the Experiences in Close Relationships-Revised (ECR-R), the Short Five (S5) and the Trauma and Distress Scale (TADS) were filled in by patients with mood disorders (n=282) in psychiatric care. Correlation coefficients between total scores of scales and their dimensions were estimated, and multivariate regression (MRA) and mediation analyses were conducted. Spearman's correlations were strong (rho=0.58; pchildhood traumatic experiences and Attachment Anxiety also among patients with mood disorders. Independent predictors for BPD features include young age, frequency of childhood traumatic experiences and high neuroticism. Insecure attachment may partially mediate the relationship between childhood traumatic experiences and borderline features among mood disorder patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The mediational significance of negative/depressive affect in the relationship of childhood maltreatment and eating disorder features in adolescent psychiatric inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopwood, C J; Ansell, E B; Fehon, D C; Grilo, C M

    2011-03-01

    Childhood maltreatment is a risk factor for eating disorder and negative/depressive affect appears to mediate this relation. However, the specific elements of eating- and body-related psychopathology that are influenced by various forms of childhood maltreatment remain unclear, and investigations among adolescents and men/boys have been limited. This study investigated the mediating role of negative affect/depression across multiple types of childhood maltreatment and eating disorder features in hospitalized adolescent boys and girls. Participants were 148 adolescent psychiatric inpatients who completed an assessment battery including measures of specific forms of childhood maltreatment (sexual, emotional, and physical abuse), negative/depressive affect, and eating disorder features (dietary restriction, binge eating, and body dissatisfaction). Findings suggest that for girls, negative/depressive affect significantly mediates the relationships between childhood maltreatment and eating disorder psychopathology, although effects varied somewhat across types of maltreatment and eating disorder features. Generalization of mediation effects to boys was limited.

  4. Addiction severity pattern associated with adult and childhood Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in patients with addictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatséas, Melina; Hurmic, Hortense; Serre, Fuschia; Debrabant, Romain; Daulouède, Jean-Pierre; Denis, Cécile; Auriacombe, Marc

    2016-12-30

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is highly prevalent among adults with addictive disorders, but little is known about addiction patterns associated with ADHD diagnosis. This study examined addiction severity in patients with co-occurring addictive disorders and ADHD controlling for the potential influence of associated psychiatric comorbidity. Data were collected in French outpatient addiction treatment centers. A total of 217 patients seeking treatment for substance or gambling addiction were included. At treatment entry, participants were interviewed with the Addiction Severity Index, the Conners Adult ADHD Diagnosis Interview for the DSM-IV (CAADID), the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II for borderline personality disorder (SCID II). History of ADHD was associated with an earlier onset of addiction, poly-dependence (defined by presence of at least two current substance dependence diagnoses in addition to tobacco dependence if present) and borderline personality disorder. Persistence of ADHD during adulthood was associated with a higher prevalence of poly-dependence. This study highlights the need for early implementation of preventive interventions for substance use or behavioral addiction in children/adolescents with ADHD and the need to consider ADHD in the treatment of addictive disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Parental responsibility beliefs: associations with parental anxiety and behaviours in the context of childhood anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apetroaia, Adela; Hill, Claire; Creswell, Cathy

    2015-12-01

    High levels of parental anxiety are associated with poor treatment outcomes for children with anxiety disorders. Associated parental cognitions and behaviours have been implicated as impediments to successful treatment. We examined the association between parental responsibility beliefs, maternal anxiety and parenting behaviours in the context of childhood anxiety disorders. Anxious and non-anxious mothers of 7-12 year old children with a current anxiety disorder reported their parental responsibility beliefs using a questionnaire measure. Parental behaviours towards their child during a stressor task were measured. Parents with a current anxiety disorder reported a greater sense of responsibility for their child's actions and wellbeing than parents who scored within the normal range for anxiety. Furthermore, higher parental responsibility was associated with more intrusive and less warm behaviours in parent-child interactions and there was an indirect effect between maternal anxiety and maternal intrusive behaviours via parental responsibility beliefs. The sample was limited to a treatment-seeking, relatively high socio-economic population and only mothers were included so replication with more diverse groups is needed. The use of a range of stressor tasks may have allowed for a more comprehensive assessment of parental behaviours. The findings suggest that parental anxiety disorder is associated with an elevated sense of parental responsibility and may promote parental behaviours likely to inhibit optimum child treatment outcomes. Parental responsibility beliefs may therefore be important to target in child anxiety treatments in the context of parental anxiety disorders. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Isochromosome 13 in a patient with childhood-onset schizophrenia, ADHD, and motor tic disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graw Sharon L

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A small percentage of all cases of schizophrenia have a childhood onset. The impact on the individual and family can be devastating. We report the results of genetic analyses from a patient with onset of visual hallucinations at 5 years, and a subsequent diagnosis at 9 years of schizophrenia, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD with hyperactivity and impulsivity, and chronic motor tic disorder. Results Karyotypic analysis found 45,XX,i(13(q10 in all cells examined. Alpha satellite FISH of isochromosome 13 revealed a large unsplit centromeric region, interpreted as two centromeres separated by minimal or undetectable short-arm material or as a single monocentric centromere, indicating that the isochromosome likely formed post-zygotically by a short arm U-type or centromeric exchange. Characterization of chromosome 13 simple tandem repeats and Affymetrix whole-genome 6.0 SNP array hybridization found homozygosity for all markers, and the presence of only a single paternal allele in informative markers, consistent with an isodisomic isochromosome of paternal origin. Analysis of two chromosome 13 schizophrenia candidate genes, D-amino acid oxidase activator (DAOA and 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin receptor 2A (5-HTR2A, failed to identify non-synonymous coding mutations but did identify homozygous risk polymorphisms. Conclusions We report a female patient with childhood-onset schizophrenia, ADHD, and motor tic disorder associated with an isodisomic isochromosome 13 of paternal origin and a 45,XX,i(13(q10q10 karyotype. We examined two potential mechanisms to explain chromosome 13 involvement in the patient's pathology, including reduction to homozygosity of a paternal mutation and reduction to homozygosity of a paternal copy number variation, but were unable to identify any overtly pathogenic abnormality. Future studies may consider whether epigenetic mechanisms resulting from uniparental disomy (UPD and the lack of

  7. Differential effects of childhood trauma and cannabis use disorders in patients suffering from schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudin, G; Godin, O; Lajnef, M; Aouizerate, B; Berna, F; Brunel, L; Capdevielle, D; Chereau, I; Dorey, J M; Dubertret, C; Dubreucq, J; Faget, C; Fond, G; Gabayet, F; Laouamri, H; Lancon, C; Le Strat, Y; Tronche, A M; Misdrahi, D; Rey, R; Passerieux, C; Schandrin, A; Urbach, M; Vidalhet, P; Llorca, P M; Schürhoff, F

    2016-08-01

    Childhood trauma (CT) and cannabis use are both environmental and modifier risk factors for schizophrenia. However, little is known about how they interact in schizophrenia. We examined the main effect of each of these two environmental factors on the clinical expression of the disease using a large set of variables, and we tested whether and how cannabis and CT interact to influence the course and the presentation of the illness. A sample of 366 patients who met the DSM-IV-TR criteria for schizophrenia was recruited through the FACE-SCZ (Fondamental Advanced Centre of Expertise - Schizophrenia) network. Patients completed a large standardized clinical evaluation including Structured Clinical Interview for DSM Disorders-I (SCID-I), Positive and Negative Symptoms Scale (PANSS), Columbia-Suicide Severity Rating Scale (C-SSRS), Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF), Short-Quality of Life-18 (S-QoL-18), and Medication Adherence Rating Scale (MARS). We assessed CT with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire and cannabis status with SCID-I. CT significantly predicted the number of hospitalizations, GAF, and S-QoL-18 scores, as well as the PANSS total, positive, excitement, and emotional distress scores. Cannabis use disorders significantly predicted age of onset, and MARS. There was no significant interaction between CT and cannabis use disorders. However, we found evidence of a correlation between these two risk factors. CT and cannabis both have differential deleterious effects on clinical and functional outcomes in patients with schizophrenia. Our results highlight the need to systematically assess the presence of these risk factors and adopt suitable therapeutic interventions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. A systematic review of neuropsychiatric comorbidities in patients with both epilepsy and intellectual disability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ool, Jans S.; Snoeijen-Schouwenaars, Francesca M.; Schelhaas, Helenius J.; Tan, In Y.; Aldenkamp, Albert P.; Hendriksen, Jos G.M.

    2016-01-01

    Epilepsy is a neurological condition that is particularly common in people with intellectual disability (ID). The care for people with both epilepsy and ID is often complicated by the presence of neuropsychiatric disorders, defined as psychiatric symptoms, psychiatric disorders, and behavioral

  9. Treatment of childhood anxiety disorder in the context of maternal anxiety disorder: a randomised controlled trial and economic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creswell, Cathy; Cruddace, Susan; Gerry, Stephen; Gitau, Rachel; McIntosh, Emma; Mollison, Jill; Murray, Lynne; Shafran, Rosamund; Stein, Alan; Violato, Mara; Voysey, Merryn; Willetts, Lucy; Williams, Nicola; Yu, Ly-Mee; Cooper, Peter J

    2015-05-01

    Cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) for childhood anxiety disorders is associated with modest outcomes in the context of parental anxiety disorder. This study evaluated whether or not the outcome of CBT for children with anxiety disorders in the context of maternal anxiety disorders is improved by the addition of (i) treatment of maternal anxiety disorders, or (ii) treatment focused on maternal responses. The incremental cost-effectiveness of the additional treatments was also evaluated. Participants were randomised to receive (i) child cognitive-behavioural therapy (CCBT); (ii) CCBT with CBT to target maternal anxiety disorders [CCBT + maternal cognitive-behavioural therapy (MCBT)]; or (iii) CCBT with an intervention to target mother-child interactions (MCIs) (CCBT + MCI). A NHS university clinic in Berkshire, UK. Two hundred and eleven children with a primary anxiety disorder, whose mothers also had an anxiety disorder. All families received eight sessions of individual CCBT. Mothers in the CCBT + MCBT arm also received eight sessions of CBT targeting their own anxiety disorders. Mothers in the MCI arm received 10 sessions targeting maternal parenting cognitions and behaviours. Non-specific interventions were delivered to balance groups for therapist contact. Primary clinical outcomes were the child's primary anxiety disorder status and degree of improvement at the end of treatment. Follow-up assessments were conducted at 6 and 12 months. Outcomes in the economic analyses were identified and measured using estimated quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs). QALYS were combined with treatment, health and social care costs and presented within an incremental cost-utility analysis framework with associated uncertainty. MCBT was associated with significant short-term improvement in maternal anxiety; however, after children had received CCBT, group differences were no longer apparent. CCBT + MCI was associated with a reduction in maternal overinvolvement

  10. A Neuropsychiatric Analysis of the Cotard Delusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Aradhana; Josephs, Keith A

    2018-01-01

    Cotard's syndrome, a condition in which the patient denies his or her own existence or the existence of body parts, is a rare illness that has been reported in association with several neuropsychiatric diagnoses. The majority of published literature on the topic is in the form of case reports, many of which are several years old. The authors evaluated associated diagnoses, neuroimaging, and treatments recorded in patients diagnosed with Cotard's syndrome at their institution. A search of the Mayo Clinic database for patients with mention of signs and symptoms associated with Cotard's in their records between 1996 and 2016 was conducted. The electronic medical records of the identified patients were then reviewed for evidence of a true diagnosis of Cotard's. Clinical and neuroimaging data were also recorded for these patients. The search identified 18 patients, 14 of whom had Cotard delusions. Two of the 14 were excluded due to them being under age 18. The resulting 12 patients had a median age of 52 years (range: 30-85 years). On neuroimaging, four patients exhibited frontal lobe changes, four demonstrated generalized volume loss, and five had ischemic changes; seven patients demonstrated right-sided or bilateral hemisphere lesions. Treatments included ECT, pharmacotherapy, behavioral therapy, psychotherapy, rehydration, and removal of offending drugs. To conclude, Cotard delusions occur in the context of a relatively wide spectrum of neurological, psychiatric, and medical disorders and present with various neural changes. Nondominant hemisphere lesions may play a role in the pathophysiology. A number of effective treatments are available.

  11. Grandmothers as gems of genetic wisdom: exploring South African traditional beliefs about the causes of childhood genetic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penn, Claire; Watermeyer, Jennifer; MacDonald, Carol; Moabelo, Colleen

    2010-02-01

    With its diverse cultural and linguistic profile, South Africa provides a unique context to explore contextual influences on the process of genetic counseling. Prior research suggests intergenerational differences regarding models of causation which influence treatment-seeking paths. This pilot study therefore aimed to explore South African traditional beliefs regarding common childhood genetic disorders. Three focus groups were conducted with fifteen grandmothers from different cultural backgrounds in an urban community. Questions pertained to the role of the grandmother, traditional beliefs regarding causes of genetic disorders, explanations of heredity, and prevention and management of genetic disorders. Results indicate a variety of cultural explanations for causes of childhood genetic disorders. These causes can be classified into categories related to lifestyle, behavior, social issues, culture, religion, genetic, and familial causes. Prevention and treatment issues are also highlighted. These findings have implications for genetic counseling practice, which needs to include a greater focus on cultural issues.

  12. Childhood Maltreatment, Depressive Symptoms, and Body Dissatisfaction in Patients with Binge Eating Disorder: The Mediating Role of Self-Criticism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunkley, David M.; Masheb, Robin M.; Grilo, Carlos M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective We examined the mediating role of self-criticism in the relation between childhood maltreatment and both depressive symptoms and body dissatisfaction in patients with binge eating disorder (BED). Method Participants were 170 BED patients who completed measures of childhood maltreatment, self-criticism, self-esteem, depressive symptoms, and body dissatisfaction. Results Specific forms of childhood maltreatment (emotional abuse, sexual abuse) were significantly associated with body dissatisfaction. Path analyses demonstrated that self-criticism fully mediated the relation between emotional abuse and both depressive symptoms and body dissatisfaction. Specificity for the mediating role of self-criticism was demonstrated in comparison to other potential mediators (low self-esteem) and alternative competing mediation models. Conclusion These results highlight self-criticism as a potential mechanism through which certain forms of childhood maltreatment may be associated with depressive symptoms and body dissatisfaction in BED patients. PMID:20119938

  13. Multivariate dependencies between difficult childhood, temperament and antisocial personality disorder in a population of French male prisoners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pousset, M; Tremblay, R E; Falissard, B

    2011-06-01

    The aim of this study was to contribute to clarification of the relations between antisocial personality disorder (APD) and its potential risk factors in a population of 560 French male prisoners. Adverse childhood was assessed as a latent variable determined by several traumatic events. APD (MINI), character and temperament (Cloninger's model), WAIS®-III similarities subtest and psychosocial characteristics were assessed by two clinicians. The WAIS®-III subtest accounts for verbal and cognitive performance. We used a structural model to determine the weight of the different pathways between adverse childhood and APD. Study confirmed the major and direct role of adverse childhood (standardized coefficient=0.48). An intermediate effect mediated by character (considered as a global variable) and novelty-seeking was also shown, confirming previous results from the literature. This study emphasizes the role of adverse childhood in APD, suggesting the potential benefit of early intervention in the prevention of antisocial behaviours. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  14. Disability due to maternal common mental disorders (CMDs) as a risk factor for chronic childhood malnutrition: cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcante-Neto, Jorge Lopes; Paula, Cristiane Silvestre de; Florêncio, Telma Maria de Menezes Toledo; Miranda, Claudio Torres de

    2016-05-13

    The disability associated with maternal common mental disorders (CMDs) is among the possible explanations for the association between chronic childhood malnutrition and CMDs. CMDs may impair the mother's ability to perform her role, particularly in deprived environments. The present study aimed to evaluate whether disability relating to CMDs could be part of the pathway of the association between childhood malnutrition and maternal CMDs. Cross-sectional study conducted in two institutions: one for malnourished children and another for eutrophic children living in a low-income community in the state of Alagoas, Brazil. The cases consisted of 55 malnourished children aged from 12 to 60 months who were attending a nutritional rehabilitation center, with height-for-age z-scores childhood malnutrition was significantly associated with maternal disability relating to CMDs (OR = 2.28; 95% CI: 1.02-5.1). The best logistic regression model using chronic childhood malnutrition as the dependent variable included the following independent variables: higher number of people living in the household; absence of the biological father from the household; and maternal disability relating to CMDs. If confirmed, the association between chronic childhood malnutrition and maternal disability relating to CMDs may be useful in helping to identify the causal chain between childhood malnutrition and maternal CMDs and to indicate environmental risk factors associated with chronic childhood malnutrition.

  15. Associations of Childhood Trauma, Trauma in Adulthood and Previous-Year Stress with Psychopathology in Patients with Major Depression and Borderline Personality Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingenfeld, Katja; Schaffrath, Camille; Rullkoetter, Nina; Mensebach, Christoph; Schlosser, Nicole; Beblo, Thomas; Driessen, Martin; Meyer, Bjorn

    2011-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is an important possible outcome of exposure to traumatic events that occur in childhood. However, early traumatic experiences are also an important risk factor for several other mental disorders, such as borderline personality disorder and major depressive disorder. Furthermore, chronic stress, including daily…

  16. Sexual Functioning After Childhood Abuse: The Influence of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and Trauma Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornefeld-Ettmann, Pia; Steil, Regina; Lieberz, Klara A; Bohus, Martin; Rausch, Sophie; Herzog, Julia; Priebe, Kathlen; Fydrich, Thomas; Müller-Engelmann, Meike

    2018-04-01

    Impairments in sexual functioning and sexual satisfaction are very common in women who have experienced childhood sexual abuse (CSA). A growing body of literature suggests a high prevalence of sexual distress in patients with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, the influence of sexual trauma exposure per se and the influence of PTSD symptoms on impairments in sexual functioning remain unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of sexual trauma exposure and PTSD on sexual functioning and sexual satisfaction by comparing 3 groups of women. Women with PTSD after CSA (N = 32), women with a history of CSA and/or physical abuse but without PTSD (trauma controls [TC]; N = 32), and healthy women (N = 32) were compared with regards to self-reported sexual functioning and sexual satisfaction. Trauma exposure was assessed with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, and PTSD was assessed with the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition. Sexual functioning was assessed with the Sexual Experience and Behavior Questionnaire, and sexual satisfaction was assessed with the questionnaire Resources in Sexuality and Relationship. PTSD patients had significantly lower sexual functioning in some aspects of sexual experience (sexual aversion, sexual pain, and sexual satisfaction) but did not significantly differ in sexual arousal and orgasm from the other 2 groups. TC and healthy women did not significantly differ from each other on the measures of sexual functioning or sexual satisfaction. Results suggest that the development of PTSD has a greater impact on sexual functioning than does the experience of a traumatic event. This emphasizes the importance to address possible sexual distress and sexual satisfaction in women with PTSD by administering specific diagnostic instruments and by integrating specific interventions targeting sexual problems into a trauma-specific treatment. The study

  17. [Relationship of childhood physical abuse and internet addiction disorder in adolescence: the mediating role of self-esteem].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhi-hua; Yang, Lin-sheng; Hao, Jia-hu; Huang, Fen; Zhang, Xiu-jun; Sun, Ye-huan

    2012-01-01

    To find out whether the effects of childhood physical abuse on internet addiction disorder in adolescence could be mediated by self-esteem. 3798 high school students selected from 76 classes in Grade One and Grade Two, were asked to fill in the anonymous questionnaire, which including the demographic characteristics of students, Young's Internet Addiction Scale, Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scales and Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale. Childhood physical abuse could directly predict less self-esteem and internet addiction disorder (r = -0.108, P self-esteem (a = -0.703, standardized b = -0.104, z = 5.052, P Self-esteem had mediated 22.5% of the childhood physical abuse cases on their internet addiction disorders during the period of adolescence. Self-esteem could partially mediate the relationship between childhood physical abuse and internet addiction disorder. The mediating roles of self-esteem suggested that salient leverage points could make a change through empowerment training, self-esteem group training on self-esteem enhancement in the stage of adolescence.

  18. Childhood Familial Environment, Maltreatment and Borderline Personality Disorder Symptoms in a Non-Clinical Sample: A Cognitive Behavioural Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Steven; Francis, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    The present study sought to determine if cognitive beliefs and schemas mediated the relationship between retrospectively reported childhood events and adult borderline personality disorder (BPD) symptoms in a non-clinical sample. One hundred and seventy-eight non-clinical participants completed questionnaires measuring BPD symptoms, core beliefs,…

  19. Alterations in HPA-axis and autonomic nervous system functioning in childhood anxiety disorders point to a chronic stress hypothesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dieleman, G.C.; Huizink, A.C.; Tulen, J.H.M.; Utens, E.M.W.J.; Creemers, H.E.; van der Ende, J.; Verhulst, F.C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: It is of debate whether or not childhood anxiety disorders (AD) can be captured by one taxonomic construct. This study examined whether perceived arousal (PA), autonomic nervous system (ANS) and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis measures can distinguish children with different

  20. Alterations in HPA-axis and autonomic nervous system functioning in childhood anxiety disorders point to a chronic stress hypothesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dieleman, Gwendolyn C.; Huizink, Anja C.; Tulen, Joke H. M.; Utens, Elisabeth M. W. J.; Creemers, Hanneke E.; van der Ende, Jan; Verhulst, Frank C.

    2015-01-01

    It is of debate whether or not childhood anxiety disorders (AD) can be captured by one taxonomic construct. This study examined whether perceived arousal (PA), autonomic nervous system (ANS) and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis measures can distinguish children with different primary

  1. Heritability and Genetic Relationship of Adult Self-Reported Stuttering, Cluttering and Childhood Speech-Language Disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagnani, Corrado; Fibiger, Steen; Skytthe, Axel

    2011-01-01

    Genetic influence and mutual genetic relationship for adult self-reported childhood speech-language disorders, stuttering, and cluttering were studied. Using nationwide questionnaire answers from 34,944 adult Danish twins, a multivariate biometric analysis based on the liability-threshold model w...

  2. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Early Endocrine Disorders in Childhood Brain Tumor Survivors : A Nationwide, Multicenter Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clement, Sarah C; Schouten-van Meeteren, Antoinette Y N; Boot, Annemieke M; Claahsen-van der Grinten, Hedy L; Granzen, Bernd; Sen Han, K; Janssens, Geert O; Michiels, Erna M; van Trotsenburg, A S Paul; Vandertop, W Peter; van Vuurden, Dannis G; Kremer, Leontien C M; Caron, Hubert N; van Santen, Hanneke M

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the prevalence of, and risk factors for, early endocrine disorders in childhood brain tumor survivors (CBTS). Patients and Methods This nationwide study cohort consisted of 718 CBTS who were diagnosed between 2002 and 2012, and who survived ≥ 2 years after diagnosis. Patients

  3. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Early Endocrine Disorders in Childhood Brain Tumor Survivors: A Nationwide, Multicenter Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clement, Sarah C.; Schouten-van Meeteren, Antoinette Y. N.; Boot, Annemieke M.; Claahsen-van der Grinten, Hedy L.; Granzen, Bernd; Sen Han, K.; Janssens, Geert O.; Michiels, Erna M.; van Trotsenburg, A. S. Paul; Vandertop, W. Peter; van Vuurden, Dannis G.; Kremer, Leontien C. M.; Caron, Hubert N.; van Santen, Hanneke M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the prevalence of, and risk factors for, early endocrine disorders in childhood brain tumor survivors (CBTS). Patients and Methods This nationwide study cohort consisted of 718 CBTS who were diagnosed between 2002 and 2012, and who survived ≥ 2 years after diagnosis. Patients

  4. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Early Endocrine Disorders in Childhood Brain Tumor Survivors: A Nationwide, Multicenter Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clement, S.C.; Schouten-van Meeteren, A.Y.; Boot, A.M.; Claahsen-van der Grinten, H.L.; Granzen, B.; Han, K.; Janssens, G.O.; Michiels, E.M.; Trotsenburg, A.S. van; Vandertop, W.P.; Vuurden, D.G. van; Kremer, L.C.; Caron, H.N.; Santen, H.M. van

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the prevalence of, and risk factors for, early endocrine disorders in childhood brain tumor survivors (CBTS). Patients and Methods This nationwide study cohort consisted of 718 CBTS who were diagnosed between 2002 and 2012, and who survived >/= 2 years after diagnosis. Patients

  5. N-acetylcysteine for neuropsychiatric symptoms in a woman with Williams syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineiro, Mildred Lopez; Roberts, Antoinette M; Waxler, Jessica L; Mullett, Jennifer E; Pober, Barbara R; McDougle, Christopher J

    2014-11-01

    Williams syndrome is a relatively rare genetic disorder caused by the hemizygous microdeletion of a region in chromosome 7q11.23. Individuals with Williams syndrome typically present with a highly social, overfriendly, and empathic personality. Comorbid medical and neuropsychiatric disorders are common. Reports of effective pharmacological treatment of associated neuropsychiatric disorders are limited. The authors describe the successful treatment of interfering anger, aggression, and hair-pulling with N-acetylcysteine in a 19-year-old woman with Williams syndrome. The neuropsychiatric symptoms emerged 1 week following an upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, for which fentanyl, midazolam, and propofol were used as anesthetics. The patient's treatment course and hypothesized mechanisms underlying the clinical presentation and symptom resolution are described. © The Author(s) 2014.

  6. Behavioral inhibition in childhood predicts smaller hippocampal volume in adolescent offspring of parents with panic disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, C E; Kunwar, P S; Hirshfeld-Becker, D R; Henin, A; Vangel, M G; Rauch, S L; Biederman, J; Rosenbaum, J F

    2015-01-01

    Behavioral inhibition (BI) is a genetically influenced behavioral profile seen in 15–20% of 2-year-old children. Children with BI are timid with people, objects and situations that are novel or unfamiliar, and are more reactive physiologically to these challenges as evidenced by higher heart rate, pupillary dilation, vocal cord tension and higher levels of cortisol. BI predisposes to the later development of anxiety, depression and substance abuse. Reduced hippocampal volumes have been observed in anxiety disorders, depression and posttraumatic stress disorder. Animal models have demonstrated that chronic stress can damage the hippocampal formation and implicated cortisol in these effects. We, therefore, hypothesized that the hippocampi of late adolescents who had been behaviorally inhibited as children would be smaller compared with those who had not been inhibited. Hippocampal volume was measured with high-resolution structural magnetic resonance imaging in 43 females and 40 males at 17 years of age who were determined to be BI+ or BI− based on behaviors observed in the laboratory as young children. BI in childhood predicted reduced hippocampal volumes in the adolescents who were offspring of parents with panic disorder, or panic disorder with comorbid major depression. We discuss genetic and environmental factors emanating from both child and parent that may explain these findings. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate a relationship between the most extensively studied form of temperamentally based human trait anxiety, BI, and hippocampal structure. The reduction in hippocampal volume, as reported by us, suggests a role for the hippocampus in human trait anxiety and anxiety disorder that warrants further investigation. PMID:26196438

  7. No Evidence of Association between Childhood Urban Environment and Cortical Thinning in Psychotic Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frissen, Aleida; van Os, Jim; Habets, Petra; Gronenschild, Ed; Marcelis, Machteld

    2017-01-01

    The alterations in cortical morphology, such as cortical thinning, observed in psychotic disorder, may be the outcome of interacting genetic and environmental effects. It has been suggested that urban upbringing may represent a proxy environmental effect impacting cortical thickness (CT). Therefore, the current study examined whether the association between group as a proxy genetic variable (patients with psychotic disorder [high genetic risk], healthy siblings of patients [intermediate risk] and healthy control subjects [average risk]) and CT was conditional on different levels of the childhood urban environment and whether this was sex-dependent. T1-weighted MRI scans were acquired from 89 patients with a psychotic disorder, 95 non-psychotic siblings of patients with psychotic disorder and 87 healthy control subjects. Freesurfer software was used to measure CT. Developmental urban exposure was classified as low, medium, and high, reflecting the population density and the number of moves between birth and the 15th birthday, using data from the Dutch Central Bureau of Statistics and the equivalent database in Belgium. Multilevel regression analyses were used to examine the association between group, sex, and urban upbringing (as well as their interactions) and cortical CT as the dependent variable. CT was significantly smaller in the patient group compared to the controls (B = -0.043, p <0.001), but not in the siblings compared to the controls (B = -0.013, p = 0.31). There was no main effect of developmental urbanicity on CT (B = 0.001, p = 0.91). Neither the three-way group × urbanicity × sex interaction (χ2 = 3.73, p = 0.16), nor the two-way group × urbanicity interaction was significant (χ2 = 0.51, p = 0.77). The negative association between (familial risk for) psychotic disorder and CT was not moderated by developmental urbanicity, suggesting that reduced CT is not the outcome of familial sensitivity to the proxy environmental factor 'urban upbringing'.

  8. No Evidence of Association between Childhood Urban Environment and Cortical Thinning in Psychotic Disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleida Frissen

    Full Text Available The alterations in cortical morphology, such as cortical thinning, observed in psychotic disorder, may be the outcome of interacting genetic and environmental effects. It has been suggested that urban upbringing may represent a proxy environmental effect impacting cortical thickness (CT. Therefore, the current study examined whether the association between group as a proxy genetic variable (patients with psychotic disorder [high genetic risk], healthy siblings of patients [intermediate risk] and healthy control subjects [average risk] and CT was conditional on different levels of the childhood urban environment and whether this was sex-dependent.T1-weighted MRI scans were acquired from 89 patients with a psychotic disorder, 95 non-psychotic siblings of patients with psychotic disorder and 87 healthy control subjects. Freesurfer software was used to measure CT. Developmental urban exposure was classified as low, medium, and high, reflecting the population density and the number of moves between birth and the 15th birthday, using data from the Dutch Central Bureau of Statistics and the equivalent database in Belgium. Multilevel regression analyses were used to examine the association between group, sex, and urban upbringing (as well as their interactions and cortical CT as the dependent variable.CT was significantly smaller in the patient group compared to the controls (B = -0.043, p <0.001, but not in the siblings compared to the controls (B = -0.013, p = 0.31. There was no main effect of developmental urbanicity on CT (B = 0.001, p = 0.91. Neither the three-way group × urbanicity × sex interaction (χ2 = 3.73, p = 0.16, nor the two-way group × urbanicity interaction was significant (χ2 = 0.51, p = 0.77.The negative association between (familial risk for psychotic disorder and CT was not moderated by developmental urbanicity, suggesting that reduced CT is not the outcome of familial sensitivity to the proxy environmental factor 'urban

  9. Depression and eating disorders following abuse in childhood in two generations of women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, B; Valentine, E R; Valentine, J D

    1995-02-01

    The relation of sexual and physical abuse in childhood to subsequent depression and eating disorders was explored in a community sample of mothers and their teenage and young adult daughters respectively. It was hypothesized that age would be a moderating influence on diagnosis following abuse in that depression would be more common in the mothers and eating disorders more common in the daughters. Depression was more common in mothers than daughters, using Bedford College caseness criteria (Finlay-Jones, et al., 1980), but the difference decreased when Research Diagnostic Criteria (RDC: Spitzer, Endicott & Robbins, 1978) were used. Bulimia was more common in the daughters using DSM-III criteria. Both physical and sexual abuse were associated with chronic and recurrent depression but not with single short episodes of depression in the mothers. However, the relationship of depression to abuse showed only a weak trend in the daughter sample. Both physical and sexual abuse were related to bulimia in the daughters, but not in the mothers, as only one mother had such a disorder.

  10. Parents' perceptions of pharmacological and cognitive-behavioral treatments for childhood anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Amy M; Deacon, Brett J; Abramowitz, Jonathan S; Dammann, Julie; Whiteside, Stephen P

    2007-04-01

    Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and pharmacotherapy are the most well-established treatments for childhood anxiety disorders. This study examined how parents (N=71) seeking treatment for their child's anxiety disorder perceive the acceptability, believability, and effectiveness of these treatments. While both treatments were perceived favorably, CBT was rated as more acceptable, believable, and effective in the short- and long-term. Children's treatment history influenced parents' perceptions of pharmacotherapy, with parents of children with no treatment history perceiving medication treatment as less acceptable and believable than parents of children with a history of medication alone or in combination with behavior therapy. No effect of treatment history was found for perceptions of CBT. Significant positive correlations emerged between parents' perceived acceptance and believability for pharmacotherapy and child age and level of dysfunction due to their child's anxiety, respectively. The level of the child's anxiety was not significantly correlated with parents' perceptions of either CBT or pharmacotherapy. Our results suggest that parents of anxious children prefer CBT to medication for the treatment of their child's anxiety disorder. Directions for future research are discussed.

  11. Relationship between self-reported childhood behavioral inhibition and lifetime anxiety disorders in a clinical sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladstone, Gemma L; Parker, Gordon B; Mitchell, Phillip B; Wilhelm, Kay A; Malhi, Gin S

    2005-01-01

    To examine the association between an early inhibited temperament and lifetime anxiety disorders, we studied a sample of patients with major depression who were not selected on the basis of comorbid axis I anxiety disorders. One-hundred eighty-nine adults (range = 17-68 years) referred to a tertiary depression unit underwent structured diagnostic interviews for depression and anxiety and completed two self-report measures of behavioral inhibition, the retrospective measure of behavioural inhibition (RMBI) [Gladstone and Parker, 2005] and the adult measure of behavioural inhibition (AMBI) [Gladstone and Parker, 2005]. Patients' scores were classified into "low," "moderate," or "high" inhibition. While groups did not differ in terms of depression severity, there were differences across groups in clinically diagnosed nonmelancholic status and age of onset of first episode. Those reporting a high degree of childhood inhibition were significantly more likely to qualify for a diagnosis of social phobia, and this association was independent of their scores on the AMBI. Findings are discussed in light of the existing risk-factor literature and support the hypothesis that an early inhibited temperament may be a significant precursor to later anxiety, especially social anxiety disorder. Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Impact of Different Childhood Adversities on 1-Year Outcomes of Psychotic Disorder in the Genetics and Psychosis Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trotta, Antonella; Murray, Robin M.; David, Anthony S.; Kolliakou, Anna; O’Connor, Jennifer; Di Forti, Marta; Dazzan, Paola; Mondelli, Valeria; Morgan, Craig; Fisher, Helen L.

    2016-01-01

    While the role of childhood adversity in increasing the risk of psychosis has been extensively investigated, it is not clear what the impact of early adverse experiences is on the outcomes of psychotic disorders. Therefore, we investigated associations between childhood adversity and 1-year outcomes in 285 first-presentation psychosis patients. Exposure to childhood adversity prior to 17 years of age was assessed using the Childhood Experience of Care and Abuse Questionnaire. Data on illness course, symptom remission, length of psychiatric hospitalization, compliance with medication, employment, and relationship status were extracted from clinical records for the year following first contact with mental health services for psychosis. Seventy-one percent of patients reported exposure to at least 1 type of childhood adversity (physical abuse, sexual abuse, parental separation, parental death, disrupted family arrangements, or being taken into care). No robust associations were found between childhood adversity and illness course or remission. However, childhood physical abuse was associated with almost 3-fold increased odds of not being in a relationship at 1-year follow-up compared to patients who did not report such adverse experiences. There was also evidence of a significant association between parental separation in childhood and longer admissions to psychiatric wards during 1-year follow-up and 2-fold increased odds of noncompliance with medication compared to those not separated from their parents. Therefore, our findings suggest that there may be some specificity in the impact of childhood adversity on service use and social functioning among psychosis patients over the first year following presentation to mental health services. PMID:26373540

  13. Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Childhood Autism in Association with Prenatal Exposure to Perfluoroalkyl Substances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liew, Zeyan; Ritz, Beate; von Ehrenstein, Ondine S

    2015-01-01

    . OBJECTIVES: We investigated whether prenatal exposure to PFASs is associated with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or childhood autism in children. METHODS: Among 83,389 mother-child pairs enrolled in the Danish National Birth Cohort during 1996-2002, we identified 890 ADHD cases and 301...... childhood autism cases from the Danish National Hospital Registry and the Danish Psychiatric Central Registry. From this cohort, we randomly selected 220 cases of ADHD and autism each, and we also randomly selected 550 controls frequency matched by child's sex. Sixteen PFASs were measured in maternal plasma...... not find consistent evidence of associations between mother's PFAS plasma levels and ADHD (per ln-ng/ml increase: PFOS RR = 0.87; 95%CI: 0.74, 1.02; PFOA RR = 0.98; 95%CI: 0.82, 1.16) or autism (per ln-ng/ml increase: PFOS RR = 0.92; 95%CI: 0.69, 1.22; PFOA RR = 0.98; 95%CI: 0.73, 1.31). We foun